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John c^irams 



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Magnalia Chrifli Americana : 


Ccdeitaftital l^tfto^ 

O F 



Its Firft Planting; in the Year 1620. unto the Year 

of our LORD, 1698. 

I. Antiquities : In Seven Chapters. With an Appendix. 

II. Containing the Lives of the Governours, and Names of the Magifrrates 
or Nevp-E/.'i'Lwd : In Thirteen Chapters. With an Appendix. 

III. The Lives of Sixty Famous Divines, by whofe Miniftry the Churches of 
New-England have been Planted and Continued. 

IV. An Account of the Univerfity of Cambridge in New-EngUnd 5 in Two 
Parts. The Firft contains the Laws, the Benefa&ors, and Viciffitudes of 
Harvard College ^ with Remarks upon it. The Second Part contains the Lives 
of fome Eminent Perfons Educated in it. 

V. Afts and Monuments of the Faith and Order in the Churches of New-Eng- 
land, paifed in their Synods - ? with Historical Remarks upon thofe Venerable 
AflemblirS} and a great Variety of Church-Cafes occurring, and refolved by 
the Synods of thofe Churches : In Four Parts. 

VI. A Faithful Record of many Illuftrious, Wonderful Providences, both 
of M.rcies and Judgments, on divers Perfons in New-England: In Eight 

VII. The Wars of the Lord. Being an Hiftory of the Manifold Affii&ions and 
Difturbances of the Churches in New-England, from their Various Adverfa- 
ries, and the Wonderful Methods and Mercies of God in their Deliverance : 
In Six Chapters : To which is fubjoined, An Appendix of Remarkable 
Occurrences which New-England had in the Wars with the Indian Salvages, 
from the Year 1688, to the Year 1698. 

By the Reverend and Learned COTTO N M AT HE R, M. A, 
And Pafcorof the North Church in Brfton, New-England. 


Printed for Thomas Parkhurfl, at the Bible and 
Crowns in Cheapfide. MDCCII. 


HDlje tfiT& Hoofe Jiuit** 


New-Englifh Hiftory. 


The D e s i g n w here-o#, ) r The ieveral" Colonies 
The Manner where-/??, W -of New-England 
And the People whzre-by, St were Planted. 


A NARRATIVE of many Memorable Paffages, 

Relating to the 

Settlement of theie Plantations ; 

A N D 

An Ecclefiaftical MAP of the Country. 

By the Endeavour of 


■».. I IF- .-v*m — ■ " ■ ■■■^. • — — — ■ ■ ■.- ■■ -■— -— ■ -■— — ■-■■ I II J ■— ..-■■ - ■ - ^ ' ■■ !■■■■■ I I 

T ant ft 'Molts erat,pro C HRISTO condereGentem. 


Printed for Thomas Tarkhursl, at the Bible and Three 

Crowns in Cheap/ide near Mercers Chappel, 1702. 

"t»V,A. Jt&liV 

A N 


T O T H I S 

Church -Hiftory 

O F 


IT hath been defervedly efteemed, one of the great and wonderful Works of God 
in this Laft Age, that the Lord ftirred up the Spirits of fo many Thoufands" ot his 
Servants, to leave the P leaf ant L and of England, the Land of their Nativity, and 
to tranfport themfelves, and Families, over thcOcean Sea, into a Defert Land, in Ame- 
rica, at theDiftance of a Thou fand Leagues from their own Country ^ and this, meerly 
on the Account of Pure andVndefded Religion, not knowing how they fliould have their 
Daily Bread, but trufting in God for That, in the way of feeking firft the Kjngdom of God, 
and the Right eoufnefs thereof: And that the Lord was pleafed to grant fuch a gracious 
Prepuce of his with them, and fuch a Bhffinz upon their Undertakings, that within a 
few Years a Wilderness was fubdued before them, and fo many Colonies Planted, Towns 
Krefted, and Chinches Settled, wherein the true and living God in Chrift jefus, is wor- 
fliipped, and ferved, in a place where time out of mind, had been nothing before, but. 
Heathenifm, Idolatry, and Devil-worjhip -, and that the Lord has added fo many of the 
BleHings of Heaven and Earth for the Comfortable Sublicence of his People in thefe Ends 
of the Earth. Surely of this Work, and of this Time, it fhall be Laid, What hath God 
wrought ? And, This is the Lord's doings, it is marvellous in our Eyes ! Even fo (0 Lord) 
didst thou lead thy People, to make thy [elf a glorious Name ! Now, One Generation paffeth 
arvay, and another cometh. The First Generation of our \ Others, that began this Planta- 
tion of New-England, mod of them in their middle Age, and many of them in their de- 
dining Tears, who, after they had ferved the Will of God, inlaying the Foundation (as W2 ' 
hope) of many Generations, and given an Example of true Reformed Religion in the Faith 
and CWerofthe Gojpe!, according to their beft Light from the Words of God, they a; - . ' 
I ithered unto their Fathers. There hath been another Generation fucceeding the 

either of fuch as come over with their Parents very Young, or were born in tfo 
Country, and thefe have had the managing of the Publick Affairs for many Years, Iv 
are apparently paffing away, as their Fathers before them. There is alfo a Third Gen- 
tton, who are grown up, and begin to ftand thick upon the Stage of Action, at t' 
Day, and thefe were all born in the Country, and may call New-England their Na 
Land. Now, in refpect of what the Lord hath done for thefe Generations,fucceeding <• 
another, we have aboundant caufe of Thankfgiving to the Lord our God, who hath . 
Increafed andBleffed this People, that from a Day of [mall things, he has brought 
be, what we now are. We may fct up an Eh EN EZ ER, and fay, Hitherto I ■' 
Lord hath helped ns. Yet in refpecl of cur Prefent State, we have need earneftly u 
as we are directed, Let thy Work fan her appear unto thy Servants, tnd let thy Beat 

A 3 , 

An Atteftation to this Church- Hi/tory, &c. 

upon us, and thy Glory upon oar Children ; Eflabliffj thou the Works of thefe our hands ; yea, 
the Works of our hands, Eflablijjj thou them. 

For, if we look on the Dark fide, the Humane fide of this Work, there is much of 
Humane Weaknefs and Imperfection, hath appeared in all that hath been done by Man, 
as was acknowledged by our Fathers before us. Neither was New-England ever without 
lbme fatherly Chafiifements from God ; (hewing that He is not Fond of the Formalities of 
any People upon Earth, but expects the Realities of Practical Godlinefs, according to our 
Profeflion and Engagement unto him. Much more may we, the Children of fuch Fa- 
thers, lament our Gradual Degeneracy from that Life and Power of Godlinefs that was in 
them, and the many Provoking Evils that are amongfi us ; which have moved our God 
feverely to witnefs again ft us, more than in our first Times, by his leffer Judgments going 
before, and his Greater Judgments following after ; He fhot off his Warning-pieces first, 
but his Murthering-pieces have come after them, in fo much as in thefe Calamitous 
Times, the Changes of Wars of Europe have had fuch a malignant Influence upon U S 
in America, that we are at this Day Greatly diminiffjed and brought low, through Opprefjion, 
Affliction, and Sorrow. 

And yet if we look on the Light fide, the Divine fide of this Work, we may yet fee, 
that the Glory of God which was with our Fathers, is not wholly departed from us their 
Children ; there are as yet many Signs of his Gracious Prefeece with us, both in the way 
of his Providences, and in the ufe of his Ordinances, as alio in and with the Hearts and 
Souls of a considerable number of his People in New-England, that we may yet fay as 
they did, Thy Name is Upon us, and thou art in the midst of us, therefore, Lord, Leavens 
not! As Solomon prayed, fo may we, The Lord our God be with us, as he was with our 
Fathers j Let him not leave nor forfake us ; but incline our Harts to keep his Commandments. 
And then, That he would maintain his own, and his Peoples Caufe, at all times, as the mat- 
ter may require. 

For the Lord our God hath in his infinite Wifdom, Grace and Holinefs, contrived 
md eftablifhcd Ms Covenant, foashe will be the God of his People, and of their Seed 
Witth them, and after them, in their Generations; and in the Ministerial Difpenfation of 
the Covenant of Grace, in, with, and to his vifible Church, He hath promifed Covenant- 
Mercies on the Condition of Covenant- Duties. If my People, who are called by my Name, 
fhall humble themf elves, and pray, and feek my Face, and turn from their wicked ways, then 
I hear their Prayers, forgive their Sins, and heal their Land ; and mine Eyes, and mine 
r -If art, fjjall be upon them perpetually for Good! That fo the Faithfulnefs of God may ap- 
pear in all Generations for ever, that if there be any Breach between the Lord and his 
People, it fhall appear plainly to lye on his Peoples part. And therefore he has taken 
care, that his own Dealings with his People in the Courfe of his Providence, and their 
Dealings with him in the Ways oiObedience or Difobedience, fhould be Recorded, and fo 
tranfmitted for the Ufe and Benefit of After-times, from Generation to Generation ; as, 
Exodus 17. 14.) The Lord [aid unto Motes, write this for a Memorial in a Books and, 
(fieut. 31. 19.) Write )e this Song for you, that it may be a Witnefs for me again ft the Chil- 
oj 'Ifrael; and {Pfal. 102. \%.)This and that fhall be written for the Generation to come, 
%nd the People that fhall be created fhall praife the Lord. Upon this Ground it was faid fin 
°faL : j . 1 .) We have heard with our Ears, God, and our Fathers have toldVs, what Work 
: i:>t their Days in times of Old, how thou c a/test out the Heathen, and planted ft them ;. 
3 likewife in Pfal. 78. v. 5 to the 8th.) Upon the fame account it may be faid, (Pfal. 
at.y / will make thy Name to be remembrt a io all Generations : And this is one Reafon 
hy the Lord commanded fo great a part of the Holy Scriptures to be written in an Hi- 
al way, that the wonderful Works of God towards his Church and People, and their 
;s towards him again, might be known unto all Generations: And alter the Script ure- 
far as the Lord in his Holy Wifdom hath kzn meet, He hath ftirred up fome or 
to write the Jits and Monuments of the Church of God in all Ages *, efpecially fince 
t:on of Religion from Antichriltian Darkoefs, was vigoroufly and in a great 
fsfully endeavoured in the foregoing Century, by fuch Learned and Pious 
; Lord inclined and inabled thereunto. 

ore furely, it hath been a Duty incumbent upon the People of God, in this 
gland, that there fhould be extant, a true Hifiory of the Wonderful Works 


An Atteftation to this Church- Hi ftory, &c. 

of God in the late Plantation of this part of America ; which was indeed planted, not on 
the account of any Worldly Inttreft, but on a Defign of Enjoying and Advancing the 
true Reformed Religion, in a Practical way: And alio of the Good Hand of God upon it 
from the beginning unto this Day, in granting fuch a meafure of Good Succefs, fo far as 
we have attained : Such a Work as this hath been much Defired, and long Expected, 
both at home and abroad, and too long Delayed by Vs, and fometimes it hathfeemed a 
hopelefs thing ever to be attained, till God railed up the Spirit of this Learned and Pious 
Perfon, one of the Sons of the Colledge, and one of the Miniftersofthe Third Generation, 
to undertake this Work. His Learning and Godlinefs, and Miniflerial Abilities, were fo 
Confpicuous, that at the Age of Seventeen Tears, he was called to be a publick Preacher 
in Bofton, the Metropolis of the whole Englifh America--, and within a while after that, 
he was ordained Pa/tor of the fame Church, whereof his own Father was the Teacher, 
and this at the unanimous Defire of the People, and with the Approbation of the Magi- 
(hates, rs and Churches, in the Vicinity of Bofton And after he had, for divers 

Year'-, approved himfelfin an exemplary way, and obliged his Native Country, by 
publishing many ufeful Treatifes, fuitable to the Prejent State of Religion amongft us, 
he fet himfelfto write the Churck-Hiftory of New-England, not at all omitting his Mini- 
sterial Employments i atid inthemidft of many Difficulties, Tears and Temptations, 
having made a diligent Search, Collecting of proper Materials, and Selecting the choiceft 
Memorials, he hath, in the IlTue, within a few Months, contrived, compofed, and metho- 
dized the lame into this Form and Frame which we here fee: So that it deferves the 

But as I behold this Exemplary Son of A ■ . ', while thus Toung andTender, at 

fuch a rate Building the Temple of God, and in a few Months difpatching fuch a piece of 
Temple- r, this is ; a Work fo notably adjufted and adorned, it brings to mind the 

Epigram upon young Borellus : 

Cum Juveni t ant am dedit Experientia Lucem, 
Tale ut promat opus, quam Dabit ilia Seni ? 

As for my [elf, having been, by the Mercy of God, now above Sixty eight Tears in 
New-England, and ferved the Lord and his People in my weak Meafure, Sixty Tears in 
the Miniftry of the Gofpel, I may now fay in my Old Age, J have feen all that the Lord 
hath done for his People in New-England, and have known the Beginning and Progrefs of 
thefe Churches unto this Day ; and having read over much of this Hiftory, I cannot but 
in the Love and Fear of God, bear witnefsto the Truth of it , viz. That this prefent 
Church-Hiftory of New -England, Compiled by Mr. Cot ton Mather, for the Subftance, 1 nd 
and Scope of it, is, as far as I have been acquainted therewithall, according to Truth. 

The manifold Advantage, and Vfefulnefs of this prefent titftory, will appear, if we con- 
fidcr the Great and Good Ends unto which it may be ferviceable ; As, 

Firfl, That a plain Scriptural Duty of Recording the Works of God unto After-times 
may not any longer be omitted, but performed in the beft manner we can. 

Secondly, That by the Manifestation of the Truth of things, as they have been and are 
amongft us, the Mifreprefintations of New-England may be removed and prevented ; for, 
Rectum eflfui & obhiqui index. 

Thirdly, That the True Original and Defign of this Plantation may not be loft, no' 
buried in Oblivion, but known and remembred forever, {Pfal. 111.4. He hath ma 
his wonderful Works to be remembred. Pfal. 105. 5. Remember ye the marvellous We . 
which he bath done.~] 

Fourthly, That God may have the Glory of the Great and Good Works which he h 
done for his People in thefe Ends of the Earth, [As in Ifaiah 63.7. I will mention 1 
loving Kjndnefs of the Lord, and the Praifes of the Lord, according to all the Great Goodn* , 
and Mercy he has beft owed on us.~\ 

. Fifthly, That the Names of fuch Eminent Perfons as the Lord made ufe of, as lnfl 
ments in his hand, for the beginning and carrying on of this Work, may be embalm 1 ' i, 
and preferved,for the Knowledge and Imitation of Pofterity; for the Memory of tin 
is Blejfed. 


An Attejiation to this Church-Hijtory, &c. 

Sixthly, That the prefent Generation may remember the Way wherein the Lord hath 
led his People in this Wildernefs, for fo many Years paft unto this Day ; [according to 
that in Deut. 8. i. remember all the way wherein the Lord hath led thee in the WiU 
dernefs this Forty Tears, to humble thee, and to prove thee, and to know what was in thy Heart 
whether thou wouldefl keep his Commandments or no.~\ All confidering Perfons cannot but 
obferve, that our Wildemefs-concMuon hath been full of humbling, trying, diftreffina Provi- 
dences. We have had our Majfahs and Meribahs 5 and few of our Churches but have 
had fome remarkable hours of Temptation patting over them, and God's End in all has 
been to prove us, whether, according to our Profefjion, and his Expectation, we would 
keep his Commandments, or not. 

Seventhly, That the Generations to come in New-England, may know the God of their 
fathers, and may ferve [him with a perfect Heart and willing Mind 5 as efpecially the fir JZ 
Generation did before them ; and that they may fet their hope in God, and not forget hie 
Works, but keep his Commandments. (Pfal, 78. 7.) 

Eighthly, And whereas it may be truly faid, (as Jer. 23. 21.) That when this People 
began to follow the Lord into this Wildernefs, they were, Hvlinejs to the Lord, and he planted 
them as a noble Vine ; Yet if in procefs of time, when they are greatly increafed and mul- 
tiplied, they fhould fo far Degenerate, as to forget the Religious Defign of their Fathers, 
andforfake the. Holy Ways of God, (ask was faid of them in Hofea^.j. As they 


increafed, fo they finned against the Lord) and fo that many t vils and Troubles will befall 
them j Then this Book may be for a Witnefs againfi them ; and yet thro' the Mercy of 
God, mav be alio a means to Reclaim them, and eaufe them to Return again unto the 
Lord, and his Holy Ways, that He may Return again in Mercy unto them ; even unto 
the many Thoufands of New-England. 

Ninthly, That the Little Daughter of New-England in America, may bow down her 
: to her Mother England, in Europe, prefenting this Memorial unto her j affuringher, 
thattho 1 by fome of her Angry Brethren, fhe was forced to make a Local Seceffion, yet 
hot a. Separation, but hath always retained a Dutiful RefpecT: to the Church of God in 
England ; and giving fome account to her, how gracioufly the Lord has dealt with 
her felf in a Remote Wilder nefs, and what fhe has been doing all this while ; giving her 
thanks for all the Supplies fhe has received from her ; and hecaufe fhe is yet in her Mino- 
rity, flie craves her larther Bleffing and Favour as the Cafe may require ; being glad, if 
what is now prefented to her, may be of any ufe, to help forward the "Union and Agree- ^ 
nt of her Brethren, which would be fome Satisfaction to her for her undefired Local 
lance from her Dear England; and Finally, promifing all that Reverence and Obe- 
dience whic h is due to her Good Mother, by Virtue of the Fifth Commandment. And 

%ajlly, i hat this prefent Hifiory may itand as a Monument, in relation to future times, 
of a fuller and better Reformation of the Church of God, than it hath yet appeared in the 
World. For by this Effay it may be fecn, that a farther Practical Reformation than that 
which began at the firft coming out of the Darknefs of Popery, was aimed at, and en- 
deavoured by a great Number of/- -"oluntary Exiles, that came into a Wildernefs for that 
very end, that hence they might be free from humane Additions and Inventions in the 
Worfhip of God, and might practice the pofitive part of Divine Inftituvions, according 
•0 the Word of God. How far we have attained this Defign, may be judged by this 
Book. But we befeech our Brethren, of our own and of other Nations, to believe that 
we are far from thinking that we have attained a perfect Reformation. Oh, No I Our 
Fachers did in their time acknowledge, there were many Defects and Imperfections in 
air Way, and yet we believe they did as m "ch as could be expected from Learned and 
Men in their Cireurnfiances ; and we, their Succeffors, are far fhort of them in 
my refpeete, meeting with many Difficulties which they did not ; and mourning under 
bukes from lOur God which they had not, and with trembling Hearts obferving 
. . ... Declinings that are amongft us from the Holy Ways of God ; we are forced 
at, and fay, Lord, what will become of thtfe Churches in time 1 And what wilt thou 
reat Name ? And yet in the Multitude of our Thoughts and Fears, the Confo- 
drefrefb our Souls, that all thofe that in Simplicity and Godly Sincerity do ferve 
die! id his feople in their Generation (tho they fhould mifs it in fome things,) 

r their own Souls, they are accepted of the Lord, and their Reward is 


An Attejlatiim to this Church^Hijiory, &c. 

with him i and in the approaching Days of a better Reformation, the fincere, tho' weak 
Endeavours of the Servants of God, that went before them, will be alfo accepted of 
the Saints in thofe times of greater Light and Holinefs, that are to come; and when the 
Lord fhall make Jefufalem (or, the true Church of God, and the true Chriftian Religion) 
a Praife in the Earth, and the Joy of many Generations, then the Mi flakes of thefe times 
will be rectified; and that which is of God in any of his Churches, now in any Part of 
the World, will be owned and improved unto an higher Legiee of Practical Godlinefs, 
that fhall continue for many Generations fucceeding one another, which hitherto hath 
been fo rare a thing to be found in the World. 

I fhall now draw to a Conclusion, with an Obfervation which hath vifited my 
Thoughts : That the Lord hath blefled the Family of the M AT HERS, among!* us, 
with a fingular Bleffing, in that no lefs than Ten of them, have been accepted of him, 
to fervc the Lord and his People in the Miniftry of the Gofpel of JefusChrift ; of whom, 
as the Apoftle faid in another cafe, tho' fome are fallen afleep, yet the greate ft part remain 
unto this Day ; I do not know the like in our New-England, and perhaps it will he found 
rare to parallel the fame in other Countries. Truly I have thought, it hath been a 
Reward of Grace, with refpeft unto the Faiihfulaefs they have exprciTcd, in afferting, 
clearing, maintaining, and putting on for the Practice of that great Principle, of the Pro- 
pagation of Religion in thefe Churches, viz. The Covenant-State and Church-member foip of 
the Children lorn in thefe Churches, together with the Scripture Duties appertaining there- 
unto, and that by vertue of God's Covenant of Grace, eftablifhed by God with his 
People, and their Seed with them, and after them in their Generations. And this has 
been done by Mr. Richard Mather the Father, and by Mv. lncreafe Mather his 
Son, and by Mr. Cotton Mather his Son, the Author of this prefent Work. 

I fhall give the Reader the Satisfa&ion to enumerate tins happy Decemvir ate. 

i. Richard Mather, Teacher of the Church in Dorchefier. 

2. Samuel Mather: He was the firft Fellow of Harvard-Colledge in Cambridge in New- 
England, and the firft Preacher at North- Bofton, where his Brother and his Nephew are 
now his Succeflbrs. He was afterwards one of the Chaplains in Magdalen-Colledge'itx 
Oxford ; after that, a Senior Fellow of Trinity-Colledge in Dublin^ and Pifcftor of a Church 
in that City, where he died. 

3. Nathanael Mather \ which fucceeded his Brother Samuel as Paftor of that Church 
in Dublin, and is now Paftor of a Church in London. 

4. Eleazar Mather ; He was Paftor of the Church at Northampton in New-England, 
and much efteemed in thofe parts of the Country : He died when he was but Thirty 
two years old. 

5. lncreafe Mather ; who is known in both Englands. Thefe four were the Sons of 
Richard Mather. 

6. Cotton Mather, the Author of this Hiftory. 

7. Nathanael Mather. He died at the Nineteenth Year of his Age } was a Mafter of 
Arts ; began to preach in private. His Piety and Learning was beyond his Years. 
The Hiftory of his Life and Death was written by his Brother, and there have been 
Thne Editions of it printed at London. He dyed here at Salem, and over his Grave there 

8. Samuel Mather; he is now a publick Preacher. Thefe three laft mentioned, are 
the Sons Ot lncreafe Mather. 

9. Samuel Mather , the Son of Timothy, and Grandfon of Richard Mather } He is 
the Paftor of a Church in Windfor; a Pious and a Prudent Man ; who has been an 
happy Inftrument of uniting the Church and Town, amongft whom there had been 
great Divifions. 

10. Warham Mather, the Son of Eleazar Mather, and by his Mctker Grandfon 
to the Reverend Mr. Warham, late Paftor of the Church in Wir,dfor : He is now 
alfoapubiick Preacher. Behold, an happy Family, the Glad fight whereof, may well 
infpire even an Old Age paft Eighty, with Poetry enough to add this, 


An Atteftation to this Church- Hiftory, &c. 

Epigramma in MATH EROS. 

Nimium Diktfe Deo, Venerande MATHERE, 
Gaudens tot JValos Cbrifli numerate Minifiros ! 
Det Deus ut tales injurgant ufque Matheri, 
Et Nati, Nat or urn, & qui Nafcentur ab illis. 
Has inter ft (Has fulgens, Cottone Mathere, 
Pat rum tu jequens vefligia femper ad orans, 
Vbojp/jows all a! lis ! 

Now the Lord our God, the Faithful God, that keepeth Covenant and Mercy to a thou- 
[and Generations, with his People; let him incline the Heart of this People of New- 
England, to keep Covenant and Duty towards their God, to walk in h is Ways, and 
keep his Commandments, that he may bring upon them the Blefling of Abraham, the 
Mercy and Truth unto 'Jacob, the fure Mercies of David, the Grace and .Peace that 
Cometh from God the Father, and the Lord Jefus Chrift •, and that the Grace of our 
Lord Jefus Chrift may be in and with thefe Churches, from one Generation to another, 
until the Second Coming of our Lord and Saviour Jefus Chrift ! Vnto him be Glory and 
Dominion, for Ever and Ever. Amen. 

Salem, the 25th of the ^fohtl H^ZWlOtl, 

Firft Month 1697. J «° J 


A Prefatory Poem, 

On that Excellent Book, Entituled, 

<jMagnalia Chrijii ^Americana : 

Written by the Reverend 
Mr. COTTON MATHER, Paftor of a Church at Bofton, New-England. 

To the Candid Reader. 

S Truck with huge Love, of what to be pofleft, 
I much defpond, good Reader, in theqaeft 5 
Yet help me, if at length it may be faid, 
W ho fir ft the Chambers of the South difplay'd ? 
Inform me, Whence the Tawny People came ? 
Who was their Father, Japhet, Shem, ox Cham ? 
And how they ftraddled to xti Antipodes, 
To look another World beyond the Seas ? 
And when, and why, and where they la ft broke ground, 
What Risks they ran, where they full Authoring found? 
Tell me their Patriarchs, Prophets, Priefts and Kings, 
Religion, Manners, Monumental things : 
What Charters hid they? What Immunities ? 
What Altars, Temples, Cities, Colonies, 
Did they erecl: ? Who were their publick Spirits ? 
W 7 here may we find the Records of their Merits? 
What Inftances, what glorious Difplayes 
Of Heav'ns high Hand, commenced in their dayes ? 
Thefe things in Black Oblivion covered o'er, 
(As they'd ne er been) lye, with a thoufand more. 
A vexing Thought, that makes me fcarce forbear 
To ftamp, and wring my Hands, and pluck my Hair, 
To think, what BlefTed Ignorance hath done, 
What fine Threads Learnings Enemies have fpun, 
How well Books, Schools, and Colledge may be fpar\l, 
So Men with Beafls may fitly be compar'd ! 
Yea, how Tradition leaves us in the lurch, 
And who, nor ftay at home, nor go to Church : 
The Light*within-Enthufia(ls, who let fly 
Againft our Pen and Ink Divinity ; 
W ho boldly do pretend (but who'll believe it ?) 
If Genefis were loft, they could retrieve it ; 
Yea, all the Sacred Writ ; Pray let them try 
On the Nerv World, their Gift of Prophecy. 
For all them, the New Worlds Antiquities, 
Smother'd in everlafting Silence lies 3 
And its Fir ft Sachims mention'd are no more, 
Than they that Agamemnon liv'd before. 
The poor Americans are under blame, 
Like them of old, that from Tel-meUh came, 

B Cenjetiurd 

Conjectetr'dorKX, to be of IfraePs Seed, 

But no Record appeared to prove the Deed : 

And like Habajalh Sons, that were put by 

The Priefthod, Holy things to come not nigh, 

For having loft their Genealogy. 

Who can paft things to memory command, 

Till one with Aaron s Breaft-plate upfhallftand ? 

Mifchiefs Remedilefs fuch Sloth enfue ■■, 

God and their Parents lofe their Honour due, 

And Childrens Children fuffer on that Score, 

Like Raftards call forlorn at any Door} 

And they and others put to feek their Father, 

For want of fuch a Scribe as COTTON MA THE R ; 

Whole Piety, whofe Pains, aad pcerlefs Pen, 

Revives A 'erv- England's nigh-loft Origin. 

Heads of our 1 nbes, whofe Corps are under ground. 
Their Names and Fames in Cfjronides renown'd, 
BegemnVd on Golden Ouches he hath fet, 
Paft !: ' nvy's Teeth, and Times corroding Fret: 
Of Death and Malice, he' has brufh'd off the Duft, 
And made a Refurreciion of the "J aft : 
And clcar'd the Lands Religion of the Glofs, 
And Copper-Cuts of Alexander Rofs. 
He hath related Academic things, 
And paid their Fir ft- Fruits to the King of Kings ; 
And done his Alma Mater that juft Favour, 
To fhew Sal Gentium hath not loft its Savour. 
He writes like an Hiftorian, and Divine, 
Of Churches, Synods, Faith, and Difcipline. 
llluflrious Providences are difplay'd, 
Mercies and Judgments are in colours laid 5 
Salvations wonderful by Sea and Land, 
Themfelves are Saved by his Pious Hand. 
The Churches Wars, and various Enemies, 
Wild Salvages, and wilder Sectaries, 
Are notify'd for them that after rife. 

This \vell-inftru8ed Scribe brings New and Old, 
And from his Mines digs richer things than Gold ; 
Yet freely gives, as Fountains do their Streams, 
Nor more than they, Himfelf, by giving, drains. 
He's all Defgn, and by his Craftier Wiles 
Locks faft his Reader, and the Time beguiles : 
Whilft Wit and Learning move themfelves aright, 
Thro' ev'ry line, and Colour in our fight, 
So interweaving Profit with Delight ; 
And curioufly inlaying both together, 
That he muft needs find Both, who looks for either. 

His Preaching,Writing, and his Paftoral Care, 
Are very much, to fall to one Man's (hare. 
This added to the reft, is admirable, 
And proves the Author Indefatigable. 
Play ishisToyl, and Work his Recreation, 
And his Inventions next to Infpiration. 
His Pen was taken from fome Bird of Light, 
Addicted to a fwift and lofty Flight. 
Dearly it loves Art, Air, andEloquence, 
And hates Confinement, fave to Truth and Senfe. 


. Allow what's known '-, they who write Hiftorics, 
Write many things they fee with others Eyes ; 
'Tis fair, where nought is feign'd, nor undigefted, 
Nor ought, but what is credibly atoefted. 
The Risk is his •■> and feeing others do, 
Why may not I fpeak mine Opinion too ? 

The Stuff \s true, the Trimming neat and fpruce, 
The Workman's good, the Work of publick ufe 3 
Moft pioufly defiga'd, a publick Store, 
And well defervesthc publick Thanks, and more. 

Nicholas N'oyes, Teacher of the Church at Salem. 
Reverendo Domino, 


Libri Utiliflimi, cui Titulus, Magnolia Chrifti Americana, 

Authori Doftiffimo, ac Dile&iflimo, 
Dwo Ogdoaftica, &: bis duo Anagrammata, dat Idem, N. Nojes. 

Cottonus Maderus. 

. . C Eft duo Sanctorum. 
° ' \Notus es Doclorum. 

Nomina Sanclorum, quos Scribis, tiara duorum 
Nomine Cerno Tuo ; Virtutes Lector eafdent 
Candidas inveniet Tecum, Charitate refertas. 
Doclrino Eximius Dotfos, Pietatepiofque 
Tu bene defcribis, defcribere nefcit at alter. 
Do&orum es Natus, Domino Spirante Renatus ■> 
De bene qu<rfitts gaudeto Tertius H<eres; 
Nomenprxfagit, nee non Anagrammata, votes* 

Cottonus Maderus. 


. , CVniJas demortuos. 
° * )jSendtas Dociorum. 

Unftas demort'os, decoratur Laude Senatus 
Doftorum, Merita, ftprsfens preterit a <etas, 
Huic exempla patent, & poftera Progenitores 
Non ignor obit, patriif que fuperbiet Attis ; 
More, Fide, cultu, quoque patrijfare (ladebit '-, 
Gratum opus eU Domino, Patrix nee inutile no(tr<t ; 
Orbifrutfificxt. Per Fertilitatif Honorem, 
Scribendo Vitas edienas, propria firipta eft* 

B 2 Ccleberrimi 



Celebratio ■» 

Qui Heroum Vitas, in fui-ipfius & illorum Metnoriam 
fempiternam, revocavit. 

Quod Patrios Manes revocafti a Sedibus alt is, 
Syhefires MuJ£ grates, Mathere, rependunt. 
H<ic nova Progenies? i>eterum fub imagine, cceh 
Arte Tua Terr am vifitans, aemijfa, falutat. 
Grata Deo Pietas ••> Grates per J olv imu s omnes : 
Semper Hotios, Nomenc^ueTuum, Mathere, manebnM. 

Is the Blefs'd MAT HE R Necromancer turn**?, 
To raife his Countries Father's Afhes Urn'd? 
Elijha-s Duft, Life to the Dead imparts ; 
This Prophet, by his more Familiar Arts, 
"Onfe&ls our Heroes Tombs, and gives them Air \ 
They Rife, they Walk, they Talk, Look wond T iaus Fair ; 
Eacn of them in an Orb of Light doth fhine, 
In Liveries of 'Glory molt Divine. 

When ancient Names I in thy Pages met, 
Like Gems on Aaron's coftly Breaft>plate fet ; 
Methinks Heaven's open, while Great Saints defcend, 
To wreathe the Brows, by which their Acts woe penn'd. 

B. Thompfon. 


To the Reverend 


O N H I S 

Hif ory of New- En 

TN this Hard Age, when Men fuch Slacknefs fbow, 
I To pay Loves Debts, and what to Truth we owe, 
You to ftep forth, and fuch Example (hew, 
In paying what's to God and Country due, 
Deferves our Thanks : Mine I do freely give : 
'Tis fit that with the RaifedOnes you Live. 

Great your Attempt. No doubt fome Sacred Spy, 
That Leiger in your Sacred Cell did ly, 
Nurs'd your firit Thoughts, with gentle Beams of Light, 
And taught your Hand ! lungs part to bring to fight : 
Thus led by fecret fweetefi: Influence, 
You make Returns to God's good Providence : 
Recording how that mighty Hand was nigh, 
To Trace out Paths not known to mortal Eye, 
To thofe brave Men, that to this Land came o'er, 
And plac'd them fafe on the Atlantic!: Shore : 
•And how the fame Hand did them after fave, 
And fay, Return, oft on the Brink o'th' Grave =, 
And gave them room to fpread, and blefs'd their Root, 
Whence, hung with Fruit, now many Branches (hoot. 

Such were thefe Heroes, and their Labours fuch, 
In their Juft Praife, Sir, who can fay too much ? 
Let the Remoter! parts of Earth behold, 
New-England's Crowns excelling Spkmfb Gold. 
Here be Rare LeiTons fet for us to Read, 
That Off-fprings are of fuch a Goodly Breed. 
The Dead Ones here, fo much Alive are made, 
We think them fpeaking from Blefs'd Eden's Shade ; 
Hark! How they check the Madnefs of this Age, 
The Growth of Pride, fierce Luft, and worldly Rage. 
They tell, we (hall to CUm-banks, come again, 
If Heaven ftill doth Scourge us all in vain. 

But, Sir, upon your Merits heap'd will be, 
The UleQings of all thofe that here fhall fee 
Vertue Embalm'd ; This Hand feems to put on 
The Latvrel on your Brow, fo juftly won. 

Timothy Woodbridge, Minifter of Hartford. 


Ad Politum Literature, atque Sacrarum Literaturum Antiftitem, 

Angliaetjuc Americans Antiquarium Callentiffimum, 

Rivcrendurn Bominum, 


Apud Boftonenfes V. D. M. 

Cottonus Mather us. 


Tu tantum Celjors es, 


tj>Je 7 -vales Tantum, Tu, mimemorm&e MAT HE2liii» 
Fmis fro Chri/fo Miles, cs ipfe cohors. 

A Pindaric . 

Art thou Heavens Trumfet ? fure by the Archangel blown ; 

Tombs Crack, Dead Start, Saints Rife, are feen and known,, 
And Shine in Conftellation ; 

From ancient Flames here's a New Pheenix flown, 
To fhew the World, when Chrift Returns, hell not Return alone. 

J. Danforth, V. D- II. DoreeJIrl 

To the Learned and Reverend 

On his Excellent Magnalia, 


MY Mufe will now by Cliymiftry draw forth 
The Spirit of your Names Immortal worth. 

Cottonius ^jMatherm, 


Tuos Tecum ornafti. 

While thus the Dead in thy rare Pages Rife, 
Thine, with thy felf, thon doit Immortalize. 
To view the Odds, thy Learned Lives invite, 
'Twixt Eleutherian and Edomite. 
But all fucceding Ages Hull defpair, 
A Fitting Monument for thee to Rear. 
Thy own Rich Pen (Peace, filly Momus, Peace!) 
Hath given them a La fling Writ ofEafe. 

Grindal Raw/ox, Paftor of Mmfon. 


In Jefu Chrifti 


Digefta in Septem Libros, 
Per Magnum , Do&iffimumque Virum, 

D. Cotton urn Matherum, 

J. Chrifti Servum, Ecclefeque Americano Boftonienfis 
Miniftrum Pium & Difertiflimum. 

SUnt Mir id a Dei, funt & Magnalia Chrifti, 
Qua patet Or bis. Erant ultra Garamantas, &■ Indos 
Maxuma, quss paucis licuit cognofcere. Sed, quse 
Cernis in America., procul unus-quifque videbit. 

Vivis, ubi fertur nullum vixiffe. Videfque 
Mille homines, res multas, incunabula mh-a. 
Strabo file, qui Magna refers. Vefyutius autem 
Primis fcire Novum potuit conatibus Orbem. 
Et dum Magna docet te Grotius, Unde repletos 
Ecce per Americam, volucrefque, hominefque, Deofque. 
Deumque libet, tibi fcire licet Nova vifcera rerum. 

Nullus erat, nifi brutus homo : Sine lege, Deoque. 
Numa dat Antiquis, Solonque & Jura Lycurgus. 
Hie nihil, 8c nullae (modo fie fibi vivere) Leges, 
jam decretavide, & Regum diplomats, curque, 
Ne libi vivat homo, noftrorum vivere Regi eft. 
Die rot habendo Deos, legifque videndo perkoSj 
Centenofque viros, celebres virtute, Statumque 
Quern Novus Or bis habet ; Quantum mutatm ab illo es ! 

Res bona. Nee fat erit, & Rege k Lege beatum, 
PolTe vehi fuper Aftra. Deum tibi nofcere, fas eft. 
Nil Lex, nil Solon, nil 8r fine Numine Numa. 

Sit Dens, ignotofque Deos fuge. Multa Poets 
De Jove finxerunt, Neptuno & Marte, Diifque 
Innumerabilibus. Magnique Manitto pependit 
Non converfa Deo Gens Americana, Manitto, 
Quern velut Artijicem colit, & ceu Numen adorat. 

E tenebris Lux eft. In abyflb cernere Caelum eft, 
Jgnotumopz Deum, notum INDIS, Biblia Sancla 
lndica, Templa, Preces, Pfalmos, multofque Mini/lros. 
VtCbriftum difcant, Indorum Idiomats Numen 
lititur, & fefe patefecit ubique locorum. 

Plura canam. Veterem Scbola fit difperfa per Orbem, 
Et tot Atbenxis fcatet Anglus, Belga, Polonus, 
Germanus, Gallufque. Sat eft Academia noflra. 
Extra Orbem Novus Orbis habet, quod habetur in Orb?. 


Tat CantabrigU Domus Harvardina Cathedram 
Cuilibet, & cur non daret fadis, Profelytifque ? 
Trans Mare non opus eft ad Pallada currere. Pallas 
Hie habitat, confertque Gradus ; modo Pallada difcas, 
Defiftafque gradum. Quantum Sapientia confert ! 
Forte novas, plurefque artes Novns Orbis haberet, 

Qyotquot in America licet Admiranda fuperfint, 
Singula non narro. Nee opus tibi fingula narrem. 
Multa fidem fuperant, multorum Exempla docebunt, • 
Plura quot Orbis habet Novas Admiranda, quot artes, 
Et quot in America degunt ubicunque Coioni. 

Deque Vemficiis quid erit tibi nofcere ? 1 ufus 
Sperne Uiabolioos. Sunt hie Magndia Chrifii. 
Ne timeas Umbram. Corpus fine corpore fpe&rum eft. 

Pax rara in terris. iEtas quafi ferrea. Helium 
c ceptra gerens, gladiofque ferox ubicunque Noverca eft. 
\ efhuit omnia, deftruit oppida, deftruit artes. 
Mars nulli cedit. Nihil exitialius armis. 
7 eftis adell. Europa docet lacrymabile Bellum^ 
Hifpani, Belgs, Germani, & quotquotin Orbe 
Sunt Veteri, Rigidifq--, plagis vexantur& armis. 

Quas SeBas vetus Urbis habet, quae dogmata Carriis? 
Primum Roma locum tenet, E/itbufiafta fecundum, 
Arminius tandem, Menno 8c Spi/iofa fequuntur. 
Qyifque incredihiles putciii dignofcere Seftas ? 
Non tot cernuntur fidei difcrimina, nee tot 
Hsereticos novus Orbis habet, quod & Enthea res eft, 

Tu dilefte Deo> cujus Boftonia gaudet 
Noftra Minifterio, feu cui tot fcribere Libros, 
Non opus, aut labor eft, & qui Magndia. Chrijli 
Americana, refers, fcriptura plurima. Nonne 
Dignus es, agnofcare inter Magnalin Chrijli ? 

Vive Liber, totiqueOrbi Miracula monftres, 
Qux funt extra Orbem. Cottone, in fecula vive , 
Et dum Mundus erit, vivat tua Fama per Qrbm M 

D *££^So& Henricus Selijns, 


Ecclefine NeO'EborAcenfis Mimfier Belgicus, 


A General 


'Fpa S'l "fraTO, <f &/S lvTd/^A[AiVuy ejfihtia.( iy-KcL. 

Dicam hoc propter utilitatem eorum qui LeEluri fa/ft hoc opus. Theodorit. 

§ i.'W WRlTEtheli'WmoftheCHRI- 
M, from die Depravations of Europe, to 
the xtontrwan Strand : And, aflifted by the Holy 
Author of that Religion, 1 do, with all Confci- 
ence or 7hif/j,required therein byHim,who is the 
Truth it felt, Report the Wonderful Difplays of 
His Infinite Power, Wifdom, Goodnefs, and 
Faichfulnefs, wherewith His Divine Providence 
hath Irradiated an Indian Wtldirnefs. 

I Relate the Confidtrable Matters, that pro- 
duced and attended tne Firft Settlement of 
COLONIES, which have been Renowned 
for the Degree ofREFORM ATIOM, Pro- 
fefTed and Attained by Evangelical Churches , 
erected in thofe Ends of the Earth : And a Field 
being thus prepared, 1 proceed unto a Relation 
of the Confiderable Matters which have been 
afteJ thereupon. 

I (nit introduce the Aclors, that have, in a 
inuie e\cmplary manner ferved thofe Colonies ; 
and «i*e Remarkable Occurrences, in the exem- 
plary LIVES of many Magistrates, and of 
more Miniflers, who lb Lived, as to leave unto 
Polterity, Examples worthy of Everl.tjling Re- 

1 add hereunto, the Notables of the only Pro- 
tefl tut "Jr.iverftty, that ever Jhone in that He- 
mifpliere or the New World; with particular 
Instances of Crioli.ins, in our Biography, pro- 
voking the whole World, with vertuous Objects 
of Emulation. 

I introduce then, the Anions of a more Emi- 
nent Importance, that have fignalized thoieCo- 
lonits ; Whether the EjlMi/hments, directed by 
their Synods; with a Rich Variety of Synodical 
and Ecslefiaftical Dsteiminations 5 or, the Di- 
fturbances, with which they have been from all 
lints ot Temptations and Enemies Tempeftuated •, 
and th<_ Methods by which they have ftill wea- 
thered cat each Horrible Tempefl. 

And into the midlt of thefe Atlions, I inter- 
pofe an entire Book, wherein there is, with all 
poflible Veracity, a CoUetlion made, of Me- 
morable Occurrences , and amazing Judgments 
and Mercies, befalling many particular Per funs 
among tuc People of A\w -England. 

Let my Readers expect all that I have pro- 
mired them, in this Bill of Fair; and it may be 
they will find themfelves entertained with yec 
many other Paffagcs, above and beyond their 
Expectation, defer ving likewife a room in Ht- 
fiory. In all which, there will be nothing, but 
the Author's too mean way of preparing fo 
great Entertainments, to Reproach the Invi- 

§. 2. The Reader will doubtlefs defire to 
know, what it was that 

tot Solvere cafus 

Jnfignes Fietate Viros, tot adire Labores, 

And our Hiftory (hall, on many fit Occafions 
whLh will be therein offered, endeavour, with 
all Hiftorical Fidelity and Simplicity, and with 
as little Offence as may be, to iatisfie him. The 
Sum of the Matter is, That rrom the very Be- 
ginning of the REFORMATION in the 
Englifb Nation, there hath always been a Gene- 
ration of Godly Men, defirous to ptirfue the Re- 
formation of Religion, according to the Word of Cod 
and the Example of the befl Reformed Churches • 
and anfwering the Character ot Good Men, given 
by lojephus, in his Paraphrafe on the words of 

Samuel tO Saul, yM^iy rtAAo »p*y6»«fi<M >eaha< up 
hanSy yopi(]orrss » \ rt lv mifoufi ii QiZ x€*sa<£*o7©-. 
They think they do nothing Right in the Service of 
Cod, but what they do according to the Command 
oj God. And there hath been another Genera- 
tion of Men, who have ftill employed the 
Power which they have generally ftill had in their 
Hands, not only to ftop the Progi efs of the 
Delncd Reformation, but alfo, with Innumer- 
able Vexations, to Perfecute thofe that moft 
Heartily wilhed well unto it. There were many 
of the Reformers, who joyned with the Reverend 
JOHN FOX, in the Complaints which he 
then entred in his Martyrology, about the Baits 
of Popery yet left in the Church; and in his 
Wifhes, God take them away, or eafe us from them 
for God knows, they be the Caufe of much Blindnefs 
and Strife among ft Men ! They Zealoufly decreed 
c the 

A General Introduction. 

the Policy of complying always with the Igno- 
■ mce and Vanity of the People ; and cried out 
earneftly for Purer Adminifrrations in the Honfe 
of God, and more Conformity to the Law of 
Chrift, and Primitive Chrifttanity : While others 
would not hear of going any further than the 
Firjl Effay of Reformation. 'T is very certain, 
that the Firfi Reformers never intended, that 
what They did, fhould be the Alfolute Boundary 
of Reformation, fo that it fhould be a Sin to pro- 
ceed any further ; as, by their own going 
yond Wicklift, and Changing and Crowing in their 
own Models alio, and the Confefuons of c.v<;;2- 
raer, with the Str/pr « Anglwana of Bucer, and a 
thoufand other things, was abundantly demon- 
fixated. But after a Fruitlefs Expectation, where- 
in r.he trueft Friends of the Reformation long 
waited, for to have that which Heylin himfelt 
owns to have been the Detign of the Firjl Re- 
formers, followed as it fhould have been, a Party 
very unju-ftly arrogating to themfelves, the Ve- 
nerable Name of, The Church of England, bv 
Numberlefs Oppreffions, grievoufly Smote thofe 
their Fellow- Servants. Then 'twas that, as our 
Great WE N hath expreifed it, A Htitudes of 
Pious, Peaceable Prot eft ants, were driven, by their 
■■itics, to leave their Native Country, and feek 
a Refuge for their Lives and Liberties, with Free 
dom^for the Worfhip of God, in a WUdtrnefs, in the 
Ends of the Earth. 

§. 3. It is the Hiftory of thefe PROTE- 
STANTS, that is here attempted : PRO- 
TESTANTS 'that highly honoured and 
affected The Church o/ENGI.AND, and hum- 
bly Petition to be a Part of it : But by the 
Alifbke of a few powerful Brethren, driven to 
feek a place for the Exercife of the Proh 
Religion, according to the Light ot their C,m- 
fciences, in the Defarts of America. And in this 
Attempt 1 have propofed, not only to preferve 
and fecure thejntereft of Religion ja the Churches 
of that little Country N E if - £ NG L A N D, 
fo far as the Lord Jefus Chrift may pleafc to 
Blefs it for that End, but alio to offer unto the 
Churches of the Reformatio;:, abroad in the 
World, fome (mall Memorials, that may be fer- 
viceablc unto the Defignsof Reformation, where- 
to, I believe, they are quickly to be awakened. 
1 am far from any fuch Boa ft, concerning thefe 
Churches, That they have Need of Nothing, I 
wifh their Worh were more perfe.0, before God. 
Indeed, that .- ich Aufiin called The Perfection 
of Chrijl;:r,i\ is like to be, until the Term for 
Intijchrtflin* Apofiafie :;c expired, The Per- 
b -elm too; Vt .'yvfc.mtfenunca'.am 
tis. Nicvcithc!c!\ ! ; • ■; fwade my felf, 
that fo far <m> thy h im attained, they have given 
■ Examples of the Methods and Meafures, 
wheiein.m Eitangtticd Reformation is to be pro- 
fecuted, and * th/s Qua^jieatio;;; xcqi\\[]tQ in the 
' 1 lmetus that are to pi f « : ic, and of the 
Difficulties, which miv be ui< ft likely toobftruci 
:;d the mo!t likely DiretHom and Remedies 
. hofc Ohftruftions. It ova] l e, 'tis not pr fli- 

ble for me to do a greater Service unto the 
Churches on the Beft Ifiand of the llniverfe,than 
to give a diftinct Relation of thofe Great Exam- 
ples which have been occurring among Churches 
of Exiles, that were driven cut of that ffland 
into an horrible Wildernefs, meerly for their be* 
ing Well-vvillers unto the Reformation. When 
that Bleffed Martyr Conftantine was carried, with 
other Martyrs, in a Dung- Cart, onto the place 
of Execution, he pleafantly Paid, Hell, yet we 
are a precious Odour to Cod in Chrift. Tho' the 
i med Churches in the Ann rican Regions, have, 
by very Injurious Reprefentations of their Bre- 
thren (all which they deli re to Forget and For- 
give !) been many times thrown into a Dung- 
Cart ; yet, as they have been a precious Odour to 
God in Chrift, fo, I hope, they will be a precious 
Odour unto H'us People ; and not only Precioas t 
but Vfeful alfo, when the Hi/lory of them (hall 
come to be confidered. A Reformation: of the 
Church is coming on, and I cannot but there- 
upon fay, with the dying Cyrus to his Children 
in Xenophon, 'e* r$v ir%vyiys.m\ykvtiv fj-cwdcims, du]n 
yd? ctfirjt hS'&<nuth!i&. Learn from the things that 
hive been done already, for this is the beft way of 
Learning. The Reader hath here an Account 
of The Things thai have bet n done already, Bernard 
upon that Claufein the Canticks, [0 thou fatrcjl 
among Women] has this ingenious Glofs, Pul- 
chram, non omnimode quidem, ft d pulchram inter 
mulieres earn docet, videlicet cum Dijlintlione, qua- 
tenus ex hoc amplius reprimatur , & fciat quid 
de/it ffbi. Thus I do not fay, That the Churches 
of New- England are the moft Regular that can 
be^ yet I do lay, and am fure, That they arc 
very like unto thofe that were in the Firfi Ages 
of Cluiftianity. And if I affeit, That in the 
Reformation of the Church,the State of it in thole 
firfi Ages, is to be not a little confidered, the 
Great Peter Ramus, among others, has embol- 
dened me. For when the Cardinal of Lorrain, 
the Maecenas of that Great Man, was offended 
at him, for turning Protectant,, he replied, Met- 
opes Mas, quibus me ditafii, has etiamin reternum 
recordabor, quod Beneficio, Foejfiaca Refponfioms 
tu* didici, de Quindecim a Chriflo faculbs, frinuon 
vcre effe aurcum, Reliqua, quo longius abfcedt 
effe nequiora, atque deteriora : Turn igitur cumj 
optio, Aureum frevdum delegi. In fliort, The Firfi 
Age was the Golden Age ; To return unto That^ 
will make a Man a Proteftant, and I may add, a 
Puritan. 'Tis poffiblc, That our Lord jefus 
Chrift carried fome Thoufandsof Reformers into 
the Retirements of an American Defart, on pur- 
pofe, that, with an opportunity granted unto 
many cf his Faithful Servants, to enjoy the pre- 
cious Liberty of their Mini fry, tho' in the mid fe 
of many Temptations all their slays, He might 
there, To them firft, and then By them, gives 
Specimen of many Good Things, which Fie would 
have His Churches elfewheie afpire and arife 
unto : And This being done, He knows not whe- 
ther there be not A'l cone, that New England 
was planted for-, and whether the Plantation 
may not, foon afrer this, Come to Nothing. 


A General Introduction. 

Upon that ExpreQIon in the Sacred Scripture,- 
Caft the unprofitable Servant into Outer Darknefs, 
it hath been imagined by fome, That the Pept- 
ones Extern of America, are the Teuebrx Exteri 
ores, which the Unprofitable are there condemned 
Onto. No doubt, the Authors of thofe Ecclefi- 
altical Impofitions and Severities, which drove 
the Englifh Chriftians into the Dark Regions of 
America, efteemed thofe Chrifiians to be a very 
unprofitable iort of Creatures. But behold, ye i 
European Churches, There are Golden Candle/licks \ 
tmove than twice Seven times Seven!~] in the | 
mid ft of this Outer Darknejs ; Unto the upright 
Children of Abraham, here hath arifen Light in 
P ufs. And let us humbly fpeak it, it fhall 
be Profitable for you to confider the Light, which 
from the midft of this Outer Darknefs, is now to 
be Darted over unto the other fide of the Atlan- 
tick Ocean. But we muft therewithal ask your 
Prayers, that thefe Golden Candle/licks may not 
quickly be Removed out of their place ! 

§. 4. But whether New England may Live any 
where elfe or no, ic muft Live in our Hi/lory ! 

HISTORY, in general, hath had fo many 
and mighty Commendations from the Pens of 
thofe Numberlefs Authors, who, from Herodotus 
to Howtl, have been the profelfed Writers of it, 
that x tenth part of them Tranfcribed^ would be 
a Furniture tor a Polyanthea in Folio. We, that 
have neither liberty, nor occafion, to quote thofe 
Commendations of Hifiory , will content our 
felves with the Opinion of one who was not 
much of a profefd Hifiorian, expreffed in that 
paffage, whereto all Mankind fubferibe, Hifioria 
eft Tefivs temporum, Nuntia vetuflat'vs, Luxveri- 
tat'vs, vita memorise, magifira vit.t. But of all 
Hifiory it muft be confeffed, that the Palm is to 
be given unto Church Hifiory ; wherein the Dig- 
nity, the Suavity, and xhzVtility of the Subjecl is 
tranfeendent. 1 obferve,that for the Defcription 
of the whole World in the Book of Genefis, that 
Firfl-born of all Hifiorians, the great Mofes, im- 
plies but one or two Chapters, whereas he im- 
plies, it may be feven times as many Chapters, 
in defcribing that one little Pavilion, The Taber- 
nacle \nd when I am thinking, what may be 
the I ■'.. tfon of this Difference, methinks it inti- 
mates unto us, That the Church wherein the Ser- 
vice of God is performed, is much more Precious 
than the World, which was indeed created for 
the Sake and life of the Church. 'Tis very cer- 
tain, that the greateft Entertainments muft 
needs occur in the Hiftory of the People, whom 
the Son of God hath Redeemed and Purified unto 
hirilfelf, as a Peculiar People, and whom the Spirit 
of God, by Supernatural Operations upon their 
Minds, does caufe to live like Strangers \\\thvs 
World, conforming themfelves unto the Truths 
and Rules of his Holy Word, in Expectation of a 
Kingdom, whereto they fhall be in another and a 
better World advanced. Such a People our Lord 
Jefus Chrift hath procured and preferved in all 
Ages vifible ; and the Difpenfations of his jvom- 
Jbnus Providence towards this People (for, O 

Lord, thou do'fl lift them np, and ca(t them down .') 
their Calamities,their Deliverances, the Difpofi- 
tions which they have ftill discovered, and the 
confiderable Per funs and Ailions found among 
them, cannot but afford Matters of Admiration 
and Admonition, above what any other Story 
can pretend unto : 'Tis nothing but Atheifm in 
the Hearts of Men, that can perfwade them 
otherwife. Let any Perfon of good Senfe perufe 
the Hiftory of Herodotus, which, like a River 
taking Rife, where the Sacred Records of the Old 
Teftamerit leave off, runs along fmoothly and 
fweetly, with Relations that fometimes perhaps 
want an Apology, down until the Grecians drive 
the Pcrfians betore them. Let him then perufe 
Thucydides, who from Ailing betook himfelf to 
Writings and carries the ancient State of the 
Grecians, down to the twenty firft Year of the 
Feloponncfian Wars in a manner, which Cafaubon 
judges to be Aiirandum potius quam imitandum. 
Let him next Revolve Xensphon , that Bee of 
Athens, who continues a Narrative of the 
Greek Affairs, from the Peloponnefian Wars, to the 
Battle of Mantinea, and gives us a Cyrus into the 
bargain, at filch a rate, that Lipftus reckons the 
Character oizSuavi, Fidus & Circumfpedus 
Scriptor, to belong unto him. Let him from 
hence proceed unto Dwdorus Siculus, who,befides 
a rich Treafure of Egyptian, Afiyrian. Lybian and 
Grecian, and other Antiquities, in a Phrafe,which 
according to Pbotius's Judgment , is <><>{«,* 
[j-tthtra, "jrffTKs-ii, of all mofi becoming an Hifiorian 
carries on the Thread begun by his Predeceffors| 
until the End of the Hundred and nineteenth 
Olympiad; and where he is defective, let it be 
fupplied from Arianus, from Juftin, and from 
Curtius, who in the relifh of Colerus is, Quovvi 
me'de dulcior. Let him hereupon confult Polybius 
and acquaint himfelf with the Birth and Growth 
of the Roman Empire, as far as 'tis defcribed, in 
Five of the Forty Books compofed by an Author 
who with a Learned Profcffor of Hifiory is, Prti- 
dens Scriptor, ft quvs alius. Let him now run over 
the Table of the Roman Affairs, compendioufly 
given by Lucius Floras, and then let him confider 
the Tranfactions of above three hundred Years 
reported by Dionyftus Halicarnajfjus, who, if the 
Cenfure of Bodin may be taken, Gr^cos omnes & 
Latinos fuperafje videatur. Let him from hence 
pafs to Livy, of whom the famous Critick fays 
Hoc folum ingenium (de Hifionch Loquor) populus 
Romanus par lmperio fuo habuit, and fuppiy thofe 
of his Decads that are loft, from the beft Frag- 
ments of Antiquity, in others (and efpecially 
Dion and Saluft) that lead us on ftill further in 
our way. Let him then proceed unto the Wri- 
ters of the Cefarean times, and firft revolve Sue- 
tonius, then Tacitus, then Herodian, then a whole 
Army more of Hifiorians, which now crowd into 
our Library, and unto all the reft, let him no£ 
fail of adding the Incomparable Plutarch, whofe 
Books they fay, Theodori Gaza preferred above 
any in the World, next unto the Infpired Ora- 
cles of the Bible : But if the Number be ftill too 
little to fatisfie an Hijlorkal Appetite, let him add 
C 2 Tolyhifict 

A General Introduction. 

Polyhiftor unto the number, and all the Chronicles 
of the following Ages. After all, he mult fen- 
fibly acknowledge, that the two fhort Books of 
Eccleftaftical Hiftory, written by the Evangelifl 
Luke, hath given us more glorious Entertainments, 
than all thefe voluminous Hiftorians if they 
were put all together. The Achievements of 
one Paul particularly, which that Evangelift 
hath Emblaz.on'd, have more True Glory in them, 
than all the Afts of thofe Execrable Plunderers 
and Murderers, and irrefiftible Banditti of the 
World, which have been dignified with the 
Name of Conquerors. Tacitus counted Ingentia 
bella, Expugnationes urbium, fufos captofquc Reges, 
the Ravages of War, and the glorious Violences, 
whereof great Warriors make a wretched Often- 
tarion, to be the Noble ft Matte* fox an Hiftorian. 
But there is a Nobler, 1 humbly conceive, in the 
planting and forming cf Evangelical Churches, 
and the Temptations* the Corruptions, the Affiiclt- 
ons, which affauk them , and their Salvations 
from thofe Aflaults, and the Exemplary Lives of 
thofe that Heaven employs to be Patterns of 
Holinefs and Vfefulncfs noon Earth : And unto 
filch it is, that 1 now invite my Readers ; Things, 
in comparifon whereof, the Subjects of many 
other Hiftories, are of as little weight, as the 
Queftions about Z, the laft Letter of our Alpha- 
bet, and whether H is to be pronounced with an 
Afpiration, where about whole Volumes have 
been written, and of no more Account, than 
the Compofure of Didymus. But for the manner 
of my treating this Matter, I muffc now give 
fome account unto him. 

§. ^ Reader ! I have done the part of an Im- 
partial Hiftorian, albeit not without all occafjon 
perhaps, for the Rule which a worthy Writer, 
in his Hijiorica, gives to every Reader, Hijiorki 
Legantur cum Moderatione & venia, & cogitctur 
fieri nen pofjc itt in omnibus circumftantiis fmt 
Lymei. Polybius complains of thofe Hijlorians, 
who always made either the Carthagenians brave, 
and the Romans bafe, or e contra, in all their 
A&ions, as their Affection for their own Party 
led them. I have eadeavoured, with all good 
Conscience, to decline this writing meerly for a 
Party, or doing like the Dealer in Hiftory, 
whom Lucian derides, for always calling the 
Captain of his own Party an schittes, but of the 
adverfe Party a Therfites : Nor have I added 
unto the juft Provocations for the Complaint 
made by the Baron Mauricr, That the greatejl 
part of Hiftories are but fo many Panegyricks com- 
jofed by Jntcrcfted Hinds, which elevate Iniquity 
to the Heavens, like Paterculus, and like Machi- 
avel, who propofe Tiberius Cefar, and Cefar fior- 
gia, as Examples fit for Imitation, whereas True 
Hiftory would have Exhibited them as Horrid 
Monfters. as very Devils. 'Tis tiue, I am not of 
the Opinion, that one cannot merit the Name 
of an Impartial Hiftorian, except he write bare 
Matters of I- ail, without all Reflettion ; for I can 
tell where to find this given as the Definition cf 
Hiftory, Hiftoria eft rerum geftarum, cum laud* 

nut vituperatime, Narratio: And if I am not 
altogether a Tacitus, when Vertues or Vices oc- 
cur to be Matters of Reflection, as well as of Re- 
lation, 1 will, for my Vindication, appeal to Ta- 
citus himfelf, whom Lip/ins calls one of the Pru- 
denteft (tho* Tertullian, long before, counts him 
the Lyingeft) of them who have Inriched the 
World with Hiftory .• He lays, Pr-'cipuum nnmus 
Annalium reor, ne virtutes fileantur , utque pravis 
Diclis,Faclifque ex pofteritate & Infamiametus fit. 
I have not Commended any Perfon, but when I 
have really judg'd, not only Tiwt he Dtferved it, 
but alfo that it would be a Benefit unto Pofte- 
rity to know, Wherein he deferved it: And my 
Judgment of Dcfert, hath not been Biaffed, by 
Perfons being of my own particular Judgment 
in matters of Difputation, among the Churches of 
God. I have been a^, willing to wear the Name 
of Simplicius Verimts, throughout my whole un- 
dertaking, as he that, before me, hath affumed 
it : Nor am I like Pope Zacbary^ impatient fo 
much as to hear of any Antipodes. The Spirit 
of a Schluffelbcrgius, who falls foul with Fury and 
Reproach on all who differ from him ; The Spiric 
of an Heylin, who feems to count no Obloquy 
too hard for a Reformer ; and the Spirit of thofe 
(Folio-writers there are, fome of them, in the En- 
glifh Nation !) whom a Noble Hiftorian Stigma- 
tizes, as, Thofe Hot-headed, Pajfionate Bigots, from 
whom, 'tis enough, if you be of a Keligion contrary 
unto theirs, to be defamed, condemned and purfued 
with a thoufand Calumnies. I thank Heaven I 
Hate it with all my Heart. But how can the 
Lives of the Commendable be written without 
Commending them ? Or, is that Law of Hiftory 
given in one of the eminenteft pieces of Anti- 
quity we now have in our hands, wholly anti- 
quated, Maxime proprium efl Hiftoria, Lav.dem 
rerum egregie geftarum pcrfequi F Nor have I, on 
the other fide, forbore to mention manv Cenfit- 
rable things, even in the Belt of my Friends, 
when the things, in my opinion, were not Good ; 
or fo bore away for Placentia, in the courfe of 
our Story, as to pafs by Verona • but been mind- 
ful of the Direction which Polybius gives to the 
Hiftorian, It becomes him that writes an thftory, 
fometimes to extol Enemies in his Praifes, when their 
praife- worthy Ailions befpeak it, and at the fame 
time to reprove the bed Friends, when their Deeds 
appear worthy of a reproof; in- as much as Hiftory is 
good for nothing, if Truth (which is the very Eye of 
the Animal) be not in it. 1 ndeed I have thought it 
my duty upon all accounts, (and it it have pro- 
ceeded unto the degree of a Fault, there is, it 
may be, fomething in my Temper and Nature,that 
has betray'd me therein) to be more fparing and 
ealie, in thus mentioning of Cenfurable things, 
than in my other Liberty ; A writer of Cburcb- 
Hiftory, fhould, 1 know, belike the builder of the 
Temple, one of the Tribe of Naphthali ; and for 
this 1 will alfo plead my Polybius in myExcufe; 
It is not the Work of an Hiftorian, to commemorate 
the Vices and ViUanies of Men, fo much as their 
juft, their fair, their honcft Atlions : And the Rea- 
ders of Hiftory get more good by the Ob]eSs of their 


A General Introduction. 

Emulation, than of their Indignation. Nor do I 
deny, that tho' 1 cannot approve the Conduct bf 
fofephus, (whom Jerom not unjuftly nor ineptly 
calls, The Greek Liny) when he left out of his An- 
tiquities, the Story of the Golden Calf, and I don't 
wonder to find Chamier, and Rivet, and others, | 
taxing him for his Partiality towards his Coun- 
try-men •, yet 1 have left nnmentioned fome Cen- 
furable Occurrences in the Story of our Colonies, as 
things no tefiVnufeful than Improper to be raifed 
out of the Grave, wherein Oblivion hath now 
buried them ; left I fhould have incurred the Paf- 
quil beftowed upon Pope Vrban, who employing 
a Committee to Rip up the Old Errors of his Pre- 
deceflbrs, one clap'd a pair of Spurs upon the 
heels of the Statue of St. Peter ■ and a Label 
from the Statue of St. Paul oppol'ite thereunto, 
upon the Bridge, ask'd him, Whither he was bound ? 
St. Peter anfwered, / apprehend form Danger in 
flaying here ; I fear they'll call me in Queftion for 
denying my Mafter. And St. Paul replied, Nay, 
then 1 had be ft be gone too, for they'll quejlion me 
alfo, for Per feinting the Chriflians before my Con 
vcrfiun. Briefly, My Pen mall Reproach none, 
that can give a Good Word unco any Good 
Man that is not of their own Faction, and fhall 
Fall out with none, but thofe that can Agree 
with no body elfe, except thole of their own 
Schifm. If I draw any fort of Men with Charcoaf 
it fhall be, becaufe 1 remember a notable paffage 
of the Beft Queen that ever was in the World, 
our late Queen Mary. Monfieur Juvien, that he 
might Juftifie the Reformation in Scotland, made 
a very black Reprefentation of their old Queen 
Alary ; for which, a certain Sycophant would 
1 ive incenfed our Queen Mary againffc that Reve- 
rend Perfon, faying, Is it not a Shame that this 
Man, without any Confideration for your Royal Per- 
fon, /he ' ! ire to throw fucb Infamous Calumnies 
■upon a Que;:, from whom your Roy il Highncfs is 
defcended? But that Excellent Princefs replied, 
No, not at all ; Is it not enough that by fulfome 
Praifes great Per Jons be lulled afleep all their Lives ; 
But mufl Flattery accompany them to their very 
Graves ? How fhould they fear the Judgment of 
Vofterity, if I ljiorians be not allowed to fpeak the 
Truth after their Death? But whether 1 do my 
ielf Commend, or whether I give my Reader an 
opportunity to Cmfure, I am careful above all 
things to do it with Truth ■, and as I haveconfi- 
dered the words of Flato, Dtum indigne &gra- 
viter ferrc, cum quis et fimilem hoc eft, virtute pra- 
ftantem, vimperet, aut laudei contrarium : So I 
have had the Ninth Commandment of a greater 
Law-giver than Plato, to preferve my care of 
Truth from fir ft to lail. If any Miftake have 
been any where committed, it will be found 
meerly Circumftantial, and wholly Involuntary, 
and let it be rcmembred, that tho' no Hiflorian 
ever merited better than the Incomparable Thua- 
nus, yet learned Men have faid ot his Work, 
what they never fhall truly fay of ours, that it 
contains multafalfifjima & indigna. 1 find Eraf- 
ntut bimfelf miftaking One Man for Two, when 
writing of the Ancients. And even our own 

Englifti Writers too are often miftaken, and in 
Matters of a very late Importance, as Baker, and 
Heylin, and Fuller, (profeffed Hiftorians) tell us, 
that Richard Sutton, a fingle Man, founded the 
Charter- Honfe i whereas his Name was Thomas, 
and he was a married Man. I think I can Recite 
fuch Miilakes, it may be Sans Number occurring 
in the rnoft credible Writers; yet I hope I fhall 
commit none fuch. But altho' 1 thus challenge, as 
my due, the Character of an Impartial, I doubt I 
may not challenge That of an Elegant Hiflorian. 
I cannot fay, whether the Style, wherein this 
Church- Hi flory is written, will pleafe the Modern 
Critichs: But if 1 feem to have ufed a^araT" 
cwTci'i ypapk, a Simple, Submifs, Humble Style, 
'tis the fame that Euft bius affirms to have been 
ufed by Hegefippw, who, as far as weundcrftand 
was the firit Author (after Luke') that evercom- 
pofed an entire Body of Fcclcfiaftical Hiftorv, 
which he divided into Five Books, and Entitled 
v'woy.v'ifj.ATo. $j ix.K*.HG tax mav ^(A^tav. W hereas others 
it may be, will reckon the Sfy/eEmbellifhed with 
too much of Ornament, by the multiplied Refe- 
rences to other and former Concerns, clofely 
coucfi'd, tor the Obfervation of the Attentive, in 
almoft every Paragraph ; but I mult confefs, 
that I am of his mind who faid, Sicuti fdl nwdice 
cibis afperfus Condit,& gratiam faporis addit, itafi 
pa-alum Antiquitatis admifcueris,Ofatiofit venuftior. 
And 1 have feldom feen that Way of Writing 
faulted, but by thofe, who, for a certain odd 
Reafon, fometimes find fault, That the Grapes are 
not ripe. Thefe Embellifhmcnts (of which yet I 
only -'Teniam pro laude peto) are not the puerile 
Spoils oiPolyanthea\ , but I mould have afferted 
them to be as choice Flowers as rnoft that occur 
in Ancient or Modern Writings, almoft una- 

voidably putting themfelves into the Authors 
Hand, while about his Work, if thofe words of 
Ambrofe had not a little frighted me, as well as 
they did Batonius, Vnumquemque Fallunt fua 
fcripta I obfervc that Learned Men have been fo 
terrified by the Reproaches of Pedantry, which 
little Smatterers at Reading and Learning have, 
by their Quoting Humours brought upon them- 
felves, that, for to avoid all Approaches towards 
that which thofe Feeble Creatures have gone to 
imitate, the belt way of Writing has been rnoft 
hijurioufly deferred. But what fhall we fay ? The 
Beft way of Writing, under Heaven, fhall be the 
Worft, when Erafmus his Monofy liable Tyrant 
will have it fo ! And if I fhould have refignM 
my felf wholly to the Judgment of otbers,Wbat 
way of Writing to have taken, the Story of the 
two Statues made by Policletus tells me, what 
may have been the I flue: He contrived one of 
them according to the Rules that beft pleafed 
himfelf, and the other according to the Fancy 
of every one that look'd upon his Work : The 
former was afterwards Applauded by all, and 
the latter Derided by thofe very Perfons who 
had given their Directions for it. As for fuch 
Vnaccuracies as the Critical may difcover, Opere 
in longo, 1 appeal to the Courteous, for a favour- 
able Conftruction of them ; and certainly they 


A General Introduction. 

will be favourably Judged of, when there is con- 
sidered the Variety of my other Employments , 
which have kept me in continual Hurries, I had 
alraofr faid,like thofe of the Ninth Sphere, for the 
few Months in which this Work has been Di- 
gefiwg. It was a thing well thought, by the wife 
Def!giK r s of Chelfey- Cotledge, wherein able Hiflo- 
rians were one fort of Perlons to be maintained ; 
Tha' the Romanics do in one Point condemn 
the ! roteftants •, for among the Romanifts,they 
do' : burden their Profeffors with any Parochial 
Ix-'imbrance..' ; but among the Protejlants, the 
v. y fame Individual Man mnft Preacb,Catecbiz.e, 
Adminifter the Sacraments, Vifit the Aflii&ed, 
; A manage all the parts of Church-Difcipline • 
; id if any Pools lor the Service of Religion, be 
written, ' Perfons thus extreamly incumbred mull 
be the Writers. Now,of all the Churches under 
Heaven, there ate none that expect lb much Va- 
riety of Service from their Pallors, as thofe of 
New.* England \ and of all the Churches in New- 
England, there are none that require moi e, than 
thote in Boflon, the Metro pel is of the Englilh 
Arrcrica; wheieof one is, by the Lord Jefus 
Chriit,commitced unto the Care of the unworthy 
Hand,by which this liiflory is compiled. Reader, 
Give me leave humbly to mention, with him in 
Tally, Antcquam de Re, Pauca de h\e\ Conftant 
Sermons, ufually more than once, and perhaps 
three or four times, in a Week, and all the other 
Duties of a Pafloral Watcbfulnefs, a very large 
Flock has all this while demanded of me ; wherein, 
if I had been furnifhed with as many Heads as a 
Typbeus, as many Eyes as an Argos, and as many 
Elands as a Briareus, I might have had Work 
enough to have employed them all ; nor hath my 
Station left me free from Obligations to fpend 
very much time in the Evangelical Service of 
others aifo. It would have been a great Sin in 
me, to have Omitted, or Abated, my Juft Cares, 
to fulfil my Miniftry in thtfe things, and in a man- 
ner Give my [elf wholly to them. All the time I 
had for my Church- tliflory hath heen per- 
haps only, cr chiefly, that, which I might have 
taken elfe for lefs profitable Recreations; and it 
hath all been done by Snatches. My Reader will 
not find me the Pcrfon intended in his Littany, 
when he fays, Libera me ah homine imius Ncgotis 
Nor have 1 fpent Tlnrty Tears in fhaping this my 
Miflory, as Diodorus Siculus did for his, f_and 
yet both Bodinus and Sigonius complain of the 
2?*A/*aV attending it.] But I wilh 1 could have 
enjoy'd entirely for this Work,one quarter of the 
little mors than Tiro Tears which have roll'd 
away fince 1 began it ; whereas I have been 
forced fometimes wholly to throw by the Work 
whole Months together, and then refume it, but 
by a ftolen hour or two in a day, not without 
fome hazard of incurring the Title which Coryat 
put upon his Hiftory of his Travels, Cruditks 
hastily gobbled up in five Months. Protogcnes being 
feven Years in drawing a Picture, Apelles upon 
the fight of it, faid, The Grace of the Work mas 
much allay'd by the length of the Time. Whatever 
eWe the: e may have been to take off the Grace ofl 

the Work, now in the Readers hands,(whereoftb8 
Pittures of Great and Good Men make aconft- 
derable part) I am fure there hath not b.-en the 
length of the Time to do it. Our Englifh Martyro- 
loger, counted it a fufficient Apology, for what 
Meannefs might be found in the firlt Edition o* 
his Ads and Monuments, that it was hafiily rafhei 
up in about fourteen Months- And I may Apolo- 
gize for this Collection of our ACts and Monu- 
ments, that I ihould have been glad, in the little 
more than Two Tears which have ran out, ftnee i 
enter'dupon it, ill could have had one half o! 
About fourteen A-onths to have entirely devoted 
thereunto. But befides thzTime, which the Daih 
Services of my own firlt, and then many oth'e" 
Churches, have necefiarily call'd for, 1 have lof: 
abundance of precious Time, thro' the feeble and 
broken State of my Health, which hath unfitted 
me lor Hard Study, I csn do nothing to purpoft 
at Lucubrations. And yet, in this Tune alfo of the 
two or three Years laft pall, 1 have not been ex- 
cufed from the further Diverfion of Publffiiig 
(tho' not fo many as they fay Mercurita Tnfrrx- 
gifnts did, yet) more than aScor' cf other £<»ks t 
upon a copious Variety of other Subjects, be:. ... ..' 

the composing of fevcral more, that are not yet 
publifhed. Nor is this neither all the Task that I 
have in this while bad lying upon me ; for (tfetf 
1 am very fenfible of what Jerom faid, NmhaH 
jit, quod occupato Ammo fit ; and of Quintili&tfs 
Remark, Am fimul in multa intendere Animas 
totum poteft-f) when I applied my mind unto tfe 
wayofferving the Lord JESUS CHRIST 
in my Generation, I fet upon another and a 
greater, which has had, 1 fuppofe, more of aw 
Thought and Hope than this, and wherein there 
hath paffed me, for the moftpart, Nulla dies fine 
linea. I coniidered, That all fort of [.earning 
might be made glorioufly Subfervient unto the 
Illuflration of the Sacnd Scripture ; and that so 
proftfjed Commentaries had hitherto given a thoa- 
fandth part of fo much Illuflration unto it, as 
might be given. I confidered,that Multitudes of 
particular Texts, had, efpxially of later Years, 
been more notably Jllujlrated in the Scattered 
Pooks of Learned Men, than in any of the Ordi- 
nary Commentators. And I confider'd, That the 
Treafurcs of Illuflration for the Bible, difperfeil in 
many hundred Volumes, might be fetch'd all 
together by a Labour that would refolve to Con- 
quer all things ■, and that all the Improvamnts 
which the Later-ages have made in the Scier,tes t 
might be alfo, with an inexprelhble Pleafire, 
call'd in, to Chrift the Illuflration of the Holy 
Oracles, at a Rate that hath not been attempted 
in the vulgar Annotations • and that a common 
degree of Senfe,v/oM help a Perfon, who fhould 
converfe much with thefe things, to attempt 
fometimes alfo an Illuflration of his own, which 
might expect fome Attention. Certainly, it will 
not be ungrateful unto good Men, to have in- 
numerable Antiquities, Jewifh, Chaldee, Arabian, 
Grecian and Roman, brought home unto us, with 
a Sweet Light Reflected from them on the Word > 
which is our Light .- Or, To have all the Typical 


A General Introduction. 

Men and things in our Book ofMyfleries, accom- 
modated with their Antitypes: Or, To have 

WITH M E. My Reader fees, why I com- 
mit the Fault of a -zrsp/aoTi*, which appears in 

many Hundreds of References to our dearefldthe mention of thefe Minute- parages ; 'tis to 

LordMrffub, difcovered in the Writings which 
Teftifie of Him, oft ncr than the moft of Man- 
kind have hitherto imagined : Or, To have the 
iiiftbries of all Ages, coming in with punctual 

excufe whatever other Fault of Inaccuracy, or 
Inadvertency, may be difcovered in an Hiftory, 
which hath been a fort of Rapfody made up 
(like the Paper whereon 'tis written !) with 

and furprifingFw/pWmejjfj of the Div-inePropbeciet, many little Rags, tovn from an Employment, 
as far as they have been hitherto fulfilled; and : multifarious enough to overwhelm one of my 
not meer ConjeStires, but even Mathematical and fmall Capacities. 
Inconteftable Dem ns, given of Expofititms 

offered upon the Pro <<\!bat yet remain to 
be accomplifhed : Or, To have in One Heap, 
Thovfands of thote Remark .. Difco eries af the 
deep things of the Spirit of ( od, whei eof one or two, 
or a few, fometimes, ha\ e been,with good Succcfs 
accounted Matei i; ' ■ a Perfon 

into Autborifm; 01 I ' the delicious Curio* 
fitses of Grotius, ai I and Light- 

foot, and Scldeu, and Spencer ' ly felefted 

and corrected) and many more ii tnts in Know- 
ledge, all fet upon '.■ne Table, rsteiius, 
That at Florence there is a rich Table, worth a 
thoufanJ Crowns. m r!e of Pre< tes neatly 
inlaid ; a Table thai -. i fifteen Years in making, 
with no lefs than thin upon 
it; even fuch a Tabl i afford fa rich 
Entertainments, as one ttut fhould have the 
Soui-feafting Thoughts ef thole Learned Men 
together fet upon it. Only 'tis pitty, that in- 
ftead of one poor fceb titan, over.vbelm'd 
with a thoufand Other Cares, and capable of 
touching this Work no other wife than in a Di- 
greffion, there be no: more than Thirty Men 
daily employ'd about it. Foi\when the excellent 
Mr. Fool had finifhed his Laborious and Immor- 
tal Task, it was noted by ibme considerable Per- 
fons, That wanting slffiftance lo Colktl for him 
many mifcellaneous Criticifms, occaftonally fcattered 
in other Authors, be left many better- Things behind 
hi m than he found. At more /than all this, our 
Ejfay is levell'd, if it be not anticipated with 
that Epitaph, agnis tamen excidit mfis. Defin- 
ing accordingly, to give the Church of God fuch 
difplays of his hie fled Word, as may be more 
Entertaining fortheRai icy and Novelty of them, 
than any that have hitherto been leen together 
, [-xfo'ition-, and yet fuch as may be ac- 

Cable unto the moft Judicious, for the De- 
I'nuh of them, and unto the moft 

■ <■■ ix, for the re:', ird bad 
a; F 

ieaciv n bilge m mber c{ Golden Keys to tip&a 
the/ ndirts of Heawern, and feme thonfands of 
clurr; iag and cut ions and Sngnlar Votes, by the 
New Help wtoereofytle I! 'nrd of CH R 1 S T may 

for theiigirdhad unto the Analogy 
Fut'j in aill, 1 hjvc now, in a few Months, got 

If the Cod of my Lt/e, will 
Cm,' vet Sinful, and 
, Fofeited Life!] as many 

run and be glorified 
pleafe to fparc my 
Slothful, and there 

years longer as "the Bartm Fig-tree bad in the 

Parable, I may m ito the Church of God, 

an humble Tender of r HI B L I A A M E R I- 

CAN A, aVoli h !i'd with better things 

than all the Plate < , YET NOT I, 


Magna dabit, qui magna poteft ; tnibi p.xrva potenti, 
Parvaque pofecnti, p itva dedijfefat eft. 

§.6.Butfhull I prognoftieate thy Fate,now that, 

Parve ( fed invidco) ne me, Liber, ibis in Vrbem. 

Luther, who was himfelf owner of fuch an Heart, 
advifed every Hiftorian to get the Heart of a 
Lion ; and the more 1 eonlider of the Provoca- 
tion, which this our Church Hiftory muft needs 
give to that Roaring Lion, who has, through all 
Ages hitherto, been tearing the Church to 
pieces, the more occafion 1 fee to wifh my felf a 
Caur de Lion. But had not my Heart been Trebly 
Oak'd and Brafs'd for fuch Encounters as this 
our Hiftory may meet withal, I would have 
worn the Silk-worms Motto, Operitw dum Ope- 
ratur, and have chofen to have written Anonym' 
oufly ; or, as Claudius Salnafws calls himfelf 
Halo Mejfalinus, as Ludovtcus Molimus calls him- 
felf Ludiormus Colvinus, as Carolus Scribanius 
calls himfelf Clarus Bonarfcius, (and no lefs Men 
than Peter du Moulin, and Dr. Henry More, ftile 
themfelves, the one Hippolytus Fronto, the other 
Francifcus Paleopolitanus.) Thus I would have 
tried, whether I could not have Anagramma- 
tized my Name into fome Concealment ; or I 
would have referr'd ir to be found in the fecon i 
Chapter of the feconcl Syntagm of Selden de Diis 
Syris. Whereas now I freely confefs,'tisCO T- 
TON MATHER that has written all thefe 

Me^me, adfum qui fcripfi ; in me convert ite Fet rum. 

I hope 'tis aright Wotk that I have done-, but 
we are not yet arrived unto the Day, wherein 
God will bring every Work into Judgment (the Day 
of the Kingdom that was promifed unto David) 
and a Son of David hath as Truly as Wifely 
told us, that until the arrival of that Happy 
Day, this is one of the Vanities attending Hu- 
mane Affairs 5 For a right Work a Man /hall be 
envied of his Neighbour. It will not be fo much 
a Surprife unto me, if I fhould live to fee our 
Church- Hiftory vexed with /hie-mad-ver/jonsoi 
Calumnious Writers, as it would have been 
unto Virgil, to read his Bucolichs reproached by 
the Antibucolica of a Namclefs Scribbler, and his 
•Alneids traveftied by the i/Fneidomaftir of Car- 
bilius -. Or Hercnnius taking pains to make a Col- 
lection of the Faults, and Fauftinm of the Thefts, 
in his incomparable Compofures : Yea. 77/»y,and 


A General Introduction. 

Seneca themfelves, and our Jerom, reproaching 
him, as a Man of no Judgment, nor Skill in Sci- 
ences ; while Padianus affirms of him, that he 
was himfelf, Vfque adeo invidi* Expert, ut [i quid 
erudite diftum infpiceret alterius, non minus gau- 
deret ac ft fuum efftt. How Ihould a Book, no 
better laboured than this of ours, efcape Zoilian 
Outrages, when in all Ages, the molt exquifite 
Works have been as much vilified, as Plato's by 
Scaliger, and Ariflotle\ by Lattantius ? In the 
time of our K. Edward VI. there was an Order 
to bring in all the Teeth of Sr. Apolloma, which 
the People of his one Kingdom carried about 
them for the Cure ot the Tooth acb ; and they 
were fo many, that they almoft fill'd a Tun. 
Truly Envy hath 3s many Teeth as Madam Apol- 
lonia would have had, if all thole pretended Re- 
liques had been really hers. And mult all thefe 
Teeth be faltned on thee, ■> y Book ? It may be 
fo! And yet the Book, when ground between 
thefe Teeth, will prove like Ignatius in the Teeth 
of the furious Tygers, The whiter Mancbet for the 
Churches of Cod. The greateft and fierceft R.3ge 
of En^y, is that which 1 expect from thofe 
IDUM^ANS, whofe Religion is all Cere- 
mony, and whofe Charity is more for them who 
deny the molt Efleiuial things in the Articles 
and Homilies of the Church of England, than 
for the moft Confcientious Men in the World, 
who manifeft their being fo, by their Diflent in 
fome little Ceremony ; Or thofe Perfons whofe 
Hearts are notably exprefled in thofe words 
ufed by one of them C'tis Horvel in his Familiar 
Letters, Vol. i. Seft.6. Lett. 32.3 / rather pit ty, 
than hate, Turk or Infidel, for they are of the fame 
Metal, and hear the fame Stamp, as I do, tbo 1 the 
Infcriptions difftr ; If I hate any, 'tis thofe Schifma- 
ticks that puzzle the fveet Peace of our Church ; fo 
that I could be content to fee an An ah apt if go to Hell 
on a Broxomfs Back. The Writer whom 1 laft 
quoted, hath given - us a Story of a young Man 
in High-Hoibourn, who being after his death Dif- 
fered., there was a Serpenc with divers tails, 
found in the left Ventricle of his Heart. I make 
no queftion, that our Church- Hiftory will find 
fome Reader difpofed like that Writer, with an 
Heart as full of Serpent and Venom as ever it 
can hold : Nor indeed will they be able to hold, 
but the Tongues and Pens of thofe angry Folks, 
will fcourge me as with Scorpions, and caufe me 
to feel ( if 1 will feel ) as many Lafhes as Corne- 
lius Agrippa expected from their Brethren, for 
the Book in which he expofed their Vanities. 
A Scholar of the gieat JUELS, made once 
about fourfcore Verfes, for which the Cenfor of 
Corpus Chrifi t Colledgc in the beginning of Queen 
Maries Reign, publickly and cruelly fcourged 
hrm, with one Lalh for every Verfe. Now in 
thofe Verfes, the young Man's Prayers to the 
Loid JESUS CHRIST, have this for part 
of the anfwer given to them. 

Kefpondet Tominus, fpe&ans de fedibus altis, 
Ne dubites rede credere^ parve pucr. 

Olim fum paffas mortem, nunc occupo dextram 
Fatris, nunc fummi funt mea re£lu f«li. 

Sed tu, crede mibi, vires Scriptura refumet, 
Tolleturque fuo tempore miffa nequam. 

In Englilh. 

The Lord beholding from his Throne, reply'd, 
Doubt not, O Toutb) firmly in me confide •• 
I dy'd long fince, now lit at the Right Hand 
Of my blefs'd Father, and the World command. 
Believe me, Scripture fhall regain her fway, 
And wicked Mafs in due time fade away. 

Reader, I alfo expect nothing but Scourges 
from that Generation, to whom the Mafs'book is 
dearer than the Bible . But I have now likewife 
confefTed another Expectation, that fhall be my 
Confolation under all. They tell us,Thaton the 
higheft of the Capfian Mountains in Spain, there 
is a Lake, whereinto if you throw a Stone, there 
prefently afcends a Smoke, which forms a denfe 
Cloud, from whence ifTues a Tempelt of Raia, 
Hail,and horrid Thunder-daps, for a good quar- 
ter of an hour. Our Church- Hiftcry will be like 
a Stone C3ft into that Lake, for the furious Tem- 
peft which it will raife among fome,whofe Eccle- 
lialtical Dignities have let them, as on the top of 
Spanifli Mountains. TheCatholick Spirit of Com- 
munion wheiewith 'tis written, and the Liberty 
which I have taken, to tax the Schifmatical Im- 
pofitions and Perfecutions of a Party, who have 
always been as real Enemies to the Englilh Na- 
tion, as to the Chriftian and Proteftant Interest, 
will certainly bring upon the whole Compofare, 
the quick Cenfures of that Party, at the firft caft 
of their look upon it. In the Duke of Alvds 
Council of twelve Judges, there was one Heffels a 
Elemming, who flept always at the Trial of Cri- 
minals, and when they wak'd him to deliver his 
Opinion, he rub'd his Eyes, and cry'd, between 
fleeping and waking,^ pattlulum ! ad Patibulum] 
To the Gallows with 'em ! f_And, bytheway, 
this Blade was himfelf, at the laft, condemned 
unto the Gallows, without an Hearing/] As 
quick Cenfures muft tbis our Labour expect from 
thofe who will not beftow waking thoughts upon 
the Reprefentations of Chriftianity here made 
unto the World ■, but have a Sentence of Death 
always to pafs, or at leaft, Wifh, upon thofe 
Generous Principles, without which, 'tis impoffi- 
ble to maintain the Reformation : And I confefs, 
I am very well content, that this our Labour 
takes the Fate of thofe Principles : Nor do 1 dif- 
feut from the words of the Excellent Vyhitaker 
upon Luther, Foelsx ille, quern Dominus eo Honore 
dignatus eft, ut Homines nequijfunos fuos haberet 
inimicos. But if the old Epigrammatift, when 
he faw Guilty Folks raving Mad at his Lines, 
could fay> 

Hoc volo j nunc nobis carmina noftra placent : 

Ceitainly anHiftorian fhould not bedifpleafed 
at it, if the Enemies of Truth difcover their 
Madnefs at the true and free Communications of 
his Hiftory , and therefore the more Stones they 


A General Introduction. 

throw at this Book, there will not only be the 
more Proofs, that ic is a Tree which hath good 
Fruits growing upon \i\ but I will build my fclf 
a Monument with them, whereon (hall be in- 
fcribed, that Claufe in the Epitaph of the Mar- 
tyr Stephen : 

Except Lapides, cut petra Chri(lus erat .- 

Albeit perhaps the Epitaph, which the old 
Monks beftow'd upon W'lckliff, will be rather 
endeavout'd for me, (If J am thought worth one'.) 
by the Men, who wil), with all poffible Monkery, 
ftrive to faveoff the approaching Reformation 
Bat fincc anUndert iking or this Nature,muft 
thus encounter fo much Envy, fiom thofe who 
are under the Power of the Spirit that works in 
the Children of Vnierfwadeablenefs, methinks 1 
might perfwade my ielf, that it will find ano- 
ther fort of Entertainment from thofe Good 
Men who have a better Spirit in them : For, as 
the Apoftle James haMi iwted,(fo with MonOeur 
Claude I read it) The Spirit that vs in us, lufteth 
againfl Envy ; and yet even in us alfo, there will 
be the t'ltfh, among whofe Works, one is fury, 
which will be Lufling againft the Spirit. All 
Good Men will not be latisfied with every thing 
that is here fet before them. In my own Coun- 
try, befides a confiderable number ot loofe and 
vaio Inhabitants rifen up, to whom the Congre- 
gational Church-Difcipline, which cannot Live 
well, where the Power of Godlinefs dyes, is 
become diftaftful for the Purity of it ; there is 
alfo a number of eminently Godiy Perfons, who 
are for a Larger way, and unto theie my Church- 
Hiftory will give diftaft, by the things which 
it miy happen to utter,in favour of that Church- 
Difcipline on fome few oci aiions ; and the Dif- 
coveries which 1 may happen to make of my 
Apprehenfions, that Scripture, and Reafon, and 
Antiquity is fot ic ; and chat it is not far from 
a glorious Refurredtion. Bat that,as the Famous 
Mr. Baxter, after Thirty or Forty Years hard 
Study, about the true [nftituted Church-Difci 
pline, at la ft, not only own'd, but alfo invin- 
cibly prov'dj That it is The Congregational ; fo, 
The further that the Unprejudiced Studies of 
Learned Men proceed in this Matter, the more 
generally the Congregational Church-Difcipline 
will be pronounceu for. On the other tide, 
There are fome among us, who very ftrictly 
profefs the Congregationd Church-Difcipline, but 
at the fame time they have an unhappy Narrow- 
nefsof Soul, by which ihey confine their value 
and Kindnefs too much unto their own Party •, 
and onto thofe my Church Hiftory will be offen- 
five, becaufe my Rega r d unto our own declared 
Principles, does not hinder me from giving the 
Right hand of Fellow (hip unto the valuable Ser 
vants of the Lord Jefus Chi ift, who find not our 
Church-Difcipline as yet agreeable unto their 
prefent Underftandings and Illuminations. If it 
be thus in my own Country, ic cannot be other- 
wife in That wheieio 1 fend this account of my 
own. Briefly, as it hath beenfaid, That if all 

Epifcopal Men were like Archbifhopl^e?', and 
all Presbyterians like Stephen Aiarflial, and all In- 
dependents like Jeretntah Burroughs, the Wounds 
of the Church would foon be healed ; my Effay 
to carry that Spirit through this whole Church- 
Hiftory, will befpeak Wounds for it, from thofe 
that are of another Spirit. And there will alfo 
be in every Country thofe Good Men, who yet 
have not had the Grace of Chrift fo far prevail- 
ing in them, as utterly to diveft them of that 
piece of 111 Nature which the Comedian refents, 
In bomine Imperito, quo nil quicquam Injuftius quia 
mfi quod ipfe facit, nil re{fe fa&um putat. 

However, All th.efe things, and an hundred 
more fuch things which 1 think of, sre very 
fmali Difcouragements for fuch a Service as I 
have here endeavoured. I forefee a Recompence, 
which will abundantly fwallow up all Difcomage- 
ments ! It may be Stratn the Philofopher counted 
himfclf well recompenfed for his Labours, when 
Ptolomy beftow'd fouifcorc Talents on him. It 
may be Anhimelus the t'oet counted him ielf well 
recompenfed, when Hiero fent him a thoufand 
Bufhels of Wh»at for one little Epigram : And 
Saleius the Poet might count himfelf well recom- 
penfed, when Vefpaftan fent him twelve thou- 
sand and five hundred Philippicks ; and Oppian 
the Poet might count himfelf well recompenfed, 
when Caracalla fent him a piece of Geld for 
every Line that he had inferibed unto him. As I 
live in a Country where fuch Recompences never 
were in fafhion-, it hath no Preferments forme, 
and I fhall count that I am well Rewarded in' it, 
if I can efcape without being heavily Reproached, 
Cenfured and Condemned, for what I have done : 
So I thank the Lord, I fbould exceedingly Scorn 
ail fuch mean Confiderations, I feek not out for 
Benefactors, to whom tbefe Labours may be 
Dedicated .• There is ONE to whom all is due ! 
From Him I (hall have a Recompence : And 
what Recompence ? The Recompence, whereof 
I do, with inexpreffibie Joy, allure my felf, is 
this, That thefe my poor Labours will certainly 
ferve the Churches and Inter efts of the Lord 
Chrift. And I think I may fay, That 1 ask to 
live no longer, than I count a Sei - the 

Lord Jefus Chrift, and his Churches, to be it 
felf a glorious Recompence for the doing of it. 
When David was contriving to boild the Houfe 
of God, there was that order given from Hea- 
ven concerning him, Co tell D Servant. 
The adding of that mo:e than Royal Title unto 
the Name of David, was a fufneient F.eeompence 
for all his Contrivance about, the Houfe of God. 
In our whole Church- Hifloy , we have been at 
work for the Houfe of the Lord Jefus Chrift, 
r_Even that Man who is the Lord God, and 
whofe Fo»-w feems on that occafion reprcfented 
unto His David~] And herein 'tis Recompence 
enough, that I have been a Servant unto that 
heavenly Lord. The greateft Honour, and the 
fweeceft Fleafure, out of Heaven, is to Serve 
our Uluftrious Lord JESUS CHRIST, who 
hath loved us, and given himfelf for us ; and unto 
whom it is infinitely reafonable that we fhould 
D give 

A General IntroduBim. 

give mr (elves, and all that we have and Are . 
And h may be the Angels in Heaven too, afpire 
not after an higher Felicity. 

Vstto thee^ therefore, O thou Son of God, and 
King &f Heaven, and Lard of all things, whom all 
the Glorious Angels of Light, unfpeakably love to 
Gtorifie^ I humbly offer up a poor Hijlory of 
Churehes, which own thee alone for their Head, and 
Prince, and Law-giver ; Churches which thou haft 
^wrdsas'd with thy awn Blood, and with wonderful 

Difpenfations of thy Providence hitherto proteihi 
and prefcrved ; and of a People which thou didfe 
Form for thy ftlf, to /hew Jorth thy Praifes. J blejs 
thy great Name^ for thy inclining of me to, and 
carrying of me through, the Work of this Hijlory - 
/ pray thee tofprinkle the Book, of this Hijlory witUe 
thy Blood, and make it acceptable and profitabk 
unto thy Churches, and ferve thy Truths and Ways 
among thy People, by that which thou haft hen pre- 
pared ; for *tis THOU that haft prepared it fat 
them. Amen. 

Said (mm? Nil. Quisftm? NuUus. SedGwUCHRlSTL 

Qmi fum^ quod Vivo, quodque Lab<?ro y f&cit. 



General Introduction , giving an Account of the 
whole enfuing Work. 

The Firft Book, Entituled, A N T I QU I T I £ S. 

It reports the Defign where-tw, the Manner where-/», and 
the People where-ty, the feveral Colonies of New- 
England were planted. And fo it prepares a Field for 
confuterable things to be afted thereupon. 

The Introduction. 

Chap. I. Vesifti tandem t Or, Dilcoveries of Amend, 
tendirg to, and ending, in, Dilcoveries of New- England. 

Cbap.IL trmordh. Or, The Voyage to New-EngUnd, 
which produced the firft Settlement of Sew-Piy mouth; 
with an Account of many Remarkable and Memorable 
Providences, relating tu that Voyage. 

Chap. III. Conamur Temtet GrondU. Or, A Brief Account 
OttheDificulties,tUe Deliverances, andi other Occurrences, 
through which the Plantation of New- Plymouth, arrived 
unto the Confiftencv of a Colony. 

Chap. IV. Paulo Major a ! Or,The Ejfays and Cattfes, which 
produced the Second, but largeft, Colony of Nero-En- 
gland; and the Manner wherein the Firft Church of this 
New Colony was gathered; 

Chap. V. Peregrini Deo Curie. Or, The Progrels of the 
New Colony ; with fome Account of the Perfons, the 
Methods ,and the Troubles, by which it came to Something. 

Chap. VI. Qui trans mare Currunt. Or, The Addition of 
feveral other Colonies to the former ; with fome Confi- 
derables, in the Condition of thefe later Colonies. 

Chap. VII. Hccatompolu. Or, A Held tvhicb the Lord hath 
Bleffed. An Ecdeiiaftical M A P of New- England. 
With Remarks upon it. 


The Boftonian Ehene^er. Or, Some Hiftorical Remarks on 
the State of Bofion, the Chief Town ot Nets-England, 
and of the Englifh America. 

The Second Book, Entituled, 

E C C L E S I A R U M C L Y P E I. 

It contains the Lives of the Governours, and the Names of 
the Magijhites , that ha\ e been Shields unto the 
Churches of New-England. 

The Introduction. 
Chap. T. Galeacius Sscundus. The Life of William Brad- 
ford, Efq-, Governour of Plymouth Colony. 
Chap. II. SuccelTors. 

Chap. III. Patres Confcripti. Or, Affiftents. 
Chap. IV. Nehemias Amerinnm. The Life of John Win- 

tbop Efq; Governour of the Mxjjachufet Colony. 
Chap. V. Succeflbrs. Among whom, larger Accounts are 

given of Governour Dudley, and Governour Bradfneet. 
Chap. VI. Wj] ^m '• e« Viri Animati. Or, Affiftents. 

With Remarks. 
Chap. VIL Puilicolx Chrifli.inus. Or, The Life of Ed- 

■ward Hopkins Efq; the firft Governour of Connecticut 

Chap. VIII. Succefibrs. 
Chap. IX. HumiHtas Honor atl. The Life of Theophilus 

Eaton Efq; Governour of New-Haven Colony. 
Chap. X. Succeffors. 
Chap. XI. Hermes Chriflijnus. The Life of fohn Win- 

throp Efq; the firft Governour of Connecticut and New- 

Haven, united. 
Chap. 12. Affiftents. 

Pietas in Pa-riam. Or, The Life of his Excellency, Sir 

i^'iL'iam l-htps, late Governour of New-England. An 

Hiftory filled with great Variety of Memorable Matters. 

The Third Book, Entituled, P O L V B I U S. 

It contains the Lives of many Divines, by whole Evange- 
lical MinWtry, the Churches of New-England have been 

The Introduction. 

A General Hiftory, De Virts Iliuftribus, dividing into 
three Claffes the Minifters who came out of Old England^ 
for the Service of New. 

The Firft Part, Entituled, Johannes in Eremo. 

The Introduction. 

Chap. I. Cottonus Redivivus.Or.The Life of Mr. John Cottots. 

Chap. II. Nononus Honoratus. Or, The Life of Mr. John 

Chap. I II. Memoria iFilfoniana, Or, The Life of Mi.John 

Chap. IV. Puritanijmus Nov- Anglic anus. Or, The Life di 
Mr. John Davenport. 

The Light of the If'eflern Churches. Or, The Life of Mr. 
Thomas Hooker. 

The Second Part, Entituled, 

Sepher Jereim, i. e. Liber DeumJimemium. Or, Dead 
Abels yet fpeaking, and fpoken of. 

The Introduction. 
Chap. I. Janus Nov-Anglicanus. Or, The Life of Mr. 

Francis Higginfon. 
! Chap.II. Cygnea Camio. Or,Tlie Death of Mr. Avery. 
Chap. III. Natus ad Exemplar. Or, The Life of Mr. Jena- 

than Burr. 
Chap. IV. The Life of Mr. George Philips. 
Chap. V. Paftor Evangelicus. Or, The Life of Mr. Thomas 

Chap.VI. Prudentius. Or, The Life of Mr-Peter Prudden. 
Chap.VII. Melanilhon. Or, The Life ofMr.AdamBldckjnan. 
Chap. VIII. The Life of Mr. Abraham Pierfon. 
Chap. IX. The Life of Mr- Richard Denton. 
Chap. X. The Life of Mr. Peter Bultly. 
Chap. XI. The Life of Mr. Ralph Partridge. 
Chap. XII. Pfaltes, Or, The Life of Mr. Henry Dunfter, 
Chap. XIII. The Life of Mr. E^liel Rogers. 
Chap. XIV. Eulogius. Or,The Lire of Mx.Nathanael Rogers. 

An Extraft from the Diary of the famous old Mr. John 

Rogers of Dedham. 
Chap. XV. Bibltander Nov-Anglicanus. Or, The Life of 

Mr. Samuel Newman. 
Chap. XVI. Doilor Iriefragabilis. Or, The Life of Mr.Sa- 

tnuel Stone. 
Chap. XVII. The Life of Mr. WiUiamThompfon, 
Chap. XVIII. The Life of Mr. John Warham. 
Chap. XIX. The Life of Mr. Henry Flint. 
Chap.XX. Fulgentius. Or.The Life of Mr.Ricbard Mather. 
Chap. XXI. The Life of Mr. Zachariah Symmes. 
Chap. XXII. The Life of Mr. John Aliin. 
Chap. XXIII. Cadmus Americana. Or, The Life of Mr. 

Charles Chauncey. 
Chap. XXIV. Lucas. Or, The Life of Mr. Joint Fisk. 
Chap. XXV. Scholaflicus. Or, The Life of Mr. Thomas 

Parhjr. With an Appendix containing Memoirs of Mr. 

James Noyes. 
Chap. XXVI. The Life of Mr. Thomas Tktcher. 
Chap. XXVII. The Life of Mr. Peter Hoban. 
Chap. XXVIII. A Man of God,tnd an Honourable Man. Or, 

The Life of Mr. Samuel Whiting. 

Chap. XXIX. S. Aflerius. Or,The Life of Mr. John Sherman. 

Chap. XXX; Eufcbius. Or,The Life of Mr. Thomas Cobitt. 

Chap. XXXL Moiefias. Or, The Life of Mr. JohnWted. 


The Epitaph of Dr. John Owen. 




The Third Part, Entituled, 
'OmivAif* J my»}j.aTa., five, Utiles Narmiones. 

It contains, the Life of the Renowned John Elm-, with 
an Account, concerning the Succefs of the Gofpel among 
the Indians. A very entertaining piece of C bunt- htflory. 

The Fourth Part, Entituled, Remains. 

The Introduction. 

Chap. I. Remains of the frilClaJfu. Or, Shorter Accounts 
of fome ufeful Divines. 

Chap. II. The Life of Mr. Thomas Alien. 

Chap. III. The Life of Mr. John Kjowlet 

Chap, IV. Elipfs Cones. Or, The Life of Mr. ffenry 

Chap. V. Remains of the Stcond Chffis. And more largely, 
The Life of Mr. John Woodbridge. 

Chap, VI. Remains of the Third ( lajfis. With more pun- 
ctual Accounts of Mr. John Oxenbridge, Mr. Thomas 
V, alley, and Mr. Samuel L ee. 

Chap. VII. A good Man making a good End. Or, The Life 
and Death of Mr. John Baity. 

The Fourth Book, Entituled, SAL GENTIUM. 
It contains, an Account of the New-Englijl Vniverfity, 

The Introduction. 
I. The I'tfiw, the Benefactors, and the Vicijjitudes, o£ 

£/aryard-Colledge. And a Catalogue of its Graduates 5 

with Remarks upon it. 
Part II. The Lives of feme eminent Perfons therein edu- 
Chap. I, Tides in Vita. Or, Memorables concerning Mr. 

John Brock. 
Chap. II. FruSuofus. Or, The Life of Mr. Samuel Mather. 
Chap. III. The Life of Mr. Samuel Danforth. 
Chap. IV. Ecclefajhs. Or,The Life of Mr. .Jonathan Mitckl. 
Chap. V. Drufius Nov-Anplicinus. Or, The Life of Mr. 

Vrian Oakes. 
Chap. VI. The Life of Mr. Thomas Shepari. 
Chap. VII. St. Stephens, Reliques. Or, Memoirs of Mr. 

Jofiua Moodey. 
Chap. VIII. Gemini. Or, The Life of the Collhs's. 
Chap. IX. The Life of M.T. Thomas Shepard. 
Chap. X. Early Piety Exemplified ; in the Life and Death 

of Mr. Nathaniel Mather. 

The Fifth Book, Entituled, 

It contains, the Faith and Order in the Churches of New- 
England, agreed by their Synods : With Hiftorical Re- 
marks upon all thofe Venerable Affemblies. And a great 
Variety of other Church-Cafes, occurring and refolved 
in thofe American Churches. 

The Firft Part. 
The Faith profefled by the Churches of New-England. 
With Remarks. 

.The Second Part. 

The Difcipline pracWed in the Churches of New-England. 

With Hiftorical Remarks. 
And a rich Collection of Church-Cafes happily decided. 

The Heads of Agreement, affented toby the United Mini- 
fters, formerly called, Presbyterian and Congregational. 
The Third Part. 
The Principles owned,and Endeavours ufed,by theChurches 
of New-England, concerning the Church-State of their 
Pofleriiy. With Remarks. 

The Fourth Part. ; 
7 he Reforming Synod of New-England • with fubfequent 
Effays of Reformation in the Churches. 

The Sixth Cook, Entituled, 

T H A U M A T U R. G U S. ve|, N^ HDT 13D 

i. e. Liber Memorabilium. 

It contains many Illuftrious Difcoveries and Demonffra- 
tiom of the Divine Providence, in Remarkable Mt- 
and Judgments on many particular 1 erfons among the 
People of New-England. 

The Introduaion. With Propofals made, about Recording 
Illuftrious Discoveries cf the Divine Providence. 

Chap. I. Chnfius fuper Aquas. Relating Remarkable Se* 

Chap. II. hofxa. Relating Remarkable Salvations expe- 
rienced by others betides the Sra-faring. 

Chap. III. Ceraunius. Relating Remarkables done b? 
Thunder. W ith a Bronxolrgia Sacra, remarkably pro- 

Chap. IV. The Returning Prodigal. Relating Remarkabir 

Chap.V. hifioria Nemefeos. Relating Remarkable Judg- 
ments of God, on feveral forts of Offenders, in feveral 
Scores of Inftances. 

An Appendix, containing, an Hiftory of Criminals, exe- 
cuted for Capital Crimes ; with their Lying Speeches. 

Chap. VI. The Triumphs of Grace. Or, A Narrative of 
the Succefs which the Gofpel hath had among the Indians 
of New- England. 

An Appendix, Relating things gieatly Remarkable.fetch'd 
from one little Ifland of Chriftianiz'd Indians. 

Chap. VII. Ibaumatographia Pneumattca. Relating, Tib 
Wonders of the invifible rid. in Preternatural Occur- 
rences. It contains fourteen aftomlhing, but wella:- 

The Seventh Book, Entituled, 


the Wars of the Lord. 

It contains, the Affliftive Difturbances which the Churches 
of New England have fuffered, from their various Ad- 
verfaries ; and the wonderful Methods and Mercies, 
whereby the Churches have been delivered. 

The Introduction. 

Chap- I. Milk Nocendi Arte's. Or, Tome General Heads 
of Temptation, with which tiie Churches of Xew-En~ 
gland have been Exercifed. 

Chap. II. Little Boxes. OV, The Sp U Septra- 

tion in one remarkable Zelot, vex; uthes ot 

New-England, and the Spirit of Giddy V.imjli£tati} - 
ther. And feme Lefler Controverfies a? i:;ng upci 
dry Occafions, 

Chap. III. hydra decapitata. Or, Thefirf. 
England, quelling a Storm of Antinomian Opinions: 
and many remarkable Events relating thereunto. 

Chap. IV. Ignes Fatui. Or, The Moleftations given to tlie 
Churches of New-England, by that Odd Sect of 1-eople 
called Quakers. And fome uncomfortable Occurrents, 
relating to a Seel of other, and Better People. 

Chap.V. Wolves in Sbeeps Cloathing. Or, An Kiftoryo: 
feveral Impoflors, pretending to beMinifters, detected 
in the Churches of New-England. With a Faithful Ad- 
vice to all the Churches, emitted by fome of the Paftors, 
on that occalion* 

Chap. VI. Arma Virofque Cano. Or, The Troubles which 
the Churches of New-England have undergone, in the 
WARS which the People of that Country have had 
with the Indian Salvages. 

VII. Appendix. 

Decennium LuUiiofum. Or, An Hiftory of Remarkable 
Occurrences, in the WAR which New-England had 
with Indian Salvages, from the Year 168S, to the 
Year 1698. 

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Book I. 

The Firft BOOK. 


O R, 

A FIELD prepaid for Confiderdble Things to he Afted 


The I N T R O D U C T I O N. 

n » « 

IT was not long ago, as about the middle of 
the former Century, that under the Influ- 
ences of that admirable Hero and Martyr, 
of the Proteftant Religion, Gafper Coligni, 
the great Admiral of France, a Noble and 
Learned Knight called Villagagnon, began to 
attempt the Settlement of fome Colonies in A- 
M E R I C A, (as it was declared) for the 
Propagation of that Religion. He Sailed with 
feveral Ships of no fmall Burthen, till he ar- 
riv'd at Brafile ; where he thought there were 

nowfhown him Quiet Seats, for the retreat of a rican Strand. It is the mofi Incomparable De 
People harrafs'd already with deadly Ferfecu- 1 Thou, the Honourable President of the Parlia- 
iions and threat ned with yet more Calamities, ment at Paris, an Hiftorian whom Cafaubon 

Pronounces, A Singular Gift of Heaven, to the 
laft Age, for an Example of Piety and Probity, 
that is our Author, (befides others) for this 

'Tis now time for me to tell my Reader, that 
in our Age there has been another Elf ay, made 

~ OTE- 

in this of ours, Ne me Crifpini fcrinia lecli, 
compitafle putes : And as for the People that 
/laid behind, no other can be 'Learned, but that 
they are entirely loft, either in Paganifm or 
Diiafter : In this, more unhappy Jure, than that 
Hundred Thoufand of their Brethren who were' 
foon after Butcher d at Home, in that horrible 
Malfacre, which then had not, but fince hath, 
known a Parallel. So has there been utterly 
loft in a little time, A Country intended for a 
Receptacle of Proteftant Churches on the A>ne- 

fhence he wrote Home Letters unto that glori- 
ous Patron of the Reform'd Churches, to in- 
form him, That he had now a fair Prcfpefi of 
feeing thofe Churches eretted, multiply d and 
fhelterd in the Southern Regions of the New 
World ; and requefted him, That Geneva might 

fupply "them with Pallors for the planting of I not by French, but by Englifli P R 
fuch Churches in thefe New Plantations. ThelST AN T S, to fill a certain Country 

fuch - 

Bleffed C.lvin, with his Collegnes, thereupon 
Cent of their Number Two Worthy Perjons, 
namely Richerius and Qjradrigarras, to ajfift this 
Undertaking ; and unto theje were joined feveral 
more, efpecially Lerius, and, who became a Lea 
der to the reft, Corquillerius, an eminent Man, 
for the Cauje of Chrifiiamty, then refiding at 
Geneva. EmbarKd in three Ships, mil fitted, 
they came to the American Country, whither 
they had been invited; and they foon Jet up an 
Evangelical Church Order, in thofe Corners of 
the Earth where God in our Lord Jefus Chrift had 
never before been called upon. But it was not 
long before fome unhappy Controverfies arcfe 
among them, which drove their Principal Mi- 
nitters into Europe again, befides thofe Three 
ilaat were Murthered by their Apoftate Gover- 
nour whofe M^'tyi'dom Lerius procured Crifpin 


merica with Reform'd Churches ; nothing in 
Doctrine, little in Difcipline, different from 
that of Geneva. Mankind will pardon me, a 
Native of that Country, if I mitten with a fu{i 
Fear of wcroaching and ill-bodied Degeneracies, 
f fhall u/e my Modefl Endeavours to prevent 
the Lofs of a Country, fo fignalizd for the Pro- 
felTion of the purefl Religion, and for the Pro* 
tection of God upon it, in that Holy Profeffion. 
I fhall count my Country loft, in the Lofs of the 
Primitive Principles, and the Primitive Pra- 
ctices, upon which it was at firft Eftallifhcd : 
But certainly one good way to Jave that Lois, 
wou'd be to dofomething that the Memory of the 
great Things done for us by our God may not 
be loft, and that the Story of the Circumftances 
attending the Foundation and Formation of this 
Country, and of its Prefcrvation hitherto, may 
to~Commem n atc * n bis Hi dory, but I now omit be impartially handed unto Pqfterity. THIS 

B is 

Magnalia Chrijli Americana : 

Book L 

is the Undertaking whereto 1 now Addrefs my l ceptable and Profitable unto thy Churches, and 
/elf; and now, Grant me thy Gracious A ffi- Serviceable unto the Inteteits of thy Gofpel ; fo 

fbnces, O my God •, that in this my Underta- 
king I may be kept from every falfe way : But 
that fincerely aiming at thy Glory in my Un- 
dertaking, I may find my Labours made Ac 

let my God think upon me for Good ; and 
(pare me according to the greatnefs of thy Mer- 
cy in the Bleffed Jefu^ Amen. 


Venifti tandem ? Or Difcoveries of AM ERIC A, tending to, and ending in, Difcoveries 



§. i. T T is the Opinion of fome, though 'tis two Hundred Years ago, nor the Clue that 
1 but an Opinion, and but of fome might lead unto it, namely, the Loadjhne, (hould' 

Learned Men, That when the Sacred Oracles 
of Heaven alTure us, The Things under the 
frarth are fome of thofe, whofe Knees are 
to bow in the Name of J ejus, by thofe Things 
are meant the lnhabita: ts ot America, wh« 
;n e Antipodes to thole of the o;her Hemijphere. I 
would not Quote any Words of Laitantius, 
tho' there arc J 'owe to Countenance this In- 
terpretation, becaufe of their being fo Ungeo- 
graphical : Nor would I go to ftrengthen the 
Interpretation by reciting the Words of the 
Indians to the firft White Invaders of their 
Territories, We hear you are come from under 
the World to take our World from us. But 
granting the uncertainty of fuch an Expofition, 
I {hall yet give the Church of God a certain 
Account ot thofe Things, which in America 
have been Believing and Adoring the glorious 
Name of Jefus-, and of that Country in Ameri- 
ca, where thofe Things have been attended with 
Circumftances moft remarkable. I can conten- 
tedly allow that America (which as the Learn- 
ed Nicolas fuller Obferves, might more juftly 
be called Columbina) was altogether unknown 
to the Penmen of the Holy Scriptures, and in 
the Ages when the Scriptures were Penned. I 
can allow, that thofe Parts of the Earth, which 
do not include America, are in the infpired 
Writings of Luke, and of Paul, ftiled, All the 
World. I can allow, that the Opinion of Torni- 
ellus, and of Pagius, about the Apoftles Preach- 
ing the Gofpel in America, has been fufficient- 
ly refuted by Bafnagius. But I am out of the 
reach of Pope Zacharys Excommunication. I 
can affert rhe Exiftence of the American Anti- 
podes : And 1 can Report unto the European j 

be known, till a Neapolitan Humbled upon it 
about an Hundred Years before ■, yet the over- 
ruling Providence of the great God is to be 
acknowledged, as well in the Concealing of A- 
merica for fo long a time, as in the Dif cover*- 
ing of it, when the fulnefs of Time was come 
for the Difcovery : For we may count America 
to have been concealed, while Mankind in the 
other Hemijphere had loft all Acquaintance 
with it, if we may conclude it had any from 
the Words of Diodorus Siculus, That Phcene- 
cians were by great Storms driven ort the Coaft 
of Africa, far Wejfward, l-ri 7ro^xd; »^a,(, for 
many Days together, and at laft fell in with an 
Ifland of prodigious Magnitude; or from the 
Words of Plato, that beyond the Pillars of Her- 
cules there was an Ifland in the Atlantick O- 
cean, «//* *<£ v»f ^ A<ria,i ^«£ft>t>, larger than A- 
frica and Afia/w/ together -.. Nor f hould it pafs 
without Remark, that Three moft memorable 
things which have born a very great Afpeft upon 
Humane Affairs, did near the fame time, namely 
at the Conclufion of the fifteenth, and the begin- 
ning of the Sixteenth Century, arife unto tha 
World : The Firft was the Rejurretlion of Lite- 
rature ■, the Second was the opening of Ame- 
rica ; the Third was the Reformation of Reli- 
gion. But, as probably, rhe Devil feducing the 
firft Inhabitants of America into it, therein aim- 
ed at the having of them and their Polterity 
out of the found of the Silver Trumpets of the 
Co/pel, then to be heard through the Reman 
Empire ; if the Devil had any Expectation, 
that by the Peopling of America, lie fhould 
utterly deprive any Europeans of the Two Be- 
nefits, Literature and Religion, which dawned 

Churches great Occurrences among thefe Ame- | upon the miferable World, one juit before, to 

' ther juft after, the firft famed Navigation hi- 
ther, 'tis to be hop'd he will be diiappointed 
of that Expecf ation. The Church of God mult 
no longer be wrapp'd up in Strabo's Cloak: 
Geography muft now find work for a Chriftia- 
no-graphy in Regions, far enough beyond the 
Bounds wherein the Church of God had thro' 
all former Ages been drcumfcribc;!. Renown'd 
Churches of Chrift mult be gathered where the 
Ancients once Derided them that look'd for a- 
ny Inhabitants. The Mylfery of our Lord's 

rtcans. Yet 1 will Report every one of them 
with fuch a Chriftian and exacf Veracity, that 
no Man fhall have caufe to ufe about any one 
of them, the Words which the great Auflin (as 
great as he was) ufed about the Exiftence of 
Antipodes ; it is a Fable, and, nulla ratione 

§. 2. If the Wicked One in whom the whole 
World lyeth, were he, who like a Dragon, keep- 
ing a Guard upon the fpacious and mighty 
Orchards of America^ could have fuch a Pafci- 

nation upon the Thoughts of Mankind, that Garments, made Pour Parts, by the Soldiers that 
neither this Ballancing half of the Globe fnould caft Lots for them, is to be accomplifhed in 
be confidered in Europe till a little more than the good Sence put upon it by An/un, who if 

Book I. Or, The Hifiory of New*- England. 

he had known America could not have given 
a better §>uadripartita veftis Domini feju, 
quadripartitam Jiguravit ejus Ecclefiam, toto 
fcilicet, qui quatuor partibus conjht, terraram 
orbe diffujam. 

^. 3. Whatever Truth may be in that Af 
fertion of one who writes ; If we m./y credit ti- 
ny Records befides the Scriptures, ! know it 
might be /aid and proved well, that this 
New World was kno:vn, and partly Inhabited 
by Britains, or by Saxons from England, Three 
or Four hundred Tears before the Spaniards 
coming thither ; which AiTertion is Demon- 
ftrated trom the Difcourfes between the 
Mexicans and the Spaniards at their firft Ar- 
rival 5 and the Popish Reiiqucs, as well as 
Briti/h Terms and Words, which the Spani- 
ards then found among the Mexicans, as well 
as from undoubted PafTages, not only in other 
Authors, but even in the Britifl) Annals alio : 
Neveithelels, Mankind generally agree to give 
unto Chriflopher Columbus, a Gcnoejc, the Ho- 
nour of being the Firft European that open- ' Ocean. And now 
ed a way into thefe Parts ot fhq World. It! with mv (elf 

ry VII. entering upon their generous Under- 
takings in the fear 1497. made further Dif- 
coveries of America, than either Columbus of 
Vejputius; in regard of which notable Enter- 
prizes, the younger of them h'ad very greaf 
Honours by the Grown pot upo.i him, till at 
length he died in a good Old Age, in which 
Old Age King Edward VI. hjd allowed him 
an Honourable Peniion. .Yea. finee the Cabots*, 
em ploy 'J by the King ot England, made a" 
Dilcovery of this Continent in the Year 1497. 
and it was the Year 1498. before Columbus 
di (covered any parr of the Comment ■, and 
Vejputtus came a confiderable time alter both 
ot them ; I know not why the Spaniard fhould 
go unrivall'd in the claim of this New World, 
which from the firji finding ot ir is pretended 
unto. Thefe Dilcoveries of the Cabots were 
the Foundation of all rhe Adventures, with 
which the Englijh Nation have lince followed 
the Sun, and ferved themfelves into an Ac- 
quaintance on the hither iide ot the Atlanltck 
1 I ha 11 drown my Reader 
in a tedious Digrtition, if I 

was in the Year 1492. that this famous Man, | enumerate all the Attempts made by a Wil 
acted by a moft vehement and wonderful ////- j loughby, a Frobrijher, a Gilbert, and befides 
pulfe, was carried into the Northern Regicni ] many others, an Incomparable Rawleigh, to 

of this vaft Hemifphere, which might more 
juftly therefore have receiv'd its Name from 
Him, than from Americus Vejputius a Ylo- 

lettle Englifl) Colonies in the Defarts of the 
Wefterri India. It will be enough if I enter- 
tain him with the Hiftory of rhat Englifl? Set- 

rentine, who in the Year 1497. made a fur- rlemenr, which may, upon a Thoufand accounts, 
ther Detection of the more Southern Regions pretend unto more of True Englifh than all 

in tins Continent. So a World, which ihas 
been one great Article among the Res deperdttjt 
of Pancirollus, is now found out, and the Af- 
fairs of the whole World have been affected 
by the finding of it. So the Church of our 
Lora Jefus Chrift, well compared unto a Ship* 
is now viQorioufly failing round the Globe af- 

the reft, and which alone therefore has been 
called Neve-England, 

§. 5. After a difcouraging Series of Difafters 
attending the Endeavours of the Englifh ro 
fwarm into Florida, and the reft of the Conti- 
nent unto the Northward of it, called Virgi- 
nia, becaufe the firft White Born in thofe Re- 

ter Sir Francis Drake's renowned Ship, called, gions was a Daughter, then Born to one Ana- 

The ViZory, which could boaft, 

Prima ego velivolis ambivi curfibus orbem. 

And yet the Story about Columbus him fell 
muft be corrected trom the Information of De 
la Vega, That one Sanchez, a Native of ' Helva 
in Spain, did before him find out thefe Regi- 

\nias Dare, in the Year 1585. The Courage 
of one Bartholomew Gofnold, and one Captain 
Bartholomew Gilbert, and feveral other Gentle- 
men* ferved them to make yet more ElTays upon 
the like Defighs. This Captain Gofnold in a 
fmall Bark, on May n. 1602. Made Land 
on this Coaft in the Latitude of Forty-Three -, 
where, tho' he liked the Welcome he had from 

ons. He tells us That Sanchez ufing to Trade j the Salvages that came aboard him, yet he 
in a fmall Veftel to the Canaries, was driven difliked the Weather, lb that he thought it ne- 
by a furious and tedious Tempeft over unto | ceflary to ftand more Southward into the Sea. 
thefe Weftern Countries ; and at his return he'. Next Morning he found himfelf Embayed 
gave to Colon, or Columbus, an account of what I within a mighty Head of Land :, which Pro- 
he had feen, but foon after died of a Dileale 'montory^ in remembrance of the Cod-Fifh in 
he had got on his dangerous Voyage. Howe j great quantity by him taken there, he called 
ver, I lhall expect my Reader ere long to\Capc-Cod, a Name which I fuppofe it will ne 

grant, that ibme things done fince by Almigh- 
ty God for the Englijh in thefe Regions, have 
exceeded all that has been hitherto done for 
any other Nation : If this New World were 
not found out firft by the Englijh ■ yet in thofe 
regards that are of all the great eft, it teems 
to be found out more for them than any o- 

§. 4. But indeed the two Cabots, Father and 
Son, under the Comraiffion of out King Hen- 

ver lofe, till Shoals of Cod-bi/h be feen fwi na- 
ming upon the top of its higheft Hills. On 
this Cape, and on the Iitar.ds to the Southward 
of it, he found fuch a comtbrrable £n- 
rertainment from the Summer-Fruits of the 
Earth, as well as from the Wild Creatures then 1 
ranging the Woods, and from the wilder Peo- 
ple now furprized into Courrefie, that he car- 
ried back to England a Report of the Coun- 
try, better than what the Spies once gav?of t'titi 
1 8 2 Land 

Aiagnalia Chrifii Americana : 

Book I. 

Land flowing zoith Milk and Honey. Not 
only did the Merchants of Briflol now 
raife a confiderable Stock to Profecute thefe 
Difcoveries, but many other Perfons of fe- 
veral Ranks Embarked in fuch Undertakings; 
and many Sallies into America were made ; 
the exafcter Narrative whereof I had rather 
my Reader ihould pur chafe at the expence of 
confulting Purchas's Pilgrims, than endure a- 
ny flop in our haftening Voyage unto the JMlfO- 

$ of a Jl3etu--Cttfflifl) 3fraeU 

§. 6. Perhaps my Reader would gladly be 
informed how America came to hi fir ft Peopled '; 
and if Homius's Difcourfes, De origine Gen- 
tium Amencanarum, do not fatisfie him, I 
hope fhortiy the moft Ingenious Dr. Woodward, 
in his Natural Hificry of the Earth, will do 
it. In the mean time, to ftay thy Stomach, 
Reader, accept the Account which a very 
fenfible Ruffian, who had been an Officer of 
Prime "Note in Siberia, gave unto Father 
Avril. Said he, 'There is beyond the Obi a 
' great River called Kawoina, at the Mouth 
f whereof, difcharging it fell into the frozen 
' Sea, there ftands a fpacious Ifland very well 
' Peopled, and no lefs confiderable for Hunt- 
ing an Animal, whofe Teeth are in great 
' efteem. The Inhabitants go frequently upon the 
c fide of the frozen Sea to Hunt this Monfter ; 
* and becaufe it requires great Labour with Affi- 
1 duity, they carry their Families ufually along 
'with them. Now it many times happens, 
' that being lurprized with a Thaw, they are 
c carried away, I know not whither, upon 
c huge peices of Ice that break off one from 
' another. For my part, I am perfwaded that 
' feveral of thofe Hunters have been carried 
' upon thefe floating pieces of Ice to the moft 
' Northern Parts of America, which is not 
' far irom that Part of Afia that jutts out in- 
1 to the Sea of Tartary. And that which con- 
c firms me in this Opinion, is this, That the 
c Americans who Inhabit that Country, which 
c advances tartheft towards that Sea, have the 
c lame Phyfiegnomy as thole Iflanders. Thus 
the Vayvode of Smotensko. But all the con- 
cern of this our Hiftory, is to tell how Englifli 
People firft came into America ; and what 
Englifl) People firft came into that Part of 
America, where this Hiftory is compofed. 
Wherefore, inftead of reciting the many Ad- 
ventures of the Englifh, to vilit thefe Parts of 
the World, I fhall but repeat the Words of 
one Captain Weymouth, an Hiflorian, as well 
as an Undertaker of thofe Adventures ; who 
Reports, That one main End of all thefe Un- 
dertakings, wot to plant the Gofpel in thefe 
dark Regions of America. How well the moft of 
the Englijh Plantations have anfwered this main 
End, it mainly becomes them to conlider : How- 
ever, I am now to tell Mankind, that as for 
One of thefe Englift Plantations, this was 
not only a main End, but the fole End upon 
which it was erecfed. If they that are feli- 
citous about the Interefts of the Gofpel, would 
know what and where that Plantation is : be 

it noted, That all the vaft Country from Flo- 
rida to Nova-Francia, was at firft called Vir- 
ginia ; but this Virginia was diflinguifhed in- 
to North Virginia and South Virginia, till that 
Famous Traveller Captain John Smith, in the 
Year 1614. prefenting unto the Court of 
England a Draught of North Virginia, got it 
called by the Name of NEW-ENGLAND; 
which Name has been ever fince allowed unto 
my Country, as unto the moft Refembling 
Daughter, to the chief Lady of the European 
World. Thus the Difcoveries of the Country 
proceeded lb far, that K. James I. did by his 
Letters Patents under the Great Seal of Eng- 
land, in the iSth Year of his Reign, give and 
grant unto a certain Honourable Council Efta- 
blilhed at Plymouth, in the County of De- 
von, for the Planting, R-ding, and Ordering, 
and Governing of New-Enghnd in America, 
and to their Succeflbrs and Atiigns, all that Part 
of America, lying and being in Breadth, from 
Forty Degrees of Northerly Latitude, from the 
Equinoctial Line, to the Forty-Eighth Degree 
of the fa id Northerly Latitude Indufively ; 
and the Length of, and within all the Breadth 
aforelaid, throughout all the firm Lands from 
Sea to Sea. This at laft is th .- Spot of Earth, 
which the God of Heaven Spied out for the 
Seat of fuch Evangelical, and Ecclefiaftical, and 
very remarkable Tranfacfions, as require to 
be made an 11)1(10$ h here 'twas that our 
Bleffed Jtfttg intended a Refting-place, muft 
I fay ? Or only an Hiding-place for thofe Re- 
formed CHURCHES, which have given 
him a little Accomplifhment of his Eternal 
Father's Promife unto him ; to be, we hope, 
yet further accomplilhed, of having the utmofi 
Parts of the Earth for his Pofeffion ? 

§. 7. The Learned Jofeph Mede conjectures 
that the American Hcmifphcre will efcape the 
Conflagration of the Earth, which we expect 
at the defcent of our Lord JESUSCHR1ST 
from Heaven : And that the People' here will 
not have a lhare in the Blelfednefs which 
the Renovated World fhall enjoy, during the 
Thoufand Tears of Holy Reft promifed unto 
the Church of God : And that the Inhabi- 
tants of thefe Regions, who were Originally 
Scytheans, and therein a notable fulfilment of 
the Prophecy, about the Enlargement of Ja- 
phet, will be the Gog and Magog whom the 
Devil will feduce to Invade the New-Jcrufa- 
lem, with an Envious Hope to gain the An- 
gelical Circumftances of the People there. 
All this is but Conjecture ; and it may be 
'twill appear unto fome as little probable, as 
that of the later Pierre Poiret in his LVeco- 
nomy Divine, that by Gog and Magog are 
meant the Devils and the Damned, which he 
thinks will be let loofe at the end of the 
Thoufand Tears, to make a furious, but a 
fruitlefs Attempt on the glorified Saints of the 
New-Jerufalcm. However, I am going to give 
unto the Chriftian Reader an Hiftory of fome 
feeble Attempts made in the American Hemif- 
phere to anticipate the State of the New-Je- 



Or, The Hiftoryof New-England. 

rufalem, as far as the unavoidable Vanity of 
Humane Affairs, and Influence of Satan upon 
them would allow of it ■ and of many worthy 
Perfons, whofe Pofterity, if they make a Sgua 
dron in the Fleets of Gog and Magog, will be 

Apofiates deferving a Room, and a Doom 
with the Legions of" the Grand Apojlate, chat 
will deceive the Nations to that Myjlerious 


Primordia : Or, The Voyage to NEW -ENGLAND, which produced the Tirfl Set- 
tlement 0/ NEW-PLYMOUTH:, with an Account of many Remarkable and Me- 
morable Providences relating to tkat Voyage. 

|. j. A Number of devout and ferions CZvz'- 
jTjl fiians in the Englijh Natidn, find- 
ing the Reformation of the Church in that 
Nation, according to the WORD OF GOD, 
and the Defign of many among the Firjl Re- 
formers, to labour under a fort of hopelefs Re- 
tardation , they did, Anno 1602. in the 
North 0? England, enter into a COVENANT, 
wherein expreffing themfelves defirous, not on- 
ly to attend the Worfhip of our Lord Jefus Chrift, 
with a freedom from humane Inventions and 
Additions, but alfo to enjoy all the Evangelical 
Inftitutions of that Worfhip, they did like thofe 
Macedonians, that are therefore by the Apoftle 
Paul commended, give them/elves up, firft unto 
God, and then to one another. Thefe Pious Peo-: 
pie finding that their Brethren and Neigh-, 
bours in the Church of England, as then effa-\ 
blijhed by Law, took offence at thefe their En- 
deavours after a Scriptural Reformation ■ and be- 
ing loth to live in the continual Vexations, 
which they felt a'rifing from their Non-Confor- 
mity to things which their Confidences accoun- 
ted Superjtitious and Unwarrantable , they 
peaceably and willingly embraced a Banifbment 
into the Netherlands-, whete they fettled at the 
City of Leyden, about Seven or Eight Years af- 
ter their Firft Combination. And now in that 
City this People fojoutned, an Holy CHURCH 
of the Bleffed JESUS, for feveral Years under 
the Paftoral Care of Mr. John Robin/on, who had 
for his Help in the Government of the Chutch, 
a moft W ife, Grave, good Man, Mr. William 
Brcwfter, the ruling Elder. Indeed Mr. John 
Robinfon had been in his younger time, (as 
very good Fruit hath fometimes been, before 
Age hath Ripened itj Sowred with the Princi- 
ples of the moft Rigid Separation, in the main- 
taining wheteof he compofed and publilhed feme 
little Treatifes, and in the Management of the 
'Controverfie made no Scruple to call the incom- 
parable Dr. Ames himfelf, Dr. Amifs, for op- 
poling fuch a Degree of Separation. But this 
worthy Man fuffered h'unfelf at length to be fo 
far convinced by his Learned Amagonift, that. 
with a moft Ingenious Retractation, he afterwards 
writ a little Book to prove the Lawfulnefs of 
one thing, which his miftaken Zeal had for- 
merly impugned feveral Years, even till 1625. 
and about the Fiftieth Year of his own Age, 
continued he a Blefiing unto the whole Church 
of God, and at laft, when he dy'd, he left be 
hind him in his immortal Writings, a 

very much embalm'd among the People that are 
beft able to judge of Merit; and even among 
fuch, as about the Matters of Cburch-Difcipline, 
were not of his Perfwafion. Of fuch an emi- 
nent Character was he, while he lived, that 
when Arminianifm fo much prevailed, as it 
then did in the low Countries, thofe famous Di- 
vines, Polyander, and Feftus Hommius, employ- 
ed this our Learned Robinfon to difpute pub- 
lickly in the Univerfity of Leyden againft Epif- 
copius, and the other Champions of that Grand 
Choak-weed of true Chriftianity : And when he 
Died, not only the Univerfity, and Minifters 
of the City, accompanied him to his Grave, 
with all their accuftomed Solemnities, but feme 
of the Chief among them with fbtrowful Re- 
fentments and Exprelfions affirmed, That all the 
Churches of our Lord Jefus Chrift had fuft din- 
ed a great Lofs by the Death of thu worthy 

§. 2. The Englifl? Church had not been very 
long at Leyden before they found themfelves 
encountred with many Inconveniencies. They 
felt' that they were neither for Health nor Purfe, 
nor Language well accommodated ; but the 
concern which they moft of all had, was for 
their Pofterity. They faw, that whatever 
Banks the Dutch had againft the Inroads of the 
Sea, they had not fufficient Ones againft a Flood 
of manifold Profanenefs. They could not with 
Ten Tears Endeavour bring their Neighbours, 
particularly to any fuitable Obfervation of the 
LORD'S DAY; without which they knew, 
that all pradical Religion muft wither Milerably. 
They beheld fbme of their Children, by the 
Temptations of the Place, which were efpeci- 
ally given in the licentious Ways of many Young 
People, drawn into dangerous Extravagancies. 
Moreover, they were very loth to lofe their 
Intereft in the Englifh Nation ; but were defi- 
rous rather to enlarge their King's Dominions. 
They found themfelves alio under a very ftrong 
difpofition of Zeal, to attempt the Eftablifh- 
ment of Congregational CflUrCuCjS Jh 'the 
remote Parts of the World • w,here they hoped 
they fhould be reached by the Royal Influence 
of their Prince, in whofe Allegiance they chofe 
to live and die; atthe fame time like wife hoping 
that the EcclefiafUcks, who had thus driven them 
out of the Kingdom into a Neia World, for no- 
thing in the World but their Non-Conformity to 
certain Rates, by the Impofers confelfed lndif- 
NameVferent, would be afhamed ever to perfecuce them 



Magmlia Chrifli Americana 

Book I. 

with any further Moleftations, at the diftance i 
of a Thoufand Leagues. Thefe Reafons were j 
deeply confideted by the Church ; and after ' 
many Deliberations^ accompanied with the moft 
fblemn Humiliations and Supplications before 
the God of Heaven, they took up a Refolution, 
under the conduct or" Heaven, to REMOVE 
into A M ERIC A -, the opened Regions where- 
of had now filled all Europe with Reports. 
It was refolved, that part of the Church fhould 
go before their Brethren, to prepare a place for 
the Reft ^ and whereas the Minor part of 
younger and ftronger Men were to go firft, the 
Pajior was to ftay with the Major, till they 
ihould fee caufe to follow. Nor was there any 
occafion for thisRefolve, in any wearinefs which 
the States of Holland had of their Company, 
as was bafely wbpfpered by their Adverfaries ; 
therein like thole who of old ailign'd the fame 
caufe tor the Departure of the Ifraelites out of 
Egypt : For the Magistrates of Lcyden in their 

Court, reproving the Walloons, gave this Tefti- 
mony for our Englifh , Theje Englilh have lived 
now Ten Tears among us, and yet we never had 
any Accufation ogainl) any one of them-, zehere- 
ai your Qiiarr els are continual. 

§. 3. Thefe good People were now fatisffd, 
they had as plain a command of Heaven to 
attempt a Removal, as ever their Father Abra- 
ham had for his leaving the Caldean Territories ; 
and it was nothing but fuch a Satisfatlion that 
could have carried rhem thro' fuch, otherwife 
infuperable Difficulties, as they met withal. 
But in this Removal the Terminus ad §luem 
was not yet refolved upon. The Country of 
Guiana flattered them with the Promifes of a 
perpetual Springs and a Thoufand other com- 
fortable Entertainments. But the probable dif- 
agreement of fo Torrid a Climate unto Eng- 
lifh Eeiies; and the more dangerous Vicinity of 
the Spaniards to that Climate ; were Conside- 
rations which made them fear that Country 
would be too Hot for them. They rather pro- 
pounded fome Country bordering upon Virgi- 
nia; and unto this purpofe, they fent over A- 
gents into England, who fo far treated not on- 
ly with the Virginia Company, but with feveral 
great Perfons about the Court; unto whom 
they trade Evident their Agreement with the 
French reformed Churches in all things what- 
foever, except in a few /mall accidental Points ; 
that at laft, after many tedious Delays, and af- 
ter the lofsof many friends and Hopes in thofe 
delays, they obtained a Patent for a quiet Set- 
tlement in thofe Territories-, and the Arch- 
bifhop of Canterbury himfelf gave them fome 
Expectations that they ihould never be difturbed 
in that Exerciie of Religion, at which they 
aimed in their Settlement ; yea, when Sir Ro- 
bert Nanton, then Principal Secretary of State 
unto King James, moved his Majefty to give 
way, that fuch a People might enjoy their Li- 
berty of Confcience under his gracious Protelli- 
on in America, where they would endeavour the 
Advancement of hi* Majeftfs Dominions, and 
the Enlargement of the Interefts of the Go/pel, 

the King fa id, it w<zs a good and honeji Motion. 
All this notwithstanding, they never made ufe 
of that Patent : But being inform 'd of IV E W- 
E NG L A AD, thither they diverted their De- 
fign, thereto induced"by fundry Realons-, but 
particularly by this, that the Coaft being ex- 
treamly well circumlfanced for Fifhing, they 
might therein have fome immediate Affiftance 
againft the hardfhips of their Firft Encounters. 
Their Agents then again fent over to England, 
concluded Articles between them and fuch Ad- 
ventures, as would be concerned with rhem in 
their prefent Undertakings. Articles, that 
were indeed fufficiently hard for thofe poor 
Men, that were now to tranfplant themf Ives 
into an horrid Wilder nefs. The Diverfwnoi their 
Enterprize from the Firft State and Way of it, 
caus'd an unhappy Divifion among thofe that 
fhould have Encourag'd it; and many of them 
hereupon fell off. But the Removers having 
already fold their Eftates, to put the Money 
into a Common Stock, for the welfare of the 
Whole •, and their Stock as well as their Time, 
fpending fo faft as to threaten them with an 
Army of Straits, if they delayed any longer ; 
they nimbly di (patent the beft Agreements they 
could, and came away furnifhed with a Re- 
folution for a large Tract of Land in the South- 
Well Parts of New-England. 

§. 4. All things now being in fome Keadinefs, 
and a couple of Ships, one called., TJjc Speed- 
well, t'other, The May- flower, being hired for 
their Tranfporration, they folemnly let apart a 
Day for Fafting and Prayer ; wherein their Pallor 
preached unto them upon Ezra 8. 21. I pro- 
claimed a Faft there, at the River Ahava, that 
we might afflill our felves before our God, to 
feek of him a right way for us, and for our 
little ones, and for all our fubjiance. 

After the fervent Supplications of this Day, 
accompanied by their affectionate Friends, they 
took their leave of the pleafant City, where 
they had been Pilgrims and Strangers now for 
Eleven Years. Delft-Haven was the Town, 
where they went on Board one of their Ships, 
and there they had fuch a mournful parting from 
their Brethren, as even drowned the Dutch Spe- 
ctators themfelves, then ftanding on the Shore, 
in Tears. Their excellent Paflor, on his Knees, 
by the Sea-fide, poured out their mutual Peti- 
tions unto God ; and having wept in one another's 
Arms, as long as the Wind and the Tide would 
permit them, they bad Adieu. So failing to 
Southampton in England, they there found the 
other of their Ships come from London, with 
the reft of their Friends that were to be the 
Companions of the Voyage. Let my Reader 
place the Chronology of this Bufinefs on July 
2. 1620. And know, that the faithful Paftor 
of this People immediately fent after rhem a 
Pajioral Letter ■ a Letter filled with Holy Coun- 
fels unto them, to fettle their Peace with God in 
their own Consciences, by an exact Repentance 
of all Sin whatfoever, that fb they might more 
eafily bear all the Difficulties that were now 
before them 5 and then to maintain a good 


Book I. Or, The Hifiory of New-England, 


Peace with one another, and beware of giving 
or taking Offences; and avoid all Difcoveries ot 
a Touchy Humour ; but ufe much Brotherly For- 
bearance, Cwhereby the way he had this re- 
markable Obfervation, In my own experience few 
or none have been found that fooner give Offence, 
than thofe that eafily take it ; neither have they 
ever proved found and profitable Members of So- 
cieties, who have nourifhed this Touchy Humour {] 
as alfo to take heed of" a private Spirit, and all 
retirednefs of Mind in each Man, for his own 
proper Advantage ; and likewife to be careful, 
that the Houfe of God, which they were, might 
not be lhaken with unneceflTary Novelties or 
Oppofttions : Which LETTER afterwards 
produced moft happy Fruits among them. 

§. 5. On Auguft 5th, 1620. they fet Sail 
from Southampton ; but if it fhall, as I believe 
it will, afrlift my Reader to be told what Heart- 
breaking Difafters befel them, in the very be- 
ginning of their Undertaking, let him glorifiej 
God, who carried them fo well through their 
greater Affliction. 

They were by bad Weather twice beaten 
back, before they came to the Land's End: 
But it vvas judged, that the Badnefs of the Wea- 
ther did not retard them fomuch as the deceit 
otzMafter, who grown Sick of the Voyage, 
made fuch Pretences about the Leakinefs of his 
VetTel, that thev were forced at laft wholly to 
difmiSs that lefTer Ship from the Service. Be- 
ing now all flowed into one Ship, on the Sixth of 
September they put to Sea; but they met with 
fuch terrible Storms, that the principal Perfons 
on Board had ferious Deliberations upon return- 
ing Home again ; however, after long beating 
upon the Atlantick Ocean, they fell in with the 
Land at Cape-Cod^ about the Ninth of Novem- 
ber following, where going on Shore they fell 
upon their Knees, with many and hearty Praifes 
unto God, who had been their Ajfurance, when 
they were afar off upon the Sea, and was to be 
further fo, now that they were come to the 
Ends of the Earth. 

Bur why at this Cape ? 
Port which they intended ; 
Land for which they had 
was indeed a moft wonderful Providence of 
God, over a Pious and a Praying Petple, in this 
Dif appointment ! The moft crooked Way that 
ever was gone, even that of IfraePs Peregrina- 
tion thro the Wildernefs, may be called a right 
Way, fuch was the way of this little Ifrael, now 
going into a Wildernefs. 

§. 6. Their defign was to have fat down fome- 
where abaut Hudfon's River -, but fome of their 
Neighbours in Holland having a Mind them- 
felves to fettle a Plantation there, fecretly and 
finfully contracted with the Matter of the Ship, 
employed for the Tranfportation of thefe our 
Englifh Exiles^ by a more Northerly Courfe, 
to put a Trick upon them. Twas in the pur- 
fuance of this Plot, that not only the Goods, 
but alfo the Lives of all on Board were now 
hazarded , by the Ships falling among the 
Shoals of Cape-Cod: Where they were lb en- 

Here was not the 
this was not the 
provided. There 

tangled among dangerous Breakers, thus late 
in the Year, that the Company got at lalt into, 
the Cape-Harbour, Broke off their Intentions of 
going any further. And yet behold the watch- 
ful Providence of God over them that feeli 
him! This Falje-deaiing proved a Safe-dealing 
tor the good People againffc whom it was ufed 
Had they been carried according to their defire 
unto Hudfons River, the Indians in thofe Parr.-: 
were at this time fo Many, and fo Mighty, and 
fo Sturdy, that in probability all this little fee- 
ble Number of Chriftians had been Maffacred 
by thefe bloody Salvages, as not long after tbmc 
others were: Whereas the good Hand of God 
now brought them to a Country wonderfully 
prepared for their Entertainment, by a fweep- 
ing Mortality that had lately been among the 
Natives. We have heard with our Ears, God, 
our fathers have told us, what work thou did ft 
in their Days, in the rimes of Old; how thou 
draveft out the Heathen with thy Hand, and 
plantcdft them ; how thou did ft afjlitl the Peo- 
ple, and cafr them out ! The Indians in thefe 
Parts had newly, even about a Year or Two be- 
fore, been vifitcd with fuch a prodigious Pefti- 
lence ; as carried away not a Tenth, but Nine 
Parts of Ten, (yea, 'tis faid, Nineteen of 
Twenty) among them : So that the Woods were 
almoft cleared of thofe pernicious Creatures, to 
make Room for a better Growth. It is Remark- 
able, that a Frenchman who not long before 
thefe Tranfa&ions, had by a Shipwreck been 
made a Captive among the Indians of this 
Country, did, as the Survivers reported, juft 
before he dy'd in their Hands, tell thofe Tawny 
Pagans, that God being angry with them for 
their Wickednefs, would not only deftroy them 
all, but alfo People the place with another Na- 
tion, which would not live after their Brutiflj 
Manners. Thofe Infidels then Blafphemoufly 
reply'd, God could not kill them-, which Blafphe- 
mous miftake was confuted by an horrible and 
unufual Plague, whereby they were confumed 
in fuchvaft Multitudes, that our firft Planters 
found the Land almoft covered with their un- 
buried Carcafes; and they that were left alive, 
were fmitten into awful and humble Regards of 
the Englifh, by the Terrors which the Re 
membrance of the Frenchman's Prophefie had 
Imprinted on them. 

§. 7. Inexpretfible the Hardfhips to which 
this chofen Generation was now expofed ! Out 
Saviour once diretkd his Difciples to depre- 
cate a flight in the Winter •, but thefe Difciples 
of our Lord were now arrived at a very Cold 
Country, in the beginning of a Rough and Bleak 
Winter ; the Sun was withdrawn into Sagitta- 
rius, whence he fhot the penetrating Arrows of 
Cold • feathered with nothing but Snow, and 
pointed with Hail ; and the Days left them to 
behold the Froft-b'itten and Weather-beaten face 
of the Earth, were grown friorter than the 
Nights, wherein they. had yet more trouble to 
get fhelter from the increaling Injuries of the 
Frofl and Weather. It was a relief to thofe Pri- 
mitive Believers, who were caft on Shore at 

8 Magmlia Chrifti Americana : 

Book L 

Malta, That the Barbarous People fhotod them 
no little Kind n eft, becaufe of the prefent Rain, 
andbecaufe of the Cold. But thefe Believers in 
our Primitive Times, were more afraid of the 
Barbarous People among whom they were now 
calf, than they were of the Rain, or Cold ; 
Thefe Barbarians were at the firft fo far from 
accommodating them with Bundles of Sticks 
to Warm them, that they let Fly other forts of 
Sticks (that is to fay, Arrows) to Wound them : 
And the very Looks and Shouts of thofe Grim 
Salvages, had not much lefs of Terrour in 
them, than if they had been fo many Devils.. 
It is not long fince 1 compared this remove of our 
Fathers, to that of Abraham, whereas I mull now 
add, that if our Father Abraham, called out of 
Ur, had been directed unto the Defarts of Ara 
bia, inftead of the Land flowing with Milk and 
Honey, the Trial of his Faith had been greater 
than it was; but fuch was the Trial of the 
Faith in thefe holy Men, who followed the 
Call of God into Defarts full of difmal Cir- 
cumftances. All this they chearfully under- 
went, in hope, that they Ihould fettle the Wor- 
Jhip and Order of the Gofpel, and the Kingdom 
of our Lord Jefus Chrift in thefe Regions, and 
that thus enlarging the Dominion, they fhould 
thereby fo Merit the ProteUion of the Crown of 
England, as to be never abandoned unto any 
further Perfections, from any Party of their 
Fellow Subjects, for their Confciencious Regards 
unto the Reformation. Their Propofal was, 
Exiguam fedemSacris, Littufque rogamus, 
Innocuum, & cuntlis undamq; aurama; Patent em. 

^. 8. Finding at their Arrival, that what o- 
ther Powers they had, Were made ufelefs by 
the undefined PTace of their Arrival •, they did, 
as the Light of Nature it felf diretled them, 
immediately in the Harbour, lign an Infirument, 
as a Foundation of their future and needful 
Government ; wherein Declaring themfelves the 
Loyal Subjects of the Crown of England, they 
did combine into a Body Politick, and fblemnly 
engage Submifiicn and Obedience to the Laws, 
Ordinances, Ads. Confutations and Officers, 
that from time to time thould be thought moft 
convenient for the general Good of the Colony. 
This was done on Nov. nth, 1620. and they 
chofe one Mr. John Carver, a Pious and Pru- 
dent Man, their Governour. 

Hereupon they fent Athore to look a con- 
venient Seat for their intended Habitation : 
j*nd while the Carpenter was fitting of their 
Shdllop.Sixteen Men tender'd themfelves, to go, 
by Land, on the Difcovery. Accordingly on 
Nov. 16th, 1620. they made a dangerous Ad- 
venture •, following five Indians, whom they 
fpied Flying before them, into the Woods for 
many Miles ; from whence, after two or three 
Days Ramble, they returned with fome Ears of 
Indian 'GwvJ^affiich were an Efhcol for their 
Company •, But with a poor and fmall Encourage- 
ment, as unto any Scituation. When the Shal- 
lop was fitted , about thirty more went in it 
upon a further Difcovery ; who profpeted little 
more, than only to find a little Indian Corn, and 

bring to the Company fome Occafions of doubt- 
ful Debate, whether they fhould here fix their 
Stakes. Yet thefe Expeditions on Difcovery 
had this one Remarkable Smile of Heaven upon 
them ; that being made before the Snow covered 
the Ground, they met with fome Indian Corn-, 
for which, 'twas their purpofe honeftly to pay the 
Natives on demand ; and this Corn ferved them 
for Seed in the Spring following, which elfe 
they had not been feafbnably furnifhed withal. 
So that it proved, in Effeft, their Deliverance 
from the Terrible Famine. 

§. 9. The Month of November being fpent 
in many Supplications to Almighty God, and 
Conjultations one with another, about the Di- 
rection of their Courfe; at laft, on Dec. 6. 
1620. they manned the Shallop with about 
eighteen or twenty Hands, and went out upon a 
third Difcovery. So bitterly Cold was the Sea- 
ion, that the Spray of the Sea lighting on their 
Cloaths, glazed them with an immediate Conge- 
lation; ye? they kept Cruifing about the Bay of 
Cape-Cod, and that Night they got fate down 
the Bottom of the Bay. There they Landed, 
and there they tarried that Night ; and unfuc- 
cefsfully Ranging about all the next Day, at 
Night they made a little Barricado of Boughs 
and Logs, wherein the moft weary flept. The 
next Morning after Prayers, they l'uddenly were 
furrounded with a Crue of Indians, who let 
Fly a Show'r of Arrows among them ; whereat 
our diftrefTed handful ofEnglifl) happily reco- 
vering their Arms, which they had laid by from 
the Moifture of the Weather, they vigoroufly 
difcharged their Muskets upon the Salvages, 
who aftonifhed at the ftrange EfTetts of fuch 
Dead-doing Things, as Powder and Shot, fled a- 
pace into the Woods •, but not one of ours was 
wounded by the Indian Arrows that flew like 
Hail about their Ears, and pierced through fun - 
dry of their Coats .• For which they returned 
their folemn Thanks unto God their Saviour ; 
and they call'd the place by the Name of, The 
Firft Encounter. From hence they coafted a- 
long. till an horrible Storm arofe, which tore 
their Veffcl at fuch a rate, and threw them into 
the midlt of fuch dangerous Breakers, it was 
reckoned little fhort of Miracle that they ef- 
caped alive. In the End they got under the Lee 
of a fmall If/and, where going Afhore, they 
kindled Fires for their fuccour againft the 
Wet and Odd •, it was the Morning before they 
found it was an Ifland, whereupon they rendred 
their Praifes to him, that hitherto had helped 
them-, and the Day following, which was, The 
LoriTsDay, the difficulties now upon them, 
did not hinder them from fpending it in the 
devout and pious Fxercifes of a Sacred Reft. 
On the next Day they founded the Harbour, 
and found it fit for Shipping; they vifited the 
Alain Land alio, and found it accommodated 
with pleafant Fields and Brooks ; whereof they 
carried an encouraging Report untotheirFriends 
on Board. So they refolved that they would 
here pitch their Tents ; and Sailing up to the 
Town of Plymouth [as with an hopeful Pro- 


Book I. 0r y The Htfiory of New-England. 

lepfis, my Reader (hall now call it ; for other- 
wife, by the Indians 'twas called, Patuxet ;] 
on the Twenty-fifth Day of December they 
began to ereft the Firfi Houfe that ever was in 
rhat memorable Town ; an Houfe for the gene- 
ral Enterrainment of their Perfons and Eftates : 
And yet it was not long before an unhappy Ac- 
cident burnt unto the Ground their Houfe, 
wherein fome of their principal Perfons then 
lay Sick ; who were forced nimbly to Fly out 

have foon annihilated this Poor Handful of 
Men, thus far already diminifhed. They faw 
no Indians all the Winter long, but fuch as at 
the firft Sight always ran away ; yea, they 
quickly found, that God had fo turned the 
Hearts of thefe Babarians, as more to fear, than 
to Hate his People thus calt among them. This 
bleffed People was as a lit tic tiock of Kids\ 
while there were many Nations of Indians left, 
ftill as Kennels of V/olves in every Corner of 

of the fired Houfe, or elfe they had been blown I the Country. And yet the little Nock fuftered 

up with the Powder then Lodged there. After 
this, they loon went upon the Building of more 
little Cottages -, and upon the fettling of good 
Laws, for the better Governing of fuch as were to 
Inhabit thole Cottages. They then refolved, that 
until they could be further ltrengthned in their 
Settlement, by the Authority of England, they 

no damage by thofe Rapid Wolves ! We may 
and fhould fay, This is the Lord's Doing, 'tir 
marvellous in our Eyes. 

But among the many Caufes to be ailigned 
for it, one was This. It was afterwards by 
Them confeffed, that upon the Arrival of the 
Englifh in thefe Parts, the Indians employ 'd 

would be governed by R#/W\r chofen from among 'their Sorcerers, whom they call Pcwaws, like 

themfelves, who were to proceed according to 
.the Laws of England, as near as they could, in 
the Adminiftration of their Government ; and 
fuch other By-Laws, as by Common Confent 
fhould be judged necefTary for the Circumftan- 
ces of the Plantation. 

§. 10. If the Reader would know, how thefe 
good People fared the reft of the Melancholy 
Winter; let him know, That befides the Ex- 
ercifes of Religion, with other Work enough, 
there was the care of the Sick to take up no lit- 
tle part of their Time. 'Twas a moft heavy 
Trial of their Patience, whereto they were cal- 
led the fit ft Winter of this their Pilgrimage, 
and enough to convince them, and remind them, 
that they were but Pilgrims. The Hardfhips 
which they encountred, were attended with, 
and productive of deadly Sicknejfes •, which in 
two or three Months carried off more than Half 
their Company. They were but meanly provi 
dedagainft thefe unhappy Sicknejfes • but there 
died fometimes Two, fbmetimes Three in a Day -, 
till fcarce Fifty of them were left alive ; and of 
thole Fifty, fbmetimes there were fcarce Five 
well at a time to look after the Sick. Yet 
their profound Submilfion to the Will of Gcd, 
their Chriftian Readinefs to help one another, 
accompanied with a joyful Aflurance of another 
and better World, carried them chearfully thro' 
the Sorrows of this Mortality: Nor was there 
heard among them a continual Murmur againft 
thofe who had by unreafonable Impojitions dri- 
ven them into all thefe Diftreffes. And there 
was this Remarkable Providence further in the 
Circumftances of this Mortality, that if a Dif- 
eaje had not more eafily fetcht lb many of this 
Number away to Heaven, a Famine would pro- 
bably have deftroy'd them all, before their ex- 
pected Supplies from Englandviere Arrived. But 
what a wonder was it that all the Bloody Sal- 
vages far and near did not cut off this little Rem- 
nant ! If he that once muzzled the Lions ready 
to devour the Man of Defires, had not Admira- 
bly, I had almoft faid, Miraculoufly reftrained 

Balaam, to Curfe them, and let loofe their De- 
mons upon them, to Shipwreck them, to Di- 
ftracf them, to Poifon them, or any way to 
Ruin them. All the noted Powam in the Coun- 
try fpent three Diys together in Diabolical 
Conjurations, to obtain the Affiftances of the 
Devils againft the Settlement of thefe our Eng- 
lift); but the Devils at length acknowledged un- 
to them, that they could not hinder thofe People 
from their becoming the Owners and Maflers of 
the Country; whereupon the Indians refolved 
upon a good Correfpondence with our New- 
Comers : and God convinced them, that there 
was no Enchantment or Divination againft fuch 
a People. 

§. 11. The doleful Winter broke up fooner 
than was ufual. But our crippled PLnters were 
not more comforted with the early advance of 
the Spring, than they were furpriz'd with the 
appearance of two Indians, who in broken 
Englifh bade them, Welcome Englifhmen! It 
feems that one of 7 thele Indians had been in the 
Eaftern Parts of New-England, acquainted with 
fome of the Englifh VelTels that had been for- 
merly Fifhing there ; but the other of the In- 
dians, and he from whom they had moft of 
Service, was a Perfon provided by the very 
lingular Providence of God for that Service. 
A moft wicked Ship-mafter being on this Coaft a 
few Years before, had wickedly Spirited away 
more than Twenty Indians -, whom having enti- 
ced them aboard, he prefently flowed them under 
Hatches, and carried them away to the Streights, 
where he fold as many of them as he could for 
Slaves. This avaritious and pernicious Felony 
laid the Foundation of grievous Annoyances to 
all the Englifh Endeavours of Settlements, espe- 
cially in the Northern Parts of the Land for 
feveral Years enfuing. The Indians would ne- 
ver forget ox forgive this Injury ; but when the 
Englijh afterwards came upon this Coaft, in 
their Fifiing-Voyages, they were ftill affaulted in 
an Hoflile manner, to the Killing ard Wound- 
ing of many poor Men by the angry Natives, in 

them, Thefe had been all devoured! Bur this i revenge of the wrong that had been done them-, 
People of God were come into a Wildcrnefs | and fome intended Plantations here were here- 
to Worjbip Him ; and fo He kept their Ene- j by utterly nipt in the Bud. But our good God 
nries fron? fuch Attempts, as would othefwife | {q order'd it, that one of the ftoln Indians, cal- 

G ' tei 


Magndia Chrijli Americana 

Book I. 

led Squanto, had efcaped out of Spain into 
England; where lie lived with one Mr. Slany, 
from whom he had found a way to return into 
his own Country, being brought back by one 
Mr. Dcrmer, about half a Year before our ho- 
neft Plymotheans were cafr. upon this Continent. 
This Indian (with the other) having received 
much Kindnefs from the Englifh, who he faw 
generally condemned the Man that firft betrayed 
him, now made unto the Englifh a return of 
that Kindnefs : And being by his Acquaintance 
with the Englifh Language, fitted for a Con- 
vention with them, he very kindly informed 
them what was the prcfent Condition of the 
other Indians 5 inftructed them in the way of 
ordering their Corn ; and acquainted them with 
many other things, which it was necefTary for 
them to underftand. But Squanto did for them 
a yet greater benefit than all this : For he 
brought Mafjttfoit, the chief Saebitn, or Prince 
of the Indians within many Miles, with fbme 
Scores of his Attenders, to make our People a 
kind Vifit ; the IfTue of which Vifit was, that 

the King of England ; into which Peace and 
Subjetlion many other Sacbims quickly after 
came, in the moft voluntary manner that could 
be exprelTed. It ieems this unlucky Squanto 
having told his Countrymen how ealie it was 
for fo great a Monarch as K. ]ames to deftroy 
them all, if they (hould hurt any of his People, 
he went on to terrifie them with a ridiculous 
Rhodomantado, which they Believed, that this 
People kept the Plague in a Cellar (where they 
kept their Powder) and could at their pleafure 
let it loofe to make inch Havock among them, 
as the Diftemper had already made among 
them a few Years before. Thus was the Tongue 
of a Dog made ufeful to a feeble and iickly Laza- 
rus ! Moreover, our, Eng/ifl) Guns, efpeciafly 
the great ones, made a formidable Report a- 
mong thefe Ignorant Indian? ; and the hopes of 
enjoying fbme Defence by the Englijh, againfi: 
the Potent Nation of \Narraganfel -Indians, now 
at War with thefe, mad : them yet more to 
Court our Friendship. Tl i vt ry ftrange Dif- 
pofition of things, was ex i amly advantageous 
Maffafoit not only eutred into a firm Agreement j to our diftrelfed Planters: And who fees not 
of Peace with the Eng/ijl.h but alio they decla- ] herein the fpecial Providence of the God who 
red and fubmitted themielves ro be Subjects of* l difpofetb all? 


Conatnur Tenues Grandia : Or, A Brief Account of the Difficulties, the Deliverances, and 
other Occurrences, thro' which the Plantation of New-Plymouth arrived, unto the Con* 
fifiency of a Colony. 

only three Days together-, no, for two or three 
Months together, they had no kind of Corn a* 
mong them : Such was the fcarcity, accompa- 
nied with the difproportion of the Inhabitants 
to the Provifions. However, Peter Martjr's 
Conclufion may be ours, With their Mi f cries 
this People opened a way to tbvfe new Lands, 
and afterwards other Men came to Inhabit them 
zvitb cafe, in refpeH oj the Calamities which 
thefe Men have fufjered. They were indeed 
very often upon the very point of Starving ; 
but in their fxttemity the God of Heaven al- 
ways furnifhed them with ibmefudden Reliefs •, 
either by cauiing fome Veffcls of Strangers oc- 
cafionally to look in upon them, or by putting 
them into a way to catch Fifh in fome convenient 
Quantitie^or by fome other furprizing Accidents ; 
for which they render'd unto Heaven the 
Solemn Thanks of their Souls. They kept in 
fuch good Working cafe, that befides their Pro- 
grefs in Building, and Planting, and Fijhing, 
they formed a fort of a Fort, wherein they kept 
a Nightly Watch for their fecurity againft any 
Treachery of the Indians ; being thereto awakened 
by an horrible M aflat re, which the Indians lately 
made upon feveral Hundreds of the Englifh in 

§. 2. In one of the firft Summers after their 
fitting down at Plymouth, a terrible Drought 
threatned the Ruin of all their Summers Huf- 
bandry. From about the middle of May to the 
middle of July, an extream hot Sun beat upon 


§. I. QEtting afide the juft and great Grief of 
O our new Planters for the immature 
Death of their Excellent Governour, fucceeded 
by the Worthy Mr. Bradford, early in the 
Spring after their firft Arrival, they fpent their 
Summer fbmewhat comfortably, Trading with 
the Indians to the Northward of their Planta- 
tation ; in which Trade they were nor a little 
affifted by Squanto, who within a Year or 
two Dy'd among the Engliff) ; but before his 
Death, defired them to Pray for him, That be 
might go to the Englilhman's God in Heaven. 
And befides the afliftance of Squanto, they had 
alfo the help of another Indian, called Hobbamok, 
who continued faithful unto the Englifh Inte- 
rests as long as he liv'd -, tho' he fometimesl 
went in Danger of his Life among his Coun- 
trymen for that Fidelity. So they jogg'd on till 
the Day Twelvemonth after their firft Arrival j 
when there now arrived unto them a good 
Number more of their old Friends from Hol- 
land, for the flrengtbenmg of their new Plan- 
tation : But inafmuch as they brought not a 
fuffkient ftock of Provifions with them, they 
rather weakened it, than (Lengthened it. 

If Peter Martyr could magnifie the Spani- 
ards, of whom he reports, They led a mifera- 
ble Life for three days together with parch- 
ed Grain of Maize only, and that not untofa- 
tiety ; what {ball 1 fay of our EngUfhmen, who 
would have thought a little parched Indian 
Corn a mighty Feafl ? But they wanted it, not 

Book I. Or, The Hiftory of New-England. 


then Fields, without any Rain, Co that all their l meddle with him. Thus was the beginning of the 
Corn began to Wither and Languilh, and feme Plot put by : But the whole Plot came another 

of it was irrecoverably parched up. In this 
Diltrefs they fee apart a Day for Rafting and 
Prayer, to deprecate the Calamity that might 
bring them to Fafting thro' Famine \ in the 
Morning of which Day there was no fign of a- 
ny Rain \ but before the Evening the Sky was 
overcalt with Clouds, which went not away 
without fuch eafie, gentle, and yet plentiful 
Showers, as reviv'd a great part of their decay'd 
Corn, for a comfortable Harvelt. The Indians 
themfelves took norice of this Anfwer given 
from Heaven to the Supplications of this De- 
vout People •, and one of them laid, Now I fee 
that the Englilhman'r God is a good God; for 
he hath heard you , and you Rain^ and that 

without fuch Tempefi and Thunder as we ufe 
to have with cur Rain ; ^bich after our Powaw- 
mgjor it, breaks doto/tibe Corn ; whereas your 
Ccrn Jlands whole and good fill ; furely,your 
God is a good God. The Harveji which God 
thus gave to this pious People, caufed them to 
fet apart another Day for Solemn Thankfgiv- 
ing to the glorious Hearer of Prayers ! 

§. 3. There was another molt wonderful Pre- 
Jcrvation, vouchfaf,d by God unto this little 

Knot of Chriftians. 
chant of good No 

One Mr. IVefton, a Mer- 
inrerefted at firft in the 

way to be atifcovered r.nd prevented. Majja 
foit, the Southern Sachim, tailing Sick, the Go- 
vernour of Plymouth defired a couple of Gen- 
tlemen, whereof one was that good Man, Mr, 
Winflow, to viiit this poor Sachim: Whom, 
after their lung Journey, they found lying at 
the point of Death with a Que of Hellilh Po- 
ivaws, ufing their ineffectual Spells and Howls 
about him to Recovet him. Upon the taking 
of fome Engltfh Phyfick, he prefently revived ; 
and thus regaining his loft Health, the Fees he 
Paid his Engltft Doclor were, A Confejfion of 
the Plot among fever al Nations of the Indians, 
to deflroy the Englilh. He faid, that they had 
in vain follicited him to enter into that 
bloody Combination ; but his Advice was, that the 
Governour of Plymouth (hould immediately take 
off the principal Alters in this Bufiriefs, where- 
upon the relt being terrify "d, would foon defifL 
There was a Concurrence of many rhings to 
confirm the Truth of this Information \ where- 
fore Captain Standifl) took Eight refolute Men 
with him to the IVeJhnian Plantation ; where 
pretending to Trade with the Indians, divers 
of the Confpirators began to Treat him in 3 
manner very Infolent. The Captain, and his 
little Army of Eight Men, (Reader, allow them 

Plymouth Defign, afterwards deferted it ; and in I for their Courage to be called fo) with a prodi 
the Year 1622, fent over two Ships with aboutl gious Refolution, prefently killed iome of the 
Sixty Men, to begin a Plantation in the Maf- 1 Chief among thefe Indians, while the reft, after 

Jachufet-Bay. Theft Beginners being well re 
frelhed at Plymouth, travelled more Northward 
unto a place known fince by the Name oflVey- 
mouth ; where thefe Weftonians , who were 
Church of England men, did not approve them- 
felves like the Plymotheans, a pious, honeft, 
induftrious People ; but followed fuch bad Cour- 
fes, as had like to have brought a Ruin upon 
their Neighbours, as well as themfelves. Ha- 
ving by their Idlcnefs brought themfelves to Pe- 
nury, they ftole Corn from the Indians, and ma- 
ny other ways provoked them ; although the 
Governour of Plymouth Writ them his very 
fharp difapprobarion of their Proceedings. To 
fatisfie the exafperated Salvages, divers of the 
Thieves were St ccAt and U r hipt, and one of them 
at laft put to Death by this miferable Compa- 
ny ; which did no other Service than to afford 
an occafion for a Fable to the Roguifh Hudi- 
bras, for all Accommodation was now too late. 
The Indians far and near entred into ^Con/pi- 
racy to cut off thefe abufive Englifh \ and leaft 
the Inhabitants of Plymouth fhould revenge that 
Excifion of their Countrymen, they refolv'd up- 
on the Murther of them alfo. In purfuance of 
this Plot, Captain Standijh^ the Commander of 
the Militia of Plymouth, Lodging on a Night, 
with Two or Three Men in an Indian Houfe, 
the Indians propofed that they might begin the 
Execution of their Malice by the Affaffination 
of the Captain, as loon as ever he fhould be 
fallen afleep. However, the watchful Providence 
of God lb ordered it, that the Captain could 
not Sleep all that Night ; and lb they durft not 

a fhort Combate, ran before him as fait as their 
Legs could carry them-, neverthelefs, in the 
midft of the Skirmifhes, an Indian Youth ran 
to the Englifh, defiring to be with them ; and 
declaring that the Indians waited but for their 
finithing Two Canoo's, to have furprized the 
Ship in the Harbour, and have Maffacred all 
the People ; which had been finilhed, if the 
Captain had not arrived among them juft in 
the nick of Time when he did : And an Indian 
Spy detained at Plymouth, when he law the 
Captain return from this Expedition, with the 
Head 0? a famous Indian in his Hand, then with 
a tain and frighted Countenance, acknowledged 
the whole Mifchief intended by the Indians a- 
gainlt the Englifl). Releafing this Fellow, they 
fent him to the Sachim of the Maffachufets, 
with Advice of what he muft look for, in Cafe 
he committed any Hoftility upon the Subjects 
of the King of England • whereof there was 
this Eftecf , that not only that Sachim hereby 
terrified, moft humbly begg'd for Peace, and 
pleaded his Ignorance of his Mens Intentions; 
but the reft of the Indians, under the fame Ter- 
ror, withdrew themfelves to Live in the un- 
healthful Swamps, which provd Mortal to ma- 
ny of them. One of the Weflonians was en- 
deavouring to carry unto Plymouth a Report 
of the Straits and Fears which were come up- 
on them, and this Man lofing his Way, faved 
his Life; taking a wrong Track, he efcaped 
the Hands of the Two Indians, who went on 
hunting after him ; however e're he reached 
Plymouth, care had been already taken for thefe 
C 2 wretched 


Magnalia Chrifli Americana : 

Book I. 

wretched Wejionians by the earlier and fuller 
Communications ol Maffafoit. So was the 
Peau. >■ ''/y mouth preferved, and fo the Wejio- 
riian Plantation broke up, went off, and cam.- 
to nothing: Altho' 'twas much wilhed by the 
Holy Rebinfon, that iome of the poor Heathen 
had been convened before any of them had 
bcui Slaughtered. 

§. 4. A certain Gentleman Df nothing in 
the following Story contradict that Name'] was 
employed in obtaining Irom the Grand Coun- 
cil of Plymouth and England, a Patent in the 
Name or thefe Planters for a convenient quan- 
tity of the Country, where the Providence of 
God had now dilpofed them. This Man 
fpe.iking one Word for them, ipake two for 
himfelj : And furrcptitioufly procured the Patent 
in his own Name, referving for himlelf and 
his Heirs an huge Tra£t of the Land ; and 
intending the Plymotheans to hold the reft as 
Tenants under him. Hereupon he took on Board 
many Pajfengers with their Goods ; but having 
Sailed no further than the Downs, the Ship 
fprang a Leak ; and beiides this DilTafter, 
which alone was enough to have ftopt the 
Voyage, one Strand of their Cable was acciden- 
tally cut 5 by which means it broke in a ftrefs 
of Wind; and they were in extream danger 
of being wrack'd up:m the Sands. Having with 
much .' a recruited chei) Lqfs, and encreafed 
the Numbei oi their Pajfen^-rs, they put out 
again to Sea; but after they had got half Way, 
one a the faddelt 3rd longeft Storms that had 
been known hnce ib f\iys of the Apoftle Paul, 
drove them heme t<, England again, with a VelTel 
well nigh rom to pieces, tho' the Lives of the 
IVole, which were above an Hundred, merci- 
fully preferved. This Man, by ill his tumbling 
backward and forward, was by this rime grown 
fo Sick of his Patent, that he vomited it up ; 
he 'aligned it over to the Company, but they 
afterwards obtained another, under the Umbrage 
whereof they could now more effectually car- 
ry on the Affairs of their New Colony. The 
Pafleugers went over afterwards in another 
Veflel : and quickly after that another Veilel of 
Paffengers alio m ed in the Country : Namely, 
in the Year ^023. Among thefe PaiTengers 
w re divers Worthy and Ufeful Men, who 
were come to jeek the We 'fare of this lit- 
tle lfrael ; tho ar their coming they were as 
ditferfiy affected, is the Kcbuilders of the Tem- 
ple at Jerufalem Some were grieved when 
they faw how bad the Circumftances of their 

were, and others were glad that they 

were no worje. 

§. 5. The Immature Death of Mr. Robin- 
Jon in Holland, wich many enfuing Difafters, 
hindred a great part of the Englifh Congregati- 
on at Ley den , from coming over to the Rem- 
nant here feparated from their Brethren. 
Hence it was, that altho' this Remnant of that 
Church were bleffed with an Elder fo apt to 
Teach, that he attended all the other Works 
of a Minifer ; yet they had not a Pajhr to 

Year 1629. when one Mr'.^Ralpb Smith under- 
took the Paltoral Charge of this Holy block. 
But long before that, namely, in the Year 
1624. the Adventurers in England., with whom 
this Company held a Correjpondeuce, did lend 
over unto them a Minifter, who did them no 
manner of good •, but by his Treacherous and 
Mifchievous Tiicks at laft utterly deftroyed 
that Correjpondence. The firft Neat-Cattel, 
namely, Three Heifers and a Bull, that ever 
were brought into this Land, now coming with 
him, did the Land certainly better Service than 
was ever done by him, who fufnciently forgot 
that Scriptural Emblem of a Minifter, The Ox 
Treading out the Corn. This Minifter at his 
lirft arrival did carets them with luch exii...!:i 
Showers of Afle&ion and Humility, that they 
were very much taken with him; nevcnhelels, 
within a little while, he ufed moft malignant 
tndeavours to make Pactions among them, and 
confound all their Civil and Sacred Order. 
At lalt there fell into the Hands of the Go- 
vernour his Letters home to England, fiiled 
with wicked and lying Peculations againft the 
People ; of which things being ihametully Con- 
vicfed, the Authority Sentenced him to be ex- 
pell'd the Plantation, only they allowed him 
to ftay Six Montbs,vt\th fecrct Refcrvations and 
Expectations to releafe him from that Sentence, 
if he approved himfelf found in the Repen- 
tance which he now expreiled. Repentance, 
1 fay ; for he did now publickly in the Church 
confeis with Tears, that the Cenfure of the 
Church war lefs than he dejerved •, he acknow- 
ledged, That he had flanderoufy abused the good 
People, and that God might juftly lay Inno- 
cent Blood to his Charge ; for he knew not 
what hurt might have come thro 1 his Writings ; 
for the Interception whereof he now blejfed 
God ; and that it had been his manner to pick 
up all the Evil that wo* ever fpoken againji 
the People ; but he fhut his Ears and Eyes a- 
gamft all the Good ; and that if God Jhould 
make him a Vagabond in the Earth, he were 
jull in doing fo ; and that thofc Three things^ 
Pride, Vain-glory, and Self-love, had been the 
Caujes of his Mifcarriages. Thefe things he 
uttered fo Pathetically, that they again permit- 
ted him to Preach among them ; and fome 
were fb periwaded of his Repentance, that 
they profefs'd they would fall down on their 
Knees, that the Cenfure pafs'd on him fhould 
be remitted. But, Oh the deceitful Heart of 
Man .' After Two Months time, he fb notori- 
ously renewed th« Mifcarriages which he had 
thus bewailed, that his own Wife, through 
her Affliction of Mind at his Hypocrifie, could 
not forbear declaring her Fears, that God would 
bring fbme heavy Judgment upon their Fami- 
ly, not only for thefe, but fbme former Wick- 
ednefles by him committed, efpecially as to 
fearful Breaches of the Seventh Commandment^ 
which he had with an Oath denied, tho' they 
were afterwards evinced. Wherefore upon the 
whole, being banifhed from hence, becaufe his 

difpence the Sacraments among them, till the Refidence here was utterly Inconfiftent with the 


Book I. Or, The Hiftory ^New-England. 

T "■ 

Life of this lnfin1$flantdtion ; he went into 
Virginia, where he fhortly after ended his own 
Life. Quickly after thefe Difficulties, the 
Company of Adventurers tor the fupport of this 
Plantation, became rather Adverfaries to it ; 
or at leaft, a, Be you warmed and filled; a few 
good Words were all the help they afforded 
ir • they broke to pieces, but the God of Hea- 
ven itill fupported it. 

§. 6. After thefe many Difficulties were thus 
a little futmounted, the Inhabitants of this 
Colony Profecuted their Affairs at fo vigorous 
and fuccefsful a rate, that they not only fell 
into a comfortable way, both of Planting and 
of Trading ; but . alio in a few Years there 
was a notable number of Towns to be feen fet- 
tled among them, and very confiderable Churches 
walking, to tar as they had attained, in the 
faith and Order of the Gofpel. Their Churches, 
riourifhed to coniiderably, that in the Year 
1642. there were above a dozen Minilters, and 
fome of thofe Minilters were Stars of the 
firft Magnitude, fhining in their feveral Orbs 
among them. And as they proceeded in the 
Evangelical Service and Worihip of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift, fo they proffered in their Secu- 
lar Concernments. When they firft began to 
divide their Lands, they wifely contrived the 
Divition lb, that they might keep clofe to- 
gether for their mutual Defence ; and then 
their Condition was very like that of the Ro- 
mans in the time of Romulus, when every Man 
contented himfelf with Two Acres of Land ; 
and as P/iny tells us, // was thought a great 
Reward for one to receive a Tint of Corn 
from the People of Rome, which Corn they al- 
fo pounded in Mortars. But fince then their 
Condition is marvelloufly altered and amended : 
Great farms are now feen among the Effe&s 
of this good Peoples Planting ; and in their 
fifhing, from the catching of Cod, and other 
Filh of lefs Dimenfions, they are fince paiTsd 
on to the catching of Whales, whofe Oil is j 
become a Staple-Commodity of the Country : 
Whales, I fay, which living and moving Iflands, 
do now find a way to this Coaft, where, 
notwithstanding the defptrate hazards run by 
the Whale-Caichers in their thin Whale-Boats, 
often torn to pieces by the ftroaks of thofe en- 
raged Monfters ; yet it has been rarely known 
that any of them have mifcarried. And 
within a few Days of my Writing this Para- 
graph, a Cow and a Calf were caught at Tar- 
mouth in this Colony ; the Cow was Fifty Five 
Foot long, the Bone was Nine or Ten Foot 
wide-, a Cart upon Wheels might have gone 
in at the Mouth of it ; the Calf was Twen- 
ty Foot long, for unto fuch vaft Calves, the 
Sea-Monfiers draw forth their Breajis. But 
Co does the good God here give his People 
to fuck the abundance of the Seas ! 

§. 7. If my Reader would have the Reli- 
gion of thefe Planters more exactly defcribed 
unto him ; after I have told him that many 
Hundreds of Holy Souls, having been ripened 
for Heaven under the Ordinances of God in 

I this Colony ; and having left an Example of 
■ wonderful Prayerfulnefs, Watch fulne is, Thank- 
I fuinefs, LUefulnefs, exacf Confciencioufnefs, 
Piety, Charity, Weanednefs from the things 
of this World, and Atrettion to the things 
that are above, are now at reft with the Blef- 
fed Jefus, whofe Names, tho' not Recorded in 
this Book, are yet entred in the Book of Life ; 
and I hope there are ftill many Hundreds of 
their Children, even of the Third and Fourth 
Generation, refolving to jollow them as they 
followed Chrift. I muft refer him to an ac- 
count given thereof by the Right Worfhipful 
EdwardW inflow, Efq-, who was for forne time 
the Governour of the Colony. He gives us 
to underftand, that they are entirely of the 
fame Faith with the Reformed Churches in 
Europe, only in their Church-Govermrn >it they 
are Endeavourous after a Reformation more 
thorough than what is in many of them • yet 
without any uncharitable Separation from them. 
He gives Inttances of their admitting to Com- 
munion among them the Communicants of the 
french, the Dutch, the Scotch Churches, meer- 
ly by Virtue of their being lb ; and fays, We 
ever placed a large difference between thofe 
that grounded their Praclice on the Word of 
God, tho differing from us in the Expofition 
and Underjlanding of it, and thofe that hated 
fuch Reformers and Reformation, and went on 
in Antichriftian Opposition to it,- and Perfecu- 
tion of it : After which, he adds, 'Tis true, 
we profefs and dejire to pratTtce a Separation 
from the World, and the Works of the World • 
and as the Churches of Chriji are all Saints 
by Calling, fo we defire to fee the Grace of 
God fhining forth (at lea/1 feemingly, leav- 
ing fecret things to God) in all we admit in- 
to Church-Fellowfhip with us, and to keep off 
fuch as openly wallow in the Mire of their 
Sins, that neither the Holy things of God, 
nor the Communion of Saints, may be leaven- 
ed or polluted thereby. And if any joining to 
us formerly, either when we lived at Leyden 
in Holland, or fince we came to New England, 
have with the Manifeftation of their faith, and 
Profejjion of Holinefs, held forth therewith 
Separation from the Church of England ; / 
have divers times, both in the one place, and 
in the other, heard either Mr. Rob in ton our 
Paf\or,or Mr. Brewfter our Elder, flop them forth- 
with, /hewing them that we required no fuch 
thing at their Hands ; but only to hold forth 
Faith in Chrift Jefus, Holinefs in the Fear 
of God, and Submijjion to every Ordinance and 
Appointment of God. Thus he. It is true 
there have been fome Varieties among this 
People, but ftill I fuppole the Body of them 
do with Integrity eipoufe and maintain the 
Principles upon which they were firft Eftablifh- 
ed : However, I muft without fear of offend- 
ing exprefs my fear, that the Leaven of that 
rigid Thing, they call Brownifm, has prevailed 
fometimes a little of the furrheft in the Ad- 
mini f rations of this Pious People. Yea, there 
was an Hour of Temptation, wherein the 



Magnolia Chrifli Americana : 

Book I. 

fondnefs of the People for the Prophecyings J 
of the Brethren, as they called thofe Exercifes ; 
that is to fay, the Preachments of thofe whom 
they calfd Gifted Brethren, produced thofe 
ptfqopragerrjQnts unto their Mimfters, that al- 
moft all the Mi/lifters left the Colony ; ap- 
prehending themlclves driven away by the 
Infuppoi table Neglect and Contempt, with 
which the People on this occaiion treated them. 
And this dark Hour of Eclipfe, upon the Light 
of the Gofpel, in the Churches of the Colony, 
continued until their Humiliation and Reformati- 
on before the Great Shepherd of the Sheep, who 
hath (ince then blelfed them with a Succejfton 
of as Worthy Munliers as mod in the Land. 
Moreover, there has been among them one 
Church, that have Zueftioned and Omitted the 
life of Infant- Baptifm ; neverthelefs, there be- 
ing many good Men among thofe that have 
been of this Perfwalion, I do not know that 
they have been Perfccuted with any harder 
Means, than thofe of kind Conferences to re- 
claim them. There have been alfo fbme un- 
happy Salaries, namely, Speakers and Seekers, 
and other fuch Energumens, [pardon me, Rea- 
der, that 1 have thought them io] which have 
given nggly Diliurbances to thefe Good-Spirited 
Men in their Temple-Work ; but they have 
not prevailed unto the Subveriion of the t'irji 

Some little Controverfus likewife have now 
and then arifen among them in the Admini- 
ftration of their Difcipline ■, but Synods then 
regularly called, have ufually and prefently put 
into Joint all that was apprehended out. Their 
chief Hazard and Symptom of Degeneracy, is in 
the Verification of that Old Obfervation, Reli- 
gio peperit Divitias, & Filia devoravit Matrem : 
Religion brought forth Profperity, and the 
Daughter deltroy'd the Mother. The one would 
expect, that as they grew in their Ejhites, 
they would grow in the Payment of their 
^it-rents unto the God who gives them 
Power to get Wealth, by more liberally fupporting 
his Alimfters and Ordinances among them^ the 
molt likely way to lave them from the moft 
miferable Apoflacy •, the neglecf whereof In 
fome former Years, began for a while to be 
punifhed with a fore Famine of the Word ■ 
neverthelefs, there is danger left the En- 
chantments of this World make them to forget 
their Errand into the Wilder nefs : And fome 
woful Villages in the Skirts of the Colony, be- 
ginning to live without the Means of Grace a- 
mong them, are ftill more Ominous Intimati- 
ons of the danger. May the God of New-Eng- 
land preferve them from fo great a Death ! 

§. 3. Going now to take my leave of this 
little Colony, that I may Converfe for a while 
with her Tounger Sifters, which yet have out- 
ftript her in growth exceedingly, and fo will 
now draw all the Streams of her Affairs into 
their Channels, \ ihall repeat the Counfel 
which their Faithful Robin/on gave the firft 
Planters of the Colony, at their parting from 
him in Holland. Said he, [to this purpofe.] 

' Brethren, We are now^ickiy to part from 
' one another ; and whether I may ever live to 
c fee your Faces on Earth any more, the God 
' of Heaven only knows 'But whether rhe 
' Lord have appointed that or no, I charge 
' you before God, and before his Bleifed An- 
"■gels, rhat you J allow me no further than you 
' have leen me/d/Aiic the Lord Jcjus Chnjl. 

' If God reveal any thing to you by any c- 
' ther Inftrument of hts, be as ready to receive 
1 it, as ever you were to receive any Truth by 
' my Minitiry ■ tor 1 am verily perl waded, i 
' am very confident tf . | hath mere Truth 
J yet to bceak torch of his Holy Word. 

' For my parr, 1 cannot fufficiemly bewail the 
' Condition of the Reformed Churches, who 
' are come ro a Period in K iligion ■ and will 
'go at prelent no further than She 'instruments 
' of their frit Reformation. TM Lutherans 
'can't be drawn to go bey . wh t Luther 
'faw: Whatever part of his Will our good 
' God has imparted amd revealed unto Calvin 
' they will rather Die than Embrace it. And 
' the Calvhrifi^ you fee, Hick fail where they 
' were left by that great Man of God, who yet 
^Jaw not all things. 

'This is a Miicry much to be lamented- 
' for tho' they were Blenaitig and Shining Lights 
' in their Times, yet they penetrated not into 
the whole Counfel of God • but were they 
'now living, rhey would be as willing to em- 
' brace further Light, as that which they firfi 
' received. I befeech you to remember it • it 
£ is an Article of your Church-Covenant, That 
' you wiil be ready to receive whatever 'Truth 
i Jha/i be made known unto you from the Writ- 
1 ten Word of God. Remmber that, and every 
| other Article of your molt Sacred Covenant. 
' But I muft herewithal exiiort you to take 
' heed what you receive as Truth; examine it, 
' confider it, compare it with the other Scrip- 
' tures of Truth, before you do receive it. For 
' it is not poifible the Chrijliau World fhould 
'come 16 lately out of fuch thick Antichrifti- 
' an Dqrknefs, and that Perfection of Know- 
' ledge fhould break forth at once. I muft al- 
' fo ad vile you to abandon, avoid and fhake off 
' the Name of Browmft : Ic is a meer Nick- 
i Name, and a Brand for the making of Reli- 
gion, and the Profeffors of Religion, odious 
' unto the Chrifuan World. Unto this End, I 
' fhould be extreamly glad, if fome Godly Mi- 
' nifter would go with you, or come to you, 
' before you can have any Company. For 
' there will be no d inference between the Vn- 
c conformable Minifters of England and you, 
' when you come to the practice of Evangeli- 
' cal Ordinances out of the Kingdom. And I 
' would with you by all Means to clofe with 
' the Godly People of England ; ftudy Union 
' with them in all things, wherein you can 
' have it without Sin, rather than in-the leaft 
' meafure to affect a Divifwn or Separation 
' from them. Neither would I have you loth 
' to take another Pa (lor befides my felf ; in as 

' much- 

Book I. Or, The Hiftory ^New-England. 


' much as a Flock that hath Two Shepherds 
1 is not thereby endangered, but fecured. 

So adding fome other things of great Con- 
fluence, he concluded moflt affectionately, 

commending his departing flock unto the 
Grace of God, which now I alfo do the Off 
fpring of that Holy block. 


Paulo Majora ! Or, The Efiays and Caufes which produced the Second, but largeji Colo- 
ny ^NEW-ENGLANDj and the manner wherein the Firft Church of this' 
New-Colony was gathered. 

k, i . t T 7" O R D S full of Emphafis, are thofe 
VV which my Reader may find Writ- 
ten by a Learned and Pious Minifter of the 
Church of England ; and I hope I may with- 
out offence tender to the Reader the Words 
oi'fucb an Author. 

'Some among us (writes he) are angry with 
' Calvin for calling Humane Rites, Tolerabiles 

< Ineptia* ; they will not at the great Day be 
^ fitch unto the rigorous Impofers, who made 
1 them the Terms of Communion. How will 

< you at that Day lift up your Faces before 
' your Matter and your Judge, when he fhall 
'demand of you, what is become of thofe his 
« Lambs which you drove into the Wildernefs 
' by needlefs Impofitions ? 

The Story of the Flocks thus driven into 
the Wildernefs has begun to be related : And 
we would relate it without all Intemperate 
Expreffions of our anger againft our Drivers, 
before whom the People muft needs go, as 
they did : It becomes not an Hiftorian, and it 
lefs becomes a Chnfiian, to be Pajfwnate.^ Ne- 
verthelefs, Poetry may dare to do fomething at 
the Defcription of that which drove thofe 
Drivers-, and with a few Lines fetch'd from 
the moft famous Epic Poem of Dr. Blackmore, 
we will defcribe the Fury. 

-A Fury crawl 'd from out her Cell, 

The Bloodieft Minifter of Death and Hell. 
A monjirous Shape, a foul and hideous Sight, 
Which did all Hell with her dire Looks affright. 
Huge full -gorged Snakes on her lean Shoulders 

And Death'* dark Courts with their loud hijjing 

tier Teeth and Claws were Iron, and her Breath 
Like Subterranean Damps, gave prefent Death. 
Flames worfe than Hell's, jhot from her Bloody 

And Fire ! and Sword ! Eternally Jhe cries. 
No certain Shape, no Feature regular, 
No Limbs didintl in th' odious Fiend appear. 
Her Squalid, Bloated. Belly did arife, 
SvjoU'n with black Gore to a prodigious Size : 
D if} ended vaftly by a mighty Flood 
Of flaughterd Saints, and conftant MartyrV 

A Monfter fo deform d, fo fierce as this, 
It fclf a Hell, nere Jaw the dark Abyfs! 
Horrow till now, the ugglieji Shape efteem'd, 
So much out-done, an harmlefs Figure feemd. 

Envy, andUate, and Malice blu/Vd to fee 
Them/elves Eclips'd by fuch Deformity. 
Her Feav'rilh Heat drinks down a Sea of Blood, 
Not of the Impious, /;/// the Juft and Good : 
'Gainff whom Jhe bums with unextinguifhd 

Nor can th' Exhaufhd World her Wrath af- 

It was PERSECUTION; a Fury 
which we confider not as poffefiing the Church 
of England, but as inlpiring a Party which 
have unjuftly Challenged the Name of the 
Church of England, and which, whenever the 
Church of England fhall any more encourage 
her Fall, will become like that of the Houfc 
which our Saviour faw Built upon the Sand. 

§. 2. There were more than a few attempts 
of the Engltfh, to People and Improve the 
Parts of New-England, which were to the 
Northward of New-Plymouth ; but the Defigns 
of thofe Attempts being aim'd no higher than 
the Advancement of fome Worldly Interelis a 
conftant Series of Difafters has confounded 
them, until there was a Plantation erefted up- 
on the nobler Defigns of Chriflianity • and 
that Plantation, tho' it has had more A'dver- 
faries than perhaps any one upon Earth; yet 
having obtained help from God, it continues 
to this Day. There have been very fine Set- 
tlements in the North-Eafi Regions ; but what 
is become of them ? I have . heard that one 
of our Minifters once Preaching to a Congre- 
gation there, urged them to approve themfelves 
a Religious People from this Confideration, 
That otherwife they would contradill the mam 
end of Planting this Wildernefs ■, whereupon 
a well-known Perfon, then in the Affembly, 
cry'd out, Sir, Tou are mifiaken, you think 
you are Preaching to the People at the Bay ; 
! our main End was to catch Fifh. Truly 
'twere to have been wifhed, that fomething 
more excellent had been the main End of 
the Settlements in that brave Country, which 
we have, even long fince the arrival of that 
more Pious Colony at the Bay, now feen dread- 
fully unfettled, no lefs than twice at leaft, by 
the Sword of the Heathen, after they had * 
been repleniihed with many Hundreds of Peo- 
ple, who had thriven to many Thoufands of 
Pounds ; and had all the force of the Bay too, 
to affift them in the maintaining of their Set- 
tlements. But the fame or the like inaufpi- 



Magnalia Chrifti Americana : 

Book J. 

other Perfons of Quality about London ; as, 
namtly, Sir Richard Saljonfiall, [faac Johnfon, 
Samuel Adderly, John Ven, Matthew Cradock, 
George Harwood, Increafe NoweL Richard Perry, 
Richard Bellingham, Natbanael Wright, Samuel 
Vaffal,Theophilus Eaton, Thomas Goff, Thma-s 
Adams, John Brown, Samuel Brown, Thomas 
Hutchings, William Yajjal. William Pinchon, 
and George Foxcraft. Thefe Perfons being af- 
fcciated unto the former, and having bought 
ef them all their Intereft in New-England afore- 
faid, now confuhed about fettling a Plantation 
in that Country, whither fuch as were then 
called Non-Conjomnfls, might with the Grace 
and Leave of the King make a peaceable Se- 
cejfion, and enjoy the Liberty and the Exercife 
of their own Perfwafions, about the Worfhip 
of the Lord Jefus Chrift. Whereupon Petition- 
ing the King to confirm what they had thus 
purchafed with a New Patent, he granted 
them one, bearing Date from the Year 1628. 
which give them a Right unto the Soil, 
holding their Titles of Lands, as of the Man- 
nor ot Eaft Greenwich in Kent, and in com- 

ci >* rhings attended many other Endeavours, 

to nnke Plantations upon fuch a Main End in 

feveral other Parts of our Country, before the 

Arrival of thoie by whom the Majfacbufet 

Colony was at lift formed upon more glorious 

Aims • All proving like the Habitations of the 

fooli (h curfed before they bad taken root. Of 

"all which CataWrophe's, I fuppofe none was 
more fudden than that of Monfieur Finch, 
vviicm in a Ship from France, trucking with 
the Malfachufet Natives ; thofe Bloody Sal- 
vages, coming on Board without any other 
Artm. but Knives concealed under Haps, im- 
mediately Burchered with all his Men, and 
fet the Ship on Fire. Yea, fo many Fatalities 
attended the Adventurers in their EtTays, that 
they began to fufpett, that the Indian Sorcerers 
had laid the place under fome Fafcination ; 
and that the Englifh could not profper upon 
fuch nchanted Ground, fo that they were 
aim it afraid of Adventuring any more. 

§ ?.. Several Perfons in the Weft of Eng 
land, h 1 ing by Fiihing-Voyages to Cape Ann, 
the No;r'nern Promontory of the Majfachufet- 

Bay, obtained forne Acquaintance with thofe j mon Socage. By this Carter they were em- 
Parts ■. the News of the good Progrefs made ' powered yearly to EleQ their own Governour, 
in the New Plantation of Plymouth, infpired j Deputy-Governour and Magilfrares ; as alfo 
the rcn wned Mr. White, Minifter ofDorcbefter, to make fuch Laws they fhoul I think fuitable 
t > prolecute me Settlement of fuch another I for the Plantation : But as an acknowledgment 
\ ntation here for the Propagation of Religion. I of their dependance upon England, they might 

This good Man engaged feveral Gentlemen a 
bour the Yeai 1624. in this Noble Defign •, and 
they employed a moft Religious, Prudent, 
Wonhv G itleman, one Mr. Roger Conant, in 
the G vernrnen of the Place, and of their 
Affairs upon -he Place; but thro' many Dif 
couragemeuts the Defign for a while almoft 
fell into the Ground That great Man greatly 
grieved hereat, wrote over to this Mr. Roger 
Con '•'/ that if he and three Honeft Men more 
would vet ftay upon the Spot, he would pro 
cj;c a fatent fer them, and fend them over 
Friends, Goods., Provifions, and what was ne- 
ceflary to alfift their Undertakings. Mr. Conant, 
then faking out a Scituation more Commodi- 
ous for a Town, gave his Three diiheartned 
C opinions to underlfand, that he did believe 
would make this Land a Receptacle for 
his People , and that if they fhould leave him, 
yet he would not ftir ; for he was confident he 
fhould not long want Company ; which Confi- 
dence of hiscaufed them to abandon the thoughts 
of leaving him. Well, it was not long before 
the Council ot Plymouth in England, had by 
a Deed bearing Date, March 19. 1627. Sold 
unto lome Knights and Gentlemen about Dor- 
cbe ter, viz. Sir Henry Rofwel, Sit John Young, 
1 mJA Soutbcott, John Humphrey, John En 
dicot, and Simon Whetcomb, and their Heirs 
and MTtgns,and their Alfociates for ever, that Part 
.-■t New-England which lyes between a great 
River cali'd Mcrimack, and a certain other 
R vet there cali'd Charles River, in the bot 
1 . ,1 ot the Majfacbufet-Bay. But fhortly after 
this 4 Mr. White brought the aforefaid Honoura- 
ble Perioris into an Acquaintance with feveral 

not make any Laws Repugnant unto thofe of 
the Kingdom ; and the Filth part of all the 
Oar of Gold or Silver found in the Territory, 
belong'd unto the Crown. So, foon after 
Mr. Cradock being by the Company chofen Go- 
vernour, they fent over Mr. Endicott in the 
Year 1628. to carry on the Plantation, which 
the Dorcbeftcr-Agents had lookt out for them, 
which was ar a Place called Nahumkeick. Of 
which place I have fomewhere met with an 
odd Obfervation, that the Name of it was 
rather Hebrew than Indian ; for CD^ni Na- 
hum, fignifies Comfort, and fn Keik, figni- 
fies an Haven ; and our Englifj not only found 
it an Haven of Comfort, but happened alfo to 
put an Hebrew Name upon it ; for they cali'd 
it Salem, for the Peace which they had and 
hoped in it ; and fo it is called unto this 

§. 4. An Entrance being thus made upon 
the Defign of Planting a Country of Englifb 
and Reformed Churches ; they that were con- 
cerned for the Plantation, made their Appli- 
cation to Two Non-Conformifts Minifiers, that 
they would go over to ferve the Caufe of God 
and of Religion in the beginning of thofe 
Churches. The one of thefe was Mr. Hig- 
ginfon, a Minifter in Leiceferfhire, filenced 
tor his Non-Conformity ; the other was Mr, 
Skclton, a Minifter of Lincolnffnre, fullering 
alfo for his Non-Conformity : Both of which 
were Men eminent for Learning and Virtue, 
and who thus driven out of their Native Coun- 
try, fought their Graves on the American- 
Strand, whereon the Epitaph might be inferi- 
bed that was on Scipio's, Ingrata Patria, ne 


Book I. Or, The tiiftory of New-England. 


Mortal quidem habebk Ojfa. Thefe Minifters 
came over to Salem., in the Summer of the 
Year 1629. and with thefe there came over 
a confiderable number of Excellent Chriftians, 
who no fooner arrived, but they fet themfelves 
.ibout the Church- Work, which was their 
Errand hither. 

'Tis true, there were two other Clergy-Men, 
who came over about the fame time ; never- 
thelefs, there has been very little Account given 
of their Circumlfances ; except what a certain 
little Narrative-Writer has offered us, by fay- 
ing, There were Tivo that began to hew Stones 
in the Mountains, for the Building of the Tem- 
ple here ; but when they f aw all forts of Stones 
would not Jit in the Building, the one betook 
himjelj to the Seas again, and the other to Till 
the Land\ for which caufe, burying all fur- 
ther mention of them among the Rubbifh, in 
the foundation of the Colony, we will proceed 
with our Story ; which is now to tell us, That 
the PaiTage of thefe our Pilgrims was attended 
with many Smiles of Heaven upon them. They 
were bleffed with a Company of honeft Sea- 
men ; with whom the Minifters and PalTengers 
conftantly fcrved God , Morning and Even- 
ing ; Reading, Expounding and Applying the 
Word of God, finging of His Praife, and 
fee king of His Peace; to which Exercifes 
they added on the Lord's Day two Sermons, 
and a Catechifmg : And fbmetimes they fet a- 
part an whole Day for Fafting and Prayer, to 
obtain from Heaven a good fucceft in their Voy- 
age, efpecially when the Weather was much 
againft them, whereto they had very. Remarka- 
ble Anfwers ; but the Seamen faid, That they 
believed thefe were the Firft Sea-Fa ft s that ever 
were kept in the World. At length, Per varios 
Cajris, per Tot Difcrimina Rerum, they Landed 
at the Haven of Reft provided for them. 

§. 5. The perfecuted Servants of God, under 
the Englijh Hierarchy, had been in a Sea of Ice 
mir.g'ed with fire-, tho' the Fire fcalded them, 
yet fuch Cake? of Ice were over their Heads, 
that there was no getting out : But the Ice was 
now broken, by the American Offers of a Re- 
treat for the pure Worfhippers of the Lord in- 
to a Wildernefs. 

The Report of theCftStttt granted unto the 
Governour and Company of the Maffachufet- 
Bay, and the Entertainment and Encouragement, 
which Planters began to find in that Bay, came 
with a, — Patriot, age, defere Sedes, and caufed 
many very defer ving Perfbns to tranfplant them- 
felves and their Families into New-England. 
Gentlemen of Ancient and Worfhipful Families, 
and Minifters of the Gofpel, then of great 
Fame at Home, and Merchants, Husbandmen, 
Artificers, to the Number of fome Thoufands, 
did for Twelve Years together carry on this Tranf- 
plantation. It was indeed a Banifhment, rather 
than a Removal, which was undergone by this 
glorious Generation, and you may be fure fuffi- 
ciently AffiiUive to Men of Eftate, Breeding 
and Converfation. As the Hazard which they 
ran in this Undertaking was of fuch Extraordt- 

narinefs, that nothing left than a ftrange and 
ftrong Impreffion from Heaven could have 
thereunto moved the Hearts of fuch as were in 
it ; fo the Expence with which they carried on 
the Undertaking was truly Extraordinary. By 
Computation, the Paffage of the Pcrfns that 
peopled New-England, colt at lea ft Ninety Five 
Thoufand Pound : The Tranfportation of their 
firft fmall Stock of Cat t el great and lmall, coft 
no lefs than Twelve Thoufand Poun.l, betides 
the Price of the Cattel themfelves : The Pro- 
vifions laid in for Subfiftence, till Tillage might 
produce more , coft Forty Five Thoufand 
Pounds-, the Materials for their firft Cottages 
coft Eighteen Thoufand Pounds ; their Arms, 
Ammunition and Great Artillery, coft Twenty 
Two Thoufand Pounds •, befides which Hundred 
and Ninety Two Thoufand Pounds, the Adven- 
turers laid out in England, what was not In- 
confiderable. About an Hundred and Ninety 
Eight Ships were employed in palling the Pe- 
rils of the Seas, ip the Accomplilhment of this 
Renowned Settlement ; whereof, by the way> 
but one mifcarried in thoie Perils. 

Briefly, The God of Heaven ferved as it 
were, a Summons upon the Spirits of His Peo- 
ple in the Englifh Nation ; ftirring up the Spi- 
rits of Thoufands which never law the Faces 
of each other, with a moft Unanimous Inclina- 
tion to leave all the Pleafant Accommodations 
of their Native Country, and go over a Terri- 
ble Ocean, into a more Terrible Defart, for the 
pure Enjoyment of all hx Ordinances. It is 
now Reafonable that before we pafsany further, 
theReafons of this Undertaking fhould be more 
exactly made known unto Pojierity, efpecially 
unto the Pofterity of thofe that were the Under- 
takers, left they come at length to Forget and 
Neglect the true Interejl of New-England* 
Wherefore I fhall now Tranfcnbe fome of them 
from a Manufcript, wherein they were then 
tendred unto Confideration. 

General Confiderations for the Plantation of 

' Firft, It will be a Service unto the Church 
' of great Confequence, to carry ihe Gofpel into 
' thofe Parts of the World, and Raife a Bulwark 
' againft the Kingdom of Antichrift, which the 
' Jcfuites labour to Rear up in all Parts of the 
f World. 

'■Secondly, Ail other Churches of Europe have 
' been brought under Defolations ; and it may be 
' feared that the like Judgments are coming up- 
' on Us ■, and who knows but God hath provided 
' this place to be a Refuge for many, whom he 
' means to fave out of the General DejlruRion. 

' Thirdly, The Land gtows weary of her In- 
' habitants, iniomuch that Man, which is the 
' moft precious of all Creatures, is here more 
' vile and bafe than the Earth he treads upon : 
{ Children, Neighbours and Friends, efpecially 
c the Poor, are counted the greateft Burdens, 
* which if things were right, would be the 
{ chief eft Earthly BUffings. 

D tfmriblfo 


Magnolia Chrifli Americana : 

Book I. 

' Fourthly, We are grown to that Intempe- 
c ranee in all Excefs of Riot, as nomeanEftate 
' almoft will fuftice a Man to keep Sail with 
'his Equals, and he that fails in it, mult live 
' in Scorn and Contempt : Hence it comes to 
' pafs, that all Arts and Trades are carried in 
' that Deceitful Manner , and Unrighteous 
' Courfe, as it is almoft Impoitible for a good 
' upright Man to maintain his conftant Charge, 
' and live comfortably in them. 

' Fifthly, The Schools of Learning and Reli- 
' gion are fo corrupted, as (belides the unfup- 
' portable Charge of Education,) moft Children, 
'even the Bert, Wkticft,and of the Fairelt Hopes, 
'are perverted, corrupred,and utterly overthrown, 
'by the multitude of evil Examples and Licenti- 
' ous Behaviours in theft Seminaries. 

' Sixthly, The whole Earth is the Lord's 
' Garden, and he hath given it to the Sons of 
' Adam, to be Tilled and Improved by them : 
' Why then ihould we Hand Starving here for 
' Places of Habitation, and in the mean time 
' furier whole Countries, as profitable for theufe 
'of Man, to lye wulte without any Improvc- 
' ment ? 

' Seventhly, What can be a better or nobler 
' Work, and more worthy of a Chrijh'an, than 
' to erect and fupport a reformed particular 
' Church in its Infancy, and unite our Forces 
' with luch a Company of Faithful People, as 

* by a timely Aiiiftance may grow Stronger and 
' Profper ; but for want of it, may be put to 
' great Hazards, if not be wholly Ruined. 

' Eighthly, If any fuch as are known to be 
'Godly, and live in Wealth and Prosperity 
' here, fhall foriake all this to join with this 
' Reformed Church, and with it run the Hazard 
'of an hard and mean Condition, it will be an 

* Example of great life, both for the removing 
c of Scandal, and to give more Life unto the 
t Faith of God's People in their Prayers for the 
c Plantation, and alio to encourage others to join 
' the more willingly in it. 

§. 6. Mr. tiigginfon, and Mr. Skelton, and 
other good People that arrived at Salem, in 
the Year 1629. refolved, like their Father 
Abraham, to begin their Plantation with calling 
on the Name oj the Lord. The great Mr. Hil- 
derfbam had adviled our firft Planters to agree 
fully upon their Form of Church Government, 
before their coming into K en.-England; but 
they had indeed agreed little further than in 
this general Principle, That the Reformation of 
the Church was to be endeavoured according to 
the written Word of God. Accordingly ours, now 
arrived at Salem, confulted with their Brethren 
at Plymouth, what Steps to take for the more 
«xafct Acquainting of themfelves with, and Con- 
forming themfelves to, that writtenWord: And 
the Plymotheans, to their great Satisfaction, 
laid before them what Warrant, they judged, 
that they had in the Laws of our Lord Jefus 
Chrift, for every Particular in their Church Order. 
Whereupon having the Concurrence and 
Countenance of their -Deputy Governour, the 
Worlhipful John Endicot, Efq; and the ap- 

proving Prefence of MelYengers from the Church 
of Plymouth, they fet apart the Sixth Dav of 
Augujt, after their Arrival, for Faffing and Pray- 
er, Kox the fettling of a Church-State among them, 
and for their making a Confeffion of their Fai;h, 
and entering into an Holy Covenant, whereby 
that Church-State was formed. 

Mr. tiigginfon then became the Teacher, and 
Mr. Skelton the Paftor, oftheChurch thus con- 
ftituted at Salem ; and they lived very peaceably 
in Salem togethet, till the Death of Mr. tiig- 
ginfon, which was about a Twelvemonth af- 
ter, and then of Mr. Skelton^ who did not long 
furvive him. Now the Covenant whereto thele 
Chriflians engaged themfelves, which wss about 
Seven Years after folemnly renewed among 
them, I fhall here lay before all the Churches 
of God, as it was then exprefild and inforced. 

We Covenant with our Lord, and one with 
another; and we do Bind our f elves in the pre- 
fence of God, to walk together in all his Ways, 
according as he is pleafed to reveal him/elf unto 
us in his bleffed Word of Truth ; and do expli- 
cit ely, in the Name and Fear of God, prof efs and 
protefi to walk as folloioetf\ thro" the Power and 
Grace of our Lord Jefus Chrifi: 

We Avouch the Lord to be our Gcd, and our 
fehes to be his People, in the truth andfimplici- 
ty of cur Spirits. 

We Give our f elves to the Lord Jejus Chrifli 
and the Word of his Grace for the Teaching, 
Ruling and SanUifying of us in Matters of 
Worfhip and Converfation, rejolving to cleave 
unto him alone for Life and Glory, and to re- 
jell all contrary Ways, Ctcno/ts 3 and Confuta- 
tions of Men in his Worffip. 

We Promije to walk with our Brethren, with 
all Watchfulnejs and Tendcrnejs, avoiding Je- 
loufies and Suj'picions, Back-hitings, Cent- 
rings, Provokings, fecrct Rifings of Spirit a- 
gainft them ; but in all Offences to follow the 
Rule of our Lord Jefus, and to bear and for- 
bear, give and forgive, as he hath taught us. 

In Publick or Private, zve will willingly Do 
nothing to the Offence of the Church \ but will be 
willing to take Advice for our f elves and ours, 
as occafion fhall be prejentcd. 

We will not in the Congregation be forward 
either to fjjow our own Gifts and Parts in Speak- 
ing or Scrupling, or there difcover the Weak- 
nefs or Failings of our Brethren ; but attend an 
orderly Call thereunto, knowing how much the 
Lord may be difhonoured, and his Gofpcl, and 
the Profejfton of it, flighted by our Dificmpers 
andWeakneffes in Publick. 

We Bind our f elves to ffudy the Advancement 
of the Go/pel in all Truth and Peace ; both in 
Regard of thofe that are within or without ; no 
way flighting our Sifier Churches, but uftng 
their Counfel, a* need fhall be ; not laying a 
Stumbling-block before any, no, not the Indians^ 
whofe good we defire to promote ; and fo to con- 
verfe,as we may avoid the very appearance of Evil. 

We do hereby promije to carry our J elves in all 
lawful Obedience to thofe that are over m, in 
Church or Commonwealth , knowing how well-plea- 


Book I. 0r 3 The Hiftory ^New-Endand. 

fing it will be to the Lord., that they fhould have 1 
Encouragement in their F 'laces, by our not grie- 
ving their Spirits thro' our Irregularities. 

We Refolve to approve our f elves to the Lord 
in our particular Callings ; ftunning Idlenefs, 
as the Bane of any State-, nor will we deal hard- 
ly or opprefjingly with- any, wherein we are the 
Lord's Stewards. 

Promifing alfo unto our beft Ability to Teach 
our Children and Servants the Knowledge of 
God, and of His Will, that they may ferve Him 
alfo ; and all this not by any ftrength of our own, 
but by the Lord Chrift ; whofe Blood we defire 
may jprinkle this our Covenant made in His 

By this Infirument was the Covenant of 
Grace Explained, Received, and Recognized, 
by the Firft Church in this Colony, and applied 
unto the Evangelical Defigns of a Church-Eftate 
before the Lord: This Instrument they after- 
wards often read over, and renewed the Conjent 
of their Souls unto every Article in it ; efpeci- 
ally when their Days of Humiliation invited 
them to lay hold on particular Opportunities 
for doing fo. 

So you have feen the Nativity of the Firft 
Church in the Maffachufet-Colony. 

§.7. As for the Circumftances of Admijfion 
into this Church, they left it very much unto 
the Difcretion and Faithfulnefs of their Elders, 
together with the Condition of the Perfons to 
be admitted. Some were admitted by expreffing 
their Confent unto their Confeffion and. Covenant ; 
fome were admitted after their firft Anfwering 
to Queflions about Religion, propounded unto 
them ; fome were admitted, when they had 
prefented in Writing fuch things, as might give 
SatisfaUion unto the People of God concerning 
them ; and fome that were admitted, Orally ad- 
dreifed the People of God in fuch Terms 3 as 
they thought proper to ask their Communion 
with ; which Diverfity was perhaps more Beau- 
tiful, than would have been a more Punctilious 
Uniformity: But none were admitted without 
regard unto a Blamelefs and Holy Converfg- 
tion. They did all agree with their Brethren of 
Plymouth in this Point, That the Children of 
the Faithful were Church- Members, with their 
Parents ; and that their Baptifm was a Seal 
of their being fo ; only before their admifiion 
to Fellowfhip in a Particular Church, it was 
judged Neceffary, that being free from Scandal, 
they fhould be examined by the Elders of «the 
Church, upon whofe Approbation of their Fit- 
nefs, they fhould Publickly and Perlbnally own 
the Covenant ; fo they were to be received unto 
the Table of the Lord : And accordingly the 
Eldeft Son of Mr. Higginfon, being about Fif- 

teen Years of Age, and laudably Anfwering all 
the Characters expe£ted in a Communicant, was 
then fo Received. 

§. 8. It is to be Remembred, that fome of 
the PaiTengers, who came over with rhofe of our 
firft Salemites, obferving that the Minifters did 
not ufe the Book of Common-Prayer in their Ad 
miniftrations ; that they Adminiftred the Bap 
tifm and the Supper of the Lord, without any 
unfcripturalC^m^/Vr • that they refolved up- 
on ufmg Difcipline in the Congregation againft 
Scandalous Offenders, according to the Word 
of God; _ and that fome Scandalous Perfons had 
been denied AdmiJJion into the Communion of 
theChutch; they began ( Erankford-Y^xon) 
to raife a deal of Trouble hereupon. Herodiand 
Malitia, nafcentem pcrjequi Religionem ! Of 
thefe there were efpeciallv Two Brothers ; the 
one a Lawyer, the other a Merchant, both 
Men of Parts, Eftate and Figure in the Place. 
Thefe gather'd a Company together, feparate 
from the publick AlTembly ; and there the 
Common-Prayer-Worfhip was after a fort up- 
held among fuch as would refort unto them. 
The Governour perceiving a Difturbance to 
arife among the People on this Occafion, fent 
for the Brothers ; who accufed the Minifters, 
as departing from the Orders of the Church of 
England ; adding, That they were Separatifts, 
and would be fhortly Anabaptifts; but for them- 
felves, They would hold unto the Orders of the 
Ciwrch of England. The Anfwerofths Mini- 
ifters to thefe Accufations, was, That they were 
neither Separatifts nor Anabaptifts -, that they 
did not feparate from the Church ^/"England, nor 
from the Ordinances of God there, but 'only 
from the Corruptions and Diforders of that 
Church: That they came away from the Common- 
Prayer and Ceremonies, and had fuffered much 
for their Non-conformity in their Native Land; 
and therefore being in a place where they might 
have their Liberty, they neither could nor 
would ufe them , inafmuch as they judged the 
Impofitwn. of thefe things to be a ftnful Viola- 
tion of the Worfhip of God. The Governour, 
the Council, the People, generally approved of 
the Anfwer thus given by the Minifters ; but 
thefe Perfons returned into England with very 
furious Threatnings againft the Church thus 
Eftablifhed , however the threat ned Folks have 
lived fo long, that the Church has out-lived the 
grand CUmaSerical Year of Humane Age ; it 
now Flourifhing more than Sixty-three Years 
after its firft Gathering under the PaftoralCare 
of a moft Reverend and' Ancient Perfon, even 
Mr. John Higginfon, the Son of that excellent 
Man who laid the Foundations of that So- 




Magnalta Chrijii Americana : 

Book I. 


Peregrini Deo Curs : Or, The Progrefs of the New-Colony ; with fome Account of th 
Perfons, the Me. hods,, and the Troubles, by which it came to Something. 


§. i. '"T~ v H E G over now and Company of the 
jL Mafachufct-Bay then in London, did 
in the Year 1629. after exact and mature De- 
bates, Conclude, that it was moft Convenient 
for the Government, with the Charter of the 
Plantation, to be transferred into the Plantation 
it felf ; and an Order of Court being drawn up 
for that End, there was then Cholen a New 
Governour, and a New Deputy-Governour, 
that were willing to remove themfelves with 
their Families thither on the firlt Occafion. 
The Governour was John Wintbrop, Efq; a 
Gentleman of that Wifdom and Virtue, and 
thofe manifold Accompliihmer.ts, that After- 
Generations muft reckon him no lefs a Glory y 
than he was a Patriot of the Country. The 
Deputy-Governour was Thonuu Dudley, Efq; 
a Gentleman, whofe Natural and Acquired 
Abilities, joined with his excellent Morcti Qua- 
lities, Entitled him to all the great Refpecfs 
with which his Country on all Opportunities 
treated him. Several moft Worthy AJfijhnts 
were a: the fame time chofen to be in this 
Transportation ; moreover, feveral other Gen- 
tlemen of prime Note, and feveral famous Mi- 
■mfiers of the Gofpel, now likewife embarked 
themfelves with theft Honourable Adventurers : 
Who Equipped a Fleet, confiding of Ten or 
Eleven Ships, whereof the Admiral was, The 
Arabella (fo called in Honour^of the Right 
Hon urable the Lady Arabella Johnfon, at this 
time on Board) a Ship of Three Hundred and 
Fifty Tuns-, and in fome of the laid Ships there 
were Two Hundred Paffengers ; all of which Ar- 
rived before the middle ot July\ in the Year 
167,0. iafe in the Harbours of New-England. 
There was a time when the Britiil) Sea was 
by Clements, and the other Ancietrs, called, 
'messy®* i)rif&r@-j The ttnpajfable'Qcea/i. What 
then was to be thought of the vaft AYlantick Sea. 
on the Weftward of Britain ? But this Ocean 
mull now be faffed I An Heart of Stone muft 
have diffolved into Tears at the AifecTionate 
Farcwel, which the Governour and other Emi- 
nent Perfons took of their Friends; at a Feajf 
which the Governour made for them, a little 
before their going off; however they were 
acted by Principles that could carry them thro' 
Tears zn&Occans ■ yea, thro' Oceans oi' Tears : 
Principles that enabled them to leave, Dufcfd 
Limind, alq-, amabilem Larcm, quern iff paren 
turn memoria, atq-, ipfius (to ufe Stupim words) 
Infamix Rudiment a Confirmant. Some very 
late Geographers do aflure us, that the Breadth 
of the Atlantick Sea is commonly over-reckoned 
by Six, by Eight, by Ten Degrees. Bur Jet that 
Sea be as narrow as they pleafe, I can allure the 
Reader the palling of it was no little Trial 
unto thofe worthy People that were now to 
pafs it. 

§. 2. But the moft notable Circumftance in 
their Farcwel, was their Compofing and Pub- 
lishing of what they called, The humble requeji 
of His Mafe flics Loyal Subjecls, the Governour 
and Company lately gone for New-England, 
to the reft of their Brethren in and of the 
Church of England ; for the obtaining of their 
Prayers, and the removal of Sufpicions and 
MiJconfiruSions of their Intentions. In this 
Addreis of theirs, notwithftanding the trouble 
they had undergone for defiring to fee the Church 
of England Reformed of feveral things, which 
they thought its Deformities, yet they now cal- 
led the Church of England their Dear Mother - y 
acknowledging that fuch Hope and Part as they 
h ad obtained in the Common Salvation they had 
fucked from her Breafls \ therewithal entreating 
their many Reverend Fathers and Brethren to re- 
commend them unto the Mercies of God, in 
their conftant Prayers, as a Church now fpring- 
ing out of their own Bowels. Ton are not Igno- 
rant f foid they J that the Spirit of God fttrred 
up the Apoflle Paul, to ?nake a continual ?nenti- 
on of the Church at Philippi, which was a Co- 
lony from Rome -, let the fajhe Spirit, we be- 
feech you, put you in Mind, that are the Lord's 
Remembrancers, to pray for t/s without ceafing, 
who are the weak Colony from your J elves. And 
after fuch Prayers, they Concluded, What Good- 
nefs you fhall extend unto us, in this or any 0- 
ther Chrijiian Kindnefs, zoe your Brethren in 
Chriji fhall Labour to Repay, in what Duty we 
are or fhall be able to perform ; promifmg fo 
far as Godjhall enable its, to give him nerefl on 
your Behalf s ; wiflimg cur Heads and Hearts may 
be Fountains of Tears for your everlafling 
Welfare, when Txtfbalt be in our Poor Cottages 
in the Wiliernefs, overfnaduwed with the Spirit 
of Supplication, thro the manifold Neccffities 
and Tribulations, which may no; altogether un- 
cxpetlcdly, nor we hope unprofitably, bcfal 

§. 3, Reader, If ever the Charity of a Right 
Chriftian, and Enlarged Soul, were exemplarily 
feen in its proper Expanfions, twas in the Ad- 
drefs which thou haft now been Reading : 
But if it now puzzel the Reader to Reconcile 
thefe Pafiages with the Principles declared, the 
Practices followed, and the Pnfecu/ions under- 
gone, by theie American Reformers, let him 
know, that there was more trrtrrforle Dijtimlion, 
whereof rKe'fe excellent Perfons were not Igno- 
rant. Firft, They were able to Diftinguifh be- 
tween the Church of England, as it contained 
the whole Body of the Faithful , fcattered 
throughout the Kingdoms, tho' of different 
Perfwafions about fome Rites and Modes in Re- 
ligion ; many Thoufands of whom our Nor- 
Angles knew could comply with many things, 
to which our Confidences otherwise enlightned 


Book I. 0r y The Hiftory 0^ New-England. 


and perfwaded could not yeild fuch a Compli- 
ance : And the Church of England, as it was 
confined unto a certain Conftitution by Canons, 
which pronounced Ipfo Fatlo, Excommunicate 
all thoie who fhould affirm that the Worfhip 
contained in the Book or Common Grayer, and 
Admimfrations of Sacraments, is unlawful, or 
that any of the Thirty Nine Articles are Er- 
roneous, or that any of the Ceremonies com- 
manded by the Authority of the Church might 
not be Approved, Ufed and Subfcribed ; and 
which will have to be Accurfei all thofe, who 
maintain that there are in the Realm any other 
Meetings, Affemblies or Congregations of the 
King's Born Subjects, than fuch as by the Laws 
of the Land are allowed, which may rightly 
Challenge to themfelves the Name of True and 
Lawful Churches : And by which, all thofe 
that refute to Kneel at the Reception of the 
Sacrament, and to be prefent at Publick Pray- 
ers, according to the Orders of the Church, 
about which there are prefcribed many Forma- 
lities of Refponfes, with Bowing at the Name of 
3&fU& ate to be denied the Communion ; and 
all who dare not fubmit their Children to be 
Baptized by the Undertaking of God-Fathers, 
and receive the Crojs as a dedicating Badge of 
Chriflianity, mud not have Baptifm for their 
Children: Befides an Et Cetera of how many 
more bnpofitions ! Again-, they were able to 
diftinguilh between the Church of England, as 
it kept the true DoUrine of the Protejfant 
Religion, with a Difpofition to purfue the Re- 
formation begun in the former Century, among 
whom we may Reckon fuch Men, as the fa- 

laid afide. If any of thofe envious Brcthrcr. 
do now call thefe Diffenters, as not very long 
fince a great Prelate in a Setmon did, The Ba- 
Jiards of the Church oj England, I will not make 
the Return which was made upon it by a Per- 
fon of Quality then preient ; but inftead there- 
of humbly, Demand, who are the Truer Sons 
to the Chutch of England; they that hold all 
the Fundamentals of Chriflianity embraced by 
that Church, only Queltioning and Forbearing 
a few Bifciplinary Points, which are confclTed 
Indifferent by the greateft Zealots for them -, 
or they that have made Britain more unhabi- 
table than the Torrid Zone ? For the poor Non- 
Conformijis, by their hot preffing of thofe //;- 
difli'rencies, as if they had been the only Ne- 
cejfaries, in the mean time utterly fubvetting 
trie Faith in the important Points of Predejli- 
nation, Free-will, Juflificalion, Perfeverance, 
and fome other things, which that Church re- 
quires all her Children to give their Affcnt and 
Confent unto? If the Former-, then^ fay I, the 
Firlf, Planters of New England were Truer Sons 
to the Church of England, than that part of the 
Church, which, then by their mifemploying 
their heavy Church-keys, banifhed them into 
this Plantation. And indeed, the more Genu- 
ine among the moft Conformable Sons of the 
Church, did then accotdingly vvilh all Profpe- 
rity to their New-Englifl) Brethren -, in the 
Number of whom I would particularly Reckon 
that faithful Man, Mr. Edward Symons, Mini- 
fter of Rayn in Ejjex • who iri a Difcourfe 
printed Anno 1637, does tnu s Exprefs himfelf, 
Many now promife to them) elves nothing but 

mous AJfembly oj 'Divines atWefminfter^whozlllfuccejfJive Happinefs at New-England; which 

but Eight ox. Nine, and the Scots, had before then ' 

lived in Conformity ; and the Church of England, 

as limiting that Name unto a certain Fattion, 

for a time, thro' God's Mercy, they may enjoy ; 

and I pray God, they may a long time, but in this 

, World there is no Happinefs perpetual. Nor 

who together with a Difcipline very much Vn \ would I on this Occafion leave unquoted fome 

notable Words of the Learned, Witty, and 

Famous Dr. Fuller, in his Comment on Ruth, 

Page 16. Concerning our Brethren tvhichoflate 

left this Kingdom, to advance a Plantation in 

New-England, / think the Counfel beji, that 

King Joalh prefcribed unto Amaziah, Tarry at 

Home : let as for thefe that are already gone, 

far be it from us to conceive them to be fuch, 

to whom we may not fay, God fpeed : But let us 

Pity them, and Pray for them. I conclude of the 

two Englands, what our Saviour faith of the 

two Wines, No Man having talted of the Old, 

prefently defireth the New ; for he faith, The 

Old is better. 

§. 4. Being happily arrived at New-Eng-. 
land, our new Planters found the difficulties of 
a rough and hard Wildernefs prefently affaulting 
them : Of which the worft was the Sicklinefs 
which many of them had contracted by their 
other difficulties. Of thole who foon dy'd af- 
ter their firft Arrival, not the leaft confiderable 
was the Lady Arabella, who left an Earthly Pa- 
radice in the Family of an Earldom, to Encoun- 
ter the Sorrows of a Wildernefs, for the Enter- 

fcriptural, vigoroufly profecuted the Tripartite 
Plot of Ar mini anifm and Conciliation with Rome, 
in the Church, and unbounded Prerogative in 
the State ; who fet themfelves^to Cripple as faff 
as they could the more Learned, Godly, Painful 
Minifters of the Land, and Silence and Ruin 
fuch as could not Read a Book for Sports on the 
Lord's Days-, or did but ufe a Prayer of their 
own Conceiving, before or after Sermon • or 
did but Preach in an Afternoon, as well as in 
a Morning, or on a Leilure, or on a Market, 
or in aniwife difcountenance Old Superftitions, 
or New Extravagancies ; and who at laft threw 
the Nation into the lamentable Confufions of a 
Civil War. By the Light of this Dijiin&ion, 
we mayeafily petceive what Church of England 
it was, that our New- England Exiles called, 
Their Mother ; though their Mother had been 
fo hard) to them, as to turn them out of Doots, 
yet they highly honoured Her -, believing that 
it was not 16 much their Mother, but fome of 
their angry Brethren-, abufing the Name of their 
Mother, who fo harihly treated them ; and all 
the harm they wilhed her, was to fee her put 
off thofe III Trimmings, which at her firft coming 
©ut of the Popifh Babylon, fhe had nor fo fully 

tainments of a pure Worfhip in the Houfe of 
God -, and then immediately left that Wilder - 



Magnolia Cbrifli Americana : 

Book I. 

nefs for the Heavenly Paradife, whereto the 
Companionate Jefus, ol whom Ihe was a Fol- 
lower, called her. We have Read concerning a 
Noble Woman of Bohemia, who forfook her 
Friends, her Plate, her Houfe and All ■, and be- 
caufe the Gates of the City were Guarded, crept 
through the Common-Sewer, that ihe might 
enjoy the Inflitutions of our Lord at another 
Place where they might be had. The Spirit 
which afted that Noble Woman, we may fup- 
pofe carried this Bleffed Lady thus to and thro' 
the Hardfhips of an American Defart. But as 
for her Virtuous Husband, Ifaac John/on, Efq-, 

-He tty'd 

by the Lord Deputy of belaud fenr hither, al- 
tho* he did not know the Neceffyies of the 
Country, to which he fent her ; and if he had 
known them, would have been thought as un- 
likely as any Man living to have helpt them : 
In thefe Extremities, 'twas marvellous to lee 
how Helpful thefe good People were to one a- 
nother, following the Example of their moft 
liberal Governour Winthrop, who made an e- 
qual Diftribution of what he had in his own 
Stores among the Poor, taking no thought for 
to Morrow ! And how Content they were ; 
when an Honeft Man, as I have heard, invi- 
ting his Friends to a Diih of Gams, at the Ta- 
ble gave Thanks to Heaven, who had given 
them to fuck the abundance of the Seas, and oj 
the Treafures hid in the Sands I 

Another thing that gave them no little Ex- 
ercife, was the fear of the Indians, by whom they 
were fometimes Alarm d. But this Fear was 
wonderfully prevented, not only by Inteftme 
Wars happening then to fall out among thole 
Barbarians, but chiefly by the Small-Fox, which 
prov'd a great Plague unto them, and particu- 
larly to one of the Princes in the Majjacbufet- 
Bay, who yet feemed hopefully to be Chnfti- 
aniz'd before he Dy'd. This Diftemper get- 
ting in, I know not how, among them, fwept 
them away with a moft prodigious Defolation, 
infbmuch that altho' the Englifh gave them all 
the affiftances of Humanity in their Calamities, 
yet there was, it may be, not One in Ten a- 
mong them left alive, of thole few that liv'd ; 
many alfo fled from the Infection, leaving the 
Country a meer Golgotha of unburied Carca- 
fes ; and as for the reft, the Englijl? treated 
them with all the Civility imaginable; among 
the Inltances of which Civility, let this be 
reckoned for One, that notwith {landing the Pa- 
tent which they had for the Country, they fair- 
ly purchafed of the Natives the feveral Trails 
of Land which they afterwards pojfejfed. 

§. 6. The People in the Fleet that arriv'd at 
New-England, in the Year 1630, left the Fleet 
almoft, as the Family of AW; did the Ark, ha- 
ving a whole World before them to be peo- 
pled. Salem was already fupplied with a com- 
petent Number of Inhabitants ; and therefore 
the Governour, with moft of the Gentlemen 
that Accompanied him in his Voyage, took 
their firft Opportunity to profecute further Set- 
tlements about the bottom of the Maffacbufet- 
Bay : But where-ever they fat down, they weje 
fo mindful of their Errand into the Wilder- 
nefs, that ftill one of their Fir ft Works was to 
gather a Church into the Covenant and Order 
of the Golpel. Firlt, There was a Church thus 
gathered at Charles-Town, on the North fide of 
Charles's River ^ where keeping a Solemn Faft 
on Augufl 27. 1630, to Implore the ConducF 
and Bleffing of Heaven on their Ecdefiaftical 
Proceedings, they chofe Mr. Wiljon, a moft 
Holy and Zealous Man, formerly a Mini'fter 

To Live without her, lik'd it not, and Dy'd. 

His Mourning for the Death of his Honourable 
Confort was too bitter to be extended a Tear -, 
about a Month after her Death, his enfued, un- 
to the extream lofs of the whole Plantation. 
But at the End of this per fed and upright Man, 
there was not only Peace, but Joy ; and his Joy 
particularly exprelTed it felf, That God had kept 
his Eyes open fo long as to fee One Church of 
the Lord J ejus Cbrift gathered in thefe Ends 
oj the Earth, before his own going away to Heaven. 
The Mortality thus threatning of this New Planta- 
tion, To enlivened the Devotions of this good Peo- 
ple, that they let themfelves by Fafting and Prayer 
to obtain from God the removal of it ; and 
their Brethren at Plymouth alfo attended the 
like Duties on their Behalf: The IfTue whereof 
was, that in a little time they not only had 
Health reftored, but they likewife enjoyed the 
fpecial Direction and Affiftance of God in the 
further Profecution of their Undertakings. 

§. 5. But there were Two terrible Diftreffes 
more, befides that of Sicknefs, whereto this Peo- 
ple were expofed in the beginning of their Set- 
tlement : Tho' a moft feafonable and almoft 
unexpected Mercy from Heaven ftill relcued 
them out of thofe Diftreffes. One thing that 
fometimes extreamly exercifed them, was a 
Scarcity ofProvifwns ; in which 'twas wonder- 
ful to lee their Dependance upon God, and God s 
Mindfulnefs of them. When the parching 
Droughts of the Summer divers times threat- 
ned them with an utter and a total Confump- 
tion to the Fruits of the Earth, it was their 
manner, with Heart-melting, and I may fay, 
Heaven-melting Devotions, to Faft and Pray be- 
fore God ; and on the very Days, when they 
poured out the Water of their Tears before 
him, he would fhower down the Water of his 
Rain upon their Fields ; while they were yet 
/peaking, he would hear them ; infbmuch that 
the Salvages themfelves would on that Occafi- 
on admire the Engliftman s God ! But the Eng- 
lifhmen themfelves would Celebrate their Days 
of Thank/giving to him. When their Stock 
was likewife wafted fo far, which divers times 
it was, that they were come to the loft Meal 

in the Barrel, juft then, unlook'd for, arrived I of Sudbury, in the County of Suffolk, to be their 
feveral Ships from other Parts of the World Teacher ; and altho' he now fubmitted unto an 
loaden with Supplies , among which, One was j Ordination, with an Impofitwn effuch Hands 


Book I. Or, The Hiflory 0/~ New-England. 


as were by the Church invited fo to pronounce 
the Benediction of Heaven upon him ; yet it 
was done with a Proteflation by ail, that it 
fhould be only as a fign of his Eletlion to the 
Charge of his New Flock, without any Intention 
that he ihould thereby Renounce the Miniftry 
he had received in England. After the gather- 
ing of the Church at Charles-Town, there quick- 
ly followed another at the Town of Dor- 

And after Dorchefier there followed another 
at the Town of Bofton, which IlTued out of 
Charles-Town ; one Mr. James took the Care of 
the Church at Charles-Town, and Mr. Wilfon 
went over to Bofton, where they that formerly 
belonged unto Charles-Town, withllniverfal Ap- 
prcbatiori became a diftintl Church of them- 
selves. To Bo/ion foon fucceeded a Church at j 
Roxbury • to Roxbury, one at Lyn • to Ly/7, 
one at Watertoxan ; fb that in one or two Years 
time there were to beieen Seven Churches in this 
Neighbourhood, all of them attending to what 
the Spirit in the Scripture /aid unto them ; 
all of them Golden Candeljlicks,il\\iftLT2XZ<i with 
a very feniible Prefence of our Lord Jefus 
Chrift amoug them. 

§. 7. It was for a matter of Twelve Tears 
together, that Perfons of all Ranks, well af- 
fefted unto Churcly-Reformation, kept fome- 
times Dropping, and fbmetimes Flocking into 
New-England, tho J fbme that were coming into 
New-England were not fuffered fo to do. The 
Perfecutors of thofe Puritans, as they were 
called, who were now Retiring into that Cold 
Country from the Heat of their Perfecution, 
did all that was poffible to hinder as many as 
was poffible from enjoying of that Retirement 

PafTage of People that were now fleering 
of this Weftern Courfe ; and there was a fort of 
Uproar made among no fmall part of the Na- 
tion, that this People fhould not be let go. 
Among thole bound for New-England, that 
were 16 ftopt, there were efpecially Three Fa- 
mous Perfons, whom I fuppofe their Adverfa- 
ries would not have fb ftudioufly detained at 
Home, if they had forefeen Events ; thofe 

and of this take one Inftance inftead of many: 
Before the woful Wars which broke forth in 
the Three Kingdoms, there were divers Gentle- 
men in Scotland, who being uneaiie under rhe 
Ecclefiajiieal Burdens of the Times, wrote unto 
New-England their Enquities, Whether they 
might be there fuffered freely to Ex'ercife their 
Presbyterian Churcl-Govcr/:j,:c,',t ? And it was 
freely anfwered, That they might. Hereupon 
they fent over an Agent, who pitched upon i 
TraQ of Land near the Mouth of Merimack 
River, whither they intended then to Tranf 
plant therafeives : But alrho' they had fo far 
proceeded in their Voyage, as to be Half 
Seas thorough ; the manifold CrclTes they met 
withal, made them give over their intentions • 
and the Providence of God lb ordered it, that 
fome of thole very Gentlemen were afterwards 
the Revivers of that well-known Solemn 
League and Covenant, which had lb great an 
Influence upon the following Circumltances of 
the Nations. However, the number ofi thofe 
who did actually arrive at New-England be- 
fore the Year 1640. have been computed about 
Four Thou/and ; fince which time far more 
have gone out of the Country thin have come 
to it ; and yet the God of Heaven fo fmiled up- 
on the Plantation, while under an eafie and 
equal Government, the Defigns of Chtiftianity 
in well-formed Churches have been carried on, 
that no Hiftory can parallel it. That faying 
of Eutropins about Rome, which hath been 
fbmetimes applied unto the Church, is capa- 
ble of fome Application to rhis little part of 
the Church : Nee Minor ab Exordio, nee 
major Incrementis ulla. Never was any Plan- 
tation brought unto fuch a Confiderablenels, in 

There were many Countermands given to the a fpace of time fo Inconfidetable ! An Howl- 

ing Wilder nefs in a few Years became a 
Plea/ant Land, accommodated with the Ne- 
cejfaries, yea, and the Conveniencies of Hu- 
mane Life , the Go/pel has carried with it a 
fulnefs of all other Bleffings ; and (albeit, 
that Mankind generally, as far as we have a- 
ny Means of enquiry, have increafed, in one 
and the fame given Proportion, and fo no 
more than doubled themfelves in about Three- 

were Oliver Cromwel, and Mr. Hambden, and Hundred and Sixty Years,^ in all the paft Ages 

Sir Arthur Hafelrig : Neverthelefs, this is not 

the only Inltance of Perfecting Church-mens 

not having the Spirit of Prophecy. But many 

others were diverted from an intended Voyage 

hither by the pure Providence of God, which 

had provided other Improvements for them ; 

of the World, fince the fixing of the prelent 
Period of Humane Life J the Four-Thouiand 
Firjl Planters, in lefs than Fifty Years, not- 
withftanding all Tranfportations and Mortali- 
ties, increafed into, they fay, more than an 
hundred Thoufand. 


--— Qui Tranfmare Currant. — Or, The Addition of fever d other Colonies to the for- 
mer 3 with fome other Conjiderables in the Condition of thefe later Colonies. 

§. i.TT was not long before the Mafia* \ J harming into Plantations extended further 

L chufet Colony was become like an into the Country. The Colony might fetch its 

Hive, overftock'd with Bees ; and many of own Defer i prion from the Difpenfations of the 

the- new Inhabitants entertained thoughts of , Great God. unto his Ancient Ifrael, and fay, 

2 4 

Magnalia Ghrifli Americana : 

Book L 

God oj Hojls, Thou haft brought a Vine out 
of England ; Thou bafl cafi out the Heathen and 
planted it ; Thou preparcdji room before it, 
and didft caufe it to lake Jeep root, and it 
filled the Land; the Wills were covered with 
the flialow of it, and the Boughs thereof were 

vages in their Neighbourhood, known by the 
Name of Pcquots, had like to have nipt the 
Hantation in the Bud by a cruel War, within 
a Year or two after their Settlement, the 
marvellous Providence of' God immediately ex- 
tinguilhed that War, by profpering the Nets- 

like the goodly Cedars ; (he fint out her Boughs [Englifh Arms, unto the utter fubduing of' the' 
unto the Sea. But ftill there was one ftroak iQuarrelfome Nation, and affrightning of all the 
wanting for the compleat Accommodations of other Natives. 

the Defcription ; to wit, She fent forth her \ §. 3. It was with the Countenance and Af- 
Brancbcs unto the River ; and this therefore is fiftance of their Brethren in the Majfachufei- 
to be next attended. The Fame of Connecticut i Buy, that the Firft Planters of Connecticut made 

River, a Long, Froth, Rich River (as indeed 
the Name Connecticut is Indian ibr a long Ri- 
ver) had made a little Niltas of it, in the Ex- 
pectations of the good People about the Mcf- 

their EiTays thus to Difcover and Cultivate the 
remoter Parts of this mighty Wildernefs; and 
accordingly feveral Gentlemen went fumUhed 
with fome kind of Commijfion from the Govern- 

(achufet-Bay : Whereupon many of the Planters ment of the Maffackufet-Bay, for to maintain 
belonging efpecially to the Towns of Cambridge, 1 ibme kind of Government among the Inhabi- 
Dorchrfter, Watertown and Roxbury, took up ; tints, till there could be a more orderly Set- 
Refolutibns to Travel an Hundred Miles Weft- dement. But the Inhabitants quickly perceiv- 
toard from thofe Towns, for a further Settle-] ina; themfelves to be without the Line of the 
ment upon this Famous River. When the MaJJ'achufet-Charter, entred into a Combi nation, 
Learned Eernandius had been in the Indies, lie; among themfelves, whereby with mutual Con- 
did in his Preface to his Commentaries after- lent they became a Body-Politick, and framed 
wards publilhed, give this Account of it ; ! a Body \,of necelTary Laws and Orders, to the 
Deojic volente, prodii in remotijfimos uff, ln-\ Execution whereof they chofe all neceiliry Of- 
clos. tarn n r >i avidus luca 15 glonx,_ ut earn fleers, very much, tho' not altogether after the 

form of the Colony from whence they IfTued. 
So they jogg'd on for many Years ; and where- 
as before the Year 1644. tnat Worthy Gentle- 
man, George Fenwick, Efq ; did on the behulf of 
feveral Perfons of Quality begin a Plantation 
about the Mouth of the River, which was cal- 
led Say-Brook, in Remembrance of thofe Right 
Honourable Perfons, the Lord Say, and the Lord 
Brook, who laid a Claim to the Land therea- 
bouts, by Virtue of a Patent granted by the 
Earl of Warwick ; the Inhabitants of Connecti- 
cut that Year purchafed of Mr. Fenwick this 
Tra£l of Land. But the Confufions then Em- 
baraifing the Affairs of the Englifh Nation, hin- 
dered our ConneUicotians from feeking of any 
further Settlement, until the Reftoration of 
K. Charles II. when they made their Applica- 
tion to the King for a Charter; by the Agen- 
cy of their Honourable Governour, John Win- 
tbrop\ Efq; the moft accomplilhed Son of that 
Excellent Perfon, who had been fo Contidera- 
ble in the Foundations of the Majjacbufet-Qo- 
lony. This Renowned Virtuofo had juitiy been 
the Darling of New-England, if they had only 
confidered his Eminent Qualities, as he was a 
Cbrijltan, a Gentleman,and a Pbilofopher, well 
worthy to be, as he was, a Member of the 
Royal-Society ; but it mult needs further endear 
his Memory to his Country, that God made 
him the Inftrument of obtaining for them, as 
he did from rhe King of England, as amply 
priviledged a Charter as was ever enjoy 'd per- 
haps by any People under the Cope of Hea- 
ven. Under the Protection and Encouragement 
of this Charter they Mourifhed many Years 5 
and many Towns being fucceffively created a- 
mong them, their Churches had Reji, and walked 
in the Fear of God, and in the Comfort of the 
Holy Spirit. 

$. 4. The 

vere dixerim, ultro elegerim mei iff us adhuc 
viventii verijfimam Sepulturam. Reader, come 
with me now to behold fome Worthy, and 
Learned, and Genteel Perfons going to be 
Buried Alive on the Banks of Connecticut, 
having be en firft Slain bj the Ecdefiaftical Im- 
p lions and Perlecuttons of Europe. 

s. 2. i was in the Year 1635. that this 
D fign was firft formed ; and the Difpofi 

1 . Celebrated Mr. Thomas Hooker, 

■ 'eople now in Cambridge, to engage in 
i )efign. was that which gave moft Life un- 
- if. They then ",' ut their Agents to view the 
Country, vno r turned with fo Advantageous a 
Report, :' 1 ae next Year there was a great 
Remoi ' People thither : On this Re- 

move tl f that w .it from Cambridge became 
a Church n Spot of Ground now called 
Hartford; they that went from Dorchefier be 
c.:-T!, a ; '" h ziWindfor , they that went from 
H iertow at tloymitWetbersJield; and they 
that tet'c Roxbury were Jn-Cburched higher up 
the River at Springfield, a place which wasat- 
t. vards found within the Line of the Majfa- 
chufet-Chaxtei. Indeed the firft Winter after 
their going thither proved an bard one • and 
the grievous Difappointments which befel them, 
tii/ the unfeafonable Freezing of the River, 
whereby their VeflTel of Provifwns was detained 
at the Mouth of the River, Threefcore Miles 
below 'hem, caufed them to Encounter with 
verv Difaftrous Difficulties. Divers of them 
Were hereby obliged in the Depth of Win- 
twr to Travel back into the Bay ; and fome 
of them were frozen to Death in the Jour- 

However, fuch was their Courage, that they 
Profecuted their Plantation-Work with fpeedy 
and bleffed Success ; and when Bloody Sal- 

Book I. Or, Tbe Hijiory 0/" New-England. 


§. 4. The Church-Order obferved in the] Being Londjners, or Merchants, and Men 
Churches of Connecticut, has been the fame j of Traffick and Bufinels, their Defign was in a 
that is obferved by their Sifters in the Maffa- \ manner wholly to apply themfelves umoTrade : 
cbufet-Bay ; and in this Order they lived ex- j but the Delign failing., they lound their great 
ceeding peaceably all the Eleven Years that | Eftates to link fo fait, that they muft quickly 
Mr. Hooker lived among them. Neverthelels Ida fometbing. Whereupon in the Year 1646. 
there arole at length lome unhappy Contefts in \ gathering together almoft ail the Strength 
one Town of the Colony, which grew into which was left -em, they Built one Ship more, 
an Alienation that could not be cured without! which they fraighted lor England with tie 
iiich a Parting, and "yet, indeed, hardly fo belt part of their Tradable Eltates j and ("un- 
kind a Parting, as that whereto once Abraham 

and hot were driven. However, thefe Little 
Idle, Angry Controverfies, proved Occafions or 
Enlargements to the Church of God ; for iiich 
ot the Inhabitants as chofe a Cottage in a Wil- 
Jernefs, belore the moft beautiful and furnilh- 

dry of their Eminent Perfons Embarked them- 
felves in her for the Voyage. But, alas, the 
Ship was never after heard of! She foundred 
in the Sea ; and in her were loft, not only the 
Hopes of their future Trade, but alio the Lives 
of feveral Excellent Perfons, as well as divers 

ed Edifice, overheated with the tire of Gon- Manufcripts of fbme great Men in the Conn- 

tendon, removed peaceably higher up the Ri 
ver, where a whole County of Holy Churches 
has been added unto the number of our Con- 

^•. 7. But there was one thing that made this 
Colony to become very confiderable ; which 
thing remains now to be confidered. The 
well-known Mr. Davenport, and Mr. Eaton, 
and feveral Eminent Perfons that came over 
to the Maffachufci-Bay, among fbme of the 
Firlt Planters, were ftrongly urged, that they 
would have fettled in this Bay -, but hearing 
of another Bay to the South-Weft of Connecti- 
cut, which might be more capable to entertain 
thole that were to follow them, they defired 
that their Friends at Connecticut would purchafe 
of the Native Proprietors for them, all the 
Land that lay between themfelves and Hudfon's 
River, which was in part effected. Accord- 
ingly removing thither in the Year 1637. they 
feated themfelves in a pleafant Bay, where 
they fpread themfelves along the Sea-CoaJJs ; 
and one might have been fuddenly, as it were- 
furprized with the fight of fuch notable Towns, 
as firft New-Haven ; then Guilford ; then Mil- 
ford ; then Stamford ; and then Brainford 
where our Lord Jefus Chnft is Worlhipped 
in Churches of an Evangelical Conftitution ; and 
from thence, if the tnquirer make a Salley 
over to Long Ifland, he might there alfo have 
feen rhe Churches of our Lord beginning to 
take root in the Eaftern Parts of that Ifland. 
All this while this Fourth Colony wanted the 
legal Bafis of a Charter to build upon ; but 
they did by mutual Agreement form rhem 
felves into a Body-Politick, as like as they 
judg'd fit unto the other Colonies in their 
Neighbourhood : and as for their Church-Or- 
der, it was generally. Secundum Vfum Majfd- 

§. 6. Behold, a Fourth Colony of Nck- 
Englifh Chriftians, in a manner ftoln into the 
World, and a Colony, indeed, cancellated with 
many Stars of the Firft Magnitude. The Co- 
lony was under the ConducF of as Holy, and 
as Prudent, and as Genteel Perfons as moft 
that ever vifited thefe Nooks of America ■, and 
yet thefe too were Try'd with very humbling 

try, lent over for the Service of the Church, 
which were now buried in the Ocean, The 
fuller Story of that grievous Mutter, let the 
Reader with a juft from 
the Pen of the Reverend Perlbn, who is, now 
the Pallor of New-Haven. I wrote unto him, 
for it, and was thus Anfvvered. 

Reverend and Dear Sir, 

IN Compliance with your Defires, I now 
give you the Relation of that Apparitioh 
'of a Ship in the Air, which I have received 
' from the moft Credible, Judicious and Curi- 
' ous Surviving Obfervers of it. 

'In the Year 1647. befides much other La- 
c ding, a far more Rich Treafure of PalTengers, 
' (Five or Six of which were Perfons of chief 

• Note and Worth in New-Haven) put them- 
felves on Board a New Ship, built at Rhode- 

• Ifland, of about 150 Tuns ; but fo walty, 
•that the Mafter, (Lambert on) often faid fhe 

• would prove their Grave. In the Month of 

• January, cutting their way thro' much Ice, on 

• which they were accompanied with the Re 
c verend Mr. Davenport, befides many other 
: Friends, with many Fears, as well as Prayers 
'and Tears, they let Sail. Mr. Davenprt in 
; Prayer with an obfervable Empbafis tiled thefe 

■ Words, Lord, if it be thy pleajure to bury 

• thefe our Friends in tbe bottom of the Sea, 

■ they are thine ; fave them ! The Spring 
' following no Tidings of thefe Friends arrived 
-with the Ships from England: NiwHavetrs 
' Heart began to fail her : This put the Godly 
' People on much Prayer, both Publick and 
' Private, That the Lord would (if it wai his 
' Plea fur e) let them hear zchat he bad, done 
' with their dear Friends, and prepare them 
' with a Juitable Submijjion to his Holy Will. 
' In June next enfui'ng, a great Lh under -liorm 
'arote out of the North-Welt; alter which, 
' (the Hemifphere being (crenel about an Hour 
s before Sun-fet a S H 1 P of like Dimenfions 
' with the afbrefaid, with her Canvas and 
' Colours abroad frho'tbe Wind Northernlyj 
' appeared in the Air coming up from our 
' Harbour's Mouth, which lyes Southward from 
' the Town, feemingly with her Sails filled 
' under a frefh Gale, holding her Courfe North , 

E ' Sri i 


Magnalia Cbrifti Americana 

Book I. 

1 and continuing under Obfervation, Sailing) 
c againft the Wind for the fpace of half an 
' Hour. Many were drawn to behold this great 
' Work of God ; yea, the very Children cry'd 
'out, There's a Brave Ship! At length, croud- 
' ing up as far as there is ufually Water fuffici- 
' ent for fuch a Veffel, and lb near Ibme of 
'the Spectators, as that they imagined a Man 
' might hurl a Stone on Board her, her Main- 
i top feem'd to be blown off, but left hanging 
' in the Shrouds ; then her MiJJe-n-top ; then all 
' her Majiing feemed blown away by the Board: 
' Quickly after the Hulk brought unto a Ca 
' reen, (he overfer, and lb vanithed into a 
' fmoaky Cloud, which in Ibme time dillipared, 
' leaving, as everywhere elfe, a clear Air. The 
' admiring Spectators could diftingnilh the fe- 
' veral Colours of each Parr, the Principal Rig 
' ing, and fuch Proportions, as caufed not on- 
' ly the generality of Perfbns to fay, This toM 
' the Mould oj then- Ship, and thus mat her 
' TragickEnd : But Mr. Davenport alfo. in pub 
'lick declared to rhis F.ffcct That God had 
' condescended, for the quieting oj their aj- 
c flitted Spirits, this Extraordinary Ac-count oj 
' his Soveraign Difpofal oj thofe for whomfo many 
' fervent Prayers were made continually. Thus 
I am, Sir, 

Your Humble Servant, 

James Pierpont. 

Reader, There being yet living fo many Cre- 
dible Gentlemen, that were Eye-Wftnefles of 
this Wonderful Thing, I venture to Publiih it 
for a thing as undoubted, as 'tis wonderful. 

But let us now proceed wirh our Story. 
Our Colony of Neio Haven apprehended them- 
felves Difadvantageoully feared for the Affairs 
of Husbandry ; and therefore upon thefe Difafters 
they made many Attempts of removing into 
fome other Parts of ihe World. One while 
they were invited uiito Delaware Bay, another 
while they were invited unto Jamaica ; they 
had offers made them from Inland alfo, after 
the Wars there were over •, and they entred in- 
to Ibme Treaties about the City of Galloway, 
which they were to have had as a fmall Pro 
vinee to themfelves. But the God of Heaven 
ftill ftrangely difappointed all thefe Attempts ; 
and whereas they were concerned how their 
Pojierity ihould be able to-live, if they muft 
make Husbandry their main fhift for their Liv- 
ings that Pojierity of theirs by the good Pro- 
vidence of God, inltead of coming to Beggary 
•and Mifery, have thriven wonderfully : The 
Colony is improved with many Wealthy Huf- 
bandmen, and is become no fmall part of the 
belt Granary lor all Note England. And the 
iame good Providence has all along fo pre- 
ferved them from annoyance by the Indians, 
that altho' at their ftrft fetting down there 
were few Towns but what wifely perfwaded a 
Body of Indians to dwell neat them ; whereby 
fuch Kindnelfcs pafied between them, that 

they always dwelt peaceably together ; necer- 
thelefs there are tew of thole Towns, but 
what have feen their Body of Indians utter- 
ly Extirpated by nothing but Mortality wait- 
ing them. 

§. 7. But what is now become of Neto- 
HavenColony I 1 mull Anfwer, It k not : And yet 
it has been growing ever (ince it Hid wat\ But 
when Conneftt cut -Colony Petitioned the Refto- 
red King for a CfjilttEtj they piocund Keaf- 
Haven Colony to be annexed unto them in the 
fame Charter ; and this, not without having in It 
the private Concurrence of (bme Leading Men 
in the Colony ; tho' the Minds of others were 
fo uneafie about the Coalition, that It cell ibme 
time after the Arrival of the Charter for the 
Colony, like Jefbtab's Daughter, to bewail her 
Condition before it could be quietly complied 
withal. Nevertheltfs they have lived evef' 
fince, One Colony, very happily together, and 
the Go J of Love andPeace has rematkaMv dwelt 
among them : However, thefe Children ol God 
have not been without their Cbajfifiments, espe- 
cially in the Malignant fevers and Agues, which 
have often proved very Mortal in moil or all of 
their Plantations. 

§. 8. While the South-Wejl Parts of Kern- 
England were thus filled with New Colonies, 
the North fa ft Parts of the Country were not 
forgotten. There were ample Regions beyond 
the Line of the Majfachufet-Pateut, where 
new Settlements were attempted, not only by 
fuch as deligned a fijbing-Ttade at Sea, or a 
Bever-Trddz on Shore •, nor only by fome that 
were uneafie under the Majjachujet -Government 
in a Day of Temptation, which came upon 
the Firft Planters ; but alfo by fome very fe- 
rious Chriftians, who propounded the Enlarge- 
ment and Enjoyment of our Lord's Evangeli- 
cal Interefrs in thofe Territories. The Effecf 
of thefe Excurfions were, That feveral well- 
conflituted Churches were gathered in the 
Provnce of HaJi-HampPnre, befidts one or two 
in the Province of Mam, whereto were added 
a large number of other Congregations, where- 
in weekly Prayers and Sermens were made, 
altho' the Inhabitants belonging to thole Con- 
gregations, proceeded not lo far as to all the 
Ordinances of a more com pi eat Church State 
among them. That which contributed more 
than a little to the growth of Chnjlianity in 
thole Parts of New England, was the Appli- 
cation, which the People being tired with ma- 
ny Quarrelfbme Circumftances about their Go- 
vernment made unto the General Court of 
the Majfacbufet-Buy, to be taken under their 
Protecf ion ■, which Petition of theirs being an- 
fwered by that General Court, furely after a 
more Charitable and Accountable manner, than 
fuch Authors as Ogilly in his America have re- 
prelented it, [Vos nt/g/s Hijiortcis, Leftores, 
Credite vera ' ] there followed many Suc- 
cefsful Endeavours to fpread the' good 
Eftecfs and Orders of the Go/pel along that 


Book I. Or, The Hifiory of Ncw^En^lmd. 


But thus was the Settlement of Nezo-Eng- j goings of our Nation, but aifo afforded a Sin- 
land brought about; thefe were the &£*>?- j gulat Profpeft of Churches ere&ed in an Ame- 
nings, thefe the Foundations ofthofe Colonies, ] rican Corner of the World, on purpofe to ex- 
which have not only enlarged the Englijh Em- j prefs and purfue the Proreftant Rejormation. 
pire in feme Regards more than any other Out- 1 


Hecatompolis : Or, A Field which the Lord hath Bleffed. 
A MAP of the Country. 

IT is proper that I fhould now give the Rea- 
der an Ecclefitiftical Map of the Country, 
thus Undertaken. Know then, that although 
for now more than Twenty Years, the Blajiing 
Strokes of Heaven upon the Secular Affairs of 
this Country have been fuch, as rather to Abate 
than Enlarge the growth of it •, yet there are to 
be feen in it at this prefent Year \6$6, theie 
Colonies, Counties, and Congregations. 

*H The Numbers and Places of the Chrijiian Con- 
gregations, now Worjhipping our Lord Jefus 
Chrifl, in the fever al Colonies ^New-Eng- 
land, and the Names of the Minijiers at this 
time employed in the Service of thofe Con- 


Tanton, Mr. Samuel Danforth, H. C 

Hereto an Ecclefiaftical Reckoning may annex 
the Ifiands oi' 

Marthas Vineyard, Mr. Ralph Thache>\ Mr. 

Denham, beiides Indian Churches and Pallors. 
Nantucket, Indian Paftors. 
Newport in Roielfland, Mr. Nathanael Clap 

H. C. 

II. T N Maffachufet Colony are Four Counties, 
J. andthefeveral Congregations in them are 

The County of 'Suffolk Minifters. 
Notandam, Where the Name of any Minifter ' 

hath H. C. added unto it in our Cm-lBojlon, Of the Old Church, Mr. James Allen, 

logue, it is to be underftood that Harvard-Col- 
ledge was the Mother, in whofe Arms that 
Minifter was Educated. 

I. T JV Plymouth Colony there are Tf>ree 
A Counties-, and the fever al Congregations 
therein are thus Accommodated. 

Plymouth County Minifters. 

Bridgewater, Mr. James Keith. 
Duxbury, Mr. Ichabod Wifwul, H. C. 
Marfhfield, Mr. Edward Thompjon, H. C. 
Middlebury, Mr. 

Plymouth, Mr. John Cotton, H. C. 
Sc'ituate, which hath two Churches, Mr. Jere- 
miah Cujhing, H. C. Mr. Deodate Lavojon. 

Bar njl able County Minifters. 

Mr. Benj. Wadfwortb, H. C. 

Of the North Church, Mr. Increafe Mather, 
PrefidentoftheColledge, and his Son Cotton 
Mather, H. C. 

Of the South Church, Mr. Samuel Wilward, 

Befides thefe, there is in the Town a fmall Con- 
gregation that Worlhip God with the Cere- 
monies of ths Church of England; ferved 
generally by a Change of Perfons, occafio- 
nally vifiting thefe Parts of the World. 

And another fmall Congregation of Antipedo- 
Baptifis, wherein Mr. Emblin is the fettled 

And a French Congregation of Proreftant Refu- 
gees, under the Paftoral Cares of Monfieur 

Braintree, Mr. Mofes Fisk, H. C 
Dedham, Mr. Jofeph Belcher, H. C. 
Dorche/ier, Mr. John Danforth, H. C 
Hingham, Mr. John Norton, H. C. 

' Hull, Mr. Zechariah Whitman, H. C 

Barnflable, Mr. Jonathan Ruffel, H. C. 
Eaftham, Mr. Samuel Treat, H. C. 

Falmouth, Harwich, Manamoyet, Mr. Nathanael ! Medfield, Mr. Jofeph Baxter, H. C- 
Stone, H. C. Mendon, Mr. Grindal Ratofon, H. C. 

Rochejfer, Mr. Arnold. Milton, Mr. Peter Thacher, H. C. 

Sandzoich, Mr. Rowland Cotton, H. C | Roxbury, Mr. Nehcmiah Walter, H. G 

Weymouth, Mr. Samuel Torrey, H. C. 

Woodflock, Mr. Jofiah Dwight, H. C. 

Yarmouth, Mr. John Cotton, H. C. 

Brijlol County Minifters. 

Briftol, Mr. John Sparhawk, H. C. 

Dartmouth, Perifhing without Vifion. 


Little-Compton, Mr. Eliphelet Adams, H, C. 

Wrentham, Mr. Samuel Man, H. C. 

The County of Middle/ex Minifters- 

Billerica, Mr. Samuel Whiteing, H. C. 
Cambridge, Mr. William Brattle, H. C. 

E 2 Cbartes- 


Magnalia Chrijli Americana : 

Book I. 

Charles-Town, Mr. Charles Morton. 
Chelmsford, Mr. Thomas Clark, H. C. 
Concord, Mr. fofepb Eaflabrook,W C. 
Dunflable, Mr. XW./.r IFr/</. H. C. 
Groton, Mr. Gerfhom Hobart^ H. C. 
Lancafler, Mr. j, /v/ Whiteing, H. C. 
Malborough, Mr. William Brinfmead, H. C. 
Maiden, Mr. Michael Wigelejwortb,W. C 

Medford, Mr. S/Wi Bradfirect, H. C. 

'Newtown, Mr. Nchemtah Hobart, H. C. 


Reading, Mr. Jonathan Pierpont, H. C- 

Skerborn, Mr. Daniel Gookin, H. C. 

Stazo, Mr. 

Sudbury, Mr. James Sherman 

Water! own Eaft, Mr. Henry Gibs, H. C. 

Weft, Mr. Samuel Angler. II. (,. 

Woburn, Ml.'Jabez Box, H. C. 


The County of / jf/l-.v Minifters. 


Andover, Mr. Francis Dean, and Mr. Thonun 

Barnard, H. (2. 
Beverly ) Mr. >Zw 2fo/^ H. C 

Bradford, Mr. Zcchariah Symmes, H. C. 
Glocdh-r, Mr. 7<?/;tf Enter/on, H. C. 
Haver il, Mr. Benjamin Rolfe, H. C 
Ipfwich, Mr. William Hubbard, H. C. and Mr. 

7?/vz R^™, H. C. 
And Village, Mr. /<** RSft H. C. 
Ly/z, Mr. Jeremiah Shepard, H. C 
Manchefier, Mr. J^« Emerfon, H. C. 
Marblehead, Mr. 'Samuel Cheever, H. C. 
Newbury, Eaft, Mr. Tappin, H. C. 
Weft, Mr. tow**/ £YA7w, H C. 
Rore/y, Mr. Edward Fay fan, H. C 
Sa/m, Mr. 7^/;« Higginfon, and Mr. Nicholas 

Noyfe, H. C 
And Village, Mr. Samuel Paris, H. C. 
Salsbury, Mr. C<//f£ (jufhing, H. C 
Tops field, Mr. jfo/e/A Ca/*/?, H. C. 
Wenham, Mr. /o^f & Gm#, H. C. 

The County of Hampjhire Minifters. 

Deerfield, Mr. jMw Williams, H. C. 

Endfield, Mr. 

Hatfield, Mr. HW/m/b Williams, H. C. 

Hadley, Mr. 

Northampton, Mr. Solomon Stoddard, H. C. 

Springfield, Mr. Daniel Brewer, H C. 

Southfield, Mr. Benjamin Ruggles, H. C. 

Wefifield, Mr. £</nw/v/ X*y/w, H. C. 

To which, if we add the Congregations in P//- 

cat aqua- 
Dover, Mr. Jo&a £/*£,' H. C. 
Exeter, Mr. .7^ C/<?/£, H. C. 
Hampton, Mr. j^fc;? C?//^ H. C. 

afile,Mt. Samuel Moodey, H. C. 
PortJ mouth, Mr. JV;/7.wrz Moodey, H. C, 

And in the Province of .!!,////. 

Hie of Shales, 


Wells, York, Mr. Hancock, H. C. 

III. TjY Connec~ticut-G>/Wy //vvr wr ftw 
X, Counties, and the fevered Congregations 
therein are illuminated by theje Preachers oj the 

Hartford County Minifters. 

I Farmington, Mr. Samuel Hooker, H. C. 
Glajienbury, Mr. Timothy Stevens, H. C. 
Hadham, Mr. Jeremiah Hobart,jti. C. 
Hartford Old Church, Mr. Timothy Wocdbridge, 

H. C. 
New Church. Mr. Thomcu : '..tcki/;°hai?!, H. C. 
Middletcvon , Mr. Noadiah Rujjel, H.C. 
Simsbury, Mr. IW/y Woodbridge, H. C. 
Waterbury, Mr. Jeremiah Peck. H. C 
Wethers field, Mr. S/<-u<?« M/x, H. C 
Windfor, Mr. Samuel Mather., H. C 
And Farme, Mr. Timothy Edwards, H. C 
Windham, Mr. Samuel Whitmg. 

New-London County Minifters. 

Killingworth, Mr. Abraham Pier/on, H. C. 

Ltnne, Mr. ilfo/w AT^/e, H. C, 
New-London, Mr. Gordon Saltonflal, H< G 
Norwich, Mr. James Pilch. 
Pefcdmjik, Mr. jfo/f-pfc AW, H. C. 
Prefion, Mr. Samuel Tread, H. C 
Saybrook, Mr. Thomcu Buckingham. 
Stonington, Mr. James Noyfe, H. C. 

New-Haven-County Minifters. 

Brainford, Mr. Samuel Ruffe!, H. C. 
Derby, Mr. Joftff fames, H. C- 
Gailjord, Mr. Thomas Ruggles^H.C. 
Milford, Mr. Samuel Andrews, H.C 
New Haven, Mr. James Pierpoint, H. C 
Wallingford, Mr. Samuel Street, H. C. 

' Fairfie Id-County Minifters. 

Danbury, Mr. &■/& Siw, H. C. 

Fairfield, Mr. jty?/>/; ȣ&, H. C. 

Fairfield Village, Mr. Charles Chaunccy,W. C. 

Greenwich, Mr. fofepb Morgan. 

Norwalk, Mr. Steven Buckingham, H. C. 

R>v, Mr. Bowers, H. C. 

Stamford, Mr. J<?/)/z Davenport, H. C. 

Stratford, Mr. I/rael Chauncey, H.C 

Woodbury, Mr. Zaehariah Walker, H. C 



Book L Or, The Hijiory of New-En S knci. 

2 9 

REMARKS upon the Catalogue of\ 

^ i. 'TpHere arc few. Towns to be now feen 
X in our Lift, bur what were exifting 
in this Land before the dreadful Indian War, 
which befel us Twenty Years ago ; and there 
are few Towns broken up within the then Maf- 
fachufet-Line by that War, but what have re- 
vived out of their Afbe's. Neverthelefs the ma- 
ny Calamities, which have ever finc^.been wa- 
fting of the Country, have lb nipt the growth of 
it, that its Iatet Progrefs hath held no Propor- 
tion with what was from the Beginning ; but 
yet with fuch variety, that while the Trained 
Companies of fome Towns are no bigger than 
they were Thirty or Forty Years ago, others 
are as big again. 

§.2. The Calamities that have carried oft 
the Inhabitants of our feveral Towns have not 
been all of one fort ; nor have all our Towns 
had an equal (hare in any fort. Pcftilential 
Sicknetfes have made feartul Havock in divers 
Places, where the Sound perhaps have not been 
enough to tend the Sick ; while others have not 
had one touch from that Angel of Death. And 
the Sword hath cut oft' Scores in fundry Places, 
when others, it may be, have not loft a Man 
by that Avenger. 

§. 3. Tis no unufual, though no univerjal 
Experiment among us. that while an excellent, 
laborious, illuminating Miniflry has been con- 
tinued in a Town, the place has thriven to ad- 
miration i but ever fince that Man's time^ they 
have gone down the Wind ia all their Interefts. 
The Goipel has evidently been the making ol 

our Towns, and the Bkflings of the I (pper> 
have been accompanied wkh the Bleftings of 
the Nether-fprings. Memorable alio i the Re- 
mark of Shngsby Bethel. Eiq; in his mi ft ft 
dicious Book of 1 ' Europe. 

not the cold/Climate oj New England fuppiied 
by good Laws and Dijcipline, the B fs of 

that .Country would m 
to it, nor have advance. 1 
and forpiidablenefs above the vher Engliih 1 
tations, exceeding it much in fertility, 
ther Inviting Qualities. 

§. 4. Well may jRfUl ^nrjlilHTj lay claim 
to the Name it wears, and to a Room in the 
tendered. Afieclions oi its Mother, the H 
Tfland ! For as there are few of o:;r Towns 
but what have their Names-fakes in E;i*/jnJ, 
fo the Reaion why molt of our Towns are' 
called what they are, is becaufe the hiet of the 
Firtt Inhabitants would thus bear up the Names 
of the particular Places there from whence they 

§. 5. I have heard an Aged Saint his 
Death chearfully thus Expreis himfelf; l Well, 
' I am going to Heaven, and I will there tell 
' the Faithful, who are gone long fince from 
c New- England, thither, that though they who 
c gathered our Churches are all Dead and gone, 
' yet the Churches are ftill Alive, with as nu- 
v metous Flocks of Chriitians as ever were a- 
■ mong them. Concerning the moft of the 
Churches in our Catalogue, the Report thus car- 
ried unto Heaven, I rnuit now aifo fend through 
the Earth; but if wkh, As Numerous, we could 
in every Refpecl fay, As Gracious, what Joy un- 
to all the Saints, both in Heaven and on Eartlh 
might be from thence occafioned I 




Book f. 





On the Stare of ? 



The Chief Toivn of Nerv-England, and of the Engli 


With Some 

izeealile jftet$o 


Preferving and Promoting the Good State of THATj as 
well as any other Town in the like Circumftances. 

Humbly Offered by a Native of BOSTON. 

Ezek. 48. }5- The Name of the City from that Day Jhall be, T H E 


Urbs Metropolis, tit Jit maxima AuUoritAtis, cotiflituatttr pracipuum pie tat is Exempli 

& Sacrarium. Aphor. Polir. 


The Hiftory of BOSTON, Related and Improved. 

At Bofton Letlure, 7. d. 2. m. 1698. 

REmarkable and Memorable was the 
Time, when an Army of Terrible 
Deftroyers was coming againft one 
of the Chief Towns in the Land of 
Urael. God refcued the Town from the Irre- 
fiftible Fury and Approach of thofe Deftroyers, 
by an immediate Hand of Heaven upon them. 

Upon that Miraculous Refcueof the Town, and 
of the whole Country, whofeFate was much en- 
wrapped in it, there follow'd that Aftion of the 
Prophet SAMUEL, which is this Day to be, 
with fome Imitation, Repeated in the midft of 
thee, O BOSTON, Thou helped of the 

1 SAM. 

Book I. 0r 3 The Hiftory ^New-England. 


ISAM. VII. 12. 

Iben SAMUEL took, a Sto»e t and fet it up, and called the Name of it, €bCnf?et, 

faying. Hitherto the Lord hath Helped us. 

TH E thankful Servants of God have ufed 
fometimes to Erect Monuments of Stone. 
as durable Tokens of their Thankfulnefs to 
God for Mercies received in the places thus 1 
diftinguifhed. Jacob did fo ; Jojhua did fo ; 
and Samuel did lb ; but they fo did it, as to 
keep clear of the TranfgrefFion forbidden in 
Lev. 26. 1. Te Jhall not fet up an Image of 
Stone in your Land^ for to Bow down unto 

The Stone Erected by Samuel, with the 
Name of Ebenezer, which is as much as to 
fey, A Stone of Help ; I know not whether a- 
ny thing might be Writ upon it, but I am fure 
there is one thing to be now Read upon it, 1 
by our fclves, in the Text where we find it : 
Namely, thus much, 

That a People whom the Go J of Heaven hath 
remarkably helped in their Diflrejfes, ought 
greatly and gratefully to acknowledge what 
fpffp of Heaven they have received. 

Now 'tis not my Defign to lay the Scene 
of my Difcourfe as far off as Bethcar, the 
place where Samuel fet up his Ebenezer. I 
am immediately to transfer it into the Heart of 
Bojhn, a place where the Remarkable Help re- 
ceived from Heaven by the People, does loudly 
call or an Ebenezer. And I do not ask you 
to change the Name of the Town into that of 
5)Clp--©tCnC) as there is a Town in England 
of that Name, which may feem the Englifh 
of dJOtCjet , but my Sermon fhall be this 
Day, your Ebenezer, if you will with a Fa* 
vourable and a Profitable Attention Entertain 
it. May the Lord jefus Chrift accept me, and 
atfift me now to Glorife him in the Town 
where I drew my tirft finful Breath ; a Town 
whereto I am under great Obligations for the 
precious Opportunities to glorifie him, which I 
have quietly and publickly enjoy'd therein for 
near Eighteen Years together. my Lsrd God. 
remember me, I pray thee, and flrengthen me 
this once, to fpeak from thee unto thy Peo- 
ple ! 

And now, Sirs, That I may let up an E B E A r - 
£ Z E R among you, there are thefe things 
to be Inculcated. 

I. Let us Thankfully, and Agreeably, aud 
Particularly acknowledge what J]5Clp we have 
Teceived from the God of Heaven, in the Years 
that have rouled over us. While the Blefled 
Apoftle Paul, was, as it fhould leem, yet 
fhort of being Threefcore Years Old, how af- 
fectionately did he fet up an Ebenezer, with 
an acknowledgment in Ails 26. 22. Having ob- 
tained help of God, I continue to this Day ! 
Our Town is now Threefcore and Eight Years 
Old 5 and certainly 'tis time for us, with all 
poflible Affection, to fet up our Ebenezer, 
faying, Having obtained help from God, the 

Town is continued until almojl the Age of 
Man is pajfed over it ! The Town hath indeed 
Three Elder Sifters in this Colony, but it 
hath wonderfully outgrown them all ; and her 
Mother, Old Bojlon, in England alfo ; yea, 
within a few Years after the tirft Settlement it 
grew to be. CI)C ^ttrOpOlig Of tfjC UJfjOle 
CngUflj America. Little was this expected 
by them that firft fettled the Town, when for 
awhile 150ff0tt was proverbially called, JLoiT 
COtDtt, for the mean and fad Circumftances 
of it. But, O Bojlon, it is becaufe thou halt 
obtained help from God, even from the Lord 
Jefus Chrift, who for the fake of his Gofpel, 
Preached and once prized here, undertook thy 
Patronage. When the World and the Church 
of God had feen Twenty-Six Generations, a 
Pfalm was Compofed, wherein rhat Note oc- 
curs with Twenty-Six Repetitions ; His Mercy 
endureth for ever. Truly there has not one 
Year paffed over this Town, Ab XJrbe Condita, 
upon the Story whereof we might not make 
that Note, our Ebenezer ; His Mercy endureth 
for ever. It has been a Town of great Ex- 
periences. There have been feveral Years 
wherein the Terrible JfaUlittC hath terribly 
flared the Town in the Face : We have been 
brought fometimes unto the laji Meal in the 
Barrel ■, we have cry'd out wfth the Difciples, 
We have not Loaves enough to feed a Tenth 
Part of us ! But the fear'd Famine has al- 
ways been kept off"; always we have had Sea- 
fonable and Sufficient Supplies after a fur- 
prizing manner fent in unto us : Let the Three 
laji Tears in this thing molt eminently Pro- 
claim the Goodnefs of our Heavenly Shepherd 
and Feeder. This has been the help of out 
God ; Becaufe his Mercy endureth for ever 1 
he Angels of JDcatf) have often Shot the 
rrows oj 3Dcat!) into the midft of the Town ; 
the Small-Pox has efpecially jfOUt Cl'ttttSf 
been a great Plague upon us : How often 
have there been Bills defiring Prayers for more 
than an Hundred Sick on one Day in one 
of our Aflemblies ? In one Twelve-month, about 
one Thoufand of our Neighbours have one 
way or other been carried unto their long 
Home : rtnd yet we are after all, rhany 
more than Seven Thoufand Souls of us at this 
Hour living on the Spot. Why is not, a, Lord, 
have Mercy upon us, written on the Doors of 
our abandon d Habitations j This hath been 
the help of our God, becaufe his Mercy endu- 
reth for ever. Never was any Town under 
the Cope of Heaven more liable to be laid in 
3ftjC& either through the Carelefnefs, or 
through the Wickednefs of them that Sleep in 
it. That fuch a Combujlible heap of Contigu- 
ous Houfes yet Hands, it may be called, A Stand- 
ing Miracle j it is not becaufe the Watchman 




5 2 

Magnalia Chrijii Americana 

Book I. 

keeps the City : Perhaps there may be too 
much caufe of Reflection in that thing, and of 
lnfpellion too ; no. It is from thy watchful Prote- 
ction, th >u keeper of Bolfon, who neither 
Slumbers nor Sleeps. Ceil ClltlCS has the 
Fire made notable Ruins among us, and our 
good Servant been almoft our Mafier : But the 
Ruins have moftly and quickly been Rebuilt. 
I fuppofe, that many more than a Thou/and 
Houfes are to. be feen on this little piece of 
Ground, all fill'd with the undeferved Favours 
of God. Whence this Prefervation ? This hath 
been the help of out God ; becaufe hk Mercy 
endureth for ever I But i fever this Town faw a 
Tear of Salvations, tranfeendently fuch was the 
Lafl ^tUt unto us. A Formidable French 
Squadron hath not Shot one Bomb into the midft 
of thee, O thou Munition of Rnchs-, our Streets 
have not run with Blood and Gore, and horri- 
ble devouring Flames have not raged upon our 
Subflance : Th fe are Ignorant^ and Unthink- 
ing, and Unthankful Men, who do not own 
that we have narrowly efcaped as dreadful 
things, as Carthagcna, or Newfoundland, have 
fuftered I am fure our more confiderate Friends 
Beyond-Sea were very Sufpicious, and well 
nigh Defpainng, that Victorious Enemies had 
fwallowed up the Town. But thy Soul is efca- 
ped, Bofton, as a Bird out of the Snare of 
the Fowlers. Or if you will be Infenfible of 
this, ye vain Men, yet be fenfible, That an 
Englifh Squadron hath not brought among us 
the tremendous Pefiilence,uadex which a Neigh- 
bouring Plantation hath undergone prodigi- 
ous Delblations. Bojlon , 'tis a marvellous 
thing a Plague has not laid thee Defblate ! Our 
Deliverance from our friends has been as full 
of aftonilhing Mercy, as our Deliverance from 
ouiFoes. We read ofa certain City in [fa. 19. 
18. called, The City of Dcfirucfion. Why fo ? 
fome fay, Becaufe delivered from Deftrutlion. 
if that be fo, then half thou been a City of 
Deftrutlion : Or I will rather Fay, A City of 
Salvation : And this by the help of God ; becaufe 
hk Mercy endureth for ever. Shall I go oriJ| 
I will. We have not had the Bread of Advert 
fity and the Water of Affliction, like many '™ 
ther places. But yet all this while Our Eyes 
have feen our Teachers. Here are feveral Gol- 
den Candle/ticks in the Town. Shining and 
Burning Lights have illuminated them. There 
are gone to ihine in an higher Orb Seven Di- 
vines that were once the Stars of this Town, 
in the Paftoral Charge of it ; befides many 0- 
thers, that for fome Years gave us tranfient In- 
fluences. Churche s flourilhing with much Love, 
and Peace, and many Comforts of the Holy Spi- 
rit, have hitheito been our greateft Glory. I 
wilh that fome fad Eclipfe do not come e're 
long upon this Glory ! The Difpenfations of the 
Go/pel were never enjoy 'd by any Town with 
more Liberty and Purity for fo long a while 
together. Our Opportunities to draw near unto 
the Lord Jefus Chrift in his Ordinances, cannot 
be paralleled. Bofton, thou haft been lifted up to 
Heaven ■, there is not a Town upon Earth, which, 

on fome Accounts, has more ro.anlwer for. Such, 
Q luch has been our help from our God, be- 
caufe his Mercy endureth for ever. 

II. Let us acknowledge U)f)0fc Help it is that 
we have received, and not Give the Glory of 
our God unto another. Poorly Helped had we 
been, I may tell you, if we had nunc but Hu- 
mane Help all this while to depend upon. The 
Favours of our Superiors we deny not; we for- 
get not the lnltruments of our Help. Never- 
theless, this little outcaft Zion. (hall, with my 
Content, Engrave the Name of no MAN up- 
on her Ebenezer! It was well confefs'd in 
Pfal. 108. 12. Vain is the help of Man I It was 
well counfell'd in Pfal. 146. 3. Put not your 
truji in Princes, nor in the Son of man, in 
whom there is no Help. 

Wherefore, Firji, Let 0oU • -. Lordlfe- 
fttS Cf#ff, have the Glory of beftming onus 
all the help that we have hid. When the Spi- 
rit of God came upon a Servant of his, he cried 
out unto David, in 1 Cbrdn. 12. iS. Thy God 
helpeth thee. This is the voice or God from 
Heaven to B^Un this Day, Thy God hath help- 
ed thee : Thau haft by thy Sin defiroyed thy/elf, 
but in thy God hath been thy hip. A Great 
Man once building an Edifice, caufed an Infcrip- 
tion of this Importance to be written on the 
Gates of it, Such a place Planted me, fuch a 
place Watered me, and CaTar gave the Increafe. 
One that pafs'd by with a witty Sacarfm, 
wrote under it, Hie Deus nihil fecit ; i. e. God, 
itfeems, did nothing for tins Man. But the In- 
icription upon our Ebenezer, owning what 
help this Town hath had, (hall fay, Our God 
hath done all that is done ! Say then, helped 
Qi50ffOI1, fay as in Pfal. 121. 2. My help is 
from the Lord which made Heaven and Earth. 
Say as in Pjal. 94. 17. Vnlefs the Lord had 
been my help, my Soul had quickly dwelt in fi- 
le nee. And boldly fay, lis only becaufe the 
Lord has been my helper, that Earth and Hell have 
never done all that they would unto me. 

Let our 1 ord J E S LI S C H R I S T be prai- 
fed as our BleiTcd Helper : That Stone which 
(the FoolifJ) Builders have refifed, Oh ! Set up 
that Stone ; even that high Rock -, fet him on 
high in our Praifes, and lav, That That is our 
Ebenezer. Tis our Lord JESUS CHRIST, 
who in his Infinite Companions tor the Town 
hath faid, as in If a. 63. 5. I looked, and there 
was none to help ; therefore my own Arm hath 
brought Salvation unto it It is foretold con- 
cerning the Idolatrous Roman Catholicks, That 
together with the Lord Jefus Chrift, they (hall 
Worfhip other Mauzzim ; that is to fay, other 
Protectors. Accordingly, all their Towns ordi- 
narily have fingled out their PracSors among 
the Saints of Heaven • fuch a Saint is Entita- 
led unto the Patronage of fuch a Town among 
them, and fuch a Saint tor another: Old 050= 
ftOtt, by Name, was but Saint Q5Ota{p() 3 
COftUt. Whereas Thou, Bofton, lhalt have 
but one ProteUor in Heaven, and that is our 
Lord JESUS CHRIST. Oh ! Rejoice in him 
alone, and fay, The Lcrd is ?ny Fortrefs and 


Book I. Or, The Hiftory gf New-England. 


my Deliverer! There was a Song once made Bofton, and therefore fay. Therefore it is that 
for a Town, which in its Dirtrefles had been the Town is not made a Sacrifice to the Venge- 
helped wondroufly •, and the Firft Claufe in that . ance of God. God fern help to the Town that 
Song Cyou have it in If a. 26. 1.] may befd; was the very Heart and Life of the Land 
renewed, We have a ftrong Toion ; Salvation that he had a pity tor : But why fo? He laid 
Tor TE'sUS the Lord, whofe Name hath j in If a. 57. 35. / mil defend this Town, to 
Salvation in if\ mil appoint Walls and Bul-'favc it for my Servant Ddxkl'sfake. Has this 
mrks. Truly what help we have had we will j Town been Defended ? k has been for the fake 
Sing Tw our JESVS that hath appointed of the Beloved JESUS; therefore has the 
them. The Old Pagan Towns were fometimes Daughter of Bafim (haken her Head, at you, O 

mightily Solicitous to conceal the Name of the 
particular God that they counted their Pro- 
teflor, Ne ab hoftibus Evocatus, alio commigra- 
ret. But I fhall be far from doing my Town 
any damage, by Publifhing the Name of its 
Protetfor ; no, let all Mankind know, that the 
Name of oar ProteSor is JESUS CHRIST: 
For Among the Gods there is none like unto 
thee, LORD: Kor is any help like unto 
thine i And there is no Rock like to our 


Yea, when we afcribe the Name of Helper 
unto our Lord JESUS CHRIST, ler us al- 
fo acknowledge that the Name is not fufficient- 
ly Expreffive, Emphatical and Significant, j 
Laffantii/s of old blamed the Heathen for! 
giving the higheft of their Gods no higher a 
Title than that of Jupiter, or 'juvans Pater, 
i. e. An helping Father 5 and he lays, Non in- 
telligit Divtna Beneficia, qui fe a Deo tantum- 
tnodo Juvari putat : The Kindnejfes of God 
are not underftood by that Man, who makes no 
"^more than an Helper of him. Such indeed is 
the penury of our Language, that we cannot 
Coin a more Expreffive Name. Neverthelefs, 
when we fay, The Lord JESUS CHRIST 
hath been our Helper, let us intend more than 
we exprefs •, Lord, thou haft been AH unto 

Secondly, Let the Sacrifice of our Lord 
Jefus Chrift moft Explicitly have the Glory of 
Purchafing for us all our Help. What was it 
that procured an Ebenezer for the People of 
God J We read in 2 Sam. 7. 9. Samuel took a 
Sucking Lamb, and offered it a Burnt-Offering 
wholly unto the Lord ; and Samuel cried unto 
the Lord for Ifrael, and the Lord heard hint 
Shall I tell you i Our Lord Jefus Chrift is 
that Lamb of God • and he has been a Lamb 
/lain as a Sacrifice ; and he is a Sacrifice plead- 
able not only lor Perfons, but alio for Peoples 
that belong unto him. To teach us this Evan- 
gelical and Comfortable Myfiery, there was 
a Sacrifice for the whole Congregation prefcribed 
in the Mofaic Pedagogy. 'Tis notorious that 
the Sins of this Town have been many Sins, 
and mighty Sins ; the Cry thereof hath gone 
up to Heacen. If the Almighty God fhould 
irom Heaven Rain down upon the Town an 
horrible Tempeji of Thunderbolts, as he did 
upon the Cities which he overthrew in his An- 
ger, end repented not, it would be no more 
than our unrepented Sins deferve. How comes 
it then to pafs that we have had fo much 
help from Heaven after all i Truly the Sacrifice 
«f our Lord Jefus Chrift has been pleaded for 

ye Calamities that have been Impending over 
her Head. O helped and happy Town !. Thou 
halt had thofe Believers in the mid ft of thee 
that have pleaded this with the great God I 
Ah ! Lord, Thou haft been more Honoured by 
the Sufferings of our Lord Jefus Chrift, than 
thou couidj} be Honoured by overwhelming this 
Town with all the Plagues of thy Juft Indig- 
nation. If thou wilt Spare, and teed, and Keen, 
and Help this poor Town, the Sufferings of 
our Lord Jefus Chrift jfhall be own'd at the 
Prize of all our help. Tis this that hath pro- 
cured us all our Help .- 'Tis this that mult 
have all our Praife. 

Thirdly, Let the Lord be in a fp 1 tnaifi- 
ner Glorified for the Miniltry or . 
3ngt{0, in that help that has been Mi 'fired 
unto us. A Jacob lying on a Stone, hw t 
Angels of God helping him. We are letting 
up an Ebenezer ; but when we lay our Heads 
and our Thoughts upon the Stone, let us then 
fee, The Angels of God have helped us. When 
Macedonia was to have fbme help from God 
an Angel, whom the Apoftle in Ads 16. 9! 
law Habited like a Man of Macedonia, was a 
Mean of its being brought unto them. There 
is abundant Caufe to think, That every Town 
in which the Lord Jefus Chrift is Wprfhip- 
ped, hath an Angel to watch over it. The Pri- 
mitive Chriltians were perfwaded from the 
Scriptures of Truth to make no doubt of this, 
%jtoA per Civitates diftributx fur.t Angelorum 
prsfetturx. When the Capital Town of ja- 
ded was refcued from an Invafion, we read in 
2 Kings 19. 35. The Angel of the Lord WEN F 
OUT, and/mote the Camp of the Aflyrians. It 
ihould feem there was an Angel which did 
Refide in, and Prefide over the Town, who 
went out for that amazing Exploit. And is it 
not likely, that the Angel of the Lord WENT 
OUT for to fmite the Elect of the Aflyrians 
with a Sicknefs, which the laft Summer hun- 
dred their Invading of this Town ? The Angel 
of BOSTON was concerned for it i Whv 
have not the Deft royers broke in upon us, to 
Prey upon us with fore Deftruffion ? 'Tis be- 
caufe we have had a Wall of Eire about us ; 
that is to lay, a Guard of Angels, thofe 
Flames of Fire have been as a Wall unto us. 
It was an Angel that help'd a Daniel when the 
Lions would elfe have fwallowed him up. 
It was an Angel that help'd a Lot out of the 
Fires that were coming to confume his Habi- 
tation. It was an Angel that help'd an Eliot 
to Meat when he wanted it. They were An- 
gels that help'd the whole People of God in 
F the 


Magnalia Chrijii Americana : 

Book I. 

the Wildernefs to their Daily Bread ; Their 
Manna was Angels food : And is it nothing 
that fuch Angels have done for this Town, 
think you ? Oh ! Think not fo. Indeed if" we 
fhould go to thank the Angels for doing thefe 
things, they would zealoufly lay, See thou do 
it not ! But if we thank their Lord and ours 
for his employing them to do thefe things, it 
will exceedingly gratitie them. Wherefore, 
Blcfs ye the Lord, ye his Angels \ and Blefs 
the Lord, O my Town, ior thofe his An- 

III. Let the help which we have hitherto 
had from our God, encourage us to hope in 
him for $00$ |)Clp hereafter, as the Matter 
may require. The help that God had given 
to his People of Old was Commemorated, as 
with Monumental Pillars, conveying down the 
Remembrance of it unto their Children. And 
what for i We are told in Pfal. 78. 7. That 
they might fet their hepe in God, and not for- 
get the Works of God. I am not willing to 
fay how much this Town may be threatned, 
even with an Utter Extirpation. But this I 
will fay, The Motto upon all our Ebenezers, 

is, rpcpf in <SoD ! rpope in <55oU ! The 

Ufe ot the former help that we have had 
from God, mould be an hope for future help 
from him, that is a prefent help in the time 
of Trouble. As in the Three Firft Verfes of 
the Eighty-fifth Pfalm Six times over there 
occurrs, 1 hou half, Thou hafl : All to ufher in 
this •, Therefore thou WILT fill do fo. 
O let our faith proceed in that way of Ar- 
guing in 2 Cor. 1. 10. The Lord hath de- 
livered, and he doth deliver, and in him we 
truft that he will ft ill deliver. We are to 
Day Writing, hitherto the Lord hath helped 
us ■, let us Write under it, And we hope the 
Lord hajt mere help for us in the time of 
need ! It may be fbme are purpofing fudden- 
ly and haftily to leave the Town through 
their Fears of the Straits that may come 
upon it. But I would not have you be too 
fudden and haity in your Furpofes, as too 
many have been unto their After-Sorrow. 
There was a time when People were fo Dif- 
couraged about a Sulffience in the Principal 
Town of the Jews, that they talk'd of pluck- 
ing up Stakes and flying away ; but the 
Minifter of God came to them, Cand fo do I 
to you this Day ! ~] Saying, in Ifa. 30. 7. 
/ cried concerning this, their flrengtb is to 
ft fill ! Bcfion was no fooner come to 
fbme Confidence Threefcote Years ago, but 
the People found ibemfelves plunged into a 
fad Kon-plus what way to take for a Sub- 
fiftence. God then immediately put them in- 
to a way, and \ntherto the Lord hcut helped 
us ! The Town is at this Day full of Widoios 
and Orphans, and a multitude of them are very 
helplejs Creatures. 1 am aftonifh'd how they 
live J In that Church whereof I am the Ser- 
vant, 1 have counted the Widows make about 
a Sixth "Part or our Communicants, and no 
doubt in the v.- hole .Town the proportion dif- 


fers not very much. Now ftand ft ill, my 
Friends, and behold the help of God ! Were 
any of thefe ever ftarved yet J No, thefe 
Widows are every one in fome fort provided for. 
And let me tell you, ye Handmaids of the 
Lord, you fhall be ftill provided for ! The 
Lord, whofe family you belong unto, will con- 
veniently and wonderfully provide for you ; if 
you fay, and Oh I Say of him, Ike Lord is 
my Helper, I will not fear ! 

What fhall I fay ? When Mofes was ready 
to faint in his Prayers for his People, we 
read in Exod. 17, 12. They took a Stone, and 
put it under him. Chriftians, there are fbme 
of you who abound in Prayers, that the 
help of God may be granted unto the Town -, 
the Town is much upheld by thofe Prayers 
of yours. Now that you may not faint in 
your Prayers, I bring you a Stone : The Stone, 
'tis our Ebenezer ; or, The Relation of the 
help that hitherto the Lord hath given us. 

IV. Let all that bear ]9tli)ItCfc Office in the 
Town contribute all the help they can, that 
may continue the help of God unto us. Au- 
jfin in his Confeffions gives thanks to God, 
that when he was an helplefs Infant, he had a 
Kurfe to help him, and one that was both 
able and willing to help him. Infant-ZWrw?, 
thou haft thofe whom the Bible calls Nur- 
fing-fathers. Oh be not froward, as thou art 
in thy Treating of thy Kurfes -, but give 
thanks to God for them. I forget my felf ; 
'tis with the fathers themfelves^that I am con- 

When it was demanded of Demofthenes, 
what it was that fb long preferved Athens 
in a fiourilhing State, he made this Anfwer, 
The Orators are Men of Learning and Wif- 
dom, the Magiftrates do Jujiice, the Citizens 
love Quiet* and the Laws are kept among 
them all. May Bofion flouriih in fuch happy 
Order ! 

And firft, You may allure your felves that the 

39imfter0 of the Lord Jefus Chrift among 

you will be Joyful to approve themfelves, as 

the Book of God has called them, The Helpers 

of your Joy. O our dear flocks, we owe you 

our All; all our Love, all our Strength, all our 

Time • we watch for you as thofe that mufi 

give an account : And 1 am very much mi (taken 

if we are not willing to Die for you too, if called 

unto it. If our Lord Jefus Chrift fhould fay 

to us, My Servant, if you 11 Die to l^ight, you 

fhall have this Reward; The People that you 

Preach to fhall be all Converted unto me ! I 

think we (hould with Triumphing Souls reply, 

Ah ! Lord, Then Vil Die Kith ail my Heart. 

Sirs, v;e fhould go away lie joy a rig with fry 

unfpeakable and full of Glory. I am latisfied, 

that the moft Furious and Foul-mouth'd Reviler 

that God may give any of us to be Buffeted 

withal, if he will but come to fbber Thoughts, 

he will fay. That there is not any One Man in 

the Town, but the Minifters with that Man 

as well as they do their own Souls, and would 

gladly ferve that Man by Day or by Night, 


Book I. Or, the Hiftory of New-England 

in any thing that 
him. Wherefore 
feech you leave off, 

at your Ebenczers. Inftead of that pray for 
us, and ft rive together with us in your Pray- 
ers to God for us. Then with the help of 
Quid we'll promife you, we will fet our lelves 
to obferve what Special Truths may be molt 
needful to be Inculcated upon you, and we will 
Inculcate them. We will let our felves to ob- 
ferve the Temptations that befet you, the Af- 
fiiUions that aflault you, and the Duties that 
are incumbent on you ; and we will ac- 
commodate our felves unto them. We will fet 
our lelves to obferve what Souls among you do 
call lor our more particular Addreffes, and we 
will Addrefs them faithfully, and even Travel 
in Birth for them. Nor will we give over 
Praying, and fafiing, and Crying to our great 
LORD for you until we Die. Whatever o- 
ther helpers the Town enjoys, they fhall have 
that Convenience in Ezra 5. 2. With them 
were the Prophets of God, helping them. Well 
then, let the reft of our Worthy Helpers lend 
an helping Hand for the promoting of thofe 
things wherein the Weal of the Town is wrap- 
ped up ! When the Jews thought that a Defi- 
ling thing was breaking in among them, in 
Atts 21. 28. They cried out, Men of lfad,help. 
Truly there is Caufe to make that Cry, Men 
of Bolton, help ! For Ignorance, and Prophane- 
nefs, and Bad Living, and the worlt things in 
World, are breaking in upon us. 

And now will the JUSTICES of the 
Town fet themfelves to confider, how they may 
help to fupprefs all growing Vices among 
us r 

Will the CONSTABLES of the Town 
fet themfelves to confider, how they may help 
to prevent all Evil Orders among tts ? 

There are fome who have the Eye of the 
Town fo much upon them, that the very Name 
of T O W N S- M E N is that by which they 
are diftinguifhed. Sirs, Will you alfo confider 
how to help the Affairs of the Town, Jo as 
that all things may go well among us ? 

Moreover, may not SCHOOL-MASTERS 
do much to inftil Principles of Religion and 
Civility, as well as other Points of good Edu- 
cation into the Children of the Town f Only let 

Talents in the place where God hath Stau- 

071 d 7716 ^ 

of the Town beconlidered among the reft, as 
entrufted with fome lingular Advantages for 
our help ! The Lord give you Undemanding 
in all things. 

V. God help the Town to mamfeft all that 
PlCtp, which a Town fo helped of him is 
obliged unto ! When the People of God had 
been carried by his help through their Diffi- 
culties, they let up atones to keep in mind 
how he had helped them : And lbmething 
was Written on the Stones : But what was 
Written ! See Jofh. 8. 3 2. fofhua wrote upon 
the Stones a Copy of the Law. Truly upon 
thofe Ebenezers which we let up, we Ihould 
Write the Law of our God, and Recognize the 
Obligations which the help of our God has laid 
upon us to keep it. 

We are a very Unpardonable Town, if af- 
ter all the help which our God has given us, 
we do not ingenuoufly enquire, What fhall we 
render to the Lord jor alt ha Benefits .■? Ren- 
der ! Oh ! Let us our lelves thus anfwer the 
Enquiry ; Lord, we will render all Pojfible and 
filial Obedience unto thee, becauje hitherto thou 
haft helped us : Only do thou alfo help us to 
render that Obedience '. Mark what I fay ■, 
if there be fo much as one Prayerlejs houfe 
in fuch a Town as this, 'tis Inexcufable ! now 
Inexcufable then will be all flagitious Outra- 
ges ? There was a Town, L'twas the Town of 
Sodom ! ] that had been wonderfully laved 
out of the Hands of their Enemies. But af- 
ter the help that God fent unto them, the 
Town went on to Sin againft God in very 
prodigious Inltances. At laft a provoked God 
fent a fire upon the Town that made it an 
Eternal Defolation. Ah, Boflon, beware, be- 
ware, left the Sins of Sodom get footing in 
thee ! And what were the Sins of Sodom ? 
We find in Ezek. 16. 45?. Behold, this was 
the Iniquity of Sodom ; Pride, fulnejs of 
Bread, and Abundance of ldlenefs was in her ■, 
neither did fhe jirengthen the hand of the 
Poor and the Needy -, there was much Op- 

the Town well Encourage its well deferving preffion there. If you know of any Scanda 


There are fome other Officers ; but concern- 
ing all, there are thefe Two things to be de 
fired. Firlt, It is to be defired, That fuch 
Officers as are Chcfen among us, may be cho- 
fen in the fear oj God. May none but Pious 
and Prudent Men, and fuch as Love the Town, 
be chofen to ferve it. And, Secondly, It is to 
be defired, That Officers of feveral forts would 

bus Diforders in the Town, do all you can 
to fupprefs them, and redrefs them : And let not 
thofe that fend their Sons hither from 0- 
ther Parts of the World, for to be improved 
in Virtue, have caufe to complain, That af- 
ter they came to Bofton they loft what little 
Virtue was before Budding m them : That in 
Bofton they grew more Debauched and more 
Malignant than ever they were before I It 

often come together for Confutation. Each of 1 was noted concerning the fiamous Town of Port- 
the forts by themfelves^ may they often come | Royal m_ Jamaica, which you know 


thing will it be forPerfons to be entrufted with 

fet upon 

violently and fcandaloufly 
going to fortune-Tellers upon all 
r 2 OccaGons •• 


Magnolia Chrifti Americana : 

Book L 

Occafions : much notice was taken of this Im- 
piety generally prevailing among the People : 
But none of thofe wretched fortune Tellers 
could forefee, or foreftal the direful Catajiro- 
phe. I have heard that there are Fortune 
Tellers in this Town fometimes confulted by 
fome of the finful Inhabitants. I wifh the 
Town could be made too Hot for thefe 
Dangerous Tranfgrefjors. I am fure the 
prefervation of the Town from horrendous 
Earthquakes, is one thing that befpeaks our 
Ebenezers ; 'tis from the Merciful help of our 
God unto us. But beware, I befeech you, of 
thofe provoking Evils that may expofe us to a 
Plague, exceeding all that are in the Catalogue 
of the Twenty-eighth of Deuteronomy. Let me 
go on to fay, What, fhall there be any Bawdy- 
Houfcs in fuch a Town as this ! It may be the 
Neighbours, that could Smoke 'em, and Rout 
'em, if they would, are loth to Stir, for fear 
of being reputed /// Neighbours. But I fay un- 
to you, that you are /// Neighbours becaufe 
you do it not : All the Neighbours are like to 
have their Children and Servants Poifoned, 
and their Dwellings laid in Afhes, becaufe you 
do it not. And Oh I That the D^nfeftlg* 
J])0Ufc5 in t ne Town might once come under 
a laudable Regulation. The Town has an 
Enormous Number of them ; will the Haunters 
or thofe Houfes hear the Counfels of Heaven > 
For Tou that are the Town-Dwellers, to be oft, 
or long in your Vifits of the Ordinary, 'twill 
certainly expofe you to Mifchiefs more than 
ordinary. I have feen certain Taverns, where 
the Pictures of horrible Devourers were hang'd 
out for the Signs ; and, thought I, 'twere well 
if fuch Signs were not fometimes too too Signi- 
ficant : Alas, Men have their Eftates devour- 
ed, their Names devoured, they Hours devour- 
ed, and their very Souls devoured, when they 
are fo befotted, that they are not in their Ele- 
ment, except they be Tipling at fuch Houfes. 
When once a Man is bewitched with the Ordi- 
nary , what ufually becomes of him ? He is a 
gone Man-, and when he comes to Die, he'll 
cry out as many have done, Ale-Houjes are 
Hell-Houjes ! Ale- Houfes are Hell- Houfes ! But 
let the Owners of thole Houfes alfo now hear 
our Counfels. Oh ! Hearken to me, that God 
may hearken to you another Day ! It is an Ho- 
nejl, and a Lawful, tho' it be not a very Defire- 
able Employment, that you have undertaken : 
You may Glorifie the Lord Jefus Chrift in your 
Employment if you will, and benefit the Town 
confiderably. There was a very godly Man 
that was an Innkeeper, and a great Minifier 
of God could fay to that Man, in 3 John 2. 
TJjy Soul profpereth. O let it not be faid of 
you, fince you are fallen into this Employment, 
Thy Soul toithereth I It is thus with too many : 
Efpecially', when they that get a Licenfe per- 
haps 'to Sell Drink out of Doors, do ftretch 
then- Licenfe to Sell within Doors. Thofe 
Private Houfes, when once a Profeflbr of the 
Gofpel comes to Steal a. Living out of them, it 
commonly precipitates them into abundance of 

wretchednefs and confufion. But I pray God 
affift you that keep Ordinaries, to keep the 
Commandments of God in them. There was an 
Inn at Bethlehem where the Lord JESUS 
CHRIST was to be met withal. Can Bofton 
boaft of many fuch ; Alas, too ordinarily it 
may be faid, 'There is no Room for him in the 
Inn! My Friends, let me beg it of you, banifh 
the unfruitful works of Darknefs from your 
Houfes, and then the Sun of Right eoufnefs will 
fhine upon them. Don't countenance Drun- 
kennefs, Revelling, and Mif-fpending of preci- 
ous Time in your Houfes : Let none have the 
Snares of Death laid for them in your Houfes. 
You'll fay, I frail Starve then ! \ fay, better 
Starve than Sin : But you flmil not. It is the 
Word of the Molt High, Truji in the Lord,, 
and do Good, and verily thou fhalt be Fed. And 
is not Peace of Confidence, with a Little, bet- 
ter than thofe Riches, that will (hortly melt a- 
way, and then run like Scalding Metal down 
the very Bowels of thy Soul ? 

What lhall I fay more? There is one Article 
of Piety more to be Recommended unto us all • 
and it is an Article which all Piety does ex- 
ceedingly turn upon, that is, CfjC ^antttfica- 
ttOnOftfjelO^Dap* Some very Judici- 
ous Perfons have oblerved, that as they fantti- 
fied the Lord's Day, liemifly or Carefully, jufl 
fo their Affairs ufually prqfpered all the enfu- 
ing Week. Sirs, you cannot more confult the 
Profperity of the Town, in all its Affairs, than 
by Endeavouring that the Lord's Day may be 
exemplarily Sanllified. When People about 
Jerusalem took too much Liberty on the Sab- 
bath, the Ruler of the Town Contended with 
them, and faid, Te bring wrath upon Ifrael, by 
prophaning the Sabbath. I fear, I fear there are 
many among us, to whom it may be faid, Te 
bring wrath upon Bofton, by prophaning the 
Sabbath. And what Wrath? Ah, Lord, prevent 
iti But there is an awful Sentence in Jer. 17. 
27." If ye will not hearken unto me, tofan&i- 
fie the Sabbath Day, then will I kindle a fire 
on the Town, and it /hall Devour, and fhall 
not be Quenched. 

Finally, Let the Piety of the Town mani- 
feft it felf in a due Regard unto the 3ittffttU» 
tiOt\$ of him whofe help has hitherto been a 
Shield unto us. Ltt the Ark be in the Town, 
and God will Blefs the Town ! I believe it 
may be found, that in the Mortal Scourges of 
Heaven, which this Town has felt, there has 
been a difcerncible DftinUioh of thofe that have 
come up to attend all the Ordinances of the 
Lord Jsfus Chrift, in the Communion of his 
Churches. Though thefe have had, as 'tis fit 
they fhould, a Share in the Common Death s^ 
yet the Defraying Angel has not had fo great 
a proportion of thefe in hisCommiffion, as he 
has had of others. Whether this be fo, or no, 
to uphold, and fupporr, and attend the Ordi- 
nances of the Lord Jefus Chrift in Reforming 
Churches, this will Entitle the Town to the help 
of Heaven -, for, Upon the Glory there fhall be 
a defence I There were the Victorious Forces 


Book I. Or, The Hijiory of New-England. 


of Alexander, that in going backward and for- 
ward, pafs'd by Jerujalem without Hurting 
ir. Why fo ? Said the Lord in Zech. 9. 8. I 

being asked why their Town fo went, as if 
then did, unto decay ? He fetched a deep ligh, 
and faid, Our young Men are too'Prodigal, our 

mil encamp about my Houje, becaufe of the ArAold Men are too AffeSionate, and we have no 
my. If our God have an houje here, he'll \Punijhment for thoje that Jpend their Tears in 
Encamp about it, 

Nazianzen, a famous Mi 
nifter of the Gofpel, taking his farewel of 
Conjiantinople, an old Man that had fat under 
his'Miniftry, cried out, Oh ! My Father, Don't 
you dare to go away, you'll carry the whole Tri- 
nity with you! How much more may it be cri- 
ed out, If we lofe or flight the Ordinances of 
the Lord Jefus Chrift, we forego the help of 
all the Trinity with them ! 

VI. Extraordinary Ctltlitp and CJjatftp, 
as well as Piety, well becomes a Town that 
hath been by the help of God fo Extraordina- 
rily fignalized. A Town marvelloufly helped 
by God, has this foretold concerning it, in 
Ifa. 1. 26. Afterward thou fhalt be called, the 
City of Right eoufnefs, the faithful City. May 
the Ebenezer s of this Town render it a Town 
of Equity, and a Town of Charity ! Oh ! There 
fhould be none but fair Dealings in a Town 
wherewith Heaven has dealt fo favourably. 
Let US Deal fairly in Bargains ; Deal fairly 
in Taxes ■ Deal fairly in paying Refpeas 
to fuch as have been Benefattors unto the 
Town. 'Tis but Equity, that they who 
have been old Standers in the Town, and 
both with Per/on and Eftate ferved the Town 
unto the utmoft for many Years together, fhould 
on all proper Occafions be confidered. For Cha- 
rity, I may indeed fpeak it without Flattery, 
this Town has not many Equals on the Face 
of the Earth. Our Lord Jefus Chrift from 
Heaven wrote unto the good People of a Town 
in the lefier Afta, [Rev. 2. 19.J I know thy 
Works and Charity. From that Bleffed Lord 

Idlenefs. Ah ! the laft itroak of ifhat com- 
plaint I muft here figh it over again. Idle- 
nefs, alas ! Idlenefs increafes in the Town ex- 
ceedingly : Idlenefs, of which there never came 
any Goodnefs ■, Idlenefs, which is a reproach to 
any People. We work hard all Summer, and 
the Drones count themfelves wrongd if they 
have knot in the Winter divided among them. 
The Poor that can't Work, are Objects for your 
Liberality. But the Poor that can Work and 
won't, the belt Liberality to them is to make 
them. I befeech you, Sirs, find out a Method 
quickly, that the Idle Pcrjons in the Town 
may earn their Bread; it were the bed piece 
of Charity that could be fhown unto them, and 
Equity unto us all. Our Beggars do ihamelul- 
ly grow upon us, and fuch Beggars too as our 
Lord Jefus Chrift himfelf hath exprefly for- 
bidden us to Countenance. I have Read a 
Printed Sermon which was Preached before 
Both Houfes of Parliament, the Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen of London, and the A jfembly of 
Divines ; the greateft Audience then in the 
World : And in that Sermon the Preacher had 
this paflage ; I have lived in a Country where in 
Seven Tears I never faiv a Beggar, nor heard 
an Oath, nor looked upon a Drunkard. Shall 
I tell you where that Utopia was > 'Twas NEW- 
ENGLAND ! But they that go from hence 
muft now tell another Story. 

VII. May the Cf)ffltffe$>, and efpeciall/ the 

3jUu"gmttlt0 that have come upon ihe Town, 

! direct us what help to petition from the God of 

\our Salvations. The Israelites had formerly 

I may venture to bring that Meffage unto the | feen DifmalThings, where they now fet up iheiv 
good People of this Town i the glorious Lord of \ Ebenezer : The Philifl.nes had no lefs than 
Heaven knows thy works, Bofton, and all thy Twice beaten them there, and there taken from 

Charity. Thi9 is a poor Town, and yet it may 
be laid of the Boflonians, as it was of the Ma- 
cedonians, their deep Poverty hath abounded un- 
to the Riches of their Liberality. O ye boun- 
tiful People of God, all your daily Bounties 
to the Needy, all your Subscriptions to fond the 
Bread of Life abroad unto places that are 
perifhingin Wickednefs, all your Colletl ions in 
your Aflemblies as often as they are called for ; 
all theje Alms are come up for a Memorial be- 
fore God ! The Lord Jefus Chrift in Heaven 
hath beheld your helpfulnefs, and readinefs to 
every good Work; and he hath required" it 
with his helpful Ebenezers. It was faid, in 
Ifa. 32. 8. The Liberal devifeth Liberal things, 
and by Liberal things he fhall Jiand. There are 
fome in this Town that are always devifing 
Liberal things, and our Lord Jefus Chrift lets 
the Town Jiand for the fake of thofe ! Inftead 
of exhorting you to Augment your Charity, 
I will rather utter an Exhortation, or at leaft 
a Supplication, that you may not abufe your 
Charity by mifapplying of it. I remember I 
have Read, that an Inhabitant of the City Pi/a 

them the Ark of God. Now we are letting up 
our Ebenezer, let us a little call to mind ibme 
Di/mal Things that we have feen -, the Ebene- 
zer will go up the better for it. 

We read in 1 Sam. 6. 18. concerning the 
Great Stone of Abel. Some fay, That Adam 
erecled that Stone, as a Grave-Jione for his 
Abel, and wrote that Epitaph upon it, Here 
wai poured out the Blood of the Righteous 
ABEL. I know nothing of This; the Names, 
I know, differ in the Original ; but as we may 
ered many a Stone for an Ebenezer, fo we 
may ereft many a Great Stone of ABEL, 
that is to fay, we may write MOURNING and 
SORROW, upon the Condition of the Town in 
various Examples. Now from the Stones of 
Abel, we will a little gather what we fhould 
wifh to write upon the Stones of our Ebenezer. 
What Changes have we foen in point of 
EEliffl'Olt t It was noted by Luther, He could 
never fee good Order in the Church laft more 
than Fifteen Tears together in the Purity of it. 
BlefTed be God, Religion hath here flouriihed 
in the Purity of it for more than Fifteen Tears 



Magnalia Chrifti Americana. 

Book I. 

together. But certainly the -Power of Godli- 
nejs is now grievoufly decay'd among us. As 
the Prophet of old Exclaimed in Joel i. 2. 
Hear this, ye old Men, and give Ear, ye Inha- 
bitants •, has this been in your Days ? Thus may 
I lay, Hear this, ye old Men, that are the In- 
habitants of the "Town: Can't- you Remember 
that in your Days, a Prayerful, a Watchful, 
a Fruitful Chriftian, and a well Governed Fa- 
mily, was a more common Sight, than it is 
now in our Days ? Can't you Remember that 
in your Days thofe abominable Things did 
not /how their Heads, that are row Bare-faced 
among us i Here then is a Petition to be made 
unto our God ; Lord, help us to Remember 
whence we are j alien, and to Repent, and to 
do the jirft Works. 

.Again, WhatChanges have we feen in Point 
of $j£0?talitp ? By Mortality almcft all the 
Old Race of our Firft Planters here are carried 
oft\ the Old Stock is in a manner expired. We 
fee the fulfilment of that Word in Eccl. i. 4. 
One Generation paffelh away, and another Gene- 
ration cometh. It would be no unprofitable 
thing for you to pafs over the feveral Streets, 
and call to mind, Who lived here Jo many Tears 
ago? Why? In that place lived fuch an 
one •, and in that place lived fuch an one. 
But, Where are they Kow ? Oh ! They are 
Gone ; they are Gone into that Eternal World, 
whither we muft quickly follow them. Here 
is another Petition to be made unto our God ; 
Lord, help us to 'Number our Days, and Apply 
our Hearts unto Wifdom, that when the places 
that now know us, do know us no more, we may 
he gone into the City of God. 

Furthermore, What Changes have we feen 
in point of pofTeffiOllg f Iffome that are now 
Rich, were once Low in the World, 'tis poffi- 
ble, more that were once Rich, are now brought 
very Low. Ah.! Bofton, Thou haft feen the 
Vanity of all Worldly Pojjcffions. One fatal 
Morning, which laid Fourfcore of thy Dwel- 
ling-houjes, and Seventy of thy Ware-houjes, 
Heap, not Nineteen Years 

in a Ruinous Heap, not Nineteen Years ago, 

gave thee to Read it in Fiery Characters. And 

an huge Fleet of thy VefTels, which they would 

make if they were all together, that have mif- 

carried in the late War, has given thee to Read \be will cafi you off for ever. 

more of it. Here is one Petition more to be 

made unto our God Lord, help us to enjure a 
better and a lading Subftance in Heaven, and 
the good part that cannot be taken away. 

In fine, How dreadfully have theToung Peo- 
ple of Bofton perilhed under the Judgments 
of God ! A renowned Writer among the Pa- 
gans could make this Remark ; There was a 
Town fo Irreligious and Atheiftical, that they 
did not pay their Firft-fruits unto God : 
(which the Light of Nature taught the Pagans 
to do!) and, lays he, they were by a fudden 
Defolation fo ftrangely deftroy'd, that there 
were no Remainders either of the Perjons, or 
of the Houfes, to be feen any more. Ah, my 
Joung folks, there are few Firft-fruits paid 
unto the Lord Jefus Chrift among you. From 
hence it comes to pafs, that the confuming 
Wrath of God is every Day upon you. New- 
England has been like a lott'ring Houje, the 
very foundations of it have been fhaking : But 
the Houfe thus over-fetting by the Whirlwinds 
of the Wrath of God, hath been like Job's 
Houfe ; 1/ falls upon the Young Men, and they 
are Dead ! The Difafters on our Joung Folks 
have been fo multiplied, that there are few 
Parents among us, but what will go with 
Wounded Hearts down unto their Graves: 
Their daily Moans are. Ah, my Son cut off in 
his Youth ! My Son, my Son ! Behold then the 
help that we are to ask of our God ; and why 
do we, with no more Days of Prayer with 
lafting, ask it > Lord, help the young People of 
Bofton to Remember thee in the Day? of their 
Youth, andjanttifie unto the Survivers the ter- 
rible things that have come upon Jo many of that 

And now as Jofhua having realbned with his 
People, a little before he Died, in Jofh. 24. 
26, 27. Took a Great STONE, and Jet it up, 
andjaid unto all the People, Behold, this Stone 
Jhall be a witnejs unto you, left ye deny your 
God. Thus we have been this Day fetting up 
a STONE, even znEbenezer among you; and 
I conclude, earneftly teftifying unto you, Be- 
hold this Stone fhall be a witnejs unto you, 
that the Lord JESUS CHRIST has been a 
good Lord unto you ; and if you Jeek him, he 
will be fill found oj you; but ifyouforjake him, 

The End of the Firft Book. 

Hcclefiarum Clyfei. 

The Second BOOK 

O F T H E 

New EnglifTi Hiftory : 



O F T H E 

GOV EPvN OURS, and the Names of the MA- 
GISTRATES, that have been SHIELDS 

(until the Year 1686.) 

Perpetuated by the Ejjay of Cotton Mather. 

Prifcaq-j ne Veterh vanefcat Gloria Steffi, 
llvida defendant, qu£ Momtmenta damur. 

§£ui Ali is prafant, tatito privatis Hominibus Meliores ejje Oportet, 
guanto Honnribus & Liguitate antecellunt. Panorinitan. 

NotidiiKt h£c, qii£ nunc tenet S£culum y Negligentia 
Dei Verier at. Li v. I. 3. 

Opt'wms quifq; Nobilijjitmts. Plato. 



Printed for Thomas Parkburfi, at the Bible and Three 
Crown? in Cheaffide. 1702. 


Book II. 


5>"T" S W E RE to be wip'd that there 
I might never be any Englifh Tranfla- 
tion of that Wicked Pofition in Machiavel, 
Non requiri in Principe ver.ira pietatem, 
fed fufficere illius quandam umbram, 6c 
fimulationem Externam. It may be there 
never was any Region under Heaven happier 
than poor New-England hath been in Magi- 
ftrates, whofe True Piety was worthy to be 
made the Example of After- Ages. 

Happy haft thou been, O Land! in 
Magistrates, whofe Difpojition to ferve the 
Lord Jefiis Chrift, unto whom they jiill con- 
fidered themfelves accountable, anfwered the 
good Rule of Agapetus, Quo quis in Re- 
publica Majorem Dignitatis gradum a- 
deptus eft, eo Deum Colat Submifiius : Magi- 
ftrates, whofe Difpojition to ferve the People 
that chafe them to Rule over them., argued 
them fenfible of that great Stroal^ in Cicero, 
Nulla Re propius Homines ad Deum Acce- 
dunt, quam falute Hominibus danda : 
Magiftrates, aUed in their Adminiflrations 
by the Spirit of a Jofhua. When the Wife 
Man obferves unto us, That Oppreffions 
makes a Wife Man Mad, it may be worth 
confidering, whether the Opprenbr is not 
intended rather than the Oppreffed in the 
Obfervation. *Tis very certain that a Dif- 
pofition to Opprefs other Men, does often 
make thofe that are otherwife very Wife 
Men, to forget the Rules of Reaion, and 
commit mojl Unreafonable Exorbitances. 
Rehoboam in fome things afted wifely ; 
but this Admonition of his Infpired Father 
could not refrain him from afting madly, 
when the spirit of Oppreffion was upon 
him. The Rulers of New-England have been 
Wife Men, whom that Spirit of Oppreffi- 
on betray d not into this Madnefs. 

The Father of Themiftocles diffwading 
him from Government, fhowd him the Old 
Oars which the Marriners had now thrown 

away upon the Sea-fhores with Neglect and 
Contempt •-, and faid, That People would 
certainly treat their Old Rulers with the 
fame Contempt. But, Reader, let us now 
takp up our Old Oars with all pojjible Refpett, 
and fee whether we cant fill make ufe of 
them to Jerve our little Vejfel. Bat this 
the rather, becaufe we may with an eafie 
turn change the Name into that of Pilots. 

perly fignifies the Guidance of a Ship : 
Tully ufes it for that purpofe :, and in 
Plutarch, the Art of Steering a Ship, //, 
Ts^ni KvfanTiKti. New-England is a little 
Ship, which hath Weathered many a Terri- 
ble Storm 5 and it is but reafonable that 
they who have fat at the Helm of the Ship, 
fiould be remembred in the Hiftory of its 

Prudentius calls judges, The Great 
Lights of the Sphere 5 Symmachus calls 
Judge?, The better part of Mankind. 
Reader, Tbou art now to be entertained 
with the Lives of Judges which have de- 
ferved that CharaBer. And the Lives of 
thofe who have been called, Speaking Laws, 
will excufe our Hifory from coming under 
the Obfervation made about the Worl\_ of 
Homer, That the Word, LAW, is never 
fo much as once occurring in them. They 
are not written like the Cyrus 0/Xenophon, 
likg the Alexander of Curtius, like Virgil'/ 
,/fc.neas, and like Pliny'/ Trajan : But the 
Reader hath in every one of than a Real 
and a Faithful Hifory. And I pleafe my 
felf with hopes, that there will yet be found 
among the Sons of New-England, thofe 
Young Gentlemen by whom the Copies given 
in this Hiftory will be written after 5 and 
that faying of Old Chaucer be remembred, 
To do the Genteel Deeds, that makes the 



Book II. 

TLcclefiamm Clypet. 

The Second BOOK 


New Englifli Hiftory. 


Galtacius Secundus. The LIFE »/ WILLIAM BRADFORD Efo 
Governour of P L Y M O UT H C L NT. ^ 

Omnium Somnos, illius vigil ant ia defendit, omnium otinm illiits Labor, cm mum Delitias 
illius Induflria, omnium vacationem illius occupatio. 



T has been a Matter of fome Obser- 
vation, that although Torkfhire "he 
one of the largeft Shires in England , 
yet, for all the Fires of Martyrdom 
which were kindled in the Days of Queen Mary, 
it afforded no more Fuel than one poor Leaf; 
namely, John Leaf an Apprentice, who fufter- 
ed for the Dottrine of the Reformation at the 
fame Time and Stake with the Famous John 
Bradford. But when the Reign of Queen Eli- 
zabeth would not admit the Reformation of 
Worfhip to proceed unto thofe Degrees, which 
were propofed and purfued by no fmall number 
of the Faithrul in thofe Days, Torkfhire was 
not the leaft of the Shires in England that af- 
forded Suffering Witneffes thereunto. The 
Churches there gathered were quickly molefled 
with fuch a raging Ferfecuticn, that if the 
Spirit ot Separation in them did carry them un- 
to a further Ext ream than it fhould have 
done, one blameable Caufe thereof will be found 
in the Extremity of that Fcrfecuticn. Their 
Troubles made that Cold Country too Hot for 
them, fo that chey were under a neceffity to 
feek a Retreat in the Lew Countries ; and yet 
the watchrul Malice and Fury of their Ad- 
verfaries rendred it almoft impoiTible for them 
to find what they fought. For them to leave 
their Native. Soil, their Lands and their Friends, 
and go into a Strange Place., where they muft 
hear Forreign Language, and live meanly and 
hardly, and in other Imployments than that of 
Husbandly, wherein they had been Educated, 

thefe muft needs have been fuch Difcourage- 
ments as could have been Conquered by none, 
fave thofe who fought firft the Kingdom of 
God, and the Right eoujhefs thereof But that 
which would have made thefe Dilcouragements 
the more Unconquerable unto an ordinary 
Faith, was the terrible Zeal of their Enemies 
to Guard all Forts, and Search all Ships, that 
none of them (hould be carried off I will not 
relate the fad things of this kind, then feen 
and felt by this People of God ; but only 
exemplifie thofe Trials with one (hort Story. 
Divers of this People having Hired a Dutch- 
man then lying at Hull, to carry them over to 
Holland, he promifed faithfully to take them 
in between Grimfly and Hull ; but they coming 
to the Place a Day or Two too foon, the ap- 
pearance of fuch a Multitude alarmed the 
Officers of the Town adjoining, who C3me 
with a great Body of Soldiers xo feize upon 
them. Now it happened that one Boat full of 
Men had been carried Aboard, while the Wo- 
men were yet in a Bark that lay Aground in 
a Creek at Low-Water. The, Dutchman per- 
ceiving the Storm that was thus beginning A- 
fhore, fwore by the Sacrament that he would 
flay no longer for any of them ; and fo 
taking the Advantage of a Fair Wind then 
Blowing, he put out to Sea for Zealand. 
Ths Women thus left near Gnmfly-Common, 
bereaved of their Husbands, who had been 
hurried from them, and forfaken of their Neigh- 
bours, of whom none durft in this Fright ftay 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory <?/" New-England. 

with them, were a very rueful Spectacle j 
fome crying for Fear, fome fhaking for Cold, 
all dragg'd by Troops of Armed and Angry 
Men from one Juttice to another, till not know- 
ing what to do with them, they e'en difmifs'd 
them to fhift as well as they could for them- 
ielves. But by their lingular AffliUions, and 
by their Chriftian Behaviours, the Caufe for 
which they expofed themfelves did gain con- 
fiderably. In the mean time, the Men at Sea 
found Reafon to be glad that their Families 
were not with them, for they were furprized 
with an horrible Tempeft, which held them 
for Fourteen Days together, in Seven whereof 
they faw not Sun, Moon or Star, but were 
driven upon the Coaft of Norway. The Mari- 
ners often dei'paired of Life, and once with 
doleful fhrieks gave over all, as thinking the 
Veffel was Foundred : But the Veffel rofe a- 
gain, and when the Mariners with funk Hearts 
often cried out, We Sink ! We Sink ! The 
Paffengers without fuch Diftraclion of Mind, 
even while the Water was running into their 
Mouths and Ears, would chearfully Shout, 
let, Lord, thou canji Jove ! Yet Lord, thou 
canjlfave ! And the Lord accordingly brought 
them at Iaft fafe unto their Dejired Haven: 
And not long after helped their DiftreiTed Re- 
lations thither after them, where indeed they 
found upon almoft all Accounts a new World, 
but a World in which they found that they 
muft live like Strangers and Pilgrims. 

§. 2. Among thofe Devout People was our 
William Bradford, who was Born Anno 1588. in 
an obfeure Village call'd Anfierfield. where 
the People were as unacquainted with the 
Bible, as the Jews do feem to have been with 
part of it in the Days of Jofiah ; a mod Ig- 
norant and Licentious People, and like unto their 
Trieji. Here, and in lbme other Places, he 
had a Comfortable Inheritance left him of his 
Honeft Parents, who died while he was yet 
a Child, and calf him on the Education, tirft 
of his Grand Parents, and then of his Uncles, 
who devoted him, like his Ancefiors, unto the 
Affairs of Husbandry. Soon and long Sicknefs 
kept him, as he would afterwards thankfully 
lay, from the Vanities of Toutb, and made him 
the fitter for what he was afterwards to un 
dergo. When he was about a Dozen Years 
Old, the Reading of the Scriptures began to 
caufe great Impreiiions upon him ; and thofe 
Impretiions were much affifted and improved, 
when he came to enjoy Mr. Richard Clifton's 
Illuminating Miniftry, not far from his Abode; 
he was then alfo further befriended, by being 
brought into the Company and Fellowihip ol 
fuch as were then called Profeffors •, though 
the Young Man that brought him into it, did 
after become a Prophane and Wicked Apo- 
fiate. Nor could the Wrath of his Uncles. 
nor the Scoff of his Neighbours now turn'd 
upon him, as one of the Puritans, divert him 
from his Pious Inclinations. 

§. ?. At laft beholding how fearfully the 
Evangelical and Apoftolical Church-Form, where- 

j into the Churches of the Primitive Times 
(were caft by the good Spirit of God, had been 
• Deformed by the Apoflacy of the Succeeding 
limes ; and what little Progrels the Refor- 
mation had yet made in many Parts of 
Chriftendom towards its Recovery, he let him- 
felf by Reading, by Dii'courle, by Prayer, to 
learn whether it was not his Duty to withdraw 
from the Communion of the Parifjj-Ajfemblies, 
and engage with fome Society of the Faithful, 
that fhould keep dole unto the Written Word 
of God, as the Rule of their Wrrfhip. And 
after many Diftreffes of Mind concerning it, 
he took up a very Deliberate and Underftand- 
ing Refolution of doing fo ; which Refolution 
he chearfully Irolecuted, although the pro- 
voked Rage of his Friends tried 3II the ways 
imaginable to reclaim him from it, unto all 
whom his Anfwer was. Were I like to endanger 
my Life, or confume my Ejhue by any ungodly 
Courjes, your Counjels to me were very feaf on- 
able : But you know that I have been Diligent 
and Provident in my Calling, and not only de- 
Jiroz/s to augment what I have, but alfo to en- 
joy it in your Company ; to part from which 
will be a* great a Crofs ax can befal me. 
Aeverthelefs, to keep a good Confcicnce, and 
walk in fuch a Way a# God has prefcribed in 
his Word, is a thing which I muft prefer before 
you all, and above Life it felf. Wherefore, 
Jince 'tis for a good Caufe that I am like to 
fuffer the Difafters which you lay before me, 
you have no Caufe to be either angry with ?nej 
or forry for me -, yea, I am not only willing 
to part with every thing that is dear to me 
in this World for this Caufe, but I am alfo 
thankful that God has given me an Heart 
fo to do, and will accept me fo to fuffer for 
him. Some lamented him, fome derided him, 
all difiwaded him : Neverthelefs the more 
they did it, the more fixed he was in his Pur- 
poie to feek the Ordinances of the Gofpel, 
where they fhould be difpenfed with moft of 
the Commanded Purity ; and the fudden Deaths 
of the chief Relations which thus lay at him, 
quickly after convinced him what a Folly it 
had been to have quitted his Profejfion, in 
Expectation of any Satisfaction from them. 
So to Holland he attempted a removal. 

§. 4. Having with a great Company of Chri- 
ftians Hired a Ship to Tranfport them for 
Holland, the Mailer petfidiouily betrayed them 
into the Hands of thofe Perfecutors, who 
Rifled and Ranfack'd their Goods, and clapp'd 
their Perfons into Prifon at Bofton, where they 
lay for a Month together. But Mr. Bradford 
being a Young Man of about Eighteen, was 
difmiffed fooner than the reft, ib that within a 
while he had Opportunity with fome others to 
get over to Zealand, through Penis both by 
Land and Sea not inconfiderable ; where he 
was not long Afhore e're a Viper feized on 
his Hand, that is, an Officer, who carried him 
unto the Magiftrates, unto whom an envious 
PafTenger had accufed him as having fled 
out of England. When the Magiftrates un- 
A a 2 derftood" 


Magnalia Cbrifti Americana ; 

Book II. 

derftood the True Caufe of his coming thi- 
ther, they were well fatisfied with him ; and 
lb he repaired joyfully unto his Brethren at 
Amfterdam, where the Difficulties to which he 
afterwards Hooped, in Learning and Serving of 
a frenchman at the Working of Silks, were 
abundantly Compenfated by the Delight where- 
with he fat under the Shadow of our Lord in 
his purely difpenfed Ordinances. At the end 
of Two Years, he did, being of Age to do 
it, convert his Eltate in England into Money ; 

with Paflime and Frolicks ; and this gentle Re- 
proof put a final flop to all fuch Difoideis for 
the future. 

^. 6. For Two Years together after the be- 
ginning of the Colony, whereof he was now 
Governour, the poor People had a great Expe- 
riment of Man's not living by Bread alone ■ 
for when they were left all together without: 
one Morfel of Bread for many Months one after 
another, ftill the good Providence of God 
relieved them, and fupplied them, and this 

but Setting tip tor himfelf, he found fome of his for the moft part out of the Sea. In this lowCon- 

Defigns by the Providence of God frowned 
upon, which he judged a Correction bellowed 
by God upon him for certain Decays of In- 
ternal Piety, whereinro he had fallen ; the 
Confumpinm of his Eflate he thought came to 
prevent a Conjunction in his Virtue. But 
after he had reiided in Holland about half a 
Score Years, he was one of thofe who bore a 
part in that Hazardous and Generous Enter- 
prize of removing into New-England, with 
part of the Engl'ifl) Church at Leyden, where 
at their fir ft Landing, his deareft Confort ac- 
cidentally falling Overboard, was drowned in 
the Harbour ; and the reft of his Days were 
fpent in the Services, and the Temptations, of 
that American Wilier nefs. 

§. 5. Here was Mr. Bradford in the Year 
1621. Unanimoufly chofen the Governour of 
the Plantation : The Difficulties whereof 
were inch, that if he had not been a Perfon 
of more than Ordinary Piety, Wifdom and 
Courage, he muft have funk under them. He 
had w ith a Laudable Induftry been laying up 
a Treafure of Experiences, and he had now 
occafion to ufe it : Indeed nothing but an Ex- 
perienced Man could have been fuitable to the 
Neceffities of the People. The Potent Nati- 
ons of the Indians, into whofe Country they 
were come, would have cut them off, if the 
Bleffing of God upon his Conduct had not 
quell'd them ; and if his Prudence, Juftice 
and Moderation had not over-ruled them, they 
had been ruined by their own Diftempers. One 
Specimen of his Demeanour is to this Day 
particularly fpoken of A Company of Young 
Fellows that were newly arrived, were very 
unwilling to comply with the Governour's 
Order for Working abroad on the Publick Ac- 
count ; and therefore on Chriflmafs-Day, when 
he had called upon them, they excufed them- 
felves, with a pretence that it was againft their 
Confcience to Work fuch a Day. The Go- 
vernour gave them no Anfwer, only that he 
would fpare them till they were better in- 
formed ■, but by and by he found them all at 
Play in the Street, f porting themfelves with 
various Diverfions ; whereupon Commanding 
the Inftruments of their Games to be taken 
from them, he efilQually gave them to un- 
der ftand, That it was againft his Confcience 
that they flmild play whilft others were at 
Work ; and that if they had any Devotion to 
the Day, they fhould fbow it at Home in the 

dition of Affairs, there was no little Exercife 
for the Prudence and Patience of the Governour, 
who chearfully bore his part in all : And that 
Induftry might not flag, he quickly fee him- 
felf to fettle Propriety among the New- Plan- 
ters ; forefeeing that while the whole Country 
labour'd upon a Common Stock, the Husbandry 
and Bufinejs of the Plantation could not fiourijh, 
as Plato and others long fince dream'd that 
it would, if a Community were eftablifhed. Cer- 
tainly, if the Spirit which dwelt in rhe Old 
Puritans, had not infpired thefe New-Planters, 
they had funk under the Burden of thefe Dif- 
ficulties ; but out Bradford had a double Por- 
tion of that Spirit. 

§. 7. The Plantation was quickly thrown in- 
to a Storm that almoft overwhelmed it, by the 
unhappy Aftions of a Minifter fent over from 
England by the Adventurers concerned for the 
Plantation ; but by the Bleffing of Heaven on 
the Conducf of the Governour, they Weathered 
out that Storm. Only the Adventurers here- 
upon breaking to pieces, threw up all their 
Concernments with the Infant Colony ; where- 
of they gave this as one Reafbn, That the 
Planters dijjembled with His Alajefty, and their 
Erie/ids in their Petition, wherein they decla- 
red for a Church-Difcipline, agreeing with the 
French and others of the Reforming Churches 
in Europe. Whereas 'twas now urged, that 
they had admitted into their Communion a 
Perfon, who at his Admif lion utterly renounced 
the Churches of England, (which Perfon by 
the way, was that very K'an who had made 
the Complaints againft them) and there- 
fore though they denied the Name of Browniffs, 
yet they were the Thing, in Anfwer hereunto, 
the very Words written by the Governour were 
thefe ; Whereas you Tax us with dijfembling 
about the French Difcipline, you do us wrong, 
for we both hold and prallice the Difcipline of 
the French and other Reformed Churches (as 
they have publi/hed the fame in the Harmony 
of Confeffions) according to our Means, in 
Effect and Subjiance. But whereat you would 
tie us up to the French Difcipline in every 
Circun: fiance, you derogate from the Liberty we 
have in Chriji Jefus. The Apofile Paul would 
have none to follow him in any thing, but 
wherein he follows Chrift ; much lefs ought 
any Chrifiian or Church in the World to do it. 
The French may err, we may err, and oilier 
Churches may err, and doubtlefs de in many 
Exercijes of Religion, and not in the Streets 1 Circumfiances. That Honour therefore belongs 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory ojf New-England!. 


only to the Infallible Word of God, and pure 
Tettament of Chrift, to be propounded and 
followed as the only Rule and Pattern for Di- 
rection herein to all Churches and Chriflians. 
And it is too great Arrogancy for any Men or 
Church to think., that he or they have fo founded 
the Word of God unto the bottom, as precifely 
to Jet down the Churches Difciplitic without 
Efrof in Subftance or CircumjUnce, that no o- 
thcr without blame may digrcfs or differ in any 
thing from the fame. And it is not difficult 
to fhew that the Reformed Churches differ in 
many Circumftances among them/elves. By 
which Words it appears how for he was free 
from that Rigid Spirit of Separation, which 
broke to pieces the Separates themfeives in 
the Low Countries, unto the great Scandal of 
the Reforming Churches. He was indeed a 
Perfon of a well-temper d Spirit, or elfe it had 
been fcarce potftble for him to have kept the 
Affairs of Plymouth in fo good a Temper for 

Daughter by another, whom he Married iri 
this Land. 

§. 9. He was a Perfon for Study as well as 
Allion ; and hence, notwithffanding the Diffi- 
culties through which he paiTed in his Youth, he 
attained unto a notable Skill in Languages \ the 
hutch Tongue was become almoft us Vernacu- 
lar to him as the Englijh • the trench Tongue 
he could alfo manage; the Latin and the Greek 
he had Mattered-, but the Hebrew he molt of 
all ftudied, Becaufe, he laid, he would fee with 
his own Eyes the Ancient Oracles of God 
in their Native Beauty. He was alfo well 
skill'd in Hiftory, in Antiquity, and in Philoso- 
phy ; and for Theology he became fo verfed in 
it, that he was an Irrefragable DiJ'putant a- 
gainft the Errors, efpecialiy thofe of Anabap- 
tijm, which with Trouble he law riling in 
his Colony -, wherefore he wrote fome Signi- 
ficant things for the Confutation of thofe Er- 

rors. But the Crown of all was his Holy, 
Thirty Seven Years together ; in every one j Prayerful, Watchful and Fruitful Walk with 
of which he was chofen their Governour, ex- God, wherein he was very Exemplary, 
cept the Three Tears, wherein Mr. Winflow, and §. ic. At length he fell into an Indifpofi 
the Two Tears, wherein Mr. Prince, at the | tion of Body, which rendred him unhealthy 
choice of the People, took a turn with him. for a whole Winter ■, and as the Spring ad- 

§. 8. The Leader of a People in a Wilder- vanced,his Health yet more declined ; yet he 
nejs had need be a Mofes ; and if a Mofes felt himlelf not what he counted Suk, till one 
had not led the People of Plymouth Colony, Day-^ in the^ Night after which, the God of 

when this Worthy Perfon was their Governour, 
the People had never with fo much Unanimity 
and Importunity ftiJi called him to lead them. 
Among many Manxes thereof, let this one 
piece of Self-denial be told for a Memorial of 
bint, toberefoever this Hiflory fhall be confide red. 
The Patent of the Colony was taken in his 
Name, running in thefe Terms, To William 
Bradford, bis Heirs, Affociates and Affigns : 
But when the number "of the Freemen was 
much Increafed, and many New Townfbips 
Elected, the General Court there defired of 1 them all 
Mr. Bradford, that he would make a Surren- 
der of the fame into their Hands, which he 
willingly and preiently alTented unto, and con- 
firmed it according to their Defire by his Hand 
and Seal, referving no more for himfelf than 
was his Proportion, with others, by Agreement. j ra £fc erj \ a an 
But as he found the Providence of Heaven ma 

Heaven fb fill'd his Mind with Ineffable Con- 
folations, that he feemed little ffiort of Paul., 
rapt up unto the Unutterable Entertainments 
of Pat'adije. The next Morning he told his 
Friends, That the good Spirit of God had 
given him a. Pledge of his Happinefs in ano-. 
ther Worlds and the Firft-fruits of bis Eter- 
nal Glory : And on the Day following he 
died, May 9. i6<;-j. in the 69th Year of his 
Age. Lamented by all the Colonies' of Neva- 
England, as a Common Blefiing and Father to 

tnibi ft Similis Comingat Oaufula Vit£ ! 

Plato's brief Deicription of a Governour. 
is all that I will now leave as his Cha- 


ny ways Recompensing his many A&s of Self- 
denial, fo he gave this Teilimony to the Faith- ; 
fulnefs of the Divine Promifes ; That he had I &»/«& T^?»{ dybut dyfyoirltri. 

forfaken Friends, Houfes and Lands for the , 

Jake of the Go/pel, and the Lord gave them \MEN are but FLOCKS: BRADFORD 
him again. Here he profpered in his Efiate-, I beheld their Need, 

and befides a Worthy Son which he had by a And kvg did them at once both Rule arid 
former Wife, he had alfo Two Sons and a ! Feed. 


Magnalia Chrifti Americana. 

Book II. 


Inter Omnia qu& Rempublicam, ejufq-^ fmlicitattm confervant, quid utilius, quid pr<e- 
jlantius, quant Viros ad Magiflratus gerendps Eligere, fumma prudentia & Virtute 
preditos, quiq-j ad Honor es obtinendos, non An/bit ione, non Largitionibus^ fed Virtute 
& Modejiia fibi parent adytum ! 

fj. i. > ~T^ H E Merits of Mr. Edward Win/low, 
X the Son of Edward Win/low, Efq^ 
of Draughtwich, in the Country of Worcefler, 
obliged the Votes of the Plymouthean Colony 
(whereto he arrived in the Year 1624. after his 
Prudent and Faithful Difpatch of an Agency 
in England, on the behalf of that Infant Colony ) 
to chufe him for many Years a Magiftrate, 
and for Two or Three their Governour. Tra- 
velling into the Lou-Co entries, he fell into 
Acquaintance with the Englijh Church at Ley- 
den, and joining himfelf to them, he Shipped 
himfelf with that part of them which firft 
came over into America -, from which time he 
was continually engaged in fuch extraordinary 
Actions, as the affiftance of that People to en- 
counter their more than ordinary Difficulties, 
called for. But their Publick Affairs then re- 
quiring an Agency of as wife a Man as the 
Country could find at Whitehall for them, he 
was again prevail'd withal in the Year 1635:. 
to appear for them at the Council-board '; and 
his appearance there proved as EffeSual, as it 
was very Seafonable, not only for the Colony 
of Plymouth, but for the Majfachufets alfo, on 
very important Accounts. It was by the 
Bleffing of God upon his wary and proper Ap- 
plications, that the Attempts of many Adver- 
faries to overthrow the whole Settlement of 
New-England, were themfelves wholly over- 
thrown ■, and as a fmall Acknowledgment for 
his great Service therein, they did, upon his 
return again, chufe him their Governour. But 
in the Year 1646. the place of Governour ^ be- 
ing reaffumed by Mr. Bradford, the MaJJachu- 
/^/-Colony Addreffed themfelves unto Mr. 
Winjlow to take another Voyage for England, 
that he might there procure their Deliverance 
from the Defigns of many Troublefome Adver- 
faries that were Petitioning unto the Parliament 
againft them •, and this Hercules having been 
from his very early Days accuftomed unto 
the crufiing of that fort of Serpents, generoufly 
undertook another Agency, wherein how many 
good Services he did for New-England, and 
with what Fidelity, Difcretion, Vigour and Suc- 
cefs he purfued the Interefts of that Happy 
People, it would make a large Hiftory to re 
late, an Hiftory that may not now be expe&ed 
until the Rejurrcilion of the Jujl. After this 
he returned no more unto New-England ; but 
being in great Favour with the greateft Per- 
fons then in the Nation, he fell into thofe Im- 
ployments wherein tne whole Nation fared the 
better for him. At length he was imployed as 

one of the Grand Commijjtoncrs in the Expe- 
dition againft Hifpaniola, where a Difeafe 
(rendred yet more uneafie by his Diflatisfatti- 
on at the ftrange mifcarriage of rhat Expedi- 
tion) arrefting him, he died between Domingo 
and Jamaica, on May 8. 165 7. in the Sixty- 
firft Year of his Life, and had his Body Ho- 
nourably committed unto the Sea. 

§. 2. Sometimes during the Life, but always 
after the Death of Governour Bradford, even 
until his own, Mr. Thomas Prince was 
chofen tSOutntOUt of Plymouth He was 
a _ Gentleman whofe Natural Pans exceeded 
his Acquired ; but the want and worth of Ac- 
quired Parts was a thing lb fenfible unto 
him, that Plymouth perhaps never had a great- 
er Mecxnai of Learning in it : It was he that 
in ipite of much Contradi&ion, procured 
Revenues for the Support of Grammar-Schools 
in that Colony. About the time of Governour 
Bradford's Death, Religion it felf had like to 
have died in that Colony, through a Liber- 
tine and BrcwnijYick Spirit then prevailing a- 
mong the People, and a ffranee Difpofition to 
Difcountenance the Gofpel-Alimjiry, by fetting 
up the Gifts of Private Brethren in Opposi- 
tion thereunto. The good People being in ex- 
tream Diftrefs from the Profpcft which this 
matter gave to them, faw no way fo likely 
and ready to fave the Churches from Ruin, 
as by the Eleclion of Mr. Prince to the place' 
of Governour ; and this Point being by the 
Gracious and Marvellous Providence of the 
Lord Jefus Chrift gained at the next Election-, 
the Adverfe Party from that very time funk 
into Confufion. He had Sojourned for a while 
at Eajlham, where a Church was by his means 
gathered ; but after this time he returned unto 
his former Scituation at Plymouth^ where he 
refided until he died, which wis March 29. 
1673. wn en he was about Seventy-Three Years 
of Age : Among the many Excellent Qualities 
which adorned him as Governour of the Co- 
lony, there was much notice taken of that In- 
tegrity, wherewith indeed he was tnoft exem- 
plarily qualified :, Whence it was that as he 
ever would refufe any thing that lookd like 
a Bribe ; fo if any Peribn having a Cafe to 
be heard at Court, had fenc a Prefent unto 
his Family in his abfence, he would prefently 
fend back the value thereof in Money unto 
the Peribn. But had he been only a private 
Chnftian, there would yet have been feen up- 
on him thofe Ornaments of Pray erf ulnefs, 
and Peaceablenefs, and profound Resignation to 


Book II. Or, The Hiflory <^ New-England. 


the Conduct of the Word of God, and a ftritf 
Walk with God, which might juftly have been 
made an Example to a whole Colony. 

§. 3. Reader, If thou would'lt have feen the 
true Picture of Wifdom, Courage and Genercfi- 
ty, the Succeffor of: Mr. Thomas Prince in the 
Government of Plymouth would have repre 
fented it. It was the truly Honourable Jofiah 
Winjlow, Efq, the firft Governour that was 
Born in New-England, and one well worthy to 
be an Example to all that ihould come after 
him : A True Englijh Gentleman, and (that I 
may fay all at oncej the True Son of that 
Gentleman whom we parted withal no more 
than Two Paragraphs ago. His Education 
and his Difpoiltion was that of a Gentleman ; 
and his many Services to his Country in the 
Yield, as well as on the Bench, ought never to 
be Buried in Oblivion. All that Homer defired 
in a Ruler, was in the Life of this Gentle- 
man expreifed unto the Life ; to be, Fortes in 
Hoftes, and, Bonus in Gves. Though he hath 
left an Offspring, yet I muft ask for One 
Daughter to be remembred above the reft. As 

of Old, Epaminondas being upbraided with 
want of Ilfue, boafted that he Ieir behind him 
cne_ Daughter, namely, the Battel of 'Leijtfra, 
which would render him Im fo our 

General Winjlom hath kit behind him his Bat- 
tel at the Fort of the Narraganfcis, to Im- 
mortalize him : There did he with' his own 
Sword make and frvape a Ten to Write his 
Hiftory. But fo large a Held of Merit is now 
before me, that I dare not give my felf the 
liberty to Range in it left I lofe my felf. He 
died on Dec, iS. 1680. 

Jam Cinis eft, & de tarn magus reft at Achille, 
Nefcio quid; parvam quod non bene compleat 

§. 4. And what Succeffor had he ? Me- 
thinks of the Two laH Words in the won- 
derful Prediction of the Succejfwn, Oracled un- 
to King Henry VII. L E 0, NULL US, the 
Firft would have well fuited the Valiant 
Winjlow of Plymouth ; and the la It were to 
have been wiih'd for him that followed. 

Patres Confer ipti ; fir, ASSISTENTS. 

England have ftill had Righteoufnefs 
the Girdle of their Loins, and Faithfulnefs 
the Girdle of their Reins, that is to fay, 
Righteous and faithful Men about them, in 
the Affiftance of fuch Magiftrates as were 
called by the Votes of the Freemen unto the Ad- 
miniftration of the Government, ^according to 
their Charters) and made the judges of the 
Land. Thefe Perfons have been fuch Members 
of the Churches, and fuch Patrons to the 
Churches, and generally been fuch Examples of 
Courage, Wifdom, Juftice, Goodnefs and Re- 
ligion, that it is fit our Church-Hijlory fhould 
remember them. The Bleffed Apollonius, who 
a fet Oration Generoufly and Eloquently 


Pleaded the Caufe of Chriftianity before the 
Roman Senate, was not only a Learned Per- 
fon, but alfo (if Jerom fay right) a Senator 
of Rome. The Senators of New-England alfo 
have pleaded the Caufe of Chriftianity, not 
fo much by Orations, as by Prattifing of it, 
and by Suffering for it. Nevertheless, as the 
Sicyonians would have no other Epitaphs 
wiitten on the Tombs of their Kings, but on- 
ly their Names, that they might have no 
Honour, but what the Remembrance of their 
Aftions and Merits in the Minds of the Peo- 
ple mould procure for them ; fb I Ihall con- 
tent my felf with only reciting the Names of 
thefe Worthy Perfons, and the Times when 
I find them firft chofen unto their Magi- 

MAGISTRATES in the Colony of 

TH E good People, foon after their firft 
coming over, chofe VixWilliam Bradford for 
their Governour, and added Five' Ajfiftents, 
whofe Names, I fuppofe, will be found in the 
Catalogue of them, whom I find fitting on 
the Seat of Judgment among them, in the 
Year 1633. 

Edward Winjlow, Gov 
William Bradford. 
Miles Standijh. 
John Howland, 
John Alden. 
John Dene. 
Stephen Hopkins. 
William Gilfon. 

Afterwards at feveral times were added, 

Thomas, Prince. 
William Collier. 
Timothy Hat her ly. 
John Brown. 
John Jenny. 
John Ataood. 
Edmund Freeman. 
William Thomas. 
Thomas Willet. 
Thomas Southworth. 
James Cudworth. 
Jofiah Winjlow. 
William Bradford. F, 















Or, The Hiflory of New-England. Book II. 

Thomas Hinkley. 
James Brown. 
John Freeman. 
Nathanael Bacon. 


Thus far we find in a Book Entituled y New* 
England's Memorial, which was Publifhed by 
Mr. 'Nathanael Morton, the Secretary of Ply- 

mouth Colony, in the Year 1669. Since the 11 
there have been added at feveral times, 

Conftant Southworth. 
Daniel Smith. 
Barnaba* Lothrop. 
John Thatcher. 
John Walley, 

1 6 jo. 


Nehemias Americanus. The LIFE of J O H N WINTHROP, Efc 
Governour of the MASSACHUSET COLONY. 

§Zuicunq^ Venti erunt, Ars nojira certe non aberit. Cicer. 

§. 1. T ET Greece boaft of her patient 
I j lycurgus, the Lawgiver, by whom 
Diligence, Temperance, fortitude and Wit were 
made the Fafhions of a therefore Long-lafting 
and Renowned Commonwealth : Let Rome tell 
of her Devout Numa, the Lawgiver*, by whom 
the moft Famous Commonwealth law Peace 
Triumphing over extinguifhed War, and cruel 
Plunders, and Murders giving place to the 
more mollifying Exercifes of his Religion. Our 
New-England fhall tell and boalt of her 
(I^itttljtOp, a Lawgiver, as patient as^ Lycur- 
gus, but not admitting any of his Criminal 
Diforders; as Devout as Numajovx not liable to 
any of his Heathenifh Madneffes ; a Governour 
in whom the Excellencies of Chriflianity made 
a moft improving Addition unto the Virtues, 
wherein even without thofe he would have 
made a Parallel for the Great Men of Greece, 
or of Rome, which the Pen of a Plutarch has 

§. 2. A ftock of Heroes by right fhould af- 
ford nothing but what is Heroical ; and nothing 
but an extream Degeneracy would make any 
thing lefs to be expeQed from a Stock of 
Winthrops. Mr. Adam Winthrop, the Son of 
a Worthv Gentleman wearing the fame Name, 
was himfelf a Worthy, a Difcreet, and a 
Learned Gentleman, particularly Eminent for 
Skill in the Law, nor without Remark for 
Love to the Go/pel, under the Reign of King 
Henry VIII. And Brother to a Memorable 
Favourer of the Reformed Religion in the Days 
of Queen Mary, into whofe Hands the Famous 
Martyr Philpot committed his Papers, which 
afterwards made no Inconfiderable part of our 
Martyr-Books. This Mr. Adam Winthrop had 
a Son of the fame Name alfo, and of the 
fame Endowments and Imployments with his 
Father; and this Third Adam Winthrop was 
the Father of that Renowned John Winthrop, 
who was the Father of New-England, and the 
Founder of a Colony, which upon many Ac- 
counts, like him that Founded it, may challenge 
the Firfl Place among the Englifh Glories 
of America. Our 31afjtt Caitntfjl'Op thus 
Born at the Manfion-Houfe of his Anceftcrs, 
at Groton in Suffolk, on June 12. 15 87. en- 

joyed afterwards an agreeable Education. But 
though he would rather have Devoted him- 
felf unto the Study of Mr. John Calvin, than 
of Sir Edward Cook ; neverthelefs, the Accom- 
plifhments of a Lawyer, were thofe where- 
with Heaven madeJris chief Opportunities to be 

§. 3. Being made, at the unufually early 
Age of Eighteen, a Juftice of Peace, his Vir- 
tues began to fall under a more general Ob- 
fervation ; and he not only fo Bound himfelf 
to the Behaviour of a Chriftian, as to become 
Exemplary for a Conformity to the Laws of 
Christianity in his own Converfation, but alfo 
difcovered a more than ordinary Meafure of 
thofe Qualities, which adorn an Officer of 
Humane Society. His Jujlice was Impartial, 
and ufed the Ballance to weigh not the Cajh 
but the Cafe of thofe who were before him : 
Profopolatria, he reckoned as bad as Idololatria : 
His WiJdom did exquifitely Temper things ac- 
cording to the Art of Governing, which is a 
Bufinefs of more Contrivance than the Seven 
Arts of the Schools : Oyer ftill went before 
Terminer in all his Administrations : His Cou- 
rage made him Dare to do right, and fitted 
him to ftand among the Lions, that have 
fometimes been the Supporters of the Throne : 
All which Virtues he rendred the more Illu- 
ftrious, by Emblazoning them with the Con- 
fiant Liberality and Hojpitality of a Gentle- 
man. This made him the Terror of the 
Wicked, and the Delight of the Sober, the 
Envy of the many, but the Hope of thofe who 
had any Hopeful Defign in Hand for the Com- 
mon Good of the Nation, and the Interefts of 

§. 4. Accordingly when the Noble Defign 
of carrying a Colony of Chofen People into 
an American IVilderneis, was by Jome Eminent 
Perfons undertaken, This Eminent Perfon was, 
by the Confent of all, Chofen for the Mofes, 
who muft be the Leader of ib great an Un- 
dertaking : And indeed nothing but a Mofaic 
Spirit could have carried him through the 
Temptations, to which either his Farewel to 
his own Land, or his Travel in a Strange 
Land, mult needs expofe a Gentleman of 
* his 

Book II. 

Magnalia Chrifli Americana 


bis Education. Wherefore having Sold a fair 
Eftate of Six or Seven Hundred a Year, he 
Tranfported himfelfwith the EfTecls of it into 
New-England in the Year 1650. where hefpent 
it upon the Service of a famous Plantation 
rounded and formed for the Seat of the raoft 
Reformed Cbriftianity : And continued there. 

deed, a Governour, who had moft exactly ftu- 
died rhar Book, which pretending to Teach IV 
liticks, did only contain Three Leaves, and 
but One Word in each of thofe Leave^, w 
Word was, ^OOeratlOlt- Hence, though he 
were a Zealous Enemy to all Vice, yet his Pra- 
ctice was according to his Judgment thus ex 7 

conflicting with Temptations of all forts, as ma- preffed ; In the Infancy of Plantations, Ju 
ny Years as the Nodes of the Moon take to\ fhould be adminiflrcd with more Lenity than in 

difpatch a Revolution. Thofe Perfons were ne 
ver concerned in a New-Plantation, who know 
not that the unavoidable Difficulties of fuch a 
thing, will call for all the Prudence and Pa- 
tience of a Mortal Man to Encounter there- 
withal i and they muft be very infenfible of 
the Influence, which the Juft Wrath of Hea- 
ven has permitted the Devils to have upon this 
World, if they do not think that the Difficul- 
ties of a New-Plantation, devoted unto the Evan- 
gelical WorJJnp of our Lord Jefus Chrilt, muft 
be yet more than Ordinary. How Prudently, 
how Patiently, and with how much Refigna- 
tion to our Lord Jefus Chrilt, our brave Win- 
throp waded through theie Difficulties, let 
Pofterity Confider with Admiration. And know, 
that as the Pillure of this their Governour, 
was, after his Death, hung up with Honour in 
the State-Houfe of his Country, \o the Wifdom. 
Courage, and Holy Zeal of his Life, were an 
Example well-worthy to be Copied by all that 
lhall fucceed in Government. 

§. •;. Were he now to be confider 'd only as a 
Chrijiian, we might therein propofe him as 
greatly Imitable. He was a very Religious 
Man -, and as he ftri&ly kept his Heart, fo he 
kept his Houfe, under the Laws of Piety • there 
he was every Day conftant in Holy Duties, both 
Morning and Evening, and on the Lord's Days, 
and Leilures ; though he wrote not after the 
Preacher, yet fuch was his Attention, and fuch 
his Retention in Hearing, that he repeated unto 
his Family the Sermons which he had heard in 
the Congregation. But it is chiefly as a Gover- 
nour that he is now to be confider'd. Being 
the Governour ©ver the confiderableft Part of 
New-England, he maintain'd the Figure and 
Honour of his Place with the Spirit of a true 
Gentleman-, but yet with fuch obliging Condefcen- 
tion to the Circumftances of the Colony, that 
when a certain troublefome and malicious Ca- 
lumniator, well known in thofe Times, prin- 
ted his Libellous Nick-Names upon the chief 
Perfons here, the worft Nick-Name he could 
find for rhe Governour, wis John Temper- well; 
and when the Calumnies of that ill Man caufed 
the Arch-Bifhop to Summon one Mr. Cleaves 
before the King, in hopes to get fome Accufa- 
tion from him againft the Country, Mr. Cleaves 
gave fuch an Account of the Governour's lau- 
dable Carriage in all Refpecfs, and the ferious 
Devotion wherewith Prayers were both pub- 
lickly and privately made for His Majefty, that 
the King exprefTed himfelf moft highly Plea- 
fed therewithal, only Sony that fo Worthy a 
Perfon fhould be no better Accommodated than 
with the Hardfhips of America. He was, in- 

a fettled State ; becaufe People are more apt 
then to Tranfgrefs ; partly out of Ignorance of 
new Laws and Orders, partly cut of Oppreffion 
of Bufinejs, and other Straits. [ICHW ®ltl- 
JJU,] was the old Rule ; and ij the Strings of a 
new Inftrument be wound up unto their height!?, 
they will quickly crack. But when fbme Lead^ 
ing and Learned Men took Offence at his Con- 
duct in this Matter, and upon a Conference g ive 
it in as their Opinion, That a ftriffer 1 
pline was to be ufedin the beginning of a Plan 
tation, than after its being with more Age e- 
ftablifhed and confirmed, the Governour being 
readier to fee his own Errors than other Mens, 
profeffed his Purpofe to endeavour their Satif 
facnon with lefs of Lenity in his Adminiftra- 
tions. At that Conference there were drawn 
up feveral other Articles to be obferved be- 
tween the Governour and the reft of the Ma- 
giftrates, which were of this Import : That the 
Magiftrates, as far as might be, fhould afore- 
hand ripen their Confutations, to produce that 
Unanimity in their Publick Votes, which might 
make them liker to the Voice of God ; that if 
Differences fell out among them in their Pub- 
lick Meetings, they fhould fpeak only to the 
Cafe, without any Reflection, with all due Mo- 
defy, and but by way of Qiieftion ; or Defire 
the deferring of the Caufe to further time ; and 
after Sentence to imitate privately no Diflike ; 
that they fhould be more Familiar, Friendly and 
Open unto each other, and more frequent in their 
Vifitations, and not any way expofe each o- 
thet's Infirmities, but feek the Honour of each 
other, and all the Court; that One Magiftrate 
ihall not crofs the Proceedings of another, with- 
out firft advifing with him-, and that they 
(hould in all their Appearances abroad, be fo 
circumft3nced as to prevent all Contempt of 
Authority ■, and that they fhould Support and 
Strengthen all Under Officers. All of which 
Articles were obferved by no Man more than by 
the Governour himfelf 

§. 6. But whilft he thus did as our A'nc- 
Englifh Nehemiah, the part of a Ruler in Ma- 
naging the Publick Affairs of our American Je- 
rusalem, when there were Tobijabr and San- 
ballats enough to vex him, and give him the 
Experiment of Luther's Obfervation, Omnis qui 
regit, eft tanquam fignum, in quod omnia ja 
cula, Satan & Mundus dirigunt ; he made 
himfelf ftill an exatter Parallel unto that Go- 
vernour of Ifrael, by doing the part of a Neigh- 
bour among the diftrefTed People of the New- 
Plantation. To teach them the Frugality ne- 
ceflarjr for thofe times, he abridged himfelf of 
a Thoufand comfortable things, wh'ch he had 

B b & 


Magnalia Chrifti Americana : Book II. 

allow'd himfelf elfewhere : His Habit was not of fending Supplies unto them. And there was 

that foft Raiment, which would have been d if 1 
agreeable to a Wilder nefs -, his Table was not 
covered with the Superflui i ies that would have 

one Paffage of his Charity that was perhaps a 
little unufual : In an hard and long Winter, 
when Wood was very icarce at Bflon, a Man 

invited unto Sjnfualities : Water was common- gave him a private Information, that a needy 
ly his own Drink, though he gave Wine to o- Perfbn in the Neighbourhood ftolrffW fome- 
tbers. But at the lame time his Liberality un- [times from his Pile ^ whereupon the Governour 
to the Needy was even beyond meafure Gene- jin a feeming Anger did reply, Does be/a? I'll 
rous ; and therein he was continually caufing \take a Courfe with him ; go, call that Man to 
The Bleffing of him that was ready to Perifh fie, I'll warrant you I'll cure him of Stealing ! 
to come upon him, and the Heart oj the Widow When the Man came, the Governour confider- 
and the Orphan to jing for Joy : But none more ing that if he had Stoln, it was more out of 
than thofe of Deceas'd Minijiers, whom he a\-\Necejftty than Difpofuicn, faid unto him, Friend, 
ways treated with a very lingular Compaflion ; /' *V afevereWinter,andI doubt you arc but mean- 
among the Inftances whereof we ftil! enjoy withKV provided for Wood-, wherefore I would have 
us the Worthy and now Aged Son of that\youfupply y.ourfelf at my Wood-Pile till this cold 
Reverend Higginfon, whofe Death left his Fa-! Sea/on be over. And he then Merrily ask- 
mily in a wide World foon after his arrival ed his Friends, Whether he had not effeflually 
here, publtckly acknowledging the Charitable cured this Man of Stealing his Wood ? 
Winthrop for his toilet -Father. It was of § 7. One would have imagined that fb good 
tentimes no fin ill Trial unto his Faith, to think, a Man could have had no Enemies ; if we had 
How a Table for the I v pie Jhould be furnifhed] not had a daily and woful Experience to Con- 
whcn they fir ft came into the Wilder nejs ! And vince us, that Gcodnefs it (elf will make Ene- 
for very many of the People, his own good mies. It is a wonderful Speech of Plato, (\a 
Works were needful, and accordingly employ- |©ne of his Books, Tie Vie publico) For the trial 
ed for the anfwering of his Faith. Indeed, \of*frue Vertue, ''tis neceffafy that a good Man 

for a while the Governour was the Jofepb, un- 
to whom the whole Body of the People repair- 
ed when their Corn failed them : And he con- 
tinued Relieving of them with his open-handed 
Bounties, as long as he had any Stock to do 
it with -, and a lively Faith to fee the return 
of the Bread after many Days, and not Starve 
in the Days that were to pafs till that return 
fhould be fieen, carried him chearfully through 
thofe Expences. Once it was obfervable, that 
oh Feb. %. 1630. when he was diftributing 
the laft Handful of the Meal in the Barrel un- 
to a Poor Man diftreiTed by the Wolf at the 
Door, at that Inftant they fpied a Ship arrived 
at the Harbour's Mouth Laden with Provifi- 
ons for them all. Yea, the Governour fome- 
times made his own private Purfe to be the 
Publick ; not by fucking into it, but by freez- 
ing out of it ; for when the Publick Treafure 
had nothing in it, he did himfelf defray the 
Charges of the Publick. And having learned 
that Leflon of our Lord, That it is better to 
Give, than to Receive, he did, at the General 
Court when he was a Third time chofen Gover- 
nour, made a Speech unto this purpofe, That 
be had received Gratuities from divers Towns, 
which he accepted with much Comfort and Con- 
tent ; and he had likewife received Civilities 
from particular Perfons, which he could not re- 
fufc without Incivility in himfelf : Neverthe- 
less, he took them with a trembling Heart, in 
regard of Gods Word, and the Confidence of 
bis own Infirmities ; and therefore he defired 
them that they would not hereafter take it III 
if he refufedfuch Prcfents for the time to come. 
'Twas his Cuftom alio to fend fome of his Fa- 
mily upon Errands, unto the Houfes of the Poor 
about their Mealtime, on purpofe to fpy whe- 
ther they wanted; and if it were found that they 
wanted, he would make that the Opportunity 

u»J\iv aJIihov, Jl'otctv \~/ii t piy'isw dJ\ty.ia< • Iho 
he do no unjud thing, fhould fuffer the Infamy 
of the great eft Injuftice. The Governour had 
by his unfpotted Integrity, procured himfelf a 
great Repntation among the People-, and then 
the Crime of Popularity was laid unto his 
Charge by fuch, who were willing to deliver 
him from the Danger of having all Men f peak 
well of him. Yea, there were Perfons eminent 
both for Figure and for Number, unto whom 
it was almoft Effentidl to diflike every thing 
that came from him; and yet he always maintain- 
ed an Amicable Correfpondence with them be- 
lieving that they aOed according to their Judg- 
ment and Conlcience, or that their Eyes were 
held by fome Temptation in the worft of all 
their Oppofitions. Indeed, his right Works were 
fo many, that they expofed him unto the Envy 
of his Neighbours^ and of fuch Power was that 
Envy, that fometimes he could not ft and before 
it; but it was by not J landing tnat he molt 
effeftually withftood it all. Great Attempts were 
fometimes made among the Freemen, to get him 
left out from his Place in the Government up- 
on little Pretences, left by the too frequent 
Choice of One Man, the Government fhould 
ceafe to be by Choice; and with a particular 
aim at him, Sermons were Preached at the An- 
niveriary Court of Elettion, to diflwade the 
Freemen from chufing One Man Twice together. 
This was the Reward of his extraordinary Ser- 
vice able nefs I But when thefe Attempts did fuc- 
ceed, as they fometimes did, his Profound Hu- 
mility appeared in that Equality of Mini, where- 
with he applied himfelf cheerfully to ferve the 
Country in whatever Station their Votes had 
allotted for him. And one Year when the Votes 
came to be Numbered, there were 'found Six 
lefs for Mr. Winthrop, than for another Gentle- 
man who then flood in Competition : But feveral 


Book II. Or, TbeHiftoryofNcw-JLnzlmd. 

1 1 

other Perfons regularly Tend ring their Vdtes be- 
fore the Election was publifhed, were, upon a 
very frivolous Objection, refufed by fome of the 
Khciftrates, that were afraid left the Eleflion 
(hould atlaft fall upon Mr. Wtnthrop ■ Which 
though it was. well perceived, yet fuch was the 
Self-denial of this Patriot , that he would not 
permit any Notice to be taken of the Injury. 
But thefe 'TV/'tf/r were nothing in Companion 
of thole harfher and harder Treats, which he 
fometimes had from the Frowardnefs of not a 
few in the Days of their Paroxifms ; and from 
the Faction of feme againft him, hot much un- 
like that of the Piazzi in Florence againft the 
Family of the Medices i All of which heat 
hit Conquered by Conforming to the Famous 
Judges Motto, Prudens qui Patiens. The Ora- 
cles of God have laid, Envy is rottennejs to 
the Bones ; and Gulielmus Parifienfis applies 
it unto Rulers, who areas it. were the Bones of 
the Societies which they belong unto : Envy, 
lays he, is often found among them, and it is 
rottennejs unto them. Our Winthrop Encoun- 
tred this Envy from others, but Conquered it, 
by being free from it himfelf. 

§. 8. Were it not for the fake of introducing 
the Exemplary Skill of this Wife Man, at giv 
mgfoft Anficers, one would not chufe to Re- 
late thole Inftances of Wrath, which he had 
ibmetimes to Encounter with ; bur he was for 
his Gentlenefs, his forbearance, and his Longa- 
nimity, a Pattern fo worthy to be Written after, 
that fomething muft here be Written of it He 
feemed indeed never to fpeak any other Language 
than that of Theodofu/s, If any Alan fpeak evil of 
the Govemour, if it be thro Light nefs, 'tis to 
be contemned ; if it be thro Madnefs, 'tis to be 
pitied ; if it thro' Injury, 'tis to be remitted. 
Behold, Reader, the Meekncfs of Wifdom nota- 
bly exemplified ! There was a time when he 
received a very fharp Lettet from a Gentle- 
man, who was a Member of the Court, but he 
delivered back the Letter unto the MetTengers 
that brought it with fuch a Chriftian Speech 
as this, J am not willing to keep fuch a matter 
of Provocation by me ! Afterwards the fame 
Gentleman was compelled by the fcarciry of 
Provifions to fend unto him that he would Sell 
him fome of his Cattel ; whereupon the Go- 
vernour prayed him to accept what he had fent 
for as a Token of his Good Will-, but rhe 
Gentleman returned him this Anfwer, Sir, your 
overcoming of your felf hath overcome me ; and 
afterwards gave Demonftration of it. The 
trench have a faying, That Un Hone ft e Hom- 
me, eft un Homme mefle I A good Man is a 
mixt Man •, and there hardly ever was a more 
lenfible Mixture of thofe Two things, Refoluti- 
on and Condefcentwn, than in this good Man. 
There was a time when the Court of ' EleUwn, 
being for fear of Tumult, held at Cambridge, 
May 17. 1637. The Sectarian part of the Coun- 
try, who had the Year before gotten a Gover- 
nor more unto their Mind, had a Project now 
to have confounded the Election, by demand- 
ing that the Court would eonfider a Petition 

then tendered before their Proceeding thereun- 
to. Mr. Winihrcp i'.uv that this was only a 
Trick to throw nil into Gorifufion, by putting; 
off the Choice of the Govemour and Ajfftents 
until theDfvy (houid be over* and therefore he 
did, with a ftrenuous Rcjohaton, procure a dif- 
appointment unto that mifchievous and jfiiiri 
Contrivance. Neveuheleis, Mr. Wmtbrep'him- 
felf being by the Voice of the Freemwi in this 
Exigence chofln the G'SvWndur, and all of the 
other Party left our, that ill-aifettVd PUfty dis- 
covered the Dirt and Mir,-, which remained 
with them, after the Storm was over ; particu- 
larly the Serjeant s, whole Office 'twas to attend 
the Govemour, laid down their Huberts-, but 
fuch was the Condefcention of this Govemour, 
as to take no prefent Notice of this Anger and 
Contempt, but only Order fome of his own Ser- 
vants to take the Halberts : And when- the 
Countty manifefted their deep Refentments of 
rhe Affront thus offered him. he prayed them to 
overlook it. But it was not long before a Com- 
penfation was made for thefe things by the 
doubled Rejpeffs which were from all Parts paid 
unto him. Again, there was a time when the 
Supprellion of an Antinomian and FarrifliftiM 
Fa£tion, which extreamly threatned the Ruin of" 
the Country, was generally thought much ow- 
ing unto this Renowned Man ; and therefore 
when the Friends of that Facfion could not 
wreak their Dilpleafure on him with any Po- 
litick Vexations, they fet themfelves to do it 
by Eccleffiical ones. Accordingly when a Sen- 
tence of Banifhment was palled on the Ring- 
leaders of thofe Difturbances, who 

— Maria iff Terras, Ccelumq; profundus. 
^uippe ferant, Rapidi, fecum, vertantcfa per 
Auras ; 

many at the Church of Bofton, who were then 
that way too much inclined, moft earneitly ib- 
licited the Elders of that Church, whereof the 
Govemour was a Member, to call him forth as 
an Offender for patling of that Sentence. The 
Elders were unwilling to do any fuch thing ; but 
the Govemour underftanding the Ferment a- 
mong the People, took that occafion to make a 
Speech in the Congregation to this EfteSfc. 
' Brethren, Underftanding that fome of you 
' have deGred that I fhould Anfwer for an Of- 
'•'fence lately taken among you ; had I been cal- 
' led upon fo to do, I would. Fir/?, Hive ad- 
c vifed with the Minifters of ti.^- Country, whe- 
c ther the Church had Power to call in Qaeftt- 
w on the Civil Court ; and I would, Secondly, 
' Haveadvifed with the reft of the Court, whe- 
' ther I might dilcover their Counieh unto the 
' Church. But though I know that the heverend 
' Eldersof this Church, and fome others, do very 
' well apprehend that xheChitrcb cann t enquire 
' into the Proceedings of the Court ; yet for the 
' Satisfaction of the weaker who do not appre- 
' hend it, I will declare my Mind concerning 
' ir. If the Church have any fuch Power, they 
' have it from the Lord Jefus Chrift; but the 

B b 2 Lord 


Magnalia Chrifli Americana : Book II. 

' Lord Jefus Chrift hath declaimed it, not only 
'by Pratficc, but alfo by Precept, which we 
'have in his Gofpe!, Mat. 20. 25, 26. It is 
' true indeed, that Magifirates, as they are 
' Church-Members, are accountable unto the 
' Church for their Failings ; but that is when 
' they are out of their Calling. When Uzziah 
' would go offer Incenfe in the Temple, the 
'Officers of the Church called him to an ac- 
' count, and withftood him ; but when A/a put 
' the Prophet in Prifon, the Officers of the 
' Church did not call him to an account for that. 
1 If the Magiflrate (hall in a private way 
'wrong any Man, the Church may call him to 
4 an Account for it ; but if he be in Purfuance of 
' a Courfe of Jufiice, though the thing that he 
' does be unjujt, yet he is not accountable for it 
' before the Church. As for my felf I did nothing 
' in the Caufes of any of the Brethren, but by 
' the Advice of the Elders of" the Church. More- 
'over, in the Oath which I have taken there 
' is this Claufe, In all Cau/es whercinyou are to 
' give your Vote, you (hall do a# in your Judg- 
' ment and Confcience you _fl.mll fee to be Julf, 

* and for the publick Good. And I am fatisfied, 
' it is molt for the Glory of God, and the pub- 
' lick Good, that there has been Rich a Sentence 
' palTed ; yea, thole Brethren are fo divided 
' from the reji of the Country in their Opinions 

* and Practices, that it cannot Hand with the 
4 publick Peace for them to continue with us ; 

* Abraham faw that Hagar and l/hmael mull be 
'fent away. By fuch a Speech he marvel- 
loufly convinced, fatisfied and mollified the 
uneafie Brethren of the Church; Sic cunilus 
Pelagi cecidit Fragor — . And after a little pati- 
ent waiting, the differences all fb wore away, 
that the Church, meerly as a Token of Refpecl 
unto the Governour, when he had newly met 
with fome Loffes in his Eltate, fent him a Pre- 
fent of feveral Hundreds of Pounds. Once 
more there was a time, when fome a£Kve Spi- 
rits among the Deputies of the Colony, by their 
endeavours not only to make themfelves a Court 
of Judicature, but alfo to take away the Negative 
by which the Magiftrates might check their 
Votes, had like by over-driving to have run the 
whole Government into lbmething too Demo- 
cratical. And if there were a Town in Spain 
undermined by Coneys, another Town in Thrace 
deftroyed by Moles, a Third in Greece ranverfed 
by Frogs, a Fourth in Germany fubverted by 
Rats-, I muft on this Occafion add, that there 
was a Country in America like to be confound- 
ed by a Swine. A certain ft ray Sozo being found, 
was claimed by Two feveral Perfons with a 
Claim fo equally maintained on both fides, that 
after Six or Seven Years Hunting the Bufi- 
nefs, from one Court unto another, it was 
brought at laft into the General Court, where 
the final Determination was, that it wan im- 
pojTible to proceed unto any Judgment in the 
Cafe. However in the debate of this Matter, 
the Negative of the Uppcr-Hou/e upon the 
Lower in that Court was brought upon the 
Stage ■, and agitated with fo hot a Zeal, that a 

little more and all had been in the Pi re. In 
thefe Agitations the Governour was informed 
that an offence had been taken by ibme eminent 
Perfons, at certain PalTages in aDifcourfeby 
him written thereabout ■, whereupon with his 
ufual Conde/cendency, when he next came into 
the General Court, he made a Speech of this 
Import. ' I underhand, that fome have taken 
' Offence at fomething that I have lately written 5 
' which Offence I defire to remove now, and be- 
' gin this Year in a reconciled State with you all. 
' As for the Matter of my Writing, I had the 
c Concurrence of my Brethren ; it is a Point of 
' Judgment which is not at my own difpofing. 
' I have examined it over and over again, by 
' fuch Light as God has given me, from the 
' Rules of Religion, Rea/on and Cujiom ; and I 
' fee no caule to Retraft any thing of it ; Where- 
'fore I muft enjoy my Liberty in that, as you 
' do your felves. But for the Manner, this, and 
c all that was blame-worthy in it, was wholly 
' my own; and whatlbever f might alledge for 
' my own Juftification therein before Men, I 
' wave it, as now letting my felf before another 
' Judgment-Scat. However, what I wrote was 
' upon great Provocation, and to vindicate my 
' felf and others from great Afperfion -, yet that 
' was no fufficlent Warrant for me to allow any 
' Dijiemper of Spirit in my felf; and I doubt 
' I have been too prodigal of my Brethren's Re- 
' putation ; I might have maintained my Caufe 
' without calling any Blemifh upon others, 
' when I made that my Conclufion, And now 
' let Religion and found Rea/on give Judgment in 
' the Cafe ; it look'd as if I arrogated too much 
' unto my /elf and too little to others. And 
' when I made that Profeffion, That I would 
i maintain what I wrote before all the World, 
' though fuch Words might model! ly be fpoken, 
' yet 1 perceive an unbefeeming Pride of my 
' own Heart breathing in them. For thefe Fail* 
' ings I ask Pardon both of God and Man. 

Sic ait, tV diUo citius Tumida JEquora placat, 
Colletiafq; fugat Nubes, Solemq; reducit. 

This acknowledging Di/pofition in the Gover- 
nour, made them all acknowledge, that he was 
truly a Man of an excellent Spirit. In fine, 
the Vi [lories of an Alexander, an Hannibal, or 
zCefar over other Men, were not fo Glorious, 
as the Viflories of this great Man over him/elf 
which alio at laft prov'd ViUcries over other 

§. 9. But the ftormieft of all the Trials that 
ever befel this Gentleman, was in the Year 
1645. when he was in Title no more than De- 
puty-Governour of the Colony. If the famous 
Cato were Forty-four times call'd into Judg- 
ment, but as often acquitted ; let it not be won- 
dred, and if our Famous Winthrop were one 
time lb. There hapning certain Seditious and 
Mutinous Practices in the Town of Hingham, 
the Deputy-Governour as legally as prudently 
interpofed his Authority for the checking of 
them : Whereupon there followed fuch an £ n- 


Book II. Or, The Hijlory of New-England. 


cbantment upon the minds of the Deputies in 
the General Court, that upon a fcandalous Pe- 
tition of the Delinquents unto them, wherein a 
pretended Invafion made upon the Liberties ol 
the People was complained of the Depi/ty- 
Governour, was molt Irregularly eall'd forth 
unto an Ignominous Hearing before them in a 
valt Alterably •, whereto with a Sagacious Humi- 
litude he confented, although he lhew'd them 
how he might have Refufed it. The refult 
of that Hearing was, That hotwithftanding the 
touchy Jealoufie of the People about their Li- 
berties lay at the bottom of all this Proiecuri- 
on, yet Mr. Winthrop was publickly Acquitted, 
and the Offenders were feverally Fined and 
Cenfured. But Mr. Wintbrop then renaming 
the Place of Deputy-Governour on the Bench, j 
faw caufe to fpeak unto the Root of the Matter \ 
after this manner. ' I (hall not now fpeak any ! 
' thing about the pad Proceedings of this Court, 
' or the Perfons therein concerned. Only I 
' blefs God that I fee an IfTue of this trouble- 
' fome Affair. I am well fatisfied that I was 
' publickly Accufed, and that 1 am now pub- 
5 lickly Acquitted. But though I am juftified 
' before Men, yet it may be the Lord hath feen 

* fo much amifs in my Adminiftrations, as calls 
' me to be bumbled; and indeed for me to have 
c been thus charged by Men, is it felf a Matter 
' of Humiliation, whereof I defire to make a 
c right ufe before the Lord. If Miriam's Fa- 

* ther fpit in her Face, lhe is to be Afhamed. 

* But give me leave before you go, to lay fome- 
c thing that may re£tifie the Opinions of many 
' People, from whence the Diftempers have 
c rifen that have lately prevailed upon the Bo- 
' dy of this People. The Queftions that have 
1 troubled the Country have been about the Au 

' thority of the Magiflracy, and the Liberty of 
' the People. It is Ton who have called us un- 
' to this Office •, but being thus called, we have 
' our Authority from God; it is the Ordinance 
1 of God, and it hath the Image of God itamp- 
4 ed upon it ; and the contempt of it has been 
4 vindicated by God with terrible Examples of 
4 his Vengeance. I intreat you toconfider, That 
' when you chufe Magiftrates, you take them 
1 from among your felves, Men fubjeU unto 
4 like Paffions with your Jelves. If you fee our 
'Infirmities, reflect on your own, and you will 

* not be fo levere Cenfurers of Ours. We 
' count him a good Servant who breaks not his 
4 Covenant : The Covenant between Us and You, 
4 is the Oath you have taken of us, which is to 
4 this Purpofe, That we fhall govern you, and 
4 judge your Caufes, according to God's Laws, 
4 and our own, according to our befi Skill. As 
c for our Skill, you mult run the hazard of it; 
' and if there be an Error, not in the Will, but 
' only in the Skill, it becomes you to bear it. 
'Not would I have you to miltake in the 
' Point of your own Liberty. There is a Li 

' berty of corrupt Nature, which is affe£ted 
4 both by Men and Beafts, to do what they lilt 5 

* and this Liberty is inconfiftent with Authority, 
4 impatient of all Reltraint ■ by this Liberty, 

' SumusOmnes Deteriores : Tis the Grand Ene- 
c my of Truth and Peace, and all the Ordinan- 
c ces of God are bent againft it. But there is a 
c Civil, a Moral, a Federal Liberty, which is 
c the proper End and Object of Authority • it is 
6 a Liberty for that only which is ju/I and good; 
' for this Liberty you are to ttand with the 
1 hazard of your very Lives; and whatsoever 
c Croffes it, is not Authority, but a Bifieittper 
4 thereof. This Liberty is maintained in a way 
4 of Subjellion to Authority • and the Ant bo 
' nty fet over you, will in all Adminiftrations 
' for your good be quietly fubmitted unto, by 
' all but fuch as have a Difpofition to /hake off 
' the Yoke, and lofe their true Liberty, by their 
' murmuring at the Honour and Power of Au- 
' thority. 

The Spell that was upon the Eyes of the Peo- 
ple being thus difiblved, their diftorted and en- 
raged notions of things all vani'lhed ; and the 
People would not afterwards entruft the Helm 
of rhe Weather-beaten Bark in any orher 
Hands, but Mr. Wmthrop's, until he Died. 

§. 10. Indeed fuch was the Mixture of di- 
ftant Qualities in him, as to make a moft admi- 
rable Temper; and his having a certain Great- 
ncfsofSoul, which rendered him Grave, Gene- 
rous, Courageous, Refolved, Well-applied, 
and every way a Gentleman in his Deameanour^ 
did not hinder him from taking fometimes the 
old Romans way to avoid Confufions, namely, 
Ccdendo ; or from difcouraging fome things 
which are agreeable enough to moft that wear 
the Name of Gentlemen. Hereof I will give 
no Inftances, but only oppofe two Paflages of 
his Life. 

In the Year 1632. the Governour. with his 
Paftor Mr. Wilfon, and fome other Gentkmea 
to fettle a good undefftanding betwet.. the Two' 
Colonies, travelled as far as Plymouth more 
than Forty Miles, through an Howu^Wilder- 
nefs, no better accommodated in thole early 
Days, than the Princes that in Solomon's time 
faw Servants on Horfeback, or than Genus and 
Species in the old Epigram, going on Foot. The 
difficulty of the Walk, was abundantly compen- 
fated by the Honourable, firft Reception, and 
then Difmiffion, which they found from the 
Rulers of Plymouth ; and by the good Corre- 
fpondence thus eftablifhed between tfie New 
Colonies, who were like the floating Bottels 
wearing this Motto, Si Collidimur, Prangimur. 
But there were at this time in Plymouth two 
Minilters, leavened fo far with the Humours 
of the Rigid Separation, that they infilled ve- 
hemently upon the Unlawfulnefs of calling any 
unregenerate Man by the Name 0$ Good-man 
fuch an One, until by their indifcreet urging 
of this Whimfey, the place began to be dif- 
quieted. The wifer People being troubled at 
thefe Trifles, they took the opportunity of 
Governour Winthrofs being there, to have rhe 
thing publickly propounded in the Congrega- 
tion ■, who in anfwer thereunto, diftinguiihed 
between a Theological and a Moral Goodnefs ; 
adding, that when Juries were firft uled in Exg- 


x 4 

Magnalia Chrifii Americana : 

Book II. 

K it was ufual for the Crier, after the 
Names of Petfons fit for that Service were 
called over, to bid them all, Attend, Good Men, 

' True ; whence it grew to be a Civil Cufiom 
in the Englijh Nation, for Neighbours living 
by one another, to call one another Good-man 
fuch an One : And it was pity now to make a 
ftir about a Civil Cufiom, fo innocently introdu- 
ced. And that Speech of Mr. Winthrcp's put 
a Lifting flop to the Little, Idle, Whimfical 
Conceits, then beginning to grow Obftreperous. 
Neverthelefs there was one Civil Cuftom ufed 
in ^and in few but) the Englijh Nation, which 
this Gentleman did endeavour to abolifh in this 
Country., and that was, The ufage of Drinking 
to one another. For although by Drinking to 
one another, no more is meant than an a£'t of 
Courtefie, when one going to Drink, does In 
vite another to do fo too, for the fame Ends 
with himielf ; neverthdeis the Governour fnot 
altogether unlike to Cleomenes, of whom 'tis 
reported by Plutarcb,& .oim iA-lt a-oTBf/oc xfo«-5?=?=, 
Nolenti poculum nunqitam frtebuit, con'ideted 
the Impertinency and \njigmficancy of this 
Ufage/as to any c/ithbfe Ends that are ufu- 
aliy pretended for it ; and that indeed it ordi- 
narily ftrved for no Ends at all, but only -to 
provoke Perfons unto unfeafoaabk, and per- 
il/ ps mreafonible Drinking, and at laft pro- 
duce that abominable tiealth-Drinking, which 
the Ymhers of old fo feverely rebuked in the 
Pagans and which the Papijis themfelves do 
Condemn, when their Cafuifts pronounce it, 
Peccatum :i or tale, provocare ad JEquales Calices, 
iff Nefa* Re/ponder e. Wherefore in his own 
moft H rpitable Houfe he left it off-, not out 
of any filly or ftingy Fancy, but meerly that 
by his Example a greater Temperance, with 
Liberty ol Drinking, might be Recommended, 
and fundry Inconveniences in Drinking avoided ; 
and his Example accordingly began to be much 
followed by the fober People in this Country, 
as it now alfo begins to be among Peribns of 
the Higheji Rank in the Englijh Nation it felf -, 
until an Order of Court came to be made againft 
that Ceremony in Drinking, and then the old 
Wont violently returned, with a Nitimur in 

(j. n. Many were the Afflitiions of this 
Righteous Man ! He loft much of his Eftate in 
a Ship, and in an Houfe, quickly after his com 
ing to New-England, belides 'the Prodigious 
Expence of it in the Difficulties of his firft 
coming hither. Afterwards hisaffiduous Applica- 
tion unto the Publick Af[airs,(wheTe\nIpfeJexon 
habuit, poflquam Refpublica eum Gubcrnatorem 
habere capil) made him fo much to neglect 
his own private Interefts, that an unjuft Steivard 
ran him 2500 /. in Debt before he was aware ; 
for the Payment whereof he was forced, many 
Years before his Deceafe, to fell the moft of 
what he had left unto him in the Country. 
Albeit, by the obfervable Bleffing of God upon 
the Poflerity of this Liberal Alan, his Children 
all 01 them came to fair Eftates, and lived in 
good Falhion and Credit. Moreover, he fuc- 

cefiively Buried Three Wives-.-, the Firft of 
which was the Daughter and Heirefs of 
Mr. Forth, of MuchvSiambrddgs in Ejfex, by. 
whom he had Wijdom t&i'tb an inheritance; and 
an excellent Son. The Second was the Daugh- 
ter of Mr. William Clapton, of London, who 
Died with her Child, within a very little while. 
The Third was the Daughter of the truly Wor- 
fhipful Sit John Tyndal, who made it her 
whole Care to pleafe, Firft God, and then her 
Husband; and by whom he had Four Sons, 
which Survived and Honoured their Father. 
And unto all thefe, the Addition cf the Di- 
ftempcrs, ever now and then raifed in the Coun- 
try, procured unto him a very lingular ihare 
of Trouble ■, yea, fo hard was the Meafure 
which he found even among Pious Men, in the 
Temptations of a Wiidcrnefs, that when the 
Thunder and Lightning had fmitten a Wind-mill, 
whereof he was Owner, fome had fuch things 
in their Heads, as publickly to Reproach this 
Charitablefi of Men, as if the Voice of the Al- 
mighty had rebuked, I know not what Oppreffi- 
on, which they judged him Guilty of: Which 
things 1 would not have mentioned, but that 
the Inftances may fbrtifie the Expectations of my 
befi Readers for fuch AffliSipns, 

§. 12. He that had been tor his Attainments, as 
they faid oftheblefled/lL/t-a/v/^anai/iay^rjajs 
An old Man, while a young One, and that had 
in his young Days met with many of thofe /// 
Days, whereof he could fay, he had little Plea- 
fure in them ; now found old Age in its Infirmi- 
ties advancing Earlier upon him, than it came 
upon his much longer lived Progenitors. While 
he was yet Seven Years off of" that which we 
call the grand Climafferical^ he felt the Ap- 
proaches of his Dijfolution ; and finding he 
could fay, 

Non Habitus, non ipfe Color non Greffus 

Non Species Eadcm, qu.e fait ante, manet. 

he then wrote this account of himfelf, Age now 
comes upon me, and Infirmities therewithal, 
which makes me apprehend, that the time of my 
departure out of this World is not far off. How- 
ever our times are all in the Lord's Hand, 
fo at we need not trouble our Thoughts hozo 
long or fhort they may be, but how we may be 
found Faithful when we are called for. But at 
laft when that Tear came, he took a Cold 
which turned into a leaver, whereof he lay 
Sick about a Month, and in that Sicknefs, as 
it hath been obferved, that there was allowed 
unto the Serpent the bruifing of the Heel ; and 
accordingly at the Heel or the Clofe of our 
Lives the old Serpent will be Nibbling more 
than ever in our Lives before ; and when the 
Devil fees that we (hall fhortly be, where the 
wicked ceafe from troubling, that wicked One will 
trouble us more than; fo this eminent Saint 
now underwent lharp Confii&s with the Temp- 
ter, whofe Wrath grew Great, as the Time to 
exert it grew Short-, and he was Buffetted with 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory qf New-Ensland. 

J 5 

the Difconfolate Thoughts of Black and Sore 
Defcrtions, wherein he could ufe that lad Re- 
prelentation of his own Condition. 

Nuper Eram Judex ; Jam Judicor ; Ante Tri- 
Subjijlens paveo, Judicor ipfe modo. 


But it was not long before thofe Clouds were 
Difpelled, and he enjoyed in his Holy Soul the 
Great Confolations of God ! While he thus lay 
Ripening for Heaven, he did out of Obedience 
unto the Ordinance of our Lord, fend for the 
Elders of the Church to Fray with him ; yea, 
they and the whole Church Fafled as well as 
Prayed for him ; and in that Fuji the venerable 
Cotton Preached on PJal. 35. 13, 14. When 
they were Sick, I humbled my felf with Fafi- 
i„g ; I behaved my felf as though he had been 
my Friend or Brother ; / bowed down heavily, 
at one that Mourned for his Mother : From 
whence I find him raifing that Obfervation, The 
Sicknefs of one that is to us as a Friend, a 
Brother, a Mother, is a juft occafwn of deep 
humbling our Souls with Fafiing and Prayer; 
and making this Application, k Upon this Occa- 
' fion we are now to attend this Duty for a 
* Governour, who has been to us as a Iriend in 
' his Counfel for all things, and Help for our 
c Bodies by Phyfick, for our Eflates by Law, 
4 and of whom there was no fear of his becom- 
c ing an Enemy, like the Friends of David : 
' A Governour who has been unto us as a Bro- 
' ther • not ufurping Authority over the Church ; 
' often fpeaking his Advice, and often contra- 

' di£led, even by Young Men, and fome o^ 
'low degree-, yet not replying, but offering Sa- 
' tisfa&ion alio when any luppofed Offences 
'•have arifen ; a Governour who has been un- 
'to us as a Mother, Parent-like diftributing 
' his Goods to Brethren and Neighbours at his 
' firft coming ; and gently bearing our Infirmi- 
1 ties without taking notice of them. 

Such a Governour after he had been more 
than Ten feveral times by the People choferi 
their Governour, was Nciv-Hngland now to 
lofe ; who having, like Jacob, firft left his 
Council and Blejfing with his Children gather- 
ed about his Bed fide ; and, like David, ferved 
his Generation by the Will of God, he gave up 
the Ghoft, and fell aflccp on March 26. 1649. 
Having, like the dying Emperour Valentinian, 
this above all his other Victories for his Tri- 
umphs, his overcoming of himfelf. 

The Words of Jofephus about Nehemiah, the 
Governour of Ifrael, we will now ufe upon 
this Governour of New-England, as his 


'Avtij iy'ivSTo X? M? ""< ?M yvtriv, iy Jlhatii, 

Ketl 'Tiei T»V 0jl/C5-Jy«f QlhOTlUOTO.1 @- : 

Mcm««oi/ diuvtav omtu %&To,hfnclv 7<£ ray 
Ii$o<rohv[>v Ti'iyv' 




Novanglorum M OE N I A. 


S V C C E S S R S. 

§. 1. S~\ N E -as well acquainted with the 

V_y Matter, as Ifocrates, informs us, That 

among the Judges of Areopagus none were 

admitted vhiv 0/ x.*A<wf yiyovoTi;, X) irahXw 
<tfi7nr x) <rv$(offCmv iv ra $ia ivAtJluypiroi^ un- 
lefs they were Nobly Born, and Eminently Ex- 
emplary for a Virtuous and a Sober Life. The 
Report may be truly made concerning the 
Judges of New-England, tho' they were not 
Nobly Born, yet they were generally Well 
Bom ; and by being Eminently Exemplary for 
a Virtuous and a Sober Life, gave Demon- 
ftrat'ion that they were New-born. Some Ac- 
count of them is now more particularly to be 

We read concerning Saul, [_ 1 Sam. 15. 12.3 
He fet up himfelf a place. The Hebrew 
Word, "F there ufed, fignifies A Monumen- 
tal Pillar. It is accordingly promifed unto 
them who pleafe God, [Ifa. 56. 5.] That they 
fhall have a Place and a Name in the Houje 
of God •, that is to fay, a Pillar Erecled for 
Fame in the Church of God. And it (hall be 
fulfilled in what fhall now be done for our 

Governours in this our CI)urch-Hiflory. E- 
ven while the Maffachufettenftans had a Win- 
throp for their Governour, they could not re- 
ftrain the Channel of their AffeUioris from 
running towards another Gentleman in their 
Elections for the Year 1634. particularly, 
when they chofe unto the Place of Governour 
Thomas Dudley, Efq-, one whom after the 
Death of the Gentleman abovementioned, they 
again and again Voted into the Chief Place of 
Government. He was Born at the Town of 
Northampton, in the Year 1574. the only Son of 
Captain Roger Dudley, who being Slain in the 
Wars, left this our Thomas, with his only Sifter, 
for the Father of the Orphans, to take them up. 
In the Family of the Earl of Northampton he 
had opportunity perfectly to learn the Points of 
Good Behaviour ; and here having fitted him- 
felf to do many other Benefits unto the World, 
he next became a Clerk unto Judge Nichols, 
who being his Kinfman by the Mother's Side, 
therefore took the more fpecial notice of him. 
From his Relation to this Judge, he had and 
ufed an Advantage to attain fuch a Skill in 



0r 3 The Hiflory (^New-England. Book II. 

the Law, as was of great Advantage to him 
in the future changes of his Life ; and the 
Judge would have preferred him unto the 
higher Imploymenrs. whereto his prompt Wit 
not a little recommended him, if he had not 
been by Death prevented. But before he could 
appear to do much at the Pen, for which he 
was very well Accompliihed, he was called 
upon to do fomething at the Siwrd ; for be 
ing a Young Gentlemen well-known for his 
Ingenuity, Courage and Conduct, when there 
were Soldiers to be raifed by Order from 
Queen Elizabeth for the French Service, in 
the time of King Henry the Fourth, the 
Young Sparks about Northampton were none 
of them willing to enter into the Service, until 
a Commijfion was given unto our Young Dudley 
to be their Captain ; and then prefently there- 
were Four/core that Lifted under him. At the 
Head of thefe he went over into the Low 
Countries, which was then an Academy of 
Arms, as well as Arts • and thus he came tc 
furniih himfelf with Endowments for the 
Field, as well as for the Bench. The Poll 
affigned unto him with his Company, was 
after at the Siege of Amiens, before which the 
King himfelf was now' Encamped •, but the Pro- 
vidence of God fo Ordered it, that when 
both Parties were drawn forth in Order to 
Battel, a Treaty of Peace was vigoroufly fet on 
Foot, which diverted the Battel that was ex- 
pected. Captain Dudley hereupon returned in- 
to England,™! fettling himfelf about Northamp- 
ton, he Married a Gentlewoman whofe Extract 
and Eftate were Confiderable ; and the Scitu- 
ation of his Habitation after this helped him 
to enjoy the Miniftry of Mr. Dod, Mr. Cleaver, 
Mr. Winfion, and Mr. Hilderfham, all of them 
Excellent and Renowned Men ; which Puritan 
Miniftry fo feafoned his Heatt with a Senfe of, 
Religion, that he was a Devout and Serious 
Chriftian, and a Follower of the Miniftersthat 
moft effectually Preached Real Chrijltanity all 
the reft of his Days. The Spirit of Real Chri- 
fiianity in him now alfo difpofed him unto 
Sober Non-Conformity ; and from this time, al- 
though none more hated the Fanaticifms and 
Enthuftafms of Wild Opinionifts, he became a 
Judicious Dijfenter from the Unfcriptural Ce- 
remonies retained in the Church of England. 
It was not long after this that the Lord Say, 
the Lord Compton, and other Perfons of Qua- 
lity, made fuch Obfervations of him, as to coir- 
mend him unto the Service of the Earl of 
Lincoln, who was then a Young Man, and 
newly come unto the Poffeffion of his Earldom, 
and of what belonged thereunto. The Grand- 
father of this Noble Perfon had left his Heirs 
under vaft Entanglements, out of which his 
Father was never able to Extricate himfelf- 
Fo that the Difficulties and Incumbrances were 
now devolved upon this Theophilm, which 
caufed him to apply himfelf this our 
Dudley for his Affiftances, who proved fo 
Able, and Careful, and Faithful a Steward 
unto him, that within a little while the Debts 

of near Twenty Thoufand Pounds, whereinto the 
Toung Earl found himfelf defperatcly Ingul- 
phed, were happily waded through ; and by 
his Means alfo a Match was procured between 
the Toung Earl and the Daughter of the Lord 
Say, who proved a moft Virtuous Lady, and 
a great Bleifing to the whole Family. But the Earl 
finding Mr. Dudley to be a Perfon of more 
than ordinary Difcretion, he would rarely, if 
ever, do any Matter of any Moment without 
his Advice; but fome into whofe Hands there 
fell fome of his Manufcripts after his leaving 
of the Earl's Family, found a PafTage to this 
purpofe. The Eftate of the Earl oj Lincoln, 
/ found fo, andfo, much in Debt, which I have 
dtfeharged, and have raifed the Rents unto fo 
many Hundreds Per Annum ; God will, I trujt, 
blefs me and mine in fuch a manner. I can 
as fometimes Nehemiah did, appeal unto God* 
who knows the Hearts of all Men, that 1 have 
with Integrity difcharged the Duty of my Place 
before him. 

I had prepared and intended a more parti- 
cular Account of this Gentleman ■, but not 
having any opportunity to commit it unto the 
Perufal of any Defcended from him, Tunto 
whom I am told it will be unacceptable for 
me to Publifh any thing of this kind, by them 
not Perujed) I have laid it afide, and fum- 
med all up in this more General Account. 

It was about Nine or Ten Years, that Mr. 
Dudley continued a Steward unto the Earl of 
Lincoln -, but then growing defirous of a more 
private Life, he retired unto Bofton, where the 
Acquaintance and Miniftry of Mr. Cotton be- 
came no little Satisfaction unto him. Never- 
thelefs the Earl of Lincoln found that he could 
be no more without Mr. Dudley, than Pharaoh 
without his Jqfeph, and prevailed with him to 
refiime his former Employment, until the Storm 
of Perfection upon the Non-Confonmfis caufed 
many Men of great Worth to Tranfport them- 
felves into New-England. Mr. Dudley was not 
the leaft of the Worthy Men that bore a part 
in this Tranfportation, in hopes that in an Ame- 
rican Wildernefs they might peaceably attend 
and enjoy the pure Worfhip of the Lord Jefus 
Chrift.^ When the firft Undertakers for that 
Plantation came to know him, they foon faw 
that in him, that caufed them to chufe him 
their Deputy-Governcur, in which Capacity he 
arrived unto thefe Coafts in the Year r6go. 
and had no fmall fhare in the Diftreffes of 
that Young Plantation, whereof an account by 
him written to the Countefs of Lincoln has 
been fince Publifhed unto the World. Here 
his Wifdom in managing the moft weighty and 
thorny Affairs was often fignalized : His juftice 
was a perpetual Terror to Evil Doers : His 
Courage procured his being the firft Major-Ge- 
neral of the Colony, when they began to put 
themfelves into a Military Figure. His Ortho- 
dox Piety had no little Influence into the De- 
liverance of the Country, from the Contagion 
of the Famaliftical Errors, which had like to 
have overturned all. He dwelt firft at Cam. 

bridge ; 

Book II. Or, The Hifiory ^New-England 


bridge ; but upon Mr. Hookers removal to 
Hartford, he removed to Ipjwich •, neverthe- 
lefs, upon the Importunity and Neceffity of the 
Government for his coming to dwell nearer 
the Center of the whole, he fixed his Habitati- 
on at Roxbury, Two Miles out of Bofton, where 
he was always at Hand upon the Publick Exi- 
gencies. Here he died, July 51. 1653. in 
the Seventy-Seventh Year of his Age ■, and 
there were found after his Death, in his Pocket, 
thefe Lines of his own Comparing, which 
may ferve to make up what may be wanting 
in the Character already given him. 

Dim Eyes, Deaf Ears, Cold Stomach, Jhew 

My Dijjolution is in View. 

Eleven times Seven near livd have I, 

And now God calls, I willing Die. 

My Shuttles foot, my Race is run, 

My Sun is Jet, my Day is done. 

My Span is meafurd, Tale is told, 

My Flower is faded, and grown old. 

My Dream is va/tifh'd, Shadow's fled, 

My Soul with Chrift, my Body Dead. 

Farewel Dear Wife, Cffildren and Friends, 

Hate Herefie, make Blejfed Ends. 

Bear Poverty, live with good Men ; 

So (hall we live with Joy agen. 

Let Men of God in Courts and Churches watch 

Cre fuch ai do a Toleration hatch, 

Left that HI Egg bring forth a Cockatrice, 

To poifon all with Herefw and Vice. 

If Men be left, and otherwife Combine, 

%EpitaphV 5 3i Dp'ti no libertine* 

But when I mention the Poetry of this Gen- 
tleman as one of his Accomplilhments, I muft 
not leave unmenti med the Fame with which 
the Poems of one defcend^d from him 
have been Celebrated in both Englands. if the 
rare Learning of a Daughter, was not the leaft 
of thofe bright things that adorn'd no lefs a 
Judge of England than Sir Thoma* More ; it 
mult now be faid, that a Judge of New- 
England, namely, Thomas Dudley, Kfq^ had a 
Daughter (beiides other Children) to be a 
Crown unto him. Reader, America jultly ad- 
mires the Learned Women of the other Hemif 
phere. She has heard of thofe that were Tu- 
tor effes to the Old Profefibrs of all Philofophy : 
She hath heard of Hippatia, who formerly 
taught the Liberal Arts ; and of Sarocchia, who 
more lately was very often the Moderatrix in 
the Difputations of the Learned Men of Rome : 
She has been told of the Three Corinmes, which 
equall'd, if not excellM, the moft Celebrated 
Poets of their Time . She has been told of the 
Emprefs Endocia, who Compofed Poetical Pa- 
raphrafes .on Divers Parts of the Bible ; and of 
Rqfuida, who wrote the Lives of Holy Men ; 
and of Patnphilia, who wrote other Hiftories 
unto the Lite : The Writings of the moft Re- 
nowned Anna Maria Schurnian, have come 0- 
ver unto her. But (he now prays, that into 
fuch Catalogues of Authorejjcs, as Beverevicius, 
Hettinger, and Voetius, have given unto the 

World, there may be a room now given un- 
to Madam 3titt 'Bra&ffltet, the Daughter 

of our Governour Dudley, and the Confort of 
our Governour Bradjireet, whole Poems, di- 
vers times Printed, have afforded a grateful En- 
tertainment unto the Ingenious, and a Monu- 
ment for her Memory beyond the Sratelieft 
Marbles. It was upon thefe Poems that an in- 
genious Perfon bellowed this Epigram .- 

Now I believe Tradition, which doth cat 
The Mules, Virtues, Graces, Females all. 
Only they are not Nine, Eleven, or Three ■ 
Our Auth'refs proves them but an Unity. 
Mankind, take up Jome Blufhes on the f core \ 
Monopolize Perfection hence no more. 
In yoi/r own Arts confejs your Jelves out- 
done ; 
The Moon hath totally Eclips'd the Sun : 
Not with her Sable Mantle muffling inm. 
But her bright Silver- makes bis Gold look 

dim : 
Juft as his Beams force our pale Lamps to 

And Earthly Fires within their Afbes JhrinL 

What elfe might be faid of Mi- Dudley, the 
Reader (hall ConftruC from rht; Enfuing 

E P I T A P H. 

Helluo Librorum, Leftzmn theca 

Communis, Sacra ' ' 

Ad Men/am Comes, hint is, Roftra di- 


(Non Cumulus verbis, pondi/s. Acumen erat,) 
Morum acris Cenfor. validus Dcfenfcr amanfq; 

Et Sana & Can* Catholics Jidei. 
Angli-novi Columen, Summum Decus atq-, Se- 

natus ; 

Thomas Dudleius, conditur hoc Tumulo. E. R„ 

§. 2. In the Year 1635;. at the Anniverfary 
Election, the Freemen of the Colony tefrified 
their grateful Efteem of Mr. John Haines, a 
Worthy Gentleman, who had been very Ser- 
viceable to the Interefts of the Colony, by 
chufing him their Governour. Of him in an 
Ancient Manufcript I find this Teff.imor.y 
given -, To him is New-England many ways be- 
holden ; had he dene no more but frilled a 
Storm of Diffention, which broke forth in the 
beginning of hisGovenment; he had done enough 
to Endear our Hearts unto him, and to account 
that Day happy when he took the Reins of Go- 
vernment into his Hands. But this Pious, 
Humble, Well-bred Gentleman, removing af- 
terwards into Connelticut, he took his turn 
with Mr. Edward Hopkins, in being every ci- 
ther Year the Governour of that Colony. And 
as he was a great Friend of Peace while he 
lived, fo at his Death he entred into that Peace 
which attends the End of the perfell and up- 
right Man, leaving behind him the Character 
fometimes given of a Greater, tho' not a Better ^ 
C c" Maa y 

Magnalia Cbrifti Americana 

Book II. 

Man, [Ve/'paf/a/!) Bonk Legibm multa eorrexit^i Speeches ; alfo his Speech and Prayer on the 
fed exei vita plus effecit apud po- Scaffold, has given us in him the Picture of 


§. 7,. Near Twenty Ships from Europe vi- 
fited ^few-England in the Year 1635. an( l in 
one of them was Mr. Henry Vane, (afterward 
Sir henry Vane) an Accomplished Young Gen- 
tleman, whofe Father was much againft, his 
coming I England -5 but the King, upon 

Information of his Difpofition, commanded 
him to allow his Son's Voyage hither, with a 
Confent for his continuing Three Years in this 
Part of the World. Although his Bufinefs 
had fome Relation to the Plantation of Con- 
netficut^ yet in the Year 1636. the Maffachufet- 
Colony chofe him their Governour. And now, 
Reader, I am as much a Seeker for his Cha- 
racter, as many hive taken him to be a Seeker 

nothing lefs than an Meroe. He feems indeed 
by that Story to have fuffered Hardly enough 
but no Man can deny that he fuftered Bravely'': 
the Engliff Nation has not often leen more of 
Roman, (and indeed more than Roman) Gallan- 
try, out-facing Death in the moft ; Ter- 
rors of it. A great Royalift, prefenr, at his 
Decollation, fwore, He died like a Prune : 
He could fay, J blefs the Lord I am fo far 
jrom being affrighted at Death, that I find it 
rather jhrink jrom me, than 1 from it ! He 
could lay, Ten Thcufand Deaths r, . her than 
Defile my Confidence ; the Chajiity and Puri- 
ty of which J d all this World ; I 
would not for Ten Ihoufand Worlds part with 
the Peace and Satisfaction It. my own 

in Religion, while no lefs Perfons than Dr. Man- Heart. When mention was made of the Dif- 
ton have not been to fee k for the Cenfiure oflficult Proceeding againft him, all his reply 

A flacked Book, with which they have noted 
the My ftical Divinity, in the Book of this Knight, 
Entituled, The Retired Alans Meditations. 
There has been a lfrange variety of Tranflati- 
ons bellowed upon the Hebrew Names of fome 
Animals mentioned in the Bible : Kippod, for 
' Inftance, wnich we tranflate a Bittern ; R. Salo- 
mon will have to be an Owl, but Luther will 
have it be an Eagle, while Paynin will 
have i: be an Hcdg-hog, but R. Kimchi will 
have it a Snail ■, fuch a Variety of Opinions 
and Relentments has the Name of this Gentle- 
man fallen under ; while fome have counted 
him an Eminent Christian, and others have 
counted him almoft an Heretick ; fome have 
counted him a Renowned Patriot, and others 
an Infamous Traitor. If Barak fignifie both to 
Blefs and to Curfie 5 and Euao^s/? be of the 
fame Significancy with B^ao-wy.w, j n fuch 
Philology as that of Suidas and Hefychtus ; 
the tlfage which the Memory of this Gentle- 
man has met withal, feems to have been Ac- 
commodated unto that Indifferency of Signifi- 
cation in the Terms for fuch an Ufage. 

On the one fide, I find an Old New-Engliff 
Manufcript thus reflecting, His Elefiion will re- 
main an a Blemift) to their Judgments who did 
Eletf him, while New-England remains a Nati- 
on ; for he coming from Old-England, a Toung 
Unexperienced Gentleman, (and as young in 
Judgment as he was in Tears) by the Industry 
of fome that could do much, and thought by 
him to play their own Game, was prefently E- 
leffed Governour ; and before he was fcarce 
warm in his Seat, began to Broach New Tenets ; 
and thefe were agitated with as much Violence, 
as if the Welfare of New-England tnuft have 
been Sacrificed rather than thefe not take place. 
But the Wifdom of the State put a Period to his 
Government ■. necejftty caufed them to undo the 
Works oj their own Hands, and leave us a 
Caveat, that all good Men are not jit for Go- 
vernment. But on the other fide, the Hiftori- 
an who has Printed The Trial of Sir Henry 
Vane, Kkt< at the KingV Bench, Weftminfter, 
June 2. and 6. 1662. with other occaftonal 

was, Alas, what a Do do they keep to make a 
poor Creature like his Saviour ! On the Scaffold 
they did, by the Blaft of Trumpets in his Face 
with much Incivility, hinder him from (peak- 
ing what he intended ; which Incivility he 
aforehand fufpeiVing, committed a true Copy 
of it unto a Friend before his going thither ; 
the laft Words whereof were thefe, As my laji 
Words I leave this with you, That as the Pre- 
fent Storm zve now lye under, and the chirk 
Clouds that yet hang over the Reformed Churches 
of Chrift, (which are coming thicker and thicker 
for * Seafon) were not unjorcfeen by me for 
many Tears pajl ; (as fome Writings oj mine 
declare) fo the coming of Chrift in thefe 
Clouds, in Order to a fp.eedy and J'udden re- 
vival of his Caufe, and fprcaduig his King- 
dom over the Face oj the whole Earth, is mojl 
clear to the Eye oj my Faith, even that Faith 
in which I Die. His Execution was June 14. 
1662. about the Fiftieth Year of his Age. 

§. 4. After the Death of Mr. Dudley, the 
Notice and Refpecf of the Colony fell chiefly 
on Mr. John Enlicot, who after many Services 
done for the Colony, even before it was yet a 
Colony, as well as when he law it grown into a 
Populous Nation, under his Prudent and Equal 
Government, expired in a good Old Age, and 
was Honourably Inten'd at Bofton, March 23. 

The Gentleman that fucceeded Mr. Endicot, 
was Mr. Richard Bellingham, one who was 
bred a Lawyer, and one who lived beyond 
Eighty, well efteemed for his laudable duali- 
ties ; but as the Thebans made the Statues of 
their Magiftrates without Hands, importing . 
that they mult be no Takers ; in this fafhion 
muft be formed the Statue for this Gentleman •, 
for among all his Virtues, he was noted for 
none more, than for his notable and perpetual 
hatred of a Bribe, which gave him, with his 
Country, the Reputation of Old Claimed 

by Pericles, to be, C/AfcToA;; ts kaI '/jv\ij.£tw 
Kgtiff<rur Civitaiis Amans, iy ad peciinias In- 
villus. And as he rv any from any 

one living j fo he neither could nor would 


Book II. 0r y The Hiftory of New-England. 

have given any to Death ; but in the latter 
end of the Year 1672. he had his Soul gather- 
ed not with Sinners, whofe Right Hand is full 
of Bribes, but with fuch as walk in their up- 

The Gentleman that fucceeded Mr. Belling- 
ham, was Mr. John Leveret, one to whom the 
Affe&ions of the Freemen were fignalized, in 
his quick advances through the leffer Stages of 
Office and Honour unto the higheft in the 
Country ; and one whofe Courage had been as 

much Recommended by Martial A£tlons a- 
broad in his Younger Years, as his Wifdom 
and Juflice were now at Home in his Elder. 
The Anniverjary Elettion conftantly kept him 
at the Helm from the time of his firft Sitting 
there, until March 16. 1678. when Mortali- 
ty having firft put him on fevere Trials of 
his Fajjiye-Courage, (much more difficult than 
the Attive) in pains of the Stone, releafed 

Pater Patriae : Or, The LIFE of SIMON BRADSTR.EET, Effi 

Extiitftus anmbitur idem. 

TH E Gentleman that fucceeded Mr. Leve- 
ret, was Mr. Simon Bradftreet, the Son 
of a Minifter in Lincoln/hire, who was always a 
Non-Conformift at home, as well as when 
Preacher at Middleburgh abroad. Him the 
New-Englanders in their AddrefTes full of pro- 
found Refpefts unto him, have with good 
reafon called, The venerable Mordecai oj his 
Country. He was born at Horbling, March 1 603 . 
His Father (who was the Son of a Suffolk Gen- 
tleman of a fine Eftate) was one of the Firft 
Fellows in lmmanuel-Colkige, under Dr. Cha- 
derton, and one afterwards highly efteemed by 
Mr. Cottoni and by Dr. Frefton. Our Bradftreet 
was brought up at the Grammar- School, until 
he was about Fourteen Years Old ; and then 
the Death of his Father put a flop for the pre- 
fent unto the Deligns of his further Education. 
But according to the Faith of his Dying Father, 
that he fhould be well provided for, he was 
within Two or Three Years after this taken 
into the Religious Family of the Earl of Lin- 
coln, (the beft Family of any Nobleman then 
in England,) where he fpent about Eight Years 
under the Direction of Mr. Thomaf Dudley, 
fuftaining fucceffively divers Offices. Dr. Frefton 
then (who had been my Lord's Tutor) moved 
my Lord, that Mr. Bradftreet might have their 
permiffion to come unto Immanuel Colledge, in 
the Capacity of Governour to the Lord Rich, 
the Son of the Earl of Warwick •, which 
they granting, he went with the Do£tor to 
Cambridge, who provided a Chamber for him, 
with Advice that he fhould apply himfelf to 
Study until my Lord's Arrival. But he after- 
wards in a Writing of his, now in my Hands, 
made this humble Complaint ; / met with many 
Obftacles to my Study in Cambridge \ the Earl 
of Lincoln had a Brother there, who often cal- 
led me forth upon Faftimes. Divers Mafters 
of Art, tnd other Scholars alfo, conftantly 
met, where we fpent moft part of the Afternoons 
many times in Dijcourje to little purpofe or 
profit ; but that feemed an eafie and pie af ant 
Life' then, which too late I repented. My 
Lord Rich not coming to the Univerfity, Mr. 
Bradftreet returned after a Year to the Earl of 
Lincolns ; and Mr. Dudley then removing to 

Bofton, his Place of Steward unto the Earl 
was conferred on Mr. Bradftreet. Afterwards 
he with much ado obtained the Earfs leave 
to Anfwer the Defires of the Aged and Pious 
Counters of Warwick, that he would accept 
the Stewardjhip of her Noble Family, which 
as the former he difcharged with an Exempla- 
ry Difcretion and Fidelity. Here he Married 
the Daughter of Mr. Dudley, by whofe per- 
fwafion he came in Company with him to 
New-England, where he fpent all the reft of 
his Days, Honourably ferving his Generation. 
It was counted a lingular Favour of Heaven 
unto Richard Chamond, Efq^ one of England's 
Worthies, that he was a Juftice of Peace near 
Threefcore Years •, but of Simon Bradftreet. Efq; 
one of New-England's Worthies, there can more 
than this be faid ; for he was chofen a Magi- 
ftrate of New- England before New-England it 
felf came into New-England ■ even in their 
firft great Voyage thither Anno 1630. and fb 
He continued annually chofen ■, fometimes alio 
their Secretary, and at laft their Governour, 
until the Colony had a fhare in the general 
Shipwrack of Charters^ which the Reign of 
•King Charles II. brought upon the whole 
Englifh Nation. Mr. Jofeph Dudley was placed, 
Anno 16 8 J. as Frefident over the Territory for 
a few Months, when the Judgment that was 
entred againft the Charter gave unto the late 
King James II. an opportunity to make what 
Alterations he pleafed upon the Order of 
things, under which the Country had fo long 
been Flourifhing. But when the fhort Frefi- 
dent (hip of that New-Eng/iJh and well Acccom- 
plifhed Gentleman, the Son of Mr. Thomas Dud- 
ley abovementioned, was expired, I am not in 
a Difpofition here to relate what was the Con- 
dition of the Colony, until the Revolution 
whereto their Condition compell'd them. On- 
ly I have fometimes, not without Amazement, 
thought of the Reprefentation which a Cele- 
brated Magician made unto Catherine de Me- 
dick, the French Queen, whofe Impious Curi- 
ofity led her to defire of him a Magical Exhi- 
bition of all the Kings that had hitherto 
Reigned in France, and yet were to Reign. 
The Shapes of all the Kings, even unto the 
C c 2- Husband 


Or, The Hiftory <?/~ New-England. Book II. 

Husband of that Queen fucceflively (howed 
therafelves, in the Enchanted Circle, in which 
that Conjurer had made his Invocations, and 
they took as many Turns as there had been 
Years in their Government. The Kings that 
were to come, did then in like manner fuc- 
ceflively come upon theStage, namely, FrancislL, 
Charles IX. Henry III. henry IV. which being 
done, then Two Cardinals, Richlieu and Ma- 
zarine, in Red Hats, became vifible in the Spe- 
ctacle : But after thofe Cardinals, there entred 

moYoz$, QBtargj %vw& and Lfoiwi, to 

confummate the Entertainment. If the People 
of New-England had not Imagined, that a Num- 
ber of as .Rapacious Animals were at laft i 
come into their Government, I fuppofe they 
would not have made fuch a Revolution as they ' 
did, on April 18. 1689. in conformity to the 
Pattern which the Englijh Ration was then 
fetting before them. Neverthelefs, I have no- 
thing in this Paragraph of our Hiftory to Re- 
port of it, but that Mr. Bradjireet was at this 
time .alive -, whofe Paternal Compaffions for a 
Country, thus remarkably his own, would not 
permit him to decline his Return unto his former 
Seat in the Government, upon the Unanimous 
Invitation of the People thereunto. It was a 
Remark then generally made upon him, That 
though he were then well towards Ninety Tears 
of Age, his intellectual force was hardly abated, 
but he retained a Vigour and Wifdom that would 
have recommended a younger Man to the Go- 
vernment of a greater Colony. And the won- 
derful Difficulties, through which the Colony 
under his dilcreet ConduCt waded, until the 
Arrival of his Excellency, Sir William Phips, 
with a Commiffion for the Government, and a 
New Charier in the Year 1692. gave a Remark- 
able Demonjiration of it. Yea, this Honour- 
able Nejior of New-England, in the Year 1696. 
was yet alive-, and as Georgius Leontinus, who 
lived until he was an Hundred and Eight Years 
of Age, being asked by what means he attained 
unto fuch an Age, anfwered, By my not Living 


Voluptuoujly; thus this excellent Perfon attain- 
ed his good old Age, in part, By Living very Tem- 
perately. And the New-Englanders would 
have counted it their Satisfaction, if like Ar- 
ganthonius, who had been Fourfcore Years the 
Governour of the TarteJJians, he might have 
lived unto the Age of an Hundred and Twenty - 
or, even unto the Age of Johannes de Tempori- 
bus, who was Knighted by the Emperour 
Charlemaign, and yet was Living till the Em- 
perour Conrade, and faw, they fay, no fewer 
Years than Three Hundred Threefcore and One, 
Though, TobeDiJJolvedandbewithChriJi^ was 
the Satisfaction which this our Macrobius 
himfelf was with a weary Soul now waiting 
and longing for; and Chrift at length granted 
it unto him, on March 27, 1S97. Then it 
was, that one of the oldeft Servants that God 
and the King had upon Earth, drew his Loft, 
in the very place where he drew his Firji, A- 
merican Breath. He Died at Salem, in a Trou- 
blefome Time, and entred into everlafting Peace. 
And in Imitation of what the Roman Orator 
faid upon the Death of Craffus, I will venture 
to fay, Vuit hoc, luttuofumfuis, Acer bum Pa- 
trix, Grave Bonk Omnibus : Sed ii tamen Rem- 
publicam cafus Secutifunt, ut mihi non Erepta 
Bradftreeto Vita, fed donata mors effe videatur. 
The Epitaph on that famous Lawyer, Simon 
Piftonus, we will now Employ for this Emi- 
nently Prudent and Upright Adminiftrator of 
our Laws. 



Quod Mortalefuit, Tellus tenet ; Inclyta Pama 
Nominis haud ulloftat violanda Die. 

And Add, 

ExtinUum luget quern tot a Nov-Anglia Patrem^ 
Quantum Claudit parvula Terra Virum ! 


^SU'tya Id eft, Viri Animati: Or, ASSISTANTS. 

TH E Freemen of New-England had a great 
variety of Worthy Men, among whom 
they might pick and chufe a Number of M A- 
G I S T R A T E S to be the Affiftants of their 
GOVERNOUR S, both in direfting the 
General Affairs of the Land, and in difpenfing 
of Juftice unto the People. But they wifely 
made few Alterations in their Annual Eleffi- 
ons -, and they thereby fhew'd their Satisfaction 
in the wife and good ConduCt of thofe whom 
they had Elected. If they called fome few of 
their Magijirates from the Plough to the Bench, 
fo the Old Romans did fome of their DiRators -, 
yea, the greateft Kings in the World once car- 
ried Plough-fhares on the top of their Scepters. 
However, the Inhabitants of New-England ne- 

ver were fo unhappy as the Inhabitants of Nor- 
cia, a Town fcarce Ten Leagues from Rome ; 
where they do at this Day chufe their own 
Magijirates, but ufe an exaCt Care, That no 
Man who is able to Write, or to Read, /hall be 
capable of any fhare in the Government. The 
Magiftrates of NewEngland have been of a bet- 
ter Education. Indeed, feveral deferving Per- 
fons, who were joined as Affociates and Com- 
miffioners unto thefe, for the more effectual Ex- 
ecution of the Laws in fome Emergencies, can- 
not be brought into our Catalogue ; but the 
Names of all our Magijirates, with the Times 
when I find their firft Advancement unto that 
ChaiaCter, are thefe, 


Book II. 

Magnolia Chrijii Americana 


MAGISTRATES of the Majfachufet-Colony. 

John Winthrop, Gov. 

Thomas Dudley, Deputy Gov. 

Matthew Cradock, 

Thomas Goff, 

Sir Richard Saltonftal, 

I/aac John/on, 

Samuel Alder/ley, 

John Venn, 

John Humfrey, 

Simon Wloercomb, 

lncreafe Nowel, 

Richard Perry, 

Nathanael Wright, 

Samuel Vajfal, 

Theophilm Eaton, 

'Thomas Adams, 

Thomas Hutchins, 

George Foxcrofr, 

William Vajfal, 

William Pinchon, 

John Pocock, 

Chrifiopher Cowl/on, 

William Coddington, 

Simon Bradftreet, 

Thomas Sharp, 

Roger Ludlow, 

Edward Rojjiter, 

John Endicot, 

John Winthrop, Jun. 

John Haines, 

Richard Billingham, 

Atterton Hough, 

Richard Hummer, 

Henry Vane, 

Roger Hartackenden^ 

Ifrael Stoughton, 

Richard Saltonflal, 

Thomas Flint, 

Samuel Symons, 

William Hibbons, 

William Tynge, 

Herbert Pelham, 

Robert Bridges, 

Francis Willoughby, 

Thomas Wiggan, 

Edward Gibbons, 

John Glover, 

Daniel Gookin, 

Daniel Denifon, 

Simon Willard, 

Humphrey Atherton, 

Richard Ruffel, 

Thomas Danfortb, 

William Hawthorn, 

Eleazer Lufher, 

John Leveret, 

John Pinchon, 

Edward Tyng, 

William Stoughton, 

Thomas Clark, 

Jofeph Dudley, 

Peter Bulkley, 

Nathanael Saltonftai, 
Humphrey Davy, 
James Ruffel, 
Samuel Nowel, 
Peter Tilt on,- 
John Richards, 

1629 Yjohn Hull, 

1629 Bartholomew Gidney, 


















































Thomas Savage, 
William Brown, 
Samuel Appleton, 
Robert Pike, 
Daniel Eifher, 
John Woodbridge, 
Eli flu Cook, 
William John/on, 
John Hawthorn, 
Eli/ha Hutchinfon 1 
Samuel Sewal, 
JJaac Addington, 
John Smith, 















J 684 

1 684 





Major-Generals of the Military Forces in the 
Colony, fuccefsfully chofen* 

Thomas Dudley. 
John Endicot. 
Edward Gibbons. 
Robert Sedgwick. 
Humfry Atherton. 
Daniel Denifon. 
John Leveret. 
Daniel Gookin. 

Secretaries of the Colony ; fuccefsfully cholen, 

William Burgis. 
Simon Bradftreet. 
Increafe Nowel. 
Edward Raw/on. 

That thefe Names are proper and worthy to 
be found in our Church-Hi ftory, will be ac- 
knowledged, when it is confidered, not only 
that they were the Members of Congregational 
Churches, and by the Members of the Churches 
chofen to be the Rulers of the Commonwealth . 
and that their exemplary Behaviour in their' 
Magiflracy was generally fuch as to adorn the 
Dollrine of God our Saviour., and according to 
the Old JewifJ) Wifhes, prohibitum eft Homini % 
inftar principis Dominari Juper populum, & 
cum el at i one Spirit us, fed, HKTT fTOlD cum 
manfuetudine ac Timore : But alio that their 
Love to, and Zeal for, and Cafe of thele 
Churches, was not the leaft part of their Cha- 

The Inftances of their Concern for the Wel- 
fare of the Clmrchcs were innumerable. I will 
fingle out but one from the reft, becaufe of 
lbme Singular Subfervieney to the Defigns of 
our Church-Hijiory, therein to be propos'd. Ill 
do it only by Tranlcribing an Inftrument, pub- 
lifhed Anno 166Q, in fuch Terms as thefe. 



Magnalia Chrifti Americana : 

Book II. 

To the Elders and Minifters of every Town 
within the Jurifdi&ion of the Maflachu- 
fets in New-England, the Governour 
and Council fendeth Greeting. 

Reverend and Beloved in the Lord, 

WE find in the Examples of Holy Scrip- 
' ture , that Alagtfirates have not 
only excited and commanded all the People 
under their Government, tofeek the Lord God 
of their Fathers, and do the haw and Com- 
mandment, (2. Chron. 14. 2, 5,4. Ezra 7. 2j, 
26, 27.) but alio Itirred up and fent forth 
the Levites, accompanied with other Princi- 
pal Men, to Teach the good Knowledge of the 
Lord throughout all the Cities, (2. Chron. 17. 
^> !■> 8, 9-) which Endeavours have been 
Crowned with the Blefling of God. 
c Alfo we find that our Brethren of the Con- 
gregational Perfwafion in England, have made 
a good Profeflion in their Book, Entituled, 
AVeclaration of their Faith and Order, (Page 
59. Sect. 1 4. J where they fay, That althd 
Paftors and Teachers ftand ejpecially related 
unto their particular Churches, yet they ought 
not to neglett others Living within their Pa- 
rochial Bounds ■, but befides their conflant 
public & Preaching to them, they ought to en- 
quire after their profiting by the Word, In- 
flructing them in, and Pre/Jtng upon them, 
(whether Toung or Old) the great Doctrines 
of the Gofpel, even perfonally and particu- 
larly, Jo far as their Strength and Time will 

' We hope that fundry of you need not a 
Spur in thefe things, but are confeiencioufly 
careful to do your Duty. Yet, forafmuch as 
we have caufe to fear that there is too much 

Neglect in many places, notwithftanding the 
Laws long fince provided therein, we do 
therefore think it our Duty to emit this 
Declaration unto you, earneftly Defiring, and 
in the Bowels of our Lord Jefus, requiring 
you to be very Diligent and Careful to Cate- 
chife and Inftruct all People (efpecially the 
Touth) under your Charge, in the found Prin- 
ciples of Chriftian Religion ; and that not 
only in Public k, but privately from Houfe to 
Houfe s as Bleffed Paul did •, (AS. 20. 20.) or 
at leaft, Three, Four, or more Families meet- 
ing together, as Time and ■ Strength may per- 
mit ; taking to your Affiftance fuch godly 
and grave Perfons as to you may feem moft ex- 
pedient : And alfo that you Labour to Inform 
your lelves fas much as may be meet) how 
your Hearers do profit by the Word of God, 
and how their Conversions do agree there- 
with ; and whether the Youth are Taught to 
Read the Englifh Tongue : Taking all occafi- 
ons to apply fuitable Exhortations particularly 
unto them, for the Rebuke ofthofe that do 
evil, and the Encouragement of them that do 

' The effectual and conftant Profecution here- 
of, we hope will have a Tendency to promote 
the Salvation of Souls ; to fupprefs the Growth 
of Sin and Profanenefs : to beget more Love 
and Unity among the People, and more Re- 
verence and Efteem of the Miniftry : And it 
will affuredly be to the enlargement of your 
Crown, and Recompence in Eternal Glory. 

Given at Bofton, the 10th of Match, 1668. 
by the Governour and Council, and by them 
Ordered to be Print ed> and fent accordingly. 

Edward Rawfon, Secret. 


Publicola Chriftianus. The LIFE o/EDWARD HOPKINS, Efa Gover- 

Superiores fint, qui fuperiores effe fciunt. 



HEN the Great God of Heaven had 
carried his Peculiar People into a 
Wildernejs, the Theocracy, wherein he became 
fas he was for that Rcafon ftiled ) Tloe Lord of 
Hofls, unto them and the Pour Squadrons of 
their ii>«zy, was moft eminently difplay'd in his 
Enacting of their Laws, his Directing of their 
Wars, and his Electing and Infpiring of their 
Judges. In fome refemblance hereunto, when 
Four Colonies of Chriftians had marched like 
fo many 'Hefts under the Conduct of the good 
Spirit of our Lord Jefus Chrift into an American 
Wildemefs, there were feveral Inftances where- 
in that Army of 'Conjejjors was under a Theo- 
cracy : For their Laws were ftill Enacted, and 
their Wars were ftill Directed by the Voice of 
God, as far as they uhderftood it, fpeaking from 

the Oracle of the Scriptures ; and though their 
fudges were ftill Eleffed by themfelves, and 
not lnfpired with fuch extraordinary Influences 
as carried them of Old, yet thefe alfo being 
Angularly furnifhed and offered by the fpecial 
Providence of God unto the Government of his 
New-EngHJh People, were fo eminently acted 
by His Graces, and His Precepts, in the Dif- 
charge of their Government, that the Bleffed 
People were ftill fenfibly Governed by the Lord 
of All. Now among the Firft Judges of New- 
England, was CDfoacD JpOpfeillg, Efq ; in whofe 
time the Colony of Connecticut was favoured 
with Judges as at the firft -, and put under the 
Power ofthofe with whom it was a Maxim, 
Gratius eft pirtaris Nomen. quam foteftatk. 

$. 2. The 

Book II. 0r 3 The Hiftory <^ New-England. 

§. 2. The Defcent and Breeding of Mr. (QH- 
tuatH DopfcUtSf, (who was Born, I think, near 
Shrewsbury, about the Year 1600.) tirft fitted 
him for the Condition of a Turky- Merchant, 
in London-, where he lived feveral Years in 
good Faihion and Efteem, until a powerful Par- 
ty in the Church of England, then' reiolving 
not only to feparate from the Communion of 
all the Faithful that were Avetfe to certain 
confeffedly unfcriptural and uninflituted Kites 
in the Worihip of God, but alio to Perfecute 
with deftroying Severities thole that were Non- 
Conformifts thereunto, compelled a confiderable 
Number of good Men to feek a fhelter among the 
Salvages of America. Among thefe, and with 
his Excellent Father-in-Law, Mr. Theophilus 
Eaton, he came to ' d ; where then 

removing from the Majfachufet-Bay unto Hart- 
jord upon Connefficut-Kiver, he became a Ruler 
and Pillar of that Colony, during the time of 
his Abode in the Country. 

§. 3. In his Government he acquitted himfelf as 
the Solomon of his Colony, to whom God gave 
Wifdom and ' Knowled ;, e night go out and 

come in before the People • and as he was the 
Head, fo he was the Heart of the People, for 
the Refolution to do WeH, which he maintained 
among them. An unjufl Judge is, as one fays, 
A cold lire, a dark bun, a dry Sea, an ungood. 
God, a contradictio in Adjecto. Far from luch 
was our Hopkins -, no, he was, Aikaiw Iij.1 ! .vx<>v, 
a meer piece of Living Juftice. And as he had 
no feparate Interefts of his own, fo he purfued 
their Interefts with luch an unfpotted and liic- 
cefsful Fidelity, that they might call him as 
the Tribe of Benjamin did their Leader in the 
Wildernels, Abidan. that is to fay, Our Father 
is Judge. Kew-England faw little Daw/tings, 
and Emblems, and Eamejis of the Day, That 
the great nefs of the Kingdom, under the whole 
Heaven Jhall be given unto the People of the 
Saints of the moji high, when fuch a Saint as 
our 3|)opkiH0 was one of its Governours. And 
the Felicity which a Great Man has Prognofti- 
cated for Europe, That God mill flir up fome 
happy Governour in fome Country in Chrijien- 
dom, indued with Wifdom and Confederation, 
who Jhall difcern the true Nature of Godlinefs 
and Chrifiianity, and the Neceffity and Excel- 
lency of ferious Religion, and jhall place his 
Honour and Felicity in pleafing God, and doing 
Good, and attaining Everlajiing Happinefs, 
and Jhall fubjett t I Uy Rcfpecls unto thefe 

High and Glorious Ends : This was now Exem- 
plified in America. 

§. 4. Moft Exemplary was his Piety and his 
Charity , and while he governed others by the 
Laws of God, he did himfelf yeild a profound 
Subjection unto thofe Laws. He was exempla- 
rily watchful over his own Behaviour, and 
made a continual C -lion of, and Pre- 

paration for Death, to be the. Character of his 
Life. It was his manner to Rife early, even 
before Day, to enjoy the Devotions of his Ciofet •, 

of God unto his Family, and then Praying with r 
them : And he had one particular way to caufe ■ 
Attention in the People of his Family, which 
was to ask any Perfon that feemed Carelels in 
the midlt of his Difcourle, What was it that I 
Read or Spoke laji ? Whereby he Habituated 
them unto fuch an Attention, that they were 
Ifill ufually able to give a ready Account. But 
as for his Prayers, they were not only frequent, 
but io fervent alio, that he frequently fell a 
Bleeding at the Nofe through the Agony of 
Spirit with which he labout'd in them. And, 
efpecially when imploring fuch Spiritual Blef- 
fings, as, That God would grant in the End of 
our Lives, the End of our Hopes, even the 
Salvation of our Souls, he would be fo Trans- 
ported, that the Obferving and Judicious Hear- 
ers would fay fometimes upon it, Surely this 
Alan cant be long out of Heaven. Moreover, 
in his Neighbourhood he not only fet himfelf 
to Encourage and Countenance real Godlinefs^ 
but alfo would himfelf kindly viiit the Aleet- 
ings that the Religious Neighbours privately 
kept for the Exerciies of it ; and where the 
leaft Occafion for Contention was offered, he 
would, with a ; prudent and fpcedy Endeavour, 
Extinguilh it. But the Poor he fo cqnfidered, 
that befides the Daily Reliefs which with his 
own Hands he difpenced unto them, he would 
put confiderable Sums of Money into the 
Hands of his Friends, to be by them employed 
as they faw Opportunity to do good unto all, e- 
fpecially the Houfhold of Faith. In this 
thing he was like that Noble and Worthy 
Englifh General, of whom 'tis noted, He never 
thought he had any thing but what he gave it- 
way ; and yet after all, with much humility 
he would profefs, as one of the molt Liberal 
Men that ever was in the World often would, 
I have often turned over my Books of Accounts, 
but I could never find the Great God charged 
a Debtor there. 

§. ?. But Suffering as well as Doing belongs 
to the Compleat Character of a Chrifiian ; and 
there were feveral Trials wherein our Lord 
called this Eminently Patient Servant of his to 
Suffer the Will of God. He Confliaed with 
Bodily Infirmities, but efpecially with a Waft- 
ing and a Bloody Cough, which held him for 
Thirty Years together. He had been by Per- 
fecutions driven to crofs an Ocean, to which he 
had in his Nature an Antipathy • and then a 
Wiidernefs lull of fuch Croflcb as attend the 
beginning of a Plantation, exerciied him. 
'Neveithelels there was one Affliction which 
continually dropt upon him above all the reft, 
and that was this, He Married a Daughter 
which the Second Wife of Mr. Eaton had by 
a former Husband ; one that from a Quid had 
been Obfervable for Defirable Qualities. But 
fome time after (lie was Married (he tell into 
a Diftempered Melancbolly, which at laft Iilu- 
ed in an Incurable Diflraclwn, with fuch 111- 
fhaped Ideas in her Brain, as ufe to be 

after which he fpent a confiderable time in I formed when the Animal Spirits are fired by 
Reading, and Opening, and Applying the Word] Irregular Particles, fixed with Acid, Biiious, 


2 4 

Magnolia Chrifii Americana : Book II. 

Venemous Ferments in the Blood. Very Grie- 
vous was this Afflidion unto this her worthy 
Conforr, who was by temper a very Affefti- 
oriate Perfon: And who now left no part of a 
tender Husband undone, to Eafe, and, if it were 
poilible, to Cure the Lamenrable Defolation thus 
come upon, "The 'De fire of his Eyes; but when 
the Phyiician gave him to underftand, that no 
means would be Likely to Reftore her Senfc, but 
fuch as would be alio likely to Hazard her Life, 
he Replied with Tears, I had rather bear my 
Crofs unto the End that the Lord fhall give ! 
But upon this Occafion he faid unto her Sifter, 
who, with all the reft related unto her, were 
as dear unto him as bis own ; / have often 
thought, what fhouldbe the -meaning of the Lord, 
in chaftifing of me with Jo [harp a Rod, and with 
Jo long a Stroke ! Whereto, when fhe Reply'd, 
Sir, nothing Jingular hat, in this Cafe, befallen 
you ; God hath afitiilicd others in the like way ; 
and we mufi be content with our Portion : He 
Anfwered, Sifter, This is among the Lord's Ra- 
rities. For my part I cannot tell what Sore to 
lay my Hand upon : However, in General, my 
Sovereign Lord is Juft, and I will' jujiifie him 
for ever : But in Particular, 1 have thought the 
matter might lye here : I promifed my 
felf too much Content in this Relation 
and "Enjoyment \ and the Lord will make me to 
know that this World jh all not afford it me. So 
he wifely, meekly, fruitfully bore this heavy 
Affiitlton unto his Dying Day ; having been 
taught by the Affli&ion to Die Daily, as long as 
he Lived. 

§. 6. About Governour Eaton, his Father-in- 
Law. he law oaufe to fay unto a SiJier-in-Law, 
whom he much valued • / have often wondred 
at my Father and your Father ; J have heard him 
fay, Ti'.a be never had a Repenting, or a Repi- 
ning Thought, about his coming to New-Eng- 
land : Surely, in this Matter he hath a Grace 
far out- (Inning Mine. But he is our Father I I 
cannot fay, a* he can y I have had hard work 
with my own Heart about it. But upon the 
Death of his Elder Brother, who was Warden of 
the Fleet, it was neceflary for him to Return 
into England, that he might look after the 
Eftate which then fell unto him ; and accord- 
ingly, after a Tempeftuous and a Terrible Voy- 
age wherein they were eminently endangered 
by Fire, accidentally enkindled on the Ship, as 
well as by Water, which tore it fo to Pieces, 
that it was Towed in by another Ship, he at 

"Per Varios Cafus ; per tot Difcrimina Rerun?, 

arrived there. There a great Notice was quick- 
ly taken of him : He was made Warden of the 
Fleet, Commiiiioner of the Admiralty, and the 
Navy -Office, a Parliament-Man; and he was 
placed in lome oiher confiderable Stations : In 
all which he more than anfwered the Expecta- 
tions of thofe who took him to be a Perfon 
Eminently Qualified for Publick Service. By 
thefe Employments, his defign of Returning to 

New-England, with which he left it, was di- 
verted fo far, that be fent for his Family ; and 
about the time that he looked for them, 
he being advantaged by his great Places to em- 
ploy certain Frigots for their fafety on the 
Coaft, by that means had them fafely brought 
unto him. When they were with him in Lon- 
don, one of them told him how much his 
Friends in New-England Wilh'd and Pray'd for 
his Return : And how that Paffage had been 
ufed in our Publick Supplications for that Mer- 
cy, Lord, If we may win him in Heaven, we 
(hall yet have him on Earth : But he Reply'd, 
I have had many Thoughts about my Return, 
and my AffetTions have been bent very firongly 
that way ; and thd I have now, bleffed be Cod, 
received my Family here, yet that /hail be no 
hindrance to my Return. I will tell you, though 
I am little worth, yet I have that Love which 
will difpnfc me to ferve the Lord, and that 
People oj his. But as to that matter, I incline 
to think they will not win it in Heaven ; and 
I know not -whether the Terrors of my dreadful 
Voyage hither might not be ordered by the Di- 
vine Providence, to Stake me in this Land, be' 
tng in my Spirit fufficiently loth to run the 
hazard of fuch another. 1 mufi alfo fay to 
you, I mourn exceedingly, and 1 fear, I fear, 
the Sins of New-England will ere long be 
read in its Punifhments. The Lord has planted 
that Land with a Noble Vine ; and Bleffed 
haft thou been, O Land, in thy Rulers ! But, 
alas ! for the generality they have not confii- 
dered how they were to Honour the Rules of 
God, in Honouring of thofe whom God made 
Rulers over them ; and I fear they will come 
to jn/art by having them Jet over them, that 
it will be an hard Work to Honour, and that 
will hardly be capable to manage their Af- 

§. 7. Accordingly he continued in England 
the reft of his Days, in feveral places of Great 
Honour and Burden faithfully lerving the Na- 
tion; but in the midft of his Publick Employ- 
ments moft exacfj.y maintaining the Zeal and 
Watch of his own private Walk with God. His 
Mind kept continually Mellowing and Ripening 
for Heaven ; and one Expreflion of his Heaven- 
ly Mind, among many others, a little before his 
End, was, How often have I pieafed my felf with 
thoughts of a joyful Meeting with my Father 
Eaton ! I remember with what pleajure he would 
come down the Street, that he might meet me 
when I came from Hartford unto New-Haven : 
But with how much greater Pleafure fhall we 
Jhortly meet one another in Heaven ! But as an 
Heavenly Mind is oftentimes a Prefacing 
Mind, ib he would fometimes utter this Prejfage 
unto fbme that were Near and Dear unto him % 
God will Jhortly take the Protecf or away, and 
Joon after that you will fee great Changes 
overturning the prefent Conftitution, and J ore 
Troubles come upon thofe that now promife 
better things unto themfelves. However, he 
did not Live to fee the Fulfilment of this 


§>. 8. For 

Book II. Or, The Hiftory of New-England. 

2 5 

A. 8. For the time now drew near that this 
lfraelite was to Die! He had been in his Life 
troubled with many Fears of Death 5 and after 
he fell Sick, even when he drew very near 
Death, he laid with Tears, Oh ! Pray for me, 
for lam in extream Darknefs ! But at length, 
on a Lord's Day. about the very time when Mr. 
Caryl was publkkly praying for him, his Dark- 
nefs all vanilhed, and he broke forth into 
thefe Expretiions, Oh ! Lord, thou haft kept 
the be ft Wine until the lajl ! Oh! Friends, could 
you believe this ? I flail be blcffed for ever, I 
(hail quickly be in Eternal Glory. Kow let 
the whole World count me Vile, and call me an 
Hypocrite, or what they will, I matter it not ; 
I Jhall be blejjed\ there is referved for me a 
Crown of Glory. Oh ! Blejfed be God for Jefus 
Chriji -' I have heretofore thought it an hard 
thing to die, but now I find that it is not fo. 
If 1 might have my choice, 1 would now cbttfe 
to die ; Oh ! my Lord, I pray thee fend me not 
back again into this Evil World, I have enough 
of it ; no, Lord, now take me to Glory, and 
the Kingdom that is prepared for me ! Yea, 
the ftanders by thought it not poifible for them 
to utter exactly after him, the Heavenly Words 
which now proceeded from him ; and when 
one of them laid, Sir, The Lord hath enlarged 
your Faith; he replied, Friend, this is SenJ'e • 
the Lord hath even fatisfkd my Senjc ; I am 
fenfibly fatisfied of Everlafting Glory! Two 
or Three Days he now fjpent in Prayers and 
Praifes, and in Inexpreffible Joys : In which 
time, when fome Eminent Perfons of a very 

Publick Station and Imployment came to Vifit 
him, unto them he laid, Sirs, Take heed of 
your Hearts while you are in your Work for 
God, that there be no root of htternefs within 
you. It may be pretended your Defires are to 
ferve God, but if there are in you jecret Aims 
at advancing oj your/elves, and your own E Rates 
and Inter ejfs, the Lord will not accept your 
Services as pure before him. 

But at length in the Month of March, i6%-j. 
at London he expired ; when being opened, it 
was found that his Heart had been unaccoun- 
tably, as it were, Boiled and Wafted in Water, 
until it was become a little brittle Skin, which 
being touch'd, prefentiy dropp'd in pieces. He 
had often wilhed, upon fome great Accounts, 
that he might live till the beginning cf this 
Year \ and now when he lay a dying, he faid, 
Lord ! Thou haft fulfilled my Defires according 
to thy Word, that thou wilt fulfil the Defires 
«f them that fear thee. 

Now from the Tombltone of another Eminent 
Perfon, we will fetch what fhall here be a 


Part of E D tVA R D HOPKINS,E{% 

But Heaven, not brooking that the Earth fhould 

In the leaf. Atom of a Piece Jo rare, 
Intends to Sue out, by a New Revile, 
His Habeas Corpus at the Grand Affize. 

S V C C E S S R S. 

|< I. A Lternately, for the moft part every 
J\ other Year, Mr. Hains, whom we 
have already mentioned elfewhere, took a turn 
with Mr. Hopkins in the Chief place of Go- 
vernment. And befides thefe, (Reader, the 
Oracle that once Predicted Government unto a 
©, would now and here Predial it unto a W.) 
there were Mr. Willis, Mr. Wells, and Mr. 
Webfter, all of whom alfo had Opportunity to 
exprefs their Liberal and Generous Difpofiti- 
ons, and the Governing Virtues of Wifdom, 
Juftice and Courage, by the Eleftion of the 
Freemen in the Colony before its being United 
with Kewhaven. Had the Surviving Relations 
of thefe Worthy Men fent in unto me a Tenth 
Part of the Confiderable and Imitable Things 

which occurr'd in their Lives, they might 
have made more of a Figure in this our Hi- 
ftory 5 whereas I muft now Sum up all, with 
alluring my Reader, that it is the want of 
Knowledge in Me, and not of Defert in Them, 
that has confined us unto this Brevity. 

§. 2. After the Union of ConncUicui with 
Kewhaven, there were in Chief Government 
Mr. Leet, whom we have already paid our 
Dues unto ; and Mr. Treat, who is yet living, 
a Pious and a Valiant Man, and (if even Aiino- 
fa §>iicrcus be an Honourable thing ! ) worthy 
to be Honoured for An Hoa?y Head found in 
the Way of Righteoufnefs : Befides, Mr. Win- 
throp, of whom anon, Reader, expe& a Com- 
pleater Hiftory. 


€ H A P> 


Magnalia. Chrijli Americana 

Book II. 


Huuiilitas Honorata. The L IF E of T H E O P H I L U S EATON, £& Go- 
vernor of NEW-HAVEN COLO NT. 

Jnflit?£ Citltor, Rigidi Servator Honejti, 
In Commune Bonum. 

§. I. 

T has been enquired, why the Evan- 
gelift Luke in the Firfl Sacred Hifto- 
vj which he AddrelTed unto his Fellow-Citizen, 
gave him the Title of The moji Excellent The- 
ophilus, but in the next he ufed no higher aiStile 
than plain Theophilus ? And though feveral o- 
ther Anfwers might be given to that Enquiry, 
'tis enough to fay, That neither the Civility of 
Luk£, nor Nobility of Theoplilus, were by Age 
abated -, but Luke herein considered the Difpo- 
fition of Theophilus, as well as his own, with 
whom a reduced Age had rendet'd all Titles 
oj Honour more Difagreeable Superfluities. 
Indeed nothing would have been more unaccep- 
table to the Govetnour of our Neva-Haven 
Colony, all the time of his being fo, than to 
have been Advanced and Applauded above the 
rcit oi' Mankind ; yet it mull: be now Publifhed 
unto the Knowledge of Mankind, that JVifa>- 
England could not of his Quality fhow a More 
Excellent Per/on, and this was Theophilus 
Eaton, Efq; the firft G&vernour of that Colony. 
Humility is a Virtue whereof Amyr aldu s ob- 
ferves, There is not Jo much cut a Shadow oj 
Commendation in all the Pagan Writers. But 
the Reader is now concerned with Writings 
which will Commend a Perfon for Humility ; 
and therefore our EATON, in whom the 
ihine of every Virtue was particularly fet off 
with a more than ordinary Degree of Humili- 
ty, muft now be propos'd as Commendable. 

§. 2. 'Tis Reported, that the Earth taken 
from the Banks of Nilus, will very Strangely 
Sympathize with the place from whence it was 
taken, and grow moift or dry according to the 
Increafe and the Decreale of the River. And in 
fpite of that Popifk Lie which pretends to ob- 
ferVe tile contrary, this thing has been fignal- 
ly Moralizd in the daily Obfervation, that the 
Sorts oj Mimjfeff, though betaking themfelves 
to other Imployments, do ordinarily carry about 
with them an Holy and Happy Savour of 
their AMnifterial Education. 'Twas remarkably 
Exemplified in our Iheophilus Eaton, who was 
Bom at Stony-Stratford in Oxfordfhire, the 
Eldeft Son to the Faithful and Famous Mim- 
fter of the place. But the Words of Old ufed 
by Philofiratus concerning the Son of a Great 
Man, As jor his Son I have nothing elje to 
Jay, but that he wot his Son ^ they could 
not be ufed concerning our Theophilus, who 
having received a good Education from his 
Pious] Parents, did live many Years to An- 
fwer that Education in his own Piety and XJJe- 

§.9. His Father being removed unto Coven- 

try, he there at School fell into the Inti- 
mate Acquaintance of that Worthy John Dw 
venport, with whom the Providence of God 
many Years after united him in the great 
Undertaking of fettling a Colony of Chriftiart 
and Reformed Churches on the American 
Strand. Here his Ingenuity and Proficiency 
render'd him notable ; and fo vaft was his 
Memory, that although he wrote not at the 
Church, yet when lie came home, he would, 
at his Father's Call, repeat unto thofe that met 
in his Father's Houfe, the Sermons which had 
been public kly Preached by others, as well as 
hisown Father, with fitch exaefnefs, as afto- 
nilhed all the Neighbourhood. But in their 
after Improvements, the Hands of Divine Pro- 
vidence were laid aerty's upon the Heads of 
Theophilus Eaton and John Davenport ■, for 
Davenport, whole Father was the Mayor of 
Coventry, became a Mmiflrr , and Eaton, whofe 
Father was Mimfler of Coventry, contrary to 
his Intentions, became a Merchant. His Parents 
were very loth to have complied with his 
Inclinations ; but their Compliance therewith- 
al did at laft appear to have been directed by 
a fpecial Favour of Heaven unto the Family, 
when after the Death of his Father,hs, by this 
means, became the Jofepb, by whom his Mother 
was maintained until Ine died, and his Orphan 
Brethren and Sifters had no Small part of their 

§. 4. During the time of his hard Appren- 
ticclhip he behaved himjelj wifely ; and his 
Wifdom, with God's Favour, particularly appear- 
ed in his cbafte Ficape pom the Snares of a 
Young Woman in the Houie where he lived, 
who -would fain have taken him in the Pits by 
the Wife Alan cautioned againft, and who 
was herlelf fo taken only with his molt Come- 
ly Perfon. that She dy"d for the Love of him, 
when (he faw him gene too far to be obtained : 
Whereas, by the like Snares, the Apprentice that 
next fucceeded him was undone for ever. 
But being a Perfon herewithul moft fignally 
Diligent in his Bujinefs, n was not long be- 
fore the Maxim of the Wife Man was molt 
literally accomplished )n his coming to Stand 
before Prino&s ; for being made a Freeman of 
London, he applied himfelf unto the Eafl- 
Country Trade, and was publickly chofen the 
Deputy-Govanour of the Company, wherein 
he lo acquitted himfelf as to become confide- 
rable. And afterwards going himfelf into the 
Eafi-Country, he not only became fo well Ac- 
quainted with the Affairs of the Baltick-Sea, 
but alfo became fo well Improved in the Ac- 

Book II. Or, The Hiftory of New-England, 

complifhments of a Man of Bufmejs, that the [America. Mr. Eaton had already affifted the 
King of England imploy 'd him as an Agent un- New Majfacbufet'-Coiony\ as being one of the 

to the King of Denmark. The Concerns of 

his Agency he fo difcreetly managed, that as moving thither himfelf until Mr. Davenport, 

Patentees for it \ but had no purp'ofe cf re- 

he much obliged and engaged the Eaft-Land 
Company, (who in Token thereof prefented his 
Wife with a Bafon and Ewer double gilt, and 
curiouily wrought with Cold, and weighing a- 
bove Sixty Pound,) fo he found much Accep- 
tance with the King of Denmark, and was af- 
terwards ufed by that Prince to do him no 
little Services. Neverthelefs he kept his Inte- 
grity amongft the Temptations of that Court, 
whereat he was now a Re fide nt ; and not fel 
dom had he moft Eminent Caufe to acknow- 
ledge the Benignity and Interpofal of Heaven 
for his Prefervations ; once particularly, when 
the King of Denmark was beginning the King 
of England's Health, while Mr. Eaton, who 
dilliked fuch Health-Drinking, was in his 
Pretence ; the King fell down in a fort of 
a Fit, with the Cup in his Hand, whereat all 
the Nobles and Courtiers wholly applied them- 
felves to convey the King into his Chamber, 
and there was no notice taken who was to 
Pledge his Health •, whereby Mr. Eaton was 
the more eafily deliver'd from any fhare in the 

§. 5. Having arrived unto a fair Eftate, 
(which he was firfl willing to do, he Married 
a moft Virtuous Gentlewoman, to whom he 
had firft Efpoufed himfelf after he had fpent 
Three Years in an Abfence from her in the 
Eafi-Countty. But this deareft and greateft of 
his Temporal Enjoyments proved but a Tempo- 
ral one; for living no longer with him than 
to render him the Father of Two Children, 
fhe almoft killed him with her own Death ; 
and yet ar her Death (he exprefTed herfelf won- 
drous willing to be Diffolved, and to be with 
Cbrift, from whom (fhe laid) I would not be 
detained one Hour for all the Enjoyments upon 
Earth He aftei wards Married a Prudent and 
Pious Widow, the Daughter of the Bilhop of 
Cbefter ; unto the Three former Children of which 
Widow, he became a moft Exemplary, Living 
and Faithful Father, as well as a molt Worthy 
Husband unto herfelf, by whom he afterwards 
haa Five Children, Two Sons and Three Daugh -, 
ters. But the Second of his Children by his 
latter Wife dying fome while before, it was 
not long before his Two Children by his 
former Wife were fmitten with the Plague, 
whereof the Elder died, and his Houfe there- 
upon (hut up with a, Lord have Mercy ! How- 
ever the Lord had this Mercy on the Family, 
to let the Diftemper fpread no further ; and fo 
Mr. Eaton fpent many Years a Merchant of 
great Credit and Fafhion in the City of Lon- 

§. 6. At length Conformity to Ceremonies 
Humanely Invented and Impofed in the Wor- 
(hip of God, was urged in the Church of 
England with fo much Rigour, that Mr. Da- 
venport was thereby driven to feek a Refuge 
from the Storm in the Cold and Rude Corners of 

under whole Excellent Minillry he lived, was 
compelled unto a ihare in this Removal. How- 
ever, being fully fatisfied in his own Confcience, 
that Vnlawjul things were now violently de- 
manded of him, he was willing to accompa- 
ny his Perfecuted Pallor in the Retreat from 
Violence now Endeavoured, and many Eminent 
Londoners chearfully engaged with him in this 
Undertaking. Unto New-England this Compa- 
ny of good Men came in the Year 1637. where 
chufing to be a diftinft Colony by themfelves, 
more Accommodated unto the Defigns of Mer- 
chandize than of Husbandry, they fought and 
bought a large Territory in the Southern Parts 
of the Country for their Habitations. In the 
Frofecution hereof, the chief Care was devol- 
ved upon Mr. Eaton, who with an Unexempled 
Patience took many tedious and hazardous 
Journies through a Delblate Wilderneis full of 
Barbarous Indians, until upon Mature Delibe- 
ration he pitched upon a place now called 
New-Haven, where they foon formed a very 
regular Town •, and a number of other Towns 
along the Sea fide were quickly added thereun- 
to. But by the Difficulties attending thefe 
Journies, Mr. Eaton brought himfelf into ail 
extream Sicknefs ; from which he recovered 
not without a Fijiula in his Breaft. whereby he 
underwent much Affliction. When the Chirur- 
geon came to Infpect the Sire, he told him, 
Sir, I know not how to go about what is ndcef, 
fary for your Cure ; but Mr. Eaton anfwered 
him, God .calls you to do, and me to fuffer I 
And God accordingly ftrengthened him to bear 
miferable Cuttings and Launcings of his Flelh 
with a moil Invincible Patience. The Chirur- 
geon indeed made fo many Wounds, that he was 
not able to Cure what he had made; another, and 
a better, Hand was neceffarily imployed for it \ 
but in the mean while great were the Trials 
with which the God of Heaven exercifed the 
Faith of this his Holy Servant. 

§. 7. Mr. Eaton and Mr. Davenport were 
the Mofes and Aaron of the Chriftian Colony 
now Erecfed in the South-Weft Parts of New- 
England ; and Mr. Eaton being yearly and ever 
chofen their Governour, it was the Admirati- 
on of all Spectators to behold the Difcretion, 
the Gravity, the Equity with which he ftill 
all their Publick Affairs. He carried 
his very Countenance a Majejly which can- 
not be defcribed ; and in his Dilpenfations of 
Juftice he was a Mirrour for the moft Imitable 
Impartiality, but Ungainfayable Authority of 
his Proceedings, being awfully fenfible of the 
Obligations which the Oath of a Judge lays up- 
on him. lis font plus tenus de raifon de 
garder Leur Serment, doubter mort, ou au- 
cutie forfeiture : And hence he, who would 
moft patiently bear hard things offered unto 
his Per fon in private Cafes, yet would never 


pafs by any 
D d 

Publick Affronts, or 


2 8 

Magnalia Cbrijli Ameritchui : Book II. 

offered when he appeared under the Chara&er 
of a Mugijh-cte. But he ftill was the Guide 
of the Wind, the Staff" of the Lame, the Help- 
er of the Widow and the Orphan, and all the 
Diftrcfled ; none that had a Good Caufe was a- 
fraid of coming before him : On the one fide, 
In his Days did the Righteous flourijh ; on the 
other fide, tic wot the Terror oj Evil Doers. 
As in his Government of the Commonwealth, lb 
in the Government of his family, . he was Pru- 
dent, Serious, Happy to a Wonder •, and 3lbeit 
he fometimes had a large family, confifting of 
no lefs than thirty Pcrfons, yet he managed 
them with fuch an Even Temper, that Ob- 
fervers have affirmed. They never jaw an Houfe 
ordered .with more Wifdom ! He kept an Ho- 
nourable and Hofpitable Table -, but one thing 

dally tending unto the Sariciification of the 
Day. At Noon he fang a Pfalm, and at 
Night he retired an Hour into his Clofet; ad- 
vihng thofe in his Houfe to improve rhe 'fame 
time for the good of their own Souls. He 
then called his Family together again, and in 
an obliging manner conferred with them about 
the things with which they had been Enter- 
tained in the Houfe of God, (hutting up all 
with a Prayer fot the Bleffing of God upon 
them all. For Solemn Days of Humiliation 
or of Thank/giving, he took the fame Courfe' 
and Endeavoured ftill t<3 make thofe that be- 
longed unto him, underftand the meaning of the 
Services before them. He feldom uied any 
Recreations, but being a great Reader, all the 
I time he could (pare from Company and Bufi- 

that ftill made the Entertainment thereof the : nefs, he commonly fperit in his Beloved Stu- 
bettcr, was the continual Prefence of his Aged\dy; fo that he merited the Name which was 

Mother, by feeding of whom with an Exempla 
ry Piety till Jbe died, he enfured his own Prc- 
jperity as long as he lived. His Children and 
Servants he would mightily Encourage unto 
the Study of the Scriptures* and Countenance 
their Addrcilis unto himfelf with any of their 
Enquiries ; but when he difcerned any of 
them fintully negligent about the Concerns either 
of their General or Particular Callings, he 
would admonilh them with fuch a Penetra- 
ting Efficacy, that they could fcarce forbear 
falling down at his Feet with Tears. A Word 
of his was enough to fleer them ! 

§. 8. So Exemplary was he for a Chriftian, 
that one who had been a Servant unto him, 
could many Years after fay, Whatever Difficul- 
ty in my daily Walk I now meet withal, ftill 
j'omcthing that I cither Jaw or heard in my 
Buffed Majler Eaton j Converfation^ helps me 
through it all •, / have Reojon to blejs God 
that ever I knew him ! It was his Cuftom 
when he fitft rofe in a Morning, to repair un- 
to his Study ; a Study well Perfumed with the 
Meditations and Supplications of an Holy 
Soul. After this, calling his Family together, 
he would then read a Portion of the Scripture 
among them, and after fome Devout and Ufe- 
ful Reflections upon it, he would make a Pray- 
er not long, but Extraordinary Pertinent and 
Reverent ■ and in the Evening fome of the 
fame Exercifes were again artended. On the 
Saturday Morning he would ftill take notice 
of the Approaching Sabbath in his Prayer^ and 
ask the Grace to be Remembring of It, and 
Preparing for it ; and when the Evening arri- 
ved, he, befides this, not only Repeated a Ser- 
mon, but alio Inftrutfcd his People, with put- 
ting of ^ueftions referring to the Points of 
Religion, which would oblige them to Study 
for an Anfwer ■, and if their Anfwer were at 
any time " inefficient, he would wifely and 
gently Enlighten their Underftandings ; all 
which he concluded with Singing of a Pfalm. 
When the Lord's Day came, he called his Fa- 
mily together at the time for the Ring- 
ing of the Fitft Bell, and repeated a Sermon, 
Wherettnto he added a Fervent Prayer^ efpe- 

once given to a Learned Ruler of rhe Engftfh 
Nation, the Name of Bcauclerk : in Ccnver- 
fing with his Friends, he was Affable, Cour- 
teous, and generally Plcajant, but Grave per- 
petually ■ and lb Cautelous and Circumfpecf in 
his Difcourfcs, and fo Modcft in his Expreffi- 
ons, that it became a Proverb for Inconteftabie 
Truth, Governcur Eaton faid it. 

But after all, his humility appeared in his 
having always but Low Expectations, looking 
for little Regard and Reward from any Men 
after he had merited as highly as was poflihle 
by his Univer/al Serviceablenefs. 

k;. 9. His Eldeft Son he maintained at the 
Colledge until he proceeded Mafter of Arts - 
and h£ was indeed rhe Son of his Vows, and a 
Son of great Hopes. But a fevere Catarrh 
diverted this Young Gentleman from rhe Work 
of the Miniftry whereto his Father had once 
devoted him ■, and a Malignant Fever then 
raging in thofe Parts of the Country, carried 
oft him with his Wife within Two or Three 
Days of one another. This was counted the 
fbreft of all the Trials that ever befel his Fa- 
ther in the Days of the Tears of his Pilgri- 
mage ; but he bore it with a Patience and 
Compofure of Spirit which was truly admi- 
rable. His dying Son look'd earneftly on him, 
and faid, Sir, What fhall we do I Whereto, 
with a well-ordered Countenance, he replied^ 
Look up to God ! And when he paffed by 
his Daughter drowned in Tears on this Occafi- 
on, to her he faid, Remember the Sixth Com- 
mandment, hurt not your felf with Immode- 
rate Grief; Remember Job, who faid, The 
Lord hath given, and the Lord hath taken 
away, BlelTed be the Name of the Lord ! 
Tou may mark what a Note the Spirit cf 
God put upon it ; in all this Job finned not, nor 
charged God foolifhly : God accounts it a 
charging of him foolifhly, when we don't fub- 
mit unto his Will patiently. Accordingly he 
now governed himfelf as one that had attained 
unto the Rule of Weeping as if we wept not ; 
for it being the Lord's Day, he repaired unto 
the Church in the Afternoon, as he had been 
there in the Forenoon, though he was never 


Book II. Or, The Hi/iory of Ncw^uglmd. 


like to fee his Deareft Son alive any more in 
this World. And though before the Firfl Pray- 
er began, a MelTenger came to prevent Mr. Daven- 
port's, praying for the Sick Peribn, who was now 
Dead, yet his Aftecfionate Father alter'd not 
his Courfe, but Wrote after the Preacher as 
formerly \ and when he came Home he held on 
his former Methods of Divine Worfhip in his 
Family, not for the Excufe of Aaron, omitting 
any thing in the Service of God. In like fort, 
when the People had been at the Solemn In- 
terment of this his Worthy Son, he did with 
a very Unpaflionate AYpecF and Carriage then 
lay, Friends, I thank you all for your Love 
and Help, and for this Teflunony of Rrfpeil 
unto me 'and mine : The Lord bath g^vea, and 
the Lord bath taken ; bleffed be the A awe cj 
the Lord I Neverthelefs, retiring hereupon in- 
to the Chamber where his Daughter then lay 
Sick, fome Tears were obferved falling jrom 
him while he uttered thefe Wotds, J here if 
a difference between a fullen Silence or a flu- 
pi Senflejnefs under the Hand of God, and a 
Child-like Submiffion thereunto. 

i§. jo. Thus continually he, for about a Score 
of Years, was the Glory and Pillar of Kew- 
Haven Colony. He would often fay, Some 
count it a great matter to Die well,' but I am 
fure 'tis a great matter to Live well. All our 
Care fhould be while we have our Life to ufe 
it well, and Jo when Death puts an end unto 
that, it will put an end unto all our Cares. 
"But having Excellently managed his Care to 1 
Live well, God would have him to Die well, 
without any room or time then given to take 
any Care at all ; for he enjoyed a Death Jud 

den to every one but himfelf ! Having Wor- 
lhipped God with his Family after his ufual 
manner, and upon fornp Occafion with much 
Solemnity charged all the Family to carry it 
well imp rhejr Milfteis who was now confined 
by Sickneis, he Supp'd, and then took a turn 
q[ two abroad for his Meditations. After that 
he came in to bid his Wife Good-night, before 
he left her with her Watchers ; which when he 
did, the laid, Methinks you look fad ! Where- 
to he replyd, The Differences rifen in the 
Church of Hartford make me fo ; f he then ad- 
ded, Let us een go back to our Native' Coun- 
try again ; to which he anfwered, Tou may, 
CaAd fo fhe did] but l flmll Die here. This 
was the lait Word that ever fhe heard him 
fpeak ■ for now retiring unto his Lodging in 
another Chamber, he was overheard about 
midnight fetching a Groan ; and unto one, fent 
in prefently to enquire how he did, he an- 
fwered the Enquiry with only faying, Very 
III ! And without faying any more, he fell a- 
fleep in Jefus : In the Year 1657. loofing An- 
chor from New-Haven for the better. 


—Scdcs, ubi Fata, §>uietas 

Now let his Gravcftone wear at leaffc the 


NEW-EN.GL A.ND'x Glory, full of 

Warmth and Light, 
Stole away (and fa id nothing,) in the Night. 



-4. 1. \T7 HEN the Day arrived in the 
VV Anniverjary Courfe for the Free- 
men of the Colony to ElecF another Gover- 
nour in the place of the Deceafed Eaton, Mr. 
Davenport Preached on that PafTage of the Di- 
vine Oracle, in Jofh. 1. I, 2. ~Nevo after the 
Death of Mofes, the Servant of the Lord, it 
came to pafs that the Lord fpake unto Jofhua, 
■the Son of 'Nun, Mofes Minifter, faying. Now 
arife thou and all this People. The Colony 
was abundantly fenfible that their CiitOlt had 
been a Man of a Mofaic Spirit; and that 
while they chofe him, as they did every Year 
of his Life among them to be theit Governour, 
■ they could not chufe a better. But they now 
confidered that Mfl". Francis Newman, who had 
been for many Years the Secretary of the Co- 
lony, was there a Minifler to their Mofes, as 
he had been otherwife his intimate Friend, 
Neighbour, Companion and Counfellor. For 
this Caufe the Unanimous Choice of the Free- 
men fell upon this Gentleman to fucceed in 
the Government. And I fhall . here give 
a furfkient Hiftory of his Government •, 

which through Death was not fuffered to 
continue above Three or Four Years, by 
only faying, That he walk'd exaUly in the 
Steps of his Predeceffor. 

§. 2. Upon the letting of Mr. Francis New- 
man, there arole Mr. William Leet, of whom 
let not the Reader be difpleafed at this brief 
Account. This Gentleman was by his Educati- 
on a Lawyer, and by his Imployment a Regi- 
fter in the Bi_fhop's Court. In that Station, at 
Cambridge, he obferved that there were Sum- 
moned; before the Coutt certain Perfbns to an- 
fwer for the Crime of going to hear Sermons 
abroad, when there were none to be heard in 
their own Parifh Churches at home ; and that 
when any were brought before them for For- 
nication or Adultery, the Court only made 
themfelves merry with their Peccadillo's ; and 
that thefe latter Tranfgreflbrs were as favoura- 
bly dealt withal, as ever the Wolf was when 
he came with an Auricular ConfeJJton of his 
Murders to his Brother Fox for Abfolution -, 
but the^ former found as hard meafure as ever, 
the- poor 4/>, that had only taken a Straw by 



Magnolia Cbrijii Americana : 

Book II. 

mifiake out of a Pilgrim's Pad, and yet upon i Generation of Men, he aflbciated himfelf 

Confejfidn, -was by Chancellour Fox pronounced 
Unpardonable. This Obfervation extreamly 
fcandalized Mr. Leet y who always thought, 
that Hearing a good Sermon had been a lefler 
Fault than Lying with one's Neighbour's Wife : 
And had the lame Refentments that Auftin 
fometimes had of the Iniquity which made 
the Tranjgrejfwn of a Ceremony more feverely 
reprehended than a Tranfgrejfion of the Law of 
God ; but it made an Everlafting Impreffion 
upon his Heart, when the Judge of the Court 
furioufly demanded of one then to be cenfured, 
How he durfl be fo bold an to break the Laws 
of the Churchy in going from his own Parifb 
to hear Sermons abroad ? And the Honeft Man 
anfwered; Sir, How fhould I get Faith elfe ? 
For the Apoflle faith, Fait!: comes by Hearing 
the Word F reached ; which Faith is necejfary 
to Salvation ; and Hearing the Word is the 
Means appointed by God for the obtaining and 
encreafwg of it : And thefe Means I mufi ufe, 
whatever I fiiffcr for it in this World. Thefe 
Words of that Honelt Man were Bleffed by 
God with fuch an Effect upon the Mind of Mr. 
Leei\ that he prelcntly left his Offife in the 
Bifhop's Court, and forfaking rhat Untoward 

with fuch as would go Hear the Word, that 
they might get Faith ; and in Hearing he did 
happily get the Like precious Faith. On this, 
and for this, he was expoied unto the Perfecu- 
tion, which caufed him to retire into New- 
England with many Worthy Minilters and o- 
ther Chriftians in the Year 1639. I" that Coun- 
try he fettled himfelf under the Miniftry of 
the Excellent Mr. Whitfield at Gilford, where 
being alfo chofen a Magijlrate, and then Go- 
vernour of the Colony ; and being fo at the 
Juncture of time, when the Royal Charter did 
join Connecticut and New-Haven, he became 
next unto Governour W'mthrop, the Veputy- 
Governour of the whole ; and after the Death 
of Mr. Winthrop, even until his own Death., 
the Annual Eletlwn for about a Decad of Years 
together ftill made him Governour. But in 
his whole Governmenr he gave continual De- 
monftrations of an Excellent Spirit, especially 
in that part of it where the Reconciliation and the 
Coalition of the Spirits of the People under it 
was to be accomplilhed. P r. Robert Treat is 
the Follower of his Example, as well as the 
Succeffor in his Government. 


Hermes Chriftianus. The LIFE of JOHN WINTHROP,*£/ fi 
now of CONNECTICUT and NEW-HAVEN United. 



•Et KJos aliquod Nomenq\, Decufqi 


§. i.TF the Hiftorian could give that Cha- 
i rafter of the beft Roman Emperor, 
that he was Bonus a Bono, Pius a Pio, the Son 
of a Father like himfelf, out Hiftory may 
affirm concerning a very good Nevc-Englifh Go- 
vernour alto, that he was the Father of a Son 
like himfelf] The Proverb of the Jew! which 
doth obferve, That Vinegar is the Son of Wine; 
and the Proverb of the Greeks, which doth ob- 
ferve, That the Sons of Heroes are Trefpaffers, 
has been more than once contradicted in the 
happy Experience of the New-Englanders : But 
none of the lealt remarkable Contradictions 
given to it has been in the Honourable Family 

of our ©Hmt&ropjB. 

§. 2. The Eldelt Son of ^Ofjlt 2Bitttl)t0p, 
Efq; the Governour of one Colony, was Jofjlt 
C&lintfjCOp, Efq; the Governour of another, 
in, therefore happy, New-England,hoxn Feb. 12. 
T605. at Groton in England. His Glad Father 
beltowed on him a liberal Education at the 
Univerlity, rirft of Cambridge in England, and 
then of Dublin in Ireland ; and becaufe Tra- 
vel has been efteemed no little Accomplifher 
of a Toung Gentleman, he then Accomplifhed 
himfelf by Travelling into France, Holland, 
Flanders, Italy, Germany, and as far as Turky 
'it felf ; in which places he fo improved his 

Opportunity of Converting with all forts of 
Learned Men, that he returned home equally a 
Subject of much Experience, and of great Ex- 

$;. 3. The Son of Scipio Afncanus proving 
a degenerate Pcrfon, the People forced him to 
pluck off a Signet-Ring, which he wote with 
his Father's Face engraven on it. But the Son 
of our Celebrated Governour Winthrop, was on 
the other fide fo like unto his Excellent Father 
fot early Wifdom and Virtue, that arriving at 
New-England with his Father's Family, Nov. 
4. 163 r. he was, though not above Twenty 
Three Years of Age, by the Unanimous Choice 
of the People, chofen a Magijlrate of the Co- 
lony, whereof his Farher was the Governour. 
For this Colony he afterwards did many Ser- 
vices, yea, and he did rhem Abroad as well as 



iear 1634. 

was by bad 

being in- 

John Clciworthy^ 

at Home ; very particularly in 
when returning for England, 
Weather forced into Ireland, 
vited unto the Houfe of Sir 
he met with many Confiderable Perfons, by con- 
ferring with whom, the Affairs of New-Eng- 
land were not a little promoted ; but it w?s a- 
nother Colony for which the Providence of Hea- 
ven intended him to be fuch another Father, as 
his own Honourable Father had been to this. 

§. 4.. In 

Book II. Or, The Hiflory ijfNeW-Enghmd. 


§. 4. In the Year 1675. Mr. Wintbrop re- 
turned unto New-England, with Powers iiom 
the Lord Say and the Lord Brook, to fettle a 
Plantation upon the Long River of ConncUicut, 
and a Commiiiion to be himfelf the Govcrnour 
of that Plantation. But inafmuch as many 
good People of the MajTachufet-Colony had juff. 
betore this taken Pofieliion of Land for a New- 
Colony thereabouts, this Courteous and Peacea- 
ble Gentleman gave them no Moleftation ; but 
having wiiely Accommodated the Matte? with 
them, he fent a convenient number of Men, 
with all Nectlfaries, to Irect. a Fortification at 
the Mouth of the River, where a Town, with a 

A> tiabites in uric ubi caput urbh eft 
Medicus : But highly reafonable the Sentence of 
Atiflotle, I f 6i j : .(jus fuefit Pbilofopbus, ibi 
Ctvitds cut hvi\; and this the rather for 
tVhat is truly noted by Thucyciidcs, Mdgiftra- 
tus eft CtvinttU Medicos. Such an one was 
our gftlHiiljrOpj whole Genius and Faculty 
(or txptnmcnuil Pbilofopby, was advanced in 

Say-Brook , by which happy A£tion, the Plan- 

his Travels abroad, by his Acquaintance with 
many Learned Vtrtuofi.Om Effecl of this Difpofi- 
tion in him, wa->his being furniihed with Noble 
Medicines, which he moft Charitably and G> 
neroufly gave away upon all Occalions ; info- 
much that w -here-ever he came, ftili the Difeafed 
Fort, is now diftinguilhcd by the Name of flocked about him, as if the Healing Angel of 

Bctbejda had appeared in the place ; and fo 

ten further up the River had no fmall Kind- [ many were the Cures which he wrought, and 
nets done unto them; and the Indians, which the Lives that he laved, that if Scandcrbeg 
might eile have been more Troublelbme, were might bxift of his having fhin in his Time 

kept in Awe. 

§. 5. The Self-denying Gentleman, who had 
imployed his Commijfion of Govcrnour fo little 
ro the Disadvantage of the Infant-Colony at 
ConneQicut^ was himfelfj e're long, by Election 
made G&Uerncur of that Colony. And upon 
the jkeftfiraticn of King Charles 11. he willing- 
ly undertook another Voyage to England, on 
the behalf of the People under his Govern 
ment, whole Affairs he managed with fuch a 
Succefsfdl Prudence, that he obtained a Royal 
Charter for them, which Incorporated the Co- 
lony of New-Haven with them, and Invelfed 
both Colonies, now happily United, with a firm 
Giant of Priviledges, beyond thofe of the Plan- 
tations which had been fettled before them. 
i have been informed, that while he was en- 
gaged in this Negotiation, being admitted unto 
a private Conference with the King, he pre 

Two Thoufarid Men with his own Hands, 
this Worthy Perfon might have made a far 
more defiruble Boaji or his having in his Time 
Healed more than fo many Thoufands ; iri 
which Beneficence to Mankind, there are of his 
Worthy Children, who to this Day do follow 
his Direction and Example. But it was not un- 
to NeK-England alone that the Refpefrs of 
this Accompiilhed Pbilofopber were confined. 
For, whereas in purfuance of the Methods be- 
gun by that Immortally Famous Advancer of 
Learning, the moft Illuftrious Lord Chancellor" 
Bacon, a Select. Company of Eminent Perron's, 
ufing to meet in the Lodgings of Dr. Wilkin* 
of Wadbam Colledge in Oxford, had laid the 
Foundation of a Celebrated Society, which bf 
the Year 1663. being Incorporated with a Royal 
Charter, hath fince been among the Glories of 
England, yea, and of Mankind ; and their De- 

fented His Majefty with a Ring, which King fign was to make Faithful Records of all the" 

Charles I. had upon fome Occaiion given to his 
Grandfather •, and the King not only accepted 

Works of ]\aturc or of Art, which might 
come under their Obfervation, and Correct 

his PreLnt. but alfo declared, that he accounted what had been lalfe, Reftore what (hould be' 
it one of his Ricbefl Jewels : which indeed i True, Prefcrve what fhould be Rare^ and Ren- 
was the Opinion that New-England had of trie 1 der the Knowledge of the World, as welt 
Hand that earned it. But having thus laid his ! more Perfect as more Vfeful ; and by multi 

Colony under Everlafting Obligations of Gra 
ritude, they did, after his return to New-Eng- 
land, exprefs of their Gtatitude, by faying to 
him as the [fraelites did unto Gideon, Rule 
thou ever us, for thou haft delivered us ; chil- 
ling him for their Govcrnour twice Seven Years 

§. 6. When the Governour of Atbens was a 
Pbiloje,[i->er, namely Demetrius, the Common- 
wealth' fo Mourithed, that no lefs than Three 
Hundred Brazen Statues were afterward by the 
Thankful People Erected unto his Memory. 
And a Bteffed Land was New-England, when 
there was over part of it a Governour, who 
trs$ not only a Chriflian and a Gentleman. 
hot alfo an Eminent Philofopber ■, for indeed 
ffce Government of the Stale is then molt fuc- 
ceftfclfy managed, when the meafures of it 
ire. by a Wife Obferver, taken from the Goverii- 
oi the World -, and very unreafbnable is 
f& j ®fjf> Proverb, 

plied Experiments both of Light and Fruit, 
advance the Empire of Man over the whole 
vifible Creation ; it was the Honour of Mr. 
Wintbrop to be a Member of this Royal Soci- 
ety. And accordingly among the Pbilofopbtcal 
Tr an fall ions Pufililhed by Mr. Oldcnbutgb, there 
are fome notable Communications from this 
Inquiiitive and Intelligent Perfon, Whole Irtfight 
into many Parts of the Creation, but efpecially 
! of the Mineral Kingdom, was beyond wli3t had 
been attained by the moft in many Parts of A- 

§. 7. If one would therefore defire an exa£t 
Picture of this Worthy Man, the Defcription 
which the moft Sober and Solid Writers of the 
Great Philofopbick Work do give of thofe Per- 
ions, who alone are qualified for the Smiles of 
Heaven upon their Enterprizes, would have 
exactly fitted him. He was a Studious, Bum- 
ble. Patient, Referved and Mori if ed Perfort, 
and' ori6 iri whom the Love" of God was Fer- 

3 2 

Magnalia Chrifli Americana : 

Book II. 

vent, the Love of Man fincere : And he had 
herewithal a certain Extenfton of Soul, which 
difpofed him to a Generous Behaviour towards 
thofe, who by Learning, Breeding and Virtue, 
deferve Refpecf s, though of a Perfwafion and 
Profeifion in Religion very different from his 
own- which was that of a Reformed Prote- 
ftani, and a Neiv-Englijh Puritan. In fum, he 
was not more an AJcptift in thofe Noble and 
Secret Media nes, which would reach the Roots 
of the Diftempers that annoy Humane Bodies, 
and procure an Vniverfa! Reft unto the Arcbtus 
on all Uccalions of Dilturbance, than he was in 
thofe Chnftian Qualities, which appear upon 
the Cure of the Diftempers in the Minds of 
Men., by the Effectual Grace of our Lord Je- 
fus Chrift. 

§. 8. In the Year 1643. a ^ er divers M J )' S 
made in fome former Years, the feveral Colo- 
nies of New-England bcime in Faff, as well as 
Name, OfnttCTl Colonies And an Inftrument 
was formed, wherein having declared, That 
we all came into thefc parts of America with 
the fame End and Ann, namely, to advance the 
Glory oj our Lord jefus Chrift, and enjoy the 
Liberties of the Go/pel. with Purity and Peace, 
it was firmly agreed between the feveral Jurif- 
di&ions, that there thould yearly be chofen 
Two Commilfioners out of each, who fhould 
meet at fit "Places appointed for that purpofe, 
with full Powers from the General Courts in 
each, to Concert and Conclude Matters of Ge- 
neral Concernment for Peace or War of the 
feveral Colonies thus Confederated. In purfu- 
ance of this Laudable Confederacy, this moft 
Meritorious Gqvernour of Connecticut Colony 
accepted the Trouble of appearing as a Com- 
mijfioner for that Colony, with the reft met at 
Bofton, in the Year 1676. when the Calamities 
of the Indian-War were diftreffing the whole 
Country : But here falling Sick of a Fever, he 
dy'd on April 5. of that Year, and was Ho- 
nourably Interred in the fame Tomb with his 
Honourable Father. 

§. 9. His Father, as long ago as the Year 
1643. had feen Caufe to Write unto him an 
Excellent Letter, wherein there were thefe a- 
mong other Paffages. 

' You are the Chief of Two Families ; I had 
< by your Mother Three Sons and Three Daugh- 
1 ters, and I had with her a Large Portion of 
' outward Eftate. Thefe now are all gone ■, 
c Mother gone ; Brethren and Sifters gone ; you 
c only are left to fee the Vanity of thefe Tem- 
c poral things, and learn Wifdom thereby, 
* whicji may be of more ufe to you, through 
c the Lord's Blefling, than all that Inheritance 
c which might have befallen you : And for 
c which this may ftay and quiet your Heart, 
' That God is able to give you more than this ; 
1 and that it being fpent in the furtherance of 
' his Work, which hath here profpered fo well, 
' through his Power hitherto, you and yours 
' may certainly cxpeff a liberal Portion in the 
'- Prosperity and Blejfing thereof hereafter ; and 
the father, becaufe it was not forced from you 

by a Fathei's Power, but ike!/ ufigncd bv 
your felt^ out of a Living and Filial Refpect 
unto me, and your own readineis unto the 
Work it felf From whence, as I do often 
take Occafion to Blefs the Lord tor you, fb do 
I alio Commend you and yours to his Fa- 
therly Blejfing, for a plentiful Reward to be 
rendred unto you. And doubt nor, my Dear 
Son, but let your Faith be built upon his 
Promife and Faithfulnefs, that as he hath 
carried you hitherto through many Perils, and 
provided liberally for you, fr> he wiil do 
for the time to come, and will never fail you, 

nor forfake you. 

My Sen, the Lord 

knows how Dear thou art to me, and that my 
Care has been more for thee than for my felf. 
But / know thy Profperity depends not on my 
Care, nor on thine own, but upon the Bleffing 
of our Heavenly bather ; neither doth it on 
the things of this World, but on the Light of 
God's Countenance, through the Merit and Me- 
diation of our Lord Jefus Chrift. It is that 
only which can give us Peace of Conjcience 
with Contentation •, which can as well make 
our Lives Happy and Comiurrable in a mean 
Eftate, as in a great Abundance. But if you 
weigh things aright, and flim up all "the 
Turnings of Divine Providence together, you 
(hall find great Advantage. — The Lord hath 
brought us to a Good Land ; a Land, where 
we enjoy outward Peace and Liberty, and a- 
bove all, the Blcffings of the Gofpel, without 
the Burden of lmpofitions in Matters of Re- 
ligion. Many Thou finds there are who would 
give Great Eftatcs to enjoy our Condition. 
Labour therefore, my good Son, to increafe 
our Thankfulnefs to God for all his Mercies 
to thee, especially for that he hath revealed 
his Everlafling Good-will to thee in Jefus 
Chrift, and joined thee to the vifible Body 
of his Church, in the Fellowfhip of his Peo- 
ple, and hath faved thee in all thy Travails 
abroad, from being Infecfed with the Vices of 
thefe Countries where thou haft been, (a Mer- 
cy vouchfafed but unto few Young Gentlemen 
Travellers.) Let him have the Honour of it 
who kept thee, he it was who gave thee 
Favour in the Eyes of all with whom thou 
hadft to do, both by Sea and Land ; He it 
was who faved thee in all Perils ; and He 
it is who hath given thee a Gift in Under- 
ftanding and Art -, and he it is who hath pro- 
vided thee a Bleffing in Marriage, a Comfor- 
table Help, and many Sweet Children ; and 
hath hitherto provided liberally for you all: 
And therefore I would have you to Love him 
again, and Serve him, and Truji him for the 
time to come. Love and Prize that Word of 
Truth, which only makes known to you the 
Precious and Eternal Thoughts and Councils 
of the Light Inacccjfible. Deny your own Wif- 
dom, that you may find his; and efleem it 
the greateft Honour to lye under the Simpli- 
city of the Gofpel of" Chrift Crucified, without 
which you can never enter into the Secrets of 
hk Tabernacle, nor enjoy thofe fwcet things 

' which 

Book II. Or, The Hiflory of New-England. 33 

c which Eye hath not feen, nor Ear heard, nor 
' can the Heart of Man conceive ; but God hath 
' granted unto iome few to know them even 
* in this Life. Study well, my Son, the faying 
'of the Apoftle, Knowledge puffeth up. It is a 
'good Gift of God, but when it lifts up the 
' Mind above the Crofs ofChrift, it is the Pride 
'of Life, and the High-way to Apoftacy, where- 
' in many Men of great Learning and Hopes 
' have perifhed. — In all the Exercife of your 
1 Gifts, and Improvement of your Talents, have 
' an Eye to your Mafter's End, more than your 
1 own ; and to the Day of your Account, that you 
' may then have your Quietus eft, even, Well 
'•done, Good and Faithful Servant ! But my laft 
c and 'chief Requeft to you, is, that you be 
' careful to have your Children brought up in 
' the Knowledge and Fear of God, and in the 
c Faith of our Lord Jefus Chrift. This will 
' <nve y ou ^e beft Comfort of them, and keep 
'them fure from any Want or Mif carriage : 
c And when you part from them, it will be no 
' fmall joy to your Soul, that you fhM meet 
' them again in Heaven f 

Doubtlefs. the Reader confiders the Hiflori- 
cal Paflages in this ExtraSt of the Letter thus 
Recited. Now, but by making this Reflecf ion 
upon the Reft, that as the Prophetical Part of 
it was notably fulfilled in the Pirate, whereto 
the good Providence of God Recovered this 
Worthy Gentleman and his Family, fo the Mo- 
nitory Part of it was moft Exemplarily atten- 
ded in his Holy and Ufeful Conversation. I 
(hall therein briefly fum up the Life of a Per- 
fon whom we fhall call a Second unto none of 
our Worthies, but as we call him our Second 


Abi Viator ; 
Et Luge plures Magiftratus in Uno periiffe. 
Redi Viator. 
Non Periit, fed ad Cceleftem Societatem 
Regia Magis Regiam, 
Vere Adeptus, 
Abiit : 
WINTHROPUS, Non minor magnii Majoribus. 



MAGISTRATESof Connellicut-Co- 
lony, before New-Haven Colony was 
actually annexed unto it, were/befides the two 
Alternately, for the moft Part, Elected Gover- 


Roger Ludlow, 
"]ohn Steel, 
William Phelps, 
William Wefiwood, 
Andrew Ward, 
Thomas Wells, 
William Swayn, 
Matthew Mitchel, 
George Hull, 
William Whiting, 
John Mafon, 
George Willis, 
John Webjier, 
William Ludlow, 
William Hopkins, 
Henry Woolcot, 
George Fenwick, 
John Howel, 
John Cullick, 
Henry Clark, 
John Winthrop, 
Thomas Topping, 
John Talcot, 
John Ogden, 
Nathan Gold, 
Matthew Allyn, 
Richard Treat, 





























Thomas Baker, 

Alexander Knowles, 
John Wells, 
Robert Band, 

John Allyn, 
Daniel Clark, 
Samuel Sherman, 
John Toung, 

166 1 

MAGISTATES of New-Haven Colony, 
before Conneclicut-Colony could accomplifh 
its Coalition therewith, were, (befides the 
Governours elfewhere mentioned) 

Stephen Goodyear, 
Thomas Grigfen, 
Richard Malbon, 
William Leet, 
John Des borough, 

William Fowler, 
Francis Newman, 

Samuel Eaton, 
Benjamin Fen, 
Matthew Gilbert, 
Jafper Crane, 
Robert Treat, 
William Jones, 


















Magnalta Chrifli Americana. 

Book II. 

MAGISTRATES after the Two Colonies I Matthew Gilbert 
were content, according to their Charter, to 
become ONE, were, 

John Winthrop, Gov. 
John Mafon, 
Matthew Allyn, 
Samuel Willys, 
Nathan Gold, 
John Talcot, 
Henry Woolcot, 
John Allyn, 
Samuel Sherman, 
James Richards, 
William Leet, 
William Jones, 
Benjamin Irn, 
Jajper Crane, 
Daniel Clark, 
Alexander Bryans, 
James Bifhop^ 
Anthony Uowkins, 
Thomas Wells, 
John Nafh, 
Robert Treat, 
Thomas Topping, 


Andrew Leet, 
John Wad/worth, 
Robert Chapman, 
James Fitch, 
Samuel Mafon, 
Benjamin Newberry, 
Samuel Talcot, 
Giles Hamlin, 

^ While the Colonies were Clutters of Rich 
Grapes, which had a Blejjwg in them. Such 
Leaves as thefe (which is in the Proverbs of 
the Jewifh Nation, a Name ior Magiflrates) 
happily defended them from the Storms that 
moleft the World. 

Thofe of the lealt Character among them, 
yet came up to what the Roman Common- 
wealth required in their Magijhates. 

Populus Romanus delegit Magijiratus, quafi 
Rei publics Villkos, in quilnts, Ji qua praterea 
eft Ars, facile patitur ; j:n !vir,:is,virtute eorum 
£? lnnvcentia Contentus efi. Cic. Orat. Pro 

THE Author of the following Narrative, is a Perfon of 
fuch well known Integrity, Prudence and Veracity, that 
there is not any caufe to Queftion the Truth of what he here 
Relates. And moreover, this Writing of his is adorned with a 
very grateful Variety of Learning, and doth contain fuch lurpri- 
zing workings of Providence, as do well defer ve due Notice and 
Obfervation. On all which accounts, it is with juft Confidence 
recommended to the Publick by 

April 27. 

Nath. Mather, 
John Howe) 
Matth. Mead. 


Book II. 


Tietas m Tatnam : 


1. j JL X- JlIj 




£■^7 Sir- V" N 




Late Captain General, and Governour in Chief of the Province 

of the Majfachufet-Bay, 


Containing the Memorable Changes Undergone, and Aftions Pei> 

formed by Him. 

Written by one intimately acquainted with Him. 

Difcite Virtutem ex Hoc, vertimqut Laborem. 

To his Excellency the Earl of Bellomont, Baron of Coloony in Ire- 
land, General Governour of the Province of Maflachufets in New- 
England, and the Provinces annexed. 

May it pleafe your Excellency, 

TH E Station in which the Hand of 
the God of Heaven hath difpofed 
His Majefties Heart to place your 
Honour, doth fo manifeftly entitle your 
Lord (hip to this enfuing Narrative, that 
its being thus Prefented to your Excellen- 
cies Hand, is thereby both Apologized for 
and Jollified. I believe, had the Writer 
of it, when he Penned it, had any Know- 
ledge of your Excellency j he would him- 
felf have done it, and withal, would have 
amply and publickly Congratulated the 
People of NetP-EifgIa»di on account of 

their having fuch a Governour, and yout 
Excellency, on account of your being 
made Governour over them. For though 
as to fome other thiugs it may poffibly be 
a place to fome Perfons not fo defirable, 
yet I believe this Character may be juftly 
given of them, that they are the beft Peo- 
ple under Heaven $ there being among 
them, not only lefs of open Profanenefs, 
and lefs of Lewdnefs, but alfo more of 
the ferious Profeffion, Pra&ice, and Power 
of Chriftianity, in proportion to their num- 
ber, than is among any other People upon 
the Face of the whole Earth, Not but I 
E e 7 dotibt, 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

Book II. 

doubt, there arc many bad Peifons among 
them, and too m my diflempcr'd Humours, 
perhaps even among thofe who are truly 
good. It would be a wonder if it mould 
be otherwife; for it hath of late Years, on 
various accounts, and fome very fingular 
and unufual ones, been a Day of fore 
Temptation with that whole People. Ne- 
verthelefs, as I lock upon is as a Favour 
from God to thofe Plantations, that he hath 
fet your Excellency over them, fo I do ac- 
count it a Favour from God to your Ex- 
cellency, that he hath committed and 
trufted in your Hand fo great a part of 
his peculiar Treafure and precious Jewels, 
as are among that i\ople. Befides, that on 
other accounts the Lord Jefus hath more of 
a vifible Intereft in New-England, than in 
any of the Outgoings of the Englijl) Nation 
in America, they have at their own 
Charge not only let up Schools of lower 
Learning up and down the Country $ but 
have alfo erected an Univerfity, which hath 
been the happy Nurfery of many Ufeful, 
Lea r ned, and excellently Accompliihed 
Perfons. And moreover, from them hath 
the bluffed Gofpel been Preached to the 
Poor, Barbarous, Savage Heathen there 5 and 
it hath taken fuchRoot among them, that 

there were lately four and twenty Afiem- 
bliesin which th.- Name of the Lord Jefus 
was conftantly called on, and celebrated 
in their own Language. In thefe things 
New-England cutfhineth all the Colonies 
of the Englijf) in daoie goings down of the 
Sun. I know your Excellency will Favour 
and Countenance their Univerfity, and 
alfo the Propagating of the Gofpel among 
the Natives 5 for the Intereft of Ch rift in 
that Part of the Earth is much concerned 
in them. That the God of the Spirits of 
all Flefh would abundantly replenifh your 
Excellency with a iuitable Spirit for the 
Service to which he lath called your Lord- 
fhip, that he would give your Honour a 
profperous Voyage thither, and when 
there, make your Excellency a rich BtefBng 
to that People, and them a rejoicing to 
your Excellency, is the Prayer of, 

April 27. 

My Lord, 
Yomr Excellencies moji 
Humble Servant, 

Nath. Mather. 


Book II. 








O F 



F fuch a Renowned Chymift, as 
^uercetami-s, with a whole Tribe of 
Labourers in the Fire, fince that 
Learned Man, find it no eafie thing 
to make the common part of Mankind believe, 
That they can take a Plant in its more vigorous 
Confiftence, and after a due Maceration, fer- 
mentation and Separation, extract the Salt oi 
that Plant, which, as it were, in a Chaos, in- 
vifibly referves the Form of the whole, with its 
vital Principle ; and, that keeping the Salt in a 
Glafs Hermetically fealed, they can, by ap- 
plying a Soft Fire to the Glaf 

"J J 5 

make the Ve- 

getable rife" by little and little out of its Aftes, 
to liirprize the Spectators with a notable II- 
luftration of that Refurrettion, in the Faith 
whereof the Jews returning from the Graves of 
their Friends, pluck up the Grafs from the 
Earth, ufing thofe Words of the Scripture 
thereupon,T^«r Bones full 'jhurifh like an herb : 
Tis likely, that all the Obfervations of fuch 
Writers, as the Incomparable Borcllus,Vi\\l find 
it hard enough to produce our Belief, that the 
EJJential Salts of Animals may be fo Prepared 
and Preferved, that an Ingenious Man may 
have the whole Ark of Koah in his own Stu- 
dy, and raife the fine Shape of an Animal out 
of its Allies at his Pleafure : And, that by rte 
like Method from the EJjential Salts of Hu- 
mane Duft, a Philofopher may, without any 
Criminal 'Necromancy, call up the Shape of a- 
ny Dead Anceftor Irom the Duft whereinto his 
Body has been Incinerared. The Refurreffion 
of the Dead, will be as Juft, as Great an Ar- 
ticle of our Creed, although the Relations of 

thefe Learned Men fhould pafs for Incredible 
Romances : But yet there is an Anticipation of 
that Bleffed Refurre&ion, carrying in it Ibme 
Refemblance of thefe Curiofties, which is per- 
formed, when we do in a Book, as in a Glafs, 
referve the Hiftory of our Departed Friends ; 
and by bringing our Warm Ajfetiicns unto fuch 
an Hiftory, we revive, as it were, out of their 
Afhes, the true Shape of thofe Friends, and 
bring to a frefh View, what v/as Memorable 
and Imitable in them. Now, in as much as Mor- 
tality has done its part upon a Considerable 
Perfbn, with whom I had the Honour to be 
well acquainted, and a Perfon as Memorable for 
the Wonderful Changes which befel him, as I- 
mitable for his Virtues and Atfions under thofe 
Changes-, I (hall endeavour, with the Qymiftry 
of an Impartial Hifiorian, to raife my Friend fo 
far out of his Afhes, as to (hew him again 
unto the World ; and if the Chara r : of He* 
roick Virtue be for a Man to defet e 11 of 
Mankind, and be great in the Purpafe and Suc- 
cefs of EJjays to do fo, I may venture to pro- 
mife my Reader fuch Example of Hcroick 
Virtue, in the Story whereto I invite him, that 
he ihall fay, it would have been lktle ihort of 
a Vice in me, to have withheld it from him. 
Nor is it any Partiality for the Memory of my 
Deceafed Friend, or any ether Smifter Design 
whatfoever, that has Invited me to this Under- 
taking ; but I have undertaken this Matter 
from a fincere Deiire, that the Ever Glorious 
Lord JESUS CHRIST may have the 
Glory of his Power and Goodnefs, and of his 
Providence, in what he did for fugh a Perfon, 



Magnalia Cbrifti Americana : 

Book II. 

and in what he difpofed and affifted that Per- 
ibn to do for him. Now, May he ajfift my Wri- 
ting, even he that prepared the Subjett, where- 
of I am to Write ! 

§. 2. So objcure was the Original of that 
Memorable Perfbn, whole Aclwns I am going 
to relate, thar J rnuft in a way of Writing, 
like that of PMarM prepare my Reader lor 
the intended Rdarion, by firft fearching the 
Archives of Antiquity for a Parallel. Now. 
becaufe we will not Parallel him with Eumenes, 
who, though he were the Son of a Poor Car- 
rier, became a Governour of Mighty Provinces: 
nor with Marias, whole mean Parentage did 
not hinder his becoming a Glorious Defender 
of 'his Country, and Seven tines the Chief 
Magiftrate of the Chiefeft City in the Uni- 
verie : Nor with Iphicrates, who became a Suc- 
cefs r u! and Renowned General of a Great Peo- 
ple, though his Father were a Cobler: Nor with 
Bioclefian, the Son of a poo : Scrivener : Nor 
with Bonofus, the Son of. a poor Schsol-Mafter, 
who yet came to fway the Scepter of the Ro- 
man Empire : Nor, laltly, will 1 compare him 
to the more late Example of the Celebrated 
M \zarini, who though no Gentleman by his 
Extraction, and one fo forrily Educated, that 
he might have wrote Alan, before he could 
write at all ; yet afcended unto that Grandeur, 
frith? Memory of many yet living, as to Urn- 
pin, die moit Imporrant Affairs of Chriftcndom: 
We will decline looking any further in that 
Hcmifphere of the World, and make the Hue 
and Cry throughout the Regions of America, the 
.New World, which He, that is becoming the 
Subjecf of our Hiftory, by his Nativity, be- 
long'd unto. And in America, the firft that 
meets me, is Francifco Pizarro, who, though 
a Spurious Offspring, expofed when a Babe in 
a Church- Porch, at a forry Village of Navarre, 
and afterwards employ 'd while he was a Boy, 
in keeping of Cattel, yet, at length, ftealing 
into America, he lb thrived upon his Adventures 
there, that upon fome Difcoveries, which with 
an handful of Men he had in a defperate Ex- 
pedition made of Peru* he obtain'd the King 
oi Spain's Com million for the Conqueft of it, 
and at laft fo incredibly enrich'd himfelf by 
the Conqueft, that he was made the firft Vice- 
Roy of Peru, and created Marquefs of Ana- 

To the Latter and Higheft Part of that Sto- 
ry, if any thing hindred His Excellency Sir 
WILLIAM PHIPS, from affording of a 
Parallel, it was not the want either of Dejign, 
or of Courage, or of Condutl in himfelf, but it 
was the Fate of a Premature Mortality. For 
my Reader now being fatisfied, that a Perfons 
being Ob/cure in his Original, is not always a 
Juft Prejudice to an Expectation of Confidera- 
lie Matters from him ; 1 lhali now inform 
him, that 'his our PHIPS was Born Feb. 2. 
A. horn. 1650. at a defpicable Plantation on 
the River of Kennebeck, and almoft the furtheft 
Village of the Eaftern Settlement of New-Eng- 
land.. And as the father of that Man, which 

was as great a Bleiilng as England had in the 
Age of that Man, was a Smith, fo a Gun- 
Smith, namely, James Pbips, once of Bri/io/ 
had the Honour of being the Father to him' 
whom we ihall prefently fee, made by the God 
of Heaven as great a Bleffing t^kew-EnglantL] 
as that Country could have had, if they them- 
felyes had pleafed. His fruitful Mother, yet 
living, had no lefs than Twenty-Six Children, 
whereof Twenty-One were Sons • but Equiva- 
lent to them all was WlL LI AM, one of the 
youngeft, whom his Father dying, left young 
with his Mother, and with her he lived, keep- 
ing of Sheep in the Wildernefs, until he was 
Eighteen Years Old ; at which time he began 
to feel fome further Difpofitions of Mind 
from that Providence of God. which took him 
from the Sheepfolds, from following the Eives 
great with Youngs and brought him to 
feed his People. Reader, enquire no further 
who was his Father } Thou lhalt anon fee, 
that he was, as the Italians exprefs it, A Son 
to his own Labours I 

§. 3. His Friends earneftly folicired him to 
fettle among them in a Plantation of the Eafi ■ 
but he had an Unaccountable Intpulfe upon "his 
Mind, perfwading him, as he would privately 
hint unto fome of them, That he was Born to 
greater Matters. To come at thofe greater 
Matters, his firft Contrivance was to bind him- 
felf an Apprentice unto a Ship-Carpenter for 
Four Years •, in which time he became a Ma- 
tter of the Trade, that once in a Veffel of 
more than Forty Thou/and Tuns, repaired the 
Ruins of the Earth ; Noah's, I mean ; he then 
betook himfelf an Hundred and Fifty Miles 
further a Field, even to Bofton, the Chief Town 
of New-England ; which being a Place of the 
moft Bufinefs and Refort in thofe Parrs of the 
World, he expecf ed there more Commodioufly 
to purfue the Spes Majorkih & Meliorum 
Hopes which had infpir'd him. At Bofton, 
where it was that he now le.irn'd, firft of all, 
to Read and Write, he followed his Trade for 
about a Year ; and by a laudable Deportment, 
fo recommended himfelf, thar he Married a 
Young Gentlewoman of good Repute, who 
was the Widow of one Mr. John Hull, a well- 
bred Merchant, but the Daughter of one Cap- 
tain Roger Spencer, a Perfon of good Fafhion, 
who having fufter'd much damage in his E- 
ftare, by fome unkind and unjuft Anions, 
which he bore with fuch Patience, that for 
fear of thereby injuring the Publick, he would 
not feek Satisfacf ion, Poflerity might afterward 
foe the Reward of his Patience, in what Pro- 
vidence hath now done for one of his own 
Poflerity. Within a little while after his Mar- 
riage, he indented with ieveral Perfons in 
Bofton, to Build them a Ship at Sheeps-coat 
River, Two or Three Leagues Eaftward of 
Kennebeck •, where having Lanched the Ship, 
he alfo provided a Lading of Lumber to bring 
with him, which would have been to the Ad- 
vantage of all Concern'd. But juft as the Ship 
was hardly finifhed, the B.trbarous Indians on 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory of New-England. 


that River, broke forth into an Open and Cruel 
War upon the Englifh; and the miferable Peo- 
ple, furprizcd by fo fudden a ltorm of Blood, 
had no Refuge from the Infidels, but the Ship 
now finishing in the Harbour. Whereupon he 
left his intended Lading behind him, and in- 
ftead thereof, carried with him his old Neigh- 
bours and their Families, free of all Charges, to 
Bojton ; fo the Jirji Ailion that he did, after 
he was his own Man, was to fave his Father's 
Houfe, with the reft of the Neighbourhood, from 
Ruin •, but the Difappointment which befel 
him from the Lois of his other Lading, plunged 
his Affairs into greater Embarafments with fuch 
as had employ 'd him. 

§. 4. But he was hitherto no more than be- 
ginning to make Scaffolds for further and high- 
er Allions ! He would frequently rellrhe Genue- 
woman his Wife, That be lhouid yet be Cap- 
tain of a King's Ship ; That he lhouid come to 
have the Command of better Men than he was 
now accounted himfelf ; and, That he fhonld 
be Owner of a Fair Brick-Houfc in the Gr, -en- 
Lane of Nortb-Boflon ; and, That, it maybe, 
this would not be all that the Providence of 
God would bring him to. She entertained 
thefe Paffages with a lufficient Incredulity ; but 
he had fo Jerious and ppfuive an Expectation 
of them, that it is not eafie to fay, what was the 
Original thereof He was of an Enterprizing 
Genius, and naturally difdained Littlencfs .- But 
his Difpofition for Bujinefs was of the Dutch 
Mould, where, with a little fhew of Wit, there 
is as much Wifdom demon ft rated, as can be 
fhewn by any Nation. His Talent lay not in 
the Airs that ferve chiefly for the pleafant and 
fudden Turns of Converfuion ; but he might 
lay, as Themiftocles, Though he could not play 
upon a Fiddle, yet he knew bow to make a In tie 
City become a Great One. He would prudently 
contrive a weighty Undertaking, and then pati 
ently purfue it unto the,End. He was of an In 
clination, cutting rather like a Hatchet, than 
like a Razor ; he would ptopofe very Confide- 
rable Matters to himfelf, and then fo cut through 
them, that no Difficulties could put by the Edge 
of his Refolutions. Being thus of the True 
Temper, for doing of Great Things, he betakes 
himfelf to the Sea, the Right Scene for fuch 
Things •, and upon Advice of a Spanifh Wreck 
about the Bahamas, he took a Voyage thither ; 
but with little more fuccefs, than what juft 
forved him a little to furnilh him for a Voyage 
to hngland ■, whither he went in a VelTeL not 
much unlike that which the Dutchmen ftamped 
on their Firft Coin, with thefe Words about it, 
Incertum quo Fata ferant. Having firft inform 
ed himfelf that there was another Spaniflj 
Wreck, wherein was loft a mighty Treafure, hi- 
therto undifcovered, he had a ftrong Imprefli- 
on upon his Mind that He muff be the Dif- 
coverer; and he made fuch Representations of 
his Defign *x.W}->ite-Hall, that by the Year 1683. 
he became the Captain of a King's Ship, arid 
arrived at New-England Commander of the 

Algier-Rofe, a Frigot of Eighteen Guns, an 
Ninety- Five Men. 

§. 7. To Relate all the Dangers through whic 

he paffed, both by Sea and Land, and all the 
Tirefome Trials or his Patience, as well as of 
his Courage, while Year alter Yer.r the moft 
vexing Accidents imaginable delay'd the Suc- 
cess of his Deiign, it would even Tite the pa- 
tience of the Reader: For very great was the 
Experiment that Captain Phips made of the 
Italian Obfervation, He that canrfc fuffer both 
Good and Evil, will never come to any great 
Preferment. Wherefore I fhall fuperfede all 
Journal of his Voyages to and fro, with reci- 
ting one Inftance of his Conduct , that ihowd 
him to be a Person of no contemptible Capacitv. 
While he was Captain of the Algier-Rofe, his 
Men growing weary of their uni'uccefsiul H>:~ 
terprize, made a Mutiny, wherein they ap- 
proach'd him on the Quarter-Deck, with 
Drawn Swords in their Hands, and required 
him to join with them in Running awiy'wiih 
the Ship, to drive a Trade of Piracy on rue 
South Seas. Captain Phips, though he had not 
fo much of a Weapon as an Ox-Goad, or a 
jjK-bone in his Hands, yet like another Sham*ar 
or Sam/on, with a moft undaunted Fortitude 
he rulh'd in upon them, and with the BWs 
of his bare Hands, FeWd many of them, and 
QiieU'd all the Reft. But this is not the In- 
ftance which I intended : That which I intend 
is, That fas it has been related unto me) One 
Day while his Frigot lay Careening, at 2 
defolate Spanijh ifland, by the fide of a Rock, 
from whence they had laid a Bridge to the 
Shoar, the Men, whereof he had about an 
Hundred, went all, but about Eight or Ten, to 
divert themitlvcs, as they pretended, in the 
Woods : Where they all entred into an Agree- 
ment, which they Sign'd in a Ring, That about 
feven a Clock that Evening they would feize 
the Captain, and thofe Eight or Ten, which 
they knt v to be True unto him, and leave them 
to periih on this Ifland, and fo be gone away 
unto the South Sea tofeek their Fortune. Will 
the Reader now imagine, that Caprain Phips 
having Advice of this Plot but about an Hour 
and half before it was to be put in Execution, 
yet within Two Hours brought all thefe Rogues 
down upon their Knees to beg for their Lives ; 
But 10 it was ! For thefe Knaves confidering 
that they lhouid want a Carpenter with them 
in their Villanous Expedition, fent a Meflenger 
to fetch unto them the Carpenter, who was 
then at Work upon the Vefiel ; and unto him 
they fhew'd their Articles , telling him what he 
muft look for if he did not fubferibe among 
them. The Carpenter being an honelt Fellow, 
did with much importunity prevail for one half 
hours Time to confider of the Matter ; and re- 
turning to Work upon the Veffel, with a Spy 
by themfet upon him, he reigned himfelf taken 
with a Fit of the Cholick, for the Relief where- 
of he fuddenly run unjto the Captain in the Great 
ICabbin for a Dram •, where, when he came, his' 
• bufiriefi- 



Magnolia Chrijli Americana 

Book II. 

buiinefs was only in brief, to tell the Captain 
of the horrible Diftrds which he was fallen in- 
to ; but the Captain bid him as briefly return to 
the Rogues in the Woods, and Sign their Arti- 
cles, and leave him to provide for the Reft. 
The Carpenter was no fooner gone, but Captain 
Phips calling together the few Friends (it may 
be leven or eight) that were left him aboard, 
whereof the Gunner was one, demanded of 
them, whether they would Hand by him in the 

Extremity, which he informed them was now 

come upon him ; whereto they reply'd, They 

would Jiand by him, if he could fave them ; and 

he Anlwer'd, By the help of God he did not fear 

it. All their Provifions had been carried Athoar 

to a Tent, made for that purpoie there; about 

which they had placed feveral Great Guns to 

defend it, in cafe of any AJfault from Spaniards, I beft Noble'Men in the Kingdom now admitted 

Company, with a Boat full of Plate, faved out 
of their Sinking Frigot : Neverthelefs, when 
he had fearched very narrowly the Spot, 
whereof the old Spaniard had advifed him, he 
had not hitherto exactly lit upon it. Such 
Thorns did vex his Affairs while he was in the 
Rofe-Frigot ; but none of all thefe things could 
retund the Edge of his Expectations to find the 
Wreck; with fuch Expectations he return'd then 
into England, that he might there better furniCh 
himfelf to Profecute a New Dijcovery-, for 
though he judged he might, by proceeding a 
little further, have come at the right Spot, yet 
he found his prefent Company too ill a Crew to 
be confided in. 

§. 6. So proper was his Behaviour, that the 

that might happen to come that way. Where 
fore Captain Phips immediately ordered thofej 
Guns to be filently Drawn d and Turn'd; and 
fo pulling up the Bridge, he charged his Great 
Guns aboard, and brought them to Bear on eve- 
ry iide of the Tent. By this Time the Army 
of Rebels comes out of the Woods ; but as they 
drew near to the Tent of Provifions, they faw 
fuch a change of Circumltances, that they cried 
out, We are Betray d ! And they were foon con- 
firm 'd in it, when they heard the Captain with 
a ftern Fury call to Jthem, Stand off, ye Wret- 
ches, at your Peril ! He quicklv faw them caft 
into a more than ordinary Confufion, when 
they law Him ready to Fire his Great Guns up- 
on them, if they offered one Step further than 
he permitted them : And when he had fignified 
unto them his Refolve to abandon them unto all 
the Dcfolation which they had purpofed for 
him, he cauled the Bridge to be>again laid, 
and his Men begun to take the Provifions a- 
broad. When the Wretches beheld what was 
coming upon them, they fell to very humble 
Entreaties; and at laft fell down upon their! 
Knees, protefting, That they never had any 
thing againji him, except only his unwillingnefs 
to go away with the King's Ship upon the South 
Sea Defign: But upon all other Accounts, they 
would chafe rather to Live and Die with him, 
than with any Man in the World; however, 
jince they Jaw . how much he WcU dijjatisfied at 
it, they would infift upon it no more, and hum- 
bly begged his Pardon. And when he judg'd that 
he had kept them on their Knees long enough, 
he having firft iecur'd their Arms, received 
them aboard ; but he immediately weighed An- 
chor, and arriving at Jamaica, he Tum'd them 
off. Now with a fmall Company of other 
Men he failed from thence to Uifpaniola. 
where by the Policy of his Addrefs, he filhed 
out of a very old Spaniard^ (or Port uguefe) a 
little Advice about the true Spot where lay the 
Wreck which he had been hitherto feeking, as 
unprofperouily, as the Chymip have their Au- 
njick Stone : That it was upon a Reef of Shoals, 
a few Leagues to the Northward of Port de la 
Plata, upon Uifpaniola, a Port lb call 'd, it feems, 
from the Landing of fome of the Shipwreck' d 

him into their Converfation ; but yet he was 
oppofed by powerful Enemies, that Clogg'd his 
Affairs with fuch Demurrages, and fuch Dif- 
appointments, as would have wholly Difcoura- 
ged his Deiigns, if his Patience had not been 
invincible. He who can wait, hath ivhat he de- 
ftreth. This his Indefatigable Patience, with a 
proportionable Diligence, at length overcame 
the Difficulties that had been thrown in his 
way ; and prevailing with the Duke of Albe- 
marle, and fome other Perfons of Quality, to fit 
him out, he fet Sail for the Fifl)ing-Ground y 
which had been fo well baited half an Hun- 
dred Years before : And as he had already dif- 
covered his Capacity for Bufmefs in many con- 
liderable Actions, he now added unto thofe Dif- 
coveries, by not only providing all, but alfo by 
inventing many of the Inftruments neceilary to 
the profecution of his intended Fijhery. Cap- 
tain Phips arriving with a Ship and a Tender 
at Port de la Plata, made a flout Canoo of a 
ltately Cotton-Tree, fo large as to carry Eight or 
Ten Oars, for the making of which Periaga 
(as they call it) he did, with the fame induftry 
that he did every thing elfe, employ his own 
Hand and Adfe, and endure no little hardfhip, 
lying abroad in the Woods many Nights toge- 
ther. This Periaga, with the Tender, being 
Anchored at a place Convenient, the Periaga 
kept Busking to and again, but could only 
difcover a Reef of PJfing Shoals thereabouts, 
called, The Boilers, which Riling to be within 
Two or Three Foot of the Surface of the Sea, 
were yet fo fteep, that a Ship ftriking on there, 
would immediately fink down, who could fay, 
how many Fathom into the Ocean? Here they 
could get no other Pay for their long peeping 
among the Boilers, but only fuch as caufed them 
to think upon returning to their Captain with 
the bad News of their total Difappointment. 
Neverthelefs, as they were upon the Return, 
one of the Men looking over the fide of the 
Periaga, into the calm Water, he fpied a Sea 
Feather, growing, as he judged, out of a Rock ; 
whereupon they bad one of their Indians to 
Dive and fetch this feather, that they might 
however carry home fomething with them, and 
make, at leaft, as fair a Triumph as Caligula's. 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory of New-England. 

4 1 

The Diver bringing up the Feather, brought I which they alfo lit upon; and indeed, for 

therewithal a furprizing Story, That he per- 
ceived a Number or" Great Guns in the Watry 
World where he had found his Feather •, the Re- 
port of which Great Guns exceedingly attonilh- 
ed the whole Company •, and at once turned 
their Dejpondencies for their ill fuccefs into 
Affuranccs, that they had now lit upon the 
true Spot of Ground which they had been look- 
ing for ; and they were further confirmed in 
thefe Ajjurances, when upon further Diving, 
the Indian fetcht up a Sow, as they ftil'd it, 
or a Lump of Silver, worth perhaps Two or 
Three Hundred Pounds. Upon this they pru- 
dently Buofd the place, that they might readily 
find it again ; and they went back unto their Cap- 
tain whom for fiome while they diftreffcd with 
nothing but fuch Bad Neios, as they formerly 
thought they mult have carried him : Never- 
thelels, they fo flipt in the Sow of Silver on 
one fide under the Table, where they were now 
fitting with the Captain, and hearing him ex- 
preis his Refolutions to wait ftill patiently upon 
the Providence of God under thefe Difappoint- 
ments, that when he fhould look on one fide. 
he might fee' that Odd Thing before him. At 
laft he J aw it-, feeing it, he ctied out with forrr; 
Agony, Why ? What is this ? Whence comes 
this I And then, with changed Countenances, 
they told him how, and where they got it : 

a more Comprehenlive Invoice, I nuift but 
liimmarily fay, All that a Spanilh Fngot ufes 
to be enricht withal. Thus did they continue 
Pifhing till their Proviiions failing them, twas 
time to be gone ; but before they went, Captain 
Phips cauied Adderly and his Folk to lwear, 
That they would none of them Difccver the 
Place of the Wreck, or come to the Place any 
more till the next Year, when he expected a- 
gain to be there himfelf. And it was alfo Re- 
markable, that though the Sows came up ftill 
fo laft, that on the very laft Day of their being 
there, they took up Twenty, yet it was afterwards 
found, that they had in a manner wholly clear- 
ed that Room of the Ship where thofe Majfy 
things were Stowed. 

But there was one extraordinary Diftrels 
which Captain Phips now found himfelf plung- 
ed into : For his Men were come out with him 
upon Seamens Wages, at fo much per Monh ; 
and when they faw fuch vaft Litters of Silver 
Sows and Pigs, as they call them, come on 
Board them at the Captain's Call, they knew 
not how to bear it, that they (hould hot fh.ire 
all among themfelves, and be gone to lead afhort 
Life and a merry, in a Climate where the Ar- 
reit of thole that had hired them fhould not! 
reach them. In this terrible Diflrefs he made 
his Vows unto Almighty God, that if the Loid 

Then, fdid he, Thanks be to God! We are made ; would carry him late home to England with 
and fo away they went, all hands to Work ; what he had now given him, to fuck of the A- 
whereinthey had this one further piece of Re- \bundancc of the Seas, and of the Treafures hid 

markable Profperity, that whereas if they had 
firft fallen upon that part of the Spanifh Wreck, 
where the Pieces of Eight had been flowed in 
Bags among the Ballaft, they had feen a more 
laborious, and lefs enriching time of it: Now, 
moft happily, they firft fell upon that Room in 
the Wreck where rhe Bullion had been ftored 
up ; and they fo prospered in this Neio Fifhery, 
tha't in -a little while they had, without the lofs 
of any.'Man's Life, brought up Thirty Two 
Tuns of Silver •. for it was now come to meafu- 
ring of Silver by Tuns. Befides which, one 
Adderly of Providence, who had formerly been 
very helpful to Captain Phips in the Search of 
this Wreck, did upon former Agreement meet 
him now with a little Veffel here ; and he, 
with his few hands, took up about Six Tuns of 
Silver ; whereof neverthelefs he madefb little 
ufs, that in a Year or Two he Died at Bermu- 
da*, and as I have heard, he ran Diftraffed fome 
while before he Died. Thus did there once a- 
gain come into the Light of the Sun, a Trea- 
fure which had been half an Hundred Years 
groaning under the Waters : And in this time 
"there was grown upon the Plate a Cruft like 
Li me ft one, to the thicknefs of feveral Inches; 
which Cruft being broken open by Irons con- 
trived for that purpofe, they knockt out whole 
Bulhels of rufty Pieces of Eight which were 
grown rhereinto. Befides that incredible Trea- 
fure of Plate in various Forms, thus fetch'd up, 
from Seven or Eight Fathom under Water, there 
were vaft Riches of Gold, and Pearls,zr\d Jewels, 

in the Sands, he would for ever Devote him- 
lelf unto the Interefts of the Lord fef'm Cbrift, 
and of his People, efpecially in the Country 
which he did himfelf Originally belong unto. 
And he then ufed all the obliging Arts imagina- 
ble to make his Men true unto him, efpecial- 
ly by alfuring them, that befides their Wages, 
they Ihould have ample Requitals made unto 
them ; which if the reft of his Employers would 
not agree unto, he would himfelf dil'hihute his 
own fhare among them. Relying upon the 
Word of One whom they had ever found wor- 
thy of their Love, and of their Trull, they de- 
clared themfelves Content : But ftill keeping a 
moft careful Eye upon them, he haitrted b !ck 
for England with as much Money as he thought 
he could then fafely Traft his Veffel withal, 
not counting it fafe to fupply himfelf with 
neceflary Provifions at any nearer Port, and fo 
return unto the Wreck, by which delays he 
wifely feared left all might be loft, more ways 
than one. Though he alfo left fo much behind 
him, that many from divers Parts made very 
confiderable Voyages of Gleanings after his 
Harveft : Which came to pafs by certain Ber- 
mudtans, compelling of Adder ly's Boy, whom 
they fpirited away with them, to tell them the 
exa£t place where the Wreck was to be found. 
Captain Phips now coming up to London in the. 
Year 1887. with near Three Hundred Thoujand 
Pounds Sterling aboard him, did acquit him- 
felf with fuch an Exemplary Honefty, that 
partly by his fulfilling his Affurances to the 
F f Seamen, 

4 2 

Magnalia Chrijii Americana: 

Book II. 

Seamen, and partly by his exa£t and punctual 
Care to have his Employers defrauded of no- 
thing that might confciencioufly belong unto 
them, he had lefs than Sixteen Thou/and 
Founds left unto himfelf : As an acknowledg- 
ment of which Honefty in him, the Duke of 
Albemarle made unto his Wife, whom he never 
law, a Pretent of a Golden Cup, near a Thou- 
fand Pound in value. The Character of an 
Honeji Man he had fo merited in the whole 
Courfe of his Life, and efpecially in this laft 
a£t of ic, that this, in Conjunction with his o- 
ther ferviceable Quilities, procured him the 
Favours of the Greateft Perfons in the Nation ; 
and be that had been Jo diligent in his Bufinefs, 
muft now ftand before Kings, and not Jiand be- 
fore mean Men. There were indeed certain 
mean Men, if bafe, little, dirty Tricks, will 
entitle Men to Meannefs, who urged the King 
to feize his whole Cargo, inftead of the 
Tenths, upon his firft Arrival ; on this pretence, 
that he had not been righdy inform'd of the 
True flate of the Cafe, when he Granted the 
Patent, under the Protection whereof thefe 
particular Men had made themfelves Matters 
of all this Mighty Treafure •, but the King re- 
plied, That he had been rightly informed by 
Captain Phips of the whole Matter, as it now 
proved ; and that it was the Slanders of one then 
prefent, which had, unto his Dumnage, hun- 
dred him from hearkning to the Information : 
Wherefore he would give them, he faid, no 
Ditt jrbance ; they might keep what they had 
got , but Captain Phips, he law, was a Per- 
lon of that Honefty, Fidelity and Ability, that 
he fhould not want his Countenance. Accord- 
ingly the King, in Confidcration of the Service 
done by him, in bringing fuch a Treafure into 
the Nation, conterr'd upon him the Hor.oar 
of Knighthood ; and if we now reckon him, A 
Knight of the Golden Fleece, the Stile might 
pretend unto fome Circumtlances that would 
juftifie it. Or call him, if you pleafe, The 
'Knight of Honefty ■, for it was Honefty with In- 
duftry that railed him ; and he became a 
Mighty River, without the running in of Mud- 
dy Water to make him fo. Reader, now 
make a Paufe, and behold One Raifed by 

$;. 7. I am willing to Employ the Teftimo- 

nies of others, as much as may be, to fupport 

the Credit of my Hittory : And therefore, as 

I have hitherto related no more than what 

there are others Others enough to avouch ; thus I 

fhall chufe the Words of an Ingenious Perfon 

Printed at London fome Years ago, to exprefs 

the Sum of what remains, whole Words are 

thefe ; l It has always been Sir William Fhips's 

' Difpofuion to feek the Wealth of his People 

' with as great Zeal and Unweariednefs, as 

c our Publicans me to feek their Lofs and Ruin. 

' At firft it feems they were in hopes to gain 

' this Gentleman to their Party, as thinking him 

' Good Natur'd, and ea'fie to be flattered out of 

' his Underftanding ; an I the more, becaule 

u rhey had ths: advantage of fome, no very good, 

' Treatment that Sir William had formerly met 
' with from the People and Government of 
' New-England. But Sir William loon Ihewed 
' them, that what they expected would be his 
' Temptation to lead them into their little Tricks, 
' he embraced as a Glorious Opportunity to 
' fhew his Generofity and Great nejs of Mind; 
'for, in Imitation of the Greateft Worthies that 
'have ever been, he rather chofe to join in the 
' Defence of his Country, with fome Perfons 
c who formerly were none of his Friends, than 
' become the Head of.a PaUion, to its Ruin and 
' Defolation. It feems this Noble Difpofiticn of 
' Sir William, joined with that Capacity and 
' good Succefs wherewith he hath been atten- 
; ded, in Railing himfelf by fuch an Occafion, 
' as it may be, all things confidered, has never J, 
' happened to any before him, makes thefe Men 

' apprehenfive ; .And it muft needs heighten 

' their trouble to fee, that he neither hath, nor 
' doth fpare himfelf, nor any thing that is near 
' and dear unto him, in promoting the Good of 
' his Native Country. 

When Sir William Phips was per ardua iff 
afpera, thus raifed into an Higher Orb, it 
might eafily be thought that he'could not be 
without Charming Temptations to take the way 
on the left hand. But as the Grace of God kept, 
him inthemidft of none of the ftri&eft Compa- 
ny, unto which his Affairs daily led him, from 
abandoning himfelf to the lewd Vices ofGaming^ 
Drinking, Swearing and Whoring, which the 
Men that made England to Sin, debauch'd To 
many of the Gentry into, and hedeferved the Sa- 
lutations of the Roman Poet : 

Cum Tu, inter fcabiem tantam^ iff Contagia 

Nil parvum fapiat, iff adhuc Sublimia cures : 

Thus he was worthy to pais among the In- 
ftances of Heroick Vertue for that Humility that 
ffill Adorned him : He was Raifed, and though 
he prudently accommodated himfelf to the Qua- 
lity whereto he was now Raijed, yet none 
could perceive him to be Lifted up Or, if 
this were not Heroick, yet I will Relate one 
Thing more of him that muft certainly be ac- 
counted fo. He had in his own Country of New- 
England met with Provocations that were 
enough to have Alienated any Man Living, that 
had no more than ilrfh and Bwod in him, from 
the Service of it ; and fome that were Enemies 
to that Country, now lay hard at him to join 
with them in their Endeavours to Raviih away 
their Ancient Liberties. But this Gentleman 
had itudied another way to Revenge himfelf 
upon his Country, and that was to lerve it in 
M its Interetts, with all of his, even with his 
Eftate, his Time, his Care, his Priends, and 
his very Life ! The old Heathen Virtue of 
COUNTRY, he turned into Chriftian ; and 
fo notably exemplified it, in all the Reft of his 
Life, that it will be an EfTential Thread which 
is to be now interwoven iDto all that remains of 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory of NeW-Ensland. 


his Hiftory, and his Character. Accordingly 
though he had the Offers of a very Gainful Place 
among the Commijfioners of the Navy\ with 
many other Invitations to fettle himielf' in Eng- 
land nothing but a Return to 'New-England 
would content him. And whereas the Charters 
of New-England being taken away, there was a 
Governour lmpofed upon the Territories with 

fays of the Time, when Strangers were domi- 
neering over SubjcBs in England, Judiaa commiU 
tebantur Injitftis, Leges Exleg'tbm, fax Difcor- 
dantibus, Juftaia Injuriofts ; and Foxes were 
made the Admin iftra tors of Juftice to the foal- 
trey; yet fome Abridgment of them isnecciiu- 
ry tor the better underftanding of the Matters 
vet before us. Now to make this Abridgment 

as Arbitrary and as Treafonable a Commijjion, Impartial, I (hall only have Recourfe unto a 
perhaps, as ever was heard of, a Commijfion, by little Book, Printed at London, under the Title 

- ot The Revolution of New-England J unified; 

which the Governour, with Three or Four 
more, none of whom were chofen by the Peo- 
ple, had Power to make whatL<m.'.r they would, 
and Levy Taxes, according to their own Hu- 
mours, upon the People; and he himielf had 
' Power to fend the belt Men in the Land more 
than Ten Thoufand Miles out of it, as he plea 
fed : And in the Execution of his Power, the 
Country was every Day fullering Intolerable 
Invafions upon their Proprieties, yea, and the 
Lives of the belt Men in the Territory began'to 
be praclifed upon : Sir William Phipi applied 
himfelfto Confider what was the moft fignifi- 
cant Thing that could be done by him for that 

wherein we have a Narrative of the Grievances 
under the Male Adminiltrations of that Govern- 
ment, written and figned by the chief Gentle • 
men of the Governour s Council ■, together with 
the Sworn Teftimonies of many good Men, to 
prove the feveral Articles of 'the Declaration, 
which the New-Eng landers pubiilhed againft 
their Oppreflbrs. It is in that Eook demon- 

That the Governour neglecting the greater 
Number of h is Council, did Adhere principally 
to the Advice of a feiv Strangers, who were 
Perfons without any Intercft in the Country, 

poor People in their prefent Circumllances. but of declared Prejudice againft it, and had 
Indeed, when King James offered, as he did. j plainly laid their Defigns uTmake an Unreafon- 
unto Sir William Phips an Opportunity to Ask able Profit of the poor People : And jour ox five 

what he pleafed of him, Sir William Generoufly 
prayed for nothing but this, That New-Eng- 
land might have its loft Priviledges Reftored. 
The King then Replied, Any Thing but that ! 
Whereupon he fet ffmfelf to Confider what was 
the next Thing that he might ask for the Ser- 
vice, not of himfelf, but of his Country. The 
Refult of his Confideration was, That by Petiti- 
on to the King, he Obtained, with expence ©f 
fome Hundreds of Guinea's, a Pateni, which con- 
ftituted him The High Sheriff of that Country-, 
hoping, by his Deputies in that Office, to fup- 
ply the Country ftill with Confciencious Juries, 
which was the only Method that the New- 

Perfons had the abfolute Rule over a Terri- 
tory, the mojl Confiderable of any belonging to 
the Crown. 

That when Laws were propofed in the Coun- 
cil, tho' the Major part at any time Diffented 
from them, yet if the Governour were pofitive, 
there was no fair Counting rhe Number of Coun- 
cellors Confenting, or Diifenting, but the Laws 
were immediately Engrojfed, Publifhed and Exe- 

That this Junto made a Law, which pro- 
hibited the Inhabitants of any Town to meet 
about their Town- Affairs above once in a Year • 
for fear T you mult Note, of their having any op- 

Englaniers had left them to fecure any thing portunity to Complain o^Grievances, 

that was Dear unto them. Furnifhed with this 
Patent, after he had, in Company with Sir John 
Narborough, made a Second Vifit unto the 
Wreck, (not fo advantageous as the former for a 

That they made another Law, requiring all 
Matters of Vejjels, even Shallops and Wood- 
boats, to give Security, that no Man fhould be 
Transported in them, except his Name had been 

Reafon already mentioned j in his way he Re- fo many Days potted up : Whereby the Pockets 
turned unto New-England, in the Summer of of a few Leeches had been filled with Fees, but 

the Year 1688. able, after Five Years Abfence 
to Entertain his Lady with fome Accomplifh- 
ment of his Predictions ; and then Built him- 
felf a Fair Brick Houfe in the very place which 
we foretold, the Reader can tell how many 
SelTions ago. But the Infamous Government' 
then Rampant there, found a way wholly to 
put by the Execution of this Patent; yea, he 
was like to have had his Perfon Affaffinated in 
the Face of the Sun, before his own Door, 
which with fome further Deligns then in his 
Mind^ caufed him within a few Weeks to take 
another Voyage for England. 

§. 8. It would require a long Summers- Day 
to Relate the Miferies which were come, and 
coming in upon poor New-England, by reafon of 
the Arbitrary Government then impofed on 
them ; a Government wherein, as old Wendover 

the whole Trade of the Country deffroyed ,, 
and all Attempts to obtain a Redrefs of thefe 
Things obftrucled \ and when this Aff had been 
ffrenuoufly oppofed in Council at Bofton, they 
carried it as far as Ncw-Tork, where a Crew of 
them .enacted it. 

That without any Affembly, they Levied on 
the People a Penny in the Pound of all their 
Ejiates, and Twenty-pence per Head, as Poll- 
money, with a Penny in the Pound for Goods 
Imported, befides'a Vaft Excife on Wine, Rum, 
and other Liquors. 

That when among the Inhabitants of Ipfwich, 
fome of the Principal Perfons modefMy gave 
Realbns why thfey could not chute a Commijfi- 
oner to Tax the Town, until the King fhould 
firft be Petitioned for the Liberty of an Ajfembly, 
they were committed unto Goal for it, as an 
F f 2 UigJi 


Magnalia Chrifti Americana : 

Book II. 

High Mij 'demeanour, and were denied an Ha- 
beas? Corpm, and were dragg'd many Miles out 
of their own County to anfwer it at a Court 
in Bojhn-, where Jurors were pickt for the 
Turn', that were not Freeholders, nay, that were 
meer Sojourners ; and when the Prisoners plea- 
ded the Priviledges of Englijh-men, That they 
jhouli not be Taxed without their own confent ; 
they were told, lhat thofe things would not fol- 
low them to the ends of the Earth : As it had been 
before told them in open Council, no one in the 
Council contradicting it, lou have no more Pri- 
viledges left you, but this, that you are not 
bought and fold for Slaves : And in fine, they 
were all Ywed feverely, and laid under great 
Bonds for their good Behaviour; befides all 
which, the hungry Officers extorted Fees from 
them that amounted unto an Hundred and 
Threelcore Pounds ; whereas in England, upon 
the like Profecution, the Fees would not have 
been. Ten Pounds in all. After which fafhion 
the Town/men of many other Places were alfo 

That thefe Men giving out, That the Char- 
ters being loir, all the Title that the People had 
unto their Lands was loft with them ; they be- 
gan to compel the People every where to take 
Patents for their Lands : And accordingly Writs 
oflntruficn were iflued out againft the ch^ef 
Gentlemen in the Territory, by the Terror 
whereof, many were actually driven to Petition 
for Patents, that they might quietly enjoy the 
Lands that had been Fifty or Sixty Years in 
their Pofleffion; but for thefe Patents there 
were fuch exorbitant Prices demanded, that 
Fifty Pounds could not purchale for its Owner 
an Eftate not worth Two Hundred, nor could all 
the Money and Moveables in the Territory have 
defrayed the Charges of Patenting the Lands 
at the Hands of thefe Crocodiles : Befides the 
confiderable Quit-Rents for the King. Yea, 
the Governour caufed the Lands of particular 
Perfons to be meafured out, and given to his 
Creatures : And fome of his Council Petitioned 
for the Commons belonging to feveral Towns ; 
and the Agents of the Towns going to get a 
voluntary Subfcription of the Inhabitants to 
maintain their Title at Law, they have been 
dragg'd Forty or Fifty Miles to anfwer as Cri- 
minals at the next Aflizes; the Officers in the 
mean time extorting Three Pounds per Man 
for fetching them. 

lhat if thefe Harpies, at any time, were a 
little out of Money, they found ways to Impri- 
lon the be)} Men in the Country ; and there ap- 
peared not the leaft Information of any Crime 
■■exhibited againft them, yet they were put unto 
Intollerable Expences by thefe Greedy Oppreflbrs, 
and the Benefit of an Habeat Corpus not allowed 
unto them. 

That packt and pickt Juries were common- 
ly made ufe of, when under a pretended Form 
of Law, the Trouble of fome Honeft and Wor- 
thy Men was aimed at ■, and thefe alfb were 
hurried out of their own Counties to be tried, 

found there. The Greateji Rigour being ufed 
ftill towards the Jobereji fort of People, whilftin 
the mean time the moft horrid Enormities in 
the World, committed by Others, were over- 

lhat the publick Miniftry of the Gofpel, and 
all Schools of Learning, were difcountenanced 
unto the Utmoft. 

And feveral more fuch abominable things, too 
notorious to be denied, even by a Randolphian 
Impudence it felf, are in that Book proved a- 
gainft that unhappy Government. Nor did that 
moft Ancient Sec of the Phoenician Shepherds^ 
who ftrued the Government of Egypt into their 
Hands, as old Manethon tells us, by their Vil- 
lages, during the Reigns of thofe Tyrants, make 
i Shepherd more of an Abomination to the Egyp- 
tians in all after Ages, than thefe Wolves under 
the Name of Shepherds have made the Remem- 
brance of their French Government an Abomi- 
nation to all Pofterity among the New-Englan- 
ders : A Government, for which, now, Reader, 
as faft as thou wilt, get ready this Epitaph : 

Nulla qusfita Scelere Potentia diuturna. 

It was under the Refentments of thefe Things 
that Sir William Phips returned into England 
in the Year 1688. In which Iwice-Wonderful- 
Tear fuch a Revolution was wonderfully ac- 
complifried upon the whole Government of the 
Englifh Nation, that Mew-England, which had 
been a Specimen of what the whole Nation 
was to look for, might juftly hope for a ifiare 
in the General Deliverance. Upon this Occa- 
fion Sir William offered his beft Affiftances unto 
that Eminent Perfon, who a little before this Re- 
volution betook himfelf unto White-Hall^ that 
he might there lay hold on all Opportunities to 
procure fome Relief unto the Oppreffions of 
that afflicled Country. But feeing the Neva- 
Englifo Affairs in fb able an Hand, he thought 
the beft Stage of Affion for him would now be 
New-England it felf; and fowith certain In- 
ftru£tions from none of the leaft confiderable 
Perfons at White-Hall, what Service to do for 
his Country, in the Spring of the Year 1689. 
he haftened back unto it. Before he left Lon- 
don, a Meffenger from the Abdicated King 
tendet'd him the Government of New-England^ 
if he would accept it : But as that excellent At- 
torney General, Sir William Jones, when it 
was propofed that the Plantations might be Go- 
verned without AJJemblies, told the King, That 
he could no more Grant a Commiffion to levy 
Money on his Subjefts there, without their con- 
fent by an Affembly, than they could Difcharge 
themfelves from their Allegiance to the Englifh 
Crown. So Sir William Phips thought it his 
Duty to refufe a Government without an Affem- 
bly, as a thing that was Treafon in the very 
Effence of it; and inftead of Petitioning thefuc- 
ceeding Princes, that his Patent for High Sheriff 
might be rendred Effectual, he joined in Peti- 
tions, that New-England might have its own old 

when Juries for the Turn were not like to be I Patent fb Reftored, as to render ineffe&ual that„ 



Book II. Or, The Hiftory ^New-England- 

and all other Grants that might cut fhort any of any whom the Prince might fend thither, this 
its Ancient Priviledges. But when SiiWii/iam put them almoit out of" Patience. And one 
arrived at New- England, he found a new Face thing that plunged the more Confederate Per- 
of things ; for about an Hundred Indians in the 1 Tons in the Territory into uneafie thoughts, was 
Eaftern Parts of the Country, had unaccounra- the Faulty Atfion of fome Soldiers, who upon 
bly begun a War upon the "&ngbfh in 'July, the Common Sufpicions , deferred their 
1688. and though the Governour then in the j Stations in the Army, and caufed their Friends 
Wefiern Parts had immediate Advice of it, ! to gather together here and there in little Bodies, 
yet he not only delayed and neglected all that ! to protecf from the Demands of the Gover- 
was necellary for the Publick Defence, but alfojnour their poor Children and Brethren, whom 
when he at la ft returned, he manifefted a moft they thought bound for a Bloody Sacrifice: 
Furious Difpleafure againft thoieof the Council, And there were alio belonging to the Rofe-Fri- 
and all others that had forwarded any one thing \got fome that buzz'd furprizing Stories about 
for the fecurity of the Inhabitants; while at the \Bqfton, of many Mifchiefs to be thence ex- 
fame time he difpatched fome of his Creatures pefted. Wherefore, fome of the Principal 
upon fecret Errands unto Canada, and fet at Li- j Gentlemen in J^ofio/i confulting what was to" be 

berty lomeof the moft Murderous Indians which 
the Englifh had feized upon. 

This Conduct of the Governour, which is in 
a Printed Remonftrance of fome of the beft 
Gentlemen in the Council complained of, did 
extreamly diffatisfie the Suspicions People : Who 
were doubtleis more extream in fome of their 
Sufpicions, than there was any real Occafwn 
for : But the Governour at length raifed an Ar- 
my of a Tboufand Englifj to Conquer this Hun- 
dred Indians., and this Army, whereof fome of 
the chief Commanders were Papifls, underwent 
the Fatigues of a long and a cold Winter, in 
the moft Caucafmn Regions of the Territory, 
till, without the killing of One Indian, there 
were more of the poor People killed, than 
they had Enemies there alive ! This added not 
a little to the Diflatisfaftion of the People, and 
it would much more have done fo, if they had 
feen what the World had not yet feen of the 
Suggeflions made by the Irifl) Catbolicks unto 
the Late King, publifhed in the Year 169 1. 
in the Account of the State of the Protejlants 
in Ireland, Licenfed by the Earl of Notting- 
ham, whereof one Article runs in thefe Exprefs 
Terms, That if any of the Iriih cannot have 
their hands in Specie, but Money in Lieu, fome 
of them may Tranfport them/elves into America, 
pofjibly near New-England, to check the growing 
Independants of that Country : Or if they had 
feen what was afterwards feen in a Letter irom 
K. fames to His Hclinefs, (as they ftile his 
Foolifhnefs) the Pope of Rome 5 that it was his 
full Purpofe to have fet up Roman~Catholick 
Religion in the Englifh Plantations of America: 
Tho' after all, there is Caufe to think that 
there was more made of the Sufpicions then 
flying like Wild*Fire about the Country, than 
a ftrong Charity would have Countenanced. 
When the People were under thefe Frights, 
they had got by the Edges a little Intimation 
of the then Prince of Orange's glorious Under- 
taking to deliver England from the Feared E 
vils, which were already felt by Neva-England ; 
but when the Perfcn who brought over a 
Copy of the Prince's Declaration was Im- 
prifoned for bringing into the Country a 
Treafonable Paper, and the Governour, by his 
Proclamation, required all Perlons to ufe their 
utmoji Endeavours to hinder the Landing of 

done in this Extraordinary Juncture, They all 
agreed that they would, if it were poffible, ex- 
nnguiih all Elfays in the People towards an 
InfurreEuon, in daily Hopes of Orders from 
England for their Safety : But that if the Coun- 
try People, by any violent Motions puih'd the 
Matter on fo far, as to make a Revolution un- 
avoidable, then to prevent the lhedding of 
Blood by an ungoverned Mobile, fome of the 
Gentlemen prefent ihould appear at the Head of 
the Aftion with a Declaration accordingly pre- 
pared. By the Eighteenth of April, 1689. 
Things were puihed on fo far by the People, 
that certain Perfons firft Seized the Captain of 
the Frigot, and the Rumor thereof running like 
Lightning through Bofton, the whole Town was 
immediately in Arms, with the moft Unanimouf 
Refolution perhaps that ever was known to 
have Infpir'd any People. They then feized 
thofe Wretched Men, who by their innumera- 
ble Extortions and Abufes had made them- 
felves the Objects of Univerfal Hatred; not 
giving over till the Governour himfelf was be- 
come their Prifoner : The whole AtTion being 
managed without the leaft Bloodjhedov Plunder^ 
and with as much Order as ever attended any 
Tumult, it may be, in the World. Thus did the 
Ncw-Eitglanders afTert their Title to the Com- 
mon Rights of Englifhmen ■ and except the 
Plantations are willing to Degenerate from the 
Temper of True Englifhmen, or except the Re- 
volution of the whole Englifh Nation be con- 
demned, their Atlion mult fo far be juftified; 
On their late Opprejjbrs, now under juft Con- 
finement, they took no other Satisfaction, but 
fent them over unto White-Hall for the Juftice 
of the King and Parliament. And when the 
Day for the Anniverfary Election, by their va- 
cated Charter, drew near, they had many De- 
bates into what Form they fhQuld caft the Go- 
vernment, which was till then Adminiftred by 
a Committee for the Confcrvation of the Peace^ 
eompofed of Gentlemen whole Hap it was to 
appear in the Head of the late Atlion \ but 
their Debates IfTued in this Conclulion • That 
the Governour and Magi fir at es, which were in 
Power before the late Ufurpaticn, fhould Re- 
fume their Places, and apply themfelves unto 
the Confervation of the Peace, and put forth 
what AOs of Government the Emergencies 


4 6 

Magnalia Cbrifii Americana : 

Book II. 

might make needful for them, and thus to 
wait for further Directions from the Authority 
of England. So was there Accomplifhed a 
Revolution which delivered New-England from 
grievous Oppreffions, and which was molt 
graciouily Accepted by the King and Qiteen, 
when it was Reported unto their Majeities. 
But there were new Matters for Sir William 
Phips, in a little while, now to think up- 

§. o. Behold the great things which were 
done by the Sovereign God, for a Perfon once 
as little in his own Fyes^ as in other Mens. 
All the Returns which he had hitherto made 
unto the Gcd of his Mercies, were but Preli- 
minaries- to what remain to be related. It 
has been the Cuftom in the Churches of New- 
England, Hill to expect from fuch Perfons as 
they admitted unto conftant Communion with 
them, that they do not only Publickly and So- 
lemnly Declare their Confcnt unto the Covenant 
of Grace, and particularly to thofe Duties of 
it, wherein a Particular Church-State is more 
immediately concerned, but alfo firft: relate un- 
to the Pajlors, and by them unto the Brethren, 
the Ipecial Impreffions which the Grace of 
God has made upon their Souls in bringing 
them to this Cgnjent. By this Cuftom and Cau- 
tion, though they cannot keep Hypocrites 
from their Sacred Fellowfhip, yet they go 
as far as they can, to render and preferve them- 
felves Churches of Saints, and they do further 
very much Edijie one another. When Sir Wil- 
liam Phips was now returned unto his own 
Houje, he began to bethink himfelf, like Da- 
vid, concerning the Houfe of the God who 
had furrounded him with fb many Favours in 
his own ; and accordingly he applied himfelf 
unto the North Church in Bofion, that with his 
open Profcflion of his Hearty Subjection to the 
Go/pel of the Lord Jefus Chrift, he might 
have the Ordinances and the Privilcdges of the 
Go/pel added unto his other Enjoyments. 
One thing that quickned his Relblution to do 
what might be in this Matter expected from 
him, was a PalTage which he heard from a 
Minifter Preaching on the Title of the Fifty- 
Firft Pfalm : To make a public k and an open 
Profeffton of Repentance, is a thing not mif- 
beeoming the great efl Man alive. It is an Ho- 
nour to be found among the Repenting People 
of God, though they be in Circumjlances never 
fo full of Suffering. A Famous Knight going with 
other Chrifiians to be Crowned with Martyr- 
dom, objerved, That his Fellow-Sufferers were 
in Chains, from which the Sacrificers had, bc- 
cauje cf his ^I'.l'.ty, excus'd him ; whereupon 
he demanded, i h at he might wear Chains a* 
well as they. For, /aid he, I would be a 
Knight of that Order too ; There is among our 
f elves a Repenting People of God, who by 
their Confetitons at their Admiffions to his Ta- 
ble, do (ignaiize their being Jo ; and thanks be 
to. God that vie have Jo little of Suffering in 
ogr Ctrcumftances. But if any Man count 
Jumfelf grown too big to be a Knight of that 

Order, the Lord Jefus Chrift himjelf will one 
Day be afhimed of that Man '. Upon this Ex- 
citation, Sir n 'iltiam Phips made his Addrefs 
unto a Congregational-Church, and he had there- 
in one thing to propound unto himlelf, which 
few Perfons of his Age, fo well fatisfied in 
Infant Baptifm as he was, have then to ask 
for. Indeed, in the Primitive Times, although 
the Lawfulnejs of Infant-Baptifm, or the Pre- 
cept and Pattern of Scripture for it, was 
never fo much as once made a Queftion, yet 
we find Baptifm was frequently delayed by ' 
Perfons upon feveral fuperltitious and unreafon- 
able Accounts, againft which we have fuch 
Fathers as Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory Nyffen, 
Bafil, Chryfijfom. Ambroje, and others, employ- 
ing a variety of Argumenr. But Sir William 
Phips had hitherto delayed his Baptifm, becaufe 
the Years of his Childhood were fpent where 
there was no fettled Minifter, and therefore he 
was now not only willing to attain a good Sa^ 
tisfaction of his own Internal and Practical 
Chriftianity, before his receiving that Mark 
thereof, but he was alfo willing to receive it 
among thofe Chrifiians that feemed molt fen- 
fible of the Bonds which it laid them un- 
der. Offering himfelf therefore, firft unto 
the Baptifm, and then unto the Supper of 
the Lord, he prefented unto the Paftor of the 
Church, with his own Hand-Writing, the fol- 
lowing Inftrument ; which becaufe of the Ex- 
emplary Devotion therein exprelfed, and the 
Remarkable Hifiory which it gives of feveral 
Occurrences in his Life, I will here faithfully 
Tranfcribe it, without adding fo much as one 
Word unto it. 

' The firft of God's making me fenfible of 
c my Sins, was in the Year 1674. by hearing 
c your Father Preach concerning, The Day of 
' Trouble near. It pleafed Almighty God to 
' finite me with a deep Sence of my miferable 
' Condition, who had lived until then in the 
' World, and had done nothing for God. I did 
' then begin to think wifm I fcould do to be 
c Jdved .? And did bewail my Touthful Days y 
' which I had fpent in vain : I did think that 
' I &ould begin to mind the things of God. Be- 
' ing then fome time under your Father's Mi- 
- niitry, much troubled with my Burden, but 
' thinking on that Scripture, Come unto me, 
' you that are weary and heavy Laden, and I 
1 will give you Reft ; I had ibme thoughts of 
' drawing as near to the Communion of the 
c Lord Jefus as I could ; but the Ruins which 
' the Indian Wars brought on my Affairs, and 
c the Entanglements which my following the 
• Sea laid upon me, hindred my purfuing the 
' Welfare of my own Soul as I ought to have 
' done. At length God was pleai'ed to fmile 
' upon my Outward Concerns. The various 
c Providences, both Merciful and Afflictive, 
c which attended me in my Travels, were fancti- 
' fied unto me, to make me Acknowledge God 
i in all my Ways. I have divers Times been 
c in danger of my Life, and I have been brought 
' to fee that I owe my Life to him that has 

' given 

Book II. Or, The Hi/lory ^"New-England. 


- given a Life ib often to me : I thank God, 
he hath brought me to fee my felf altogc- 
' ther unhappy, wirhout an lntercft in the Lord 
' Jefus Chrift^ and to dofe heartily with him, 
' defiring him to Execute All his Offices on my 
' Behalf. I have now, ior fome time, been 
' under ferious Refo/uiioas, that I would avoid 
' whatever 1 ihould know to be Dilpleafing un- 
' to Gcd, and that I would Serve him all the 
' Days of my Li/e. J believe no Man will Re- 
' pent the Service of Juch a Majier. I find 
1 my felf unable to keep fuch Rejolutions, but 
k my ferious Prayers are to the Moft High, 

* that he would enable me. God hath done io 

* much for me, that 1 am fenfible I owe my 
' felf to him ; To htm would I give my felj, 
' and all that he has given to me. 1 can't ex- 
' prefs his Mercies to me. But as icon as e- 

* ver God had i'miled upon me with a Turn 
' of my Affairs, I had laid my ielf under the 
'VOWS of the Lord, That I would jet my 
' felf to ferve his People, and Churches here, 
' unto the utmeji of my Capacity. 1 have had 
'great Offers made me in tngland • but the 
' Churches of Aew-England were thole which 
' my Heart was moft let upon. I knew, That 
' if God had a People any wl.'ere, it was here : 
' And I Refolvcd to rije and fall with them j 
' neglecting very great Advantages for my 
' Worldly Intereft, that I might come and en- 
' joy the Ordinances of the Lord Jefus here. 
' it has been my Trouble, that fince I came 
' Home I have made no more hafte to get into 
4 the Houfe oj God, where / defire to be : E- 
' fpecially having heard fo much about the E- 
' vil of that OmifTion. I can do little for God, 
'but 1 defire to wait upon him in his Ordi- 
' nances, and to live to his Honour and Glo- 
'ry. My being Born in a part of the Coun- 
4 try, where 1 had not in my Infancy enjoyed 

* the Firfl Sacrament of the New-Tejlament, 
' has been fomething of a Stumbling*Biock un- 
' to me. But though 1 have had Profers of 
' Baptifm elfewhere made unto me, 1 refol- 
' ved rather to defer it, until I might enjoy it 
' in the Communion of thefe Churches'; and 
' I have had awful Impreffions from thofe 
'Words of the Lord Jefus in Matth. 8. 38. 
' Whofoever fhall be afhamed of me, and of my 
' Words, of him a/fo fhall the Son of Man be 
4 aflmmed. When God had bleficd me with 
' fomething of the World, I had no Trouble fo 
' great as this, Left it fhould not be in Mercy-, 
' and I trembled at nothing more than being 
' put off with a Portion here. That I may 
' make lure of better things, I now offer my 
' felf unto the Communion of this Church of 
' the Lord JESUS. 

Accordingly on March 23. 16 90. after he 
had in the Congregation of North-Bofion given 
himfelf up, firji unto the Lord, and then unto 
his People, he was Baptized, and fo received 
into the Communion ot the Faithful there. 

(j. 10. Several times, about, before and af- 
ter this time, did 1 hear him exprefs him- king at Port-Royal, May 11. and had the 
felf unto this purpole : / have no need at a// 1 Fort quickly Surrender'd into hi* Hands by 

i the 

to look after any further Advantages for my 
felf in this World \ I may ft fill ut Home, if 
I will, and enjoy my Erfe for the rcji oj my 
Life -, but I believe that I fhould offend God 
in my doing jo : For 1 am now in the Prime 
of my Age and Strength^ and, 1 thank Gcd. I 
can undergo Hardfhip : He only knows how 
long 1 have to live 5 but 1 think 'tis my Duly 
to venture my Life in doing oj good, before an 
ufelefs Old Age comes upon me : Wherefore I 
will now expoj'e my felf, while I am able, 
and at far a-) 1 am able, for the Service of my 
Country ; I was Born for others, a-r well at 
my felf 1 fay, many a time have I heard him 
io exprefs himfelf : And agreeable to this Ge- 
nerous Difpojilion and Rejolutton was all the 
rtlt of his Life. About this time New Eng- 
land was milerably Briar 'd in the Perplexities 
of an Indian War; and the Salvages, in the 
Eaji part of" the Country, iffuing out from their 
inacctiiible Sivamps, had for many Months 
made their Cruel Depredations upon the poor 
Englifh Planters, and furprized many of the 
Plantations on the Frontiers, into Ruin. The 
New-Englanders found, that while they coa- 
tinued only en the Vefenfive part, their Peo- 
ple were thinned, and their Treajures wafted ^ 
without any hopes of feeing a Period put un- 
to the Indian Tragedies -, nor could an Army 
greater than Xcrxes's have eafily come at the 
ieemingly contemptible handful of Tawnies 
which made all this Difturbance ; or, Tamer- 
lain, the greateft Conqueror that ever the 
World faw, have made it a Bufinefs of no 
Trouble to have Conquered them : They found, 
that they were like to make no Weapons reach 
their Enfwamped Adverfaries, except Mr. Mil- 
ton could have fhown them how 

To have pluckt up the Hills with all their Load., 
Rocks, Waters, Woods, and by their fhaggy tops, 
Up-lijting, bore them in their Hands, therewith 
The Rebel Hojl tove over-whelm d 

So it was thought that the Englijlj SubjecLs, in 
thefe Regions of America, might very proper- 
ly take this occafion to make an attempt upon 
the French, and by reducing them under the 
Engiijh Government, put an Eternal Period at 
once unto all their Troubles from the Frenchifi- 
ed Pagans. This was a Motion urged by Sir 
William Phips unto the General Court of the 
Majfachufet -Colony -. and he then made unto 
the Court a brave Offer of his own Perfon and 
Eftate, for the Service of rhe Publick in their 
prefent Extremity, as far as they Ihould fee 
Caule to make ufe thereof. Whereupon they 
made a Fir ft Ejfay againft the French, by fend- 
ing a Naval Force, with about Seven Hundred 
Men, under the Conduct of Sir William Phips, 
againft L'Acady and Nova Scotia-, of which 
Aclion we (hall give only this General and 
Summary Account 5 that Sir William Phips fet 
Sail from Nantafcot, April 28. 1690. Arri- 


Magnalia Chrifti Americana : 

Book II. 

the trench Enemy, who defpaired of holding 
out againft him. He then took PofTeffion of 
that Province for the Englifh Crown, and ha- 
ving Demolithed the Fort, and fent away the 
Garrilbn, Adminiftred unto the Planters an Oat b 
of Allegiance to King William sad Queen Mary, 
he left what Order he thought convenient for the 
Government of the Place, until further Order 
fhould be taken by the Governour and Council 
of the Ma Ifachuf et-Co\ony, unto whom he re- 
turned May 30. with an acceptable Account of 
his Expedition, and accepted a Place among 
the M'tgift rates of that Colony, to which the 
Free-Men had cholen him at their Anniverfary 
EleUion Two Days before. 

Thus the Country, once given by King James 
the Firft unto Sir William Alexander, was now 
by another Sir V/ill'iam recovered out of the 
Hands of the French, who had afterwards got 
the Pdfdfion of k\ and there was added unto 
the Englijh Empire, a Territory, whereof no 
Man can Read Monfieur Denys's Dejcription 
Geographique iff tiiftorique des Cojles de I' Ame- 
rique Scptentnonale, but he muft reckon the 
Conqneft of a Region fo Improvable, for Lum- 
ber, tor Fifhing, tor Mines, and for Furrs, a 
very confideraole Service. But if a fmaller Ser- 
vice has, e er now, ever merited a Knighthood. 
Sir W'llliam was willing to Repeat his Me- 
rits by Actions of the gteateft Service pof- 
fible : 

Nil Attum credens, fiquidfupereffet agendum- 

§. 11. The Addition of this French Colony to 
the Englijh Dominion., was no more than a 
little ftep towards a. greater Affion, which was 
titft in the Defign of Sir William Phips, and 
which was, indeed, ihegrcateft Allien that ever 
the New-Englanders Attempted. There was a 
time when the Philiftines had made fbme In- 
roads and Affaults from the Northward, upon 
the Skirts of Go/hen, where the Ifraelites had a 
Retidence, before their coming out of Egypt. 
The Ifraelites, and efpecially that Aftive Colo- 
ny of the Ephraimites, were willing to Revenge 
thefe Injuries upon their wicked Neighbours ; 
they prefumed themfelves Powetful and Nume- 
rous enough to Encounter the Canaanites, even 
in their own Country -, and they formed a brisk 
Expedition, but came off unhappy Lofers in it •, 
the Jewifl) Ra ''bins tells us, they loft no lefs than 
Eight Thou/and Men. The Time was not yet 
come ■, there was more tiafte than good Speed 
in the Attempt ; they were not enough concern- 
ed tor the Counfel and Prefence of God in the 
Undertaking; they mainly propounded the 
Plunder to be got among a People, whofe Trade 
was that wherewith Beafts entiched them ; fo the 
bafiriefs mifcarried. This Hiftory the Pfalmift 
going to recite, fays, I will utter dark Sayings 
of o'd. Now that what befel Si: William Phips, 
with his whole Country of New-England, may 
not be almoft forgotten among the dark Sayings 
of old, I will here give the true Report of a ve- 
ry memorable Matter. 

It was Canada that was the chief Source of 
New-England'% Miferies. There was the main 
Strength of the French ; there the Indians were 
moftly fupplied with Ammunition ; thence Iffu- 
ed Parties of Men, who uniting with the Salva- 
ges, barbaroufly murdered many Innocent New- 
Engenders, without any Provocation on the 
New-Englifh part, except this, that New-E n g- 
land had Proclaimed King William and Q. Ma- 
ry, which they fa id were Ufurpers ; and as 
Cato could make no Speech in the Senate with- 
out that Conclufion, Delenda eft Carthago - fo 
it was the general Conclufion of all that Argued 
lenfibly about the fafety of that Country, Ca- 
nada muft be Reduced. It then became the con- 
curring Refolution of all New-England, with 
Neva-York, to make a Vigorous Attack upon Ca- 
nada at once, both by Sea and Land. 

And a Fleet was accordingly fitted out from 
Bojion, under the Command of Sir William 
Phips, to fall upon ^teebeque, the chief City of 
Canada. They waited until Auguft for fome 
Stores of War from England, whither they had 
fent for that purpofe early in the Spring ; but 
none at la ft arriving, and the Seafon of the Year 
being fo far fpent, Sir William could not, with- 
out many Difcouragements upon his Mind, pro- 
ceed in a Voyage, for which he found himfelf 
to poorly provided. However, rhe Ships being 
taken up, and rhe Men on Board, his ufual 
Courage would not permit him to Defift from 
the Enterprize ; but he let Sail from Hull near 
Bofton, Auguft 9. 1690. with a Fleet of Thirty 
Two Ships and Tenders ; whereof one, called the 
Six Friends, carrying Forty Four great Guns, 
and Two Hundred Men, was Admiral. Sir 
William dividing the Fleet into feveral Squa- 
drons, whereof there was the Six Friends, Cap- 
tain Gregory Sugars Commander, with Eleven 
more of the Admiral's Squadron, cf which one 
was alfo a Capital Ship, namely, The John and 
Thomas, Captain Thomas Carter Commander; 
of the Vice- Admirals, the Swan, Captain Tho- 
mas Gilbert Commander, with Nine more ; of 
the Rear-Admirals, the America-Merchant, 
Captain Jofeph Eldridge Commander, with Nine 
more , and above Twenty Hundred Men on 
Board the whole Fleet : He fo happily managed 
his Chr-rge, that they every one of them Arri- 
ved fafe at Anchor before Quebeck, although 
they had as dangerous, and almoft untrodden a 
Path, to take Un-Piloted, for the whole Voyage, 
as ever any Voyage was undertaken with. Some 
fmall French Prizes he took by the way, and 
fet up Englifh Colours upon the Coaft, here 
and there, as he went along; and befote the 
Month of Auguft -was out, he had fpent feve- 
ral Days as far onward of his Voyage, as be- 
tween the Ifland of Antecofta, and the Main. 
But when they entred the mighty River of Ca- 
nada, fuch adverfe Winds encountred the Fleet, 
that they were Three Weeks difpatching the 
way, which might otherwife have been gone in 
Three Days, and it was the Fifth of Oiiober, 
when a freth Breeze coming up at Eaft, carried 
them along by rhe North Shore, up to the Ifle 


Book II. 0r 3 The Hiftory ^New^Englatid. 


of Orleans ; and then haling Southerly, they 
paffed by the Eaji end of that Iiland, with the 
whole Fleet approaching the City of Quebeck. 
This lofs of Time, which made it folate before 
the Fleet could get into the Country, where a 
cold and fierce Winter was already very far ad- 
vanced, gave no very good Profpecl of Succefs to 
the Expedition ; but that which gave a much 
voorfe, was a moft horrid MiJ manage me nt r which 
had, the mean while, happened in the Weft. 
For a Thoufand Pngltfh from New-Tor/;, and 
Albany, and Conncclicut, with Fifteen Hundred 
Indians, were to have gone over-land in the 
Weft, and fallen upon Mount-Royal, while the 
Fleet was to Vifit §>uebeck in the Eaft \ and no 
Expedition could have been better laid than I his. 
Which was thus contrived. But thole hng'lijh 
Companies in the Weft, marching as far as the 
great Lake that was to be pafled, found their 
Canoosnot provided, according to Expectation ; 
and the Indians alfo were {how ? God knows, 
and will one Day Judge! Diffuaded from Join- 
ing with the EngHfh; and the Army met with 
fuch Difcouragements, that they returned. 

Had this Wefttrn Army done but lb much as 
continued at the Lake, the Diverlion thereby 
given to the French Quartered at Mou/wRoyal, 
would have rendered the Conqueft of Qliebeck 
eaBe and certain; but the Governour ofc Canada 
being Informed of the Retreat made 'by the 
Wejlern-hxmy, had opportunity, by the crofs 
Winds that kept back the Fleet, unhappily to 
get the whole Strength of all the Country into 
the City, before the Fleet could come up unto 
it. However, none of thefe Difficulties hin- 
dred Sir William Phips from fending' on Shoar 
the following Summons, on Monday the Sixth 
of OSober. 

Sir William Phips, Knight, General and Conh- 
mander in Chief, in and over Their' Maie- 
fties Forces of Neva-England, by Sea and 
Land ; 

To Count Prontenac, Lieutenant-Geneial and 
Governour for the Prencb King at Canada-, 
or in his Abfence, to his Deputy, or Him, 
or Them, in Chief Command at ghtc- 

TH E War between the Two Crowns of Eng 
land and France, doth not only fufjiacntly 
Warrant, but the DdJruffion made by the French 
and Indians, under your Command and Encou- 
ragement, upon the P erf on s and Elates oj Their 
Majeftics Subjells oj New-England, without 
Provocation on their part, hath. put them under 
the Neeeffity of this Expedition, jor their own 
Security and Satisjatlion. And although the 
Cruelties and Barbarities ufed againft them, 
by the French and Indians, might, upon the pn- 
fent Opportunity, prompt unto a fever e Revenge, 
yet bang defirous to avoid all Inhumane and V/i- 
cbriftian-like Alliens, and to prevent f>edding oj 
Blood as much as may le , 

Ltbe aforrjaid Sin Wlllmn Phi ps. Knight, 
do hereby, in the Name, and in the Behalf aj% 
Their Moft Excellent Majcjiies, Wiiliam ami 
Mary, King and .Queen oj England, Scotland. 
France and Itcland, Lhyenders. of the Fkitb , 
.and by Order oj 'Thar u<d Ma'cjh'es Govern- 
ment -oj\. the MuHichLia-el'/.'/T in New Fin- 
land, Demand aprejent Surrender of your torts 
and' Caffies, undemolijhed, and the King's, and 
other- Shores, unimbezzelled, -with a feafoftabli 
Delivery of. alt Captives ; together with a Sur- 
render oj all your Perjons andt/tites to my Dtft 
pofa: T'pon the doing whereoj you may expeel 
Mercy jrom me, as a Chrilfian, according to 
what (l)iill be found for Their Majefties Service, 
and the Subjects Security. Which if you Rejufe 
forthwith, to do, 1 am come Provided, and am 
Refolded, by the help oj God, inichum Itruji, by 
Porce of Arms, to Revenge all Wrongs and Inju- 
ries offered, and bring you under Subjellion to 
the Crown ^/England \ and when too late, make I 
you wif) you had accepted of the tavour ten- 

Tour Anfwer Pofitive in an Hour, returned 
by your own Trumpet, with the Return si 
.mine, is Required, upon the Peril that 
will enjue. 

The Summons being Delivered unto Count 
Prontenac, his Anlwer was 5 


. That Sir William Phips, and thofe with him, 
were Hereticks and Traitors to their King, and; 
haji taken up with that Ulurper, the Prince ofi 
Orange, and had made a Revolution,, which if it 
had not been made, New-England and the French' 
had been all One; andthat no other Anfwer za.rf 
to be expe&ed jrom him, but what fhould be ft om 
the Mouth of his Cannon. 

General Phips now faw that it rnuft eoft 
him Try Blows, and that he muft Roar his 
Perfwalions out of the Mouths of Great Guns, 
to make himfelf Mailer of a City which had. 
certainly Surrendefd it fell' unto him, if he had 
arrived but a little fooner, and Summon'd it 
before the coming down of Count Prontenac 
with all his Forces, to Command the oppreficd 
People there, who would have been, many of 
them, glader of coming under the Engiifl) Go- 
vernment. Wherefore on the Seventh 01OQ0- 
ber, the Englift], that were for the Land-Ser- 
vice, went on Board their leiler VeiTels, in or- 
der to Land ; among which there was a Bark, 
wherein was Captain Epbraim Savage, with- 
fixty Men, that ran a-grour.d upon the North- 
Shoar, near two Miles from Rebeck, and could 
not get off, but lay in the lame Ditireis that 
Scava did, when the Britains poured in their 
Numbers upon the Bark, wherein he, with a- 
few more Soldiers of Cx jar's Army, were, by 
the difad vantage of the Tide, left Adieu r : 
The French, with Indians, that faw them lye 
there, came near, arid Fired thick upon them, 
and were bravely Anlwered ; and when two or 

G g thret 



Magnalia Chrifii Americana : 

Book II. 

Three Hundred of the Enemy, at laft planted a 
Fi -Id-Piece againlt the Bar/:, while the Wind 
blew lo hard, that no help could he fent unto 
his Men, the General advanced (6 far, as to Le 
vel Two or Three great Guns, conveniently 
enough to make the AiTailants Fly; and when 
the Flood came, the Bark happily got oft", 
without the hurt or one Man aboard. But fo 
violent was the Storm of Wind all this Day, 
that it was not pollibie foe them to Land until 
the Eighth of October ; when the Englifh count- 
ing every Hour to be a Week until they were 
come to Battel, vigoroully got Alhoar, defign- 
ing to enter the Eaft-end of the City. The 
Smull-?ox had got into the Fleet, by which D't- 
ftemper prevailing, the' number of Effective 
Men which now went Alhoar, under the Com- 
mand of Lieutenant General Walky, did not 
amount unto more than Fourteen Hundred -, but 
Four Companies of thefe were drawn out as 
b'orlorns, whom, on every fide, the Enemy fired 
at ; neverthelefs, the Englifh Rulhing w ith a 
lhout, at once upon them caufed them to Run 
as faft as Legs could carry them : So that the 
whole Fnghlh Army, expreiiing as much Refo- 
lution as was in Cejar's Army, when they firft 
landed on Britain, in fpight of all oppofition 
from the Inhabitants, marched on until it was 
dark, having firft killed many of the French, 
with the lots of but Four Men of their own ; 
and frighted about Seven or Eight Hundred 
more of the French from an Ambufcado, where 
they lay ready to fall upon them. But fome 
thought, that by flaying in the Valley, they took 
the way never to get over the Hill : And yet 
for them to ftay where they were, till the fmaller 
Vefiels came up the River before them, fo far 
as by their Guns to fecure the Paflage of the 
Army in their getting over, was what the 
Council of War had ordered. But the Vio- 
lence of the Weather, with the General's being 
fooner plunged into the heat of Action than 
was intended, hindred the fmaller Veffels from 
attending that Order. And this Evening a 
French Deferter coming to them, allured them, 
that Nine Hundred Men were on their March 
from S&ebeck to meet them, already paffed a 
little Rivulet that lay at the end of the City, but 
feeing them Land ib fuddenly, and fo valiantly 
run down thole that firft Encounted them, they 
had Retreated : Neverthelefs, That Count 
Frontenac was come down to 2>uebeck with no 
fewer than Thirty Hundred Men to defend the 
City, hiving left but Fifty Souldiers to defend 
Mount Real, becaufe they had underftood, that 
the EnglifJ) Army on that fide, were gone back 
to Albany. Notwithftanding this dif-fpiriting 
Information, the common Souldiers did with 
much vehemency Beg and Pray, that they might 
be led on ; profefling, that they had rather lofe 
their Lives on the Spot, than fail of taking the 
City ; but the more wary Commanders eonfi- 
dered how ralh a thing it would be, for about 
Fourteen Hundred Raw Men, tired with a long 
Voyage, to aflault more than Twice as many 
Expert Souldiers, who were Gatli in fuo fter- 

quilinio ,or Cocks Crowing on their ovtn Dunghil. 
They were, in truth, now poctcri into the grie- 
vous Caie which Livy defcribes whui he fays, Ibi 
grave eft Bellum gerere, ubt nun vonjijiendi aut 
procedendt incus ; quoLitnque aj'pexcns Heft ilia 
funt omnia ; look on one fide or t'oihcr, all 
was full of Hoflile Difficulties. Arid indeed, 
whatever Popular Clamour has been nude a- 
gainft any of the Commanders, it is apparent 
that they acled confiderately, in making a Paufg 
upon what was before them •, and they did a 
greater kindnefs to their Souldiers than they 
have fince been thanked for. But in this time, 
General Phips and his Men of War, with their 
Canvai Wings, flew dofe up unto the Weft- 
end of the City, and there he behaved himfelf 
with the greateft Bravery imaginable ; nor did 
the other Men of War forbear' to follow his 
brave Example : Who never dilcovered himlelf 
more in his Element, than when (as the Poet 
exprelTeth it,)' 

The Slaughter Breathing Brafs grew hot, and 

In Flames of Lightning, and in Clouds of 
Smoke : 

He ljy within Piftol-fJxt of the Enemies Can- 
non, and beat them from thence, and very much 
batter'd the Town, having his own Ship ihot 
through in almoft an Hundred Places with 
Four and Twenty Pounders, and yet but one 
Man was killed, and only Two Mortally 
Wounded Aboard him, in this hot Engage- 
ment, which continued the greateft patt of that 
Night, and ieveral Hours of the Day enfuing. 
But wondring that he fiw no Signal of any 
Effective Action Alhoar at the Eaft-end of the 
City, he fent that he might know the Condi- 
tion of the Army there; and received Anfwer, 
That feveral of the Men were fo frozen in their 
Hands and Feet, as to be difabled from Service, 
and others were apace falling lick ot the Small- 
Pox. Whereupon he order d them on Board 
immediately to refreth themfelves, and he in- 
tended then to have renew'd his Attack upon 
the City, in the Method ot Landing his Men 
in the Face of it, under the ihelter of his great 
Guns; having to that purpofe provided alfo 
a confiderable number of well-fhaped Wheel- 
Barrows, each of them carrying Two Petarra- 
ro's apiece, to March before the Men, and make 
the Enemy Fly, with as much Contempt as 
overwhelmed the Philiftinq, when undone by 
Foxes with Torches in thei?Tai!s ; (remembred 
in an Anniverfary Diverfion every April among 
the Ancient Romans, taught' by the Phcnicians.) 

While the Meafures to be further taken were 
debating, there was made an Exchange of Pri- 
foners, the Englifl) having taken feveral of the 
French in divers Aftions, and the French ha- 
ving in their Hands divers of the Englifh, whom 
the Indians had brought Captives unto them. 
The Army now on Board continued ftill Retb- 
lute and Courageous, and on fire for the Conqueft 
of Rebeck ; or if they had miffed of doing it by 


. ___ ' .,__ ■ • • ■••'-I 

Book II. Or, The Hiftory <?f New-England, fi 

Storm, they knew that they might, by pofTef- 
fing themfelves of the Ifle of Orleans, in a 
little while have ftarved them out. Incredible 
Damage they might indeed have done to the 
Enemy before they Embarked, but they were 
willing to preferve the more undefenfible Parts 
of the Country in fuch a Condition, as might 
more fenfibly Encourage the Submiflion of the 
inhabitants unto the Crown of England, whole 
Protection was defired by lb many of them. 
And 1UU they were loth to play for any lelTer 
Game than the immediate Surrender of £>iiebeck 
it ielf. But e're a full Council of War could 
conclude the next Steps to be taken, a violent 
Storm arofe that feparated the Fleet, and the 
Snow and the Cold became fo extream, that 
they could not continue in thofe Quarters any 

Thus, by an evident Hand of Heaven, fend- 
ing one unavoidable Difafter after another, as 
well-lbrmed an Enterprize, as perhaps was e- 
ver made by the New-Englanders, moll: un- 
happily mifcarried ; and General Pkips under 
went a very mortifying Difappointment of a 
Dciign, which his Mind was, as much as ever 
any, let upon. He arrived Nov. 19. at Bo/ion, 
where, although he found himfelf, as well as 
the Publick, thrown into very uneafie Cir- 
cumftances, yet he had this to Comfort him, 
that neither his Courage nor his Conduct 
could reafenably have been Taxed ; nor could 

' his, threw him over the Bridge into the YVa- 
' ter, where he was drowned. And the Fourth, 
' being in like manner molt courreouih 
'Treated at the Houfe of a very Godly Man, 
\ the Angel before Morning did unaccountably 
' kill his only Child. The Companion of the 
' Journey being wonderfully offended at rheie 
c things, would have left his Guardian : But 
' the Angel then thus Addreflcd him, Under- 
' jland now the fecret Judgments of God ! Jhe 
[ firji Man that entertained us, dtd mordinate- 
f ly afjitl that Cup vob/cb 1 took from him ; 
' twos for. the Advantage of his Interiour 
' that I took it away, and I gave it unto the 
' impious Man, as the prefent Reward of his 
c good Works, which is all the Reward that be 
' is like to have. As for our Third Hojl, the 
1 Servant which I few had formed a bloody 
• Defign to have fain his Mafic?; but nozv, 
' you fee, I have faved the Life of the Majier. 
' and prevented jome thing oj growth unto the 
' Eternal Punifhment oj the Murderer. As for 
i our Fourth Hoft, before his Child w.ti Born 
' unto him, he was a very liberal and bounti- 
c ful P erf on, and he did abundance of good with 
' his Ejlate ; but when he faw he wo* like to 
' leave fuch an Heir, he grew Covetous; where- 
c fore the Soul of the Infant is Tranflated into 
' Paradife, but the occafion of Sin is, you fee •, 
' mercifully taken away from the Parent. 

Thus General Phips, though he had been 

it be faid that any Man could have done more 'ufed unto Diving in his time, would lay, That 
than he did, under fo many Embaraffments of the things which had befallen him in this Ex- 
his Bufinefs, as he was to Fight withal. He pedition, were too deep to be Dived into ! 
a'fo relieved the uneafinefs of his Mind, by §.12. From the time that General Pen made 
coniidering, that his Voyage to Canada, diverted his Attempt upon Hifpaniola, with an Army 
from his Country an Horrible Tempeji from an that, like the New-Englifb Forces againft Ca- 
Army of Bofs-Lopers, which had prepar'd nada, mitcarried after an Expectation of having 

themfelves, as 'tis affirmed, that Winter, to fall 
upon the New-Englifh Colonies, and by falling 
on them, would probably have laid no little 
part of the Country delblate. And he further 
coniidered, that in this Matter, like l/rael 
engaging againft Benjamin, it may be, we 
faw yet but the beginning of the matter : 
And that the way to Canada now being learnt, 
the Foundation of a Victory over it might be 
laid in what had been already done. Unto 
this purpofe likewife, he was heard fometimes 
applying the Remarkable Story reported by 

' There was an Hermit, who being vexed 
s with Blafphemous Injections about the Juftice 
' and Wifdom of JJtoine Providence, an Angel 
1 in Humane Shape invited him to Travel 
'with him, That he might fee the hidden 
'" Judgments of God. Lodging all Night at 
' the Houfe of a Man who kindly entehain'd 
1 them, the Angel took away a valuable Cup 
' from their Hoft, at their going away in the 
' Morning, and bellowed this Cup upon a very 
' wicked Man, with whom they lodged the 
'Night enfuing. The Third Night they were 
' molt lovingly Treated at the Houfe of a very 
' Godly Man, from whom, when they went in 

little to do but to Pqfjcfs and Plunder ; even 
to this Day, the general Dilafter which hath 
attended almoft every Attempt of the Euro- 
pean Colonies in America, to make any confi- 
derable Encroachments upon their Neighbours, 
is a- Matter of fome clofe Reflection. But of 
the Difafter which now befel poor New-Eng- 
land in particular, every one will eafily con- 
clude none of the leaft Confequences to have 
been the Extream Debts which that Country 
was now plunged into •, there being Forty jhou~ 
fand Pounds, more or lefs, now to be paid, 
and not a Penny in the Treafury to pay it 
withal. In this Extremity they prelently found 
out an Expedient, which may lerve as an Ex- 
ample for any People in other Parts of the 
World, whofe DittreiTes may call for a fud- 
den fupply of Money to carry them through 
any Important Expedition. The General Af 
fembly lirft pafs'd an Ail for the Levying of 
fuch a Sum of Money as was wanted, within 
fuch a Term of time as was judged conveni- 
ent ; and this AS was a Fund, on which the 
Credit of fuch a Sum (hould be rendered paf 
fable among the People. Hereupon there was 
appointed an able and faithful Committee of 
Gentlemen, who Printed, from Copper-Plates, i. 

'the Morning, the Angel meeting a Servant of ljuft Number oi Bills, and Florilhed, Indented, 

G g i and 


Magna It : a Chrijii Americana : 

Book II. 

and Contrived them in fuch a manner, as to 
make it impoiiible to Counterfeit any of them, 
without a fpeedy Difcovery of the Counterfeit : 
Belides which, they were all Signed by the 
Hands of T.hree belonging to that Committee. 
Thefe Bills being or leveral Sams, from Tzvo 
Shillings, to "Tea Pox/ids, did confers the Maf- 
fachufet -Colony to be Endebted unto the Perfon, 
in whofe Hands they were, the Sums therein 
expreffed ; and Provifion was made, that if 
any Particular Bills were Irrecoverable Loft, or 
Torn, or Worn by the Owners, they might be 
Recruited without any Damage to the whole in 
general. The Publick Debts to the Sai/ort 
and Soldiers, now upon the point of Mutiny, 
(for, Anna Tcnenti, Omnia dat, qui Juftu 
negat ! ) were in thefe Bills paid immediate- 
ly : But that further Credit might be given 
thereunto, it was Ordered that they ihould be 
accepted by the Treaiurer, and all Officers 
that were Subordinate unto him, in all Publick 
Payments, at Five per Cent, more than the Va- 
lue expreffed in them. The People knowing 
that the lax- Aft would, in the fpace of Two 
Years at leaft, fetch into the Treafury as much 
as all the Bills of Credit, thence emitted, 
would amount unto, were willing to befurnilhed 
with Bills, wherein 'twas their Advantage to 
pay their 'taxes, rather than in any other 
Specie-, and fo the Sailors and Soldiers put off 
their Bills, inltead of Money, to thofe with 
whom they had any Dealings, and they Cir- 
culated through all the Hands in the Colony pretty 
Comfortably. Had the Government been fo 
fettled, that there had not been any doubt of 
any Obltruction, or Diverfion to be given to 
the Profecution of the lax-Ail, by a total 
Change of their Affairs then depending at 
Whitehall, 'tis very certain, that the Bills of 
Credit had been better than fo much ready 
Silver ; yea, the Invention had been of more 
ufe to the Nev-Evglanders, than if all their 
Copper Mines had been opened, or the Moun- 
tains of Peru had been removed into thefe 
Parts of America. The Majfachufet Bills of 
Credit had been like the Bank Bills of Venice, 
where though there were nor, perhaps, a Ducat 
of Money in the Bank, yet the Bills were e- 
fteemed tmre than Twenty per Cent, better 
than Money, among the Body of the People, 
in all their Dealings. But many People being 
afraid, that the Government would in half a 
Year be fo overturned, as to Convert their Bills 
of Credit altogether into Waft Paper, the Cre- 
dit of them was thereby very much impaired ; 
and they, who firft received them, could make 
them yield little more than fourteen or Six- 
teen Shillings in the Pound ; from whence 
there arofe thofe Idle Sufpicions in the Heads 
of many more Ignorant and Unthinking Folks 
concerning the ufe thereof which, to the In- 
credible Detriment of the Province, are not 
wholly laid afide unto this Day. However, 
this Method of paying the Publick Debts, did 
no lefs than fave the Publick from a perfett 
Rain: And ere nuny Months were expired, 

the Governour and Council had the Pleafure of 
feeing the Treafurcr burn before their Eyes 
many a Thoufand Pounds Worth of the Bills 
which had paifed about until they were again 
returned unto the Treafury ; but before their 
being returned, had happily and honeilly 
without a Farthing of Silver Coin, difcharged' 
the Debts, for which they were intended. But 
that which helped thefe Bills unto much of 
their Credit, was the Generous Offer of many 
Worthy Men in Bofion, to run the Rifque of 
felling their Goods reasonably for them : And 
of thefe, I think I may lay, that General 
Phips was in fome fort the Leader 5 who at 
the very beginning, meerly to Recommend 
the Credit of the Bills unto other Pcrfons, 
chearfully laid down a confiderable quantity of 
ready Money for an equivalent parcel of them. 
And thus in a little time the Country waded 
through the Terrible Debts which it was fal- 
len into : In this, though unhappy enough, yet 
not fo unhappy as in the Lojs of Men, by 
which the Country was at the fame time con- 
fumed. Tis true, there was very little Blood 
fpilt in the Attack made upon Rebeck ; and 
there was a Great Hand of Heaven leen in it. 
The Churches, upon the Call of the Govern- 
ment, not only obferved a General taji through 
the Colony, for the Welfare of the Army 
lent unto ^uebeck, but alfo kept the Wheel of 
Prayer in a Continual Motion, by Repeated 
and Succeffive Agreements, for Days of Prayer 
with Pajiing, in their feveral Vicinities. On 
thefe Days the Ferventeft Prayers were fent up 
to thz God of Armies, for the Safety and Suc- 
cefs of the New-Engli.fh Army gone to Canada ; 
and though I never underftood that any of the 
Faithful did in their Prayers arife to any affu- 
rance that the Expedition lfiould prof per in 
all refpeffs, yet they fometimes in their Devo- 
tions on thefe Occasions, uttered their Perfwa- 
fion, that Almighty God had heard them in this 
thing, that the Englifh Army fhould not fall by 
the Hands of the French Enemy. Now they 
were marvelloufly delivered from doing Jo -, 
though the Enemy had fuch unexpected Advan- 
tages over them, yea, and though the horrid 
Winter was come on fo far, that it is a Won- 
der the Englijh Fleet, then Riding in the River 
of Canada, fared any better than the Army 
which a while fince befieged Poland, wherein, 
of Seventy Thoufand Invaders, no left than 
Pony Thoufand fuddenly perifhed by the feveri- 
ty of the Cold, albeit it %re but' the Month 
of November with them. Neverthelef;, a kind 
of Camp-Fever, as well as the Small-Pox, got 
into the Fleet, whereby fome Hundreds came 
thort of Home. And befides this Calamity, 
it was alfo to be lamented, that although the 
molt, of the Fleet arrived fafe at New-England, 
whereof fome Veffels indeed were driven off 
by Crofs-Winds as far as the Weft-Indies, be- 
fore fuch Arrival ; yet there were Three or 
Four Veffels which totally mifcarried : One was 
never heard of, a Second was Wreck'd, but 
moft of the Msn were faved by another in 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory o/"New».Engtand. 


Company 5 a //.7/7/was Wreck'd 16, that all the 
Men were either itarv'd, or drown'd, orflain by 
the Indians, except one, which a long while 
after was by means of the French rcftored : 
And & fourth met with Accidents, which, it 
may be, my Reader will by and by pronounce 
not unworthy to have been Related. 

A Brigantine, whereof Captain John Rains- 
ford was Commander, having about Threeicore 
Men aboard, was in a very ftormy Night, 
03ob. 28. 1690. ftranded upon the defolate and 
hideous Ifland of Antecofia, an Ifland in the 
mouth of the Mighty River of Canada; but 
through the lingular Mercy of God unto them, 
the Veffel did not, immediately, ftave to pieces, 
which if it had happened, they mult have, one 
way or another, quickly perifhed. There they lay 
for divers Days, under abundance of bitter 
Weather, trying and hoping to get oft their 
Veffel; and they fblemnly let apart one Day 
for Prayer with Fajiing, to obtain the Smiles 
of Heaven upon them in the midft of their 
Diftreffes ; and this efpecially, That if they 
mult go Alhoar, they might not, by any ftrefsof 
Srorm, lole the Provifions which they were to 
carry with them. They were at laft convin- 
ced, that they mult continue no longer on Board, 
and therefore, by the Seventh of November, 
they applied themfelves, all Hands, to get their 
Provifions Alhoar upon the difmal Ifland 
where they had nothing but a lad and cold Win 
ter before them ; which being accomplifhed, 
their Veffel cverfet fo, as to take away from 
them all expectation of getting off the Ifland in 
it. Here they now built themfelves Nine fmall 
Chimney-lefs things that they called Houfes \ 
to this putpole employing fuch Boards and 
Planks as they could get from their fhattered 
Veffel, with the help of Trees, whereof that 
fqualid Wildernefs had enough to ferve them ■. 
and they built a particular Store-Houfe, where- 
in they carefully Lodg'd and Lock'd the poor 
quantity of Provifions, which though fcarce 
enough to ferve a very abftemious Company for 
one Month, mutt now be lb ftinted, as to hold 
out Six or Seven • and the Allowance agreed 
amon b them could be no better than for One 
Man, Two Biskets, half a pound of Pork, half 
a pound of Flower, one Pint and a quarter of 
Peafe, and two Salt Fiftes per Week. This 
little Handful of Men were now a fort of Com- 
monwealth, extraordinarily and miferably fe- 
parated from all the reft of Mankind ; (but I 
believe, they thougnt little enough of an Uto- 
pia: Wherefore they confulted and concluded 
fuch Lazes among themfelves, as they judged 
neceffary to their firbiiftence, in the doleful Con- 
dition whereinto the Providence of God had 
call them : now 

Pen it us toto divifos Or be. 

They fet up Good Orders, as well as they 
could, among themfelves ; and befides their daily 
Devotions, they Obferved the Lord's Days, with 
more folemn Exercifes of Religion. 

But it was not long before they began to feel 
the more mortal effects of the Sinsits where 
into they had been Reduced : Their Jhrrt Gpnj 
mons, their Drink of Snow-Water, their Hard, 
and Wet, and Smoaky Lodgings, and their 
Grievous Defpair oj Mind, overwhelmed fome 
of them at luch a rate, and fo ham- firing d 
them, that fooner than be at the pains to go 
abroad, and cut their one Fuel, they would lye 
after a Sottilh manner in the Cold ; thefe things 
quickly brought Sickneffes among them. The 
full of their Number who Died was their Do- 
lt or, on the 20th of December • and then they 
dropt away, one after another, till between 
Lhirty and Forty of the Sixty were buried by 
thtiir difconfolate Friends, whereof every one 
look'd ftill to be the next that ihould lay his 
Bones in that Forfaken Region. Thefe poor 
Men did therefore, on Monday the Twenty Se- 
venth of January, keep a Sacred Fafi (as they 
did, in fome fort, a Civil one, every Day, all 
this while) to befeech of Almighty God, that 
his Anger might be turned irom them, that he 
would not go on to cut them off in his Anger, 
that the Extremity of the Seafon might be mi- 
tigated, and that they might be profpered in 
fome Effay to get Relief as the Spring Ihould 
Advance upon them ; and they took Notice 
that God gave them a Gracious Anfwer to every 
one of thefe Petitions. 

But while the hand of God was killing fo 
many of this little Nation (and yet uncapable to 
become a Nation, lot it was, Res uw//y,T talis, 
populus virorum I) they apprehended, that they 
mufc have been under a moft uncomfortable Ne- 
celiity to kill One of their Company. 

Whatever Penalties they Enacted for other 
Crimes, there was One, for which, like that of 
Pamcidc among the Antients. they would have 
promifed themfelves, that there fhould not have 
been Occafion for any Puniflments ; and that 
was, the Crime of Stealing from the Common- 
Stock of their Provifions. Nevertheless they 
found their Store-Houfe divers times broken 
open, and their Provifions therefrom Stolen 
by divers unnatural Children cf the Leviathan, 
while it was not pollible for them to preferve 
their feeble Store-Houfe from the Stonc-Wall- 
breaking Madneis of thefe unrea finable Crea 
tures. This Trade of Stealing, if it had not been 
ftopp'd by fome exemplary Severity, they muft 
in a little while, by Lot or Force, have come to 
have Canibally devoured one another ; for there 
was nothing to be done, either at Ftfhing, or 
Fowling, or Hunting, upon that Rueful Ifland, 
in the depth of a Frozen Winter; and though 
they fent as far as they could upon jJifcovery, 
they could not find on the Ifland any Living 
thing in the World, befides themfelves. Where- 
fore, though by an Ail they made Stealing to 
be lb Criminal, thatfeveral did Run the Gant- 
let for it,, yet they were not far from being 
driven, after all, to make one Degree and In 
fiance of it Capital. There was a wicked 
Irifhman among them, who had fuch a Vo/ya- 
om Devil in him, that ,after .divers Burglaries 


54 Magnalia Chrijli Americana : 

Book II. 

upon the Store-Houfe, committed by him, at 
la It he Stole, and Eat with fuch a Pamphagoits 
Fury, as to Cram himfelf with no lefs than 
Eighteen Biskets at one Stolen Meal,and he was 
tain to have his Belly Itrok'd and bath'd before the 
Fire, left he lhould otherwife have burft. This 
Amazing, and indeed Murderous Villany of the 
Irifhman, brought them all to their Wits Ends, 
how to defend themfelvesfrom the Ruin therein 
threatned unto them ; and whatever Methods 
were propofed, it was feared that there could 
be no ftop given to his Furacioits Exorbitances 
any way but One ■ he could not be paft Steal- 
ing, unlefs he were paft Eating too. Some 
think therefore they might have Sentenced the 
Wretch to Die, and after they had been at pains, 
upon Chriftian and Spiritual Accounts, to pre- 
pare him for it, have Executed the Sentence, by 
Shooting him to Death : Concluding Matters 
come to that pals, that if they had not Shot him, 
he mult have Starved them unavoidably. Such an 
A£tion, if it were done, will doubtlefs meet 
with no harder a Cenfure, than that of the Seven 
Englifomen, who being in a Boat carried oft" to 
Sea from St.- Chriflopher% with but one Days 
Provifion aboard for Seventeen, Singled out 
fome of their Number by Lot, and Slew, them, 
and Eat them ■, for which, when they were af- 
terwards accufed of Murder, the Court, in con- 
federation of the inevitable Necejfity, acquitted 
them. Truly the inevitable Neceffity of Star- 
ving, without fuch an A£tion, fufficiently grie- 
vous to them all, will very much plead for 
what was done (whatever it were !) by thefe 
poor Antecofiians. And Starved indeed they 
muft have been, for all this, if they had not 
Contrived and Performed a very defperate Ad- 
venture, which now remains to be Related. 
There was a very diminutive kind of Boat be- 
longing to their Brigantine, which they reco- 
vered out of the Wreck, and cutting this Boat 
in Two, they made a fhift, with certain odd 
Materials preferved among them, to lengthen 
it lb far, that they could therein form a little 
Cuddy, where Two or Three Men might be 
flowed, and they fet up a little Maft, whereto 
they fattened a little Sail, and accommodated it 
with fome other little Ctrcumjiances, according 
to their prefent poor Capacity. 

On the Twenty Fifth of March, Five of the 
Company Shipped themfelves upon this Doughty 
Fly-Boat, intending, if it were poflible, to carry 
unto Boflon the Tidings of their woful Plight 
upon Antecofla, and by help from their Friends 
there, to return with feafonable Succours -for 
the reft. They had not Sail'd long before they 
were Hemm'd in by prodigious Cakes of Ice, 
whereby their Boat fometimes was horribly 
wounded, and it was a Miracle that it was not 
Crulh'd into a Thou/and Pieces, if indeed a 
Thou/and Pieces could have been Splintred out 
of fo minute a Cock-Boat. They kept labour- 
ing, and fearfully Weather-beaten, among enor- 
mous Rands of Ice, which would ever now and 
then rub formidably upon them, and were 
enough to have broken the Ribs of the ftrongeft 

Frigot that ever cut the Seas; and yet the fig- 
nal Hand of Heaven lb preferved this petty 
Boat, that by the Eleventh of April they had 
got a quarter of their way, and came to an An- 
chor under Cape St. Lawrence, having feen 
Land but once befbie, and that about feven 
Leagues oft, ever fince their firft fetting out - t 
and yet having feen the open and Ocean Sea not 
fo much at once in all this while, for the Ice 
that ftill encompafled them. For their fupport 
in this Time, the little Provifions they brought 
with them would not have kept them alive -, 
only they killed Seale upon the Ice, and they 
melted the upper part of the Ice for Drink ; but 
fierce, wild, ugly Sea-Horfes, would often fo 
approach them upon the Ice, that the fear of 
being devoured by them was not the leaft of 
their Exercifes. The Day following they 
weighed Anchor betimes in the Morning but 
the Norwejl Winds perlecuted them, with the 
raifed and raging Waves of the Sea, which al- 
moft continually poured into them ; and Mon- 
ftrous Illands of Ice, that feemed almoft as big 
as Antecojla it felf, would ever now and then 
come athwart them. In fuch a Sea they lived 
by the fpecial aililtance of God, until, by the 
Thirteenth of April, they got into an Ifland of 
Land, where they made a Fire, and killed fome 
Fowl, and fome Seale, and found fome Goofe- 
Fggs, and fupplied themfelves with what Bil- 
lets of Wood were necelfary and carriageable 
for them •, and there they flayed until the Seven- 
teenth. Here their Boat lying near a Rock, a 
great Sea hove it upon the Rock, lb that it 
was upon the very point of overfetting, which 
if it had, fhe had been utterly difabled for any 
further Service, and they muft have called that 
Harbour by the Name, which, I think, one a 
little more Northward bears, TfoCape without 
Hope. There they muft have ended their wea- 
ry Days! But here the good Hand cfGod again 
interpofed for them; they got her off"; and 
though they loft their Compafs in this Hurry, 
they fufficiently Repaired another defective one 
that they had aboard. Sailing from thence, 
by the Twenty-iourth of April, they made 
Cape Brittoon ; when a thick Fog threw them 
into a new Perplexity, until they were lafely 
gotten into the Bay of {(lands, where they a- 
gain wooded, and watred. and killed a few 
Fowl, and catchtd fome Filh, and began to 
reckon themfelves as good as half way home. 
They reached Cape Sables by the Third of May y 
but by the Fifth all their Provifion was again 
fpent, and they were out of fight of Land ; nor 
had they any profpeft of catching any thing 
that lives in the Atlantick : which while they 
were lamenting one unto another, a ftout Hali- 
but comes up to the top of the Water, by their 
fide ; whereupon they threw out the Fifhing- 
Line, and the Filh took the Hook ; but he pro- 
ved 16 heavy, that it required the help of ft- 
veral Hands to hale him in, and a thankful 
Supper they made on't. By the Seventh of 
May feeing no Land, but having once more 
fpent all their Provifion, they were grown al- 

Book II. Or, The Hiftory cfNew-Englmd* 

moft wholly hopelefs of Deliverance, but then 
a Filhing Shallop of Cape Ann came up with 
them, Fifteen Leagues to the Eaftward of that 
Cape! And yet before they got in, they had 
fo Tempeltuous a Night, that they much feared 
perilhing upon the Rocks after all : But God 
carried them into Bojion Harbour the Ninth of 
May-, unto the great furprize of their Friends 
that were in Mourning for them : And there 
furnithing themlclves with a VelTel fit for their 
Undertaking, they took a Courfe in a few 
Weeks more to letch home their Brethren that 
they left behind them at Antecojia. 

But it is now time for us to return unto Sir 
William ! 

§. 13. All this while CANADA was as 
much written upon Sir Williams Heart, as 
CA LLIC E, they laid once, was upon Queen 
Marys. He needed not one to have been his 
daily Monitor about Canada : It lay down 
with him, it role up with him, it engtoffed al- 
moft all his thoughts ; he thought the fubdu- 
ing of Canada to be the greateft Service that' 
could be done for New-England, or for the 
Crown of England, in America. In purfuance 
whereof, after he had been but a few Weeks 
at Home, he took another Voyage for bngland, 
in the very depth of Winter, when Sailing was 
now dangerous \ conflicting with all the Diffi- 
culties or a tedious and a terrible Paffage, in a 
very little Vefi'el, which indeed was like e- 
nough to have perifhed, if it had not been for 
the help of his generous Hand aboard, and 
his Fortunes in the bottom. 

Arriving- per tot Di/crimina, at Bri- 

Jiol, he haftned up to London ; and made his 

Applications to their Majefties, and the Princi- 1 Liberty and Property alter fuch a manner, ii 

' Secondly, The Caufe of the Englijh in New- 
' England, their failing in the late Attempt up- 
• on Canada, was their waiting for a Supply 
c of Ammunition from England until Auguji , 
'their long Paffage up that River; the Cold 
' Sea/on coming en, and the Small-Pox and Fe 
1 vers being in the Army and Fleet, lb that they 
' could not ltay Fourteen Days longer 5 in which 
' time probably they might have taken U$j/e- 
' beck; yet, if a few Frigots be fpeedily lent, 
' they doubt not of an happy Succefs ; tht 
' Strength of the French being fmall, and the 
' Planters defirous to be under the Englijh Go- 
' vernmenr. 

' Thirdly, The Jefuires endeavour to feduce 
1 the Maquas, and other Indians (as is by' 
' them affirmed) fuggcthng the Greatnefs of 
' King Lewis, and the Inability of King Willj- 
' am, to do any thing againft the French in thole 
' Parts, thereby to engage them in their Inte- 
' ;efts : In which, if they lhould fucceed, not 
' only New-England, but all our American 
' Plantations, would be endangered by the great 
' increafe of Shipping, for the French (built in 
' Neu-tngland at ealie rates) to the Infinite 
' Difhonour and Prejudice of the Englijh Ni- 
' tion. 

But now, for the Succefs of thefe Applicatf 
ons, I muft entreat the Patience of my Reader 
to wait until we have gone through a little 
more of our Hiftory. 

§. 14. The Reverend INCREASE 
M AT HER beholding his Country of A T ew- 
England in a very Deplorable Condition, un- 
der a Governour that acted by an Illegal, Atbi- 
wary, Treafonable Commifliori, and Invaded 

pal Minifters of State, for affiftance to renew 
an Expedition againft Canada, concluding his 
Representation to the King with fuch Words as 
thefe : 

'If Your Majefly fhall gracioufly pi cafe to 

* Comttiiflion and Aflift me, I am ready to 
1 venture my Life again in your Service. 
' And I doubt not, but by the Bleffing of God, 
< Canada may be added unto the reft of your 
' Dominions, which will (all Circumftances 
'confidered) be of more Advantage to the 
1 Crown of England, than all the Territories in 

* the Weft-Indies are. 

The Reafons here fubjoined, are humbly Offered 
unto Tour Majejiies Confederation. 

c Firft, The Succefs of this Defign will 
' greatly add to the Glory and Intereft of the 
' Eng/ifr Crown and Nation ; by the Addition 
« of the Bever-Trade, and Securing the Hudjbris 

* Boy Company, fome of whofe FaUories have 
' lately fallen into the Hands of the Trench • 
'and increafe of English Shipping and Seamen, 

* by gaining the Fifhery of Newfoundland ; and 
<■ by conlequence diminifh the number of French 
' Seamen, and cat off a gteat Revenue from the 

* French Crown'. 

that no Man could lay any thing was his own, 
he did, with the Encouragement of the Prin- 
cipal Gentlemen in the Country, but not with- 
out much Trouble and Hazard unto his own 
Perfon, go over to Whitehall in the Summer 
of the Year 1688. and wait upon King James, 
with a full Reprefentation of their Miferies. 
That King did give him Liberty of Accefs 
unto him, whenever he defired it, and with 
many Good Words promifed him to relieve 
the Oppreffed People in many Injiances that 
were propofed ; But when the Revolution hid 
brought the Prince and Princefs of Orange to 
the Throne, Mr. Mather having the Honour di- 
vers times to wait upon the King, he ftill 
prayed for no lefs a Favour to New-Eng- 
land, than the full Reftoration of their Char- 
ter-Privilcdges : And Sir William Phips ha£- 
| pening to be then in England, very generoufly 
joined with Mr. Mather in fome of thofe Ad- 
dreffes : Whereto His Majefty's Anfwers were 
always very expreflive of his Gracious In- 
clinations. Mr. Mather, herein affifted alfo 
by the Right Worfhipful Sir Henry Afhurft, 
a moft Hearty Friend of all fuch good 
Men as thofe that once filled Neva-Eng- 
land, folicited the Leading Men of both Houfes 
in the Couvsnt ion- Parliament, until a Bill for the 



Magnolia Cbrifii Americana : 

Book II. 

Reftoring of the Charters belonging to 'New- 
England, was fully palled by the Commons of 
'England; but that Parliament being Prorogu'd, 
and then DifToIvcd, all that Sifyphnean Labour 
came to nothing. The Di (appointments which 
afterwards moll wonderfully Halted all the 
hopes of the Petitioned Reftoration, obliged 
Mr. Mather, not without the Concurrence of 
other Agents, now alio come from New-Eng- 
land, unto 'that Method of Petitioning the 
King for a New Charter, that ihould contain 
more thin all the Priviltdges of the Old ; and 
Sir Willi mi Phips. now being again returned 
into England, Lent his utmoft alfiftance here- 

The King taking a Voyage for Holland be- 
fore this Petition was anfweted ; Mr. Mather, 
in the mean while, not only waited upon the 
greareft part of the Lords of His Majefties moft 
Honourable Privy Council, offering them a Pa- 
per of Reafons for the Confirmation of the 
Chatter-Priviledges granted unto the Maffachu- 
fet-Colony ; but alio having the Honour to 
be introdiic'd unto the Queen, he alTured Her 
Majefty, That there were none in the World 
better affected unto their Majefties Government 
than the People of New-England, who had in- 
deed been expofed unto gteat Hardfhips for 
their being fo ; and entreated, that fince the 
King had referred th&New-Engli/b Affair unto 
the Two Lord Chief Juftices, with the Attor- 
ney and Solicitor General, there might be 
granted unto us what they thought was rea- 
fonable. Whereto the Queen replied, Thar 
the Requelt was reafonable ; and that (he had 
fpoken divers times to the King on the behalf 
of New-England • and that for her own parr, 
(he delired that the People there might not 
meerly have J u ft ice, but Favour done to them. 
When the King was returned, Mr. Mather. 
being by the Duke of Devonffnre brought into 
the King's Prefence on April _28. 1691. hum- 
bly pray'd His Majefties Favour to New-Eng- 
land; urging, That if their Old Charter-Privi- 
ledges might be reftored unto them, his Name 
would be great in thofe Parts of the World as 
long as the World ihould ftarrd •, adding, 


YO V R Subiett s there have been willing to 
venture their Lives, that they may en- 
large your Dominions; the Expedition to Cana- 
da was a Great and Noble Undertaking. 

May ft pleafc your Majejiy, in your great 
Wifdom aljo to conjidcr the Circumftances oj 
that People,- as- in your Wijdom you have confi- 
dered the Grcunijhinces oj England, and of 
Scotland.. In New-F.ngland they differ from 
other Plantations ; they are called Congregati- 
onal and Presbyterian. So that fuch a Go- 
vernour will narjuit with the People of New- 
England, ai may be very proper for other 
Englilh Plantations. 

'Two- Days after this, the King, upon what 
was. pro poled by certain Lords, was very in- 

qulfitive, whether he/might, without breach of 
Law, let a Gcjvernour n. •-■ New-England-, 
whereto the Lord Chief Ju r f1.!ce. and fome 
thers of the Council, anlkv.vl, That whate- 
ver might be the Merit oi the Caufe, inaf- 
much as the Charter of Nita-England ftpbd 
vacated by a Judgment agairift them, it was in 
the King's Power to p !: t them under what 
Form of Government he Ihonid think belt lor ' 

The King then faid, ' That he believed it 
' would be for the Advantage of the People in 
' that Colony, to be under a Governour appoin- 
c ted by himfelf : NevertfreleisfDeeanie of what 
Mr. Mather had fpoken to him J ' He would 
1 have the Agents of New-England nominate a 
c Perfon that fhould be agreeable unto the In- 
clinations of the People there; and notwith- 
' ftanding this, he would have Charter-Privi- 
' ledges reftored and confirm^ unto them. 

The Day following the King began another 
Voyage to Holland; and when the Attorney 
Genetal's Draught of a Charier, according to 
what he took to be His Mydlies Mind, as ex- 
prefled in Council, was prefentedattheG#?«7- 
Board, on the Eighth of June y fome Objections 
then made, procured an Order to prepare minutes 
for another Draught, which deprived the 
New Englanders of leveral Ejfential PrfaiFedges 
in their other Charter. Mr. Mather put in his 
Objections, and vehemently protefted, That he 
would fooner part with his Life, than content 
unto thofe Minutes, or any thing elle that 
fhould infringe any Liberty or Priviledge of 
Right belonging unto his Country : but he was 
arifwered, That the Agents of Nets-England 
were nor Plenipotentiaries from another Sove- 
raign State; and that if the? would not fubm'u 
unto the King's Pleafure in the Settlement of 
the Country, they muft take what would fol- 

The difTatis Factory Minutes were, by Mr. 
Mather's Induftry, fent over unto the King in 
Plunders ; and the Minifters of State then with 
the King were earneftly applied unto, that e- 
very miftake about the good Settlement of 
New-England might be prevented ; and the 
Queen her felf, with her own Royal Hand, 
wrote unto the King, that the Charter of AVre- 
England might either pafs as it was drawn by 
the Attorney General, or he deferred until his 
own Return. , 

But after all, His Majefties Principal Secre- 
rary of State received 'a Signification of the 
King's Pleafure, that the Charter of New-Eng- 
land fhould run in the Main Points of it as 
it was now granted : Only there were fcveral 
Important Articles which 'Mr. Mather by his 
unwearied Solicitations obtained afterwards to be 

There were fome now of the Opinion, that 
inftead of fubmitting to this New Settlement, 
they fhould. in hopes of getting a Reverfion 
of the Judgment againft the Old Charter, de- 
clare .to the Minifters of Sate, That they had 
rather have no Charter at all, than fuch an on? 


Book II. Or, The Hi/lory ofNew-En^land. 


as was now propofed unto Acceptance. But 
Mr. Mather adviiing with many unprejudiced 
Perfons, and Men of the greateft Abilities in 
the Kingdom, Noblemen, Gentlemen, Divines 
and Lawyers, they all agreed, that it was not 
onlv a lawful, but all Circumltances then con- 
(idered, a Needful thing, and a part of Duty 
and Wifdom to accept what was now offered, 
and that a peremptory retufal would not only 
bring an Inconveniency, but a Fatal, and per- 
haps, a Final Ruin upon the Country ; where- 
of Mankind would lay the blame upon the A- 

It was argued,That fuch a Submiffion was no 
Surrender of any thing ; that the Judgment, 
not in the Court of King's Bench, but in Chan- 
cery againft the Old Charter, (landing on Re- 
cord, the patten was thereby Annihilated 5 
that all attempts to have the Judgment againlt 
the Old Charter taken oft", would be altogether 
in vain, as Men and Things were then difpo- 

It was further argued, That the Ancient 
Charter of New-England was in the Opinion 
of the Lawyers very Defettive, as to feveral 
Powers, which yet were abiblutely neceflary 
to the fubfiltence of the Plantation : It gave 
the Government there no more Power than the 
Corporations have in England ; Power in Ca- 
pital Cafes was not therein particularly ex- 

It mentioned not an lioufe of Deputies, or 
an Affembly of Reprefentatives ; the Gover- 
nour and Company had^thereby (they faid) no 
Power to impofe Taxes on the Inhabitants that 
were not Freemen, or to erecf Courts of Admi- 
ralty. Without fuch Powers the Colony could 
not fubfift ; and yet the beft Friends that New- 
England had of Perfons mod Learned in the 
Law, profelTed, that fuppofe the Judgment a- 
gainft the Maffachufet -Charter might be Re- 
verfed, yet, it they (hould again Exert fuch 
Powers as they did before the 0$uo Warranto 
againft their Charter, a new Writ of Scire 
Facia* would undoubtedly be ilTued out againft 

It was yet further argued, That if an Aft of 
Parliament (hould have Reverfed the Judgment 
againft the Maffachufet -Charter, without a 
Grant of fome other Advantages, the whole 
Territory had been, on many Accounts, very 
miferably Incommoded : The Province of Main, 
with Hampfhire, would have been taken from 
them ; and Plymouth would have been annex- 
ed unto New-Tor k ; fo that this Colony would 
have been fqueezed into an Atom, and not on- 
ly have been render'd Infignificant in its Trade, 
but by having its Militia alfo, which was veiled 
in the King, taken away, its Infignificancies 
would have become out of meal'ure hum- 
bling ; whereas now, inftead of feeing any Re 
lief by Afct of Parliament, they would have 
been put under a Governour, with a Commif- 
iion, whereby ill Men, and the King's and 

Country's Enemies might probably have crept 
into Opportunities to have done Ten Thouiand 
ill things, and have treated the beft Men in the 
Land after a very uncomfortable manner. 
^ It was LlUy argued, That by the ' New 
Charter very great Priviledges were granted 
unto New- England ; and in form iefpecfs 
greater than what they formerly enjoyed. The 
Colony is now made a Province, and their 
General Court, has, wiih the King's Approba- 
tion, as much Power in New-England, as the 
King and Parliament have in England. They 
have all Englilh Liberties, and can be touched 
by no Law, by no Tax, but of their own 
making. All the Liberties of their Holy Reli- 
gion are for ever (enured, and their Titles to 
their Lands, once for want of lome Forms of 
Legal Conveyance, contefted, are now confirmed- 
unto them If an ill Governour fhould hap- 
pen to be impofed on them, what hurt could he 
do to them ! None, except they themlelves 
plea fed ; ior he cannot make one Counfellor, 
or one Judge, or one Juftice, or one Sheriff 
to ferve his Turn : Di fad vantages enough, one 
would think, to Dilcourage any ill Gover- 
nour from defiring to be Stationed in thoie 
uneafie Regions. The People have a Nega- 
tive upon all the Executive part of the Civil 
Government, as well as the Legiflative, which 
is a valt Priviledge, enjoyed by no other 
Plantation in America, nor by Ireland, no, 
nor hitherto by England it fell; Why (hould 
all of this good be refufed or defpifed, be- 
caufe of fome what not fo good attending it ? 
The Deipiiers of fo much good, will cer- 
tainly deferve a Cenfure, not unlike that of 
Caufabon, upon fome who did not value what 
that Learned Man counted highly valuable, 
Vix illis optari quidquam pejus potefl, quam 
ut fatuitate fua fruantur : N4uch good may 
do them with their Madnefs ! All of this be- 
ing well coniidered, Sir William Phips, who' 
had made fb many Addrefles for the Refto- 
ration of the Old' Charter, under which he 
had feen his Country many Years fiourifh- 
ing, will be excufed by all the World from 
any thing of a Fault, in a moft unexpected 
palTage of his Life, which is now to be re- 

Sir Henry Afhurfi, and Mr. Mather, well 
knowing the agreeable Dilpofition to do Good, 
and the King and his Country Service, which 
was in Sir William Phips, whom they now 
had with them, all this while Profecuting his 
Defign for Canada, they did unto the Council- 
Boatd nominate him for the G O V E R N O U R 
of Nets-England. And Mr. Mather being by the 
Eatl of Nottingham introduced unto His Ma. 
jefty, faid, 


Do, in the behalf of New-England, moft 
humbly thank your Majefty, in that you 
have been pleafed, by a Charter, to reftore Englitti 
H h Liberties 



Magnalia Chrifli Americana : 

Book II. 

Liberties unto them, to confirm them in their 
Properties, and to grant than fome peculiar 
Priviledges. I doubt not, but that your Sub- 
jects there will demean thcmfelves with that du- 
tiful Affection and Loyalty to your Majefly, a* 
that you will fee caufe to enlarge your Royal 
Favours towards them. And I do moft humbly 
thank your Majejiy, in that you have been 
pleafed to give leave unto thofe that are con- 
cerned for New-England to nominate their Go- 

Sir William Phips ha* been accordingly no- 
minated by us at the Council-Board, lie hath 
done a good Service for the Crown, by en- 
larging your Dominions, and reducing of Nova 
Scotia to your Obedience. I know that he will 
faithfully ferve your Majefly to the utmofl of 
his Capacity -, and if your Majefty fhall think 
fit to confirm him in that place, it will be a 
further Obligation on your Subjects there. 

The Effecls of all this was, that Sir William 
Phips was now invefted with a Commiifion under 
the King's Broad-Seal to be Captain General, 
and Governour in chief over the Province of 
the Majfachufet-Bay in New-England : Nor do 
I know a Perfon in the World that could 
have been propofed more acceptable to the Body 
of the People throughout New-England, and 
on that fcore more likely and able to ferve the 
King's Interelts among the People there, un- 
der the Changes in fome things unacceptable, 
now brought upon them. He had been a Gide- 
on, who had more than once ventured his Life 
to fave his Country from their Enemies -, and 
they now, with univerfal Satisfaction Paid, 
Thou fhalt rule over us. Accordingly, having 
with Mr. Mather killed the King's Hand on 
January ?d, 169 1. he haftned away to his Go- 
vernment •, and arriving- at New-England the 
Fourteenth of May following, attended with 
the Non-fucb-Fr/gaf, both of them were wel- 
comed with the loud Acclamations of the long 
fhakeh and fhatter'd Country, whereto they 
were now returned with a Settlement (b full of 
happy Priviledges. 

§. 15. When Titus Flaminius had freed the 
poor Grecians from the Bondage which had 
long oppreffed them, and the Herald Proclaim- 
ed among them the Articles of their Freedom,they 
cried out, A Saviour ! A Saviour ! with 
fuch loud Acclamations, that the very Birds 
fell down from Heaven aftonifh'd at the Cry. 
Truly, when Mr. Mather brought with him 
unto the poor New-Engldnders, not only a 
Charter, which though in divers Points want- 
ing what both he and they had wilhed for, 
yet for ever delivers them from Oppreffions 
on their Chriftian and Englifh Liberties, or 
on their Ancient Pofleffions, wherein ruining 
Writs of Intrufion. had begun to Invade them 
all, but alfo a GOVERNOUR who might 
call New-England his own Country, and who 
was above moft Men in it, full of Affe&ion 
to the Interefts of hh Country -, the fenfible 

part of the People then caufed the Sence of 
the Salvations thus brought them to reach as 
far as Heaven it felf The various little Hu- 
mours then working among the People, did 
not hinder the Great and General Court of the 
Province to appoint a Day of Solemn 
THANKSGIVING to Almighty God, 
for Granting (as the Printed Order expreffed it) 
a fiafe Arrival to his Excellency our Governour 
and the Reverend Mr. Increaie Mather, who 
have indufrioufly endeavoured the Service of 
this People, and have brought over with them 
a Settlement of Government, in which their 
Majefties have gracioujly given us diftinguifb- 
i»g 'Marks of their Royal Favour and Good- 

And as the obliged People thus gave Thanks 
unto the God of Heaven, io they lent an Ad- 
drefs of Thanks unto Their Majefties, with other 
Letters of Thanks unto fome Chief Miniffers of 
State, for the Favourable Afpell herein- caft up- 
on the Province. 

Nor were the People miftaken, when they 
promifed thcmfelves all the kindnefs imagina- 
ble from this Governour, and expected, Under 
hi s Jhadow we fhall live ea fie among the Heathen : 
Why might they not look tor Halcyon-days, 
when they had fuch a King's-Fifher for their 
Governour ? 

Governour Phips had, as every raifed and 
ufeful Perfon muft have, his Envious Enemies ■ 
but the paleft Envy of them, who turned their 
worft Enmity upon him, could not hinder them 
from confefling, That according to the befi of 
his Apprehenfion, he ever fought the good of 
his Country : His Country quickly felt this on 
innumerable Occafions; and they bad it emi- 
nently demonft rated, as well in his promoting 
and approving the Council's choice of good 
Judges, Juflices and Sheriffs, which being once 
eftablifhed, no Succeffor could remove them 
as in his urging the General AJfembly to make 
themfelves happy by preparing a Body of good 
Laws as faft as they could, which being paffed 
by him in his time, could not be nulled by any 
other after him. 

He would often fpeak to the Members of 
the general AiTernbly in fuch Terms as thefe, 
Gentlemen, Ton may make your J elves as cafie 
as you will for ever ; conftder what may have 
any tendency to your welfare - and you 
may be fure, that whatever bills you offer to 
me, confiftent with the Honour and Inter eft of 
the Crown, III pafs them readily ; I do but feek 
Opportunities to ferve you \ had it not been 
for the fake of this thing, I had never accep- 
ted the Government of this Province ; and when- 
ever you have fettled fuch a Body of good Laws, 
that no Perfon coming after me ?nay make you 
uneafie, I fhall defire not one Day longer 
to continue in the Government. According- 
ly he ever paffed every Act for the welfare 
of the Province propofed unto him 5 and in- 
ftead of ever putting them upon Buying his 
Aflent unto any good At\, he was much 


Book II. Or : l The Hiftory gf New-Jinglarid. 

.y '- 

forwarder to give it, than they were to ask it: 
Nor indeed, had the Hunger of a Salary any 
fuch Imprelfion upon him, as to make him de- 
cline doing all pofftble Service for the Publick, 
while he was not fure of having any Proporti- 
onable or Honourable Acknowledgments. 

But yet he minded the Preiervation of the 
King's Rights with as careful and faithful a 
Zeal as became a good Steward for the Crown : 
And, indeed, he ftudied nothing more than 
to obferve fuch a Temper in all things, as to 
extinguifh what others have gone to diftinguilh ; 
even the Pernicious Notion of a fepatate In- 
tereft. There was a time when the Roman 
Empire was infelted with a valt number of Go- 
vernors, who were Infamous for Infinite A- 
varice and Villany ; and referring to this time, 
the Apoltle John had a Vifion of People killed 
with the Beafls of the Earth. 

But Sir William Phips was none of thofe Go- 
vernours ; wonderfully contrary to this wret'ch- 
ednefs was the Happinefs of New-England, 
when they had Governour Phips, ufing the ten- 
dernefs of a Father towards tlie People ; ant! 
being of the Opinion, Ditare magh ejje Regium 
quam Ditefcere, that it was a braver thing to 
enrich the People, than to gtow rich himlilf 
A father, I faid ; and what if I had laid an 
Angel too ? If I (hould from Clemens Alex- 
andrinus, from Theodoret, and from Jerom, and 
and others among the Ancients, as well as from 
Calvin, and Bucan, and Peter Martyr, and 
Chemnit'ws, and Bullinger, and a Thoufand 
more among the Moderns, bring Authorities 
for the Aflertion, That each Country and Pro- 
vince is under the Jpecial Care of Jonie Angel, 
by a fmgular Deputation of Heaven ajjigncd 
thereunto, I could back them with a- far 
greater Authority than any of them all. The 
Scripture it felf does plainly affert it : And 
hence the molt Learned Grot ins, writing of 
Commcnipealths, has a Paffage to this purpofe, 
His Jin&ulis\ fuos Attributos, effe Angelos, ex 
Daniclt, viagno conjenfu, t> J Jud.ri 6" Chrijiiani 
vetercs colligebant. 

But New-England had now, betides the Guar- 
dian-Angel, who more invifibly intended its 
welfare, a Governour that became wonderfully 
agreeable thereunto, by his whole Imitation 
of fuch a Guardian-Angel. He employed his 
whole Strength to guard his People from all 
Difafters, which threatned them either by Sea 
or Land ; and it was remark'd, that nothing re- 
markably Difaftrous did befal that People 
ftom the time of his Arrival to the Govern- 
ment, until there arrived an Order for his 
leaving it : (Except one thing which was be- 
gun before he entred upon the Government :) 
But inftead thereof, the Indians were notably 
defeated in the AfTaults which they now 
made upon the Englijh, and feveral French 
Ships did alio very advantageoufly fall into 
his Hands j yea, there Was by his means a 
Peace rcltored unto the Province, that had been 


divers Years languifhing under the Hettic 
Feaverofu lingring War. 

And there was this one thing more that 
rendred his. Government the more deferable • 
that whereas 'tis impoiiible for a rneer Man 
to govern without fbme Error ; whenever this 
Governour was adviled of any Error in any of 
his Adminillrations, he would immediately re' 
tract it, and revoke it with all poilible Inge- 
nuity ; lb that if any occaiion of juft Complaint 
arole, it was ufually his endeavour that it fhould 
not long be complain'd of." 

■0, Erl/ces minium, fua fi Bona, norant, 
A ov- A ng It. 

But having in a Par cm he [is newly intima- 
ted, that his Excellency, when he entred on 
his Government, found one thing that was 
remarkably Difaftrous begun upon it : Of 
that one thing we will now give fome ac 

Reader, prepare to be entertained with as 
prodigious Matters as can be put into any Hi- 
lfory ! And let him that writes the next Thait- 
matographia fneumatica, allow to thefe Prodi 
gies the chief place among the Wonders. 

§. 1 6. About the time of our BlefTed Lord's 
coming to refide on Earth, we read of ib ma- 
ny pqljejjcd with Devils, that it is commonly 
thought the Number of fuch miferable Encr- 
giemens Was then encreafed above what has 
been ufual in other Ages j and the Reafo/t of 
that Ihcreafe has been made a Matter of fbme 
Enquiry. Now though the Devils might 
herein defign by Preternatural Operations to 
blalt the Miracles of our Lord Jefts Chrift, 
which point they gained among the Blafphe- 
mous Pbarifees ; and the Devils might herein 
alfo defign a Villanous Imitation of what was 
coming to pafs in the Incarnation of our Lord 
Jefus Quilt, wherein God came to dwell in 
FlefJ); yet I am not without lufpicion, that 
there may be fomething further in the Con- 
jecture of the Learned Bartholinus hereupon, 
who fays, It was Quod prater modum, Ar~ 
t'ibus Magias dediti Dxmoncm Advocavcrint, 
the "Jews, by the frequent ufe oi' Magical Tricks, 
called in the Devils among them. 

It is vety certain, there were hardiy any 
People in the World grown more. fond, of 
Sorceries, than that unhappy People : The 
Talmuds tell us of the little 'Parchments with 
Words, upon them, which were their common 
Amulets, and of the Charms which they rnut- 
ter'd over Wounds, • and of the various En- 
chantments which they ufed againft all fotts 
of Difafters whatfoever. It is affirmed in the 
Talmuds, that no lefs than Twenty-four Scholars 
in one School were killed by Witchcraft ; and 
that no lefs than Four/hpre Perfons were Hanged 
fbT Wirchraft by ofie Judge in one Day. Th* 
H H 2 Biofi 



Magnalia Chrijli Americana : 

Book II. 

G/ofs adds upon it, That the Women of Ifrael 
had generally [alien to the Praffice of Witch- 
crafts ; and therefore it was required, that 
there ihould be Itill chofen into the Council 
one skilful in the Arts of Sorcerers, and able 
thereby to di (cover who might be guilty of thofe 
Black Arts among fuch as were accufed before 

Now the Arrival of Sir William Phips to the 
Government of New-England, was at a time 
when a Goveinour would have had Occafion 
for all the Skill in Sorcery, that was ever ne- 
ceffary to a Jetvijl? Qouncellor ; a time when 
Scores of poor People had newly fallen under 
a prodigious Poffejfwn of Devils, which it was 
then generally thought had been by Witchcrafts 
introduced. It is to be confefied aud bewailed, 
that many Inhabitants of New-England, and 
Young People especially, had been led away with 
little Sorceries, wherein they did fecretly thofe 
things that were not right againft the Lord 
their God ; they would often cure Hurts with 
Spells, and prattife deteftable Conjurations with 
Sieves, and Keys, and Peafe, and A'<i;7j, and 
Horfe-Jhocs, and other Implements, to learn the 
things for which they had a forbidden and im- 
pious Curiofity. Wrerched Books had ffoln in- 
to the Land, wherein Fools were inftrutted 
how to become able Fortune-Tellers : Among 
which, I wonder that a blacker Brand is not fet 
upon that Fortune- Telling Wheel, which that 
Sham-Scribler, that goes under the Letters of 
R. B. has promifed in his Delights for the 
Ingenious, as an honeft and pleafant Recreati- 
on : And by thefe Books, the Minds of many 
had been fo poifoned, that they ftudied this 
Finer Witchcraft • until, 'tis well, if fome of 
them were not betray 'd into what is GrofTer, 
and more Senfible and Capital. Although thefe 
Diabolical Divinations are more ordinarily 
committed perhaps all over the whole World, 
than they are in the Country of New-England, 
yet, that being a Country Devoted unto the 
Worfhip and Service of the Lord fESUS 
CHRIST above the reft of the World, He 
fignalized his Vengeance againft thefe Wicked- 
nefles, with fuch extraordinary Difpenfations 
as have not been often icen in other places. 

The Devils which had been fo play'd with- 
al, and, it may be, by fome few Criminals more 
Explicitely engaged and imployed, now broke 
in upon the Country, after as aftonilhing a man- 
ner as was ever heard of. Some Scores of 
People, firft about Salem, the Centre and Firft- 
Born of all the Towns in the Colony, and af- 
terwards in feveral other places, were Arretted 
with many Preternatural Vexations upon their 
Bodies, and a variety of cruel Torments, which 
were evidently infh£t ed from the Damons, of 
the lnvifible World. The People that were 
Infecled and Infeft ed whh fuch Damons, in a 
few Days time arrived unto fuch a Refining 
Alteration upon their Eyes, that they could fee 
their Tormentors ■ they faw a Devil of a Little 
Stature, and of a Tawny Colour, attended ftill 

with Spetlres that appeared in more Humane 

Thefe Tormentors tendred unto the afflicted 
a Book, requiring them to Sign it, or to Touch 
it at leaft, in token of their -eon finting to be 
Lifted in the Service of the Devil; which 
they refufing to do, the SpeUres under the 
Command of that Blackman, as they called 
him, would apply themfelves to Torture them 
with prodigious Moleftations. 

The afflicted Wretches were horribly Difiorted 
and Convulfed -, they were Pinched Black and 
Blue : Pins would be run every where in their 
Flefh ; they would be Scalded until they had 
Blifters raifed on them •, and a Thoufand other 
things before Hundreds of Witnefies were done 
unto them, evidently Preternatural : For if it 
were Preternatural to keep a rigid Faft for 
Nine, yea, for Fifteen Days together ; or if 
it were Preternatural to have one's Hands tfd 
clofe together with a Rope to be plainly feen, 
and then by unfeen Hands prefently pull'd up 
a great way from the Earth before a Croud of 
People ; fuch Preternatural things were endu- 
red by them. 

But of all the Preternatural thirfgs which 
befel thefe People, there were none more un- 
accountable than thofe, wherein the preftigious 
Damons would ever now and then cover the 
moft Corporeal things in the World with a 
Fafcinating Mi ft of lnvifibility. As now ; a 
Perfon was cruelly afTaulted by a Speclre, that, 
(he faid, run at her with a Spindle, though no 
Body elfe in the room could fee either the 
Spcllre or the Spindle : At laft, in her Agonies, 
giving a fnatch at the Speclre, fhe pulled the 
Spindle away ; and it was no iboner got into 
her Hand, but the other Folks then prefent 
beheld that it was indeed a Real, Proper, Iron 
Spindle ; which when they locked up very 
iafe, it was neverthelefs by the Damons taken 
away to do farther Mifchief, 

Again, a perfon was haunted by a moft abu- 
five Speclre, which came to her, fhe faid, 
with a Sheet about her, though fsen to none 
but her felf. After fhe had undergone a deal 
of Teaze f rqm the Annoyance of the Speclre, 
fhe gave-*a violent Snatch at the Sheet that 
was upon it ; where-frpm fhe tore a Corner, 
which in her Hand immediately was beheld 
by all that were prefent, a palpable Corner of a 
Sheet: And her Father, which was now hold- 
ing of her, catch'd, that he might keep what 
his Daughter had fo ftrangely feized ; but the 
Speclre had like to have wrung his Hand off, 
by endeavouring to wreft it from him -. How- 
ever he ttill held it ; and feveral times this 
odd Accident was renewed in the Family. 
There wanted not the Oaths of good credible 
People to thefe particulars. 

Alfo, it is well known, that thefe wicked 
Spetlres did proceed fo far as to fteal feveral 
Quantities of Money from divers People, part 
of which Individual Money was dropt fome- 
rimes out of the Air, before fufficient Spetlators, 


Book II. Or 3 The Hiflory of New-England. 


into the Hinds of the Afflicted, while the Spe- 
ll res were urging them to fubferibe their Cove- 
nant with Death. Moreover, Poifons to the 
Standers-by, wholly Invifibly, were fometimes 
forced upon the Afflicted ; which when they 
have with much Relu&ancy fw allowed, they 
have fvooln prefently, fo that the common Me- 
dicines for Poifons have been found necefftry to 
relieve them: Yea, fometimes the Spell res in 
the Jlruggles have lb dropc the Poifons, that 
the Scanders-by have fmelt them, and view "d 
them, and beheld the Pillows of the miierable 
ftained with them. 

Yet more, the miferable have complained 
bitterly of burning Rags run into their lore .ably 
diftended Mouths ; and though no Body could 
lee any fuch Clothes, or indeed any Fires in the 
Chambers, yet prefently the fcalds were leen 
plainly by every Boiy on the Mouths of the 
Complatners. and not only the SmeN, but the 
Smoke of the Burning fcnfibly rm'd the Cham- 

Once more, the miferable exclaim. :d ex 
treamly ot Branding Irons heating at the Fire 
on the Hearth to mark them ■, now though the 
Sanders-by could fee no Irons, yet they could 
fee diftinctly the Print ot them in the Ashes, and 
fmellthem too as they were carried by the not- 
feen Furies-, unto the Poor Creuures for whom 
they were intended ; and thole Poor Creuures 
were thereupon fo Stigmatize,! with them, that 
they will bear the Mar'As of them to their Dy- 
ing Day. Nor are thefe the Tenth Part of the 
Prodigies that fell out among the Inhabitants of 

Flalhy People may Burlefque thefe Things, 
bat when Hundreds of the moft fober People 
in a Country, where they have as much Mother- 
Wit certainly as the reft of Mankind, know 
them to be True, nothing but the abfutd and 
froward Spirit of Saidueifm can Queftion them 
I have not yet mentioned fo much as one Thing ! ways abufing of the poor affliiled People, had 

accompliih the things defired of them : To fi- 
ti -fie them in which Perfwalion, they ha 1 not 
only the Affert ion's o{ 'the Holy Script we • AlTer- 
cions, which the Wifdfc Advocates cannot e- 
vade without Shifts, too fool ith tor. any Pru- 
dent, or too profane for any Honefi Mm to ufe; 
and they had not only the well-atteftefl Rela- 
tions ofthegravelt Authors from BiJ/n to Bovet, 
and fr©rn Binsfeldxo Brom'ha.1 and bixier-, to 
deny ail which, would be as reafbnabl'e as to 
turn the Chronicles of all Nations into Roman- 
ces of Don Qdixot and the Seven Champions-, 
bat they had alfo an Ocular Demonflvation in 
one, who a little before had been executed for 
Witchcraft, when Jrfeph Dudley, Efq^ was the 
Chief Judge. There was one whole Magical 
Images wete found, and who confejfing her 
Deeds, fwhen a Jury of Doctors returned her 
Compos Mentis) aaually thewed the whole 
Court, by whit Ceremonies ufed unto therri, 
Ihe dire-Sted her Familiar Spirits how and 
where to Cruciate ihe Objects of her Malice j 
and the Experiments being made over and over 
again before the whole Court, the Effell fol- 
lowed exa-Etly in the Hurts done to People at 
a diftance ftom h;r. The Exittence of fuch 
Witches was now taken for granted by thole 
good Men, w herein fo far the generality of rea- 
lisable Men have thought they ran well • and 
they loon received the Confejjibns of fome ac- 
cufed Perfons to confirm them in it ^ but then 
they took one thing more for granted, wherein 
'tis now as generally thought they went out of 
the Way. The Afni&ed People vehemently ac- 
cufed feveral Perfons in feveral Places, that the 
Speilres which afflifted them, did exactly 
refemble them ; until the Importunity of the 
Accufations did provoke the Magiftrates 
to examine them. When many of the 
accufed came upon their Examination, it 
was found, that the Dxmons then a thoufand 

that will not be iuftified, if it be required by 
the Oaths of rhfore confederate Perfons than any 
that can ridicule thefe odd Phenomena. 

But the worft part of this aftonilhing Tragedy 
is yet behind ; wherein Sir William Phips, at 

with a marvellous exactnefs reprefented them ; 
yea, it was found, that many of 'the accufed, but 
calling their Eye on the afflilled, the afflilledy 
though their Faces were never fo much another 
way, would fall down and lye in a fort of a 

laft being dropt, as it were from rhe Machtn of Swoon, Wherein they would continue, whatevei 

Heaven, was an Inltrument of eafing the Di 
ftreffes of the Land, now fo darkned by the 
Wrath of the Lord of Ho'h. There were very 
worthy Men ivpon the Spot where the affault 
from Hell wj.5 firft made, who apprehended 
themfelves cadl'd from the God of Heaven, to 
lift the bufineds unto the bottom of it ; and in- 
deed, the coiitinual Imprcfllons, which the out- 
cries and the havocks of the afflilled People 
that lived nigh unto them caufed on their 
Minds, gave no little Edge to this Apprehenlion. 
The Perfons were Men eminent for Wijdom 
and Virtue^ and they went about their enquiry 
into the matter, as driven unto it by a Confer- 
ence of Duty to God and the World. They did 
in the firlf Place take it for granted, that there 
are Witches, or wicked Children of Men, who 
upon Covenanting with, and Commiffioning ot 
Evil Spirits, are attended by their Miniftry to 

Hands were laid upon them, until the Hinds 
of the accufed came to touch them , and 
then they would revive immediately: And it 
was found, that various kinds of natural Anions, 
done by m iny of the accufed in or to their own 
Bodies, as Leaning. Bending, Turning Awry^ 
or Squeezing their Hands, or rhe like, were pre- 
fenriy attended with the like things preternatu- 
rally done upon the Bodies of the afflilled 
though they were fo far afunder, that the af- 
flilled could not at all obferve the accufed. 
It wis alfo found, that the Flelh of the 

Ami£fed was often Bitten at fuch a rate, 
that not only the Print of Teeth would he left 
on their Flrfl\ but the very 3/aver of Spittle 
too : And there would appear juft fuch ifet of 

Teeth as was in the eccufed, even fuch as 
might be clearly diftiriguithed from other Peo- 
ples. And utually the afflilled went through a 



Magnolia Chrifti Americana : 

Book II. 

terrible deal of Teaming Difficulties from the 
tormenting SpeUres, and muft be long waited 
on, before they could get a Breathing Space 
from their Torments to give in their Teftimo- 

Now many good Men took up an Opinion, 
That the Provide ncc of God would not permit 
an Innocent Verjon to come under fuch a Spef/ral 
Rcprefentation ; and that a concurrence of lo 
many Circumflances would prove an accufeJ 
Peribn to be in a Confederacy with the Dxmons 
thus afflicting of the Neighbours ; they judged, 
that except thefe things might amount unto a 
Conviction, it would fcarce be poifible ever to 
Convitf aWitch; and they had fbme Philofophi- 
cal Schemes of Witchcraft, and of the Method 
and Manner wherein Alagieal Poifons ope- 
rate, which further lupported them in their O- 

Sundry of the accufed Perfons were brought 
unto their Trial, while this Opinion was yet 
prevailing in the Minds of the fudges and the 
furies, and perhaps the molt of the People in 
theCoumry, then moftly Suffering ; and though 
againft fbme of them that were Tried there 
came info much ether Evidence or. their Dia- 
bolical Compufts that lbme of the molt Judi- 
cious, and yet Vehement Oppofers of the Noti- 
ons then in Vogue, publickly declared, Had 
they themj elves been on the Bench, they could 
not have Acquitted them \ neverthelefs, divers 

"Without any private Agreement or Collufion, 
when fuccellively brought into a Room, have 
all afierted the lame Apparitions to be there 
before them : Thefe Murders did feem to call 
for an Enquiry. 

On the other Part, there were many Perfons 
of great Judgment, Piety and Experience, who 
from the beginning were very much diflatisfied 
at thefe Proceedings ; they I eared left the Devil 
would get fb far into the Faith of the People, 
that for the fake cf many Truths, which they 
might find him telling of them, they would 
come at length to believe all his Lies, where- 
upon what a Defolaxion of Names, yea, and of 
Lives alfo, would enfue, a Man might without 
much Witchcraft be able to Prognofticate ; and 
they feared, left in fuch an extraordinary De- 
fcent of Wicked Spirits from their High Places 
upon us, there might fuch Principles be taken 
up, as, when put into Pradne, would unavoi- 
dably caufe the-, Righteous to perifh with the 
Wicked, and procure rhe Biood-lhed of Perfons 
like the Gibeonues^ whom ibme learned Men 
fuppofe to be under a fulfe Pretence of Witch- 
craft, by Saul exterminated. 

However uncommon it might be for guilllefs 
Perfons to come under fuch unaccountable Cir- 
cumflances, as were on fo many of the Accu- 
fed, they held Jomc things there are, which if 
fuffered to be Common, would fubvert Govern- 
ment, and Disband and Ruin Humane Society, 

were Condemned, againft whom the chief Evi- \yet God fometimes may Juffcr fuch Things to 

dence was founded in the Spellful Exhibiti- 

And it happening, that fome of the Accufed 
coming to confels themfelves Guilty, their 
Shapes were no more feen by any of the afflicted, 
though the Con tell ion had been kept never fb 
Secret, but inftead thereof the Accufed them- 
felves became in all Vexations jutt like the Af- 
fldted ; this yet more confirmed many in the 
Opinion that had been taken up. 

And another thing 
more to Aft upon it, 

were frequently entertained with Apparitions of 
Ghojis at the fame time that the Spettres of 
the fuppofed Witches troubled them: Which 
Ghojis always calf the Beholders into far more 
Confternation than any of the Spectres ; and 
when they exhibited themfelves, they cried 
out of being Murdered by the Witchcrafts, ox 
other Violences of the Perfons reprelented in the 
Spelhes. Once or Twice thefe Apparitions 
were feen by others at the very fame time that 
they thevv'd themfelves ro the afflicted -, and lel- 
dofri were they feen at all, but when ibmething 
unufual and fufpicious had attended the Death 
of the Party thus appearing. 

The afflicted People many times had never 
heard any thing before of' the Perfons appearing 
in Ghoft, or of the Perfons accujed by the Ap- 
paritions; and yet the accufed upon Examina- 
tion have confeffed the Murders of thofe very 
Perfons, though thefe accufed alfo knew no- 
thing of "the Apparitions that had come in a- 
gainft them ; and the affliUed Perfons likewife, 

evene, that we may know thereby how much we are 
beholden to him for that rejiraint which he lays 
upon the Infernal Spirits, who would elfe reduce 
a World into a Chaos. They had already 
known of one at the Town oiGroton hideoufly 
agitated by Devils, who in her Fits cried out 
much againft a very Godly Woman in the 
Town, and when that Woman approached unto 
her, though the Eyes of the Creature were ne- 
ver fo fhut, fhe yet manifefled a violent Senfe 
that quickned them yet | of her approach : But when the Gracious Wo- 
was, that the Afflicted man thus Impeached , had prayed earneftly 

with and for this Creature, then inftead of 
crying out againft her any more, fhe owned, 
that fhe had in all been deluded by the Devil. 
They now law, that the more the AffliUed were 
Hearkned unto, the more the number cf the 
Accufed encreafed ; until at laft many fcores 
were cried out upon, and among them, fbme, 
who by the Unblameablenefs, yea, and Service- 
ablenefs of their whole Converfation, had ob- 
tained the Jult Reputation of Good People a- 
mong all that were acquainted with rhem. The 
Charafter of the affliUed likewife added unto 
the common Diltafte ; for though fome o&them 
too were Good People, yet others of them, and 
fuch of them as were moft Flippent at Accufing, 
had a far other Charafter. 

In fine, the Country was in a dreadful Fer- 
ment, and wife Men forelaw a long Train of 
Diffnal and Bloody Confequences. Hereupon 
they firft advifed, that the affliiled might be 
kept afunder in the clofeft Privacy •, and one 
particular Petfort (whom I have caufe to know) 


Book II. 0r 3 The Hifiory gf NevT-England. 


in purfuance of this Advice, offered himfelf 
fingly to provide Accommodations for any fix 
of them, that fo the Succefs of more than or- 
dinary Prayer with. Rifting, might, with Patience, 
be experienced, before any other Courfes were 

And Sir William Phips arriving to his Govern- 
ment, after this enf miring horrible Storm was 
begun, did confult the neighbouring Minifte is 
of the Province,who made unto his Excellency and 
the Council a return, ('drawn up at their defire 
by Mr. Mather the Younger, as I have been in- 
fortri d) wherein they declared. 

We judge, that in the Profccution of thefe 
and all fucb Witchcrafts, there is need of a ve- 
ry Critical and Exquifite Caution : Left by too 
much Credulity for things received only upon 
the Devil's Authority, there be a Door opened 
for a long Train of inferable Confequcnces, 
and Satan get an Advantage over us-, for we 
fhould not be Ignorant of his Devices. 

As in complaints upon Witchcrafts, there may 
be Matters of Enquiry, which do not amount un- 
to Matters of Preiumption ; and there may be 
Matters of Prefumption, which yet may not be 
reckoned Matters of Conviction ; Jo 'tis neceffa- 
ry that all Proceedings thereabout be managed 
with an exceeding Tendernefs towards thqfe 
that may be complained of; especially if they 
have been Perfons formerly of an unblemiihed 

When the firft Enquiry is made into the Cir- 
cum fiances of fuch ax may lye under any juft 
Sufpicion of Witchcrafts, we could wifh that 
there may be admitted as little as is pojfible 
of fuch Noife, Company, and Opennefs, as 
may too haftily expfe them that are Examined • 
and that there may nothing be ufed as a Tefkfor 
the 'Trial of the Sufpetled, the lawfulnefs 
whereof may be doubted among the People of 
God : But that the Directions given by fuch 
judicious Writers as Perkins and. Bernard, be 
confulted in fuch a Cafe. 

Preemptions, whereupon Perfons may be 
committed, and much more Convictions, where- 
upon Perfons may be condemned a* guilty of 
Witchcrafts, ought certainly to be more consi- 
derable, than barely the accufed Perfons being 
reprefented by a Spe&re to the afflicted : Inaf- 
much as it is an undoubted and a notorious 
Thing, that a Daemon may, by God's Permijfion, 
appear even to ill Purpojes in the fhape of an 
Innocent, yea, and a Virtuous Man : Nor can 
we efteem Alterations made in the Sufferers, by 
a look or touch of the accufed, to be an infal- 
lible Evidence of Guilt ; but frequently liable to 
be abufed by the Devil's Legerdemains. 

We know not whether fome remarkable Affronts 
given to the Devils, by our dif-believing ofthofe 
Teftimonies vohofe whole torce and Strength is 
fro?n them alone, may not put a Period unto the 
Progrefs of a direful Calamity begun upon us, 
in the accufation offo many Perfons, whereof, 
we hope, fome are yet clear from the great 
Tranfgreffion laid unto their Charge- 

The Minifters of the Province alfo being 
Jealous led this Ceunfel fhould not be duly 
followed, requeued the Prefident of Harvara 'Col- 
ledge to Compofe and Publilh (which he did) 
fome Cafes ofConfacnce referring to thefe Diffi- 
culties: In which Treatife he did, with De~ 
monltrations of incomparable Reajon and Read- 
ing, evince it, that Satan may appear in the 
Shape of an Innocent and a Virtuous Perfon, to 
afflicf thofe that Puffer by the Diabolical Mo- 
lejiations : And that the Ordeal of the Sight, 
and the Touch, is not a Conviction of a Covenant 
with the Devil, but liable to great Exceptions 
againft the Lawfulnefs, as well as the Evidence 
of it : And that either a Free and Fair 
Confclfiffn of the Criminals, or the Oarh of two 
Credible Perfons proving fuch Things againft • 
the perfon accufed, as none but fuch as have a 
Familiarity with the Devil can know, or do, 
is neceiliry to the Proof of the Crime. Thus, 

Cum mifit Natura, t> Ahnftra per 

Mi fit & Alciden qui Fera Monftra domet. 

, The Dutch and French Minifters in the Pro- 
vince of New York, having likewife about the 
fame time their Judgment asked by the Chief 
fudge of that Province, who was then a Gen- 
tleman of New-England, they gave it in under 
their Hands, that if we believe no Vcnefick 
Witchcraft, we muft Renounce the Scripture of 
God, and the Confent of almoft all the World ; 
but that yet the Apparition of a Perfon afflicting 
another, is a very Infufficient proof of a Witch -, 
nor is it Inconfiftent with the Holy and Righ- 
teous Government of God over Men, to permit 
the Affliction of the Neighbours, by Devils in 
the Shape of Good Men ; and that a Good Name, 
obtained by a Good Life, fhould not be Loft 
by Meet Spectral Accufations. 

Now upon a Deliberate Review of thefe 
things, his Excellency firft Reprieved, and 
then Pardoned many of them that had been 
Condemned •, and there fell out feveral ftrange 
things that caufed the Spirit of the Country to 
run as vehemently upon the Acquitting of all 
the accufed, as it by miftake ran at firft upon 
the Conde mning of them. Some that had been 
zealoufly of the Mind, that the Devils could 
not in the Shapes of good Men afflict other 
Men, were terribly Confuted, by having their 
own Shapes, and the Shapes of their molt inti- 
mate and' valued Friends, thus abufed. And 
though more than twice Twenty had made 
fuch voluntary, and harmonious, and uncontroul- 
able Confeffions, that if they were all Sham, 
there was therein me greateft Violation made 
by the Efficacy of the Invifible World, upon 
the Rules of Underftanding Humane Affairs, 
that was ever feen fince God made Man upon 
the Earth, yet they did fo recede from their 
Confeffions, that it was very clear, fome of 
them had been hitherto, in a fort of a Prater- 
natural Dream, wherein they had Paid oflhem- 
felves. they knew not what them/elves. 


6 4 

Magnalia Chrtjli Americana : 

Book II. 

In fine, The laft Courts that fate upon this 
'Thorny Buftnefs, finding that it was impoffible 
to Penetrate into the whole Meaning of the 
things that had happened, and that fo many 
unfearchable Cheats were interwoven into the 
Conclufion of a Myfterious Bulinels, which per- 
haps had not crept thereinto at the Beginning 
of it, they cleared the accufed as faft as they 
Tried them ; and within a little while the af- 
flicted were moft of, them delivered out or their 
Troubles alfo: And the Land had Peace reftored 
unto it, by the God of Peace, treading Satan 
under hoot. Erafmits, among other Hiftorians, 
does tell us, that at a Town in Germany, a 
Diemon appearing on the Top of a Chimney, 
threatned that he would fet the Town on Fire, 
and at length Mattering fome Alhes abroad, the 
whole Town was prelently and horribly Burnt 
unto the Ground. 

Sir William Phips now beheld fuch Dxmons 
hid oufly fcattering Fire about the Country, 
in the Exafperations which the Minds of Men 
were on thcfe things riling unto-, and therefore 
when he had well Canvafed a Caufe, which 
perhaps might have puzzled the Wilciom ot the 
wifeft Men on Earth to have managed, without 
any Error in their Adminiftrations, he thought, 
if it would be any Error at all, it would cer- 
tainly be the fafeft tor him to put a ftop unto 
all future Profecutions, as far as it lay in him to 
do it. 

He did fo, and for it he had not only the 
Printed Acknowledgments of the New Engen- 
ders, who publickly thanked him. As one of 
the Tribe of Zebulun, raifed up from among 
them/elves, and Spirited as well as CommilTt- 
oned to be the Steers-man of a Veffel befogg'd in 
the Mare Mortuum of Witchcraft, who now jo 
happily fleered her Courfe, that jhe efcaped 
Shtpwrack, and vast* fajely again Moored under 
the Cape of Good Hope \ and cut af under the 
Circran Knot of Enchantment, more difficult to 
be Diffolvcd than the famous Gordian one of 
Old. ' 

But the QUEEN alfo did him the Ho- 
nour to write unto him thofe Gracious Letters, 
wherein her Majefty commended his Conduct in 
thefe Inexplicable Matters. And I did right 
in calling thefe Matters Inexplicable. For if, 
after the Kingdom of Sweden (in the Year 
1669, and 1670.J had fome Hundreds of their 
Children by Night often carried away by Spe- 
ffres to an Hellifh Rendezvous, where the 
Monfters that fo Spirited them, did every way 
Tempt them to AiTociate with them;, and the 
Judges of the Kingdom, after extraordinary Sup- 
plications to Heaven, upon a Ariel: Enquiry, 
were fo fatisfied with the Confejfions of more 
than Twenty of the accufed, agreeing exa&ly 
unto the Depofitions of the afflicted, that they 
put feveral Scores oF Witches to Death, where- 
upon the Con fu lions came unto a Period ; yet 
after all, the chiefeft Perfons in the Kingdom 
would Queftion whether there were any Witch- 
crafts at all in the whole Affair ; it muft not be 
wondredat, if the People oF New-England are 

to this Hour full of Doubts, about the Steps 
which were taken, while a War from the In- 
vinftble World was Terrifying ot' them ^ and 
whether they did not kill fome of their own fide 
in the Smoke and Noife of this Dreadful War. 
And it will be yet lefs wondred at, if we fconfi- 
der, that we have feen the whole Englifh Na- 
tion alarumed with a Plot, and both ticufes of 
Parliament, upon good Grounds, Vrting their 
Senfe of it, and many Perfons moft juftly 
Hangd, Drawn and guarter'd, for their "ihare 
in it : When yet there are enough, who to this 
Day will pretend, that they cannot comprehend 
how much of it is to be accounted Credible. 
However, having related thefe wonderful Paffu- 
ges, whereof, it the Veracity of the Relator in 
any one Point be contcfted, there are whole 
Clouds of Witneffes to vindicate it, I will take 
my leave of trie Matter with an wholeforne 
Caution of Laffantius, which, it may be, fome 
other Parts of the World befides New-England 
may have occafion to think upon ; Efficiunt 
D.tmones, ut qu.t non funt, fie tamen, quafi 
Jint, confpicienda Homimbus exhibeunt. 

But the Devils being thus vanquilhed, we 
lhall next hear, that fome of his moft devoted 
and refernbling Children are lb too. 

£. 17. As one of the firft Actions done by Sir 
William, after he came to the Age ot Doing, 
was to lave the Lives of many poor People from 
the Rage of the Diabolical Indians in the 
Eafiern Parts of the Country, to now he was 
come to the Government, his Mind was very 
vehemently fet upon recovering of thofe Parts 
from the Miferies, which a New and a Long 
War of the Indians had brought upon them. 
His Birth and Toutb in the Edji, had rendred 
him well known unto the Indians there ; he 
had Hunted and Filhed many a weary D.\y 
in his Childhood with them -, and when thole 
rude Savages had got the Story by the End, that 
he had found a Ship full of Money, and was 
now become all one-a-King ! They were mighti- 
ly attonifhed at it : But when they farther un- 
derftood that he was become rhe Governour of 
New-England, it added a further Degree of 
Confternation to their Aftonilhment. He like- 
wife was better acquainted with the Scituation 
of thofe Regions than moft other Men ; and he 
confider'd what vaft Advantages might arife to 
no lefs than the whole Englifh Nation, from 
the Lumber, and Eifhery, and Naval-fores^ 
which thofe Regions might foon fupply the 
whole Nation withal, if once they were well 
fettled with good Inhabitants. 

Wherefore Governour Phips took the firft 
Opportunity to raife an Army, with which he 
Travelled in Perfon, under rhe Eaft Country, to 
find out and cut off the Barbarous Enemy, 
which had continued for near four Years toge- 
ther, making horrible Havock on the Plantati- 
ons that lay all along the Northern Frontiers 
of New-England : And having purfued thofe 
worfe than Scythian Wolves, till they could be 
no longer followed, he did with a very laudable 
Skilly and unufual Speed, and with lefs Cofi unto 


Book II. 0r y The Hiftory gf New-England. 


the Crown, than perhaps ever fuch a thing was 
done in the World, erett a ftrong Fort at Pem- 


This Fort he contrived fo much in the very 
Heart of the Country now pofTeffed by the E- 
nemy, as very much to hinder the feveral Na- 
tions of the Tawnies from C/anning together for 
the Common Difturbance •, and his Deiign was ; 
that a iufficient Garrifon being here pofted, 
they might from thence, upon Advice, ilTue 
forth to furprize that Ferocient Enemy. At 
the lame time he would fain have gone in Per- 
lbn up the Bay of Funda, with a convenient 
Force, to have fpoiled the Neft of Rebellious 
Frenchmen, who being Rendezvouzed at St. 
John\ bad a yearly Supply of Ammunition 
from franco, with which they ftill fupplied 
the Indians, unto the extream Detriment of 
the Englifh , but his Friends for a long time 
tvould not permit him to expofe himfelf unto 
the Inconveniencies of that Expedition. 

However, he took fuch Merhods, that the 
Indi-AH King's of the Eaft, within a little while 
had their Stomachs brought down, to fue and 
beg for a Peace : And making their appearance 
at the New- Fort in Pemmaquid, Aug. 11. 1693. 
they did there Sign an lnftrument, wherein, 
lamenting the Miferies which their Adherence 
to the trench Counfeh had brought them into, 
they did for themfelves, and with the Confenr 
of ail the Indians from the River of Merri- 
mack, to the moft Eafterly Bounds of" all the 
Province, acknowledge their Hearty Subje&ion 
and Obedience unto the Crown of England, 
and Solemnly Covenant, Promile and Agree, to 
and with Sir William Phips, Captain General 
and Governour in Chief over the Province, and 
his SuccefTors in that place, That they would 
for ever ceafe all Afts of Hoftility towards the 
Subjects of the Crown of England, 'and hold a 
conltant Friendihip with all the Englifh. That 
they would utterly abandon the French Interefts, 
and not Succour or Conceal any Enemy Indians^ 
from Canada or elfewhere, that fhould come to 
any of their Plantations within the Englifh Ter- 
ritories: That all Englifh Captives, which they 
had among them, Ihould be returned with all 
poffible fpeed, and no Ranfom or Payment be 
given for any of them : That Their Majefties 
Stibje&s the Englijh, now ihould quietly enter 
upon, and for ever improve and enjoy all and 
lingular their Rights of Lands, and former Pof- 
ieffions, within the Eaftern Parts of the Pro- 
vince, without any Claims from any Indians 
or being ever difturbed therein : That all Trade 
and Commerce, which hereafter might be al- 
lowed between the Englijh and the Indians, 
Ihould be under a Regulation ftated by an A£t 
of the General Affembly, or as limited by the 
Governour of the Province, with the Confent 
and Advice of h.s Council. And that if any 
Controverfie hereafter happen between any of 
the Englifh and the Indians, no private Revenge 
was to be taken by the Indians, but proper 
Applications to be made unto His Majefties 
Government, for the due remedy thereof; Sub- 

mitting themfelves herewithal to be Governed by 
His Majefties Laws. 

And for the Manifeftation of their Sincerity 
in the Submijfion thus made, the Hypocritical 
Wretches delivered Hoftagcs for their Fidelity ; 
and then fet their Marks and Seals, no lets than 
Thirteen Sagamores of them, ('with Names of 
more than a Perfian length) unto this lnftru- 

The firft Rife of this Indian War had hither- 
to been almoft as dark as that of the River A7- 
las : 'Tis true, if any Wild Englifh did rafhly 
begin to provoke and affront the Indians, yet 
the Indians had a fairer way to obtain Juftice 
than by Bloodihed : However, upon the A'ev:- 
Englifh Revolution, the Sure of the War be- 
came wholly Xeio : The Government then em- 
ployed all poiiib'ie ways to procure a good Un- 
derltanding with the Indians ; but all the Eng/iU? 
Offers, Kindneffes, Courtefies were barbaroufly 
requited by them, with New Acts of the molt 
perfidious Hoftility. Notwlthftanding all this, 
there were ftill fome Nice People that had 
their Scruples about the Juftice of the War ; but 
upon this New Submiilion of the Indians, if e- 
ver thofe Rattle-Jnakes (the only Rattle fnakes, 
which, they fay, were ever feen to the North- 
ward of Merimack-River) ihould ftir again, the 
moft fcrupulous Perfons in the World muft 
own, That it mufl be the mo(l unexceptionable 
piece of 'juftice in the World for to extinguijh 

Thus did the God of Heaven blefs the un- 
wearied Applications of Sir William Phips, for 
the reftoring of Peace unto Neic-England. when 
the Country was quite out of Breath, in its En- 
deavours for its own Prefervation from the con- 
tinual Outrages of an inaccefiible Enemy, and 
by the Poverty coming info like an armed Man, 
from the unfuccefsfulnefs of their former Armies, 
that it could not imagine how to take one ftep 
further in its Wars. The moll happy Refpite 
of Peace beyond Mcrimack-River being thus pro- 
cured, the Governour immediately fet himfelf 
to ufe all poilible Methods, that it might be 
Peace, like a River, nothing fhort of Everlafting . 

He therefore prevailed with Two or Three 
Gentlemen to join with him, in fending a Sup- 
ply of Nccrfjaries for Life unto the Indians^ 
until the General AiFembly could come together 
to fettle the Indian-Trade for the Ad^ant-ge of 
the Publick, that the Indians might not ' y Ne- 
ceffity be driven again to become a French P*o- 
priety ; audio' by this Aclion, as the Gentlemen 
themfelves were great Lofers in their Elites, 
thus he himfelf declared unto the Members of the 
General Affembly, that he would upon Oath 
give an Account unto them of all his own Gains, 
and count himfelf a Gainer, if in lieu of ail they 
would give him one Beaver-Hat. The fame Ge- 
nerality alfo cauied him to take many a tedious 
Voyage, accompanied fometimes with his Fidus 
Achates, and very dear Friend, Kinfman and 
Neighbour, Colonel John Philips, between Bofion 
and Pemmaquid ; and this in the bitter Weeks of 
theAvw-E^/z/^jWhich is almoft a RuJJiavWinittJ 
It He 


Magnolia. Christ Americana : 

Book IL 

He was a fort of Confefifor under fuch Tor- 1 
merits of Cold, as once made the Martyrdom of 
Muria, and others, Commemorated in Orations 
of the Ancients • and the Snow and Ice which 
Pliny calls, The Punifiment of Mountains, he 
chearfully endured, without any other Profit 
unto himfelf, but only the Pleafure of thereby 
eftablifhing and continuing unto the Peeple the 
Liberty to Sleep quietly in their warm Nefils at 
home, while he was thus concerned for them 
abroad. Non rn'ihi fed Populo, the Motto of 
the Emperor Hadrian, was Engraved on the 
Heart of Sir William : NOT FOR MY SELF, 
BUT FOR MY PEOPLE : Or that of Maxi- 
min, J^uo major, hoc Laboriofwr, the more Ho- 
nourable, the more Laborious. 

Indeed the Refilcfnefs of his Travels to the 
Southern as well as the Eafiern Parts of the 
Country, when the publick Safety call'd for 
his Prefence, would have made one to think 
on the Tranfation which the King of Portugal, 
on a very Extraordinary Occafion, gave the 
Fourth Verfe in the Hundred and Twenty-hrft 
Pfalm. He will not Slumber, nor will he fuf- 
fer to Sleep the Keeper 0/Ifrael. Nor did 
he only try to Cicurate the Indians of the Eafi, 
by other prudent and Proper Treatments ; but 
he alfo furnithed himfelf with an Indian 
Preacher of the Gofpel, whom he carried unto 
the Eajiward. with an Intention to Teach them 
the Principles of the Protefiant Religion, and 
Unteach them the mixt Paganry and Popery 
which hitherto Viaboliz'd them. To Unteach 
them, I fay ; for they had been Taught by the 
French Priefts this among other things, that the 
Mother of our Bleffed Saviour was a French 
Lady, and that they were EngUflmen by whom 
our Saviour was Murdered ; and that it was 
therefore a Meritorious thing to deftroy the 
Englifh Nation. The Name of the Preacher 
whom the Governour carried with him, was 
Nahauton, one of the Natives ; and becaufe the 
paffing of fuch Expreifions from the Mouth of 
a poor Indian, may upon fome Accounts be wor- 
thy of Remembrance ; let it be Remembred, that 
when the Governour propounded unto him fuch 
a Mijfion to the Eafiern Indians, he replied, I 
know that I fihall probably Endanger my Life, 
by going to Preach the Gofpel among the Frenchi- 
fied 'Indians ; but I know that it will be a Ser- 
vice unto the Lord fefus Chrifi, and therefore 
I will venture to go. 

God grant that his Behaviour may be in all 
things, at all times, according to thefe his Ex- 
prcjfions ! While thefe things were doing, 
having Intelligence of a French Man of War 
expected at St. John's, he difpatched away the 
Non-fuch-Frigat thither to intercept him-, ne 
verthelefs by the grofs Negligence, and perhaps 
Cowardice of the Captain, who had lately come 
from England with Orders to take the Com- 
mand of her, inftead of one who had been by 
Sir William a while before put in, and one who 
had fignalized himfelf by doing of notable 
Service for the King and Country in it, the 
Frenchman arrived unladed, and went away 

untouch'd: The Governour was extreamly of- 
fended at this notorious Deficiency ; it call: him 
into a great Impatience to fee the Kation Co 
wretchedly ferved •, and he would himfelf have 
gone to Saint John's with a Refolution to Spoil 
that Harbour of Spoilers, if he had not been 
taken off, by being fent for home to Whitehall 
in the very midft of his Undertakings. 

But the Treacherous Indians being poifoned 
with the French Enchantments, and furnifhed 
with brave New Coats, and New Arms, and all 
, new Incentives to War, by the Man ef War 
newly come in ; they prefently and perfidioufly 
fell upon two Englifh Towns, and Butchered 
and Captived many of the Inhabitants, and 
made a New War, which the New-England- 
ers know not whether it will end until either 
Canada become an Englifh Province, or that 
State arrive, wherein they fhall beat Swords in- 
to Plough-fhares, and Spears into Pruning-hooks. 
And no doubt, the taking off Sir William Phips 
was no fmall Encouragement unto the Indians 
in this^Relapfe, into the Villanies and Maffacres 
of a New Invafwn upon the Country. 

§. 1 3. Reader, 'tis time for us to view a lit- 
tle more to the Life, the Pitture of the Per- 
fon, the ASions of whofe Life we have hi- 
therto been looking upon. Know then, that for 
his Exterior, he was one Tail, beyond the 
common Set of Men, and Thick as well as 
Tall, and Strong as well as Thick : He was, 
in all refpe&s, exceedingly Rebufi, and able to 
Conquer fuch Difficulties of Diet and of Travel, 
as would have kill'd moft Men alive : Nor did 
the Fat, whereinto he grew very much in his 
later Years, take away the Vigour of his Moti- 

He was Well-fet, and he was therewithal of 
a very Comely, though a very Manly Counte- 
nance : A Countenance where any true skill in 
Phyfiognomy would have read the Characters 
of a Generous Mind. Wherefore palling to his 
Interior, the very firft thing which there 
offered ir felf unto Obfervation, was a moft In- 
comparable Generofity. 

And of this, befides the innumerable Inftan- 
ces which he gave in his ufual Hatred of 
Dirty or Little Tricks, there was one Inftarice 
for which I muft freely fay, I never Jaw Three 
Men in this World that Equaled him •> this was 
his wonderfully Forgiving Spirit. In the vaft 
Variety of Bufinefs, through which he Raced 
in his time, he met with many and mighty In- 
juries -, but although I have heard all that 
the moft venemous Malice could ever tiifs at 
his Memory, I never did hear unto this Hour, 
that he did ever once deliberately Revenge an 

Upon certain Affronts he has made fudden 
Returns that have fhewed Choler enough, and 
he has by Blow, as well as by Word, chaftifed 
Incivilities : He was, indeed, fufficiently im- 
patient of being put upon; and when' Bafe 
Men, furprizing him at fome Dif advantages 
(fbrelfefew Men durft have done it) have fome- 
* times 

Book II. 0r y The Hi/lory 0/~ New-England. 


rimes drawn upon him, he has, without the 
Wicked Madncfs of a Formal Duel, made them 
feel that he knew how to Cor red Fools. Ne- 
verthelefs, he ever declined a Deliberate Re- 
venge of a Wrong done unto him ; though few 
Men upon Earth have, in their Vicijfitudes, 
been furniihed with fuch frequent Opportunities 
oi Revenge, as Heaven brought into the Hands 
of this Gentleman. 

Under great Provocations, he would com- 
monly fay, 'Tis no Matter, let them alone ■ 
Jome time or other they'll fee their W.eaknefs 
and Raf}>ncj's 1 and have occafion for me to do 
them a Kindnefs : And they fhall then fee I 
have quite fo> gotten all their Bafencfs. Ac- 
cordingly 'twas remarkable to lee ir, tlr.t few 
Men ever did him a Mif chief, but thofe Men 
afterwards had occafion for him to do them a 
Kindnefs; and he did the Kindnefs wirh as 
forgetful a Bravery, as if the MiJ chief had ne- 
ver been done at all. The Emperor Theodo- 
fius himfelf' could not be readier to Forgive, 
lb worthily did heverifie that Obfervation. 

§Luo quifque eft Major, magk eft Placabilis 

Et Faciles Motus, Mens Genercfa capt. 

In thofe Places of Power whereto the Provi- 
dence of God by feveral Degrees railed him, 
Itltill fell out fo, that before his Rife thereunto 
he underwent fuch things as he counted very 
hard Abufes, from thofe very Perlbnsover whom 
the Divine Providence afterwards gave him the" 

By fuch Trials, the Wifdom of Heaven ft 111 
prepared him,as DavidbQibie him, for fucccfjive 
Advancements ; and as he behaved himfelf with 
a marvellous Long-fuffering, when he was Tried, 
by fuch Mortifications, thus when he came to be 
advanced, he convinced all Mankind, that he had 
perfectly Butitd all the old Offences in an Eter- 
nal AmncfJy. 1 was my Self an Ear-wit nefs, 
that one, who was an Eye-witnefs of his Beha- 
viour under fuch Probations of his Patience, 
did, long before his . Arrival to that Honour, 
fay unto him, Sir, Forgive thofe that give you 
thefe Vexations, and know that llx God of Hea- 
ven intends, before he hat dove with you, to 
make you the Govemour of New-England ! And 
when he did 'indeed become the Govemour of 

Horfe, and the next Perfon in Dignity to him- 
felf, did firft privately Traduce him, as one 
that was no Soldier, and lefs Politician ; and 
he afterwards did both by Speeches and Letters 
prejudice not only the Army, but alio the Senate 
againft him, fo that Alinutius was now by an 
unprefidented Commiilion brought into an / 
quality with Fabn/s. 

All this while the great Fabim did not throw 
up his Cares for the Commonwealth, but with 
a wondrous Equality of Mind endured equally 
the Malice of the fudges, and the Fury of the 
Commons-, and when Minutius a while after 
was with all his Forces upon the Point ofpe- 
riihing by the viftorious Arms of Hannibal^ 
this very k'abiM, not liftening to the Dictates' 
ui'Revenge, came in and helped him, and laved 
him; and 16 by a rare Virtue, he made his 
word: Adverfariest\\t Captives of his Generofity, 
One of the Antients upon fuch an Hilton'; 
cried out, If Heathens can do thus much for the 
Glory of their 'Name, what fhall not Chrifiians 
do for the Glory of Heaven ! And Sir William 
Phips did fo much more than thus much, that 
befides his meriting the Glory of fuch a Name, 
as PU1PP1US MAXIMUS, he therein 
had upon him the Symptoms of a Title to the 
Glory of Heaven, in the Seal of his own Pardon 
from God. Nor was this Generofity in His 
EXCELLENCY the Govemour of New-Eng- 
land, unaccompanied with many other Excel- 
lencies-, whereof the Piety of his Carriage to- 
wards God is worthy to be firft Mentioned. 

It is true, He was very Zealous for all Men 
to enjoy fach a Liberty of Confcience, as he 
judged a Native Right of Mankind : And he 
was extreamly Troubled at the over-boiling 
Zeal of fome good Men, who formerly took 
that wrong Way of reclaiming Hereticks by Per- 
fection. For this Generofity, it may be, fome 
would have compared him unto Gallio, the Go- 
vemour of Achaia,w horn our Preachers, perhaps 
with Miftake enough, think to be condemned 
in the Scripture, lor his not appearing to be a 
fudge, in Mattets which indeed fell not under 
his Cognizance. 

And I lhall be content that he be compared 
unto that Gentleman ; for that Gallio was the 
Brother of Seneca, who gives this Character of 
him, That there wan no Man who did not love 
him too little, if he could Love him any more ; 

New-England, he lhew'd that he ftill continued and, That there was no Mortal fo Dear to any, 
a Govemour of himfelf, in his Treating all ; as he was to all ; and, That he hated all Vices, 
that had formerly been in ill Terms with him, \but none more than Flattery. 
wirh as much Favour and Freedom, as if there i Bur while the Generofity of Sir William 
had never happened the leaft Exafperations : caufed him to defire a Liberty of Confcience, 

Though any Govemour that Kens Hobbianifm, 
can eafily contrive Ways enough to wreak a 
Spite, where he owes it. 

It was with fome Chriftian Remark, thaf he 
read the Pagan-ftory of the Renowned Fabitts 
Maximus, who being preferred unto the high 
eft Office in the Commonwealth, did, through a 
Zeal for his Country, overcome the gieateft 
Contempts that any Perfon of Quality could 
have received. Minutii/s the Mafter of the 

his Piety would not allow a Liberty of Pro- 
phanenefs, either to himfelf or others. He did 
not aftecl any mighty fhow of Devotion ; and 
when he faw any that were evidently caj-eful 
ro make a fhow, and efpecially, if at the fame 
Time they were notorioufly Defective in the 
Duties of Common Juftice or Goodnejs, or the 
Duties of the Relations wherein God had fid- 
them, he had an extream Averfion for 


Ii 2 



Magnalia Chrifii Americana : 

Book II. 

Neverthelefs he did (how a Confciencious 
Defire to obferve the Laws of the Lord Jefus 
Chrift in his Convcrfation ; and he Confcien- 
cioufly attended upon the Exercifes of Devotion 
in the Seafons thereof, on Lcilures, as well as 
on Lord's Days, and in the Daily Sacrifice, the 
Morning and Evening Service of his own Fa- 
mily ; yea, and at the Private Meetings of the 


in the 

Devout People kept every 

Befides all this, when he had great Works 
before him, he would invite good Men to cotne 
and Faji and Pray with him at his Houfe tor 
the Succefs thereof j and when he had fuccecd- 
ed in what he had undertaken, he would pre- 
vail with them to come and keep a Day of 
Solemn Than/giving with him. His Love to 
Almighty God, was indeed manifefted by nothing 
more than his Love to thole that had the 
Image of God upon them ; he heartily, and 
with real Honour for them, Loved all Godl) 
Men-, and in fo doing, he did not confine 
Godiincfs to this or that Party, but whers-ever 
he faw the Fear of God, in One of a Congrega- 
tional, or Presby.erian, or Antip.edobajmft, or 
Episcopalian Perfwafion, he did, without any 
Difference, exprefs towards them a Reverent 

But he made no Men more welcome than 
thole good Men, whofe Office 'tis to promote 
and preferve Goodnefs in all other Men ; even 
the Minifters of the Gofpel : Efpecially when 
they were fuch as faithfully dilckarged their 
Office : And from theie at any time, the lealf 
Admonition or Intimation of any good thing to 
be done by him, he entertained with a moft 
obliging Alacrity. His Religion in truth, was 
one Principle that added Virtue unto that vaif 
Courage, which was always in him to a De- 
gree Heroical. Thofe terrible Nations which 
made their Defcents from the Northern on the 
Southern Parts of Europe, in thofe Elder Ages, 
when fo to /warm out was more frequent with 
them, were infpired with a Valiant Contempt 
of Life, by the Opinion wherein their Famous 
Odin inftruQed them. That their Death zvcu 
but an Entrance into another Life, wherein they 
who died in Warlike Altions, were bravely 
Fcalled with the God of War for ever : 'Tis in 
expreflible how much the Courage of thofe 
fierce Mortals was fortified by that Opinion. 

But when Sir William Phips was asked by 
fome that obferved his Valiant Contempt of 
Death, what it was that made him fo little a- 
fraid of Dying, he gave a better grounded Ac- 
count of it than thofe Pagans could ; his An 
fwer was, / do humbly believe, that the Lord 
Jefus Chrift fhed his Precious Blood for me, by 
his Death procuring my Peace with God : And 
what fhould I now be afraid of dying for ? 

But this leads me to mention the Humble 
and Modefi Carriage in him towards other Men, 
which accompanied this his Piety. There were 
certain Pomps belonging unto the feveral Places 
of Honour, through which he pallid ; Pomps 
that are very taking to Men of little Souls • 

But although he rofe from fo little, yet he 
difcovered a Marvellous Contempt of thofe 
Airy things, and as far as he handfbmely could, 
he declined, being Ceremonioufly, or any other- 
wife than with a Dutch Mode fly waited upon. 
And it might more truly be {aid ®f him, than 
it was of Arijiides, He was never fee n the 
Prouder for any Honour that was done him from 
bis Countrymen. 

Hence, albeit I have read that Complaint, 
made by a Worthy Man, I have often obferved 
and this not without fome bluflnng, that even 
good People have had a kind of Shame upon them, 
to acknowledge their low beginning, and ufed 
all Arts to hide it. I could never obferve the 
lealt of that Fault in this Worthy Man ; but 
he would fpeak of his own low beginning with 
as much Freedom and Frequency, is it he had 
been afraid of having it forgotten. 

It was counted an Humility in King Agatho- 
clcs, the Son of a Potter, to be terved therefore 
in Earthen Veffels, as ? I March harh informed 
us: It was counted an Humility in Archhilhop 
Wil/igis, the Son of a Wheelwright, thetefore to 
have Wheels hung about his Bed-Chamber, 
with this lnfcription, Recole undo Veneris i. e. 
Remember thy Original. But fuch was the Hu- 
mility and Lowlinrfs of this Rifmg Man ! Not 
only did he after his return to his Country in 
hisGreatnefs, one Day, make a fplendid Feait 
for the Ship-Carpenters ofBojion, among whom 
he was willing at his Table to Commemorate 
the Mercy of God unto him, who had once 
been a Ship-Carpenter himfelfj but he would on 
all Occafions Permit, yea a Study to have his 
Meannejfes remembred. 

Hence upon frequent Occafions of Uncnflnefs 
in his Government, he would chute thus to ex- 
prefs himfelf, Gentlemen, were it nu that I 
am to do Service jor the Publick, I fbould be 
much eafier in returning unto my broad Ax a- 
gain ! And hence, according to the Affable 
Courtefie which he ordinarily ufed unto all 
forts of Perlbns, fquite contrary to the Afperity 
which the old Proverb expects in the Raifed) 
he would particularly, when Sailing in light of 
Kennebeck, with Armies under his Command 
call the Young Soldiers and Sailors upon Deck' 
and fpeak to them after this Falhion • Tonne 
Men, It was upon that Hill that I kept Shee% 
a few Tears ago • and fince you fee that Al- 
mighty God has brought me to jomethin", do 
[you learn to Fear God, and be Hone ft, and 
mind your Bufinefs, and follow no bad Courfes 
and you don't know what you may come to '. 
A Temper not altogether unlike what the ad- 
vanced Shepherd had, when he wrote the Twen- 
ty-third Plalm ; or when he Imprinted on the 
Coin of his Kingdom the Remembrance of his 
Old Condition : For Chriftianus Gcrfon, a 
Chriftianized Jew, has informed us, That on 
the one fide of David's Coin were to be icen 
his old Pouch and Crook, the luftrurnents of 
Shepherdy ■, on the other fide were cr.lhmped 
the Towers of Zwn'. 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory <^ New-England. 6<p 

In fine, our Sir William was a Perfbn of lb 
fvveer a Temper, that they who were moft In- 
timately acquainted with him, would com- 
monly pronounce him, The beft Conditioned 
Gentleman in the World ! And by the continual 
Difcoveries and Expreflions of fuch a Temper, 
he fo gained the Hearts ol them who waited 
upon him in any of his Expeditions, that they 
would commonly profefs themfelves willing 
ft ill, to have gone with him to the end of the 

But if all other People found him fo kind a 
Neighbour, we may eafily infer what an Huf- 
band he was unto his Lady. Leaving unmen- 
tioned that Virtue of his Chaftity, which the 
Prodigious Depravation brought by the Late 
Reigns upon the Manners of the Nation, has 
made worthy to be mentioned as a Virtue fome- 
what Extraordinary ; I (hall rather pafs on to 
lay, That the Love, even to Fondnefs, with 
which he always treated her, was a Matter 
not only of Obfervation, but even of fuch Ad- 
miration, that every one faid, The Age afforded 
not <•> kinder Husband 1 . 
But we mult now return to our Story. 
$. 19. When Perfons do by Studies full of 
Curioftty, feek to inform themfelves of things 
about which the God of Heaven hath forbidden 
our Curious Enquiries, there is a marvellous 
lmprejfwn, which the Damons do often make 
on the Minds of thofe their Votaries, about the 
future or Secret Matters unlawfully enquired 
after, and at laft there is alfo an horrible 
Poffeffwn, which thole Fat idle Damons do take 
of them. The Snares of Hell, hereby laid for 
miferable Mortals, have been fuch, that when 
I read the Laws, which Angellius affirms to 
have been made, even in Pagan Rome, againft 
the Vaticinatores ; I wonder that no Englifh No- 
bleman or Gentleman fignalizes his regard unto 
Cjriftianity, by doing what even a Roman Tully 
would have done, in promoting An A3 of 
Parliament againft that Paganifh Practice of 
Judicial Aflrology, whereof, if fuch Men as 
Auflin were now living, they would afiert, The 
Devil firfl found it, and they that profefs it 
are Enemies of Truth and of God. 

In the mean time, I cannot but relate a won- 
derful Experience of Sir William Phips, by the 
Relation whereof fomething of an Antidote 
may be given againft a Poifon, which the Di- 
abolical Figure-Flingers and Fortune-Tellers 
that fwarm all the World over may infinuate 
into the Minds of Men. Long before Mr. Phips 
came to be Sir William, while he fojourned in 
in London, there came into his Lodging an Old 
Aflrologer, living in the Neighbourhood, who 
making fome Obfervation of him, though he 
had fmall or no Converfation with him, did 
(howbeit by him wholly undelired) one Day 
lend him a Paper, wherein he had, with Pre- 
tences of a Rule in Aflrology for each Article, 
diftin&ly noted the moft material Paffages that 
were to bcfal this our Phips in the remaining 
part of his Life -, it was particularly AfTerted 
and Inferted, That he (hould be engaged in a 

Defign, wherein by Reafbn of Enemies at Court, 
he fliould meet with much delay • that never- 
thelefs in the Thirty-Seventh Year of his Life, 
he ihould find a mighty Treafure ; th3t in the 
Forty-Firfi Year of his Life, his King (hould 
employ him in as great a Truft beyond Sea, as 
a Subjeft could eafily have : That foon after 
this he fhould undergo an hard Storm from the 
Endeavours of his Adverfaries to reproach 
him and ruin him ; that his Adverfaries, though 
they fhould go very near gaining the Point, 
fhould yet mifs of doing fo ; that he fhould 
hit upon a vaftly Richer Matter than any 
that he had hitherto met withal • that he 
fhould continue Thirteen Tears in his Publick 
Station, full of Atlion, and full of Hurry ■, and 
the reft of his Days he Ihould fpend in the Sa- 
tisfaction of a Peaceable Retirement. 

_Mr. Phips received this undelired Paper 
with Trouble and with Contempt, and threw 
it by among certain loofe Papers in the bottom 
of a Trunk, where his Lady fome Years after 
accidentally ljt upon it. His Lady with Ad- 
miration law, ftep after ftep, very much of it 
accomplifhed ; but when fhe heard from Eng- 
land, that Sir William was corning over with a 
Commiffion to be Governour of Nczo- England, 
in that very Year of his Life, which the Papet 
fpecified -, fhe was afraid of letting it lye a- 
ny longer in the Houfe, but caft it into the 

Now the thing which I muft invite my 
Reader to remark, is this, That albeit Almighty 
God may permit the Devils to Predift, and 
perhaps to Perform very many particular things 
to Men, that fhall by fuch a Prefumptuous and 
Unwarrantable Juggle as Aflrology (fo Dr. Hall 
well calls it ! ) or any other Divination, confult 
rhem, yet the Devil which foret el many True 
things, do commonly foret el fome that are Falfe, 
and it may be, propofe by the things that are 
True to betray Men into fome fatal Misbelief 
and Mifcarriage about thofe that are Falfe. 

Very lingular therefore was the Wifdom of 
Sir William Phips, that as he ever Treated 
thefe Prophefies about him with a moft Pious 
Negletl, fo when he had feen all but the Two 
laft of them very punctually fulfilled, yea, and 
feen the beginning of a Fulfilment unto the 
laft but one alfo, yet when I pleafantly men- 
tioned them unto him, on purpofeto Try whe- 
ther there were any occafion for me humbly 
to give him the ferious Advice, necefTary in 
fuch a Cafe to Anticipate the Devices of Satan, 
he prevented my Advice, by faying to me, 
Sir, I do believe there might be a curfei Snare 
of Satan in thofe Prophefies : I believe Satan 
might have leave to foretel many things, all 
of which might come to pafs in the beginning, 
to lay me aflcep about fueh things as are to 
follow, efpe dally about the main Chance of all ; 
/ do not know but I am to die this Tear : For 
my part, by the help of the Grace of God, I 
fhall endeavour to live as if I were this Tear 
to die. And let the Reader now attend the E- 
vent ! 

V So- "Tfc 

Magnalia Cbrifti Americana : 

Book II. 

' §. 20. Tis a Similitude which I have Learn- 
ed from no lefs a Perfornban the great Bafd : 
That as the Eye fees not thofe Obje£ts which 
are applied clofe unto it, and even lye upon it ; 
but when the Objefts are to fom'e diltance re- 
moved, it clearly difcefns them : $, we have 
little fenfe of the Good which we have in our 
Enjoyments, until God, by the removal thereof, 
teach us better to prize what we once enjoyed. 
It is true, the Generality of fober and thinking 
People among the Neva- Englanders.d\d as highly 
value the Government of Sir William Fhips, 
whilft he lived, as they do his Memory, iincehis 
Death ; neverthelefs it mult be corjfejjed, that 
the Blelllng whicli the Country had in his in- 
defatigable Zeal, tolefvethe Pubtick in all it's 
Interests, was not ib valued as it Ihould have 

Jt was mention'd long fince as a notorious 
Fault in Old Egypt, that it was Loqiiax b? Inge- 
nioja in Contumeliam Prxfefforum Provincia ■, 
Ji quit forte vitavcrit Culpam, Contumcli-vn non 
effugit : And New-England h is been at the belt 
always too faulty, in that very Character, .i 
Province very Talkative-, and Ingenious for the 
vilifying of its Publick Servants. 

But Sit William Phips, who might in a 'Calif 
of the Commonwealth have adminiihul all 
things with as General an Acceptance as any that 
have gone before him, had the Difadvantage of 
being fet at Helm in a time as full (£S tariff as 
ever that Province hadfeen; and the People 
having their Spirits put into a Tumult by the 
difcompofing and diftempering Variety of Di- 
faftets,' which had long been rendring the time 
Calamitous, it was natural for them, as tis for 
all Men then, to be complaining ; and you may 
be fure, the Rulers mull in fuch Cafes be al 
ways complained of, and the chief Complaints 
muft be heaped upon thofe that are Cdhimahdcn 
in Chief. Nor has a certain Proverb in Afia 
been irj'jroper in America, He defcrves no 
Mans good Word, of whom every Mm fhaHJpeak 

Sir William was very hardly Handled (or 
Tongue d at leaft) in the Liberty which People 
took to make molt unbecoming and injurious 
Refieclions upon his Conduct, and Clamour a- 
gainft him, even for thofe very Aclions which 
were not only Kecejfary to be done, but highly 
Beneficial unto themfelves; and though he 
would ordinarily fmile at their Frowardncfs, 
calling tizffk ountry Pay, yet he fometimes re- 
lented it with fome unealinefs ; he feenfd unto 
himfelf fometimes almoft as bad as Rolled a- 
bout in Regu/us's Barrel ; and had occafion to 
thir.k on the Italian Proverb To wait for one 
who decs not come-, to lye a Bed not able to fie cp \ 
and to fi;;.l )t impoljible to plcaj'e thofe whom 
tee ferve ; are three Gncjs enough to kill a 

But as Frowardas the People were, under 
the Ep'edemical Vexations of the Age, yet there 
were very few that would acknowledge unto the 
very Lift, It will be hardly pojjible for us to fee 
another Governour that /hall more intirefji 

hove and Serve the Country : Yea, had the 
Country had the Choice of their own Governour 
'tis judged their Votes, more than Forty toOne, 
would have ftill fallen upon him to have been 
the Man : And the General Affembly therefore 
on all occafions renewed their Petitions unto the 
King for his Continuance. 

Neverthelefs, there was a little Party of 
Men, who thought they muft not flccp till they 
bad caujed him to fall : And they fo vigoroufly 
prolccuted certain Articles before the Council- 
board at Whitehall againft him, that they ima- 
gined they had gained an Order of His Majeffy 
in Council, to fufpend him immediately from 
his Government, and appoint a Committee of 
Perfons nominated by his Enemies, to hear all 
Depofitions againft him -, and ib a Report of 
i the whole to be made unto the Kin^ and Coun- 

; cii. 

But His Majefty was too well informed of 
(Sir William's Integrity to permit fuel', a fort of 
Procedure ; and therefore he fignitied unto His 
moll Honourable Council, that nothing (hoald 
be done againft Sir William, until he had Op- 
portunity to clear himfelf; and thereupon he 
fent His Royal Commands unto Sir William to 
come over. To give any retorting Accounts of 
, the Principal Perfons who thus adverfaried 
him, would be a Thing fo contrary to the Spi- 
rit of Sir William Fhips himfelf, who at his 
leaving of New-England bravely declared that 
he freely forgave them all; and if lie had return- 
ed thither - again, would never have taken the 
leaf! revenge upon them, that This alone would 
oblige me, if I had no other Obligations of 
Chriftianity upon me, to forbear it ; and it may 
be, for fbme of them, it would be to throw Wa- 
ter upon a drowned Mouje. 

Nor need I to produce any more about the 
Articles which thefe Men exhibited againft 
him, than This j that it was by moft Men be- 
lieved, that if he would have connived at Ibme 
Arbitrary Opprejjions too much ufed by fbme 
kind of Officers on the King's Subjects, Few 
perhaps, of None of thofe Articles had ever been 
formed ; and that he apprehended himfelf to 
be provided with a full Defence againft them 

Nor did His Excellency fc-em loth to have 
had his Cafe Tried under the- Brazen Tree of 
Gariac, if there had been fuch an one, as that 
mentioned by the Fabulous Murtadi, in his 
Prodigies of Egypt, a Tree which had Iron 
Branches withfharp Hooks at the end of them, 
that when any falfe Accufer approached, as the 
Fabel fays, immediately flew at him, and ftuck 
in him, until he had ceafed Injuting his Adver- 

Wherefore in Obedience unto the King's 
Commands, he took his leave of Bofion on the 
feventeenth of November, 1694. attended with 
all proper Teftimonies of Relpeft and Honour 
from the Body of the People, which he had 
been the Head unto ; and wirh Addreffes unto 
their Majefties, and the Chief Mini iters of 
I State from the General AfTembly, humbly im- 

Book II. 0r 3 The Hiftory of New-England. 


ploring, that they might not be deprived of 
the Happinefs which they had in fuch an 

Arriving at Whitehall, he found in a few 
Days, that notwithftanding all the Impotent 
Rage of his Adverfaries particularly vented and 
printed in a Yillanous Libel, as well as almoft 
in as many other ways as there are Mouths, at 
which Fyal fometimes has vomited out its In- 
fernal Fires, he had all Humane Affurance of his 
returning in a very few Weeks again theGover- 
nour of New-England. 

Wherefore there were efpecially two Defigns, 
full of Service to the whole Englifh Nation, 
as well as his own particular Country of New- 
England, which he applied his Thoughts unto. 
F/V/?, He had anew Scene of A£lion opened un- 
to him, in an opportunity to fupply the Crown 
with all Naval Stores at molt eafie Rates, from 
thofe Eaftem Parts of the Maffaclmfet Province, 
which through the Conquelt that he had made 
thereof, came to be Inferted in the Majfachufet- 
Charter. As no Man was more capable than heio 
improve this Opportunity unto a vaft Advantage, 
fo his Inclination to it was according to his Ca- 

And he longed with fome Impatience to fee 
the King furnilhed from his own Dominions, 
with fuch floating and ftately Caftles, thofe 
Wooden-Walls of Great Britain, for much of 
which he has hitherto Traded with Foreign 
Kingdoms. Next, if I may fay next unto this, 
he had an Eye upon Canada ; all attempts for 
the reducing whereof had hitherto proved A- 

It was but a few Months ago that a confide- 
rable Fleet, under Sir Franca Wheeler, which 
had been fent into the Weft-Indies to fubdue 
Martcnico, was ordered then to call at New- 
England, that being recruited there, they might 
make a further Defcent upon Canada ; but Hea- 
ven frowned upon that Expedition, efpecially 
by a terrible Sicknefs, the moft like the Plague 
of any thing that has been ever feen in Ameri- 
ca, whereof there Died, e'er they could reach 
to Bofton, as I was told by Sir Francis himfelf 
no lels than Thirteen Hundred Sailers out of 
'Twenty One, and nolefsthan Eighteen Hundred 
Soldiers out of Twenty-four. 

It was now therefore his defire to have fatif- 
fied the King, that his whole Intereft in Ame- 
rica lay at Stake, while Canada was in French 
Hands : And therewithal to have laid before fe- 
veral Noblemen and Gentlemen, how benefi- 
cial an Undertaking it would have been for 
them to have purfued the Canadian-Bufmeis, for 
which the New-Englanders were now grown 
too Feeble ; their Country being too far now, 
as Bede fays England once was, Omni Milite iff 
floridx Juventutis Alacritate fpoliata. 

Betides thefe raw Deligns in the Thoughts of 
Sir William, there was a Third, which he had 
Hopes that the King would have given him 
leave to have purfued, after he had continued 
fo long in his Government, as to have obtain- 
ed the more General U 'elf are which he defign- 

ed in the former Jnftances. I do not mean the 
making of New-England the Seat of a Spanifl) 
Trade, though fd vaftly profitable a thing was 
likely to have been brought about, by his being 
one of an Honourable Company engaged in fuch 
a Projeft. 

But the Spanifl) Wreck, where Sir William 
had made his firft^W Voyage, was not the Only, 
nor the Ricbejl Wreck, that he knew to be lying 
under the Water. He knew particularly, that 
when the Ship which had Governour Boadilla 
Aboard, was caft away, there was, as Peter 
Martyr %s, an entire Table of Gold of Three 
Thoufand Three hundred and Ten Pound 

The Duke of Albemarle'*, Patent for all fuch 
Wrecks now expiring, Sir William thought on 
the Motto which is upon theGcld Medal, be- 
flowed by the late King, with his Knighthood 
upon him, Semper Tibi pendeat Hamus : And 
fuppofing himfelf to have gained fufficient In- 
formation of the right Way to fuch a Wrecks 
it was hispurpofe upon his Difmiffion from his 
Government, once more to have gone unto his 
old Fiffnng-Trade, upon a mighty Shelf of Rocks 
and Bank of Sands that lye where he had in- 
formed himfelf. 

But as the Prophet Haggai and Zecbariab^ 
in their PJalm upon the Grants made unto their 
People by the Emperors of Perfia have that 
Reflection, Man's Breath goeth forth, he re- 
turns to his Earthy in that very Day bis thoughts 
perifl). My Reader mult now fee what came of 
all thefe coniiderable Thoughts. About the mid- 
dle of February, 1694. Sir William found him- 
felf indifpofed with a Cold, which obliged him 
to keep his Chamber-, but under this Indifpo- 
fition he received the Honour of a Viiit from a 
very Eminent Perfon at Whitehall, who upon 
fufficient Affurance, bad him Get well as j aft 
as he could, for in one Months time be fl)ould be 
again difpatched away to his Government of 

Neverthelefs his Diftemper proved a fort of 
Malignant Feavcr, whereof many about this 
time died in the City-, and it fuddenly put an 
End at once unto his Days and Thoughts, on the 
Eighteeath of February ; to the extream fur- 
prize of his Friends, who Honourably interr'd 
him in the Church of St. Alary Woolnotb, and 
with him, how much of New-England's Hap- 
pinefs ! 

§. 21. Although he has now no more a Por- 
tion for ever in any Thing that is done under 
the Sun, yet Juftice requires that his Memory 
be not forgotten. I have not all this while faid 
tie wcu Faultlefs, nor am 1 unwilling to ufe for 
him the Words which Mr. Calamy had in his 
Funeral Sermon for the Excellent Earl of War- 
wick, It v/ufi be confefj'ed, left I fbould prove a 
Flatterer, be bad his Infirmities, which I truft 
Jefus Cbrift bath covered with tbe Robe of his 
Right eoufnejs : My Prayer to God is, that all his 
Infirmities may be Buried in tbe Grave of Obli- 
vion, and that all his Virtues and Graces may 
Supervive ; although perhaps they were no In- 

7 2 

Magnalia Chrifti Americana 

Book II. 

firmities in that Noble Perfon, which Mr. Cala- 
my counted lb. 

Neverthelefs I muft alfo fay, That if the 
Anguifh of his Publick Fatigues threw Sir Wil- 
liam into any faults of Pajfion • they were but 
Faults of Pajfion foon Recall'd : And Spots be- 
ing fooneft feen in Ermin, there was ufualiy the 
mofl made of them that could be, by thofe that 
were leaft Free themfelves. 

After all, I do not know that I have been, 
by any perfonal Obligations or Circumftances. 
charmed into any Partiality for the Memory of 
this Worthy Man •, but I do here, from a real 
Satisfaction of Confcience concerning him, de- 
clare to all the World, that I reckon him to 
have been really a very Worthy Man ; that few 
Men in the World rifing from fo mean an Ori- 
ginal as he, would have acquitted themfelves 
with a Thoufand Part of his Capacity or Integri- 
ty ; that he left unto the World a notable Exam 
pie of a Difpofition to do Good, and encountred 
and overcame almoft invincible Temptations iri 
doing it. 

And I do moft folemnly Profefs, that I have 
moft confeiencioufly endeavoured the utmoft 
Sincerity and Veracity of a Cbriftian, as well as 
an Hiftorian, in the Hiftory which 1 have now 
given of him. I have not written of Sir Wil- 
liam Pbips, as they fay Xenopbon did of Cyrus 
Non ad Hijlori£ Fidem, Jed ad Effigiem veri 
imperii ; what Jhould have been, rather than 
what really wot. If the Envy of his/^zo Ene- 
mies be not now %tiet , I muft freely fay it, 
That for many Weeks before he died, there was 
not one Man among his perfonal Enemies whom 
be would not readily and chearfully have done 
all the kind Offices of a Friend unto : Where- 
fore though the Gentleman in England that 
once publifhed a Vindication of Sir William 
Pbips again!! fome of his Enemies, chole to pur 
the Name of Publicans upon them, they muft 
in ibis be counted worfe than the Publicans of 
whom our Saviour fays, They Love thofe that 
Love bim. 

And I will fay this further, That when cer 
tain Perfons had found theS&ull of a Dead Man. 
as a Greek Writer of Epigrams has told us, 
they all fell a W T eeping, but only one of the 
Company, who Laughed and Flouted, and 
through an nnheard-of Cruelty, threw Stones 
at it, which Stones wonderfully rebounded back 
upon ineFace of him that threw them, and mi- 
fersbly woranded him : Thus if any fhali be 
ib Urubriftian, yea, fo Inhumane, as libelloufly 
to throw Stones at fo deferved a Reputation as 
this Gent! man hasdkd withal, they fhall fee 
a Jufl Rebound of all their Calumnies. 

ButtheNameofSirH^/LL/ii/M PHI PS 
will be heard Honourably mentioned in the 
Trumpets of Immoral Fame, when the Names 
cfmany that Anapatbied him will either be 
Buried in Eternal Oblivion, without any Steer 
Vates to preferve them ; or be remembred, but 
like that otjudai in the Gofpel, or Pilate in 
the Creed, with Eternal Infamy. 

The old Per fians indeed, according to the 
Report of Agatbias, expofed their Dead Friends 
to be Torn in Pieces by Wild Beajh, believing 
that if they lay long unworried, they had been 
unworthy Perfons \ but all attempts of furviving 
Malice to demonftrate in that way the worth 
of this Dead Gentleman, give me leave to Rate 
off with Indignation. 

And 1 muft with a like Freedom fay, That 
great was the Fault of New-England no more 
to value a Perfbn, whofe Opportunities to ferve 
all their Inteteftf, though very Eminent, yet 
were not fo Eminent as his Inclinations. If this 
whole Continent carry in its very Name of 
AMERICA, an unaccountable Ingratitude 
unto that Brave Man who firlt led any num- 
bers of Europeans thither, it muft not be won- 
dred at, if now and then a particular Country 
in that Continent aftord fome tyltances of In- 
gratitude: But I muft believe, that the Ingrati- 
tude of many, both to God and Man, for fuch 
Benefits as that Country of New-England en- 
joy 'd from a Governour of their own, by 
whom they enjoyed great quietnefs. with' very 
worthy Deeds done unto that Nation by his Pro- 
vidence, was that which haftned the Removal 
of fuch a Benefactor from them. 

However, as the Cyprians buried their Friends 
in Honey, to whom they gave Gall when they 
were Born ; thus whatever Gall might be given 
to this Gentleman while he lived, I hope none 
will be fo bafe, as to put any thing but Honey 
into their Language of him now after his De- 
ceafe. And indeed, fince 'tis a frequent thing 
among Men to wifh for the Prefence of our 
Friends, when they are dead and gone, whom, 
while they were prefent with us, we undervalu- 
ed ; there is no way tor us to fetch back our 
Sir William Pbips, and make him yet Living 
with us, but by fetting up a Statue for him, as 
'tis done in thefe Pages, that may out-laft an 
ord i n a ry Monument . 

Such was the Original Defign of erecfing 
Statues, and if in Venice there were at once no 
lefs than an Hundred and Sixty-two Marble, 
and Twenty-three Brazen Statues, erecfed by 
the Order, and ar the Expence of the Publick, 
in Honour of fo many Valiant Soldiers, who 
had merited well of that Commonwealth, I am 
fure New-England has had thofe, whofe Merits 
call for as good an acknowledgment; and, what- 
ever they did before, it will be well, if after 
Sir William Pbips, they find many as meritori- 
ous as he to be fo acknowledged. 

Now I cannot my felf provide a better Statue 
for this Memorable Perfon, than the Words ut- 
tered on the occafion of his Death in a very great 
Affembly, by a Perfon of fo Diftus'd and £m- 
balm'd a Reputation in the Church of God, 
that fuch a Character from him were enough 
to Immortalize the Reputation of the Perfbn 
upon whom he fhould bellow it. 

The Grecians employ 'd ftill the moft Ho- 
nourable and Confiderable Perfons they had a- 
mong. them, to make a Funeral Oration in 
Commendation of Soldiers that had loft their 


Book II. Or, The Hiftory of New-England. 


Lives in the Service of the Publick: And when 
Sir William Phips, the Captain General of New- 
England, who had often ventured his Life to 
ferve the Publick, did expire, that Rjverend 
Perfon, who was the Prefident of the only Uni- 
veihty then in the Englifl) America, Preached a 
Scrrrion on that PafTage of the Sacred Writ, 
Ifa. 57. i. Merciful Men arc taken away, none 
ionfidering that the Righteous are taken away 
from the Evil to come ; and in it gave Sir Wil- 
liam Phips the following Teltimcny. 

'This Province is Beheaded, and lyes a 
'Bleeding. , A GOVERNOUR is taken away, 
' who was a Merciful Man-, lome think too 
i Merciful: And if to, 'tis beft Erring on that 
'Hand- and a Righteous Man • who, when he 
'had great Opportunities of gaining by Injitfiicel 
' did refufe to do to. 

'He was a known Friend unto the beft Inte- 
' relfs, and unto the Churches of God : Not a- 
i fhamed of owning them: No, how often have 
c I heard him expreUing his Defires to be an In- 
' ftrument of Good unto them ! He was a Zea- 
'lous Lover of his Country, if any Man in the 
' World were lb : He expofed him/elf to ferve it ; 
' he ventured his Life to fave it : In that, a true 

* Nehemiah, a Governour that fought the wel- 
l fare of his People. 

'He was one who did notfeek to have the 

* Government caft upon him : No, but inftead 

* thereof to my Knowledge he did feveral 

* times Petition the King, that this People might 
' always enjoy the great Priviledge of chufing 
' their own Governour ; and I have heard him 
c exprefs his Defires, that it might be fo, to fe- 
deral of the Chief Minifters of State in the 
' Court of England. 

' He is now Dead, and not capable of being 
1 Flattered : But this I muft teftifie concerning 
« him. That though by the Providence of God 

c I have been with him at Home and Abroad, 
' near at Home, and afar off, by Land and by 
' Sea, J never Jaw him do any evil Aliion, or 
*■ beard him f peak any thing unbecoming a Chri- 

'The Circumftances of his Death fcem tc 
' intimate the Anger of God, in that he was in 
'■the Mid ft of his Days removed ; and 1 know 
' (though Pew did ) that he had great Purpbfei 
' in his Hearr, which probably would have ta- 
c ken Efte£c, if he had lived a few Months lon- 
' ger, to the great Advantage of this province ; 
' but now he is gone, there is not a Man Living 
'in the World capacitated for thole Under 
' takings ^ New-England know:, not yet what 
' they have Loft ! 

The Recitation of a Teftimony 10 great.. 
whether for the Authdr, or the Matter of it, 
has now made a Statue for the Governour of 
New-England, which 

Nee poterit Pcrrum, nee edax abolerc vetujlaj. 

And there now remains nothing more for me 
to do about it, but only to recite herewithal a 
well-known Story related by Suidaf, That an 
Envious Man, once going to pull down a 
Statue which had been railed unto the Memo- 
ry of one whom he maligned, he only got this 
by it, that the Statue falling down, knock'd 
out his Brains. 

But Poetry as well as Hiftory muft pay it's 
Dues unto him. If Cicero's Poem, intituled. Qua' 
drigx, wherein he did with a Poetical Chariot 
extol the Exploits of Ccfar in Britain to the 
very Skies, were now Extant in the World, I 
would have Borrowed fome Flights of That at 
leaft, for the Subject now to be Adorned. 

But inftead thereof, let the Reader accept the 
J enfuing Elegy. 




Maenalia Chri'U Americana 



Book II. 


A 1 

O F 

iltaill ipijtM, Knt. 

Late Captain General and Governour in Chief of the Province 
of the Majfichufet-Bay in New-England^ who Expired in London^ 
Feb. 1 8. 169*. 

And to Mortality a Sacrifice 

Falls He, whofe Deeds mujl Him Immortalize ! 

REjoice MeHTieurs ; Netops rejoice ; 'tis 
Te Philiftines, none will rejoice but foil : 
Loving of All He Dy'd ; who Love him not 
Now. hive the Grace of Publicans forgot. 
Our Almanacks joretold a great Eclipfe, 
This they for ef aw not, of our greater PHI PS. 
PHI PS our great Friend, our Wonder ; and our 

Glory, < 

The Terror of our Foes, the World's rare Story. 
England will Boa ft him too, whofe Noble Mind 
Impel! d by Angels, did thofe TreafuresyW, 
Long in the bottom of the Ocean laid, 
Which her Three Hundred Thoufand Richer 

By Silver yet neer Canker 'd, nor defiPd 
By Honour nor Bet ray' d when Fonunef mi I'd. 
Since this bright Phoebus vifitcd our Shoar, 
We faw no Fogs but what zvere raisd before : 
Thofe vaniflid too ; harrafs'd by Bloody Wars 
Our Land faw Peace, by his n/ofi generous 

The Wolvilh P3gans at his dreaded Name, 
Tarrid, fhrunk before him, and his Dogs be- 
came ! 
Fell Moxus and fierce Dockawando/j//, 
Char dd at the leet of our Brave General. 


Fly-blow the Dead, Tale Envy, let him not 
(What Uero ever did?) efcape a Blot. 
All is Diftort with an Inchanted Eye, 
And Heighth will make what's Right ftill Rand 

He was, Oh that He was ! His Faults we'll tell, 
Such Faults as thefe we knew, and lik'd them 


Jult to an Injury-, denying none 
Their Dues •, but Self-denying oft his own. 

Good to a Miracle ; refolvd to do 
Good unto All, whether they would or no. 
To make Us Good, Great, Wife, and all Thing r 

He wanted but the Gift of Miracles. 
On him, vain Mob, thy Mif chiefs ceafe to 

throw -, 
Bad, but alone in This, the Times were fo. 

Stout to a Prodigy ; living in Tain 
To fend back Quebeck-Bullets once again. 
Thunder, his Mufick, fweeter than 

Chim'd Roaring Canons in his Martial Ears. 



Book II. Or, The Hijiory 0^ New-England. 


Frigats of armed Men could not with ft and, 
'Twm try'd, the Force of his one Sword lefs 

Hand : 
H:md. which in one, all of Briareus had, 
And HerculcsV twelve Toils but PleaCures made. 

Too Humble ; in brave Stature not fo Tall, 
As low in Carriage, flooding unto all. 
Rais'd in Eflate, in figure and RenOwn, 
Not Pride; Higher, and yet not Prouder grown. 
Of Pardons full; ne'er to Revenge at all, 
Was that which he a*W</ Satisfaction call. 

True to hk Mate; from whom though often 
A Strangery ct to every hove but one. 
Write him not Childnels, uhoje whole People 

Sons. Orphans now, of his Paternal Care. 

Novo left ungrateful Brands we fhould incur, 
Tour Salary well pay in Tears, GREAT SIR ! 

To England often blown, and by hk Prince 
Often jent laden with preferments thence. 
Preferr'd each Time he went, when all wcu done 
That Earth could do, heaven fetch' d him to a 


'Tis He : With Him Interr'd how great de- 
fans ' 
Stand Fearlefs now., ye Eaftcrn Firrs and Pines. 
With Naval Stores not to enrich the Nation, 
Stand, for the UniverlM Conflagration. 
Mines, opening unto none but Him, now flay 
Cloje under Lock and Key, till the Laji Day : 
In thk, like to the Grand Aurifick Stone, 
By any but Great Souls not to be known. 
And Thou Rich Table, with Bod ilia /<?/?, 
In the Fa/r.Galeon, on our Spanifh Coafi. 
In weight Three Thoufand and Three hundred 

But of pure Maffy Gold, lye Thou, not found^ 
Safe, fince tics laid under the Earth afleep, 
Who learnt where Thou dofi under Water keep. 

But Thou Chief Lofer, Poor NEW-ENGLAND, 
Thy Dues tofuch as did thy Welfare feek, 
The Governour that vow d to Rile and Fall 
With Thee, Thy Fate fhows in His Funeral. 
Write now His Epitaph, 'twill be Thine own, 
Or, but Name PHIPS •, more needs not be ex- 

Both Englands, and next Ages, tell the Refi. 

i*m^'- ■ ■**■■; 

The End of the Second BOOK. 

T L T B I V S. 

The Third BOOK 

O F T H E 

ew Englifh Hiftory : 




Reverend, Learned, and Holy DIVINES, 

(arriving fucb from Europe to America) by whofe 
Evangelical Miniftry the Churches of NEfF- 
ENGLANV have been Illuminated. 

By Co tton Mather. 

Teflor, — Cbriftianum de Chrijliano vera proferre. 

Simeon Metaphraft. in Vita Chryfoftom. 

Eqnidem eferor ftndio Patres veftros, q ms colui, & dilexi, videndi. 

Cic. de Senec. 

L N T> N : 

Printed for 7 homos Tarkburft, at the "Bible and Three 

Crowns, in Cheapfide. 1702. 

gook III. 



WHat was it that obliged Jerom to write 
bis Book, De Viris Illuftribus > // 
was the common Reproach of old caji 
upon the Chriftians, That they were all poor, 
weak, unlearned Men. The fort of Men fome- 
tunc called Puritans, in the Englifh Nation have 
been reproached with the fame CharaUer ; 'and at 
a malignant Stapleton, counted the Terms of an 
A is, and a Fool, good enough to treat our incom- 
parable Whitaker. No lefs bafely are the bejl of 
Proteftants often tcrm'd and thought, by the Men, 
who know no Chriftianity but Ceremony. There 
bath been too much of that Envy, that Sapientior 
lis Socrate, Doctior Auguftino, Calvenianus, Si 
modd dicare, clam, vel propalam, mox Tartaris, 
Mofcis, Afris, Turcifque, facvientibus, jacebis 
execratior. A Wretchednefs often feen in Engiifh ; 
, \fhall not Englifh it. This is one thing that has 
laid me under Obligation, here to write a Book, 
De Viris Illuftribus : In the whole whereof, I will 
with a moft Confcientious and Religious Regard of 
Truth, Jove our Hiftory from any flmre, in that 
old Complaint of Melchior Canus, Dolenter hoc 
dico, raulto a Laertio feverius Vitas Pbilofopho- 
rum fcriptas elfe, quam a Chriftianis, VitasChri- 
ftianorum : The Lives of Philofophers more truly 
written, than the Lives <?/" Chriftians. 

Reader, Behold thefe Examples ; admire and 
follow what thou doft behold Exemplary in them. 
They are offered unto the Publick, with the Inten- 
tion fometimes mentioned by Gregory : lit qui 
Prxceptis noh accendimur, faltem Exemplis inci- 
temur ; atque ac Appetitu Recfitudinis nil fibi 
meus noftra difficile jeftimet, quod perfe£te pe- 
ragi ab aliis videt : That Patterns may have upon 
vs the force which Precepts have not. 

If a Man were Jo abfurd, as to form his Ideas 
of the Primitive Chriftians, from the monftrom 
Accufations of their Adversaries, he would foon 
perfwadc himfelf, that their God was the Deus 
Chriftianorum Ononychites, whofe Image was ere- 
tied at Rome. And if a Man (houldhave no other 
Ideas of the Puritan Chriftians in our Days, than 
what the Tory-Pens of the Sons of Bolfecus have 
given them, we would think that it wot a ju(i 
thing to banijh them into the cold Swamps of the 
North America. But when Truth Jball have li- 
berty to fpeak, it will be known, that Chriftianity 
never wot more expreffed unto the Life, than in 
the Lives of the Perfons that have been thus re- 
proached, among the Legions of the Accufer of the 
Brethren. It f peaks in the enfuing Pages ! Here, 
behold them, of whom the World was not wor- 
thy, wandring in Defarts ! 

Arnobius was put upon an Apology, againji our 
particular Calumny, among the reft, That at the 
Meetings of the Chriftians, a Dog ty'd unto the 
Candleftick, drew away the Light, whereupon 
they proceeded unto the moft Adulterous Confu- 
fions in the World. And a great Man in his Wri- 
tings does affirm, I have heard this very thing, 
told more than once, with no fmall Confidence 
concerning the Puritans: 

Reader, thou fhalt now fee, what fort of Men 
they were : Zion is not a City ot Fools. As 
Ignatius in his famous Epiftles to the Trallians, 
mentioning their Pafior, Polybius, reports him\ 
A Man of fo good and juft a Reputation, that the 
very Atheifts did ftand in fear of him. / hope 
our POLYBIUS, will afford many deferv'mg 
fucb a CharaUer. 

It way mentioned at the Bufinefs and Bleffed- 
nefs of John Baptift, To turn the Hearts of the 
Fathers to the Children. After a deal of more 
ado about the Sence of the parage thus tranflated, 
I contented my f elf with another Tran flat ton, To 
turn the Hearts of the Fathers WITH the Chil- 
dren ; becaufe I find the Prepofition, ion, as well 
at the Prefix ^ in Mai. 4. 6. whence the paffage 
is taken to be rendred With, rather than To. 
Tlie Sence therefore I took to be, That John fhould 
convert both Old and Young. But further Thought 
hath offered unto me a further Glofs upon it : To 
turn the Hearts of the Fathers to the Children, is 
to turn the Children by putting the Hearts of the 
Fathers into them ; to give them fucb Hearts at 
were in Abraham, and others of their famous and 
faithful Fathers. 

Reader, The Book now in thy Hands, is to ma- 
nage the Defign of a John Baptift, and convey the 
Hearts of the Fathers unto the Children. 

Archilocus being defirous to give prevailing and 
effeEtual Advice unto Lycambes, by an elegant Pro- 
fopopceia, brought in his dead Father, at giving 
the Advice he was now writing, and as it, were put 
his Pen into his Father's Hand. Cicero being to 
read a Fctlure of Temperance and Modefty unto 
Clodia, raifed.up her Father Appius Caius from 
the Grave, and in his Name delivered his Dire- 
ctions. And now, by introducing the Fathers of 
New-England, without the leafi Pillion, or Figure 
0/ Rhetorick, jf hope the plain Hiftory of their 
Fives, will be a powerful way of propounding their 
Fatherly Counfels to their Pofierity. A Stroke 
with the Hand of a dead Man, hat before now 
been a Remedy for a Malady not eafily remedied. 

A a a 


The Third BOOK. 

T)e Ifms Ulujlribus* 

In Four PARTS. 


Xhe L I V E S of near Fifty Divines, 

Confiderable in the 

€$mtyt8 o! &tfctn$Um> 

Credunt de nobis qua non probantur, & nolunt inquifi, ne frobentw 
nontffe, qu£ malunt credidijffe. Tert. Apol. 

' Avlng entertained my Readers with 
a more imperfecf Catalogue, ' Of 
' many Perfons whofe Memories 
' deferve to be embalmed in a 
6 Civil Hijiory -, I muft fo far con- 
sider, that it is an Ecclejiaftical Hijiory, which I 
have undertaken, as to haften unto a fuller and 
larger Account of thofe Perfons who have been 
the Mimfters of the Gofpel, that fed the flocks 
in the Wildernefs : And indeed, New-England' 
having been in Some fort an Ecclejiaftical Country 
above any in this World, thofe Men that have- 
here appeared mod considerable in an Ecclefmfti-^ 
cal Capacity, may moft reafonably challenge the : 
molt Consideration in our Hijiory. 

Take then a Catalogue of New-England's firft 
Minifters, who tho' they did not generally affe£t 
the Exercife of Church-Government, as confined 
unto Gaffes, yet Shall give me leave to ufe the 
Name of Gaffes in my marfhalliog of them, 

The FirU C l a s s i s. 

IT Shall be of fach as were in the M5W Exer- 
cife of their Ministry, when the)' lei: Eng*. 
land, and were the Iriltruments of bringing the 
Gofpel into this Wildernefs, and of fettling Chur- 
ches here according to the Order of the Go, 

aiJI^nnn^n: Ox, Our Firft Go;:! Al;;;. 

s\.Thomas AUt/:c.'\ Cwr 


3'. Mr. 

4 . Mr. 

5. Mr. 

6. Mr. 

7. Mr. 

8. Mr. 

9. Mr. 

10. Mr. 

11. Mr. 

Mr. John Allen df'Bedh 

Avery of A ' 
AdjmBL:c':m.!r2 of Strctfou. 
Richard B'innwn of G 

Brucy of Br,:;,? ford. 
Edmund Brown of Sudbury. 
Peter Bulkely of Concord. 
Jonathan Burr of Dorchefter, 
Charles Chaimcey of Scituate. 
Thomat Ccbbct of hyn. 

12. M: 


Book ILL The Hiftory of New-England. 







I p. 




2 6. 














* 4 . 



6 7 . 






. Mr. John Cotton of Bofion. 

Mr. Timothy Halt on oi Hampton. 
, Mr. /<?/->« Davenport of New-Haven. 
Mr. Richard Denton of Stamjord. 
Mr. Henry Dunllar or Cambridge. 
Mr. Samuel Eaton of Adv-Haven. 
Mr. 7tf/j# £V//0Jf of Roxbury. 
Mr. 5^Z>/* K'^ °f Chelmsford. 
Mr. //tv//;y N//// of Braintree. 
Mr. Fordham of Southampton. 

Mr. Green of Reading. 

Mr. 7i?Zv: Harvard of Charles-Town. 
Mr. Francis Higginfon oi Salem. 
Mr. William Hook ofNew-Haven. 
Mr. Thomas Hooker of Hartford. 
Mr. IViV;- Hobart of Hingham. 
Mr. Ephraim Huet of Wind/or. 
Mr. W//// of the i/fc 0/ -Mw. 

Mr. James of Charles Town. 

Mr. jfow-f of Fairfield. 

Mr. Knight of Topsfield. 

Mr. Knowles of Water-Town. 

Mr. Lever ick of Sandwich. 

Mr. y#Zw Lothrop of Barnflable. 
Mr. Richard Mather of Dorchejler. 
Mr. Maud of Dover. 

Mr. Muverick of Dorchejler. 

Mr. j^tf /H/yc of Bofion. 
Mr. ,/(^/7 Millar of Tarmouth. 
Mr. Moxcn of Springfield. 

Mr. Samuel Newman of Rehoboth. 
Mr. Norris of Salem. 

Mr. T^tf Norton of Bofion. 
Mr. JdMW A 7 /?//"? of Newberry. 
Mr. Thomas Parker of Newberry. 
Mr. R<///>/.> Partridge of Duxbury. 
Mr. P^<r,£ oi Hingham. 

Mr. if&g/j Peters of &z/m. 
Mr. Thomas Peters of Say-brook. 
Mr. George Phillips of Watertown. 
Mr. Philips of Dedham. 

Mr. Abraham Pier [on oi Southampton, 
Mr. P^/ 1 Prudden of Mil ford. 
Mr. Reyner of Plymouth. 

Mr. Ezekiel Rogers oiRowly. 
Mr. Nathanael Rogers of lpfwich. 
Mr. Saxton of Scituate. 

Mr. Thomas She par d of Cambridge. 
Mr. Zachary Symms of Charles-Town. 
Mr. Skelton oi Salem. 

Mr. ifo^ 5«/>/; of Plymouth. 
Mr. S#///fr of Wethersfeld. 

Mr. Samuel Stone of Hertford. 
Mx. Nicholas Street of Newhaven. 
Mr. William Thompfon of Braintree. 
Mr. William Wahham of Marblehead. 
Mr. Nathanael Ward of lpfwich, and his 

Son, "Mt. John Ward oi Haverhil. 
Mr. jfofrtf Warham oiWindfor. 
Mr. M^A/ of Roxbury. 

Mr. Wheelright oi Salisbury. 

Mr. /jVwj Whitfield of Guilford. 
Mr. Samuel Whiteing of Ly/7. 
Mr. Jbfr/z Wilfon of Bofion. 
Mr. Wither el of Scituate, 

76. Mr. William Worccfier oi Salisbury. 

77. Mr. 

20///7* of Soul hold. 

Behold, one 5>w/z more than J&uftf Decads of 
Perfons, who being devoted unto the Sacred Mi- 
niftry of our Lord, were the firft that enlightncd 
the dark Regions pf America with their Miniftry ! 
Know Reader, that it was by a particular Divcr- 
fwn given by the Hand of Heaven, unto the/// 
tentions of that Great Man, Dr. William Amcs, t 
that we don't now find his Name among the firlt 
in the Catalogue of our NewEng/ifl) Worthies, 
One of the moft Eminent and Judicious Perfons 
that ever lived in this World, was Intentionally 
a NewrEngland-Man, tho' not Eventually, when 
that Profound, that Sublime, that Subtil, that 
Irrefragable, yea that Angelical Do'ffor, was de- 
figning to tranfport himfelf into New England -, 
but he was hindred by that Providence, which 
afterwards permitted his Widow, his Children, 
and his Library, to be tranllated hither. And 
now, 0//r Fathers, where are they ? 1 'hefe Pi 
phets have they lived for ever ? 'Twas the Charge 
of the Almighty to other Kings, Touch not mme 
Anointed, and do my Prophets no harm : But th; 
IG'zg of Terrors pleading an Exemption from that 
Charge, has now touched every one of thefe Ho 
ly Men j however, all the W/» it has done unto 
them, has been to carry them from this prefent 
evil World, unto the Spirits of jufl Men made 
perfett. 1 may now write upon all thefe CVi 
Minifters of New-England, the Epitaph which 
the Apoftle hath left upon the 2>/>y?.r of the 0/i 
Tefiament, Thefe were not fuffered to continue, 
by reafon of Death -, adding the Clau'fe which he 
hath left upon the Patriarchs of thatTeftament, 
17;<?/~? <z// rfz>i z» JRwV/;. 

Wherefore we pafs on to 

77>e Second ClASSiS. 

IT fhall be of Tw//?£ Scholars, whofe Education 
for their defigned Miniftry, not being fimfh- 
ed, yet came over from England with their 
Friends, and had their Education perfected in 
this Country, before the G?//^ was come unto 
Maturity enough to bellow its Laurels. 

Mr. Samuel Arnold of MarfiJield. 
Mr. ^7<?Z>« ZJ j/Zw/j of Stamford. 
Mr. Edward Bulkly of Concord. 
Mr. Carter of Woburn. 

Mr. Francis Dean of Andover. 
Mr. James Fit eh oi Norwich. 
Mr. Hunford of Norwalk* 

8. Mr. J<?/:w Higginfon oi Salem. 

9. Mr. Hough of Reading. 

10. Mr. James of Eajlhampton* 

11. Mr. Roger Ne zvton of Milford. 

12. lAx. John Sherman oi Watertown. 

13. Mr. Thomas Thacher of Bofion. 

14. Mr. John Woodbridge of Newberry. 






The Hi/lory o f New-England. Book Til. 

Of thefe two Sevens, almoft All are gone, 
where to be is, By far the Bejl of AH. But thefe 
were not come to an Age for Service to the 
Church of God, before the Wifdom, and Pru- 
dence of the New-Englanders, did remarkably 
fignifie it felf, in the Founding of a COLLEGE, 
from whence the moft of their Congregations 
were afterwards fupplied; a River, the Streams 
whereof made glad the City of God. From that 
Hour Old-England had more Miniffers from 
New, than our New-England had fince then, 
from Old ; neverthelefs after a Celfation of Mi- 
nifters coming hither from Europe, for Twenty 
Years together, we had another fet of them, 
Coming over to help us : Wherefore take yet the 
Names of Two Sevens more. 

We will now proceed unto, 

c fbe 7 bird C L A s S i s. 

IT flnll be of fuch Minifters, as came over 
to New-England after the Re eftablifhment 
of the Epifcopal Church-Government in England, 
and the Perfecution, which then hurricano'd, 
fuch as were Non Conformifts unto that Efta- 












Mr. James Allen of Bojlon. 
Mr. John Baily of Watertown. 
Mr. Thomas Baily of Watertown. 
Mr. Bamet of New-London. 

Mr. James Brown of Swanfey. 
Mr. Thomas Gilbert of Topsfield. 
Mr. James Keith of Bridgwater. 
Mr. Samuel Lee ofBriftol. 
Mr. Charles Morton of Cbarleftown* 
Mr. Charles Nicholet of Salem. 
Mr. John O.xenbridge ofBofton. 
Mr. Thomas Thornton of Yarmouth. 
Mr. Thomas Walley of Barn fable. 
Mr. William Woodrop oiLancafter. 

fers conkffeATndifferent. And it is affirmed, 
by a modeff Calculation, this Perfecution t 
cured the Untimely Death of Three Thailand 
Non-Conformifts, and the Ruine of Three/core 
Thoufdnd Families, within Five and Twenty 
Years. Many retired into New-England, that 
they might have a little Reft at Aeon, with the 
Flocks of our Lord in this Wildernefs : But fet 
ting afide fbme Eminent Perfons of a AVey En- 
glifh Original, which were .driven back out ol 
Europe into their own Country again, by that 
Storm. Thefe few were the moft of the Mini 
fters, that fled hither iron: it. 1 will not pre 
fume to give the Reafons, why, No more ; but 
obferving a Glorious Providence of the Lord 
Jefus Chriff, in moving the Stars to fhine, 
where they were moft wanted, I will conclude'; 
lamenting the Difafter of Kew England, in the 
Interruption, which a particular Providence of 
Heaven gave unto the Dcfigns of that Incompa- 
rable Perfon Dr. John Owen, who had gone fo 
far as to fhip himfelf^ with Intents to have ta- 
ken this Country in his way to his Eternal 
Reft: It muft have been our lingular Advantage 
and Ornament, if we had thus enjoyed among 
us, One of the Great elf Men, that this la ft Age 


E M A R. K S. 

It is well known, that quickly after the Revi- 
val of the Englifh Hierarchy, thofe, whofe Con- 
fciences did not allow them to worfhtp God, in 
fome Ways and Modes then by Law eftablifhed, 
were purfued with a Violence, which, doubtlefs 
many thoufinds. of thofe whom the Church of 
England, in its National Conffttution acknow- 
ledges for her Sons, were fo far from Appro 
ving or Affifting, that they Abhorred it. What 
Spirit a&ed the Party that Raifed this Perfe- 
ction, one may guefs from a Paflage, which I 
find in a Book of Mr. Giles Finnius. A Lady 
affured him. that flie fignifying unto a Parlia- 
ment-Man, her Diflike of the Aft of Uniformity, 
when they were about rt, Ind faying, 1 fee you 
are laying a Snare in the Gate, he replied, Ay, 
if we can find any way to catch the Rogues, we 
will have them ! It is well known that near Five 
and Twenty Hundred faithful Minifters of the 
Gofpel, were now filenced in One Black Day, 
( becaufe they could not comply with fome things, 
by themfelves counted finful, but by the Impo- 

Efpec'/allj upon the Firft Clafs, /;/ our Cats-' 
logue of Minifters. 

I. A LL, or Moft, of the Minifters that make 
^ JljL up our Two firft Clafles, came over from 
England within the Two firft Luftres of Years, 
I after the firft Settlement of the Country. After 
the Year 1640. that part of rhe Church of En- 
gland, which took up Arms in the Old Caufc of 
the Long Parliament, and which among all its 
Parliament-Men, Commanders, Lord-Lieute- 
nants, Major-Generals, and Sea-Captains, had ' 
fcarce any but Conformifts ; I fay, That part of 
the Church of England, knowing the Puritans 
to be generally inclinable unto thofe Principles 
of fuch Writers as Bilfon and Hooker, where- 
upon the Parliament then afted -, and feeing 
them to be generally of the trueft Englift) Spi- 
rit, for the Prefetvation of the Englifh Liberties 
and Properties, for which the Parliament then 
declared, faltho' there were fome Non-Confor- 
mifis in the King's Army alfo :) it was found 
neceffary to have the Afliftance of that consi- 
derable People. Whereupon enfued fuch a 
Change of Times, that inftead of Old England's 
driving its beft People into New, it was it felf 
turned into New. The Body of the Parliament 
and its Friends, which were Conformifts in the 
beginning of that miferable War, before tht 
War was ended, became fuch as thofe Old 
Non Conformifts, whofe Union with them 
Political Interefts produced an Union in Relig- 
ous. The Romanizing Laudians mifcarricd in 
their Enterprize^ the Anglicane Church could 
not be carried over to the Gallicane. This was 


Book III. c Ibe Hi/lory of New-England. 


not the firft Inftance of a Sbipwrack befalling a 
VelTel bound for Rome ; nor wilt it be the lait : 
A Veflel bound iiich a Voyage, muft be Ship- 
wrack\l, tho' St. Paul himielr were aboard. 

II. The Occafion upon which thefe Excellent 
Minifters retired into an Horrid Wildernefs 
of America, and encountred the difmal Hard- 
ships of fuch a Wildernefs, was the Violent 
Perfecuiion, wherewith a prevailing Party in 
the Church of England tmaffed them. In their 
own Land they were hereby deprived, not only 
of their Livings, but alfo of their Liberty to 
exerciie their Miniftry, which was dearer to them 
than their Livings, yea, than their very Lives: 
And they were expofed unto extreme Sufferings, 
becaufe they confeientiouily dilfented from the 
life of fome things in the Worfhip of God, 
which they accounted Sins. But I leave it unto 
the Confideration of Mankind, whether this for- 
bidding of J itch Men to do their Duty, were no 
Ingredient of that Iniquity, which immediately 
upon the Departure of thefe Good Men brought 
upon Great Britain, and efpecially upon the 
Greatest Authors of this Perfecution, A Wrath 
unto the uitermoft, in the enfuing Defolations. 
All that I fhall add up'on it, is, That, I re- 
member, the Prophet fpeaking of what had 
been done of old, by the Affyrians, to the Land 
of the Cbaldxans, ufes an Expreffion, which we 
tranflate, in I/a. 23. 12. He brought it unto Ru- 
inc : But there is a Punic Word, Mapatra, 
which old heft us (and Servius) affirm to fig- 
nify, Cottages ■, according to Philargyrius, it 
JHgnifies, Cafat in Eremo habit aniium: Now that 
is the very Word here ufed, rV?SO and the Con- 
dition of Cottagers in a Wildernefs, is meant, 
by The Ruine, there fpoken of. Truly, fuch 
was the Ruine, which the Ceremoniotts Perfe- 
cutors then brought upon the mod Confcientious 
NonConformifts, unto their Unfcriptural Cere- 
monies. But as the Kingdom of Darknefs ufes 
to be always at length overthrown by its own 
Policy, lb will be at lafl found no advantage 
unto that Party in the Church of England, that 
the Orders and Atlions of the Churches by them 
thus produced, become an Hiffory. 

III. Thele fylinifters of the Gofpel, which 
were (without any Odious Comparifon) as Faith- 
ful, Painful, Ufeful Miniffers, as mod in the 
Nation, being thus exiled from a Sinful Nation, 
there were not known to be left fo many Non- 
Conformiff Minifters, as there were Counties in 
England : And yet they were quickly fo mul- 
tiplied, that a Matter of Twenty Tears after, 
there could be found far more than Twe-nty 
Hundred, that were fo grounded in their Non- 
Conformity, as to undergo the Lofs of all things, 
rather than make Sbipvorack of it. When An- 
tiochus commanded all the Books of Sacred Scri- 
pture to be burnt, they were not only preferred, 
but prefently after they appeared out of their 
hidden Places, being Tranllated into the Greek 
Tongue, and carried abroad unto many other 
Patrons. It was now thought, there was effe- 
ctual Care taken, to deltroy all thofe Men, 
that made thele Books the only Rule of their 

Devotions^ but behold, they prefently appeared 
in greater Numbers, and many other Nations 
began tp be Illuminated by them. 

IV. Mofi, if not All, of the Minifters, who 
then vifited thefe Regions, were either attended 
or followed, with a Number of pious People, 
who had lived within the reach of their Mini 
ftry in England. Thefe, who were now alio 
become generally NonConformifts, having found 
the powerful lmpreffions of thofe Good Mens 
Miniifry upon their Souls, continued their fin- 
cere Affections unto that Miniitry, and were 
willing to accompany it unto thofe'utmoft Ends 
of the Earth. Indeed, the Minilters of Meh- 
England have this always to recommend them 
unto a Good Regard with the Crown of Eng- 
land, that the molt floutifbing Plantation in alt 
the American Dominions of that Crown, \< 
more owing to them, than to any fort of Men 

V. Some of the Miniffers, and many of the 
Gentlemen, that came over with the Miniffers* 
we^e Perfons of confiderabie Ellates; who there- 
with charitably brought over many poor Fami- 
lies of Godly People, that were not of them- 
ielves able to bear the Charges of their Tranf- 
portation ; and they were generally careful al- 
fo to bring over none but Godly Servants in 
their own families, who, afterwards by God's 
Blefling on their Indufhy have arrived, many 
of them, unto fuch plentiful Eftates, that they 
have had Occafion to think of the Advice, which 
a famous Perfon, gave in a Publick Sermon, at 
their firlf coming over ; Tou (Taid he) that are 
Servants, mark what I fay -, I defire and exhort 
you to be kind a while hence, unto your Maffer's 
Children. It won't be long before, you that came 
with nothing into the Country, will be rich Men, 
when your Mafters, having buried their Rich 
Effates in the Country, will go near to leave their 
Families in a mean Condition ; wherefore, when 
it Jhall be well with you t I charge you to remem- 
ber them. 

VI. The Miniffers and Chriffians, by whom 
New-England was firfr planted, were a chqfen 
Company of Men ; picked out of, perhaps, all 
the Counties in England, and this by no Human 
Contrivance, but by a llrange Work of God upon 
the Spirits of Men that were, no ways, ac- 
quainted with one another, infpiring them, as 
one Man, to Jecede into a Wildernefs, they 
knew not where, and fuffer in that Wildernefs 
they know not what. If was a reafonable Ex- 
preffion once ufed by that eminent Perfon, the 
prefent Lieutenant-Governour of Nezv-England 
in a very great Aflembly, God fifted three Na- 
tions, that he might bring choice Grain into this 

VII. The Deffgn of thefe Refugees, thus car- 
ried into the Wildernefs, was, that they might 
there, facrifice unto the Lord their God: It was, 
that they might maintain the Power ofGodlinefs 
and pracfife the Evangelical Worfhip of Our 
Lord Jefus Chrifr, in all the Parts of it, with- 
out any Human Innovations and Impofitions ; 
Defended by Quarters, which at once gav6 


The Hiftory of New-England. Book III. 

them fo far the Protection of their King, and 
the Election or lb many of" their own Subordi- 
nate Rulers under him, as might fecure them 
the U/idijiurbed Enjoyment of the Church-Order 
ettablilhed amonglf them. I fhall but repeat 
the Words once ufed in a. Sermon preached un- 
to the General Count- of the MaJfaobufetX2o[oay, 
at one of their Anniversary Elections. 'The 
' Queftion was often put unto our Predeceflors, 
' What went ye out into the Wilder nefs to fee ? 
' And the Anfwer to it, is not only too Excel- 
'lent?, bat alfo too Notorious, to be dhTembled. 
' Let all Mankind know, that we came into the 
c Wil'dernefs, becaufe we would worfhip God 
' without that Epifcopacy, that Common Prayer, 
' and thofe unwarrantable Ceremonies, with 

* which the Land of our Fore Fathers Sepulchres 
■ has been defiled $ we came hither becaufe we 

• would have our Polterity fettled under the 
c pure and full Difpcn fat ions of theGofpel •, de- 
c fended by Rulers, that JJjould be of our fclves. 

VIII. None of the lealr Concerns, that lay 
upon the Spirits of thefe Reformers, was- the 
Condition of their Pofterity .- For which cauic 
in the Firft Constitution of their Churches, they 
did more generally with more or lefs Expreffive- 
nefs take in their Children, as under the Church- 
watch with themfelves. They alfo did betimes 
endeavour the Erection of a College, for the 
training up of a fuccefhve Ministry in the Coun- 
try -, but becaufe it was likely to, be fome 
while, before a Considerable Supply could be 
expected from the College, therefore they took 
notice of the younger, hopeful Scholars, who 
came over with their Friends from England, and 
affifted their liberal Education ; whereby being 
fitted for the Service of the Churches, they were 
in an orderly manner called forth to that Ser- 
vice. Of thefe we have given you a Number ; 
whereof, I think, all but One or Two are now 
gone unto their Fathers- 

IX. Of ttefe Miaiflers, there were fome 
few, fuppofe Ten or a Dozen, that after di 
vers Years, returned into England, where they 
were eminently ferviceable unto their Genera- 
tion ; but, by far, the biggeft part of them, 
continued in this Country, jerving their Gene- 
ration by the JVi 11 of God. Moreover, I find near 
half of them iignally BlelTed with Sons. 
who did work for our Lord Jefus Chriff, in 
the Miniffry of theGofpel, yea fome of them 
as Mr. Chancy, Mr. Elliot, Mr. Hohart, Mr. 
Mather, had (tho' not like R. Joje, a wife 
Man among the Jews, of whom they report, 
that he had Eight Sons, who were alfo celebra- 
ted for wife Men among them - r yet) not lefs 
than Four or Five Sons a piece thus employed : 
And though Mr. Parker, living always afingle 
Man, had no Children, yet he was instrumen- 
tal to bring up no lefs than Twelve ufeful 
Ministers. Among the Jews they that have 
been instructed by another, are called, The Sons 
of their Instructor. We read, Thefe are the 
Generations of Aaron and Mofes ; when we find 
none but the Sons of Aaron in the enumerated 
Generations. But in the Talmud, it is thus ex- 

pounded, Hos Aaron genuit, Mofes verd docuit, 
ideoq-, ejus Nomine cenfentia . (Thus the Sons 
of Merob, are called the Sons of Michal, as the 
the Talmud judges, becaufe by her educated} 
And on this account no lefs than Twelve, were 
the Sons of Mr. Parker. I may add, that fome 
of our Minifters, having theif Sons comfortably 
fettled, at, or near, the Place of their own 
Miniffry, the People have thereby feen a com- 
fortable Succeffion in the Affairs of Chriff ianity ; 
thus, the Writer of this Hifiory, hath, he knows 
not how often, feen it ; that his Grandfather, 
baptized the Grand-Parent, his Father baptized 
the Parent, and He himfelf has baptized the 
Children in the fame Family. 

X. In the Beginning cf the Country, the Mi- 
nifiers had their frequent Meetings, which were 
molt ufually after their Publick and Weekly 
or Monthly Leclures, wherein they confulted 
for the Welfare of their Churches -, nor had 
they ordinarily any Difficulty in their Churches, 
which were not in thefe Meetings offered unto 
Consideration ; for their mutuaf Direction and 
Afhttance : And thefe Meet ings are maintained 
unto this Day. The private Chnfians alfo had" 
their private Meetings, wherein they would 
feek the Face, and ling the Pra'ife of God •, and 
Confer upon fome Questions of Praiiical Reli- 
gion, for their mutual Edification. And the 
Country Hill is full of thofe Little Meetings ; 
yet they have now moffly left off one Circum- 
ltance, which in thofe our primitive Times, 
was much maintained •, namely, their conclu- 
ding of their more Sacred Exercifes. with Sup- 
pers •, whereof, I Sincerely think, I cannot give 
a better Account, than Tertulhan gives of the 
Suppers among the Faithful, in his more pri- 
mitive Times ; Therein their Spiritual Gains 
countervailed their Worldly Cojis ; they remem- 
brcd the Poor, they ever began with Prayer ; [and 
other Devotions] In Eating and Drinking they 
relieved Hunger, but fhoi<?d no Excefs. Jn feed- 
ing at Supper they rcmembred they were to pray 
in the Night. In their Difcourfe they confidered 
that God heard them : And when they departed, 
their Behaviour wan fo Religious and modejf, 
that one would have thought, we had rather been 
at a Sermon, than at a Supper. Our Private 
Meetings of good People to pray and praife 
God, and hear Sermons, either preached per- 
haps by the younger Candidates for the Miniltry, 
(who here ufe to form themfelves, at their En- 
trance into their Work,,) or elfe repeated by 
exact Writers of Short-Hand after their Pafiors ; 
and fbmetimes to fpend whole Days in Fafling 
and Prayer, efpecially when any of the Neigh- 
bourhood are in Affiiclion, or when the Com- 
munion of the Lord's Table is approaching ; 
thofe do ffill abound among us ; but the Meals 
that made Meatings of them, are generally laid 
afide. I fuppofe, 'twas with fome Eye to what 
he had feen in this Country, that Mr. Firmin 
h3S given this Report in a Book Printed i68k 
c Piain Mechanicks have I known, well Cate- 
' chifed, and Humble Christians, excellent in 
' Practical .Piety : They kept their Station, did 

' not 

Book ili. '■/ he Hijtory of New-England. 

< not afpire to be Preachers, hut for Gifts of 
' Prayer, few Clergy-Men mult come near them. 
' I have known fome of" them, when they did 
'• keep their Falls, (as they did often J they di- 
' vided the Work of Prayer : The &ft begun with 
' Confeffwn ; the fecond went on with Petition 
'• for themfelves ; the third with Petition for 
■ Church and Kingdom ; the fourth with Thank/ 

• giving : Every one kept his own part, and did 
' nyt meddle with another part. Such excel- 
k lent Matter, lb compacted without Tautolo- 
' gies ; each of them for a good time, about an 
' Hour, if not more, apiece -, to the wondering 
' of thofe which joined with them. Here was 
' no reading of Liturgies : Thefe were old Ja- 

• cob's Sons, they could wreftle and prevail with 

• God. 

XI. Bellies the Minifters enumerated in the 
three Claffes of our Catalogue, there might a 
fouith Gtafs.he offered, under the Name of the 
Anomalies of New-England. There have at fe- 
veral t/mes arrived in this Country, more than a 
Score of Jvliniiters from other parts of the World ; 
who proved either fo erroneous in their Princi 
pies, or i'o/candalous in their Practices, or fo dif 
agree itile to the Church Order, tor which the 
Country was planted, that I cannot well croud 
the n into the Company of our Worthies : 

Non bene conveniunt, nee in una/ede morantur. 

And, indeed, I had rather my Church Hijtory 
fhouldipeak nothing f\\:\x\ fpeak not well of them 
that might elfe be mentioned in it : Being en- 
tirely of Plutarch's Mind, That it is better it 
fhould never be faid, there was fuch a Man as 
Plutarch at all, than to have it faid, that he was 
not an honefl; and a worthy Man. I confefs, 
there were fome of thole Perfons, whofe Names 
deferve to live in our Book for their Piety, al- 
tho* their particular Opinions were fuch, as to be 
differviceabie unto the declared and fuppofed 
Interejis of our Churches. Of thefe there were 
fome Godly Anabaptifts -, as namely, Mr. Han- 
/erd Knol/ys, ('whom one of his Adverfaries cal- 
led, Abjurd Knozclejs) of Dover, who afterwards 
removing back to London, lately died there, a 
good Man, in a good old Age. And Mr. Miles of 
Swan/ey, who afterwards came to Bojton, and is 
now gone' to his Reft. Both of thefe have a re 
fpecttul Character in the Churches of this Wil- 
dernefs. There were alfo fome Godly Episcopa- 
lians ; among whom has been commonly rec- 
koned Mr. Blackjione -, who, by happening to 
fleep firft in an Hovel, upon a Point of Land 
there, laid claim to all the Ground, whereupon 
there now ftands the Metropolis of the whole 
Englifh America, until the Inhabitants gave him 
Satisfaction. This Man was, indeed, of a par- 
ticular Humour, and he would never join himfelf 
to any of our Churches, giving this Realbu for 
it : J came from England, becau/e I did not like 

the Lord Bifhops •, but I can't join with you, be- 
cauje 1 would not be under the Lord- Brethren. 
There were fome likewife that fell into grols 
M/carriages, and the Hunter of Souls having 
ltuck the Darts of fome extreme Diforder into 
thofe poor Hearts, the whole Flock pufhed them 
Out of their Society. Of thefe, tho' there were 
fome fo recovered, that they became true Peni- 
tents -, yet inafmuch as the Wounds which they 
received by their Falls, were not in all regards 
throughly cured, I will choofe rather to forbear 
their Names, than write them with any Blots 
upon them. For the fame Caufe, tho' I have 
his Name in our Catalogue, yet I will not fay 
which of them it was, that for a while became 
a Seeker, and almoft a Quaker, and i'educed a 
great part of his poor People, into hlsbewi/dnng 
Errors : At Lift the Grace of God recovered this 
Gentleman out of his Errors, and he became a 
very good and found Man, after his Recovery : 
But alas, it was a perpetual Sting unto his peni- 
tent Soul, that he could not now reduce his wan- 
dring Flock, which he had himfelf fedticed into 
the molt unhappy Aberrations. They Wandred 
on obftinately (till in their Errors -, and being ir- 
recoverable, he was forced thereby unto a Re- 
moval from rhem, taking the Charge of a more 
Orthodox Flock, upon Longljland. 

Nor know I where better than among thefe 
Anomalies, to mention one Mr. Lenthal, whom 
I find a Minifter at Weymouth, about the Year 

He had been one of good Report and Repute 
in England ; whereas, here, he not only had im- 
bibed fome Antinomian Weaknefles, from whence 
he was by Conference with Mr. Cotton foon re- 
covered ■, but alfo he fet himfelf to oppofe the 
way of gathering Churches. Many of the com- 
mon People eagerly fell in with him, to fet up 
a Church State, wherein all the Bapti/ed might 
be Communicants, without any further Trial of 
them ; for which end many Hands were pro- 
cur'd unto an Injtrument, wherein they would 
have declared againft the New England Dehgn of 
Church-Reformation , and would have invited 
Mr. Lenthal to be their Paltor, in oppofition 

Mr. Lenthal, upon the Difcourfes of theMa- 
giftrates and Minifters before the General Court, 
who quickly check'd thefe Dilturbances, by fend- 
ing for him, as quickly was convinced of his 
Error and Evil, in thus difturbing the good Order 
of the Country. His Convitlion was followed 
with his Confejfion ; and in open Court, he gave 
under his Hand a laudable Retratlation : Which 
Retratlation he was ordered alfo to utter in the 
Affembly at Weymouth, and fo no further Cen/tre 
was palled upon him. 

In Four Parts we will now putfue the Defigu 
before us. 

B b b 



The Hi/lory of New-England. Ecok ill 

JOHANNES in Eremo. 

MEMOIRS, relating to the LIVES, 

bf the Ever -MEMO R ABLE 

Mr. John Cotton, ivhoDied 23. D. 10. M. 1652. 
Mr. John No rton, whoDied^.D. 2 M 1663. 
Mr. John Wilson, who Died 7. V 6. M. 1 667. 
Mr. John Davenport, wfo'Died \$. D. 1. M. 1670. 

ReveTend and Renowned MINISTERS of the GOSPEL, All, m 
the more Immediate Service of One Church, in Bofton. 


MlThomas Hooker, who Died 7.2). 5.M 1647, 

Paftor of the Church at Hartford, NerP'England. 

Preferv'd by COTTON MATHER, 

%\)t fitft f&att* 

Forte nimis Videor Laudes Cantare M E RTJ M - 
Forte nimis cineres Videor celebrarc repofios ; 
Non it a me Facile m Sine Vero Credit e ! ■ 

To the R E A D E R. 

THat lictle pare of the Earth which this 
Age has known by the Name of New- 
England, has been an Objeft of very 
fignal, both Frowns and Favours of 
Heaven- Befides thofe Stars of the fir ft Magni- 
tude, which did fometimes 7^/w, andatlafty^/ 
in this Horizon, there have been feveral Men of 
Renown, who were preparing and fully refolved 
to tranfport themfelves hither, had not the Lord 
ieen us unworthy of more fuch Mercies. It is 
Itill frefh in the Memory of many yet living, 
that that Great Man, Dr. John Owen, had given 
order for his paiTage in a Veffel bound for Bofton -, 
being invited to fucceed the other famous Johns, 

who had been burning zx&Jbhmng Lights in that 
which was the firft Candleftiek, let up in this 
populous Town 5 but a fpecial Providence divert- 
ed him. Long before that, Dr. Ames, ( whofe 
Family, and whofe Library New-England has 
had) was upon the Wing for this American De- 
fart : But God then took him to the heavenly 
Canaan. Whether he left his Fellow upon Earth 
I know not : Such Acutenefs of Judgment, and 
affe&ionate Zeal t as he excelled in, ieldom does 
meet together in the fame Perfbn. I have often 
thought of Mr. Paul Bay ne, hisFarewel Words 
to Dt.Amcs, when going for Holland; Mr. Bayne 
perceiving him to be a Man of extraordinary 


Book III. The Hijlory of New -England. 9 

Parts, Beware (faid he) of a Strong Head, and a I publifhed, viz. Mr. Cotton, whofe Life was wri't- 
Cold Heart. It is rare for a Scholafttcal Wit, to | ten by his immediate SuccefTorMr. Norton ; and. 
be joined with an Heart warm in Religion : Birr | my Father Mather, whole was done by another 

in him it was fo. He has fometimes laid, that 
he could be willing to walk twelve Miles on his 
Feet, on condition he might have an Opportunity 
to preach a Sermon : And he feldom did preach 
a Sermon without Tears. When he lay on his 
Death-bed, he had fuch Talis of the Firftfruits 
of Glory, as that a Learned Pbyfitian ('who was 
aCPapilt ) wondring, laid, Nam Protcftantes fie 
folent mori : Is the Latter End of Pmteftants like 
this Man's ? But altho' fome excellent Perfons, 
have, by a Divine Hand been kept from coming 
into thele Ends of the Earth, yet there have been 
others, who whilft living made this Land (which 
before their Arrival was an Hell of Darknefs) to 
be a place full of Light and Glory 5 amongft 
whom the Champions, whofe Lives are here de- 
ferred, are worthy to he reckoned as thofe that 
have attained to the Fir ft Three. 

There are many who have (and fome to good 
purpofe) endeavoured to colled the memorable 
PafTages that have occurred in the Lives of emi- 
nent Men, by means whereof Pofterity has had 
the knowledge of them. Hi erom of old, wrote 
IV Viris Vlitftribus : The like has been done by 
Gennadi us, Epiphanius, Ifidore, Prochorus, and 
other ancient Authors. Of later Times, SchopH- 
us, his Academia Chrifti ; Meurfius, his Athena 
Batavt ; Verheiden, his Elogia Theologorum, Mel- 
chier Adams, Lives of Modern Divines, have 
preferved the Memories of fome that did wor- 
thily, and were in their Day famous. There are 
two learned Men who have very lately engaged 
in a Service of this nature, viz. Paulus Freherus, 
who has publifhed two Volumes in Folio, with 
the Title of, The at rum virorum Eruditione claro- 
rum, ad hac ufque Tempora. He proceeds as far 
as the Year 1 6bo. The other is Henningus Wit- 
ten, who has written, Memorise Theologorum no- 
ftri feculi. It is a trite (yet a true) Affertion, 
that Historical Studies are both profitable and 
pleafaht. nnd of all Hiftorical Narratives, thofe 
which give a faithful Account of the Lives of 
eminent Saints, muft needs be the moft edifying. 
The greateft part of the Sacred Writings are Hi- 
forical; and a confiderable part of them is ta- 
ken up in relating the Actions, Speeches, exem- 
plary Lives, and Deaths, of fuch as had been 
choice Inftruments in the Hand of the Lord, to 
promote his Glory in theWorld. No doubt but 
that the Commemoration of the remarkable Pro 
vidences of God towards his Servants, will be 
" fome part of their Work in Heaven for ever, that 
fo he may have Eternal Praifes for the Wonders 

Hand, and is Republifhed in Mr. Sam. Clark's 
laft Volume ; and Mr. Eliot, whofe was done by 
the fame Hand which did thele, and has been fe- 
veral times Reprinted in London. Here the Rea- 
der has prefented to him Five of them, who were 
amongft the chief of the Fathers, in the Churches 
of New-England. The lame Hand has done; the 
like Office of Love and Duty, for many others 
who were the Worthies of New England,\\ox. only 
in the Churches, but in the Civil State, whom 
the Lord Chrift faw meet to ufe as Inftruments, 
in planting the Heavens, and laying the Founda- 
tion of the Earth, in this New World. If thefe 
find a candid Acceptance, tho/e may poffibly fie 
the Light in due time. 

Whether what is herewith emitted and written 
by my. Son, be as to the Manner of it, well per- 
formed, I have nothing to fay, but fhall leave 
it unto others to judge, as they fhall fee caufe ; 
only as to the Matter of the Hiftory, I am afcer- 
tainedthat things are truly related. For altho' 
I had little of Perfonal Acquaintance with Mr. 
Cotton, being a Child not above Thirteen Years 
old when he died. I fhall never forget the laft 
Sermon which he preached at Cambridge, and 
his particular Application to the Scholars there, 
amongft whom I was then a Student newly^ ad- 
mitted •, and my Relation to his Family fince, 
has given me an opportunity to know many ob- 
fervable things concerning him. Both Boftons 
have reafon to Honour his Memory -, and New- 
EnglandBofton moft of all,which oweth its Name 
and Being to him, more than to any one Perfon 
in the World : He might fay of Bofton, much 
what as Auguftus faid of Rome, Lateritiam re- 
peri, marmoream re/iqui : He found it little bet- 
ter than a Wood or Wildernefs, but left it a fa- 
mous Town with two Churches in it. I remem- 
ber, Dr. Lightfoot, in Honour to his Patron, Sir 
Roland Cotton, called one of his Sons, Cotton : 
It doth not repent me, that I gave my EldettSon 
that Name, in Honour to his Grandfather : And 
the Lord grant that both of us may be Followers 
of him, an he followed Chrift. 

As for the other three Worthies who have 
taught the Word of God in this place, they had 
their peculiar Excellencies. 

Mr. Wilfon (like John the Apoftle) did excel 
in Love ; and he was alfo ltrong in Faith. In the 
time of the Pequod War, he did not only hope, 
but had affurance, that God would make the En~ 

of his Grace in Chrift towards them. It muft \glijh Victorious. He declared, That he was as 
needs therefore be in it felf, a thing pleafing to certain of it, as if he had with his Eves feen the 

God, and a fpecial A£f. of Obedience to the Fifth 
Commandment, to endeavour the prefervation of 
theNames, and Honour of them, who have been 
Fathers in Ifrael. On which account, I cannot 
but rejoice in what is here done. Altho' New- 
England has been favoured with many faithful 
and eminent Minifters of God, there are only 
Three of them all, whofe Lives have been as yet 

Victories obtained •, which came to pafs accord- 
ing to his Faith. I well remember, that 1 heard 
him once fay, that when one of his Daughters 
was lick, and given up as dead, paft recovery, 
he defired Mr. Cotton to pray with that Child 5 
And (faid hej whileft Mr. Cotton wai praying, 
I fure that Child Jlmdd not then die, but live. 
That Daughter did live to be the Mother of many 
Bbb 2 Children 5 


The Hijlory <^ New-England, Book ill. 

Children •, two of which are now ufeful Mini- 
iters of Chrilt : And (he is ftili living, a pious 
Widow, another Anna, jerving God day and 
night. When Mr. Norton was called from the 
Church of Iffwicb to Bofton, Mr. Nathanael Ro- 
gers (thar excellent Man, who was Son to the 
famous MXvRpgers of Dedfcgw, in Effex, and Pa- 
llor of the Church oiTpfwicb, \nN. E.) oppofed 
Mr. Norton's removal rrom Iffwicb : Some fay- 
ing, that Mr. Wilfon would by his Argument, ot 
Rhetorick, or both, get Mr. Norton from them 
at laft j Mr. Roger's replied. That be wan afraid 
of bis FaitJfi more than bis Arguments. Some- 
times he was tranfponed with a Prophetical Af- 
flatus, of which there were marvellous Inftances. 
His Converfation was both pleaiant and profita- 
ble -, in that he could relate many Memorable 
Providrmes, which he himfelf had the certain 
knowledge of. WhiHr I am writing this, there 
comes to my mind, one very pleaiant, and yet 
very feripus Story, which, he told me, and I do 
not remember that ever I met with it any where 
but from him. It was this : There was one Mr 
Snape, a Puritan Minilter, who was by the Bi 
(hops calf into Prilon, for his Nonconformity $ 
when his Money was (bent, the Jailor was un- 
kind to him : But one Dav as Mr. Snape was en 
his Knees at Prayer, the Window of his Cham- 
ber being open, he perceived fomething was 
thrown into his Chamber 5 but refolved he would 
finifh his Work with God, before he would di- 
vert to fee wlnt it was. When he arofe from 
his Knees, he luw a Pur/e on the Chamber-floor, 
which was. full of Gold, by which he could make 
his Keeper better natured than he had been. 
Many fuch PalTages could that good Man relate. 

Mr. Norton was one whofe Memory, I muff 
acknowledge, I have peculiar caufe to love and 
honour. I was his Pupil fe\ eral Years. He had 
a very Schalajlical Genius, in the Doctrine of 
Grace he was exceeding clear 5 indeed another 
Auftiu. He loved and admired Dr. Twifs more 
than any Man that this Age has produced. He 
has fometimes (aid to me, Dr. Twifs is Omni Ex- 
cept'wne Major. He was much in Prayer : He 
would very often lpend whole Days in Prayer, 
with fafling before the Lord alone in his Study. 
He kept a ffricl: daily Watcb over his own Heart. 
He was an hard Student. He took Notice in a 
private Diary, how he fpent his time every day : 
If he found himfelf not id much inclined to Df 
ligence and Study, as at other times, he would re- 
flect, on his Heart and W 7 ays, left haply fomeun- 
obferved Sin fhould provoke the Lord to give him 
up to a flothful liftlefs Frame of Spirit. In his 
Diary, he would fometimes have thefe Words, 
Leve defiderium ad fudendum : Forfan ex pecca- 
to adnnjjo. I blefs the Lord rhat ever I knew Mr. 
Norton, and that I knew fo much of him as I did. 

As for Mr. Davenport, I have in a Preface to 
his Sermon on the Canticles, which are tranferi- 
bed for the Prefs, and now at London, given what 
Account I could then obtain, concerning the re- 
markable Palfages of his Life. I fevcral times 

defired him to imitate Junius, and feme others, 
who had written their own Lives. Re to j me. 
he did intend it: But I could not find any thing 
of that nature among his ManufcriptSj whe'i, 
many Years ago I had anoccafion to leek aftei 
He was a Princely P/ca her. I hive heard iom 
fay, who knew him in liisyou%gfr Tears i that be 
was then very fervent and vehement, as to the 
manner of his Delivery : Bur in his, later 'Limes, 
he did very much imitate Mr. Gtton, whom in 
in the Gravity of his Countenance, he did fome- 
what referable. Sic die manus,fic ctaferebat. 

The Reader will find many obfervable Things 
in what is here related concerning Mr. honker. 
Yet great pity it is, that no more can be collect- 
ed of the Memorab/es relating to fo good and fo 
great a Manas he was-, then whom Connecticut 
never did, and perhaps never will, fee a greater 
Perfon. Mr. Cotton, in his Preface ro Mr. Nor,* 
ton's Anfwer to ApoUomus, lays of Mr. Hooker \ 
Dominatur in Concionibus. Dr. led to fay, 
he never knew bis Equal : There was a great In- 
timacy, between them two. I remember-, my Fa- 
ther told me, That Mr. Hooker .was the Author 
of that targe Preface which is before Dr. Ames, 
his Prejjb Suit again)} Ceremonies. He would fome- 
times lay. That next to converting Grace, he biff* 
Jed God jor his Acquaintance with the Principles 
and Writings of that Learned Alan, Mr. Alexan- 
der Ruhardfen. It was a Black Day to Nezo-Eng- 
land, when that great Light was removed. 

There are fbme who will nor be pie. 1 fed, that 
any Notice is taken of the hard I\Laiure which 
thefe excellent Men had from rhofe perfccuting 
Prelates, who were willing to have the World rid 
of them. But it is impofhble to write the Kiftoty 
of New-England, and of the Lives of them who 
were the chief in it, and yet be wholly filent in 
that matter. That eminent Perfon, Dr. 'LUlot- 
fon (the late Arch Bimop of Canterbury) did, not 
above four Years ago, fometimes exprefs to me, 
his Refentments of the Injury which had been 
done to the fitft Planters ot New-Eng/and,3.nd his 
great diflike of Arch Bifhop Laud's Spirit towards 
them. And to my knowledge, there are Bifhops 
at this Day, of the £\me ChxiiYnn Temper and 
Moderation with that Great and Good Mandare- 
ly dead. Had the Sees in England, fourfcore Years 
ago, been rilled with fuch Arch Bifhops, and Bi- 
fhops, as thofe which King William (whom God 
grant long to Live and to Reign) has preferred to 
Epifcopal Dignity, there had never been a New- 
England. It was therefore neceflary that it fhould 
beotherwife rhen, than ar this Day, that fo the 
Gofpel in the Power and Puriry of ir,mightcome 
into thefe dark Corners of the Earth, and that here 
might be feen a Specimen of the New Heavens and 
a New £"<2/7Z>,wherein dwells Right eoufnefs, which 
fhall e'er long be feen all the World over, and 
which, according to bis Promije nee look for. 

Bojion, New-England, 
May 16. 1695- 

Increase Mather. 


Book III. The Hiftory of New-England 





Hen the God of Heaven had car- 
ried a Nation into a Wildernefs, 
upon the Defigns of a Glorious 
Reformation, he there gave them a fingular Con- 
duel of his Prefence and Spirit, in a certain Pil- 
lar, which by Day appear'd as a Cloud, and by 
Night as a Fire before them 5 and the Report 
of the RefpecF paid by the Ifraelites unto this 
Pillar, became lb noifed among the Gentiles, 
that the Pagan Poets derided them on this Ac- 

Nil prater Nubes & czli Lumen adorant, 

[Whifh is, I fuppofe, the true Reading of 
that famous Verfe in Juvenal : And I thus tran- 
ilate it,] 

Only the Clouds and Fires 
worfhip at all I imes. 

of Heavn they do. 

But I muft now obferve unto my Reader, that 
more than a Score of Years, after the beginning 
of the Age which is now expiring, our Lord Je- 
fus Chrilt, with a thoufand Wonders of his Pro- 
vidence, carried into an American Wildernefs, a 
People perfecuted for their defire to fee, and 
feek a Reformation of the Church, according to 
the Scripture : Of which matter I cannot give a 
briefer, and yet fuller Hiftory, than by reciting 1 
the memorable Words of that Great Man, Dn 
John Owen, who in his Golden Book of Commu- 
nion with God, thus expretfes it : c They who 
4 hold Communion with the Lord Jefus Chrift, 
' will admit nothing, practice nothing, in the 
' Worfhip of God, but what they have his War- 
' rant for -, unlefs it comes in his Name, with 
' a, Thus faith the Lord ] r cJ 'vs ; they will not hear 
' an Angel from Heaven : They know, the Apo- 
' files themfelves were to teach the Saints, only 
c what he commanded them -. And you know, how 
many in this very Nation, in the Days not lortg 
' fince palled, yea how many Thoufands, left 
* their Native Soy/, and went into a vait and 
c howling Wildernefs, in the uttermoft parts of 
' the World, to keep their Souls undefiled and 
c chart unto their dear Lord Jefus, as to this of 
c his Worfhip and Inftitutions. Nov/ tho' the 
•Reformed Church thus fled into the Wildernefs, 
enjoy'd not the miraculous Pillar, vouchfafed 
unto the Erratick Church of lfrae/, for about 
forty Years together ; yet for that Number of 
Years, we enjoy'd many a Perfon, in whom the 
good Spirit of God, gave a Conduct unto us, and 
mercifully difpenfed thofe directing, defending, 
fefrefhing Influences , which were as neceiTary 
for us, as any that the celebrated Pillar of Cloud, 
and Fire, could have afforded. The great and 
good Shepherd of the Church, favoured hisdiftref- 
fed Flocks in the Wildernefs, with many Paftors, 
that were learned, prudent, and holy, beyond 

the common Rates.and Men after his own Heart 
And it would be an Ingratitude many ways per- 
nicious, if the Churches of ' Nrw England fhould 
nor, like thofe of the Primitive Times, have 
their Diptycbs, wherein the Memory of thofe Emi- 
nent Confeffors, may be recorded and preferved. 

§ 2. Four or five of thole eminent Pcrfons are 
now to have their Lives defcribed unto us, and 
offered unto the Contemplation and Imitation, 
efpecially of the Generation which are now rifine, 
up, after the Death of Cotton, and of the Elders 
that out -lived him, and had fern all the Great 
Works of the Lords, ivhuh he did jor New- 
England. I faw a fearful Degeneracy, creeping, 
I cannot fay, butrufhing in upon tlicle Churches; 
I faw to multiply continually our Dangers, of 
our lofing no fmall Points in our fir/} Faith, as 
well as our firft Love, and of our giving up Dhe 
Ejjentials of that Chard* Order, which was the 
very End of theft Colonies ; I law a vrftbfe 
thank in all Orders of Men among us, from that 
Greatncfs, and that Gdddtfefs, which was in the 
firfi Grain, that our God brought from Three 
lifted Kingdoms, into this Land, when it was a 
Land not f own ; that while the Papijis in Europe 
have grown better of late Years, by the Growth 
of Janfenifm among them, the Protcflants have 
prodigiouily zcaxed worfe, for a Revolt unto Pe- 
lagianifm, and Socinianifm, or what is half tiDay 
to it, has not been more furprifing to me, than 
to fee that in America, while thofe parts which 
were at firft Peopled by the Refufe of the Englijh 
Nation, do fenfibly amend in the Regards of So- 
briety and Education, thofe Parts which were 
planted with a more noble Vine, do fo fait give a 
Profpecl of affording only the degenerate Plants 
of a ft range Vine. What mould be done for the 
ftop, the turn of this Degeneracy ? It is report- 
ed of the Scythians, who were, doubtlefs, the 
Anceflors of the Indians firft inhabiting thefe Re- 
gions, that in Battels, when they came to ftand 
upon ihzGravcs ot their dead Fatbers,ihey would 
there ftand immovable, 'till they dy'd upon the 
fpot : And, thought I, why may not fuch a 
Method now effectually engage the Englijh in 
thefe Regions, to Hand f aft in their Faith and their 
Order, and in the Power of Godlinefs ? I'll (hew 
them,the Graves of their 'dead Fathers-, and if any 
of them do retreat unto a Contempt or NeglecF of 
Learning, or unto the Errors of another Gofpel, or 
unto the Superstitions of WillWorflnp, or unto a 
worldly, zfe/fifh, a little Converfation, they mall 
undergo the irrefiftible Rebukes of their Progeni- 
tors, here fetch'd from the dead, for their Admo- 
nition ; and I'll therewithal adverrile my New- 
Englanders, that if a Grandchild of a Mofes be- 
come an Idolater, he thall, [as the Jews remark 
upon Judg.iS.^of] be deltroy'd,as if not a Mofes, 
but a Manajjeh.hfd been his Father. Befides, F7/vs 
Vivitur Exemplis quant Praceptls ! 
§ 3. Good Men in the Church of England, I 



The Hi/lory 0/ New-England. Book III. 

hope, will not be offended at it, if the Unrea- 
finable Impofitions, and Intolerable Perfections, 
of certain Little-Soul'd Ceremony- Mongers , 
which drove thefe worthy Men out of their Na- 
tive Country, into the horrid Thiokets of Ame- 
rica, be in their Lives complained and refented. 
For, dtitinguilhing between a Romanizing Faffwn 
in the Church of England, and the True Prote- 
ftant Reforming Church of England, (Things as 
different as a Jewel, from an Heylin, or a Grin 
dal, from a Laud!) the Firft Planters of New 
England, at their fi.ift coming over, did in a 
Publick and a Printed Addrefs, call the Church 
of England, their Dear Mother, defiring their 
Friends therein, To recommend them unto the 
Mercies of God, in their conjiant Prayers, as a 
Church novo Springing out of their own Bowels : 
Nor did they think, that it was their Mother 
who turned them out of Doors, but fome ot 
their angry Brethren, abufingthe Name of their 
Mother, who fo harfhly treated them. As for 
the Romanizing Faction in the Church ^/England, 
or, that Party, who refolving (altogether con 
trary to the Defire of the molt Eminent Perfons, 
by whom the Common- Prayer was made Englijh) 
that the Reformation Should never proceed one 
Jot further than the Firft Effay of it, in the for- 
mer Century, did mike certain Unfcriptural 
Canons, whereby all that could not approve, 
fubfctibe, and pra£life, a multitude of, (by them- 
felves confeffed purely Humane) Inventions in 
the Worfhip of God, were accurfed, and Ipfo 
Fatlo Excommunicate -, and by the Ill-obtained 
Aid of Bitter Laws to back thefe Canons, did by 
Fines and Goals and innumerable Violences, con- 
trary to the very Magna Charta of the Nation, 
ruine many Thoufands of the fobereft People in 
the Kingdom ; and who continually made as 
many Shibboleths as they could, for the Disco- 
vering and the Extinguishing of all real Godlinefs, 
ind never gave over profecuting their Tripartite 
Plot, of Arminianifm, and a Conciliation with 
the Patriarch of the Weft, and Arbitrary Go- 
vernment in the State, until at laft they threw 
all into the lamentable Confufions of a Civil 
War ; the Churchas of New-England fay, Come 
not into their Secret, my Soul. We dare not 
be guilty of the Schifm, which we charge upon 
that Party in the Church of England : And if any 
FacFion of Men will require the Affent and Con- 
fent of other Men, to a vaft Number of Difpu- 
table and Uninftituted things, and, it may be, 
a Mathematical Falfkood, among the firft of them, 
and utterly renounce all Chriflian Communion 
with all that Shall not give that Affent and Con- 
fent, we look upon thofe to be Separatifls ; we 
dare not be fo Narrow-Spirited: The Churches 
of New-England profefs to make only the Sub- 
ftantials of the Chriflian Religion to be the Terms 
of our Sacred Fellowship : We dare make no 
Difference between a Presbyterian, a Congrega 
twnal, an Epifcopalian, and an Antipadobaptift, 
where their Vifible Piety, makes it probable, that 
the Lord Jefus Chrift has received them. And 
fuch Reverend Names, as Hall, and Kidder, 
moft Worthy Bifhops now adorning the Englijh 

Church, as well as the Names of fuch Reverend 
and Excellent Perfons among the Diffenters, as 
Bates, Annefly, How, Mead, and A/fop, ("with 
many Others) are, on that Score, together Pre- 
cious unto this part of the Chriflian America. 
On the other fide, the True Proteflant Reform- 
ing Church of England, contains the whole Body 
of the Faithful, fcatterred through the Englifh 
Dominions, though of different Periwafions 
about fome Rites and Modes, 3nd lefler Points 
of Religion : And all the Friends of the laft 
Reformation, who, whether they think there 
needs a furt her Progrefs in that Work or no ,yet 
are willing to make the Word of God the Rale 
of their ferving him, do come under this Deno- 
mination. Thofe Divines, who, with Arch- 
Bifhop UfJier in the Head of them, did more 
than Fifty Years ago, give in a Paper touching 
the Innovations of Doctrine and of Discipline 
in the Church of England, and make near Forty 
Exceptions againft things in the Liturgy, were 
(fill as good Members of that Church, as they 
that Hated to be Reformed -, and the Aflembly 
of Divines at Weftmmftcr, which made the Ca- 
techifms now ufed among us, were as genuine 
Sons of the Church after they became Aon Con-, 
formifts, as while they lived in Conformity, 
which every one of them, except Eight or Nine, 
did when they fitft came together. One who is 
at this Day a Right Reverend Bifhop, has in his 
Irenicum. well expreffed the Senfe which I be- 
lieve, the biggelt Party of Chriftians in the 
Realm, Three to One have of thofe ma tters,which 
have been, The Apples of Strije among us: 
4 That Chrift, who came to take away the In- 
' fupportable Yoke of the Jewifh Ceremonies, 
' certainly did never intend to gall the Necks 
' of the Difciples with another inftead of it; 
4 and it would be ftrange, the Church would 
' require more than Chrift himfelf did, and 
' make more Terms of Communion, than our 
' Saviour did of Djfciple-fhip. The Grand Com- 
4 mijjion the Apoftles were fent out with, was 
4 only to Teach, What Chrift had commanded 
' them ; not the leaft Intimation of any Power, 
4 given them to impofe or require any thing, 
' beyond what he himfelf had fpoken to them, 
8 or they were directed to, by the immediate 
' Guidance of the Spirit of God. ~— And, 
[Speaking of the Reafon, why our firft Com- 
pilers of the Common-Prayer, took in fo much 
of the Popifh Service'] ' Certainly, thofe Holy 
4 Men, who did feek by any means, to draw in 
c others, at fuch a diftance from their Principles, 
' as the Papifts were, did never intend, by what 
' they did for that end, to exclude any truly 
' tender Confciences, from their Communion ; 
' That which they laid as a Bait for them, was 
' never intended by them as an Hook for thofe 
' of our own Profeffion. And if this be the 
True Church of England, give me leave to fay, 
The Churches of New England, are no inconsi- 
derable part of /'/ •, and that accordingly we 
may have a Room in it, I may fafely in the 
Name of them all, offer, fas did the Renowned 
Author of our Martyr-Books, when they de- 

Book III. The Hi/lory of New- England. 


manded Sabfcription from him,) To fubfcribe 
the Neu Teftament. 

Upon the whole then, if any be difpleafed at 
my Report of the Unjult Impofitions and Perfe- 
cutions which drove into America, as Good 
Coriftians, and Proteftants, as any that were 
left behind them, it will not be the True Church 
of England; for why fhould be called, 
The Church of England, which has caufed Thou- 
finds of as real and thorough Cbriftians, as any 
Upon Earth, to fay, It is no better to dwell in 
; be Wildernefs, than with fuch an Contentious 
and Angry One I That Church of England, which 
alone is worthy to be called jo, will bewail, 
rjs 1 know divers Excellent Peribns now in the 
Epii'copal Sees hive done, the injuries offered 
unro our Fur it an Fathers. 

kj 4. Let my Reader, thus prepared, now en 
rertain himfelf, as far as he pleafes, with our 
Four Johns, to whole Lives, I have upon the 
Counfel and Command of an Ever-Honoured 
Parent, Append iced the Life of a Famous Tho- 
rn <u in this Publication ■ Johns, with whom 
among the Five or Six Hundred Noted Peribns 
of that Name, celebrated by One Hiftorian, I 
find not many that were worthy to be compared ; 
Johns, fuller of Light and Grace and the Goosi^ding 
Spirit, than all thofe Four or Five and Twenty \S>ff (i 
of that Name, who have far in the Chair that 
pretends to Infallibility. And, if he pleafes, let 
him ice that Old Little Obfervarion confirmed, 
Thar as the Name Henry has been happy in 
Kings, Elizabeth in Queens, Jit/ioW in Lawyers, 
William in Phyficians, Francis in Scolars, Ro- 
bert in Souldiers and State-men, fo John has 
been happy in Divines. Even a Divine Jehoja- 
dah, when' he comes to be reckon'd among the 
Priefts oi-the Lord, mutt have put upon him, 
the Name of John [1 Chron. 6. 9.] But let him 
confider thefe Lives, as teBdered unto the Pub- 
lick, upon an Account no lefs than that of keep- 
ing Alive, as far as this poor Effay may conrri- 
'mte thereunto, the Intetells of Dying Religion 
.n our Churches. I remember a Learned Man's 
Conjecture, That [in 1 Tim. 3. 15.] it is Ti- 
mothy, and not The Church, which is called, 
The Pillar and Ground of Faith : Such Able, Ho 
ly, and Faithful Minilters as Timothy, are the 
Great Proclai mers and Prefervers of Truth, for 
the Church of God : Such were thefe Famous 
Johns while they Lived, and now they are 
Dead, I have done my Endeavour that they may 
Hill be Such unto the Churches, unto whom I 
owe my All. I'll fay but this, the lait Words 
of the molt Renowned Prebend of Canterbury, 
Dr. Peter du Moulin, who died a very Old 
Man, about Eleven Years ago, were, Since Cat- 
vinifm is cried dozen [Actum eft de Religione 
Chrifti apud Anglos] Chriftianity is in Danger 
to be loft in the Englifh Nation. Alluding to 
what he faid, about his John Calvin, 1 will 
take leave to fay with refpecF unto our John 
Cotton, and the reft that here accompany him, 
Chriftianity will be loft among us, if their Faith 
and Zeal, mujl all be buried zvith them : Which, 
God forbid ! As there would be an hazard, that 
the Early and Better Times of New-Eng- 

land would have the True Story thereof, within 
a while, as irrecoverably loft, as the Story of 
the World, relating to thofe Times, which Far 
ro diftinguifhed unto Incognit, and Fabulous, pre- 
ceding the Hiftorical, and we ihould fhordy 
have as wretched Narratives of the frrft Perfons 
and Aflions in rhis Land, as Juftin gives ot the 
Jews, when he makes Alofes the Son oi' their 
Jofeph, and the Sixth of their Kings, or when 
he makes Them Expell'd from Egypt, becauie 
the Gods would not otherwife allay a Plague 
that raged there, or fuch as are given by Pliny, 
when he makes Aloj'cs a Magician, or Strabo, 
that makes him an Egyptian Prieft ; if no i'peedy 
Care be taken ro preierve the Memorab/es of out. 
Firft Settlement -, fo I with, the Laudable Prin- 
ciples and PraHices of that Firfl Settlement, may 
be kept from utterly being loft in our Apoltafies, 
by the Care which is now taken thus to preferve 
what was Alemorable, of the Men that have 
delivered them down unto us. 

§ 5. Finally ; When the Apoftles had let be- 
fore Cbriftians the Saints, which were a Cloud 
ofWitneftes, by imitating of whofe Exemplary 
Behaviour we might kmer into Reft, he con- 
cludes with a Looking unto Jefus -, or, accor- 
ding to the Emphafis of the Original, A Looking 
torn them) unto Jefus, as the incompara- 
bly moft perfect of all. So, Let my Reader do, 
when all rhat was hint able in the Lives of thefe 
Worthy Men, has had his Contemplation and 
Admiration ; They all yet had their Defecls, 
and therefore, Look oft unto Jefus ; Following 
Them no farther than they Followed Him. It is 
a notable Paffage, [inLuk. 7. 28.] which we 
mif-tranflate -, The Leaft in the Kingdom of God, 
is Greater than John. In the Greek, what we 
tranflate, The Leaft, is, He that is Left'er-, that 
is, He that is lounger. [Alinor ftill has been the 
fame with Junior.'] Our Lord means Himfelf 
who was Leffer, that is, lounger than John hie 
Forerunner-, but, Greater than He! Truly, 
whatever was Excellenr in thefe our Johns, I 
would pray, that the Minds of all that fee it, 
may be raifed ftill to think, Out- Precious Lord 
Jefus Chrift, is greater than thefe Johns : All 
their Excellencies are in him Tranfcendently, In- 
finitely; as they were from Him derived. High 
Thoughts of the Lord Jefus Chrift, provoked by 
Reading the Defcriptions of thefe his Excellent 
Servants, that had in them a little oi Him, and 
were no farther Excellent than as they had fo, 
will make me aa abundant Recompence, for all 
the Difficulties, and all the Temptations, with 

which my Writing is attended. And as it 
quickens the Joys of my haftening Death, when- 
I have through Grace, a Profpecf of being then 
in that State whereto the Spirits of thefe Juft 
Men made PerfeH, are all ol them Gathered, fo 
I would have This now to out do all thofe Joys, 
To be with Jefus Chrift, That furely, is by far 
the beft of all. 

Monument a SepuLhralia Juft is nonfaciunt, nam 
Ditta ecrum Sunt Memorise Eorum. 

Sentent. Judaic, in Berefcbit. Rabba-. 



The Hi/lory of New-England. Book III. 

COTTONUS RedivivHs : Or, The L I F E of Mr. JOHN CO TTON. 

hi quo Lumen Rcligioms & Devotionis, FumUs generatus ex Limine Scientia non extingmt, ill; 
pcrfcffus eft : Sed $uk eft Hie, ut adoremus eum ? Algazel, in Libro Sta terse. Refp. Hie eft !*— * 



ERE I Matter of the Pen, 
wherewith Palladms em- 
balmed his Cbryfoftom, the 
Greek Patriark, or Pofido- 
Kim Eternized his Auftin, the Latin Oracle, a- 
mong the Ancients ; Or, were I owner of the 
Quill wherewith among the Moderns, Beza ce- 
lebrated his Immortal Calvin, or Fabius Immor- 
talized his Venerable Eeza ; the Merits of John 
Cotton would oblige me to employ it, in the 
preferving his Famous Memory. If Boflon be 
the chief Seat of New England, it was Cotton 
that was the Father and Glory of Boflon: Upon 
which account it becomes a piece of pure Ju- 
fticc, that the Life of him, who above all Men 
gave Life to his" Country, fhould bear no little 
Figure in its intended Hiitory -, and indeed if any 
Peribn in this Town or Land, had the Bkjfedj 
nefs which the Roman Hiftorian long fince pro- 
nounced yW.\ even, To do things worthy to be 
Writ, and to Write Things worthy to be Read, it 
was He-, who now claims a Room in our Pages. 
If it were a Comparifon fometimes made of the 
Reformers, Pomcranus was a Grammarian, Ju- 
\\m Joncu was an Orator, Melanilhon was a Lo- 
gician, butL«//wwas All: Even that Propor- 
tion, it may without Envy be acknowledged, 
that Cotton bore to the reft of our New Englijh 
Divines ; He that, whilft he was Living had 
this Vertue extraordinarily Conlpicuous in him, 
That it was his delight always, to acknowledge 
the Gifts of God, in other Men, muft now he is 
Dead, have other Men to acknowledge of him 
what '. Erafmus does of Jerom, In hoc uno con- 
ju. •ilium juit & Eximium, quicquid in aliispartim 
admn amur. 

§ 2. There was a good Heraldry in that 
Speech of the Noble Romanus, It is not the 
Blood of my Progenitors, but ivy Chriftian Pro- 
fefjtdn that makes me Noble. But our John Cot 
ton, befides ih: Advantage of. his Chriftian Pro 
fcjjion, had a Dcfcsut from Honourable Proge- 
nitors, to render him doubly Honourable. His 
immediate Progenitors being bv lbme lnjuftice. 
deprived of great Revenius. his Father Mr. Roland 
Cation had the Education or a lawyer bellowed 
foy his Friends upon him, in hapes of his beinr-, 
the befter cr i d thereby to recover ri. 

Eft-ate, wkereoi his Family had been wronged . 
and forhe Pro! >f'a Lmapto\ was that an 

his I iae applied himfelf all his 
But oui n Cotton^ in this Happier 
than huftin, who! - '-fuller to make 

an Orator than a v ion ©f him, while his 
was makyjg him on greater 
a verv 

its, A Son of her 

nakuag him 



pious Father in this worthy Lawyer, as wen as 
a pious Mather, to Intereft him in theOw- 
nant ot God. That worthy Man was indeed 
very lingular in two molt Imitable Pratfices. 
One was, that when any of his Neighbours de- 
firous to fue one another, adrefled him for 
Counfcl, it was his manner, in the molt perfwa- 
five and obliging Terms that could be, to en- 
deavour a Reconciliation between both Parties- 
preferring the Conjolatwns of a Peace maker, be- 
fore all the Fees, that he might have got by 
blowing up of Differences. Another was, that 
every Night it was his Cuftom to Examine him- 
felf with Refleftions on the Tranfaftions of 
the Day paft ; wherein, if he found that he had 
not either Done good unto others, or Got good 
>into his own Soul, he would be as much grieved 
r as ever the Famous Titus was, when he could 
complain in the Evening, Amici Diem Perdidi f 
Of fuch Parents was Mr. John Cotton born, at 
the Town of Derby, on the Fourth of December - y 
in the Year 1585. 

§ 3. The Religious Parents of Mr. Cotton, 
were folicitous to have him indued with a 
Learned as well as a Pious Education ; and 
being neither fo Rich, that the Mater Artis 
could have no room to do her part, nor fo Poor 
that the Res Angufta Domi, fhould clog his 
Progrefs, they were well fitted thereby, to be- 
ftow fuch an Education upon him. His firft In- 
ftru&ion was under a good School Matter, one 
Vii.Johnfon, in the Town of Derby : Whereon 
the Intellectual Endowments of all forts, with 
which the God of our Spirits adorned him, fo 
difcovered themfelves, that at the Age of Thir- 
teen,^ his Proficiency procured him Admiilion in- 
to Trinity College in Cambridge. Indeed the Pro- 
verb, Soon Ripe foon R\tcn, has often been too 
haflily applied unto Rathe ripe Wits, in young 
People ; not only Occolampadius and Melanilhon, 
who commenced Batchelours of Arts, at Four- 
teen Years of Age, and Luther, who commen- 
ced Mafter of Arts at Twenty -, but alfo our 
Dr. Juel fent unto Oxford, our Dr. UJher fent 
anto Dublin, and our Mr. Cotton fent unto Cam- 
ridge, all at the Age of Thirteen, do put in a 
'hr to the Univerfal Application of thatPro- 
.erb. While Mr. Cotton was at the llniverfity, 
lis Diligent Head, with Gods Bleffngs, made 
nim a Rich Scholar-, and his generous Mind 
found no little Nourifhment by that Labour, 
which like the Sage Philofopher, he ibundjweet- 
cr than ldlenefs : Infbmuch that his being Elect- 
ed Fellow ot Trinity Colledge, as the Reward of 
his quick Proficiency, was diverted by nothing 
but this that the extraordinary Charges for 


Book III. i he Hijlory of New- 1 rig land. 


their Great Hall then in Building, did put by 
their Eletfion. And there was this Remarkable 
in the Education of this Chofcn Vcffei, at the 
Univerfitv : That while he continued there, his 
Father's Practice was, by the fpccial Providence 
of God, augmented fo much beyond what it 
been before, as was enough to maintain him 
there: Upon which Obfervation Mr. Cotton af- 
terwards would fay, 'Twos God that kept me at 
the Univerfity ! Indeed fome have faid, That 
the great Notice quickly taken of the.Eminen- 
cy in the Son, was one Reafon, why his Father 
not only came to be complemented on all fides, 
and Omnes Omnia Bona dicere, ilf laudare For- 
tunas ejus, qui I 'ilium habere! Tali lngenio pr£- 
ditum, but alfo had his Clients more than a lit- 
tle multiplied. 

§ 4. Upon the Defires of Emanuel Colledge, 
Mr. Cotton was not only removed unto that Col- 
ledge, but alfo preferred, unto a Fellovcfhip in it ; 
in order whereunto, he did according to the 
Critical and Laudable Statutes of the Houfe, 
go through a very fevere Examen of his Firnefs 
tor fuch a Station ; wherein 'twas particularly 
remarked, that the Pofsr trying his Hebrew 
Skill by the Third Chapter ol Ifaiah, a Chapter 
which, containing more hard Words than any 
one Paragraph of the Bible, might therefore 
have puzled a very good Hebrician, yet he made 
nothing of it. He was afterwards the Head 
Leffurer, the Dean, the Catechifi, in that. Fa 
mous Colledge ; and became a Tutor to many 
Scholars, who afterwards proved Famous Per- 
fons, and had caufe to blefs God for the Faith- 
ful, and Ingenious and Laborious Communica- 
tivenefs of this their Tutor. Here, all his 
Academical Exercifes, whether in Difputations 
or in common Places, or whatever elfie did fo 
fmellof the Tamp, that the Wit, the Strength, 
the Gravity, and the Fulnefs, both of Reafon 
and of Reading in them, caufed him to be much 
admired by the Sparkling Wits of the Univer- 
fity. But One thing among the reft, which 
caufed a great Notice to be taken of him, 
throughout the whole Univerfity, was his Fit 
neral Oration upon Dr. Some, the Mafter of 
Peter Houje, wherein he approved himfelf 
fuch a Mafter of PericUan, or Ciceronian Ora- 
tory, that the Auditors were even ready to have 
acclaimed, Non Vox Homincm Sonat ! And that 
which added unto the Reputation, thus raifed 
for him, was an Univerfity Sermon, wherein 
aiming more to preach Self than Chrift, he ufed 
fuch Florid Strains, as extremely recommended 
him unto the moft, who relifhed the Wifdom of 
Words above the Words of Wifdom : Though 
the pompous Eloquence of that Sermon, after- 
wards gave fuch a Diftaft unto his own Re- 
newed Soul, that with a Sacred Indignation 
he threw his Notes into the Fire. 

§ 5. Hitherto we have Teen the Life of Mr. 
Cotton, while he was not yet Alive! Though 
the Reftraining and Preventing Grace of God, 
had kept him from fuch Out-breakings of Sin, 
as Defile the Lives of molt in the World, yet 
like the Old Man, who for fuch a caufe order- 

ed this Epitaph to be written on his Grave, 
Here lies an Old Man, who lived but Seven 
Tears, he reckoned himfelf to have been but a 
Dead Man, as being Alienated from the Fife of 
God, until he had experienced that Regenera- 
tion, in his own Soul, which was thus accom- 
pli flied. The Holy Spirit of God had been at 
work upon las Toung Heart, by the Miniftry of 
that Reverend and Renowned Preacher ofRigh- 
teoufnefs, Mr. Perkins; but he refifted and 
fmothered thofe Convitlions, through a vain 
Perfwafion, that if he became a Godly Man, 
'twould lpoil him for being a Learned One. 
Yea, fuch was the Secret Enmity and Prejudice 
of an Unregenerate Soul, againft Real HolineJ's, 
and fiich the Torment, which our Lords Wit- 
neffes give to the Confciences of the Earthly- 
minded, that when he heard the Bell toll for 
the Funeral of Mr. Perkins, his Mind fecretly 
rejoiced in his Deliverance, from th3t Power- 
ful Miniftry, by which his Confcience h3d 
been fo oft Beleagured : The Remembrance of 
which thing afterwards, did break his Heart 
exceedingly ! But he was, at length, more efte- 
clually awakened, by a Sermon of Dr. Sibs, 
wherein was difcomfed the Mifery of thofe, 
who had only a Negative Righu-ottjnejs, or a 
Civil, Sober, Honeit Blamclefnefs before Men. 
Mr. Cotton became now very fenfible of his 
own miferable Condition before God ; and the 
Arrows of thefe Convictions, did ftick fo f aft 
upon him, that after no lefs Three Tears Dif- 
confolate Apprehenfions under them, the Grace 
of God made him a throughly Renewed Chri- 
ftian, and filled him with a Sacred Joy, which 
accompanied him unto the Fulnefs of' Joy for 
ever. For this Cauie, as Perfons truly convert- 
ed unto God have a mighty and lalting Affe- 
ction for the Inftruments of their Converfion ; 
thus Mr. Cotton's Veneration for Dr. Sibs, was 
after this very particular and perpetual -, and it 
caufed him to have the PiSure of that Great 
Man, in that part of his Houfe, where he might 
ofteneft look upon it. But fb the Toke of fore 
Temptations and Afflictions and long fpiritual 
Trials, fitted him to be an eminently ufeful 
Servant of God in his Generationl 

§ 6. Some time after this Change upon the 
Soul of Mr. Cotton, it came unto his turn again 
to preach at St. Maries-, and becaufe he was to 
preach, an High Expectation was raifed, 
through the whole Univerfity, that they fhould 
have a Sermon, flouriftnng indeed, with all 
the Learning of the whole Univerfity. Many 
Difficulties had Mr. Cotton in his own Mind 
now, what Courfe to freer. On the one fide 
he confidered, That if he fhould preach with 
a Scriptural and Chriftian Plainnefs, he fhould 
not only wound his own Fame exceedingly, but 
alfo tempt Carnal Men to revive an Old Cavil, 
That Religion made Scholars turn Dunces, 
whereby the Name of God might fuller not a 
little. On the other fide, he confidered, That 
it was his Duty to preach with fuch a Plain- 
\nefs, as became the Oracles of God, which 
'are intended for the Conduct of Meu in the 
C c c 'Paths 


7 he Hi/lory of New- England. Book ill. 

Paths of Life, and not for Theatrical Oftenta 
tions and Entertainments, and the Lord needed 
not any Sin of ours to maintain his own Glory. 
Hereupon Mr. Cotton refolved, that he would 
preach a plain Sermon, even fuch a Sermon, as 
in his own Confcience he thought would be moft 
pleafing unto the Lord Jefus Chrift ; and he di- 
fcourfsd practically and powerfully, hut very 
folidly upon the plain Doclrine of Repentance. 
The vain Wits of the Univerfity, difappointed 
thus, with a more excellent Sermon, that fhot 
fome troublefome Admonitions into their Con- 
iciences, dilcovered their Vexation at this Dif- 
appointment, by their not Humming, as accord- 
ing to their finful and abfurd Cuftom, they had 
formerly done ; and the Vice-Chancellor, for 
the verytfams Reafon alfo, graced him nor, as 
he did others that pleafed him. Neverrhelefs, 
the Satisfaction which he enjoyed in his own 
faithful Soul, abundantly compenfated unto him, 
the lofs of any Human Favour or Honour ; nor 
did he go without many Encouragements from 
fome Doctors, then having a better Sence of 
Religion upon them, who prayed him to perfe- 
vere in the good way of Preaching, which he had 
now taken. But perhaps the greateft Confola- 
tion of all, was a notable Effea: of the Sermon 
then preached ! The famous Dr. Prefton, then 
a Fellow of ^teen's Colledgc in Cambridge, and 
of Great Note in the Univerfity, came to hear 
Mr. Cotton with the fame itching Ears, as others 
were then led withal. For fome good while 
after the beginning of the Sermon, his fruftra- 
ted Expectation caufed him to manifeft his Un- 
eafinefs all the ways that were then poflible ; 
but before the Sermon was ended, like one of 
Peter's Hearers, he found himfelf pierced at the 
Heart : His Heart within him was now (truck 
with fuch Refentments of his own interior flate 
before the God of Heaven, that he could have 
no Peace in his own Soul, till with a wounded 
Soul, he had repaired unto Mr. Cotton ; from 
whom he received thofe further Affiftances, 
wherein he became a Spiritual Father, unto one 
of the greateft Men in his Age. 

§ 7. The well difpofed People of Bofton in 
Lincoln {hi 're, after this, invited Mr. Cotton to be- 
come their Minifter; with which Invitation, out 
of a fincere and ferious defirc to ferve our Lord 
in his Gofpel, after the folemneff Addreffes to 
Heaven for Guidance in fuch a folemn Affair, 
he complied. At this time the Mayor of the 
Town, with a more corrupt Party, having pro- 
cured another Scholar from Cambridge, more 
agreeable to them, would needs have him to 
preach before Mr. Cotton : But the Church- 
Warden pretending to more of Influence upon 
their F.ccleiiaftical Matters, overruled ir. How- 
ever when the matter came to a Vote, amongft 
thofe to whom the Right of Election did by 
Charter belong, there was an Equi-Vote for Mr. 
Cotton, and that other Perfon -, only the Mayor, 
who had the Calling Vote, by a ifrangeMiftake 
pricked fcr Mr. Cotton. When the Mayor fiw 
his Miftake, a new Vote was urged and grant 
ed j wherein it again proved an EquiVote-, but 

the Mayor moft unaccountably miftook again, 
as he did before. Extreamly dilpleas'd hereat^ 
he preffed for zThird Vote -, but the reft would 
not confent unto it ; andfo the Election fell up! 
on Mr. Cotton, by the involuntary Call of that 
very Hand, which had moft oppofed'ir. This 
Obftru&ion to the Settlement of Mr. Cotton in 
Bofton, being thus conquered, another follow'd : 
Fur the B if hop of the Diocefs, having under- 
ftood that Mr. Cotton was infecfed with Purita- 
nifm, fet himfelf immediately to difcourage his 
being there • only he could object nothing, but, 
That Mr. Cotton being a Toung Man, he was 
not Jo fit upon that Score, to be over fuch a nume- 
rous and fuch afaUious People. And Mr. Cot- 
/<?/? having learned no otherwife to value himfelf, 
than to concur with the Apprehenfions of the 
Bifliop ■, intended therefore to return unto Cam- 
bridge : But fome of his Friends, againft his In- 
clination, knowing the true way of doing it, foon 
charmed die Bifhop into a declared Opinion, 
that Mr. Cotton was an Honeft, and a Learned 
Man. Thus the Admiflion of Mr. Cotton unto 
the Exercife of his Miniftry in Bofton, was ac- 

(j 8. Mr. Cotton found the more peaceable Re- 
ception among the People,through his own want 
of internal Peace ; and becaufe his continual 
Exercifes, from his Internal Temptations and 
Afflictions, made all People fee, that inftead of 
ferving this or that Party, his chief care was 
about the Salvation of his own Soul. But the 
Stirs, which had been made in the Town, by 
the Arminian Controverfies, then raging, put 
him upon further Exercifes ; whereof he has 
himfelf given us a Narrative in the enfuing 
Words : ' When I was firft called to Bofton in 
' Lincoln/hire, fo it was, that Mr. Baron, Son 
c of Dr. Baron, ( the Divinity Reader of Cam- 
c bridge) firft broached, that which was then 
' called Lutheranifm, fince Arminianifm_ ; as 
' being indeed himfelf, Learned, Acute, Plau- 
' fible in Difcourfe, and fit to infinuate into the 
' Hearts of his Neighbours. And tho' he were 
' a Phyfitidn by Proleffion (and of good Skill in 
' that ArtJ yet he fpent the greatelf Strength 
' of his Studies, in clearing and promoting the 
c Arminian Tenents. Whence it came to pals, 
'■ that in all the great Feafts of the Town, the 
' chiefeft Difcourfe at the Table, did ordinarily 
' fall upon Arminian Points, to the great Of- 
c fence of Godly Minifters, both in Bofton, and 
' Neighbour-Towns. I coming among them, a 
' young Man, thought it a part both of Mode- 
' fty and Prudence, not to fpeak much to the 
' Points, at firft, among Strangers and Ancients: 
' Until afterwards, after hearing of many PL 
[' fcourfes, in Publick Meetings, and much pri- 
' vate Difcourfe with the Do&or, I had learned 
' at length, where all the great Strength of the 
' Doclor lay. And then obferving ( by the 
' Strength of Chrift) how to avoid fuch Ex- 
' preffions as gave him any advantage in the 
' Expreflions of others, I began publickly to 
' preach, and in private Meetings to defend the 
' Doftrine of God's Eternal Elctliox, before al! 


Book III. c i hejli/hry of &ew^gng]^^ 

' fyrefioht of Good ox Evil, in the Oeutare^ 
c anc j |] ie Redemption (ex gratia) only at rhe 
c ff/^. the effectual Vocation of a Sinner, P«- 
' irnfiftibUem Gratne vim, without all refpect. 
' of the Preparations of Free Will; and finally, 
i the Impoilibility of the Fall of a fincere Belie- 
<■ ver either totally or finally from a State of 
6 Grace. Hereupon, when the Dottor had ob 
' iefted many things, and heard my Anfwers to 
' thofe Scruples, which he was wont moil plau- 
• fibly to urge 5 prefently after our Publick 
' Fealts, and Neighbourly Meetings, were filent 
' from all further Debates about Predefti nation, 
c or any of the Points which depend thereupon, 
' and all Matters of Religion were carried on 
' calmly and peaceably. 

About half a Year after, Mr. Cotton had been 
at Bofton, thus ulefully employ'd, he vifited 
Cdinbridge, that he might then and there proceed 
Batcbellor of Divinity ■„ which he did : And his 
Concio ad Clerum, on Mat. 5. 1 }. Vos eft is Sal 
Tcrrx, was highly eiteemed by the Judicious. 
Nor was he lels admired for his very lingular 
Acutenefs in Deputation, when he anfvvered the 
Divinity All in the Schools 5 wherein he had 
for his Opponent a molf acute Antagonist, name- 
ly Dr. Chappel, who was afterwards Provoif of 
Trinity Colledge in Dublin ; and one unhappily 
fuccelsful in promoting the New Pelagianifm: 

§ 52. Settled now at Bofton, his dear Friend, 
holy Mr. Bayns, recommended unto him a pious 
Gentlewoman, one Mrs. Elizabeth Horrocks, the 
Sitter of Mr. James Horrocks, a famous M milter 
in LancaJbire,tobecomt hisConfort in a Married 
Ejiate. And it was remarkable, that on the 
very Day of his Wedding to that eminently Ver- 
tuous Gentlewoman, he firft received that Aflu 
ranee of God's Love unto his own. Soul, by the 
Spirit of God, effecFually applying his Promifc 
of Eternal Grace and Life unto him, which hap- 
pily kept with him all the reft of 'his Days t For 
which caufe he would afterwards often lay, God 
made that Day, a Day of double Marriage to me ! 
The Wife, which by ihe Favour of God he had 
now found, was a very great help unto him, in 
the Service of God •, but efpecially upon this, 
'among many other Accounts, that the People of 
her own Sex, obferving her more than ordinary 
Difcretion, Gravity, and Holinefs, would ft ill 
improve the Freedom of their Addrefs unto her, 
to acquaint her with the Exercifes of their own 
Spirits ; who acquainting her Husband with 
convenient Intimations thereof,' occafioned him 
in his Publick Miniftry more particularly and 
profitably, to difcourfe thofe things that were of 
everlafting Benefit. 

§ 10. After he had been three Years m Bofton, 
his careful Studies and Prayers brought him to 
apprehend more of Evil remaining Unreformed 
in the Church of England, than he had hereto- 
fore confidered ; and from this time he became 
a Conscientious A on-Conformift, unto the Unfcrt- 
ptural Ceremonies and Conftitutions, yet main- 
tained by that Church ; but fuch was his Intereft 
in the Hearts of the People, that his Noncon- 
formity of being difturbed, was indeed 

. _JJ 

embraced hy the greateftpartof the Town, How- 
•ever, at la ft, Complaints being made againft him 
unto xheSifhops Courts, he was for a while, then 
put under rhe Gircumttances of a file need Mini- 
ftcr , in all which zvhile, he would (till give his 
Prefence at the Publick Sermons, tho' never at 
the Common Prayers of the Conformable. He was 
now oifered,not only the Liberty of his Miniftry, 
but very great Preferment in italfo; if he would 
but Conform to the Scrupled Rites, tho' but in 
one Ail, and but for one Time : Neverrhelefs 
his tender Soul, afraid of being thereby polluted, 
could not in the lealt comply with fifth Tern 
ptations. A Storm of many Troubles upon him, 
was now gathering ■, but it WJs very ftrangely 
diverted ! For thac very Man who had occafion- 
ed this Affliction to him, now became heartily 
afflicFed for his own Sin in doing of it; and 1 
ftedfaft, conltant, prudent Friend, pfefenting 
a Pair of Gloves to a Proflor of an higher Court, 
then appeal'd unto that Protlor without Mr. Chi- 
ton's knowledge, fwore, /// Am mam. Domini, that: 
Mr. Cotton was a Conformable Alan : Which 
things ittued in Mr. Cotton's being rettored unto 
the Exercife of his Miniftiy. 

^11. The Storm of Perfectttion being thus 
blown over, Mr. Cottafn enjoyed Reft for many 
Years. In which time He raithluliy employed 
his great Abilities, not in gaining Men to this 
or that Party of Chriftians, but in acquainting 
them with the more efTential and fubftanfial 
Points of Chrifiianity. In the fpace of Twenty 
Years that he lived at Bofton, on the Lord's 
Days in the Afternoons, he thrice went over the 
Body of Divinity in a Catechifiicalzvay-, and gave 
the Heads of his Difcourfe to young Scholars, 
and others in the Town, that they might anfwer 
to his Queftions in the Congregation -, and the 
Anfwers he opened and applied unto the general 
Advantage of the Hearers. Whilft he was in 
this way handling the Sixth Commandment, the 
Words of God which he uttered were fo quick 
and powerful, that a Woman among his Hearers, 
who had been married fixteen Years to a Second 
Husband, now in Horror of Continence, openly 
confetTed her murdering her former Husband, 
by Poifbn, tho' thereby the expofed her felf to 
the Extremity of being burned. In the Fore- 
noons of the Lord's Days, he preached over the 
firft fix Chapters iri the Gofpel 0$ John, the 
whole Book of Eccleftafles •, the Prophecy of 
Zephaniah, the Prophecy of Zechariah, and 
many other Scriptures. When the Lord's Sup- 
per was adminiftred, which was once a Month, 
he handled the Eleventh Chapter in the Firft 
Epiftle to the Corinthians, and the Thirteenth 
Chapter in the Second Book of the Chronicles ■, 
and fome other pertinent Paragraphs of the Bi- 
ble. In his Leffures, he went through the whoIe ; 
Firft and Second Epiftles of John •, the whole 
Book of Solomon's Song- ; the Parables of our 
Saviour to the Seventeenth Chapter of Matthew. 
His Houfe alfo was full of young Students ; 
whereof fome were fent unto him out of Ger- 
many, fome out of Holland, but moft out of 
Cambridge : For Dr. Prefton would Hill advife 
Cc c 2 his 



ton, that they might be 
vice-, infomuch, that it was 
Proverb, That Mr. Cotton voat 

for Publick Ser 

almoft a 

Dr. PreftonV 


Scjjotung Vejjel: And of thofe that iffued from 

The Hiftory of New-rngland Book ill. 

-., j — — __— — — _ 

to go live wjrh Mr.Gtf- were appointed to rule no larger a Diocefs than 

a particular Congregation -, and that the Mini- 
Hers of the Lord, with the Keys of Ecclefiafti- 
cal Government, are given by him to a Congre- 
gational Church. Ir hence came to pals, that our 
Lord Jefus Chrift was now worshipped in Bo- 
(ion, without the ufe of the Liturgy, or of thole 
Veftments, which are by Zanchy called Execfa- 
biles Veftcs s yea, the Sign of the Crcfs was laid 
afidemot only in Bupti/m, but alfo in the Mayor's 
Mace, as worthy to be made a Kehufbtan, be- 
ciufe it had been fo much abufed unto Idolatry. 
And belides all this, there were fome Scores of 
pious People in the Town, who more exactly 
formed themfelves into an Evangelical Church- 
State, by entring into Covenant with God, and 
with one another, To follow after the Lord, in 
the Purity of bJs Worfkip. However, the main 
Bent and Aim of Mr. >. \>t ton's Minhtry was, To 
preach a crucified ' Ch rift ■, and the Inhabitants of 
Boflon oblerved, that God blelled them in their 
Secular Concernments, remarkably rhe more, 
through his dwelling among them: For many 
Strangers, and fome too, that were Gentlemen 
of good Quality, reforted unto Bofton, and fome 
removed their Habitations thither, on his Ac- 
count •, whereby the Prof peri ty of the place was 
very much promored. 

(j 13. As his Defert of it was very high, fo 
thzRefpeff which he met withal was far from 
low. The bell: or his Hearers loved him greatly, 
and the worlt of them feared him, as knowing 
that he way a righteous and an holy Man. Yea, 
fuch was the Great nefs of his Learning, his 
Wifdom, his Holinefs, that Great Men took no 
little notice of him. A very Honourable Per- 

this learned family, famous andufeful in their 
Generation, the well-known Dr. 'dill was not 
the kail Moreover, he kept a Daily Lett are 
in his Houfe, which, as very Reverend Ear! 
YVitnefTes have exprelTed it, lie performed with 
much Grace, to the Edification of the Hearers : 
And unto this Lecture many pious People in the 
Town, would conltaiitly reforr, until upon a 
fufpicion of fome Inconveniency, which might 
arife from the growing Numeroufnefs of his 
Audkorv, he left it off. However, belides his 
Ordinary Le&ure every Tb.:rjday, he preached 
thrice more-, every Week, on the Week Days ; 
namely on Wednesdays and Thurfdays, early in 
the Morning, and on Saturdays at Three in the 
Afternoon. And belides rheie immenfe Labours, 
he was frequently employ 'd on extraordinary 
Days, kept Pro Temporis & Caufis, whereon he 
would, fpend fometimes no lefs than Six Hours 
in the Word and Prayer. Furthermore, 'twas his 
Cuftom, once a Year, to vifit his Native-Town 
of Dt;rl% where he was a notable Exception to 
1 he General Rule of, A Prophet without Honour 
in his riv/i Country ; and by his vigilant Cares, 
this Town was for many Years kept fupplied 
with able and faithful Minilfers of the Gofpel. 
Thus was this good Man a raoft indefatigable 
Doer oj Good. 

§ 1 2. The good Spirit of God, fo plentifully 
and powerfully accompanied the Miniltry of 
this excellent Man, that a great Reformation 
was thereby wrought in the Town of Boflon. 
Profanencjs was extinguished, Superflition was 
abandoned, Religion was embraced and praclifed 
among the Body of the People -, yea, the Mayor, 
with molt of the Magiffrares, were now called 
Puritans, and the Satanic J Party was become 
infigniheant. As to the matter of Nonconfor- 
mity, Mr. Cotton was come to forbear the Cere- 
monies enjoy ned in the Church of England -, for 
which he gave this Account. ' The Grounds 
1 were two : Firji, The Significacy and Efficacy 
1 put upon 'em, in rhe Preface to the Book of 
1 Common-Prayer : That they were neither dumb 
' nor dark, but apt to flir up the dull Mind of 
4 Man, to the remembrance of his Duty to God, 
c by fome notable and fpecialfigmfication, where- 
' by he may be edified ; or Words to the like 
' purpoie. The Second was the Limitation of 
' Church- Power, even of the highelt Apoltolical 
' Commifiion, to the Obfervation of the Com 
4 mandii.cnts of Chnjl, Mat. 28. 20. Which 
' made it appear to me utterly unlawful for any 
4 Church Power to enjoyn the Obfervation of in- 
4 different Ceremonies , which Chrilt had not 
4 commanded: And all the Ceremonies were alike 
4 deltitute of the Commandment of Chriir, tho' 
' they had been indjfferent otherwife •, which, 
' indeed others have julfly pleaded they were 
L nor. Bat this was not all : For Mr. Cotton 
was alfo come to believe, That Scripture Bifiops 

fon rode thirty Miles to lee him ; and after- 
wards prof'elTed, That he bad as lieve hear Mr. 
Cotton 'j- ordinary Expofttion in his Family, at 
any Mimflers publick Pr caching that he knew in 
England. Whilft he continued in Boflon, Dr. 
Preflon would contra nfly come once a Year to 
vifit him, from his exceeding Value for Mr. Cot- 
ton's Friendffiip. Arch-Bifliop Williams did like- 
wife greatly elfeem him for his incomparable 
Parts ; and when he was Keeper of the Great 
Seal, he recommended Mr. Cotton to the Royal 
Favour. Moreover, the Earl of Dorchefter and 
of Lindfey, had much regard unto him ; which 
happened partly on this occafion : The Earl's 
coming into Lincoln/hire, about the Dreining of 
tome Fenny Grounds. Mr. Cotton was rhen in 
his Courfe of Preaching on Gal. 2. 20. Intend- 
ing to preach on the Duties of living by Faith 
in Adverfity -, but confidering that thefe Noble- 
men were not much acquainted with AjfUtlicns, 
he altered his Intentions, and fo ordered it, that 
when they came to Boflon, he dilcourfed on the 
Duties of living by Faith in Profperity : When 
the Noble-men were ib much taken with what 
they heard, that they allured him, If at any time 
he lhould want a Friend at Court, they would 
improve all their Intereft for him. And when 
Mr. Cotton did plainly, but wifely admonifh 
them, of certain Paflimes on the Lord's Day, 
whereby they give fome Scandal, thev took ic 


Book III. The Hijlory of New-England. 


moft kindly from him, and promifed a Reforma 
tion. But none of the Rofes caft on this applau- 
ded ASo?, /mothered that humble, that loving, 
that gracioss Difpofition, which was his perpe- 
tual Ornament. 

§ 14.. At length, doubtlefs tochaftife the fel- 
dom unchallifed Evils of Divifions, crept in a- 
mong the Chriftians of Bofton, it pleafed the 
God of Heaven to deprive them of Mr. Cotton's 
Miniftry, by laying a Tertian Ague upon him for 
a Year together. But being invited unto the 
Earl of Lincoln's, in purfuance to the Advice of 
his Phyhcians, that he fhould change the Air, he 
removed thither ; and thereupon he happily re- 
covered. Never thelefs, by the fame Sicknefs he 
then loft his excellent Wife ; who having lived 
with him Childlefs for Eighteen Years, went from 
him now, to be for ever with the Lord; where- 
upon he travelled further afield, uritb London, 
and fome other places, whereby the recovery ol 
his loft Health was further perfected. About a 
Year after this, he pracf ically appeared ift op- 
pofition to Tertullianij'm, by proceeding unto a 
Second Marriage ; wherein one Mrs. Sarah Story, 
a vertuous Widow, very dear to his former Wile, 
became his Confort -, and by her he had both 
Sons and Daughters. 

§ 1 5. Altho' our Lord had hitherto made the 
Discretion and Vigilancy of Mr-Thomas Leveret 
( aiterwards a doubly honoured Elder of the 
Church, in another Land) the happy occafion 
of diverting many Defigns to moleft Mr. Cotton 
for his Non-Conformity, yet when the Sins of the 
place had ripened it, for fo dark a Vengeance of 
Heaven, as the removing of this eminent Light, 
a Storm of Perfecution could no longer be avoid- 
ed. A debauch'd fellow in the Town, who 
had been punilhed by the Magiftrates for his 
Debaucheries, contrived and refolved a Revenge 
upon them, for their Juftice : And having no 
more effectual way to vent the curfed Malice of 
his Heart, than by bringing them into Trouble 
at the High Commijfwn Court, up he goes to Lon- 
don, with Informations to that Court, that the 
Magiftrates did not kneel at the Sacrament, nor 
obferve fome other Ceremonies by Law impofed. 
When fome that belonged unto the Court figni- 
fied unto this Informer, that he muft put in the 
Minifter's Name : Nay, ( faid hej the Mmifter 
is an honeji Man, and never did me any wrong : 
But it being further preffed upon him, that all 
his Complaints would be infignificant, if the 
Minifter's Name were not in them, he then did 
put it in : And Letters Mijfive were difpatched 
incontinently, to Convent Mr. Cotton, before 
the infamous High Commijfion Court. But before 
we relate what became of Mr. Cotton, we will 
enquire what became of his Accufer. The Re- 

Wifp, ujedby the Hand of God, for the J'cowring 
of his People : But mark the Words now fpoken 
by a of the Lord I I am verily perfvoa- 
ded, the Judgments of God, will overtake the 
Man that has done this thing : Either he will die 
under an Hedge, or fomething elfe, more than the 
ordinary Death of Men {hall befal him. Now 
behold, how this Prediction was accompli! hed : 
This miferable Man quickly after this, dy'd of 
the Plague, under an Hedge, in Ycrkjlnre ; and 
it was a long time, e'er any could be found, 
that would bury him. This 'tis to turn Perjc- 

§id. Mr. Cotton knowing that Letters Mi f- 
five were out againlt him, from the High Com- 
mijfion Court, and knowing, that if he appeared 
there, he could expect no other, than to be 
choaked with fuch a perpetual ' Im-prifoitftienfa as 
had already murdered iuch Men as Bates and 
Udal, he concealed himlelf as well as he could, 
from the raging Purjcvants. Application was 
made, in the mean time, to the 1 Earl of Dorjer, 
for the Fulfilment of his old Engagement unto 
Mr. Cotton ■, and the Earl did indeed intercede 
for him. until the Arch Bifhop of Canterbury., 
who would often wiih, Oh ! that I could meet 
with Cotton ! iendred all his Intercelhons both 
ineffectual and unleaionaLle. Hereupon that 
Noble Perfon fent word unto him, That, it he 
had been guilty of Drunkennefs, or Vncieannejs, 
or any fuch lefjer Fault, he could have obtained 
his Pardon ; but inafmuch as he had been g\i\[- 
ty oi Non-Conformity, and Puritanifm,ths Crime 
was unpardonable ; and therefore, faid he, Tcic 
muft fly for your Safety. Doubtlefs, itwasfrcm 
fuch unhappy Experiments, that Mr. Cotton af- 
terwards publifhed this Compl lint : the Eccle- 
fiaftical Courts, ore like the Courts oj the High- 
Pr lefts and Pharijces, which Solomon by a Spirit 
of Prophecy flileth, Dens of Lions, and Moun 
tains of Leopards. And thoje who have to do 
itith them, have found ihctn Markets oj the Sins 
of the Pcpple-jJx Cages of V nolo annej's. the Forges 
of Extortion, the Tabernacles rf Bribery, and 
they have been contrary to the End of Civil Go- 
vernment, which is, The Punijhment of Evil- 
Doers , and the Praife of them which do 

§ 17. Mr. Cotton, therefore, now, with Sup- 
plications unto the God of Heaven for his Dire- 
ction, joined Confutations of good Men on 
Earth ; and among others, he did with fome of 
his Bofton Friends, vifit old Mr. Dod, unto 
whom he laid open the difficult Cale now be- 
fore him, without any Intimation of his own In- 
clination , whereby the Advice of that holy 
Man, might have been at all foreftalled. Mr. 
Dod upon the whole, faid thus unto him: lam 

nowned Mr. John Rogers of Dedham, having j old Peter, and 'therefore muft ft and ft ill, and bear 
been on his Lecture Day, juff before his going 
to preach, advifed, that Mr. Cot ton was brought 

into this trouble, he took occafion to fpeak of 
it in the Sermon, with juft Lamentations tor it •, 
and among others, he ufed Words to this pur 
pofe : As for that Man, who hath can fed a faith- 
ful Paftor, to be driven from his flock, he Is a 

the Brunt ; but you being young Peter, may go 

whether you will, and ought, being perjeculed in 

City, to flee unto another. And when the 


Bofton Friends, urged, That they would fupport 
andproteft Mr. Cotton, tho" privately -, and that 
if he fhould leave them, very many oj them would 
I be expojed unto extremeTempt aiwn : He readily 



The Hiftory of New- England. Book III, 

artfwered, That the removing of a Minifter, ivoj 
like the draining of a Fifh-pond ; the good Fif) 
Kill follow 'the Water, but Eels, and other Bog- 
gage Fiji}, will flick in the Mud. Which things 
when Mr. Cot ton heard, he was not a little con- 
firmed in his Inclination to leave the Land. Nor 
did he forget the Conceffion of Cyprian, That a 
feaibnable Flight, is in effect, a Confcjfion of our 
faith : For it is a Profejjion that our faith is 
dearer unto us, than all the Enjoyments from 
which we./?/. But that which is further me- 
morable in this matter, is, That as the Great 
God often makes his Truth' to fpread by the 
Sufferings of them that profefs the Truth -, Four 
hundred were converted by the Death of one 
perfecuted Cecilia : And the Scotch Bilhop would 
leave off burning of the Faithful, becaufe the 
Smoke of Hamilton intecfed as many as it blew 
upon. Thus the Silencing and Removing of 
Mr. Cotton, which was to him, a thing little 
ihort of Martyrdom, was an occafion of more 
thorough Repentance in fundry of his bereived 
People, who now began to confider, that God 
by taking away their Miniiter, was punifhihg 
their former Unfruitful nefs under the molt fruit- 
ful Miniftry, which they had thus long enjoyed. 
And there was yet another fuch effect of the 
matter, which is now to be related. 

§ 1 8. To avoid them that thirfted for his Ru- 
ine, Mr. Cotton travelled under a chang'd Name 
and Garb, with a full purpofe of going over for 
Holland; but when he came near the place, 
where he would have fhipped himfelf, he met 
with a Kinfman, who vehemently and effectu- 
ally perfwaded him to divert into London. Here 
the Lord had a Work for him to do, which he 
little thought of. Some Reverend and Renown- 
ed Miniflers of our Lord in that Great City, 
who yet had not leen fufficient Reafon toexpo'fe 
themfelves unto Perfecutions for the fake of 
Non-Conformity, but look'd upon the impofed 
Ceremonies as indifferent and fufferable Trifles, 
and weigh'd not the AfpecL of the Second Com- 
mandmett, upon all the Parts and Means of In- 
ftitutcd Worfhip, took this Opportunity for a 
Conference with Mr. Cotton ; being perfwaded, 
That fince he was no Pajfionate, but a very Ju 
dicioi/s Man, they mould prevail with him ra- 
ther to conform, than to leave his WorkztA his 
Land. Unto the Motion of a Conference Mr. 
Cotton molt readily yielded : And firff, all their 
Arguments for Conformity, together with Mr. 
Byfiehrs, Mr. Whatelfs, and Mr. Sprint's, were 
produced ; all of which Mr. Cotton anfwered, 
unto their wonderful Satisfaction. Tl)en he 
gave his Arguments for his Non-Conformity, and 
the Reafons why he muff rather forgo his Mini- 
fry, or at lea ft his Country, than wound his 
Confacr.ce with unlawful Compliances : The 
Iffue whereof was, that inftead of bringing Mr. 
Cotton back to what he had now forfaken, he 
brought them off altogether from what they 
had hitherto practifed : Every one of thofe emi 
nertt Perfons, Dr. Goodwin, Mr. Nye, and Mr. 
Dn-onport, now became all that he was, and 
■u lafl left the Kingdom for their being fo, fiat 

Mr. Cotton being now at London, there were 
three places which offered tb.emi.lves to fan. 
for his Retreat ; Holland, BarbaJoes, and Nej§- 
England. As for Holland, the Character and 
Condition, which famous Mr. Hooker had re- 
ported thereof, took off his Intentions of rfnjo- 
ving thither. And Barbad-cs had nor near JTuch 
encouraging Ctrcu'rpftaaces, upon the belt Ac- 
counts, as AV;j En-.'a.':d ■, ^hereour Lord Jefiis 
Chrilt had a more than ordinaiy thing to be 
done for his Glory, in kn American Wilderneis, 
and fo would lend py'pr a more than ordinary 
Man, to be employed in the doing of it. Lhi- 
ther, eyen to that Religious and Reformed Plan- 
tation, after the folemned Applications to Hea- 
ven for Direction, this great Perfon bent his 
Refoluttons : And Letters procured from the 
Church of Boflon, by Mr. Wuvtfrop, the Gover- 
nour of the Colony, had their Influence on the 

t) 19. The God that had carried him through 
the hire of Perjccution, was now gratiouily 
with him in his Paffage through the Water of 
the Atlantic Ocean, and he enjoyed a comfor- 
table Voyage over the great and wide Sea. There 
were then three eminent Minifters of God in 
the Ship ; namely, Mr. Cotton, Mr. Hooker, and 
Mr. Stone ; which,glor.ious Triumvirate coming 
together, made the poor People in the Wild er- 
ne fs, at their coming, to fay, That the God of 
Heaven had fupplied them , witli vyhat vypuld 
in fome fort aniwer their three great Neceflities , 
Cotton for their Cloathing, Hooker for their Fifk- 
mg, and Stone for their Building : But by one 
or other of thefe three Divines in the Ship, there 
was a Sermon preached every Day, all the while 
they were aboard, yea they had three Sermons,or 
Expofitions,for the mod part every Day : Of Mr. 
Cotton in the Morning, Mr. Hooker in the After- 
noon, Mr. Stone after Supper in the Evening. 
And after they had been a Month upon the 
Seas, Mr. Cotton received a Mercy, which God 
had now for Twenty Years denied unto him, in. 
the Birth of his Eldeft Son, whom he called 
Seaborn, in the Remembrance of the never-to-be- 
forgotten Blellings, which he thus enjoyed upon 
the Seas. But at the end of Seven IVeeks they, 
arrived at New-England, September 3. in the 
Year 1633. Where he put a-fhore at New- 
Boflon, which in a few Years, by the Smile of 
God ; efpecially upon the Holy Wifdom, Con- 
duct, and Credit of our Mr. Cotton, upon fome 
Accounts of Growth, came to exceed Old Boflon 
in every thing that renders a Town confiderable. 
And it is remarkable, that his Arrival at New- 
England, was juft after the People there, had: 
been by folemn Faffing and Prayer feeking unto, 
God, that inafmuch as they had been engaging. 
to walk with him in his Ordinances, according 
to his Word, he would mercifully fend over to 
them, fuch as might be Eyes unto them in the 
Wildernefs, and ftrengthen them in difcerning 
and following of that Word. 

§ 20. There were divers Churches gathered in 
the Country, before the Arrival of Mr. Cotton ; 
hut upon his Arrival, the Points of Church- 

Book IlTT The Hi/lory of New- England. 


Order, were with more of Exacfnefs revived, 

and received in them, and further obferved in 

fuch as vvere gathered after them. He found 

the whole Country in a perplexed and a divided 

Eftate, as to their Civil Conftitution, but at the 

Publick Defircs, preaching a Sermon on thofe 

words, Hag.z.^. Be ftrong, Zerubbabel, faith 

the Lord; and be ftrong, fojhua, Sonofjofe- 

dech the High-Prieft j and be ftrong all ye People 

of the Land, faith the Lord, and work : For lam 

mtb you, faith the Lord of Hofts. The good 

Spirit of God, by that Sermon, had a mighty 

Influence upon all Ranks of Men, in the Infant - 

Plantation ; who from this time carried on their 

Affairs, with a new Life, Satisfaction, and U- 

nanimity. It was then requeued of Mr. Cotton, 

That he would, from the Laws wherewith God 

governed his ancient People, form an Abflratt 

of fuch as were of a Moral and a Lafting Equi- 
ty : Which he performed as acceptably as judi- 

cioufly. But inafmuch as very much of an A- 

thenian Democracy, was in the Mould of the Go- 
vernment, by the Royal Charter, which was then 
acfed upon, Mr. Cotton effecfually recommend- 
ed it unto them, that none fhould be Eletlors, 
nor Elecled therein, except fuch as were vifible 
Subjefts of our Lord Jefus Chrilf, perfonally 
confederated in our Churches. In thefe, and 
many other ways, he propounded unto them, 
an Endeavour after a Theocracy, as near as might 
be, to that which was the Glory of Ifrael, the 
peculiar People. 

But the Ecclefiaftical Conftitution of the Coun- 
try, was that on which he employ'd his peculiar 
Cares ; and he was one of thofe Olive-Trees, 
which afforded a lingular Meafure of Oyl, for 
the Illumination of our SanUuary. 

1) 2 1. Tl)e Churches now had Reft, and were 
edified : And there were daily added unto the 
Churches, thofe that were to be faved. Now, 
the' the poor People were fed with the Bread 
of Aav--rfity, and the Waters of AJflillion, yet 
the- .ounted themfelves abundantly compenfa- 
Ilj. by this, that their Eyes might fee fuch Tea- 
chers, as were now to be feen among them. The 
faith and the Order in the Churches, was gene- 
rally glorious, whatever little popular Confufions, 
might in fome few places eclipfe the Glory. But 
the warm Sunfhine will produce a Swarm of 
Infers ■, whilft Matters were going on thus pro- 
fperoufly, the Cunning and Malice of Satan, to 
break the Prosperity of the Churches, brought 
in a Generation of Hypocrites, who crept in un 
awares, turning the Grace @f our God into La- 
fcivioufnefs. A. Company of Antinomian and 
Familiflical Seffdiies, were ft rangely crouded in 
among our more Orthodox Planters •, by the 
Artifices of which bufie Opinionifts, there was 
a dangerous Blow given, firft unto the Faith, and 
lb unto the Peace of the Churches. In the Storm 
thus raifed, it is incredible what Obloquy came 
to be calf upon Mr. Cotton, as it he had been 
the Patron of thefe Deftroyers -, merely becaufe 
they willing to have a great Pcrfon in admira 

tion, becaufe of advantage, falfly ufed the Name) ' fecret a Foment or of the Spirit of F*v;i'ijy>i, if 
of this great Perfon, by the Credit thereof to ' not leavened my felf that way Which I 

' difcein- 

dilTeminate and diiiemble their Errors -, and be- 
caufe the chief of them in their private Confe 
rences with him, would make luch fallacious 
Profejfion of GofpclTruths, that his Chriltian 
and abufed Chanty, would not permit him to 
be fo hafty as many others were, in Confining 
of them. However, the Report given of Mr. 
Cotton on this occafion, by one Baily, a Scotch- 
man, in a moll Icandalous Pamphlet, called, A 
Dijfwafive, written to calf an Odium on the 
Churches of New England^ vilifying/;;//?, that 
was one of their molf eminent Servants, are rfiolt 
horrid Injuries : for there being upon the En- 
couragement of the Succefs which the old Ki- 
cene, Conftantinopolitan, Ephefine, and Choice- 
donian Councils had, in the extinguishing of le- 
veral fucceffive Herefies, a Council now called at 
Cambridge, Mr. Cotton, after fome Debates with 
the Reverend Atfembly, upon fome controvert- 
ed Points of J 'unification, molt vigoroully joined 
with the other Minifters of the Country, in te- 
stifying againft the hateful Dotlrines, whereby 
the Churches had been troubled. Indeed there 
did happen Paroxifms in this Hour of Tempta- 
tion, between Mr. Cotton, and fome other zea- 
lous and worthy Perfons, which tho' they did 
not amount unto the /:^/?and heigtith of thofe 
that happened between Cbryfo/iom and Epipha- 
fiius, or between Hierom and Ruffini/s, yetthev 
inclined him to meditate a Removal into another 
Colony. But a certain Icandalous Writer, ha- 
ving publickly reproached Mr. Cotton, With his 
former Inclination to Remove, there was there- 
by provoked his publick and patient Anfwer -, 
which being a fummery Narrative of this whole 
Bufinefs, I fhall here tranferibe it. 

' There was a Generation of Familifts'- in our 
c own, and other Towns, who under pretence 
' of holding forth what I had taught, touching 
' Union with Chrift, and evidencing that Union, 
' did fecretly vent fundry and dangerous Er- 
4 rors and Herefies, denying all inherent Righte- 
c oufnefs, and all evidencing of a good Eftate 
' thereby in any fort, and fome of them'alfo 
' denying the Immortality of the Soul, and the 
'' Refurre&ion of the Body. When they were 
' queftioned by fome Brethren about thofe 
' things, they carried it, as if they had held 
c forth nothing, but what they had received 
' from me : Whereof, when I was advifed to 
c clear my felf, I publickly preached againft 
' thofe Errors. Then faid the Brethren to the 
' Erring Party, See your Teacher declares him- 
' J c 'f clearly to differ from you. No maiur (fay 
' the other) what he faith in publick, we under- 
c ft and him olherzvife, and we Anew what he faith 
' to us in private. Yea, and I my felf could 
'• not enfily believe, that thofe Erring Brethren 
' and' Sifters, were fo corrupt in their Judgments 
' as they were reported -, they feeming to me 
' forward Chriifians, and utterly denying anv 
c fuch Tenents, or any thing elfe, but what they 
' received firm my felf. All which bred in fun- 
dry of the Country, a Jealoufie that I was in 


The Hijlory of New-England. Book III, 

1 difceming, it wrought in me Thoughts (as it 
4 did in many other fincerely and Godly Bre- 
' thren of our Church) not of a.Separation from 
' the Churches, but of a Removal to Newbaven, 
' as being better known to the Paftor, and fome 
' others there , than to fuch as were at that time 
4 jealous of me here. The true Ground where- 
' of was an Inward Loathnefs to be Troublefome 
4 unto Godly Minis, and a Fear of the Unpro- 
1 fitableneis of my Mini ft ry there, where my 
' way was fufpefted to be Doubtful and Dan- 
' gerous. I chofe therefore rather to meditate 
4 a Silent Departure in Peace, than by tarrying 
' here, to make way for the breaking forth of 
' 'Temptations. But when, at the Synod, I had 
' difcovered the Corruption of the Judgment 
? of the Erring Brethren, and faw their Frau- 
' dulent Pretence of holding forth no other, but 
' what they received from me ( when as indeed 
* they plead for Grofs Errors contrary unto my 
' Judgment^ I thereupon did bear Witnefs a- 
4 gainlt them ; and when in a private Confe- 
4 rence with fome Chief Magift rates and. Elders, 
4 I perceived, that my Removal upon fuch Dif- 
' ferences was unwelcome to them, and that 
' fuch Points need not to occafion any Diftance 
4 (neither in Place nor in Heart) amongft Bre- 
' thren, I then refted fatisfied in my abode 
4 amongft them, and fo have continued, by the 
4 Grace of Chrift unto this Day. 

'Tis true, fuch was Mr. Cotton's Holy Igenu- 
ity, that when he perceived the Advantage, 
which Erroneous and Heretical Perfons in his 
Church, had from his abufed Charity, taken 
to fpread their Dangeious Opinions, before he 
was aware of them, he did publickly fometimes 
with Tears bewail it, That the Enemy had /own 
fo many Tares whilji he had been afleep. Ne- 
verthelefs 'tis as true, that nothing ever could 
be Bafer than the Difingenuity of thofe Pam- 
phletteers, who took Advantage hence, to catch 
thefe Tears in their Venemous Ink-horns, and 
employ them for lb many Blots upon the Me- 
mory of a Righteous Alan, worthy to be had in 
Everlafting Remembrance. 

§ 22. When the Virulent and \ 7 \o\mt Edwards 
had been after a molt Unchriftian manner, be 
fpattering the Excellent Burroughs, That Revi- 
led Saint, in his Anfwer, had that PafTage -, 
The Extreme Eager nefs of fome to afperfe our 
Names i makes us to think, that God hath made 
more life of our Names, than we were aware of, 

We fee by their Anger even almoji to Mad 

nefs, bent that zvay, that they had little Hope, 
to prevail with all their Argument againji the 
Caufe we profefs, till they could get down our 
EJieem (fuch as it wcu) m the Hearts of the 
People But our Names are not in the Pow- 
er of their Tongues and Pens ; they are in the 
Hands of God, who will preferve them fo far, 
an fie hath ufe of them; and further, we fhall 
have no ufe of them our felvcs. That Bitter 
Spirit in Baily, muff for fuch Caufes expofe 
Name of the Incomparable Cot'ton, unto Irre 
parable Injuries : For, from the meer Hear- I 
fays of that Uncharitable Writer, haftily Pub- j 

lifhed unto the World, the Learned and Wor- 
thy. Dr. Hoornbech, not much lei's againft the 
Rules of Charity, Printed a Short Account of 
Mr. Cotton, whereof an Ingenious Author trulv 
fays, There was in it, Qtot fere Verba, tot Er- 
roresfamofijfimi \ neque tahtum quot Capita, toi 
Carpcnda, fed quot fere Sententiarum punQufa, 
tot'Difpungenda. That Scandalous Account, it 
is pity it (hould be Read in Englifh, and grea- 
ter pity that ever that Reverend Perfon fhould 
make it be Read in Latin-, but this it was - 
Cottonus, honore Ordinis EpifcopaUs, in Aliud 
Extremum prolapfus, Omnia plebi abjque Vinculo 

Ecclefiarum concedebat. Cottonus //?<?, pri- 

mum in Anglia, alterius Longc Scntcntutfuerat. 
unde, ty plurimorum Error urn Her eft 'unique Re- 
us, Maximm Or dims iftius,vcl potius ATAXIAS. 
promotor extitit ; habuitque fecum, quemadmo- 
dum Montanus dim Maximillam, Suam Hut- 
chinfonam, de quavari iff prodigiofa mult a rcje- 
runt. From thefe miferable Hiflorians, who 
would Imagine what a Slur has been abroad 
call upon the Name of as Holy, as Learned as 
Orthodox, and Eminent a Servant of our Lord, 
in his Reformed Churches, as was known in his 
Age ! Among the reft, it is particularly obfer- 
vable how a Laborious and Ingenious Foreigner, 
in his Bibliotheca Ang/orum Theologica, having' 
in his Index mentioned a Book of this our Mr. 
Cotton's, under the Style of Johannh Cottoni, 
Via Vita, Liber Utilijfimus, prefently adds, 
Alius Johannes Cottonm mala ~Not£ Homo : 
Whereas 'twas only by the Mifreprefentations 
of contentious and unadvifed Men, that John 
Cotton, the Experimental Author of fuch an 
ufeful Book, muft be branded with a Note of 
Infamy. But if the Reader will deal juftly, 
he muft join thefe Grofs Calumnies upon Cot- 
ton, with the Fables of Luthers Devil, Zuin- 
gliia's Dreams, Calvin's Brands, and Junius's 
Cloven Foot. If Hoornbeck ever faw Cotton's 
mild, but full Reply to Baily, which as the 
Good Spirited Beverly fays, would have been 
efteemed a fufficient Refutation of all thefe 
wretched Slanders, Nifi Fratrum quorundam au- 
res erunt ad veritatem, tanquam Afpidum, ob- 
turata, 'tis impofftble to excufe his wrongful 
Dealings with a Venerable Minifter of our Lord! 
Pray, Sir, charge not our Cotton with an Horror 
Ordinis Epifcopalis ; until you have chaftifed 
your Friend Honorius Reggius, that is Georgius 
Hornius, for telling us, as Voetius quotes it -, 
Mult or um Animos Subiit Recordatio illius, quod 
Venerabilis Beza, non fincProphetia Spirit u, olim 
iefcripfit Knoxo, Ecclefia Scotica Reform at ori : 
Sicut Epifcopi Papatum pepercrunt, ita Oculis 
pcene ipfis jam cernitui\ Pfuedo Epifcopos, pa- 
pains Reliquiae, Epicureifmum Terris InveSu- 
ros. Atque hac pramittere Vifum, ut eo mani- 
feftius ejfet Britanniam diutius Epifcopos non 
potuijfe ferre, nifi in Papifmum & Atheifmum 
Labi vellet. Charge not our Cotton with an 
Omnia Plebi abfque Vinculo Aliarum Ecclefiarum 
concedebat -, until, beh'des the whole Scope and 
Scheme of his Ecclefiaftical Writings, which 
allow no more ftill unto the Fraternity, than 


Book III. -'the Hifiory of New- England. 


Tarker Ames, Cartwrigbt ; and advance no 
other than that Ariftocrafie, that Beza, Zancby, 
Wbitakcr, Bucer, and Blondel pleaded for ; you 
have better conftrued his Words in his Golden 
Prelate to Norton's Anfwer unto the Sylloge 
■igitaftiortam, Ncque nos Regimen proprie diffum 
alibi quam penes Presby teres ftabiliendum Cupi- 
mus : Convenimus ambo in Subjetlo Regiminis 
Ecclefiaftici : Convenimus etiam in Regula Regi- 
minis, ut Adminftrentur Omnia Juxta Canonem 
Sacrarum Script arum : Convenimus etiam in Fi 
ne Regiminis, ut Omnia Tranfigantur ad Edtfi- 
catiohem Ecclefix, non ad Pompam aut Luxum 
Secularem : Synodes nos, una Vobifcum, cum opus 
fuerit, iff Sujcipimus iff veneramur. Qiiantil- 
lum eft', quod Reftat, quod Diftat ! Alius Regi- 
minis, quos vos a Synodis peragi Velletis, eos a 
Synod is porrigi Eeclefm, iff ab Ecclefiis, ex Sy- 
nodal 'i DIORTHOSEI peragi peter emus. 
Charge not our Cotton with an ATAXIAS 
Promotor Extitit, until you, your felf, ToUor, 
have revoked your own two Conceflions, which 
are all the Ataxics that ever could, with fo 
much as the leait Pretence, be imputed unto 
this Renowned Perfbn ; Ecclefia particulars 
quxlibet SubjeUum eft Adequation iff proprium 
plence poteftatis Ecclefiaftkte; nee Congrue diet- 
tur ejus Synodo Dependentia, And, Neque enim 
Synodi in alias Ecclcfias poteftatem babent Impe- 
rantem, qu.e Superiorum eft, in Inferiores fibi 
Subditos ; Non-Communionis Sententia Potefta- 
tern Summam denotat. As for the Cottonus Plu- 
rimorum Errorum Hxrefiumque Reus, were Old 
Auftin alive, he would have charged no lefs a 
Crime than that of Sacriledge upon the Man, 
that thus without all Colour, fhould Rob the 
Church of a Name which would juftly be Dear 
unto it ■, for as the Greac Caryl hath exprelTed 
it, The Name of Cotton is as an Ointment pour- 
ed fortb. But for the Top of all thefe Calum- 
nies, Cottoni Hutchinfona, inftead of a Refem- 
blance to Montani Maximilla, the truer Com- 
parifon would have been, Mulier ifta, qua per 
Calumniam notijjimam Objiciebatur Atbanafw ; 
All the Favour which that Prophetefs of Thya- 
tira had from this Angelical Man, was the 
fame, that the provoked Paul fhow'd unto the 
Pytbomfs. In fine, The Hiftories which the 
World has had of the Nczv Englift Churches, 
under the Influence of Mr. Cotton, I have fome- 
times thought much of a piece, with what we 
have in the Old Hiftories of Lyfimacbus-, That 
when a Leprous, a Scabby fort of a People were 
driven out of Egypt into the Wilderneis, there 
was a certain Man cali'd Mofcs, who counfelled 
them to march on in a Body, till they came to 
fome Good Soyl. This Mofcs commanded them 
to be kind unto no Man -, To give Bad Advice 
rather than Good, upon all Occafions •, and to 
deftroy as many Temples as they could find •, 
So, after much Travel and Trouble, they came 
to a Fruitful Soyl, where they did all the Mif- 
chief that Mofes had recommended and built 
a City, which was at firft called Hierofyla, 
from the fpoiling of the Temples: But after- 
wards, to fhun the Difgrace of the Occafion, 

they changed it into hierofolyme, and bore the 
Name of Hierofolymitans. But thus muft a 
Bad Report, as well as a Good Report, foilow 
fuch a Man as Mr. Cotton, whofe only Fault 
after all, was thar, with which that memora- 
ble Ancient Nazienzen was taxed fometimes ; 
namely, the Fault of Manfuetude. 

§ 25. Thele Clouds being thus happily blown 
ever, the reft of his Days were fpent in a more 
fettled Peace ; and Mr. Cotton's growing and 
fpreading Fame, like Jofeph's Bough, Ran over 
the Walt of the Anlantic Ocean, unto fuch a 
Degree, that in the Year 1641. Some Great Per- 
fons in England, were intending to have fent 
over a Ship on purpofe to fetch him over, lor 
the fake of the Service, that fuch a Man as 
lie, might then do to the Church of God, then 
Travelling^ in the Nation. But although their 
Doubt of his Willingnefs to Remove, caufed 
them to forbear that Method of obtaining him, 
yet the Principal Members in both Houfes of 
Parliament wrote unto him, with an Importu- 
nity for his Return into England; which had 
prevailed with him, if the Difinal Showres of 
Blood, quickly after breaking upon the Nation, 
had not made fuch AffiLSlive Imprefiions upon 
him, as to prevent his purpofe. He continued 
therefore in Bofton unto his Dying Day ; count- 
ing it a great Favour of Heaven unto him, that 
he was delivered from tbc Lfnjettlednefs of Ha- 
bitation, which was not among the leaft of the 
Calamities that Exercifed the Apoftles of our 
Lord. Nineteen Tears and odd Months he fpent 
in this Place, doing of Good publickly and pri- 
vately, unto all forts of Men, as it became a 
Good Man full of Faitb, and of the Holy Gbaft. 
Here in an Expofitory way, he wenr over the 
Old Teftament once, and a Second Time as far 
as the Thirtieth Chapter of Ifaiah ; and the 
whole Ne w Teftament once, and a Second time, 
as far as the Eleventh Chapter to the Hebrcc. , 
Upon Lord's-Days and Leffure-Days, he Preach- 
ed thorow the Ails of the Apoftles ; the Pro 
phefies of Haggai and Zecbanab -, the Books of 
Ezra, the Revelation, , Canticles, 
Second and Third Epifiles of John, the Epiftle 
to Titus, both Epiftles to Timothy ; the Epiftle 
to the Romans ; with innumerable other Scrip- 
rures on Incidental Occafions. Though he had 
alfo the molt Remarkable Faculty, perhaps of 
any Man living, to Meet every Remarkable Oc- 
casion, with pertinent RefieStons, whatever 
Text he were upon, without ever wandring 
out of fight from his Text: And it is poftible 
there might fometimes be a particular Opera- 
tion of Providence, to make the Works and 
Words of God meet in the Miniftry of his Holy 
Servant. But thus did he Abound in the Works 
of the Lord'. 

§ 24. At length, upon Defire, going to preach 
a Sermon at Cambridge, (which he did, on Jfa. 
54. 13. Thy Children fball be all taught of the 
Lord; and from thence gave many Excellent 
Councils unto the Students of the Colledgo 
there) he took Wet in his Pafiage over the 
Kerrv ; but he prefently felt the EfftSt of it, In* 
Ddd the 


7 he Hifiory of New-England. Book 111. 

the tailing 

of his Voice in Sermon-time- which 
ever until now, had been a clear, neat, audible 
Voice, and eafily heard in the moll Capacious 
Auditory. Being found Jo doing, as it had of- 
ten been his declared Wifh, That be wight not 
out live bis Work ! (faying upon higher Princi- 
ples than once Curius Dentatus did, Malle cjjc 
fe MortUUm, quam Vivere ; that he had rather 
Be Dead, than Live Dead: And with Seneca, 
Ulthnum malorum eft ex vivcrum Numero exire, 
ante quam moriarh :') His Illnefs went on to an 
Inflammation in his Lungs ; from whence he 
grew fomewhat Aflbmatical ; but there was a 
Complication of other Scorbutic Affefls, which 
put him under many Symptoms of his approach- 
ing End. On the Eighteenth of November, he 
took in Courfe for his Text, the Four laft Ver- 
fes of the Second Epiftle to Timothy, giving 
this Reafon for his infilling on fo many Verfes 
at once, Becaufe elfe ( he laid ) I /ball net Live 
to make an End of this Epiftle ; but he chiefly 
infilled on thofe Words, Grace be with you all. 
Upon the Lord's Day following, he preached 
his laft Sermon on Joh. 1. 14. About that Glo- 
ry of the Lord Jefus Cbrift, from the Faith to 
the Sight whereof he was now flattening. Af- 
ter this in that Study, which had been Per- 
fumed with many fuch Days before, he now 
fpent a Day in Secret Humiliations and Suppli- 
cations, before the Lord ; feeking the Special 
Afliftances of the Holy Spirit, for the Great 
Work of Dying, that was now before him. 
What Glorious TranfaUions might one have 
heard patting between the Lord Jefus Chrift, 
and an Excellent Servant of his, now coming 
unto him, if he could have had an Hearing 
Place behind the Hangings of the Chamber, in 
fuch a Day ! But having finittied the Duties of 
the Day, he took his Leave of his Beloted Stu- 
dy, faying to his Confort, 7 fhall go into that 
Room no morel And he had all along Pre/ages in 
his Heart, that God would by his PrefentSick- 
nefs, give him an Entrance into the Everlajimg 
Kingdom of the Lord Jefus Cbrift. Wherefore, 
Setting his Houfe in Order, he was now fo far 
from unwilling to Receive the Mercy Stroke of 
Death, as that he was defirous to be with him, 
With whom to be, is by far the beft of all. And 
athough the chief Ground of his Readinefs to 
be gone, was from the unutterably Sweet and 
Rich Entertainments, which he did by Fore- 
laft, as well as by Promife, know that the 
Lord had referved in the Heavenly Regions for 
him, yet he fa id, it contributed unto this Rea- 
dinefs in him, when he confider'd the Saints, 
whofe Company and Communion he was go- 
ing unto ; particularly Perkins, Ames, Prefton, 
Hilderfiam, Dod, and others, which had been 
peculiarly Dear unto himfelf 5 befides the Reft, 
in that General AQembly. 

§ 25. While he thus lay fick, the Magiftrates, 
the Minifters of the Country, and Chriftians 
of all forts, reforted unto him, as unto a Pub- 
lick Father, full of fad Apprehenfioons, at the 
withdraw of fuch a Publick Blejfing; and the 
Gracious Words that proceeded out of his Mouth, 

while he had Strength to utter the profitable 
Conceptions of his Mind, caufed them to rec- 
kon thefe their Vifits the Gainfulefl that ever 
they had made. Among others, the then Pre- 
fident of the Colledge, with many Tears, de- 
fired of Mr. Cotton before his Departure, to be- 
llow his Blefiing on him •, faying, / know in ay- 
Heart, they whom you blefs Jhallbe bleffed. And 
not long before his Death, he fent for the El- 
ders of the Chutch, whereof he himfelf was al~ 
fo an Elder -, who having, according to the A- 
poftolical Direclion, pray'd over him, he ex- 
horted them to Feed the Block over which they 
were Overfeers, and encreafe their Watch againtt 
thofe Declenfions which he faw the Prcfcffors 
of Religion falling into : Adding, 1 have now 
through Grace, been more than Forty Tears a Ser- 
vant unto the Lord Jefus Chriji, and have ever 
found him a good Mafter. When his Collegue 
Mr. Wilfon, took his Leave of him with a Witt), 
that God would lift up the Light of his Coun- 
tenance upon him, he inllantly replied, God 
hath done it already, Brother < He then called 
for his Children, with whom he left the Gra- 
cious Covenant of God, as their never Failing 
Portion : And now defired, that he might be 
left Private the rett of his Minutes, for the 
more Freedom of his Applications unto the 
Lord. So lying Spcechle/s a few Hours, he 
breathed his Bletted Soul into the Hands of his 
Heavenly Lord ; on the Twenty third of De- 
cember 1652. entring on the Sixty Eighth Year 
of his own Age : And on the Day, yea at the 
Hour, of his conftant Weekly Labours in the 
Lefture, wherein he had been fo long fervice- 
able, even to all the Churches of A 'ew-England. 
Upon Tucfday the Twenty Eighth of December, 
be was mod Honourably Interred, with a moft 
numerous Concourfe of People, and the molt 
Grievous and Solemn Funeral that was ever 
known perhaps upon the American Strand -, and 
the Leftures in his Church, the whole Winter 
following, performed by the Neighbouring 
Minifters, were but fo many Funeral Sermons 
upon the Death and Worth of this Extraordi- 
nary Per/on: Among which, the Firft, I think, 
was preached by Mr. Richard Mather, who 
gave unto the bereaved, Church of Boft on this 
gteat Character of their Incomparable Cotton, 
Let us pray, that God would rd'ife tip fome Elea- 
zar tofucceed this Aaron : But you can hardly 
expetf, that fo large a Portion of the Spirit of 
God Jhould dwell in any one, as dwelt in this 
BleffedMan! And generally in the other Chur- 
ches through the Country, the Expiration of 
this General Blejfing to them all, did produce 
Funeral Sermons lull of Honour and Sorrow ; 
even as many Miles above an Hundred, as New-, 
haven was diftant from the Maflacbufet-Bay, 
when the Tidings of Mr. Cotton's Deceafe ar- 
rived there, Mr. Davenport with many Tears 
bewailed it, in a Publick Difcourfe on that in 
2 Sam. 1. 26. 1 am difireffed for thee, my Bro- 

ther Jonathan, very pleafant baft thou been un- 
to me. Yea, they /peak oj Mr. Cotton in their 

Lamentations to this Day 1 

§ 26, 

Book III ^he Hi/lory of New-England. 


It is a memorable Saying of A/gaze/, In quo 
Lumen Religion's & Devotion is, Fumus genera- 
tus ex Luniinc Scicntix non extinguit, ille per- 
Mm eft: Scd qui s eft hie 1 , ut adcremus eum? 
Reader 1 will Ihow thee fuch a Man^ One in 
whom the Light of Learning accompanied the 
Lire of Goodnefs, met in an High Degree: But 
thou WrAt Adore none but the Lord Jei'us Chrift, 
who made him fuch a Man. 

§ 16. How vaft a Treafure of Learning was 
laid in the Grave, which was opened on this 
Occafion, can fcarce Credibly and Sufficiently be 
related. Mr. Cotton was, indeed, a moft 17/?/'- 
verjal Scholar, and a Living Syjiem of the Li- 
beral Arts, and a Walking Library. It would 
be endlefs to recite all his particular Accom- 
plishments, but only Three Articles of Obfer- 
vation mail be offered. Firft, For his Gram 
mar, he had a very lingular Skill in thofe Three 
Languages, the Knowledge whereof was the 
Infcription on the Crcfs of our Saviour, pro- 
pofed unto the Perpetual Uje of his Church. 
The Hebrew he underftood fo exactly, and fo 
readily, that he was able to Difcourfe in it. In 
the Greek he was a Critick, fo Accurate and 
fo well Veried, that he need not, like Auftin, 
to have ftudied it in his Reduced Age. Thus, 
if many of the Ancients committed grofs Mi-, 
flakes in their Interpretations ot the Scriptures, 
through their want of Skill in the Originals, 
Mr. Cotton was better qualified for an Interpreter. 
He both wrote and fpoke Latin alfo with great 
Facility ; and with a moft Ciceronian Elegancy, 
Exemplified in one Published Compofure. Next, 
for his Logic, he was compleatly furnimed 
therewith to encounter the fubtilelt Adverfary 
ot the Truth. But although he had been Edu- 
ca.ei in the Peripatetick way, yet like the 
other Puritans of thofe times, he rather a ffe£F , 
ed the Ramtan Difcipline^ and chofe to follow 
the Methods of 'hat Excellent Ramus, who like 
Juilm of old, was not only a Philojopher, hilt 
a Cbriftian, and a Martyr alfo:, rather than the 
more Empty, Trifling, Altercative Notions, tb 
which the Works of the Pagan Ariftoile deri- 
ved unto us, through the Mangling Hands of 
the Apoftate Porpbyrie, have diipofed his Dif 
ciples. Laftly, for his Theologie, There 'twas 
that he had h\s Gren r A\ Extract- Jinarinefs, and 
molt of all, his Textual Divinity. His Abilities 
to Epound the Scriptures, cauf'ed him to be Ad 
mired by the Ablelt of his Hearers. Although 
his Incomparable Modefty would not permit 
him to fpeak any more than the Lcaft of Him- 
/elf, yet unto a private Friend he hath laid, 
Tb.:: be knew not of any Difficult Place in all 
the whole Bible, which be had not weighed, fomc 
what unto- Satis f:':lion. And hence, though he 
ordinarily bellowed much pains upon his Pub'- 
lick Sermons, yet he hath ibmetimes Preached 
moil Admirably, without any Warning at all-, 
and a New Note upon a Te::t before him, 00 
curring to his mind, but juft as he was going 
into the AiTemhly, has taken up his Difcourfe 
for that Hour, fo Pertinently and Judicioufly, 
that the moft Critical of his Auditors, imagined 

nothing Extemporaneous. Indeed his Library 
was vaft, and vaft was his Acquaintance with 
it -, but although amongft his Readings, he had 
given a Special Room unto the Lathers, and un- 
to the Schoolmen, yet at laft, he preferr'd one 
Calvin above them all. Pi Erajmus, when of- 
fered a Biflioprick to write againft Luther, 
could anfwer, There was more Divinity in a 
Page of Luther, than in all Thomas Aquinas-, 
'Tis no wonder that Salmaftm could fo Vene- 
rate Calvin, as to fay, That he had rather be 
the Author of that One Book, The Infiitution : 
written by Calvin, than have written all thai 
IjdOs ever done by Grotius. Even fuch a Calvi- 
nift was our Cotton ! Said he, / have read the 
Fathers and the Schoolmen, and Calvin too ; but 
I find, That be that has Calvin bas'em all. And 
being asked, why in his Latter Days he indulg- 
ed Notlumal Studies more than formerly, he 
pleafantly replied, Becaufe I love to fwecien my 
mouth with a piece of Calvin before I go to fleep. 
§ 27. Indeed in his Common Preaching , he did 
as Bajfil reports of Ephrem Syrus, Plunmum di- 
ftare a Mundana Sapient ia \ and though he were 
a Great Scholar, yet he did Confcientioufly for- 
bear making ro the Common People any Often- 
tation of it. He h3d the Art of concealing his 
Art; and thought with Sobniifr^ Non minus eft 
Virtus Populariter quam Argute Loqui, and 
Mr. Dod; That Latin for the moft part was 
Flefh in a Sermon. Accordingly, when he was 
Handling the Deepeft Subjetfs, a Speech of that 
Import was frequent with him, I deftre iv fpeak 
fo, as to be underftood by the meaneft Capacity ' 
And he would fometimes give the fame Realbn 
for it,- which the Great Auftin gave, If I Preach 
more Scholaftically, then only the Learned, end. 
not the Unlearned, can fo under ft and as to pro- 
jit by me -, but if I Preach plainly, then both 
Learned and Unlearned "will undcrftaiid me, and 
fo I fthill profit all. When a Golden Key of 
Oratory would not fo well open a Myftery of 
Chfiftianity, he made no ftick ro take an Iron 
One, that mould be lefs Rhetorical. You fhould 
bear few Terms of Art, few Latinities, no Exo- 
tic or Obfelete Phrafes, obfeuring of the Truths, 
which he was to bring tinto the People of God. 
Nevertheless his more Judicious and Obferving 
Hearers, could by his rribft Untrinid Sermons 
perceive that he was a man of more than Ordi- 
nary Abilities. Hence when a Dutchman of 
Great Learning, heard Mr. Cotton Preach at Bo- 
(ton, in England, he profeffed, That be never 
in bis Life Jaw fuch a Conjunction of Learning 
and Plamnefs, as there was in the Preaching of 
this worthy Alan. The Glory of God, and not 
his own Glory, was that at which he aimed in 
his Labours -, for which caufe, at the end of 
his Notes, he ftill inferted that Claufe, Tibi 
Domine : Or, For thy Glory, God'. For his 
Delivery, though it were not like Farels, Noify 
and Thundring, yet it had in it a very awful 
Majefty, fet off with a Natural and Becoming 
Motion of his Right Hand; and the Lord v; - 
in the Still Voice at fuch a Rate, that Mr. If// 
Jon would fay, Mr. Cotton Preaches with fuch 
D d d ?. Aitihoriti 


The Hijlory of New- England. Bouk III, 

Authority, Demon ft rat ion, and Life, that me- 
thinks, when he preaches out of. any Prophet, or 
Apoftle, I he j?- not him ; I hear that very Prophet 
and Apoftle ; yea, I hear the Lord J ejus Chrifi 
himfelf fpeaking in my Heart. And the Succefs 
which God gave to thefe plain Labours of his 
faithful, humble, diligent Servant, was beyond 
what moft Minifters in the Country ever did 
experience : There have been few that have 
feen fo many and mighty EifeQs, given to the 
Travels of their Souls. 

§ 28. He was even from his Youth to his Age, 
an indefatigable Student, under the Confidence 
of the Apoftolical Precept, Be not flothful in 
Bujinefs, 'but fervent in Spirit ferSw-g the Lord. 
He was carejul to redeem his Hours, as well as 
his Days ; and might lay claim to that Chara 
£ter of the blelTed Martyr, Sparing of Sleep, 
more /paring of Words, but moft J paring of Time. 
If any came to Vifit him, he would be very Ci- 
vil to 'em, having learn'd it as his Duty, To ufe 
all Gentlenefs towards all Men : And yet he 
would often fay with fome regret, after the de- 
parture of a Vifitant, 1 hadraihcr have given 
this Man an handful of Money, than have been 
kept thus long out of my Study : Reckoning with 
Pliny, the Time not ipent in Study, for the moft 
pan, yaw/V away. For which caufe he went 
not much abroad ■, but he judged ordinarily that 
more Benefit was obtain'd, according to the Ad- 
vice of the Wife King, by converting with the 
Dead [ in Books ], than with the Living [in 
Talks ;-] And that needlefs Vifits do commonly 
unframe our Spirits, and perhaps difturb our 
Comforts. He was an early Rifer, taking the 
Morning for the Mufes ; and in his latter Days 
forbearing a Supper, he turn'd his former Sup 
ping time, into a Reading, a Thinking,a Praying- 
time. Twelve Hours in a Day he commonly 
ltudied, and would call that a Scholar's Day -, 
refolving rather to wear out with Ufing, than 
with Rutting. In truth, had he not been of an 
healthy and hearty Conftitution, and had he 
not made a careful, tho' not curious Diet lerve 
him, inftead of an Hippocrates, his continued 
Labour muft have made his Life, as well as his 
Labour, to have been but of a fhort continuance. 
And, indeed, the Work which lay upon him, 
could not have been performed, without a La 
hour more than ordinary. For befides his con- 
ftant Preaching, more than once every Week, 
many Cafes were brought unto him far and 
near, in refolving whereof, as he took much 
time, fo he did much good, being a moft excel- 
lent Cafuift. He was likewife very deeply con- 
cerned in peaceable and effectual Difquilitions 
of the Controverfies about Church-Government, 
then agitated in the Chutch of God. And tho' 
he chiefly gavehimielf to Reading,and Dottrine, 
and Exhortation, depending much on the Ruling 
Elders to inform him, concerning the State of 
his particular Flock, that he might the better 
order himfelf in the Word and Prayer, yet he 
found his Church-Work, in this regard alfo, to 
call for no little Painfulnefs, Watchfulnets, and 

§ 29. He was one fo clothed with Humility, 
that according to the Emphafis of the Apoftoli- 
cal Direction, by this Livery his Relation as a 
Dijciple to the lowly Jcjus , was notably difco- 
vered ; and hence he was patient and peaceable, 
even to a Proverb. He had a more than com- 
mon Excellency in that cool Spirit, which the 
Oracles of Wifdom defcribe, as the excellent 
Spirit in the Man ofXJnderftanding -, and there- 
fore Mr.Xorton would parallel hi n, with Mofes 
among the Patriarchs, with MclanShon among 
the Reformers. He was rather excefli ve tha n de- 
fective in Self-denial, and had the Nimia Humi- 
lity, which Luther fometimes blamed in Stau- 
picius : Yea, he was at laft himfelf fenfible. 
that feme fell very deep into the Sin of Corah, 
through his extreme forbearance, in matters re 
lating to his own juft Rights in the Church of 
God. He has, to a Judicious Friend, thus ex- 
prefled himfelf. Angry Men have an advantage 
above me ; the People dare not jet thcmjelves a- 
gainft fuch Men, becaufe they know it wont be 
bom ; but fome care not what they fay or do about 
me, becaufe they know I -wont be angry with them- 
again. One would have thought the Ingenuity 
of fuch a Spirit fhould have broke the Hearts 
of Men, that had indeed the Hearts of Men in 
them -, yea, that the hardeft Hints would have 
been broken, as is ufual, upon fuch a foft Bag 
of Cotton ! But alas ! he found it otherwife, e- 
ven among fome who pretended unto high At- 
tainments in Chriftianity. Once particularly, 
an humorous and imperious Brother, following 
Mr. Cot/on home to hisHoufe, after his Publick 
Labours, inftead of the grateful RefpecFs with 
which thote Holy Labours were to have been 
encouraged, rudely told him, That his Miniftry 
was become generally, either dark, or flat: 
Whereto this meek Man, very mildly and 
gravely, made only this Anfwer : Both, Brother, 
it may be, both : Let me have your Prayers that 
it may be otherwife. But it is remarkable, that 
the [Mxn lick thus of wanton Singularities, 
afterwards died of thofe damnable Herefies, for 
which he was defervedly Excommunicated. A- 
nother time, when Mr. Cotton had modeftly re- 
plied unto one that would much Talk and Crack 
of his Infight into the Revelations : Brother, I 
muft confefs my J elf to want Light in thofe My- 
fteries. The Man went home, and fent him a 
Pound of Candles : Upon which A£t ion this 
good Man beftowed only a filent Smile. He 
would not fet the Beacon of his Great Soul on 
fire, at the landing of fuch a little Cock-boat. 
He learned the LelTon of Gregory, It is better, 
many times, to fly from an Injury by Silence, than 
to overcome it by Replying : And be ufed that 
Practice of Grymei/s, To Revenge Wrongs by 
Chriftian Taciturnity. 

I think, I may not omit, on this occafion, to 
tranferibe a remarkable paiTage, which that 
good Man, Mr. Flavel, reports, in a Sermon on 
Gifpel-Vnity. His Words are thefe : 

1 A Company of vain wicked Men, having 
c inflamed their Blood in a Tavern at Befioi^ 
' and feeing that Reverend, Meek, and Holy 

' Mini- 

Book III. The Hiftory of New-England. 


< Minifter of Chrift, Mr. Cotton, coming along 
« the Street, one of* them tells his Companion, 
' Til go, (faith he) and put a Trick upon Old 

* Cotton. Down he goes, and crofting his way, 

* whifpers thefe Words into his Ear, Cotton ({M 
' hej thou art an old fool. Mr. Cotton replied, 
' I confejs I amfo : The Lord make both me and 

* thee wifer than we arc, even wife unto Salva- 
' thn. He relates this palTage to his wicked 
f Companions, which calt a great Damp upon 
' their Sports, in the midft of a Frolick. 

And it may pafs for a Branch of the fame 
Temper in him, that he extremely hated all 
Allot rio-Epifcopacy : And tho' he knew as pra- 
ctically as moll Men in the World, That we 
have a Call to do good, as often as we have Tower 
and Occafwn 5 yet he was How of apprehending 
any Occaiion at all, tho' he might have had ne- 
ver fo much Power to meddle for Good, any 
where, but within the Sphere of his own proper 
Calling. As he underftood that Lamtius bla- 
med Conftantihe, for interpofing too far in Ec- 
clefiafiical Affairs, thus Mr. Cotton, on the other 
fide, had a great Averfion from engaging in any 
Civil ones. He would Religioully decline ta- 
king into his Cognifance all Civil Controverfies, 
or Umpirages, and whatever looked heteroge 
neous to the Calling of one, whofe whole Bufi- 
nefs 'twas to feed the Flock of God. Never 
thelefs, in the Things of God, of Chrift, of 
Confcience, his condefcending Temper did not 
hinder him from the moft immovable Refolution. 
He would not fo follow Peace with all Men, as 
to abandon or prejudice, one Jot, the Interefts 
of Holme fs. 

§ 30. His Command over his own Spirit, was 
particularly obfervable in his Government of his 
Family, where he would never correct any thing 
in a Palfion ; but firft, with much deliberation 
fhew what Rule in the Holy Word of God, had 
be^n violated, by the Fault lately committed. 
He was indeed one that ruled well Ins own Houfe. 
He therein Morning and Evening read a Cha- 
pter, with a little Applicatory Expofition, be- 
fore and after which he made a Prayer ^ but he 
was very fhort in all, accounting as Mr. Dod, 
Mr. Bains, and other great Saints did before 
him, That it was a thing inconvenient many ways 
to be tedious in Family Duties. He alforead con- 
stantly a Portion of the Scripture alone, and he 
prayed over what he read : Pray'd I fay -, for 
he was very much in Prayer, a very Man of 
Prayer ; he would rarely fit down to ltudy, 
without a Prayer over ir, referring to the Pre- 
fence of God accompanying what he did. It 
was the Advice of the Ancient, Si vis effe Sem- 

'twas from his Reafon and Practice, that the 
Chriitians of New- England have generally done 
fo too. When that Evening arriv'd, he was 
ufually larger in his Expofition in his Family, 
than at other times : He then Catechifed his 
Children and Servants, and prayed with them, 
and fang a Pfalm ; from thence he retired unto 
Study and fecret Prayer, till the time of his go- 
ing unto his Repofe. The next Morning, after 
his ufual Family Worfhip, he betook himfelf to 
the Devotions of his Retirements, and fo unto 
the Publick. From thence towards Noon, he 
repaired again to the like Devotions, not per- 
mitting the Interruption of any other Dinner, 
than that of a fmall Repair carried up unto him 
Then to the Publick, once more : From whence 
returning, his firft Work was Clofet Prayer, then 
Prayer with Repetitions of the Sermons in the 
Family. After Supper he ftill fang a Pfalm ; 
which he would conclude with uplifted Eyes 
and Hands, uttering this Doxology, — 
God in Chrift our Saviour ! Laft of all, juft be- 
fore his going to Sleep, he would once again go 
into his Prayerful Study, and there briefly re- 
commended all to that God, whom he Jerved 
with a pure Confcience. 

But there was one point of Sabbath- keeping, 
about which it may not be unuleful forme to 
transcribe a paflage, which I find him writing 
to Mr. N. Rogers, in the Year 1630. 

c Studying for a Sermon upon the Sabbath- day, 
c fo far as it might be any wearifome Labour 
' to Invention or Memory, I covet (when I can) 
' willingly to prevent it ; and would rather at- 
' tend unto the quickning of my Heart and Af- 
' feSions, in the Meditation of what I am to 
' deliver. My Reafon is, much Reading and 
' Invention, and Repetition of things, to com- 
c mit them to Memory, is a wearinefs to the 
; Flefh and Spirit too ; whereas the Sabbath day 
'■ doth rather invite unto an holy Reft. Butyet 
; if God's Providence have ftraitned my time in 
c the Week-days before, by concurrence of other 
' Bufinefs, not to be avoided, I doubt not, but 
c the Lord, who allowed the Priefts to employ 
c their Labour, in killing the Sacrifices on the 
' Sabbath-day, will allow us alfo to labour in 
' our Callings on the Sabbath, to prepare our 
' Sacrifice for the People. 

Thefe were his ordinary Sabbaths : But he alfo 
kept extraordinary ones, upon the juft cceafions 
for them. He was in Fafiing often, and would 
often keep whole Days by himfeif wherein he 
would with iblemn Humiliations and Supplica- 
tions, implore the wanted Mercies of Heaven -, 
yea, he would likewife by himfelf, keep whole 

per cum Deo, Semper Ora, Semper Lege : And Days of Thanksgiving unto the Lord: Befides the 

agreeably hereunto, Mr. Cotton might fay with 
David, Lord, I am (till with thee. But he that 
was with God all the Week,was more intimate- 
ly with him on his own Day, the chief Day of 
the Week, which he obferved moft Coni'cienti- 
oufly. The Sabbath he began the Evening be- 
fore : For which keeping of the Sabbath from 

Evening to Evening, 

his coming to 

he w r rote Arguments before 

New- England 

And I fuppofe. 


many Days of this kind, which he celebrated in 
Publick Aifemblieswifh the People of God.Th//s 
did this Alan of God continually. 

§ 31. Without Liberality and Hofpiuility, he 
had been really as undeferving of the Character 
of a Minifler of the Go/pel, as the Sacrilegious 
Niggardlinefs of the People, does often endea- 
vour to make Minifters uncapable rA anfwerin^ 
that Character. But Mr. Wetion was moft bk s 


28 The Hiftory of New-England. Book III. 

emplary for this Venue :, wherein there are of 
his Children, that have alio learned of him. 
The Stranger and the Needy were fiill enter- 
tained at his Table, Epi/copal'iter iy Benigne, as 
was the Phrafe inftrudively ufed, for a charita 

nance. He was rather low than tall, and rather 
fat than lean, but of a becoming Mediocrity. 
In his younger Years his Hair was brown, but 
in his latter Years as whire as the Driven Snow, 
In his Countenance there was an inexpreffible 

ble Entertainment ol" old. It might be faid of fort of Majelty., which commanded Reverence 

him, as once it was of the Generous Corinthian, 
Semper aliquis in Cottoni Domo : He was ever 
fhewing of Kindnefs to Some-body or other. 
What Pofidonius relates of Aufiin, and what 
Peter Martyr affirms of Bucer, was very true 
ol our Cotton : His Houfe wo* like an lnn,for the 
conftant Entertainment which he gave upon the 
Account of the Go/pel And he would fay, If 
a Man want an Heart for this Charity, it is not 
fit fitch a Man fhould be ordained a Minifier : 
Confenting therein to the great Canonift, Ho- 
fpitalitai ufquc adeo Epifcopis eft neceffana, utfi 
ab ea inveniantur alicni, Jure prohibentur Ordi- 
nari. While he lived quietly in England, he 
was noted for his bountiful Difpofition, efpeci- 
ally to Mitrifters driven into England by the 
Storms of Periecution, then raging in Germany : 
For which caufe Libingus, Saumer, Tolnci\ and 

from all that approached him : This Cotton was 
indeed the Cato of his Age, for his Gravity; but 
had a Glory with it which Cato had not. I can- 
not indeed, fay, what they Report of Hilary, 
that Serpents were not able to look upon him • 
neverthelefs, it was commonly obferved, that 
the worfer lbrt of Serpents, would from the Awe 
of his Prefence keep in their Poifons. As the 
Keeper of the Inn, where he did ufe to lodge, 
when he came to Derby, would profanely lay 
to his Companions, That he wilhed Mr. Cotton 
were gone out of his Houfe ; for he was not able 
to Swear, while that Man war under his Roof. 
So other wicked Perfons could not fhew their 
Wickednefs, whilff this holy and righteous Man 
was in the Company. But the exacfer Picfure 
of him, is to be taken from his Printed Works, 
whereof there are many, that praife him in the 

others of the German Sufferers, in their Accounts [Gates, tho' few of them were Printed with his 

own Knowledge or Confent. 

We will mention a Catalogue of his Works, 
becaufe (as it was faid of 'Calvin's), 

of him, would (tile him, Tauter Doflijfimus, Cla- 
riifwu/s, Yidclijjimi/s, plurimumquc Honor anius. 
It was remarkable, that he never omitted invi- 
ting unto his Houie, any Minifter travelling to, 
or through the Town, but only that one Man, 
who perfidioufly betray'd Mr. Hilderfham, with 
his NonConformift AfTociates, into the Hands of 
their Enemies. And after he came to Neic- 
England, he changed not his Mind with his 
Air ; but with a Quantum ex ^iiantillo ! conti- 
nued his Beneficence upon all occafions, tho' his 
Abilities for it were much dimintfhed -, which 
brings to mind a moft memorable Story. A lit- 
tle Church, whereof the worthy Mr. White was 
Pallor, being by the ftrange and ftrong Malice 
of their prevailing Adverfaries, forced of Bar- 
mudji in much Mifery, into a Defart of Ame- 
rica, the Report of their Diftreffes came to their 
Fellow Sufferers,tho' not alike Sufferers, at New 1 
England.Mr.Cot ton immediately applied himfelf 
to obtain a Collection, for the Relief of thofe 
diflrejfed Saints ; and a Collecfion of about 700 /. 
was immediately obtained, whereof Two hun- 
dred was gathered in that one Church ofBofton, 
where there was no Man who did exceed, and 
but one Man who did equal, this Devifer of 
Liberal Things, in that Contribution. But be- 
hold the wonderful Providence of God ! This 
Contribution arrived unto the poor People on the 
very Day, after they had been brought unto a 
Perfonal Divifion of the little Meal then left in 
the Barrel -, upon the fpending whereof, they 
eould forelee nothing but a lingring Death ■, 
and on that very Day, when their Paftor had 
preach'd unto them , upon that mod: luirable- 
Text, PJiil. 23. 1. The Lord is my Shepherd, I 
find I , not want. 

^> 32. The Reader that is inquifitive after the 
Profopography of this Great Man, may be in- 
formed, that he was of a Clear, Fair, Sanguine 
Complexion, and like David oi & ruddy Count c- 

Chara quibus fuerat Cottoni Vita, labor urn 
Gratior cjufdem Vita perennis erit. 

The Children of New-England are to this day 
moft ufually fed with his excellent Catechifm^ 
which is entituled, Milk for Babes. 

His well-known Sermons on the Firft Epiftle 
of John, in Folio, have had their Acceptance 
with the Church of God 5 tho' being preached 
in his Youth, and not publifhed by himfelf, 
there are fome things therein, which he would 
not have inferted. 

There are alfo of his abroad, Sermons on the 
Thirteenth of the Revelations, and on the Vials, 
and on Rev. 20. 5, 6. and 2 Sam. 7. laft in 

As alfo, a Savory Treatife, entituled, The 
Way of Life. The Reverend Prefacer whereto 
faith, Ever fmce I had any knowledge of this ju- 
dicious Author, I have look'd upon him at one 
intruded with an great^a part of the Churches 
Treafure, as any other whatjoever. 

Several Volumes of his Expofitions upon Ec- 
clefiafies and Canticles, are alfo publilhed in 

As likewife, A Treatife of the New Covenant : 
Which being only a Poffhumom Piece, and only 
Notes written after him, is accordingly to be 
judged of. 

And there have feen the Light, An Anfvver 
to Mr. Ball, about Forms of Prayer. A Dif- 
courfe about the Grounds and Ends of Infant- 
Baptifm. A Difourfe about Singing of Pf alms, 
proving it a Gofpel-Ordinance. An Ahfiratlof 
Laws in Chrift s Kingdom, for Civil Govern, 
menr. A Trea tife about the "Bolinefs of CfiurSl 
Members , proving tint vifi&Ie Saints are the 


Book Hi. The Hijhry of New-England 


matter of a Church. Another Difcourfe upon 
Things indifferent, proving that no Church Go- 
vernors have Power to impofe indifferent 
Things, upon the Confciences of Men. Add 
hereto, The Way of the Churches in New,- 
England : And that Golden Difcourfe of The 
Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven : In a written 
Copy whereof, yet in our Hands, there were 
fome things which were never Printed, main- 
taining, that in the Government of the Church, 
Authority is peculiar to the Elder's only ; and 
anfwering all the Browniflical Arguments to the 
contrary. But whereas there may occur a paf- 
fage in his Book of The Way of the Churches, 
which may have in it a little more of the Mo- 
relffanlzvfci Reader, 'twas none of Mx.Cot ton's ; 
Mr. Cotton was troubled when he law fuch a 
paffage, in an imperfeft Copy of his Writings, 
expoled unto the World, under his Name, a 
gainlt his Will : And he took an opportunity, in 
the mod publick manner, to declare as much 
unto the World. 

He was alio fometimes put upon writing yet 
more Polemically. Indeed there was one occa- 
sion of lb writing, which he declined meddling 
withal 5 and that was this : Mr. Cotton having 
in his younger Years, written to a private Friend 
fome things, tending fat his defire) to clear the 
Doftrine of Reprobates, from the Exceptions of 
the Arminians ; and this Manufcript falling in- 
to Dr. Twifs's hand, that learned Man publifh'd 
it, with his own Confutation of certain pailages 
in it, which did not agree fo well with the Do- 
ctor's own Supralapfarian Scheme. Now when! 
Mr. Cotton faw himfelf reviled for this Caufe 
by Baily, as being Pelagian, he only made this 
meek Reply : I hope God will give me Opportu- 
nity e'er long to confider of this, the Doffor's La 
hour of Love. I blefs the Lord, who has taught 
me to be willing to be taught, of a far meaner 
Dijciple, than fuch a Doff or, whofe Scholafiical 
Acute nefs, Pregnancy of Wit, Solidity of Judg- 
ment, and Dexterity of Argument, all Orthodox 
Divines do highly honour, and whom all Armini- 
ans (///t/Jefuites do fall down before, with Silence. 
God forbid I fhould fhut my Eyes againfl any 
Light brought to me by him. Only I defire I may 
not be condemned as a Pelagian, or Arminian, 
before I be heard. 

Moreover, Mr. Cawdry fell hard upon him ; 
to whom he prepared an Anfwer, which was 
afterwards Publifhed ana* Seconded by Dx.Owen. 
But befides thefe, he was twice compelled unto 
fome other Eriftical Writings : Once in Anfwer 
to Baily ■, another time in Anfwer to Williams : 
In both of which, like Job, he turned the Books 
which hk Adverfaries had written againfl him, 
into a Crown. I believe, never any meer Man, 
under fuch open and horrid Injuries, as thefe 
two Reporters heaped upon Mr. Cotton, did An- 
fwer with more Chriflian Patience: HisAnfwers 
are indeed a Pattern for all Anfwerers to the 
World's end. But it was particularly remarka- 
ble, that in this matter, certain Perfons, who 
had fallen under the Cenfures of the Civil Au- 
thority in the Country, fingled out Mr, Cotton 

for the Object, of their Difpleafure, altho' he 
had, moft of all Men, declined Interesting him- 
felf in the A&ions of the Magistrate, and had 
alfo done more than all Men, to obtain Healing 
and Favour for thole ungrateful Delinquents. 
However, the venemous Tongues all this while, 
only lick'd a Pile , which made themftlves to 
bleed ; his Fame, like the File, remained invul- 
nerable •, and if Mr. Cotton would from his own 
profitable Experience, have added another Book 
unto this Catalogue, it might have been on the 
Subject handled by Plutarch, De Capienda ex 
Hoftibus Utilitate. This is the Elenchi/s of Mr. 
Cotton's publifhed Writings ■ whereupon 
might make this Conclufion. 


Digna Legi Scribk, Pack C Dignijfima Scribi • 
Script a probant Dotlum, 1 e, Tua, Falta, pro- 

\ 33. The things which have been related, 
caufe us to account Mr. Cotton an extraordinary 

Dives era* Donk, ctiamque Fidelis in Ufu, 

Literal 'i/s Domino mult a Talent a tuo. 
Mult us erarStudtis, multufq-, Laboribus, uno 

Te, For a, Tempi a, Domus, TV, cupiere frui. 
Mult a Laboraba* Scribcndo, Mult a Docendo, 

Invigilans Operi, Notle Dieque, Dei. 
Mult a Laborabas Scribcndo, Mult a Ferendo, 

§>ii<e nifi Cottono, vix Subeunda forent. 
Tu non unus eras, fed Mult 2 ; Mult us in Uno, 

Multorum Donis prxditus Unus eras. 
Uno Te amiffb, Multos Amifimus in Te, 

Sedneque per Multos Refit uendus erk. 

Thefe were fome of the Lines, which the 
Renowned Bulkly juflly wept upon his Grave. 
Yea, we may, on as many Accounts as thefe 
Days will allow, reckon him to have been a 
Prophet of the Lord : And when we have enter - 
tain'd our felves with a Memorable Demonstra- 
tion of it, in one furprifing and fiupendious Ar- 
ticle of our Church Hijhry, we will put a Period 
unto this part oik. 

At the time when fome unhappy Perfons were 
juft going from hence to England, with certain 
Petitions, which had a tendency to dilfurb the 
good Order of Things in both Church and State, 
then fettling among us, Mr. Cotton in the ordi- 
nary Courle of his Lectures on the Canticles, 
preached on Cant. 2.15. Take us the Foxes, the 
little Foxes, which deftroy the Vines. Having 
thence oblerved, That when God has delivered 
his Church from the Dangers of the perfecuting 
Bear and Lyon, then there were Foxes that would 



by Policy to undermine it : And, That all 
thofe who go by a Fox like Policy to undermine the 
Churches of the Lord Jefus Chrifl, fliallbe taken 
and overtaken by his Judgments. He came at 
length to his Application, where with a more 
than ordinary Majefty and Fervency, he after 
this manner expreiTed himfelf 

' Firlf, Let fuch as live in this Country take 
' heed, how they go about in any indirect Way 

' or 


The Hi/lory of New-England. Book III. 

or Courfe to prejudice the Churches of the 
Lord Jefus Ghrift in the Land, or the Govern- 
ment of the Land. If you Do, The Keeper 
of Ifrael, who neither /lumber cth nor fleepeth, 
will not take it well at your Hands. He that 
brought this People hither, and preferved them 
from the Rage of Perfection, and made this 
Wildernefs an Hiding-Place for them, whillt 
he was Chaftiling our Nation, with the other 
Nations round about it, and has manifefted 
his Gracious Prefence in the mid ft of thefe 
His Golden Candlcficks, and fecured us from 
the Plots of the late Archbifhop, and his Con- 
federates abroad, and from the Plots of the 
Ueathen here at home ; there is no Queftion 
But He will defend us from the Undermi- 
nings of Falfe Brethren, and iuch as are join- 
ed with them. Wherefore let fuch know, 
That this is, in many refpeefs, ImmanuePs 
Land, and they (hall not profper that rife up 
againft it, but (hall be Taken every One of 
them in the Snares they lay for ir. This I 
(peak as a Poor Prophet of the Lord, accor- 
ding to the Word of His Grace now before us! 
Rut in the Second Place, whereas many of 
our Brethren are going to England, Let me 
direct a Word unto Them alio. I defire the 
Gracious Prefence of our God may go with 
you, and his Angels guard you, not onlyfrpm 
the Dangers of the Seas, while you are there. 
upon, but alfo from the Errors of the Times, 
when you arrive. Nevertheless, if there be 
any among you, my Brethren, as 'tis Reported 
there are, that have a Petition to prefer unto 
the High Court of Parliament, that may con- 
duce to the Diffraction and Annoyance of the 
Peace of our Churches, and the vveakning the 
Government of the Land where we Live, Let 
Such know, the Lord will never fuffer them 
to profper in their Subtil, Malicious, Defpe- 
rate Undertakings againft his People, who 
are as tender unto him as the Apple of his 
Eye. But if there be any fuch among You, 
who are to Go, I do exhort you, and I would 
advife you in the Fear of God, that when the 
Terrors of the Almighty (hall befet the Veffel 
wherein you are, when the Heavens (hall 
frown upon you, and the Billows of the Sea 
(hall fwell above you, and the Dangers of 
Deal]) (hall threaten you, as I am verily per- 
fwaded they will, I would have you then to 
Con ftder your Ways. I will not give the 
Counf'el that was taken concerning Joneis, to 
caft fuch*a Perfbn into the Sea ; God forbid ! 
But I counfel fuch to come then unto a Refo- 
lution in themfelves to Be/if} from their En. 
terpriles, and Caft their Petitions into the Sea. 
It may be, that Hardnefs of Heart and Stout- 
nefs of Spirit may eaufe you to perflit, and 
yet in Mercy to fome Gracious Perfons among 
you, the Lord may deliver the Ship from Ut- 
ter Deft riSion for tlieir lake;. But the Lord 
hath further Judgments in Store : He is the 
God of the Land, as well as of the Sea. I 

the I 




u an tin, 



Thefe Things were then uttered by a Perfon 
that was as little of an Enthufiafi, as moft Men 
in the World. Now attend the Event ! 

That Ship, after many StrelTes of Weather 
in the Harbour, puts out to Sea •, but at Sea it 
had the Terriblelf Paffagc, perhaps, that ever 
was heard of ; The Mariners not being able to 
take any Obfervation of either Sun or Star, for 
Seven Hundred Leagues together. Certain well 
difpofed Perfons aboard, now calling to Mind 
the Words of Mr. Cotton, thought it neceflary 
to admonifh the Perfons, who were carrying 
over the Malignant Papers againft the Country -, 
and fome of thole Papers were by them there- 
upon given to the Seamen, who immediately 
cut them in pieces and threw them over board. 
The Storm forthwith abated ; however there 
afterwards came up New Storms, which at laft 
hurried the Ship among the Rocks of Stilly- 
where they yet received a Deliverance, which 
moft of them that confidefdir, pronounced Mi- 
raculous. When the Rude Cornifh Men law 
how Miraculoufly the Veflcl had efcaped, they 
faid, Cud itai aGood Man tofavc them fol But 
the- moft Inftructed Obliged PafTcngers kept a 
Day of Solemn Thankfgiving to God ; in which 
even the Profaneft Perfons on Board, under the 
Impreflion of what had happened, then bore a 
part. However, the Corn-fields in New-Eng- 
land, (fill (food Undifturbed, notwithftanding 
the Various Names affixed unto the Tailes of 
Petitions againft their Liberties. For, as Mr. 
Cotton elegantly exprefled it, God then Rocque'd 
Three Nations, with fluking Difpenfations, that 
he might procure fome Reft unto his People in 
this Wildernefs ! 

§ 34. This was Mr. Cotton ! What more he 
was, let thefe Lines, taking no Licenfe but 
from the Real Truth J Delineate. 

Upon the Tomb of the moft Reverend Air. John 
Cotton, late Teacher of the Church of Bofton 
in New-England. 

HERE lies Magnanimsus Humility • 
Majefty, Meeknefs; Chriftian Apathy 
On foft Affellwns; Liberty in Thrall; 

A Noble Spirit, Servant unto All ; 
Learnings Great Maftcrpiecc, who yet would fit 

As a Difciple, at his Scholars Feet ; 
A Simple Serpent, or Serpentine Dove, 

Made up of Wifdom, Innocence and Love : 
Neatnefs Embroider'd with It fe/f alone, 

And Civils Canonised in a Gown; 
Embracing Old and Young, and Low and High, 

Ethics Imbodyed in Divinity-, 
Ambitious to be Loweft, and to Raife 

His Brethrer.s Honour on his own Decays ; 
(Thus doth the Sun retire into his Bed, 
That being gone the Stars may (hew their head) 
Could Wound at Argument without Divi/ion, 

Cut to the Quick, and yet make no Incfion : 
Ready to Sacrifice Domqf/n k Notions 

To Churches Peace, and Miniftets Devotions.: 
Himfelf indeed fand Singular in Thai. 1 

Whom All Admired he Admired not: 


Book ill. The Hiftory of iNew- England. 


Liv'd Like an Angela? a. Mortal Birth, 

Converse in Heaven while he was on Earth 
Though not, as Mofes, Radiant with Light 

Whofe Glory Dazell'd the Beholders Sight, 
Yet lb Divinely Beautiri'd, yould Count 

He had been Born and Bred upon the Mount : 
A Living Brejthingfi/'W?; Tables where 

Both Covenants, at Large, engraven were ; 
Go/pel And Law, in's Heart, had Each its Column ; 

His Head an Index to the Sacred Volume ; 
His very Name a Title-Page -, and next, 

His Life ^Commentary on the Text. 
O, What a Monument of Glorious Worth, 
When, in a New Edition, he comes forth, 
Without Errata s, may we think he'l be 

In Leaves and Covers of Eternity ! 
A Man of Might, at Heavenly Eloquence, 

To Fix the Ear, and Charm the Confcience ; 
As if Apollos were Reviv'd in Him, 

Or lie had Learned of a Seraphim : 
Spake Man/Tongues in One : One Voice and Senfe 
Wrought, Joy and Sorrow, Fear and Confidence :■ 
RocksRmt before him,B//WReceiv'd their Sight; 
Souls Levelled to the Dunghill, flood Upright: 
Infernal Furies, Burlt with Rage to fee 
Their Prifoners Captivd into Liberty : 
A 5"/^/- that, in our Eaftern England, Roft, 

Thence hurry 'd by the Blaft of Stupid Foes, 
Whofe Foggy Dark'irfs, and Benummed Senfes, 

Brookt not his Daz ling Fervent Influences : 
Thus did he move on Earth, from Eafl to Weft ; 
There he went down, and up to Heaven for Reft. 
Nor from himfelf, whillt Living, doth he vary, 

His Death hath made him an Ubiquitary : 
Where is his Sepulchre is Hard to fay, 

Who, in a ThouJ and Sepulchres , doth lay 
(Their Hearts,l mean,whom he hath Left Behind, 

In Them) his Sacred Reliques,now, Enfhrin'd. 
But Let his Mourning Flock be Comforted, 

Though Mofes be, yet Jojhua is not Dead : 
I mean Renowned Norton -, worthy he, 

Succeflbr to our Mofes, is to be. 
O Happy Ifrael in America, 
In fuch a Mofes, fuch a Jojbua. 

B. Woodbridge. 

§. 3 5. Three Sons, and Three Daughters, was 
this Renowned Walker with God BlelTed withal. 

His Eldeft Son did fpend and end his Days in 
the Miniftry of the Gofpel, at Hampton :■ Being 
leftumed a thorough Scholar, and an able Prea- 
cher , and though his Name were Seaborn, yet 
none of the lately Revived Herefies were more 
Abominable to him, than .that of his Name- 
fake, Pelagius [or, Morgan] of whom the Wit- 
nefs of the Ancient Poet is true, 

Peftifero Vomuit coluber Sermone Britannus. 

H\s Second Sen was a Minifter of the Gofpel, 
at Plymouth ■, and one by whom, not only the 
Englijh, but alfo the Indians of America, had 
the Glad Tidings of Salvation, in their own 
Language carried unto them. 

Of his Two Younger Daughters, the firft was 
Married unto a Merchant of Good Falhion, 
whofe Name was Mr. Egginton ; bur fhe did 
not long iurvive the Birth of" her firft Child, as 
that Child alfo did not iurvive many Years af- 
terithe Death of her Mother. The next is at this 
time Living, the Conibrt of one well known in 
both En glands, 'namely, Increafe Mather, the 
Pfefident of harvard Colkdge, and the Teacher 
of a Church In Boftoh. 

The Ybangeft oi his Sons, called Roland, and 
rhe Elded of his Daughters, called Skrai, both 
of them died near together : of x.heSma/7 Pox, 
which was raging among rhe Inhabitants of 
Bofton, in the Winter of the Yean 640. The 
Death of thole two Lovely Children, required 
the Faith of an Abraham, in the Heart ot their 
Gracious Father -, who indeed moft exemplarilv 
Exprejfed what was required. On this Occafion, 
I fir..!, that on a fpare Leaf of his Almanack, 
he wrote in Greek Letters theft Englijh Verfes; 

In S 


Farewel,dear Daughter Saf'q, Now Thoifrt gone, 
(Whither thou much defiredil) to thine Home: 
Pray, my Dear Father, Let me iiova go Home ! 
Were the laft Words thou ipak'lt. to me alone. 
Go then, fweet Sara, take thy Sabbeth Reft, 
With thy Great Lord, and all in Heaven Bieif- 

In Rolandnm. 

Our Eldeft Daughter, and our Youngeft Son, 
Within Nine Days, both have their full Race run, 
On th' Twentieth of th" Eleventh, Died She, 
And on the Twenty Ninth Day Died He. 
Both in theit Lives were Lovely and United, 
And in their Deaths they were not much Divided. 
Chrift gave them Both, and He takes both again 
To live with Him ; Bleft be His Holy Name. 

In Utrumque, 

Suffer, Saith Chrift, Jour Little Ones, 

To Come forth, Me unto, 
For of fuch Ones my Kingdom is, 

Of Grace and Glory too. 
We do not only Suffer them, 

But Offer them to Thee, 
Now, BleiTed Lord, Let us Believe, 

Accepted, that they be : 
That Thou haft Took them, in Thine j»rms, 

And on them Put thine Hafid, 
And Bleffed them with Sight of Thee, 

Wherein our Blejftngs Stand. 

But he has at this Day Five Grandfons, all 
of them Employed in the Publick Service of the 
Gofpel ; whereof, Let the Reader count him 
the Meaneft, that is the Writer of this Hiftory • 
and accept further one Little Piece of Hiftory, 
relating hereunto. 

The Gathering of the Second Church in Bo- 
fton, was evidently very much to the Difadvan- 
tage of Mr. Cotton, in many of his Interefls, 
E e - But 


The Hiftory of New-England. Book 111. 

But he was a John, who reckoned his Joy ful- 
filled in This, That in his own Decreafe the In- 
ters lb of the Lord Jefus Chrift would Increafe-, 
and therefore, with an Exemplary Self-Denial, 
diverting himfelf of all carnal Refpe&s, he fet 
himfelf to encourage the Foundation of that 
Church, out of RefpecF unto the Service and 
Worfhip of our Common Lord. Now, it has 
pleafed the Lord lb to order it, That many 
Years after his Deceafe, that Self Denial of his 
Holy Servant, has turned unto lbme Account, 
in the Opportunities which That very Church 
has given unto His Children, to Glorify the 
Lord Jefus Chrift, in the Conduct of it : 
His Son-in-Law has been been for more than 
Thrice Ten Years, and his Grandfon for more 

than Twice Seven Years, the Minifters of the 
Gofpel, in That very Church, accommodated 
with happy Opportunities, To ferve their Ge- 


Johannes Cottonus, 

Cttjus Ultima. Laits eft, 
QttodfucrH inter Nov- Anglos Primus. 


NOrVTONUS Honor aim, the LIFE of Mr. J HN NO R TO N. 

§ i. '~r A HERE was a Famous John whofs 
X Atchievements are by our Lord Em 
blazoned in thofe Terms ;He was a Burning and 
a Shining Light. In the Tabernacle of Old, e- 
re£ted by the Order and for the Worfhip of God, 
there were thofe Two Things, a Candleftick 
and an Altar ; in the One a Light that might 
never go out, in the other a tire that might 
never be extinguifhed ; and yet fuch an Affinity 
between thefe, that there was a Fire in the 
Light of the one, and a Light in the Fire of the 
Other. Such a Mixture of both Faith and Love 
fhould be in thofe that are employed about the 
Service of the Tabernacle: And though the Ta- 
bernacle erected for our Lord in this Wildernefs, 
had many fuch Burning and Shining Lights j yet 
among the Chief of them is to be reckoned, that 
John which we had in our Bleffed Norton. 

§ z'. He was Born the Sixth of May, 1 606. 
at Stafford in Hartford/hire ; defcended of Ho- 
nourable Anceftors. In his early Childhood he 
difcovered a Ripenefs of Wit, which gave juft 
Hopes of his proving Extraordinary: And under 
Mr. Strange in the School of Bunmngford, he 
made fuch a Proficiency, that he could betimes 
write Good Latin, with a more than common 
Elegancy and Invention. At Fourteen Years of 
Age, being fent unto Peter Houfe, he ftaid 
there, till alter his taking of his Firji Degree; 
where a Rontijh EmifTary, taking a curious and 
exact Qbfcrvation of his Notable Accomplifh- 
ments, ufed all the Methods he could think of, 
to have feduced him over unto the Romifh Irre- 
ligion : But God intending him to be a Pillar 
In his own Temple, mercifully prevented his 
hearkening unto any Temptations to become a 
Support unto the Tower of Babel. 

§ 3. In his Touth he was accuftomed unto 
fome Touthful Vanities; efpecially unto Card- 
Playing ; an Evil which he did rlrlt Ponder and 
Reform upon a Serious Admonition, which a 
Servant of his Father's gave unto him. When 

he came to confider that a Lot is a Solettm Ap- 
peal unto the God of Heaven, and even by the 
rudeft Gentiles counted a Sacred Thing, he 
thought that Playing with it, was a Breach of 
the Third Commandment in the Laws of our 
God ; it fhould be ufed, he thought, rather 
Prayerfully than Sportfully. He confidered, 
that the Fapifts themfelves do not allow thefe 
Games in Eccleftaftical Perfons, and the Fathers 
do reprove them with a vehement Zeal in ail 
forts of Perfons. He confidered, that when 
the Roman Empire became Chnftian, fevere E- 
diils were made againft thefe Games, and that 
our Proteffant Reformers have branded them 
with an Infamous Character ; wherefore incli- 
ning now to follow Whatsoever things are of a 
Good Report, he would no longer meddle with 
Games that had fo much of a Scandal in them. 

§ 4. An Extreme Difafter befalling his Fa- 
ther's Eftate, he left the Univerfity -, and be- 
came at once Vfher to the School, and Curate 
in the Church at Stafford: Where a Leilure 
being maintained by a Combination of feveral 
Godly and Able Miniifers, he on that Occafion 
fell into Acquaintance with feveral of them; 
efpecially Mr. Jeremiah Dyke, of Epping, by 
whofe Miniffry the Holy Spirit of God, gave 
him a Difcovery of his own manifold Sinful- 
nefs and Wretchedneis in an Unregenerate Suite, 
and awakened him unto fuch a Self-Examination, 
as drove him to a Sorrow little fhort ofDefpair ; 
but after fome time, the fame Holy Spirit, 
enabled him to receive the Chrift and Grace, 
tendered in the Promifes of the Gofpel, with an 
Unfpeakablc Conflation. Whereupon he thought 
himfelf concerned in that Advice of Heaven, 
IVlien thou art Converted, Strengthen thy Bre- 
thren ! 

§ 5. Having before this been well ftudied 
in the Tongues and Arts, he was the better fit- 
ted for the higher Studies of Divinity; whereto 
he now wholly addicted himfelf: And being in 


Book III. The Hiflory of New-England. 


his own happy Experience acquainted with Faith, 
and Repentance, and He/inefs, he did from that 
Experience now make Lively Sermons on thole 
points unto his Hearers. He foon grew Emi- 
nent in his Miniftry ; fetting off the Truths he 
deliver'd, not only with fuch Ornaments of La- 
conic and well contriv'd ExprefTion,as made him 
worthy to be called, The Majier of Sentences, 
but alio with fuch Experimental Pajfages of De- 
votion, as made him admired for A Preacher 
feeking out Acceptable Words. 

§ 6. His Accomplifhments render'd him as 
capable of Preferments, as mod in his Age •, 
but Preferments were then fo clogg'd with 
Tioublefome and Scruplefome Impofitions, that 
Mr. Norton, as well as other Gonfcientious 
Young Minilters, his Contemporaries, declined 
medling with them. His Avcrfion, and indeed 
Annpatby to Arminianifm Rafter he was, as 
Bradwardin fpeaks, Gratis Radio ViCttatus,) and 
his Dillike of the Ceremonies, particularly hin- 
dered him from a Confiderable Benefice, where 
to his Unkle might have helped him. Dr. Sibs 
alfo, the Matter of 'Katharine Hall in Cambridge, 
taken with his Abilities, did earneflly follicits 
him, to have accepted of a Fellowfljip in that 
College^ but his Confcience being now fatisfied 
in the Unlawfulnefs of fome things then requi- 
red in Order thereunto, would not permit him 
to do ir. One asked once a great Prelate at 
Court, how it came to pafs, that fuch a Prea- 
cher fan Ancient Chaplain therej a Wife, 
Grave, Holy Man, did not Rife ? Meaning by 
way of Preferment : The Prelate anfwered him, 
Truly, let me tell you, That I verily think, he 
never zvill Rife until the RefurreUion. Truly, 
Let me now tell the World, That fuch were 
the Principles of Mr. Norton, there was no 
likelihood of his Rifing in this World, as things 
then went in the World. Wherefore he contented 
himfelf with a more Private Life, as Chaplain 
in two Knights Houfe at High Laver in Effex, 
namely, Sir William Mafham^S; there waiting, 
till God might furniih him with Uncxceptable 
Opportunities, for his more Publirk Preaching 
of the Gofncl. But generally, all thofe who 
had any Taft of his Miniftry, had a very high 
Opinion of it; nor was there any Man intharpart 
of the Country more efleemed than he was,for all 
forts of Excellencies ; infomuch, that when he 
came away, an Ancient Minifler faid, He be- 
lieved there war not more Grace and Holincfs 
left in all Elfex, than what Air. Norton had 
carried voiih him. 

kj 7. His Natural Temper had a Tincture of 
Choler in it ; but as the fowreft and harfheft 
Fruits become the mofl Pleafant, when tem- 
pered with a due Proportion of Sweet nefs added 
thereunto, lb the Grace of God fwcetned the 
Difpofition of this good Man, into a molt Affa- 
ble, Courteous, and Complaifant Behaviour, 
which render'd him exceeding Amiable. Indeed 
when the Apoftle fpeaks of the Spirit, and Soul 
and Body, being Santlified, fome do by Spirit 
underftand the Natural Te.iper, or Humour ; 
and accordingly the Spirit of this §>uick Man 

being Santlified, he became a Man of an Excel- 
lent Spirit. 

§ 8. Valt was the Treafure of Learning in 
this Reverend Man. He was not only a molt 
Accurate Grammarian, which is abundantly 
manifefted by his Printed Works in Divers 
Languages ; but an Univerfal Scholar: Never- 
thelefs, 'twas as a School-man that he fhow'd 
himfelf the molt of a Scholar. He accounted 
that the Excellency of a Scholar, lay more in 
Difti nil nefs of Judgment, than in Elegancy of 
Language-, and therefore, though he had a nea- 
ter Style than molt other Men, yet he was De- 
firous to furnifh himfelf ad pagnam, rather 
than ad Pompam. Hence having intimately ac- 
quainted himfelf with the Subtilties of Schola- 
ftic Divinity, he made all to illuftrate the Do- 
llrine of Chrifi and of Grace, unto which he 
made all the Spoils of the Schools glcrioufiy 
fubfervient. He was a molt Eiegjnt Preacher, 
and the True Follower of Dr. Sibs ! 

§ p. But let his Excellencies have been what 
they will, there was in thole Days a Set of Men, 
rtfolved that the Church ofGodlhould lofe 
the Benefit of all thofe Excellencies, except the 
Perfon which had rhem, could comply with 
cerrain Uninltituted Rites in the Worfhip of 
God ; which our Mr. Norton could not ; and it 
was that which made him ouis. This drove 
him to the remote Regions of America, where 
he hoped, as well he might, that there would 
never be done fo unreasonable a Thing, as to 
obftruft that Evangelical Worfhip of our Lord 
Jefus Chrifi, for the fake whereof thofe Re- 
gions have been added unto the Englifl) Domi- 
nions. Wherefore in the Year 1634. having 
married a Gentlewoman both of Good Eltate, 
and of Good Efteem, he took (hipping for New- 
England, accompanied in the lame Ship with 
the Famous Mr. Tbomax Shepard. 

§io.In theRoad bezwixtHarwichand Yarmouth, 
he very narrowly efcaped a Terrible Shipwrick-. 
For by the Vehemency of a Storm all their An. 
chors gave way, lb that they were driven with - 
in a Cable's Length of the Sands ; but yet the 
Anchor of their Hope in God, held fad unto 
the lafi. Mr. Shepard having raken the Man- 
ners above Decks, Mr. Norton took the Pajfen- 
gers between Decks, and each of them with 
their Company, applied themlelves unto Fer- 
vent Prayer, whereto the Almighty God gave 
a prefent Anfwer in their wonderful Deliver- 
ance. After this Tempelt, which diijppointed 
their Voyage to New England for that Sea for., 
Mr. Norton returned unto his Friends in EjJ'ex -, 
where Mr. Dyke welcomed him , as one 
come from the dead ; profefiing to him, That 
he would have given many Pounds for fuch a 
Try a I of his Faith, at this his Friend had newly 
met withal. 

§11. The next Year Mr. Norton renewed 
his Voyage to New-England; but intervening 
Accidents made it very late in the Year, before 
he could begin the Voyage : And fo, coming 
upon the American Coaft in the Month of OCtv- 
\ber t they encountred with another very terrible 
E e e 2 Storm, 


Tbe Hijhry of New-England. Book 111, 

Storm, which lafted Eight and forty Hours with 
great extremity, and had broken the Veffel to 
pieces , if it had not had a ftrengrh more than 
ordinary. One Wave remarkably waftied fome 
of the Seamen overboard on one fide, and then 
threw them in again on t'other ; and fo vehe- 
ment was the Storm, that they were forced at 
length to undergird the Ship with the G^/?,that 
they might keep her fides together. But within 
ten Days after this, they were brought fife into 
Plymouth Harbour. 

§ 12. There had been fome Overtures between 

him and Mr. Wmflow, the Agent of Plymouth,, 
now on hoard with him, about his accepting or 
a Settlement in that Plantation ; and the People 
of Plymouth now courteously and earneftly invi- 
ted him, accordingly to continue with them. 
Neverthelefs, the State of Things in the Mdf- 
facbufet Colony, was more agreeable unto him; 
and the Church of lpfwkh made their fpeedy 
Applications unto him, to take the Paltoral 
Charge of them. This occafioned his Delibe- 
ration with his Friends in the Bay, whatCourfe 
to fleer. 

§ 13. While he fbjourned in his unfettled 
State nBeflon, he came into Acquaintance with 
the Minifters thereabouts, who entertained him 
with a very high Opinion of him ; efpecially 
Mr. Mather of ' Dorchefter, who tho 1 of longer 
ftanding than he, yet coniulted him as an Ora- 
cle, in Matters of greateit Confequence unto 
him ; and found him fo accomplished and expe 
rienced a Perlbn, that he maintained a moft va- 
luable Friendfhip with him to the laff. Yea, 
tho' he were yet a young Man, and fhort of 
Thirty, when he fir ft came into the Country, 
yet the Magillrates of the Colony foon became 
lb fenlible of his Abilities, as to make ufe of 
him in fome of their molt arduous Affairs. And 
there happened feveral Occafions to try theScho- 
laftick Emmencies, whereto he was arrived ; 
one of which was, when there was in thefe Parts 
a French Friar, who found in Mr. Norton, a 
Proteftant, equal to his own School-men, and 
well acquainted with them all. Indeed there 
was in him the Union of two Excellencies, which 
do no: always meet. It was the Chancier of 
liortenfws, that he was weak ' in Writing, and 
yet able to Speak : It was the Character of A- 
beric//s, that he was weak in Speech, and yet 
able in Writing: But our Norton was in both 
of thefe a very able Perfon. 

§ 14 It was the Church of lpfiokh, that our 
Lord gave fo rich a thing, as his eminent Ser- 
vant Norton : But befides the conftant Labours 
of this holy and fruitful Man, in that particu- 
lar Church, he there did feveral great Services 
of a more extenfive Influence to the whole 
Church of Go 1 ; whereof one was" this : Guiliel 
mm Apollonii, at the Direction of the Divines 
in Zealand, in the Year 1644. fent over to A ew 
England -i Number of Queftions, relating to 
our Way of Church Government ; whereto the 
Minifters of NewEnglpnil unanimoufly impofed 
upon Mr. Norton the Task of drawing up an 
Anfwer, which he finifhed in the Year 1645. 

And it was, I fuppofe, the hrft Latin Book that 
ever was written in this Country. What Satif 
facfion it gave, may be gathered, not only from 
the Atteflations of Dr. Goodwin, Mr. Nye, Mr. 
Sympfon, thereunto ■, but alfo from the ExpreT- 
hons of Dr. Horhbeek, who frequently magnifies 
the Reafon,and the Candour of our New Engiijh 
Divine, even in thofe Points, wherein he does 
himfelf diffent from him. Nor is it amils to 
add the words in Dr. Fuller's Church Hilfory, 
hereupon ; which are: Of all the Authors I have 
per u fed concerning thefe Opinions, none to ?new.u 
more Informative than Air. John Norton, one 
of no lefs Learning than Mo'&efiy, in his An- 
fwer to Apollonius, Paforin the Church r/Mid- 

§•15. ft will do no hurt for me to repeat one 
PaiTage on this Occafion, which to me feemed 
worthy of fome Remark. While Mr. Norton' 
was deeply engaged in. writing his Latin Ac- 
count of our ChurchDilcipline,fon;e of his more 
Accurate and Judicious Hearers, imagined that 
his Publick Sermons wanted a little of that Ex- 
aefnefs, which did ufe to attend them -, whereof 
onefaid fomething to that Mr. Whiting, whom I 
may well call the Angel in the Church of Lyn. 
Mr. Whiting hereupon in a very refpectful and 
obliging manner, ipoke to Mr. Norton, faying, 
Sir, There are fome of your Peopk, who think 
that the Services wherein you are engaged for all 
the Churches, do fomething take off the Edge of 
the 'Mini ft ry, wherewith you fhould ferve your 
own particular Church : 1 would intreat you, Sir\ 
to confider this matter j for our great eft Work is 
to preach the Go/pel unto that Flock, whereof we 
are Ovcrfeers. Our great and good Man took 
the excellent Oyl of this Intimation, with the 
Kindnefs which became fuch a Man, and made 
it ferviceable unto his holy Studies. 

§ 16. Another confiderable Service, which 
then called for the Studies of this excellent Man, 
was the advifing, modelling, and recommend- 
ing the Platform of Cburch-Difcipline, agretd by 
a Synod at Cambridge, in the Year 1 647. Into 
that Platform he would fain have had inferred, 
certain Propofitions concerning the Watch, which 
our Churches are to have over the Children bora 
in them ; which Propofitions were certainly the 
firjl Principles of New-England : Only the fierce 
Oppofitions of one eminent Perlbn, caufed him 
that was of a peaceable Temper, to forbear ur- 
ging them any further •, by which means, when 
-thofe very Propofitions came to be advanced and 
embraced in another Synod, more than twice 
feven Years after, many People did ignorantly 
count them Novelties: Moreover, when the 
Synod fa^X affembled, it was a thing of fome un- 
happy Confequence, that the Church of Boflok 
would not lend any Mejfengers unto it : But 
Mr. Norton preaching the next Le£ture there, 
wherein he handled the Nature of Councils, and 
rhe Power of Civil. Magijirates to call fuch Af- 
femblies, and the Duty of the Churches in re- 
garding rheir Advice, the Church oiBofton were 
therewithal fo fatisfied, as to tell ifie their Com- 
munion with the reft of the Churches, by fend- 


Book III. The Hiftory of New-England. 


ing three Meffengers to accompany their Elders 
now in the Synod. And when the Refult of the 
Synod Game to try its Acceptance in the Churches, 
he did his parr, efpecially in his own, with a 
prudent and pious Diligence to obtain it ^ which 
was happily accomplilhed. 

6 17. There was yet one Comprehenfive Ser- 
vice more, which this Learned Man here did for 
the Church of God ; and that was this : A 
Gentleman of Keza-Englandhai written a Book, 
entituled, The Meritorious Price of Man's Re- 
demption ■■ Wherein he pretends to prove, That 
Cbriji fuffered nor for us thofe unutterable Tor- 
ments of God's Wrath, which are commonly called 
Piell-Torments, to redeem our Souls from them ; 
and that Chrifl bore not our Sins by God's Impu- 
tation, and therefore alfo did not bear the Curfe of 
the Law for them. The General Court of the 
Colony, concerned that the Glorious Truths of 
the Gofpel might be refcued from the Confufi- 
oris, whereinto the Effiy of this Gentleman had 
thrown them, and afraid left the Church of God 
abroad fhould fufpecf that JVho-Eflg/Wallow'd 
of fuch exorbitant Aberrations, appointed Mr. 
Norton to draw up an Anfwer to that Erroneous 
Treat ife. This Work he performed with a moft 
Elaborate and Judicious Pen, in a Book after- 
wards publifhed under the Title of, A Difou/jion 
of that Great Point in Divinity, The Sufferings 
of Chrift ; And the ^iiejiions about his Active 
and Paffive Right coufnefs, and the Imputation 
thereof. In that Book the true Principles of 
the Gofpel are if a ted with fo much Demonft ra- 
tion, as is indeed unanfwerable. _ The Great 
Affertion therein explained and maintained, is, 
(according to the exprefs Words of the Reve- 
rend Author), ' That the Lord Jefus Chrift as 
1 God-Man, and Mediator, according to theWill 

* of the Father, and his own voluntary Con fen t, 
c fully obeyed the Law, doing the Command in 
c a way of Works, and fuifering the Ejfential 
' Punifhment of the Curfe, in a way of obedient 

* Satisfaction unto Divine Juffice, thereby ex- 
\ aftly fulfilling the firff Covenant : Which 
c AcYive and Paffive Obedience of his, together 
c with his Original Righteou/hefs, as a Surety, 
' God, of his rich Grace, actually imputeth un- 
' to Believers ; whom, upon the Receipt there - 
' of, by the Grace of faith, he declareth and 

* accepteth , as pcrfellly Righteous , and ac- 
1 knowledgeth them to have a Right unto Eter- 
' nal Life. . 

And in every Claufe of this Pofition, the Au- 
thor expreffed not his own Sence alone, tut the 
Sence of all the Churches in the Country : In 
Teftimony whereof!, there was publifhed at the 
End of the Book, an Inftrument figned by five 
confiderable Names, Cotton, Wilfon, Mather, 
Symmcs, and Tompfon, who in the Name of 0- 
thers, declare, ' As they believe, they do alfo 
' Profefs] Thit the Obedience of Chrift to the 
' whole Law, which is the Law of Righteouf- 
' fiefs, is the Matter of our Jufificatwn ; and 
' the Imputation of our Sins to Chrift (and 
* thereupon his Suffering the Senfe of the. Wrath 
' of God upon him for our Sin) and the Imputa- 

tion of his Obedience and Sufferings to us, are 
tins formal Caufe of our Juftijication-^rA that 
c they who deny this, do now take away both 
c pf thefe, both Matter and Vet m of our Jufti- 
' ft 'cation, which is the Life of our Souls, and 
c of our Religion, and therefore called the Jujii- 
' fication cf Life. 

This being the Primitive- Do&rine of 'Jollifi- 
cation, among the Churches of New. England ; 
rhe things that were judged oppofite hereunto, 
in the Renowned Richard Baxters Aphorifms of 
Juftification, did then give a great and juft Of- 
fence unto the Faithful in this Country : Yea, 
they look'd upon many tilings in his Writings, 
to be; as Photius has ir, upon fome things in 
Clemens Alexandrinus -, that is to fay, Things 
expreffed, ix.' vyZ;, not Jafely and . ; a! 

beit, the other more Practical and Savory Books 
of that Holy Man, were highly valued in thefe 
American Regions ; and not a few have here 
bleffed God for him, and 'tor his Labours. And 
as in thofe Elder Days of Nex-EnglanJ, . the E- 
fteem which our Churches had tor that emi- 
nent Man, did not hinder them from rejecting 
that New Covenant of Works, with which they 
thought he confounded that moft important Ar- 
ticle, upon the Notions whereof the Church ei- 
ther frauds or falls ; Thus it is a Grief of Mind 
unto our Churches at this Day, to find that 
grear and good Man, in fome of his Lift Works, 
under the blinding Heat of his Indignation a- 
gainft fome which we alfo account unjuftifiable, 
yea, dangerous Opinions and Expreffions cf Dr. 
Crifp, reproaching fome of the moft undoubted 
Points in our common Faith. We read him un- 
accountably enumerating among Errors, which 
he lays, hav.e corrupted Cbnftianity, and Jnb- 
verted the Gofpel, fuch things as thefe : 

c They feign,ThntGoi made a Covenant with 
c Adam, that if he flood, God would continue 
' him, and his Pofterity ; and if he fell, God 
' would take ir, as if all his Posterity, then per - 

' fonally finned in him.- feigning God to 

c make Adam, not only the Natural Father and 
' Root of Mankind, but alfo arbitrarily, a con- 
' flit ut ed Re pre/enter of all rhe Perfons that 
' fhould fpring from him. Whence they infer, 
' that Chritt was by God's Impofition, and his 
' own Sponfion, made the Legal Representative 
' Perfon of every one of the Elecf, taken fingu- 
' larly : So that what lie did for them, God 
' reputeth rhem to have done by him. Here- 
' by they falily make the Perfon of the Me- 
■ diator, to be the Legal Perfon of the Sin- 
' nef. 

' They forge a Law, that God never made, 
' that faith, Thou or thy Surety, fh all obey per* 
' feffly, or die. 

' Tney feign God to have made an Eternal 

Covenant with his Son. 
' They/£/\?/zChrilt ro have 

made fuch an ex- 

change with theElecf, as that having taken all 
their Sins, he hath given them all his Righteouf- 
nefs ; not only the Fruit of it, but the Thing 
in it f elf 

1 They 


The Hi/lory of New-England. Book III. 

' They fay,That by the Imputation of Chrift's 

* Righteoufnefs, Habitual and AElual. We are 
c judged perfectly juji. 

' They talk of Juflification in meer igno- 

c rant Confufion : They fay, That to 

' juftifie is not to make righteous, but to judge 

* righteous. 

1 They err grofly, faying, That by [Faith im- 
4 puted for Right eoufnefs~] and [our being jufti- 
' fied by Faith'] is not meant, the AH, or Habit 
1 of Faith, but the Objett, Chrift's Righteoufnefs : 
c Not flicking thereby to turn fuch Texts into 
' worfe than Nonfence. [ All thefe are Mr. 
Baxter's Words, in his Defence of Chrift , 
chap. 2] 

Thefe Things, which our Churches with A- 
mazement, behold Mr. Baxter thus calling R- 
ftions, Falfhoods, Forgeries, Ignorant Confujions, 
and grofs Errors, were defended by Mr. Nor- 
ton, as the Faith once delivered unto the Saints : 
Nor do our Churches at this Day confider them, 
as any other, than glorious Truths of the Gofpel; 
which, as they were maintained by Mr. Norton. 
So two Divines, which were the Scholars of 
Mr. Norton, well known in both Englands, Na- 
thanael, and lncreafe Mather, (Fratrum dulce 
Par;) and a third, a worthy Minifter of the 
Gofpel, Mr. Samuel Willard, now living in the 
fame Houfe from whence Mr. Norton went, 
unto that not made with Hands, have in their 
Printed Labours moft accurately expreffed them, 
and confirmed them. Hence, altho' as on the 
one fide, I have this pafTage of Mr. Baxter's, 
in a Letter from him, written but a few Months 
before he died,/ am as zealous a hover of the New- 
England Churches as any m an, according to A^Nor 
ton'x, and the Synods Alodel : So on the other 
fide, the Memory of Mr. Baxter is on many 
accounts zealoufly loved among the Churches of 
New-England, yet efpoufing the Principles for 
their Eftablifhrnenr, wherein Mr. Norton had 
appeared : Neverthelefs, inafmuch as Mr. Bax- 
ter, juft before his Entrance into his Everlafting 
Reft, requefted of my Parent then in London : 
Sir, If you know of any Errors in any of my Wri 
tings, 1 pray you to confute them after I am dead. 
I thought it not amifs, to regard fo far the 
GofpelTruths of Juflification at this day labour- 
ing, as to take occafion from the mention of 
Mr. Norton's Book, to fay, That in that one 
Book of his, there is a Confutation of Mr. Bax- 
ter, who feems to oppofe thofe things, which 
the Churches of New-England judge cannot be 
denied without corrupting of Chriftianity, and 
fubverting of the Gofpel. But waving any fur- 
ther mention of the Book, I cannot leave unmen- 
tioned a couple of Paffages in the Preface of it, 
which is Dedicatory to the General Court of the 
MafJ'achufet Colony. One is this : / appeal to any 
competently judicious and fober-minded Man, if 
the Denial of Rule in the Presbytery, of a Deci- 
five Voice in the Synod, and of the Power of the 
Magifirate in Matters of Religion, do not in ibfc 
Point tranflate the Papal Power unto- the Bro- 
therhood of every Congregation. Another is this : 
Tou have been among the firft of Magi Urates, 

which have approved and pratlifed the Congre- 
gational Way j nofmall Favour from God, nor 
Honour to your J "elves, with the Generation to 
come, when that fhall appear to be the Way of 

§ 18. But we lay nothing of Norton, if we 
don't fbeak of an Orthodox Evangelifi. Being 
himfelf fuch an one, he digefted the Subtleties 
of the Schoolmen into folid and wholefomu Chri- 
ftianity, which he publifhed in a Treatiie enti- 
tuled, The Orthodox Evangelifi : Wherein he 
handles the abftruie Points of the Exiftence and 
Subfiftence, and Ejficience of God, and the Per- 
fon of Chrift, and the Methods of the Spirit in 
uniting us to him ; and the Doclrine of Jufli- 
fication, with- the future and happy State of the 
Saints -, all in fuch a manner, that Mr. Cotton 
faw caufe to fay in his Preface to this Treatiie, 
Cluficrs of ripe Grapes pajfing under the Prefs, 
are fit to be tranf ported unto all Nations • thus, 
fuch Gifts and Labours pajfing under the Prejs, 
may be fitly communicated to all Churches. The 
Pbyficians do f peak, there are Pillule fine Qui- 
bus effe nolo -Jo the re are Libelli line quibus,yw«*? 
Books,Sine quibus effe nolo ; and this is one of 'cm. 
This Book he dedicated unto his own Church, in 
Ipfwich ; and in the Clofe of his Dedication, I 
cannot forget this emphatical palfage, Tou are 
our Glory and Joy : Forget not the Emphafis in 
the Word, Our : Minifter s, compared with other 
Chrift tans, have little to joy in in this World : It 
is not with the Mtnijlers of the prefent, as with 
the Minifter s of late Times -, nor zvith the Exiles^ 
as with the reft; nor with your Exiles, as with 
fome others. Let this Out, or if you pleafe Your 
Condition, for therein you have been both Parta- 
kers with us, and Supporters of us-, be your Pro- 
vocation. Thus and more than thusuleful, was 
this Bradwardin of New-England, while Ipfwich 
had him. 

§ip. When Cotton, that Man of God, layfick 
of the Sicknefs whereof he died, his Church de- 
fired that he would nominate and recommend a 
fit Perfon tofucceedhim ; and headvifed thern 
to apply themfelves unto Mr. Norton, hoping 
that the Church of Ipfwich being accommodated 
with fuch another eminent Perlbn asMr. Rogers, 
would out of refpe£t unto the general Good of 
all the People of God throughout the Land, fo 
far deny themfelves, as to difmifs him from 
themfelves. That ivhich gave Encouragement 
unto this Bufinefs, was not a Dream of Mr. Cot- 
ton's, tho' it was indeed a ftrange thing, that 
Mr. Cotton in his Illnefs, being follicitous what 
Counfel to give unto his Church, he dream'd, 
that he law Mr. Norton riding unto Boflon, to' 
fucceed him, upon a White Horfe, in Circ'um 
Itances that were exaffly afterwards accom- 
plifhed : And when Mr. WilJ'on, with his Flock, 
faw the thing accomplifhed, it caufed them to 
look upon Mr. Norton, almoft with the fame 
Eye,, that old Narciffus, with the Church at 
Jerufalem, did upon Alexander, when upon the 
warning of a Voice from Heaven, to take him, 
whom they fhould fo find, they found him out 
of the City, provided for them, But it was a 



Book 111. I he Hijloxy of New-England. 


Defign which Mr. Norton had of returning for 
England: A Deiign which he hid ib laid before 
his People, as to obtain their Grant, that ir' up- 
on Itaying a Twelve Month longer among them, 
there did occur no occafion lor him to alter his 
purpofes,rhey would not oppofe his going. Now 
when the Agents of the Church at Bofton, made 
this Motion to the Church of Ipfwich, there was 
much debate about it ; wherein at length an 
honeft Brother made this Propofai : Brethren, a 
Cafe in fome things like to this, was once that 
way determined : We will call the Damfel, and 
enquire at her Mouth : Wherefore I propoje, 
that our Teacher himfelf be enquired of, whether 
he be inclined to go ? They then put that Que- 
ftion to Mr. Norton himfelf, who being troubled 
at the Offer of the Queftion unto him, anfwer- 
ed, That if they judged fuch Reajons as caujed 
his Removal from Europe into America, now calVd 
for his Removal from Ipfwich to Bofton, hefhould 
refign himfelf ; but he could not be AHive. How- 
ever, at length, they confented, that he fhould 
for the prefent, go fojourn at Bofton, to try, and 
fee how far the Will of God about this matter, 
might be afterwards difcovered ; but after Mr. 
Norton was gone, many of the People fell into 
a very unreafonable Indifpofition towards Mr. 
Rogers, as if he had not been Attive enough, al- 
tho' he had, indeed, been as A£live, as he well 
could be, to retain his Collegue among them. 
The Melancholly Temper of Mr. Rogers felt fo 
deep an Impreflion from thofe Paroxijms, and 
Murmurings of the People, that it is thought, 
his End was thereby haftned ; but the Church, 
upon the Death of Mr. Rogers, renewing their 
Demands of Mr. Norton's Return, a Council was 
upon that occafion called ; which Council advifed 
Ipfwich to grant Mr. Norton a fair DifmifTion 
unto the Service of Bofton, and in Bofton, of all 
Ne tv England. However divers lefler Councils, 
that were fucceffively called on this Occaiion, 
could not comfortably procure this Difmiffjon, 
till at laft the Governour and Magiftrates of the 
Colony called a Council for this end ; in their 
Order for which, they intimate their Concern, 
left while the two Churches were contending, 
which of them fhould enjoy Mr. Norton, they 
fhould both of them, and the whole Country 
with them, lofe that Reverend Perfon, by his 
profecuting his Inclination to remove into Eng- 
land. Hereupon fuch a Difmijfion could- not be 
denied ; but now Bofton joyfully receiving Mr. 
Norton, Ipfwich applied themfelves unto Mr. 
Cobbet, who afterwards continued a rich Bleffing 
among them. And Mr. Norton did indeed, the 
part of a furviving Brother for Mr. Cotton, in 
railing up, or at leaft keeping up the Name of 
that Great Man, by publifhing a moft elegant 
Account of his Life, part whereof was after- 
wards tranferibed by Sam. Clark, into his Colle- 

§ 20. Mr. Norton being now tranfplanted in- 
to that Garden which our Lord had in Bofton, 
did there bring forth much of that Fruit where- 
by the heavenly father was glorified. There he 
preached, he wrote, hepray'd. ;md maintained 

without any Prelatical Epifcopacy, a Care of all 
the Churches. And New-England being a Coun- 
try whofe Interefts were moft remarkably and 
generally enwrapped in itsEcclefiaftical Circum- 
Itances, there were many good Offices, which 
Mr. A or ton did for the Peace of the whole Coun- 
try, by his wife Counjels upon many Occafions, 
given to its Counfellors. In truth, if he had ne- 
ver done any thing, but that one thing of pre- 
venting by his wife Interpofition, the Afts of 
Hoftility, which were like to pais between Our 
People, and the Dutch at Manhatocs, that alone 
were well worth his coming into the Station 
which he now had at Bofton. But the Service 
which now moft fignalized him, was, his Agency 
it White Hall; for it being found neceffary to 
Addrefs the Reftored King ; the Worfhipful Si- 
mon Bradjlreet, Efq; and this Reverend Mr. John 
Norton, were lent over as Agents from the Co- 
lony ,with an Addrefs unto His Majefty -, where- 
in there were , among others , the following 

' We fupplicate Your Majefty for your Gra- 
c cious Protection of us, in the Continuance both 
' of our Civil, and of our Religious Liberties ; 
' according to the Grantees known End of Suing 
' for the Patent, conferr'd upon this Plantation 
' by Your Royal Father. Our Liberty to Walk 
c in the faith of the Go/pel, with all good Conjci- 
' ence, according to the Order of the Go/pel, was 
' the Caufe of our tranfporting our felves, with 
' our Wives,our Little Ones, and our Subftance. 
' from that pleafant Land, over the Atlantick 
' Ocean, into the Vaft Wildernefs ; choofing 
c rather the pure Scripture Worfhip, with a 
c good Confcience, in this remote Wildernefs, 
' than the Pleafures of England, with Submif- 
' fion to the Impofitions of the then fo difpofed, 
' and fo far prevailing Hierarchy, which we 

c could not do without an evil Confcience 

' We are not Seditious as to the Interefts of C*- 
' Jar, nor Schifmatical as to the Matters of Re- 
c ligion. We diftinguifh between Churches, 

• and their Impurities. We could not live 

' without the Publick Worfhip of God, nor be 
' permitted the Publick Worfhip, without fuch 
' a Take of Subjcriptwn and Conformity, as we 
' could not confent unto without Sin. That we 
' might, therefore, enjoy Divine Worfhip, free 
' from Human Mixtures, without Offence to 
' God, Man, and our own Confciences, we, 
' with Leave, but not without Tears, departed 
c from our Country, Kindred, and Fathers Hou- 
c fes, into this Patmos. — — 

It was in February 1 <5<5*, that they began 
their Voyage, and it was in September follow- 
ing, that they returned : Mr. Norton's place 
being the mean time fupplied by the Neigh- 
bouring Minifters, taking of their Turns. And 
by their Hands the Country received the King's 
Letters, wherein he fignified, That the Expref- 
fions of their Loyalty and Affe&ion to Him, 
were very acceptable, and that confirming to 
them their Priviledges, He would cherifh them 
with all manner of Encouragement and Prote- 

§ 21. 


§ 21. 

of our 

The Hijlory of New-England. Book III. 

Such has been the Jealous Difpofition 1 Lombard muft out of Date; we now profefs 
New-Englandcrs about their Dearly- 1 Norton, the Mailer of 'the Sentences ; 

bought Privileges, and fuch alfo has been the 
Various Underftar.ding of the People about the 
Extent of thofe Privileges, ■■ that of all the 
Agents, which they have lent over unto the 
Court of England, for now Forty Years toge- 
ther, I know not any One, who did Hot at his 
Return, meet with fome very frow3rd Enter- 
tainment among his Country-men : And there 
may be the Wifdom of the Hoiy and Righteous 
God, as well as the Malice of the Evil One, 
acknowledged, in the Ordering of fuch Tempta- 
tions. Of thefe Temptations, a conhderahle 
fhare fell to Mr. Norton -, concerning whom 
there were many, who would not Hick to fay, 
that he had laid the Foundation of Ruine to all 
our Liberties ; and his melancholly Mind ima- 
gined, that his belt friends began t-herefore to 
look awry upon him. 

§ 22. In the Spring before his going for Eng- 
land, he Preached an ' Excellent Sermon unto 
the Representatives of the whole Colony, Af- 
fembled at the Court or Ekiiion, wherein I 
take particular Notice of this Paifage, MSfes 
was the Me eke ft Man on Earth, yet it went III 
■ ioith Mofes, 'tit J aid, for their Sokes. How 
long did Mofes live at Meribah ? Sure 1 am ; it 
kilfd him in a Jhort Time ; a Alan of at Good 
a Temper as could be expeffed jrom a meer 
Man : I tell you, it will not only kill the 'People, 
hut it will quickly kill Mofes too 1 . And in the 
Spring after his Return from England, he found 
his own Obfervation in himfelf too much Ex- 
emplified. It was commonly judged, That the 
Smothered Griefs of his Mind, upon the Un- 
kind Refentments, which he thought many 
People had of his Faithful and Sincere En- 
deavours to ferve them, did, more than a 
little, haften his End •, an End, wheteat JOHN 
NORTON went, according to the Anagram 
of his Name INTO HONNOR. But he had 
the Privilege to enter into Immortality, with- 
out fuch a Formal and Feeling Death, as the 
moll of Mortals encounter with ; for though 
in the Forenoon of April 5. 316153. it was his 
Dehgn to have Preached in the Afternoon, he 
was that Afternoon taken with a fudden Lypo 
thymic, which prefently and eafily carried him 
away to thofe Glories, wherein the Weary are 
at Rcji ■, but it was a Dark Night, which the 
Inhabitants of Bojion had upon the Noife of 
his Death : Every Corner of the Town was 
filled with Lamentations, which left a Chara 
fter upon that Night, unto this Day, not for- 
gotten ! His deareft Neighbour, Mr. Richard 
Mather, wept over him at his Funeral, which 
was on. the next Leilure Day, a Sermon moff 
agreeable to the occafion -, And the Son of his 
Fellow-Traveller, Mr. Thomas Shepard, was 
one of the many, who bellowed their Elegies 
upon him ; ufing this, among his other Strokes. 

The 5'choolmens Doclors, whomfoe're they calf 
Subtil, Seraphic k, or Angelical: 
Dull Souls ! Their Tapers buriit exceeding Dim ; 
They might to School again, to learn of him. 

Scot us, a Dunce to him ; mould we compare 
Aquino*, here, none to be named are. 

Of a more Heavenly Strain, his Notions were, 
More pure, Sublime, Scholaft ical, and clear. 
More like th' Apoftles P<////and John, I wiff, 
Was this our Orthodox Evangelijl. 

Which Lines accompanied with Mr. Wilfori's 
Anagrammatifing of JOHANNES NOR- 
TON US into Nonne ii Honoratus ? Will give 
him his deferved Character. 

§23. He that ihall Read the Tragical Ro- 
mances, written by that Brazen fic'd Lyar Bol- 
/ecus, concerning the Deaths of fuch Men as 
Calvin and Beza, or fuch monftrous Writings 
as thofe of Tympius, Cochleus, Gcnebard, and 
fome others, who would bear the World in 
hand, that Luther and Qecolampadim Learn'd 
the Protcftant Religion of the Devil, and were 
at laft kill'd by him -, and that Bucer had his. 
Guts pull'd out and call about by the Devil ; 
will net wonder if I tell him, that after the 
Death of Mr. Norton, the Quakers published a 
Libel by them called, .i Reprefentation to King 
and Parliament-, wherein, pretending to Re- 
port fome Remarkable Judgments upon their Per- 
secutors, they infert this PalTage, ' John Nor- 
' ton Chief Prieft in Bojion, by the immediate 
c Power of the Lord, was fmitten, and as he 
c was finking down by the Fire fide, being un- 
' der juft Judgment, he confeffed the Hand of 
' the Lord was upon him, and fo he uicd. 

Which they mention, as a Judgment upon. 

a Perfecutor. Whereas, the Death of this 
Good Man, was attended with no Circumftan- 
ces, but what unto a Good Man might be Eli- 
gible and Comfortable, and circumfVanced far 
other-wife than it was by thofe Revilers Repre- 
fented. But it was neceffary for that Enchanted 
People, thus to revenge themfelves upon one,, 
who amongft his other Services to the Church 
of God, already mentioned, had, at the defire 
of the General Court, written a Book, Entituled, 
The Heart of New England rent at the Blafphe- 
niies of the Prefent Generation-, Or, a Brief 
1 rati ate concerning the Dollrine of the Quakers: 
Which Dotlrine was in this Tractate folidly 
confuted. And perhaps, it had been better if 
this had been all the c onfutation ; which I add, 
becaufe I will not, I cannot make my felf a 
Vindicator of all the Severities, with which 
the Zeal of fome Eminent Men hath fometimes 
Enraged and Increafed, rather than Reclaimed 
thofe miferable Hoeticks : But wifh that the 
Quakers may be ireared as Queen Elisabeth di- 
recled the Lord Prelident of the North to treat 
the Papifts ; when fhe adviied him to convince 
them with Argument, rather than fupprefs them 
with Violence-, to that purpofe ufing of the 
Words of the Prophets, Nolo Mortem Pecca- 

§ 24. Not long after his Death, his Friends 
publifhed Three Sermons of his, which for the 


Book III. The Hijlory of New-Englatid. 

* i T 


Circumftances of them could have been Entitu- 
led, Tbefe were the laji Words of that Servant 
of the Lord. The Firlt of the Sermons, was the 
laji Sermon, which he preach'd at the Court 
of Eleliion at Bojlon. It is on Jer. 10. 17. enti- 
tuled, Sion the Out- call healed of her Wounds : 
And there are two or three PalTages in it, which 
I cannot but recommend unto the peculiar Con- 
fideration of the preient Generation 

" To differ from our Orthodox, Pious, and 
K Learned Brethren, is fuch an Affliction to a 
" Chriftian and an Ingenuous Spirit, as nothing 
" but Love to the Truth could arm a Man of 
" Peace againft. Our Profefiion being in a 
" way differing from thefe and thofe, it con- 
" cerns us, that our walking be very Cautelous, 
" and that it be without giving any Juft Of- 
" fence. 

Again, In matters of State and Church, Let 
it be Jhovon that we are his Difciples, who J aid. 
Give unto Cefar the things that are Cefars, and 
Give unto God the things that are God's : And 
in Matters of Religion, Let it be known, That 
we are for Reformation and not for Separation. 

— Once more, ■ I may fay thus much (and 

pardon my Speech) A more yielding Miniftry 
unto the People than ours, I believe is not in 
the World. J befeech you, Let not Carfar be 
killed in the Senate, after he hath conquered in 
the Field. Let us acknowledge the Order of the 
Elderfhip, in our Churches, in their Way ; and 
the Order ^Councils in their Way, duely backed 
and encouraged : Without which Experience will 
witnefs that thefe Churches cannot long conftjl. 

The Second of the Sermons, was the laji Ser- 
mon which he preached on the Lord's Day. It 
is on Joh. 14. 3. entituled, The Believers Con- 
Jolation in the Remembrance of his Heavenly Man- 
fion, prepared for him by Chrijl. 
.., The Third of the Sermons was the laji Ser- 
mon, which he Preach'd on his Leffure. It is on 
Heb. 8. 5. entituled, The Evangelical Worfhipper, 
fubje fling to the P refer ipt ion and Sovereignty of 
Scripture Pattern. 

§ 25. The Three Sermons thus Publifhed as 
the laji, or the Dropt Mantle of this Elias, are 
accompanied with the Tranllation of a Letter, 
which was compofed in Latin by Mr. Norton, 
and fubferibed by more than Forty of the Mi- 
nifters, on this Occafion. . The Famous John 
Dury having from the Year 1635. been moft 
indetutigably labouring for a Pacification, be- 
tween the Reformed Churches in Europe, com- 
municated his Defign to the Minifters of New- 
England, requeuing their Concurrence and Coun- 
tenance unto his Generous Undertaking. In 
anfwer to Him, this Letter was written -, and 
there are one or two Paffages, which I chufe 
to tranferibe from it, becaufe as well the Spirit 
of our Norton, as the Story of our Country, is 
therein Indigitated. 

Redeunt in Memoriam, iff redeunt quidem non 
fine Santfiori Sympathia, Beat£ illce Animx, Me- 
lancfhonis iff Parei ntn en atiois, hie 
inter Reformatos, il/e inter Evangelicos, Vir 

Confummatifjimm. Riorum Alter Haganoam 
iterfaciens, ita Ingemuit. 

Viximus in Synodk, & jam moriemur in illis 

Alter Vero, Super Eriflica Euchariflica Med'i 
tabundus, in hac Verba Erupit, Defeffus fum 
Difputando. Nimirum, illis Judicibus, Oran 
dum potius quam— Difputandum ; Vivendum 
non Litigandum. lorfitan iff Confilia Pads., 
Stimulanti recent i Ira hattcnus, minus grata fu- 
ere, utriufque partis Theologi Rixis diuturnio- 
ribus aliquando fejji iff Subafli, aquis animh 
Sufcipere, nou molefle ferunt : Mare pacificum 
Aquis Meribanis, Longo Re rum ufu Edotti, an- 
te ferentes. 

' We may here call to Mind, and not with- 
1 out fome Sacred Sympathy, thofe Blelted 
' Souls, .. MelanUhon and Parens, now among 
c the Bleffed, the one no lefs Famous among 
' the Reformed, than the other among the Evdn- 
' gelicks. Of thefe, the one going towards 
' Haganoa, with Sighs uttered thefe Words, 

In Synods hitherto we lived have, 

And novo in them, return unto the Grave. 

' The other ferioufly meditating on the Con- 
6 troverfy of the Eucharijl, brake forth into thefe 
' Words; I am weary with Difputing. Thus, if 
' thefe might be Judges, we ought rather to 
' Pray than Difpute, and ftudy how to Live t 
' rather than Contend. And perhaps the Di 
' vines of either Part, after they have been 
' wearied and broke in their Spirits with daily . 
' and continual Contentions, will more readily 
' accept of the Counfels of Peace, which hither- 
c to have been lefs acceptable, while the Senfe 
5 of Anger has been fpurring of them: After 
' they have been taught by long ufe, they may 
' prefer the Waters of the Pacific Sea, before 
c thofe of Meribah. 

Graticut agimus Domino Dureo, cut Jofephi 
Longe terra maiique a fratribus DiJJiti, memi- 
nifje Cordi fuit : §>_ui nos Mifellos, in Cilicio, 
Cilicio autem ipfi confidimus Evangelico, Mili- 
t antes, tarn Aufpicato Nuncio invifere dignatut 
eft : §>ui Novam Angliam, quafi particulam ali. 
quam Fimbria Vejlimenti Aaronid, unguento pr<e~ 
diviti delibutam, in Album Syncretifmi, Longe 
celeberrimi, adferibere, non adfpernatur : §>ui 
porro Litteris aiSyncretifmum hortatoriis, fub- 
inde nobis An/am pr<ebuit Teflimonium hoc, quale 
quale, perhibendi Communionis nojlra fraterna, 
cum univerfa Cohorte Protelfantium, fidem Jefu 
Chrijli profit entium. Ingenue enim fatemur, 
tranquilla tarn quum erant Omnia, nee Signa Mi' 
nantia ftgnis ad hue nobis confpiciebdntur -, quip- 
pequibus, Epifcopis, ilia Tempejlate Rer urn Do- 
minis, publico Miniflerio Defurtgi, nedum Sa- 
cris frui, fme Subfcriptione iff Conformitate, 
(ut loqui folent) utque adeo Humanarum Adin- 
ventionum, in Divinis, Commixtione, non Lice- 
ret, iff fatius vifum eft, vel in Longinquas, iff 
Incultas Terrzirum-Orajf, Cultus purioris Ergo 
concejfiffe, quam Oneri Hierarchico, cum Rerum 
F f f Omnium 


The Hiflory of New-England. Book III. 

Omnium Afflucntia, Confcientix autem Difpendw, 
fuccubuiffe. At patriam fugiendo^ nos Ecclefia- 
rumEvangelicarum Communioni A 1 'uncium mififfe ■, 
hoc vera cfi quod fide /iter Hf Santle pernegamus. 

'■ We give thanks to Mr. Dury % into whofe 
"Heart it came to remember, Jofepb feparatc 
' from bis Brethren at lb great a Diltance both 
' by Sea and Land : And who hath vouchfafed 
c with fo comfortable a Meflage to vifit us 
1 poor People, cloathed in Sackcloth, for our 
4 Warfare ; yet, as we truit, the Sackcloth ot 
c the Gofpel : Who hath not refuted to put 
c New England as part of the Skirt of Aaron's 
c Garment, upon which hath defcended fome 
c of the Precious Oyl, into the Catalogue of 
' the fo much famed Agreement .- And who 
' hath by his Letter exhorting to fuch Agree 
u ment given us an Occafion to bring in this 
* Teitimony, fuch as it is, for our Brotherly 
1 Communion with the whole Company of Pro- 
' tefiants pro tiffing the Faith of Chriit Jefus. 
c For we mult" ingenuoully confefs, that then, 
' when all things were quiet, and no threat- 
' ning Signs of War appeared, feeing we could 
c not he permitted by the Bijhcfs, at that time 
c prevailing to perform the Office of the Mini- 
' ltry in Publiek, nor yet to enjoy the Holy Or- 
' dinances, without Subfcription and Confor- 
' rn'ity (as they were wont to fpeak) nor with- 
' out the Mixture of Humane Inventions with 
' Divine Infiitutions, we chofe rather to depart 
'■ into the remote and unknown parts of the 
' Earth, for the fake of a Purer Worfhip, than 

to ly down under the Hierarchy in the Abun 
'■ dance of all things, but with Prejudice of 
; Confcience. But that in flying from our 
; Country, we fhould renounce Communion with 
- fuch Churches, as profefs the Go/pel, is a 
'• thing,, which we confidently and iolemnly 

* deny. • 

Qiiofcunque apud Cati/s, per Univerfum Evan- 
gelicorum chorum, Fundamental Doftrina: & 
Effentialia Ordinis, Vigeunt, quamvis in plcrif- 
que Controverfia: Theologicar, Apicibus nobif- 
cum ju.xta minus Sentiant, illos tamen ad unum 
Omnes, pro Fratribus agnofcimus, iifque cetera 
pacific/*, £y Ordinate incedentibus, a F x I a s 
KOINP.NIA2 in Domino porrigere, paratijfi- 
mos, nos ej}e bijee palam jacimus. 

' In whatever Affemblies amongft the whole 
c Company of thole that profefs the Gofpel, 
' the Fundamentals of Dottrine, and Effentia/s 
4 of Order, are maintained, though in many 
1 Niceties of Controverfal Divinity, they are at 

* lefs Agreement with us, we do hereby make 
' it manifefr, that we do acknowledge them 

* all, and every one for Brethren, and that we 
'- fhall be ready to give unto them the Right 

* Hand of Fellowfhip in the Lord, if in other 
: Things they be Peaceable, and walk Or- 
4 derly. 

§ 26. This was our Norton ! And we might 
have given yet a fuller Account of him, if we 

could have feen the Diary, which he kept of 
his Daily Walk. However he was well known 
to be a Great Example of Holinefs, Watchful 
nefs, and Extraordinary Wifdom ; and though 
he left no Children, yet he has a Better Name 
than that of Sons and of Daughters. More- 
over, there was one Considerable part of Mi- 
nisterial Work, wherein he not only went-ie- 
ybnd moft of his Age, but alfo proved a 
Leader unto many Followers. Though the 
Minilfers of New-England counted it Unlaw- 
ful for them, Ordinarily to perform their Mi- 
niflerial Alls of Solemn and Publick Prayer 
by Reading or Ufing any Forms of Prayer 


Gift, which 
to Neglect; 
who fhould 

other Perfons for them ■, They 
Ability to exprcjs the Cafe of a 
in Prayer, to be a Mini fieri al 
our Lord forbids His Minilfers 
They fuppofed that a Minifter, 
only Read Forms of Sermons 
compoled tor him, would as Truly Difcharge 
the Duty of Preaching, as One that fhould 
only Read fuch Forms of Prayers, vvoifld the 
; Duty of Praying, in it: They could not find, 
that any Humane Yorms of Prayers, were much 
ufed in any part of the Church, until about 
Four Hundred Years alter Chrilf, nor any made 
lor more than fome Single Province, until 
Six Hundred Years; nor any Impofed until 
Eight Hundred, when all manner of Ill-formed 
Things began to be found in the Temple of 
God :. Neverthelefs very many of our Greateft 
Minifters, in our more Early rimes, did nor 
ufe to Expatiate with fuch a Significant and 
Admirable Variety in their Prayers before their 
Sermons, as many of our Later Times have 
attained unto: Nor indeed Then did They, nor 
Still do We, count all Forms of Prayer Simply 
Unlawful. But the more General Improve- 
ments and Expreflions of The Gift of Prayer 
in our Minifters, have Since been the matter 
of Obfervation ; and particularly Mr. Norton, 
therein was truly Admirable f It even Tranf- 
ported the Souls of his Hearers to accompany 
hhn in his Devotions, wherein his Graces would 
make Wonderful Salleys into the vafl Field of 
Entertainments, and Acknowledgments, with 
which we are furnifhed in the New-Covenant, for 
our Prayers. I have heard of a Godly Man. 
in tyfiCich, who after Mr. Norton's going to 
Bofion, would Ordinarily Travel on foot from 
Ipjwich to Bofion, which is about Thirty 
Miles, for nothing but the Weekly Declare. 
there $ and he would profefs, That it wot 
worth a threat Journey, to be a Partaker in 
cue of Mr. Norton's Prayers. This Pattern 
of Prayer in Mr. Norton, had fome Influence 
upon ir, that fince his Time, our Pulpits have 
been fuller than ever of Experimental Demon- 
firations, that the Minilfers of the Gofpel 
may on all Occafions prefent their Supplica- 
tions before God, in the Difcharge of their 
Miniftry, with more Pertinent, more Affeci- 
ing, more Expanded Enlargements, than any 
Form covld Afford unto them. New England 
can fhow, even Toung Minilfers, who never 


— — ■ r * • 

Book III. Tie Hi/lory of New-England. 


did in all all Things Repeat One Prayer twice 
over, in that part of their Miniftry wherein 
we 'are firft of AH, to make Supplications, 
Prayers, Inter cejjions, and Thankfgwings •, and 
yet fometimes, for much more than an hour 
together, they pour out their Souls unto the 
Almighty God in fuch a Fervent, Copious, and 
yet Prober Manner, that their moft Critical 
Auditors, can complain of Nothing Difagree 
able, but profefs themfelves extreamly Edi- 

But our Praying Norton, who while he 
was among us, Pra/d with the Tongue of An- 

gels, is now gone to Praife with the Angels 
for ever. 

Johannes Nortonus, 

§>uh fuerat, Ultra fi quceras, 
Digitus es qui Nefcias. 

Memoria. W ILSO N I A, the L I F E of Mr. JO HN WILSON. 

§ l.nllCH is the Natural Tendency in Hu- 1 For indeed this is the Leaji Thing that we have 
O mane Minds to Poetry, That as 'tis ob- to Relate of that Great Saint •, and according- 

r y-. 

ferved, the Roman hijlorian, in the very firft 
Line of his hiftory, fell upon a Verfe, 

Vrbem Roman, In Principio Reges habuere; 

So the Roman Orator^ though a very Mean 
Poet, yet making an Oration tyr a Good One, 
could not let his Firft Sentence pafs him, with- 
out a perfect Hexameter^ 

In Qua me non Inficior mediocriter Effe. 

If therefore, I were not of all Men the moft 
Unpoetical, my Reader might now expeft an 
Entertainment altogether in Verfe; for I am 
going to write the Life of that NewEnglifh Di- 

ly, it is under a more confiderable Character, 
that I muft now exhibit him, even as a Father 
to the Infant Colonies of New-England. 

§ 2. Mr. John Wilfon, defcending from Emi- 
nent Anceftors. was born at Wind/or in the 
Wonderful Tear 1588. The third Son of Dr. 
William Wilfon, a Prebend of St. Pauls, of fo- 
chefler and of Winfor, and Reftor of r Cliff : 
Having for his Mother, a Neece of Dr. Ed- 
mund Grindal, the moft Worthily Renowned 
Arch-Bifhop of Canterbury. His exa£t Educa- 
tion under his Parents, which betimes Tinged 
him with an Averfation to Vice, and above all, 
to the very fhadow of a Lye, fitted him to un- 
dergo the further Education, which he received 

vine, who had fo nimble a Faculty of putting j in Eaton Colledge, under Udal (and Langley) 
his Devout Thoughts into Verfe, that he Sig- 
nalized himfelf by the Greateft frequency, per- 
haps, that ever Man ufed, of fending Poems to 
allPerfons, in all Places, on all Occafions ; and 
upon this, as well as upon Greater Accounts, 
was a David unto the Flocks of our Lord in the 
Wilder nefs : 

Quicquid tentabat Dicere, Verjus erat ; 

Wherein, if the Curious Reliftied the Piety 
fometimes rather than the Poetry, the Capacity 
of the Moft, therein to be accomodated, muft 
be confidered. But I intend no further Account 
of this matter, than what is given by his Wor- 
thy Son, (Reprinting at Bofton in the Year 
1680. the Verfes of his Father, upon the Fa- 
mous Deliverances of the Englifh Nation Print- 
ed at London, as long ago as the Year 1626.) 
Whofe Words are, What Volumes hath he Pen- 
ned, for the help of Others, in their feveral 
Changes of Condition ? how wo* his Heart full 
oj Good Matter ? And his Verfes paft, like to 
the handkerchiefs earned from Paul to uphold 
the ttifconfolate, anil he. al their Wounded Souls? 

whom now we may venture, after Poor Tom 
Tujfer, to call, The fever eft of Men. Here he 
was moft Remarkably twice delivered from 
drowning -, but at his Book, he made fuch Pro- 
ficiency, that while he was the Leaft Boy in 
the School, he was made a Propojitor-, and 
when the Duke of Biron, Embaflador from the 
French King henry IV. to Queen Elizabeth, vi- 
fited the School, he made a Latin Oration, for 
which the Duke beftowed Three Angels upon 
him. After four Years Continuance at Eaton, 
he was removed unto Cambridge, between the 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Year of his Age ; and 
admitted into Kings Colledge in the Year 1602. 
When he came to ftand for a Fellow/hip in that 
Colledge, his Antipathy to fome Horrid Wicked- 
neflesjwhereto a Deteftable Wretch that had been 
acquainted with him, would have betray'd him, 
caufed that Malicious Wretch by Devifed and 
Accurfed Slanders to ruin fo far the Reputation 
of this Chaft Youth with the other Fellows, 
that had not the Provoft, who was a Serious 
and a Reverend Perfon, interpofed for him, he 
had utterly loft his Priviiedge -, which now by 
the Major Vote he obtained. But this Affliction 
F t f 2 put 


^fhe Hifiory of New-England. Book III. 

put him upon many Thoughts and Prayers be- 
fore the Lord. 

§ 3. He had hitherto -teen according to his 
good Education, very civilly and foberly difpo- 
ied : But being by the good Hand of God, led 
unto the Miniltry of fuch holy Men as Mr. 
Bains, Dr. Taylor, Dr. Chaderton, he was by 
their Sermons enlightned and awakened, unto 
more fpl'rcitous Enquiries after, The one thing 
yet lacking in him. The ferious Difpofitions or 
his Mind, were now fuch, that befides his pur- 
fuance after the Works of Repentance in him- 
lelt, he took no little pains to purfue it in o- 
thers -, efpecially the Malefactors in the Prifons, 
which he vifited with a devout, fedulous, and 
iuccefsful Induftry. Neverthelefs, being fore 
{tailed with Prejudices againff the Puritans of 
thofe Times, as if they had held, he knew not 
well what odd Things, he declined their Ac 
quaintjnce 5 altho' his good Converfation had 
made him to be accounted one of them himfelf. 
Until going to a Bookfellei's Shop, to augment 
his well furnim'd Library, he light upon that 
famous Book of Mr. Richard Rogers, called, 
The Seven Treatifes : Which when he had read, 
he fo aftefted, not only the Matter, but alfo the 
Author of the Book, that he took a Journey 
unto Wethersfield, on purpofe to hear a Sermon 
from that Boanerges. When he had heard the 
Heavenly Paflages that fell from the Lips of 
that worthy Man, privately, as well as pub- 
lickly, and compared therewithal the Writings 
of Greenbampf Dod,ind of lV/7f,efpecially, The 
Pathway to Heaven, written by the Author laft 
mentioned, he faw that they who were Nick- 
named Puritans, were like to be the defirableft 
Companions, for one that intended his own 
everlalfing Happinefs ; and purfuant unto the 
Advice which he had from Dr. Ames, he af- 
fociated himfelf with a Pious Company in 
the Univerfity -, who kept their Meetings in 
Mr. Wilfon's Chamber, for Prayer, Faiting, 
Holy Conference, and the Exercifes of true De- 

§ 4. But now perceiving many good Men to 
fcruple many of the Rites pra&ifed and impofed 
in the Church of England, he furnifhed himfelf 
■with all the Books that he could find written on 
the Cafe of Conformity, both Pro and Con, and 
pondered with a molt Confcientious Delibera- 
tion, the Arguments on both fides produced. He 
was hereby fo convinced of the Evil in Confor- 
mity, that at length, for his obfervable OmifTi- 
on, of certain Uninttituted Ceremonies in the 
Worfhip of God, the Bifhop of Lincoln then 
vifiting the Univerfity, pronounced upon him 
the Sentence of Qiiindenum ; that is, that befides 
other Mortifications,he muff within fifteen Days 
have been expelled, if he" continued in his Of- 
fence. His Father being hereof advifed, with 
all Paternal Affe&ion, wrote unto him to Con- 
form -, and at the fame time interceded with the 
Bifhop, that he might have a Quarter of a Year 
allowed him ; in which time, if he could not 
be reduced , he fhould then leave his Fel- 
lowfhip in the Colled ge. Hereupon he fent 

him unto feveral Doftors of Grear Fame, to get 
his Objections refolved ; but when much Di- 
fcourfe, and much Writing, had paifed between 
them, lie was rather the more confirmed in his 
Principles about Church-Reformation. Where- 
fore his Father, then diverting him from the 
Defigns of the Mmifiry, difpofed him to the 
Inns of Court ■, where he fell into Acquaintance 
with fome young Gentlemen, who aflbciatcd 
with him in conftant Exercifes of Devotion ■, to 
which Meetings the repeated Sermons of Dr. 
Gouge were a continual Entertainment : And 
here it was, that he came into the Advantage- 
ous Knowledge of the Learned Scultetus, Chap- 
lain to the Prince Palatine of the Rhine, then ma- 
king fome ftay in England. 

§ 5. When he had continued Three Years at 
the Inns of Court, his Father difcerning his Di- 
fpofition to be a Minijlcr of the Go/pel, permit- 
ted his proceeding Mafler of Arts, in the Uni- 
verfity of Cambridge ; but advifed him to ad 
drefs another Colledge, than that where he had 
formerly met with Difficulties. Dr. Cary, who 
was then Vice Chancellor , underltanding his 
former Circumlrances, would not Admit him 
without Subfcription ; but he refufed to Sub- 
fcribe. In this Diftrels he repaired unto his Fa 
ther, at whofe Houfe there happened then to 
be prefent, the Countefs of Bedford's chief Gen- 
tleman, who had Bufinefs with the Earl of 
Northampton, the Chancellor of the Univerfity. 
And this Noble Perfon, upon the Information 
which that Gentleman gave him of the matter, 
prefently wrote a Letter to the Vice-Chancellor, 
on the behalf of our young Wilfon ; whereupon 
he received his Degree, atjd continued a while 
after this, in £«ta/&tt7-Colledge : From whence 
he made frequent and ufeful Vifits unto his 
Friends in the Counties adjoining, and became 
further fitted for his intended Service. But while 
he was pairing under thefe Changes, he took up 
a Refolution which he thus expreffed before the 
Lord : That if the Lord would grant him a Li- 
berty of Confidence, with Purity of Worfhip, he 
would be content, yea thankful, thd it were at the 
furthermofl End of the World. A rnoft Prophe- 
tical Refolution ! 

§ 6. At length preaching his firft Sermon at 
Newport, he Jet his Hand unto that Plough, front 
whence he never afterwards looked back : Not 
very long after which, his Father lying on his 
Deathbed, he kneeled, in his Turn, before him, 
for his Bleffing, and brought with him for a (hare 
in that Bleffing, the Vertuous young Gentlewo- 
man, the Daughter of the Lady Mansfield, (Wi- 
dow of Sir John Mansfield, Matter of the Mino- 
ries) and the Queen's Surveyor) whom he de- 
figned afterwards to marry : Whereupon the old 
Gentleman faid, Ah, John, J have taken much 
Care about thee, fuch time as thou waft in the U- 
niverfity, becaufc thou wouldcfi not Conform ; / 
would fain have brought thee to fome higher Pre- 
ferment than thou haji yet attained unto : I fee 
thy Conjcience is very fcrupulous, concerning 
fome things that have been obferved and impojed 
in the Church : Ncverthelefs, I have rejoiced to 


Book 111. 7 be Hi/lory of New-England. 


fee the Grace and Year of God in thy Heart -, and ; 
feeing thou haft kept a good Cortfcience hitherto, 
and walked according to thy Light, jo doftill -, and 
go by the Rides of God's Holy Word : The Lord 
blefs thee, and her, whom thou haft chofen to be 
the Companion of thy Life .' Among other places 
where he now preached, Moreciake was one ; 
where his Nrm Conformity expofed him to the 
Rage of Perfecution •, bur by the Friendfhip of 
the Juflice, namely Sir William Bird, a Kinf 
man of his Wile , and by a Miitake of the 
Informers, the Rage of that Storm was mo 

§ 7. After this he lived as a Chaplain fuecef- 
fively, in Honourable and Religious Families •, 
and at laft was invited unto the Houfe of the 
molt Pious Lady Scudamore. Here Mr. Wilfon 
obferving the Difcourfe of the Gentry at the 
Table, on the Lord's Day, to be too difagreea 
ble unto the devout Frame to be maintained on 
fuch a day, at length he zealoufly flood up at 
the Table, with Words to this purpofe, I will 
make bold to /peak a Word or two : This is the 
Lord's Holy Day, and we have been hearing his 
Word, and after the Word preached, every one 
Jhould think, andfpeak about fucb things cm have 
been delivered in the Name of God, and not la- 
vijh out the time in Difcourfe s about Hawks and. 
Hounds. Whereupon a Gentleman then prefent 
made this handfome and civil Anfwer : Sir, We 
deferve all of us to be thus reproved by you ; this 
is indeed the Sabbath-day, and we jhould furely 
have better Difcourfe ; I hope it will be a Warn- 
ing to us. Notwithltanding this, the next Lord's 
Day, the Gentry at the Table were at their Old 
Notes -, which caufed Mr. Wilfon again to tell 
them, That the Hawks which they talk 'd of were 
the Birds that picked up the Seed of the Word, af- 
ter the fowing of it ; and pray'd them, That their 
Talk might be of fuch things, at might fanSijie 
the Day, andedifie their own Souls : Which cau- 
fed the former Gentleman to renew his former 
Thankfulnefs for the Admonition. But Mr. 
Leigh, the Lady's Husband, was very angry ; 
whereof when the Lady advifed Mr. Wilfon, 
wifhing him to fay fomething that might fatif- 
fie him, he replied, Good Madam, I know not 
wherein 1 have given any jujl Offence ; and there- 
fore I know of no Satisfaction that I owe : Tour 
Ladifhip has invited me to preach the good Word 
of God among you ; and fo I have endeavoured 
according to my Ability : Now fuch Difcourfe a* 
this, on the Lord's Day, is profane and difordcr- 
ly : If your Husband like me not, I will be gone. 
When the Lady informed her Husband how pe 
remptory Mr. Wilfon was in this matter, he 
mended his Countenance and Carriage •, and 
the Effect of this Reproof was, that unfuitable 
Difcourfe, on the Lord's Day, was cured among 

§ 8. Removing from this Family, after he 
had been a while at Henly, he continued for 
three Years together, preaching at four places, 
by turns, which lay near one another, on the 
Edges of Suffolk, namely Bumfted, Stoke, Clare, 
and Candijh. Here fome of Sudbury happening 

to hear him, they invited him to fucceed the 
eminent old Mr. Jenkins, with which Invita- 
tion he cheerfully complied, and the more cheer- 
fully becaufeof his Opportunity to be near old 
Mr. Richard Rogers, from whom afterwards 
when dying, he received a Bleffing among his 
Children ; yea, to encourage his Acceptance of 
this place, the very Reader of the Parifh did 
fubfcribe, with many Scores of others, their 
Defires of it ; and yet he accepted not the Pj 
ftoral Charge of the Place, without a Solemn 
Day of Prayer with Faffing, (wherein the Neigh- 
bouring Minifters affiff ed) at his Elefrion: Great 
Notice was now taken of the Succefs, which 
God gave unto his Labours, in this famous 
Town ■, among other Inftances whereof, one was 
this : A Tradefman much given to Stealing, as 
well as other profane and vicious Practices, one 
Day feeing People flock to Mr. Wilforfs Lecture, 
thought with himfelf, Why fhould I tarry at home 
to work, when fo many go to hear a Sermon ? 
Wherefore, for the fake of Company, he went 
unto the Leclure too •, but when he came, he 
found a Sermon, as it were, particularly dire- 
cted unto himfelf, on Eph. 4. 28. Let him that 
hath ftole, fteal no more ; and fuch was the Im- 
prefhon thereof upon his Heart, that from this 
time he became a changed and pious Man. 

§ p. But if they that will live godiily muftfuf 
fer Perfection, a peculiar (hare of it mult fall 
upon them, who are zealous and ufeful Inftru- 
ments to make others live fo. Mr. Wilfon had 
a fhare of this Perfecution •, and one A— n, was 
a principal Author of it. This A — n had for- 
merly been an Apprentice in London, where the 
Bifhops detained him fome Years, under an hard 
Imprifonment, becaufe he refufed the Oath Ex 
Officio, which was preffed upon him to tell, Whe- 
ther he had never heard his Majier pray againft 
the Bifhop ? 

The Charity of well-difpofed People now fup- 
ported him, till he got abroad, recommended by 
his hard Sufferings, unto the good Affecf ions of 
the Puritans, at whofe Meetings he became fo 
converfant, and thereupon fuch a forward and 
zealous Profeffor, that at length he took upon 
him, under the Confidence of fome Latinity, 
whereof he was Owner, to be a fort of Preacher 
among them. This Man would Reverence Mr. 
Wilfon as his Father, and yet upon the Provo- 
cation of feeing Mr. Wilfon more highly Valued 
and Honoured than himfelf, he not only became 
a Conformift himfelf, but alfo, as Apoltates ufe 
to be, a malignant and violent Perfecutor of 
thofe from whom he had Apoftatized. By his 
means Mr. Wilfon was put into trouble in the 
Bifhops Courts ; from whence his Deliverance 
was at length obtained by certain powerful Me- 
diators. And once by his Tricks, the moft no- 
ted Purfivant of thofe Times, was employed 
for the feizing of Mr. Wilfon -, but tho' he fei- 
zed upon many Scores of the People coming 
from the Lecture, he difmilfed the reft, becaule 
he could not meet with Mr. Wilfon himfelf, 
who by a fpecul Providence, went out of his 



The Hiftory of New-England. Book III, 

direct Way, to vifit a worthy Neighbour, and 
fo efcaped this mighty Hunter. 

Afterwards an eminent Lady, happening in- 
nocently to make fome Comparifon between the 
preaching of Mr. Wilfon, and one Dr. B. of B. 
the angry Doctor presently applied himfelf unto 
the Bilhop of London, who lor a while fufpen- 
ded him. And when that Storm was over, he 
with feveral other worthy Miniflers, came to be 
wholly fiienced in another, that was raifed upon 
Complaints made by one Mr. Bird, unto the 
Bifliop of Norwich againft them. Concerning 
this /// Bird, there happened one paffage here- 
upon, which had in it fomething extraordinary. 
Falling very fick, he had the help of a famous 
and skilful Phyfician, one Dr. Duke of Colche- 
Jler -, who having left his Patient, in his Opi- 
nion, fafely recovered, gave Mr.Wilfon a Vifit, 
with an Account of it. Recovered! fays Mr. 
WilJ'n/i, Tou are miflaken, Mr. Doctor ; he's a 
dead Man ! The Do&or anfwered, If ever I re 
covered a fick Man in my Life, that Man is re- 
covered. But Mr. Wilfon replied, No, Mr. 
Doclor, fas a dead Man, hefhall not live : Mark 
my Words.! The Do£lor imiled -, but for all that, 
before they parted, the News was brought them, 
that the Man was dead indeed, and the Lord 
known by the Judgment which he executed. But 
at laft Mr. Wilfon obtained from the truly No- 
ble Earl of Warwick, to fign a Letter, which the 
Earl bid himfelf to draw up, unto the Bilhop, 
on his behalf; by the Operation of which Let- 
ter, his Liberty, for the Exercife of his Mini- 
ftry, was again procured. This Bifhop was the 
well-known Dr. Harfnet, who a little while 
after this, travelling Northward, upon Defigns 
of Mifchief againft the Reforming Paftors and 
Chriftians there, certain Miniftersof the South 
fet apart a Day for folemn Falling and Prayer, 
to implore the Help of Heaven againft thofe 
Defigns ; and on that very Day, he was taken 
with a Sore and an odd Fit, which caufed him 
to flop at a blind Houfe of Entertainment on the 
Road, where he fuddenly died. 

J$ 10. At laft, being persecuted in one Country, 
he mujlfiee into another. The Plantation of a 
New Engiifh Colony was begun : And Mr. Wil- 
fon, with fome of his Neighbours, embarked 
themfelves in the Fleet, which came over thi- 
ther in the Year 1630. Where he applied him- 
felf with with all the Vigor imaginable, to 
encourage the poor People, under the Difficul- 
ties of their New Plantation. This good People 
buried near Two hundred of their Number, 
within a Quarter of a Year after their firft 
Landing •, which caufed Mr. Wilfon particularly 
to endeavour their Confolation, by preaching 
on Jacob's not being difheartned by the Death 
of his neareft Friends in the way, when God 
had called him to remove. And how remarka- 
bly, perhaps I might fay, excejfively liberal he 
was, in employing his Eftate for the Relief of 
the Needy, every fuch one fo beheld him, as to 
reckon him the Father of them all : Yea, the 
poor Indians themfelves alfo tafted of his Bounty. 
If it were celebrated, as the Glory of Bellar- 

mine, that he would fell his Goods, to convert 
them into Alms for the Poor ; yea, that Quadam 
die proprium Atramentarium Argenteolum, ut 
ditaret hopes, inter pignora obligavit : Our Mr. 
Wilfon, tho' a greater Difclaimer of Merit than 
Bellarmine was, not only in his Writings, but 
on his Death bed it felf, yet came not behind 
Bellarmine for the extenfion of his Charity. To 
give Inftances of his, even over-doing Liberality, 
would be to do it Injuries ; for indeed they were 
innumerable : He afted as if the Primitive A- 
greement of having all Things in common, had 
been of all Things , the moft agreeable un- 
to him. I fhall Sum up all, in the Lines of 
an elegant Elegy, which Mr. Samuel Bache, an 
Ingenious Merchant, made upon him, at' his 
Death : 

When as the Poor want Succour, where a he 

Can fay, all can be /aid, Extempore ? 

Vie with the Lightning, and melt down to th' 

Their Souls, and make themfelves their Pockets 

pick ? m 

Where's fuch a Leader, thus hat got the flight 
T' teach holy Hands to War, Fingers to right ; 
Their Arrow hit ? Bowels to Bowels meant it, 
God, Chrift, and Saints, accept, but Wilfon 

fent it. 
Which way fo e'er the Propofitions move, 
The Ergo of hts Syllogifms Love. 
So bountiful to all: But if the Poor 
Was Cbrifiian too, all's Money went, andmore, 
His Coat, Rug, Blanket, Gloves ; he thought 

their due 
W as all his Money, Garments, one of two. 

But he was moft fet upon the Main Bufinefs 
of this new Plantation ; which was, To fettle 
and enjoy the Ordinances of the Gqfpel, andWor- 
Jhip the Lord Jefus Chrift according to his own In- 
ftitutions : And accordingly, he, with the Go- 
vernour, and others that came with him on the 
fame Account, combined into a Church-State, 
with all convenient Expedition. 

§ 11. Mr. Wilfon s Removal to New England, 
was rendred the more difficult, by the Indilpofi- 
tion of his deareft Confort thereunto -, but he 
hoping., that according to a Dream which he 
had before his coming hither, That he f aw here 
a little Temple rifing cut of the Ground, which 
by Degrees increafed into a very high and large 
Dimenfions, the Lord had a Temple to build in 
thefe Regions ; refolved never to be difcoura- 
ged from his Undertaking. Wherefore having 
firft fent over an encouraging Account of the 
good Order, both Civil and Sacred, which now 
began to be eltablifhed in the Plantation, he did 
himfelf return into England, that he might- fur- 
ther purfue the Effeft thereof ; and accordingly 
he made it his Bufinefs, where ever he came, to 
draw as many good Men as he could, into this 
Country with him. His Wife remained unper- 
fwadable , till upon Prayer with Faffing before 
the Almighty Turner of Hearts, he received an 
Anfwer, in her becoming willing to accompany 


Book III. 7 be Hi/lory of New-England. 



him over an Ocean into a Wildernefs. A very 
forrowtul Farting they now had from their old 
Friends in Sudbury, but a fafe and quick paffage 
over the Atlantic -, and whereas the Church of 
Bofton, obferving that he arrived not at the 
time expelled, had fet apart a Day of Humilia- 
tion on his behalf, his joyful Arrival before the 
Dav,caufed them to turn it into a Day ofThankf 
giving. But Mrs. Wilfon being thus perfwaded 
over, into the Difficulties of an American De 
fart, I have heard, that her Kinfman, old Mr. 
Dod, for her Confolation under thole Difficul- 
ties, did fend her a Prefenr, with an Advice, 
which he had in it, fomething of Cunofity. He 
fent her, at the fame time, a Brafs Counter, a 
Silver Crown, and a Gold Jacobus -, all of them 
feverally wrapped up : With this InftrucVion 
unto the Gentleman who carried it : That he 
fhould firft of all deliver only the Counter, and 
if fhe receivYl it with any fhew of Difcontent, 
he fhould then take no further Notice of her -, 
but if (he gratefully refentei that fmall Thing, 
for the fake of the Hand it came from, he fhould 
then go on to deliver the Silvered lb the Gold : 
But withal atfure her, That Juch mould be the 
Dtfpenfations of God unto her, and the other good 
People of New-England : If they would be con- 
tent and thankful with Juch little Things, ,u 
God at fir ft be flow d upon them, they fhould, in 
time, have Silver andGold enough. Mrs. Wilfon 
accordingly, by her cheerful Entertainment of 
the leaft Remembrance from good old Mr. Dod, 
gave the Gentleman occafion to go through with 
his whole Prefent, and the annexed Advice ; 
which luth in a good Meafure been accom- 

§ 12. It was not long before Mr. Wilfon 's 
Return to England once more, was obliged by 
the Death of his Brother, whofe Will, becaufe 
it bequeathed a Legacy of a Thoufand Pounds 
unto New-England, gave Satisfaction unto our 
Mr. Wilfon, tho' it was otherwife injurious unto 
himfelf. A Tedious and Winter- Voyage he now 
had ; being twice forced into Ireland, where 
firft at Galloway, then at Kingjale, afterwards at 
Bandon- Bridge, he occafionally, but vigorouily 
and fuccefslully ferved the Kingdom of God. At 
lilt he got fate among his old friends at Sudbu- 
ry ■, according to the Prediction which he had let 
fall in his former Earewel unto them ; It way be 
John Wilfon may come and fee Sudbury once a- 
gain. From whence, vifiting Mr. Naihanael 
Rogers, at AJfington, where he arrived before 
their Morning Prayers ■, Mr. Rogers asked him 
to fay fomething upon the Chapter that was 
read, which happened then to be the firft Cha 
fter in the firft Book of Chronicles ; and from a 
Paragraph of meer proper Naurs, that feemed 
altogether barren of any edifying Matter, he 
raifed fo many fruitful and ufeful Notes, that a 
pious Peribn then prefenr, amazed therear,could 
have no reft, without going over into America 
after him. Having difpatched his Affairs in 
England, he again embarked for New England, 
in Company with four Minifters, and near two 
hundred Palfengers, whereof fome were Perfons 

of confiderable Quality : But they had all been 
loft by a large Leak fprang in the Ship, if 
God had not, on a Day of Solemn Fafting, 
and Prayer, kept on board for tnar pulpoie, 
mercifully dilcovered this dangerous Leak unto 

§15. That Phtsnix of his Age, Dr. A 
would lay. That if he might have 
the beft Condition that he could propound . 
himfelf on -this fide Heaven, h would lk^ .'. 
might be the Teacher of a Congregate nal Chunb 
whereof Mr. Wilfon jhquld be the Fafiwr: This 
Happinefs, this Priviledge, now had Mr. Cotton 
in the Church of Bojion. But Satan envious at 
the Profperity of thatfkmrifhiug Church, railed 
a Storm of Axlinomian, and Familiftical Errors, 
which had like to have thrown all into in ir- 
recoverable Confuiion, if the good God had not 
remarkably blefTed the Endeavours ot a Synod -, 
and Mr; Jlilfon, tor a while, met with hard 
meafure for his early opposition to thofe Errors, 
until by the help ot that Synod, the Sterna was 
weathered out. At the beginning of that Ai- 
fembly, after much Dilcourfe again!? the Un- 
fcriptural Enlhufufms, and Revelations, then 
by fome contended for, Mr. Wilfon propofed, 
Jou that are again ft thefe things, and that arc fo'j 
the Spirit and the Word together, holdup your 
Hands ! And the multitude of Hands then held 
up, was a comfortable and encouraging Intro- 

duction unto the other Proceedings. At the 
Conclufion of that Ajjembly, a Catalogue of the 
Errors to be condemned, was produced -, where- 
of when one asked, What fhall be done with 
them ? The wonted Zeal of Mr. Wi'fon made 
this blunt Anfwer, Let them go to the Devil of 
Hell, from whence they came. 

In the midft of thefe Temptations alfo, he 
was by a Lot, chofen to accompany the Forces, 
then fent forth upon an Expedition againft the 
Pequod Indians ; which he did with fo much 
Eaith and Joy, that he profeffed himi'dt' <u fully 
fatkfied, that God would give the Englifh a Vi- 
tlory over thoje Enemies, as if he had Jccnjhe 
Victory already obtained. And the whole Coun- 
try quickly fhared with him in theConfolations 
of that remarkable Victory. 

§ 14. In the Wildernefs he met with his Dif- 
ficulties ; for beiides the lots of Houles, divers 
times by Eire, which yet he bore with fuch a 
cheerful Submifiion, that once one that met him 
on the Road, informing of him, Sir, I have J ad 
News for you ; while you have beer, abroad, your 
Houfe h burnt. His firft Anfwer was, Blejfed 
be God : He has burnt this Houjo, becaufe he in- 
tends to give me a better. (Which accordingly 
came to pafs.J 

He was alio put upon complying with the-In- 
dinations of his Eldoft Son to Travel -, who ac- 
cordingly travelled, firft into Holland, then into 
Italy, where he proceeded a Doffor of Ph- 
and fo returned into England, excellently un- 
adorned with all Che Accomplithrnerts oi a molt 
pious and ufeful Gentleman. - But this worthy 
Perfon died about the Year 10^8. And this b 1 
ftencd the Do :th of his C '!'•- Year 




The Hiftory of New-Fngland, Book III. 

came about ; which more than Doubled the 
Grief of his Father. And thefe Afflictions 
were yet further embittered by the Death of 
his Eldeit Daughter Mrs. Rogers, in Child-bed 
with herfirlf Child ; at whole Interment, though 
he could not but exprefs a deal of Sorrow, yet 
he did it with fo much Patience, that In Token, 
he laid, of his Grounded and Joyfd Hopes, to 
meet her again in the Morning of the Refurre 
clion, and of his Willingnefs to refign her into 
the Hands of him who would make all Things 
work together for good, he himfelf took the 
Spade, and threw in the firft Shovelful of Earth 
upon her. And not long after, he buried Three 
or Four of his Grandchildren by another Daugh- 
ter Mrs. Danfort h fyet living with her Wor- 
thy Son in Law Edward Bromfield, Efq; in Bo- 
fton) whereof one Wing by the Walls, on a 
Day of Publick Thankfgiving, this Holy Man 
then preached a molt Savoury Sermon on Job 
i. 2i; The Lord hath given, and the Lord hath 
taken away, blefed be the Name of the Lord. 
The next Child, although fo weakly that all 
defpaircd of its Life, his Prophetical Grand- 
father faid, Call him John, / believe in God, 
he jhall live, and be a Prophet loo, and do God 
Service in his Generation ! Which is, at this 
Day, fulfilled in Mr. John Danforth, the pre- 
lent Paftor to the Church of Dorchepr. En- 
countring with fuch, and many other Exercifes 
his Years rolled away, till he had lerved New. 
England, Three Years before Mr. Cotton's com- 
ing over, Twenty Years with him ; Ten Years 
with Mr. Norton, and Four Years after him. 

§ 15. In his Younger Time, he had been 
ufed unto a more Methodical way of Preaching, 
and was therefore admired above many, by no 
lefs Auditors than Dr. Goodwin, Mr. Burroughs, 
and Mr. Bridge, when they travelled from 
Cambridge into Effex, on purpofe to obfervethe 
Minilters in that County ; but after he became 
a Paflor, joined with fuch Illuminating Teach- 
ers, he gave himfelf a Liberty to Preach more 
after the Primitive Manner; without any di- 
itincF Propofitions, but chiefly in Exhortations 
and Admonitions, and good wholefome Councils, 
rending to excite good Motions in the Minds 
of his Hearers ; (but upon the fame Texts that 
were Do&rinally handled by his Colleague in- 
ftantiy before:) and yet fometimes his Pafto- 
ral Difcourfes had fuch a Spirit in them, that 
Mr. She par d would fay, Methinks I hear an 
Apcfik^ zvhen I hear this Alan ! Yea, even one 
of his Ex Tempore Sermons, has been fince his 
Death, counted worthy to be publilhed unto 
the World. The Great Lefture of Bo fton, be- 
ing difappointed of him, that Ihould have 
Preached it, Mr. Wilfon Preached that Le&ure 
on a Text occuring in the Chapter that had been 
read that Morning in his Family, Jer. 19. 8.— 
Neither hearken to your Dreams, which you 
caufe to be Dreamed; from whence he gave a 
Seafonable Warning unto the People a gainft 
the Dreams, wherewith fundry forts of Opini- 
onilfs, have been endeavouring to led uce them. 
It wss the laft Bofton Lecfure that ever he 

Preached (Nov. 16. 1655.) and one who writ 
after him, in Short hand, about a Dozen 
Years after Publilhed it. But his laft Sermon 
he Preached at Roxbury Left ure, for his molt 
Worthy Sonin-Law Mr. Danfort h\ and after 
he had read his Text, which was in the Begin- 
nings and Conclufions of fundry of the laft 
Pfa/ms, with a Seraphical Voice, he added, If 
I were f ure this were the laft Sermon that ever 
1 fbpuld Preach, and thefe 'the laft Words that 
ever Ifhould [peak, yet I would, ft ill 'fay, Halle- 
lujah, Hallelujah, Praife ye the Lord ? Thus 
he ended his Min'iftry on Earth, thus he began 
his Poffejfwn of Heaven with Hallelujahs. 

§ 16. Indeed, if the Pifture of rhisGW, and 
therein Great Man, were to be exaftly given, 
Great Zeal, with Great Love, would be the 
two Principal Strokes, that joined with Ortho- 
doxy, Ihould make up his Pourtraiture. He 
had the Zeal of a Phineeis, I had almoft faid 
of a Seraphim, in telrifying againft every thing 
that he thought offenfive unto God. The Opi- 
niomfts, which attempted at any time to de- 
bafe the Scripture, or confound the Order, em- 
braced in our Churches, underwent the molt 
pungent Animadverlions of this his Devout 
Zeal; whence, when a certain Aflembly of 
People, which he approved not, had fet up in 
Bofton, he charged all his Family, that they 
Ihould never dare, fo much as once to enter 
into that Aflembly ; 1 charge you, faid he, That 
you do not once go to hear them ; for whatsoever, 
they may pretend, they will rob you of Ordinan- 
ces, rob you of your Souls, rob you of your God. 
But though he were thus, like John, a Son of 
Thunder againft Saducers, yet he was like that 
Blefled and Beloved Apoltle alfo, all made up 
of Love. He was full of AffeUion, and ready- 
to help and relieve and comfort the Diftreffed-^ 
his Houfe was Renowned for Hofpitality, and 
his Purfe was continually emptying it felt into 
the hands of the Needy : From which Difpofi- 
tion of Love in him, there once happened this 
Paffage •, when he was beholding a great Mu- 
tter of Souldiers, a Gentleman then prefent 
faid unto him, Sir, V 11 tell you a great Thing ; 
here's a mighty Body of People, and there is not 
Seven of them all, but what loves Mr. Wilfon ; 
but rhat Gracious Man prefently and plealant. 
ly replied, Sir, Vll tell you as good a Thing as 
that, here's a mighty Body of People, and there 
is not fo much en one of them all, but Mr. Wil- 
fon loves him. Thus he did, by his own Exam- 
ple, notably Preach that Leflbn, which a Gen- 
tleman found in the Anagram of his Name, 
Wifh no one ill : And thus did he continue, to 
Do every one good, until his Death gave the. 
fame Gentleman Occafion thus to Elegize upon 
him : 

Now may Celeftial Spirits ling yet Higher, 
Since one more's added to their Sacred Quire; 
Wilfon the Holy, whofe Good Name doth frill,- 
In Language Sweet, bid us [Wifh no 111.'] 


Book III. The Hiftory of New-Fngland. 


§ 17. He was one, that confulting not only 
his own Edification, but the Encouragement 
of the Miniftry, and of Religion, with an In- 
defatigable Diligence vifited the Congregations 
of the Neighbouring Towns, at their Weekly 
teSures, until the Weakneffes of Old Age ren- 
dered him uncapable. And it was a delightful 
thing then to fee upon every Recurring Oppor- 
tunity, a large Company of Chriftians, and 
even Magiftrates and Minifiers among them, 
and Mr. Wilfon in the Head of them, vifiting 
the Lcffures in all the Vicinage, with fuch Hea- 
venly Difcourfes on the Road, as caufed the 
Hearts of the Difciples to burn within them : 
And indeed it was remarked, That though the 
Chriftians then fpent lefs Time in the Shop, or 
Field,than they do now, yet they did in both prof 
per more. But for Mr. Wilfon}. am faying,That 
a Left ure was a Treafure unto hirr^ he Priz'd 
it, he fought it, until Old Age at length brought 
with it a Sicknefs, which a long while confin'd 
him. In this Illnefs he took a Solemn Farewel 
of the Minifiers, who had their Weekly Meet- 
ings at his Hofpitable Houfe, and were now 
come together from all parts, at the Anniver- 
fary Elettion for the Government of the Colony. 
They asked him to declare folemnly, what he 
thought might be the Sins, which provoked the 
Difpleafure of God againft the Country. 
Whereto his Anfwer was, I have long feared 
fever al Sins j Whereof, one, he faid, was Co- 
rahijm -, "That is, when People rife up as Corah 
" againft their Minifters y as if they took too 
V much upon them, when indeed they do but 
" rule for Chrift, and according to Chrift •, yet 
" it is nothing for a Brother to ftand up and 
" oppofe, without Scripture or Reafon, the 
" Word of an Elder, faying [lamnot fatisfied!] 
f And hence, if he do not like the Adminiftra- 
" tion (be it Baptifm or the like) he will turn 
" his back upon God and his Ordinances, and 
" go away. And for our Neglecf: of Baptifing 
" the Children of the Church, thofe that fome 
" call Grand- children, I think God is provoked 
B by it. Another Sin (faid he) I take to be 
w the making light of, and not fubjefting to 
" the Authority of Synods, without which the 
<c Churches cannot long fubfift. 

§ 18. Afterwards, having folemnly with 

Prayer, and Particularly and very Prophetically 

Bleffed his Relations and Attendants, he now 

thus comforted himfelf, I /hall e'er long be 

with my old Friends, Dr. Prefion, Dr. Sibs, 

Dr. Taylor, Dr. Gouge, Dr. Ames, Mr. Cotton, 

Mr. Norton, my Inns of Court Friends, and my 

Confort, Children, Grand- children in the King 

dom of God. And when fome then prefent 

magnified God for making him a Man of fuch 

Ufe, and lamented themfelves in their own 

Lofs of him, he replied, Alas, Alas-, Ufe no 

fuch Words concerning me -, for I have been an 

Unprofitable Servant, not worthy to be called a 

Servant of the Lord : But I muftfiy, The Lord 

be merciful to me a Sinner, and I muftfiy, Let 

thy tender Metcies cDtne unto me, O Lord, 

even thy Salvation according to thy Word. 

The Evening before he died, his Daughter ask- 
ing him, Sir, Hov: do you do? He held up his 
hand, and laid, Vanifhing Things! Vanifhing 
Things'. But he then made a paoft affectionate 
Prayer, with and for his Friends -, and lb quiet- 
ly tell Afleep on Auguft 7. 1 667. in the Seventy 
Ninth Year of his Age. Thus expired that Re- 
verend Old Man: Of whom, when he left 
England, an Eminent Peribnage, laid, New- 
England fhall flour ijh, free from all General 
Defo/ations, as long as that good Man liveth in 
it ! Which was comfortably accomplifhed. He 
was Interred with more than ordinary Solem- 
nity -, and his Neighbour Mr. Richard Mather 
of Dorchefter, thereat lamented the Publick 
Lofs in his Departure, with a Sermon upon 
Zech. 1. 5. Tour Fathers where are they, and 
the Prophets, do they live for ever ? 

§ rp. Being a Man of Prayer, he was very 
much a Man of God ; and a certain Prophetical 
Afflatus, which often direefs the Speeches of 
fuch Men t did fometimes remarkably appear in 
the Speeches of this Holy Man. Inttances 
hereof have been already given. A few more 
fhall now be added. 

Beholding a Young Man extraordinarily Du- 
tiful in all poflible ways of being ferviceable, 
unto his aged Mother, then Weak in Body, and 
Poor in Eftate, he declared unto fome of his 
Family what he had beheld •, adding there- 
withal, I charge you to take notice of what I 
fay ; God will certainly blefs that Toung Man $ 
John Hull (for that was his Name) fhall grow 
Rich, and live to do God good Service in his 
Generation! It came to pafs accordingly, That 
this Exemplary Perfon became a very Rich, as 
well as Emphatically a Good Man, and after- 
wards died a Magiflrate of the Colony. 

When one Mr. Adams, who waited on him 
from Hartford unto Weathers field, was follow- 
ed with the News of his Daughter's being fal- 
len fuddenly and doubtfully fick, Mr. Wilfon 
looking up to Heaven, began mightily to wre- 
file with God for the Life of the Young Wo- 
man : Lord (Taid he) wilt thou now lake away 
thy Servants Child, when thou fee fi he is attend- 
ing on thy Poor unworthy Servant in mofl Chri- 
fiian Kindnefs •, Oh ! do it not ! And then turn- 
ing himfelf about unto Mr. Adams, Brother 
(faid he J / trufil your Daughter fhall live, I be- 
lieve in God fke fhall recover of this Sicknefs ! 
And fo it marvelloufly came to pafs, and fhe 
is now the fruitful Mother of feveral defireable 

A Peauot Indian, in a Canoo, was efpied by 
the Englifh, within Gunfhot, carrying away 
an Englifh Maid, with a Defign to Deftroy her 
or Abufe her. The Souldiers fearing to kill the 
Maid if they (hot at the Indian, asked. Mx.Wilfori'% 
Counfel, who forbad them to fear, and allured 
them, God will direS the Bullet ! They fhot ac- 
cordingly i and killed the Indian, though then 
moving fwiftly upon the Water, and faved the 
Maidixee from all harm whatever, 

Upon the Death of the firft and only Child 

(being an InfantJ of his Daughter Mrs- Dan- 

G g g fortb t 


The Hi/lory of New-England. Book III. 

forth, he made a Poem, 
Lines among the reft, 

wherein were thefe 

What if they part with their beloved one, 
Their fir ft Begotten, and their Only Son ? 
What's this to that which Father Abram 

When his own hands his Only Darling otter d, 
In whom was bound up all his Joy in this 
Life prefent, and bis hope of future Biifs ? 
And what if God their Other Children Call, 
Second, Third, Fourth, fuppofe it fhould be 

What's this to Holy Job, his Trials fad, 
Who neither thefe nor t'other Comforts had ? 
His Life was only given him for a Prey, 
Yet all his Troubles were to Heaven the way; 
Yea to far Greater Bleflings on the Earth, 
The Lord rewarding all his Tears with Mirth. 

And behold, as if that he had been a Vates, 
in both Senfes of it, a Poet and a Prophet, it 
pleas'd God afterwards to give his Daughter a 
Seeond, a Third, and a Fourth Child, and then 
to take them all away at once, even in one 
Fortnights time; but afterwards, happily to 
make up the Lois. 

Once paffing over the Ferry unto a Letture, 
on the other fide of the Water, he took no- 
tice of a Young Man in the Boat, that worded 
it very unhandfomely unto his Aged Father : 
Whereat this Faithful Seer, being much trou- 
bled, faid unto him, Young Man, I advife you 
to repent of your Undutiful Rebellious Carriage 
towards your Father -, J expeU elfe to hear, that 
God Ihif cut you off, before a Twelve-month come 
to an End ! And before this time expired, it 
came to pafs, that this unhappy Youth going 
to the Southward, was their hack'd in pieces, 
by the Pequod Indians. 

A Company of People in this Country, were 
mighty hot upon a Project of removing to Pro- 
vidence, an Ifland in the Weft-Indies -, and a Ve- 
nerable Affembly of the Chief Magiftrates, and 
Mimfters in the Colony, was addreffedfor their 
Council about this undertaking ; which Affem- 
bly laid before the Company very weighty Rea- 
fons to diffwade them from it. A Prime Ring- 
leader in that Bufinefs, was one Venner a Coo- 
per of Salem, the Mad Blade, that afterwards 
perifhed in a Nonfenfical Uproar, which he, 
with a Crew of Bedlamites, pofTeffed like him- 
felf, made in London. This Venner, with 
fome others, now flood up and faid. That not- 
mthftanding what had been offered, they were 
clear in their Call to remove : Whereupon, Mr. 
Wilfon (food up and anfwered, Ay, do you come 
to ask Counfel in Jo weighty a matter as this, 
and to have Help from an Ordinance of God in it ? 
And are you aforehand refolved, that you will go 
on? Well, you may go, if you will ; but you (hall 
not profper. What ? Do you make a Alock of 
God's Ordinance ? And it came to pafs according- 
ly ■, the Eiuerprize was not long after dafhed in 
pieces -, and Venner's precipitating hnpulfes, 
afterwards carried him to a miferable End, 

A Council fitting at a Town, where fome Ec- 
clefiaftical Differences called for the Affiftances 
of the Neighbours to compofe them, there was 
one Man obferved by Mr. Wilfon, to be ex- 
treamly perverfe, and moil unreafonably trou- 
blefome and mifchievous to the Peace of the 
Church there •, Whereupon Mr. Wilfon told the 
Council, he was confident, That the Jealoufy of 
God would fet a Mark upon that Man, and that 
the ordinary Death of Men fhould not bejal him. 
It happened fhortly after, that the Man was 
barbaroufly Butchered by the Salvages ! 

While Mr. Wilfon was Minifter of Sudbury 
in England, there was a noted Peribn who had 
been abfent for fome while among the Papilis. 
This Man returning Home, offered himfelf to 
the Communion ; whereat Mr. Wilfon in the open 
Affembly, fpoke unto him after this manner ; 
" Brother, you here prefent your felf, 3S if you 
" would partake in the Holy Supper of the 
" Lord. You cannot be ignorant ol what you 
'• have done in withdrawing your lelf from our 
" Communion, and how" you have been much 
" converfant for a confiderable while, with the 
" Papiffs, whofe Religion is Antichriftian. 
" Therefore, though we cannot fo abfolutely 
" charge you, God knows, who is the Searcher 
" of all Hearts ; and if you have defiled your 
" felf with their Worfhip and Way, and not 
" repented of it, by offering to partake at this 
" time in the Holy Supper with us, you will 
u eat and drink your own Damnation ; but if 
" you are clear, and have nothing wherewith 
" to charge your felf; you your felf know, up- 
" on this account you may receive. The Man 
did then partake at the Lord's Table, profefling 
his Innocency. But as if the Devil had entered 
into him, he foon went and hanged himfelf. 

In the Circumftances of his own Children, he 
faw many Effe&s of an Extraordinary Faith. 

His Eldeft Son, Edmund, while Travelling 
into the Countries, which the Bloody Popifh 
Inquifition has made a Clime too Torrid for a 
Froteftant, was extreamly expofed: But the 
Prayers of the young Gentleman's continually 
diftreffed Father, for him, were anfwered with 
Signal Prefervations. When he was under 
Examination by the Inquifitors , a Friend of 
the Chief among them, fuddenly arrived •, and 
the Inquifitor not having feen this Friend for 
many Years before, was hereby fo diverted and 
mollified, that he carried the Young Mr. Wil- 
fon to Dinner with him -, and, though he had 
palled hitherto unknown by his true Name, yet 
this Inquifitor could now call him, to his great 
Surprize, by the Name of Mr. Wilfon, and re- 
port unto him the Chancier of his Father, and 
his Fathers Induftry in ferving the Hereticks 
of New-England. But that which I here mod 
of all defign, is an Account of a thing yet more 
Memorable and Unaccountable. For, at ano- 
ther Time, his Father dream't himfelf tranfpor- 
ted into Italy, where he faw a Beautiful Per- 
fon in the Son's Chamber, endeavouring with a 
Thoufand Enchantments, to debauch him; 
I whereupon the Old Gentleman made, and was 


Book ill. The Hiftory of I\ew- England. 


by his Bed-fellow overheard making, firft, Pray- 
ers to God full of Agony, and then Warnings 
unto his Tempted Son, to beware of Defiling 
himfelfwith the Daughter of a Strange God. 
New, fome confiderable while after this, the 
Young Gentleman writes to his Father, that on 
fuch a Night, (which was upon Enquiry found 
the very fame Night & Gentlewoman had careffed 
him, thus and lb (juit according to the Vifwn,) 
and that his Chaftity had been Conquered, if 
he had not been ftrongly poiTelTed with a Senfe 
of his Father's Prayers over him, and Warnings 
unto him, lor his Efcape from the Pits, where- 
into do fall the Abhorred of the Lord. 

His other Son, John, when a Child, fell 
upon his Head from a Loft four Stories high, 
into the Street-,, from whence he was taken up 
for Dead, and fo battered and bruifed and 
bloody with his Fall, that it tfruck Horror in- 
to the Beholders : But Mr. Wilfon had a won- 
derful Return of his Prayers in the Recovery of 
the Child, both unto Life and unto Senfe ; 
infomuch, that he continued unto Old Age, a 
Faithful, Painful, Ufeful Minifler of the Go- 
fpel; and but lately went from the Service of 
the Church in Medfield, unto the Glory of the 
Church Triumphant. 

After Mr. Wilfon's Arrival at New-England, 
his Wife, who had left off bearing of Children 
for many Years, brought him another Daugh- 
ter -, which Lamb was indeed unto him as a 
Daughter •, and he would prefent her unto other 
Minifters, for their Blefling, with great Affe- 
ftion, faying, This is my New-England Token I 
But this Child fell fick of a Malignant Fever, 
wherein fhe was gone fo far, that every one 
defpaired of her Life -, except her Father, who 
called in feveral Minifters, with other Chri- 
ftians, unto a Faft on that Occafion ; and hear- 
ing the Prayers of Mr. Cotton for her, found 
his Heart fo raifed, that he confidently decla- 
red, While I heard Mr. Cotton at Prayer, I was 
confident the Child fhould Live ! And the Child 
accordingly did Live •, yea, fhe is to this Day 
alive, a very Holy Woman, adorned like them of 
Old Time, with a Spirit of Great Price ! 

The BleJJings pronounced by Mr. Wilfon, upon 
many Perfons and Affairs, were obferved fo 
Prcphetical,and dpecially his Death-bed Bleflings 
upon his Children and Grand-children werefo, 
that the mo(t confiderable Perfons in the Coun- 
try thought it not much to come from far, and 
bring their Children with them, for the Enjoy- 
ment of his Patriarchal BenediUions. For which 
caufe, Mr. Thomas Shepard, in an Elegy upon 
him, at his Death Pathetically thus expreffed it ■, 

Whofo of Abraham, Mofes, Samuel, reads, 

Or of Elijah's or Elijba's Deeds, 

Would furely fay, Their Spirit and Power was 

And think there were a Metempfychofts. 
As Aged John, th' Apolfle us'd to Blefs 
The People, which theyjudg'd their Happinefs, 
So did we count it worth our Pilgrimage 
Unto him for his, in his Age. 

Thefe were Extrordinary Paffages ; Many of 
them, are things which Ordinary Chriftians may 
more fifely Ponder and Wonder, than Expell in 
CW-Days ! Though fometimes Great Reformers, 
and Great Sufferers, muft be fignalized with 
them. I know very well what Livy fays, Da 
tur hxc Venia Antiauitaik, ut mifcendo Humana 
Divink, Primordia Urbium Augufiiora faciat : 
But I have been far from impofing the; leal! 
Fable upon the World in reporting fuch Extra- 
ordinary Paffages of Mr. Wilfon, or any other 
Great Conjejfor y by whom the Beginnings of this 
Country were made Illuftrious ; there are Wit 
nefTes enough, yet living of them. 

§20. There, is a certain little Sport of Wit, 
in Anagrammatizing the Names of Men •, which 
was uled as long ago at leaft as the Days of 
Old Lycophron: And which fometimes has af 
forded Reflections very Monitory, as Alftedius 
by his juft Admirers changed into Sed'ulita* -, 
or very Char ail erifing, as Renal us Cartefim, by 
his Difciples turn'd into, Tufcis res Nature-, 
or very Satyr teal, as when Satan ruleih me, was 
found in the Tranfpofed Name of a certain 
Aclive Perfecutor: And when, Lo, a Damned 
Crew, was found in the Name of one that made 
a Figure among the Popiifi Plotters againft the 
Nation. Yea, 'tis poffible, that they who affeft 
fuch Grammatical Curiofities, will be willing 
to plead a Prescription of much higher and El- 
der Antiquity for them ; even the Temurah, or 
Mutation, with which the Jews do Criticife 
upon the Oracles of the Old Teftament. There, 
they fay, you'll find the Anagram of our Firft 
Fathers Name Ha adam, to exprefs Adamah, the 
Name of the of the Earth, whence he had his 
Original. An Anagram of a Good Signification, 
they'll fhow you [Gen.<5.8.] and of a Bad one 
[Gen. 38. 7.] in thofe Glorious Oracles ; and 
they will endeavour to perfwade you, that 
Maleachi in Exodut in Anagrammatically ex- 
pounded Michael, in Daniel. But of all the 
Anagrammatizers that have been trying their 
Fancies, for the Two Thoufand Years which 
have run out, fince the Days of Lycophron, 
yea, or for the more than Five Thoufand, fince 
the Days of our Firft Father, I believe there never 
was Man, that made fo many or fo nimbly, as 
our Mr. Wilfon -, who, together with his Quick 
Turns, upon the Names of his Friends, would 
ordinarily Fetch, and rather than Lofe, would 
even Force Devout InftruSions out of his Ana- 
grams. As once, upon hearing my Father preach 
a Sermon about The Glories of our Lord Jefuf 
Chrifi, Mr. Wilfon immediately gave him" that 
Anagram upon his Name, Crefcentius Matherut, 
Anagr. En ! Chriftus Merces tua : So there 
could fcarcely occurr the Name of any Remar- 
kable Perfon, at leaft, on any Remarkable Oc- 
cafion unto him, without an Anagram raifed 
thereupon ; and he made this Poetical, and 
Peculiar Difpofition of his Ingenuity, a Subjeft 
whereon he grafted Thoughts far more Solid 
and Solemn and Ufeful, than the Stock it felf. 
Wherefore methoughts, it looked like a Piece 
of Injuftice, that his own Funeral produced 
G g g 2 amnog 


The Hi/lory of New-England. Book III. 

( among the many Poems afterwards Printed ) 
no more Anagrams upon his Name, who had 
fo o