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Full text of "Magnalia Christi americana:"

FROM THE LIBRARY OF 
REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON, D. D. 

BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO 

THE LIBRARY OF 

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 










MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: 



OR, THE 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY 

OF 

NEW-ENGLAND, 

FROM ITS FIRST PLANTING 

IN THE YEAR 1620, UNTO THE YEAR OF OUR LORD, 109%. 
IN SEVEN BOOKS. 



By the Reverend and Learned COTTON MATHER, D. D.— F. R. S, 

AND PASTOR OF THE NORTH CHURCH IN BOSTON, NEW-KNGL ANU. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. IL 

imSt AMERICAN EDITION PROM THE LONDON EDITION OP l^O?. 

HARTFORD : 

PUBLISHED BY SILAS ANDRUS. 



PRINTED BY S. CONVERSE NEW-HAVEN, 



1820. 



GCNERAL CONTENTS OF THE SEVERAL BOOKS. 



VOL. II. 



IV . Au accouot of the (University of 
Cambridge in New-England ; in 
Two Parts. The first contains the 
Laws, the Benefactors, and Vi- 
cissitndes of Harvard College ; 
with remarks upon it. The sec- 
ond part contains the Lives of 
some eminent persons educated 
in it. 
v. Acts and monuments of the faith 
and Order in the Churches of 
N3*»-England, passed in their Sy- 
nods ; with Historical Remarks 
upon those venerable assemblies ; 
and a great variety of Church-ca- 
ses occurring, and resolved by the 
Synods of those Churches. In 
four Parts. 



VL A Faithful Record of many il- 
lustrious, wonderful Providences, 
both of mercies and judgments, 
on divers persons in New-Eng- 
Jand. In eight Chapters. 
YII. The Wars of the Lord. Being 
an History of the manifold Af- 
flictions and Disturbances of the 
Churches in New-England, from 
their various adversaries, and the 
wonderful methods and mercies 
of God in their deliverance. In 
six Chapters. To which is sub- 
joined, an Appendix of Remark- 
able Occurrences which New- 
England had in the wars with 
the Indian savages, from the 
year 1088, to the year 169?. 



SAL GENTIUM. 



THE 



FOURTH BOOK 



OF THE 



CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF THE 

FROH WHENCE THE CHURCHES OF NEW-ENGLAND, (aND MANY OTHER 
churches) HAVE BEEN ILLUMINATED. 

ITS LAWS, ITS BENEFACTORS, ITS VICISSITUDES, AND A CATALOGUE OF SUCH 
AS HAVE BEEN THEREIN EDUCATED AND GRADUATED. 

WHERETO ARE ADDED, 

THE LIVES OF SOME EMINENT PERSONS, WHO WERE PLANTS 
OF RENOWN GROWING IN THAT NURSERY 



OFFERED UNTO THE PUBLICK 

BY COTTON MATHER. 



> 



Here, as in furnaces of boiling Gold 

Stars dipt, come back, full as their orbs can hold 

Of glitt'ring light! 



AB. COULiEUS, de AMERICA. 

Ingeniiwi, Pietas, Artes, ac Bellica Virtus, 
Hue profugie venient, et Regna Illustria condent ; 
Fa Domina his Virtus erit, et Fortuna Ministra. 

Plantar. Lib. 5. 

NEW-HAVEN: 

PRINTED FOR SILAS ANDRUS 

1820- 



THE FOURTH BOOK. 



THE 

HISTORY 

OF 

HARVARD^COLLEDGE 



INTRODUCTION. 

If there have been Universities in the world, ivhich a Beza would call Fla- 
bella Satanae, and a Luther would call Cathedras Pestilentise, and antichristi 
luminaria, and a third ventures to style Synagogas perditionis and puteos 
Abyssi ; the excellent Arrowsmith has truly observed, that it is no more to 
be inferred from hence that all are so, than that all books arc to be burnt, 
because the Christians did burn the magical ones at Ephesus. The New- 
Englanders have not been Weigelians : or the disciples of the furious fanat- 
ick, tclu) held forth [^Reader, let it never be translated into English !] Nullam 
^'sse in universo Terrarum Orbe Academiam, in qua Christus inveniatur ; in 
Academijs ne tantillam quidem Christi cognitionem reperiri posse : Noluisse 
Christum Evangelium praedicari per Diabolos ; ergo non per Academicos. 
Lest all the Hellebore of New-England (a. coimt?-cy abounding with Helle- 
bore) shoidd 7iot suffice to restore such dreamers unto their 7oits, it hath pro- 
duced an University also, for their better information, their utter confuta' 
lion. Behold, an American University, presenting herself, with her sons, 
before Iter Europaean mothers for their blessing. An University which hath 
been to these plantations, as Livy saith of Greece, for the good literature 
there cultivated, Sal Gentium; an University, which may make her boast 
unto the circumjacent regions, like that of the orator on the behalf of the 
English Cambridge, Fecimus (absit verbo invidia, cui abest Falsitas) ne in 
Demagorijs lapis sederet super lapidem, ne deessent id templis theologi, in 
Foris Jurispcriti, in oppidis medici ; rempublicam, ecclesiam, sedatum, ex- 
«5rcitum, viris doctis replevimus, eoq ; melius bono publico inservire com- 
paratis, quo magis eruditi fuerint : Finally, an University which has been 
what Stangius made his abbey, when he tmmed it into a protestant Colledge : 
Trii ®uyvuT!x(i Trxi^evrrpiov x.«i -^uxaiv ^iBci<rKx>iUov Aoyijcav. And a river, ivith- 
out the streams whereof these regions would have been meer unwateved pla- 
ces, ybr the devil ! 



6 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

PART I. 

Its Laws, Benefactors, Vicessitudes, and its graduates. 

<^ 1. The nations of mankind, that have shaken oflF harharity, have not 
more differed in the languages, than they have agreed in this one principle, 
that schools, for the institution of young men, in all other liberal sciences, 
as well as that of languages, are necessary to procure, and preserve, that 
learning amongst them, wliich 

Emollii inores, nee sinit esse for os. 

To relate the thousandth part of the brave things, which have been done 
by the nations of Asia, in former, or the nations of Europe, in later ages, 
pursuant to this principle, would be to fill huge folio volumes, with trans- 
cribing from Hospinian or Middendorpiiis, from Alsted, from Junius, and 
from Leigh, and from very many other authors. America is the part of the 
world whereto our history is (Confined; and one little part o( America, where 
the first academy that ever adorned any English plantation in America was 
erected ; and an academy, which if majores nostri academias signato voca- 
ifido appeUavere Universitates, 5?iorfUniversarum Divinarum Humanarumq ; 
Rerum. Cognitio, in ijs, ul Thesaro conservata apcriatur, it may, though it 
have otherwise wanted many priviledges, from the very foundation of it pre- 
tend unto the name of an University. The primitive Christians Avere not 
more prudently careful, to settle schools for the education of persons, to suc- 
ceed the more immediately inspired ministry of the apostles, and such as had 
been ordained by the apostles ; (and the apostate Julian, truly imagined, 
that he could not sooner undo Christianity, than by putting of them down !) 
than the Christians in the most early times o( ISew-England were to form a 
CoLLEDGE, wherein a succession of a learned and able ministry might be ed- 
ucated. And, indeed, they foresaw, that without such a provision for a 
siiff,cie7it ministry, the churches of New-England must have been less than a 
business of one age, and soon have come to nothing: the other he^nisphere 
of the world, would never have sent us over Men enough to have answered 
our necessities ; but without a nursery for such Men among ourselves dark- 
ness must have soon covered the land, and gross darkness the people. For 
some little while, indeed, there very hopeful effects of the pains taken by 
certain particular men of great worth and skill, to bring up some in their 
own private families, for public services ; but much of uncertainty and of 
inconveniency in this way, was in that little while discovered ; and when 
wise men considered the question handled by Quintilian, Utilius ne sit domi, 
atq; intra privafos Parietes studentem continere, an frcqumtia>. scholarum, 
ct velut publiris prceceptoribus tradero? they soon determined it as he did, 
that set-schools are so necessary, there is no doing without them. Where- 
fore a CoLLEDGK must now be thought upon : a Collcdge, the best thing that 
ever Nev)-England thought upon ! As the admirable Voctius could happily 
boast of it, that whereas there are no less than ten provinces in the Popish 
Belgium, and there are uo more than two Universities in them, there are but 
seven provinces in the reformed Bclgivm, and there are fve Universities 
therein, besides other academical soaeties; thus the first Possessors of this 
protest.ant and puritan country, were zealous for an University, that should 
be more significant than the Seminaries of Canada and Mexico; New-Eng- 
land comnared ^itln oilier pla.r«s. m'liht lay claim to the character that Stra- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. j. 

ho gives of Tarsus, the city of our apostle Paul's first education ; thei/ had so 
great a love to philosophy, [rotrxuriq o-Ts-aK Trfoi re <i>i>.otro<pUv^ and all the 
liberal sciences, that they excelled Athens, Alexandria, and if there icere 
any other place worth naming where the schools, and disputes rjf phi- 
losophy, and all humane arts maintained. And although this country did 
chiefly consist of such as by the difficulties of subduing a wretched wilder- 
ness, were brought into such a condition of ^oper^y, that they might have 
gone by the title, by which the modestly-clad noblemen and gentlemen, that 
first petitioned against the Inquisition in the loio countries, were distinguish- 
ed, namely, a troop of beggars, yet these Gueux were willing to let the 
richer colonies, which retained ihe ways of the Church o( Englayid, see how 
much true religion was a friend unto good literature. The reader knows 
that in every town among the Jews, there was a school, whereat childreu 
were taught the reading of the law ; and if there were any town destitute of a 
school, the men of the place did stand excommunicate, until one were erect- 
ed : besides and beyond which they had midrashoth, or divinity-sc/wo^^, in 
which they expounded the law to their disciples. Whether the churches of 
Neio-England have been duely careful or no, about their other schools, they 
have not been altogether careless about their midrashoth ; and it is well for 
them that they have not. 

§2. A general Court held at Boston, Sept. 8, 1 630, advanced a smaH 
sum (and it was then a day of small things,) namely, four hundred pounds, 
by way o{ essay towards the building of something to begin a Colledgc ; and 
Ne2v-Tow7i being the Kiriath Sepher appointed for the seat of it, the name of 
the town, was for the sake of somewhat now founding here, which might here- 
after grow into an University, changed into Cambridge. 'Tis true, the 
University of Upsal in Sueden, hath ordinarily about seven or eight hundred 
students belonging to it, which do none of them live collegiately, but board 
all of them here and there at private houses ; nevertheless, the government of 
Neio-England, was for having their students brought up in a more collegiate 
way of living. But that which laid the most significant stone in the founda- 
tion, was the last will of Mr. John Harvard, a reverend, and excellent 
minister of the gospel, who dying at Charlstoion, of a consumption, quicklj' 
after his arrival here, bequeathed the sum of seven hundred, seventi/ nine 
pounds, seventeen shillings and two pence, towards the pious work of buil- 
ding a CoUedge, which was now set a foot. A committee then being chosen, 
to prosecute an aflair, so happily commenced, it soon found encouragement 
from several other benefactors: the other colonies sent some small help to 
the undertaking, and several particular gentlemen did more, than whole colo- 
7iies to support and forward it : but because the memorable Mr. John Har- 
vard, led the way by a generosity exceeding the most of them, that followed 
his name was justly a.'ternized, by its having the name of Harvard Col- 
ledge imposed upon it. While these things were a doing, a society of 
scholars, to lodge in the neto iicsts, v.ere forming under the conduct of one 
Mr. Nathaniel Eaton [or, if thou wilt, reader, Orbilius Eaton'] a blade, who 
marvellously deceived the expectations of good men concerning him ; for he 
was one fitter to be master of a Bridewel than a CoUedge : and though his 
avarice was notorious enough to get the name of a Fhilargyrius fixed upon 
him, yet his cruelty was more scandalous than his avarice. He was a rare 
scholar himself, and he made many more such ; but tlieir education truly Avas 
in the school of Tyrannus. Among many other instances of his cruelty, he 
gave one in causing two men to hold a young gentleman, while he so unmer- 
cifully beat him with a cudgel, that upon complaint of it, unto the court in 
Septeynber^ l639j he was fined an hundred marks, besides a convenient sura 



8 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

tu be paid unto the young gentleman, that had suflered by his unmeicifuhiess ; 
and for his inhumane severities towards the scholars, he was removed from 
his trust. After this, being first excommunicated by the church of Cam- 
Iriclgc, he did himself excommunicate all our churches, going first into Vir- 
ginia, then into England, where he lived privately until the restauration of 
King Charles II. Then conforming to the ceremonies of the church of Eng- 
land, he was fixed at Biddiford, where he became (as Apostata est Osor sui 
Ordinis,) a hitter persecutor of the christians, that kept faithful to the way 
of iporship, from which he was himself an apostate', until he who had cast 
so many into ^;r/so?i for conscience, \\Q.s. himself cast mio prison for debt; 
where he did, at length, pay one debt, namely, that unto nature, by death. 

§ 3. On August 27, 1640, the magistrates, with the ministers, of the col- 
ony, chose Mr. Henri/ Dunstar, to be the President of their new Warvard- 
Colledge. And in time convenient, the General Court endued the Colledge 
with a charter, which made it a corporation, consisting of a President, two 
Fellows, and a Treasurer to all proper intents and purposes : only with 
powers reservefl unto the Governour, Deput i/-Governoi(r, and all the magis- 
trates of the colony, and the ininistcrs of the six next towns for the tinse 
being, to act as overseers, or visitors of the society. The tongues and arts 
were now taught in the Colledge, and pieti/ was maintained with so laudable 
a discipline, that many eminent persons went (brth from hence, adorned with 
accomplishments, that rendered them formidable to other parts of the world, 
as well as to this country, and persons of good quahty sent their sons from 
other parts of the world, for such an education, as this country could give 
unto them. The number of benefactors to the Colledge, did herewithal in- 
crease to such a degree of benefits, that although the Praesident were support- 
ed still by a salary from the Treasury of the colony, yet the Treasury of the 
Colledge itself was able to pay many of its expences ; especially after the 
incomes of Charlestown ferry, were by an act of the General Court settled 
thereupon. To enumerate these benefactors would be a piece of justice to 
their memory, and the catalogue of their names, and icorks preserved in the 
Colledge, has done them th^X justice. But as I find one article in that cata- 
logue to lun thus, a gentleman not willing his name should be put upon 
record, gave fffy pounds ; thus I am so willing to believe, that most of 
tViOse good 7ne?i that are mentioned were content with a ?e cord of their good 
deeds in the booJc of God'' s remembrance, that I shall excuse this book of 
our church histon/ from swelling with a particular mention of them : albeit 
for us to leave unmentioned in this place MOULSON, a SALTONSTAL, 
an ASHURST, a PENNOYER, a DODDRIDGE, an HOPKINS, a 
irEB, an USHER, an HULL, a RICHARDS, an HULTON, a GUN- 
STON, would hardly be excusable. And while these made their liberal 
contributions, either to the edifice or to the revenue of the Colledge, there 
were other that enriched its library by presenting of choice books with 
mathematical instruments, thereunto, among whom Sir Kenehn Digby, Sir 
John Maynard, Mr. Richard Baxter and Mr. Joseph Hill, ought always to 
be remembered. But the most considerable accession to this library was, 
when the Reverend Mr. Theophilus Gale, a well known writer of many 
books, and owner of more, bequeathed what he had, unto this New-English 
treasury of learning ; whereof I find in an Oration of Mr. Increase Mather, 

at the commencement in the year IC8I, this commemoration, Librie 

quam plurimis iisg ; Lectu dignissimis Bibliotheca Ilarvardina Locupleta- 
tur, quos THEOPHILUS GALEUS, (0 y^ccKxpiihy) Thcologus nnnqnam 
satis Laudatus legavit ; quosq; Novanglorum Moses, Dominum Gulielmura 
Stoughtonum volo, procuravitf eoq \ «e primarivm Hujue Acadcmicp. Cvm- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND. p 

toreyn prcebiiit, afq', Uarv a.v6inos omnes sibiin perpelunm Devinctos hahet. 

Indeed this lihrarxj is at this day, far from a Vatican, or a Bodleian 

dimension, and sufficiently short of that, made by Ptolomy at Alexandria, in 
which yizme hath placed seven hundred thousand volumes, and of tliat made 
by Theodosius at Constantinople, in which a more certain fame hath told us 
of ten myriads : nevertheless, 'tis I suppose the best furnished that can be 
shown any where, in all the American regions; and when I have the honour 
to walk in it, I cannot but think on the satisfaction, which Heinsius re- 
ports iiimself to be filled withal, when shut up in the library at Leyden ; 
Pleruniq ; in ea simulac pedem posui, foribus Pessuhem obdo, et in ipso 
jEiernitatis Grernio, inter tot illustres Animar sedem miJii Sumo : cum in- 
Senti quidem Animo, ut subinde Magnatum vie misereat, qui Fcelicitatem 
hanc ignorant. 

§ 4. When scholars had so far profited at the grammar schools, that they 
could read any classical author into English, and readily make and speak 
true Latin, and write it in verse as well as prose; and perfectly decline the 
paradigms of nouns and verbs in the Greek tongue, they were judged capa- 
ble of admission in Harvard-CoUedge ; and upon the examination, were 
accordhigly admitted by the President and Fellows; who, in testimony 
thereof signed a copy of the Colledge laws, which the scholars were each of 
them to transcribe and preserve, as the continual remembrancers of the du- 
ties, whereto their priviledges obliged them. Wliiie the Prcesident inspected 
the manners of the students thus entertained in the Colledge, and unto his 
morning and evening prayers in the hall, joined an exposition u|)on the 
chapters; which they read out of Hebreic into Greeic, from the Old Testa- 
ment in the morning, and out of English into Greek, from the Neiv Testa- 
ment in the evening ; besides what Sermons he saw cause to preach in 
publick assemblies on the Lord's day at Cambridge where the students have 
a particular ^a//fry allotted unto theiVi ; the Fetlows resident on the place, 
became Tutors, to the several classes, and alter they had instructed them in 
the Hebrew language, led them through all the liberal arts, e're their first 
four years expired. And in this time, tliey had their weekly declamations, 
on Fridays in the Colledge-hall, besides publick disputations, which either 
the Praisident or the Felloics moderated. Those who tlien stood candidates 
to be (OT«r/«a/ra, were to attend in the kail {ov certain hours, on Mondays, 
and on Tuesdays, three weeks together towards tlie middle of June, which 
were cMed weeks of visitation ; so that all comers that pleased, might exa- 
mine their skill in the languages and sciences, which they now pretended 
unto ; and usually, some or other of the overseers of the Colledge, would on 
purpose visit them, whilst they were thus doing what they callell, sitting of 
solstices: \\\\Qni\w, commencement avv'waA, which was formerly the second 
Tuesday in August, but since, the first Wednesday in July\ thev that were 
to proceed BwcAe/y/-*, held their «c« publickly in Cambridge, whither the 
magistrates and ministers, and other gentlemen then came, to put respect 
upon their exercises : and these exercises were besides an oration usually 
made by the President, orations both salutatory and valedictory, made by 
some or other of the commencers, wherein all persons nwl orders oi -.mv fash- 
ion then present, were addressed with proper complements, and reflections 
were made on the most remarkable occurrents of the praicoding year ; and 
these orations were made not only in Latin, but sometimes in Greek and in 
Hebrew also; and some of them were in verse, and even in Greek verse, as 
well as others in prose. But the main exercises were disputations upon 
questions, wherein the respondents first made their theses: for according to 
Vossius, the \ory essence of the Baccakwrent seems to lyc in the thing : 



vol,. II. o 



19 MAGNALIA CHRISTI A3IERICANA : [Book iv. 

Baccalaureus bciiio' but a name corruptt^d o( Baf/ialius, which Bati<alius 
(as well as the Freiicii Batailr) comes a Balutndo, a business that vanies 
beating \n\\ : So that, l?iitualii/«enmi I'ycafj, (juia jam quasi Catiiisseiit 
cum advcrsario, ac Manns conserinstient ; hoc est, Publice Dispiitassent, 
afqi'e ita Peritke sux spcciniea (h'dissent. In the cu)se oC the day, the 
Praesidenf, ui.h tiie formahty of delivering a hook into their hands, gave 
them their ^r5i degree ; but such oJ' them as had studied three years after 
xh^hjimt degree, to answer tl.'e Huration churactei of an artist, 

Qui Studiis Annas Scptera dcdit insenuilque Libris ct cur is. 

And besides tlieir exhibiting s^/^o^wf? of the liberal arts., by themselves 
com|)Osed, now again publickly disputed on some qncs/iovs, of perhaps a 
little higher elevation; these mnv, with a like formality, received their 
f.econd degree, {iroceeding Masters of Art. — Quis cn>m dottrinvm amplcc- 
tiiur ipsam, pra:mia si follas? The words used i)y the Fraesident, in this 
action, were : 

FOR THE BATCHELOURS. 

Admitto te ad Primimi Gradum in Artibus, scilicet, ad respondendum 
questioni, pro more Acadcjuiarum in Angliri. 

Tibiq ; Trndo hunc Li brum, una cum prof est ate publice prcelegendi, in 
aliquii ariiwn (quant projiteris) quoiicscunq ; ad hoc munus evocatus 
facris. 

FOR, THE MASTERS. 

Admitto te ad Secundum Gradum in Artibus, pro 7nore Academiarum in 
Anglia. 

Tradoque tibi hunc Librura, una cum potestate projitendi, ubicunqiic ad 
hoc munus publice evocatus fueris. 

§ 5. Mr. Henrxj Dunstcr, continued tlie Prsesident of Harvard-Colledge, 
until his unhappy entanglement in the snares of Anabaptism, filFd the 
overseers with uneasie fears, lest the students by his means, should come to 
be ensnared : Which uneasiness was at lencth so signified unto him, that 
on October 24, l654, he presented unto the overseers, an instrument under 
his hands ; wherein he resigned his Presidentship, and tiiey accepted his 
resignation. That brave old man Johannes Amos Comtnenius, the fame of 
whose worth hath been trumpctted ns far as more than three languages 
(whereof every one is eiidebted unto his Janua) could carry it was indeed 
agreed wiih;dl, by oin- Mr. Winthrop in his travels through the low countries, 
to come over into Ncw-Angland, and iliumiiiate this CoUedge and country, 
in the quality of a President : liut tiie solicitations of the Swedish Ambas- 
sador, diverting him another way, that incomparable Moravian became not 
an American. On Norember 2, 16j4, Mr. Richard Mather and Mr. Nor- 
ton, were employod by tiie overseers, to tender unto Mr. Charles Chancey 
the place oi F resident, which was now become vacant; who on the twent}'- 
seventh da\' of that m(»nli«, had a solenm hiaagurntion thereunto. A per- 
son he was, of whom 'tis not easie to say too much ; but let it here be 
ciinugh, to ncite the words of Mi: Increase Mather (who now succeeds 
him) in one of his orations. 

Gl. J//e Chaacicus. Y«t7« CAROI.IJr«I magnum, jure optima nominare 



BooKiv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAiND. u 

possumus : Fuit ille senex veiterandus, linguarum i^' artinm prcesidiis in- 
structissimus, gymnasiarcha prccdare doctns ; qui in jiliis prophetarum 
erudiendis jidelem navavit operam omnemqiie diUgentiam adldbuit. .ihitus 
Sf obitus tanti viri, CoUegium quasi truncatum, w: tantuui non enecatum 
reliqmrunt. Alter tlse death of Mr. Chancey^ which was at the latter end 
of the year 1701, the Abna JMater Academia, mtist look among her own 
sons, to find a President for the rest of her children ; and accordingly the 
Fellows of the Colledge, with tiie approbation of the overseers, July 13, 
1672, elected Mr. Leonard Hoar, unto that office; whereto, on the tenth of 
September following he was inaugurated. 

This gentleman, after his education in Harvard-Colkdge, travelled over 
into England; where he was not only a preacher of the gospel in divers 
places, but also received from the University in Cambridge, the degree of 
a Docioi^ of Physick. The Doctor, upon some invitations, relating to a 
settlement, in the pastoral charge with the South Church at Boston, returned 
into New-England; liaving first married a virtuous daughter of the Lord 
Lisle, a great example of piety and patience, who now crossed the Atlaniick 
with him; and quickly after his arrival here, his invitation to prceside over 
the Colledge at Cambridge, superseded those from the Church in Boston. 
Were he considered either as a scholar, or as a christian, he was truly a 
worthy man; and he was generally reputed such, u.itil happening, I can 
scarce tell how, to (all under the displeasure of some liiat made a figure in 
the neighbourhood, the young men in the Colledge, took advantage there- 
from, to ruine his reputatiiai, as far as they were able. He then found the 
Rectorship of a Colledge to be ;ts troublesome a thing, as ever Antigonus 
did hh robe ; and he could subscribe to Melchior Jdams' account of it, 
Sceptnimillud scholasticum, plus habet solid tad inis quani pulchritudinis, 
plus curce quam auri, plus impedimenfi quam argenti. The young plants 
turned cud-weeds, and with great violations of the ffth Co7mnandment, set 
themselves to travcsfic whatever he did and said, and aggravate every thing 
in his behaviour disagreeable to them, with a design to make him odioifs ; 
and in a day of temptation, which was now upon them, several very good 
men did unha(jpi|y countenance the vngoverned youths, in their ungovern- 
ableness. Things were at length driven to such a pass, t!i;tt the students 
deserted the Colledge, and the Doctor on March 1^), l675, resigned his 
Prassidentship. But the hard and /// usage, which he met withal made so 
deep an impression upon his mind, that his grief threw liim into a consump- 
iion, whereof he dyed Novem. 28, the winter following, in Boston ; and he 
lies now interr'd at Umm^j-ee.- where he might properly enough have this 
line inscribed over him for his 

EPITAPH : 

Malus celeri scmcius Africo. 

The fate of this ingenious man, was not altogether without a parallel, in 
what long since befel Dr. Mctcalf the Master of St. John's Colledge in 
Camhridge; who, as Dr. Fuller has related it, was injuriously driven from 
the Colledge, and expired soon after his going out of his office: But I 
would not have my reader go too far, in construing the remark, which the 
great Caius made thereiipoii, Oinnes qui Metcalfi excludcndi autores extite- 
runt, multis adversw fortuna: jirocellis, sive didna ultione, seu fato sua, 
jactati, mortem obierunt exemplo memorabili. All that i shall iarther add 
concerning our Doctor 1=. that in his tinje, ih^re bein^^ occasion for the 



12 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book i v. 

Col ledge to be recruited with New-Edifices, there was a contribution made 
)'or it throut^h the Colony, which, in the whole, amounted unto one thousand, 
eight hundred, ninety five pounds, tico shillings and nine pence ; and of 
this, there was eight hundred pounds given by the one town of Boston; 
and of that, there was o)ie hundred pounds given by the one hand of Sir 
Thomas Temple, as true a geJitleman, as ever set foot on the American 
strand : and this contribution with some other assistances, quickly produced 
a new Colledge, wearing still the name of the old one, which old one is now 
ho mouldred away, that 

Jam seges est uhi Troja fuit. 



After the death of Dr. Hoar, the place of Prresident pro tempore, was 
put upon Mr. Urian Oakes, the excellent Pastor of the Church at « am- 
bridge ; who did so, and would no otherwise accept of the place ; though 
the offer of a full settlement in the place, was afterwards importunately 
made unto him. He did the services of a Prcesident, even, as he did all 
other services, faithfully, learnedly, indcfatigably ; and by a new choice of 
him thereunto, on Feb. 2, 16J9, was, at last, prevailed withal to take the 
full charge upon him. We all know, that Britain knew nothing more 
famous, than their ancient sect of DRUIDS ; the philosophers, whose order, 
they say, was instituted by one Samothes, which is in English, as much as 
to say, an heavenly man. The Celtic name, Deru for an Oak, was that 
from whence, they received their denomination ; as at this very day, the 
Welch call this tree Derw, and this order of men Derwyddon. But there 
are no small antiquaries, who derive this oaken religion and philosophy, 
from the Oaks of Mamre, where the Patriarch Mraham had as well a 
dwelling as an altar. That Oaken-Plain, and the eminent OAK under 
which Abraham lodged, was extant in the days of Constantine, as Isidore, 
Jcrom, and Sozomen have assured us. Yea, there are shrew'd probabilities, 
that Noah himself had lived in this very Oak-plain before him ; for this 
very place was called Oryvi, which was the name of Noah, so styled from 
the Oggyan (subcincritiis panibus) sacrifices, which he did use to oflTer, in 
tliis renowned Grove : And it was from this exan)ple that the ancients, and 
particularly that the Druids of the nations, chose oaken retirements for their 
studies. Reader, let us now upon another account, behold the students of 
Harvard- folledge, as a rendezvous of happy Druids, under the infiuences 
of so rare a Prtcsident : But alas ! our joy must be short lived ; for, on July 
25, l68l, the stroak of a sudden death felFd the tree, 

Qui tantum inter caput extnlit omnes, 

Quantum lenta solent, inter viburna cypressi. 

?ilr. Oakes, thus being transplanted into the better world, the Pra:sident- 
ship was inmu'diately tendered unto Mr. Increase Mather ; but his Church 
upon the application of the overseers unto them, to dismiss him unto the 
place, whereto he v/as now chosen, refusiiig to do it, he declined the motion. 
Wherefore, on April 10, lG82, Mr. John Rogers was elected unto that 
place; and on Jlvgust 12, l6>'2, he was installed into it. This worthy 
person was the son of the renowned Mr. Nathanael Rogers, the Pastor to 
the Church of Ijjswich : and he was himself a preacher at Ipswich, until his 
disposition for ?«ef//c/«a/si!//r/it'.s- caused him to abate of his labours in the 
pulpit. Ho was one of so sweet a temper, that the title of delicim human? 
generis might have on that score been given him ; and his real piety set 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 13 

oft' with the accompiishnients of a gentleman, as a gem set in gold. In his 
Praesidentship, there fell out one thing: particularly, for which the CoUedge 
has cause to remember him. It was his custom to be somewhat long in his 
daily prayers (which our Presidents use to make) with the scholars in the 
Colledge-hall. But one day, without being able to give reason for it, he 
was not so long, it may be by half as he used to be. Heaven knew the 
reason! The scholars returning to their chambers, found one of them on 
fire, and the fire had proceeded so far, that if the devotions had held three 
minutes longer, the Colledge had been irrecoverably laid in ashes, which 
now was happily preserved. But him also a praemature death, on July 2, 
1684, the dny after the ( ommenceme?it, snatcht away, from a society, that 
hoped for a much longer enjoyment of him, and counted themselves under 
as black an eclipse as the Sun did happen to be, at tlie hour of his expi- 
ration. 

But that the character of this gentleman may be more perfectly exhibited, 
we will here take the leave to transcribe ihe epitaph engraved on his tomb, 
in God's-acre, at Cambridge, It is the desire of immortality inwrought into 
the very nature of man, that produced the invention of epitaphs, and while 
some will ascribe the invention unto the scholars of Linus, who so signified 
their afl'ection to their slain master, others will that it may be ascend as high 
as the great stone of ^bel, mentioned in the first book of Samuel, which 
they'll tell us, was erected as a memorial to ,/lhel, by his father .^dam, with 
that inscription upon it, Here ims shed the blood of the righteous Abel. 

Now to immortalize this their master, one of the scholars in Harvard- 
Colledge, gave to the g7-eat stone of ROGERS, the ensuing lines to be now 
read there for his memorial j which for the same cause, we make a part of 
our history. 

Mandatur huic Terror Sf Tumulo. 
Humanitatis jErarium, 
Theologice Horreum, 
Optimarum Literarum Bibiotheca, 
Rei Medicinalis Syste?PM, 
Integritatis Domiciliunu 
Fidei Repositorium, 
Christiance Simplicitatis Exemplar. 

Sc. Domini Reverendissimi, 
D. JOANNIS ROGERSII, 
Rogersij Doctissimi Ipsuicensis in 

Nov-Ang!ica, FiliJ, 
Dedhamensis, in Veteri Anglia,pf;- 
Orbem Terrarum ( larissitiii, Nepotif;. 
CoUegij Harvardini 
Lcctissimi, ac Meritd dilectissimi PraesidiS; 

Pars Terrestior. 
Coilestior, d nobis Erepta fuit, 

Julij 20, A. D. M. DC. LXXX, IV, 
jEtatis suce, LIV. 

Chara est pars resians nobis, et qvando cadaver. 



14 MAGNALTA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

<^. 6. The coUedge was now again by universal cAoj'ce, cast into the hands 
of Mr. Increase Ala (her, who had aheady in other capacities, been serving 
of it; and he accordingly, without leaving either his house or his church at 
Boston, made his coiitinuai visits to the oolledge at Cambridge, managing as 
well the wt ekly disputations, as the annual co-nmeiicemenis, and inspecting 
the wl'dle affairs of the society; and by preaching often at La7nbridge,hs 
made his visits yet more profitable unto them 

Reader, the interest and figure which the world knows this my parent 
hath had, in the ecclesiastical crmcerns of this country, ever since his first re- 
turn from England in the twenty second, until his next return from England 
in the fifty third year of his age ; makes it a difficult thing for me to write the 
church-history of the country. Should I insert every where, the relation 
which he hath had unto the public matters, it will be thouglit by the envious 
that I had undertaken this work, with an eye to such a motto as the son of 
the memorable prince of Orange took his Aex'ice^, patriwque patriqite : should 
I on the other side bury in utter silence, all the effects of that care and zeal 
wherewith he hath employed in his peculiar opportunities, with which the 
free grace of Heaven hath talented Inm to do good unto the p iblic ; I must 
cut off some essentials of my story. I will however bowle nearer to the latter 
mark than the former ; and if no body blame Sir Henri/ If 'otion (or sUil 
mentioning his father with so much veneration, as that best of men, mi/ 
father; 1 hope I shall not be blamed for saying thus much, ini/ father hath 
been desirous to do some good. Wherefore 1 will not only add in this place, 
that when the honourable Joat^>/« Dudley, Esq. was by the king's conmiission 
made President of the territory of New-England ; this gentleman, among other 
expressions of his hearty desire to secure the prosperity of his mother, whose 
breasts himself had sucked ; continued the government of the colledge in the 
hands of Mr. Mather, and altered his title into that of a rector. But, when 
wise persons apprehend that the constitution of men and things, which follow- 
ed after the arrival of another governor, threatened all the churches with 
quick mines, wherein the co//<?f/^e could not but be comprehended, Mr. Mather, 
did by their advice, repair to Whitehcdl : where being remarkably favoured 
by three crowned heads, in successive and personal applications unto them, 
on the behalf of his distressed country, and having obtained several kindnesses 
for the colledge in particular, he returned into New-England, in the beginning 
of the year, l692. with a royal charter, full of most ample privileges. By 
that royal charter under the seal of king WilUam and queen Mary, the coun- 
try had its English, and its christian liberties, as well as its titles to its lands 
(formerly contested) secured to it; and the province being particularly en- 
abled hereby to incorporate the colledge (which was the reason, that he did 
not stay to solicit a particular charter for it) immediately upon his arrival, the 
general assembly gratified his desire, in granting a charter to ihh t/niversity. 
Mr. Mather now reassuming the quality of President over the colledge, which 
in his absence had flourished for divers years, under the prudent government 
of two tutors, Mr. John Leveret and Mr. IVilUam Bruttle, he does to this day 
continue his endeavours to keep alive that river, the streams whereof have 
made glad this city of God. Unto this brief recitation of occurrences relating 
to the colledge, I shall only annex a few passages, used by Mr. Mather, when 
he gave the degrees, at the first commencement, after his arrival ; because 
they are expressive of things purrly academical. 

Gradus academicus est honor ob virtutem potissimum intellectualem, me- 
rentibus, collatus : estq; baccalaurcatns, mcgisterium, nc doctoratus. Dnc- 
toratuH in Nostro Athcnaeo plane ignotus ; et quod ivpra. vos, nihil ad ?ios, 
De. vera nominis baccalaurei notutionc, inter peritissimos ambigitur. Nonnul- 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 15 

fi verbum a 6acc«/o, derivari volunt; unde scholastici banc 6GCcaZa?<m de- 
script ionem formarunt baccalaureiis est persona habens dignitatem bajulan- 
di ; baculum, premovibilis in magistrum. Ridiculum animal buccataiircus sit 
oportet, si haec definitio, sue definite per omnia quadraret ! A Baccd laiirus 
vocein defumi verisimiHus est; caveaut artem baccalaurei, ne Ia7a-evIos,m 
mustaceo quccrunt. Ad magisterii gradum quod attiuet, eo decorari solent, 
qui absoluto liberaliuiu artium studio ista laureri, se dignos prKbent. Magis- 
tcr artium, in quibusdam acadeiiiiis ptiilnsophicc doctor audit: sic apud J3eZ- 
gas, et sic etiani, ni lallor, apud nonnullos Germanos ; quamvis mglis, Gal- 
lis, Hispanis, Italis, Polonis, iste titulus sit ignotis. De antiquitate el utiiitate 
graduum acadcmicorum, multi multa scripserunt, prte ca?teris .Jltingius et 
Conritigiiis. Honos alit artes. Ea quidem virtutis perfectioest, ut j)niplerse 
expecii debeat ; ea tarneu est humani ingenii perversitas, quod nisi iionoribus 
erigantur artes, neglectui habentur. 

Vix i'acile invenies inultis in millibusunum, 
Virtutein pretlum, qui putet esse sui. 

De jure conferendi academicos honores, juvenus doctissimus clirislianus 
Uterus, librum percruditum nuper edidit : atq; alt^runi de jure erigendi 
acadeniias, Zeigkrus publici juris fecit. Mitto Roimaru7n, qui collegia 
corpora ecclesiastica esse vult ac igitur pro acadeniiis nou habendas, 
quoe privilegiis poutificiorum non sunt donata:. Jus constituendi academias, 
omnibus et soils, qui fo y-vctot habeut in republica tribuitur. Oggcrent forsan 
aliquio, si hsec potestas inter regalia unmeretur, quid Novanglia cum acade- 
mia? Quid Cantahrigin Novanglorum cum gradu academico? EJusmodi ob- 
jectorcs sciant velim.nostram acadeniiam regis autoritate jam firniatam et mu- 
nitam esse. Notius est quam ut mea narratione egeat, quod non solum suminoe 
potestales, sed alii, eorum nomine, hos honores dispersiaiit, qu5d, exem- 
pli grati'", in imperio Romano Germanico, Archiduces yJtistrice, etiam et comi' 
tes Palatini; quodq ; m fcederato Belgio, singuli 07-dines, id uiiaquaq; pro- 
vincla, banc potestatem liabeant et exerceant. Imo, et Rex ipse raaguus gul' 
ielrmis, magnse Britanniae imperator, mihi dicere dignitatus est, se, sat scire, 
qudd apud suos in Novanglia subditos esset academia : quce academia (aie- 
bat, dclicium humani generis, rex noster potentissimus) mihi erit in gratia. 
Quid verbis regiis gratiosius esse poterit ? Deinde vero summa provincia Mas- 
sachuseftensis curia, gubernator, senatus, populusq ; Noik Angliraaus, col- 
legium Harvardininn, academiam, cum autoritate conferendi gradus pro more 
academiarum \nglia nominarunt et iiistituerunt. Adsunt deniq ; ilhistres du- 
umviri. D. Guliclmus Phipsius, hujus territorii gubernator amplissimus, regis 
mandato delegatus ; nee non D. Gulielmus Stoughionvs, pro-gubeniator, 
Maecenas noster geternum honorandus; quos equidem tanquam cancellarium 
et vice-cancellariitm, hujus academiag veiieror, animo, merateq : susnicio. 
Haec cum ista se habeant, ad gradus academicos sine mora, ac solito more, 
cur non procederemus, nullus video. 

§. 7. At the C ommencement, it has been the annual custom for the batch- 
elors to publish a sheet of theses, pro virili defendenda;, upon all or most of 
the liberal arts ; among which they do, with a particular character, distinguish 
those that are to be the subjects of the public disputations then before them ; 
and those theses they dedicate as handsomely as they can, to the persons of 
quality, but especially to t!ie governor of the province, whose patronage the 
^olledge would be recommended unto. The masters do, in an half sheet, witb- 
'^ut Hny dedication publish only the questions pro modulo discutiendtv, which 
they propose i^ither affirinatively or negatively to maintain as respondents, m 



16 MAGNALIA CIIRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

the disputations which are by them to be managed. They that peruse the 
theses of the hatchelors of later years published, will find that though the Ra- 
TWfcan discipline be in this college preferred unto the y^m^ofeZojara, yet they 
not so confine themselves unto that neither, as to deprive themselves of that 
libera philosophiay which the good spirits of the age have embraced, ever 
since the great lord Bacon show'd 'em the way to the advancement of learn- 
ing : but they seem to be rather of the sect, begun by Potamon. called ejcA/*- 
7*x««, who adhering to no former sect, chose out of them all, what they lik'd best 
in any of them : at least, I am sure, they do not show such a veneration for 
Aristotle as is express'd at Queen's Colledge in Oxford; where they read 
Aristotle on their knees, and those who take degrees are sworn to defend his 
philosophy. A Venetian writer pretends to enumerate no less than twelve 
thousand volumes published in the fourteenth age, about the philosophy of 
Aristotle , none of ours will add unto the number. For this let the learned 
reader, accept the excuse, which their present ^resfc?eH<, in one of his orations, 
at the close of their exercises, has heljjt us unto. 

Mihi quidem maxxme arridet, quod vos qui estis in artibus liberalibus ini- 
liati, liberuni philosophandi modum, potius quam peripateticissimum sapere 
videmini. Nullus addubito quin CI. Gassendi exercitationes vobis non sunt 
ignotae, in quibus, quJjd apud Aristotelem rnulta deficiant, multa superflnant, 
multa fallant, pluribus ostendit. Tritumest illud, qui non vult inteUigi debet 
negligi ; nonnulla autem in libris Aristotelis nemo mortalium potest intelle- 
gere. Fertur itaque de Hermolao barbaro, quod Da^monem ab inferis excita- 
verit, ut quid Aristoteles per suam iihxixu'tv voluit exponeret. En. egregium 
Aristotelis interpretem ! Quam plurima in ejus soriptis, atithoris paganismum 
redolent : mundum facit increatum : mortuorum resurrectionem possibilem 
negat ; animam mortalem. Nonnulli Pi/rrhonem„ qui fuit pater Scepficorum: 
alii Zenonem, qui fuit pater Stoicornm ; multi PUdonem qui fuit pater Aca- 
demicoriim; Aristoteli prtefenmt. Vos autem quibus libere phitosophari con- 
tigit, in nullius jurare verba magistri, estis addict! : ast unicum Aristotelis 
dictum vere aureum, memoria. teneatis, atniciis Plato, amicus Socrates (addo 
ego amicus Aristoteles) sed magis arnica Veritas. 

They likewise which peruse the questiones published by the 7nasters, will 
find, that as these, now and then presume to fly as high as divinity ; so their 
diviniti/ is of tiiat reformed stainjy, which carries as frequent confutations 
of Arniinianism wkh it, as arc possible : herein condemning those protestant 
universities, abroad in the world, which have not preserved the glorious f/oc- 
trines of grace, in such purity, as that great party among the Romanists 
themselves, which go under the name of Jansenists. But for Uiis also let their 
\\ve%(ix\i president be accountable, whose orations at theend of tlieir exercises, 
have uttered such passages as tiiese unto them. 

Gravis ilia fmtprofundi doctoris querela, tofum penc mundum post pela- 
gium in errorcm abirc. Causa in promjitu est; nam propter Adai, et in eo 
peccantis humani generis, naufragium, mortales prout res sint, nee sentiunt, 
nee judicant. Toti,toti, quanti quantiq ; sunt, a bono et vero aversi, convcrsi 
ad malum et errorem. Pelagiani.wius itaq ; honiini in statu lapso naturalis est 
nee unquam sicavelli potest quod non iterum tanquam infelix Lolium, in fundo 
natnra; corrnpta» exoriatur. Vidennis Papisias, Socianistas, nee non Armmii 
sequaces, Pelagii de libcri arbitrii \iribus, virus absorbentes ac devorantes ; 
tametsi eorum error, non tanfnm ab Augustino, ]<im(\uf\nm, et a Li/thero, in 
libro insigni cui titulusest, de servo arbitrio sed etiam ab innnmeris hiijus se- 
culi viris pcrquam eruditis, relutatnr. Sed facessat jam Arminianismus, cum 
sit 7ieo-pplagianismus Mihi in nienteni venit anagramma, sive ingeniosa nom- 
inis Arminii interpretatio, ex literaruni trajectione. Jacobus Arminius, ccvx- 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 17 

■ypu,ntAxltl,ofi£voi est, vani 07'bis amicus; at nobis ergo non sit amicus. Habe- 
mus auteai \\\ Amyraldo, Arminium redivivum ; parCiin enim, aiit nihil af- 
ferunt /Imi/raldistai, qnos Novatores et Methodistas vocant, nisi qiioe ab Ar- 
minianis acceperunt, uti niultis CI. Molientis evicit. Facessant igitur Nova- 
tores, et in nostra academia, nee vola, nee vestigium Anninianismi unqiiam 
inveniatur. In quantum vero inccpton's nostri verani contra Arndnianismum 
sententiam pro virili propngnarunt, cos laurea dignos habeamus. 

And now, I hope, that the European churches oi' the faithful, will cast an 
eye of some respect upon a httle university in America, recommended by the 
character that has been thus given otit. Certainly they must be none but ene- 
mies to the rpformation, tiie sons of Edam (which the Jeznish Rabbins very 
truly tell us, is the name of Rome in the Sacred Oracles) that shall say of 
such an university, rase it ! rase it ! 

<^. 8. But our account of Harvard CoIIedge, will be rendered more com- 
plete, if we do here transcribe the laws of it ; which laws, now, Reader, do be- 
speak thy patience. 

Statuta, Leges, et Piivih^gia, a Preside et Socii.^, Collegii Harvardini, apud 
Cantabrigienses in Nova Anglia, approbata et sancita ; quibus Scholares 
sive Stiidentes, et Admissiet Admittendi, ad Literas et bonos Mores, pro- 
movelduni, subjicere tenentur. 

1. Cuicunq ; fnerit peritia legend! Ciceronem, aut quemvis alium ejusmo- 
di classicum autorem ex tempore, et cougrne loquendi ac scribendi latine fa- 
c^iltas, oratione tarn sohita quam ligata, suo (nt aiunt) marte, et ad unquam 
inflectendi Gra?corum nomiiuim,et verboiuni paradigmata ; hie admissionem 
in collegium jure potest expectare : quicunque vero destitutus fuerit hac peri- 
tia, admitionem sibi neutiquam vendicet. 

2. Qiiicunq; in collegium admitJuntur, iidem etiam contubernio excipiendi 
sunt; et unusquisq; scholarium oeconomo tres libras cunj hospitio accipitnr, 
numerabit; eidem ad fmem cujnsq; trimestris quod debitum erit, solvet : nee 
licet ulli acadeniico, nontlum gradu ornato, convictum extra collegium qua?- 
rere, nisi venia impetrata a praeside, ant suo tutore. Si quis autem banc pra?- 
sidis aut tutoris indulgentiam obtinebit, consuetndinem usitatam, fideliter ob- 
servabit; sin autem aliquis a cojlegio descedendo, privatam institutionem 
quaesierit ; copia a preside, vel a tutoribus illi non facta, nullo privilegio aca- 
demico patietnr. 

3. Dum hie egerint, tempus studiose redimnnto; tarn communes omnium 
scholarium horas, quam suis prielectionibiis destinatas, observando. 

4. Unusquisque scholarium exercitia omnia scholastica et religiosa, tarn 
publica quam privata sibi propria praestabit. Adhuc in statu pnpillari degen- 
tes, sexies quotannis rostra oratoria ascendent. Unaquaque septimana bis dis- 
pntationibus publicis sophisira interesse debent : cum baccalaurei turn so- 
phistie, analysin in aliquam S. iiterarum partem, instituent : baccalaurei sin- 
gulis semestribus, pubiice qnaestiones philosophicas sub priEsidis moderamine 
discutient : absente vero praeside, duo sciiiores tutofes moderatoris partes al- 
ternatim agent. 

5. Ne quis sub qnovis prstextu, hominum, quorum perditi ac discincii 
sunt mores, consuetudine utitor. 

6. Nemo in statu pnpillari degens, nisi concessit prius a praeside, vel a tu- 
toribus, venia ex oppido exeat : nee quisquam cujuscunque gradus aut ordinis 
fnerit, tabernas aut diversoria, ad comessandum, aut bibendum, accedat, nisi 
ad parentes, curatores, nutricios, aut hujusmodi, accersitus fuerit. 

7. NuUus scholarisj nullo parentum, curatorum, aut tutonira approbante. 

VOL. II. S 



18 M AGN ALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

quicquain emito, vendito, aut commutato qui autem secus fecerit, a prseside 
aut tutore, pro delicti ratioue mulctabitiir. 

8. Omnes scholares a vestibus, quae fastum aut luxura prae se ferunt, absti- 
neant; nee uUi studenti extra liraites acadeiniae, sine toga, tunica, vel penula, 
exire liceat. 

9. Omuis scholaiis non graduatus, solo cognomine vocetur, nisi sit com- 
meiisalis,aut equitis primogenitus, vel insigni genere natus. 

10. Omnis commensaiis, quinque libras, in perpetuum academise usum sol- 
vet, priusquam in collegium adinitlatur. 

11. Unusquisque scholaris in statu pupillari degens, tutori suo duas libras, 
at si commensaiis, tres libras, per annum dinunierare tenebitur. 

12. NuUi ex scholaribus senioribus, solis tutoribus et coUegii sociis excep- 
tis, recentem sive juniorem, ad ilinerandum, aut ad aliud quodvis faciendum, 
minis, verberibus, vel aliis verbis impellere licebit. Rt siquis non graduatus, 
in banc legem peccaverit, castigatione corporali, expulsione, vel aliter, prout 
preesidi cum sociis, visum fuerit punietur. 

13. Scholares, cujuscunq; conditionis, a lusu alearura vel cliartarum picta- 
rum, nee non ab omni lusus genere, in quo de pecunia concenatur, abstineant, 
sub poena viginti solidorum toties, quoties, si sit graduatus, vel aliter, pro Ar- 
bitrio praesidis et tuioris, si non sit graduatus. 

14. Siquis scholarium a prsecibus, aut praelectionibus abfuerit, nisi neces- 
sitate coactus, aut praesidis aut tutoris nactus veniam ; admonitioni, aut alius- 
niodi, pro praesidis aut tutoris, prudentia, psense, si plusquam semel, in Heb- 
domade peccaverit, erit obnoxius. 

15. Nullus scholaris quavis de causa (nisi praemonstrata et approbata, 
preesidi et tutori suo) a studius, statisve exercitiis abesto : excepta semihora 
jentacluo, prandio vero sesquihora, concessa ; nee non coenae usq; ad horam 
nonam. 

16. Siquis scholarium ullam Dei aut hujus collegii legem, sive animo per- 
verso, sive ex supina negligentia violarit, postquam fuerit bis admonitus, gra- 
vioribus pro prjesidis aut tutoris prudentia, poenis, coerceatur. In Atrociori- 
bus autem delictis,ut adeo gradatim procedatur, nemo expectet. 

17. Quicunq ; scholaris, probatione habita, poterit sacrus utriusq ; instru- 
racnti scripturas, de textu originali Latino Interpretari ; et logice resolvere ; 
fueritq ; naturalis et moralis philosophise principiis imbutus ; vitaq; et mori- 
bus iuculpatus; et publicis quibusve comitiis a praeside et sociis collegii, ap- 
probatus, primo suo gradu possit ornari. Aliter nemo, nisi post triennium el 
decern menses ab admissione in collegium, ad primum, in artibus gradum ad- 
mittetur. 

18. Quicunq; scholaris locum habuit communem, scriptamq; synopsin, 
vel compendium logicae, naturalis et moralis philosophic, arithnieticce, aut 
astronomiae, exi uerit, fueritq; ad theses suas defeudendas paratus ; nee non 
oritrinalium, ut supra dictum, linguarum, peritus; quern etiamnum morum 
integritas ac studiorum diligentia colionestaverint, publicis quibusvis comitiis 
probatione facta, secundi gradus, mngisterii nimirum, capax erit. 

19. Statutum est, quod qui theologian dat operam, ante quam baccalaurea- 
tum, in ilia facuhate consequatur, gradum magisterii in artibus, suscipiat ac 
sedulo theologicis, et hebraicis lectionibus incumbat ; quibus annorum septem 
dabit operam : q.io spatio, bis disputabit contra theologiae bacealaureum se- 
melq; n^spondebit in tluologia; concionabitur Latine semel, et semel Angli- 
cc, vel in templo, vel in aula acaderaicC : et si, in hoc tempore, in theologia 
profecerit, per solenncni inauguratioiiem, baccalameus fiet : hac tamen cau- 
tions servata neqnisantequiiiquennium complctum a suscepto magistrali gra- 
fclu, coDcior.cm hiijusmodi habere perrnittetur. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 19 

20. Statutum est, quod qui cupit in orclinem doctorum theologiae cooptari; 
per integrum quinquennium, post susceptum baccalaurei gradum, lectionibus 
et studiis theologicis dabit operam, et antequara incipiendum, in eadem Ihcul- 
tate admitiatur, in qufestionibus tlieologicis bis opponet, semel respondebit, 
idq ; doctori, si commode fieri poterit; Latine semel, Anglict semel, concio- 
nabitur in templo, vel in aula academiae; solenniter sexies iegat, et explicet 
aliquam scripturae partem, et post solennem inceplionem, semel infra annum 
ipse sibi questionem proponere, teiiebitur in aula academiae, cujus ambigua et 
dubitationes, in utramq; partem, enucleabit, definiet et determinabit. 

21. Statuum est, qu5d pra^ter ca?tera exercitia, pro gradibus theologicis 
prestanda, uniisquisq ; tarn pro theologiae baccalaureatu, quam pro doctoratu 
candidatus, tractatum quendam co.itra hseresia vel errorem alliquem grassan- 
temjaut in aliud utile quoddam arguinentum (dirigentibus id praeside et coUe- 
•y\\ sociis) pro conmmni eccelesiarum commodo, in lu('em emittere, tenebitur. 

22. Gradus a< ademici, qui a praeside et curatoribus coUegii Harvardiuij 
anteliac collati sunt, pro validiis habeantur. 

23. Unusqr.isq ; scholaris harum legum exemplar, a praeside, et aliquo tu- 
lorum subcriptum, sibi comparabit priusquam in collegium admittatur. 

<S,. 9, Among the laws of Harvard- 'oUndge thus recited, the reader will 
find the degrees of a baccalunrtate and a doctorate, in divinitij, provided for 
those, that by coming up to iexm?,, beyond those required, in any one Euro- 
pean university, shall merit ihem. Now though there are divines in the coun- 
try, whose abilities wmild fully answer the terms thus proposed ; yet partly 
from the novelti/ of the matter itself, which under the former charter was 
never pretendi'd unto, and partly from the ?nodesti/ ol' the persons most wor- 
thy to have this respect put upon them, there was yet never made among us 
any of these prom >tijiis. 'Tis true, these titles, are of no very early original ; 
for the occasion of them first arose, about the year of our Lord, 1 135. Xo- 
tharius the enqjeror, having found in Itali/, acupy of the Roman cicillaiv, 
which he was greatly taken withal, he ordained, that it should be piddikcly 
expounded in the srhools ; and that he might give encouragemei'.t unto this 
employment, it was ordained, that the ^ixhWc professors of this law should be 
dignified with the style of doctors, whereof Bulgarns flugolinifs, \\\th others, 
was the first. Not long after, this rite of creating doctors, was borrowed of the 
lawyers, hy divines, who in their schools publickly taught divinitij ; and the 
imitation took place, first in Bononiu, Paris and Oxford. But I see nM, why 
such marks of honor may not be properly given by an ylmerican university, 
as well as an European to them, who by such capacity and activity for the 
service of the churches, do deserve to be so distinguished. Indeed, this uni- 
versity did present their President with a diploma, for a doctorate under the 
seal of the colledgc with the hands of the fellows annexed ; which, because it 
is the first and the sole instance of such a thing done in the whole English 
America, I will here transcribe it. 

Qamn gradus academicas, tmxi in theologv!i, quam in philosophid, pro more 
academiarum in AngUO, conferendi potestas, ab amplissimo gubernatore, 
et a summa Massachuscttensis provinciae curia, secundum sereniss. Regis ac 
regiiise Gulielmi ct Marice, illis concessa diploma, sit ad nobis commissa : 
et quoniam vir ciarissimus, U. Crescentus Matherus, CoUegii Harvar- 
dini in Novd AngJiCi praises reverendus, libros quam plurimos tam Anglice 
quam Latine edidit, omnigena literatura refertos, multisq; prajterea mo- 
dis, non solum in Unguis et in artibus liberalibns peritissimura, veruni etiam 
in 5'. (S*. scripturis et in theologia sex)stendit versatissimum : atq ; per st»- 



20 MAGN ALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

dia ct merita vere extraordiiiaria, non tautiim apiul Arncricanas, sed et Eu- 
ropcca/ios ecclesias cornmcndatissiiiuim se rcddi(fit ; pioplerea dictum D. 
Cresse\til'm Mathkulm, doctorali cathedra dignuin, jiidicaimis, cuiiiq ; 
pro aiitlioritate nobis commissa, S. the(dui>iui dovtorvin, iK'niiiminus ac re- 
tiunciamiis. In cujiis rci tesliiuoiiium, acadeniiae sigillum liisco liicris aflixi- 
mus; nos, quoriiiu hie sunt subset ipta uomina. Datum Cautaljiigiit Nov- 
Anglorum die Noveuibris scprimo, amio Domiai millesimo, sfxceutcsimo, 
iiouagcsimoq ; sccundo. 

Nevertheloss, whatevt.'r use he may hereafter, see cause to make of this w- 
strumc.nt, he hath hitherto been willing to wear no otlier title, than what form- 
erly he had, in tlie catalogue of our graduates^ which is the next thing, that 
n)y reader is to be entertained withal. 

§ 10. Reader, the sons q/ Harvard are going to prcsenf. themselves in or- 
der before thee. The catalogue pretends not unto such numbers as Osian- 
der will find for us in the Academy of Tubinga, which yielded more than 
four thousand jiiasters, Inter qiios erant inagna Nomina ct Lumina : nor 
such numbers as //owe/ reports of P«m, where there liave been known at 
oneUme,iwenti/ih;msand, yea. thirty thousand students ; nor such numbers as 
Msted rejjorts oi Prague, where the University had at once forty-four thou- 
sand forreigners, that were students in it, besides the native Bohemians, 
Nevertheless it nuist be acknowledged, that here are pretty competent num- 
bers for a jwor wilderness in its infancy ; and a poor mlderness indeed it 
had been, if the cultivations of such a CoUvdge had not been bestowed upon 
it. In the perusal of this catalogue, it will be found, that, besides a supply 
of ministers for our churches from this happy scminari/, we have hence had 
a supply of magistroies, as well as physicians, and other gentlemen, to serve 
the commonwealth with their capacities. Yea, the considerable names of 
Stoughton and Dudley, in this list, have been advanced unto the chief place 
in government ; nor has the country sent over ugents to appear at Whitehall, 
for any of its interests ujion any occasion for more than these thirty years, 
but what had their education in this nursery. It will be also found that Eu- 
rope, as well as yhuerica, has from this learned seminary, been enriched with 
some worthy men ; anjong whom I will rather choose to omit the mention of 
Sir George Downing, who occurs in the first class of our graduates, than 
reckon hiin with a company so disagreeable to him, as the rest, that were ma- 
ny of them afterwards lamous ministers of the gospel in England and Ire- 
land. Non bene convetiiunt, ncc in una sede morantnr. It will be likewise 
found, that not a few of these Harvardianshnvti by their published writings 
been useful unto the world. That excellent man, who is the leader of this 
whole company, and wh.o was a star of the first magnitude in his constella- 
tion, to wit, Mr. aJc/yV/ ,'«/;< Wooduridge, an eminent herald of heaven at Scd- 
isbury, and afterwards at Newbury in England, and (after the act of vni- 
fonnity and the persecution following hereupon creepled him,) in several 
othei places, as he iiad opportunitv. Me wrote several considerable treatises 
■ixhoMt justification : as also, against the umoarrantable practice of private 
christians in vsarping the ojfue if public preaching ; and as the scoffing 
Wood acknowledges, he was accounted among the brethren a learned and a 
mighty man. 7\fter him we have had, besides those whose lives are anon to 
bo written, many others that by zvriting have made thems(dves to live ; and 
not only have we had a Danforth, a Nathnnael Math>r, an Hoar, a Rowland- 
so?i, a Nowel, a Whiting, an Hooker, a Mnodey. an Eli-azar Mnthrr, a Rich- 
ardson, a Thacher, an aidants, a Salfonstul, a W^^dfer, t!ie authors of lesser 
composures, out of iheir moc'est studies, even as wit!) a Cesarean section, 



Book iv] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 21 

forced into light ; but also we have had an Iluhbafd, an Isaac Chancey, a 
Willard, a Stoddard, the authors of larger comjjosuies. Yea, the jiresent 
President ef the CoUedge has obliged the public with more than thirty several 
treatises of diverse matters, and figures, and in diverse languages, "fis true, 
there is one more among the sons of lliis collcdge, that might ah'cady bring in 
a catalogue of more than three-score several books, which the press has had 
from him ; nevertheless as Ronsard the French poet, upon reading of Du- 
Bnrta^^ Weeks, would say Monsieur Du Bartas a fait plus en true Se7naine, 
queJen''ayfcdtentoutemavite: Du Bartas /ms- done more in one week, 
than I have done in all the days of my life : So it must be acknowledged 
that three composures of one writer may be more valuable than threescore of 
another. Nur indeed, must be enumerated among the least blessings of New- 
England, xhai it has been above all liie rest of the English America, furnish- 
ed \\'\\h presses, from which it has had a thousand ways, the benefits of that 
art of printing : a gift o( heaven, \v\\c):to{ Beroaldus well sang : 

Quo nil Vtiliiis dedit Vetustas, 
Libras Scribere quae docespremendo. 

Finally, if Harvard be now asked, as once Jesse was, are here all thy 
sons? it must be answered, rto : lor upon a dissatisfaction, about a hardship 
which they thought put upon themselves, in making them lose a good part of 
a year of the time, whereupon they claimed their degree (about the year 
1655,) there was a considerable number, even seventeen of the scholars which 
went away from the Colledge without any degree at all. Nevertheless, this 
disaster hindied not their future serviceableness in the churches of the faith- 
ful, and some of them indeed proved extraordinary serviceable: Among whom 
it would be criminal for me to forget Mr. William Brimsniead .^ Pastor at this 
day to the church of Malborough ; and iMr. Samuel Torrey- of Wegmouth, 
(of whose there are published three sermons, which at so many several times 
were preached at the anniversary elections of magistrates.) And unto these 
I may add Mr. Samuel Wakeman, the pastor to the church of Fairfield, of 
whom we have three or four several sermons published. 

What now remains is to look over our catalogue ; and then single out some 
subjects for a more particular biography. Only, while I carry in, my reader 
to speak with them, the writer himself, (solicitous that the name which Philo 
Judceus puts upon a colledge ; namely, AiS'ii'rx.x>::-iov (rvu7rci-y,<; aoiTTji;, or a 
school of all virtue, may ever and justly be the name of Harvard colledge, j 
will take the leave to address their successors with certain a(hnonitions, 
translated from no less than a national synod of tlie protestant churches in 
France. The last national synod, that sat before the <!i?sipation of those 
renowned chmxhes, after the other, and many cares, which the former most 
venerable assemblies took of their universities, by their decree, earnest!}- ex- 
horted the governors of the imiversities to exert all their power for the sup- 
pression of abuses crept in among tiiem, redounding to the disgrace of re- 
ligion, and jpening the flood-gates to the deluge of prcf oneness, to break in 
upon the sanctuary, and under severe penalties enjoined the sciiolars, but 
most especially the students in divinity, to keep themselves at the greatest 
distance from such things, as are contrary to christian modesty and sancti- 
ty, and to perfume the house of God betimes with the sweet odours of an ear- 
ly rcUgious conversation, every way becoming the sacred employment, where- 
to they be designed. Now when we have transcribed some of the excellent 
words used by Monsieur (Juitton, at the presenting of this decree to the uni- 
versity of Saitmi/r, we will without any further delay give our catalogue leave 
to apji.ear before us. 



22 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

'' You have consecrateci your labours, your time, your whole man, unto 
the service of the sovereign monaich of the whole world ; that Lord, who is 
ador'd by all the angels. Your own consciences, Sirs, as well as mine, must 
needs tell you, you cannot bring with you, too much humilift/, nor too much 
self-abasement, nor too much self-annihilation, nor too much simplicity and 
sincerity when you come into His presence, whose eyes are a Jlaming^re, 
and who searcheth your hearts and trieth your reins ; and ofter yourselves 
to be enrollM in the number of his menial servants, am] gospel ministers. 

"To be short, Sirs, you are destinated unto an employment, in wliich there 
be no advancements made, but by prayers ; and prayers are never heard, nor 
answered by God, further than they be siticere ; and they be not in the least 
sincere, where the hearts are not guided and purified by the truth of God's 
holy word and spirit, who dictateth our y>?-ayfirs and quicknetii and sanctifieth 
our ajfections. Do you imagine. Sirs, that God will give you liis holy spirit, 
without whom you arc nothing and can do notliing, unless you ask him of 
God? And are you then qualified and fitted for prayer, a most holy duty, 
when as your spirit is stufled up, occupied and distracted with your youthful 
??/.9/s, and replenished with the provoking objects of your vanity? Or, can 
you bring unto this sacred ordinance, unto this most religious exercise, that at' 
tention, assiduity and perseverance, which is needful to the getting of gracious 
answers, and returns tVom Heaven, wuenas the better and far greater part of 
your time, is consumed in worldly companies and conversations? Certainly, 
Sirs, you will find it exceedingly difficult to disentangle yourselves from those 
impressions you have first received, and to empty yourselves of the vanities 
you have imbibed, that you may be at liberty to reflect and meditate upon 
God's holy tvord. 

" My dear brethren, honour and adorn tliat profession, whereto you are 
devoted, and it will reflect beams of honour again upon you. Consider, 
Sirs, what is becoming you, and God will communicate what is needful for 
you, to ev'ry one of you. Let his name and glory be the principal mark and 
butt of your conditions and studies, and it will bring down the choicest and 
chiefest of blessings of God upon you. Let your lives and conversations 
be accompanieil and crowned with all the virtues and graces of reformed 
christians : with that humility which becometh the servants of God ; with 
that universal modesty and simplicity, which God requireth from the fninis- 
ters of his sanctuary, in their lives, actions, habits, language, behaviour, and 
in your whole course. And then, Sirs, this your sanctificadon will be most 
acceptable unto God, and saving unto yourselves ; it will bring your ^;/-q/es- 
sion into credit and reputation; it will attract upon you the best blessings of 
Heaven ; it will render your studies and employments prosperous, successful 
and edifying; the churches will be the better for you, and the kingdom of our 
- Lord Jesus (Christ will be by you promoted and advanced. 

To these admonitions of ^lonsieur Guitton, I will only for a Airewell, unto 
every scholar now address'd subjoin that wherewith Mr. Carter took his 
leave of a scholar, fuge fastuia, ignaviam et antichristum. 

Our Catalogue is now, without any further ceremony to be produced ; a 
catalogue of christian students, instructed in those, which the other day were 
pagan rcgintis ; a catalogue, whvieof I may therefore say as the historian 
does of the temple built by Constantine, it is to ttu^ii svKTxioi, y^ Trahu^uevov 
Bteti^xy To all good men, a desireablc spectacle. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 



23 



CATALOGUS, 

Eoru7n qui in Collcgio Harvardino, quod est Cantabrigia JYov- 
Anglorum, ah anno 1642. ad annum 1698. alicujus gradus Lau- 
rea donati sunt. 



1642. 

* Benjamin Woodbridge. 

* Georgius Downing. 

* Johannes Bulklaeus Mr. 
Gulielmus Hubbard Mr. 

Samuel Bellingham Mr. M. D. Ludg. 

* Johannes Wilsonus Mr. 

* Henricus Saltonstall. 

* Tobias Barnardus. 

* Nathanaei Brusterus. Th. Bac. 
Dub. Rib. 

1643. 

* Johannes Jonesius Mr. 

* Samuel Matherus Mr. Socius. 

* Samuel Danforth Mr. Socius. 

* Johannes Allin. 

1644. 
1645. 

* Johannes Oliverus. 

* Jeremias Holiandus. 

* Gulielmus Amesius. 

* Johannes Russellus Mr. 
Samuel Stow, Mr. 

* Jacobus Ward. 

* Robertas Johnson. 

1646. 

* Johannes Alcock Mi*. 

* Johannes Brock Mr. 

* Georgius Stirk. 

* Nathaniel White Mr. 

1647. 

* Jonathan Mitcbel Mr. Socius. 

* Nathaniel Matherus Mr. 
Consolantius Star Mr. Socius. 

* Johannes Barden. 

* Abrahamus Waiver. 

* Georgius Haddenus Mr. 

* Gulielmus Mild may Mr. 

1648. 
1649. 
'* Johannes Rogersius Mr. Prceses. 

* Samuel Eaton Mr. Sociits. 

* Urianus Cakes Ivlr. Socius, Prceses. 

* Johannes Collins Mr. Socitts. 

* .Johannes Bowers. 



1650. 
Gulielmus Stoughton Mr. Oxonii. 

* Johannes Gloverus M. D. Aberd. 
Joshua Hobartus Mr. 

Jeremias Hobartus Mr. 

* Edmundus Weld. 

* Samuel Philipsius Mr. 

* Leonardus Hoar Mr. M. D. Can- 

tabr. Prceses. 

* Isaacus Allertonus. 

* Jonathan Inceus Mr. 

1651. 
Michael Wigglesworth Mr. Socius. 

* Marigena Cottonus Mr. 

* Thomas Dudlseus Mr. Socius. 

* Johannes Gloverus Mr. 
Henricus Butlerus Mr. 

* Nathaniel Pelhamus. 

* Johannes Davisius Mr. 
Isaacus Chauncseus Mr. 

* Jchabod Chauncseus Mr. 

* Jonathan Burrseus Mr. 

1652. 

* Josephus Rowlandsonus. 

1653. Aug. 9. 
Samuel Willis. 

* Johannes Angier Mr. 

* Thomas Shepardus Mr. Socius. 

* Samuel Nowel Mr. Socius. 

* Richardus Hubbard Mr. \ 

* Johannes Whiting Mr. 

* Samuel Hookerus Mr. Socius. 

* Johannes Stone Mr. Cantab. Angl. 
Guilielmus Thomsonus. 

Qui ad secundum gradum adtimsi 
fuere l655. Did sequPMtisbaccalau- 
rei, ad secundum gradum admissi ut 
moris est. 1 656. 

1653. Au^. 10. 

* Edwardus Rawsonus. 

* Samuel Bradstreet Mr. Socius. 

* Joshua Long Mr. 
Samuel Whiting Mr. 

* Joshua Moodey Mr. Socius. 
Joshua Ambrosius Mr. Oxonii. 



24 



MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA 



[Book i\ 



* Nehemiah Ambrosius Mr. Sociiis. 
Tliomas Crosbaeus. 

1654. 

* Philippus Nelson. 

1655. 
Gersliom Bulkl^iis Mr. Socuts. 
Mordecai Matthewsiiis. 

1 656. 

* Elcazarus Mattlieriis. 
Crescentius Matherus Mr. Dubl. Hib. 

Sociits, Rector. PrcL'ses. S. T. D. 
Robertus Painoeus Mr. 

* Subael Dunimerus. 

* Johannes Haynesius Mr Cantab. 

* Johannes Eliotiis Mr. 

* Thomas Gravesiiis Mr. Socms. 
Johannes Eraniersonus Mr. 

1657. 
Zecharias Symmes Mr. Socius. 

* Zecluirias Brigden Mr. Socius. 
Johannes Cottonns Mr. 
Johannes Hale Mr. 

Elisha Cookseus Mr. 

* Johannes Whiting. 

* Barnabas Chauncjeus Mr. 

1658. 

* Josephiis Eliotus JNIr. 

* Josephns Haynes. 

* Benjamin Bunker INIr. 
Jonah Fordhamus. 

* Johannes Barsham. 

* Samuel Talcot. 

* Samuel Shepardus Mr. Socms. 

1659. 
Nathaniel Saltonstall. 

* Samuel Alcock. 
P. Abijah Savagius, 
Samuel Willard Mr. Socius. 
Thomas Parish. 

Samuel Cheverus. 

* Ezekiel Rogerus. 
Samuel Belcherus. 
Jacobus Noycs. 
Moses Noyes. 

1660. 

* Simon Bradstreet Mr. 

* Nathaniel Collins Mr. 

* Samuel Eliotus Mr. Socius. 

* Guilielmus VV'hitingham. 

* Josophus Cookaeus. 

* Samuel (^arterus. 

* Manasseh Armitagius. 

* Pctrus Bulklit'us Mr. Socius. 



\ 1661. 

* Johannes Bellingham Mr. 

* Nathaniel Chaunca^us Mr. Socius 

* Elnathan Chaunca3us Mr. 
Israel Chaunct'eus Mr. 

* Compensantius Osborn. 

* Daniel Weld. 

* Josephus Cookceus. 
.Tosephus Whiting Mr. Sociu.'i. 
Caleb Watsonus Mr. 

* Johannes Parkerus. 

* Thomas Johnsonus. 

* Bezaleel Shermanus. 

1662. 
Johannes Hnliokus. 
Benjamin Thomsonus. 
Solomon Stodardus Mr. Soriu.^;. 
Moses FiskceusMr. 
Ephraim Savagius. 
Thomas Oakes. 

1663. 

* Samuel Symondus. 
Samuel Cobbet. 

* Johannes Reynerus Mr. 

* Benjamin Blackman. 

* Thomas Mighil Mr. 

* Nathaniel Cutler. 

1664. 

* Alexander Nowellus Mr. Socius. 

* Josiah Flintaeus Mr. 

* Josephus Pynchonus Mr. Socius. 

* Samuel Brackenburins Mr. 

* Johannes Woodbridge. 
Josephus Eastcrbrookaeus Mr- 
Samuel Street. 

1665. 

* Benjamin Eliotus Mr. 
Josephus Dudlajus Mr. 

* Samuel Bishop. 

* Edvardus Mitchelsonus. 
Samuel Mannseus. 

* Sperantus Athertonus. 
Jabez P'oxius Mr. 

* Caleb Cheeschaumuk Indus. 

1666. 

* Josephus Brownaeus Mr. .S'octM.v. 

* Johannes Richardsonus Mr. <Soc«/s 

* Daniel Masonus. 
Johannes Filerus. 

1667. 
Johannes Ilarriman Mr. 

* Nathaniel Atkinsonu?. 

* Johannes Fosterus. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 



25 



Gershom Hobartas Mr. 

* Japhetli Hobartus 
Neheaiiah Hobertus Mr. Socius. 
Nicholaus Noyes. 

1668. 
Adamus Winthrop 

* Johannes Cullick 
Zecharias Whitmannus 
Abramus Piersonus 
Johannes Prudden. 

1669. 

* Samuel Epps Mr. 
Daniel Epps 
Jeremias Shepliardus Mr. 
Daniel Gookin Mr. Socius 
Johannes Bridgharaus Mr. 

* Daniel Russellus Mr. 

* Josephus Taylorus Mr. 
Jacobus Bayley Mr. 
.Joseph us Gerrish 
Samuel Treat Mr. 

1670. 
Nathaniel Higginson Mr. 

* Ammi Ruhamah Corlet Mr. So- 

cius 
Thomas Clarke Mr. 

* Georgius Burrough. 

1671. 

* Isaacus FosterusMr. Socius 
Samuel Phips Mr. 

Samuel Sewall Mr. Socius. 
Samuel Matherus 

* Samuel Danforth Mr. Socius 
Petrus Thacherus Mr. Socius 

* Gulielnius Adamus Mr. . 
Thomas Weld Mr. 

* Johannes Bowles Mr. 
Johannes Nortonus 
Edvardus Taylorus. 

1672. 
1673. 
Edvardus Pelhamus 

* Georgius Alcock 
Samuel Angier Mr. 
Johannes Wise Mr. 

1674. 

* Edmandus Davie M. D. Padua. 

* Thomas Sergeant. 

1675. 
Josephus Hanley 
Johannes Pike Mr. 
Jonathan Russellus Mr. 

* Petrus Oliverus Mr. 
Samuel Andrew Mr. Socius 

VOL. II 4 



Jacobus Minot 
Timothaeus Woodbrige Mr. 

* Daniel Allin Mr. 
Johannes Emmersonus Mr. 

* Nathaniel Gookin Mr. Socius 

1676.^ 

* Thomas Shephardus Mr. 
Thomas Brattle Mr. 
Jeremiah Gushing. 

1677. 
Thomas Chevers Mr. 
Johannes Danforth Mr. Socius 
Edvardus Payson Mr. 
Samuel Sweetman 
Josephus Capen Mr. 
Thomas Scottow. 

1678. 
Johannes Cottonus Mr. Socius. 
Cottonus Matherus Mr. Sociiis. 
Grindallus Rawsonus Mr. 

* Urianus Oakes. 

1679. 

* Jonathan Danforth Mr. 

* Edvardus Oakes Mr. 

* Jacobus Ailing Mr. 
Thomas Barnardus Mr. 

16S0. 

* Richardus Martin 
Johannes Leveretus Mr. Socius 
Jacobus Oliver Mr. 
Gulielmus Brattle Mr. Socius. 

* Percivallus Green Mr. 

1681. 

* Samuel Mitchel Mr. Sociu,'^ 
Johannes Cottonus Mr. 
Johannes Hasting Mr. 
Noadiah Russellus Mr. 
Jacobus Pierpont Mr. 
.Johannes Davie 

Samuel Russellus Mr. 
Gulielmus Denison Mr. 
Josephus Eliot Mr. 

1682. 

1683. 
Samuel Danforth Mr. 
Johannes Williams Mr. 
Gulielmus Williams Mr. 

1684. 

* Johannes Denison Mr. 
Johannes Rogersius Mr. 
Gordonius Saltonstall Mr. 

* Richardus Wenslaeus 
Samuel Mylesius Mr. 
Nehemiah Walterus Mr. Sociuii 



20 



MAGxNALIA CUKISTl AMERICANA : [Book iv 



Josephus Webb IVIr. 
Edvardus Tliomsonus 
Benjamin KoUMr. 
U)S5. 

* Thomas DiullaMis iMr. 
Warliamus iMalluTiis Mr. 

* Nathaniel Mathoms Mr. 
Jtonlandus Cottonus Mr. 
Heniicns Gibs Mr. 

* Thomas Benins Mr. 

* Joliannes Whiting Mr. 
Edvardus Mills Mr. 
Johannes Eliotns Mr. 
Samuel Shei>ardus 

* Petrns Ruck. 
Isaacus Greenwood 
Johannes White, Mr. Soiiua 
Jonathan Pierjjont Mr. 

16S(3. 
Francisons Wainwright 
Benjamin Lynde Mr. 
Daniel Rogersins Mr. 
Georgius Phillipsius Mr. 
Robertas Hale 
Carolus Channcaeus 

* Nicolaus Mortonus. 

1687. 
Johannes Davenport Mr. 
Johannes Clark Mr. 
Nathaniel Rogers Mr. 

* Jonathan JMitchel Mr. 
Daniel Brewer Mr. 
Timotheus Stevens Mr. 
» Nathaniel Welsli 

* Josephus Dassett Mr. 
HenricusNev.'man Mr. 
Josias Dwighl ' 
Seihus Shove Mr. 

168S. 
1689. 

* Jacobus Allen Mr. 
Samuel I^Ioodey Mr. 
Gul elmus Payn Mr. 
Addingtonus Davenport 
Ji.hannes Ilaynes 

* G'lilielmus Parlrigg 
Rirhardns Whittingham ?>tr. 
Johannes Emersonus Mr. 
Johannes Sparhawk Mr. 

* Benjamin Marston 
Johannes Eveleih 

* Benjamin Piorpont Mr. 
Johannes Hancork Mr. 

" Thomas Swan Mr. 



1690. 
Paukis Dudlaius Mr. Socius, 
Samuel Mathcrus Mr. 
Johannes Willard JNJr. 

* Daniel Denison 
Johannes Jonesius Mr. 
Josephus Whiting Mr. 
Nathaniel Clap 
Josephus Beirherus Mr. 
Nathaniel Stone 
Johaiuies Clark Mr. 
Thomas l'>n<kinghamiis 
Samuel Men.sfield Mr. 
Petrus Burr Mr. 

* Johannes Selleck 
.lohanncs Newniarch Mr. 
Thoma.s Greenwood Mr. 
Benjamin Wadswnrth iMr. Sodiu 
Thomas Rug-,lf :. i^-Ir. 
Stephami.s Mix Mr, 
Ednnmdus GolTe Mr. 
Nicholxus Eynde 

* Benjamin Easterbiookaeus ]^ll. 

1691. 
Johannes Tyng Mr. 
Ebenezer Pemberton J^Tr. Sociut 

* Thomas Mackarly Mr. 
Josephus Lord Mr. 
Christopherus Tappan JSh. 
Samuel Emery Mr. 

* Thomas Atkinsonns 
Timotheus Edwards Mr 

1692. 
Benjamin Colman; Mr. 
Zecharias Alden 
Ebenezer White Mr. 
Jacobus Townsend 
Johamn s Mors Mr. 
( 'aieb dishing Mr. 

1093. 
Isaacus Chauncreus M)-. 
Stephanus Buckingham u.^ 
Henricus ElintsEus Mr. 
Simon Bradstreet JMr. 
Joharines Wada-ns ^ir, 
Nathanacl Hodson 
Penn Townsend 
Nathanarl Williams Mr. 
(jcorgiiis Denison 
Johannes \\ Dodward Mr. 
Josephus Bu.xtcr .Mr. 
(jutiehnns Vea/.ic 
Nathaniel Hunting Mr. 
Benjamin Rnggles Mr 



Book iv.] OR ^HE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 



Gnlielmus Grosvenor Mr. 

1694. 
Adamiis Winthrop Mr. 
Johannes Woodbridge 
DudliEns Wood bridge 
Eliphalet Adaraiis Mr. 
Johannes Savage 
Johannes Ballantine I\!r. 
Salmon Treat 
Jabez Fitch Mr. Socitis. 

iGgry. 

Samuel Vassal 
Gualterns Price Mr. 
Richardiis Saltonstall Mi. 
Nathaniel Saltonstall Mr 
Johannes Hubbard Mr. 
Simon Willard Mr. 
Habijah Savage Mr 
Oliver Noyse Mr, 
Thomas Phips 
Timotheus Lindal 
Jonathan Law 
Ezekiel Lewis 
Thomas Blowers Mr. 
Thomas Little 
Ephraim Little 
Johannes Perkins Mr. 
.Tedediah Andrews Mr. 
Josephus Smith 
Johannes Robinson Mr. 
Josephus Green Mr. 
Josephus Mors Mr. 
\icolaus Webster. 

1696. 
(Jeorgius Vaughan 
Petrus Thacherus 
Dudlaens Woodbiidge 



Jonathan Remington 
Samuel Whitnjan 
Samuel Estabrokaeus 
Andreas Gardner 
Samuel Melven. 

1697' 
Elisha Cookseus 
Antonius Stoddardus 
Antonius Stoddardus 
Jabez Wakeman 
Nathaniel Collins 
Samuel Burr 
Sohannes Read 
Samuel Moodey 
Richardus Brown 
Hugo Aflams 
Johannes Swift 
Johannes Southmayd 
Josephus Coit 
Joseuhus Parsonus 

169S. 
Thomas Symmes 
Josias Gottonus 
Samuel Matherus 
.Tosias Willard 
Dudlaeus Brad street 
Petrus Cutler 
Johannes Foxius 
Nathanael Hubbard 
Henricus Swan 
Johannes White 
Josias Torrey 
O.venbridge Thacherus 
Richardus Billines. 



llli quorum aominihus hcec nota*' 
prcpjigitur, e vivis cesserunt. 



CANTABRIGLE NOV-ANGLORUM Sexto Quintilis. MDCXCVHL 



We will conclude our cataloguo of the graduates in this colledge, with tlie 
•hsy' which the venerable Mr. John Wilson, made upon its founder. 



In pientis^imum, reverendissimumq ; virum, 

JOHANNEM HARVARDUM, 
i^ siiggesto sacro Caroloensi ad coelos evectum. 
\d alumnos Cantahrienses literatos, pocima. 



2S MAGNALIA CHRISTI AiMERICANA : [Book iv 

Johannes Harvardus. 

Anagr. 

Si noil (ah !) surda aure. 

En, mihi fert animus, patroni nomine vestri 
(Si non, (ah !) surdd spernitur aure) loqui 
Sic ait. 
Me Deus, iramenso per Christum motus amore, 

Ad Coelos servum jussit abire suum. 
Parebam ; monituq ; Dei praeeunle parabam 

Quicquid ad optatum sufficiebat opus. 
Me (hcet indignum) selegit gratia Christi, 

Fundareni musis, qui pia tecta pijs. 
(Non quod vel chara, moriens uxore carerem, 

Aut haeres alius quod mihi nullus erat;) 
Haeredes vos ipse nieos, sed linquere suasit, 
Usq; ad dimidium sorlis opumq ; Deus. 
Me commune bonum, prse'-ertim gloria Christi, 

Impulit et charae posteritatis amor : 
Sat ratus esse mihi sobolis, pietatis amore 

Educet illustres si schola nostra viros. 
Haec mihi spes (vita morienti dulcior olim) 

Me recreat, Coeli dum requiete fruor. 
At si degeneres liqueat vos esse (quod absit !) 

Otia si studiis sint potiora bonis : 
Si nee doctrina, uec moribus estis honestis 

Imbuti, (fastu non leviore tamen.) 
Crata sit aut vobis, si secta vel haeresis ulia, 

Vos simul inficiens, vos, dominiq ; gregem : 
Haec mihi patrono quam sunt^contraria vestro f 

Atq; magis summo displicitura Deo! 
\ec tamen ista meo sic nomine dicier opto, 
Mens quasi promittat non meliora mihi ! 
Gaudia Coelorum vix me satiare valerent, 

Si tanta orbatus, speq, fideq ; forem. 
lUe Deus vobis, vestrisq; laboribus, almam, 

Et dedit, et porro sup})editabit opem. 
Ejus in obsequio, sic, O ! sic, pergite cuncti, 

Ut lluat hinc major gloria lausq ; Deo. 
At si quis recto male sit de tramite gressus 

Quod David, et Solomon ? et Petrus ipse queat.) 
Hie sibi ne placeat, monitus ne<j ; forre recuset, 

In rectani possint qui revocare viam. 
Sic grati vos este Deo ! vestriq ; labores 
Quos olini in Chrii,to buscipietis erunt. 
Utq ; vctus meruit s'lbi Cantabt'igianomQU. 
Sic nomen fiet dulce feraxq ; novce. 

JOHANNES r/ILSONUS. 

Verba Doct. Arrowsiidlh, in Orat. Antin'eigeliana. 

Faxit Deus optimus, maxiimn, tenacem aded veritatis hanc academiam,vt 
deinceps in Anglia lupum, in Hibernia bufonem, invenire facilius sit, quuni 
aut ^ocijiiamim, auf ^rmitiianitminCant^hvi'ihi. 



THE 



HISTORY 



OF 

HARVARD-COLLEDGE. 

PART II. 

The Lives of some Eminent Persons therein Educated. 

Discant ergo rabidi adversus Christum canes, discaiit eorum sectatores, qui 
putant ecclesiam nuUos philosophos et eloquentes, nullos habuisse doctores, 
quanti et quales viri earn extruxerint et ornaverint, et desinant fidem nos- 
tram rustics tantum simplicitatis arguere, suamque potius iraperitiam ag- 
noscant. Hieron. Prccf. ad Catul. de Script. Eccles. 

^. 1. The great Basil mentions a certain art, of drawing many doves, by 
anointing the wings of -Afeic with a fragrant ointment, and so sending them a- 
broad tliat by the fragrancy of the ointment they may aUure others unto the 
house, whereof they are themselves the domesticks. I know not how far it 
may have any tendency to draw others unto the religion hitherto professed 
and maintained in Harvard-Colledge : but I have here sent forth some of 
the doves belonging to that house, with the ointment of a good name upon 
them. And yet I siiould not have bestow'd the ointment of their embalmed 
name, as 1 have done, if the God of Heaven by first bestowing the oi7itvicjit 
of his heavenly ;^race upon them, had not given them to deserve it. Socrates 
being asked, which was the most beautiful creature in the world, answered, 
a man garnished with learning. But, with his leave, a more beautiful crea- 
ture is, a man garnished with vertue. Reader, I will now show thee ten meu 
garnished with both. 

§. 2. The death of those brave men that first planted New-England, 
would have rendred a fit emblem for the countre}^ A beech-tree with its top 
loj)t off, and the motto rui7ia relinquor ; (which tree withers when its top is 
lopt off!) \^ Harvard-Colledge had not prevented it. But now, upon the lops 
of mortality, uno avuho non defecit cdtcr. We have opportunity to write the 
lives of another set, who indeed had their whole growth in the soyl of New- 
England ; persons, whom I may call cedars aad fir-trees, as Jerom did Cy- 
prian and Hilary, and other holy men in his comment on that passage, Isa. 
60. 13. The glory of Lebanon shall come unto tht'\ the ii.r-tree, and the 
pi7ie-tree, to beautifie the place ofroji ■'^anctnan'. 



30 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 



CHAPTER I. 

Fides hi vua : or, the Life of Mr. John Brock. — Olim fides erat in vita, ma- 
gis quCim in articulorum professione. Erasm. Epist. 

i\. i. Designing to write the lives of some learned men, who have been the 
issue and the honour of Harvard-Colledge, let my reader be rather admonish- 
ed than scandalized by it, if the first of these lives, exhibit one, whose good- 
ness was above his learning, and whose chief learning was his goodness. If 
one had asked Mr. John Brock, that question in Antoninus, T/? (r« ^ "^iX^vi : 
Of what art hast thou proceeded master ? He might have truly answered, 
'AyxSlv eivat. JSbj art is to he good. He was a good grammarian, chiefly in 
this, that he stil spoke the truth from his heart. He was a good logician, 
chiefly in this, that he2irescnted himself unto God with a reasonable service. 
He was a good arithmetician, chiefly in this, that he so nuinhrcd his days as 
to apphf his heart unto wisdom. He was a good astronomer, chiefly in this, 
that his conversation was in Heaven. It was chiefly by being a good christian 
that he proved himself a good artist. The elogy which Gregory the Great 
bestow'd on Stephen the monk, erat Inijus lingua rustica, sed docta vita ; so 
much belong'd unto this good man, tliat so learned a life, may well be judg'd 
worthy of being a written one. 

<^. 2. He was born at t'.e town of iSV;'arZ6roo/i, in the county of iSz/^o?/;. A. 
D. 1620. And from his own trial of early j^iety in himself, while he was yet a 
youth, he was qualified, in a more significant and efficacious manner, to re- 
commend it unto young people, as he very much did, when he came to be old. 
When he was about seventeen years of age, he came to Neto-Engla?id, as to a 
nursery of piety, with his parents : and here, no sooner was he recovered of 
the small pox, wherein he was very nigh unto death, but another fit of sick- 
ness held him for no less than thirty weeks together ; whereby the hand of 
Heaven ordering the furnace, prepared him for the services that he afterwards 
performed. 

>§. 3. He was admitted into Harvard-Colledge, A. D. 1643. where lie 
studied for several years, with an exemplary diligence; being of the opinion, 
that as Caleb said unto his men, I bestoio my daughter upon one of you, but 
he that will have her, must first iviii Kiriath-Sepher; i. e. a city of hooks; 
thus, one is not worthy to have a church bestow'd upon him, until he hath 
some time lain before Kiriath-Sepher, and staid at some university. After fivf- 
years lying here (as loth to be one of the sacerdotes momentandi, or modd idi- 
otcE mox clerici, sometimes by the ancients complained of) he entred upon the 
work of the evangelical ministry; first at Rotvly, and then at the Jsle of 
Shol.es. Here Scaliger might have indeed found wisdom inhabiting the rocks : 
and here a spirittial fisherman did more than a little good among a rude com- 
pany of literal ones. 

'^. 4. In the year 1662, he became a pastor to the church at Reading 
And here he continued in the faithful discharge of his ministry, until the time, 
that (as the ancients expressed it) he took his journey a little before his body, 
into another countrey. He wholly devoted himself, unto his beloved employ- 
ment ; preaching on Lord's days, and on lectures at private church-meeting*:. 
and at meetings oi young persons for the exercis' s of religion, which he might- 
ily encouraged, as great engines, to render his more pnhlick labours efiectua! 
on the rising generation. His pastoral visits, to ivater what had been soinn in 
his public labours, were also very sedulous and assiduous; and in these lie 
managed a peculiar talent. v>h\ch he had ^t christian covfevenre. whereby hr 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 31 

did more good, than some abler preachers did in the pulpit. He was Iiere. 
withal so exemplary for his holiness, that our famous Mr. Mitrhel would say 
of him, he dwelt as near Heaven, as any man ujmn earth. 

^, 5. About three or four years before his death, he was visited with a lono 
and sore fit of sickness : but upon his restoration from tiiat sickness, he enjoy'd 
a more wonderful presence of God with him in his ministry than ever before, 
and a more icondei-ful success of it. At length, he told one in his family, that 
he had besought this favour of Heaven; to live, but fourteen da tis aprr the 
puhlick labours of his ministry should be finished : and he was in this thing- 
most particularly favoured. He fell sick, and after a sickness of just fonrtecn 
days, on June 1 8, 16S8, his friends full of sorrow for their loss might use Nn- 
zianzen's words concerning him, ' A<pi7i-rxTcit , he is f own away. But their sor- 
row, quod talem aniiserint, was (to use the words otJcrom to Nepotian) ac- 
companied with gladness, quod talent habuerint. 

•^ 6. Good men, that labour and abound in prayer to the great God, some- 
times arrive to the assurance of a particular faith, for the good success ol 
their prayer. 'Tis not a thing that never happens, tliat the children of God 
in t!ie midst of their supplications for this or that particular mercy: find 
their hearts very comfortably, but nnarcountably carried forth to a strangf" 
perswasion, that they shall rcc^i\\e this particular mercy from the Lord; and 
thh persuHisionh not a meer notion and faucy but a special impression from 
Heaven, upon the minds of the saints that are made partakers of it. This^a?'- 
tiadar faith \s uo\ the attainment oi' every christian, much less an endow- 
ment of every prayer. There is no real christian, but what prays in. faith ; 
his prayer liath a general faith in the power, and ivisdom, and goodness of 
God, and the mediation of Christ. But there is many a real christian, who is 
a stranger to the meaning of this thing; a particular faith for such mercies, 
without which a man may get safe to Heaven at the last. It is here and there 
a christian, whom the sovereign grace of Heaven, does favour, with the con- 
solations of a particular faith : nor if a christian taste of these jo\'s, may he 
expect more than a taste of them; they are dainties that are not every day to 
be feasted on : 'tis not in every j>ro//er, that the king of Heaven will admit 
every one to so much o( intimacy with himself. Indeed, such a particular faith 
is not so much the duty of a christian, as his comfort, his honour, h'ls privi- 
ledge. There is a praying in faith, incumbent on every christian in every 
prayer; but th\s particular faith for tijc be&tuwal of such and such desired 
mercies, is not incumbent on a chiislian ; "tis not required of him. 'Tis a vast 
priviledge, for a christian to be assured, that the Lord will do this or that in- 
dividual thing for ]iim ; however, 'tis no sin lor a christian to break oli'not o.v- 
suredot' it, ]5ut h is tlie Holy ^jjirit of the Lord Jesus Christ that with a sin- 
gular operation, does produce in a christian this particular faith ; which in- 
deed is near akin to the. faith of miracles. Nor does the principal efficiency 
of the Holy Spirit, in tliese illapses, exclude and hinder, the instrumentality 
of the holy angels in them: they are no doubt the holu angels, that with an 
inexpressible impulse, bear in upon the mind, the pari icular faith, where- 
with some saints are at some times irradiated. The wondrous meltings, the 
mighty wrestlings, the quiet waitings, and the holy resolves, that are charac- 
ters of a particular faith, which is no delusion, are the works of the Iloh/ 
Sjnrit, wherein his holy angels may be instrume?its. 

Eminent was Mr. Brock, for this mysterious excellency. This good man. 
was one full of the Holy Spirit, and faith. He had many of those things, 
which we may call (as the martyr Cyprian call'd, those communications from 
Heaven, which often directed him in his exigencies.) Divine condesccntions 
And there w^jp many notable efilerts of iiis faithful and fervent prayerff. where- 



32 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

of the exact history is now lost, because it was not in the proper season thereof 
composed and preserved. 

Some few remarkables, are not only still remembred, but also well attested. 

One Thomas Bancroft lay very sick of the small pox, his distressed mother 
came drowned in tears to Mr. Brock ; she told him, she left her son so sick, 
that she did not imagine ever to see him alive again ; he replied, sister, be 
of good cheer ; the Lord has told me nothing of your sows dying, PI again 
go with his case unto the Lord. The young man recovered, and is at this day 
a deacon of the church in Reading. 

A child of one .Irnold, about six years old, lay sickj so near dead, that they 
judg'd it really dead. Mr. Brock perceiving some life in it, goes to prayer: 
and in his prayer used this expression. Lord, wilt thou not grant some sign, 
before we leave prayer, that thou wilt spare and heal this child ? We cannot 
leave thee till toe have it f The child sneez'd immediately, Mr. Brock then 
gives thanks, and breaks oiT. The very next day, the child visited him, and 
carried him a present. 

When Mr. Brock lived in the Isle of Sholes, he brought the people into an 
agreement, that, besides the Lord's-days, they would spend one day every 
month together in tlic worship of our Lord Jesus Christ. On a certain day, 
which by their agreement belong'd unto the exercises of religion, being arriv- 
ed, the fishermen came to Mr. Brock, and ask'd him, that they might put by 
their meeting, and go a fishing, because they had lost many days by the foul- 
ness of the weather. He seeing, that without and against his consent, they re- 
solved upon doing what they had asked of him, replied, if you will go away, 
I say unto you, catch fish, if you can ! But as for you, that will tarry, and 
worshij) the Lord Jesus Christ this day, I will pray unto Him for you, that 
you may take fish till you are tveary. Thirty men went away from the meet- 
ing, and five tarried. The thirty which went away from the meeting, with all 
their skill could catch but four fishes 5 ihe five which tarried, went forth 
afterwards, and they took five hundred. Tha fishermen after this readily at- 
tended, whatever meetings Mr. Brock appointed them. 

A fisherman, who had with his boat, been very helpful, lo carry a people 
over a river, for the worship of God, on the Lord's-daifS,\\\ the Isle of Sholes, 
lost his boat in a storm. The poor man laments his loss to Mr. Brock ; who 
tells him, go home, honest man, 77 mention the matter to the Lord, yowl have 
your boat again to-morrow. Mr. Brock now considering, of what a conse- 
quence this matter, that seem\l so small otherwise, might be among the un- 
traclable fishermen, made the boat an article ol his prayers; and behold, on 
the morrow, the poor man comes rejoycing to him, that his boat was found, 
the anchor of another vessel, that was undesignedly cast upon it, having 
strangely brought it up, from the unknown bottom, where it had been sunk. 

When K. Charles II. sent one of his infamous f.rratnres, whose name was 
Craiificld, for to be governor of Hampshire, a northern province of iVew>£»^- 
/fmf/,"one of the illegal outrages committed by that Cranfield was, the impris- 
oning of Mr. JMoodcy, the minister of Portsmouth. One, who then lived with 
Mr. Brock, seeing him one morning very sorrowful, ask'd him the reason of 
liis present sorrow. Said he, / am very much troubled for my dear brother 
Moodey, who is imprisoned by Craniield : but I will this day seek to the 
Lord on his behalf and I believe my God will Itear me! And on that very 
day was Mr. Moodey (forty miles off) by a marvellous disposal of Providence, 
jelivered out of his imprisonment. 

Multitudes of such passages, whereof these are but some few gleanings, 
caused Mr. John Allin oiDedham, to say concerning JMr. Brock; I scarce ever 
linew any man so familiar icith the great God as his dear servant Brock ! 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEVV-ENGLAND. S8 

CHAPTER 11. 

Fructvosus : or. tlve Life of Mr. Samuel Mather. 

HCic cnsti maiiennt in religione nepotes 
Et nati natorum, et qui nasceiitur ah illis. 

^. 1. It is a tiling truly, and justly tiiought among the churches of God, 
Fcflix ilia anima, quai aliis est forma sanctifafis : tfirice and four times Iiap- 
py that man, from whose example, other men may learn to be liohj ^m\ hap- 
py. Now, for this happiness, not only were many among the first fathers of 
New-England, with the history of whose exemplary lives, the faithful have 
'leeu entertained, considerable; but some among the sons of those fathers al- 
so, have bin so exemplary for their holiness, that their lives also deserve to 
till the pages of an ecclesiastical history. One of those is now going to be set 
i)efore my reader; and one, who, whether we consider his early sanctity, or 
liis fervent ministry, will appear so much of a John Baptist unto us, that I 
'■hoose the confession of, Joscphus the Jewish historian (who, if he were ad- 
mitted into the discipline oi' Banns, a discij)le of John, as, he says, he was, he 
:!iight well make such a confession) concerning that John, to express the 
haracter of this worthy man ; he tvas an excellent man, and one that stirred 
'>p the people to piety and virtue, holiness and pta-ity. This was Mr. Samuel 
Mather. 

§. 2. Mr. Samuel Mather, v/as born May 13, A. D. \G^V>^:ii Mnch-WooU 
■ on 'n\ Lancashire. But was the question of Saul concerniiig David, Whose 
7on is this youth f About the meaning of which question, there may be some 
wonder, because David had already been serviceable, at the court of Saul^ 
some while before: and therefore some take the meaning of the question to 
be, What manner of man's son is this? It was observed that some of the 
notablest men in the land, were of this family, and. among the rest, Joab 
was of it, Joah, who for his valour was made general of the field, Joab, who 
never once in his life miss'd of the victory; He was the son of Jesse's daugh- 
ter. Now Saulwds inquisitive, What manner of man this Jesse was, that all 
his children prov'd so eminent. If my reader, thereto excited by the figure, 
which as well this person, as divers of his brothers have made in the church 
of God, shall accordingly inquire Whose son ?vas this youth? It must bcan= 
swered,that his father was the famous Mr. Richard Mather, whose life has 
been already a considerable part not only in our own church-history, but also 
ill the last volume of xMr. Clark's collections. Brought up, and brought over 
by this his father, our Samuel came to New-Kngland, iu tlie year l635, deliv- 
ered with the rest of his family, from as eminent danger ot' death, as ever was 
escaj^ed by mortal men, in a fierce and sore hurricane on the Neiv-English 
coast. 

§. 3. Let tlie silly Romanist please himself with his Romance of St. Rum- 
aid, who as soon as he drew his^rs^ breath, cryed three times / am a chris- 
tian f and then making a plain confession of his faith, desired, that he might 
be baptized : it is most certainly true, that Samuel Mather, did not suffer 
two times ^/i?'ee years to pass him after hhfrsf breath, before he had, many 
times, manifested himselfto be a christian, under the regenerating impression 
of that Spirit into whose name and faith, he had been bajotized. The holy 
sp'irit of God made early visits unto our Samuel, who from his childhood was 
devoted anto the tabernacle. He was in his early childhood, an extraordinary 
instance of discretion, gravity, seriousne.<;p. prayerfiUrif''--'^, and watchfulness. 

VOL. II. 3 



34 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA ; [Book iv- 

which accompanied with a certain generosity of temper, and an usual pro- 
gress in learning, wherein 

Rerum prudentia velox. 

Ante pilos venit ; 

render'd him the delight of all that part oi mankind, that know him ; and as 
the name of TlMiSctpicyspav, was of old given to Macarius, thus, this blessed 
young man was commoiil}' called, the young old man, by those that mention^ 
ed him. R. Eliezer, the son of R. Jzariah, when made president of the Jew- 
ish Sanhedrin, at sixteen years of age, was not one of a more composed beha- 
viour. A certain Arabian commentary upon the Alchoran reports, that when 
John Baptist was a child, other boys asked him to play with them ; which he 
refused, saying, Iioas not sent into the world for sport. Such great thoughts 
inspired our iyamnel Mather, while he was yet a child! To demonstrate and 
illustrate ibis part of his character, I shall only recite an extract of a letter ; 
which he wrote from his lodging in Cambridge, to his father in Dorchester. 
when he was no more than twelve years of age. 

' Though (sail h he) I am thus well in my bodi/, yet I question whether 

my soul doth prosper as my body doth ; for I perceive, yet to this very day 
little growth in grace ; and this makes me question, whether grace be in my 
heart or no. I feel also daily great unwillingness to good duties, and the great 
ruling of sin in my heart; and that God is angry with me, and gives me no 
ansicers to my prayei's, but many times, he even throws them down as dust in 
my face ; and he does not grant my continual requests for the spiritual bless- 
ing of the sofining of my hard heart. And in all this I could yet take some 
comfort, but that it makes me to wonder, what God's .secret decree concern- 
ing me may be ; for I doubt whether ever God is wont to deny grace and mer- 
cy to his chosen (though uncallpd) when they seek unto him, by prayer, for 
it ; and th^^refore, seeing he doth thus deny it to me, I think that the reason of 
it is most like to be, because I belong not unto the election of grace. I desire 
that you would let me have your prayers, as I doubt not but I have them ; and 
rest Your Son, Samuel Mather. 

Behold the language of one, more able than the famous Cornelius Mus, to 
have been a preacher (as they say he was) when twelve years of age ! Now, 
albeit, such early accomplishments, use to be threatned with Cicero'S, Nonpo- 
test in eo succus es,se diuturnus, quod iiimis celeriter maturitafem est asseci/- 
tus : and with Quintilian's, Ingeniorum prcccox genius, non temere unquam 
perrenit ad frugcm ; and with Curtius's, Nullus est et divturnus ef prcccox 
fructus ; which our proverb has Englished, soon ripe, soon rotten; there 
was no such observation to be made of our Samuel, who still continually grew 
in his accomplishments, and instead of losing them, like the Hermogenes men- 
tioned by C. Rodiginus, he kept advancing in all wisdom and goodness "till bo 
was found ripe for eternal glory. 

^. 4. In the caValo'^ue of \he graduates ]n-oce.e(i'\ng from Harvard-Colledge. 
our Samuel Mat'ier, was the lirst, who appears as a Fellow of that happy so- 
cietv ; wherein his careful instruction, and exact government of the. scholar:;; 
under his tuition, caused as many of them as were so, to mention him after- 
wards with honour, as long as they lived ; and such was the love of all the 
scholars to him, that not only when he read his last philosophy-lecture, in the 
coUedge-hall, they heard him with tears, because of it's being his last, but al- 
so, when lie went away from the colledge, they put on the tokens of mourn' 
ing in their very garments for it. But by this his living at Cambridge, undei 
the ministry of Mr. Shepard, he had the advantage to conform himself, in 
his younger years, more than a little, unto the spirit and preaching of that 
renowned man ; (of whose life, he afterwards published certain memoirs 



KooK IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 35 

unto the world) of which thing the famous Mr. Cotton speaking to this our 
yonng Matlier, did congratulate his happiness therein; adding, that in like 
manner, one great reason, why there came so many excellent preachers out 
of Cambridge, in England, more than out of Oxford, in some former days, 
was the ministry of Mr. Perkins, in that university. Our Mather being not 
only by notRhle parts, both natural and acquired, and by an eminently ^ra- 
cious disposition of soul, but also by a certain florid and sparkling liveliness 
of expression, admirably fitted for the service of the gospel, several congrega= 
tions in this wilderness, applied themselves unto him, for the enjoyment of 
his labours among them. In answer to their applications, he spent some time 
with the church oiRotvly, as an assistant unto old Mr. Ezekiel Rogers ; where 
the zeal of the people to have him settled, was the cause of his not settling 
there at all; but wlien the temptations arising from the zeal of the people, 
caused him to choose a removal from thence, it went so near unto the hearts 
of some good men there, that it contributed, as 'twas thought, even unto short- 
ning of their days, in the world. Here, although in his rich furniture of learn- 
ing, from the schools, the lamps were lighted, before he did venture to bring 
Jiis incense unto the altar, yet his great learning did not make his preaching 
so obscure, as to give the plain country-people occasion for the complaint, 
which they sometimes made of another ; This man may he a great scholar, 
hut he wants heetle and ivedges to heio onr knotty timber withal. Afterwards 
a church being to be gathered, in the north part of Boston, they had their eyes 
upon him to be their pastor, and accordingly he entertained a vast auditory 
of christians, with so incomparable a sermon upon the day, when that people 
publickly embodied themselves into their ecclesiastical state, that old Mr. 
Cotton, with whom he then sojourned, said upon it. Such a sermon from so 
young a man as this, is a matter of mtich more satisfaction than such an 
one from one of us elder men ; for this young man is, spes gkegis. And 
with this people he continued the winter following; among whom, ho was 
long after succeeded, by one of his worthy brethren. 

§. 5. Having in him, the true spirit oi' atcitness for our Lord Jesus Christ, 
he did, even while he was a young man, in this country set himself, with a 
prudent, but yet fervent zeal ; upon all occasions to bear a just witness, against 
every thing which he judged contrary unto the interests onioliness. But there 
was hardly any one tiling, against which he used more of thunderbolt, than 
that unholy spirit of Antinomianism, wherewith many people in those days 
were led aside. It was with a particular agony of dissatisfaction, that he 
would still speak of those ungodly men, who turned the grace of God into 
wantoyiness. He would speak of them in such words as these [Reader, they 
are of his oion words, in a sermon upon hardness of heart .•] " The same word 
is used for blindness and hardness (Eph. 4. 18. and Rom. 11. 7, 8.) when 
Ahasliuerus was offended with Haman, his/ace tvas covered; and amongst 
us when the cloath is pulled over the face, at an execution, the wretch is pre- 
sently to be turn'd off. Thus, when the eyes of the soul are covered, and 
the God of this world blinds them, and they are given over to believe a lye, 
this is the beginning of their utter hardness, and eternal perdition. There are 
now many principles of darkness, whereby mens hearts are hardened in sin ; 
whereof one is, the obligation of the moral law, as a rule of life unto a 
christian : a conceit that came out of Hell; and is directly against the clear- 
est light of scripture; Mat. 5. 17, 18, 19- And blasphemously injurious to 
the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ ; who dyed for this end to make his peo- 
ple zealous of good zvorks, and therefore it makes him to dye in vaiii. This 
principle works extream hardness of heart ; for when a man hath drunk in 
this poison, he may sin without sorrow, yea, and without any check of con- 



36 BIAGNALIA CIIRISTI A3IERICANA : [Book iv, 

scipiicc for it. If he bo not bound to keep to the rule, why should he be troubled 
for breaking of it? ^Vhat are such errors but as Culciii speaks, exttndanlis 
in mundum furor is Dei Jiagella, the scourges of the overilowing fin v of an 
angry God against this wicked world ? Hence also there comes to be such 
extreme blindness and blockishness, and blackness of Hell, upon the spirits 
of some, as to deny the necessit}' of a broken heart, and sorrow Tor s/w, in 
these times. Ministers must preach old errors, avxX call tliem by tlie name of 
new lights. Why, because they arv go.spcl iimes, as if it were the work of the 
gospel to harden mens hearts, and make them stocks or stones, or like tlio 
sturdy oaks of Bashan, before the words of the God of Israc/.^' 

Nor could he with easier terms, at am/ time, speak of the licentious dispo- 
sition, tmgendreil by the Antinomianisnt broached and rampant, at that time, 
among many jjrofcssors of chri^tianitti. 

§. 6. But he that holds the Hars in his right hand, intending that a star 
of this magnitude, showld move in an orb, where his inlluences might be more 
extended than they could have been by any opportunities, to be enjoyed and 
improved in an Ameriean wilderness, he inspired our Mafhrr with a stron':; 
desire to pass over into England, and by tlie wisdom of f [eavei» there fell out 
several temptations in this ivilderness, which occasioned him to be yet more 
desirous of such a removal. To England then he went, in the year 1(350. 
Where the right honourable Thomas Andrews, Esq ; then lord mayor of the 
city o{ London, quickly took such notice of hi'^ abilities, as to make choice of 
him, for his chaplain ; and by the advantage of the post, where he was now 
placed in that chaplainship, he < aine into an acquaintance, with the most 
eminent ministers in the kingdom ; who much honoured and valued him, and, 
though of different perswasions, loved, Christum hahitantem, in Mathero. 
Here his inclination to do good, produced good and great efiects; but yet one 
that had like to have proved fatal unto himself: for being a man of excellent 
accomplishments, he was courted so often to preach in the biggest assemblies, 
that by overdoing therein, ho had like to have undone \m friends, and lost his 
life. The famous Mr. Sydrach Syynpaoyi, observing this inconvenience, did 
with a brotherly, yea, with a fatherly care, obtain of him <i promise, that lie 
would not preach abroad at all, except when he should give his consent ; and 
accordingly when any pnblick sermons were asked of him, he would refer 
those that asked unto Mr. Sympsoti, who v/ith a wise and kind consideration 
of this his friend's health, would give his consent, but when it should be con- 
venient. 

§. 7- Mr. Mather, was after this, invited unto a settlement, in several 
places ; and in answer to those invitations, he did preach for a while, at 
Graves- End, and after that at the cathedral'm ihe c\ty of Exeter. But having 
from his childhood, a natural and vehement affection lo a eolledge-life, he 
retired unto Oxford, where he became a chaplain in Magdnlen-CoUcdge : 
and he had therewithal an opportunity, sometimes at St. Maries, to preach 
the gospel of the Lord .lesus (^Ihrist, which for the sake of the Lord Redeem- 
er, whom he loved always to preach, he gladly took. And having before this, 
proceeded master of arts in the cmly protectant colledge of America, he was 
now admitted ad eundem, not only in the renowned university of Oxford, 
but in that of Camhritlge also. But having been some time resident in Ox- 
ford, the English connnisrioners, then going into Scotland, were willing to 
carry with them iome Knglish minisf>rs, whose eminent kfirning, wisdom, 
goodness and reputation, nnght be serviceable unto the interests of truth and 
peace in that nation. Accordingly Mr. Mather was one of the persons chosen 
for that service; and there he continued at Leigh, preaching the gospel of 
God our Saviour, for two years together. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENOLAND. 37 

"S,. S. In the year l655, he returned into England : and the Lord Henri/ 
Cromwel, then going over lord-deputy for Ireland, there v^ere several minis- 
ters of great note pitched upon to go over with him, !br the service of the 
christian religion there, whereof was Dr. Harrison, Dr. Wintei , Mr. Char- 
nock and our Mr. Mather. When Mr. Mather can^e to Dublin, he was made 
a senior fellow of Trinity-Colledge ; and from that university he had the of- 
fer ofa baccalaureatus in Iheologid, but he modestly declined it, and seemed 
inclinable to the Jcwiih ride, about the rabbinate, love the work, but hate the 
rabhinshlp; yer he that had already proceeded master of arts, in so many uni- 
versities, did here again proceed ad enndem. Of any further degrees our 
Mather was ready to say whh the great Melancthon, who would not accept 
an higher title than ih^x oi master ; Fides meum exemplum ; nemo me per- 
pellere potuit, ut ilium quamlibet honorijicum titulum doctoris viihi decerni 
sinerem. 'Nee ego grudus illos parvifucio, sed ided, quidjudico esse magna 
onera,et necessaria reipfiblicx verccnnde petendos esse, et conferendos sen- 
tio. But now in preaching to that renowned city, and in the pastoral charge 
of the church there, he was joined as a colleague with Dr. Winter ; ami here 
preached every Lord's day inorning at St. NichoFs church ;. besides his turn 
which he took once in six weeks, to preach before the lord-deputy and council. 
A preacher he now was of extraordinary esflee??? and success; and as the 
whole kingdom took notice of him, so he did service for the whole kingdom, 
in the eminent station, where God iiad placed him. The more special excel- 
lencies for which his ministry was here observed, were, Jirst, a most evange- 
lical endeavour to make the Lord Jesus Christ the scope and sum of all that 
he said. Secondly, a most angelical majesty, wherewith his messages were 
still uttered, as coming from the throne of God; and thirdly, such a clear- 
ness of reason and method, that it was commonly remark'd Mr. Charnock'S 
invention, Dr. Harrison's expression, and Mr. Blather's iogick, njeeting to- 
gether, would have made the perfect est preacher in the world. " And if the 
sloathful man in Prov. 19- 24. who will not so much as bring h>fj hand unto 
his mouth, were by the ancients understood concerning tlie unholy minister, 
who will not bring voci suae vitam suam, our Mr. Mather was no sloathful 
preacher ; for besides his being a preacher, who, as Melchior Adam de- 
scribes Jacobus Ji ndrem, si quando opus erat, nmra sonabat tonitrua, he was 
also a preacher very eminent for holiness, and he taught the people at other 
times, besides when he opened his mouth. 

^. 9. A certain writer, who does continually serve the Romanizing fac- 
tion in the church of England, with all manner of malice and slander against 
the best men in the world, that were in any measure free from the spirit oj 
that faction, yet mentioning our Samuel Mather, in his Athence Oxonienscs, 
gives this account of him ; ' Tho' he was a Congregational man, and in his 
principles an high non-conformist, yoX he was observed by sonje to be civil 
to those of the episcopal perswasion, when it was in his power to do them a 
displeasure. And when the lord-deputy gave a commission to him, and 
others, in order inito the displacing of episcopcd ministers, in the province of 
Munster, he declined it; as he did afterwards to do the like matter in Duh^ 
tin ; alledging, that he was called into that country, to preach the gospel, 
and not to hinder others from doing it. He was a religious man in the way 
he profest, Ithis author coyifesscs] and was valued by some, who differ'd 
from him as to opinion in lesser, and circumstantial points of religion.' Thus 
one of themselves, even a bigot of their own, has reported, and his report is 
true ! For which cause when the storm of persecution, fell upon the non- 
conformists in Ireland, Mr. Mather, in his address to the lord-chancellor for 
his liberty, uied these, among tnany other p-AaSHges; I can truly say, I desirs 



3S iVIAGNALIA CIIRISTI AMERICANA: |^Book iv, 

710 more, not so much favour fur myself now, as I have shewed unto others 
formerly, when they stood in need of it. But J will not say, how much cause 
I have to resent it, and to take it a little unkindly, that 1 have met with so 
much molestation from those of that judgment, whom I have not provoked 
unto it, by my example, but rather have obliged by sparing their consciences, 
to another manner of deportment. For indeed, I have always thought, that 
it is an irksomr work, to punish or trouble any man, so it is an evil and sinful 
work, to trouble any good man toith temporal coercions, for such errors in 
religion, as are consistent with the foundation of faith and holiness. It is no 
good spirit in any form, to fight with carnal weapons; I mean, by external 
violence, to impose and propagate itself, and seek by such means, the sup- 
pressing of contrary loays, which by argument it is not able to subdue. But 
let the meiits of Mr. Mather have bin what they will, he could not avoid tiie 
hardships, which the historian proceeds to relate in tiiese terms. ' After his 
majesty's restauration, he was suspended from preaching, 'till his majesty's 
pleasure should be known for two sermons, which were judged seditious.^ 
Thus writes the veriest Zosimus, that ever set pen to paper; even that Zosi- 
mus the younger, who cannot mention any well-wisher to the reformation of 
tlie church of England, without giving one occasion to think on Dr. HoweVs 
observations upon the old Zosi.mis ; We know it to be the practice, in all 
reformations, of those who are addicted unto the old way, to render infa- 
mous such, as have bin instruments in the alteration; and by a prejudice 
against the persons most ridiculously to insinuate an ill opinion of the thing, 
or ccnise itself. 

^. 10. One principal character upon the spirit of Mr. Mather, and one re- 
markable in the studies and sufferings of his life, will be given to my reader, 
i[i an account of the two sermons, which were the pretended occasions of his 
being silenced. Know then, that the episcopal party in Ireland, immediately 
upon the king's restauration, hastnii-.g to restore their spiritual courts, and 
summon the ministers of the gospel to appear before them, and submit unto 
those unscriptiiral impositions, which many years had bin laid aside rationc 
belli (as they expressed it) rabieq; ha-reticorum et schismaticoruni, and an- 
swer for the breach oi' canons, which (as the others answered) JFe b/ess God, 
we have never kept, to his praise we speak it, and we hope through his grace, 
we never shall : it was thought necessary on this occasion, that a publick tes- 
timony should be born against the revival of those dead superstitions. Ac- 
cordingly Mr. Mather, being the tjttest person on many accounts to be put up- 
on that service, he did in the capital city of the kingdom, in a great auditory, 
preach two sermons upon K. Hezckiah's brtiaking in pieces the brazen scr- 
pent, and calling it Nehustan, and thence advance this assertion, That it is a 
thing very pleasing in the sight of Cod, when the sin of idolatry, and all 
the monuments, all the remembrances and remainders of it are quite destroy- 
ed and rooted out from among his people : wherein his note ujjon the text, 
was indeed but the very same with what his adversaries, who are usually 
great admirers of every thing said by Grotius, might have read in the com- 
mentary of that athnirably learned (though frequently Socinianizing, and at 
last Romanizing) interpreter, upon the very same text; Egregium documen- 
ium regibus, ut guamvis bene insfituta, sed non necessaria, ubi t7r] 1i> ttoXv, 
mule iisurpantur,^e ronspectn toUant, ni^ ponant offendiculum cacis. In the 
prosecution of this assertion, he ofiered many arguments, why the ceremonies 
of the church of England, which wer^; but the old leaven of human inventioits 
and popish corruptions remaining in the worship of a church, whose doctrine 
he yet appiov'd, as generally owned by good men, should not be reassumed, 
and by the old cruel methods of poena! laws, reinforced. Against the cere- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 39 

monies in general, he argued, that the preface to the common-praycr-hooh, 
expressly declared them to be mystical and significant, and so they diflered 
nothaig from sacraments, but that they wanted a divine institution ; and, 
said he. The promoters of them do pretend only the authority of the church r, 
hut if the second commandment was given to the church, Thou shalt not 
make any graven image, or form of worship to thyself; they are a manifest 
breach of that commandment. He added, that, as they were the momiments 
of the old papal and pagan idolatry, and men did therein, but s?/m6o/7a;e with 
idolaters, thus, by the greater ueight almost perpetually laid upon them- 
than upon greater things, they were still made further idols. Particularly, he 
argued against the surplice, That it was a continuation of the superstiiious 
garments, Vfherein the ffdse ivoi'shijipers d\d use to officiate; That the Jar^ 
onical garments hc\ng typical of the graces attending the Lord Jesus Christ, 
they are by his coming antiquated ; That the scriptures give not the least in- 
timation of any garments, whereby ministers are to be distinguished. He ad- 
ded. That among the first reformers, the most eminent were in their undis- 
tressed judgments, against the vestment ; and that when t\ie canons of 1571. 
forbad the gray amice, or any other garment defiled with the like svpersti 
tion, the ^equity of that cannon would exclude this also. He argued against 
the sign of the cross in haptism, that whatever was to be said against oyj. 
cream, salt, spittle, therein is to be said against the cross, which indeed nt ver 
Jiad bin used, in the worship of God, as oyl had been of old. That there is as 
much cause to worship the spiear that pierced our Lord, as the crass which 
hanged him, or that it were as reasonable, to scratch a child's forehead with a 
thorn, to shew that it must suffer for him, who wore a croicn of thorns : that 
the cross thus employed is a breach of the second commandment in the very 
letter of it, being an image in the service of God of man's deinsing, and 
fetch'd, as Mr. Parker ssys,from the brothel-house of GocFs greatest enemy. 
He argued against kneeling at the Lord- s- Supper, that it is contrary to the 
first institution, which had in it none but a table-gesture : that it is gross hy- 
pocrisie to pretend unto more devotion, holiness, and reverence, in the act ol 
receiving, than the apostles did, when onr Lord was there bodily present with 
them; that it countenanced the error of the papists, who kneel before their 
breaden god, and profess; that they would be sooner torn in pieces than do 
it, if they did notbelicce that Lhrist is thei-e bodily present : and, /'//of since 
it was a rule in the common-prayer-book, set forth in K. Edward'' s time. 
1549. As touching kneeling and other gestures, they may he used or left, a^ 
every man's devotion serveth, it was a shameful thing to be so retrograde in 
rehgion, as now to establish that gesture. He argued against bowing at the al- 
tar, and setting the communion-table altarivise, that the communion-table is 
in the sacred oracles called a table still, and, no where, an altar ; and if it 
were an altar, it would imply a sacrifice, which the hord's supper is not : 
yea, it would be greater and better, than the Lord's Supper itself, and sancti- 
fie it; that if it were an altar, yet it should not be fasten'd unto the wail. 
dresser-fashion ; but so stand, as that it might be compassed about ; that the 
placing of it at the east-end of the church, with steps going up to it, and espe- 
cially the setting of images, or other massing appurienances over it, smells 
rank of paganism : and, that, whereas in the very beginning of the re/brwjc- 
tion, this abuse, was one of thejfr-?^ ^A/no's put down, it were a most Romish 
vergency, noio to conjure it up ngain. He argued against bowing at the name 
of Jesus, that the phrase of bozving iv IS oveiAxJi, in the text, wrested unto this 
purpose, is but veryi^intowardly transiated, at the name of Jesus, instead of 
in the name ; and it werff as proper to speak of, baptizing at the name of the 
'Anther, 'Son avd Holy Spirit, aw(^ of believing at Gad the Father, and at 



4b MAGNALIA CHRTSTI AMERICANA: [ITooKn. 

Jesus Christ his Son ovr Lord, and at the Holy Ghost. That by the riame of 
Jcstis, is not meant the sound of the syllables in the word Jesus, but the pow- 
er, nmjcsty, dominion and authority of the pfrso« of the Lord Jesus ; and it is 
a piece of cabalistiral Diagic, to make an invtn-vation at the sound of this 
name, without paying tlie liku respect unto other names of the blessed God, 
'»r pariicidarly the nan»e Christ, which is more distinguishing for our Lord, 
:lian tliat of Jesus , or wiiy not at tlie sight as well as tiie sound .^ That the. 
apostle speak of .such a name to be acknowledged with bowing, ns was given 
U) our Lord after his resurrection, and as the effect and reward of his humili- 
ation, which the name Jesus was not; it is the name of Christ exalted, or 
Christ the Lord ; and by bowing the knee, is meant the universal subjection 
of all creatures unto his Lordship, especially at tht day of judgment. lie ar- 
gued asrainst the stated holydays, that being feasts which the Jeroboam of 
R.O)ne had devised of his own heart, yea some of them, especially the Deceid- 
ber festival, an imitation of an heathenish original, if the apostle forbad the 
observation of the Jewish festivals, because they were a shadow of good 
things to come, it could not but be amiss in us, to observe the jiopifsh ones, 
which were ethnic also ; that it was a deep reflection upon the v^isdoui of the 
f^ord Jesus Christ, our lawgiver, the lord oi time, and of the sabbath, to add 
unto his ap|)ointments, and it is an infringement of our christian liberty ; that 
an occasional designation of time for lectures, for fastings, for thauLsgiif- 
ings, which are duties required by God, is vastly different from the slating oJ 
times for holy, so that the duties are then to be done for the sake of the tijnes. 
He added, the wish of Luther, then sevenscore years ago, in liis book, Dc 
Bonis Operibus ; that there were no other festival days among chiisiians, 
but onhj the Lord's Day : and the speech of K. James, to a national assem- 
bly in Scotland, wherein, he praised God, that he was king in the sincerest 
church in the world ; sinccrcr than the church of England, /(jr their service 
7oasan ili-saidmass in English ; sincerer than Geneva, iteslffor they obseri'- 
ed Pasche and Yoole, that is Easter and Christmas ; and (said the king) 
rohat warrant have they for that? iVgainst holiness of places, he argued, that 
they were the standing symbols of God's presence, which made stated holy 
places imder the law, and those ^j/aces were holy because of their typical re- 
lation to the Lord Jesus Christ, and there was a further institution of God, 
which did make them to be parts of his worship, and ways and means of 
men's communion with himself, and to sanctifie the persons and actions ap- 
proaching to them ; which cannot be said of any places under the New-Testa- 
/itentjGiid has declared himself to be, both no respecter of persons, and no 
respecter of places- ; niul our meeting-places are no more sacred than the an- 
vient synagogues : that some excellent men of the episcopal way itself, have 
been above the conceit of any difference in places ; Dr. Usher more parti- 
cularly, who says, in times of persecution, the godly did often meet in barns\ 
and such obscure places, which indeed were public, because of the church of 
God there ; the house or place availing nothing to make it public or private ; 
even, as ichresoever the prince is, there is the court, although it were in a 
poor cottage. He added, //(rti^ yet the churches (as they were metoni/mi call y, 
and almost cateehresticatly called) in the English natii«i, were not for the 
sake of old abuses to be demolished, as were the temples of tlie Cunaanites, 
inasmuch as they were built for the worship of God : and those places are no 
longer polluted, when they are no longer so abused. He argued against organs 
and cathedral music, that there was a warrant of Heaven fur instrumental 
'itusic in the service of God under the laio, when also this was not a part 
of their si/nngoguc-worship,\\'\ikh was moral, but oi' ihe'tr ceremonial temple- 
worship, wlicreas there I^ no '^ucli wft^ rant under the go<;pol • that the rnstru- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 41 

mental music under the law, was intended for a shadotv of good tilings to 
come, which being now come, it was abolished, that even .iquinas himself, 
as late as four hundred years ago, pleaded against this instrumental music, as 
beiiig used among the Jetvs, quia populus erat magis durus et carnalis : the 
church of Rome itself, it seems, had not then generally introduced it, as he 
says, ne videatur, judaizare. Finally, against the hook of common-prayer, 
he argued, that it is a setting oi mens posts by God'S, to introduce into the 
public worship of God, as a standing part thereof, and impose by force, an- 
other book, besides the books of God ; nor is there any pra;cept or promise 
in the book of God, for the encouragement of it, nor any example that any 
ordinary church-officers, imposed any stinted liturgies upon the church : that 
K. Edward VI. in his declaration acknowledged, it seemeth unto you a neic- 
service, hut is indeed no other, hit the old, the selfsame words in English, 
that were in Latin, saving afeto things taken out, ichich were so fond, that 
it had bin a shame to have heard them in English : yea, some of the bish- 
ops themselves have reported, that Pope Paid IV. difl offer Q. Elizabeth 
to ratifie it by his authority, id sacra hie omnia, hoc ipso, quo nunc sitnt apud 
nos modo,proatrarifas esset ; now inasmuch as the church of Rome is the 
mother o( harlots, let any protestant jadge, whether it be fit for us, to fetch the 
form of our worship from thence, and indeed a great part of the^onH from that 
old conjurer Numa Pompilius : that for ministers, instead of using their own 
ministerial gifts, to discharge the work of their ministry, by the prescriptions 
of others, is as bad as carrying the ark upon a cart, whi«h was to have bin 
carried upon the shoulders of the Levites ; and it is a sin against the spirit of 
prayer, for ministers in these days to be diverted from the primitive ivay of 
praying, which was according to Tertullian^s account, s/wc monitor e, quia de 
pectore, in opposition to the prsescript forms of prayer amongst the pagans. 
He also touclied upon the corruptions in the very matter of the common- 
prayer ; the grievous preference therein given unto the apocryphal above the 
canonical writings ; the complementing of the Almighty to give us those 
things, ichich for our umvortkiness we dare not presume to ask : the iionsense 
of calling the lessons out of the prophets, epistles ; and many more such pas- 
sages, which he but briefly touched, though, he said, «7 ivould fll a volume to 
reckon them. He concluded these discourses with an admonition to the bish- 
ops and episcopal party, that they would not now revive, or, at least, not im- 
pose, the superstit'.ons of the former times : but among 7nany things which he 
spake in Ms exhortation, I shall only transcribe these words, " Wiion you 
have stopt our mouths from preaching, yet we shall pray ; and not only we, 
but ail the souls tliat have bin converted, or comforted and edified by our min- 
istry, they will all cry to the Lord against you for want of bread, because you 
deprive them of those that should break the bread of life unto them. Now I 
had rather be environed with armies of armed men, and compassed round 
about with drawn swords, and instruments of death, than that the least pray- 
'ing saint should bend the edge of his prayers against rne, for there is no 
standing before the prayers of the saints. Yea, I testifie unto you, that as 
the saints will pray, so the Lord himself wWl fght against you, and will take 
you into his own revenging hand : I speak it conditionally, in case you per' 
secute, and I loish all the bishops in Ireland heard me ! For in the name, and 
in the love of Christ, I speak it to you, and I beseech you so to take it. I say, 
if once you fall to the old trade oi persecution, the Lord Jesus will never bear 
it at your hands, but he will bring upon you a swift destruction. And your 
second fall will be worse than the first ; for, Dagon, the first time, did only 
fall before the ark of God ; but when the men of AshdodhaA set him up in 
h\s place again xW second time, then he hi-ake himself to pieces by his second 

VOL. II. 6 



42 MAGNALIA CHRIS TI AMERICANA ; [Book w. 

fall, insomuch that there was nolhiiis; but the stump of Dagon left. Persecu- 
tion is a very ripeinnffs]i\ ; ami therefore if once you superadd the sin of^er- 
seaitiou, to the sin of siqwrslition, you will be quickly ripe for final ru- 
ine ; and in the day, when God shall visit you, the guilt of all the righteom 
bloody that halh bin shed upon the face of the earth, from the blood vi Abd 
to the blood of Udal, and unto this day, will come down the hill upon your 
heads, even upon \Ue persecutors^: oi' ihi^ generation. The Lurd Jesus, when 
the day of vengeance is in his heart, and when the i/ear of his redeemed is 
come, which is not far ofl', he will then recjnire all that blood, and revenge it 
■all upon your heads, if you justifie the ways of former persecutors, by walk- 
ing in the same steps of 6/oorfand violence. 

Mr. Mather having thus faithfully born hhtesfimo7ii/, his persecutors yet let 
bim live quietly for more than^'t'e months after it; but then they thought it 
their time to call these ^ro s«'//io«s(though there were not one word therein, di- 
rectly, or indirectly against the King, or his government) seditious preach- 
ing ; and thereupon they sile>iced him, though with so much noise, that both 
English and French Gazets took notice of it : but all the notice, which he 
took of that charge himself, was to say, " if it be sedition to disturb the Deo- 
ils's kingdom, who rules by liis yVntichristian ceremonies, in the kingdom of 
darkness, as the Lord Jesus Christ doth by his own ordinances, in his Church, 
which is the kingdom of heaven, I may say, / did it before the Lord, it^ho 
hath chosen me to be a minister, cind if this be to be vile, I toill yet be more 
vile than thus. Indeed there belonged unto him the character once given of 
jErasmus Sarcerius; lucebat in hoc viro commemorablis Gravitas et Con- 
stantta ; non Minas, non Exilia, non ullum vllius hominis potentiam aut vim 
pertimcscebat ; pene dixeram, solenifacilius de Cursu dimoveri potuisse, 
quam Matheruni u Veri talis Profcssione. 

§.11. Mr. MoMer being so silenced by those dwellers on the earth, who 
had bin thus tormented hy hira, he did with the consent of his Church, in the 
latter end of the year 1660, go over to England: where he continued a pub- 
lick preacher in great reputation, at Burton-Wood in Lancashire, until the 
general death upon the ministry of the non-conformists, at the black Barthol- 
omew day, August 24, 1662. The act of which day doubtless made the 
Presbyterians think on the Bartholomew day, which had been in another 
kingdom ninety years before; after which, the deputies of the reformed reli- 
gion, treated with the French King and the Queen mother, and some others, 
of the Council, for a peace and articles were on both sides agreed ; but there 
was a question upon the security for the performance of those articles; 
whereupon the Queen said, is not the word cf a King a sufficient security f 
but one of the deputies answered no,hy St. Bartholomew, madam, it is not! 
IVIr. Mather being one of the twenty hundred m'whwrs, expelled from all pub- 
lic places, by that act which was oonipleated by the active concurrence (as 
that excellent and renowned Person, Dr. Bates, has truly observed) of the 
old clergy from wrath and revenge, and the young gentry from their servile 
compliance with the court ^ and their dlstast of serious religion; his Church 
in Dublin sent unto him, to return unto his charge of them ; having by this 
time, opportunity to use that argument with him, for his return. Me men are 
dead that .nought thy life. Accordingly, he spent all the rest of his days with 
his Church in Dublin; but he preached only in his own hired house, which 
being a very large one, was well fitted for that purpose. And there was this 
remarkable concerning it ; that although no man living used a more open and 
generous freedom, in declaring against the corruptions of worship, reintrodu- 
ced into the nation, yet such was his learning, his irit;dom, his known piety, 
and the true loyalty of his whole carriage towards the government, that he 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 43 

lived without much further molestation ; yea, the God of heaven recompeyi- 
and the integriti/ of thh his faithful servant, wherein he exposed hiniseU above 
most ot^rr men for the truth by granting him a protection above most other 
men, from the adversaries of it. For which cause he did in the year 1068, 
thus write unto liis aged father in New-England. " I have enjoy'd a won- 
derful protecting Providence in the work of my ministry. I pray remember 
me daily in your prayers, that I may walk loorthy of this goodness of God, 
and be made useful by, him, for the good of the souls of his people. If any 
had told me in April 1 660, that I should have exercised the liberty of my 
ministry and conscience, either in England ov Ireland, and that without con- 
forming to the corruptions of the limes ; and this for seven or eight years to- 
gether ; I should not have believed it, I should have thought it next to an 
impossibility: hut icith God all tiling.^ are possible.''^ 

§. 12. Although Mr. Mather was full of zeal against corruptions in the 
worship of God, and in that just zral, he also wrote a treatise containing rea- 
sons Hi^Rmst stinted liturgies, ami i\k English one in particular, and answers 
to the^ lamentable cowress?>M*, which a reverend person fwhose name, for 
hont>r's sake he yet spared) had made, in his disputations, for them ; never- 
theless, like the Apostle Jo/t«, whom he had, long before imitated, when he 
was a young disciple, upon other accounts, he was full of love towards the^er- 
sorasof good men, that were too much led away with those corruplions.— 
Hence he carried it with all possible respect unio godly and worthy men oi 
that wai/, which he so much disliked; the Episcopal; however, while they 
excluded the Scripture from being the rule of Church-administrations, and 
made uascriptural Rites, with promiscuous admissions to the Lord^s tahe, 
and the denial of Church-power unto the proper pastors of the Churches, to 
be the ienns of communion, he thought it impossible for non-conformists to 
coalesce, in the same Ecclesiastical commnnion with them. Albeit he had 
the union of charity and affection, with all pious conformists, of whom his 
words were, There is Christian love and esteem due to such, as personally 
considered, and we should be loilling and ready to receive them in the Lord: 
yet for the union of an Ecclesiastical combination, with men that were of such 
principles and by such principles became the authors of a schism, he said, unto 
their assembly, my glory, be not Hum united; and he added, f/fe best ivayfor un- 
ion with them is to labour to reduce them from the error of their icay. Neverthe- 
less, iMr. Mather beholding that they who appeared studious of reformation in 
the nations, were unhappily subdivided into three forms, or parties, commonly 
known by the name of Presbyterians, Independents, and Antipcedo Baptists, 
he set himself to endeavour an union among all the good men, of these three 
perswasions. To this purpose, he did compose a most judicious Irenicum (af- 
terwards printed) wherein he statetl the agreement of these parties : he found, 
that they were agreed in all the fundamental points of the christian faith, 
and rules of a chritian life: that they were agreed in the main acts of natu- 
ral worship, namely prayer and preaching, and hearing of the word ; and m 
the spmaZ <me for publick wwship, namely, the Lord's days : thd as to 
matters of institution, they were agreed in declaring for the Scriptures, as 
the direction of all ; they were agreed, that the Lord hath appointed a minis- 
try in the Church, who are bound by office to publish the Gospel, and in his 
name therewith to dispence Sacraments, and the disciplines of the Gospel, 
and that all ignorant and ungodly persons, are to be debarred from the Holy 
mysteries; and finally, that the humane inventions used and urged in the ser- 
vice of the Church of England, are unlawful. He proceeded then to consid^ 
er the articles of difference, which were betwixt them ; and he found those 
articles to be mostly so meerly circumstantial, that if the several sides would 



44 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

bi;t patit'uti^' uudoistand one another, or act according to the concessions and 
confessions which are made in tiiiir most alloived ivritings, they might easily 
walk together, wherein they were of one mind, and wherein they were not so 
they mipht wiUiiigly bear wiili one another, until God reveal unto them. — - 
Only such as unchurch a\\ otliers besides themselves, he found by the severity 
of their own disuniting principle, rendered uncapable of coming into this un- 
ion: But unto all the societies of these Christians, that made union and com- 
munion with the Lord Jesus Christ, the foundation of Church coinmunion, he 
did, with a most Evangdiccd spirit, offer, first, that they should mutually 
give the right hand of fellowship, unto each other, as true Churches of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. Secondlt/, That they should kindly advise and assist 
each other in their afTairs, as there should be occasion for it : Thirdly, That 
they should admit the ;«e/;i6er.9of each other's congregations, unto occasional 
communion, at the table of the Lord. In this uniting scheme of his, as there 
was a due tenderness towards various apprehensions, without scepticism in 
religion, so there was a blessed essay to remove the greatest stumbling-blocks 
of Christianity. Indeed such a generous largeness of soul there was in our 
Mather, that he could with tlie excellent-spirited, Mr. Burroughs, have vvrit- 
ten it as the motto, upon his study-door, Opinionum varietus, ct opinantiuia 
unitas, nan funt 'A<:rvc,ctlx. 

^ 13. While Mr. Mather was fulfilling his ministry in Dublin, as one, who 
might justly have claimed the name of the Spanish Bishop, Fructuosus, there 
were many salleys to the doifig of good, which he added unto the weekly 
and constant services of his ministry ; whereof one was this. A certain Ro- 
man Catholick having published a short but subtil discourse, entitled of the 
one, only. Catholic and Roman faith, whereby the faith of some uncatechis- 
ed Protestants was not a little endangered. Mr. Mather was desired by 
persons of quality, to give the world an answer to this discourse. And in 
answer to their desire, he composed and emitted, a most elaborate, pertinent, 
and judicious, though brief treatise, entitled, a defence of the Protestant, 
Christian religion against Popery, wherein the manifold apostasies, here- 
sies, and schisms of the church of Rome, as cdso the weakness of their pre- 
tensions from the scriptures and the Fathers are briefly laid open. But 
there was another thing, which gave the studies of this learned and holy 
}nan, a considerable exercise. There was one Mr Valentine Greatreats, 
who felt a vehement impression, or suggestion upon his mind, of this im- 
port ; [I have given thee the gift of curing the evil .'] in compliance with 
which impulse, he stroked a neighbour grievously afflicted with the Kings- 
evil, and a cure succeeded. For about a twelve-month he pretended unto the 
cure of no other distemper ; but, then, the ague being rife in the neighbour- 
hood, the same sort of impulse told him [I have gii'cn thee the gift of cur- 
ing the ague/] After which, when he laid his hand, on people in their fits, 
the ague would leave them. About half a year after this, the impulse be- 
came yet more general, and said \I have given thee the gift of heeding] and 
then our sfroker attempted the relief of all diseases indifferently : but fre- 
quently with siicli violent rubbing, as from any one, would have had a ten- 
dency to disperse pains arising from flatulencies. All this while, he doubted 
wh^ther there were any thing more in the cause of the cure, that followed 
tUh friction, than the strong /c/wr;/ of the feeble people that addressed him ; 
wlirfore to convince his incredulily, as he iiiy in his bed, he had one hand 
stiuck dead, and the u iial impulse then bid him, to make a trial of his vir- 
tue upon himself; which lie di<l with his other hand, and immediately it re- 
turn«^d unio its Wnmer livchness : this happened for two or three mornings 
together. Eui aUer tills, there were thousands of persons, who flockt from 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAx\D. 45 

all parts of Ireland, unto this gentleman, for the cure of their various mala- 
dies among whom there were some noble, some learned, and some very pious 
persons, and even mi7usters of the gospel ; and aUhougli it was observed, that 
Si cure seldom succeeded without reiterating touches ; that the patients often 
relapsed; that sometimes he utterly faii'd of doing any thing at all, especially, 
when there was a decay oi nature; and that there were many distempers, that 
were not at all obedient unto the hand of ihis idimons practitioner : neverthe- 
less his touches had t'lousands of wonderful elfects. There were some philo- 
sophical heads, who refer'd all this virtue in the hand oi om new sort of 
Chvrurgion, uuto a particular complexion in him, or a sort of sanative or bal- 
samic ye/»/eni, which was in the spirits of the man ; and who conceived the 
impulse upon him to be, but a result of his temper, and like dreams, that are 
usually according to ou»- constitution ; or perhaps, there might be something 
of a genius they thought, also in the case. But. Mr. Mather apprehended 
the hand of Joab in all this ; and a plot of Satan, that Mvotolix^i'ir,^, Generis- 
humani hostis, lying at the bottom of all. Mr. Greatreats had confessed un- 
to him, that before these things, he had bin a student in Cornelius Agrippa^ 
and had essay'd the cure of distempers, by his Abra kat Abra; and Mr. 
Mather now feared, that the devil, with whom he had bin so far familiar, did 
not only now impose upon the man himself, but 3\<ao design upon nuiltitudes of 
other people. Wherefore to rectifie the thoughts of people about the danger 
oi unaccountable impulses, which had precipitated Greatreats into his pres- 
ent way of cures ; and about the nature and intent of real miracles, whereof 
'twas evident there were none in the cures by Greatreats pretended unto; 
and moreover, to prevent ihe superstitious neglect of God, and of means, 
which people were apt, on this occasion, profanely/, to run into ; and finally, 
to prevent the hazards, which might arise unto our sacred religion by our 
popular apotheising of a blade, who made sceptism in religion, one part of 
his character 5 Mr. Mather drew up a discourse relating thereunto. This 
discourse, being shown to some of the K'mg^s privy-coa7icil in Ireland, was 
approved and applauded, as most worthy to be printed ; but the primate^s 
Chaplain, at last, obstructed it, because torsooth ; the Geneva notes, and Dr. 
Ames, were quoted in it, and it was not convenient, that there should be any 
book printed wherein any quotations were made from such dangerous fanat- 
icTcs. However, God blessed this manuscript, for the setling of many un- 
stable minds, and the stopping of mischiefs that were threatened. 

§ 14. It is reported in the life of Mr. Rothwel, that being advised by a 
clergy-man more great than wise, to forbear tnedling with the types, as 
themes not convenient for him to study upon, he made that \ery prohibition, 
but as an invitation, to expect something of an extraordinary concernment ia 
them ; and accordingly falling upon the study of the types, he found no part 
of his ministry more advantagiously employed for himself or others. Our 
Mr. Mather on the other hand, was earnestly desired by the non-conformist 
ministers, in the city of Dublin, to preach upon the types of evangelical 
mysteries, in the dispensations of the Old Testament ; in compliance with 
which he had not proceeded very far, before he saw cause to write unto one 
of his brothers, the types and shadows of the Old Testament, if but a little 
understood, how full are they of gospel-light and glory ! having gone 
through diverse of them, I must achunvledge, with thankfulness to the 
praise of the freeness of the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, that I have 
seen more of him, than I saw before. With much labour and judgment, at 
length, he finished his undertaking, and in a course of sermons, from March 
1666. to Feb. 1668. on first the personal types, and then the rea? ones, 
"vhether first, the more occasional type^, and, then, the more perpetual ones. 



46 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv 

And his church after his death, calling another of his worthy brothers, name- 
ly, Mr. Nathanad Mather, to succeed him, that brother of his, in imitation 
of what Lndwirus Capellus, did for his brother, and what Mr. Dyke, Mr. 
Culocrwel, and others have done for theirs, in publishing the profitable works 
of the deceased, published this course of sermons unto the world ; with some 
judicious discourses, agfiinst modern superstitions, intermixed. Here, the 
waxen combs of the ancient and typical celh, being melted down is (as one 
expresses it) rolled up into shining tapers, to illuminate the students of 
those mysteries, in finding out the honey, that couches in the carcase of the 
slain lion of the tribe of Judah. All the talents which Cato spent in erect- 
ing a tomb of Thracian marble for his dead brother Ccepio, turned not unto 
so much account, as the care used by Mr. Nathanael Mather, thus to bring 
into the light the meditations of his excellent brother Samuel ; upon a subject 
wherein but (aw had ever waded before him. And if there be a truth in that 
opinion of some divines, that the glory and gladness of the saints in heaven, 
receives additions, as the good effects of what they formerly did, on earth 
are there increasing ; his action herein, was yet more worthy, the relation 
of a brother. But Mr. Mather did not so converse with one more obscure 
part of the sacred scripture, as to leave another uncultivated with his indus- 
trious, and inquisitive studies thereupon : the difliculties in the prophetical 
part of the Neifl-Testament, as well as in the figurative part of the Old, were 
happily assail'd by his learned contemplations. When he had made a con- 
siderable progress herein, he wrote unto his youngest brother, who was then 
a minister in New-England, and since President of the Colledge there; I 
must needs tell you, hotv much I do rejoyce, that it hath pleased God to stir 
up your spirit, to search into the prophetical parts of the scripture ; of 
which I have often thought and still do, that it is great pity, they are so 
little minded and seen into, by many, both mitiisters and others, who do de- 
prive themselves of much satisfaction, which they might receive thereby. 
It is not good, to depise any part of the mind and counsel of God, revealed 
in his word ; there are unknoicn treasures and pleasures there stored up, 
more precious than gold and silver ; and shall we not, in the strength of his 
spirit search for them? And as the brother to whom he thus wrote, gave in 
sundry treatises, and in diverse languages, unto the church of God, several 
happy fruits of his enquiries into the inspired />ro/)/tecJes, which blessed are 
they that read and hear ; so our Mr. Mather himself arrived unto such at- 
tainments, herein, that he had no cause to make the confession (tlio' such 
was his modesty, that he was ready enough to do it) of some eminent per- 
sons, nullus sum in propheticis. When 'tis said, blessed are they that keep 
the things written in this prophecy, a mathemetician will tell us, that what 
we render /:ce/>, is rather to be render'd observe, ov watch, ov mind ^ for 
Ivtoalv, is used by the Greeks, as a term of art, expressing the astronomical 
observation of eclipses, planetary aspects, and other coelestial phenomena. 
Mr. Mather accordingly counted it his blessedness, to take an observation of 
what fulfillment the divine books of prophecy already had received, and 
thence make computation of the times, that were yet before us, and of the 
things to be done in those times. But of all his apocalyptical explications, 
or expectations, I shall here take the liberty to insert no more, than this one, 
which may deserve perhaps a little thinking on. That lehenever God sits 
tfp in any of the ten kingdoms, which made the ten horns of the Papal em 
pire, such an establishment, sovereign and independtnt, tvherein antichrist 
shall have neither an ^E^utI*. nor a Auy«|M.(?, neither poioer of laios, nor force 
of arms, to defend him and his corruptions ; doubtless, then, the witnesses 
of ou • J.ord^ ore >w more troddtn down, to prophecy in Sackcloth, any Ion 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 4? 

ger. Then therefore expires the 1 260 years, and since that such a king- 
dom well may be called the Lord's then will the seventh trumpet begin to 
sound. Which) that it is near, even at the door, I may say, through grace 
I doubt not. 

§ 15. While Mr. Mather was thus en)pIoy'd, it pleas'd the God of heaven, 
io take oicay from him the desire of his eyes. He had in the year l656. 
married a most accomplished gentle-woman, the sister of Sir John Stei^ens, 
by whom he had four or five children, whereof there lived but one, which 
was a daughter. But in the year l668. this gentlewoman fell into a sickness, 
that lasted five or six weeks; all which time she continued full of divine 
peace and joy, and uttered many extraordinary expressions of grace, where- 
with her pious friends were extreamly satisfied. When she drew near her 
end, her husband seeing her in much pain, said, yori are going where there 
will be no more pain, sighing or sorrov) : Whereto she answered, ah my 
dear, and where there icill be no more sin ! And her sister saying to her, 
you are going to heaven, she answered, J am there already ! So she went 
away, having those for her last words, come, Lord, come, Lord Jesus ! Not 
very long afiter this did Mr. Mather fall ill himself, of an impostume in his 
liver: but as in the time of his heahh and strength, he had maintained an 
even walk with God, without such raptures of soul, as many christians have 
bin, carried forth unto, so now in the time of his illness, he enjoyed a certain 
tranquility of soul, without any approaches toward rapturous extasie. He 
never was a man of words, but of a silent, and a thinking temper, a little 
tinged with melancholly ; and now he lay sick, he did not speak much to 
those that were about him ; yet, what he did speak, was full of weight and 
worth, nor will his friends ever forget, with what solemnity, he then told 
them; that he had preached unto them the truths of the great God, and that 
he note charged them to adhere unto those truths, in the firm and full faith 
whereof, he was now entering into glory : and that he did particularly ex- 
hort them to wash every day, in the precious blood of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and by faith apply his perfect and sjwtless righteot/sness unto their own 
soids. It has indeed bin commonly observed, that children, who honour 
their father arid their mother, according to the first commandment, in the 
second table of the law, which has a peculiar promise annexed unto it, have 
the recompense of a long life upon earth. And I take notice that in the 
commandment, what we translate, that thy days may be long, is to be read, 
that they may prolong thy days ; that is, thy father and thy mother, they 
shall prolong thy days, by blessing of thee, in the name of God, if thou 
carry it well unto them. But when the Sovereign Providence of heaven 
makes exceptions unto this general rule, we may believe, that what is not 
fulfilled in the letter, is fulfilled in the better; and some, that live long in a 
little time, also have their days prolonged in the enjoyment of life with the 
Lord Jesus Christ, our life, throughout eternal ages. Thus our Mr. Mather 
liad bin as dutilnl a Joseph, as perhaps ever any parents had ; and by his 
yearly and costly presents to his aged father, after he came to be a master of 
possessions in Ireland, he continued the expressions of his dutifulness unto 
the last; nevertheless he now died, Octob. 29- I671. When he wanted 
about six months of being six and forty years old : and yet as they who 
have gone to prove Adam, a longer-lived person than Methuselah, use to 
urge, that Adam was to be supposed fifty or sixty years old, being in the per- 
fect stature of man, at his first creation, so, if it be consider'd how much of 
a man, our Mather was, while he was yet a child, and if it be further consid- 
ered how much work he did for the Lord Jesus Christ, after he came to the 
perfect stature of man, he must be reckoned, an old man full of grace, 



48 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book i v. 

though 7iot full of days ; and that cjiitaph which was once the great Jewel's, 
may he written on his grave, in the church of St Nicholas, in the city o( 
Dublin, where his ashes lie covered. 

Diu vixit, licet non diu fuit. 

But now, 

Gone where the tricked cease from tumbling, and zchere the weary are 

at rest. 



CHAPTER III. 

The Life of Mr. Samcel Danforth. 

'^ 1. Most christian and canid, is the speech of a certain author, who yet 
writes himself, y4 bcneficrd minister, and regular son of the Church of Eng- 
land, when he says, / nerer thought them good painters, who draw the pic- 
tures of the dissenting brethren with dirt and soot . but I, knowing them to 
be unlike those pictures, have tvith Just offence beheld their injuries, and 
tcould have been pleaded to have seen them described by some impartial and 
ingenious master, as ft to adorn the palaces of Princes. Reader, I am going 
to draw the picture of another minister, who was a nonconformist unto 
Emendables, In the Church of England ; wherein tho' I am not ingenious, 
yet I will be impui'fial, and therefore instead of the dirt and soot, which the 
persecuting bigots for a few ceremonies, would employ upon the memory of 
such men, I will with an honest and modest report of his character cause him 
to be remembered next unto the frst fellow of that Colledge, wliereof /ic was 
the next. 

-^ 2. This was Mr. Samuel Danforth, son to Mr. N. Danforth; a gentle- 
man of such estate and repute in the world, that it cost him a considerable 
sum to escape the knighthood, which K. Charles I. imposed on all of so 
much per aiinnm ; and of such figure and esteem in the Church, that he 
[)rocured that famous lecture at Framlingham in Suffolk, where he had a 
fine mannour ; which lecture was k«>pt by Mr. Burroughs, and many other 
noted ministers in their turns ; to whom, and especially to Mr. Shepard, 
he prov'd a Gains, and then, especially when the Laudian fury scorched 
them. This person had three so7is, whereof the second was our Saumcl, 
born in September, m the year l626. and by the desire of his mother, who 
difd three years after his birth, earnestly dedicated unto the schools of the 
prophets. His father brought him to New-England in the year l634. and at 
his death, about four years after his arrival here, he committed this hopeful 
son of many cares and prayers, unto the jiaternal oversight of Mr. Shepard, 
who proved a kind patron unto him. His early j)iety, 'Answered the pious 
education bestowed upon him ; and there was one instance of it somewhat 
singularly circumsianced: when he was reciting to his tutor, out of the hea- 
then poets, he still made some ingenious addition and correction, upon those 
passages, which ascribed those things unto they'a^se gods of the gentiles. 
that could not without blas])hemy he ascribed unto any, but the Holy One oj 
Israel: his tutor gave him a sharp reprehension for this, as for a meer imper- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND. 49 

tinency ^ but this conscientious cliild reply'd, Sir, I canH in conscience 
recite the blasphemies of these ivretches, ivithout ivashing my month upon 
it ! Nevertheless, a fresh occasion occurring, his tutor gave him another sharp 
reprehension for his doing once again as he had formerly done ; but the 
tutor to the amazement of them all, was terribly and suddenly seized with a 
violent convulsion-Jit ; out of which when he at last recovered, he acknowl- 
€dg'd it as an hand of God upon him, for his harshness to his pupil, whose 
conscientiousness he now applauded. 

"^i 3. His learning with his virtue, er'e long brought him into the station of 
•i tutor ; being made the secoiid /'eZ/jz/; of Harvard-Colledge, that appears 
in the catalogue of our graduates. The diary, which even in those early 
times, he began to keep of passages belonging to his interior state, gave great 
proof of his proficiency w godliness, under the various ordinances and provi- 
dences of the Lord Jesus Christ ; t\\c watchfulness, tenderness and conscien- 
tiousness of aged Christianity accompanied him, while he was yet but young 
in years. His manner was to n'se before tlie Sw??,^ for the exercises which 
Isaac attended in the evening ; and in the eveihing likewise he withdrew, not 
only from the conversation then usually maintained, which he thought hurt- 
ful to his mind by its infectious levity, but from supper it self also, for the 
like excercises of devotion. Although he was preserved free from every 
thing scandalous, or immoral, yet he seem'd as TertulKan speaks, Nulli rei 
natus nisi painitentim ; and the sin of tmfruitfuhicss gave as much perplex- 
ity to him, as more scandalous and immoral practices do to other men ; for 
which comprehensive sin, keeping a secret fast, once before the Lord, the 
Holy Spirit of the Lord Jesus Christ so powerfully and rapturously comfort- 
ed him, with those words, he that abideth in me, and I in him^ the same 
bringeth forth much fruit ; ivithout me ye can do nothing : that the remem- 
brance thereof, was all his days, afterwards comfortable unto him. 

"^ 4. Mr. Welds returning for England, the church at Roxbury invited Mr. 
Danforth, to become a Colleague to Mr. Eliot, whose evangelical employ- 
ments abroad among the Indians, made a Colleague at home to be necessary 
for him. The pastoral charge of that church he undertook in the year 1650. 
and no temptations arising, either from the incompetency of the salary, al- 
low'd him to suppott an hospitable family, or from the provocation, which 
unworthy men in the neighbourhood sometimes trit^d him withal, could per- 
swade him to accept of motions, which were made unto him, to remove unto 
more comfortable settlements ; but keeping his eye upon the great man's 
motto, prudens, qui patiens, he continued in his Roxbury station, for three 
years more than thrice seven together. All this time, as he studied use, by 
endeavours to do good, not only in that particular town, but with influences 
more general and extensive, so he did endeavour to signalize himself, by 
studying of peace, with a moderating and interposing sort of temper, in 
rising differences ; being of the opinion, that usually they have little peace 
oj conscience, loho do not make much conscience of peace. And when he 
then came to dye, spending one whole sleepless night, in a survey of his past 
life, he said, he could find no remarkable miscarriage (through the grace of 
Christ) in all this time, to charge himself loi thai, but that with Hezekiah, he 
had served the Lord with a perfect heart all his days. 

§ 5. The sermons with which he fed his flock, were elaborate and sub- 
stantial ; he was a notable text-man, and one who had more than forty or 
fifty scriptures distinctly quoted in one discourse ; but he much recommend- 
ed himself by keeping close to his main text, and avoiding of all remote ex- 
curtions and vagaries ; and there was much notice taken of it, that though 
he were a \exy judicious preacher y yet he was therewithal so affectionate^ 

VOL. II J 



60 MAGNALIA ClIRISTl AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

that he rarely^ if ever ended a sermon without weeping. On the Lord's 
days in the forenoons, he expoinKled the books of t!ie Old Testament ; in 
the afternoons, he discoursed on tiie body of dioiniii/, and many occasional 
subjects, and some chapters in the Epistie to the Romans, until the year 
1661 ; and then he began to h;indle the harmony of the four Ernngelists, 
proceeding therein to those wonls of our Lord Jesus Christj in Lul:e 14. 14. 
Thou shalt be recompenttd at the re^nrrection of the just : On whicii, hav- 
ing preached his lust sermon, it proved indeed his last ; and tVom theute he 
had no more to do, but now mtits rdl the days of his (rppointed time, until 
his change come, at that resurrectior,. when our Lord Jesus Christ shall call, 
and he shall answer that call, and the Lord shall have a desire to the work 
of his hands. He also preach'd a monthly lecture, and on many private 
occasions, at meetings of christians, in the t'lmiiies of the faithful. But in- 
stead of ever venturing upon any extemporaneous performances, it was his 
manner to write his sermons twice over; and it was in a fair long hand that 
lie wrote them. His utterance was free, clear, and giving much in a little 
time; his wez/ior^/ very tenact.')us, and never known to tail him, though he 
allow'd it no assistances. And unto all the other commendable things ob- 
served in the discharge of his ministry ; he added that of a most pastoral 
watchfulness over his flock. Hence lie not only visited the sick as a mes- 
senger from heaven to them, one among a thousand, but when he met per- 
sons recovered from sickness, he would, at this rate accost them, well, you 
have been in God's school but what hare you learnt? what good have 
you got? And notable were the effects of these his applications. Hence 
also he took much care, that none should keep an house of public entertain- 
ment in his town, but such as would keep good orders and manners in theilr 
house; and the tavern being in view of his own study-window, when he 
saw any town-dwellers tijjpling there, he would go over and chide them 
away. Hence likewise he would animadvert upon miscarriages that came 
in his way, with all watchful and zealous faiihfulness, and one instance of 
his doing so, had something peculiar in it. A day of humiliation was to be 
attended, and a man of anothertown, by unseasonable driving a caz-nhrough 
the street, caused this good man to come out and reprove him, for the affront 
he thereby put upon the devotions of the people in the neighbourhood: the 
man made him an obsti late and malapert answer, but when he came home, 
he foimd one of his children suddenly dead ; upon this he could have no 
rest in his mind, until be came to this reprover in the gate, with humble and 
many tokens of repentance. 

§ 6. After his contraction, according to the old usage of Ni'W-England, 
unto the virtuous daughter of Mr. iVilson (whereat Mr. Cotton preached t!ie 
sermon) he was married unto that gentlewoman, in the year lG51. Of 
ij^eZfC children by her, there are four now at this day, surviving ; whereof 
two are now worthy ministers of the gospel. When his wife was luider dis- 
couragements at any time, through domestick straits, he would reply, ben''t 
you discouraged ; if you undergo more dilficuliies than other gentlewomen, 
still we have the Lord's part, and at last you shall have an ample recom- 
pence, a prophefs recompence ! As his end approached he had strong ap- 
prehensions of its approiich ; and the very night before he fell sick, he told 
his wife, he had been much concerned, how she with her children would sub- 
sist, if he should be removed ; but now he had got over it, and firmly believ- 
ed in the covenant of God for Ihrm, that they should be, by the Divine Pro- 
vidence, as well provided for, as (hey could be, if he n'cre alive: whirh h.as 
been since accomplished unto admiration ! Immediately after this, he (ell 
sick of a putrcd fever, occasioned by a damp, cold, nocturnal air, on a 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. JJ 

journey ; and in the space of six days, passed from natural health, to eternal 
peace, Nov. 19. 1674- Of his dying prayers for his consort, one of the most 
lively was, that her daughter (now the wife of Edward Brovifield, Esq:) 
might be made a rich blessing and comfort unto her; and this also hath not 
been without its observable accomplishment ! but if we now enquire after an 
epitaph, to be inscribed on the tomb where liis ashes now lye, with those of 
our governour Dudley, for whose honourable family he always had a great 
friendship, I know not, whether one might not be taken out of the words of 
his venerable old Collegue Mr. Eliot, who would say, my brother Danforth 
made the most gloriotis end, that ever I saw ! or from a poem of Mr. Weld'S 
upon him, which had a clause to this purpose. 

Mighty in scripture, searching OAtt the sense, 
All the hard things of it, tmfolding thence : 
i/eliv'd each truth; his faith, love, tenderness 
None con to th' life, as did his life express : 
Our minds 7cifh gospel, his rich lectures fed ; 
Luke, and his li-e, at once are finished : 
Our new built Church noio suffers too by this. 
Larger its windows, hut its lights are less. 

§7. The least pupils in astronomy, cannot now without some diversion, 
reflect upon the astronomy of the ancients, when we read them declaiming 
against the spluerical figure of the heavens : the many passages to this pur- 
pose in Justin Martyr, and Ambrose, and Theodorct, and Theophylact, and 
the great Austin himself, I will not recite, least, reader, we should, before 
we are aware, play too much with the beards of the Fathers : nor would we 
lay aside our value for good old Chrysostoni'S theology, because we find him 
in a confident and a triumphing manner upbraiding the world with such an 
opinion as, n« 'tcf/v oi (r<ponpo£i^fj apecvov iivx'i a 'z-o<Pot,tvou.aai ; Where are those 
7nen that imagine, that the heavens have a sphoiricalform? Since the scrip- 
ture saith, God stretched forth the heavens as a curtain, and he spread them 
as a tent to dwell in, which are not sphcerical. We will not call ihem fools 
for these harangues ; but leave it unto one of themselves, even Jerom, to 
pass his censurse upon them, est in Ecclesia stultiloquium, si quis Cceluni 
putet fornicis modo curvatum, Esaice, quern, non intelligit, sermone deceptus. 
'Th foolish speaking in the Church, if a?)y through misapprehension of the 
leords of Isaiah, shall affirm that the heavens are not round. The divines 
of the latter ages, are (though to our surprize, the voluminous Tostatus was 
not !) better astronomers, than those of the former ; and among the divines, 
that have been astronomers, our Mr. Samuel uarforth, comes in with a 
claim of some consideration. Several of his astronomical composures have 
seen the light of the sun ; but one especially on this occasion. Among the 
four hundred and odd comets, the histories whereof have preserved in the 
records of learned men, a special notice was taken of that, which alarumed 
the whole world in the year l6G4. Now although our Danforth had not 
the advantages of Hevelius, to discover how many odd clots, compact and 
li'.cid, there were in tiie head of that blazing-star, with one thicker than the 
rest, until it was grown to tvv'enty four minutes diameter, nor to determine 
that it was at least six times as big as the earth, and that \X?, parallax ren- 
dered it at length, as remote from the earth as Mars himself, nevertheless, he 
diligently observed the motions of it, from its fust appearance in Corvus, 
whence it made a descent, crossing the tropick of Capricorn, till it arrived 
uuto the main top-sail of the ship, and then it returned through Ccinis Major. 



52 MAGNALIA CHRISl^ AMERICANA . [Book iv. 

and again crossed the tropick of Capricorn, passing through Lepus, Erida- 
mus ; and the Eg'Mmocf/a/, and entered into the mouth of the Whale, and so 
into Aries ; wiieie it retired not leaving any philosopher able to fulfil the fa- 
mous prophecy of Seneca, in predicting the /lew appearance of it. He there- 
fore published a little treatise, entitled, ati astronomical description of the 
late comet, ivith a brief theological description thereof ; in which treatise he 
not only proves, that a comet can be no other than a cmlestial luminary mov- 
ing in the starry heavens, whereof especially the largeness of the circle, in 
which it moves is a mathematical and irrefragable demonstration, but also he 
improves the opinion of a comeCs being portentous, endeavouring as it be- 
came a devout preacher, to awaken mankind by this portent, out of a sinful 
security. Now, though for my own part, I am sometimes ready to say, with a 
IcatneAmdin, tcedet me divinationisin re tamincertd ; yet when I consider, 
how many learned men have made laborious collections of remarkable and 
calamitous events, to render comets ominous, I cannot reproach the essays of 
pious men, to perswade us, that tv/ien the hand of Heaven is thus writing 
MENE TEKEL, it is tiot amiss for tis mortals to make serious reflect ions there- 
upon. But besides this, there are two other discourses of this worthy man 
printed among us. One is, the cry of Sodom, enquired into, or, a testimony 
against the sins of uncleanness, which with much wonder and sorrow, he saw 
too many of the rising generation, in the country carried away withal. An- 
other is, a recognition of New-England's errand into the wilderness, or a 
sermon preached unto the general assembly of the colony, at their anniversary 
election ; the design of which was to remind them, of what he summarily 
thus expresses, you have solemnly expressed before God, angels and men, 
that the cause of your leaving your country, kindred and father''s houses, 
and transporting yourselves, with your icives, little ones, and substance over 
the vast ocean, into this waste and hoivling wilderness, was your liberty to 
walk in the faith of the gospel with all good conscience, according to the 
order of the gospel, and your enjoyment of the pure worship of God, ac- 
cording to his institution, without humane mixtures and impositions. 

EPITAPHIUM. 

Non dubium est, quin eo iverit, cjud sieWas euut, 
Danforthus, qui stellis semper se associavit. 

In December 1659, the (until then unknown) malady of bladders in the 
windpipe, invaded and removed many children ; by opening of one of them 
the malady and remedy (too late for very many) were discovered. Among 
those many that thereby expired, were the three children of the Reverend 
Mr. S. D. the eldest of whom (being upward of five years and a halfj so gra- 
cious and intelligent wore her expressions and behaviour both living and dy- 
ing, and so evident her faith in Christ) was a luculent commentary on that 
marvellous propliecy, that the child should dye an hundred years old. How 
the sorrowful father entertained this solemn Providence may be partly gath- 
ered from what he expressed unto such as came to attend his branches unto 
their graves ; of which may be said, as was said of Job, in all this he sinyied 
not. He saw meet to pen down the minutes of what he spake, and they are 
faithfully taken out of his own manuscript. 

My Friends, 
If any that see my grief should say unto me as the Danites unto Micah, 
what ailetJ: thee? I thank God, I cannot answer as he did, they hare taken 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 5S 

away my gods. My heart was indeed somewhat set upon my children, espe- 
cially the eldest; but they were none of my gods, none of my portion; my 
portion is whole and untoucht unto this day. To understand myself, and to 
communicate unto my hearers, the spii itual meaning and compass of the law 
and rule, and the nature of gospel obedience hath been my design and work, 
upon which I have employ'd much reading and study, and what faith, hope, 
love, patipnce, Sfc. the glorious wisdom, power and mercy of God do oblige 
«s to render I have endeavoured to set forth before you, what if God will 
now try whether they wf^re meer notions and speculations that I spake, or 
whether I believed as 1 spake, and whether there be any divine spark in mv 
heart ? I remember him that said to Ahraliam, hereby I know that thou fear est 
me, in that thou hast not with-hdd from me ihy son, thine only son. It is the 
pleasure of God, that (besides all that may be gain'd by reading, and stud}-- 
ing, and preaching) I should learn and teach obedience by the things that I 
suffer. The holy fire is not to be fetcht for you, out of such a flint, as I am, 
without smiting. Not long before these stroaks light upon us, it pleased God 
marvellously to quicken our hearts (both mine and my wife's) and to stir up 
in us most earnest desires after himself: and now he hath taken our children, 
will he accept us unto freer and fuller communion with himself, blessed be his 
holy name. I trust the Lord hath done, what he hath done in wisdom, and 
faithfulness, and dear love, and that in taking these pleasant things from me, 
he exerciseth and expresseth as tender affection unto me, as I now express 
towards them in mourning for the loss of them. I desire with Ephraim, to he- 
moan myself, &c. Jer. 31. 18, 19. O that I might hear the Lord answering 
me as he did Ver. 20. It is meet to be said to God, Wc harw born chastise- 
ment, we will not offend ; what wc see not, teach thou us : ayid if we have 
done iniquity, we will do so no more. We know, and God much more knows 
enough in us, and by us to justifie his repeated stroaks, tho' we cannot tax 
ourselves with any known way of disobedience. My desire is, that none may 
be overmuch dismayed at what hath befallen us ; and let no man by any 
means be offended. Who may say to the Lord, What dost thou ? I can say 
from ray heart, tho' what is come upon us is very dreadful and amazing, yet 
I consent unto the will of God that it is good. Doth not the goldsmith cast 
his metal into the furnace ? And you husbandmen, do you not cause the flail to 
pass over your grain, not that you hate your wheat, but that you desire pure 
bread ? Had our children replyed when we corrected them, we could not have 
born it : but, poor hearts, they did us reverence ; how much rather should we 
be subject to the father of spirits and live. You know, that nine years since, I 
was in a desolate condition without father, without mother, without wife, 
without children : but what a father, and mother, and wife have been be- 
stow'd upon me, and are still continued tho' my children are removed. And 
above all, although I cannot deny, but that it pierceth my very heart to call 
to remembrance the voice of my dear children, calling father, father ! a 
voice, now not heard : yet I bless God, it doth far more abundantly refresh 
and rejoyce me, to hear the Lord continually calling unto me, viy son, my 
&on ! my son, despise not the chastening of the Lord, nor faint thou when 
thou art corrected of him. And blessed be God, that doth not despise the 
affliction of the afflicted, nor hides his face from him. 'Twas the consider- 
ation that God had sanctify d and glorify'd himself, by striking an holy awe 
and dread of his majesty into the hearts of his people, that m-AAe Aaron hold 
hi* peace : and if the Lord will glorify himself by my family, by these awfuL 
stroaks upon rne, quickning parents unto their duty, and awakening their 
children to seek after (he Lord, 1 shall desire to be content;, though my name 
be cut oft': and I beseech vou be earnest with the Lord for us, that he would 



54 MAGiNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

keep us from sinning against him ; and that he would teach us to sanctifie his 
name, and tho' our dear branches have forsaken us, yet tliat he that iiath prom- 
ised to be with his cliildren in six troubles and in seven, would not foisake 
us. My heart truly would be consum'd, and would even dyv v. ithin me, but 
that the good will of him that dwelt in tho burning bush, and his good worn 
of promise are my truf^f and slai/. 



CHAP. IV 



EccLESiASTES. Thc Life of the Reverend and Excellent Joinathan Mitch- 
el ; a Pastor of the Church, and a Glory of the Collcdge, in Cam 
bridge, New-England. — Written by Cotton Mather. 

Simid et jitcunda et Idonea 

dicere vitce, 
Lertorein delectando simul atque monendo. 

THE SECOND EDITION. 

THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY. 

To the Church at Cambridge in New-England, and to the Students of the 

Coliedge there. 

Right Worshipful, Reverend and Dearly Beloved, 
There have been few churches in the world so lifted vp to Heaven, in re- 
spect of a succession of supereminent ministers of the gospel, as the church in 
Cambridge has been. Hooker, Shepard, Mitchel, Oakes, (all of them yours) 
were great lights. You know that if light has been brouglit into a room, 
when it is removed, the place becomes darker, than if never any such light 
^ rp 7 , had been there. A learned pen in an r/jzsf/e c/e(^icafo/-?/ to the 
Dr. luckney s jji^jibitants of Boston in Lincolnshire, puts them in mind 
Epistle prefixed ^^j^^^ ^^^ happy people they once were, while under the 
10 Mr. Cotton on ^^.^^hing of Mr. Co«o«, who was from them removed to 
LcclcHiastcs. plant churches for Christ in the American Desart : Ar\d 
prays them to consider, 'That as empires and kingdoms, so particular 
churches have had their periods. Bethel has prov'd a Beth-haven : in after 
times, we find young profane mockers in Bethel, and scornful neuters in Pen- 
uel, go to ShUoh ; think of the sometimes glorious churches in Asia, says he. 
And he adds, that he had on purpose visited some places, where God had 
before planted his church, and a faithful ministry, to see, if he could discern 
any footsteps and remembrances of such a mercy, and lo, they were all over- 
grown with thorns, and nettles had over-covered the face thereof, and the 
stone-wall thereof is broken doivn. And as he further well observes, when 
the Lord has been provoked to remove the candlestick, he is very hardly in- 
duced to restore it again. The Ark never returned to the same place, from 
whence it was in a way of judgment removed, and the glo7-y of the Lord. 
which after its gradual removes, was at last quite gone from the frst temple. 
was not restored in the secowf/, till Christ's //-.si coming, nor will it be in this 
their reiection, till his second.^ Mercy forbid that such things as these should 
be verified in N(;u;-England. •'" in f^mnbrid'rp ' Tl'nt this may not be your 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 55 

rase, it concerns you not wantonly to play ox fght by the liglit yet remain- 
ing, but to make the best improvement of your present advantages, giving 
aU'due encouragement to that worthy person, who is now over you m the 

Lord. 

Concerning your famous pastor, Mitchel, I confess, 1 had the happiness 
af a special intimacy with him, in his life time, nor do I know any one death 
(that of natural relations excepted) that ever has been so grievous and afflic- 
tive to my spirit, as was his. By reason of his eminent parts and piety, he had 
an happy influence on all these churches. Many of them fare the better at 
this day, because the preachers whom they are now instructed by, whilst 
students at the coUedge, lived under his ministry. The coUedge, Cambridge, 
New-England mav glory, that ever such an one had his education there ! As 
for the description of his Ufe,hy my Son emitted herewith, I have nothing to 
say concerning the writer, or this endeavour of his, because of ray relation to 
him ; only, that it is what he could collect, whether by information from those 
that knew that excellent man, or from his private manuscri})ts, which he had 
the perusal of it. It is not without the Providence of Christ, that it should be 
committed to the press, at such a time, when there are agitations about some 
disciplinary questions amongst yourselves. What the judgment of that man 
of God was, yoa have in the subsequent relation of his life presented to your 
view. 

The original manuscript written by INIr. Mitchel's own hand, I have by 
me. Whether he committed his thoughts to writing, with any design of pub- 
lication, or for the satisfaction of some persons in a more private way, I know 
not; but it is now evident, that when his spirit was inclined thereunto. Heav- 
en designed his meditations should be brought into public view. Whilst he 
was living, you that were of his flock, had (and considering his great worth 
and wisdom, it would have been a reproach to you, if you had not had) an 
high esteem of his judgment. Being dead he yet spcaketh to you, out of his 
grave. Those of you that retain a living remembrance of him, in your hearts, 
will easily discern something of xMr. Mitchel's spirit, in the way of his argu- 
ing. He does therein (according to his wonted manner) express himselt with 
great caution and prudence, avoiding cxtreams, in the controverted subject. It 
cannot be denied ; but that there has been an error in some churches, who have 
made this or that mode to be a divi?ie institution, which Christ has not made 
to be so : and that there has been an unjustifiable severity, in imposing cir- 
cumstantials not instituted, whereby some truly gracious souls have been dis- 
couraged from offering themselves to joyn in fellowship with such churches. 
Thusit has been, when an oral declaration of faith and repentance has been 
enjoyned on all communicants, and that before the tohole congregation ; 
when as many an humble pious soul has not been gifted with such confidence. 
So likewise has it been, when the exact account of the time and manner ot 
conversionhas been required: whenas there have been multitudes ot true be- 
lievers (such especially as have been advantaged with a religious educationj 
^ P that the seed of grace has sprung up in their souls, they know 

Mr. liaxter ^^^^ ^^^,^^^ ^^^^^ ^ 2^_ ^^j^. j^^^.^^^ relates, that he was once at 
0/ injant bap- ^ ^^^^^^^ of many christians as eminent for holiness, as most 
tism, p. 12 J, j^^ ^^^^ land, of whom divers were ministers of great fame; 
^ and it was desired, that every one should give an account of 

the time and manner of his conversion, and there was but one oi them all, 
that could do it. And (says he) I averr from my heart, that I neither hnoio 
the day nor the year, when I began to be sincere. For churches, then to ex- 
pect an account oi that from all that they receive into their fellowship, is un~ 
.icriptural and unreasonable. Nevertheless, it concerns them to beware of the 



56 MAGNALTA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv 

other extream oilaxnesn m admission unto the Lord's /jo/?/ table. You know 
that your pastor Mitchel had a latitude in his judgment as to the subject of 
baptism (as also Dr. Ames, Mr. Cotton, a^nd oih^rs oi ihe congregational per- 
sivasi'jn had) but as to admissions to the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. I 
know no man, that was more conscientiously careful to keep unqualijied per- 
sons from partaking tlicrein than was he. As for this or that mode in examin- 
ing of persons, that offer themselves to be communicants in our churcheSj 
whether it shall be by a more continued re/«//o?J of the work of grace, in their 
liearts, or by questions and answers (as was practised in the church at Hart- 
Jord'm Mr. Hookcr^s time, and which may possibly be as edifying a way, as 
the former) or whether the persons designing to partake in the Lord'^s Supper, 
.shall declare their experiences orally, or in writing, are prudtntials, which 
our Lord has left unto churches to determine as they shall hndmost expedient 
for their own edification. Nevertheless the sw/w^onre of the thing (\\z. either 
a relation, as y.is called^ or an equivalent) ought to be insisted on. Churches 
are bound in duty to enquire, not only into the knowledge and orthodox}/, but 
into the spiritual estate of those whom they receive into full communion in all 
the ordinances of Christ. Some have thought, that such qualifications are not 
to be expected from children born in the church, as from strangers ; but they 
never had that opinion out of the scripture, which says expressly concerning 
them that would eat the passover, that, there is one law to him that is home- 
born, and to the stranger. Exod. 12. 49. Numb. 9- 14. Wherefore in the 
platform of discipline it is said, the like tried, is to be required of ^ / 19 
such members of the church as were born in the same, or received ^ K^' 
their membership, and were baptized in their infancy, or minori- ^' 
ty, by virtue of the covenant of their parents, ivhen being grownup to years 
of discretion, they shall desire to be made partakers of the Lord's table, unto 
ivhich, because holy things arc not to be given to the unworthy, therefore 
it is requisite, that those as loell as others should come to their trial and ex- 
aminaiion, and manifest their faith and repentance by an open profession 
thereof, before they are received to the Lord's Supper, and, otherwise not to 
be admitted thereunto ; these are the words, in tlie platform, of discipline, 
agreed unto by the elders and messengers of the churches in the synod a? 
Cambridge; iu which synod, were Mr. Cotton, Mr. i?oo-ers, Mr. Norton, 
learned and aged divines, besides many others of great eminency. It is not 
the opinion of tnen, but the scripture which must decide the controversie. 
Nevertheless, the judgment of those eminent divines who had deeply search- 
ed into these matters, is not to be slighted. Nor is the private sentiment of 
this or that person, to be laid in the ballance, with the judgment of a synod 
consisting of persons, of far greater authority than any younger ones pretend- 
ed to be of a contrary opinion. Nor is there weight iu that allegation, that 
when a man declares his own experiences, he testifies concerning himself 
and therefore his testimony is of no validity. By the same reason it may be 
said, churches are not to examine those that essay to joyn themselves to them, 
about the soundness of their faith. For they may (as.'?r?!//s did) profess, that 
they believe articles of faith, which God knows, they do not believe, nor is 
there any thing but their own testimony to prove that they do believe as they 
profess. But above all, theirnotion is to be rejected, as a church-corrupting 
principle, who assert that (he sacrament is a converting ordinaice. Papists, 
Erastians, and some others, whom I forbear to mention have so taught; but 
their heterodoxy has been abundantly refuted, not only by congregational 
writers, such as Mr. John Beverly against Tim}/!:on,b\n by worthy authors of 
the Presbyterian perswasion, particularly by Mr. Gelapsy in his Aaron's rod, 
Or. Drahe in his answer to Mr. Humphrys, and Mr, f'iircs, in liis treatise of 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 57 

the Lord's-Supper. If the sacrament were appointed to be a converting or- 
di nance, then the most scandalous persons in the world, yea, heathen people 
ought to have it administered unto them, for we may not with-hold from them 
the means appointed for their conversion, 'i'iie scriptnre says, let a man ex- 
amine himself , and so let him eat of that bread. 1. Cor. 11, 28. which clear- 
ly intimates, that if upon examination, he finds himself in a state of sm and 
nnregeneracy , he ought not to eat of that bread. 

Blessed J\lr. Mitchel would frequently assert, that if it should pass for 
current doctrine in New-England, that all persons orthodox in judgment, as 
to the matters oi faith, and not scandalous in life, ought to be admitted to 
partake of the Lord's- Supper, without any examination concerning x\^e^oork 
of grace in their hearts, it would be a reul apostacy from former principles, 
and a degeneracy from the reformation, which we had attained unto. T am 
willing upon this occasion, to bear my testimony to \\w present truth, and to 
leave it upon record unto posterity ; not knowing how soon the Lord Jesus 
may by one Providence or otlier {o^ which \ ha\e had several warnings) re- 
move me from my present station among these churches. The arguments 
which have induced me to believe and testifie, as now 1 do, are such as these. 

1. Time was when churches in New-England, believed there was clear 
scripture proof for tlie practice we plead lor. Particularly that scripture, 
Psal. 4, 10. / have not hidden thy righteousness from the great congrega- 
tion. And that, Psal. 66, iCi, come and hear all ye that fear God, and 1 
vnll declare what he has done for my soul. And that scriptnre, 1 Pel. 3, 15. 
he ready always to give an answer to every man, that asks you a reason of 
the hope that is in you, does by just consequence intimate as much as we as- 
sert. Some have been hold to say, that since the apostle in the place alledged, 
speaks of believers apologizing for their hope before persecutors, it is an abuse 
of scripture from thence to infer, that any thing of that nature ought to be 
done for the satisfaction of churches. But renowned Mr. Hooker in a mami- 
script, which 1 have seen, answering the objections of some who disliked the 
practice of these churches, in examining and inquiring into the spiritual estate 
of their communicants (especially their requiring an account from the children 
of the church) argues judiciously that if christians are bound to give an ac- 
count of the grounds of their hope to persecutors, much more to churches 
that shall desire it. So Mr. Shepkard, the faithful and famous pastor of the 
church in Cambridge, in his answer to Mr. Bcdl. And to the same purpose, 
in the platform of discipline it is inferred, that men must declare and shew 
their repentance, and faith, and eflectual calling, because these are the reason 
of a well-grounded hope. Now for any man to charge these worthies of the 
T^ord, and ihe platform of discipline, with abusing scripture when they made 
such an inference, is a very unbecoming presumption. It was formerly 
thought, that scripture examples are not wanting, to warrant the practice of 
our churches in this matter, since John required those whom he admitted to 
his baptism, to make a confession of their sins. And the apostles expected a 
declaration of their repentance from such as they admitted into the primitive 
church. Acts 2, 38. And Philip examined the eunuch concerning the sinceri- 
ty of his faith. Acts 8, 37. 

2. That principle which fends to bring pe7-sons not duly qualified, to par- 
ialce in holy things, must needs be displeasing to the holy Lord Jesus Christ. 
He would liave his servants to distinguish betwixt the precious and the vile. 
Jer. ]5. 19- And to turn aivay from such as have only the form, and not the 
potoer of godliness in tliem, 2 Tim. 3, 5. they that have only a doctrinal 
knowledge, and an external conversion iiee from scandal, without regeneration, 
jiave no more than a form of godliness. If christians should not make such 

VOL. IT S 



58 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AIMERICANA : [Book iv. 

persons their familiarf;, cert<i\a]y they ought not admit them to their sacred 
communion. It is a very soloniu word, which the Lord has spoken, saying. 
You hare bi'oiti^Jit into mi/ sancttiarii vmircnmcised in heart, to be in nnj 
sanctuani to pollute it : even in nuj house, when you ojfer the bread and the 
blood. No stranger unrircumcised in heart, shall enter info my sanctuary. 
Ezok. 44. 7, 9. That man does but dejile the sanctuary of the Lord, that has 
not the icater of separation (tiie blood of Christ through faith) sprinkled up' 
on him. Numb. 19, 20. But this principle or position, that persons are to be 
admitted to the table of the Lord, without enquiring into their regeneration", 
tends to bring the unci rcumcised in heart, \x\to the sanctuary. If churches 
should neglect all examinations concerning the orthodoxy of those they re- 
ceive into their communion ; would not that have a natural tendency to bring 
hetreodox. and it may be heretical \^ersons> into their communion ? By a. par' 
ity of reason, the omitting all enquiries, as to th(t spiritual experience of them 
that come to the table of the Lord, has a tendency to fdl the sanctuary with 
those, who never had any experimental knowledge of the things of God. 

3 The church ought to know, as far as men can judge, that the persons 
whom they admit to the Lord's Table are fit, and have a right to be there. 
Now none are meet to partake of the Lord\s Supper, excepting such as have 
experienced a saving work of grace. They must be such as can and will, 
examine themselves. 1 Cor. 11, 28. And therefore must have the matter of 
self-examination, which is faith, repentance, and love, and other graces. 
Thus it was in the primitive apostolical church, Acts 2, 47- The Lord add- 
ed to the church daily , such as should be saved. Churches are to i-eceive such 
as the Lord has received, Rom 14 1, 2, 3. Such as are united to Christ, 1 
Cor. 12, 27. 1 Thess. 1.1. Living stones must be in that building, 1 Pet. 
2. 5. Made ready by a work of divine grace on and in them, before they 
are laid there ; of which the prepared materials in Solomon''s temple were a 
type, 1 Kings 6. 7 They ought to be saints and faithful in Christ Jesus. 
Eph 11. How shall the churches knozo, that the persons who offer them.- 
selves to their communion are such, unless they pass under their trial, Rev. 
2. 2. If a man claim right to a priviledge, and 3'et shevveth no sutficient rea- 
S071, he ought to be debarred until he can some way or other prove his claim. 
It is true, the judgment of churches is fallible: grace being a secret thing, 
hid in his heart; only Christ secthit: churches cannot always discern the 
tares from the wheat. Nevertheless, they may not willingly receive in hypo- 
critcft. Ballarmine himself is fain to confess, as much as that comes to. 
When such were found in churches in the apostolical times, it is said, that 
they crept in privily and unawares. Gal. 2 4 Jude v. 4. Which intimates 
unto us, tliat they did not willingly admit such into their fellowship. When 
the enemy sowed tares in the field, a culpable sleeping in those, that should 
have been more watchful was the cause of it. Math, i 3. 23. They who ob- 
ject, that we are bound in charity, to believe, that the persons, who offer 
themselves to our communion, are regenerate, without ever making any cn- 
quiry, into their spiritual estate, may with as good reason afiirm that we are 
bound in charity to believe, that they are sound in the fiith, without exam- 
ining them about that matter. A rational charity, grounded upon evidence, 
and not a blind charity is the rule according to which churches are to pro- 
ceed 

4 Tliat practice, which Christ has oicned with his special blessing and 
presence, ought not to be decrycd as an human invention, but rather owned 
as a divine institution Was not the Lord's blessing Aaron's rod an eflec- 
tual demonstration, tliat his ministry had a divine approbation ? Is not PauPs 
railing to the ministry, and Peter's also, proved from this argument, that God 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. :.9 

owned and blessed tliem both ? 1 Cor. 9 1,2. Gal. 2. 7, 8, 9. That Christ 
lias owned his churches, in their enquiries into the spiritual estate of such aa 
they admit into their communion with his special gracious presence, is most 
certain. Have not sojne been converted by hearing others give an account of 
their conversion ? How mani/ have been comtbrted, and how tnani/ edified 
tkerehy ! which proveth that this practice is lawful and laudable, and that 
to stigmatize it so, as some have done is not pleasing to the Lord 

5. To tise all lawful means to keep church communion pure, is a duty in- 
curabent upon cdl churches, and most eminently on churches in New-England. 
it is known to all the world, that church reformation, and purity as to all ad- 
ministrations therein, was the thing designed by our fathers, when they fol- 
lowed the Lord into this wilderness : and therefore degeneracy in that res- 
pect would be a greater evil in us, than in any people We shall not act like 
icise children, if we seek to pidldoum with our hand, that house (or any pillar- 
principle whereon it is founded) which our wise fathers have built The de- 
basing the matter of particular churches must needs corrupt them. A learn- 
ed and renowned author has evinced, that the letting go this ^^ rp, , 
principle, that particidar churches ought to consist of regene- ■. ., ,^ , o" 
rate persons, brought in the great apostacy of the christian • ' P- 
church. The way to prevent the like apostacy in these churches, is to require 
an accou7it of those, that offer themselves to communion therein, concerning 
the work of God on their souls, as well as concerning their knowledge and be- 
lief If once this practice and principle of truth be deserted, a ivorldof nn- 
fualifed persons will soon fill, and pester and corrupt the house of God, and 
cause him to go far ojjfrom his sanctuary. We may then justly fear, that these 
golden candlesticks, will be no longer so, but become rfross and tin, and rejj- 
robate silver, until the Lord has rejected them. Let us dread to have an hand, 
in causing it to be so ! It is a solemn passage which Mr. Cotton (whom Dr. 
Goodwin calls the apostle of this age) has in his judicious treatise of the holi- 
ness of church members, p. 60 Methinks (says he) the servants of God 
should tremble to erect such a stale of the visible church, in hypocrisie and 

formal prof ession, as whose very foundation threatneth certain dissolution 
and desolation. True it is. that we may not do evil, that good may come of 
it. We may not use any unlawful practice to prevent impurity, as to the mat- 
ter of our churches. But no man can say, that the practice we plead for is 
sinful. If then the use of it may (by the blessing of Christ) be a means to keep 
our churches and communion pure, why should it be laid aside ? Mr Mitch- 
KL in a manuscript of his, which I have seen, has these weighty words, ' The 
over-enlarging of full communion or admission of persons thereunto, upon 
slight qualifications, without insisting upon the practical and spiritual part of 
religion, will not only lose the power of godliness, but in a little time, bring 
in profaneness, and mine the churciies these two ways 1 Election of minis- 
ters will soon be carried by a formal, looser sort. 2. The exercise of disci- 
pline, will by this means be rendered impossible. Di.scipline falling, profane- 
ness riseth like a flood. For the major part wanting zeal against sin, will fos- 
ter licentiousness. It is not setting dov/n good rules and directions, that will 
salve it : for the specification of government h from men, not frcin laws. Let 
never so good a form of government be agreed upo!.-, it will soon degenerate, 
if the instruments (or men) that manace it, bt not good.' Bie&sed Mitchel \ 
these are thy words ; this was thy spirit ! 

6. In the primiiive and purest times cf the cl-urdi, there ?oas great strict- 
ness used in examining such as tvere admitted to sacraraent, concerning the 
sincerity of their repentance toioards God, and their faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ. There are who pretend, that this is a neio practice, begun by a fow 



60 MAGxXALIA CHRISTI AMEUlCAiNA: [Book iv 

fteparaffsts in Amsterdaiu, ncpt an luindrcd 3ears since. But such persons dia- 
cover their ignorance, and that they arc unacquainted and unstudied in ecde- 
siastictd story. Justin M«;7///- (who lived 150 years after Christ) in his 
second apoloay for the christians, writeth, that they did examine surli. as icerc, 
admitted to their communion, ipheiher they ivere able to conform, themselves 
in all things to the word hud ivill of God. If we would know what things 
were practised by the churches in the primitive times, the writings of Ter- 
tullian and Ci/prian, (as learned Usher has truly observed) give us the clear- 
est discovery thereof. It is evident from them, that in those days, there was 
rather too much rigidity than too much laxne.ss, in their admission to sacra- 
ments. They would keep men, who were catechumens and competentes a 
long time, before they did receive them into full con)munion in the church. 
They recjuired not only a profession oi faith, and a confession of sins, but a 
submission to a severe scrutiny concerning their sincerity therein Plant scru- 
jj . tinia, at srepius explarentur, an post renunciationcm Satance 
sacra verba dataifdei radiciius corde defixerint. 'Vhey were to 
be examined again and again, to find out, whether the words of the faith they 
professed, were indeed fixed in their hearts. Cyprian in his third epistle 
says, mihi labor est persuadere fratribns ut recipiendis consentiant, vixplebi 
persuadeo, iit tcdes patiantur admitti, quia nee cum vera pcenitentia venerant. 
That he could not easily perswade the brethren in churches^ to consent to the 
admission of such persons to their communion, of whose sincere repentance^ 
there was any doubt. Origen declares, as much as that amounts to. When in 
after ages, churches degenerated, Chrysostom complains, that by admitting 
ungodly men into the church, they had filled the temple icith beasts, and he 
professed, that he would sooner choose to have his right hand cut off, than 
administer the sacrament to a known wicked man. It is well known, that the 
Walde?ises, amongst whom religion was preserved, during the reign of pope- 
ry, were strict in this matter. And so were the Bohemian brethren : Comme- 

7i?MS testifies concernins; them, that they used a (r//!7/^e«i e.T- „ . ,•, • /• 

7 ,. •!"!/* -,7 1 J r J.1 * sxatto aiscipitH\ 

ploration concernmg the j ait h and repentance oi their p ,, nf^pm 

communicants, lest haply it should be only superficiary 44 *, 
and fallacious. There was an exanien conscientiariuin us- "' ^" ' 
ed amongst them. It must be acknowledged, that in the protectant reforma- 
tion, there has been a great neglect and defect, as to what concerns the dis- 
cipline and government of Christ in his church. As the apostacy was gradual, 

so has the rr/b/v«a/io?j been And there was (as Dr 0?fJPM i-, /^ r ti 

11 u \ • -1 • I • •» » u ^''- ♦Jwen, ot tat 

well observes) a wise providence m ordering it to be so. , r 7 

, I. , , , ^,. „• , , " ^ nature of a gospel 

' t or had the first reformers set themselves to remove out , , ^ fo 
f.. 1 r 11 1 ^ (• -. • church, ^. IS. 

of the church all such as were unmeet lor its communion, ' ^ 

and to have reduced things to their primitive institution, by reason of the 

paucity of th.e number of such church members, the endeavour for a general 

/'p/brmaf/oH of doctiine and worsliip would have been obstructed. Hence it 

comes to pass, that the reformation of the church, as unto the matter of it, 

was not attempted, until Co/i'm set up his discipline in Geneva, ■wh'xch has 

filled the world with clamours against him to this day. In most other places 

the matter otmembrrs of churches were, as to their lives and conversation as 

bad as the^«p/s^s Nevertheless, eminent divines of the reformation, in this 

and the last century, have approved of th;it wliicli v,e are pleading for. Beza 

laments tho rrmi.^siiess of profesiart churches in not taking 7, rr .• y it 

more care about the qunlincations ot their nuMnbcrs ; con- ^ 

eluding, that there will never be such a reformation as ought to be endeavour- 

ied after, nisi a conversionc cordium initium insfrmrationis sumafur, except 

men with ronrertcd hearts, he laid in the foundation. Bucer f^nds fault with 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 6l 

English churctes for admitting children who had bren bap- ^^^^^^ Script. 
lized, unto the Lord's Supper, upon too low ten/is He says, ^/j^/^^^.^y ij 
\\me slmuld be viauif est sigiis of regcncratiim in thim first : Ig^ ^^^^ ' 
that they should appear to be such as had upon their hearts ^ "' 
a sense of the word of God, and that they did use secret prayer, &c. Biit 
how should such things be known concerning them without enquiry into their 
.spiritual state / Chamier commends the strictness used in the ciiamier de 
primitive times, in examining those that desired to joyn to ^aptismo. I. 5. 
ihec\mrch,7ie quantum fieri poterit lateant Simoucs, that so 
Simon Magus may not creep into the church, if it were possible to prevent 
it Luther did at last sorrowfully bewail it, that he began his reformcdion 
with such promiscuous admissiom to the table of the Lord, heartily \yishing, 
that he had taught and practised such a church discipline, as that which was 
professed by tlie Bohemian brethren. Chemnitius wisheth, that the strictness 
used among the ancients in the prok/f/■o7^ of communicants were restored, and 
revived inihe churches of the reformution. His godly desire and hope that in 
time it will be so, is approved of by Gerhard, in his Common Place, de Sacra 
Ccena. 

Some of those that are called Vresbyterian fully concur with us, as to the 
substance of what we plead for. When Mr Norton in his answer unto Jpol- 
hnius does assert, that four things are to be required of those, that desire ad- 
mission into church fellowship, 1. A confession of /W/M. 2. J declaration 
of their experience concerning a toork of faith. 3. A blameless conversation. 
4. Professed subjection to the gospel, and the order of it. That learned and 
, worthy professor of divinity, in the university of -Le^^rfera Dr. 

Hornbeck _h. j/^^.,j(r,^^yr. declares his concurrence with him therein, and 
pisfola '^l^ /^"- that in these particulars, those of the congregational way, a- 
riump. 299' gj.^g ^,jjjj g^j^g ^jjl^g^ reformed churches To my certain 
knowledge, eminent ministers of the Presbyterian perswasion, in London. 
examine their communicants (before they admit them to partake with them, 
at the Lord's Table) concerning their faith and repentance. And so (not- 
withstanding what \s pleaded for by the godly learned Mr. Rutherford) some 
do in Scotland, as divers worthy ministers of that nation, have assured me. 

The difference as to this matter, between a Presbyterian and a Congrega- 
fional nicin, (who are nevertheless united bretlwen) is this. There is no coh- 
gregationcd man but he reports to the church something of what the person 
desiring communion with them, has related to him ; which the Presbyterian 
does not, only declares his own satisfaction, and giveth the brethren a liberty 
to object against the conversation of the admittendi. I know Presbyterians, 
who are stricter in their examinations and admissions, than some congrega- 
tional men. It appears therefore, that such enquiries into the spiritual esiaie 
of them, who are to be admitted unto full communion, in all the ordinances of 
the gospel, is no singular or novel practice : nothing but what is confirmed 
by reverend antiquity, and has been ingenuously asserted by the great reform- 
ers, both of the former, and this present age. Whether the brethren, as well 
^sth^ elders should not be concerned ns judges, concerning the qualifications 
of those whom they receive into their communion, is another question, which 
I shall not here enlarge upon. It is certain, that in the primilive ages of the 
church, they had that liberty ; otherwise Cyprian would never have said, 
vix plebi persuadeo ut tales patianlur admitti, &c. And elsewhere confessed 
his obligations, and resolutions, nihil sine consensu plebi s privcda, sentcntia 
ge.nere. 

It is also certain, that this is an avowed principle of all who are esteemed 
^ongregG(io7ml. In the declaration of tho faith and order owned and prac- 



62 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AiMERICANA : [Book iv. 

tised in Congregational church in England, agreed and consented unto, by 
tlieir elders and messengers, in their meeting at the Savoy, Octoh. 12. I608. 
They declare, that the members of particular churches are saints bi/ calling , 
visibly manifesting their obedience to the call of Christ, who being further 
hioirn to each other by their confession of faith wrought in them by the pow- 
er of Gody declared by themselves, or otherwise manifested, consent to walk 
together according to the appointment of Christ I have known many in 
England of that way ; but never any that did not concern the brethren as 
well as themselves, to he judges of thf" litness of those who have desired to 
be received into their communion It is evident, that the church, (and not 
the officers only) have power given them by Christ, to judge who are meet to 
be ^>«/ o«<< of their communion. Mat. IS 17- 1 Cor 5 12 Then they must 
needs have the like power as to those that are to be taken into their commun- 
ion. Ejiisdem est potestatis constituere et destituere,\s a known received 
axiom. If the whole church has power to Judge of the repentance of one that 
is to be re-admitted, then of the repentance of one that is to liave liis first ad- 
mission. But the Apostle speaks to the church, and not to the ojficcrs only to 
restore the penitent Corinthian to their communion. 2 Cor. 2 8. Again, 
If the whole multitude of disciples have power to judge, whether persons are 
qualified with that wisdom and grace, as to be meet for office-relation in the 
church, then they have power to judge concerning the knowledge and grace 
of communicants. The argument is a majori ad minus. They that are meet 
judges in a greater matter, much more in that which is less. But the former 
is clear from the scripture. Acts &, 2, 3, A. For furtiier satisfaction in this 
point, Mr Norton, and Mr. Sliepard may be consulted, with that man of 
vast reading and learning, Mr. Robert Parker 

These things I have supposed to be proper for me to write to you the 
Church of Christ in Cambridge ; not as doubting of your stedfastness in the 
truth to this day professed and practised by you, but as desiring that those 
who shall succeed you, may continue to walk therein ; and that so I might 
testifie, the peculiar respect, that I do (and ought to) bear unto you, on the 
account of the undeserved love, which all of you have manifested towards 
nie. Five years are not expired, since you were pleased unanimously to in- 
vite me to accept of the ^as/ore// f^j^cv? over you Cut the unwillingness of 
the dear people, among whom I have been labouring in the Gospel for the 
space of thirty-six years, that I should leave them, in consideration of some 
other obstacles, kept me from com|jlying with that your loving motion IVev- 
ertheless, I cannot but whilst I liv*-;, have a dear aliection for you, and know 
not how to express it more, dian by endeavouring what in me lies, that you 
and your children after you, may be confirmed in those ways of the Lord, 
which your fathers, and your selves too, have experienced so much of His pres- 
ence in And I have also considered, that you are singularly circumstanced, 
in that there are residing with you, the sons of the prophets, whose establish- 
ment in the present truth, I am more than any man in the world, under an 
obligation to promove, and I certainly know (not altogether without an awful 
sense of it) that the Son of God, will eVe long enquire of me, whether I did in 
this njyttcr, discharge my duty, according to his expectation, to whom I must 
be accoimtable concerning the improvement of whatever f«/cH/s or opportuni- 
ties to serve His interests, He has or shall trust me with^whilst I am in this 
world. 

A few words let me Anther speak to you, who belong to that nursery, for 
religion and learning, which has for a long lime been the glory, not of Cam- 
bridge only, but of New-England. Sixteen years will this summer be lapsed, 
since God, by his providence, devolved the Prcesidenlship of that society into 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 63 

my hands, to manage it (so far as m}^ msujiciencies for such a service will per- 
mit) for the ends, which He (and ouv fathers, as his instruments) did at first 
erect a CoUedge in Neic-England upon ; which was chieHy, that so scholars 
might there be educated for the service of Christ and His ch; relies, in the 
work of the ministr>/. and that they might be seasoned in thtir tender years 
with such p?-i/iciples as brought their blessed progenitors into this wilderness. 
What my soliLitudes for this have been in both Englands, is known to Him, 
who said to the churches^ 1 know your works. There is no one thing of great- 
er concernment to these churches, in present and afrer-times, than the pros- 
perity of that society They cannot subsist without a CoUedge. There are 
at this day not above two or three of our churches but what are supplyed from 
thence. Nor are the churches like to continue pure golden candle-sticks, if 
the CoUedge, which should supply them, prove apostate. If the fountain be 
corrupted, how should the streams be pure, ^hich should 7nake glad the city 
of God? How should plaiits of renown spring up from thence, if the Col- 
ledge it self become a degenerate plant ? You that are tutors there, have a 
great advantage put into your hands (and I pray God give you wisdom to 
know it ! j to prevent it The Lord hath made you fathers to many pujiils. 
You will not deny, but that He has made 7ne a father to you. It was my re- 
commendation, that brought you into tlrat«/«^/ort. And therefore, as my Joy 
will be greater to see you acquit your selves worthily, so my earnest solici- 
tudes for it must needs be the more, on that account. There are many (I be- 
lieve, you wish you could say so of all uf ihem) who Avere once under your 
tuition, that do worthily in Ephratah,and are like to be famous in Bethlehem, 
for which you ought to (and I doubt not but you do) humbly bless the Lord, 
that you (and tiiey who shall succeed you) may be yet greater blessings, let 
me commend unto you the example of t\yfi blessed man, whose life is here de- 
scribed. When Jeroni had consideredaihe life of Hilarion, he resolved Hi- 
larion shall be the champion, whom I irdl follow ! Say each of you, Mitch- 
el, (once a tutor in Harvard-Colledge)}hall be t]ieexarnple',whomIwill 
imitate ! You will see in the story of his life, that he did not only instruct 
his pupils in the knowledge of the tongues and arts, bat that he would some- 
times discourse them about the spiritual estate of their immortal souls. Such 
private personal instructions, are many times more eticctual to conversion 
than publick sermons. Some very worthy persons who were once his .sc//o/- 
ars, have a living remembrance of his words, to this day. Olmrs of them are 
now with him in glory, blessing God to eternity, whose Providence disposed 
them under such a tutor. Famous Dr Preston chose radier to live in Cam- 
bridge, than in any place of England, because by reason of the University 
there, he had an opportunity, Non modo dolare Lapides, sed Artichitecfos, 
to prepare builders for the house of God. The Angels in Heaven would not 
think it beneath them, to be employed in so great a work and service for the 
chinches of Christ, as that which infinite grace has called you unto. If you 
foliow those, that have gone before you (Mitchel in particular) as they have 
followed Christ, your }iames will be precious and honourable like rhrirs. and 
you shall lii'e after you are dead, as they now do. 

As for you that are the students in the CoUedge : I have oUen (as you. 
know) in my discourses among you, exhorted you above all things to studi/ 
Christ and to be mindful of, the one thing necessary. Gifts without Grace 
will be of no avail unto you at last You may excel in knowledge, and yet 
be of all in the world the most miserable, and most like to the devils, as a 
converted Indian once said concerning some scholars. You know, that many 
philosophers who were heathen excelled in that which is called, humane 
learning. And so have some Po;)?.sZr author? (Jemitcs especially) done, 



64 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv, 

whose books have been very edifying to others. I must confess, that as to 
that small measure of knoiclcdge which I have attained unto, I have, (for 
some part of it) been beholden to the Divine Providence for the works of Ric- 
ciolits, Galtruvltius, and others of that fraternity, who were very learned meii,. 
though enemies of the true Protestant religion. Knowledge tiien williout 
Christ and Holiness, will never bring you to heaven. One has written a 
book, de Salute Aristolus ; and another, de Animahus Fagauoritm endeav- 
ouring to prove, that the pliilosophers who knew not the only true God, nor 
Jes'is Christ, have eternal life. Let such and all other Pelagian and Arniin- 
ian principles he far from you. But do not think it is enough, if you be or- 
thodox, in the fundamental points of religion. It was not (I can assm-eyou; 
on any such account that your fathers followed Christ into this wilderness, 
when it was a land not sown. If you degenerate from the order of the gos- 
pel (as well as from the faith of the gospel) you will justly merit tiie name of 
apo.'itatcs and oi degenerate plants. And such degeneracy in the children of 
New-England, and most of all in you will be worse, than in any children in 
the world. If any of you shall prove such, remember that you were told,tba' 
yo^i take an unhappy time to degenerate in- lie whose fan is in his hand, 
will thoroughly purge his f.oor. The day is near, when the Lord Jesus 
Christ will make his churches more pure and reformed, than in the lormer 
ages; and will you at such a time corrupt your selves with loose and large 
l)rinciples in matters relating to the house of God, whose house holiness he- 
romesfor ever ! How if some of you should live to see that scripture verifi- 
ed, where the Lord says. The Levitcs that are gone far from me, itdien Is- 
rael went astray, they shall not come near unto me, to do the office of a priest 
unto me, hut the sons o/'Zadok that kept the charge of my sanctuary, they 
shall enter into my sanctuary, and t^ey shall come near to my table to minis- 
ter uuto me! Ezek. 44. 10, ir>. LeP'me recommend unto you the weighty 
words of my most dear and worthy frjend and predecessor, ;\lr. Oakes, once 
your \evLmed president, which he delivered (and afterwards printed) on a very 
solemn occasion. He speaketh to you thus, 

' Consider (saith he) what will be the end of receding or making 
Tn his Elec- a defection from the way of church government established 
tion sermon amongst us. I profess, I look upon the discovery and seltle- 
oti Deut 32. ment of the Congregational way, as the boon, the gratuit}', the 
29. /?. 44. largess of divine bounty, which the Lord graciously bestowed 
i^-c. on His people, that followed Him into this wilderness : and a 

great part of the blessing on the head of Joseph, and of tliem 
who were separate fro?n their brethren- These good people that came over, 
shewed more love, zeal, and affectionate desire of communion with God in 
pure worship and ordinances, and did more in order to it than others, and the 
Lord did more for them than for any people in the world, in shewing them 
the pattern of His house, and the true scriptural-way of church government 
and administrations. God was certainly in a more than ordinary way of fa- 
vor present with his servants in laying of our foiindat'ons, and in settling the 
way of church order according to the will and appointment of Christ. Con- 
sider, what will be the sad issue of revolting from the way fixed upon, to one 
extream or to another, whether it be to Preshytcriani-wi or Brownism ; as 
for the Presbyterians, it must be acknowledged, that there are among them 
as pious, learned, sober, orthodox men, as the world affords : and that there 
is as much of the power of Godliness among that party, and of the spirit of 
the good old Puritans, as among any people in the world. And for their 
way of church-government, it must be confessed, that in the day of it, it was a 
very considerable step to reformation. The reformation in K. Edward's 



l?ooK iv.J OR THE HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND. 65 

days was then a blessed work. And the reformation of Geneva and Scotland^ 
was then a larger step, and in many respects purer than the other. And for 
aiy part I fully believe, that the Congregational %cay far exceeds both, and is 
the highest step that has been taken towards reformation, and for the sub- 
stance of it, it is the very same way, that was established and practised in the 
primitive times, according to the institution of Jesus Christ- I must needs 
say, that I should look upon it, as a sad degeneracy, if we should leave the 
good old loarj, so far as to turn councils and synods into clauses and provin- 
cial assemblies, and there should be such a laxness in admissiori of members 
to comimmion, as is pleaded for, and practised by many Presbyterians, and 
ciders should manage all themselves in an autocratical tray, to the subver- 
sion of the liberty and priviledge of the brethren.' Thus Mr. Oakes. As 
for that excellently learned and holy man Mr. Charles Channcey, who for 
many years p7-esided over Harvard-Colledge, none of you, who now belong to 
that society, can remember him. But you have heard what his dying charge 
to his sons (who through grace tread in their father's steps) was in Ids last 
will and testament, which you may see publislied with his life in due time. 
He that is now your president — A longe .sequitur vestigia semper adorans ; 
yet Is willing not to evert or undermine the foundation, which his blessed pre- 
decessors, have laid, but to build thereon. I remember Buchanan (who was 
tutor to K. James I in the preface to his Baptistes, which he dedicates to 
that K. says, that the reason why he did so was, ' That in case he should 
tlirough the influence of evil counsellors, or from any other cause, be guilty of 
male-administration in his government, after ages should know, that the 
blame ought to !)e imputed not to his tutor, but to himself.' So let me say, 
A' you the students in Harvard-Colledge, or any of you, shall deviate and de- 
generate from tlie holy principles and practices of 3'our fathers, the world 
shall know, and posterity shall know, that the reason of it is not for want of 
being otherwise instructed by your present, as well as bv former presidents. 

INCREASE MATHER. 
May r, 1707. 



EccLESiASTES. — Or the Life of Mr. Jonathan Mitchel. 

Sanctorum Vitas Legere et non Vivere,frustra est ; 
Sa7ictorum Vitas Degite, non Legite. 

v) 1. It is reported concerning the ancient Phrygians, that when a priest 
expired among them, they honored him with a jjillar ten fathom high, where- 
on they placed his dead body, as if he were to cojitinue after his death, from 
thence instructing of the people. Nor can a minister of the gospel have any 
more honorable funeral, than that, by which his instruction of the people, 
may be most continued unto the people, after his expiration. But I may 
without any danger of mistalce, venture to affirm, that there cannot easily be 
found a minister oi x\\e gospel in our daj's, more worthy to have the story of 
his life employed for the instruction of mankind after his decease, than our 
excellent Mitchel. And therefore I shall now endeavour to set him on as 
high a^j//?or, as the best history, tUnt J can give of his exemplary ?//e can 
erect, for that worthy man ; for whom statues of Corinthian brass, were but 
inadequate acknowledgments. 

§2. if it were counted an honor to the town of Halifax in Yorkshire, 
that the famous Jo/;/? dc Sacro Boscv, author of the well known treatise De 

VOL- II. 9 



66 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : FBook iv, 

Sj)h(cra, was born there ; this towu was no less honored by its beino; the place 
of birth to our no less worthily famous Jonathan Mitchel, tiie author of a 
bettor treatise of heaven, who bein^ descended (as a printed acrount long 
since has told us) of pioi/s and lacaltht/ parents, here drew his first breath, in 
the year 1624. The precise day of his birth is lost, nor is it worth while for 
us to enquire by an astrological calculation, what aspect the stars had upon 
his birth, since the event has proved, that God the Father was in the horo- 
scope, Christ in the mid-heaven, the Spirit in the sixth hoi/se, repentance, 
faith and Jove in the eighth : and in tlie twelfth, an eternal happiness, where 
no saturn can dart any malignaiit rays. Here, while the father of Ins fesh 
was endeavouring to make him learnedhy a proper education, the father of 
spirits usQAihe methods of grace to make him serious ; especially by a sore 
feavour, w hich had like to have made the tenth year of his life the last, but 
then settled in his afin with such troublesome eflects that his arm grew, and 
kept a little bent, and he could never stretch it out right until his dying day. 
And upon this accident he afterwards wrote this reflection; Thus the Lord 
sought to inake me serious ( Oh ! vihen will it once he !) by steeping mt/ first 
entrance into years of understanding, and into the changes of life, and my 
first motiqns to New-England, in eminent and special sorrows. Now his^?-s^ 
jnotions to New-England, mentioned in this reflection, invite us to hasten un- 
to that part of our history, which is to relate, that his parents were some of 
those exemplary Christians, which by the unconscionable impositions and 
persecutions of the English hierarchy upon the consciences of people, as re- 
markable for true Christianity vl?, any in the realm, were driven out of it in the 
year l635. The ship, which brought over Mr, Richard Mather, and many 
more of those Puritans, which had found the church of England, then govern- 
ed by such an assembly of treacherous men, (a faction to whom that name, 
the church q/' England never truly belonged) that they were put upon wish- 
ing with the persecuted prophet, Oh! that I had in the wilderness a lodging- 
place of zvaij -faring men! was further enriched by having on board our 
Jonathan, then a child of about eleven years of age ; whose parents with 
much difficulty and resolution carried him unto Bristol to take shipping there, 
while he was not yet recovered of his illness. On the coast of New-England, 
they were delivered from a most eminent and amazing hazard of perishing, in 
a most horrible tempest ; upon which delixerance ^ir. Mather preached a 
sermon from that scripture, John 5 14. Sin no more least a ivorse thing 
come unto thee ; whereby further impressions of senW.sviess were made upon 
the soul of this young disciple. 

"^ 3. The Godly father of our Jonathan found, that America as well as 
Eur-opc, New-England as well as old England, was a part of old Adani's 
world ; well stocked every where W'itii the thorns of worldly vanities and 
vexations ; and tliat a wilderness was a place where temptation was to be met 
withal. All his family, and the Jonathan of the family, with the rest, were 
visited with sickness, the winter after their first arrival at Charlestown, and 
the scarcity then afilicting the coniitrey added unto the afliictions of their 
sickness Removing to the town of Concord, his greater matters continual- 
ly became smaller there, his beginnings were there consumed by ffc, and 
some other losses befel him in the latter end of that winter. The next sum- 
mer he removed unto Say-l}rook,mu\ the next spring unto IFecdheryfteld v.poii 
Conncrtirut river, by which he lost yet more of his possessions aild plunged 
himself into other troubles. Towards the close of that year he had a son-in- 
law slain by the Fr(^'i/o# Indians; and the rest of the winter they lived in 
much fear of their lives from those barbarians, and many of his cattel wore 
destro3-ed, and his estate unto the value of some hundreds of pounds was dam- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF I^IEW-ENGLAND. 67 

nified. A shallop, wliich he sent unto the river's mouth was taken, and burn- 
ed by the PequoU, and three men in the vessel slain, in all of whom he was 
nearly concerned : So that indeed the Pequot scourge fell more on this fami- 
ly, than on any other in the land. Afterward there arose unhappy differeU' 
ces\n the place where he lived, wherein he was an antagonist against some of 
the principal persons in the place, and hereby he that had hitherto lived in 
precious esteem with good men, wherever he came (as a record I have seen, 
testifies concerning him) now suffered much in his esteem among many such 
men, as 'tis usual in such contentions, and he met with many other injuries : 
For which causes he transferred himself, with his interests, unto Stamford in 
the colony of New-Haven. Here his house barn and goods were again con- 
sumed by J?re ; and much internal distress of mind accompanied these hum- 
bling dispensations. At last, that most horrible of diseases, the Sio7ie, ar- 
rested him, and he underwent unspeakable dolours from it, until the yeav 
1645, wlien he went unto his rest about the fifty-fifth year of his age. 

<§ 4. Although the good Spirit of God, gave our Jonathan to improve 
much in his holy dispositions while he was yet a youth, by the calamities, 
which thus befel his father ; and particularly upon occasion of a sad thing be- 
falling a servant of his father's, who instead of going to the lecture at Hart- 
ford, as he had been allowed and advised, would needs go fell a tree for him- 
self, but a broken bough of the tree struck him dead, so that he never spoke 
or stirred more; our Jonathan, who was then about fifteen years old, in one 
of his old papers does relate, this amazing strok:' did much stirr my heart, 
and I spent some time in endeavouring the woric of repentance according to 
Mr. Scudder's directions in his Daihj Walk : nevertheless he had this disad- 
vantage, that he was thereby diverted from study and learning., for the first 
seven years after his coming into the country Had it not been for the dis- 
advantage of this intermission, we had seen some lively emulation of Bellar- 
mine\s open lectures of divinity, at sixteen years of age, or Torquato Quasso^s 
receiving his degrees in philosophy and divinity at seventeen, or Grotius'^s 
publishing of commentaries at the like seventeen For he was, as the histo- 
rian observes, all that will prove considerable, must be, Puer, qui Semina- 
riaTirtutum Generosiore coneretus, aliquid Jnclyfum designasset But af- 
ter so long an intermission, as until September in the year 1642, and the eigh- 
teenth year of his age, upon the earnest advice of some that observed his great 
capacity, and especially of Mr. Mather, with whom he came into Ncw-Eng' 
Zflfir/, he resumed his designs for study and learning: wherein he made so 
vigorous a progress, that in the year 1045, he was upon a strict examination 
admitted into Harvard Colledgc. Nor was it very long liefore Mr Mather, 
who was the adviser of this mntter, had the consolation of seeing the excel- 
lent labours of this person in the piilpit worthy of his own constant /o?/r;*ie?/s 
to his monthly lectures ; yea, and the most considerable fathers of the coun- 
try, with himself, treating this prrson, as not coraing behind the very chiefesi. 
of themcdl, and tasting his coinmuuicationD, not as unripe grapes, ox wine 
just Old of the press 

§ 5. But before we can fairly arrive to that part of our story, it will be as 
prof table, as necessary for us to observe the .3teps whereby God made him 
i;REAT. The faculties of mind, with v/hich the God that fonns the spirit oj 
man, enriched hin3, were very notable. He had a clear head, a copious /c??- 
cy, a solid j I' dgnie7it, a tenacious memory, and a certain discretion^ withoui 
any childish laschcte or levity in his behaviour, which commanded respect 
from all that viewed him : so that it might be said of him, as it once was of a 
great person in the English nation, they that knew him from a child, never 
icnetv him any other than a man. Under these advantages, he was an hard 



68 



MAG\ALIA CHRISTl AMERICANA 



[UOOK IV. 



student, and he so prospered in his indefatigable f;fii(Jtrs, that he became a 
schoVcXV of illuminations, not far (vomthejirfii 7nn>riiitufle : recommeiuled by 
which qnahficatioiis, it was not long before he was chosen a Felfow of the Cot- 
Icdge. But the main strokes of iiis Collcdge life, that I shall sin<;le out tor 
my reader's observation, are of yet an higher character. Know then, that as 
it was his own counsel to his brother, tlit wriiivg of somitimes your former 
and present life, would be a thing of endless wse, thus it was his manner, 
whilst in the Colledge, to keep a brief diarij, written in the Latin tongue, 
which he wrote indeed fluently ami handsomely ; and from a part of this dia- 
ry, by him entitled, Vitie Ui/pomnemata, happily fallen into my hands, 1 
shall note some i^iw vemarkables. 

He kept a strict eye upon his interior state, before God ; and upon the (lis- 
positions of his heart, as well in sacred as in civil entertainments ; but with 
an extreme severity of rejlection upon himself, when perhaps, at the same 
time the severest spectator upon earth besides would have judged every thing- 
in him worthy to have been admired, rather than censured. lie wo'dd re- 
cord sueh things as these. 



One time, 

Inter precandum, Deus ah Inslpido 
ac Desolato Corde juste ahftiit, nt 
me (quo nihil magis necessarium) ku- 
miliaret ; Nam aliter (si paulo melius 
aUquando se liaheal Cor) est in me, 
quod prophana Spirituali Superbia 
titillatur. Eram tamen indc nonni- 
hil ad Lieum Excitatior. 

At another time, 

Jejunio privato interfui,uhi multo 
Stupore, et multa vanitate Oppletus 
S7im ; aliqua tamen viguerant Suspi- 
ria et Deus non visus est me omnino 
ahdicare, sed paulo meliorem fecit ; 
litinam tenuisscm et fovissem Deside- 
via, qucc tunc accendit. 

At another time. 

Locum communem habui ; 7ux ah- 
stinu ia secreta superbia ; Licet tur- 
pissima vanitas Animi (qua nunquam 
non omnia mea vcnenantar) me co- 
ram Deo prostravisset, pra'lur alia 
mea peccata, cptcc me infra vermes 
ponunt, Ne.quc sane unquam aliquid 
autfacio aut dico, nnde plus pitdoris 
quani Honoris, mihi non nascifur, si 
omnia meeum perpendo : et Deus so- 
fet semper aliquid rclinquere. nnde 
me (saltern apud me) pudefacit. 

At another time, 

Colloquiis Hilaribus, cum. sociis 
flJiibusdiua nimis indulsi 



In my prayer, God was justly with- 
drawn from my unsavory and desolate 
heart, that so He might humble me ; 
than which there is nothing more 
needful for me. For otherwise (if my 
heart be at any time in a little better 
frame) there is that in me, which is 
tickled with spiritual pride Never- 
theless I was from hence more excited 
God- ward. 

I was present at a private fast, 
where I was filled with much sottish- 
ness and vanity : yet 1 had some live- 
ly sighs ; and Gocl seemed not wholly 
to cast me off, but made me a little 
better than 1 was before. I wish I 
had retained and cherished the de- 
sires, which He then enkindled ! 

I common-placed. I could scarce 
abstain from secret pride ; altho' a 
very base vanity of mind (w ith which 
every thing of mine is poison'd !) had 
laid me low in the dust before God, 
besides my other sins, which lay me 
lower than the very worms of the dust. 
But indeed, 1 never do or say any 
thing, iVom whence there arises not 
more of siiame than of honor to me, if 
1 consider all things ; and God uses 
in all ever to leave something, by 
which he makes me at least ashamed 
of my self. 

I gave too nuicli liberty unto merry 
talk with some of jnv friends. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 



69 



At another t'liiie, 

Jldiham Boston! iim, ct ihl Liberta- 
tem Civilem accepi, sed ex Ohlecta- 
mentis Leve et Innipidum Cor. 

At another, 

Liberius quam prvdentius qncedam 
locutiis swiiy unde inihi pudor. 



I went unto Boston, and there took 
a civil liberty : but from such enter- 
tainments my heart grew light and un- 
savoury. 

I discoursed some things with more 
freedom than wisdom ; for which, I 
was ashamed of myself. 



Ajain ; He laid up the more especial admonitions which touched liim, in 
the sermons that he heard preached, or in other more private and useful con- 
ferences, and the resolutions, which he thereupon asked the help of heaven to 
follow. He would record such things as these. 



One time, 

Vix aliquid apud Deum sapid, sed 
'^xcitavit me Concio Magistri Shepar- 
.ii, 'Vremenda plane et prcestantissi- 
ma. Doctiit Aliquos esse qui viden- 
tur inveniri et Servari a, Christo et ta- 
men postea pereunt Hcer. me terre- 
hant (et utinam infixa fucrerent !) ne 
tantiim viderer esse Christi, et ne (ul 
mortem usque sic pergerem. Roga- 
in Deum, ut mei ^IisertHS totam rem 
agerct. Ilia Nocte multo piidore, 
apud me siiffusns cram, quod hactenus 
nihil in Meditatione quotidiana, fece- 
ram, et hinc ccecus ct ignarus in Dioi- 
nis, extra meipsum, et sine Deo, per 
Iniegras Septimanas vixeram Jam 
Statui JVleditandi opus quotidie nr- 
gere, quod ante hac aliquoties statui, 
sed, hen ! ¥roposita violavi ; unde 
succenset Deas. Ah, Quot et Qiian- 
ta scire jfotuisscm de Deo, si serins et 
eonstans in Meditatione y«/sse/H .' 



At another time, / 

D. Shepardus utilissimc docuii. 
Ilia Nocte Serice instabant Cogita- 
tioncs, de infanda mea miseria, cpia 
sine Dco,sine Rcdemptione,a Sabbato 
ad Sabbatum misserrimus pergo. In- 
de Tria statuebam mihi Observanda, 
quce etiam Deo commendaharn, ut in 



I had little savour on my spirit be- 
fore God : but a terrible and excel- 
lent sermon of Mr. Shepard-s awaken- 
ed me. He taught, that there are 
some who seem to be found and saved 
by Christ, and yet afterwards they 
perish. These things terrified me, 
(and I wish, they had stuck fast in 
me !) lest T should only seem to be- 
long unto Christ, and lest I should 
thus go on unto death. I beg'd of 
God, that He would have mercy on 
me, and accomplish the whole work 
of His grace for me. That night I 
was covered with no little shame, be- 
cause I had hitherto done in a man- 
ner, nothing at the work of dailT/ med- 
itation, and hence I had lived blind, 
and ignorant in divine things, a stran- 
ger to myself, and without God for 
whole weeks together. I now resolv- 
ed, every day to urge the work ot 
meditation, which heretofore I have 
often resolved, but alas, I have violat- 
ed my purposes ; for which cause, 
God is angry with me. Ah ! how" 
many, how mighty things of God 
might I have understood, if I had been 
serious and constant in meditation ! 

Mr. (SVie/>a/Y/ preached most profit- 
ably. That night, I was followed 
with serious thoughts, of my inexpres- 
sible misery, wherein I go on most 
miserably from sabbath to sabbath, 
without God, and without redemp- 
tion. From hence I determined, that 
there are things which J must ob- 
serve ; and I commended these things 
unto God, that he would effect them 



70 



MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 



vie efficeref- rrimo, Noii Quicte ma- 
nendum in hue mea cnnditionc ; In- 
tolerahilc esse, nt sic pergerem, Se- 
cmido Fi-ecandum constanlcr, sine 
Languore, aid Intermissione, mane 
iioctequc Implorandum Denm, iiitimis 
et ineffahilihus suspiriis. Tertio, .9/ 
Dens non auscidtaveret, et quui opus 
smif p7'(estarit, in Amove sua manff'es- 
tayido, saltern Lugeam et Luckrymem, 
et per gain in Amarititdine Anivuc ; 
si Consolutionem et Pucem a Deo, 
non hnhuero, saltern nuUam omnino 
habeam ! 

At another time, 

D. Samuel Matherus eximie con- 
cionatus est, de Immutahilitate Dei 
Inde Redarguebul mulahiUtatcm et 
Inconstantiam Hominiun erga Deum. 
Hcec me tetigerunt : Conscins eram 
Ineonstantice mexE ; Et serio, intime- 
fjtie perculsus, prostratus coram Deo 
reltementer Oraham Gratlam. 



ill nie. First ; That I must not re- 
main quietly in this my condition j 
but that it is intolerable lor me to pro- 
ceed as I am. Secondly ; That I 
must pray constantly, without faint- 
ing, or any intermission : day and 
night I must crj' unto the Lord, with 
groans that cannot be uttered Third- 
ly ; If God will not hear me, nor do 
the things that are needful for me in 
manifesting to me His love, let me at 
least mourn, and weep, and go on in 
the bitterness of my soul If I shall, 
not have comfort, and peace, from 
God, let me have none at all ! 

Mr. Samuel Mather preached ex- 
cellently, concerning, the unchange' 
ableness of God. From hence he re- 
buked the changeableness and incon- 
stancy of men, towards God. These 
things touched me ; for I was con- 
scious to my own inconstancy ; and 
being seriously and inwardly smitten 
with the sense of it, I cast my self 
down at the feet of God, with vehe- 
ment supplications for His favour. 

Furthermore, he acquitted himself, as one concerned for the souls of his 
pupils, when be came to have such under his charge; and was very desirous 
to see then- hearts renewed by grace, the (beginning or) head of knowledge, 
as well as of their heads furnished with other hiotvfedge. He would record 
such things as these. 



At one time, 

Alloqnehar M. W de Salutis Ne~ 
gotio. Muhis ilium harfabar, tnouc- 
bam, et dirigvbam, ad illud curandum, 
nc suffocaret Conriefioncs, et incon- 
stnntia, Deiiw lud< rit, sed preeibvs 
nPOSKAPTEPHSH. Utiiwm ipse 
pra;starem, qua' di.vi f Dc.us,scrva il- 
ium Juvcnem ! 

At another time, 

S. M. primus e Pupillis meis, me 
allocutus est de Animce sua: statu; 
plura quidrm qnam spcrassem La'tus 
nudivi ; et (quod Dens dedit) Con- 
silium addidi, ui pergeret diligenter 
Denm sequi, Animabam, ad seqvcn- 
dum Deum : At pudcbat me Aridita- 
tis Animi mei. 



1 spoke unto M. IF, about the mat- 
ters of eternal salvation, I largely ex- 
horted hinij advised him, directed 
him to be careful of this, that he did 
not stillle his convictions, and mock 
God by inconstancy, but be instant in 
prayer. 1 wish I could my self do, 
what I spoke ! Lord, save that young 
juon ! 

S. M. the first of my pupils had 
some ppeech with me, about the state 
of his own soul ; I glad-heard more 
from him, than 1 expected ; and (with 
the help of God) I counselled him, 
that he would go on to follow hard af- 
ter God. I encouraged him to follow 
the Lord ; but I was ashamed of the 



barrenness of my own soul ! 

Yea, how watchful he was, on all occasions, to observe what occasions he 
might have to do good among all the scholars. I shall no more than trans- 
scribe the following passage, to iutinnate. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 



n 



Nocte, inter Scholarcs, rrmlta seria 
dixi de Cognoscendis Rebus Pads 
NostrcK, in Die nostra JJtinam ipse 
mihimet AuscuUarem ! Die sequenti 
pliira ego collGcutus stmi cum Coniu- 
benialibus, adprobandum,csse Deuni, 
sf. ■b'cripturas esse ipsius verbitm Ah, 
ninmim serpit inter nos Atheotes, et 
video Satan cm viulto^s perniciosissi- 
mns Diahgismos in NonnuUon(7n 
Mentes injicere ! Hoc maloperibunt 
multi Juiiencs, ni misereai'is, Devs ! 
Et sensi me adhuc in his miserrime te- 
nebricosu/n, nee magis aliquid Ro- 
gandum, qtiam ut StabUiret me quoad 
Fundamentales istas veritates, clar- 
amque hie visionem daret ! Hinc oli- 
quando Ot.r(isiones Cnuto Realita- 
tem, Ti2N ©EOT inculcandi, et ilhis- 
traudi : quod von prorsvs mane vi- 
deo. Utmain mnjori Cordis sensu, 
ego possem Deum prcBdicare. Sed 
quid miruni me oppleri Tenebris, qui 
Oppletus sum Cupidiiatibus ! 



At night, among the scholars, I ut- 
tered many serious things, about hiow- 
ing the things of our jn^ace in our 
day. Oh ! that I conkl my self here- 
in but hearken to myself! The day 
following, I discoursed more, with my 
chamber-fellowes, to prove, that there 
is a God^ and that the Sciiptures are 
His word Alas, Atheis-n creeps iu 
too much among us, and I see that 
satan does cast many most pernicious 
reasonings into the minds of some. 
Many young men, will perish by this 
mischief, except thou, O Lord God, 
have mercy on them ! I found my 
self also most'miserably dark in these 
thin£rs; nor is there any thing thai 
1 have more ca«se to ask, than this ; 
that He would establish me in these 
fundamental truths, and give me a 
clear vision of them .' From hence I 
sometimes do snatch at occasions, to 
inculcate and illustrate the reality of 
the tilings of God : which I see, is not 
I altogether in vain I wish, I could 
I preach God, with greater sense upon 
I my heart. But what wonder is it, if 
j I that am full of lusts, be also full of 
darkness ! 



Reader, see how impossible it was, for this excellent young man to record 
any thing in this diary, without some stroke of humiliation and admomticn 
to himself in the close of all : the ready way of becoming excellent ! 

And while he was thus a young man, residing in the col/edge, he would 
sometimes, on the Saturda?/, retire into the woods, near the town, and there 
spend a great part of the day, in examining of his own heart and HJe, bewail- 
ing the evils, which made him want the mercies of God, and imploring the 
mercies which he v/anted of the Lord : which custom of spending Saturday. 
he had formerly attended also at South-Hampton, while he was yet, but as a 
school-boy there. Moreover, it was, while he thus resided at t!ie coUedge, that 
his brother David, under deep distr'^sses of mind about his everlasting inter- 
ests, addressed him for coimsel ; and our Jo??rt^/;fm then wrote unto his brothei 
that golden letter, which was almost thirty years after, published in London 
at the end of his discourse of glory : a letter whereof the famous Collin < 
makes this remark, every reader sensible of spiritual tilings, will see it wriiteit 
with an excellent spirit, the spirit of God, and drawn out of his own expe- 
riences, and this when but newly entring upon his ministry. A letter, wherein 
he discovers that experimental acquaintance with the operations o[sin, and of 
grace, upon the souls of men, which may intimate how eminent he was in one 
of the accomplishments most necessary to the mi)dstry of the gospel, before he 
had yet entred upon it. If Chrysostom, the ancient, were sometimes called 
insignis animorrnn tractandorum urlifex, reader, here was a young man, who 
effectually proved himself, an artist, at handling the cases of a soul.' I re- 
member, that Alexander More judges thre« certain epistles. t,o be the most 



r-Z MAGN ALI A CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv 

romumaiatc pieces, that ever tlie world saw ; namely that of Calcin, beforf? 
his hisfitutions ; that of T/i«fi««f?, before his history ; and that of Cusaubon, 
before his Fo/ybius. Now thouf:;h tiiis epistle of our young Mitchel, come 
not into that class, for the embellishments of literature, yet it has been reck- 
oned one of the most consummate pieces, in the methods of addressing a trou- 
bled mind. 

§. 6. The extraordinary' learning, wisdom., gravity and piety of this in- 
comparable young man, caused several of the most considerable churches in 
the coinitre^', to contrive how they might become owners of such a treasure, 
even before over lie had, by one publick sermon, brought forth any of the trea- 
sure wherewith Heaven had endowed him. The church of Hartford in par- 
ticular, being tlierein countenanced and encouraged by the Reverend Air. 
Stone, sent a man, and horse, above an huudred miles, to obtain a visit from 
him, in expectation to make him the successor of their ever famous Hooker, 
;ind tliough upon the first motion to him tVom Hartford, his humble soul, 
wrote these words, I had more need get alone into a corner, and weep, than 
think of going oat into the ivorld, to do such work: darkness and death 
iloudf! my sotd ! Yet lie was prevailed withal to visit them. At Hartford, \\Q 
preached his (irst sermon, (June 24, lG4y,)upon Heb. 11, 27. He endured, as 
seeing him who is inrisible ; on which action, though with his usual humility, he 
wrote this reflection in his diary ; in preaching I tvas not to seek of what I had 
prepared; but my awn heart was drie, carnal and unaffected, and methought I 
could not speak ioith any eiiidence,or presence of the spirit of God; sothattchen 
i had done, I was deeply ashamed within myself, and could not but loath my- 
self, to think how miserably I had behaced myself, in that high employment, 
and hotv unsavoury, sottish and foolish my heart had been therein ; I thought 
I, and all I did, well deserved to be loathed by God and man : yet that judicious 
assembly of christians, were so well pleased with the labours whereof he him- 
self thought so meanly, that in a meeting, the day following, they concluded 
to give him an invitation to settle among them : adding, that if he saw it his 
best way to continue a year longer at the colledgc, they would however immedi- 
ately upon his acceptance of their invitation advance a considerable sum of 
money, to assist him in furnishing himself with a library (not unlike what the 
Undislavian senate once did for the ho|)eful young Lucas PoUio, when they 
saw Www, jiicenem dotihus ornutuma Deo, mm i^ulgaribus.-j which they said, 
was, no new thing unto them, having had Mr. Hooker's instruction for do- 
ing so But he durst not then accept of their kind proposals , for before his 
journey to Hartford, the lenowned Mr. Shepard, with the principal persons 
in Cambridge, had opportunity pray'd him, that he would come down from 
Hartford, as free as he went up, insomuch as he did upon divers accounts 
njost belr>ng to Cambridge, and Cambridge did hope, that he would yet more 
l)elong unlo them. W'hcu Mr. Shepard first mentioned iliis thing unto him, 
he did wilh iiis constant humility record it in his diary, with this reflection, 
^Jifo mirahar hinr rem : Quid in me videtPopulous Dei-Totum Negotiam Rc- 
Hcjui Ue/j agendum. 1 vHyndred at this matter ! What is it that the people 
of God sees in me?- I left the whole business to the divine management! 
And now r<;turniug to Cambridge, he no sooner came into the pulpit {Aug. 
12. K)4[).) but Mr. Shepard, n»ust go out of it ! Mr. Shepard in the eveniug 
told him, this was the place where he should, by right, be all the ?-esi of his 
daycf: and eii(]uiring of .some good people, /<o«^ Mr. M itchkl' sfrst sermon 
was apjtrored. omon^ them : they told him, very well. Then said he, my 
work is done ! And behold, within a few dayes more, that great man was by 
death taken off, so that the unanimous desire ot Cambridge for Mr. Mitchki. 
^0 be their oastor was hastened, with several circumstances of necessity for 



iSooK IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 73 

Lim to comply with their desire. But as the Jews used to say about the birth 
of R. Jehuda, on the very same day that another famous rabbi dyed, Eo die 
Qccidit Lux Israelis, et iterum Orta. est ; so I may now say, the same day 
was the light q/" New-England, extinguished and revived/ 

§. 7- Occnbuit Sol ; IS ox nulla Sec uta est. Upon the setting of iS/teparr^ 
there arose Mitchel, in whose light not only the church of Cambridge, but 
the Colledge, and the whole country, were now to rcjoycc for a season. The 
eyes of all iVe^^'-jEw^Zanrf were upon him with great expectations; and he 
did more than answer their expectations : for he was indeed an extraordina- 
ry person. But scarce a paragraph of his life can be written to the life, with- 
out some reflection upon that humility, with which the spirit of the Lord Jesus 
Christ hath pre/>ffl?-erf him for, and adorned him in all of that figure, whereto 
he arrived in the service of the churches. Just upon the time of his begin- 
ning his ministry at Cambridge, he was taken dangerously sick of the small 
pox, but though he were sick nigh unto death, God had mercy on him, and 
not on him only, but on all the churches thro'' this wilderness in him. No 
sooner was he recovered of thai sickness, but this humble soul wrote, Oclob. 
4. 1649- in his diary, (which after this time spoke English,) these among 
other passages : It has beeii of late weeks n special time of adversify with 
n\e, the Lord help me to consider it! I might say, my skin is broken, and be- 
co^Tie loathsome ; and there is no rest in my bones because of my sin, my 
!oins are tilled with a loathsome disease, and there is no Soundness in mv 
flesh ; by such a foul noisom. filthy disease, it well appeared, ichat I indeed 
was ; as the prophet speaks, full ol putrefying sores, it being, at this time. I 
was ais a city set upon a hill ; that when I was attempting the pure and sacred 
work of the ministry, I should be surprized with that horrible disease ! Do 
I begin to be some body in the world? God will make me vile in the eyes of 
?he tvhole country ; God loill humble me before the sun, aiid in the sight of 
all Israel. He icill have me begin my ministry with this disease : He knows, 
that I have need of a great deal of purifying, before I come to that. A 
loathsome sinner shall have a loathsome sickness ! And the grace of heaven 
that made this fit of sickness, to be considered thus as an humiliation by this 
eminent young man, then entering upon hi* ministry, did by continually in- 
fusing other thoughts full oUmmiliation into him, lay the foundation of stately 
superstructures. As our Lord Jesus Christ, entring upon His ministry, en- 
dured the sorest conflict of temptation, that He had ever met withal, so did 
this excellejit embassador of that Lord ; he had his mind sorely buffeted with 
amazing and contounding appreiiensions. Perhaps it will be many ways 
profitable unto some candidates of the ministry, as well as others to see these 
papers recite some of the sad passages, that rolled over the soul of a most 
lovely preacher, when he was beginning to preach the gospel of peace. We 
then find him at a time, when every one admired the excellencies that beauti- 
fyed him, thus writing and thinking^f himself, as the deformedst sinner in the 
world. At one time, 5 

" I have lived in this world almost twenty five years, and unto this day 
have known little of God in Christ, made little provision for eternity, got little 
acquaintance with the favour and love of God. How I have improved this 
time, wo to me, I may be ashamed to speak, amazed to think !" Jt another 
time " Lord. I know not whether ever such a sinner as I, came to thee for 
mercy ; whether ever such a work was done to any poor wretch, as the sav- 
ing of my soul must be " Jt another time. " I have run through all the 
means of knowledge, and yet see no truth really, and in the glory of it ; all 
afflictions, and yet am not humbled nor serious ; all mercies, and yet am not 
thankful ; all means of good, and yet am evil, only evil^ transcenriently evil 
vol,. 11 10 



74 MAGAALIA CHKISTl AMEKICANA: [Buokiv. 

in (he iiii;ii(.st(;rcrco to (his dny.'-' Af auothtr liwc '• ir(j(»d do me any 
cooci, or do any t;ood by me, it iiuiSt be a creiiliijg woik. Lord, 1 am fit t'oi 
uodHng; (good lor nothing at idl) neither to live, nor dyo ; neidier to leach, 
nor learn : neither to think nor speak ; neiihcr to do, nor suQVr ; neither to 
communicate .irood, nor revise any ; go liirotigh all tiiat I am, eidier within, 
or without, what am J, bnt vileness, and abomination ?" Af. n mi her time 
" The church nil! (I suppose) this d;iy consider, and (htermine a day for or- 
dination ; bnt did there ever sucli a creature i\-< I am, go about such a bnsi- 
ness ? I was low, and vile this time twelve-montli, when (hey fust inaiiethe 
motion; but I am lav lower and viler now. Great is ilje wrath offiodih.it 
lyes upon nie; and tiie tokens of it are in some respects increased. I cannot 
with confidence go to (Jod as my father in Jesus (Jhrist. I know no (ruth ol 
God to any [)urposo. J have no tiensine of Christian c\|)erience : J knou 
not v\hat belonizs to the main matters of conversion and salvation. My sin 
!.•> enough to l)rHig a curse upon ail i do, and upon the whole jilace ; I am un- 
der the very feel of salan, in respect of it. Object. But ahall not my sin 
then hinder me, and make me refuse this ioork of the iiiinistnj P^ Answ. 
'* That is to mend one sin with anodier. The more evil, and the less good 1 
have done, tiie more need I have to give myself up to do what good 1 can 
now ; I should not choose my sin, and leave God's work ; and if 1 cast it 
away, and go to God to take it away, and wait on llim,'tis possible with Him, 
to deliver me from it, and to help me in His v.ork : though that would be tlie 
greatest wonder, that ever was done! Hov^ever, let me lye at his feet, and 
leave myself with Ilim. Quest. Why dn I enter upon it? Answ Because 
God bids me, and commands me ? Lake b. He will have it so, and why 
should myself, or sin or salan, say, What dost thou .^ Object. But it mny 
he God 7inll take no pleasure in me ? Answ. I deserve He should not, but 
yet he deserves to be honored and served ; and let it be my happiness and 
joy to do that, wha(ever becomes of me at last " At another time. "My 
case is now such (so dreadful, desperate and forlorn) as I think, there never 
was the like upon eailh, since yidam was formed, unto this day : there is on- 
ly this place of hope, (hat there is a degree of mercy in God, beyond what 
any ever yet made use of ! for no man ever came to the end of iidiniie mercy : 
Lord, honour thyself by me, some way or other, whatever become of me'" 
At another time '' Lord, it is the hour and power of darkness with me ; f 
feel the dreadful rage of salan, and my vile heart, now against me, (o over- 
turn me, and to cut ofl" thy name, which (hon callest me to bear in this place. 
I know not what w ill become of me, nor what lo say lo thee ; but I will leave 
my woful soul, and self to thy disposing, Lord, I am in hell, wilt thou let me 
lye there?" At another time " God hath put (his fear into my heart, lest 
this be the fruit and recompence of my sin, (hat 1 shall never know God for 
mine in trutii, but live and dye, in an unsound 9nd sell-deceiving way ; that I 
should have many fears and prayeis, and good affections, and dulies and 
hopes, and ordinances, and seemings, but never an heart soimdly hum!)led. 
and soimdl}' comforted un'.o my <lying da}', but be a sou of j)erdition to the 
last, and never have God's special love revealed and assured to me! Lord, 
keep this fear alive in my heart !"' Such pas>^ages as (hese, abundandy dis- 
cover the contritiowi, that laid him exceeding tnir^ in his own apprehension 
of himself, at the time when God was r;iis'ii;g Ifun to hinrh iniprovemenis 
among his people; and it washy these abasements, that heaven prepar'^l him 
for those improvements. But being, af(er snch jireparations, called forth to 
the service of the churches, his employments came in so thick upon him, that 
he had not such leisure as heretofore to enrich his diarys, with his observa- 
tions. He was at length reduced unto this custom, that ordinarily, on the 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND Tii 

week before lie administered the Sacrament of the LonPs-Supper, which was 
once in two months, he spent a day in prayer w'lih fasting before the Lord : 
and one of his exercises on such a day, was to remind and record, such j)assa- 
ges of divine Providence towards Innisclf. his houae, hhjiock, the whole coun- 
ifry, yea, and the whole nation, as he judged useful to be remembered with 
him ; anri sucli especially as might quicken the hvjniliotions and the suppU- 
rations, wherein he was ensraged. 

v^. 8 The death of Mr. Shepard, was a deaf/Mirmnd un[o the soul of Mr. 
MiTCHEL, whose veneration for the great holiness, learning, and wisdom, of 
his predecessor, caused him to lament exceedingly the loss of so rich a bles- 
sing, and begin his own public ministry, at Cambridge with sermons full of 
those lamentations. Indeed when he had occasion lo mention his own living 
four years under Mr. S/iepard^s minisfry, lie added, unless it had been four 
years living in heaven, I know not how I could have more cause to bless God 
with loonder. than for those four years. Under an affliction, which he so 
much resented, the comfort which he so sought for himself, he thus expressed : 
What a blessed thing it is to have this mediator, the man Christ Jesus to go 
unto, when J have no friend that I van fully speak to, and open all my com- 
plaints and ail:: info his bosom''/ J think, tvcrc Mr ^hopard now alire, I 
would go and intrcnt his counsel and help, and prayer. Why, now I may go 
freely into the bosom of the man Christ Jesus, who is ahle.fuithful, tender- 
hearted above the best of meer men. And J. may go, a7ul tell him, not only 
my sorrowii {cmd yet that is no st7iall matter) but also my sins, all my sins ; 
though not without shame, yet without fearful despair. I may complain to 
Him of a strong lu.sf, and of an hard heart. And he does not only pity me 
[and that He does more than any man coidd do) but is also fully able to help 
fne against .sorrow, yea, and. against sin too. And in him, I may see, and 
take hold of the pity, and love, and grace of God the Father, who through 
Him is well-pleased But that he might signalize his atTection to the prede- 
cessor, he speedily took the pains to peruse and publish the sermons of that 
worthy man, upon the Parable of the ten Virgins, which make a volumn in 
folio ; with a most excellent, and judicious |)reface of his thereunto. Which 
afterwards was not without its recompeiice in the providence of God, when 
after his (nvn death, his own sermons upon the glory to which God hath call- 
edbeUeversby Jesus Christ (carefully transcribed, and so transmitted by cap- 
tain Laurence Hammond of Charhtown, to whose cares about it, the church is 
now beholden for this treasure) were by some surviving friends, printed at Lon- 
don. And he whom I have once alreaciy compared unto Pollio,xvho dyed, when 
between forty and fifty years old, was in this also, like that German divine, 
who left behind liim a book of sermons, De Vita ceterna, whereof Melchior 
Adam says, Non solum sua; Confessioins Homines oniuni Ordinnm in Deliciis 
habuerunt, atque hubent ; sed etiam Adversariorum no7imdli, minus rnorosi 
probaverunt : Both friends and /bes opproved it. The young gentlewoman, 
whom his predecessor had married a little before his decease, he now also 
married upon the general recommendations of that widow unto him ; and the 
epiihalcwmnns, which the students of the Coiledge then celebrated that mar- 
riage withal, were expressive of the satisfaction, <vhich it gave unto all the 
good people in the vicinity. Ifowbeit, before tliis he had addressed himself 
unto the venerable old Mr. Comfort, for leave to become his son-in-law, and 
Mr Cotton prognosticatinjr tiie eminency, which l>e would arrive unto, had 
given leave unto it : but the immature def;th of that hopeful young gentlewoman 
Mrs Sarah Cotton preventinij so desirnide a match, made way for his pursu- 
ing and obtaining this other settlement Eeing so settled ; he wholly gave 
himseh up to the services of the ministrv. witji su'-h a disposition, as he ev«- 



rtj JMAGNALIA CilRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

pressed in his pariing advice to another, who travelling from hence to Evg- 
land, had these words from him diS hh farewell ; my serious advice to you is, 
that you keep out of company, as far as Christianity and civility will give 
you leave ; take it from me ; the time spent in your study you will generally 
Jiad spent the most p/'ofitahly, comfortably and accountably . 

§. 9 Eighteen years did lie continue a Pastor to the church of Cambridge- 
And as that which encouraged him to accept at first the pastoral charge ol 
that flock, was his being able to write that cliaracter of them, that they were 
a gracious, savoury-spirited people, principled by I\Ir. Shepard, liking an 
humbling, mourning, heart-breaking ministry and S2)irif ; living in religion, 
praying men and women : Here (saiil he) / might have occasions of many 
sweet Ilea rt-brea kings before God, which I hare so much need of/ So the 
continual prayers of such a people to the Lord Jesus Christ for him doubtless 
contributed more than a little unto his being furnished from heaven with such 
Rich treasures of light and grace, as made his ministry richly serviceable 
unto them all. In this his ministry he preached over a great part of body of 
divinity. And as P(«<^ appealed unto his two first chapters to the Ephesians, 
thus in some degree, an appeal might have been made unto those labours of 
this admirable preacher, to demonstrate his knowledge of the mystery of 
Christ. He made a most entertaining exposition on the book of Genesis, 
and part of Exodus ; [an evangelical targum of Jonathan^ he made many 
incom|)arable discourses on the four first chapters of Jo/m ; occasional sub- 
jects he also handled many with nuich variety : he likewice kept a monthly 
lecture, where he largely handled man's misery by sin, and salvation by 
Christ, and entered on the doctrine of obedience due thereupon ; and vast as- 
semblies of people from all the neighbouring towns reckoned it highly worth 
their pains to repair unto that lecture. The Sermons, wherewith he fed the 
church of (lod, were admirably well-studied ; they still smelt of the lamp ; 
and, indeed, if there were nothing else to prove it, yet the notes which he 
wrote in his preparations for his publick exercises, were proof enough of his 
being an indefatigable student, lie ordinarily medled with no point, but 
\/liat he managed with sucli an extraordinary zrtypH^zo??, curious disjwsition, 
and copious application, as if he would leave no material thing to be said of 
it, by any that should come after him. And when he came to utter what he 
had prepared, his utterance had such a becoming tunableness, and vivacity, 
to set it c»fr, as was indeed inimitable ; though man}' of our eminent preach- 
ers, that were in his time students at the Colledge, did essay to imitate him. 
It has been observed by others, as well as Jcrom, that Qmefirmilrr concepi- 
mus, bene toqimur,si(pudem Tatia in Animoi Substantiam quasi Concotjueu' 
do sunt Conversa , and our Mitchel, having accordingly well concocted 
what he was to deliver, with clear and strong thoughts upon it, expressed it 
with a natural eloquence, which, (as Tally says of all true eloquence.) axi-t the 
hearers into 7Vondvrment. Profound meditation having first, in his heart got 
ready a well conijjosed meat-offering for the house of (>od, his tongue was as 
t\n^ pen of a I'eady writer to bring it fortii : and his auditories usually count- 
ed themselves at a feast with the inhabitants of heaven, while he was thus en- 
tertaining of tliem. His preaching was not that which Dr. 7Urt?H/o?« would 
justly rebuke under the name of gentleman-preaching : or, a sort of harangue 
finely laced and guildcd with such phalerate stuif, as plainly discovers the 
vanity of them, that j;/7jf/e with it : but he still spoke as reckoning, that if 
Seneca's philosopher was to remember, Ad uiiseros vocatus cs ; opera laturus 
Naufragis, Captis, /Egi'is, Intentte securi subjectuvi prcestantibus Caput : 
such a thing is much more to be remembered by a minister of the Lord Jesus 
Christ Jlpuce. though he had a very clean style, and spoke, — Munda, sed 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. ff 

€ medio, Consiietaque verba ; — by the same token, that when he had once 
used one word, in the pulpit, which it may be, no body else would have so se- 
verely criticised upon, alter he came home, he wrote a severe animadversion 
upon it ; I was after in myself ashamed of it (he wrote ) as being a phrase 
too course for the pulpit ! Nevertheless, he had also a plain style, for which 
he rai^ht have betq justly called, as Mclancthon was by Keckerman, Ide, ut 
sic dicam, Perspicuifntis Genius; but so pungently improved, that what he 
spoke, was felt by his hearers, as quick and powerful. One, that hath ad- 
dressed the world with a treatise of ecclesiastical rhctoric,s?i\i\\, Credat mihi 
Ministeris Candidatus ; Tria sunt, quce valde commendant Concionatorem ; 
Vocis Amabilitas, Epiphetorum Emphasis, et Connexionis Concinitus : now 
all of these three commendatioas did belong to the preaching of our Mitchel. 
And, as it was the remark of that then matchless preacher Bucholtzcr, to whom 
1 have often in my thoughts matched our Mitchel, that a preacher was knoicn 
by his peroration, so 'twas remarkt of our Mitchel, (hat tiio' he were all along 
in his preaching, as a very lovely song of one that hath a pleasant voice, yet 
as he drew near to the close of his exercises, his comely /errertcy would rise 
to a marvellous measure oi energy ; he would speak with such a transcend- 
ent majesty and liveliness, that the people (more thunderstruck than they that 
heard Cicero's oration for Ligarius) would often sh^de under his dispensa- 
tions, as if they had heard theso«?.'c/of the trumpets from the burning mountain, 
and yet they would mourn to think, that they weie going presently to be dis- 
missed from such an heaven upon earth. He had indeed an uncommon 
measure of that priviledge, that is rej>orted of Bulchotzer, Ut, licet nonnisi 
finita Hora Altera peroraret, nullam tamen Audiendi Tcedium, vel e media 
euiquamplebe, Obrepserit : Though he preached long sermons, the people 
were never weary of hearing i\\em. Vast was the happiness of the scholars 
at the Colledge, and (in them) of all the churches in the country, while Cam- 
bridge was illuminated with such a ministry ! It was a reflection upon this 
matter long since printed unto the world ; reason and prudence requireth, that 
the minister of that place, be more than ordinarily endowed with learning, 
gravity and wisdom, orthodoxy, ability, excellent gifts in preaching, that 
so the scholars, which are devoted to be preachers of the gospel, might be 
seasoned with the spirit of such an Elijah : in which regards this holy man of 
God IPO.S eminently furnished ; and his labours were abundantly blessed: 
for, very many of the scholars bred uj) in his time (as is observed) do savour 
of his spirit for grace, and a most attractive manner of preaching. Truly, 
as it was no r; :;e thing for a German divine to give solemn thanks unto God, 
for being born in the days o/JMelancthan ; so there is many a NtW'English 
divine, who has given thanks to God, for their being at the Colledge in thf. 
days of Mitchel. But it must here be added. That altho' the chief labours 
of this exemplary joas/or were in the study, and the pulpit, yet he did not think 
himself thereby excused from those pastoral visits which his flock expected 
from him. Heiein he visited at fit hours, which he set apart for it, the seve- 
ral families of hh flock ; not upon trivial designs, but v, ith serious and solemn 
addresses to their souls upon matter of their everlasting peace ; and the Gil- 
das Salvianus oi hh\ Baxter was herein our Mitchel himself, as well as 
much read and. priz"d by this faithful poiYoy, who icatched for souls, as one 
that was to give an account. 

^. 10. VVhat hf^ was in his Ministry, the same he was in his discipline, 
when offences arose, that called for his consideration, in the Church where- 
to he was related; faithful, prudent, zealoi/s-, holy, and like an Angel of 
a Church, not bearing with those that are evil. Wlien a public admonition 
was to be dispensed unto any one, that had ot^erided scandalously, one couU 



78 MAGNALiA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

have licard nothing more pathetical or more powerful, than his discourses, 
on those unwelcome occasions; the hearers would be all drowned in tears, as 
if the admonition had been, as indeed he would with nuich artifice make it 
be directed unto them all : but such would be the compassion, an<l yet the 
gravity, the Majesty, the Scriptural and ?^\\i\i\ pungency of these his dispen- 
sations, that the conscience of the oOender himself, could make no resistence 
thereunto. But wIkmi the Lord Jesus Christ intends to make any Sfetcard'm 
his house, eminenliy y;////-/™/ and Fait/iful, he comn)only tries that person, 
by ordering some very dillicult CImrch cases to arise, quickly after his first 
entrance upon the Steicardship. Some such thorny Church cases did soon 
exercise the thoughts of this truly aged young man; in all of wlii<h he con- 
scientiously considered the rights of the fraternity to judge in their own 
Church cases as tliat renowned minister and martyr, the blessed Cyprian did, 
when he could say in one of his Epistles unto his Hock, from the very hegin- 
ning of my ministry, I determined to do nothing without the consent of my 
people: AntI ngn'm, all such affairs as 7nutual respect requireth [in com- 
mune tractabinnisj we will manage them in common ; and again, he wouki 
restore and admit none, but those who should plead their cause before all the 
[leople', [Acluri apud plebem universam causam suam:] and ord»r none of 
their matters, but [pra?sentibus et Judicantibus vobis,] vnth their presence 
and Judgment. And if Mr. Mitchel had heard any reckon the liberty oi 
the brethren thus confessed in the days of Cyprian, to be an apostacy fron. 
what was in the beginning, he would have ask'd them, whether they reck- 
«n'd the loss of this liberty afterwards in the rise oi' Popery, to be any begin- 
m«^, or tendency towards Church refor?nation, and recovery? Now tho' 
this liberty of the brethren, which our Mitchel according to the Primitive 
Congregational Church discipline -dWowW, be that wherein for the most pan 
the repose of the pastors has been by the compassionate wisdom of our Lord 
Jesus Christ provided for, yet some trouble sometimes has arisen to the ^ws- 
tors from the brethren's abuse of their liberty, which has call'd for much 2)a- 
tience and prudence in those that have the rule over them And so there did 
unto our Mitchel, who on this occasion, as on all others, was readier still to 
condemn himself, than any others; and once particularly recorded this pas- 
sage in his diary. 7 was troubled, [at some improper cavils from the breth- 
ren] and I fear, spake not so lovingly and prudently as I shoidd have done. 
Ifeel my spirit ready to rise, and forget my principles of lying low in the 
dust, and bearing with others' infirmities, and becoming all things to all men, 
for their edification. Oh ! Lord humble me and teach me how to carry it ! 
Thus did this excellent person write, when he was enumerating his humbling 
fircumstanccs, in a ,sf'crc< f«s? before the Lord. But there was nn harder 
(Y/sc than any of these to exercise him. Our Mitchel, presently upon his 
hoc.om\wg{\\e pastor of Cambridge, met with a more than ordinary trial, in 
that the good man, who was then the President of the Colledge, and a 
member of the Church there, was unaccountably fallen into the briars oi An- 
tipccdobaptism : and being briar'd in the scruples of that perswasion, he not 
only forbore to present an infant of hisown unto the Baptism of our lord, but al- 
so thought himself under some obligation to bear his testimony in some ser- 
mons against the administration of 6o/>//.sm to any infant wl.atsoever. The 
brethren of the Church were somewhat vehement and violent in their signify- 
ing of tiieir dissatisfaction at the obstruction, which the rcnitencics of that 
gentleman threatened unto the peaceable practice of infant-baptism, where- 
in they had hitherto walked ; and judged it necessary for the vindication of 
the church's name abroad in the country, and for the safety of the congrega- 
liii:! at honi''. li> (!es)!<^ of liim. tliat ho would ceose preachitig i\fi formt'riy. 



Book iv.] Oil THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 79 

until he had belter satisfied himself in the point now doubted by him. At 
these things extream as the uneasiness of our Mitchel, who told the brethren 
tkat more light and less heat imulddo better: but yet saw the zeal of some 
against this good man's error, to push this matter on so far, that being but a 
young man, he was likely now to be embarrassed in a controversie with so 
considerable a person, and with one who had lieen his tutor, and a ivorthy 
and a Godly man. He could give this account of it. Through the churcli's 
being apt to hurry on too fast, and too impatiently I found my self much 
oppressed; esperially con^sideriug my own weakness to grapple with these 
difficulties; this business did lye down, and rise up, sleep and wake with me : 
It was a dismal thing to me, that I should live to see truth or peace dying or 
decaying in poor Cambridge, liut while he was with ^a. prudence incompar- 
ably'beyond what might have been expected from a young man managing 
this thorny business, he saw cause to record a passage, which perhaps will be 
judged worthy of some remembrance. That day (writes he, Decemb. 24. 
l6:)3.) after I came from him, 1 had a strange experience; I found hurry- 
ing and pressing suggestions against P.edobaptism, and injected scruples 
and thoughts ichether the other way might not be right, and infant-baptism 
an invention of men; and lohether I might with good conscience baptise 
children, and^the like. J nd these thoughts were darted in with some im- 
pression, and left a strange confusion and sickliness upon my sjn'rit. Yet, 
methought, it was not hard to discern, thai they were fro7n the EVIL ONE. 
First, Because they were rather injecteil, hurrrying suggestions, than any 
deliberate thoughts, or bringing any light with them. Secondly, Because 
they vjere unseasonable; interrupting we in my study for the Sabbath, and 
putting my spirit into a confusion, so as I had much ado, to do ought in my 
sermon. It was not now a time to study that matter; but lohen in the for- 
mer part of the week, I had given my self to that study, the more I studied 
it, the more clear and rational light I law for Paedo-baptism. But noic 
these suggestions hurried me into scruples. But they made me cry out to 
God for Ids help ; and he did afterward calm and clear up my spirit. I 
thought the end of them was. First, To shew me the corruption of my mind; 
how apt that was to take in error, even as my heart is to take in lust. Sec- 
ondly, To make me tvalk in fear, and take hold on Jesus Christ to keep mc 
in the truth; and it was a check to mif former self-confidesice, and it made 
me fearful to go needlessly to Mr. D.for methought I found a venom and 
poison in his insinuations and discourses against P;edobaptism. Thirdly, 
That I might be mindful of the aptness in others to be soon shaken in mind, 
and that 1 might warn others thereof , and might know how to speak to them 
//y;»j experience. And indeed my former experience of irreligious injection 
was some help to me to discover the nature of these. I resolved also on Mr. 
\\ook(^\-^s principle, i\vAi I would have an argument able to remove a moun- 
tain, before I would recede from, or appear against a truth or practice, receiv- 
ed among the faithful. After the Sabbath was over, and I had time to re- 
flect upon the thoughts of those things, those thoughts of doubt departed, 
\nd I returned unto my former frame. The troubles thus impending over 
the Ciuirch of Cambridge, did Mr iMitchel happily wade through; partly 
by much prayer \v\th fasting, in secret, before Ood, for the good issue of 
these things; partly, by getting as much help as he could from the JScigh- 
bouring Ministers, to be interposed in these Difficulties; and partly, by us- 
ing nujch Meekness of IVisdom towards the erroneous gentleman ; for whom 
our Mr, Mitchel continued such an esteem, that although his removal from 
the government of the Colledge, and from his dwelling place in Cambridge, 
had been procured by these differences, yet when be dyed, he honoured him 



80 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: (^Book iv. 

with an elegi/, (vom which I will transcribe one Stanza or two, because it ve- 
ry truly points out thnt generous, gracious, Catholick spirit, which adorned 
that person, who wrote it. 

Where faith in JESUS is sincere, 

That soul, he saving, pardoneth ,■ 
What wants or errors else be there, 

That may and do consist therewith. 

And though we he imperfect here, 

And in one mind co«'^ often meet, 
Who know in part, in part may err. 

Though laith brone, all do not see^t. 

Yet may tee once the rest obtain, 

In everlasting bliss above, 
Where Christ with pci foct saints doth rcigih 

In perfect light o«f/ perfect love; 

Then shall we «// like-minded be, 

Faith's unity is there f nil-grown ; 
There one trutli, all both love and sec, 

And thence arc perfect made in one 

There Luther hnth and Zninglius, 

Ridley and Hooperj there agree ; 
There all the truly Righteous, 

Sans Feud live to eternity. 

But there was a special design of Heaven in oi dcriug these trials to betiEil 
our MiTCHEL, thus in the beginning of his ministry. He was hereby put up- 
on studying and maintaining the doctrine of infant-baptism ; and of defend- 
ing the visible interest of the children of the faithful in the covenant of grace, 
under the /Acwj administration of it, as well as under the o/f/, wherein we all 
know the infants of bcilievers enj<n'ed the seal of being made righteous by 
faith. In the defence of this comfortable truth, he not only preached more 
than half a score ung;iinsayable sermons, while his own Churcli was in some 
danger by the hydrophobic of anabapfism, which was come upon the mind 
of an eminent person in it ; but also when afterwards the rest of the Church- 
es were troubled by a stronu attempt upon them from the spirit of anahap- 
tism ; there was a public disputation appointed at Boston two days together, 
for the clearing of the /V/?Y// in this article, this worthy man was he, who did 
tnost service, in this disputation; whereof the effect was, that altliough the 
erring brethren, as is usual in such cases, mnde this their last answer, to the 
nrgumeuts, which had cast them into much confusion, Say what you icill, we 
will hold our mind ! 

\Concurrat vclcruni licet in tc turba, votes fu, Hac omncs una vincere voce, 

Nego : 

Yet others were hap[)ily established in the right ways of the Lord. Nor 
was this all tlie good and great work, for which this rare person was mar- 
velously pieparcd by these temptations : there is a further stroke of our 
church history^ to be here briefly touchedj though elsewhere more fully 
to be given. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. Si 

§ 11. New-England was a wilderness planted by a people, generally so 
remarkable in their holy zeal for the ordinances belonging to the house of 
God, that for the sake of enjoying the administrations of those ordinances 
with scriptural purity, they had undergone the scveie persecutions which at 
last exiled them into that American wilderness : and hence there were few 
people of any significancy in the transplantation, but what at their first com- 
ing over, joyned themselves unto the full communion of the churches in all 
special ordinances, though many of them had (I say not, justifiably) made 
the terms of tlieir communion so strict, that it might justly have been reck- 
oned a difficult thing for some sincere. Christians of smaller attainments in 
Christianity to come up unto them For this cause, although several of our 
seers did so far see the state, which our matters would e're long devolve into, 
that they laboured much to have {he principles of truth concerning the church 
state 0/ the children born in the church declared and asserted in \.\\g plat for ra 
of church discipline, among the frst principles o/ISew-England, neverthe- 
less many worthy men were slow to make any synodical decision of those 
principles, until there should arise more occasion for xhe practices, that were 
to be deduced from them. This occasion did in twenty or thirty years time 
come on with some importunity and impetuosity , when the country began to 
be filled with the diAwXi posterity of {\\e first planters ; among which there 
were multitudes of persons, who by the good efl'ects of a pious education un- 
der the means of grace observable upon them in their profession of ihe faith, 
not contradicted by any tiling scandalous in their life, desei ved another con- 
sideration in the churches, than what was allowed unto Pagans ; and yet 
were not so far improved in all the points of experimental Godliness, that 
they could boldly demand an admission unto the mysteries at the table of 
the Lord; the conditions whereof confined it unto persons that were sensibly 
grown in grace, and in the knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ. The most 
of the ministers then, and before then, in the land were desirous to have the 
thus qualifcd posterity of the faithful, acknowledged in the churches, as 
{ha nursery, from wiience a successive ^\\\^Y\^' o{ communicants \\&% to be 
expected ; and it was their desire that this nursery might be watered with 
baptism, and pruned \\\{h discipline, as well as otherwise dressed ly the 
ministry of the word. Yea, they thought, that besides the internal benefits 
of the new covenant unto the elect of God, the sealing of that covenant unto 
them, tliat were visibly the right subjects of it, would be an assurance from 
God, that when these persons grew up to years of discretion, he would infalli- 
bly make them the ojfer of his covenant, aud so continue the gospel of it 
among them : whereas if Mfy and theirs were, no other accounted of than 
heathens, there would not pass many generations, before the sacred religion 
of Christ, would, through the juid icrafh of heaven be lost among them in 
utter heaihenisiu. However, all men did not then sec all things ! When the 
church of Roxbury particularly in the year 1653. was put upon doing what 
was their duty in this respect, our Mitchel was yet (he said) in the dark 
about it ; he wished and wrote, that it might not yet be pressed; and 
Rdd'^C,, the Lord teach 7ne humility, modesty, and wisdom in these things ! 
Many a day did this excel'ent man spend now in praying with fasting be- 
fore God ; and when he was thus engaged in the exercises of a sacred and 
<,ecxet fast, I find him, inserting tlds as not the least cause of his being so 
engaged : the case of the children of the church in regard of the doctrine 
and practice about it. Oh! that God would shew me his mind and way 
clearly in those things : enable me to teach them convincingly, and set upon 
the practice thereof : and that the whole country might be guided aright 
therein ; that Abraham's commanding power might have ita due exercise as 

VOL II. 11 



82 MAGNALIA CHRISTl AMERICA-NA: [Book iv. 

to the children of our rhiirrh' R- And that nil the rcnutuung hiiois and dilfi- 
cidtu's about cl)urcli-cliscij)line. atidthc management of Christ'^n t'isihlc kini{- 
floni might once be rpsofccd according to the word. J.ord, humble nic, and 
prosjjer my poor studies, and teach me to know and do thif noble will herein ! 
as Ezek. 43. 11. And jit nnotlicr time: the points about climcli-c!isci|j!int', I 
have been long aiming to look more thoroughly into. Jjord, helji and guide 
me therein ! and grant that I iruiy be kept from extreaniK (the great undoing 
of the world:) both from immoderate rigidnesn on the one hand, either in 
principles, spirit, or practice ; and on the (jther 'iand,froin wronging either 
truth, or conscience, by any sinful compliance. To these dcvotioiis, lie joyii- 
ed iiu!eratijiableA'/;//'//V« ujuin tl)e ererit (iticstion tlici) agit.itcd; ami tlie deter- 
mination ol'xhc question at last, was more o\viii<r uiUo him, ilian iiii!-.i a\iy our 
manrn tlic woild : for lu* was a great part in that rrno\viit:<i t-'i/nod : lliaf nict. 
at Boston in the yc.ir iGfri. Tiie result of tlic synod atlerwartis jHtblislu'd. 
was cliieliy of his composure, and when a most elaborate answer to that »»•- 
suit was published by some very worthy persons, that were then disacnters, 
the hardest service in the defence was assigned unto hini. In fnie. our Lc-rd 
.Jesus Christ made this^vr^? man, even wiiile he was yet a young man, one 
of the greatest instruments we ever had, of explaining and maintairiing the 
truths, relating to the ehurchr.late of the posterity in our churches, and of the 
church care, which our churches owe unto i\\e\v posterity : and I have laid 
before the reader one of the most extensive and ex|)ensive labours, that ex- 
hausted his life, when I have mx'wXimwA the propositions of the synod about 
the subject of baptism. All that remains necessary to illustrate this paragrapii 
of our history, is to describe in a line or two, the disposition which our 
JMiTCHEi. did prosecute thh grand concern withal; and I will tiierefore only 
transcribe a little from a judicious letter of his, to Mr. Increase Mather upon 
that subject, which that reverend person afterwards printed unto the world: 
with an unanswerable vindication of thf^se frst pri/iciijles of New-England, 
both from the imputations of apostacy.^ by srmie i^uorantiy cast upon them, 
and from whatever other ol)jection-'i might be advanced against them. ^ An 
'for the substance of the cause wherein we have engaged (saith he) I am 
daily more and more confirmeil. lliat it is the cause of trutli, and of Christ, 
' and that wherein, not a little of the interest of Christ's kingdom, and o( the 

• souls of men, is laid up. We have been reflected upon by some, as seeking 
' ourselves, and driving on. I know not what design: though I cannot readily 
' imagine, what self-interest or self end. we here should be led by in this mat- 

• ter; sure I am, that for my own part. I prejudice myself much, as to namf, 
' interest, 'dwA case, for my appearing in this cause: neither was I so uusen- 
' sible, as not to feel h from the f rat. I know myself to be a poor, vile, sin- 
^ fu! creature, and I ran with some feeling say, chief (f sinners, and Irastof 
' saints ; but in this parliruiar matter, 1 havt- «>ften said, / ?iish my brethren 

* could see through me : (or I Kno'.v iM>t any desiguor desire I have in it in all 
' the world, but only that the irilf of GV/'/miglit be done among us, A/.s king- 
' dont be advanced, these churches settled on right bases, and llouri.-:h in tlie 
' ways o( truth, innif If am\ peace, and that the fjood of tlie souls of i.kmi might 
' be promoted both in this, and after generations. Touching the w/w/^er itself, 

* that hath been in debate please to consider at leisure, these three proposi- 
"■ tions. 

*■ First, the u'hole visible church, under the JSew 'Vcstamcnt is to be bap- 
< tized. 

' Secondly, \{ n man be one in the church, (wiict'ier admitted at age, or in 
■■* infancy) nothing less than censurable evil, can put him out. 

' Thirdly, Sf Xh^ parent be in the visible church, his infant child h so also. 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 83 

' Whether the persons described in the fifth proposition of the synod 
^ should be baptized, as a cat/io'ick, or in a particular church-state, is another 
^question: and I confess myself not altogether so pevemptory in this latter, 
< as lam the thing itself j [viz. that they ought to be baptized.] yet still I 
' think, when all stones are turned it will come to this, that all the baptized 
^ arc and might to be under discipline in particular churches.' 

And now 'lis more than time lor us to dismiss this part of our Mitchellian 
pourtraiture, from any further elaborations. 

§. 12. JM>. Mitohel's desire had been, ^o be lept from extreams ; and 
indeed there was nothin^f more observable in his temper, than such a study of 
3. temper in ;di (lifficult matters, as nnders a perst)n aiinable, where* er 'tis ob- 
servable. I remember, I have met with a note of a very famous preacher, 
who, in ihe midst of many temptations on both hands, relieved himself by in- 
terpreting from the context that passage in Eccles. 7- 18. He that feareth 
God shall come forth from than all, to be meant of a deliverance out of all 
extreams. The fear of God in our Mitchel had tiiis effect, and reward : and 
his ivise coming forth from all extreams, was no where more conspicuous than 
in those points oi' church-discipline, for the clearing of which he had been, (I 
may say extrcumly) exercised. Had the sweet, charitable, amicable spirit, 
that signaliz.ed this good man, been expressed by all good men, as much as it 
was by him, a great part of the ecclesiastical dijfereitces in the world had been 
evaporated, and it had not been so long before the names of Presbyterian and 
Cong7-egational, had been incited down into that one of united brethren. 
It was the wish of our Mitchel, to have those two things in the state of the 
<;/i«)T/,, iivclily represented unto the sense of the uwld : first, the^race, and 
then at the same time, the holiness, of the Lord Jesus Christ, the king of the 
church; and for the obtaining of such a representation, he thought nothing 
n)ore effectual, than the middle way ; for the children of the faithful to be 
taken within the ijerge of the church, under the jcings of the Lord Jesus 
Christ in his ordinances, and under church care, discipline, and government, 
and to be in a state o( initiation and education in the church of God, and con- 
sequently to have baptism, which is the seal of initiation : but that they shall 
not come up to the Lord's Table, nov be admitted unto an equal share with 
the communicants in the management o\ church affairs peculiar to them, un- 
til, as a fruit of the aforesaid helps and means, they attain unto such qualifi- 
cations, as may render their admission fair, safe, and comfortable, both to 
themselves and others. His words were, loe make account, that if tee keep 
baptism within the compass of the non-excomnnmicable, and the Lord's Sup- 
per, ?/'2YAm the compass of those that have (unto chtivhy) sotnetvhat of the 
power of godliness (or, grace in exercise) we shall be near about the right 
middle-way q/" church reformation. And hence, when he had pleaded with 
as irresistible reason, as indefatigable studj/^ for the grace of the hngdom of 
heaven to l>e exhibited in our churches, by administring the baptism of the 
Lord unto tlie persons, and infants of all, who understand the doctrine of 
faith, and publickly profess their assent thereunto, and are not scandalous i7i 
life, and solemnly own t/ie covenant of grace before the church, andsubjeet 
ihetnseloes, and theirs unto the Lord, in his church : he then set himself to 
plead for the holiness of that kingdom, to be exhibited in the churches, not 
only by censuring the baptized, when they fell into scandalous evils, but also 
by requiring further degrees of preparation, in those that they received unto 
tlie Supper of the Lord. Nothing was more agreeable unto him, than such a 
notion of things, as Polamishad, when writing of the Lord's Supper, he had 
these words; nee ad earn- admittendi sunt ulli, nisi prius pastoribus ecclcsice 
csevloratum sit. ecs reram fidei docfrinatn recte fe/nre ct prr>0eri. ac inteUi'- 



154 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

ffcrc quid in sacra cccna ogatnr, quovc fine, ct scij^sos prohare possent, an 
sint in fide — Qnocirca etiam catechumeni out imperiti, e I'ulgo, tamdiii dif- 
furendi donee de fide, et vita eoruin pnstoribus probe conslet. Now, because 
it may be a singular service unto tbc churclies, to lay before tliem the judg- 
ment ol so eminent a person, upon a concern of some curious and critical 
contestation in them, 1 shall reckon it no digression from the story of his life. 
to recite the result of those meditations, in the digesting of which no little 
part of his life did roll away. He thus wrote for his oicn satisfaction, on Janu- 
ar. 4 1664. And I shall be glad, if it may now be for my reader's. 
PROPOSITIONS. 

'I. It i»a necessary q\ialificalion, in worthy receivers of the Lord's Snp- 
* per, that they examine tlieviselves, and discern the Lord^s body. 1 Cor. 1 1. 
' 28, 29 

' //. Those whom the church admits to the LorcPs Supper, must be such 
' as she in charity ^'/«/g-e//t, that they can and will examine themselves, and 
' discern the Lord's body ; because she must admit none, but such as are in 
' charity (or visibly) worthy receivers, and they only are in charity worthy 
' receivers, who in charity have the necessary qualifications of such. Either 
' she must give it only to visibly worthy receivers, or she may give it to 
' visibly unworthy receivers, which were to profane and pollute it. We must 
' dispense ordinances, unto^^^ and proper subjects, as Christ's faithful sfcW' 
' ards 1 Cor. 1. 1, 2. 

' III. None can be such self-examiuing and discerning cliristians without 
' some experience of a work oigrace.ioii witliout grace in exercise) so as to have 
' an experimental savoury acquaintancf, with the essentials of effectual call- 
' ing, viz. conviction of sin and misery by nature, illumination in the knowl- 
' edge of the gospel, and conversion of heart, by repentance towards God, and 
^ faith toioards our Lord Jesus Christ. 1. Self -examined ion implies both, 
' that there is the grace of faith and repvnta'rce, (or of vocation) the matter 
' to be examined : and also an ability to reflect upon that grace, that is and 
' hath been wrought in us ; iopi-ove it, and find it to \w. approved, at least by 
^ 9. preponderating hope. 2. Discerning the Lord's torf^, the shewing forth 

* or annunciation of his death, imports some acquaintance with, and actual 
' eying of the main and most spiritual mysteries of the gospel, concerning 
' Christ, his dc(/fh, righfeousncsi^; redemption, and nil the benefits thereof; 
' and those as exhibited in this ordinance of the supper. 3. That a lively or 
' special exercise of ^'7-«ce, (by reviving and renewing our faith, repentance 

* and love) is required in preparation for, and participation of the Lord's Ta- 

* We, is abundantly evident, both by the sense of the expressions aforesaid, 
' and by the .srojje of this ordinance, which is to seal not only union, but ac- 
' tiial communion and fruition. 1 Cor. 10. l6. By the active use of all the 
' outward senses, m receiving the sacrament, implying that there must be an 
' actual, and active use of cvercised senses, in reference to the inward part 
'of it. 

* IV. None can appear unto rational charity to have the qualification 
' atbresaid, without holding forth the same in some way or other Man can 
' judge of interna/ qualifications no way but by external signs. Invisible 
^ grace h mai\e visible to us by some outward tokens and manifestations. 
' Here, esse, et npparere, non esse, et non apparere,ar(i all one. 

' V Besides a doctrinal knowledge of the principles of religion, there are 

* two things required to the holding forth of grace in exercise (or of an ex- 
■ perimental savoury acquaintance with the essentials of effectual calling) 

viz. 1. A grac'uws conrer.^at ion. 2. Gradoiis expressions By a gracious 
' conversation, I mean, not only freedom from notorious scandal and obsfi- 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 85 

wary therein, but a conversation wherein some positive fniits ofpicfi/do 
appear, so as they that know the parties, can give a positive testimony for 
them. Gal. 5 6. Jam. 2. IS, 26. Graciovs expressions, or words are, 
when a person can so speak of the essentials of effectual calling, as doth 
signifie, not only a doctrinal, but a practical or spiritual acquaintance 
therewithal- Thai these are necessary to shew grace in exercise, appears ; 
because 1. Good words are in scripture made the great sign of a good 
heart. Mat. 12 34, 35, 37- Prov 10. 20. And if it be so in ordinary con- 
version, much more may this sign be expected, when a man comes to hold 
forth, and give evidence of the grace that God has bestowed upon him, in 
order to partaking of the Lord's Table. 2. Confession loith the month, is 
that by which faith evidences itself to be saving and effectual, Rom. 10. 9, 
10. 3. It cannot be imagined, how a person can have had experience of a 
work of grace, and that unto a comfortable discerning thereof in himself, 
but that lie can speak of it, in some way or other, after a savoury manner. 
* VI. Hence, either a relation of the vmi'k of conversion, such as hath been 
ordinarily used in most of our churches, or sometchat equivalent thereunto, 
is necessary in order unto fdl communion, or to admission unto the hord's 
Tafjle. There is an f^'i/f^'a/ewnhereunto I When an account of the cssfw- 
tials of conversion is given in way oi' a7iswers, unto cjuesfions propounded 
thereabout. 2. In a serious, solemn and savoury profession, or confession, 
de prcescnti, i. e. when a person floth with understanding i\x\A affection, ex- 
press and declare himselfsensible of his sin and misery, and absolute need 
of CZ/nX, his believing or casting himself on Christ \n the promise, for 
righteousness and life, and his unfeigned purpose and desire through the 
grace and strength of Christ, to renounce every evil way, and walk with 
God in the ways of new obedience ; pointing also to some special truths, 
considerations or scriptures, that have or do affect his soul with reference 
to these things, though he do not relate the series of former passages and ex- 
periences. 3. When a person is eminently known to excel in gifts and 
grace, (as a long approved minister of the gospel, or other eminently holy 
christian ;) this is more than equivalent to such a relation. 
' The sum is, the modux agendi may be various and mutable, and much 
therein left unto the prudence of church-offcers ; but the thing is necessa- 
ry ; viz. to hold forth in one way or other, experieiire of a work of grace^ 
ox A practical acquaintance v/\\.h the essentials of effectual ccdling. The 
reason is, because without this they cannot shew themselves able to examine 
themselves, and discern the Loj-cPs Body, which is essentially necessary to 
worthy receiving, and hence the appearance of it necessary in a subject of 
orderly admission to the LoirPs Table. A man must make a relation to 
himself; viz by reviewing of hisy^/YAand repentance, or at least an equiv- 
«?e«:f present renewing thereof in preparations for the Lorc/'.s Table; i e. 
to give himself a comfortable regular ctdmission thereunto. And should he 
not declare and ma^tifest such a thing to the church or officers thereof, to 
give them a comfortable ground to admit him ? 

' Object. But why may it not suffice, for a man pnblickly to say, I believe 
^ on Christ, or do mfeignedly repent of my sins ? Or to consent to such ex- 
■' pressions being read, or propounded unto him, without any more adoe? 

^ Answ. 1. He that can o"/-OM«</er//y so say, or profess before God, angels 
' and men, that he hath, (yea, knows that he hath) m\ff\g\\e<\ faith and repent - 
' ance, can say somewhat more particularly to show the reality of his ac 
' quaintance with those things. And if he cannot say it, gronndedly, it is no! 
' meet to put him so to say. 

' 2. He that either cannot, or will not say any more than so, (especially ir- 



86 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

' times of such light and means as we live in) he renders the truth of his 
^ faith and repentance suspicious, so as that rational chariti/ cannot acquiesce 
' in it For all men know, that faith is not dropt into mens hearts out of the 
' clouds, without praevious, concomitant and subsequent operations ; or if it 
' was first wrought in infancy, yet it will (especially when grown to such a 
^ lively exercise, as fits for the hordes Supper) shew itself in effects, renew- 
' ings and increasings by the word and ordinances, so as a man will be abU' 
' to hold fortli some experience of the operations of grace. 

' 3 That mofle of profession, which the objection mentioneth, hath been 
' found by plentiful experience, to be a nurse o\ formality and irreligion. ISow 
•' it is a rule concerning the modus n<rendi, or such like circumstances, that 
' when by experience a thing proves inconvenient, and subject to abuse, ther*- 
' ought to be an alteration thereof. 

' VIL Besides this, from the qualifications requisite to the Lord's Supper, 
' there be other reasons serving to confirm the necessity of practical confes- 
' sio7i (viz. by relations, or otherways, as was before said) in tliose that are 
' admitted unto full communion. 

' As, 1, Let those scripture examples be considered, wherein the grace 
' wrought in the faithful is evidenced, or collected from the Lord's dealings 
' with them in the work of conversion, and experiences relative thereto, or to 
' the fruits thereof See 1 Thes. 1- 4, 5, 6, 7,\), 10 Let those words be par- 
' aphrased according to th^ir obvious sense, they will make up a full relation. 
' And if Paul knew or gathered the grace that was in the Thessalonians froiis 

• such things as those, does it not show, that such things are a proper and ra- 

• tional ground for us to gather grace from? If they he famously known olhe.i- 
*■ wise (as they were in that case to Paid) it sufficeth, as was above said ; but 
- otherways how should they be known, but from the party's own mouth .'' So 
' Col. 1. 4, — 8. Is there not a kind of relation, of the work, and manner of 
■ the conversion of those 3000 in Acts. 2 set down in that chapter ? And 
■" consequently, the substance of such a relation or work was then de facto 

• obvious to the apostles And so, of the conversion of P«?f/chap 9 and of Cor- 
^ nelius, chap. 10. Yea, if we look into most of the examples in the Acts. Con- 
' sider, if they be not more immediately reducible to \a manifestation of a 
' work of grace] than to that of knowledge, and a blameless life ? Paul had 
' little to say for a foregoing blameless life to the disciples of Damascvs ; but 
•■ a work of conversion he could hold forth to them, and a profession de prce- 
' srai/ thereupon. SoJcfep 26,27- 

' 2. Ministers in giving the Lord's Sttjrper to persons, do give a great and 
' solemn testimony /othem, [take, eat, this is Christ^sbody, thatims broken 
^ for you ;] therefore surely they may take, and require a solemn testimony 
^ from them, and had not need to be slight therein. 

^ 3. 'Tha power of godliness will soon be lost, if only doctrinal knowledge 
' and outward blamelessness be accounted sufficient for all church-priviledges, 
' and practical confessio7is, (or, examinations of mens spiritual estate) be laid 
' aside. For that which people see to be publickly required, and held in repu- 
' tation, that will they look after, and usually no more, but content themselves 

• with that. Consider; if this hath not been a reason of the formality and 
' deadness, that hath overgrown many churches. January 4. l664.' 

Thus did a manuscript of this worthy man's, now in my hands, harmonize 
v/ith a notable passage about the Bohemian churches. 

Demum. (juia obJiciebatvr,frat/es I Because it was objected, that th>-; 
non habere ecclesiayn apertam cum j brethren have not an open church 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAxND. 



S7 



plena Sanctorum Communione, scd 
Administrare Sacramenta Quihusdam 
tantuin sihi addictis : Responsum 
fuit, Sancta, dare non Sanctis, pro- 
Inbiikse Christum ; Christianisnimn- 
que a pamitentia, auspicanduni, non a 
Sacranientis ; neque Secundum Inuti- 
fnta Christi yibsulutioacm nuncian- 
(lam nisi Resipiscentibus, et Credcnti- 
Ims, quod vtrumqne (Fcjenilentiam et 
Fidem) ne Superjicinrium sit et ful- 
Inx, Exphraiionc indigere ; Explo- 
ratione vero Tempore Justo: et quia 
Nudis Sacramcntis Salutis llm ad- 
ficriberc, ex Operc Operato, Errorum 
in Fapata Basis est, Errorem hunc 
rorrigi non posse aliter, quam ut cer- 
ta prohatione, nee ilia Subitanea, 
Cordium Arcana Revelentur, Novi- 
fiique din et c.atite turn Informentur, 
ftim Explorentur. 

Ratio Discipl. Fatr. Bohem p. A. 3. 



with the lull communion of .'jaisits, but 
aclminislf'r the sacraments only to 
some of ihe\r own party ; it was an- 
swered, that Christ hath forbid our 
giving oi hohj things uwio iinholi) per- 
sons ; and that Christianity is to be 
begun with repentance, and not with 
the sacruincnts ; and that according 
to the institutions of our Lord, Abso- 
lution is not to be pronounced upon 
any but those ih?t.\.repent and believe ; 
both of which [repentance aY)dfnifh^ 
that it may not be supcrfiriari/ and 
fallacious, it must have some explo- 
ration; and this exploration must 
have a sujficient time for it. And 
because to ascribe a saving ner- 
tue unto the bare sacraments Ex 
Opcre Operate, is the bottom of the 
errors of Popery, this error cannot 
otiierwise be corrected, than by tliis 
means ; that by a certain, and no 
sudden trial, the secrets of mens' 
hearts may be laid open, and novi- 
ces may be, with a long caution, both 
instructed and examined. 



Header, if the bpating out ol truth in controversies, that have risen among 
s!s relating to our chureJi discipline had not been the special service, wherein 
all our churches beheld the Lord Jesus Christ making use of this our learned, 
able, holy, and no less considerate, than considerable Mitchel, I had not 
given thee so long an entertainment as that of these propositions ; jiroposi- 
tions, which if they should in the opinion of any, fall short of demonsi rations. 
and contribute nothing to imite and settle the various apjireliensions of sonse 
very worthy men among us about an important point in our church govern- 
ment, yai they will ill the opinion of a// serve to c-Kprcss the dispositions of 
mind, which the rare sjiirited author of them did both live aisd dye withal ■ 
they show how much he was against that r/^iV/, uuscripturai, uninstituted. 
and uiiwananlable insisting upon ni'idcs, wherein some oi' our churches had 
sinned sometimes against the ^-^/Y/rc (>f the Lord .Tr>sus Christ; and yet how 
much he was /or all scriptural and rational inefhods to preserve the churches 
from sinning against tiie holiness, which docs become tfux'c houses of God 
for ever. 

§ 13. I have said that the life of our MiifiuFL was in a special manner 
engrossed by the services of explaining, maintaining and perfecting tho^^ 
principles, whereby the Christian religion nnist be pres>:Tved, witli a true and 
pure church state amonir ns. and conveyed and st'cured unto posterity ; and 
this leads me to that partofliis character, which distinguished him, as mi:ch as 
any one whatsoever ; namely, a care of rdl the churches. Our Lord Jesus 
Christ complains, that the children of this world are (for so I read h) wiser 
for their own generation, than the children of light. But our Mitchel was 
wise for his generation, and exercised his u>it with much contrivance, and much 
diligence, that his generation, even the faithful people of God in the world 
might be accommodated in all their interests. He was endued with a certain 



88 MAGP^ALIA CHRISTI AMEKlCAiNA; [Book iv, 

soaring and s.enou', grcainess of soul, which renderetJ fy-catchiug too low a 
business for him ; though lie weie one of a very lowfi/ spirit in his disposition 
to be alwfiys condemning of himself, 311 henourisliedin himseUa generous dis- 
da'-n of low, litile, triflin;: matters, and was of a hading ajjirit where hard ser- 
service wascall'd for, and o\ djinbticsjjirif, for doing of service to as many as he 
couM: his thoughts moved in iyhtrgesjjhcre o/wsf^/w/wess, and he was continual- 
ly pri)jecting how to do good, in t!ie most extensive manner unto more than an 
whole country. The Buchollzerian expression of the apostolical llANTAXor- 
SIA might be transferred into oiu" accoimt of Mr. Mitchel : he was a circlCy 
whereof the cetd re was at Cambridge, awri the circumference took in more, 
than all New-England. Hence, when he set apart his days for secret prayer 
with fasting before God, he would recapitulate in his private papers the hum- 
bling occasions for supplication', which he saw not only in afflictive things on 
his own particular^,oc7t, but also in all the sad sights, which in disasters ei- 
ther upon the nvH or sacred concerns throughout all our three colonies, and 
aW gradual decays of ouv glory., occur'd unto him ; yea, and he would then 
travel so far, as to observe the condition of the church throughout Great Brit- 
ain, and the nations of the European world ; and all these occasions oi dis- 
tress and request, he woidd enumerate before the Lord, with the matters of 
his own everlasting welfare. From the same heroic vertue (as I may prop- 
erly call it) in him it was, that in the weekly meetings of the neighbouring 
pastors, after the weekly lectures in the towns which he could visit; and at all 
otiier such meetings, he would with a most becoming f/mre^/oM and modesty, 
be still putting forward .somclhing or other, that miglit be for general advan- 
tage : and when the ministers met at any time so much \\'\\\\o\\\. advantageous 
<?^'rc#s of their discourses, that it could be said, the <M«e had been smoaked 
away to no purpose, he would be troubled at it : it caused him once to write 
this lamentation ; little done ! I have begun to feel the sadness of the pres- 
ent time, and the Lord's w/thdratoing from us and our chariot wheels taken 
off: Ifnd that in all socielirs, where I have any thing to do, commonwealth, 
and • liurcli and, colledge things stick, and we draw heavily, and nothing can 
begotten forward : all things, and allthe.^pirifs of men, seem to be off the hing- 
es : Oh ! Lord, affect my heart therewithal ! \ n this lamentation, the reader 
finds the Colledge mentioned and intleed the Colledge was nearer unto his heart, 
than ii u as to his house, though nextadjo\ningtoit. lie was himself an accom- 
plishfr'd scholar, and he loved a scholar deaily; but his heart was fervently set 
upon having tlie land all over illuminated svitli the fruits of a learned education. 
To tliis euil. he became ?i father to the Colledge, which had been his mother, 
and sought the prosperity of that society, with a very singular solicitude ; but 
among otlier contrivances which he had for the prosperity of the Colledge. 
one was, a model for the education of hop(fnl stialenis at the Colledge in, 
Cambridge. His proposals were, for septennial subscriptions by the more 
worthy and wealthy persons, i.-i this poor wilderness; to be disposed of by 
trustees (namely, the magistrates and ministers of the&'/j; next towns, for the 
time being, with seven othergentlemen by tliein chosen out of the said towns, 
of which any seven to be a quoruM, (if three ministers were among them,) 
who should single out schdnrs eminently pregnant and pious, and out of this 
boimty support them in such studies, as they should by these trustees be di- 
rected unto, until they had v\l]ur performed in\ch profitable services as were 
imposed on them in the Colledge hiii\', or prepared themselves for other ser- 
vices abroad in tlie world. He was mightily afiected with a passage of Lw- 
thers. If rner there be any considerable blow given to the devils kingdom, 
it must be by youth excellently educated. And therefore. Res seria est, Ingens 
estj it is a serious thing, a weighty thing, and a thing that hath much of the 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND, 89 

interest of Christ, and of Christianity in it^ that youth be toell trained up, 
and iimnt no helps for that end ; thai schools, and school-masters, and poor 
scholars he inaintaiued. If is the flourishing of a Coinmoji-wealth, to be well 
furnished vnth learned, worthy and able men for all purposes. And God 
will not give us such men by miracle, seeing he hath vouchsafed us other 
ways, and means to obtain them. Learning is an nnwelcontc guest to the 
devil, and therefore he would fain starve it out. Bat v^e shall never long rC' 
tain the gospel without the help of learning. And, if we should have no re- 
gard unto religion, even the outward prosperity of a people in this world 
would necessarily require schools and learned men Alas, that none are car- 
ried with alacrity and seriousness to take care for the education of youth, 
and to help the world with eminent and able men, 'Twas from considera- 
tions, like these oi' Luther's, that he did with an accurate and judicious pen, 
shape these proposals. But if Neio-England then had not many persons in 
it, of the same inclination with Pope Paul 2. who pronounced tliem, here- 
TiCKs, that should mention the name of an AcAdkjiy, and exhorted people 
that they would not put their children to /(;flr;(/?tn', inasmuch, as it was enough 
if they could bi»t read and write : yet, through the discouragements o( pover- 
ty, and selfshness, the proposals came to nothing. .\ oreover, the remarka- 
ble acufencss joined with an extraordinary holiness in this renowned man, 
caused the churches in all quarters far and near, when their difficult church- 
cases ciilifil for the help of councils, to nr.ike their applications unto Cam- 
bridge, for Mr, MiTCHEL to come and help them in their difliculties. And 
in these councils, as well as when ireighty cases have been laid before the el- 
ders of the cliurches, by the general courts, though usually most of the minis- 
ters present were elder th^n he, yet the sense and hand of no man, was relied 
more upon than his, for the exact result of all. With so much humble wis- 
dom and caution, did he temper the significant forwardness at well-doing 
which he still carried about hin), that the disproportion oi age, hindered not 
the most aged and able, and venerable angels in our churches, from their pav- 
ing a very strange respect unto him. Yea, as the Jewish Midrasch upon that 
passage in the first Psalm, his leaf shall not wither ; I remember is this, Om- 
nes necessitatem habent Colloquii ejus ; even such a iiecessajy ti-ee of life^ 
was MiTCHEL accounted, in the garden of New-England However, he en- 
countred with such temptations as must buffet all that have in them anything 
of signifcancy ; for which cause, once particularly, when he had been admi- 
rably acquitting himself in an undertaking of great consequence to the church- 
es, he came home, and wrote these words My spirit was carried out in too 
much fonvardness : I see cause to be deeply abased and loath myself, and 
haiig down 7ny head before God and men. How do I marr God's work, and 
marr what he gives me therein, by my own folly ! Sometimes I am ready to 
resolve toputfoi'th myself no more inpiiblic work, hut keep myself silent, and 
uningaged, as I see others do But then I pierceive, that this tasttth offrO' 
wardness and pride. Lord, give me more wisdom to manage and demean 
myself ! but if thy service and honor may be protnoted by my weakness and 
folly, let me be willing to be vile, that God may be exalted. 2 Sam. 6 21, 
22. Upon the whole, he was unwilling to affect such an unserviceable priva- 
cy, that they who passed by his house, might say, Hie situs est Mitchellus, 
§. 14 T know not how far that learned Frenchman, who writes, the con- 
formity of the Congregational church-government unto that of the ancient 
primitive Christians, hath seen verified his observation, all disinterested per- 
sons may easily be persivaded that the Congregational communion retains 
7nost of the ApostoUck, because it is not only the cream and best of the others, 
but also because it hath more charity. 'Tis very rarely seen (saith he) f4a$ 
VOL. n. 12 



90 MAGxNALlA CIIRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

any one of the Congregational wat/ does not love all good men of tohat com^ 
miniion soever they be, and that they do not speak of them, as of the true 
ehin-ehes of Jesus Christ : whereas even the most sober and honest party of 
the Episeopal men, and some of the Presbyterians, are so strongly possessed 
withprijudives against those of Congregations, that they are in their ae- 
ronnt, no better than hypoc7-it.es, sc/iismaticks, and men of strange enthusi^ 
asms. If any ot the Congregational ivay do not answer this character, let 
these 'Aords coixieimi them ; as I know those of the Presbyterian tcay in this 
country have by tlieir charitable temper much confuted that part of the dis- 
course, by which they are here characterized. But the observation I am 
sure, was verified in our Mitchel ; who was one fully satisfied and estab- 
lished in (he Congregational way o^ church government, ?^\\{\ yet had a spirit 
of communion for i\\\ godly men in oiher forms, and was far from confining of 
^of///«C6s unto his own. It was a frequent speech with him, the spirit of 
Christ, is a spirit of communion ! And I can tell, what he would have said, 
if he had lived to see tho books of so ridiculous a schismatick, as he that has 
niude himsje'lf infamous by attempting to prove, that tchere there is no Episco- 
pal ordination there is no true church, minister, sacrameiti, or salvation. 
iXh great worth CiiusaA him to be called forth several times with an ccr^V 
and special respect from the general court of liie colony, to preach on the 
greatest solemnity that the colony afforded ; namely, the anniversary election 
lif Governour and 3Iagistrates : And one of the sermons which he preached 
on those occasions, was after his death, published unto the world under the 
title of ISehemiah upon the Wall. In that sermon, reader, take notice of the 
tliscovery which he gave of his own Catholic charity, when he says, ' Do 
^ not wrong and marr an excellent work, and profession, by mixing and weav- 
•' ing in spurious principles, or practices ; as those of sepakation, Anabap- 
' tistn, Morelliun (auarchial) confusion. If any would secretly 'twist in, and 
' espouse such things as those, and make them part of our interest, we must 
' needs renounce it as none of our cause, no part of the end, and design of the 
• Lord's faithful servants, when they followed him into this land, that was not 
^ sown. Separation and Annbaptism, are wonted intruders, and seeming 
' friends, but secret Intal enemies to reformation . Do not, on pretence of 
^ avoiding corruption, run into sinful separation from any true churches oi 
t God, and wiiat h good therein ; and yet it is our errand into the wilderness 
'' to siiuly and practice true srripture-n formation, and it will be our crown in 
' the sight of God and man, if we find it and hold it, without adulterating de- 
' viafions.'' Thus, though he were a reformer, yet he liad nothing in him of 
a Donatist : for which cause Mr. Baxter hearing of him, said, if an oecume- 
nical council could be obtained, Mr. Mitchel tocretvorthy to be its moderator. 
■ And this disposition of charity in him, was rewarded with the respects which 
he found from learned and pious men, that were in many things not of his own 
perswasion : such hcjliness aud ))atirnce, •an(\ sweet condescension, wert; his 
incomparable abiWucfi cicvoinpi\n'\cd withal, that good men, who otherwise dif- 
tiered from him would still speak of him with reverence. To give one partic- 
ular jn.stance ; 'Tis well known that the reverend Charles Chaneey, President 
of the Colledge, and a neighbour in the (own aiid church with our much 
younger Mitchel, at tlie time of the Synod, zealously and pnbhckly opposed 
the Synodalian principles whereof Mr Mitchel was no small defender: 
Put so far was the dissent between them, in (he very heat and hcighth of all 
the con(roversie, from causing the reverend old man to handle his antagonist, 
ill any measure as the angry Dioscorus did the dissenting Flavian, in the coun- 
cil of Ephesu.^, thnt he woald commonly say of him, I know of no man in this 
iDorld,tkat 1 could envy so much, as worthy Mr. Milch»A, for the great hofi' 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. §1 

ness, learning, wisdom andmeehiess, and other qualities of an excellent spirit^ 
icith ivhich the Loi-d Jesus Christ hath adorned him. 

^. 15. And shall we a little more particularly describe that holiness o/this 
excellent man, which we have so often mentioned .'' It is an aphorism of a 
Machiavel, [and, reader, was it not worthy of a Machiavel fj that he who 
writes an history, must he a man of no religion. By that profane rule, the 
first and the best historian in the world, the most religious Moses, was ill ac- 
complished for a writer of history. But the history, which we are now wri- 
ting, does professedly intend nothing so much as the service oi religion, even 
of that religion whereof our JMitchel made an exemplary profession 
AVherefore we go on, to say ; know, reader, that he was a great example of e 
walk with God ; and of religion he was much in prayer, much in fasting , 
sometimes taking his vertuous wife, therein to make a comsort with him ; and 
sometimes also he kept whole days of Thaiiksgiving privately with his family, 
besides what he did more publicly; devoting himself as a rZ/anA: o^cmjo- to 
God for his mercies, with a reasonable service. In his diary, he betimes laid 
that rule upon himself, Oh/ that I could remember this rule, never to go to 
bed, until I have had some renewed, special communion with God ! He kept 
a strict watch, over not only his words, but also his very thoughts ; and if by 
the r^^ccfion, which he was continually making on himself, he judged that 
his mind had not been always full of heaven, and his heart had been, what he 
called, /iflrrfand slight, that he had huen formal in his devotions, thai he had 
\iot profited abundantly by the sermons of other men, that he had not made 
conscience of doing all the good he could, when he had been in any company ; 
he would put stings into his reflections, and rebuke and reproach himself 
with an holy indignation. Severe might seem the rule of K. Ilcmina. If two 
sit together and there be no discourse of the law, 'tis the seat of the scornful: 
Severe might seem the rule of R. Simeon, If three do eat at one table, and say 
nothing about the larv, they are as if they eat the sacrifices of the dead: 
And severe might be the rule of K. Ilananiah, He that ivakes in the night or 
walks by the tvay,and let's his heart lie idle, sifts against his oivn soul : But 
our MiTCHEL reckoned \t no severity imto himself, to impose upon himself 
such rules as these for his conversation. I have read, that fve devout per- 
sons being together, there was this question started among them, how, in what 
ways, by what means, they strengthened themselves in abstaining from sia 
against the God of heaven? The first answered, I frequently, meditate on 
the certainty of death, and the uncertaint y of the time for my death, and this 
makes me Uve in the fear of sin every day as my last. The second answered, 
i frequently meditate on the strict account of sin that I ara to give at the 
day of Judgment, and the everlasting torments in hell, to be inflicted on them 
that can give no good account. The third answered, / frequently meditate 
on the vileness, andftlfhiness, and loathsomeness of sin, and the excellency cf 
grace, which is contrary unto so vile a thing. The fourth answered, IfrC' 
quently meditate on the eternal rewards and pleasures reserved in heaven for 
them that avoid the pleasures of sin, ivhich are but for a moment. The fifdi 
answered, I frequently meditate on the Lord JESUS CHRIST, and his won- 
drous love to miserable sinners, in dying a cursed and a bitter death for our 
sin ; and this helps me to abstain from sin, more than any other consideration 
whatsoever ; and the answer of this last was indeed the greatest of all. Now- 
all these were the subjects, which our holy Mitchel, obliged himself to an as- 
siduous meditation upon ; and by meditating o\\ these it was, that he became 
very holy. Moreover, he was as holy men use to be, very solicitous to make 
a due improvement of all afflictions, that the providence of heaven dispensed 
iinto him. He would say, when God personally aiflicts a man, it is asif Ilf 



c)2 MAGNALIA CHRIS TI AMERICANA ; [Book iv. 

called unto iJte man hy name, and jogged him, and mid, Oh ! repent, be 
humbled, be serious, be aioakened : \ca, he could not so much as be kept ;i 
little Ironi tlie labour ot his ministry by an hoarse cold arresting him, withou) 
writing down this improvement ofit ; ?ni/ sin is legible in the ch(istif:enicnt : 
cold duties, cold prayers ( my voice in prayer, i. e, my spirit of prayer fear- 
fully gone} my coldiit ss in my ichole conversation, chastisement with a cold ; 
I fear that I have not improved my voice for God formerly as J might have 
done, and therefore He now takes it from me. IjuI the ajjiiction which most 
of rll exercised him, seems to have been in the successive death ol" many love- 
ly r/«7r/;v'», though all oithem, in their infancy. '*Tis an observation made 
by some, upon several passages in the scriptme concerning that generous and 
gTacious man, David, tiiat he was Liberoriim Amantissimus, full of afiecticius 
to his children ; and that was to be observed in our Mr. Jonathan Mitchcl : 
for which cause, when his children were sick, his paternal bowels felt more 
than ordinary wounds; and wlicnthey wt^e r/cf/r/, his huiniiiations thereupon 
were extraordinary. He wrote whole pages of lainentaiions on these occa- 
sions ; and one of his infants jjarticularly expiring before it could be brought 
forth to an orderly baptism, 1 cannot but recite a little of the meditations then 
written by him : // was a further sad hand of the Lord (says he) that it 
should dye unbaptised. Though J do not think they arc orthodox, that fumg 
salvation upon hiipthm, and not rather upon the covenaut, yet as it is ap- 
pointed to be a confirming sign, and as if is an ordinance of grace, so to be 
deprived of it is a great frown, and a sad intimcdion of the Lord^s anger : 
And though it may be well with the child notwithstanding ( that it becomes 
me to leave unto the Lord !) yet it is to us a token of displeasure. And 
what construction of thoughts tending to the Lord's dishonour it may occa- 
sion, I know not : that after my labours in publick about infant-baptism, the 
Lord should take aivay my child without and before ha|»tism ! Hereby the 
Lord does again and again make me an example (f his displeasure before 
all men, as if He did say openly, that he hath a special controversie with me ; 
thus remarkably taking away one after another. The Lord brings me forth, 
and makes me go up anddoum, as one smitten of God : the Lord spits in my 
face by this thing See 2 Sam. 12. 12. Numb. 12. 12. Dent. 28. 45, 46, 
68,59. Such and many more were the working.s of his tender soul uv-der 
his repediU^d afflictions. And such were the w«.wai'-c//a&/e dealings of God, 
that besides the children which he sent unto heaven before him, when he 
went unto heaven himself, he left iiehind three .sows, and two daughters, all of 
which lived unto somewhat of youth, yet they have all of them since dyed in 
their youth: except only a vertuous young geiUlewoman, married unto cap- 
tain Stephen Sewal of Salem : unto whom (with her oft-spring, the only pos- 
terity of this great man j may the Lord multiply all the blessings of that cove- 
nant, for which their progenitor proved so serviceable a pleader in his genera- 
tion ! 

The last thing that ever he wrote in h;s reserved papers, after he had bit- 
terly reproached the sinful deadness, straitness, enmity, and unsavourines.j 
(as he called it) upon his own heart, o\)on whicii he added this pathetical ex- 
pression, I feel ] shall fall, and lumble down info the pit of hell, if left unto 
myself, it was June ?. I668. To quickpii his cares oi' daily meditation. 

' First, Far younger than I, some of them no.v got to heaven, have done 
' much this way. Nulla Dies sine Linen. 

•' Secondly, Medilatiou. yea. daily meditation, in general, is an indispen- 
' sible duty.' Psal 1. 2. and Fsed. 1 19. 'J7- And because it is so, there may 
' be something of meditation in prayer, in reading the word ; Josh. 1. 8 with 
* Deut. 17. 19. and in occcmonal transient thoughts; yet surely some sett 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 96 

* meditation daily besides these, is at least in iiien duty, who am set apart, for 
' (he holy work oftlie ministry, wherein it would be helpful, as well as to my 
' own soul. 

' Thirdly, Heaven is here begun upon earth : shall I be thinking on, and 
' talking with, Christ, to all eternity, and not discourse with him one quarter 
' of an hour in a d.ay now ? 

' Fourthly, The great enemies of all good, Jlesh, sntan and world, do of all 
' other things, most oppose meditation, which shows tlia^ there is much ^oorZ 
' in it Flesh, by awknesS, giddiness ; world, by distractions ; satun, by 
' stirring up both. Lord, awaken me, and keepme aivake P 

§. iG But what and when, was the end of this holy walk? The incon- 
gruities and inconsistencies oi historian i^,^V(t not more notorious in any one 
article, than in that of the deaths oi xUe heroes, whose //res they have e^e/vmi- 
ized. W ith what varieties are the deaths of Cyrus, of Antiochus, of Alex- 
ander, of Hannibal, of Romulus, of Scipio, of Plato, of Aristotle, reported ? 
There is hardly any philosopher, but he dies twice or thrice over in Laertius ; 
and there is hardly one oi Flutarch's worlhies, but he dies as many ways. 
The death of our Mitchel remains now to be related with more of certainty. 
Though bodily exercise does projit a little, as the Aj)ostle concedes, namely,' 
to the health of the body ; and Mr. Mitchel had from a principle of godli- 
ness, used himself to bodily exercise ; nevertheless he found it would not 
IV holly free him from an ill habit of 6of/y. Ofextream /e«??, he grew ex- 
iream fat ; and at last, in an extream hot season, a /euer arrested him just af- 
ter he had been preaching on those words, I know that thou wilt b-ing me to 
death, and unto the house appointed for all the livitig. The fever did not 
seem to threaten his death ; however in his illness, to them that visited him, 
he said. If the Lord Jesus Christ have any service for vie, to do for Him, and 
His dear people, I am willing to do it ; but if my work be done. His will be 
done! But the distemper suddenly assaulting him with a more mortal ma- 
lignity, and summoning him to the house appointed for all the living, he fell 
to admiring the manifold grace of God unto him, and broke forth into these 
words, Lord, thou callest me away to thee; 1 know not why, if I look to my- 
self ; but at thy bidding 1 come ! which were some of the last words, whic!? 
he spoke in the world : for his friends, who had not for many hours, entertain- 
ed the expectation of any such dismal event, were conipelled in floods of tears, 
to see him dye on July \). 1668. in the forty third year of his age : when (as 
one expresses that matter) he left his body to be dipped in flie river Jordaii^ 
that afterwards in it's resurrection, passing into Canaan,it may, beyond the 
stoiy of ^c/«Y/p5, become impenetrable and invulnerable. Wonderful were 
the lamentations, which this deplorable death fiUVl the churches of New-Eng- 
land withal ; for as the Jewish Rabbies lamented the death of i?. Jose, with 
saying, that after his death, Cessarunt Botri, i e. Firi tales, in quibus omnes, 
turn Eruditionis, cum Virtutis, cumnli erant : So, after the departure of our 
Mitchel, it was fear'd there would be i^tw more such rich grapes to be seen 
growing in this unthankful wilderness. Yea, they speak of this great man in 
their lamentations to this day ; and what they speak is briefly the Stime, that 
one of our most eminent persons lias writ in those terms, all New-England 

SHOOK, WHEN THAT PILLAR FELL TO THE GROUND. 

EPITAPH. 

And now, reader, let us go to the best of poets in the English nation for 
those lines which may, without the least wrong to truth be applied as an Epi- 
taph to this best of preachers in our little New-English nation The incom- 
parable Dr. Dlackmore's Orator I'ylon, shall now be our Mitchel. 



Q4 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book rv 

TIS the great Mitchel, whose immortal worth 

Kaists to hsarhi the Ide that gave him hirth. 

A sacred mar .•> venerable />r?>s^, 

Who never spake, and admiration mist. 

Of f^ood nrd kind, he the just standard seem'd. 

D' -u' to the best, and by the zoorst esteemed. 

A fjen'ious love, diflused to human kind, 

Divirie compassion, mercy unconfin'd, 

Still reign'd trinmphant, in his godlike mind. 

Greatness and mndesty their wars compose, 

Between them Aere a perfect /ivewcfeAip grows. 

His ivit. h\s judgment, learning, eqnal rise ; 

Divinely humble, yet divinely ivise : 

He seem'd express, on heav'ns high errand sent, 

As Moses meek, as Aaron eloquent. 

N<:ctar divine flows from his heav'nly tongue, 

And on his lips, c harming ^jer.w«s/o?i hung. 

When he the sacred oracles reveal'd, 

Our raviih'd aouls in blest enchantments held, 

Seem'd lost in transports of immortal bliss ; 

No simple n-an could ever speak like this! 

Arm'd with ca,'lestialj^re, his sacred darts 

Glide thio' oi:r breasts, and melt our y'lekUng hearts. 

So soutiicm brc-^zes, and the spiing's mild ray, 

Unbind tne Glebe, and thaw the frozen clay. 

He triumph'd o'er our souls, and at his will. 

Bid this !ouch'd/;(7ss/'« rise, and that be still. 

Lord of o::v pnsf-ions, he, with wondrous art. 

Could strike the secret movements of our heart ; 

Release our souls, and make them soar above, 

Wing'd with divine desires, and flames of heavenly love. 

But what need I travel, as far as Europe for an Elegy upon this worthy 
man ? Let it be known, that America can embalm great persons, as well as 
produce them, and New-England can bestow an Elegy as well as an educa- 
tion upon its heroes. When our Miichcl ^vas dying, he let fall such a speech 
as this unto a young gentleman, that lodg'd in his house, and now stood by 
his bed. My friend, as a dying mm I nmo charge you, that you don't meet 
me out of Christ in the day of Christ. The speech had a marvellous im- 
pression upon the soul of that young gentleman j who then conipos'd the en- 
suing lines. 

To the memory of the Reverend .Jonathan Mitciiel. 

C^nicquid Agimus, rpiicquid Patimur, venit ex Alto. 

THE countries tears, be ye my spring ; my hill 
A general grave ; let !froans inspire my quill. 
By a waiiii sympathy, \i-X feavcrish heat 
Roam thro' my verse unseen : and a cold sweat 
i.irnning drspair, attend me: sighs difFuse 
Coavulsio7is ihroiii-h in}' language, suclj as use 
To type a gasping fancy ; lastly, shroud 
Religion's splendor in a mourning cloud, 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 95 

Replete with vengeance, for succeeding times, 
Fertile iu woes, more fertile in their crimes. 
These are my miises ; these inspire the sails 
Of fancy, with their sighs, instead of gales. 

Reader, read reverend Mitchel's life, and then 
Coufess the wor\d a gordian knot agen. 
Read his tear-delug'd grave, and then decree, 
Our present woe, and future misery. 
Stars falling speak a storm ; when Samuel dies. 
Saul may expect Philistia's cruelties, 
So when Jehovah's brighter glory fled 
The Temple, Israel soon was captive led. 

Geneva's triple light made one divine : 
But here that vast tritanvirate combine 
By a blest metempsychosis to take 
One person for their larger zodiack. 
1 n sacred censures, Farels dreadful scrol 
Of words, broke from \he pulpit to the soul. 
In balmy comforts, Virets genius came 
From th' ivrinkled Alps, to wooe the western dame ; 
And courting Cambridge, quickly took from thence 
Her last degrees of rhetoric and sense. 
Calvin's laconicks thro' his doctrine spred. 
And children's children with their manna fed. 
His exposition Genesis begun, 
And fatal Exodus eclips'd his sun. 
Some say, that soids oft sadpresages gire : 
Death-breathing sermons taught us last to live. 
His system of religion, half uaheavd. 
Full double, in his preaching life appear'd. 

He's gone, to whom his country owes a love, 
Worthy the prudent serpent, and the dove. 
Religion's panop/y, the sinner's terrour, 
Death summon'd hence ; sure by a writ of error ! 

The Quaker trembling at his thunder fled ; 
And with Caligida resum'd his bed. 
He, by the motions of a nobler spirit, 
Clear'd men, and made their notions Swine inherit 
The munster goblin, by his holy flood 
Exorcis'd, like a thin phantasma stood. 
Brown's Babel shattered by his lightning fell.. 
And with confused horror pack'd to hell. 
The scripture, with a commentary bound, 
(Like a lost Calais) iu his heart was found. 
When he was sick, the air afeaver took, 
And thirsty Phabus quafl"'d the silver-brook : 
When dead, the spheres in thunder, clouds, and rain 
Groan'd his eleginm, mourn'd and wept our ^«fn. 
Let not the brazen schismatick aspire ; 
Lot's leaving Sodom left them to they're. 
'Tis true, the Bee's now dead ; but }ct his sting 
Death's to their dronish doctrines yet may bring. 



96 MAGiNALIA CHRISTl AMERICANA : [^ool?: rv. 

EPITAPHIUM. 

Here lies u-ithin thif! comprehensive span, 
The churches, courts, and cotint.ri/''s Jonntban. 
He that speaks Mitchel gives the schools the lie; 
Friendship in him gain\i an nhiquittj. 

F. DRAKE. 



CHAP. V. 

Drusius Nov-Anglicanus. — The Life of Mr. Urian Oakes. 

O Utinam phi res similes tibi pectore nnssem, 
Aut in Jjocfrind, aut Svdulitate pares. 

§. 1 . I renipmber, 'tis the report given by Sylvius concerning Rhodes, that 
it is blessed with a perpetual shine of the su?i ; imagine, that tliere passes not 
a day in the year, uiierein the sun shines not upon it. And niethinks our 
Cambridge, had not been much otherwise privileged for more than forty years 
together; being shiiied upon by a successive #y7MWi'i>a<e of such eminent and 
heavenly //o-/*^s, as, first, Shepard, then Mitchel; and lastly our excellent 
Ubian Oakes. Those three golden men and very Chrysostoms, have given 
to Cambridge \ts golden age ! The clinrch of Cambridge had a succession 
in some sort like that in the church of Ephesus, a Paul, a Timothy, and a 
Tychicus. 

^. 2. 'Tis remarkable, that in the sacrod story at \e^%i forty Dukes of Edo?n 
have their wliole story crouded into one short piece of a chapter ; three or 
four of them are jostled into a line, seven or eight of them into two; all but 
their meer name is buried in a dark vault of eternal oblivion : while above a 
dozen chapters are employ'd, in describing the vertues, and relating the ac- 
tions of one younger son of hracl, the son of a plain man who dwelt in tents. 
If the greatest persons of Edom [that is to say, of Rome^ have their history 
lost, the church of (»od would have no great loss in it ; a son of Israel may 
more worthily, and more usefully have his memory preserved in church-his- 
tory with the most extended [paragraphs : yea, the son of a plain man, who 
dwelt in tents, may deserve an everlasting remembrance among them, who 
most consider what they have most reason to remember. Make room then, 
for Urian Oakes, ye records of New-England. He was born in England, 
and BQ^ in !iis childhood brought over to New-England, by his pious parents, 
who were blessed with several worthy son?; the effects of whose liberal educa- 
;tion in our C-'olledge have rendered the family not the least in our little Israel. 
While he was yet a child, he was delivered from an extream Hazard of drown- 
ing by a mi r able, I had almost said, a miracle of divine providence ; God 
reserving him to be a Moses among his people. And the sweet nature, 
which accom|)anied him all his days, did now so rejnarkably recommend him, 
that observers have made this reflection, if good nature could ever carry one 
to heaven, this youth has enough to carry him thither. 

§. 3. His prompt pai-ts adorned and advanced with the grace of God at 
such a rate, as to make the considerate say of him, as they said of young Am- 
brose, to what will this child grow ? were improved in our Colledge ; where 
h§ took his two degree*;. Being here yet a lad of sm(dl, as be never was of 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 97 

great stature, he published a little parcel of astronmical calculations with this 
apposite verse in the title page, 

Parviim parva decent, sedinest sua Gratia parvis. 
But here, being furnished with the armour, and the treasure of the schools, he 
went from hence unto the work of building tiie Temple of God; preaching 
his first sermon at Roxhury. 

§. 4. Returning back to England, he there grew in favor vnth God and 
man. After he had been a while chaplain to one of the most noted persons 
then in the nation, Tichjidd was the place where this bright star became^x- 
ed ; there 'twas that he settled in the charge of souls, whxch he discharged iu 
such lively preaching and such holy living, as became a minister of the New 
Testament ; there 'twas that like a silkworm, he spent his own botocls or spir- 
its, to procure the garments of righteousness for his hearers; there 'twas, 
that he might challenge the device and motto of the famous Dr. Sibs, a wasting 
lamp with this inscription, Prcelucendo pereo,OY, my light is my death. 

'^. 5 But the expensive labours of t:is ministry did not so hasten a natural 
death upon hiu), as to anticipate a civil death by the persecution, that silenced 
the Non-conformist ministers throughout the nation. A civil death, I say, ; 
because although the authors of that act, XIV. C ar. 2. would not be reckon- 
ed among the slayers of our Lord's witnesses, yet it may surprize the most 
attentive consideration, to read how much oftner than twice or thrice in that 
act, the silenced ministers are pronounced as dead,<\nd, as if naturally dead ! 
This act slew the ministry of iWis faithful witness to the truths of the gospel, 
whereof he was a minister ; but that worthy and well-known collonel Norton, 
proved the Obadiah, who then gave this good man a residence in his house; 
w^here his presence and prayers produced a biessing, like that on the house of 
Obed-Edom. Nevertheless, when the heat of the persecution was a little 
abated, he returned unto the exercise of his ministry, in a congregation, where 
Mr. Symmons was his colleague. 

§. 6. Our C«M6m/^e deprived of thfnr incomparable Mitchel, and lament- 
ing, that, of all her sons, there ivere so few to take her by the hand ; after 
solemn addresses unto the great Shepard <f the sheep, for his direction, sent 
over their agents into England, with a invitation to Air. Oahes, to come over 
and help them. A council, upim that occasion, called approving of the invi- 
tation, tiie good Stork ticw over the Atlautick Ocean to I'eed his dam. Where- 
upon one wrote, 

♦ 
Welcome, great prophet, to New-England shore, 
Thefa.n'd Utopia, of more famf)us ^ioIlK, 
Unfabled, for New-EnL'Iand is by thee, 
Now Tvvis^e's guess too must occomplisht be ; 
That for the New-JerusaleiTi, there may 
A seat be found in wide America. 

§. 7'. The church of Cambridge could now sliow tiiis orient jewel ior di- 
vers years, before the Almighty would have it made \.\\\ among his jewels :. 
though the troubles and sorrows of a quartan ague., often diverled \nn\ from 
his publick services. And here he had the opportunity, lor which Dr. Pres- 
ton chose rather to preach at Cambridge, than any other place, Dolare no}i 
tantum Lapides sed artifices. Of the divine favour to them, in tlieir enjoy- 
nient of such a pastor, the church was n.)w so sensible, that they kept a day of 
public Thanksgiving ior it. At this T ianksgiviug a sermon being expected 
from Iiimself, he took for his text tho.'e ^vonis in 2 Cor. 12 11. I be nothing. 
And the holy endeavours that he used i 1 the sermon, to take off the thoughts 
VOL II. 13 



US :>IAC.NAL1A CIUllbTr A-MEUICANA; [Book iv. 

of tlic Jaitiitiil from ain thing in mciu, to evtry th'uf^ in CJirisl j were voiy 
agreeable to a vian, wUv.m Christ \ivA made somelhing among lite people. 
Dut the Cullcdge in Cainhridge. languishing under somewh-.it woii-e than an 
"giie, i)y the want of a Frasidcnf, tliis accoDiplislied man was invited unto 
that place : For divers years, he would adniit no other title to this [-.hire, but 
ihiii o\' pro tempore, whieh indeed seems to iiave bten a little pr(,l(ptiiol and 
prophetical. From this time, and but for a lime, he was ilie Jcro/n of our 
Bethlehem ! 

^ 8. Sooij after lie had accepted his Vremleiitship, he was arrested with 
a maligiiantybt'e/', which presently put an end unto his days in this world. 
The pmyer of some great saints has been contrary to that in the Lifaiv/ for a 
sudden death ; and such was the death, of this desirable person, if any death 
nv.iy be accounted sudden to him, that was alirdijsf prepared for it. \\ hen l.e 
had lain sick about a diiy or two, and not so long as to give the peoph* of C*of! 
opj)or!ijnity to praii for his recovery, his church coming together with expect- 
ation to have the Lord'a Snpijer on the Lord's Day administered nnlo tlu in, 
to their horror, found {\\(; pangs of death seizing their pastor, that should have 
ijroken to tiieni the bread of life. And, indeed, I have often seen the Lord 
o/' heaven, taking oif his ministeas, perhaps to heaven, at that seanan, when 
the £Mr/mm/ should have been celebrated ! which is a thing that might achnit 
of some useful reflections. 

§. 9 He was upon all accounts truly, an admirable person. Consider'd as 
a Christian, he was full of all goodness, and like a full ear of corn, he 
stoop'd with a most profound /j«/«77//y, adorning all his other graces; but 
though he were low in his own opinion of himself, yet he was high in his at- 
tainments ; ///^'/t in his principles. He carried Aertt'c/t '\u his name Urianus, 
[q."^ iio«v;o?,] but miich mtre i;i his heuvenhj mind. Considered as a sehoh^r, 
he was a notable cr/7/c/.: in all tiie points of learning; and well versed ineveiy 
point of the great cirele. Vast the treasures lodged in the soul of such a 
hxho/ar / Considered as a preacher, he was an Orpheus, that would have 
drawn the very atones to discipline; had /i//6i/rt been here, he might now 
have seen Paul in the pulpit : indeed, he was, as one said, an vnr.omforlu- 
ble jtrraehcr ; why } he tiruve us \o dispair, namely, of seeing sueh another. 
Finally, I cannot ?peak more compiehensively of him, than Mr. Increase 
Mather docs in his preface to a discourse ol'liiis renowiud man's, published 
iu--»t after his decease. 

' Thej^e have been several of the saiue name, herttofore renowned for their 

• rare accompli.-vhments in some particular facnily, wherein they have excel- 
' led. Joscphus (luercetaniis was a learned and famous physician. Johan- 
' ncs Drusius fna iiree.k woid for Oa/ces) was a great divine, and emlnrnt 

• for his critical ^e«/M.9. But an aue doth seldom produce one so many wa\s 

* as this author was. If we consider him as a dirine, as a scholar, as a Chris- 
' iian, it is hard to sa3', in which he did most excel. I have often in my 
Mhoughts, compared him unto ,SV<«/J«7 amorig tlie prophets of old ; in as 
' much as he did truly J^^wr God fora hs youth, and was betimes improved In 
' holy ministrations, and was at last called to bo head of the sons of the 
' prophets in this New-English Israel, as Samuel was President of the Col- 
' ledge at Najoth. And in many other parlicsdais, I might enlarge upon the 

* pjirallel, but that it is inconvenient to extent! such instances beyond their pro- 
' portion. 

//rr, fua nobis 

Morle si mid t< cuni Solntia rapt a ! 
' It may without retleetion upon any be said, thai he was one of the greatest 
' lights, that tecr shone in this pan' of t.'it world, or that is ever like to arise 



Book iv.] OH THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 99 

•ft 

' in our Horizon. lie is now hocomc a royal dlarlcm in the hand of the 
' Lord ; being, as one speaks concerning a great worthy, an ornament unto 
' heaven itself,^ 

§. ]0. Asforliis inor](S,hh an exceeding P'tV? ^^at the j^rpss has given to 
the light no more ol' flieni ; for Qitirquid tain Docta condidit Manns, Cos- 
l inn est : nevertheless, lour or five or his piiblis'.ied conijiosures are carried 
about among us, like Paid's handkerchief's, for the healing of our sick land. 
We may read something of what he was, in a sermon, called the conquering 
and unconquerable Christian soldier, on Rom. S. 37- preached unto the ar- 
tillery company in Boston, on their election : and in a sermon preached on 
the like occasion in Cambridge.) from Eccles. 9- l^- showing, that chance is 
infallibly determined by God : and in a sermon upon a Fast, which from 
Isa. 43. 22. presses for sinceritii and delight in the service of God : but most 
of all in a sermon on Dent. 32. 22. preached unto tho general court of the 
Masmchusetts-colo7i7/ : wherein, he pleaded with his country, to consider 
whcit woi!ld be the /after end of she eri/s then grow ing in the country : after a 
manner, so faithful, so solemn, so affectionate as was hardly to be equalled. 
Now that the reader may see some acccuut of this learned man's judgment in 
the matters of ehurrh-disriijline. whhout whicb v>e may not say, that we liave 
written his life, we will from that ser.Tion only triinscribe the few following 
iijies. 

' I profess, [ look upon the settlement of the Congregational icay, as the 

• l)0()n,t!ie gratuity, the largess of divine bcvvty. which tlie Lord graciously 

• bestowM upon his people, that ff)llowed him into this wilderness ; and a 

• great part of tiie blessing on the head of Joseph, and of them that were sep- 
' arate from their brethren. Those good people that came over hither 

• shewed more love and zeal, and afTectioiiate desire of coninnnnon with God 

• in pure worship and ordinances, and did more in order to it tiian others, and 

• the Lord did more for them than for any people in the world, in shewing 

• tiiem the pattern cf his house, and the true sciiptvred way of church-govern- 

• ment and administrations, I do not think, that the}' were at a Neplus ultrii. 

• and that nothing was left unto the disrovery of after-times ; but the begin- 

• ning-7mrk WHS substantially done by them ; they were set in the right way, 
' wherein we are now to proceed, and make a progress. It will be our wis- 

• dom, interest, and duly to follow them, as they followed the guidance of the 

■ spirit of Christ. The reformation in K. Edward's days was tiien a bles- 
' sed work ; and the reformation of Genera and Scotland was a larger step, 
^ and in many respects purer than the other; and tor nty part, I fully believe, 
"' that the Congregational-way far exceeds both, and is tiie highest step that 

• has been taken towards re/'orwG/iV;??, and for the substance of it, is the very 

• way that was established and practised in the primitive tim.es according to 
' the institution of Jesus Christ. There is a sweet temperament in the Con- 

• gregritional-itiay ; that the liberties of the people ma}' not be overlaid and 

• oppressed, as in the classical-icay, nor the ride and authority of the ciders 
' rendred an insignificant thing, and trampled under foot as in the way of the 

■ Brownists : but that there may be a reconciliation or (Um^: concurrence in the 

• balancing of the one justly with the other: and herein, the wisdom of our 

• Lord Jesus Christ in the frame of chi!rch-gove}'nment {for it is not any poli- 
" tick or prudential contrivance of man, but modeli'd by the great Law-giv- 

• cr, the Lord Jesus) is greatly to be admired by us.' 

i^^. 11. The rest of the report that we will give of this memorcdde person, 
shall be but a transcript of tlie Epitaph on the tomb-stonib in the shepir.g- 
place at Cambridge, dedicated unt(j his ninnory. And know, reader, that 
though the stones in this wilderness are already iirown so xritty as to speak. 
thev never yet, tisntl could hear of. prew f^o wick'd as to lye. 



100 M AGNALIA CIIRISTI AINIERICANA : [Book iv. 

URIANI OAKESII, 

C'/juf!, QuOff, Ilcliquum est 

clnn(Jitur hoc Tumulo ; 

ExnloraWi Inlegriiafe, ataiwml Mornm Gravitate, 

Omnlumq ; mcJiorum Artium insigni Peritia. 

Si>evtutlssimi, Clarisfiiiiiiq ; omnibits JSlodts Jlri, 

Thco/ofii, merito sua, celeberrime, 

Concionatoris vere MelUjiui, 

Cantahrigieims Eccleshe, Dociissimi ct Orthodoxi Pastoris 

In CoUeffio Harvardirio Prcesidis Vigilatitissi)ni, 

Maximam Plcfaiis, Eiitditumis, Faaindioi, Luudem Adepti : 

Qui, Rcpcntind Morte siihito correptuSf 

In JESU simtm effinrit Animam, 
Julii XXV. A. D. M. DC. LXXXI. 

Memoriae. 
.'Jiltatis suae L. 
Flurima quid Refcram, satis est si dixcris Uman 
Hoc Dictu satis est, Hie jacit OAKESIUS. 



CHAP. IV. 

The Life of Mr. Thomas Shepaed. 

'^,. 1. When uc fiiul tlial passage in the oracles of heaven, behold, Philis- 
ivA, and Tyre, ?iv7// Ethiopia ; this man was born there; it follows, «/?«? o/" 
Sion, it shall be said^ this and that man teas born in her : and the meaning 
and the reason of this different expression hath been a matter of some enqui- 
ry, ll seems, ih-Atof Raliab, Babt/lon, Philistia, Ti/re and Ethiopia, h was 
said, behold (as being ahiiost a wonder !) that this man, some one single man 
of eminency a Rara Avis in Terris, was born there. Bnt of Zion it might be 
said, [t5'"'Xl U'"'n] man and man, this and that man, that is to say, very many 
eminent men, Multi pielatc, DocfrinO Tnffenio, Rerum Belliearum Gloria ali' 
isq ; Virtulibus hisignes. were born in her. That little spot of ground, 
where God planted his church, afi'ording more excellent men for holiness and 
other noble accomjihshments, in proportion, than all the world besides. I 
will now make no odious eomparisons between Harvard-Colled ge and other 
Universities, for the j)roportion of worthy men therein educated: hwt Nae- 
England, compared with otiier parts of ^iwr/'/ef/, may certainly boast of hav- 
ing brought forth rtry many eminent men, in proportion, more than anv of 
them ; and of Harvard-Collcdge (herein truly a Sion-Colledge) it may be 
sa'H\,this and that man were bred there; of whom, not the least was Mr. 
Thomas Shepard. 

vS. 2. Reader, esteem it not prceposterous, if I begin the life of lliis worthy 
man, with relating that his r/ea//t fell out on Deeemb. 22.1677. AV'hen the 
pestilence raged so nmvh in Alexandria of old, that there was not an house, 
wherein there were not many dead, it was the observation of mankind, that 
while the Pagans cast oflall humanity and inhumanly forsook their dearest 
friends, in the distresses of their sichiess, the Christians without any regard 
unto their own life, boldly ventured into the sick-chaml)ers, and cheerfully as- 
sisted and relieved their infected brethren, and very often dyed that they 
might preserve others from death, or attend them in it. Mr. Thomas Shep- 
nrd had in him that spirit of the priniifive Christians. He was tlie pastor of 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. lOl 

the church in Charlstmim ; and the s7nall-pox growing as epidemically mor- 
tal as a great plague in that place, this excellent man, who had for many years 
most faithfully done all the duties of ?t pastor unto his tlock, apprehended it 
DOW his duty to visit one of his flofk, who lying sick of this distemper, de- 
sired a visit from him. Ke went w'th Ms life in his hand, and which he 
courageously, and undauntedly expect-;d, the contagious distemper arresting 
of him, did put an end unto his life, and therein, surely, after some sort enti- 
tle him unto the crown of martyrdom. Thus, as an Elegy upon his death 
expressed it. 

Rather than run f ram's ivorJc, he chose to dye. 

Running on death, sooner than duty jly. 

Behold, a Shepherd^ who was (as the emperor Prohtts had it said of him) Vir 
sui Nominis ! 

<^. 3. And now, that tlie pourtraitme of this person, who was, an great a 
blessing and glory as ever Charlstown had, m^y be drawn to the life, it is fit, 
that oihev pencils, than such poor ones as mine, should lie employ 'd : for in- 
deed it was very truly confessed in an Elegy, made upon him, 

Here's icorth enough to overmatch the sJdll, 
Of the most stately poet Laur cat's quill. 

We will therefore emplo\' three other testimonies and descriptions to give 
posterity the knowledge of him ; whereof the first shall be the Epitaph en 
graved on his tomb-stone, in such terms as these, 

D. O. M. S. 

Repositce stmt luc Reliquire Thoraa? Shepardi, 

Viri Sanctissimi, 

Eruditione, Virtute, Omnigenu, Morihusq ; suavissimis Ornatissiini _: 

Theoligi Considfissimi, 

Concionatoris Eximii : 

Qui Filiusfuit Thomse Shepardi Clarissimus, 

Memoratissimi Pastoris olim Ecclesia' Cantahrigiensis ; 

Et in Ecclesia Caroliensi Presbyter docens : 

Fide ac Vitd Vents Episcopus : 

Optime de Re Literariu Merit us : 

Quel Curator Collegii Ilarvardini vigiHantissimvs : 

Qua Municipii Academici Socius Primarius. 

Tx la lii'^H, XpiiH. if la. sx'jIh Ztj]jt>v. 

Jn D. Jesu placide ohdormivit, Anno l677- Dec. 2'^:. 

^tatis suae 43. 

Totius Novmiglice Lach-ymis Defletiis : 

Usq ; et Usq ; Defend us. 

Let Fame no longer boast her antique things. 
Huge Pyramids aiid Monuments of kings : 
This cabinet that lochs up a rare gem, 
Without presumption may compare with thira. 
The sacred reliques of that matchless one 
Great Shepard, are enshrin'd below this stone. 
Here lies entornVd an heavenly orator, 
To the great King of Kings embassador : 
Mirror q/" virtues magazine of arts, 
Crown to our heads and Loadstone to ovr hearts : 



102 MAGNALIA CHKISTl AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

Harvard's great son, and father too beside, 

ChavhioM'W'kjusi glory and ]\e\v-Ei)glaiid"s i)ride : 

The chiircli's ;V«'c/, Colledge's overseer, 

The clergy's diadem without a Peer : 

The poor iiiairs ready friend, the blind man's eyes, 

The waudring wild red souVs conductor wise : 

The widow's solaee, and the ov\i\\diiv^ father, 

'/'//csick nicin's visitant.^ or cordial rather: 

The general hcnvi'actoy, and yet rare 

I'.iigrossfr of all good : the man of prayer : 

The eonsfant friend, and the most eheerful gi^ev. 

Most orthodox divine and pious liver : 

An oracle in any douhtfdease, 

A master-piece of nature, art and grace. 

In this bed lye rei-Os'd his weary limbs ; 

///s soul's good company for Scrapiiims. 

Tf men be dumb in praising of his woi'th, 

This stone shall cry, for shame ! and set it forth. 

Si Slieparde tuo, nisi quce sint digna sepidehro, 
Carniina nulla forent, carmina nulla forent. 

C\. 4. The whole country was fdi'd with lamentations npon the decease of 
ihe person thus entomb'd, and many bestowed their elegies upon him with 
resentments like those, which one of thtm thus uttered; 

Next to the tears our sins do need and crave, 
J would bestow my tears on Shepard's^rat'c, 

But there was none who found a deeper wound at this decease, than the 
reverend president of the colledge, Mr Urian Oakes ; who was \\\s particu- 
lar friend. For, as Austin had his Alipius, as Bazil had his Nazianzen, as 
Jerom had his Heliodorus, as Eusebius had his Pamphilus, or, if you will, as 
Pow/had his Barnabas ; even such was the friendship, that unanimated om 
Oakes and our Shepard. lie besides other ways of expressing his value for 
this his departed Jonathan, took the opportunity of the ne.xt Commencement, 
with no small part of his elegant oration, i\ms, to embalm his memory. 

Keferunl historici Caium Caligulum, monstrum illud hominis, qucri pa- 
lam de conditione temporum suorum esse solitum, quod mdlis calamitatibus 
pnblicis insignirenlur. Quod si nunc in vivis, apud nos agerct, nihil esset illi 
queieUe loci relictun), adeo calamitosa sunt omnia, et fcelicitates, bonas nobis 
adversas habcinus. I',c<[uid vero calamitosius,quam quod morbus ille rflnc/Za- 
»•«/// in vicinis oppidis passim grassatus fuerit. Heu ! QucC funera dedil ! 
Quas strages edidil ! Miserum me ! Hiereo, stupeo, vehementer perturbor 
aninio; necjue mens, neque vox, neque lingua consislit, quoties subit animum, 
quam grave vulnus, vel ex unius viri, iuterritu, non ita pridem accepimus. 
Video me, necessitate coactum, officii, auditores, infandum renovare dulorem, 
vnlnusq ; reccns acceptum, rcfricando, retractandoq ; exacerbare. Amisimus, 
imisimiis memoratissimum ilium virum, reverendissimum Tliomam Shepar- 
dum: rospublica civem optimum ; ecclesia theologum clarissimum : academia 
non fdium taiitum et alumnum clarissimum, sed curatorem etiam vigilantissi- 
inum ; nnniici|)iuni schohisticum, sociimi snum primariiun, ami^erunt ; amicum 
ogosiiiL'ularem et integerrinnmi. Ilenpietas! Hou prisca fides ! Obiit, proh 
dolor ' ernafisviriius Shepardu-'^. \ir dii^niis.si quis alius, qui nim(juam ai'grota- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. las 

ret, nunqiiam moriretur. Dabitis veniam, aiiditores, iit mfrsti nos Harvadina- 
tes, etiam iu ipsis feriis acadoniicis, pieiilissimi Thomcc Sliepardi mauibus, 
alieno qiiidem, uti videri potest tempore, et exequialia justa, parenteinus. Do- 
leiniis tanto reipublicce vuliiere morteniq; tanii viri, jure optimo, liictii publi- 
co esse lionorandam,e.\istimaniis; qui fatalis iiiorbi vi ereptur,, noii ecclesiam 
solum Carolinie/iS('m,in;d totam etiam Novanglinrn, orham ac debilitatam rc- 
liquit ; quorum deluncto, respublica rcelesia, acadeuiia vacillare certe, si noii 
corruisse videantur. Cum Cains Cwsar satis se diu, vel luiturse vixisse, vel 
gloricTe dixisset ; satis, inquit Cicero, si ita vis, nat lira' fvrta.sse ; arldo etiam, 
si 'placet gloria' ; at quod maximum est, patriai ccrte pnrum : multo profec- 
to verius et sincerius a me dici potest, clarissimum Shepardiim, satis diu vix- 
isse sibinu'tipsi, et gloriie suce, cum pie adeo vixerit, ut ad coelestem vere vita- 
lem vitaii) siiicera fide, virtutum christianarum exercitio, viam aditumq ; sibi 
muaieiit, uomeu suum immortalitati consecravit ; at reipnhlicce, non satis diu 
at eccltsia'., at acadcmiic, parvm eerie vixit ; quocum occubente, titubare ac 
nutare videntur omnia, est et illud irae divinae vehementer in nos excandes- 
ceutis argumentum et indicium iusigne, quod gravissimis reipublicae tempori- 
bus, academia^ necessitatibus, ecclesiarum precibus et lachrymis hujus eximii 
viri vitam noluerit Deus condonare. Amisimus Shepardiim, alienissimo rei- 
pubiicae tempore extinctum : at quern et qualem virum ! theologum profecto 
non unum e multis, sed inter niultos prope singularem; neminem cum illo 
conferendum nou ausim dicere: neq ; detrahere quitlquam ab aliis nccessum 
liabeo, cum encomia defuncto Shepardo debita persolvo. At vero inter Gre- 
garios tboologos (fjuod sine cujusquam injuria dici veli«i tantum caput extulit 

Q'lUintum lenta solcnt inter vibuma rnpressi. 

Certabat in <'o, cum pietate minime I'ucata, eruditio minime vulgaris; cum 
eruditione vero prudentia modestia, humanitas et industriasingularis. Quanta 
gravitas invultu ? Quantmn pondus in verbis? Quam nihil nou consideratum 
exibat ex ore ? Quam nihil in gestu alTectatum, aut inderoi tini ? Fuit quidem 
o j«,!«x««»r;?.aninio sedatissimo, candidissimo pectoreJci'licissiniOjingenio, acer- 
rimo judicio, suavissimis deniq; temperatissimisq ; moribus ornatissimus. 
Sic autem universam vitam traduxit, ut aliis illustre quoddam ver;e pietatisac 
virtutis exemplar, ad irnitandum propositum ; ineoq; quasi exempli causa, 
antiqui officii vestigia remanebaut. Non ille inanem oucupaius est rumorem, 
neq; ullus umbra falsa^ gloiise confectatus est, aut insoleniius extulit se ; sed 
a supercilio, fastuq ; omui longe longCq ; abfuit. in summis ejus dotibiip, 
propter quas, honoribus autoritate, gratia floruit, sumuia animi flemissio et 
modesiia singularis emicuerunt ; et rara qiiidem (ut dici solet) virtus est humi- 
lilns honontta. Vetus est verbum '• £-« 'Av^a i^hii 'Avjj^, uniis, vir, niillus 
vir. Ego vero non minus vere possum dicere ' E/5 ^euoiTrvotcv. Unus mini fuit 
iiistar decern millium. Prorsus assentior Naziauzciw dicenti i^jAs^va/« ax. 
fi^icci 'Av7«A?iof7/tisi lav ovluv 'ifJtv. A.nicitiam uniciim esse ritie condimentuni. 
Miserum me ! Quam triste nobis sui desiderium reliquit ! Qui mihi ita cliarus, 
ita jucimdus fuit, et ejus aspectu dolor ornnis fuerit abstersus, et omnis, quee 
me angebat, cura plane confederit. Probe memini, quam me o!im Irons ejus 
transquilla, vultusq ; (ut Ovidius loqiutvir) plenvs gravitate screrKi, inter di- 
cendimi animadvcrtit. Ille horum comitiorum (ut niea lulit np\]uo) pars adeo 
magna fuit, ut quemadmodum (autore Cicerone j Antomachus Clarius poeta, 
cum couvocatis auditoribus recitaret iis ingens volunK'U, quod conscripseraf, 
eumq ; legentem, omnes pr3eter Platonem reliquisscnt. Legam, inquit, Nihil'. 
ominus ; Plato ewm mihi unus, instar est omnium : Ita })rofect6, alter Plato 
vabsit verbo invidia) fuit niilii Shepardue et iiist-ir omnium. Dici non potest, 



104 MAGiXALlA CHRIST! AMERICANA: [Bookin. 

quam me perorantem, in comitiis, conspectus ejus, multojucundissimus recre- 
ant et refecerit. At non coinparet liodio Shepardus m hh comitiis: oculos 
hue illuc torqueo; quocuncj ; t.uneii incideriiit, P/«^o?iem nieura in tanta vi- 
roruni illustrium frequentia requirunt ; nusquain amicum et pernecessarium 
nieuii), in liac solenni panegyri, inter liosce revertndos tlieologos, acodemia^ 
curatores, roperire aut oculis vesligure possum. Amisimus viruni ilium sanc- 
tissinium strenuuni, ortliodoxje tid'ji pro|)UirMatorcm, non liominibus solum 
gratumet acceplum, sed, et Deo ipsi charissimum, divince familiar i ted is vi- 
riim, sicuti TertnWaiiioi uuncupat yjbraha/iium. Quamobrem, honoratissimi 
viri, lugete amissum civem plane ]s]pxyouv, optimarum semper, in republica, 
partiuni et in rebus optimis, constaniissimum virum; columen atq; ornamen- 
tum reipublicjc vestrie ; cujus unius ("unere, prope dixeram, elatam esse rem- 
publicam. Lugete, revereudissimi presbytori, amissum charissimum fratrem, 
et syinmistam ordinis vestii decus et lunieii singulare. Lugete, carolinenses, 
sublatum, ex oculis vestris,exinuum e[)iscopuni vestrum, delicias olim et amo* 
res vestros. Lutiete, acadeinici amissum curatorem vigilantissimum, cujus in- 
lerritu, collegii diguitatem, immane quantum diminutam, salutem ipsam peri- 
clitatam esse, quis non iutelligit ? Lugete, quotquot adestis, auditores, amis= 
sum ilium virum, consumn)atissimum, curium et equites Israelis, dignissimum 
prolecto, qui iXuv-Angli.-e lacbrymis usq ; et usq ; detleatur. Quod si nimius 
in hocargumeuto, et lougius, quam par est provectus esse videor, quaeso obtes- 
torq ; ut veniani aliquam dolori meo, et moerori animi tribueudam putetis. 
Videtis me, in ampliisimas charissimi Shepdrdi laudes, tauquam in oceanura 
descendisse, et difficile quidenj esse, cum laudandi, tum lugendi tiuem reperire. 
Tliis was one paragraph in a conmiencemeut-oration pronounced by the 
Lactantiiis of New- England. And that stroke, which this very person had in 
an elcgij, by him composed on the death of his dearest Shepard, 

They that can Sliepard's goodness ii^etl display, 
Must be as good as he : but who arc they i 

lie did himself make a near essay towards t'ne doing of it, and m my thought, 
he was according to his 0/0/ rule, well qualified for the doing of it. 

'^. 5. But if the reader must have one in all things, os good as he, to dis- 
play his goodness, behold then he shall eliectually, and not improperly do it 
htimtlf. Let the reader peruse his elaborate sermon, preached at the anniver- 
sary eU'ctirm of the governour and magistrates in Boston, May 5. 1 672. and 
alterwards printed ; and he will tliere see consfetinted so much learning, wis- 
dom, holiness and faithfulness, t'lai he will pronounce the author to have been 
a person ol niore than common f:duits for the service of our churches 



CIL\P VII. 



St. Step'non's Rriiqnes. — MKorrATiONs, awakened hy the death of the Rev- 
erend. A/r. Joshua Moodey ; with some short character of that eminent 
person : who slept in Jesus, -id. 5/?i. i t)L)?'. In the sixty-Jifth year of his 
^/ge. — By Co'i TOiV Mathkr. 



THK PF.COXD KDITION. 



J'^.sn. x.'uv. 22, 2;;, 2IJ. — JOSUIJ A said unto the people, yc have chosen 
you the Lord, to serve Him, Now therifore, incline yOttr heart unto the 



Rook IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 105 

Lord. Audit came to pass, after these things, that Joshua, the servant 
of the Lord dyed. 

READER, tell me not, that the people's lieiiig taken with Pnhlicola's 
funeral oration in praise of the dead Bruti/s, or the decree of the Roman 
Senate, that it siiould be lawful to make a funeral oration on such as deserv- 
ed well of the commonwealth, made Polijdore Virgil say, Hmc mortuos 
laudandi mosfuxit, guem nos hodie serramus. The l]t)ok of Lainentations, 
on the death ut' Josiah, is of an elder date ; the Roll itt' Lamentations on the 
death o( Jonathan, is of yet an elder: and certainly, to be imitated among 
tiie faithful people of God. Tell nie not, that some eminent Non-conform- 
ists have therefore scrupled, the preaching of any funeral sermons : That in 
somii Reformed churches, the practice of them is wholly omitted ; that in 
ihe Primitive churches they were not practiced until the apostucy began ; 
and that there have been decrees of councils against them. I readily grant, 
that the custv)m of praising the dead, has been scandalously abused ; but I 
cannot grant, that the abuse is best corrected, by taking away all publich 
meditations on the funerals of those, in whose deaths God iVom heaven 
speaks great things unto the lining. We do but wisely fullnl our ministry 
by watching, to suit the words of God unto those works of his, which occur 
to our notice, when men of note are taken away. Behold, according to the 
laudable usage in the churches of New-England, the meditations which have 
been awakened by the falling asleep of an eminent person, who was, a mem' 
nrable servant of those churches ! I am out of measure a.>;tonished, when 
I read in an author as old, and as great as Austin, tlie wonderful effects 
which the pretended reliques uf the Martyr Stephen had upon those who 
repaired thereunto for the cure of maladies. Howbeit, when I find that 
great man in his epistle to tlie clergy of Hippo, denying that any miracles 
were theu done in Africa ( wliich he also again said, in his book, De Ufili- 
tate Credt.di) and in his book of Y'/vcc Religion, affirming that God j)er- 
mitted not .' ■ 'racles to continue until then lest the ininds of men should be 
too much taki-n up with tjisihie utatttrs, 1 perswade myself, that the story 
of the reliqw s of Stephen was f(jisteJ into his book, De Civitatc Dei, by 
some later liaid. The best sort oi' reliques after all are tiiose which we 
have here preserved and proposed; and it will be no superstition, to hope, 
that a cure of spiritual nsaladies too gpueraliy jirevailing, may be promoted 
by repairing unto the:n. And, I do not more question the opinion of a very 
learned man concerning the angeh, whom we find mentioned in the scrip- 
nn-es as doing very humane actioHS, Vtros homines fuisse, qui a Spiriiu 
Messi(e, et a spiritibus angelicis agchantur ; et moi)ebantur ad ea agenda, 
qme ipsi non intclligebant, phantasla eoruni obsessa, ct a cogitationibus 
consuetis uhdacta : Qui homines., ne.gotio pcracto, ad qitod fueraid a deo 
odhibiti, discifsso vcterno, et ccssante ecst(ir<i., ad consucta muufra reversi 
sunt, immctitorcs eorum, quoi impulsore Spiritu Divino, ant angelico egera^it: 
Than I do believe, that in our actions, tliere is an imitation of the holy 
ajigels to be endeavoured, by which a man m;ty become another Steplfn. 

THE WAY TO EXCEL. 

\cTS vi. 1 '». — Looking s'edfasily on hisa, they saw Ids face, as it 

had been the face of an ANGEL. 

Singe the oracles oS^ heaven, have (with a most sigrjificant admoDJiion .') 
allowed a well served church, to call its paJor by the name of its angel, 
VOL. n 14 



lOG IMAGxNALIA ClIRISTI AiAlEillCAIVA : [Cook rv. 

we may now sa}', the angel of the church of Portsmoutli hua nctoly taken 
wing ! Yea, not the least ot" the angelical chariots and horiicnicn of New- 
England, have departed from us, hi the ivithdrawing of one, after whom that 
bereaved church is cryin<r, Mji Fother, My Father/ 

To preserve I lie iilca and memonj of \\\^ face, as far as the iiifirmilies of 
this mortal state permitted any approaches to the angelical character in it, 
is that whereto not only nature does invite us : 'Twill be but a compliance 
with that edict of heaven. Remember them who have ftpoken to you the word 
of God ; whose faith follow, considering the end of their coniwrsation. 

'Tis well known, that aniuiisf the chief works of the Most High, created 
by the Son of God, at the hrst beginning of lime, there were his good 
ANGELS : Angels, which are spiritual and rational substances, created by the 
Lord, for his own immediate service and honour. None deny, none dispute. 
t!ie existence of those good angels, but men that are under a more than 
ordinary possession of ei'iVones. 

Our Lord Jesus Christ has given it, as a description of that future state, 
wherein he will mnke us happy for ever, Mat. xxii. 30. They are as the 
angels of God in heaven. And if we hope to be happy in \\\i\X future state, 
we must endeavour io anticipate it, by being very holy in our present state. 
But the way for us, to be very holy, is to resemble, and imitate, the angek 
of God in heaven^ wiiile we are on earth, as far as we are able. Every holy 
man does a little of thrs ; and how tnuch of it. was done by that holy man, 
who is now gone to live and praise, and see CHUIST among the angels for 
ever, may be |)roposed with some advantage unto the exhortation, wherein 
I have d few things to preach unto the people. 

But my exhortation nuist be introchiccd with a report of that glory, which 
the Martyr Stephen, while he was yet on earth, attained unto. 

There being occasion to choose deacons in the primitive church, that so 
they who were to give themselves continually unto the 7ni7iistry of the word, 
might be released by the faithful cares of those deacons, from secular encum- 
brances ; one of them was the blessed Stephen ; who being the first tiiat 
arrived unto the cr(»rn of martyrdom for our Lord Jesus Christ in the New- 
Testament, had in the name of Stephen, which signifies, a crown, a notable 
specification of the enent and reward, which will attend all our sufferings 
for the Lord. 

It was then an age of many -miracles wronidit by the Spirit of our Lord 
.Tcsus Christ ; and such a measure of that Spirit possessed this excellent 
man, that by the impulse of that Spirit, lie could with all assurance perceive, 
when the Spirit was going to work ?niracli:s, and apply himself to accom- 
pany the miracles o\' the Spirit, by some wonderful actions of his own. 
This illustrious worker of miracles was accused before the Council at Jeru- 
salem, tor saying, that it was the design of Jesus to destroy the temple and 
the city, and alter the rites, which Mose.s had from God commanded unto 
Israel. When he appeareci before the Counril to answer this accusation, 
'lis here said, They saw his face, as it had been the face of an angel. 

Concerning t\\e face of an angel, we have a remarkable account, in what 
we read aiK)Ut one of tiie angels, in Mat. xxviii. 3. His countenance was 
like lightning. And we read concerning a great man, who had got tlie /"rtct 
of an an'^el, by being much with the angel!-:, in Exod. 34. 10. Ikholil, the 
skin if h'S face s'lonc. If we carry the passage now before us unto the 
liiirln st sense, which it would lay claim unto, we are to suppose, that such a 
splendor was discernible upon the fare of Sti^'ph'. n: And surely, if they who 
discerned it, had not the heart of a deitil in them, they durst not have gone 
«.;, to abuse -I ?H«-7, that appeared bel'oii: {hi;in mih the face of an angel. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 107 

Alas, the more of an angel there is in any man, the more stones will the 
devil procure lo be thrown at such a /noii ! But behoid the ogreeahlcness ot 
the matter; Stephen was jDersecuted for viliifying of il/oses; and behold, 
at this very time, he is vindicated with a shine upon his^ace, like that once 
upon the face of Moses. The things here spoken by Stephen, were those 
very things, which the angel Gabriel, had formerly spoken unto the prophet 
Daniel; and behold, the aspect of an CH^eZ adorns hiiu in his discourse. 

We may from hence fake leave to observe, that a saint on earth, may 
arrive to those attainments, that shall make him look like an angel of 
heaven. 

There are angelical excellencies, a degree whereof, poor man, sorry man, 
sinful man, even while such, may very much attain unto 

But now, this case calls tor our attention : What are those excellencies 
that would make a saint look like an ANGEL ? 

And the general answer hereunto is, the excellencies of holiness. For, 

First, The angels of God have many excellencies, the imitation whereof 
cannot b}' men in this life, be reasonably proposed. The angeliccd majesty, 
as a mortal eye would not be able steadil}' to behold it, much less, in this 
mortal state may we affect it. A man may not whh to shine like Stephen 
in this world, and have a face that may dazzle the spectators. Or, what 
would it avail, if a man could make a glare on hh face, by smearing it with 
some of the noctilucxv's invented by tiie modern chyvnsfry? A devil lias 
before now, pretended unto such a J^f/re. 'Tis not the face, but the grace 
of an angel, which is here to be aspired after. It were a foolish, and a 
t'aulty thing, for any man to be ambitious of wearing in this world such a 
figure as that in Dan. 10. 6. His body like the beryl, and his face as the 
appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire. Immortality itself 
is one of the angelical excellencies. But, while we are among mortals here, 
we nnist submit unto the laws of mortality and be willing to dye, when and 
how, the Sovereign God shall order it. There are also those flights of 
wisdom, and those heights of power among the angelical excellencies, where- 
in, 'tis not for us, to dream of being like them, until we are become, the 
children of the resurrection. It was the mine of our first parents, to 
imagine in Gen. 3. 5. They might he as Elohim! No, this cannot be, until 
our Lord Jesus Christ has by a neiv birth brought us into that world to come, 
where the wise converters (f many to righfeousm ss, will be those who 
shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and as the stars for etwr 
and ever ! Our Lord Jesus Christ will make us the angels of the neio world. 
Indeed the angels now turn and move all the ivheels of the kingdoms of this 
icorld, but we are they that shall receive the kingdom that cannot be moved. 

But, secondly, The excellencies of holiness [for, the sal?its are the excel- 
lent / J These are they, wherein the imitation of the angels by men, may 
be very far proceeded in. The angels of God, are styled in Mat. 25. 31. 
The holy angels ; and in Dan. 4. IJ. The holy ones. 'Tis not as they are 
mighty angels, but as they are holy angels, that we must propound our 
coming to look like unto them. These holy angels never did, and never 
will sin against their God ; but are continually serving of him : They serve 
him day and night in his temple! And it maybe, the bright garments, 
wherein these angels of light have appeared, may be an emblem of their 
holiness and their purity. Now it hath beoi the ivill of God in our Lord 
Jesus Christ concerning us, that there slKndd be set before us the greatest 
examples of holiness for our imitation. And hence, as we have the greater 
example of our Lord JESUS CHRIST himself given unto us, to direct 
and excite and promote our holiness, with a charge, to be hoi//, as he that 



108 MAGNALIA CIIRISTI AMERICANA : [Book''iv. 

hath culled us is holy ; so, we hnve also the example of the hob/ angch 
given unto lis, that we nuiy strive as hr us may he. to be like unto them in 
their holiness. Hence, when the Psahnist of old saw the angels praising of 
Gud, lie cryed out, O my soul, do tltou so too ! Yea, sonje interpreters 
jndge, that when the face, of Stephen looked like an angel, it was no more 
than what yon and I may through Christ who strengthens us reach unto. 
q. d. 'I'iie consolations of the Holy Spirit of God so filled him, that he 
discovered not tlie least constemniions in his face: His^are was as joyful 
anu serene, as if he had stood free from all the sorrows of this world, 
among- the angels of God. 

I remember the apostle enjoins the leomnn in the church to have a rover 
ingon her head in token of subjection to her husband ; because of the angels. 
[2 Cor. 11. 10.] Why, if yon tmn to the beginning of the sixth chapter ot 
Isaiah, you'll find the angels before their "snperionr, the Lord Jesns Christ, 
in the temple, assuming a covering, out of tlic reverence which they pay unto 
him. Hence then, says the apostle, it becomes women to take example b\ 
tlie angels ; let them consider, how the angels behave themselves in the 
j)r(^sence of the Son ofCiod, who is the grand representative of th*" image and 
glory of God ; and let them in their habit show son)0 analogy to tite habit of 
the ««g-^/.S', betokening their subjection to the wmM, who is imder the Lord 
Jesus Christ, the image and glory of God, while they the women, are so of the 
man. But 1 only tou<h on this gloss by the by. What I insist on, is, that 
the angelical example is to be imitated. 

Indeed, we shall, as long as we live in this world, come far short of the 
original, when we go to vvrite after the angelical example. In ih\s prcscnf 
evil world, we cannot approach near to the holiness of the good angels : 
Much of sin, and fault, and foil v, will unavoidal)ly cleave unto us: That 
leprosie will never wholly out o\\\w walls, until l!ie clay-house be utterly de- 
molished; There will be as much distance between the blessed spirits and us, 
as between giants and rA//r/reH, as between s^«/'s and ^/ott'o/v/?,?. as between 
the cedars o\ lA'banon and tiie hysopxh^i grows out oj the wall : Thus it will 
be, until we come at length to dwell [And, Oh! Why do we no more long 
for it !] with the innumerable compani/ of angels, in another world. 

However, to attempt the imitation, is the ready way to be excellent. I'ar- 
ticnlarly in the ensuing instances. 

I. If a man couM have his eye upon Xh*" face of God continually, would 
not that procure ihe face of an angel for him ? It would make a man look 
like an angel, \f he were looking nuto God, in the Lord .lesus Christ continu- 
ally. Of the angels, thurc \s that account given, in Mat. 18 10. In the 
heavens, they do always behold the face of my Father which is in the hea- 
vens. The »'//?,gf7.s' do converse with GOD cc>ntinually. And, why may not 
we press afier a converse with GOD. a little emulatiig the angelical'.^ To 
be heiivenli/-minded, by havinji the (iod of hearcn almost always in our niinds, 
and by being in the fear of Gofl all the day long : T/iis were to be as the an- 
gels are ! Oh ! That we were thus filed wick I he fullness of Hod. 

First, We may \v,\\(^ a co\\X\n\i\\\ apprehension of GOD in cnir minds. In 
ev(-ry place, we may apprehend GOD. Wherever we are, we may subscribe 
to that article of the ancient faith, in Psal. 139.7. Lord, IV hither shnll I 
He." from thy presence .^ What if wt should never be from under the awe of 
sncli a liiought as that. The omnipresent God observes all m); ways f And 
v/e may apprehend GOD in every ^'>m^. We need not stay at any .f(Co.'?// 
causes; but we may with a spiriinalixed sonl,so',w \\\)\o soxw^ notice of God 
in all. Upon all the works of c?-pf/</V/», we nniy say, the finger of God is 
here/ And we may make the positions of the Pauline philosophy, in Acts; 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAiND. 109 

17,24,28. God made the world, and all things therein: In Him we live, 
and move, ami have our beirig. Upon all the works of Providence, we may 
say, this comes from that God, whoae kingdom ruleth over all. And we may 
make the conclusions once taught by our Lord, no doubt alluding to the tioo 
birds, whereof one was to be A;it7tT/. the other to be let hose into the open 
field, at the cleansins^ of the leper, in Mat. 10, 29- Two sparro^rs, one of 
them shall not fall to the ground without ov.r Father. To be led into some 
notice of GOD continually, this, O tliis, it is angelical. 'Tis godlimss.—^ 
What is holiness, but godliness ? This were a "tittle of the angelical holi- 
ness. 

Secondly, Our continual apprehension of GOD, may bring a continual 
dedication to GOf), upon all that we have, and all that we do. U we glance 
at inferiour ends, yet we may not stop there : All our ends are to be swallow- 
ed up in GOD We should not, with any patience, consent unto it, that any 
but GOD, should have our strength, our time, our all. Whatever posses- 
sions are bestowed upon us, we may put ihein nniler that consideration, which 
the house of David had, in Psal. 30. Tit Dedicated things. All our ^tosses- 
sions, all the powers of our spirits, all the members of our bodies, our estatesy 
our a-edit, our des'mMe friends ; we may contrive with our selves, IFhat nc- 
knoxvledgmentsmay God have out of these things ! And improve them no 
farther, than as instruments, « herel)y Ciod may be acknowledged. Yea, and 
our daily actions ; may we not be driving a trade for God in all ? As 'tis 
said in 1 Cor. 10, 31 Whatever ye do, do all to the glory of God: So, our 
eating, our drinking, our sleeping, what is it f(tr r V\ e may distinctly say, 
I do this, that I may he supported in the service of God, thus, our labours, 
our travels, our visits, and our exercises of religion, we may thus ennoble 
them, I do this, I will do it carefully and cheerfnUy, because God hath corn- 
manded my doing of it. A dedication to God, is the proper meaning of ho- 
liness : And very angelical would be our holiness, if we could be frequent and 
constant in such acts of f/ef//ca/»ow. 

Thirdly, Ouvcoimnua} apprehension of God, may produce our continual 
satisfaction in God, under all His dispensations. Whatever enjoyments are 
by God conferred upon us, where lies i\\e relish, \\'\\evtn\\e sweetness of them ? 
Truly, we may come to relish om enjoyments, only so far as we have some- 
thing of (jtod in them. It was required in Psal. 37, 4. Delight thyself in the 
Lord. Yea, and what if we should have no delight, but the Lord? Let us 
ponder with ourselves, over our enjoyments : In these enjoyments I see 
God, and by these enjoyments, I serve God! And now, let ail our delight in, 
and all our value and fondness fur our eijoyments, be only, or mainly, upon 
such a divine score as this. As far as any of our enjoyments lead us imto 
God, so far let us relish it, affect it, emhrace it, aind rejoyce in it ; O taste, 
and feed upon (jod in all', and ask (or nolhin'i, no, nut U^r life itself, any 
further than as it may help us, in our seeing, and our nerving of our God. 
And then, whatever, afflictions do lav fetters upon us, lei us not only remeu)- 
ber, that we are concerned with God therein, but let our concernment witk 
God procure a very prolbund submission in our souls. Be able to say with 
him in Psal. 39, 9- 1 opened not my mouth, becan.^e, thou didst it. In all 
oar affliciions, let us remark the y«.v//c(? of thai God, before whom, why 
should a liringman complain for the punishnent ofhissin? The wisdom 
of that God, ivhose judgments arc right; the goodness of that God, who 
punL-ihes us less than our iniquities do deserve. L<'t us behave oiuselves, as 
having to do with none but GoH, in our apictions : And let our atjiicti(>m 
make us rnoreccnrorniable unto God ; which conformity being effected, jet us 
then say, 'Tisgood for me tiat I have hnen afUeted. Sirs, what were this. 



no M AGNALl A CHIIISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

but a pitch of holiness, almost angelical/ Oh ! Mount up. as with the 
icings of eagles, of angels: be not a sorry, puny, raechanick sort of chris- 
tians any longer ; but reach forth unto these things, that are thus before 
you. 

But, in fine, 'lis our Lord Jesus Christ, who is the face of God. That is 
hhname, frequently in the Old Testament ; and in this hint, 1 have given 
you a golden key to come at the sense of many passages in the sacred pages, 
about the face of God, and the light of thai fare : 'Twas the Messiah. 
'Tis then our Lord .lesus ('hrist, who is to be the more immediate object of 
owt avorehensions, when we would become angelical: 'tis God in our Lord 
Jesus Christ : Whenever we entertain any thing of God in our minds, it 
should be with a Christ, and thro' a Christ. Those who do all they can, to 
forge a Christianity without a Christ, are so far from being like angels of the 
l^ord, that they nre traitors to the King of heaven. 

//. We may render our selves angelical, by our endeavours of a present, 
and n pleasant, and ani/nivei'sal obedience unto the Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Ijord of angels. W^hose are iliL' angels, hat the angels of the Lord / And 
[as in 1 Kiivgs, IS, 12. and Ats, S, 39,] the sjnrifs of the Lord. Our 
Lord Jesus Christ is the Lord General of all the angels : He is tiie Lord of 
hosts; and all those ^o.vAs of heaveti are under his command ; we read in 
Psal. 103, 20. 21. Then do his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of 
his word: They are his mijiisters, lohichdo his pleasure. The very highest 
angel'in heaven desires and studies to be a servant of the Lord Jesus Christ: 
The great God would soon strike him down from heaven with hot thunder- 
bolts if he did so. Even Michael 'he archangel has received that charge 
from God, concerning our Lord Redeemer, do thou toorship him ! Gabriel 
himself must give this account of liimself, I stand in the presence of the 
Ijord Jesus Christ; na:nely, as a seryanf standing in the presence of his 
Master. 

Come then ; let every one of us become the servants of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. By consenting to the methods of grace in the new covenaiit, let us 
yield our selves unto our Lord Jesus Christ, as unto our Lord ; and say with 
him in Fsal. 1. 19. 38. Lord, lam thy servant, devoted unto thy fear. Let 
us reckon it tiie highest pleasure unto our selves, to be always pleasing of our 
Lord Jesus Christ: Let us esteem it the highest honour unto our selves, to 
be always honouring of him. To be a man of God, is to be like an angel, 
an angel was called in Judg. 13, 8. The man of God. We are men of God, 
when we become the f/(;e7o/ef/sert'««t? of our Lord Jesus Christ. Sirs, the 
bright ow^e/s of heaven invite us to become then fellotr servants, by giving 
ourselves up unto the work of witnessing to the t7-nfh and tvays of their 
heavenly Lord. When we have solemnly consecrated ourselves unto this 
work, then whatever commands our Lord Jesus Christ lays upon us, let us 
readily, joyfully, universally yield obedience there unto. Be upon the wing 
as the a.'igeh, to do every thing that our Lord Jesus Christ would have to be 
done. i)elriy none, despise none, refuse none of the commandments, which 
our Lord Jesus Christ shall give unto us; but say, as in 1 .John, 5, 3. His 
commandments are not grievous. And wliatever we shall know to be ac- 
ceptable unto our Lord Jejus CMirist, let us immediately do what we know : 
Let this be argument enough unto us for any thing, though f.csh and blood 
[body and soul] be never so much against it : My Lord Jesus Christ would 
hove me to do this thing! Thus our /«6o«r should be according to our 
prayer, that the will of God may be done on oarth as it is in heaven. 

IIL 'Vo he very serviceable h to be angelical: To do good, is the dis- 
position of a good angel. Those men, whose perpetual business 'tis, to go 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. iii 

about for the doing of good, as they are like the Lord Jesus Christ, [^Acts, 
10, 38. So they are like the angelsXhcii wail upon our Lord Jesus Christ. 
The angels are always employed in some service for our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and for those that belong unto him. 'Tissaid in Heb. 1, 14. Jre they not all 
ministring spirits ? Oh ! let it in like sort, be our ambition to minister 
some way or other for the good of them, that are to be the heirs of salvation ; 
and let us be much and oft, in studying with our selves, IFhat good may I 
do with those talents, wherewith my Lord Jesus Christ has betrusted me ? 
How many good offices does the Bible report, as done by tiie angels of God 
for the jveo/^/f<? of God ? And how many such ^ooof o^Ves are still done for 
the people of God by the angels of God, which enrump as a host about them 
that fear him ? Christians, if we are advised of any opportunity to do good, 
let us be as ready to do as the angel that came down to tiie pool of Bethesda, 
was to help the miserables assembled there. Yea, though they should be nev- 
er so poor, never so small, never so mean people, that we may do good unto, 
let us be ready to do it with all our hearts. The first apparition of an angel 
that we read in scripture, was to relieve a ^oor //<rt/f/ in troub'e of spirit. The 
martyr Bradford, i\\dX man had the face of an ««;j^'^f/, concerning whom it was 
noted, he was cdways, either with purse or tongue, or pen, doing of good. 
Whatever company we fall into, 'tis easie for us ordinarily to think, what good 
may I do in this company before I leave it '? That man speaks with the 
tongue of angels, who will never dismiss his company, without some consci- 
entious essay, to. 9peft/t what shall b(^ prb0able unto them. And inventioyis 
to do good, and be benefactors to all that are about us, the more upright we 
are, the more we shall seek out many such inventions. There is an angelical 
air upon them ! 

IV. Near approaches to God in devotions and communions, full of inti- 
macy with him, will give a man, if not the face, yet the heart of an angel. — 
When was it that the face of Moses had an angelical, and an extraordinary 
lustre upon it ? It was when he had been with God in the mount. We 
read in Exod. 34. 29- IFhen Moses came down from inount Sinai, with the 
tzco tcd)les of testimony the skin of his face shone They that are very much 
with God in those exercises, wherein the poicer of godliness coes mainly con- 
sist, will contract a /ws^re therefrom, and be somewhat like the angels, made 
partakers of the divine nature. To be often in secret prayers and secret 
praises, with raised strains of /ifave«/?/ zprt/ before tiie Lord, this is to be as 
it were, of the angelical fraternity ! Yea, 'tis a golden passage of chrysos- 
tom, that the very angels themselves cannot but honour the man whom they 
see familiarly and frequently admitted vnto the audience, and as it were 
discourse with the divine Majesty. Truly, whether the angels may rever- 
ence these wen or no, these wen do resemble the r/w^T-/.?. It becomes more 
notably thus, when men do often set apart udiole days (nv {Wir prayers and 
thi'ir praises, and are tvi/h God in the mount for lohole days together. Great 
things did the angels do for Mcjscs, great things for Elias, who ot'ten spent 
ahole daysslona with the Lord ; and what said an angel unto Daniel, when 
he had been spending whole days at such a rate, thon art a man of desires^ 
and an angel thinks not much to fly down from heaven unto thy coiversalion^ 
Such days do icave an angelical savour upon the souls of men ; they leave 
our souls for many days afterward, under such a gracious, and aenerous, and 
serious, and watchful, and useful fc/os, as has the /are of an ««','("/ thereupon. 
And therefore, the Lord's days; let us keep them with a peculiar sollicitude, 
a singular elevation of sanctity. It was the priviledge of John in Rev. 1.3 0. 
To be in the spirit on the Lord's day. Sirs, if we are so, we sliall be tcith 
the ungela on the Lord's day. and if with them, then like them. To be wholly 



112 MAGiNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Bookiv. 

under tlie co^ijinnmrnt [I mistook the word, I should say liberty/ /] of religious 
aj)pll(alions,\\nouirhoi)tour wlnAe chriclian Sabbnth, let us not count it as a 
ceremonious person once call'd it, a being on the rack an t/>/iole day together. 
Angclti ii.ive strangely visited and coail'orted some on the rack, but never such 
as coniplain'd that a strict Lord's day put 'enj on a rack. During the whole 
day let our thoughts be full of God, and Christ, and lienven : duriu}^ the whole 
day let our wo/-o^s be yc'tt', and /?<, and saooury, and such as m?iy minister 
grace unto the hearers : dnrinsr the whole d.iy let our earthly defilements be 
banished from us ; let our hearts be every hour sallying forth with numberless 
ejaculations to the Lord. Such Lord's days will ripen men into angels at 
the last ! But on the Lord's day there sometimes does recur a most special 
and signal opportunity to drain nearunfo God, namely, the Lord's supper; 
an ordinance of the rtef?res^ye//oM)S/(//> with heaven; an ordinance wherein a 
('hrist suffering for us, is by the symbols of bread dnd ivine, so tendered unto 
t;ie faithful, that in their obeying his ap|)oiutment theieof, they do with inef- 
fable advantage partake of him. Well then, let our preparations for this 
groat ordinance be with as much of solemnity, as if we were to dye ourselves 
at the time when we do annuncicif.e here the death of our Lord. Let us ex^ 
a.v///?f' ourselves &.\m\ snpplicate our God before we come to the table of the 
Lord, as if we were to dye when we come. And at this holy table, where 
man eati} angels food, let us fxouv meditatations on our Lord Jesus Christ, 
wilh all jiossible attention, with all s^it'ible aif 'ction. Thus beholding, as in 
a glass, the glory of the Lord, wk'shuli bs changed into the same image, 
from glory to glory, as by the spirit of the Lord. Now, 'tis that glory that 
makes an angel/ 

V. An heart .uuch afl'ected with the Lord JESUS CHRIST will procure 
ihefaee of an angel, unto the 7nan who hath an heart so affected. Unto 
the angels there is nothing so precious, and nothing so glorious as the Lord 
JESUS CHRIST ; yea, 'tis our CHRIST that makes the best part of their 
//f«j»<^/i for them Our Lord JESUS CHRIST is, as the Apostle enumer- 
ates, it among the mis/cries and evidences of our faith, in 1 Tim. 3, l6 Seen 
of angels. But how seen f Truly, seen with wonders, and seen with rap- 
lures, and spra with endless hallelujiihs. Would we be like the angels? 
Then let our Lord Jesiis Christ be seen by us, as the best fJmig in heaven 
and earth, and as infinitely better than the very angels themselves. At the 
incarnation of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, what were the songs of angels'? 
in Lnke 2, 14 Therewas a rnultitnihi of the heavenly host, praising of God, 
and saying, glory to God in the highest! Would we be like the angels ? 
Let us then join in a concert with tliose morning slurs, and sons of God. It 
was with joy nnsprakablc and j'nll of glor^, that the angels attended upon 
our Losd Jesus Christ, first ihroughuul his humiliation, and then unto his 
exaltation. Let the whole oi' that, be the most ravishing subject of our cou' 
templation ; Let us love to see our Lord Jcsv/.s Christ, fir^it suffering and 
then entering into his glory. And let our acclamations be like those oj' the 
angels, uj)on those marvellous dispensations ui the grace of (iod .' When the 
angels do look on Jcfus Christ, \]\i'y are covered witii astonishment, and cry 
out, O h>)!y, h >l>h f^-'^!! i^ord of hosts, all heaven is full of thy glory ! Anil 
shall not we so look on that our \jord of glory? When the angels do speak 
<if onr Lord .Jesi's Christ, they make a most reverent mention of his holy and 
reverend name, and say, Oh ! there is none among the sons of the Mighty, 
that may be compared unto this Lord. And shall not we so speak of that 
great King, with a tongue like the pen of a ready writer? Something of 
Christ the angels must have, they would think themselves to be starved, if 
They had not this manna to teed upon i Sirs, let the meat of our souls be the 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. US 

fruit growing on this tree of life ; and let the drink of our souls be, the 
honey of this rock : this is the daily repast oi angels ; this nourishment will 
ungelific us in a little while What shall I say ? The mystery of CHRIST 
is the most grateful contemplation of the angels: Those cherubims about the 
ark of God, we are told in 1 Pet. 1.12. Thty desire to look into these things. 
I say then, go and do likewise. 

VI If we would always behave ourselves as before the /ace of angels,) 
we should at length obtain the face of an angel by the exactness, the cir- 
cumspection, the accuracy of our behaviour. It was a good memento written 
upon a study wall, angeli adstant ; or, the angels of God stand hy ! Did 
men remember the eye of the invisible angeh upon them in all their ways, 
how grave, how cautious, how pious would they be ? and at last, how like 
unto those an^e/s ? If a man were as bad as halaam himself, yet the bare 
suspicion of having the ej-e of some «n^e?upon him would be enough to stop 
him from rushing on to sin. Why shouldcst thou sin, says the wise man, in 
Ecrl. 5. G. before the angels? If we were tvisc, we should often think, J«?« 
now before some angel / and that thought would make us s^i'se. The aged 
Apostle said unto a younger minister, / charge thee before the elect angels : 
From whence 'tis infallibly sure, that the elect angels take notice, how we 
acquit ourselves, each one in his charge. Said the Psalmist, in Psal. 238. 
1 Before the Gods I loill sing praise unto thee : The LXX. translate it, 
I will sing praise unto thee, before the angels^. Christians, the angels take 
notice of us in all our employments, yea, in our closest retirements. We 
give no praises to God, we perform no duties, we endure no troubles, we 
resist no temptations, but the angels of God are the witnesses of what we do; 
we are a spectacle to angels in all our encounters. Well, now let our (7e- 
por^TOe/if be mightily under the influence of this consideration ; the angeh 
take notice ; what report will the angels of God gire of my behaviour ! It 
has been propounded as a rule of prudence, for a man wherever he comes to 
imagine that there is present some eminent, wise, and good man, to see and 
hear all that passes. Man, there is an angel to see and hear all that passes, 
wherever thou comest ; this is no meer imagination. Could we, like the 
servant of the pro|)het iu the mount, see the unseen regiment of the world by 
the subordinate government oi' angels, what an awe would it strike us with ! 
The angels of the Lord see how men are disposed and employed for the 
service of their Lord, and gladly roiitribute their unknown assistances unto 
that service. But it cannot be any otiier than a grief unto those angels to 
see enormities in those, for whose welfare tiiey are concerned. If they have 
joy over a /jemYe/t/, they must needs have some sort of grief o\er a trans- 
gressor. Yea, in all probability, the miscarriages of such offenders, work 
in them a sort oi distaste, which inclines them on many accounts, to withdraw 
from the offenders, until they have icashed themselves over again, in thefoun- 
tain set open for sin and for nncleanness. Now, let tliis consideration ac- 
company us in all our walk ; and let the eye of an angel be more to us, than 
the eye of a Cato could be to any Ro?nan. The face of angels will at last 
be gain'd by such a consideration. 

VII. Let us beware of every sin : for sin will turn a man into a devil. 
Oh ! vile SIN, horrid SIN, cursed SIN ; or, to speak a more pungent word, 
than all of ihat : Oh, SINFUL sin ; how pernicious art thou unto the souls 
of men ! 'Tis said, in ] John 3. 8. He that committeth sin is of the devil. Ho- 
liness will make men incarnate angels; but ivickedne.'is v,\\\ make them 
devils incarnate. An impenitent sinner, hath he the face of an angel Noj 
but the heart of a devil in him. Let your zeal against all sin then be like 
that of the seraphim. The angels are seraphim/:, or burning ones ; they 
VOL. I?. Ifj 



114 MAGNALTA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

hum [and so let tts /] against all sin, because of its being so contrary and 
provoking to their most Ao(j/ Loi-d. Sirs, mark it; if any of you wittingly 
and willingly sin against God, you do as the devils do, and as the devils 
would have you to do, and as our Lord Jesus Christ speaks, in John 8. 44. 
Ye are of your father the devil, uiid the lusts of your father ye tvill do. 
Dreadful words! There is the image of the devil, and there is Xhfi practice 
f)f the (/ci'?7 in every SIN. To co»w*/7 SIN is humane ; to indulge it will 
be diabolical. But especially there is much of the devil in apostacy from 
good beginnings. Of the devils, we find in Jude 6. They kept not their 
first estate: they once joined, it seems, in praising of God with the angels 
of the blessed regions ; but they left it all. You that have left the societies, 
and the exercises of Christianity, wheiein you were at first engaged ; behold, 
who your leader is ! The first and great apostate, the devil \s your leader in 
this desertion; and, alas whither will he lead you? There is much of the 
devil also in hyporrisie under good professions. When there was a secret, 
rotten Ay/7oorj/e among the disciples of our Lord. Our Lord said in John 
0. 70. He is a devil : indeed, the devil is never so much a devil, as when 
transformed inlo an angel of light. When strict pretenders and pleaders, 
and it may be preachers of the gospel shTiW yet cloak some hidden practices 
of dislu)7iesfy under their fair pretences, behold, men playing the devil horri- 
bly. What shall I say more ? The devil is an unclean spirit, a lying spirit. 
dproudspmt, a spirit full of envy. Oh ! take heed lest you be of such a spi?'it. 
and so, lest you perish with the devil and his angels throughout eternal ages. 
Thus, the rules of becoming angelical have been set before us. 
But if we do now humbly reflect upon ourselves, for our not living up to these 
rules ; we cannot easily be more humble in such reflections, than was that 
rijAN OF GOD, the Reverend Joshua Moodey, who from his essays ,to obtain 
the /ace of angels, is now gone unto ihe jtlace of angels. 

All the churches of New-England considered him, as a person, whom an 
tr'minency both in sense and in grace, had made considerable. All the 
churches of Boston enjoy'd and admired, his accomplishments for the evan- 
gelicnl ministry, many years together. The church of Portsmouth (a part 
of the counlr}' that very much ow'd its life unto him !) crys out of a deadly 
vound in his death ; and is ready to cry out, our breach is great like the sea ; 
who can heal it ? His labours in the gospel were frequent and fervent ; where- 
of \hc press hath given some lasting, as the puljjit gave many lively testi- 
monies : yea, ifir were counted one of the most memorable things in St. 
Francis de Sales, that he nvcule four thousand sermons to the people, I can 
1 elate as memoral)le a thing of our Moodey : at the beginning of his sermons 
he still wrote in his notes (which were fairly and largely written'') how the 
number of them advanced ; and before he died, he had numbered some hun- 
dreds more than four thousand of them. And unto his cares to edilie his 
flock by sermons he added more than ordinary cares to do it by visits: no 
!!ian perhaps being a kinder visitant. He was not only ready to do good. 
but also to s'./fer for doing it ; and as he was excmplarily zealous for a scrip- 
tural purity in the worship of our Lord Jesus Christ, so he cheerfully 
'■ubmitted unto an ifnprisnnmeni, for that cause of God, and this country ; 
wherein, like Stephen, he had tlic honour to be x\\e first, that sutl'erod in that 
way for that cause in these parts of the world. Briefly, i'or piety, for chari- 
///, and for faithfulness to the main interests of our churches ; all that knew 
liim, and know the worth of these things, wish that among the survivors he 
ma}' have mnay followers. 

He was of a verv robust and hardy constitution and a notable exception to 
the general remark. /f/ro .vo/i"/-'^ ingenin insigniicr faificia, rohusta sortiri 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND 115 

rnrpora ; and it may be, too prodigal of his aihletick strength, in doing the 
service whereto a good master called him. Nevertheless, when a complica- 
tion of distempers was divers months before his dissolution brought thereby 
upon him, he exceedingly lamented his neglect (as he accounted it) of his 
past opportunities to he serviceable. At length, coming to Boston for ad- 
vice about the recovery of his lost health, his distempers here so grew upon 
him, as to threaten a quick period unto his pilgrimage. His distressed church 
at Portsmouth now importunntely made lhe\r prayer whh fasting bfefore the 
Great ShejJard of the sheep, that they might not be deprived of so rich a 
blessing ; and he was himself exceedingly desirous to have returned unto 
Portsmouth, that he might establish his flock yet further against all tempta- 
tions to forsake the right ways of the Lord. But heaven determines other 
wise. 

When the last summons o( death came to be served upon him, he had nei- 
ther time nor strength to speak very much ; and they that have spoken much 
while they live, sometimes must not speak very much at their death. His dis- 
courses were generally full of self-condemnation ; and, indeed, that man 
knows not how to dye., who thinks to dye otherwise, than condemning of 
himself e\ceed\ng\y. The most of what he said was, I suppose, unto a minis- 
ter who visited him the day before his expiration. Unto that minister he sig- 
nified, that he was rejoycing in the hope of the glory of God; that he was 
longing to go to the precious Christ, irkom he had chose and serv'd; that the 
Spirit of Christ had confortably taken away from him the fear of dexth. 
When that minister urged him, to leave with him any special desire, that he 
should judge proper to be mentioned, he said. The life of the churches / Thelifc 
of the churches ! and the dying poiver of godliness in them ; I beseech you to 
look after that ; the minister at last said, the Lord Jesus Christ is now, sir, 
going to do for you, as once for Joshua [your names-sake /] He is just going 
to take from you, your old, sorry, ragged garments, those of your flesh, and 
cloath you tcith change of raiment, with the garments of heavenly glory, and 
give you a place among his angels : whereto he replied with some transport, 
I believe it ! Ihelieve it ! After this, he said little, but lay in an uneasie drow- 
siness until the afternoon of the day following; which was the Lord's Day; 
and then, even on the day, whereon he had so often been in the spirit, he 
went unto the blessed ivorld of spirits; on the day, which he had so often 
sanctified in a sacred rest, he went unto his eternal rest. A fatal day was 
this unto our land ! It is an oinen of a sad fate to a land, when the angels do 
say, migremus hinc ; let us be gone ! How far lie had the face of an angel 
while he sojourned here, no doubt envy may cavil; and I havt; somestimes 
with wo ider seen it, in the poor Energumens among us, that when the minis- 
ter, who might be the most likely to do them good, came unto them, the 
fiends tiiat possessed them, would make the minister's /ace look so dirty and 
swarthy, that they must by no means acknowledge him. This I may venture 
to say without flattery : it is long ago, that in another sense than Aquinas, we 
caird him an angelical doctor; and he has now attained the face of an angel, 
without the least wrinkle in it. He is, with Stephen, and the angels of God, 
gone to behold the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ, and bear a part with the 
mam/ angels round about the throne, saying, worthy is the lamb that ivas 
.slnittf I cannot but recommend him to you, as one that was, a candidate of 
the angelical life ; and solicit you to remember, not only the lesso7is and coun- 
sels, and warnings, which you have had from him, in private or publick dis- 
pensations, but also his example, \o folloio him wherein he/b^fo?;'ef/ jand in 
many things he followed !] the Lord Jesus Christ. 

FINIS. 



lis MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book n. 

CHAPTER VIII. GEMINI. 

The Life of the Collins's. 

^. 1. When several sons ol' Diagoras hni] so HcquiUPcl thcinselves, as to 
merit and obtain applause in their })nbiick actions, he, that hidiijzht the old 
man the report of it, gave him that salutation, Hue qititkhj, or, T am going to 
tell you that which wiU keep you out of Heaven ! There was a gnod old man, 
called Collins, the f/eacort of the church at Cambridge, who is now gone to 
Heaven ; but before he went thither had the satisfaction to see several most 
worthy soils become very famous persons in their generation : so/?s, that having 
worthily served their generation, are now gone thither as well as he; tico oi 
them are tound among the graduates of Harvard-Collcdge. 

^. 2. JMr. John C(jllins in his youth recei\ed a wound by n fall, which 
bad like to have cost him his life; but whilst he lay gasping, the renowned 
Mr. Thomas Shepard came to him with this consolation; I have just now 
been icrestling icith the Lord for thy life, and God hath granted r.ie my dc- 
sii'c ; young man, thou shalt not dye but live; but rentanber, that now the 
Lord says, surely, thou icilt note fear kim, and receive instruction. The life, 
then continued unto that young man, afterwards proved so very coi.-^iderable 
among the congregational divines of Great Britain, and especially in the 
great city of London : where he mostly spent his days of publick service, 
that it well deserves a room in our account oi' worthies. His abilities as he 
was a preacher, did chiefly signalize him ; for such was the life and charm, 
which accompanied Jiis exercises in the pulpit; that none but persons of the 
same humour with him, who wrote certain things like books, to prove, that 
Cicero icanted eloquence, went away unmoved or unpleased from them. 
Nevertheless, being under disadvantages to come at the more perfect story of 
his life, my reader shall have only the contracted report, which his epitaph 
has thus given of it. Reader, the stones will speak, if his friends do not cele- 
brate him ! 

JOHANNES COLLINS. 
IndoUs optimce puerulus, patrem pietate insigncm, 
Castiorem Dei cultnvi, et Umatiorem 
Ecclesia: disriplinam., anhelantem, 
In Americanum Anglorum, sceutus est colonium, 
Ubi qua gymna.siis, qim Cantabrigiensi isthic Collegia, 

(Deo indffessis adspirante stndiis) 
Scriba f actus ad regmtm calorum instructissimus. 
yiutiquce cum fu^nore, rependitur Angliae. 
^ Scotia^ etiam cehbrium ministrorum gens fcrtilis, 

Et audivit, et niirata est concioimntem. 
Utrobiq ; multos Christo lucrifecit ; 
Plures in Christo a-dif cavil. 
Proesertim hac in MeUo\)o\\, gregis gratissimi pastor 
Nil segnisotii gnnro indulgens ammo , 
Nee lahoribus, morbisq : f rax to, parcens corpori ; 
Meditando, pnrdicando, eonferendo, lotaq; faciendo, 
Pltam insumpsit fragilem, 
Vt atenne aliorum vita: consuleref ; 
Quo ecdesiarum vitoq ; nulla pastorem optimum, 
Aut vivvm magis venerata est, 
4ut maais indoluit morienti. 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. ilf 

M. Dris Die mo. Anno JEie Christiana; M DC LXXXVH. 

This is the language of the epitaph, the tnitli-speaher. 

And as I have thus found the story of his life, so I can in a yet more un- 
suspected quarter now find a sermon on liis death. In the third vohime of the 
morning-exercises published by that good man, the very Barnabas of London, 
that very reverend and excellent man, Dr. Anncsly ; tliere is a sermon wear- 
ing the name of no other author, but iV. N. on that case, Aow the religious of 
anation are the strengihofit? Now t'le author of that sermon was this Mr. 
John Collins, who tho' he thus reckoned himselfa no body, yet was by others 
esteemed so considerable a part of the strength of the nation, that at the af- 
fectionate prayer of the reverend Mr. Mead, poured out before God for his 
recovery when he lay sick ; I have been told, there was hardly one dry eye 
to be seen in the great congregation of the lecture at Finners-HalL where he 
also bad been a lecturer. Let the reader but make the application of that ser- 
rsion to the author of it ; and read this as the running title, tke English nation 
weakened by the death of Mr. John Collins: tluis a funeral sermon upon 
iiim will not be wanting ! 

^. 3. A younger brother, but yet a brother to him, was Mr. Natuanael 
Collins, at whose death, Dec. 28. 1()S4. in the forty third year of his age 
(wherein he got the start for Heaven !) there were more wounds given to the 
vv'hole colony of Connecticid in our New-England, than the body of Cwsar 
did receive, when befell wounded in the senate-house. Reader, 1 would have 
made an essay to have lamented the fate of this our Collins in verse, were it 
not for two discouragements : not because Annafus the .Tesuite reckoned it a 
thing worthy of a scoff in our Dr. Twiss, to be guilty of a little flight at poetry ; 
for the noblest hands have scann'd poetical measures on their fingers : but 
because my mean faculties would not carry me beyond the performances^ 
whereof the gentleman in Thuanus was afraid, when he made it a clause in 
his last wilK that they should not burden his hearse with bad funeral verses ; 
and because that sacred thing verse, Ivdlh been by the licentious part of man- 
kind so prostituted, that now the truth of whatever is therein ofiered, there- 
fore thus become suspected. Nevertheless his meiits were such, that his life 
must be written, or at least so much of it as this, that he merited highly to 
have his life written. But our Imtory of him is to be abridged into this brief 
account, that the church of Midclletotcn upon Connecticut-river was the 
golden candlestick from whence this excellent person illuminated more than 
that whole colony; and that all the qualities of most exemplary j)?e^y, extra- 
ordinary /?i^enM?Vy, obliging afl"ability,join'd with the accomplishments of an 
extraordinary preacher did render him truly excellent. In saying this of him, 
1 may confirm what I say, in words like those of Jen.m on a like orcasioii. 
tesf.or, Christianum de Christiano, vera prof erre ; and for his character add 
this epitaph. 

llle pius pastor, quo nonprcestantior U7ius, 
Quifaciendo docet, quae facienda docet. 

But indeed, as the mother of Urasidas bravely comforted herself upon thr 
death of her much lamented son, Vir bonus est Brasidas et fortis .sed habet 
multos Sparta similes : even such was the consolation of Connecticut, by the 
special favour of heaven to the colony ; that though in the death of Collins 
they lost an excellent man, yet he was not the only excellent mun they had. 
among them. In the acknowledgments of worth there may come in for a 
great share with him, several most worthy men wherewith Connecticut colony 



lis MAGNALIA CimrSTI AMERICANA : [Book iv, 

has been sisiguhirly faxoureci Whiting oi Hartford, Woodhrldge of Wethers- 
field, Wakeman of Fairfield, will never be forgotten, till Connecticut colony, 
do forget itself, and all religion. 



CHAP. IX. 

The Life of Mr. Thomas Shepahd. 

Cur prcEmaturam, Mortemque queramus Acerbam ? 
Mors Matura Venit, cimi Bona Vitafuit. 

^. 1. If it were accounted a great honor to the family of the Curii in 
Rome, that there arose from that stock three excellent orators, one succeeding 
another; we may account it a greater honor signalizing the family of the 
Shepards of New-England, that no less than three excellent ministers have 
successively issuf-d from it. The eldest son of Mr. Thomas Shejxird, the 
ever memorable pastor to the church of Cambridge, was Mr. Thomas Shcp- 
ard, the pastor of the church of Charlstonm ; and the onhj son of Mr. 
Thomas Shcpard that pastor of Charlstnum, was our last Mr- Thomas Shep- 
(ird, Paternie Virtiifis ex assc Jlceres, his grandfather's and his father's genu- 
ine offspring. The lives of those his |)rodecessors make a figure in our 
cnrROH-HiSTouY, and though this our third Mr Thomas Shepard must have 
it said ot' him, that he did not attain to the days of the years of the life of his 
fathers in the dai/s of their pilgrimage ; nevertheless his life had that in it, 
whic'n may justly render it observable and exemplary. Yea, such a similitude 
of spirit, there was descending from the father to the son, and from the soji to 
the grandson in this hnlij generation, xhni albeit, they were all of them seve- 
rally s/ior/-//rp^, the two fust not living much more X\\aw forty, ^\\(\ the last 
not so much as thirty years in the world, yet there might a sort of jointed lon- 
gcevity be ascribed unto the generation ; for when the father went away, Non 
totus rercssit, we had him still surviving to the life in the posterity. As the 
name of Aimer may be taken both ways, either Pater Lncerna, or hucernn 
Patris ; either the father was the brightness of the son, or the son was the 
brightness of th^' father : such a lustre did /o/Z/er, and aow, and grandson, 
mutually reflect upon one another, in this happy family. It might be said of 
them as Nazianzen, I remember, speaks ai)oiit the family of a Basil ; the pa- 
rents were such, that, if they had not such blessed c/z/W/rn, they had been of 
themselves renowned ; and the children were such, that if the parents had 
not been so of themselves, yet for the sake of these they had been famous in 
the church of God. Or, they may make us think of the glory, with which 
the most illustrious family in tlie oracles of (Jod, is usually set off when Abra- 
ham, and Isaac, and Jacob, are so often together introduced, where the root 
gives a verdure to the branches, and the flourishing branches again commend 
the root. 

§. 2. Wh-n Mr. Thomas Shrpai-d the second of New-Evgland, and the 
first of Charlstown, died, he left behind him such a picture, as that which 
TuUy mentions of Sevfus Sulpicius ; Nirlhnn mtqnam Monumentum. clarius. S. 
.Sulpicius reHnquerepotuit, qtiam Effigiem Morum suorum rirtutis, Constan- 
tim, Pietutis, Ingenii Filium ; n son th:\t was the lively picture of iiis virtues. 
And now th;it .so,v also is dead without any mcde-off-spring, we will make an 
essay at the drawing of his picture after another manner ; even by such a nar- 
Jative of his life, ns may be indeed his picture to the life : in the doing where- 
of perhaps the children of Godly and worthy ancestors, may find the encour- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND. ny 

agement of a confirmation to that observation, that as the snow-ball, the fur- 
ther it rolls, the greater it grows, thus the further that the grace of God is 
continued, and received, and valued in any family, the greater effects of that 
grace will be still appearing. For there were some singular circumstanes of 
earli/ blessedness, attending this our youngest and latest Shepard, wherein ii: 
might be said of him, as it was of the weW-known grandson, of whom this 
was indeed a true S07i, his blessings exceeded the blessings of his progenitors. 
And we may the rather take notice of this matter, because there was hardly 
one consideration, which oftner possessed the mind of this our Shepard, or 
more powerfully operated upon him to make him eminent, than the obligations 
laid upon himfrotn his ancestors to do worthily. As the famous Boleslaus al- 
ways carried about with him, the picture of his father in his bosom, upon 
which often looking, he would say, let me never do any thing unworthy the 
son of such a father : this was the very spirit of our Shepard, who always 
bore about with him the image of his /a</tcr, and as often as perhaps almost 
any one thing, thought on this, how he might approve himself the son of such 
a father. 

§. 3. Descended from such ancestors, our Thomas Shepard was born at 
Charlstown in New-England on July 5. 1658. How he was in his earliest 
years disposed, I choose to relate by reciting some of the words, afterwards 
used by himself, when he addressed the churcli nf Charhtoion for admission to 
their sacred communion. ' As to the thing of that which is commonly call- 
' ed first conversion or regeneration, I have had many thoughts about it; but 
' have been afraid, and am still, to determine it unto this or that particular. 
' What I have found by myself, hath made me oftentimes to question, whether 
' i\\Q former operations of the spirit of God about me, were any more than 
' common ; or, whether such and such sins were consistent with saving grace ; 
' that which hath helped me in this case, hath been partly, what I have heard 
' from a reverend man of God, ' that such as are from time to time disquieted 

< with such thoughts, the bent, if not the only way to put it out of doubt, that 
' they have true faith, is by exercising faith, to convert again unto God. 
' And putting my soul in the way of the breathings of God's spirit, and then 
' observing the actings thereof, I have by the help of the same spirit, found 

< something of relief under those doubts. On u)y childhood and youth, I have 
' too much cause to say ('as Solomon of the things of this world) vanity of 
' vanities, all is vanity ! Yet by the blessing of God on the faithful endeav- 
* ours, and fervent prayers of m}' religious parents ; especially on my Isonour- 

< ed. blessed, and most exemplary father, who of all, as the most able to fur- 
' ther. so was most solicitous, studious and tenderly careful always about the 
■ everlasting well-being of a son, from the very beginning oi my days, to the 
- end of his, I do think, I was by precept and holy example, imbued with ci 
' 7iatural\o\Q and liking to the word and ways of God ; though not saving, 
' yet such as wherby a prejudice against religion was prevented ' Now as 
God blessed the religious cares of his father to tinge him vv ilh such a savour ot 
religion in his childhood ; and he would not only on tiie Lord's Days, while 
he wns yet a boy so notably repeat by heart in his father's family, all the 
heads of the longest sermons preached in the publick. that it might have serv- 
ed for a sufficient repetition; instead of using the notes usually produced on 
such occasions, but also his virtuous carriage on the tveek days, he sliow'd. 
that the sermons had indeed their impressions on his heart : so his childhood 
was remarkable for the diligence of it, and his love of his book. And such 
was the effect of this diligence, that though he had not in his attainments the 
prcecocity of J. /fobus Martini the Venetian boy. who not many years 'igoe; 

when he was but seven t/ear^s old, publickly disputed at Rofns, on Theses- 



120 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv 

which he published oi theology, low, physic and the other disciplines, unto 
the astonishment of all the ord(;is there, yet he did attain unto such learning, 
as gave him an early admission into the Colledge^ and rais'd great hopes in 
good n)en concerninji; him. 

§. 4 13eing admitted into the CoUedge, never was father more rarofnl of his 
j4scaniu6, than the father of this our Shepard was of this his ordy soti. And 
the care of his father for his welfare, caused him then, in imitation of what 
the grandfather had once done for him to give him, in writing a paper of 
golden instructions, directing his behaviour, while he should contimie a stu- 
dent in that society. 

The sum of those Instructions was, 

* I. To remember the great end of his life even the glorifying of God through 
' Christ, and the end of this turn of his life even the fitting him for the most 
' glorious work of the holy ministry For this end (ivrote that excellent mail) 

• your father hath set ynu apart with many tears, and hath given you up to 
•• God that He mi<rht delight in you. ^nd (he proceeded) I had rather see 
' you buried in your grave than grow liglit loose, wanton or profane : God's 
' secrets in the holy scriptures are never made known to common and profane 
' spirits; and (added he) therefore be sure you begin and end every day, 
' wherein you study with earnest prayer to God; reading some pari of the 
' scripture daily, and setting apart some time ev'ry day (thougli but one quar- 
' ter of an hour) for meditation of the things of God. 

' II. To remember, that these are times of much knowledge, flf«f/ therefore 
' one had almost as good be no scholar, as not to excel in knoirledge ; where- 
' fore ('sfliVZ/te) abhor one hour of idleness as you would be ashamed of one 
' hour of drunkenness. Though (0.9 he also said) I would not have you neg- 

• lect seasons for recreation a little before and after meals, and though I would 
•■ not have you study late in the night usually, yet know that God will curse 
"• your soul, while the sin ofiillenessis nourished, which hath spoiled so many 
' liopeful youths, in their first blossoming in the Colledge Hence (he said 
' likewise) don't content yourself to do as much as your Tutor sets you about, 
' but know, that you will never e.xcel in learning, unless you do somewhat else 
' in privi'te hours, wherein his care cannot reach you. 

' III. To make his studies as pleasant, and as fruitful as conld be, frst 

• by singling out two or three scholars, the most godly, learned, and stndi- 

• ous, and such as he could love best, and such as tvould tnost love him, 
*• of a7iy that he could find among his equals, as also some that icere snpe- 
•riours, and often manage discourses vnth them on all subjects, which he 

• had befote him ; and mark diligently what occurred remarkable in every 
' one\'i conferences, disputafions and other exercises, but, by no means let- 
' ting too much leak atvay in visits. Next, by having a variety of studies 
•^ before him, that when he should be weary of one book or theme, he might 
' have recourse to another. Then, by prosecuting of studies in some order 
' and method ; and therefore, ei'cry year at least, if not oftener, fxiiig 

• the course thereof so as he ?night not allow himself to be ordinarily therein 
' interrupted, i'ourthlv, b)/ giving of difficult studies the fower (f his 
' thoughts, and not suif'cring any difficulty to pass him, till by industry or 
' inquiry he had mastered it. Fifthly, by keeping an appetite for studies, 
' by intermixing meditation, and at ft seasons recreation, but by such as 
' tnight moderately .stir the body, and render the spirit more lively for its 
"duties.^ Sixthly, by making o/' choice collections /7-o/h what anthora he 
'■perused, and having proper indices to his collections; and therewithal 
' contriving still how to reduce all vtito his own more peculiar service in 
"■ his exerrises or othermse. Seventhly, by taking pains in preparing for 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. I2i 

•' his recitations, declamations, disputations, and not upon any pretence 
' whatever hurry them ojf' indigestedly. {Said he,) reading without medita- 
' tion will be useless; meditation without reading will be barren. But here 

* I would not have 3'ou forget a speech of your blessed grandfather to a 
' scholar, that complained to him of a. bad memory, which discouraged him 
' from reading, Lege, lege, aliquid hcerehit. That sentence [he added] in 
•' Prov. 14. 23. deserves to be written in letters of gold on your study-table, 
'In all labour, there is profit. But, lastly, 6y praying much not only for 
' heavenly, hut also humane learning ; For (said he) remember that prayer 
' at Christ's feet, for all the learning you want, shall fetch you in more in 

• an hour, than possibly you may get by all the books, and helps you have 
' otherwise in many years. 

' IV. To be grave and kind in his carriage towards all the scholars ; but 

* be watchful against the two great sins of many scholars. Whereof his 

* words were these. The first is youthful lusts speculative wantonness, and 

• secret filthiness, for which God hardens and blinds young men's hearts, 
' his Holy Spirit departing from such unclean styes. 'Fhe second is, nialig- 
' nancy and secret distaste of holiness, and the power of godliness, and the 
•professors of it. Both of these sins (said he) you will quickly fall into, 

• unto your own perdition, if you be not caieful of your company : For there 
' are, and will be such in every scholastical society, for the most part, as 
' will teach you how to be filthy and how to jest, and scoff, and scorn at 
'godliness, and at the professors thereof; whose company, I charge you to 

• fly as from the devil, and abhor : And that you may be kept from these, 
'read often that scripture, Prov. 2. 10, 11- 12, I6. 

' V. Remember (so tvrote he) to intreat God with tears, before you come 

* to hear any sermon, that thereby God would powerfidly speak to your 

♦ heart, and make his truth precious to you. Neglect not to write after the 

* preacher always in handsom books, and be careful always to preserve and 

♦ peruse the same. And upon Sabbnth days, make exceeding conscience of 
' sanctificaliou ; mix not your other studies, much less vain and carnal 
'discourses with the duties of that holy day, but remember that command. 
' Lev. 19 30. Ye shall keep my Sahbaths, and reverence my sanctuary, 1 
' am the Lord. 

' VI. Remember (so likewise lorote he) that whensoever you hear, read, 
' or conceive any divine truth, you study to affect your heart with it- and 
' the goodness of it. Take heed of receiving truth into your head, without 
» the love of it in your heart lest God give you to strong delusions. If 
' God reveal any truth to you, be sure you be humbly and deeply thankful.' 

These excellent instructions his father concluded with these words. 

My son, if thine heart be wise, my heart shall rejoyce even mine. 

And I may now abridge the whole academical life of our young Shepard, 
even until he proceeded Master of Arts, into this brief account of him, that 
he did uiake the hea7't of his worthy father to rejoice by his conscientious 
and exemplary attendance unto these instructions- Yea, when he had occa- 
sion to mention them, it was in these terms, My, next to Christ, most belov- 
ed fathers advice : Nor was there any one part of his character more con- 
spicuous than this, A reverence for the person and advice of his father. 

§ 5. But before he could proceed Master of Arts, a terrible hand of God 
upon (more tiian) Ckarlslown, put an end unto the days of his, father in tht- 
world. And albeit that very considerable church, under this bereavement, 
had now a prospect of a supply from several quarters, yet after much pray- 
ing and fasting before the Great Shepherd of the sheep for his direction, 
they could fix no where, but upon this hopeful son of their former pastor. 
vor, JT. 16 



122 MAGNALIA CHR13TI AMERICANA: [Book iv, 

Inde(;cl, for llie most part, a prophet is without honour in hid own country, 
nevertheless in tliis coantri/, as well as among some of the primitive church- 
es, (here have been more tlian two or three instances oi' sons, that have hap- 
pily sur.reeded (yea, and assisted) their fathers in the evangelical prophesie. 
And Charlstown particularly (not altogetlier unlike the magistrates of 7i«s/7, 
who from their esteem of the excellent liuxtorf, chose his very young son 
to succeed him in the Hebrew Professorshiji) knowing the prayers, the tears, 
ihe J'aith, which th.^ir first Shepard had used for this only son, concluded, 
that like the son of Monira, it urns impossible, that he should not he blessed, 
and made a blessing ; and seeing also the early disposition of our young 
Shepard, \n all things to imitate his excellent father, they believed, that 
nothing would more continue day-light after sun-set unto them, than for 
them here to make their choice. Accordingly, at their desire, he preached 
hh frst sermon among them, while he was yet little more than twenty years 
of age ; and with a very charming, solid and serious gravity, he discoursed 
on Exod. 1.'). 2. He is my fathers God, and I will exalt him. Upon this, 
and other such experiments of his abilities ; his father''s flock were at no 
rest, until they had obtained his establishment with ordination, to be their 
feeder ; which was consummated on May 5. 1<380, and the last words used 
in the sermon by a res'erend person, who then preached on that passage in 
Ezek. 33. 7- Son of lyian, I have set thee a watchman, will by being here 
transcribed, help to fniish i\\^ picture, which we have undertaken. 

' Be much in prayer for 5our watchinen, and particularly for him, who is 
' this day to be established in the work of the Lord Jesus Christ among you; 
^ You have honoured yourselves in thus expressing the love and honour 
' which you had for his excellent father ; and as it was said in Ruth 2. 20. 
' Blcs.sed be he of the I^ord, who hath not left off his kindness to the living, 
' and to the dead ; so I will say to you, Blessed be this church of the Lord, 
' thai you snow kiyidness unto your deft d pastor, and to his living son. As 
' lor him, that is now to become yoin- watchman, he needs your prayers ; I 
' may say of him as David of Solomon, My son is young and tender, and 
^ the house is magnificent f I know nut whether any so ijoung as he, was 
' ever left alone with such a charge. Now though the work be great, yet 
' the Lord Jesus (Hirist is able to carry him well through it all ; but it nmst 
' be through the help of your pra>/crs, that he comes to have such a supply 
^ of the Spirit, pray for him in particular, and that ev'ry day ! Who knows 
' what God may do for you, in him, and by him, as in and by his father 
' before him ? [^et it be your prayer, that he would take of the spirit, that 
' was in his father and his grandfather ; who were both of them great 
^ men in their generation, and bestow thereof a double portion upon him. 
' And let that word encourage you, My 'spirit udiich is upon thee, and my 
' 7cord which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, 
' nor out (f the mouth of thy seed, nor out rf the mouth of thy seed's 
* seed ; saith the Lord. 

Thus did he become the pastor of Charlstown, and herein he did not leap 
from a vain, lewd and tinsatutifipd youth info the pulpit, as into a shop, 
where to earn a living, and there suddenly put on just so much externcd 
devotion, as may serve to recommend one's pcrtcrniances unto an auditory 
of the faithful. F.van the lieatlien moralist, observed the great mischief ddiie 
in the world by the mercewin' masters ol precept, u ho endeavoured more to 
talk just things, than to do thiMU : t« Sikxix f^iv A£'/f/v tt^cctJkv h a^ufiui;. Our 
Shepard was none of these. But alter long preparations of a renewed heart 
and a religious life, and with awful apprehensions of the account, which he 
was to give unto the Lord of the fock, and (Jf the worth and charge oi 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 3 2S 

immortal souls in his flock, lie was thrust forth into public labours. And 
the Lord encouraged his lioly labours by makine of such additions unto his 
church, as /h<> churches in the country lor tiie time had the Me ; but yet, 
as when Peter had a mighty draught ot' fishes, he cryed out, Lord / I am a 
sinful man! Thus the uiighty draught of sc»?/Zs, which this young disciple 
found in his gospel-net, was indeed so far from lifting of him up> that he 
sensibly grew in his hnmiiity, and in his low and vile thouglus of his own 
attainments. 

§ 6. Although he were a young man, yet might be applied unto him, a 
stroke in the epitapli on one of Mr. Henries children, Fra'terquatn {ciatem, 
nil puerile fuit: And he made the most judicious of his people pass this 
judgment on him, that he was no novice : xVnd such an example was he* «n 
word, in co7iversaiion, in civility, inspirit, in faith, in purity, that he'iWd 
let no man despise his youth. Such indeed was his whole conduct of ■ hini;, 
that he made one think of those words of Origen, Senum est prophetafef 
etiamsi videos aliquando juvenem prophetantem, non dubites dicere de eo, 
quia secundum interiorem hominem scnuif, proptered propheta est. By the 
gravity by his deportment he kept uj) his authority among all sorts of per- 
sons, and by the courtesie of it he won their affection. He set himself to 
do good unto all among his people, and the charity of his purse, as well as 
of his tongue awA heart, was fVlt on all just occasions. But there were none 
dearer to him than the good old people ; those holy devout aged souls, who 
had grown well towards ripe for heaven und<'r his blessed /V/fAr'r's ministry: 
He was much in their company, and he valued their prayers tor him, and 
their serious and savoury and heavenly conmiunications at no ordinary rate. 
Nor shall I ever forget the consolation, which he told me, he had received 
from the words, which one of those plain, old saints used unto him, when 
he was under discouraging fears, how he should go through his work : Sir 
(said he) if youHl give up yourself to do the work of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
never fear but he will help you to do yours. When he came to have a 
family of his own, it was a well-ordered owe ; He morning and evening read 
in it a portion of the scripture, and then pi-ay'd out of what he read : But 
on the Saturday 7iights, he chose to repeat a sermon, commonly what had 
been preached on some Lecture the foregoing iceek, or one of his deceased 
father^ s ; and on Lord'sday nights he repeated the sermon of the day fore- 
going. And while he made his house a Bethel, for the devotion therein 
performed ; he made it a Bethesda, for the hospitable entertainment which 
he gave unto those that repaired unto him : And munerarius paupentm et 
egentium, candidatus sic festinavit ad ctehim. For all other things he so 
made the hundred and first Psalm the rule of his house, as to give therein a 
demonstration of his ability to rule the church of God. From hence, if we 
follow him unto bis beloved study, there we shall find him aflording yet a 
more notable, and eminent instance of an holy walk. Here besides his daily 
supplications, he did ojie thing, which had a mighty tendency, to keep -his 
own spirit in an health}^, vigorous, thriving temper, and bringdown the mani- 
fold blessings of God upon all the weighty concerns, which he had in his 
hands ; and a thing it was, without which he thougiit, he could never prove 
ehhcr a watchful christia?i, or a very useful minister : this was that he scarce 
permitted otie month to pass him, without spending at least rme day in the 
exercises of a secret-fast before the Lord. It is remarkable, thai ev'ry one of 
those three, who are famous in the book of God for jniraculous fasting, were, 
honoured by God with the miraculous feeding of other men. Our Shepard 
thought, that he should never do any great things in feeding of his flock, it 
he did not great Xh.ing's.xn fasting by himself. The commeiulations given tf 



124 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book ir. 

fasting by Basil and Cyprian, in their orations about it, and by Ambrose in 
his book of Elias, were believed by our Skepard ; his holy heart couifl sub- 
scribe unto the words of Chrysostoiii concerning this duty, who in his homily 
snys, fasting is, as much as lies iii us, an imitation of the angels, a contemn- 
ing of things present, a school of prayer, a nourishment of the sonl, a bridle 
of the mouth, an abatement of concupiscence : it mollifies rage, it appeases 
anger, it culms the tempests of nature, it excites reason, it clears the mind. 
it disbifrthens the flesh, it chases away night-polbdions, it frees from head- 
ach. By fasting, a man gets composed behaviour, free utterance of his 
tongue, right apprehensions of his mind. Wherelbre he still would set apart 
a day every month, wherein he would strictly examine the error of liis heart 
■,W\i\4ifc, and confess and bewail those errors, and obtain the sealed pardon 
[ij»»Wf, by -d renewed faith \n the obedience of the Lord Jesus Christ; and 
ihepi wrestle with Heaven for new supplies of grace, to carry him well thro' 
tJi^.,whole service incumbent on him; and therewithal implore the smiles of 
Heaven on all the souls that were under his charge, and on the land and 
world. And this liis piety was accompanied with proportionable industry, 
wherein he devoured books even to a degree of learned gluttony ; insomuch, 
tha* if he might have changed his name, it must have been into Bibliander. 
Whence, tho' he had a hue, atid large, and a continually growing library, yti, 
that he n)ight avoid the disgrace of that salutation, salvcte lihi-i sine doctorc, 
he took a very particular course, to make himself master of the learning, 
which was lodgM in so rich a treasury : for so little did he deserve to be num- 
bred among the chaplains of K. Lewis the XL the French king, who seeing 
their learning to bear no proportion unto th<?ir libraries, v/ittily said of them, 
they were like such as had crooked backs, carrying a burden about tcith 
them, which they neccr saw in their lives, that he had hardly left a book of 
consequence to be so used, in his library (shall I now call it, or his laboratory) 
which he had not so perused as to leave with it an inserted paper, a bv'ief idea 
nf the whole book, witli mrmorandums of more notable passages occurring in 
it, written with his own diligent and so enriching hand. He might say with 
Seneca, nuilus mihi per otium cxiit dies, partem etiam noctium studiis ven- 
dico ; and it is well if he were not a little too much of a Seneca, in hurting of 
\i]s health, by so spending his life. 

^. 7. He faitlifully set himself to discharge the whole duty of a pastor; 
and as he walked l)uml)Iy under the awe of tliat word in Hcb. 13. 17- They 
uiatch for your souls, as those that must give an account; so rnetliinks, I 
hear him give up this account unto iw Judge of all. 

' Gracious Lord ; J watclid, that I might see what special truths from time 
' to time, were most proper to be inculcated on my fock, and I thoroughly 
* preached those /rMi!y^,9. I watcli'd, l\v.it I might see what sort of temptations 
' did most thre;»ten my flock. ai\d I set myself to strengthen them against 
^ those temptations. J uafch'd, that I mlgiit see what sort of affiictions did 
' most assault my fork, and I set myself to Cf<mlort them under those ajjlic- 
' tions. I did watch, to learn what sort oi duties, were most seasonable to be 
' recommended to my flock, and I vigorously recommended them in the sea- 
' sons thereof. I aid u'<at(h,{o see what souls of my flock did call for my more 
'' particular addiesses, and I ol'ten ;iddress'd one or other of them, i et not L 
' but the grace trhich was with me!' 

But if we consider him yet more particulaily, as a preacher, he did thus ac- 
quit hioiself. in the writing of his discourses for the oulpit, he did, as they say, 
Aristotle did, when he wrote (Mie of his famous books, dip his pen into his ve- 
ry soul! When he was going to compose a sermon, he began with prayer ; 
tiiinking, bene oras.^e est bene studuisse. He then read over his text in the 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 125 

original, and weighed the language of the Holy Ghost. If any difficulty oc- 
curr'd in the interpretation, he was wary, how he ran against the stream of 
the most solid interpreters, whom he still consulted. He was then desirous to 
draw forth his dvctrines, and perhaps other heads of his discourse in the be- 
ginning of the week, that so his occasional thoughts, might be useful there- 
unto. And he would ordinarily improve his ozvn meditations to shape his dis- 
course, before he would consult any other authors, who treated on the sub- 
jects, that so their notions might serve only to adorn or correct his own. 
Lastly, having finished his composure, he concluded with a thanksgiving to 
the Loi'd, his helper. And then for the utterance of the sermons thus prepar- 
ed, though \)\^ pronunciation were not set off with all the advantages, tliat 
itching ears would have asked for, yet he had the divine rhetorick, recom- 
mended by Dr. Stoughton in that speech of his, this I know and dare avouch, 
that the highest mystery in divine rhetorick is, tofeehchat a man speaks, and 
then to speak what he felt. In thus fidflling his 7ninistry, he went through a 
variety of subjects; but there were especially tioo subjects, thai were singled 
out by him towards the close of it. First, it being a time, when a conjunction 
of iniquity and calamity made but an ill aspect upon the countrey, he did in 
one part of the Lord's Day choose to insist upon the prayer of Jonas ; which 
he handled in forty live sermons, whereof the last was uttered about a month 
before his end. Secondly, a .9?/M0f/ of churches having discovered, and con- 
demned a number of provoking evils, by degenerating whereinto, the land was 
exposed unto the judgments of Heaven, he did on t\w other part of the Lord's 
days insist on those ijrovocations ; and having dispatch'd what he intended 
hereof also, he took two texts ; tiie one to awaken the Qhstinate, namely, that 
in Jer. 13. IJ. If you tviil not hear, my sonl shall weep in secret places for 
your pride. Tie other to encourage the penitent, namely, that in MaL 1 J . 
28. Come to me all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I tvill give you 
rest. A nd he was never after heard speaking in the name of the Lord. 

§. 8. A while before his death, he preached thirteen sermojis on that pas- 
sage Eccles. 12. 5. Mangoeth to his long home. And he had a strange and 
strong ^roBsa^e on his own mind, that he was himself to be not long from that 
ho7ne. 

I find the patriarch Isaac in Gen. T[ . 1. fill'd with many thoughts about 
the day of his death at hand, and enquiring after some special reason for if, 
1 find that Isaac was now come to that age, at wliich his brother Ishmarl 
died fourteen years before. This probably now, above any other time, awak- 
ened him to think of his oicn death as near unto him. It may be, tiie prcesage 
of our Shepard, that he should not outlive tlie age of twenty seven, might be 
somewhat excited, by his calling to mind, the age at which his uncle exjpired. 

Our first Shepard of Cambridge had three sons, whereof, if the eldest., 
namely Tho?iias {the father of our Thomas of Charlstoirn) were one sinfru\er\y 
enlarged in his endowments and improvements ; I am sure, the second was 
one, whose heart was a tent in which the Lord remarkably chose to dwell : 
it was Mr, Samuel Shepard, of whose holy life and death I may here inter- 
weave a distinct account, by but reciting the words which I find written in a 
private manuscript of our excellent Mr. Mitchel concerning him. His words 
are these, 

' On April 7. 1668. dyed Mr. Samuel Shepard, pastor of the church of 
' Rowly {]\.\^t two months after his wife) a very precious, holy, meditating, 
' able and choice young man ; one of the first three. His attainments in ccm- 
' munion with God, and in daily meditation and close walkins, may shame 
' those that are elder than he. He was but twenty six years of age in October 
'■ last. He was an excellent preacher, most dearly beloved at Rowly, and of all 



126 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv, 

' that knew him ; but just settled among them. The people would have 

* phi eked out their et/cs for hin),to have saved his life. But he was ripe for 

* Heaven, and God look iiim thither : a gain to. him, but an invaluable loss 
' to us.' 

Now this our Thomas had an almost unaccountable apprehension, that in 
his earlif death he should be like his uncle Samuel ; and under the influence 
of this apprehension, he so liv'd, and so preach'd, as to avoid the danger of 
a sudden death, by bcins; ahva3's prepared for it. Accordingly, it came to 
pass that about June 3. l685. on Friday being indisposed in his bowels, 
he yet continued his pains and /<o;;es, all the Saturday following, to be ready 
for the exercises of tiie Lord's Day, when the hord's-Suppcr also was to 
have been adrainistred. But on the Saturday night his illness grew so much 
upon liim, that he said unto his wife, / would gladly have been, onee more, 
at the table of the Lord, hut I now see that I shall no more partake thereof, 
until I do it after a new manner in the kingdom of Heaven. On Lord's Day 
jioon I visited him, and at my parting with him, he said, my hopes are built 
on the free mercy of God, and the rich merit of Christ, and I do believe, 
that, if I am taken out of the world, I shall only ehange my place ; I shall 
neither change my company, nor change my communion : And as for you, 
Sir, I beg the Lord Jesus to he with you nnto the end of the world! After this, 
he spoke little to his attendants; but was often over-heard pouring out pray- 
ers, especially for the widow-rhnrch ; (as he often expressed it) which he was 
to leave behind him. And in the night following, to the extream surprize of 
]us friends on earth, he went away to those in Heaven / If his age be now 
enquired after, it is remarked, that altho' the scripture doth mention' the par- 
ticular age of tiiany heroes eternized in it's oracles, yet after the Lord Jesus 
Christ came, and continued in this lower world, no longer than thirty two 
years and an half the scripture does not mention the age of any one person 
•whatsoever, as if the time of any one's continuance in this world more or less, 
were not worth minding, since the Son of the Most High tabernacled so little 
a while among us. However, we will here mention the age of our Shepard f 
it was a month short of twenty seven. But, 

An 7niserum dices, citb quod terrena reliquit ! 
Fcelicem certe, qudd meliora tenet. 

§. 9. Wisdom, gravity, prudence, temperance (as one speaks) are not al- 
wai/s confined unto them, that have zvrinkled faces, furrowed brorcs, dim eyes, 
and palsey hands, leaning on a staif ; nor is a young man uncapable of be- 
ing a divine. Although our Shepnrd had not outlived the years of youth, 
when he went from hence, yet he had outgroivn the airs oi\t ; and among all 
the vertues of an old man which adorn'd him, not the least of his ornaments 
was, his being well established in the study of divinity. To accomplish him- 
self in that study, he did not a])ply himself inito the reading of those authors, 
who, prett'uding to describe unto us, the ichole duty of man, and the condition 
of our ohtaiiiing the beneft purchased by Christ, are careful to insist on any 
thing rather, than that a reliance on the righteonsness of the obedience, yield- 
ed by the Lord Jesus Christ as our surety unto God for us, which is the owe 
/hiug needful, or that faith, wheri-by we come to have the unio7i with our 
Lord Jesus (^hrist, from which alone all good works arise : and those, who 
amidst their voluminous harangues upon 7noral virtue, are very careful to 
avoid the least insinuation, that a man cannot be truly virtuous, until the 
Spirit of God by a suptMuatural operation, infusing a new principle into him 
hxiXh regenerated him, and that a man can do nothing truly virtuous withoni 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 127 

the supernatural aids of {hcit spirit. He look'd upon many late books written 
to undermine the orthodox articles of the church of England, in these mat- 
ters, by persons, who perhaps had got into preferment by subscribing those 
very articles, as books that indeed betraifd the Christian religion, under the 
pretence oi upholding it. And tlie mercy of God having preserved the mind 
of this our young student from the wrong schemes, which might have after- 
wards entailed such an eternal unsuccessfulness upon his ministry, as uses 
to attend the ministry, wherein t!ie grace of the gospel is not ac- 
knowledged, he chose to read those authors, which have the truer sjnrit of 
the gospel hi them. I find therefore under his own hand, a list of such au- 
thors as these, to be considered by him, as indeed worthy to be perused 
and considered ; iMr. Perkins, Dr. Preston, Dr. Usher, Dr. Manton, iMr. 
Jeans, IMr. Strong, Mr. Cari/l, IMr. Swinnock, Dr. Jacomb, Dr. Owen, Mr. 
Polhill. And however he saw a Sherlock, after a very unevangelical man- 
ner, abusing the writings of his grandfather Shepard, his value for those 
writings, and the writings of such men as Mr. Hooker or Dr. Goodwin, was 
thereby not abated ; but his detestation of the new-divinity, wherem he saw 
the mysteries of union with Christ confounded, acquaintance with Christ 
reproached, and living by faith and coming to Christ with nothing for all 
things made a ridicule, was more than a little augmented. And as it was a 
principal endeavour with him, to settle himself in the tme protestant, Ncw-^ 
English Anti-Arminian points of truth, so on all occasions he prov'd himself 
one able to maintain the truth against all opposers : Whejice the immature 
death of so accompiisli'd a divi}ic, cannot but be a sensible wound unto our 
churches. But he that holds the stars in his right hand, can, if we address him 
for it, upon the setting of some, cause others to rise ; yea, it is possible, and 
it is indeed proposed, that by writing the lines of some such, others may be 
excited and assisted, in shining like unto them. 

This was the short life of my dear Shepard. I confess my affection unto 
him to have been such, that if I might use the poet's expression of his friend, 
animoi dimidium mece, I must say, / am half buried since he is dead, or, he is 
but half dead since t am (dive. Nevertheless, this affection hath not bribed 
my veracity in any part of the character which 1 have given of him ; for as on 
the one side, I count it base to throw dirt on the face, which dusthath been 
cast upon ; so, on the other side, I think, that painting becomes dead people 
worse than living. 

A line or two of Emanuel Thesaurus, upon that first and young shepherd 
Abkl, we may now leave upon him for his 

EPITAPH. 

Conditur sub hoc cespite, virginevs pastor, 
Qui mortem, omnibus, vitam neniini fiendam iransegit. 

Or, this. 
Great minds must like new stars, but look about, 
Be wondred at a little, and go out. 

Dear Shepard, sure we dare not call thee dead : 
Tho' gone, tbou'rt but unto thy kindred fled. 



128 MAGINALIA CHRISTI AMERICAjNA: [Book iv, 



CHAP. X. 

FIarly Pikty, excmpUjied in the life and death of Mr. Nhthaniel Ma- 
ther ; who having become at the age of nineteen, an instance of more 
than common learning and virtue, changed earth for heaven, Octob. 17> 
Hi88. 

Si spc.ctes Amios, Annifi Ptier ille videtur : 
Si Mores sjjecfes, Moribus esse Senex. 

THE FOURTH EDITION. 

With a Prefatory l^pistle by Mr. Matthew Mead. 

TO THE READER. 

OF all reading, history hath in it a 7nost talcing delight, and no history 
more delightful than the lires of goad men, it being not only pleasant but 
prof table ; and so while other pleasures become a bait to vice, this becomes a 
motive to virtue. It may be said of such lives, as that excellent Mr. Her- 
bert said of Verses, 

A lite may find him who a sermon flies, 
And turn delight into a sacrifice. 

Thou hast here a rare history of a youth, that may be of great use and 
advantage both to old and young : that the aged seeing themselves out-done 
by green years, may gird up their loins, and mend their pace for heaven ; and 
that young ones may be so wrought info the love of religion, as it is exempli- 
fied in this holy per&on, as to endeavour with all diligence to write after his 
excellent copy. 

It is a great work to dye, and to dye well is a greater ; and no iiiork calls 
for greater diligence than this, because the errours of Ihefrst work can never 
be corrected in a second. One great reason why this duty is seldom well 
done, is because we grudge time to do it in, and leave it to be done at once. 
If is never like to he wll done, unless it be always doing ; and therefore we 
should, in conformity to that great /ipostle, die daily. 

This was the praciire of this young disciple, who (imong all his other learn- 
ing {ivhci-ein for h>s time he excelled most) had in niiu'tecn years so perfectly 
learned his lesson, that the wise God saw it ft he should take out. 

About t'ouvU'on years old he did dedicate himself wholly to God and his 
service, and entered into a solemn covenawi with God to that purpose ; which 
as he did not begin rashly, and loithout great deliberation, so he did not 
transact it slightly, but with great sense and seriousness : the matter and 
form of which covenant you have in this ensuing narrative signed with his 
own hand, according to that vntrd of the prophet. (Isa. 44. 5.) One shall say, 
I am tlie [.opfs, and auollier sliail (.all hini.^clf by the name of Jacob, and 
another shall subscri'he with his hand to the Lord. And with what care and 
ronscii-nre ho performed this covenant in fasting, in prayer, in watch ings, in 
self-examiniition, in medifa'inn, in thanksgiving, in u ailing with God in all, 
is fully witnessed in what follows, which shews that he is a true Nuthanad, an 
l<;rai lite indo-d, in whom is no truile. Not like those Israelites which the 
])rophrt reproveth, for that ihey Haltered God with their mouth, — lied to him 
witii tluir tongues, tlnir hearts not being right with hinj, nor stedfast in his 



\iooK IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 12P 

covenant. For having once given up himself to God, he kept the ways o! 
the Lord, and did not wickedly depart from his God. 

When his icorthy father (my dear friend) was pleased to send this narra- 
tive to me, I confess I coidd not read it without great rejlection and shame : 
thought I, God will not gather his fruit till it is ripe, and therefore I live so 
long; nor ivi II he let it hang till it is rotten, thertfore Nixlhauael dyed so 
soon. }Fe are not sent into the world meerly to fill up a nuinber of years, 
but to fill up our measures of grace, and zchenever that is done, our time is 
done, and ice have lived to maturity, and so did this youth, and therefore 
came to his grave in a full age (though at nineteen) like as a shock of corn 
comes in iu his season. 

The follojcing history is tvritten by his otvn brother, [a worthy minister) 
the fittest of any for such a ■province, the nearness of relation occasioning 
that intimacy which others could not easily have. In what he hath done 
herein, he hath deserved highly of all who love goodness and virtue, having 
used great faithfulness, and great modesty : great faithfulness, and that 
both to the dead and to the living ; to the dead, in raising up the name oj 
such a brother ; and to the living, in giving us a narration of his life, with- 
out an oration in his praise ; which indeed was altogether needless, when it 
was so fairly written by himself , fur his own works praise him in the gates. 
And he hath used great modesty, in speaking for the most part out of the 
Journal of the deceased, so that it is the dead u)ho speaks v)hile the living 
writes. And since his end is more to provoke to imitation than to bespeak 
admiration, hoiv greatly doth it concern them in ivhose hands this narrative 
shall happily fall, to joy n earnest prayer and diligent endeavour together in 
following this great example, otherwise he that gave it, and he that writes it, 
will both rise up in judgment against an unteachable generation 

MATTHEW MEAD. 

\ jowhm, June IJ. lC89- 

TO THE READER. 

IT is not for me to say much of the person who is the subject of the ensu- 
ing history, for that I am his younger brother. I have read a letter (dated 
October 25. l6SS.)writ/e?i to his and my ever honoicrcd father, wherein are 
these e.vpressions. 

Never could parent have cause of more comfort in a child, than you have in 
that son of yours. I have seen his private papers, and in them such an in- 
stance of a walk with God, as few ancient ministers perhaps have experience 
of, especially for the three last years of his life, I find that he maintained a 
course of wonderful devotion, sui)plicrition and meditation every day ; that 
solemn humiliations and thanksgiving in secret, were no strangers to his 
practice, that he would be often thinking with himself, what shall I do for 
God? And in a word, that Dr. Owen's book about .spiritual mindedness, 
has been in a very rare manner transcribed into his conversation. 

He has bin for his years a great scholar, but a better (christian. The life 
of the famwus young Janewai/, I think, lias not more of holiness illustrious in 
it, than that of your dear Nathanuers. 

I write these things, because I judge you have no greater joy. Some emi- 
nent ministers here, have maintained a pleasant, intimate, familiar conversa- 
tion witli hint, and the character which tliey gave him, is very extraordinary. 
Thus thai letter. 

I have likewise heard, mv father say, that he wop viore grieved for the lo.'S 
VOL, n 17 



130 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

which the church of God has sustained in the death of that tni/ brother, than 
for his own loss therebi/. 

When I parted from him not a year ago, I hoped that would not have been 
my ntimiuTi Vale ; but I now lament my unhappincss, in that I gaind no 
more by him : and yet must acknowledge, that the little understanding which 
God has given me in the Hebrew or Greek tongues, was by that my brother 
as the instrument : so that I have cause whilst I shall live, to honour his 
memory. His death makes me remember the poeVs words. 

I caimot but knoiv, that if I should, not fear and serve the God of my 
brothers, and of my fathers, and of my grandfathers, the nearest relations 
I ever had in the trorld, tvill be zcitnesses against me at the last day. The 
Lord give us aioi/ful meeting in the day of Christ. 

'^ SAMUEL MATHER. 

London, February,, rnh. 1689- 

THE INTRODUCTION. 

My reader will quickly discern what it is that I attempt the doing of ; and 
I suppose ho will then see no occasion of enquiring irhy. The apology's 
wherewith writers usually fill the prefaces of their books, do come of evil ; 
either the vanity of the composersii' discovered, or the candor of the ^er«sc?-« 
questioned in thein. That 1 write the life of a Christian, cannot be faulted 
by any one who considers, that the lives of pious men have been justly es- 
teemed among the most useful histories which the church of God enjoys ; or 
that the best pens in the world have been employed in thus helping the just 
unto eternal memory. Our Lord will have as mean a thing as one act of de- 
votion and charity, in a poor ?TOmo«, to be mentioned wherever his ^os/ye^ 
conies. That I write the life of a brother, will not be reckoned absurd by 
them who understand v, liat patterns 1 have, both ancient and modern, for my 
doing so. James Jancway among the resi has had our thanks for what an 
account he has given of his brother John. Indeed, if I should not thus raise 
up for my departed brother a name in Israel, 1 were not worthy to 2vear a 
shoo, or to have nfacc unsixit upon. My natural relation to him doth oblige 
me to bestow an Epitaph upon his grave; that the survivors may not forget 
whose dust they tread upon : but I am by (that which Ambrose calls) <ygreat' 
er and better fraternity, concerned to embalm the n)Pmory of one, who 
maintained such a walk with God, as he did until God took him to himself. 
It has been observed, that \.hry who lire in heaven while they are on earth, 
often live on earth after they are in heaven. It were lawful for me to desire 
and study such a thing on tlie behalf of my brother, whose early piety is at 
once my own shame and joy : but I pursue an higher end than this, designing 
rather to procurey"o//o//.r/-.v, than to bespeak admirers of this good exanijile : 
that this is my main scope, in what I am now doing of, 1 declare sincerely and 
very solemnly. And hence I have not here \iVH\ii an oration m W\s praise, 
but given barely a narrative of his life, and this mostly by transcribing of his 
own memorials, in all affecting the plain style of a just historian. I do th<'ri- 
fore address this exemplary Ife unto the young people of New-England, and 
especially unto those of North-Boston, who are the lambs that I have receiv- 
ed a peculiar charge from the Lord Jesus about ihe feeding of. To you do 
I present this Mirrour, wherein you may see the exercises of a virtuous 
youth, not only prescribed, but also practised before your eyes : you shall 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. isi 

see, as what should be done, so what may be done by a young person, in or- 
der to everlasting felicity ; see him and hear him as one come from the dead, 
saying, do as I have done. The father of him whom I describe has labour- 
ed exceedingly for the conversion of the rising generation in New-England ; 
and his CALL to them has been printed and reprinted here among us. Tho' 
the news of a so?j'.v death must needs be afflictive to him, when he shall have 
the report of it arriving to him in the other Enqland, yet 1 make no doubt, 
but his parental griefs will be not a little mitigated, when he shall behold that 
son thus renewing his call by speakin'j, after he is dead. This young man 
did prai/ much for i/ou while he was alive, that i/ou might be truly converted 
unto God ; he does preach now to you from the grove, or rather from the sky, 
that you would remember your creator in the days of your youth. I wish 
that he may (to use Chrysostonvs phrase) become a brother to you by faith, 
as he is to me by blood : and I extend this my wish with a most affectionate 
application to the young gentlemen, who belong to the Colledge which he was 
a member of. As you have had in his father a rector, whose generous and 
expensive cares have not been for your disadvantage ; so yoif have in his dili- 
gence and his devotion, a co/jy which is not altogether unworthy of your imi- 
tation : 1 am setting before you the exercises and accornplishmeiits oi h schol- 
ar, whose chief study it was, to be wise unto salvation ; a scholar, which la- 
boured while he was learning all other things, not to be isjnorant of Him, 
ivhom to know teas life eternal. I am not witiunit hope, that some of you 
will now resolve as Jeroni did when he had read the lite of Hilarion, shuti'wfr 
up the book and saying, well, here shall be the chai/qjion whom I will follow : 
When you come to dye, you will certainly commend such a life as his ; God 
grant thai none of you may then have cause to sigh Qualis Artifex pereo ! 
or to complain, Surgunt Indocti et rajriimt Ccehnn ; Nos cum nostris Doc- 
trinis mergimur in Infernum. That great man Hugo Grofius near his end 
professed, that he would gladly give all his learning and honor for the integri- 
ty of apoor7nan in his neighbourhood, that spent eight hours of his time in 
prayer, eight in labour, and eight in sleep and other necessaries ; and unto 
some that applauded his marvellous industry, he said. Ah, Vitam perdidi 
operose nihil Agendo ! But unto some that asked, the best counsel which a 
man of his attainment could give, he said, be serious. 'Tis with this counsel 
that I humbly offer you the ensuing history. 

TAeLife and Death of Mr. Nathanael Mather. 

I write the life and death of a yonng man, whose ornaments will awaken 
in the reader an enquiry like thnt which the atchievements of David, produ- 
ced concerning him, tvhose son is this youtJt ? 

To anticipate that enquiry : 

Nathanael Mather had for his grandfathers two of New-England^s fathers, 
the famous Richard Mather, and the not less famous John Cotton ; whose 
names have been in the church of God, as an ointment poured forth, and 
whose lives bear no little figure in the ecclesiastical histories of our English 
Israel. His parents being yet livinsr, it's too soon to give them their charac- 
ter ; yet I may ventine to say, it's no disgrace unto him in the opinion of m^ii 
that love learning and virtue, that he was the son of Inc?-ease Mather, the 
well-known teacher of a church in Boston, and rector of Harvard- Colledge 
in New-England. What Gregory Nazianzen judged not improper to be said 
about his yet surviving JofAer, in his funeral oration upon his deceased broth- 
er, I may without any culpable adulation on this occasion, ^ay of him, he is 
another Aaron or Moh'cs in the house of his God. 



(31i MAGiNALIA CHRI3T1 AMERICANA; [Book n 

Our ISathonad was bom on July 6th. ]6G9. which I find him recording iu 
ills diari/, when he was fourteen years old, witli such an humble rellection 
thereupon, Uoio little have I imprfwed this time to the honour of God as J 
■.ihouM hare done! lie wanted not the cares of his Father to bestow a good 
rduccition on him, wliich God blessed for the restrnin.ng him from the lewd 
and wild courses by which loo many ohildien are betimes resigned up to the 
possession of the devil, and for the furnishing him with such accomplish- 
ments as give an ornament of grace unto the head of youth, lie did live 
where he might learn, and under the continual prayers and pains of some 
that looked after him, he became an instance of unusual industry, and nu 
commow piefi/ ; so that when he dyed, which was Octob. Ijth. IG88, he 
was become in less than twenty years, an old man without gray hairs npon 
him. 

To those two heads, will) a sorrowful addition of a third, I shall confine 
my account of this young man ; in which the picture to be now druwn^ has 
nothing but the truth, and at least so much of life in it, as to look upon every 
leader, yea speak unto every young reader, saying, go and do likewise. 

1. HIS L\DUSTRY. 

lie was an hard student, and cjuickly became a good scholar. From his 
very childhood, liis hook was perliaps as dear to him as his play, and hence 
he grew particularly acquainted with church history, at a rate not usual ,in 
those that were above thrice as old as he. But when he came to somewhat 
more of youth, his tutor (who now writes) was forced often to chide him to 
his recreations, but never that I remember for them. To be bookish was 
natural unto him, and to he plodding easie and pleasant rather than the con- 
trary. Indeed he afl!brded not so much a pattern as a caution to young stu- 
dents ; for it may be truly written on his grave study kilVd him. When 
one told the excellent Mr. Charnock, that if he studied so much it would 
'ost him his life ; he replied. Why ? It cost Christ his life to save, and 
what if it cost me my life to study for him? Our studious Nathanael was of 
this disposition. The marks and works of a studious mind were to be dis- 
cerned in him, even as he walked in the streets ; and his candle would burn 
lifter mid/light, until, as his own phrase lor it \\<\s he thought his bones would 
(dl fall asunder. This was among the jiassages once noted in his diary. 
10 M. ~() D. three quarters of an hour after J 2 at night. 
' After the n)any wearisom hours, dayt^. months, nay, years, that I have 
-pent in humane literature ; and after my many toilsom studies in those hours, 
when \he general silence of every JKnise in town, proclaimed it high time 
for me to put a stop unto my workiii'i mind, and urged me to afford some 
rest unto my eyes, which have been almost put out by n)y intenseness on my 
studies ; after these, I say, and when I am nady to do it : Oh ! how un- 
willing am I to do it, considering; how little have I served Hod in the. 
day !' 
While he thus devoured books, it came to pass that books devoured him. 
ilis weak body would not bear the toils and hours, which he used himseli 
unto; and his neglect of moderate exercise, ]o\ wed with his excess of immod- 
erate lucubration, soon destroyed the digestion which his blood should have 
had in the last elaboration of it ; by that time i'lxtcen winters had snowV! 
upon him, he begau to be distempered, with mnoy pains and ails, especially 
iti some of his joynts, which at last were the gates of death unto him ; not 
without such very afilictive touches of melancholy^ too, as made him some- 
times to write h\ mscl f dcod at us melancholic us. This was bis way of living, 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 133 

shall I say, or oi dying? And the success of this diligence was according to 
the temper of it, great. When he was but twelve years old he was admitted 
Into the Colledge, by strict examiners : and many months after this passed 
not, before he had accurately gone over all the Old Testament in Hebi-eic, as 
well as the New in Greek, besides his going through ail the liberal sciences, 
before many other designers for philosophy do so much as begin to look into 
them. He commenced batchelour of arts at the age of sixteeo, and in the 
act entertained the auditory with an Hebrew oration, which gave a good ac- 
count of the academical affairs among the ancient Jeivs. Indeed the He- 
hreiv language was become so i'amiliar with him, as if (to use the expression 
which one had in an ingeuious elegy upon his death) he had apprehended, it 
should quickly become the only language, which he should have occasion 
for. His secoHfZ degree, after seven years being in the Colledge, he took just 
before death gave him a third, which last was a [)roniolion infinitely beyond 
either of the former. He then maintained for his position, datur vacuum ; 
and by his discourses upon it (as well as by other memorials and experi- 
ments left behind him in manuscripts) he gave a specimen of his intimate ac- 
quaintance with the Corpuscnlarian (and only riglit) philosophy. By this 
time he had informed himself like another Mirandiila, and was admirably 
capable of arguing about, almost every subject that tell within the concern- 
ments of a learned man. The difficulties of the mathematicks he had par- 
ticularly overcome, and the abstruse parts both of arilhmetick and astronomy y 
were grasped in his knowledge. 

His early almanacks and calculations do something, but the MSS adversa- 
/■/«, left behind him in his closet, much more, speak such attainments in him. 
Wis chronology was exact unto a wonder, and the state oi Itarning \\\i\i the 
names and works of learned men, in the world, this American wilderness 
hath iew that understand as well as he. Besides all tbis, for tlie vast field of 
theology, both didactick. and polemick, it is hardly credible how little of it 
his travel had left unknown. Rabbinick learning he had likewise no small 
measure of; and the questions referring unto the scriptures which philology 
is conversant about, came under a very critical notice with him. Indeed he 
was a person of but few words, and his words with his looks, made the trea- 
sure in him vvhoily unsuspected by strangers to him ; yet they that were inti- 
mately acquainted with him, can attest unto the veracity of him that giveth 
jliis description ; and there are no mean persons who will profess with admi- 
ration, that they could scarce encounter him in any theme of discourse^ 
which he ivas not very notably acquainted with. 

But the bark is now split in which all these riches were stowed. A Span- 
ish wrack hath not more silver than the grave of such a young man hath 
learning huned in it. Indeed these \\uags, Mortis Erunf : perhaps they 
dyed witii him : but diere is a more immortal thing to be observed in him ; 
and that is, 

II. HIS PIETY. 

Tho' a fine carriage was the least thing that ever he afl'ected, yet a good 
nature made him dear to those that were familiar with him. He was always 
very obliging and officious, and more ready to do, than otiieis could be to ask 
a good turn at his haiids : but he was above all happy, by being early in 
pure religion. 

The common efiect of such a pious education, as the family in which he 
lived afforded unto him, were seen even in his childhood ; and secret prayer. 
became very betimes one of his infant exercises. He does ia his MSS. oarticu- 



134 M AGN ALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv, 

larly take notice of a scripture copy set for him when he learned to write, as 
a thing that had much efficacy on him ; but wlien he was twelve (or more) 
years old, more powerful conviction did the spirit of God set home upon him 
than he had been used unto ; some records therefore I find in his papers, 
witii this clause in the head of the account, rejoyce, O jny soul, for the 
Lord hath dealt bountifully loitli thee. Now it was that he allowed his pen 
to write these, among other expressions of his trouble about his estate. 

Feh. ly. 1682. 
' Wliat shall I do ? What shall I do to be savW? Without a Christ I am 
' undone, undone, undone for evermore ! O Lord, let me have Christ, tho" I 
•' lye in the mire for ever ! O for a Christ ! O for a Christ ! a Christ ! Lord, 

• give me a Christ or I dye ! 

It was now another of his registered meditations. 

' I have been in great hesitancy, whether I should choose Jesus Christ for 

my prophet, priest and king, with all his inconveniences, to take up my 

crohs and follow him : wherefore I do now take him as mine ; my whole 

Christ, and my only Christ ; and I am resolved to seek him. All that I 

' have shall be al his service, and all ray members, and all my poicers, shall 

' endeavour his glory. 

And yet again there were these considerations in his mind. 
' Had I not better seek the Lord Christ, while I have a time of prosperity 
' and peace, while he offers himself to me saying, come unto me, and I toill 
'• save thee, and lay all thy burdens upon me, and 1 will sustain thee : than 

■ in affliction to cry and not be heard ? when he stretched forth his hand and 

• says, believe on me and thou shalt be saved ; and now to day he offers 
' himself, shall I refuse, and say. Lord, to morroic? No surely.' And 
these pathetical groans then likewise got a room in his papers 

< O that I had a Christ ! O that I had him who is the delight of my 

• soul ! Then, O then I should be perfectly blessed, and want no food that 

■ would make me so !' 

This is a co;jy of the passages then recorded in this young believers diary. 

Thus did he now labour to affect his own soul with his own state, and 
leave things no more at peradvcntures between God and him. He read 
many savoury books about faith, and repentance, and conversion, and he 
transcribed many notes therefrom, not resting satisfied within himself until 
he had had some experience of a true regeneration. Among other work- 
ings of his heart al this age, his papers have such things as these. 

• Reasons for my speedy closing with Jesus Christ. 

' First, It's the command of Jesus Christ, that I should come unto him. 

•Secondly, Jesus Christ invitcsme also in Mat. 11. 28. Come unto me. 

' Thirdly, lie hath laid me under many obligations to turn unto him, in 
' that he hath recover'd me from sickness so often, and now given me a cu- 
rious study. 

' Fourthly, In that I have vow'd unto the Lord, if he would do so and 

• so for me, 1 would make a solemn covenant with him, and endeavour to 

• serve him.' 

And again elsewhere. 
' O that God would help me to seek him while I am young/ O that he 

• would ffive unto me his grace .' however, I will lay myself down at his 

■ feet. If he save me, I shall be happy for ever; if he damn me, I must 

• justifie him. thou Son of God, have merey on me! I know not what to 
" say, but I will take thee at thy word : Thou sayst, come unto /«e ; my soul 
' answers. Lord, at thy command I tcill come. 

He thus continued /o//o//.vn^ hard after God, enjoying and answering 
many strivings of his Holy Spirit until he was about fourteen years old. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND. 135 

In this time he did not a little acquaint himself with profitable godliness^ 
being frequent and fervent in h'\s pray on to God upon all occasions, and care- 
ful not only to hear semions, but also consider after them what improvement 
he should make of what he heard. Not only his prayers, but his p: aises too 
now took notice of even the smallest affairs before him. I know not whether 
}'ou can see any thing childish, I am sure I see something serious, in a passage 
or two that 1 shall fetch out of his diary, written when he was about thirteen 
years old : On March 13. he wrote, this day I received of my father that fa- 
mous work, the Biblia Polyglotta, /"or whichi desire topraisethe name of God: 
Again on June 29. he wrote, this day my brother gave me Schindlers Lexicon, 
a booli- for which I had not only longed much, but also prayed unto God: bles- 
sed be the Lord''s name for it. The thoughts of death also now found a lodging 
in iiis heart,and he rebuked himself because he had been so much without 
them. Tho' at this age for the most part, persons think of ««?/lhing, ej;ery 
thing more than of their dying day. And liis writings discovered him to be 
peculiarly affected with that ancient history (or apologue) of him who after 
a dissolute and ungodly youth going to repent in age, heard that voice from 
heaven to him, Des illi Furfurem cui dedisti Farinam : the devil had thy 
flower, and thou shall not bring thy bran to me. 

Self-excduination was also become one of his employments ; and once par- 
ticularly in one of his diaries, he does thus express himself. 

Aprils. 1683. 

' This morning I was much cast down with the sense of iny vileness. I ex- 
' amin'd, 

' I. What sins I had that were not mortified : 1. IMy sin of jjr/r/p. 2. My 
•' sin of unthankfulness. 3. My not improving the means of grace, as 1 
' ought to do. 

' II. What graces I find need of. 1. Converting and regenerating grace. 
' 2. Humiliation for my many sins against such a good God as the Lord is. 

' III. What mercies 1 had received, for which I desire to bless the Lord's 
•' name. 1. He hath given me to be born oi godly parents. 2. I have al- 

* ways had the means cf grace lengthened out unto me. 3. Tiie Lord hath 

* graciously pleased to give me some answers of pray dr. 1. As to the 

* lengthning out of my health. 2. As to the increase of my library, what 

* shall I render to the Lord for all his loving kindness towards me ? I le- 

* solved to dedicate nnsclf wholly to God and his service.' 

And he did according!}'. 

This year did not roll about, before lie had in a manner very solemn entred 
into covenant with God. This weighty and awful thing was not rashly done 
by him, or in a sudden ^rtsA and pa^ig of devotion : he thought, he read, he 
tcrote, and he prayed not a little before this glorious transaction between God 
and him, and upon mature deliberation, he judged it most advisable for him to 
make Ins covenant with (Jod as explicit h^ writing and signing could render 
it ; that so it might leave the more impression upon his heart and life, and 
be an evidence likewise, which in temptation or desertion he might have re- 
course unto : wherefore he set apart a tiine for (1 think) secret fasting and 
prayer before the Lord, and then beiiold how this young man counting it high 
time for him to be bound out unto some service, took a course tor it : he sub- 
scribed an holy covenant, of which this was the matter, this the form. 

' The covenant between God and my soul, renewed, confirmed and signed, 
'' iVoy. 22. 1683. 

' Whereas not only the commands of God [who hath often called upon me, 
■' by his word preached, to give up myself, botii body and soul, to be at his dis- 

* posal, which calls by the public ministry, were enough to engage me unto 



136 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Boux iv. 

' tliis] but also the Christian religion whicli I profess, and my baptism in 
' which I took the Lord to be my God, and promised to renounce the world, 

• the jlesh, and the devil, and to dedicate myself unto the service, work and 
' will of God, to bind nie hereunto ; in that God is such a God as deserves 
' this, yea, i.ifinitely more than this, at my hands; my creator, the fountain 
' of ray being ; my preserver, my benefactor, my Lord, my soveraign, my 
'judge; he in whose hands my life, my breath, and all my concerns are; he 
' that 6o\\\ protect mc from all dangers, and supply me in all wants, support 
' me under all burdens, and direct mc in all streights ; he alone that can make 
' me happy or miserable ; ho alone that can save mc or damn me ; he alone 
' that can give inward peace -And joy, that is my friend, my God ; in that, 
' self-dedication is tlu^ creatures advancement ; thcsa first fi'uits, if in sinceri- 
' ty, putting upon me a gloriousness and excellency. 

' III that felicity hereafter depends upon my dedicating of myself unto God 

• now. 

' In that this is the high^^t piece of gratitude I am capable of expressing 
' unto God, and I know no better way to obey the !ii«7/ of God, than first to 

• give up my6v'.i^*''unto him. 

' And whereas the mercies which the Lord hath been pleased graciously to 
< bestow upon me, are so many, that even bare morality, doth shew me that 
■ 1 can never enough requite one that hath done so much for me, except by 
' giving vp myself wholly to him. 

[1<56l)] 
' Whereas God ];tis given me a godly lather and mother. 

[1674] 
' Li that when I was like to dye, being twice sick ol a fearer, God was 
' pleased to bless means for my recovery, and lengthen out the thread of my 

• life. 

[1675] 
' Whereas, when I by an accident fell down, and had like to have been de 
■' prived of the use of my tongue, God was in his goed j)rovidence graciously 
' pleased to give me tlie use of it. 

[1678] 
' Whereas, when I was sick of the small-pox, God was pleased to bless 

• means for my recovery. 

' Whereas, then I made promises imto God, that if he would lhvc mc my 
' health, I would eiuleavoin" to become a new creature, and he hath done so 
' foY thf^t' fire yean; : nm\ ?fiherea.s God hath of late been bestowing man} 
''and wondertVd mercies upon me, what can 1 do less than i^ire up wiisetf 
'■ wholly to him ? 

' Which now I do. 
' And O Lord (iod, I beseech thee to acccjjt of thy poor prodigal, now 
pioslraling of himself before thee. I confess, O Lord, 1 have t'allcn front 
thee by my iniquity, and am by nature a son of hell : but of thy inlinile 
grace thou hnsf prcsmised mercy to me in Ciiri>-,t, if 1 will but turn unto thee 
with all my heart ; then'fore upon the call of thy gospel, I come in, and 
from the bottom of my heart 1 renounce all thy enemies ; witii whom I con- 
fess I have wickedly sided against thee, firmly fot'CHr/M^/z/o- with thee, not to 
allow myself in any known sin, but consrii^niioiisly to use all means which 
I know thou hast prescribed, for the utter destruction of all my corruptions. 
And whereas I have inordinately let out my afTertious upon the world, I 
here resign my ho^art unto thee that made it : humbly protesting before thy 
glorious majesty, that it is the firm resolution of my heart (and that I do 
•jofcignedly desire grace from fhoe. that when tlion shall cull me thereunto. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 13? 

" I may put in jn-actice my resolution) through thine assistance, to forsake all 

* that is dear luito me in the world, rather than to turn from thee to the wayfi 
' of sin ; and that I will watch against all its temptations, whether of pros- 
' perity or adversity^ lest they should withdraw my heart from thee, beseech 

' ing thee to help me. 

' I renounce all my own righteousness, and acknowledge that of myself I am 
' helpless and undone, and without righteousness. 

' And whereas, of thy bottomless mercy, thou hast ofter'd to accept of me, 

* and to be reconciled to me, and to be my God through Christ, if I would ac- 
' cept of thee, I do this day avouch thee to be the Lord my God. I do here 
' take the Lord Jehovah, Father, Son. and Holy Ghost, for my portion and 
' chief good, and do give up myself body and sow/ for thy servant, promising 
' to endeavour to serve thee in righteousness and holiness. I do here also on 
' the bended knees of my soul, accept of the Lord Jesus Christ as the only 
' and living way, by which sinners may have access to thee, and do here joyn 
' myself in a marriage-covenant with him. O Lord Jesus, I come to thee, 
' hungry, poor, n)iserable, blind and naked, and a most loathsome creature, a 
' condemned malefactor : who am I, that I shoidd be married unto the King 
' of Glory ! 

' I do accept of thee for my head and husband, and embrace thee in all thy 

* offices. I renounce my own worthiness, and do choose thee the Lord my 
^ righteousness. I do renounce my own wisdo7n, and do take thine for my 
' guide. I take thy 7vill for my will, and thy tcord for my law. I do here 
' willingly put my neck under thy yoke ; I do subscribe to all thy laws as 
' holy, just and good ; and do promise to take them as the rule of my 
' thoughts, tvords and actions ; but because I am subject to many failiiigs 

* through frailty ; I do here protest, here before thee, that unalbmed miscar- 
' riagcs, contrary to the constant bent of my heart, shall not disannull this 
' everlasting covenant. Nathanael Mather. 

It may be justly taken for granted, that such a work as ibis, would have an 
influence into his conversation afterwards ; and so it had, producing in him, a 
conversation which became the gospel of Christ. He kept waiting upon 
God, not only in the family, but also under the ministry of two that were 
a-kin unto him ; namely, his father and his brother, whereby the grace thus 
begun in him was not little cherished and promoted : and unto all known stJis 
he now kept saying, as I find once in short hand written by him. 

To my Ijusts. 

I have had communion with you all this while, but J dare not have so any 
longer : ivherefore I renounce all communion loith you any more ; I will 
rleave to the God that made me. But a year or two after this, it was with 
him, as I have observed it is too commonly with such as are converted betimes 
unto God. An unhappy gradual apostacy carried him aside from those de- 
grees of seriousness and intenseness in divine things, which he had been used 
unto : "tis possible an entanglement in a familiarity with some that were no 
b"tter than they should be, did abate of the good savour which had been upon 
hitn, and decoy him by insensible steps to some vanities (tho' not to any scan- 
dalous immoralities) that were disadvantageous to him. For divers months 
he seemed somewhat, yet not totally, much less fnally , forsaken of that wis- 
dom and ve.rtue which he had before been an example of; but the good spirit 
of God will not let go his interest in a soul of which he hath taken a saving 
hold. This young man soon entertained just resentments of his own declen- 
sions, and it was impossible for tiie most badger-toothed malice in the world 
to aggravate any of his errors half so much as he did himself in his own re- 
repentance for them. In the year l6Sr». God visited him with sore terrors 

VOL. PI. 18 



13» MAGNALIA CIIRTSTI AMERICANA : [Book i v. 

and horrors in his wounded soul, the anguish whereof he thou^lit intollerable ; 
yet he made not hi> condition known to any body all the while. lie could 
say , my complaint is not to 7?/r/?j, but he made it unto the Lord ; this poor 
man cry e.d and the Lord heard, and delivered him out of distresses. lie 
arrived in time unto settlement and renewal o( h\s jjeace with God : he con- 
fessed and bewailed his own sins before the Lord, and declared his detest. ition 
of ihem, and applied himself unto the Lord Jesus Clnisi for salvation iVom 
ihem all. Good terms being thus estnblish'd between the Almighty Lord 
and this immortal soul, he maintained, I think, a constant and an even uuttk 
tvith God, until he dyed. I find now that laufruage in his MSS : lit me be as 
active a servant of Christ, us I was of sal an heretofore. For more than tlic 
three lust years of his life, he lived at a stranije rate for holiness and pravity, 
and retired devotions. He read .Vlr. Scndders Christians daily rralk, and 
Dr Owen of spiritual mindcdnrss, and had a restless rajiinij agony in his 
mind until the methods of religion advised by those worth}- men, were e\em- 
pliiied in his own behaviour. 'Tis a note in one of his diaries 

' O my great unprcfilableness under the means of grace ! I have cause to 
' bless God forever for the writings of that never enough to be admired and 
'' loved by me, Dr. Reynolds, and for the light I have received thereby, con- 
' cerning the sinfulness of sin ; as also that excellent book of bin) whom I 
' shall always honour, Dr. Owen o( spiritual minded nrss, and Mr. Scudder's 
* Christian's c/ni//// walk, by which three books I ha\e profited more than by 
' any other (^S. Seri/jfuris exccpfis) in the world.' 

He was at hist surprized at the measure o\' spiritual mindedness, whhout 
which x\mt gi'cat saint Dr. 0?/'f«. apprehends the ///}' and ^jfoce" of souls to 
labour under prejutlices : and he thouL'ht a mind swallowed up in such heav- 
enly frames and vrorks as were needful thereunto, almost wholly to be des- 
pair'd of; until (as himself a few hours before he dyed said unto me) he deem- 
ed he saw an instance of such a walk urith God, not very far from the place of 
his abode : to whicii purpose his reserv'd papers have a large discourse, of 
which this is in the conclusion: there might he a greater progress in reli- 
gion, than is commonly thought for. IVhnt hove I examples for , but to imi- 
tate them'? Abraham is fam^d for believing so strongly, tvhen he had no 
example before him : Let me try and see, whether I having such opportuni- 
ties may not arrive to as high a pitch in Christianity as any that J have 
known. [le then in the strength and through the love of God set himself into 
a way of strict, secret, laborious devotion; whereby tho' none but God and 
He fill'd the theatre which he acted upon, he wotild be in the fear of the Lord 
all the day long. He withdrew from the delights of this world, and gave 
himself u|) to an assiduous contemplation of God and Christ, and a sedulous 
endeavour after utmost conformity unto him : thus he kep.t ahoundin<> in. the 
work of the Lord, until three years of wonderlul holiness had ripened hitn for 
eternal happiness. 

JMy account of him will be an unfinished piece, unless all the ensuing 
strokes go to make it up. These tilings he was exemplary for. 

First, He was one that walked hy ritlk. He was very studious to learn 
the way of conversing with (jod in every duty, and there was a f ulc which he 
attended still unto. 

In his private papers. T find a wise roliecfion of / ules, by which he govern- 
ed himself in the several duties of Chiistiauity, and in all xhv seasons u ml sta- 
tions of his life. He consulted the best authors lor instruction in the affairs 
of practical religion, and not into paper only, but into action to be trans- 
scribed what he most approved ; in all which the will of God was the bright 
^>oIe-.sta,r by which he steei'd his course. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND 139 

The reader shall enjoy (and O that he would follow) two of this young 
man's directories. One of them was this. 

' I. O that I mifjht lead a spi> itiial life ! wherefore let me regulate my 
^ life by the loord of God, and by such scriptures as these. 

' 1. For regulating my thoughts, Jer 4 14. ha. 55. 7- Mai. 3. 17- Psal 
' 104.34 Phil. 4. 8 "FroD. 23.^26. Dent. l^. 9. Eccles. 10. 20. Prov. 24. 9. 
' Mat. 9. 4 Zee. 8. 17- 

' 2. For regulating my affections, Col. 3. 2, 5. Gal 5. 24. 

' For my delight, Psal. 1 . 2. Psal 37- 5. For my joy, Phil. 4. 4. Psal 
' 43. 4. My r/e.s?rp, Isa. 26. 8, 9- EzeJc. 7- 16. iMy fot-e, Mat. 22. 37- Psal 
* 1 19. 97- My hatred, Psal. 97- 10. My fear, Luke 12. 4, 5. My hope, 
< Psal. 39. 7. Mv ^r//*/, Psal G2. 8. Isa. 26 4. 

' 3. For regulating mv s/^eec//, Eph. 4. 29- Co/. 4. 6. Deui. 6. 6,7- Psal 
M 19. 56. PsaL 71. S. 24. Prov. 31. 26 

' For regulating my work^Tn. 3.8. 2 TiVn. 2. 12. 1 Tz/a 5. 10. Titm2. 14. 
' Mfli. 5. 47 1 Tim. 6. 8. Rev. 3. 2. J?o/«. 13. 12. Acts 26. 20. 

Another of them was form'd into an Hymn, the singing of which might 
produce fresher and stronger efforts of soul towards the thing that is good. 

It shall be licre inseited. 

II. ' Lord, what shall I return unto 
* Him from whom all mercies flow ? 

' (I.) To me to live, it Christ shall be 
' For all I do FU do for Thee. 



' (II.) My question shall be oft beside, 
' How thou inay^stMost be glorify^d ? 

' (III.) I will not any creature love, 
' But in the love of Thee above. 



' (IV.) Thy imll I will embrace for mi^le^ 
' And every management of thine 

* Shall please me. (V.) A conformity 
' To thee shall be my aim and eye. 

« (VI.) Ejacidations shall ascend 
' Not seldom from me. (VII.) I'll attend 

* Occasional refections, and 

' Turn all to gold that comes to hand. 

' (VIII.) And in particular among 
' .My cares, I'll try to make my tongue 
' A tree of life, by speaking all 
' As be accountable who shall. 

' (IX.) But last, my first of all I wiii 
' Thy Son my surety make, and still 
' Implore him that be would me bless 
' With strength as well us righteousness 



140 MAGNALIA CIIRISTI AMERICANA: [Dook iv. 

Besides these r?/Zrs which concerned his toholc toalk, he treasiir'd up many 
more that referr'd to this and that step in it ; and it was the predominant 
care and w.itcli of his heart, not to tread awry ! thus one might see a skilful 
Chri/itiaii in him. And as he was desirous to live hy precept, so he was to 
hve by promise too. 

lie tell into a particular consideration, how to improve t\w promises of God 
in all the occasions of life j which is indeed one of the most sanctifying ex- 
ercises in the world. 

It was a proposal which I find he made unto himself. 

• Let me salute these pro7nises once a day. 

' 1. For supplying the wants of the day, Phil. 4. 19. 

• 2. For growth in grace. Hos. 14. 5. 

' 3. For subduing my sins, Mic. /. 19. 

' 4. For success in my undertakings, Pi^aL 1. 3. 

' 5. For turning all the events of the day for good, Uom. 8. "28. 

' 6. For audience oi my prayers, Joh. 14. 13, 14. 

' 7. For strength to manage all the work of the day, Zech: 10. 12. 

' S. For direction in difficulty, Psal. ol. 8. 

• 9. For life eternal, Luke 12. 31. Joh. 3. l6. 
Besides these two, Mat. 11. 28. and Isa. 44. 3. 

Certainly that man must quickly grow another Enoch, who does thus icalk 
with God. 

Secondly, He was one that lived in puayeji. He was oft and long in the 
Mount with God : it was his custom every day to enter into his closet, and 
shut his door, and pray to his Father in secret. And I guess from some of 
his writings, that he did thus no less than thrice a day, when he met with no 
obstruction in it : nor did he slubber over his prayers with hasty amputations, 
but wrestle in them for a good part of an hour together. 

It was a most refreshing communion with God, which his devotions brought 
him sometimes unto. Thus in one of his diaries. 

Dec. 10. 
In the mar- ' I prayed earnestly unto God, earnestly petitioning that 
gm he wrote, ' Jesus Christ might be my compUat Redeemer. There was 
remember. ^ immediately something that did as it icere perswade me it 
' should he so. 

Again, Aug. 19- 
' My fhouglits were some little while busied about the condescension of 

• Christ, in faking of humane nature on him ; but for the most part in ejacu- 
' fafions. and acts of faith on a crucified (ah ! sweet word) Jesus. I saw I 
•' gained not much by those : wherefore I addressed myself to solemn prayer, 
■ and had some assurance in it. 

Once more, Aug. 20. 
' I was much aflected in prayer, and exercised (1 ho])e) many arts of faith, 

• and love, and delight in God. I several times was breaking off, but I was as it 

• were consfrain'd to go on in the duty with much enlargement. Lord, answer 
' me for the sake of Christ. 

Thus under the ,»?^-^/re did our Lord Jesus often behold this Nalhanacl ; 
yea, unto prayer iie becan)e so habituated, that while others can sleep in pray- 
er, he sometimes would pray in sleep. He records it among his experiences, 
that upon assanhs of imagined temptations, when he has been asleep, he has 
quickly been at prayer ; and so caused the phanta.wis to leave annoying him 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 141 

And extraordinary prayer was also with him not altogether extraordinary. 
Tho' he were a botcle that seemed incapable of holding it, yet this unne agreed 
with him very well. As young ^a be was, he knew the mystery of a soul fat- 
ning by fasting, and thriving by hungring and thirsting after rightcQusness. 
He was very inquisitive after the right way to manage a day of fasting and 
prayer and he would sometimes keep such a day. On such a day it was his 
custom to make a very particular and penitent confession of all the sins that 
he could perceive himself guilty of; and renew his covenant with the holy 
one of Israel ; to this end, he had by him in writing a large catalogue of 
things forbidden and required in the commandments of God, which was the 
glass in which he then viewed his ways ; and having found what Achans 
might procure trouble to him, he then fell to stoning of them. One may shape 
some conjecture at his humiliations, by the indignation with which he spoke, 
and wrote of the vanities which his childhood had. ' I came into the world 

* (saith he in one of the papers penn'd by him on a day of secret fasting and 
' prayer, October the 17th. l6!^5.) without the image of the holy God on ray 
' soul ; my understanding, my will, my affections, and my tohole soul were al- 
' together depraved, and wounded. When very young I went astray from 
' God, and my mind was altogether taken with vanities and follies : such as 
' the remembrance of them doth greatly abase my soul within me. Of the 

* manifold sms which then T was guilty of, none so sticks upon me, as that be- 

* ing very young, I was whitling on the Sabbath-day ; and for fear of being 

* seen, I did it behind the door. A great reproach of God ! a specimen of 
' that atheism that I brought into the world with me ! 

Hence this I find among the records of his soul : 

This was more than the more meagre and feeble sort of Christians, though 
much older than he, are us'd to do. But paulo majora ! There was a sublimer 
way oi draioing near to God, which he was not willing to leave unattempted. 
tie understood that secret days of fhanksgiving had not been unpractised by 
some whom he designed to imitate ; and therefore he would make some es- 
says: for such an intimate fruition of God, and generous devotion to him, as 
would fill such days as these. 

• Resolved, to set apart every two months, a day for solemn examination 
' and meditation, to humble myself; and every two months to keep a day of 
' private thanksgiving.^ 

But though his prayers were chiefly in, yet they were not confined tohh 
closet. There were divers private praying meetings of younger people in 
North-Boston, which he visited as often as he could ; and one of those might 
peculiarly be called his. Yea, it was his desire, though with as little aim to be 
seen of men as could be, to support all such opportunities of good among them, 
that were of the same age with him. 

Wherefore I find this among the notes in his diary : 

• Quest. Jfliat shall I do for God? 

' Ansic. It was suggested to me, to get some of my acquaintance to spend 
' some v/hile every Friday night in prayer, for the success of the work of 
^ grace in New-England, especially in Boston, on the soidsoftlie rising gen- 
' eration. 

• Let me propound this to some serious devout young persons.' 

Thus was his prayer as it were his breath, and thus he was always fetch 
ing of it, until at last it expir'd in eternal praise. 

Thirdly, he was one that thought much of his God, and his end. There 
was a sort of Heaven fonn.-d in the just soul of this young-man, by the 
thoughts that were continually sparkling there. He had an unpacifiabfe dis- 
satisfaction at himself until ^oof/ thoughts were lodg'd in him, and vain onea 



142 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book i v. 

wereforced to gnash their teeth and melt away : nothing would co'ntent liim, 
but the bringing of his thoughts into a subjection to the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Wiierofore lie ciiew'il mucli on tlie excellent sermon of Mr. Cliarnock about 
thoughts ; which he icrotc out not only with his hand, but in his heart, and 
made it the very mould of his gracious mind. There arc none, but very rrrieio'd 
souls, that are at great paius in a course of meditation on the things of (iod. 
Yet this young-man, like another Isaac, was grown very expert at it, and^Ve- 
quent in it It was liis manner in the morning to meditate very seriously and 
tixetlly upon some truth, or some text, for a good part of an hour together. He 
had collected a good variety of s.v/yVr/s and scriptures to handle, in thus com- 
muning jivith himself, aiul went over more than a little diinniti/ in this trans- 
cendent exercise. Sometimes, when thus he separated himself to intermeddle 
with all wisdom, I find him committing his thoughts, or some breviate of them, 
unto the durable custody of his papers; from which memoirs I will produce 
but an instance or two of many. 

August 16. iCS.'). 
' Med. about, the reason I have to love God; because of what he has been 
' to me, and what he is in himself. And 1 thongiit, is not God the best good? 

• Surely then he is worthy to be my last end? J las he not been shewing many 
' inercies to me } and what ! shall I not give up myself to live unto God, be- 
' cause of his goodness to me ? Much affected with the thoughts of these 

• things : and, I hojje, I closed with the motion.' 

. Again, October 1. 
' I meditated on that; if a man does intend to be truly religious, he m7isl 
' expect nothing but to save his soul? 

* But how can this be true ? 

■ Must I lose my body altogether ? 

• Must I be willing that the union between my body and sowZ should for- 
■ evermore be loosed ? 

'' Must 1 be willing to be forever without a body ? No, no. 

' All that the Lord requires of me, is, to have my body for a few days or 

• years {^fcw I say, for they cannot be many) to be wholly at the service of 
' my soul, and to be willing that the union between those two mates, then 
' should be dissolved ; the soul first taking its progress into everlasting bliss; 

• the body being laid in the dust, to rise at the resurrection, accompanying the 
' ,vy«/into its eternal felicity. 

' IMy present notion of this thing is this: 

' This di.ssnlidion of tlie union between the soul and body, is but a dis7nis- 
' A7'o« of the spirit into its happiness, after a wearisom conflict here. And as 

• long as it shall be best for me to be here, here I shall continue. Infinite Wis- 
' dnm is to be the orderer of this; and it will be a grievous and shameful re- 
' flection thereupon, for me to say, it will be better for me to live, than to dye, 
' at such a time when I an) called thereunto. 

' With my body 1 must expect to lose all the pleasant enjoyments of this 
' world, liberty, library, study and relations. But yet neither shall I lose 
"■ those. As for my liberty, by true religion, and by dying for it too, when 
' need requires, I shall gain the only liberty, even from the body of sin. 

' As iov my library, if I dyeybr Christ, or in the Lord, 1 shall have no need 
' of it. My understanding shall be enough enlarged, and I shall not need to 
' turn over books for learning. As for my study (my Paradice) I shall have a 
' l)ett«T, a larger, and a more compleat than this. 

' As f<.r my relations, those of them that are truly pious, I shall only go be- 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 143 

'/ore them; and if there should be any of them not^jows, the longer I should 
' stay with them here (if they continue impenitent) it would but make my grief 
more intolerable, to think when 1 leave them, that I shall have no hopes to 
■ see them again for ever. 

' But this is not all neither. 

' My bodi/ must be used as the sours instrument ; and here all that strength 
' and ease which I have, must be used for the soul : and truly there is reason 
' enough for it, that so there may be eternal happiness for botli together. 

< Intnarriagc, the husband and wife should have the same design. Would 
' it not be inhuman, for the one to have a design which tends to the ruiue of 
' the other ? Just so my sow/and body should have the same design ; and the 
' body being the more vile of tiie tico, should be subordinate to the soid. And 
^ it is a necessary disjunction, either the body, the strength, and ease, and meni- 
' bers of it, must be used for the good, or for the hurt of the soul; for there is 
* no medium here. 

' Let n)e then herein make my body useful to my sonl, in accomplishing all 
» xhe good designs oi li, vvliich it is capable of being iuteiested in. 

' Nor is there any thing else worth speaking of, that must be foregone, ex- 
' cept health, and the momentaneousness of all bodily torments, will make 
^ them very tolerable. 

' My resolutions be. 

' That I will not expect, by devoting myself unto the fear of God, to gain 
' any thing as to my body in this world. 

' That through the grace of Christ I will use the .strength, ease, and heaWt 
' of my body, yea, my whole body in subordination to my soul, in the service 
' of the Lord Jesus.' 

With such meditations as these, he kept melloiring of his own soul, and 
preparing it tor the state wherein /f«7rt is turned into sight. 

But there was yet a more rlelightful and surprizing way of thinking, after 
which he did aspire. He considereci, that the whole creation uas full of God ; 
and that there was not a leaf of grass in tiie field, wiiich miglit not make an 
observer to be sensible of the Lord. He apprehended tliat the idle ininutes v( 
our lives were many more than a short liver should allow : that tlie very 
filings of ^oW. and o{ time, were exceeding precious; and, tliat there vvere 
little fragments of hours intervening between our more stated businesses, 
wherein thoughts of God might be no less pleasant than frequent with lis. 

The elegant and excellent meditations of Sir William Waller had particu- 
larly affected him unto a commendable emulation of them ; and hence he did 
attempt to make even the more common and more trivial occurrents of hu- 
mane life, the occasions of great thoughts within him. He would with the 
chemistry o^ occasional reflections, distill sublime spirits from earthly bodies ; 
and from the view of mean things, fdl his nobly employed mind with Icssouh 
and prayers, which only the fafhcr of spirits was a witness to. 

Some of these his occasionnl reflections I find in his private papers ; and of 
one or two for a taste, I will bespeak the reader's acccplance. 

Jan. 8. A. M. 

' Being about to rise, I felt the cold in a manner extraordinary; which i'> 
' ciiu'd me to seek more warmth in my bed before I rose ; but so extream was 
' the cold, that this was not feasible: wherefore I resolved to dra^s myself 
' without any more ado; and so going to the fre in my cloaths, I soon be- 
^ came warm enough. 

• Turn this, my soul, into an uscAd meditation. There is a necesyity < ; 



144 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

' ni}' 7-ixiug out of my bed, the bed oi security wliicli I am under the power of, 

* and to Uve unto Christ, and to uialk in tlie light. 

' In order hereunto, I must put on my poor soul the garments which are to 
' be had from the Lord Jesus. To awaken me out of my sleep, and my secu- 
' rittj, I am to set before me tlie sun, the gospel of the sun of righteousness 
' doth enlighten my mind, and tell me, that I was before muflled up in 
' darkness; and that if I continued therein, I should starve and perish. 

* I am also taught, that when men are convinced of their miserable condi- 
' lion, they will rather endeavour to ease, and comfort and cherish them- 

* selves bv something in themselves, than put on the spiritual garments 
' which tlie Lord Jesus Christ has provided for them. An evil to be by 
' me avoided.' 

Again, another time. 
' Upon mater taken fVom the j^re, I saw a lulcewnrmness quickly seize ; 
' like the frame of spirit, whi'h many pretenders to religion have after a glo- 
' rious and atfectionate profession of it. Of this sort were some among the 
'' Laodiceans of old ; which is exceedingly displeasing to the Lord Jesus 
^ Christ : Whence it is that he sailh, T toiU spew thee out of my mozith- 
' Let me endeavour to beware of this hateful and odious iVaine of spirit : 
' and let the contrary thereto be my desire, niy endeavour.' 

Once more. 

'Among some gentlemen that were silting in a room illuminated with a 
' candle, one beginning to read unto us, there was another candle brought 
' unto him, for his assistance in it. Which afforded me such a meditation 
' as this : 

* That those who are to be teachers of others, have need of as much light 

* again as ordinary christians have. They, if any, need a double portion of 
Mhe gifts xWdi are in other men; and the helps of knowledge that other 
' persons have, the\' much more should be furnished withal. 

'It was not because they had better eyes than him whose office it was 

* to read, that they needed but one candlr, when he liad two provided for 
' him ; but the work inrun)heut on him, and expeclcd from him was the 
' ofcasion of it.' 

Rut I design little more than a confirmation with an illustration of my 
history, for which a touch or two upon every article will serve. I am now 
to add, that this young man had a principal regard unto the scriptures for 
the subjects of his meditations, iind he was very expensive of his thoughts 
on the Book of God. lie was daily digging in the sacred mines, and with 
delight he fetched tlience riches better than those of both the hidias ; and 
he could say, O how I love thy law.' it is my meditation every day ! 

Even in the time of his mortal sickness he was very angry at himself, if 
he had not heard a portion of the hible read unto him from day to day. 

Once when he was near his c\m\, a good part of a day having passM 
bi'fore he had enjoved his meid of scripture ; he said unto his sister with 
some Impatience, yllas., what an ungodly life do J lead! pray come and 
read my hible to me ; and r.nd me the forty ninth Ps(d/u. Ind<^ed he read 
the scrijitiu-e not cirrsorily, but very deliberately and considerately; and as 
an effect of his doing so, he coultl give such an account of the dijficultics in 
it, as the most not only of christians, but of divines too, would judge an 
attainment extraordinart/. Not long before he dyed, he had read over all 
the large and great Annotali'.ns on the bible, lately published by Mr. Pool, 
and some other INon-conforniist minislers; but having dispatched those two 
noble follows, he said unto one that was intimate with Ijim, Thus have I 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 145 

read the bible, but I have no?o learnt a. better way ! And that way was this. 
He would oblige himself in reading to fetch a note and di prayer out of every 
verse in all the bible ; to dwell upon every verse until it had afforded at 
least one observatiotii and one ejaculation to him. 

He imagined that an incredible deal both of truth and grace, would in 
this way make its impression upon his mind (besides what exercise of ivit it 
must have call'd for) and so most certainly it would have done ; but before 
he had made much progress in it, the chariots of God fetcht him away to 
that place, in which a Jesus is a bible to the there perfect spirits of the 
righteous. 

Such a thinking person was he ; and yet after so many kind of thoughts 
in the day, he could not rest a night quietly, unless he compos'd himself for 
sleeping by thinking a little more. 

He knew that no better a man than one of the moral heathens propounded 
a nocturnal self-examination, as a part and cause of no little wisdom, and 
that much more a sober christian should endeavour to maintain a good un- 
derstanding of himself, by such nightly recollections. Wherefore before 
the slumbers of the evening, this young man would put three general ques- 
tions to himself, with divers ^arffcM^ar ones that were subordinate thereunto. 
The questions were, 

Question 1. 

What has God's mercy to me been this day ? 

Here he considered what favours God had newly smll'd upon his inward, 
or his outward man withal. 

Question 2. 

What has my carriage to God been this day ? 

Here he considered what frames, and words, and works, and what snares 
and sins he had newly been concerned with. 

Question 3. 

If I dye this night, is my immortal spirit safe ? 

Of this he judged by his closure with God, as his best good, and last end, 
and with Christ as his prophet, and his priest, and his king, and by his 
resolution always to be a witness for the Lord, and an enemy to every sin : 
Tho' sometimes he would with a more large and long attention examine his 
own /topes of eternal happiness, for which purpose he had in writing by him, 
his bundles of marks and signs which testifie a man to be born of God. 
When he had thought on these things, he was able to lay himself down in 
peace and sleep ; but this was a way to keep a soul awake. 

I begin to suspect that my reader's patience is almost expir'd ; and there- 
fore I shall cause the remainder of this narrative to omit where it cannot 
contract, what is yet well worthy to be the matter of it. 

Fourthly, He was one that mortified and conquered the sins which were 
a vexation to him. There were some sins which gave to this 3'oung man 
a more violent and outragious disturbance than he could without much pas- 
sion bear : These did he contrive and conflict much in his oppositions to, 
and gave not over till he had a certain prospect of a victory. 

Of all the things which ever troubled him, I know not whether any were 
more grievous than the blasphemous injections which like fiery venemous 
darts inflam'd sometimes his very soul within him. 

It may be some testimony of sincerity, when persons are not a little af- 
flicted iov, as well as assaulted with, blasphemous imaginations about God ; 
which rise within us in contradiction to all that reverence of him, which we 
know not how to lay aside. 

This person on his death-bed complained to me, that Horrenda de Deo. 

VOL II. 19 



1 10 



MAGNALIA CHRIST!^ AMERICANA : [Book 



horrible conceptions of Gorf, buzzing about his mind, had been one of the bit- 
terest of all his trials ; and I find hh jjrivaie papers making sad lamentations 
over the inisorifs of this annoyance. You shall read how lie did eucounter 
these j^ewfZs, as one that was no stranger to the wars of the Lord. 

Once in his Diary, he says ; 

' Troubled exceedingly with blasphemous suggestions, my soul biceds at 
' the thoughts of them. 

'O that Christ would deliver me from them ! they make my life uupleas- 
' ant, I do believe that Satan never struggled so hard to keep any one from 
' Christ, as he has done to keep me .' 

* From hence T learn, 1. My great enmity to, 2. My great need of, the 

* Lord Jesus Christ.' 

At another time : 
' Troubled with blasphemous thoughts, I learn from hence, 
' 1. Seeing these would have me to entertain a low esteem of Christ and 

'God. 

' I will endeavour to have a more high and eminent esteem of God and 

' Christ. . 

' 2. Seeing these do so perplex me contimially, 

' I learn that I am unable of my self to raise good thoughts, much less to 

' perfi)rm good acts of obedience. I would be deeply humbled, that my soul 

' should be thus defied. . 

' Seeing, I have often so much experience and stirrings of enmity in my 

' soul to God, I would be excited thereby more heartily to cleave unto him.' 

Once more. 

' I hope I have now got strength over my blasphemous thovglds, after this 
' manner. 

' 1. Humbling my self under a sense of my own vileness and wretched>- 
' ness. 

' 2. Praying earnestly for the removal of the enmity that is in my soul to 
' the things of God ; especially as to this matter.' 

Thus discreetly did he manage the shield of faith against those barbed 
arrows of hell : Nor did his other corruptions escape the offensive, as well 
as the defensive weapons of his soul. 

Under the most furious of their assaults, I find this to be one of his hon- 
ourable ret> cats. 

' For the relief of my soul under the power of corruption ; let me by 
'faith apply these scri^ytures. 

' First, Ro}n. 6. 14. 

« Secondly, Ezek. 36. 26. 

' Thirdly, Mic. 7. 19. 

'Fourthly, Zee. 13. 1. 

« Besides Zee. 9- 12. Mat. l6. 18. John 12. 31. and Rotn. l6. 20. and 
' these considerations : 

' First, Christ is a complcat Redeemer, Ileb. J. 25. 1 John 1. 7- Heb. 
' 9. 14. 

' Secondly, God's infinite power is engaged on my behalf, if I be in 

* covenant with him. 

* Thirdly, God will perfect holiness where he hath begun it.' 

In such engagements as these against his invisible adversaries he contin' 
ued, until lie is now a conqueror, and more than a conqueror. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 14? 

Fifthly, He was one that wisely prepared for the changes that were 
before him. It is a remark in one of his papers : ' I think it convenient for 
'me to observe the temptations, I am, or shall he obnoxious unto, and get 
' suitable remedies against them.'' 

He seem'd indeed to have a strange presage of what he was to meet 
withal, and O how 'he laid in tiiat he might not he unprovided for it ! A 
prudence rarely seen among the children of men, whose misery is great upon 
them because they know not their time. 

There were especially two calamities which he had a fore-boding ot, dis- 
mal pain and early death. As for his pain, he was it seems to undergo 
exquisite anguishes, for many months before his dissolution ; but before ever 
it came upon him, how strangely did he fortifie himself against it ! He said 
in his diary some years before he left the world. 

Sept. 2. 

' I had not in the morning time enough for .solemn meditation : Great 
' deadness and dulness was in my heart, as to spiritual thoughts afterwards ; 
' the reason was, because I did not perform my solemn meditation as 1 
'should. 

' I had now apprehensions that I must midcrgo sore tryals and conflicts, 
' and great afflictions. 

' Wherefore it highly become me to get as great a measure of grace, as 
' the opportunities which I enjoy may afford, and therefore 1 purpose to be 
' more serious in my meditations, not omitting other duties therewithal. 

' I see my rcsoluVuins must every day be renewed, as to great diligence 
' in my serving God. 

' And since I must expect great aflictions, I mustniake it my daily work 
' by solemn meditation to go over the whole body of Christianity, and par- 
' ticularly to have daily thoughts on tlie condescention of Jesus Christ : I 
'must also endeavour to get a large measure of sanctified knowledge: 
<• wherefore, 

< First, There is need of earnest prayer ; and 

' Secondly, Of very holy walking. 

' Thirdly, Of entertaining the truth with gr(}atest affection; and 

' Fourthly, Looking on it as it is in Jesus ; and 

« Fifthly, Solemn meditation ; and 

' Sixthly, Much reading ; and 

' Seventhly, Living upon the truths wliich I know, and thankfulness for 
' the knowledge which I have already,' 

And at another- time there teas this tcritten in his diary. 

<■ This morning I meditated about a part of self denial ; namely, the denial 
« of bodily health, and of ease from torment. 

' My resolution was, that it was better to part hercwithal, than to sin. 
' I hope there is a thorough purpose in my heart to peiform accordingly, 
' when I shall be call'd thereunto. 

' I do feel the stirrings of self in my self this day : It would fain be in 
' the throne of God within me ; but I am resolved Christ sliall be my King.'' 

And as he thus put on the whole armour of God, that he might be able to^ 
stand when he should be tryed, so he found the benefit of it, v/hen he came 
into the f eld. Few in the world ever bore such dolours with such a silent 
and a quiet and composed temper as he. Some that were intimate with 
him, would say, He ims one of an iron patience, and they had rarely if 
ever seen Siich a patient pnUcnt. .But h'a. droih he see.m'd all along most 
careful to be readv for. 



148 MAGNALIA CIIRISTI AMERICANA : [Book iv. 

In his papers. 

Meditations on the four last things, was a title mentioning a .subject of his 
most soHcitoiis contemplations. Above three years before his translation, 
his diary hath such a note as tliis. 

' Speaking to day something concerning my commence- . , • j 

'meat, I was strangely surprized, and had many thoughts, l,^Q[J^^ceeived. 

* yea, perswasions, that I should not live till then. ' 

' Refl. What may be the import hereof I caimot toll ; yet T gather thus 
' much : That it is incumbent on me without further delay, to make my 
calling and election sure.' 

He hath also left behind him, some meditations tending to the exercise of 
repentance, and faith, and preparation for death, as he hath himself inti- 
tled theoi ; but the reader by this time will easily pardon my forbearing the 
communication of them. 

In(\ecd, preparation for death, in one word, contains the substance of 
what he had been doing divers years before the king of terrors took his clay 
house away. 

And as he was desirous to prepare for what passive obedience he might 
be put upon, so he was loath to have his heart not well ordered or furnished, 
when active obedience might be called for at his hands. Tho' he never liv'd 
to preach any other than some private sermons, yet he was not unthoughtful 
of the time when publick ones might be exjietted from him. It may not be 
unuseful for me to insert one of his mcdifntions here ; it runs in such terms 
as these. 

\\ Whether I should he a 7ninistcr ? 

' I considered all ohjections which persons might make against it, and 
' answered tiiem every one. But one objection startled me more than the 
' rest, to wit, personal unfitness, from my hebetude, or want of invention. 
' To which I ansvver'd, with minding that promise in Exod. 3. 12. Certain- 
' ly I will be tvith thee. And the beginning of ver. 1 8. They shall hearken to 
' thy voice. And where God finds work, there lie will give strength. I 
' likewise consid<Med 1 Chron. 28. 10, 20. and Mat. 28. 19, 20. and Jo.sh. 
<■ 1. <J. and J«f4>-. (■). 12, 14. 

'And then I thought with myself, that as for living in a remote part of 
' the country . I should he willing thereunto, if so 1 might do service for God, 
' and brin'j glory to his name. And whilst I v/as musing on these things, I 
'■ was mei.ed into a frame, that I thought heretofore I should never be in, 
' namely, humble submission to the good pleasure of God. however he should. 

• dispose of me. I knew, that though 1 were reproached for what meanness 
'I should this way l)e exposed unto, there is an answer in Rom. 1. l6. and 
' in Mark 8. 3S. and in Psal 31. 19- and in Prov. \G. 7- and in Psal. oj. 
' 5, 0. So we the Apostles, 1 Cor. 4 3, 9. If I serve Christ, God will hon- 
' our me, John 12. 26.' 

Every one must own, that however such things as these, in an old man. 
may be below our admiration ; yet in a young man, that out-lived not the 
years which the 7iodrs of the moon take to dispatch a revolution, they de- 
serve a /hi^'wo?-// among them that i»ay be edified by such exemplary prac- 
tices. Indeed, he was himself extreamly unsensible of the least worth or 
.fhin/^ adorning of him; and in his whole deportment he discovered a modest, 
an humble, and a reserved mein ; which might be reck'ned to bear little^^ro- 
portion with his other accomplisliments, were it not that the more gracious 
men are, the more humble they always are : and they are the fullest and 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 149 

richest ears of corn, which most hang down towards the ground. But while 
he in a sort wronged himself, to escape the bane and blame oi pride ; it is a 
piece oi pure justice in the survivers, to embalm tlie name of a person thus 
desirable, since he is gone thither where he has no chuff to take fire at the 
sparks of our praises. 

Sic oculos, sic ille matius, sic oraferehat? 

Such a young man as this it is, that the church of God is now deprived 
of! What a blessing mifflit his Hving have proved unto the world ! But as the 
long-liv''d patriarchs, before the flood, have still that clause introduced of 
them, and he dyed ; wnich clause awakened and converted a person of qual- 
ity, who came in occasionally while the minister was reading the fifth chap- 
ter of Genesis to the congregation ; so must I now say of the short liv'd 
person, wiiom we have been paying our last respect unto, he lived thus lovf^ 
in a little time, and he died. 

Before I break ofi" I must relate, 

III. His DEATH. 

Too soon and too sad a thing for me to mention without sighing, ah my 
brother, in my lamentation over it. He had contracted an universal /'// habit 
of body ; which was attended with a particular generation of ill humours, 
where the Oi 7/fo« and Os Sacrum ]o\\\ ; from whence it tell into his thigh, 
until there was a very large collection of it there. 

There was an incision, with mature advice made into the tumour, about a 
month before his expiration, which gave good hopes of his recovery into a 
capacity of serving the church of God ; but the circulation, wiiich was now 
given unto i\w putrid juices which his blood, through his continual and se- 
dentary studies, had been annoyed withal, soon enkindled a fever, which 
burnt asunder the thread of this pious life. 

One might suppose, that such a walk with God, as the reader has newly 
had pourtrayed before him, should end in raptures and extasies oi' assurance ; 
but I am to tell him, that this young person had them not. And there want- 
ed not reason for it. For his natural distetnper disposed him to what i.^ 
contrary to joy ; but his deep humility had a greater share in the jealousies- 
and suspicions which he would still cherish of himself. lie was indeed so 
afraid of being an hypocrite, and he would scarce allow himself to be called 
a Christian, and he did not care so much as to tell any of his own experien- 
ces, no, nor his inclinations, unless to one or two divines, who kindly refresh- 
ed him with their daily visits ; and with them too he would uphold his dis- 
course only in Latin, if any one else were by. 

Never did I see more caution against hypocrisie, than what was in him ; 
and a certain self-abhorrence accompanying of it, caused to proceed fron> 
him no expressions, but those of an abased soul. When his brother having 
recited the terms of the gospel to him, with a design to obtain for him a re- 
newal of his explicit coiucnt thereunto, asked him, Whether he did not 
judge himself sincere in that consent? He only replied, I should think so, 
if it were not for the serentecnihof Jcrarnhh, and the ninth. 

He was dejected, yet not despairing ; and he discovered a wonderfidly 
gracious, when he had not k joyful frame \ He was all made up of longings 
and breatiiings after all the fulness of God, w hen he could not or would no? 
pretend unto any confidence of his acceptance with the {.ord 

In the time of his health, he had not been without ihe comfortable perswa- 



150 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book iv. 

sions for which \\e folloici'd hard after God. In one place, I find him sayinij 
(on such a day) / had fear lest I should not love the blessed God; but yet 1 
was sure I desired to Icrep liis comviandments. Another lime so ; for three 
quarters an hour, I pleaded earnestly for assurance of the love of God 
unto me, and I said, as many as received Christ Jesus, to them he gave 
power to become tlie sons of God ; and I did receive Jesus Christ, as the 
free gift of God, and received him to save me on his oion terms : I chose 
him to be my pries!, and prophet, and king. Now I begged of him that he 
would manifest his (arrptance of me, and give me the spirit of adoption : 1 
had then. I hope, som" assurance. But when sickness came, lie was loth to 
own a clear title tu flie rest of God : Yet before he died, he suffered some 
sober intimations of his hopi^Xo fall from him. There was a ^rood man in 
this land, whoso last words yet were, it had been good for me that 1 had never 
been born. 'I'he words of this humble self-loathing young man were of an- 
f^ther strain. In the last night, that we had him with us, he would have his 
watcher to read, the song of Simeon, unto him, nmv lettest thou thy servant 
depart in peace : and in the morning after, he said, I have mm been with 
Jesus Christ/ which, t'ron) such a little speaker as he, we could not have his 
'•xplication of. 

In one of his last minutes, a faithful minister said unto him, fnd you not 
iomfort in the Lord Jesus Christ f To which he made only this discreet and 
humble answer, i endeavour to those things which will issue in comfort; 
and tiien he quickly surrendered up his redeemed and renewed soul unto him 
who had loved him, and washed away his sins in his own blood. 

Thus he went away to the heavenly society, where he is beholding the 
face of God in righteousness, and solacing himself in the company not only 
of his blessed grandfathers and nyicles, and all the spirits of the just ; but of 
the amiable Jesus himself, which is hy far the best of all. His tears are all 
dried up. Wis fears vanished away, and his hopes more than answered mjoys 
unspeakable and full of glory. 

His elder brother having thus written of him, now satisfies himself in the 
duty therein done to God and man; and would keep waiting for his own 
change, until thy free grace, O my God, shall give unto the most miserable 
ainner in the world, an admission into Emmannuel's land. 

Cotton Mather. 

<-)ne that had an acquaintance with him, did him the justice of weeping over 
his grave such an epitaph as this. 

Inclosed in tins sable chest. 

The host once (f an heavenly guest 

Here lies : upright Nathanael, 

f'rne off-spring of (jod's Israel. 

Him dead, how term we, from his birth. 

fl'lio liv'd in heaven whilst on earth f 

/lis hear! harl learning's magazine, 

His heart flte altar whence divine 

IV/iole hecatombs, w/rich love had fir' d 

Of high praise, and ir arm pray'r aspir'd. 

Iiis\\\v, ///p fit'caloguo unfolded, 

d meat-off'ring, ///x speech well moulded ; 

/lis rare devotion, such now seta. 

A siirn <>/■ iiinetv r// niiietc^en. 



Book IV.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. i.^l 

Years but in bloom, grace at full growth 
Angels, you know and think his worth. 
Thus time, youth's glass, turn'd e're 'twas run, 
And ages too, before begun. 

Rest, glorious dust, aiid let thy perfum'd name 
Sound in the trumpets of immortal fame. 
For tho' times teeth Mausolisan monuments deface. 
They'll never gnaw thy name which with the stars has place. 

Posuit, R. H. 

Unto which we will add another borrowed from another. 

Siccine, Nathanael, properas ad ccelica ? Mentes Calestes fractal non 

bene Terra: sapis. 

FINIS. 



ACTS AND MONUMENTS 

THE 

FIFTH BOOK 

OF THE 

IN FOUR PARTS. 

CONTAINING 

THE FAITH AND THE ORDER 

IN THE 

CRIIUCH^ES OF ^*¥.W-^XGliaXl>v - 

AGREED BY THE - 
ELDERS AND MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES ASSEMBLED IN SYNODS 

WITH 

HISTORICAL REMARKS 

UPON ALL THOSE VENERABLE ASSEMBLIES. 

.iXD A GREAT VARin;TY OF OTHER CHURCH CASES, OCCURRING AND 
RESOLVED IN THESE AMERICAN CHURCHES. 



AUREA PERPETUji SEMPER DIGMSSIMA VITA. 

COMPILED BY 

COTTON MATHER. 



Non debemus nos de Regimine Ecclesice quicquam asserere qitod ex Humanis 

Rationibus viderctur asserendum, sed id quod ipso facto est a CJiristo 

Institntmn, et in Ecclesia nb ipsius Fundaiione ohsprvotum 

A. Spalatensis. de R. pub. Eccles. 

VOL II. 20 



THE FIFTH BOOK. 
SYNQDICON AMERICANUM. 

THE FIRST PART. 

The Faith professed by the Churches of Neio-En gland. 

Periculosum nobis ac misemhile est, tot fides existere quot voluntates, ei tot 
nobis doctrinus esse, quot wores.— Hilar. 

§. 1. It was once an unrighteous and injurious aspersion cast upon the 
churches of New-England, that the ivorld knew not their principles : whereas 
tiiey took all the occasions imaginable to make all the woild know, that in the 
doctrinal part of religion, they have agreed entirely zvith the reformed 
churches of Europe : and that they desired most particularly to maintain the 
faith professed by the churches of Old England, the country whereto was 
owing their original. Few pastors of mankind ever took such pains at cate- 
chising, us have been taken by ouv Neiv-English divines: now let any man 
living read the most judicious and elaborate catechisms published, a lesser and 
a larger by Mr. Norton, a lesser and a larger by Mr. Mather, several by Mr. 
Cotton, one by Mr. Davenport, one by Mr. Stone, one by Mr. Norris,oue by 
Mr. Noyes, one by Mr. Fisk, several by Mr. Eliot, one by Mr. Sea-born Cot- 
ton, a large one by Mr. Fitch ; and say, whether true divinity were ever bet- 
ter handled ; or whether they were not the truest sons of the church of Eng- 
land, who thus maintained its fundamental articles, which are so many of 
them first subscribed, and then denyed and confuted by some that would 
monopolize that name unto themselves : but as a further demonstration here- 
of, when there was a synoc? assembled at Cambridge, Sept. 30. 1648. even 
that 5?/«o(/ which framed, agreed and published, the platform of church disci- 
pline, there was a most unanimous vote passed in these words; this synod 
having perused and considered (icith much gladness of heart and thankful- 
ness to God) the confession of faith, published by the late reverend assembly 
in England, do judge it to be very holy, orthodox and judicious, in all mat- 
ters of faith, and do therefore freely and fully consent thereunto for the 
substance thereof Only in those things ivhich have respect to church-govern- 
ment and discipline, we refer ourselves to the platform of church-discipline, 
agreed upon by this present assembly : and ice do therefore think it meet, 
that this confession of faith, should be commended to the churches of Christ 
among us, and to the honoured court, as worthy of their due consideration 
and acceptance. This vote was passed by the ministers and messengers of the 
churches, in that venerable assembly, when the government recommended un- 
to their consideration, a confession of faith, as one thing, which the trans- 
marine churches ex[)ectec\ (vom them. And they hoped, that this proof of 
them being fellow heirs of the same common salvation, with the churches 
beyond sea, would not only Iree them from the suspicion oi heresie, but clear 
them from the character of schism ?iho; in as much as their dissent from 
those churches, was now evidently but in some lesser matters oi ecclesiastical 
polity ; and a dissent not managed either with such arrogancy or censori- 
ousness, as are the essential properties of schismatic.ks. 



155 MAGNALIA CHRIST! AMERICANA : [Book v. 

§. 2. As to r.iaJce a confession of faith, is a duty wherein all Christianf; 
are to be made confessors ; and multitudes of 'em have been made martyrs ; 
thus to lorite a confession of faith, is a work which the faithful in all ages 
have approved and |)ractised, as most singularly profitable. The confessions 
thus emitted by such worthies as Irencmis and Athanasius formerly, and Bc- 
za, as well as others more lately, have been of signal advantage to the church 
ol God: but when many churches do join together in such confessions, the 
testimony born to the truth of God, is yet more glorious and eft'ectual. How 
remarkably the confessions of the tour general conneils, were owned for the 
suppression of the heresies then spawned, is well known to ail that have set 
foot but as tar as the threshold of church-history ; and surely th? fabulous 
viusic/c of the spheres, cannot be supposed more delicious than that harmony. 
which is to be seen in the confessions of the reformed churches, that have 
therefore been together published. Wherefore, besides the vote of the ISeiP- 
England churches, for a concurrence with the confession of faith made b\ 
tiie assembly at IVestminster, a synod assembled at Boston, May 12.1680. 
whereof Mr. Increase Mather was moderator, consulted and considered, what 
was further to be done for such a confession. Accordingly, the confession oj 
faith consented by the congregational churches o( England in a synod mc{ at 
the Savoy ; which, excepting a kw variations, was the same with what was 
agreed by the reverend assembly at Westminster, and afterwards by the 
general assembly of Scotland ; was twice publickly read, examined and ap- 
proved ; and some small variations made from that of the Savoy in compli- 
ance with that at Westminster : and so, after such collations, but no conten- 
tio7is, voted and printed, as \\w faith of JSew-Ev gland But they chose to ex- 
press themselves in the words of those assemblies ; that so (as they speak in 
their preface) u>e might not only with one heart, hut wit-! one mouth, glorific 
God and our Lord Jesus Christ. 

§. 3. It is true, that particular churches in the country have had their cow- 
fessions by themselves drawn up in their own form ; nor indeed were the 
symbols in the most primitive times always delivered in ipsissinms verbis. It 
is also true, that few /earned men have been admitted as members of our 
churches, but what have, at their admissions, entertained them with notable 
confessions of their own composing ; insomuch, that if the j^fotestants have 
been by the papLsts call'd confessionisfs, the protestants of Neio-England 
have, of all, given the most laudable occasion to bq called so. ISevertlieless, 
all this variety has been the exactest unity : all those confessio7is have been 
but so many derivations from, and explications and confirmations of, that 
cotfession, which the synods had voted tor them all ; for, ut plures rivuli, ah 
lino fonte, itu plures fidti confessiones ab una eademq : fidei vcritafe, ma- 
nare possunt. Now x\\iv\. good confession remains to be e.\hibit(Mi. 

Reader, 'tis a memorable passajie, that is lelated by Rn^itus in his ecele- 
siasiical history, that a pagan philosopher, in a pubiick disputation, evaded 
and rejected the most powerful arguments Ibr christiauity, brought by the 
niost Learned christians in the assembly : until an honest elder of one of the 
churches, but of abilities which were so much inferior to the rest, that the rest 
were afraid and sorry to sec his undertaking, did undeitake to silence him- 
This honest man, after this niiumer addressed the adversary: ' In the name 
of the Lord Jesus Christ, ' I require you to hear tlie truth : there is but one 
• God, who made the heavens and the earth, and hath fonvicd man of the 
' du.si thereof, with an immortal soul inspired into him : he, by his word and 
' [lower brought forth this whole creation, and sanctiiies us by his Holy 
' Spirit : and he, who is the wd-d, whom we own to be the Son of God, tak- 
■ iug compassion on fallen man, hath become a man : he was born of a virgin, 



Book v.J OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 157 

* and by suffering, even to death, for us he hath delivered ns from eternal 
' death, and by his resurrection he hath made sure of life eternal for us. Him 

* we look for again to be the Judge of the world : bplievest thou this, O plii- 
' losopher ?' The man found himself thunder-struck, into a more than ordi- 
nary consternation at this discourse, and cry'd out, I believe it, I confcas it ! 
Whereupon the holy man said, then follow me, and be baptised. He did so, 
and unto his party then present he said, while I had to do with the words of 
men, I could oppose words unto them : but when I felt a power from God, I 
could not resist it. I find that man cannot oppose himself to God. 

Our ecclesiastical history shall now give a plain and pure confession of 
our faith. May the reader now find an irresistible ^oe^jer of God, and of grace 
irradiating his mind, with all satifaction in it. 'Tis composed of things, 
which as Chrysostom speaks, t»v iiXiamv axTimv (pavsparrepctj clearer than the 
beams of the sun. 



A Confession of Faith ; owned and consented to, by the elders and mes- 
sengers of the churches, assembled at Boston in New-Engla?)d, Mat/ 12 
l6bO. Being the second session of that Synod. 

CHAP. I. 

Of the Holy Scriptures. 

I. Although the light of nature, and the works of creation and providence 
do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom and power of God, as to leave men 
inexcusable; yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God and of 
his will, which is necessary unto salvation : therefore it pleased the Lord, at 
sundry times, and in divers manners to reveal himself, and to declare that his 
will unto his church ; and afterwards for the better preserving and propa- 
gating of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the 
churcii against the corruption of the flesh, and the malice of satan, and of the 
world, to commit the same wholly to writing : which maketh the holy scrip- 
ture to be most necessary ; those former ways of God's revealing his will un- 
to his people being now ceased. 

H. Under the name of Holy Scripture, or the Word of God written, are 
now contained all tlie books of the Old and New Testament, which ar these : 

Of the Old Testament. 

Geyiesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 
Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 CJironicIes, 2 Chronicles. 
Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Fsalms, Proverbs, Ecc/esiastes, The Song of 
Songs, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hnsea, Joel, Amos, 
Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahiw), Habakkuk, Zephaninh. Haggai, Zechari- 
ah, Maluchi. 

Of the New Testament. 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, The Acts of the Apostles, Paurs Epistle to 
the Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galations, Ephesians, Philippi- 
ans, Colossia7ts, 1 Thessalonians, 2 'Vhessaionians, 1 To Timothy, 2 To Tim- 
othy. To Titits. To Philemon, 'The Epistle to the Hehrrws, The Epistle of 



158 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

James, the first and second Epistles of Peter, The first, second and third 
Epistles of John, The Epistle of Jude. The Revelation. 

All which arc given by the inspiration of God to be the rule of faith and 
life. 

III. The books commonly called ^pocrypAa, not being of divine inspira- 
tion, are no part of t\w canon of scripture; and therefore are of no authority 
in the church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved or made use of than 
other humane writings. 

IV. The authority of the holy scripture, for which it ought to be believed 
anil obeyed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or church, but 
wholly upon God (who is truth itself) the author thereof; and therefore, it is 
to be received because it is the word of God. 

V. We maybe moved and induced by the testimony of the church, to an 
high and'reverend esteem of the holy scripture. And the heavenliness of the 
matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style, the consent of all 
the parts, tiie scope of the whole (which is to give all the glory to God) the 
full discovery it makes of the only way of man's salvation, the many other in- 
comparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof are arguments, 
whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the word of God ; yet not- 
withstanding our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and di- 
vine authority thereof, is from tiie inward work of the Holy Spirit, bearing 
witness by and with the word in our hearts. 

VI. The whole counsel of God concerning all things necessary for his own 
glory, man's salvation, faith and life, is either expressly set down in scripture, 
or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from scripture; untc 
which nothing, at any time, is to be added, whether by new revelations of the 
Spirit, or traditions of men. Nevertheless, we acknowledge the inward illu- 
minations of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of 
such things as are revealed in the word : and that there are some circumstan- 
ces concerning the worship of God and government of the church, commot; 
to humane actions and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of nature 
and Christian prudence, according to the general rules of the word, which 
are always to be observed. 

VII. All things in scrii)ture, are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike 
clear unto all ; yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed 
and observed for salvation, are so clearly propounded and opened in some 
place of scripture, or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a 
due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of 
them. 

VIII. The Old Testament in Hebrew, (which was the native language of 
the people of Goil of old) and the New Testament in Greek, (which at the 
time of writing of it, was most generally known to the nations) being immedi- 
ately inspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in 
all ages, are therefore autiientical ; so as in all controversies of religion the 
church is finally to apperd unto them. But because these original tongues are 
not known to all the people of God, who have right unto, and interest in tht 
scriptures, and are commanded in the fear of God to read and search them : 
therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation in- 
to whici) they come, that the word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may 
worship him in an acceptable manner, and through patience and comfort c! 
the scripture may have help. 

IX. Tiie infallible rule of interpretation of scripture, is the scripture itself : 
and therefore when there is a question about the true and full sense of an^ 
scripture (which is not manifold, but one) it must be searched and known by 
other places tiiat speak more dearly. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND 159 

X. The Supreme Judge, by which all controversies of religion are to be 
determined, and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines 
of men, and private spirits, are to be examined, and in whose sentf-nce we are 
to rest, can be no other, but the holy scripture delivered by the Spirit ; into 
which scripture so delivered our faith is finally resolved. 



CHAP. n. 

Of God and the Holy Trinity. 

I. There is but one only living and true God ; who is infinite in being 
and perfection, a most pure Spirit, invisible without body, parts or passions, 
immutable, immense, eternal, incomprehensible, almighty, most wise, most 
holy, most free, most absolute, working all things according to the counsel of 
his own immutable and most righteous will, for his own glory ; most loving, 
gracious, merciful, long-sufiering, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving 
iniquity, transgression and sin ; the rewarder of them that diligently seek him ; 
and withal most just and terrible in his judgments, hating all sin, and who 
will by no means clear the guilty. 

n. God hath all life, glory, goodness, blessedness, in and of himself; and 
is alone in and unto himself, all sufficient ; not standing in need of any crea- 
tures which he hath made, nor deriving any glory from them, but only mani- 
festing his own glory in, by, unto, and upon them. He is the alone fountain 
of all beings ; of whom, through whom, and to whom are all things ; and hath 
most sovereign dominion over them, for them and upon them, whatsoever 
himself pleaseth : in his sight all things are open and manifest; his knowl- 
edge is infinite, infallible and independant upon the creature, so as nothing is 
to him contingent or uncertain. He is most holy in all bis counsels, in all his 
works, and in all his commands. To him is due from angels and men, and 
every other creature, whatsoever worship, service or obedience, as creatures 
they owe unto the creator, and whatever he is further pleased to require of 
them. 

HI. In the unity of the God-head, there be three persons, of one sub- 
stance, power and eternity, God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy 
Ghost ; the Father is of none, neither begotten nor proceeding ; the Son is 
eternally begotten of the Father ; the Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from 
the Father and the Son. Which doctrine of the Tiinity is the foundation of 
all our communion with God and comfortable dependence upon him. 



CHAP. HI. 

Of God's Eternal Decree. 

I. God from all eternity did by the most wise and holy counsel of his own 
■will, freely, and unchangeably ordain, whatsoever comes to pass ; yet so, as 
thereby neither is God the author of sin, nor is violence offered unto the will 
of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken 
away, but rather established. 

II. Although God knows whatsoever may or can come to pass upon all 
supposed conditions, yet he hath not decreed any thing because he foresaw it; 
as future, or as that which would come to pass upon such conditions. 



I6u IMAGNALTA CHRISTI AMERICANA: ['Book v. 

III. By the decree of God, for the manifestation of bis glory, some men 
and angels are predestinated nnto everlasting life, and others fore-ordained 
unto everlasting death. 

IV. These angels and men thus predestinated and fore-ordained, are par- 
ticularly and unchangeably designed, and their number is so certain and defi- 
nite that it cannot be either increased or diminished. 

V. Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life. God before the 
foundation of the world was laid, according to his eternal and immutable 
purpose, and the secret counsel, and good pleasure of his will, hath chosen 
in Christ unto everlasting glory, out of his meer free-grace and love, without 
any foresight of faith or good works, or perseverance in either of them, or 
any other thing in the creature, as conditions'or causes moving him thereunto, 
and all to the praise of his glorious grace. 

VT. As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so hath he by the eter- 
nal and most free purpose of his will, fore-ordained all the means thereunto: 
wherefore they who are elected being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by 
Christ, are effectually called unto faith in ('hrist by his spirit working in due 
season, are justified, adopted, sanclificd, and kept by his power through faith 
unto salvation. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, or eflectually 
called- justified, adopted, sanctified and saved, but the elect only. 

VII. The rest of mankiiui, (iod was pleased according to the unsearchable 
counsel of his own will, whereby he extendeth or wifhhnldcth mercy, as he 
pleaseth, lor the glory of his Sovereign Power over his creatures, to pass by, 
and to ordain them to dishonour and wrath, for their sin, to the praise of his 
glorious justice. 

VIII. The doctrine of this high mystery of predestination, is to be hand- 
led with special prudence and care, that men attending the will of God re- 
vealed in his word, and yielding obedience thereunto, may from the certainty 
of their effectual vocation be assured of their eternal election. 

So shall this doctrine afford matter of praise, reverence and admiration of 
God, and of humility, diligence and abundant consolation to all that sincerely 
obey the gospel. 



CHAP. IV. 

Of Creatiov. 

I. It pleased God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, for the manifestation 
of the glory of his eternal power, wisdom and goodness in the beginning, io 
create or make of nothing the world and all things therein, whether visible or 
invisible, in the space of six days, and all very good. 

II. After God had innde all other creatures, lie created man male and fe- 
male, with reasonable and immortal souls, endued with knowledge, righteous- 
ness and true holiness after his own image, having the law of God written in 
their heart, anil [)owerto fulfil it ; and yet under a possibility of transgressing, 
being left to the liberty of their own will, which was subject to change. Be- 
sides this law written in their hearts, they received a command not to cat of 
the tree of the knowledge of good and evil ; which whiles they kept, they 
were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion over the crea- 
tures. 



Hook v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAI^B. l6l 

CHAP. V. 

Of Providence. 

1. God tiie great creator of all things, doth uphold, direct dispose and gov- 
ern all creatures, actions and things, from the greatest even to the least, by 
his most wise and holy Providence, according to his infallible foreknowledge, 
and the free immutable counsel of his own will to the praise of the glory of 
his wisdom, power, justice, goodness and mercy. 

n. Although in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of God, the first 
cause, all things come to pass immutably and infallibly, yet by the same Prov- 
idence he ordereth them to fall out, according to the nature uf second causes, 
either necessarily, freely, or contingently. 

HI. God in his ordinary Providence, maketh use of means, yet is free to 
work without, above and against them at his pleasure. 

IV. The Almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and the infinite goodness 
of God, so far manifest themselves in his Providence, in that his determinate 
counsel extendeth itself, even to tiie first fall and all other sins of angels and 
men, (and that not by a bare permission) which also, he most wisely and 
powerfully boundeth, and otherwise ordereth and governeth in a manifold 
dispensation, to his own most holy ends, yet so as the sinfulness thereof pro- 
ceedeth only from the creature, and not from God, who being most holy and 
righteous, neither is, nor can be the author or approver of sin. 

V. The most wise, righteous and gracious God doth oftentimes leave for 
a season his own children to manifold temptations, and the corruption of their 
own hearts, to chastise them for their former sins, or to discover unto them 
the hidden strength of corruption, and dec* itfulness of their hearts, that they 
may be humbled, and to raise them to a more close and constant dependance 
for their support upon himself, and to make them more watchful against all 
future occasions of sin, and for sundry other just and holy ends. 

VI. As for those wicked and ungodly men, whom God as a righteous judge, 
for former sins, doth blind and harden, from them, he not only withholdeth 
his grace, whereby they might have been enlightened in their understandings, 
and wrought upon in their hearts ; but sometimes also withdraweth the gifts 
which they had, and exposeth themlo such objects, as their corruption makes 
occasions of sin ; and withal gives them over to their own lusts, the tempta- 
tions of the world, and the power of satan, whereby it comes to pass that they 
harden themselves, even under those means, which God useth for the soften- 
ing of others. 

VTI. As the providence of God doih in general reach to all creatures, so 
after a most special manner, it taketh care of his church, and disposeth all 
things for the good thereof. 



CHAP. VI. 

Of the fall of man : of sin, and of the punishment thereof. 

I. God having made a covenant of works and life thereupon, with our 
first parents, and all their posterity in them, they being seduced by the subtil- 
ty and temptation of satan, did wilfully transgress the law of their creation, 
and break the covenant in eating the forbidden fruit. 
VQL. n. ?.'. 



162 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

II. By this sin, they and we in them, fell from original righteousness and 
communion with God, and so became dead in sin, and wholly defiled in all 
the faculties and parts of soul and body. 

III. They being the root, and by God's appointment standing in the room 
and stead of all mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed, and corrupted 
nature conveyed to all their posterity descending from them by ordinary gen- 
eration. 

IV. From this original corruption, whereby we are utterly indisposed, dis- 
abled and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil, do pro- 
ceed all actual transgressions. 

V. This corruption of nature, during this life doth remain in those that 
are regenerated ; and altho' it be, through Christ, pardoned and mortified, 
)'et both itself and all the motions thereof are truly and properly sin. 

\ I. Every sin both original and actual being a transgression of the right= 
eouslaw of God, and contrary thereunto, doth, in its own nature, bring guilt 
upon the sinner, whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God and the 
curse of the law, and so made subject to death, with all miseries spiritual, 
temporal and eternal. 



CHAP. VII. 

Of God's Covenant with man. 

T. The distance between God and the creature is so great, that although 
reasonable cieatures do owe obedience to him aa their creator, yet they could 
never have attained the reward of life, but by some voluntary condescension 
on God's part, which he hath been pleased to express by way of covenant. 

II. The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein 
life w as promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity, upon condition of per- 
fect and personal obedience. 

III. Man by his fall having made himself uncapable of life by that cove- 
nant, the Lord was pleased to make a second, commonly call'd the covenant 
of grace; wherein he freely ofl'ereth unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus 
Christ, requiring of them faith in him, that they may be saved, and promis- 
ing to give unto all those that are ordained unto life, his holy spirit to make 
them willing and able to believe. 

IV. This covenant of grace is frequently set forth in scripture, by the 
name of a Testamrnt, in reference to the death of .Tesus Christ, the testator, 
and to the everlasting inheritance, with all things belonging to it, thierein be- 
queathed. 

V. Although this covenant hath been differently, and variously adminis- 
tered, in respect of ordinances and institutions in the time of the law, and 
since the coming of (Jhrist in the flesh ; yet for the substance and eflicacy ot 
it, to all its spiritual atid saving ends, it is one and the same ; upon the account 
of which various dispensations it is called the Old and ISew Testament. 



Book v,] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. l63 

CHAP. vni. 

Of Christ the Mediator. 

I. It pleased God in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the 
Lord Jesus his only begolton Son, according to a covenant made between 
them both, to be the mediator between God and man : The Prophet, Pries^ 
and King, the Head and Saviour of his Church, the Heir of all things, and 
Judge of the world, unto whom he did from all eternity give a people to 
be his seed, and to be by him^ in time, redeemed, called, justified, sanctifyed 
and glorified. 

II. The Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, being very and 
eternal God, of one substance, and equal with the father, did, when the 
fulness of time was come, take upon him man's nature with all the essential 
properties and common infirmities thereof, yet without sin, being con- 
ceived by the power of the Holy Ghost in the womb of the Virgin Ma- 
ry of her substance : So that two whole perfect and distinct natures, the 
Godhead and the Manhood were inseparably joined together in one person 
without conversion, composition or confusion ; which person is very God 
and very Man, yet one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man. 

III. The Lord Jesus in his humane nature, thus united to the divine, in the 
person of the Son, was sanctified and annointed with the Holy Spirit above 
measure, having in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, in whom 
it pleased the father that all fulness should dwell, to the end that being holy, 
harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth, he might be thoroughly fur- 
nished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety, which office he took not 
unto himself; but was thereunto called by his Father, who also put all pow- 
er and judgement into his hand, and gave him commandment to execute the 
same. 

IV. This office the Lord Jesus Christ did most willingly undertake ; 
which that he might discharge, he was made under the Law, and did perfect- 
ly fulfil it, and underwent the punishment due to us, which we should have 
borne and suffered, being made sin and a curse for us, enduring most grevious 
torments immediately from God in his soul, and most painful sufferings in his 
body, was crucified and died, was buried, and remained under the power of 
death, yet saw no corruption ; on the third day he arose from the dead with 
the same body, in which he suffered, with which also he ascended into Heav- 
en, and there sitteth at the right hand of his Father, making intercession, and 
shall return to judge men and angels at the end of the world. 

V. The Lord Jesus by his perfect obedience, and sacrifice of himself, which 
he, tiirough the Eternal Spirit, once offered up unto God, hath full} satis- 
fied the Justice of God, and purchased not only reconciliation, but an ever- 
lasting inheritance in the kingdom of Heaven, for all those whom the father 
hath given unto him. 

VI. Although the Work of Redemption was not actually wrought by 
Christ, till after his incarnation, yet the virtue, etiicacy and benefits thereof, 
were communicated unto the elect in all ages successively from the begia~ 
ning of the world, in and by those promises, types and sacrifices, wherein he 
was revealed and signified to be the seed of the Woman, which should bruise 
the Serpent's head, and the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world, be- 
Jng yesterday d,n6 to dny the parae, and for ever. 



164 MAGJN ALIA CHRISTr AMERICANA: [Book v. 

VII. Christ in the work of mediation acteth according to both natures, by 
eacli nature doins; that which is proper to itself; yet by reason of the unity 
of the person, that which is proper to one nature is sometimes in Scripture, 
attributed unto the person denominated by the other nature. 

VIII. To all those for whom Christ has purchased redemption, he doth 
cerlainlv and effectually apply and communicate the same, making interces- 
sion for them, and revealing unto them in and by the word, the mysteries of 
salvation, efiectnolly perswading them by his spirit, to believe and obey, and 
governing their heart, by his word and spirit, overcoming all their enemies, 
by his Almighty power and wisdom, in such manner and ways, as are nio«t 
consonant to his wonderful and unsearchable dispensation. 



CHAP. IX. 
Of Free- Will. 

I. God hath endued the will of man with that natural liberty and power of 
acting upon choice, that it is neither forced, nor, by any absolute necessity of 
nature, determined to do good or evil. 

II. Man in his state of innocency had freedom and power to will and to 
do that which was well pleasing to God; but yet mutably, so that he might 
fall from it. 

III. JMan by his fail into a state of sin, hath wholly lost all ability of will 
to any spiritual good, accompanying salvation, so as a natural man being al- 
together averse from that good, and dead in sin, is not able by his own 
strength to convert himself or to prepare himself thereunto. 

IV. When God converts a sinner, and translates him into the state of 
grace, he freeth him from his natural bondage under sin, and by his grace 
alone enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good ; yet 
oo, as that, by reason of his remaining corruption, he doth not perfectly 
nor only will that which is good, but doth that which is also evil. 

V. The will of man is made perfectly and inmiutably free to good alone, 
in the state of glory only. 



CHAP. X. 

Of Effectual Calling. 

1. All those whotn God hath praedestinated unto life, and those only, 
lie is pleased in his appointed and accepted time eflectually to call by his 
word and spirit, out of that state of sin and death, in which they are by na- 
ture, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ, inlightening their minds spiritu- 
ally and savingly to understand the things of God, taking away their heart of 
stone, and giving unto them an heart of flesh, renewing their wills, and by his 
Almighty power determining them to that which is good, and effectually 
drawing them to Jesus Christ : Yet so, as they come most freely, being made 
willing by hh grace. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. i65 

IT. This effectual call is God's free and special grace alone, not from any 
ihinf at all foreseen in man, who is altogetlier passive therein, until being 
quickned and renewed by the holy spirit he is thereby enabled to answer this 
call and to embrace the grace oflered and conveyed in it. 

III. Elect infants dying in infancy, are regenerated and saved by Christ, 
who vvorketh when and where, and how he pleascth: So also are all other 
elect persons, who are uncapable of being outwardly called by the ministry 
of the word. 

IV. Others not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of the 
word, and may have some common operations of the spirit, yet not being ef- 
fectually drawn by their father ; they neither do nor can come unto Christ, and 
therefore cannot be saved ; much less can men ; not professing the christian 
religion, be saved in any other way whatsoever, be they never so diligent to 
frame their lives according to the light of nature, and the law of that religion 
they do profess: And to assert and maintain that they may, is very perni- 
cious and to be detested. 



CHAP. XI. 

Of Justification. 

I. Those whom God effectually calleth, he also freely justifieth, not by 
infusing righteousness into them, but by pardoning their sins, and by account- 
ing and accepting their persons, as righteous, not for any thing wrought in 
them or done by them, but for Christ's sake alone ; nor by imputing faith 
its self, the act of believing, or any otiier evangelical obedience to them, as their 
righteousness, but by imputing Christ's active obedience unto the whole 
law, and passive obedience in his sufferings and death, for their whole 
and sole righteousness, they receiving and resting on him and his right- 
eousness by faith, which taith they have not of themselves, it is the gift of 
God. ■ 

II. Faith thus receiving and resting on Christ, and his righteousuess is the 
alone instrument of justification ; yet it is not alone in the person justified, 
but is ever accompanied with all other saving graces, and is no dead faith, 
but worketh by love. 

III. Christ by his obedience and death did fully discharge the debt of all 
those that are justified, and did, by the sacrifice of himself in the blood of 
his cross, undergoing in their stead the penalty due unto them, make a prop- 
er, real, and full satisfaction to God's justice in their behalf: Yet inasmuch, 
as he was given by the Father for them, and his obedience and satisfaction 
accepted in their stead, and both freely, not for any thing in them, their jus- 
tification is only of free grace, that both the exact justice and rich grace of 
God might be glorified in the justification of sinners. 

IV. God did from all eternity decree to justify all the elect, and Christ did 
in the fulness of time dye for their sins, and rise again, for their justification: 
Nevertheless tliey are not justified personally, until the Holy Spirit doth in 
due time actually apply Christ unto them. 

V. God doth continue to forgive the sins of those that are justified, and 
although they can never fall from the state of justification, yet they may 
bv theif f^iiT' fall nnder God''? fathorlv displeasure: And. in tliat. condi- 



iOG MAGNALIA CHRIST! AMERICANA: [Book v. 

tion, they have not usually tlue light of his countenance restored unto thenj, 
until they humble theaiselveSj confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their 
faith and repentance. 

VI. The justification of believers under the Old Testament was in all these 
iospects, one and the same with the justification of believers under the New 
Testament. 



CHAP. XII. 

Of Adoption. 

I. All I'nose thai are justified, God vouchsafctli in and for his only Son 
Jesus Christ to make partakers of the grace of adoption, by which they are 
taken into the number and enjoy the liberties and priviledges of the children 
of God, have his name put upon them, receive the spirit of adoption, have 
access to the throne of grace with boldness, are enabled to cry Jbba Father, 
are pitied, protected, provided for, and chastened by him, as by a father, yet 
never cast off, but scaled to the day of redemption, and inherit the promiseSj 
as heirs of everlasting salvation. 



CHAP. xiir. 

Of Sanctijicatioif. 

I. Thev thai are effectually called and regenerated being united to Christ, 
having a new heart, and a new spirit created in them, through the virtue of 
Christ's death and resurrection, are also further sanctified really and person- 
ally, through the same virtue, by his word and spirit dwelling in them, the 
dominion of the whole body of sin is destroyed, and the several lusts thereof 
are more and more weakned and mortified, and they more and more quickned 
and strengthened in all saving graces, to the practice of all true Holiness 
without which no man shall see the Lord. 

II. This sanctification is throughout in the whole man, yet imperfect in this 
life ; there abide still some remnants of corruption in every part, whence 
ariseth a continual and irreconcileable war, the flesh lusting against the spirit, 
and the spirit against the flesh. 

HI. In which war, altliough the remaining corruption, for a time, may 
much prevail, yet through the continual supply of strength from the sancti- 
fying spirit of Christ, the regenerate part doth overcome, and so the saints 
grow in grace, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. 



CHAP. XIV. 

Of saving Faith. 

I. The grace oi faith, whereby the elect are enabled to believe to the 
saving of their souls, is the work of the sjiirit of Christ in their hearts, 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 26? 

and is ordinaril}' wrought by the ministry of the word ; by which also, and 
by the adnainistration of the seals, prayer and other means, it is increased 
and strengthened. 

H. By this faith, a christian believeth to be true, whatsoever is revealed 
in tlie word ; for the authority of God himself speaketh therein, and acteth 
differently upon that which each particular passage thereof containeth, yield- 
ing obedience to his commands, trembling at the threatniugs, and embracing 
the promises of God for this life, and that which is to come. But the princi- 
pal acts of saving faith are accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone 
for justification, sanctification and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of 
grace. 

HI. This faith although it be different in degrees, and may be weak or 
strong, yet it is in the least degree of it, different in the kind or nature of it 
(as is all other saving grace) froni the faith and common grace of temporary 
believers ; and, therefore, though it may be many times assailed and weak- 
ned, yet it gets the victory, growing up in many to the attainment of a full 
assurance throuafh Christ, who is both the Author and Finisher of our faith. 



CHAP. XV. ^ 

Of Repentance unto Life and Salvation. 

I. Such of the elect as are converted at riper years, having sometimes 
lived in the state of nature, and therein served divers lusts and pleasures, God 
in their effectual calling giveth them repentance unto life. 

II. Whereas there is none that doth good and sinneth not, and the best of 
men may through the power and deceitfulness of their corruptions dwelling 
in them, with the pre valency of temptation, fall into great sins and provoca- 
tions ; God hath in the covenant of grace mercifully provided that believers 
so sinning and falling be renewed, through repentance unto salvation. 

HI. This saving repentance is an evangelical grace, whereb}'- a peison be- 
ing by the Holy Ghost made sensible of the manifold evils of his sin, doth by 
faith in Christ humble himself for it with godly sorrow, detestation of it and 
self-abhorrency, praying for pardon and strength of grace, with a purpose 
and endeavour by supplies of the spirit, to walk before God unto all weii- 
pleasing in all things. 

IV. As repentance is to be continued through the whole course of our 
lives, upon the account of the body of death and the motion?; thereof- so 'tis 
every man's duty to repent of his particular known sins particularly. 

V. Such is the provision which God hath made, through Christ, in the 
covenant of grace, for the preservation of believers unto salvation, that al- 
though there is no.sin so small, but it deserve?, damnation ; j'et there is no sin 
so great, that it shall bring damnation on them, who truly repent : which 
makes the constant preaching of repentance necesssi) . 



i6b ^lAGNALlA CilRISTI AMERICANA: [Book v. 

CHAP. XVI. 

Of Good JVorknr 

I. Good works arc only siicli as Goil hath coinuianded in liis holy word, 
and not such as, without th(' wanant theipof, arc devised by nnen out of blind 
zeal, or upon any pretence ol uood intentions. 

II. These good works done in obedience to God's commandments, are the 
fruits and evidences of a true and lively faith ; and by tliem believers manifest 
their thankfulness, strengthen their assurance, edifie their brethren, adorn 
the profession of the gospel, stop the mouths of the adversaries, and glorilie 
God. whose workmanship they are created in Christ Jesus thereunto, that 
having their fruit unto holiness, they may have the end, eternal life. 

II L Their ability to do good works, is not at all of themselves, but whol- 
]y from the spirit of ! hrist. And that fhey may be enabled thereunto, be- 
sides the graces they have already received, there is required an actual influ- 
ence of the same Holy Spirit, to work in them to will and to do of his good 
pleasure; yet are they not hereupon to grow negligent, as if they were not 
bound to perform any duty, unless upon a special motion of the spirit, but 
they ought to be diligent in stirring up the grace of God that is in them. 

IV. They who in their obedience attain to the greatest height which is 
possible in this life, are so far from being able to supererogate, and to do 
more than God requires, as that they fall short of much which in duty they 
are bound to do. 

V. We cannot by our best works men-it pardon of sin, or eternal life at the 
hand of God, by reason of the great disproportion that is between them and 
the glory to come, and the infinite distance that is between us and God, whom 
by them we can neither profit, nor satisfie for the debt of our former sins ; but 
when we have done all we can, we have done but our duty, and are unprofit- 
able servants : And because, as they are good they proceed from his spirit, 
and as they are wrought by us, they are defiled and mixed with so much 
weakness and imperfection, that they cannot endure the severity of GodV 
judgment. 

VI. Yet notwithstanding, the persons of believers being accepted through 
Christ, t eir good works also are accepted in him, not as though they were 
in this life wholly unblameable and unreprovable in God's sight, but that he 
looking upon them in his Son is pleased to accept and reward that which is 
sincere, although accompanied with many weaknesses and imperfections. 

VII. Works done by unregenerate men, although, for the matter of them, 
they may be things, which God commands, and of good use both to them 
selves and to otiiers : Yet because they proceed not from an heart purified 
by faith, nor are done in a right manner according to the word, nor to a right 
end, the glory of CJod ; they are therefore sinful and cannot please God, noi 
make a man meet to receive grace from God ; and yet their neglect of then* 
is more sinful and disf»le<ising *o God- 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND, 169 

CHAP. XVH. 

Of the Perseverance of the Saints. 

1. They whom God hath accepted in his beloved, feffeclually called 
and sanctified by his spirit, can neillier totally nor finally fall away from 
the state of grace, but shall certainly persevere therein to the end, arid 
be eternally saved. 

n. This perseverance of the saints tiepends not upon their own free- 
will, but upon the immutability of the decree of election, from the free 
and unchangeable love of God the Father upon the efficacy of the merit 
and intercession of Jesus Christ, and union with him, the oath of God, 
the abiding of his spirit, and the seed of God within them, and the nature 
of the covenant of grace ; from all which ariseth also the certainty and 
infallibility thereof. 

HI. And although they may, through the temptation of Satan, and of 
the world, the prevalency of corruption remaining in them, and the neg- 
lect of the meaHS of their preservation fall into grievous sins, and for a 
time continue therein, whereby they incur God's displeasure, and grieve 
his Holy Spirit, come to have their graces and comforts impaired, have 
their hearts hardened, and their consciences wounded, hurt and scandal- 
ize others, and bring temporal judgments upon themselves ; yet they are 
and shall be kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation. 



CHAP. XVHI. 

Of the Jlssurance of Grace and Salvation. 

I. Although temporary believers and other unregenerale men may 
vainly deceive themselves with false hopes, and carnal presumptions of 
being in the favour of God, and state of salvation, which hope of theirs 
shall perish, yet such as truly believe in the Lord Jesus and love him in 
sincerity, endeavouring to walk in good conscience before him, may, in 
this life, be certainly assured, that they are in the state of grace, and 
may rejoyce in the hope of the glory of God, which hope shall never 
make them ashamed. 

II. This certainty is not a bare conjectural and probable persvvasion, 
grounded upon a fallible hope, but an infallible assurance of faith, found- 
ed on the blood and righteousness of Christ, revealed in the gospel ; and 
also upon the inward evidence of those graces, unto which promises are 
?nade, and on the immediate witness of the Spirit, testifying our adop- 
tiof), and as a fruit thereof, leaving the heart more humble and holy. 

Hf. This infallible assurance doth not so belong to the essence of 
faith, but that a true believer may wait long, and conflict with many dif- 
ficulties before he be partaker of it ; yet being enabled by the Spirit to 
know the things which are freely given him of God, he may without ex- 
traordinary revelation, in the right use of ordinary means attain (hereun- 
to : And therefore it is the duty of every one to give all diligence tc 
make his calling and election sure, that thereby his heart may be eTilar- 
ged in peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, in love and thankfulness 4oGod. 
VOL. li. 22 



170 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICAxXA : [Book ^. 

and in slrength and cheerfultiess in the duties of obedience, the propei 
fruits of this assurance ; so i'ar is it from inclining men to looseness. 

IV. True believers may have the assurance of their salvation iliverse 
■ways shaken, diminish'd and intermitted, as by nei;Iio;ence in preserving 
of it, by falling; into some special sin, which woutxleth the conscience 
and grieveth the spirit, by some sudden or vehetnent temptation, by 
God's withdrawing the light of his countenance, sutfering even such as 
fear him to walk in darkness and to have no ligiit, yet are they neither 
iilterly destitute of that seed of God, and life of faith, that love of Christ 
and the brethren, that sincerity of heart, anrl conscience of duty, out oi' 
which by the operation of the spirit, this assurance may, in due time, be 
revived, and by the which, in the mean time, Ihey are supported fron^ 
utter despair. 



CHAP. XIX. 

Of the Law of God. 

I. God gave to Adam a law of universal obedience written in iiis heart, 
and a particular precept of not eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge, 
of jrood and evil, as a covenant of works, by which he bound him, and all 
his posterity to y^ersonal, entire, exact and perpetual obedience, promis- 
ed life upon the fulfilling and threatened death upon the breach of it, and 
endued him with power and ability to keep it. 

II. This law, so written in the heart, continued to be a perfect rule of 
righeousness after the tall of man, and was delivered by God on mount 
Sinai in ten commandments, and written in two tables ; the four first 
commandments containing our duty towards God, and the other six our 
duty to man. 

ill. Besides this law commonly called moral, God was pleased to give 
to the people o{ Israel, as a church under age, ceremonial laws, con- 
taining several typical ordinances, partly of worship, prefiguring Christ, 
his graces, actions, sufferings and benefits, and partly holding forth divers 
institutions of mora! duties : All which ceremonial laws being a[)pointed 
only to the tiirie of reformation, are by .lesus Christ the true A'lessiah, 
and only law-giver, who was I'urnished with power from the Father for 
that end, abrogated and taken away. 

IV. To them also he gave sundry judicial laws, which expired togetbei 
with the state of that people, not obliging any now by virtue of that in- 
struction, their general ecjuiiy only being still of moral use. 

V. The moral lasv doth for ever bind all, as well justified persons, as 
others, to the obedience thereof; and that not only in regard of the mat- 
ter contained in it. but also in respect of the authority of God the Crea- 
tor, who gave it ; neither dolli Christ in the Gosj)el, any ways dissolve, 
but much strengthen this obligation. 

VI. Although true believers be not under the law as a covenant of 
Avorks, tn be thereby justified or condemned ; yet it is of great use to them 
as well as to oltiers, in that, as a rule of life, informing them of the will 
of God and their duty, and directs and binds them to walk accordingly, 
discovering also the final pollutions of their natures, hearts and lives, so 
as examining' themselves thereby, the}' may come to further conviction 



[Book V. OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. Ill 

of, humiliation for, anJ hatred against sin, together with a clearer sight 
of the need they have of Christ and the perfection of his obedience. It 
is likewise of use to the regenerate, to restrain their corruptions, in that 
it forbids sin, and the threatenings of it serve to shew what even their 
sins deserve, and wl)at afflictions in this life they may expect tor them, 
although freed from the curse thereof threatened in the law. The prom- 
ises of it in like (nanner shews them God's approbation of obedience, and 
what blessings they may expect upon performance thereof, although rtot 
as due to them by the law as a covenant of works ; so as a man's doing 
good, and refraining from evil, because the law i-courageth to the one, 
and deterreth from the other, is no evidence of his beitjg under the law, 
and not under grace. 

VII. Neither are the lore-mentioned uses of the law, contrary to the 
graces of the gospel, but do sweetly comply with it, the Spirit of Christ 
subduing and enabling the will of man to do that freely and cheerfully, 
which the will of God revealed in the law rcqoireth to be done. 



CHAP. -XX. 

Of the Gospel anil r>J' the Extent of the Grace thereof. 

I. The covenant of works, being broken by sin, ami made unprofita- 
ble unto life, God was pleased to give unto the elect the promise ot 
Christ the seed of the woman, as the means of calling them, and beget- 
ting in thetn faith and repentance : In this promise, the gos[)el, as to the 
substance of it was revealed, and was therein etlectual for the conversicjt 
and salvation of sinners. 

II. This f>romise of Christ and salvation by him, is revealed only in 
and by the word of God ; neither do the works of creation or provi- 
dence, with the light of nature, make discovery of Christ, or of grace by 
him, so much as in a general or obscure way ; much less, that men desti- 
tute of the revelation of him by the promise or gospel, should be enabled 
therel.'V to attain saving faith or repentance. 

III. The revelation of the gospel unio sinners, made in diverse times 
and by sundry parts, with the addition of promises and precepts, for the 
obetlience required therein, as to the nations and pers:ons to whom it is 
granted, is ineerly of the sovereign will and good pleasure of God, not 
beitig annexed by virtue of any promise to the due improvement of mens 
natural abilities, by virtue of common light received without it, which 
none ever did make or can so do. And therefore, in all ages, the 
preaching of the gospel hath been granted unto persons and nations, 
as to the extent or straitning of it in a great variety according to the 
council of the will of God, 

IV. Although the gospel be the only outward means of revealing 
Christ and saving grace, and is, as such, abundantly sufiicient thereunto ; 
yet that men, who are dead in trespasses, may be born again, quickned 
or regenerated, there is, moreover necessary an eti'ectual, irresistible 
work of the Holy Ghost upon the whole soul for the |iroducing in them a 
spiritual life, without wliicii no oilier means arc sufHrient for tlieir con- 
version unto God. 



172 MAGNALIA C HRIS ri AMERICANA . [Book v 

CHAP. XXI. 

Of Cliristian Liberty, and Liberty of Conscience. 

I. The liberty which Christ hath purchased for believers under the 
i;ospel, consists in their freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning 
wi-ath of God, the rigour and curse of the law, and in their being deliver- 
ed Jrom this present evil world, bondage to satan, and dominion of sin, 
from the evil of afflictions, the fear and sting of death, the victory of the 
grave, and everlastin<> damnation, as also in their free access to God, 
and their yielding obedience unto hiin not out of slavish fear, but a child- 
like love, and willing mind : all which were common also to believers 
under the law, for the substance of them, but under the New-Testament 
the liberty of christians is further enlerged in their freedom from the yoke 
of the ceremonial law, the whole legal administration of the covenant of 
grace to which the Jewish church was subjected, and in greater boldness 
of access to the throne of grace, and in fuller cotnmunications of the free 
spirit of God. than believers under the law did ordinarily partake of. 

II. God alone is Lord of the conscience, and hath left it free from the 
doctrines and commandments of men, which are, in any thing contrary 
unto his word ; or not contained in it ; so that to believe such doctrines, 
or to obey such commands, out of conscience, is to betray true liberty of 
conscience, and the requiring of an implicit faith ; and an absolute blind 
obedience, is to destroy liberty of conscience and reason also. 

III. They who upon pretence of christian liberty do practice any sin, 
or cherish any lust, as they ilo thereby pervert the main design of the 
gttiice of the gospel to their own destruction, so they wholly destroy the 
end of christian liberty, which is, that being delivered out of the hands 
of our enemies, we might serve the Lord without fear in lioliness and 
righteousness before him all the days of our life. 



CHAP. XXI 1. 

Of Religious Worship, and of the Sabbath-day. 

I. TiiK light of nature shewelh that there is a God, who hath lordship 
and sovereignty over all, is just, good and doth good unto all, and is 
therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and serv- 
ed vvitli all the heart, and all the soul, and with all the might: but the 
acceptable way of worshipping the true God is instituted by himself, and 
so limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be worshipped ac- 
cording to the imagit)atii)ns and devices oi men, or the suggestions of Sa- 
tan, under any visible representations, or any other way not prescribed 
in the holy scripture. 

II. Keligious worship is to be giv«n to God the Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost, and to him alone, not to angels, saints or any other creatures, and 
since the fall not without a Mediator, nor in the mediation of any other 
but of Christ alone. 

III. Prayer with thanksgiving being one special part of natural wor- 
.-^hip, is by God required of all men ; but that it may be accepted, it is> 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 173 

to be made in the name of the Son, by the help of his spirit, according t© 
his will, with understanding, reverence, humility, fervency, faith, love 
and perseverance :.and when with others, in a known tongue. 

IV. Prayer is to be made for things lawful, and for all sorts of men 
living, or that shall live hereafter, but not tor the dead, nor for those, of 
whom, it may be known, that they have sinned the sin unto death. 

V. The reading of the scriptures, preaching and hearing the word of 
God, singing of psalms, as also the administration of baptism, and the 
Lord's !«upper, are all parts of religious worship of God, to be performed 
in obedieHce unto God with understanding, faith, reverence and godlv 
fear. Solemn humiliations, with fastings and thanksgiving upon special 
occasions are, in their several times and seasons to be used in a;i holy 
and religious manner. 

VI. Neither prayer, nor any other part of religious worship, is now 
under the gospel, either tyed unto, or made more acceptable by any 
place, in which it is performed, or towards which it is directed : But 
God is to be worshipped every where inspirit and in truth, as in private 
families daily, and in secret, each one by himself, so more solemnly in 
the pui)lick assemblies, which are not carelessly nor wilfully to be neg- 
lected, or forsaken, when God by his word or providence calleth there- 
unto. 

VII. As it is of the law of nature, that in general a proportion of time 
by God's appointment be set apart for the worship of God ; so by his 
word in a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men 
in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven tor a sab- 
bath to be kept holy unto him, which from the beginning of the world to 
the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week, and from the 
resurrection of Christ was changed into the tirst day of the week, which 
in scripture is called the Lord's day, and is to be continued unto thp; 
end of the world, as a Christian Sabbath, the observation of the last dav 
of the week being abolished. 

VIII. This sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men after 
a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering (heir common aiTairs before 
hand, do not only observe an holy rest all the day from their own works, 
words, and thoughts about their worldly emp!oyn)ents and recreations, 
but also are taken up the whole tinae, in the publick and private exercis- 
es of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy. 



CHAP. XXIII. 

Of Lawful Oaths and Vows, 

\. A LAWFUL oath, is a part of religious worship, wherein the person 
swearing in truth, righteousness and Judgment, solemnly calleth God to 
witness what he asserteth, or promiseth, and to judge him according tc 
the (ruth or falshood of what he sweareth. 

II. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and 
therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence : Therefore to 
swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear 
at all, by any other thing, is sinful and to be abhorred. Yet, as in mat- 
ters of weight and moment an oath is warranted bv the word of God ; ub- 



174 MAGNALIA CHRIST I AMERICANA : [Book v. 

dcr the J^ew Testament, as well as uiKler the Old; so a lawful oath be- 
in^ imposed by lawful authority in such matters ought to be taken. 

III. Whosoever taketh an oath warranted by the word of God, ought 
duly to consider the weii^htiness of so solemn an act, and therein to a- 
vouch nothing, but what he is fully persuaded is the truth ; neither may 
any man bind himself by oath to any thing, but what is good and just, 
and what he believelh so to be, and what he is able and resolved to per- 
tbnn. Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good 
and just, being lawfully iiRposed by authority. 

IV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words, 
without eipiivocation, or mental reservation : It cannot oblige to sin ; 
hut in any thing, not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, al- 
though to a of-an's own hurt ; nor is it to be violated, although made to 
hereticks or infidels. 

V. A vow, which is not to be made to any crenlure, but Go! alone, is 
)f the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be made with the 
like religious care, and to be performed with the like faithfulness. 

VI. Popish qaonastical vows of perpetual single life, professed pover- 
ty, and regular obedience, are so far irom beinjj degrees of higher per- 
fection, that they are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Cliris- 
*'\'\n may intangle himself. 



CHAP. XXIV. 

Of (he Chil .Magistrate. 

I. God the supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained 
civil magistrates to be under him, over the people for his own glory and 
the public good : And to this end has armed them with the power of the 
sword for the defence and encouragement of them that do good, and for 
the punishment of evil doers. 

II. It is lawful for christians to accept, and execute the otlice of a ma- 
gistrate, when called thereunto : In the management whereof, as they 
ought especially to maintain piety, justice and [)eace, according to the 
vvholsome laws of each common-wealth, so for that end, they may law- 
fully now under the A'ew Testament wage war upon just and necessary 
occasion. 

III. They who upon [)relencc of christian liberty shall oppose any law- 
ful power, or the lawful exercises of it, resist the ordinance of God ; and 
for their publishing of such opinions, or maintaining of such practices, as 
are contrary to the liglit of nature, or to the known principles of Chris- 
tianity, whether concerning faith, worship or conversation, or to the 
power of godliness, or such erronious opinions or practices, as either in 
their own natuf or in the manner of publishing or mainlainino- them, 
are dei^tructive (o the external peace and order which Christ hath estab- 
lished in the church, they may lawfully be called to account and proceed- 
ed against by the censures of the church, and by the power of the civil 
magistrate ; }'<t in such dilTcrences about the doctrities of the gospel, or 
ways of the worship of God, as may befal men, ix^^rcising a good con- 
-rirncf^, manift'.tiiiff it in their conversation, and holding the foundation. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 175 

ind cliily observing the rules of peace and order, there is no warrant for 
the magistrate to abridge theui ottiieir iil)erly. 

IV. It is the duty of people to [)ray for may;istrates, to honour their 
persons, to pay them tribute and other dues, to obey their lawful com- 
mands, and to be subject to their autliority lor conscience sake. Infi- 
delity or difference in religion doth not uiake void the magistrates Just 
and legal authority, nor free the peo|)le tVom their due obedience to him: 
From which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted, much less has the 
Pope any power or jurisdiction (iver them in their dominions, or over 
any of their people, and least of all to deprive them of their dominions 
or lives, if he shall Judge them to be herelicks. or upon any other pre- 
tence whatsoever. 



CHAP. XXV. 

Of Marriage. 

I. Marriage is to be between one man and one woman; Neitlier is 
it lawful for any man to have more than one wife, nor for any woman 
to have more than one husband at the same time. 

II. Marriage was ordained for the n)utual help of husband and wife, 
for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the churclj 
with an holy seed, and lor preventing of uncleanness. 

III. It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry, who are able with 
judgment to give their consent. Yet it is the duty of christians to marry 
in the Lord ; and, therefore, such as profess the true reformed religion 
should not marry with infidels, pa()ists, or other idolaters : Neithei 
should such as are godly be unequally yoaked, by marrying such as are 
wicked in their life, or maintain damnable heresie. 

iV. Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of consanguinity or 
affinity forbidden in the word ; nor can such incestuous marriages ever be 
made lawful by any law of man or consent of parties, so, as those persons 
may live together, as man and wife. 



CHAP. XXVL 

Of the C/iurch. 

I. The catholic or universal cimrcb, which is invisible, consists of the 
whole number of the elect, that have been, are or shall be gathered into one 
under Christ the head thereof, and is the spouse, the body, the fulness of 
him tl-.at filleth all in all. 

n. The whole body of men, throughout the world, professing the ,011111 of 
the gospel, and obedience unto God by Christ, according unto it, not der 
stroying their own profession, by any errors everting the foundation, or un- 
iioliness of conversation, they and their children with them are and may be 



176 MAGNALIA CHRISTI .\MER1CANA: [Book v 

called the visible catholic church of Christ, although, as such, it is not in- 
trusted with any officers, to rule or govern over the whole body. 

III. The purest churches under heaven, are subject both to mixture and 
error, and some have so degenerated, as to become no cliurches of Christ, 
but synagogues of Satan : iSevertheless, Christ always hath had, and ever 
shall have a visible kingdom in this world, to the end thereof, of such as be- 
lieve in him, and make profi'ssion of his name. 

l\^ There is no other head of the cluircli but the Lord Jesus Christ ; nor 
can the Pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof, but is that Antichrist, 
that man of, sin, and son of perdition that exalteth himself in the church 
against Christ, and all that is called God, whom the Lord shall destroy with 
the brightness of his coming. 

V. As the Lord, in his care and love towards his church, hath in his inti- 
nite wise Providence exercised it with great variety in all ages, for the good 
of them that love him and his own glory : So, according to his promise, we 
expect that in the latter days. Antichrist being destroyed, the Jews called, 
and the adversaries of the kingdom of his dear Son broken, the churches of 
Christ being enlarged, and edified through a free and plentiful communication 
of light and grace, shall enjoy in this world a more quiet, peaceable, and 
glorious condition than they have enjoyed. 



CHAP. XXVIL 

Of the Communion of Saints. 

I. y\LL saints that are united to Jesus Christ their head by liis spirit ano 
faith, although they are not made thereby one person with him, have fellow- 
ship in his graces, sufierings, death, resurrection and glory : And being 
united to one another in love, they have communion in each other's gifts 
and graces, and are obliged to the performance of such duties, publick and 
private, as do conduce to their mutual good both in the inward and outward 
man. 

n. All saints are bound to mention an holy fellowship and communion in 
the worship of God, and in performing such other spiritual services, as tend 
to their mutual edification, as also in relieving each other in outward things, 
according to their several abilities and necessities ; which communion, though 
es[)ecially to be exercised by them in the lelntioiis, wherein they stand, 
whether in I'amilies or churches, yet as God olferetli opportunity, is to be 
extended unto all those, who, in every place, call upon the name of the 
Lord Jesus. 



CHAP, xxvin. 

Of the Sacramento. 

\. Sacraments are holy signs and seals <ii the covenant oi grace, immedi- 
ately instituted by Christ, to represent him and his Ijenefits, and to confirm 
otir interest in bin), and solemnly to engage us to the service of God in 
Christ, !!ccordii!g to his word. 

\\. There is in every sacrament a spiiitual relation, or sacramental union 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 177 

between the sign and the thing signified ; whence it comes to pass that the 
names and effects of the one are attributed to the other. 

III. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments, rightly used, 
is not conferred by any power in them, neither doth the efficacy of a sacra- 
ment depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth administer it, but 
upon the work of the spirit and the word of institution, which contains, to- 
gether with a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to 
worthy receivers. 

IV. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the 
gospel ; that is to say Baptism and the Lord's Supper ; neitlier of which may 
be dispensed by any but by a minister of the word lawfully called. 

V. The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard of the spiritual things 
thereby signified and exhibited, were for substance t!ie sa.ne with those of 
the New. 



CHAP. XXIX, 

Of Baptism. 

I. Baptism is a sacrament of the Neio Testament, ordained by Jesus 
Christ, to be unto the party baptized a sign and seal of the covenant of 
grace, of his ingraffing into Christ, of regeneration, of remission of sins, and 
of his giving up unto God througli .Tesus Christ, to walk m newness of life; 
which ordinance is by Christ's own appointment to be continued in his 
church until the end of the world. 

II. The outward element to be us'd in this ordinance is water, wherewith 
ihe party is to be baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost, by a minister of the gospel lawfully called thereunto. 

III. Dipping of the person into the water is not necessary, but baptism is 
rightly administred by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person. 

IV. Not only those that do actually profess faith in, and obedience unto 
Christ, but also the infants of one or both believing parents are to be bap- 
fr/ed and those only. 

V. Although it be a great sin to contemn or neglect this ordinance, yet 
grace and salvation are not so inseparably annexed to it, as that no person 
can be regenerated or saved without it ; or that all that are baptized, are 
undoubtedly regenerated. 

VI. The efficacy of baptism is not tyed to that moment of time, wherein 
it is administred ; yet notwithstanding by the right use of this ordinance, the 
grace promised is not only ofiered, but really exhibited and conferred by the 
Holy Ghost to such (whether of age or infants) as that grace belongeth unto, 
according to the counsel of God's own will, in his appointed time. 

VII. Baptism is but once to be administred to any person. 



CHAP. XXX. 

Of the Lord's Supjier. 

I. Our Lord Jesiir. in the night when he was betray 'd, instituted (he sa- 
crament of his body and blood, call'd the Lord's Supper, to be observed in 
his churches to the end of the world, for the peqietual remembrance and 
VOL ir. fS 



irS MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

shfwiug foi til of the sacrifice of liirnself in Iiis deatli, the scaling of all ben- 
efits tlicrcof unto trne believers, their spiritual nourishment, and growth in 
him, their further engagement in and to all duties, which they owe unto 
him, and to be a bond and pledge of tlieir communion with him, and with 
each other. 

II. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any real 
sacrifice made at all for remission of sin of the quick or dead, but only a 
memorial of that one offering up of himself upon the cross, once for all, and 
a spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same ; so that the 
popish sacrifice of the Mass (as they call it) is most abominably injurious to 
Christ's own only sacrifice, the alone projiitiation for all the sins of the elect. 

III. The Lord Jesus hath in this ordinance appointed his ministers to 
declare his word of institution to the people, to pray and bless the elements 
of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common, to an 
holy use, and to take and break the bread, to take the cup and (they cora- 
mnnicating also themselves) to give both to the communicants, but to none, 
who are not then present in the congregation. 

IV. Private masses, or receiving the sacrament by a priest, or any other 
alone, as likewise the denyal of the cup to the people, worshipping the 
elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adoration, and the 
reserving them for any pretended religious use, are all contrary unto the 
nature of this sacrament and to the institution of Christ. 

V. The outward elements in this sacrament duly set apart to the uses 
ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly yet 
sacramentally only, they are sometimes call'd by the name of the things they 
represent, to wit. The Body and Blood of Christ ; albeit in substance and 
nature they still remain truly and only bread and wine, as they were before. 

VI. The doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread 
and wine into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly called 
transithslantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is re- 
pugnant not to the scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason, 
overthroweth the nature of a sacrament, and hath been, and is the cause of 
manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries. 

VII. Worthy receivers outwardly partaking of the visible elements in 
this sacrament, do, then, also, inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not 
carnally and corporally, but spiritually receive and kin\ upon Christ cruci- 
fied, and all benefits of his death ; the body and blood of Christ being then 
not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine, yet as real- 
ly, but spiritually present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the 
elements themselves are to their outv/ard senses. 

^'iIl. All isnorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy coni- 
inunion with Christ, so are they unworthy of the Lord's Table, and cannot 
without great sin against him, whilst they remain such, partake of these holy 
mysteries, or be admitted thereunto ; yea, whosoever shall receive unwor- 
thily, are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, eating and drinking 
judgment unto ihcmseives. 



CHAP. XXXI. 

Of ihc Slate of Man after Death, and the ResurrccUun of the Dead. 
I. The bodies of men, after death, return to dust, and sec corruption, bii» 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 179 

their souls (which neither dye norsleei)) having an immortal subsistence, im- 
mediately return to God, who gave them; the souls of the righteous being 
then made perfect in holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where 
ihey behold the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemp- 
tion of their bodies: and the souls of the wicked are cast into Hell, where 
they remain in torment and utter darkness, reserved to the judgment of the 
great day : besides these two places of souls separated from their bodies, the 
Scripture acknowledgeth none. 

II. At the last day, such as are found alive shall not dye but be changed ; 
and all the dead shall be raised up with the selfsame bodies, and none other, 
altho' v/ith different qualities, which shall be united again to their souls for 
ever. 

HI. The bodies of the unjust shall by the power of Christ be raised to dis- 
honour; the bodies of the just by his spirit unto honour, and be made con- 
formable unto his own glorious body. 



CHAP. XXXH. 

Of the. Last Judgment. 

I. God hath appointed a day wherein he will judge the world in right- 
eousness by Jesus Christ, to whom all power and judgment is given of the 
Father ; in which day, not only the apostate angels shall be judged, but like- 
wise all persons that tiave lived upon earth, shall appear before the tribunal 
of Christ, to give an account of their thoughts, words and deeds, and to re- 
ceive accoiding to wijat they have done in the body, whether good or evil. 

II. The end cf God's appointing this day, is for the manifestation of the 
glory of his mercy in llie eternal salvation of the elect, and of his justice in the 
damnation of the reprobate, who are wicked and disobedient : for, then shall 
the righteous go into everlasting life, and receive that fulness of joy and glory, 
with everlasting reward in the presence of the Lord; but the wicked, who 
know not God, and obey not the gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into eter- 
nal torments, and be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence 
of the Lord, and from the glory of his power. 

III. As Christ would liave us to be certainly perswaded, that there shall be 
a judgment both to deter all men from sin, and for the greater consolation of 
the godly in their adversity ; so will he have that day unknown to men, that 
they may shake off all carnal security, and be always watchful, because they 
know not at what hour the Lord will come, and may be ever prepared to say, 
come Lord Jesuft, come quickly. Amen. 



THE SECOND PART. 

The Discipline practised in the Chuuches of New-Englam>. 

Nihil sine, 7iihil contra, nihil praitcr, nihil ultra, divinam scripturam, ad- 
mittendum. — P. Martyr. 

§. 1. The churches of New-England (tr\]oymg S3 much rest ?i\\d growth 
3s they had now seen, for some sevens of years^it was. upor. many accounts. 



180 M AGiN ALIA CilRISTl AMERICANA; [Book v. 

necessai} tor them to make such a dednration of ihe rimrch-ordery wherein 
the good !i;ind of God had inoidded Vm, as might convey and secure the like 
order unto the tollowing generations. Next unto tlie BiJde, wiiich was the pro- 
fessed, perpetual and only directnri/ of these churchrs, they had wo platform 
of their vinirch-governmcvl, njore exact, than their famous John Cotton's 
well-known book of. The Kei/.s ; wiiich book endeavours to lay out the just 
lines and bounds of all diur'ck power, and .to dehnei the matter ; that as in 
the state there is a dispersion of powers into several hands, which are to ron- 
cttr in all acts of conmion concernment ; from whence ariseth the heaUhy con- 
stitution of a common-iKcdth ; in like sort, he assigns ihc power in the eliurch 
unto several .s^iyVrfs, wiiereiu the united light of scripture and of nature have 
placed ihem, with a very satisfactory distribution. He asserts, that a pn-shif- 
tcraicd society of the faithful, hath within itself a compleat power of .^clf-nj- 
ormation, or, if you vvili, of self-preservation, and may within itself mamige 
its own ch'iices of ojficers, and eensnrcs of delinquents. Now a s|)ecial statute- 
law of ow Lord, having excepted women ?iw\ children from enjoying any part 
of this power, he finds only elders and brethren to be the constituent members, 
who may act in such a sacred corporation ; the elders, he finds the first sub- 
ject entrusted with government, the brethren endowed with priviledge, inso- 
much, that tho- the elders only are to rule the church, and without them, 
there can be no elections, admissions, or excommunications, and they have a 
negative upon the acts of ihefraternitij, as well as 'tis they only that have the 
power of authoritative preaching, and adminisiring the sacraments ; yet the 
brethren have such a liberh/, that without their consent nothing of common 
concernment -may be imposed upon them. Nevertheless because particular 
churches of elders and brethren may abuse their;>o^oer with manifold miscar- 
riages, he asserts the necessary communion of churches in si/nods. who have 
authority to determine, declare and injoin, such things as may rectifie the 
male-administrations, or any disorders, dissentions and confusions of the con- 
irregations, which fall under their cognizance: but still so, as to leave unto 
xhQ particular churches tliemselves the formal acts, which are to be done pur- 
suant unto the advice of the council ,- upon the scandalous and obstinate re- 
fusal whereof, the council mzy determine, to withdraw communion from them, 
as from those who will not be coimselled against a notorious mismanagement 
of the jurisdiction wliich the Lord .lesus Christ has givm them. This was the 
design of that judicious treatise, wherein was contained the substance ol our 
church-discipline ; and whereof I itave one remarkable thing to relate, as 1 go 
along. That great person, who afterwards proved one of the greatest scholars, 
divines and writers in tiiis age, then imder the prejudice of conversation, set 
himself to write a confutation of this very treatise, of the kci/s : but having 
madeaconsiderable progress in his undertaking, sucl) was the strength of this «»- 
ans^rerable book, thnt instead of his confuting \\,it conquered him ; and the book 
of, The Keys was happily so bless.-d of (iod for t!i.« conveyance of congrega- 
tional principles into the'now opened mind of t his learned man, tha the not only 
wrote in defence of jMr. Cotfon against JMr. Caudry, but also <f.\pos*d himself 
to more than a little sorrow and labour, all his days, for the maintaining of 
those principles. I'pon which occa.sion, the words of the doctor [Owen in his 
review of the true nature of schism] arc ; this way of impuriial examining all 
things by the word, and laying aside all prrjadicaie resperts unto persons or 
present traditions, is a ecuirsr that I would ailmonlsh all to beware of. who 
would avoid the danger of being made (what they '"dl ) indepkndents. Ihav- 
ingsaid thus much o't that book,^iil that I shall add concerning it is that the (a- 
mous Mr. Riitherfordh\mse\f,in his treatise mthultd, asurvey of the spiritual 
Antichrist., has these words ; Mr. Cotton in his treatise of the Keys of Hie 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND 181 

Kingdom of Heaven, is well souml in onr way, if he had given some more 
power to assemblies and in some lesser points. But it was coiivenientj the 
churches of Netc-England should have a systejn of their discipline, extracted 
from the word of God, and exhibited unto them, with a more effectual, ac- 
knowledged and established recommendation : and npthing but a council 
was proper to compose the system. The reader is now to expect, a council at 
Cambridge : and in truth, another sort of council, than that sham council of 
Trent, whereof one that was present, wrote this account unto the emperor 
Maximilian W. We daily saw hungry and needy bishops come to Trent. 
Youths, for the most part given to luxury and riot, hired only to give their 
voice, as the people pleased. They loere both unlearnhl and simple, yet fit for 
the purpose, in regard of their impudent boldness. When these were added 
tinto the Pope's old flatterers, iniquity triumphed ; it was impossible to de- 
termine any thing, but as they pleased. The council seemed not to consist of 
bishops, but of disguised masquers ; not of men, but of images, such as Dae- 
dalus made, moved by nerves none of their oion. They ivere hireling bishops 
which as country bag-pipes, could not speak, but as breath was put into 
them. The difference between the bishops now to assemble at Cambridge, and 
the bishops which then made such a noise by their conventicle at Trent, was 
in truth not mucl) less than that between angels and devils. 

§ 2. Wherefore, a bill was preferred unto the general court in the year 
1646, for the calling of a Synod, whereby, a platform of church discipline, 
according to the direction of our Lord Jesus Christ in his blessed word, 
might most advantagiously be composed and published. The magistrates 
in the general court, passed the bill, but the deputies had their little scruples 
how far the civil authority might interpose in matters of such religious and 
ecclesiastical cognizance ; and whether scaffolds might not now be raised, by 
the means whereof the civil authority should pretend hereafter to impose an 
uniformity, in such instances which had better be left at liberty and variety. 
It was reply'd, that it belonged unto jnagistrates, by all rational ways to 
encourage truth and peace among their people ; and that the council now 
called by the magistrates was to proceed but by way of council, with the 
best light which could be fetched from the word of God ; but the court would 
be after all free, as they saw cause to approve or to reject what should be 
offered. 

After all, tho' the objections of the deputies were thus answered, yet in 
compliance with such as were not yet satisfied, the order for the calling of 
the intended assembly was directed only in the form of a motion, and not of 
a command, unto the churches. But certain persons come lately from Eng- 
land, so inflamed the zeal for liberty of conscience among the people, that all 
this compliance of the authority could not remove the fear of some churches, 
lest some invasion of that liberty were threatened, by a clause in the order 
of the court which intimated ; that what should be presented by the Synod, 
the court ivould give such allowance, as would be meet, unto it. The fa- 
mous and leading church of Boston, particularly, was ensnai-ed so much by 
this fear, that upon the Lord's day, when the order of the court was first 
communicated unto them, they could not come unto an immediate resolution 
of sending any delegates unto the Synod ; but Mr. Norton, then of Ipswich. 
at Boston lecture the Thursday following, preached an elaborate sermon un- 
to a vast auditory, on Moses and Aaron kissing each other in the mount of 
Gfxl: and in that sermon, he so represented the nature and power of Si/nods. 



lg2 MAGiNALlA CHRISTI AIMERICANA: [Book v 

and the respect owing from churches to rulers calling for St/nods, that on the 
next LorfVs dai/, the church voted the sending of three messengers, whh their 
ciders unto this assembly. Indeed the happy experience of Neic-England 
has taken awa}'^ from its churches, all occasion for any complaint, like that 
of Luther's ; Mihi concdiorum nomen, pene tarn suspectutn et hwisu/ii, qvam 
nomen Liheri Arbitrii. 

^ 3. It being so near winter before the Synod could convene, that kw of 
the ministers invited from the other colonies could be present at it, they now 
sat but fourteen days ; and then adjourued unto the eighth of June-, in the 
year ensuing Nevertheless at tlieir fust session, there was an occasion which 
they took to consider and examine an ^v;y>o?"^a^l^ cffsc; and it came to this 
result. 



A Proposition about ilia Magistrate's power in luatlcrs of religion. 



* The civil magistrate in matters of religion, or of the first table, hatii 
'poM^ey, civill}' to commander forbid things respecting the outward man 

* which are clearly comn)anded or forbidden in the word, and to inflict suit- 

♦ nh\e. punishments , according to the nature of the transgressions against the 

* same.' 

Several arguments with testimonies for the confirmation of this position, 
annexed thereunto were, afterwards printed at London in the year 1654. ac- 
companied with a discourse of Mr. Tho Allen, wherein this doctrine was 
further explained, and I would hope so explained, that if so renowned a 
saint, as the famous Martin, who, to the deatli renounced communion with 
the Synods, which had perswaded the Emperor to employ the civil sword 
against the Gnostick PrisciUiainsts, had been alive, even he would not have 
altogether disallowed the desires of these good men, to see the civil magis- 
trate employing h\s power to discountenance profane and wicked heresies. 

But thf'. p/atfo'-m of church discipline to be commended unto the churches, 
was the main chance which the assembly was to mind ; in order whereunto 
they directed three eminent persons, namely, Mr. John Cotton, Mr. Richard 
Mather, and Mr. Ralph Partridge, each of them to draw up a scriptural 
model of church gorernnient ; unto the end, that out of those, there might 
be one t-duccd, which the Synod might after the most filing thoughts upon it, 
send abroad. When the Synod met, at the time to which they had adjourn- 
ed, the summer proved so sickly that a delay of one year more was given to 
their undtTtakiuL' ; but at last the desired platform of churcli'disciplinc was 

• igreeil upon, and the Synod broke up, with singing the song of Moses and 
fke Lamb, in the fifteenlh chapter of the Revelation. Adding another sacred 
•long from the niiutef nth chapter of that book; which is to be found metri- 
cally paraphrased in the JSew-Enghuul psahn-book : so it was presented un- 
the General Court, in the month of October 1648. 

And the Court most thankfully accepted and approved of it. It now fol- 

•'JWS. 



B^KV.] GR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 18J 



A Platform of Church Discipline : gathered out of the word of God, and 
agreed upon by the Elders and Messengers of the Churches assembled ia 
the Synod, at Cambridge, in Neio-England. To be presented to the church- 
es and General Court for their consideration and acceptance in the Lord; 
the 8th month; Anno 1 649- 

CHAP. L 

Of the form of Church'Government ; and that it is one, immutable mid pre- 
scribed in the word. 

Ecclesiastical polity, or church-government or discipline, is nothing 
else but that form and order that is to be observed in the church of Christ up- 
on earth, both for the consiitution of it, and all the administration, that there- 
in are to be performed. 

2. Church-government is considered in a double respect, either in regard 
of the parts of government themselves, or necessary circumstances thereof. — 
The parts of government are prescribed in the word, because the Lord Jesus 
Christ, [Heb. 3, 5,6. Exo. 25, 40. 2 Tim. 3, l6.] the King and Law-giver 
in his church, is no less faithful in the house of God, than was Moses, who 
from the Lord delivered a form and pattern of government to the children of 
Israel in the Old Testament; and the holy scriptures are now also so perfect 
as they are able to make the man of God perfect, and thorouglily furnished un- 
to every good work ; and therefore doubtless to the well-ordering of the house 
of God. 

3. The parts of church government are all of them exactl}'^ described in the 
word of God, [1 Tim. 3, 15. 1 Chr. 15, 13. Exod. 2, 04. 1 Tim. 6, 13, 16. 
Heb. 12, 27, 28. 1 Cor. 15, 24] being parts or means of instituted worship 
according to the second commandment, and therefore to continue one and the 
same unto the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, as a kingdom that cannol 
be shaken, until he shall deliver it up unto God, even to the Father. [Deut.- 
12, 32. Ezek. 45, 8. 1 Kin. 12, 31, 32, 33-] So that it is not left in the power 
of men, officers, churches, or any state in the world to add, or diminish, or al- 
ter any thing in the least measure therein. 

4. The necessary circumstances, as time and place, &c. belonging unto or- 
der and decency, are not so left unto men, as that under pretence of them, they 
may thrust their own inventions upon tlie churches, [2 Kin. 12. Exo. 20, 19- 
Isa. 28, 13. Col. 1, 22, 23.] being circumscribed in the word with many gen- 
eral limitations, where they are determined with respect of the matter to be 
neither worship itself, nor circumstances seperable from worshif). [Acts 15, 
28. Mat. 15,9. 1 Cor. 11. 23. and 8, 34.] In respect of their end, they must 
be done unto edification ; in respect of the manner, decently and in order, ac- 
cording to thenatureoftlie things tliemselves, and civil and church custom. — 
Doth not even nature its self teach you ? Yea, they are in some sort determi- 
ned particularly, namely, that they be done in such a manner as, all circum- 
stances considered, is most expedient for edification : [l Cor. 14 26. and 14- 
40 and 11. 14,16, and 14. 12, 19, Acts, 15, 28.] So, as if there be no error 
of man concerning their determination, tiie determining of themes t» be sc- 
counted, as if it were divine. 



184 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 



CHAP. 11. 

Of the nature of tlie Catliolick Church in general, and in special of a jmr- 
ticular visible Church. 

1. The Catholick cbnrcli, is the whole company of those, that arc elected, 
redeemed, and in time cfiectualiy called from the state of sin and death, unto 
a state of grace and salvation in Jesiis Christ. 

2. This church is either triumphant or militant. Triumphant, the num- 
ber of them, who are glorified in lieaven ; militant, the number of them, who 
are conflicting with their enemies upon earth. 

3. This militant church is to !)e considcr'd as invisible and visible. [2 
Tim. 2, 19. Rev. 2, 17- 1 Cor. 6, 17- Eph. 3, 17. Rom. 1, 8. 1 Thes. 1,8. 
Jsa. 2, 2. 1 Tim. 6, 12.] Invisible in respect of their relation, wherein they 
stand to Christ, as a body unto the head, being united unto him by the Spirit 
of God, and faith in their hearts. Visible, in respect of the profession of their 
faith, in their persons, and in particular churches. And so, there may be ac- 
knowledged an universal visible church. 

4. The members of the militant visible church, considered either as not 
vet in church order, or walking according to the church order of the gospel. 
tVcts 19, l.Col. 2, 5. Mat. 18, 17- 1 Cor. 5, 12.] 

In order, and so besides the spiritual union and communion common to 
all believers, they enjoy moreover an union and communion Ecclesiastical, 
political. 

So we deny an Universal visible church. 

5. The state of the members of the militant visible church, walking in or- 
der, was either before the law, [Gen. 18, 19- Esod. 19,6.] ceconomical, that 
is, in families ; or under the law, national ; or since the coming of Christ, on- 
ly Congregational. (The term independent^ we approve not) therefore neither 
national, provincial, nor classical. 

6. A congregational church is by the institution of Christ a part of the mil- 
itant visible church, consisting of a company of saints by calling, united into 
one body by an holy covenant, for the publique worship of God, and the mu- 
tual edification of one another in the fellowship of the Lord Jesus, [l Cor. 
14,23, 36, and 1, 2, and 12.27. Ex. 19, 5, 6. Deut. 29, 1, and 9 to 15. Acts 
2, 42, 1 Cor. 14. 2(>. 



CHAP. HI. 

Of the Jiiatfcr of the visible Church, both in respect of quality and quan- 
tity. 

1. Thk matter of the visible church are saints by calling. 

2. By saints, we understand, 1. Such as have not only attained the know- 
ledge of the principles of religion, and are free from gross and open scandals, 
but also do, together with the profession of their faith and repentance, walk 
in blameless obedience to the word, so as that in charitable discretion they 
may be accounted saints b}^ calling, (tho' perhaps, some or more of them be 
unsound and hypocrites inwardly) because the members of such particular 
churches, are commonly by the Holy Ghost called saints and faithful brtth- 
■•en i/t Christ, and suicirv cluncheb have hemi reproved for receiving, and 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 185 

suffering such persons to continue in fellowship among them, as have been of- 
fensive and scandaloiis ; the name of God also, by this means, is blasphemed, 
and the holy things of God defiled and profaned, the hearts of the godly 
grieved, and the wicked themselves hardened and ho) pen forward to damna- 
Tion. [1 Cor. 1, 2 Eph. 1. I. Heb. 6, I. I Cor. 1, 5. Ro. 15, 14 Psalm 50, 
16,17. Acts 8, 37. Mat. 3, 6. Ro 6, 17. 1 Cor. 1, 2. Phil. 1,2. Col. 1, 2. 
Eph. 1. 1. 1 Cor. 5. 2, 13. Rev. 2. 14, 15, 20. Ezek. 44. 7,9- & 23. 38, 39. 
Numb. 19. 20. Hag. 2. 13. 14. 1 Cor. 11. 27, 29. Psa. 37. 21. 1 Cor. 5 6. 
2 Cor. 7. 14.] The example of such doth endanger the sanctity of others, a 
little leaven leaveiieth the whole lump. 2. Tlie children of such who are 
also holy. 

3. Tlje members of churches, tho' orderly constituted may in time degen- 
erate and grow corrupt, and scandalous, which tho' they ought not to be tolle- 
rated in the church, yet their continuance therein, thro' the defect of the execu- 
tion of discipline and just censures, doth not immediately dissolve the being of 
a church, as appears in the church of Ts>aeL and the churches of Galatia and 
Corinth, Pergamos and Thyatira [Rev. 2. 14, 15.&21.21. 

4. The matter of the church, in respect of its quantity, ought not to be of 
iireater number, than may ordinarily meet together conveniently in one place ; 
[1 Cor. 14. 21. Mat. 18. 17.] nor ordinarily fewer than tnay conveniently 
carry on church-work. Hence when the holy scripture makes mention of 
the saints combined into a church estate in a town or city, where was but one 
congregation, it usually calleth those saints [the church] in the singular num- 
ber, as the church of the Thessalonians, the church of ^myvna, Philadelphia, 
Sfc [Rom. IG. 1. 1 Thes. ]. 1. Rev. 2. 28. & 3. 7-] but when it speaketh of 
the saints in a nation or province, wherein there were sundry congregations, 
it frequently and usually calleth them by the name of [churches] in the plural 
number, as the churches of Asia, Galatia, Macedonia, and the like ; [l Cor. 
16. 1, 19. Gal. 1. 2. 2 Cor. 8. 1. Thes. 2. 14.] which is further confirmed by 
what is written of sundry of those churches in particular, how they were as- 
sembled and met together the whole church in one place, as the church at 
Jerusalem, the church at Antioch, the church at Corinth and Cenchrca, tho' 
it were more near to Corinth, it being the port thereof, and answerable to a 
village, yet being a distinct congregation from Corinth, it had a church of its 

nvn as well as Corinth had. [Acts 2. 46. & 5. 12. & 6. 2. & 14 27. & 15. 

38. 1 Cor 5. 4. & 14. 23. Rom. 16. 1.] 

5. Nor can it with reason be thought but that every church appointed and 
ordained by Christ, had a ministry appointed and ordained for the same, and 
yet plain it is that there were no ordinary officers ap|)ointed by Christ for any 
other than Congregational churches ; [Acts 20. 28.] elders being appointed to 
feed not ail flocks, but the particular Hock of God, over which the Holy 
Ghost had made them overseers, and that flock they must attend even the 
whole flock : and one congregation being as much as any ordinary elders can 
attend, therefore there is no greater church than a congregation, which mav 
ordinarily meet in one place., 



CHAP. IV. 

Of the form of the visible church, and of church Covenant.. 

1. Saints by calling must have a visible political union among themselves. 
•ir else they are not yet a particular church, [I Cor. 12. 27. 1 Tim. 3, 15 
VOL. II 24 



180 MAGiNALLV CHKISTI AMERICAJNA : [Uook v. 

Eph. 2. 22. 1 Cor. 12. 15, 16, 17.] as those similitudes hold forth, which the 
scripture makes use of to shew t'le nature of particular churches ; hs a bodi/, 
a building, house, hamk, ci/cs.fici and other members, must be united, or 
else (remaining seperate) are not a body. Stones, limber, tlio' squared, 
hevven and polished, are not an house, until they are compacted, and united : 
[Rev. 2.] so saints or believers in judgment of charity, are not a church, un- 
less orderly kriit together. 

2. Particular churches cannot be distinguished one from another, but by 
their forms. Ephcsus is not Smyrna, nor Pi-rgamos Thijatira, but eacli one 
a distinct society of it>elf, having ofikers of their own, which had not the 
charge of ot'.iers : virtues of their own, for which others are not praised : cor- 
ruptions of their own, for which others are not blamed. 

3. Tliis form is the visible covenant, agreement or consent, wliereby tiiey 
give up themselves unto the Lord, to the observing of the ordinances of Christ 
together in the same society, which is usually calPd the church-covenant: 
.[Kx 19. 5.8. Deut. 29. 12^ 13. Zee. 11. 14. &: 9- 11] for we see not other- 
wise how members can have church-power over one another mutually. The 
comparing of each particular cburch to a city, and unto a spouse, [Eph 2. 
19. 2 Cor. 11. 2.] seen)eth to conclude not only a form, but that that formes 
by way of covenant. The covenant, as it was that which made the family of 
Abraham and children of Israel to be a church and people unto God. [Gen. 
IT- 7- Eph 2. 12, 18 ] so is it that which now makes the several societies of 
Gentile believers to be churches in these days. 

4. This voluntary agreement, consent or covenant (for all these are here 
taken for the same) altho' the more express and plain it is, the more fully it 
puts us in mind of our mutual duty ; and stirreth us up to it, and leavelh less 
room for the questioning of the truth of the church-estate of a company of 
professors, and the truth of niembership of particular persons ; yet we con- 
ceive the substance of it is kept, where there is real agreement and consent of 
a company of faithful persons to meet constantly together in one congregation, 
for the publick worship of God. and their mutual edification : which real 
agreement and consent they do express by their constant practice in coming 
together for the publick worship of (jod and by their religious subjection un- 
to the ordinances of God there : [Exod 19. 5. & 20. 8. & 24. 3 17- Josh. 
24. 18, to 24. Psal. 50. 5. Neh. 9- 38. & 10. 1. Gen. 1/. Deut. 29] the rath- 
er, if we do consider how scripture-covenants have been entred into, not only 
expressly by word of month, but by sacrifice, by hand-writing and seal ; and 
also sometimes by silent consent, without any writing or expression of words 
at all. 

5. This form being by mutual covenant, it l\>II()weth, it is not faith in the 
heart, nor the |)rofcssion of that faith, nor cohabitation, nor baptism 1 . Not 

faith in Me /j«/r/, because that is invisible. 2. ^oX a bare profession, he- 
cause that declareth them no more to be members of one church than another. 

3. Not cohabitation, Atheists or Infidels may dwell together with believers. 

4. Not Baptism, because it presupposeth a church-estate as circumcision in 
the Old Testament, which gave no being to the church, the church being be- 
fore it. and in the wilderness without it. Seals preNuppose a covenant already 
in being. One person is a compleat subject of baptism, but one person is un- 
capable of being a church. 

6. All believers ought, as God giveth tliem opportunity thereunto, to en- 
deavour to join themselves unto a particular church, and that in respect of 
the honour of Jesus Christ, in his example and institution, by the professed 
acknowledgment of, and subjection unto the order and ordinances of the gos- 
pel : [Acts 2. 47. & 9. 26. Mat. 3. 13, 14, 15. & 28. 19, 20. Psa 133. 2, 3. 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND, 187 

& 87- 7. Mai. 18. 20 1 John 1. 3] as also in respect of their good commun- 
ion founded upon their visible union, and contained in the promises of 
Christ's special presence in the church ; whence they have fellowship with 
him, and in him, one with another : also in the keeping of them in the way of 
God's commandments, and recovering of them in case of wandering, (which 
all Christ's sheep are subject to in this life) being unable to return of them- 
selves ; together with the benefit of their mutual edification, and of their pos- 
terity, that they may not be cut off from the privilege of the covenant. [Psa. 
119. 176. 1 Pet. 2. 25. Eph. 4. I6. Job 22. 24, 25. Mat. 18. 15, 16, 17-] 
Otherwise, if a believer offends, he remains destitute of the remedy provided 
in that behalf. And should all believers neglect this duty of joining to all 
particular congregations, it might follow ti-.ereupon, that Christ should have 
novi.eible, political churches upon earth. 



CHAP. V. 

Of the first subject of church-powfr ; or., to whom chttrch-potcer doth first 

belong. 

1. The first subject of church-power is either supreme, or subordinate and 
ministerial. The supreme (by way of gift from the Father) is the Lord Je- 
sus Christ. [Mat. 18- 18. Rev. 3. 7- Isa. 9- 6. Joh. 20. 21, 23. 1 Cor. 14. 
32. Tit. 1. 5. 1 Cor. 5. 12.] The ministerial is either extraordinary, as the 
apostles, prophets and evangelists ; or ordinary, as every particular Congre- 
gational church. 

2. Ordinary church power, is either power of office, that is, such as is prop- 
er to the eldership; or power of privilege, such as belongs to the brother 
hood. [Rom. 12. 4, 8. Acts 1. 23. & 6. 3, 3. & 14. 23. 1 Cor. 10. 2Q, 30 ] 
The latter is in the bretheren formally and immediately from Christ, that 
is, so as it may be acted or exercised immediately by themselves : the 
former is not in them formally or immediately, and therefore cannot be acted 
or exercised immediately by them, but is said to be in them, in that they de- 
sign the persons unto office, whoonl}' are to act or to exercise this power. 



CHAP. VI. 

Of the officers of the church, and especially of pastors and teachers. 

1. A church being a company of people combined together by covenant 
for the worship of God, it appeareth thereby, that there may be the essence 
and being of a church without any officers seeing there is both the form and 
matter of a church ; which is implied when it is said, the apostles ordained 
elders in every church. [Acts. 14.23.] 

2. Nevertheless, tho' officers be not absolutely necessary to the simple be- 
ing of churches, when they be called ; yet ordinarily to their calling they are, 
and to their well-being : [Rom. 10. 17- Jer. 3. 15. 1 Cor. 12. 28] and there- 
fore the Lord Jesus Christ, out of his tender compassion, hath appointed and 
ordained officers, which he would not have done, if they had not been useful 
and needful to the church ; [Eph. 3. 11. Psa. 68. 18. Eph. 4. 8, 11.] yea, be- 
ing ascended up to heaven, he received gifts for men ; whereof officers for ihe 
church are justly accounted no small parts, they being to continue to the end 
of the world, aisd for the perfecting of all the saints. 



18S AlAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v 

3. Those olliceis were eitlitii- extiaoidinary or ordinary : extraordiiiary,.as 
apostles, propliels. evangelists ; ordinary, as elders and deacons. The apos- 
tles, prophets, and evangelists, as they were called extraordinarily by Clirist. 
so their ollice ended witli themselves; [1 Cor. 12. 28. Eph. 4. 11. Acts 8. 6,. 
1 6, 19. & 11, 2S. Rom. II. 13 1 Cor. 4. 9 ] whence it is that F«m/ directing 
Timothy, how to carry along church-administration, giveth no direction about 
tile choice or course of apostles, prophets or evangelists, but only of elders 
and deacons; and when i^a«/ was to take his last leave of the church of 
Ephemis, he committed the care of feeding the church to no other, but unto 
the elders of that church. The like charge does Peter commit to the elders. 
[1 Tim. 3. 1, 2, 8, to IS. Tit. 1. b. Acts 20, 17, 28. 1 Pet. 5. 1 , 2, 3. 

4. Of elders (who are also in sc;ipture called bishops) some attend chiefly 
to the ministry of the word, as the pastors and teachers ; [l Tim. 2. 3. Phil. 
1.1. Acts 20. 17, 28.] others attend especially unto rule, who are, therefore, 
called ruling-elders, [l Tim. 5. 17-] 

5. The office of pastor and teacher, appears to be distinct. The pastors's 
special work is, to attend to exhortation and therein to administer a word of 
tvisdom : [Eph. 4. 1 1. Rom. 12. J. 8. 1 Cor. 12. 8.] the teacher is to attend 
to doctrine, and therein to administer a word of knowledge : [1 Tim. 4. 1, 2. 
Tit 1. 9,] and either of them to administer, the seals of that covenant, unto 
the dispensation whereof they are alike called; as also to execute the cen- 
sures, being but a kind of application of the word: the preaching of which, 
together with the application thereof, they are alike charged withall. 

6. Forasmuch as both pastors and teachers are given by Christ, for the per- 
fecting of the saints, and edifying of his body; [Eph. 4. 11. 12. & 1. 22,23.] 
which saints and body of Christ is his church : and therefore we account pas« 
tors and teachers to be both of them cluirch-officers, and not the pastor for 
the church, and the teacher only for the schools : [1 Sam. 10. 12, 19, 20.] 
tho' this we gladly acknowledge, that schools are both lawful, profitable, and 
necessary, for the training up of such in good literature or learning, as may 
afterwards be called forth unto office of pastor or teacher in the church. 
[2 Kings 2. 3, 15.] 



CilAP. VII. 

Of Hiding Elders and Deacons. 

The ruling elder's office is distinct from the oflice of pastor and teacher; 
[Rom. 12. 7, S, 9. 1 Tim. j. 17- 1 Cor. 12. 28. Heb. 13. 17- 1 I ii» 5 17] 
the ruling elders are not so calletl to exclude the pastors and teachers from 
ruling, because ruling and governing is common to these with the other; 
whereas attending to teach and preach the word is peculiar unto the former. 

2. The rulii)!,' elder's work is to join with the jjustor and teacher in those 
acts of spiritual rule, which are distinct from the ministry of the word and 
sacraments committed to tlieni : Tl Tim 5. 17- 2 Chron 23. J9 Rev. 21. 
12. 1 Tim. 4 14 Matth. 18. 17. 2 Cor. 2. 7, 8. Acts 2. 6. Acts 21 18, 22, 
23 ] Of which sort these be as followeth. 1 To open and shut the doors 
of (iod's house, by the admission of members approved by the church ; by 
onlination of officers chosen by the church, and by excomnumicalion of no- 
torious and obstinate offeeders renounced by the church, and by restoring, 
or penitents tbrgiven by the church. 2. To call the church together when 
there is occasion, [Acts 6. 2, 3. & 13. 15.] and seasonably to dismiss them 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 189 

again. 3. To prepare matters in private, that in publick they may be car- 
ried an end with less trouble, and more speedy dispatch. [2 Cor. 8. 19. 
Heb. 13. 7, 17- 2 Thess. 2. 10, 11, 12.] 4. To moderate the carriage of 
all matters in the church assembled, as to propound matters to the church. 
To order the season of speech and silence, and to pronounce sentence ac- 
cording to the mind of Christ, with the consent of the church. 5. To be 
guides and leaders to the church in all matters whatsoever partaining to 
church-administrations and actions. 6 To see that none in the church live 
inordinately, out of rank and place without a calling, or idlely in their call- 
ing. [Acts 20 28, 32. 1 Thess. T). 12. Jam. 5. 14. Acts 20. 20.] 7. To 
prevent and heal such offences in life or in doctrine, as might corrupt the 
church. 8. To feed the flock of God with a word of admonition. 9. And 
as they shall be sent for, to visit and pray over their sick bretheren. 10. 
And at other times, as opportunity shall serve thereunto. 

3. The office of a deacon is instituted in the church by tlie Lord Jesus : 
[Acts 6 3, 6. Phil. 1. 1 1 Tim. 3. 8. 1 Cor. 12 28. 1 Tim. 3. 8, 9. Acts 4. 
35. & 6. 2, 3. Rom. 12. 8.] Sometimes they are called helps. The scrip- 
ture telleth us how they should be qualified. Grave, not double-tongued, 
not given to much ivine, not given to Jilthy lucre. They must first be prov- 
ed, and then use the office of a deacon, being found blameless. The office 
and work of a deacon is to receive the offerings of the church, gifts given to 
the church, and to keep the treasury of the church, and therewith to serve 
the tables, which the church is to provide for ; as the Lord's table, the table 
of the ministers, and of such as are in necessity, to whom they are to dis- 
tribute in simplicity. 

4. The office therefore, being limited unto the care of the temporal good 
things of the church, [1 Cor. 7- 17-] it extends not to the attendance upon, 
and administration of the spiritual things thereof, as the word, and sacra- 
ments, and the like. 

5. The ordinance of the apostle, [l Cor. l6. 1, 2, 3.] and practice of the 
church, commends the Lord's-day as a fit time for the contributions of the 
saints. 

6. The instituting of all these officers in the church, is the work of God 
himself of the Lord Jesus Christ, of the Holy Ghost: [l Cor. 12. 28. Eph. 
4. 8, 11. Acts 20. 28.] And therefore such officers, as he hath not appoint- 
ed, are altogether unlawful either to be placed in the church, or to be retain- 
ed therein, and are to be looked at as humane creatures, meer inventions and 
appointments of man, to the great dishonour of Christ Jesus, the Lord of 
his, the King of his church, whether popes, cardinals, patriarchs, arcii-bisli- 
ops, lord-bishops, arch-deacons, officials, commissaries, and the like. These 
and the rest of that hierarchy and retinue, not being plants of the Lord's 
planting, shall all be certainly rooted out and cast forth. [Matth. 15. 13.] 

7- The Lord hath appointed ancient widows [l Tim. 5. 9, 10.] (where 
they may be had) to minister in the church, in giving attendance to the sick, 
and to give succour unto them, and others in the like nece>sili.-s 



CHAP. VHL 

Of the Election of Church Officers. 

No man may take the honour of a church-officer unto himself, but he hia- 
was called of God, as was Aaron. [Heb. 5. 4.] 



190 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

2. Calling unto office is either immediate, by Christ himself, such was the 
call of the apostles and prophets; [Gal. 1. 1. Acts 14. 23. <fe 6. 3.] this 
manner of calling ended with ihera, as hatli been said, or mediate^ by the 
church. 

3. It is meet, that before any be ordained,- or chosen officers, they should 
first be tried and proved, because hands are not suddenly to be laid upon 
any, and both elders and deacons must be of both honest and good report. 
[1 Tim. 5. 22. & 7. 10. Acts \6 2. & 6. 3.] 

4. The things in re.spect of which they are to be tried, are those gifts and 
vertues, which the scripture requireth, in men that are to be elected unto 
such places, v'r "" at elders must be blameless, sober, apt to teach, and 
endued with such other quaiilications as are laid down, I Tim. 2. "2. Tit. 1. 
6. to 9- Deacons to be fitted as is directed. Acts 6. 3. 1 Tim. 3. 8. to 1 1 . 

5. Olhcers are to be called by such churches, whereunto they are to min- 
ister. Of such moment is the preservation of this power, that the churches 
exercised it in tiie presence of the apostles. [Acts 14. 23. & 1. 23. & 6- 
3,4,5.] 

6. A church being free, cannot become subject to an}', but b}' a free elec- 
tion ; yi't when such a people do chuse any to be over them in tlie Lord, 
then do they become subject, and most willingly submit to their ministry in 
the Lord, whom they have so chosen. [Gal 5. 13. Heb. 13. 17.] 

7. And if the church have power to chuse their officers and ministers. 
TRom. l6 17.] then in case of manifest unworthiness and delinquenc}' they 
have power also to depose them : For to open and shut, to chuse and refuse, 
lo constitute in office, and to remove from office, are acts belonging to the 
same power. 

8. We judge it much conducing to the well-being, and communion of the 
churches, [Cant. 8. 8, 9.] that where it may conveniently be done, neighbour 
churches be advised witiml, and their help be made use of in trial of churcli- 
ofticers, in order to their choice, 

9. The choice of such church-officers belongeth not to the civil magistrate 
as such, or diocesan bishops, or patrons: For of these, or any such like, the 
scripture is wholly silent, as having any power therein. 



CHAP. LX. 

Of Ordination and imposition of haiids. 

1. CHCRCH-officers are not only to be chosen by the church, [Acts 13. 3. 
^ 14. 23 ] but also to be ordained by imposition of hands and prayer, with 
which at tl-.e ordmation of elders, fasting also is to be joined, [l Tim. 5. 22.] 

2 This ordinativn, [Numb 8. 10. Acts 6. 5, G. & 13. 2, 3.] we account 
nothing el.se, but the solemn putting a man into his place and office in tlie 
church, wlicreuiito he had right bet'ore by election : being like the installing 
of a magistrate: in the Common-Wealth. Ordination therefore is not to go 
before, but to follow election [Acts 6. 5, 6. & 14. 23] The essence and 
substance of the outward cnlliuir of an ordinary officer in the church does not 
consisit iu his ordination, but in his voluntary and free election by the church 
and his accepting of that election ; whereupon is lounded that relation, be- 
tween pastor and flock, between such a minister and such a people. Ordi- 
nation does not constitute an officer, nor give him the essentials of his office. 
The apo>t!:^s wen; rldf-r;. without imposition of liands by men : Paul and 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 1<J1 

r.arnaban were officers before that imposition of hands, Acts 13. 3. The 
postf;rity of Levi were priests and Levites, before hands were laid on them 
by tlie children of Israel. 

3. In such churches where there are elders, imposition of iiands in ordina- 
tion, is to be performed by those elders, [l Tim. 4. 10. Acts 13. 3. 1 Tim. 
fj. 22.] 

4. In such churches where there are no elders, [Numb. 3. 10 ] imposi- 
tion of hands may be performed by some of the brethren orderly chosen by 
the church thereunto. For, if the people may elect otficers, whic'h is the 
greater, and wherein the substance of the office doth consist, they may much 
more (occasion and need so requiring) impose hands in ordination; which 
is less, and but the accomplishment of the other. 

f). Nevertheless, in such chwchcs where there are no elders, and the 
church so desire, we see not why imposition of hands may not be performed 
by the elders of other churches. Ordinary officers laid hands U])on the offi- 
cers of many churches: the presbytery at Ejjhesus laid hands upon Timothy 
an evangelist; [l Tim 4. 14. Acts 13. 3.] the presbytery at Antioch laid 
hands upon Paul and Barnabas. 

6. Church-officers are officers to one church, even that particular over 
which the Holy Ghost hath made them overseers. Insomuch as elders are 
commanded to feed not all flocks, but the flock, which is committed to their 
faith and trust, and dependeth upon them. Nor can constant residence at 
one congregation be necessary for a minister, no nor yet lawful, if he be not a 
minister to one congregation only, but to the church universal ; [l Pet. 5. 2. 
Acts 20. 28.] because he may not attend one part only of the church, to 
which he is a minister, but he is called to attend unto all the flock. 

7' He that is clearly released from his office relation unto that church, 
whereof he was a minister, cannot be looked at, as an officer, nor perform 
any act of office in any other church, unless he be again orderly called unto 
office : which, when it shall be, we know nothing to hinder; but imposition 
of hands also in his ordination [Acts 20. 28 ] ought to be used towards him 
again: for so Paw/ the apostle received imposition of hands twice at least 
from Ananias, Acts 9. 17' & 13. 3. 



CHAP. X. 

Of the power of the church and its presbytery. 

1. Supreme and Lordly power over all the churches upon earth doth on]% 
belong to Jesus Christ, who is king of the church, and the head thereof [Ps. 
2. 6. Eph. 1. 21, 22. Isa. 9- 6. Mat. 28. 18.] He hath the government 
upon his shoulders, and hath all power given to him both in heaven and 
earth. 

2. A company of professed believers, ecclesiastically confederate, as they 
are a church before they have officers, and without them ; so even in that 
estate subordinate church-power [Acts 1. 23. & 14. 23. & 6. 3- 4. Mat. 18. 
17- 1 Cor. 5. 4, 5.] under Christ delegated to them by him, doth belong to 
them hi such a manner as is before expressed. Chap. 5. Sec. 2. and as flow- 
ing from the very nature and essence of a church; it being natural unto all 
bodies, and so unto a church-body, to be furnished with sufficient power for 
its own preservation and subsistence. 

f^. This governraent of the church [Rev. 3. 7., 1 Cor. 5. 12.] is a mixt 



192 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v 

government (and so has been acknowledged, long before the term of inh- 
l)endcncy was heard of) in respect of Christ the head and king of the church, 
and the Sovereign Power residing in him, and exercised by him, it is a inon- 
nrchij ; in respect of tlie body or brotherhood of {he church, and power from 
Christ granted unto them [l Tim. 5. 2".] it resembles a democracy ; in re- 
spect of the i)resbytery and power committed unto tliem, it is an aris- 
tocracy. 

4. The Sovereign Power, which is peculiar unto Christ is exercised, i. 
In calling the church out of the world into an holy fellowship with himself. 
[Gal. 1. 4. Rev. 5. 8, 9- Mat. 28. 20. Eph. 4. 8, U. Jam. 4. 12. Is 33. 22. 
1 Tim. 3. 15. 2 Cor. 10. 4, 5. Is. 32. 2. Luke 1 . 71.] 2. In instituling the 
ordinances of his worship, and appointing his ministers and officers for the 
dispensing of them. 3. In giving laws for the ordering of all our ways, and 
the ways of his house. 4. In giving power and life to all his institutions, 
and to his people by them. 5. In protecting and delivering his church 
against and from all the enemies of their peace. 

5. The power granted by Christ unto the body of the church and brother- 
hood, IS R prerogative ot privi ledge which the church doth exercise. 1. In 
choosing their own officers, whether elders or deacons. [Acts 6. 3, 5. &: 14. 
23. & y. 26. Mat. 18. 15, 1(>, I?-] 2. In admission oi these members; 
and therefore there is great reason they should have power to remove any 
from their fellowship again. Hence, in case of offence, any brother hath 
power to convince and admonish an oHending brother : and, in case of not 
hearing him, to take one or two more to set on the admonition : and in case 
of not hearing them' to proceed to tell the church : and as his offence may 
require, the whole church has power to proceed to the censure of him, 
whether by admonition or excommunication : [Tit. 3. 10. Col. 4. IT- IMat. 
18. 17. 2 Cor. 2. 7, 8.] and upon his repentance to restore him again unto 
his former communion. 

(). In case an elder offend incorrigibly, the mailer so requiring, as the 
church had power to call him to office, so they iiave power according to or- 
der (the counsel of other churches, wiicre it may be had, directing thereto) 
to remove him from his office, and being now but a member, [Col. 4. 17- 
Ro. 1(). 17. Mat. IS. 17.] in case he add conlumacy to his sin, the church, 
that had power to receive him into their fellowshij), hath also the sanie pow- 
er to cast him out, that they liave concerning any other member. 

7. Churcli-govermiient or rule is placed by Christ in the officers of the 
church, [1 Tim. 5. 17. Ilcb. 13. 17. I Thes. 5 12.] who are therefore called 
rulers, while they rule with (iod : yet in case of maU-administralion, they 
are subject to the power of the church, as hath been said before. [Rom. 12. 
8. 1 Tim. 5. 17. 1 Cor. 12.28, 29- Heh. 13. 7- 17-] The iloly Ghost fre- 
quently, yea, always, where it mentioneth church-rule, and church govern- 
ment, ascrib^th it to elders: whereas the work and duty of the people is ex- 
presseil in the phrase of obeying their elders, and subtnitiing themselres unto 
them in the Lord. .So as it is manifest that an organick or compleat church, 
)S a body politick, consisting of some that are governours, and some that arc 
governed in the f.ord. 

8. The power which Christ hnth committed to the elders, is to feed and 
.'ale the church of (iod,and accordingly to call tlieciiurch together upon anv 
-.veighty occasion; [Ads 20. 28. <fe (i. 2. Numb. 1 6. 12. Ezek. 46. 10. Acts 
13. 15. IIos. 4. 4.] when the members so called withoutjust cause, may not 
refuse to come, nor when they are come, depart befoie they are dismissed, 
iior speaK in the church, befnr<! they have leave from the elders, nor continue 
so doing when they require silence ; nor may they oppose or contradict the 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 193 

judgment or sentence of the elders, without sufficient and weighty cause, be- 
cause iuch practices are manifestly contrary unto order and government, and 
inlets of disturbance and lend to confusioii 

9. It belongs also unto the elders before to examine any officers or mem- 
bers, before they be received of the ciunch, [ilev. 2. 2. 1 Tim. 5. 19. Acts 
21. 18, 22, 23. 1 Cor. 5. 4, 5.] to receive the accusations brought to the 
church, and to prepare them fur the churches hearing. In handling of of- 
fences and otlier matters before the church, they have power to declare and 
publish the will of God touching the same, and to pronounce sentence with 
the consent of the church. [Numb. 6. 23. to 26.] Lastly, They have pow- 
er, when they dismiss the people, to bless them in the name of the Lord. 

10. This power of governnipnt in tlie elders doth not any wise prejudice 
the power of jl^ivilege in the brotherhood ; as n<'ither the power of privilege 
in the brethren, doth prejudice the power of government in the elders, [Acts 
14. 1.5, 23, & 6. 2. 1 Cor. 5. 4. 2 Cor. 2. 6. 7-] but they may sweetly agree 
together; as we may see in the example of the apostles, furnished with the 
greatest church-pGicer , who took in the concurrence and consent of the breth- 
ren in church-admimstrations. Also that scripture, 2 Cor. 2 9- & 10. 6. do 
declare that what the churches were to art and to do in these matters, they 
were to do in a way of obedience, anrl that not only to the direction of the 
apostles, but also of their ordinary elders. [Heb. 13. 17-] 

11. From the promises, namely, that the ordinary power of government 
belonging only to the elders, power of privilege remaining with the brother- 
hood (as the power of judgment in matteis of censure and power of libert}' in 
matters of liberty) it followeth that in an organick church and right adminis- 
tration, all church-acts proceed after the manner of a mixt administration, so 
as no church -act can be consummated, or perfected without the consent of 
botli. 



CHAP. XL 

Of the maintenance of church-ojicers. 

1. The apostle concludes, that necessary and sufficient maintenance is 
due unto the ministers of the word from the law of nature and nations, from 
the law of Moses, the equity thereof, as also the rule of common reason. 
Moreover the scripture doth not onl}' call elders labourers and workmen, 
[Gal. 6. 6.] but also speaking of them doth say that the labourer is icorthy of 
his hire : [l Cor. 9. 9. 14. 1 Tim. 5. 18.] and requires that he which is taught 
in the word, should communicate to him in all good things, and mention it, 
as an ordinance of the Lord, that they which preach the gospel, should live 
of the gospel, and forbiddeth the muzzling of the mouth of the ox, that tread- 
eth out the corn. 

2. The scriptures alledged, requiring this maintenance as a bounden duty, 
and due debt and not as a matter of alms and free gift, therefore j^eople are 
not at liberty to do or not to do, what and when they I'lease in this matter, no 
more than in any other commanded duty, and ordinance of the Lord ; [Rom. 
15. 27. 1 Cor. 9. 21.] but ought of duty to minister of their carnal thi?igs, to 
them that labour among them in word and doctrine, as well as they ought to 
p'ay any other workmen tiieir wages, and to discharge and satisfie their debts, 
or to submit tiiemselves to observe any other ordinance of the Lord. 

3. The apostle (Gal. 6. 6.) enioyning that he which is taught communi- 
voL. 11. 25 



194 MAGNALIA CHRISTl AMERICANA: [Book v 

cate to him that teacheth in all good things, doth not leave it arbitrary, 
[l Cor. 16. 2.] what or how much a man shall give, or in what proportionj 
but even the latter, as well as the former is prescribed and appointed by the 
Lord . 

4. Not only members of churches but all that arc taught in the word, are 
to contribute unto him that teacli<'th in all good things. In case that congre- 
gations are defective in their contributions, t!ie deacons are to call upon them 
to do their duty : [Acts 6. 3, 4.] if their call sulticeth not, the church by her 
power is to re<iuire it of their members ; and where church }>o\ver thro' the 
corruption of men doth not, or cannot attain the end the magistrate is to see 
that the ministry l)e duly provided tor, as appears from the counnended ex- 
ample of Nehemialt. [Neh. 13. 11. Isa. 44. 23. 2 Cor. 8. 13, 14.] The 
magistrates are nursing-lathers and nursing-mothers, and startfr charged with 
the custody of both tables; because it is better to prevent a standal, (hat it 
may not come, and easier also, than to remove it, when it is given. It's most 
suitable to rule, that by the church's care each man should know his propor- 
tion according to rule, what he should do before he do it, that so his judg- 
ment and heart may be satisfied in what he doth, and just oflence prevented 
in what is done. 



CHAP. XII. 

Of the admission of members into the church. 

1. The doors of the churches of Christ upon earth, do not by Ciod's ap- 
pointment stand so wide open, that all sorts of people good and bad, may 
freely enter therein at their pleasure, [2 Chr. 29- 19 Mat. 13. 25. & 22, 12.] 
but such as are admitted thereto, as members, ought to be examin'd and tryed 
first, whether they be fit and meet to be received into church-society or not. 
The Eunuch of Ethiopia before his admission, was examined by Philip, 
[Acts 8. 37.] whether he did believe on .Jesus Christ with all his heart. The 
angel of the church at Ejjhesns, [Rev. 2. 2. Acts 9- 26.] is commended for 
trying such as said they n ere apostles and were not. There is like reason for 
trying of them that profess themselves to be believers. The officers are 
charged with the keeping of the doors of the church, and therefore are in a 
special manner to make tryal of the fitness of such, who enter. Twelve an- 
gels are set at the gates of the temple, [Rev, 21. 12. 2 Chr. 23. 19.] lest such 
as were cmmonially tniclcan should enter thereinto. 

2. Tiie things which are requisite to be found in all church-members, are 
repevtunrc from sin, a.m\ fai/h in Jesus Christ : [Acts 2. 38. to 42. & 8. 37'] 
and therefore these are the things whereof men are to be examined, at their 
admission into the church, and which then they must profess and hold forth in 
such sort, as may satisfie rational charift/ iUm (he things aic indeed. John 
Baptist admitted men to br.ptism confessinsr and bewailing their sins: [Mat. 
3. (). Acts 19. ] 8.] and of others it is said that thci/ came and confessed, and 
shewed their dieds. 

3. The weakest measure of faith is to be accepted in those that desire to 
be admitted into the church. [ Kom. 14. 1.] if sincere, have the substance ot 
that faith re|)entance and holiness, which is required in church members ; 
and such have most need of the ordinances for their confirmation and growth 
in grace. The Lord Jesus wouhl not quench the smoaking flax, nor break 
the bruised reed, [Mat. 12. 20. Isa. 40. 11.] but (jather the tender lambs in 
his arms and carry them gentlv in his bosom. 



Book v.] OR THK HISTORY OF NEW-Ex\GLAND. 195 

Such cliarity and tenderness is to be used, as the weakest Christian, if sin- 
cere, may not be excluded nor discouraged. Severity ot examination is to be 
avoided. 

4. In case any thro' excessive fear, or other infirmity, be unable to make 
their personal relation of their spiritual estate in publick, it is sufficient, that 
the elders having received private satisfaction, make relation thereof in pub- 
lick before the church, they testifying their assents thereunto : this being the 
way that tendeth most to edification. But whereas persons are of greater 
abilities, there it is most expedient, that they make their relations and confes- 
sions personally with their own mouth, as David professeth of himselt. 
[Psal. m. 6.J 

5. A personal and publick confiession and declaring of God's manner of 
working upon the soul, is both lawful, expedient and useful, in sundry re- 
spects and upon sundry grounds. Those three thousand, Acts 2. 37,41. be- 
fore they were admitted by the apostles did manifest that they were pricked 
at the heart by Peters sermon, together with earnest desire to be delivered 
from their sins which now wounded their consciences, and their ready receiv- 
ing of the word of promise and exhortation. We are to be ready to render a 
reason of the hope that is in us, to every one that askcth us ; [1 Pet. 3. 15. 
Heb. 11. 1. Eph. 1. 18.J therefore we must be able and ready upon any oc- 
casion to declare and shew om repentance (or ?,'m, faith unfeigned, and effect- 
ual calling, because these are the reason of a well grounded hope. I have 
not hidden thi/ .righteousness from the great congregation. Psalm 40. 10. 

6. This profession of faith and repentance, as it must be made by such at 
cheir admission, that were never in church society bet'ore ; so nothing hinder- 
eth but the same way also be performed by such as have formerly been mem- 
bers of some other church, [Mat. 3. 5, 6. Gal. 2. 4. 1 Tim. 5. 24.] and the 
church to which they now join themselves as members, may lawfully require 
the same. Those three thousand. Acts 2. which made tiieir confession were 
members of the church of the Jews before ; so were those that were baptised 
by John. Churches may err in tlieir admission ; and persons regularly ad- 
mitted, may fall into ofil'ence. Otherwise, if churches might obtrude their 
members, or if diurch members mig'.it obtrude themselves upon other church- 
es without due trial, the matter so requiring, both the liberty of the churches 
would thereby be infringed in liiat they might not examine those, concerning 
whose fitness for communion they were unsatisfied : and besides the infring- 
ing of their liberty the churches themselves would unavoidably be corrupted, 
and the ordinances defiled, wiiilst they might not refuse, but must receive the 
unworthy : which is contrary unto the scripture, teaching that all churches 
are sisters, and therefore equal. [Cant. 8. 8.] 

7- The like trial is to be required from such members of the church as were 
born in the same, or received their membership, or were baptized in their in- 
fancy, or minority by virtue of the covenant of their parents, when being 
grown up into years of discretion, they shall desire to be made partakers of 
the Lord's Supper: unto which because holy tilings must not be given unto 
the unworthy, therefore it is requisite, [Mat. 7. 6. 1 Cor. 11. 27.] that these 
as well as otliers, should come to their trial and examination, and manifest 
their faith and repentance by an open profession thereof, before they are re- 
ceived to the Lord's Supper, and otherwise not to be admitted thereunto. 
Yet these church members that were so born, or received in their childhood, 
before they are capable of being made partakers of full communion, have ma- 
ny priviledges which others, (not church-members) have not ; they are in 
covenant with God, have the seal thereof upon them viz. baptism ; and so, 
if not regenerated, yet are in a more hopeful way of attaining regenerating 
grace, and all the spiritual blessings both of the covenant and seal : thev are 



196 MAGNALIA CHlllSTI AMERICANA: [IJook v. 

also iiiidcr church-watch, and conseqiiently subject to the repifjlxMisions, ad- 
monitions and CLMisnres thereof, lor their heahiii; and aniendnient, as iKcrf 
shall require. 



CHAP. XI a. 

Of Church-Memhers, their removal from one Church to another, anil of lic- 
cummeiidation and Dismission. 

1. CHTOCH-members may not remove or depart from the church, and so 
one from anotlier as they please, nor without just and \veiL;i<ty cause, but 
ought to live and dwell together, [lleb. JO. 25.] for asnuich as they arc com- 
manded not to forsake the assembling of themselves together. Such depar- 
ture tends to the dissolution and mine of the body, as the pulling of stones 
and pieces of timber from the building, and of members from the natural bo- 
dy tend to the destruction of the whole. 

2. It is, therefore, the dnty of church-members, in such times and places, 
where counsel may be had to consult with the church whereof they are nu'm- 
bers, [Pro. 11. lO.] about their removal, that, accordingly, they having their 
approbation, may be encouraged, or otherwise desist. They who are join'd 
with consent, sln)uld not depart without consent, except forced thereunto. 

3. If a member's departure be manifestly unsafe and sinful, the church 
may not consent thereunto ; for in so doing, [Ro. 14. 23.] they should not act 
in faith, and shotdd partake with him in his sin. [l Tim. 5. 22.] If the case 
bedoubtful and the person not to be |)erswaded, [Act 21. 14.] it seemethbest 
to leave the matter imto God, and not forcibly to detain him. 

4. Jnst reasons for a meujber's removal ol himself from the church, are, 1. 
If a man caimot continue wiihout jjartaking in sin. [Eph. 5. 11.] 2. Incuse 
of personal ()erseciition : (Acts y. 25, 2[). 30. and 8 1.) so Paul, departed 
from the disciples at Damascus, also in case of general persecution, when all 
are scattered. In case of real, and not only pretended want of competent 
subsistence, a door, being opened f(U- belter supply in another place, (Neh. 
13. 20.) together with the means of spiritual edilication. In these, or like 
cases, a member may lawl'ully reiuove, and the church cannot lawfully detain 
him. 

5. To separate frcin a church either out of contempt of their holy fellow- 
ship, (2 Tim. 4 10.) or out ofcovetousiiess, or for greater enlargements, with 
just grief lo the church, or (>ut of schism, or want of love, and out of a spirit 
of contention in respect of some unkindness, or sonie evil only conceived or 
indeed in the church, which might and should be tolerated and healed with a 
spirit of meekness, and of which evil the church is not yet convinced (tho' 
perhaps himself bey not admonished : for these or the like reasons to with- 
draw from publique communion in word or seals, or censures, is unlawful 
and sinful 

6. Such members as have orderly moved their habitation, ought to join 
themselves unto the church in order. (Isa. 56. 8.) where they do inhabit, 
(Acts 9. 26.) if it may be; otherwise they can neither perform the duties, nor 
receive the priviledges of members. Such an example tolerated in some, is 
apt to corrupt others, which if many should follow would threaten the disso- 
lution and confusion of churches contrary to the Scripture. (1 Cor. 14. 33.) 

7. Order requires that a member thus removing, have letters testimonial 
and of dismission from the church, (Act. 18. 2?.) whereof he yet is; unto 



Book iv.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 197 

tlie church whereunto he desiretli to be joinecl, lost the church should be de- 
liuled ; that tl)e church ma}^ receive biin in taitli, and not be corrupted in re- 
oeiviug deceivers, and false brethren Until the person dismissed be received 
unto another church, he ceaseth not by his letters ot' dismission to be a mem- 
ber of the church whereof he was. The church cannot make a member, no 
member, but by excommunication. 

8. If a member be called to remove only for a time, where a church is, (Ro. 
16. 1, 2.) letters of recoinmendation are requisite and sufficient for commu- 
nion with that church, (2 Cor. 3. 1.) in the ordinances, and in their watch; 
CIS Phcebe,d servant of the church at Cenchrea, had a letter written for her to 
the church at Rome, that she might be received as becometh saints. 

9 Such letters of recommendition and dismission, (Act. 18. 27.) were 
written for Apollos, fi)r Marcus to the Colossians^ (Col. 4. 10.) for Fhoehe to 
the Ko/Hrtz/fi, (Horn. I6. 1.) tor sundry other churches. (2 Cor. 3. 5.) And the 
apostle tells us that some persons, not sufficiently known otherwise, have spe- 
cial need of such letters, tho" he, lor his part, had no need thereof. The use of 
them is to be a benefit and help to the party for whom th.ey are written, and for 
the furthering of his receiving among the saints, in the place whereto he goetb, 
and the due satisfaction of them in their receiving of hi.ni. 



CHAP. XIV. 

Of Excommunication and other Censures. 

censures of the church are appointed by Christ for the preventing, 
reiTioving and healing of olVences in the church ; [l. Tim. 5. 20. Jude 10. 
Deu. 13. 11. 1 Cor. 5. 6. Rom 2. 24. Rev. 2. 14, 15, 16, 20.] for the re- 
claiming and gaining of offending brethren, for the deterring others from the 
like offences, for purging out the leaven, which may infect the whole lump ; 
Ibr vindicHtmg the honour of Christ and of his church, and the holy profes- 
sion of the gospel ; and for preventing of the wrath of God, that may justly 
fall upon the church, if they should suffer his covenant, and the seals thereol 
lo be pr(»faned by notorious and obstinate offenders. 

2. if an offence be private (Mat. 5. 23, 24.) (one brother offending an- 
other) the oflender is to go and acknowledge his repentance for it unto his of- 
fended brother, who is then to forgive him ; but if the offender neglect or re- 
fuse to do it, the brother oflended is to go, and convince and admonish him 
of it, between themselves privately: if therefore the offender be brought to 
repent of his offmice, the admonisher has won his bi other ; but if the offender 
hear not his brother, the brother of the offended is to take with him one or two 
more, (Verse 16.) that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word 
may be established, (whether the word of admoniticm, if the offender receive 
it; or the word of complaint if he refuse it,) for if he refuse it, (Verse 17.) 
the offended brother is by the mouth of the elders to tell the church, and if he 
hear the church, and declare the same by penitent confession, he is recovered 
and gained: And if the church discern him to be willing to hear, y^t not ful- 
ly convinced of his offence, as in case of heresie, they are to dispence to him a 
publick admonition ; which declaring the offender to lye under the public of- 
fence of the church, doth thereby with -hold or suspend him fioni the holy 
lellowship of the Lord's suppei-, till his offence be removed by penitent con- 
fession. If he still continue obstinate, they are to cast him out bj^xcommu- 
nicatioU: 



108 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book v 

3. But if tlieoflence be more publick at first, and of a more haiiious and 
criminal nature, (1 Cor. f). 4, 8, 11.) to wit, such as are condemned by the 
light of nature; then the church without such gradual proceeding, is to cast 
out the offender from their holy communion, for the I'urther mortifying of his 
siujand the healing of his soul in the day of tiie Lord Jesus. 

4. In dealing with an ollender, great care is to betaken that we be neither 
over-strict or rigorcus, nor too indulgent or remiss: our proceeding herein 
ought to he with a spirit of uieekness, considering ourselves, lest we also be 
tempted, (Gal. 6. 1 ) and that the best of us have need of much forgiveness 
from the Lord. (Matth. ]8. 34, 35 ) Yet the winning and healing of the of- 
fender's soul being the end of these endeavours; (tzek. 13. 10.) we must 
not daub with untempered morter, nor Inal the wounds of our bretheren 
slightly. On some have compassion, others save with fear. 

5. VVhiie the offender remains excommunicate, (Mat. 18. 17.) the church 
is to retrain from all member-like communion with him in spiritual things, 
(l Cor. 5. 11.) and also from all familiar comnmnion with him in civil things, 
(2 Thes. 3. 6, 14.) farther than the necessity of natural or domestical or civil 
relations do require; and are therefore to forbear to eat and drink with him, 
that he may be ashamed. 

6 Lxcoinmunication being a spiritual punishment, il ddth not prejudice 
the excommunicate in, or deprive him of his civil rights, and therefore touch- 
eth not princes or magistrates in respect of their civil dignity or authority; 
(1 Cor. 14. 24, 2.5.) and the exconununicate being but as a publican, and a 
heathen, (2 Thes. 3. 14.) heathens being lawfully permiited to hear the word 
in church-assemblies, we acknowledge therefore the like liberty of hearing 
the word, may be permitted io f)ersons excuinunniicate, that is perini|m(l uiito 
heathen. And because we are not without hope of his recovery, we are not to 
account him as an enemy, but to admonish him as a brother. 

f. If the Lord sanctilie the censure to the offender, so as by the grace of 
(Christ he doth testifie his repentance with humble confession of his sin, and 
judging of himself, giving glory unio (Jod, (2 Cor. 2. 7, 8.) the church is then 
to forgive him, and to comfort him, and to restore him to the wonted brother- 
J)' commimion, which formerly he enjoyed with 'em. 

8. The suifering of prophane' or scandalous livers, to continue in fellowship^ 
and partake in the sacrariients, [Hev. 2. 14, 15, 20.] is doubtless a great sin 
in those that have power in their hands to redress it, and do il not : Never- 
theless, in so much as Christ, and his apostles in their lim^-s, and the pro})h- 
ets and nthcr gofl/i/ mcii in theirs, [Mat. 23. 3. Acts 3. 1.] did lawfully par- 
take of the Lord's commanded ordinances in the Jewish church, and neither 
taught nor practised sejiaration iVom the same, though uuwyrlhy ones were 
permitted therein : and iuasnuich as the faithful in the church of Corinth, 
wherein were many unworthy persons and practises, [l Cor. 6. & 15. 12.] 
are never commanded to absent themselves from the sacraments, because of 
the same ; therefore the godly, in like cases, are not to separate. 

9- As separation from such a church wherein profane and scandalous per- 
sons are tollerated, is n(»t presently necessary ; so for the members thereof 
otherwise unworthy, hereupon to abstain from communicating with such a 
church in the participation of the sacraments, is unlawful. [2 Chr. 30. 18. 
Gen. 18. 25. For as it wvre unreasonable for an innocent person to be pun- 
ished for the faults of others, wherein he hath no hand, and whereunto he 
gave no consent : So js it more unreasonable, Uiat a godly man should ne- 
glect duty, and jvunish himself, in not coming for his portion in the I lessing 
of the sealkas heoiiglit, because others are suflered to come that ought not : 
'"speciallj^bnsidering that himself doth neither consent to their sin, nor to 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. I9f 

their approaching to the ordinance in tlieir sin, nor to the neglect of others, 
who should put them away, and do not, but, on the contrary, doth heartily 
mourn for these things, [Ezek. 9- 4.] modestly and seasonably stir up others 
to do tlieir duty. If the church cannot be reformed, they may use iheir lib- 
erty, as is specified. Chap. 13, Sect. 4. Cut this all the god!}^ are bound 
unto, even every one to his endeavour, according to his power and place, 
that the unworthy may be duly proceeded against by the church, to whom 
this matter doth pertain. 



CHAP. XV. 

Of the communion of Churches one with another. 

Altho' churches be distinct, and therefore may not be confounded one 
with another, and equal, and therefore have not dominion one over another: 
[Rev. 1.4. Cant. 8. 8. Rom. l6. l6. 1 Cor. l6. 19- Acts 15 23. Rev, 2. 1.] 
Yet all the churches ought to preserve church-communion one with another, 
because they are all united unto Christ, not only as a mystical, but as a po- 
litical liead : Whence is derived a communion suitable thereunto. 

2. The communion of churches is exercised several ways. [Cant. 8. 8.1 
1, By w^y o( mutual care in taking thought for one another's welfare. 2. 
By way of consultatioti one with another, when we have occasion to require 
the judgment and counsel of other churches, touching any person or cause, 
wherewith they may be better acquainted than ourselves. [Acts 15. 2.] As 
the church oi Antioch consulted with the apostles and elders of the church at 
Jen^sf//(??«, about the question of circumcision of the gentiles, and about the 
false teachers that broached that doctrine. In which case when any church 
wanteth light or peace anjong themselves, it is a way of communion of the 
churches, according to the word, to meet together by their elders and other 
messengers in a synod, [Ver. 22. 23.] to consider and argue the point in 
doubt or difference : and having found out the way of truth and peace to com- 
mend the same by their letters and messengers to the churches, whom the 
same may concern. But if a church be rent with divisions among them- 
selves ; or lye under any open scandal, and yet refuse to consult with othei 
churches, for healing, or removing of the same, it is matter of just otience 
both to the Lord Jesus, and to other churches, [Ezek. 34. 4.] as bewrayinc 
too much wantof mercy and faithfulness, not to seek to bitul up the breaches 
and wounds of the church and brethren : And therefore the state of such a 
church calleth aloud upon other churches, to exercise a fuller act of brotherly 
communion, to wit, by way of admonition. 3, A way, then, of communion 
of churches, is by way of arf/rto»i7/o« ; to wit, in case any public offence be 
found in a church, which they either discern not, or are slow in proceeding to 
use the means for the removing and healing of Paul had no authority over 
Peter, yet when he saw Peter not walking with a right foot, he publickly re- 
buked him before the church. [Gal. 2. 11. to 14. 

Tho' ciiurches have no more authority one over another, than one apostle 
had over anoiiier, yet as one apostle might admonish another, so may one 
ehurch admonish another, and yet without usurpation. [Matth. IS. 15, 16. 
17- by proportion.] In which case, if the church, that lieth under offence, do 
not hearken to the church that doth adm*)nish her, the church is to acquaint 
other neighbour churches, with that offence, which the offending church still 
lieth under, together with the neglect of their brotherly admonition given unto 



20Q M AGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

them : WTiereupon those other cJii/rchcs are to join in seconding the admoni- 
tion formerly given : and if still the oflending church continue in obstinacy 
and impenitency they may forbear communion witli them, and are to proceed 
to make use of tlie help ol a synod, or counsel of neiglibour churches, walking 
orderly (if a greater cannot conveniently be had) fur their conviction. If the\ 
hear not the synod, the synod having declared them to be obstinate, particu- 
lar churches accepting and approvingof the judgment of the synod, are to de- 
clare the sentence of non-coiutnunion respectively concerning them : And 
thereupon out of religious care to keep their own communion pure, they may 
justly withdraw themselves from participation with them at the Lord's table, 
and liom such otiier acts of holy communion, as the communion of churckea 
doth otherwise allow and require. JNevertheless, if any members of such a 
church, as live under public oflence, do not consent to the ofi'ence of the 
church, but do in due sort bear witness against it, [(ren. 18. 25.] tljey are still 
to be received to wonted communion, tor it is not equal that the innocent 
should suffer with tlie olYcnsive. Yea, furthermore, if such innocent mem- 
bers, after due waiting in the use of all due means for the healing of the of- 
lence of their own c/trtrcA, shall at last (with the allowance of the counsel of 
iieifrhbour churches,) withdraw from the fellowship of their own church, and 
offer themselves to the t'ellowship of another, we judge it lawful for the other 
church to receive them (being otherwise fit,) as if they had been orderly dis- 
missed to them from their own church. 4. A fourth way of conimun'um with 
churches, is by way of pdrticipation : the members of one church occasional- 
ly coming to another, we willingly admit them to partake with them at the 
Lord's table, [1 Cov. 12. 13.] it being the seal of our comminiion not only 
with Christ, not only with the members of our own church, but also of all the 
cAurc/tes of the saints : In which regard wc refuse not to baptize their chil- 
dren presented to us, if either their own minister be absent, or such a fruit oi 
holy ftllowship be desired with us. In like cases, such churches as are fur- 
nished with more ministers than one, do willingly afl'ord one of their own 
Ministers to supply the absence or place of a sick minister of another church 
for a needful season. J. A fifth way o( church commuuinn is by recow(men- 
dation, [Rom l6, 1.] when the member of one church hath occasion to re- 
side in another church, if but for a season, we commend him to their watchful 
fellowship by letters of recommendation : But if he be called to settle his 
abode there, we commit him according to his desire, to the fellowship of their 
covenant by letters of dismission. 6. A si.xth way of church communion, 
[Acts 18. 27.] is in case of need io minister succour one unto another, [Acts 
11. 22.] either of able members to furnish them with officers, or of outward 
support to the necessities of poorer churches. [Verse 29.] as did the churches 
of the Gentiles contribute liberally to the poor saints at Jerusalem. [Rom. 13. 
26,27. 

3. When a company of believers purpose to gather into church-fellowship, 
it is requisite for their safer proceeding and the mentioning of the commimion 
of churches, that they siguilie their intent unto the neighbouring churches, 
walking according to the order of the gospel, and desire their presence and 
help, and right hand of fellowship ; [Gal. 2. 1 2. & «J. bi/ proportion.] which 
they ought readily to give unto them, when there is no just cause to except 
against their proceedings. 

4. Besides these several ways of communion, there is also a way of propa- 
gation of churches : When a cZ/M/c/t shall grow too numerous, it is away, 
and fit season to propagate oiw church out of anotlier, by sending forth such 
of their members, as are willing to remove, and to procure som.e ofiicers to 
them, [Isa. 40. 20. Cant, S. 8. 9.} as may enter with them into church estate 
amon^r flienis<:lve?. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND 201 

As bees, when the hive is too full, issue out by swarms, and are gathered in- 
to other hives, so the churches of Christ may do the same upon the like ne-^ 
cessity ; and therein hold forth to them the right-hand of fellowship, both in 
their gathering into a church and in the ordinatioa of their officers. 



CHAP. XVI. 

Of Synods. 

1. Synods orderly assembled, [Acts 15. 2, to 15.] and rightly proceeding 
according to the pauern, Acts. 15. we acknowledge as the ordinance of 
Christ: and tho' not absolutely necessary to the being, yet many times, thro' 
the iniquity of men, and perverseness of times, necessary to the well-being of 
churches, for the establishment of truth and peace therein. 

2. Synods being spiritual and ecclesiastical assemblies, are therefore made 
up of spiritual and ecclesiastical causes. The next efficient cause of them 
under Christ, is the power of the churches sending forth their elders and oth- 
er messengers, [Acts 15. 2, 3.] who being met together in the name of Christ, 
are the matter of a Synod ; and they in arguing and debating and determin- 
ing matters of religion, [verse 6.] according to the word and publishing the 
same to the churches it concerneth, [verse J, to 23.] do put forth the proper 
and formal acts of a Synod, [verse 31.] to the conviction and errors, and 
heresies, and the establishment of truth and ptace in the churches, which is 
the end of a Synod [Acts l6. 4, 15.] 

3. Magistrates have power to call a Synod, by calling to the churches to 
send forth their elders and other messengers to counsel and assist them in 
rnatters of religion ; [2 Chron. 29. 4 5^10 11.] but yet the constituting of a 
Synod is a church-act, and may be transacted by the churches, [Acts 15.] 
even when civil magistrates may be enemies to churches and to church-as- 
semblies. 

4. It belongeth unto Synods and councils to debate and determine contro- 
versies of faith, and cases of conscience; [Acts 15. 1, 2, 6,7. 1 Chr. 15. 13. 
1 Chr. 29 6, 7. Acts 15. 24, 28, 29 ] to clear from the word holy directions, 
for the holy worship of God and good government of the church: to be.ir 
witness against mal-administration and corruption in doctrine or manners, in 
any particular church ; and to give directions for the relormation thereof: 
not to exercise church-censures in way of discipline, nor any other act of 
church-authority or jurisdiction, which that presidential Synod did foibear. 

5. The Synods directions and determinations, so far as consonant to the 
word of God, are to be received with reverence and submission ; not only for 
their agreement therewith, [Acts 15.] (which is the principal ground thereof, 
and without wliich they bind not at all) but also secondarily, for the power, 
whereby they are made, as being an ordinance of God appointed thereunto in 
his word. 

6. Because it is difficult, if not impossible for many churches to come to- 
gether in' one place, in their members universally; therefore they may as- 
semble by tlieir delegates or messengers as the church at Antioch went not 
all to Jerusalem, but some select men for that purpose. [Acts 15 2.] Be- 
cause none are, or should be more fit to know the state of the churches, nor to 
advise of ways for the good thereof than elders : therefore it is fit, that in the 
choice of the messengers for such assemblies, they have special respect unto 
such : yet, inasmuchj as not only Paul and Barnabas, but certain ethers 

VOL. II. 26 



202 MAGNALIA CHRISTl AMERICANA : [Book v. 

also. [Acts 1 5. 2, 22, 23.] were sent to Jerusalem from Antioch, Acts 1 5. 
and when they were come to Jerusalem, not only the npostles and elders, but 
other brethcren, also do assemble and meet about the matter : therefore Sy- 
nods are to consist both of elders and other chnrch-members, endued with 
gifts, and sent by the churches, not excluding the presence of any brelhereii in 
the churches. 



CHAP. XVII. 

Of the civil magistrates power in fnalfers ecclesiastical. 

1. It is lawful profitable and necessary for Christians to jjiither themselves 
together into ciinich estate, and therein to exercise all the ordinances of 
Christ, according unto the word, [Acts 2. 41, AJ. &4. 1. 2. S ] altho' the 
consent of the magistrate could not be had thereunto; because the apostles 
and Christians in their tinif, did frecpiently thus practise, when the magis- 
trates being all of them Jewish and Pagcm and most persecuting enemies, 
would give no countenance or consent to such matters. 

2. Church-government stands in no opposition to civil government of com- 
monwealths, nor any way intrenclieth upon the authority of civil magistrates 
in their jurisdictions ; nor any whit weakeneth their hands in governing, but 
rather strcngtheneth tlicMn, and furiiiereth the pt'ople in yielding more hearty 
and consciouable obedience to <hem, whatsoever some ill afl'ected persons to 
the ways of Christ have sutrgested, to alienate the affections of kings and 
princes from the ordinances of Christ ; as if the kingdom of Christ in his 
church, could not rise and stand, without the falling and weakening of their 
government, which is also of Christ : [Tsa. 4}). 23 ] whereas the contrary is 
most true, that they may both stand together and flourish, the one being helj)- 
ful mUo the other, in their distinct and due administrations. 

3. The power and authority of magistrates is not for the restraining of 
churches, [Rom. 13. 4. I Tim. 2. 2.] or any other good works, but for iielping 
in and furthering thereof; and therefore the consent and countenance of ma- 
gistrates, when it may be had, is not to be slighted, or lightly esteemed : but, 
on the contrary, it is part of that honor due to Christian niagistrates, to desire 
and crave their consent and approbation therein ; which being obtained, the 
churches may then proceed in their way, with much more encouragement and 
comfort. 

4. It is not in the power of magistrales to comj^'i their subjects to become 
clunch-meml)crs, and to partake of the Lord's supper; [Ezek. 44. 7, 9.] for 
the .jiriesis are reproved, that brouL'lit imworthy ones into the sanctuary; 
[l Cor. 5. 1 1 .] then it was unlawful for the priests, so it is as unlawful to be done 
by civil masiisirates, those whom the church is to cast out it they were in, 
the magistrate ought not to thrust them into the church, nor to hold them 
therein. 

5. As it is unlawful for church-olHcers to meddle with theswoid of the ma- 
gistrate, [iMat.2. 2.'), 26] so it is unlawt'ul for the nuigistrate to meddle with 
the work proper to church-onTicfcrs. The acts of Mascs and David, who were 
not only princes but projihets, were extraordinary, therefore not inimitable. 
Against such usurpation the Lord witnessed by smiting Uzziah \y\th leprosie, 
for presuming to otl'er incense. [2 Chr 26. 1 6, IT-] 

6. It is the duty of the magistrate to take care of matters of religion, and to 
improve his civil authority for the observing of the duties commanded in the 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 203 

first, as well as for observing ofthe duties commanded in tlie second table. They 
are called Gods. [P.sa. 88. 8.j The end of the magistrates office is not only the 
quiet and peaceable life of the subject in matters ol' righteousness and honesty, 
but also in matters of godliness, yea, ot all godhness. [] Tim. 2, 1,2. 1 Kings 
15. 14. & 22. 43. 2 Kings 12. 3. & 14. 4. & 15. 35.] Moses, Joshua, Da- 
vid, Solomon, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiali, Josiah, are mucii commended by 
the floly Ghost, for the putting forth their authority in matters of religion : 
on the contrary, such kings as have been failing this way, are frequent] y tax- 
ed and reproved ofthe Lord, [l Kings 20. 42. Job 29. 25. & 31, 26, 28. 
Neh. 13. Jonah 3. J. Ezra T- Dan. 3. 29.] And not only the kings o( Juckt, 
but also Job, Neheiriiah, the king of Nineveh, Darius, Artaxerxes, Nebuckad- 
nezzHr, whom none looked at, as types of Christ, (tho' were it so, there were 
no place for any just objection) are commended in the books of God, for ex- 
ercising their authority this way. 

f. The objects of the power of the magistrate are not things meerly in- 
ward, and so not subject to his cognizance and view, as unbelief, hardness of 
heart- erroneous opinions not vented, but only such things as are acted by 
the outward man : neither their power to be exercised in commanding such 
acts ofthe outward man, and punishing the neglect thereof, as are but meer 
inventions and devices of men, [l Kings 20. 28, 42.] but about such acts as are 
commanded and forbidden in tlie word : yea, such as the word doth clearly 
determine, tho' not always clearly to the judgment of the magistrate or others, 
yet clearly in its self In these he, of right, ought to put I'orth his authority, 
tho' oft-times actually he doth it not. 

8. Idolatry, blasphemy, heresie, [Deut. 13. 1 Kings 20. 28, 42.] venting 
corrupt and pernicious opinions, that destroy the foundation, [Dan. 3. 29.] 
open contempt of the word preached, [Zech. 13. 3. J jirophanation of the 
Lord's-Day, [Neh 13.31.J disturbing tiie peaceable administration and exer- 
cise ofthe worship and holy things of God, [l Tim. 2, 2.] and the like^ 
[Rom. 13. 4.] are to be restrained and punished by civil authority. 

•9- If any church, one or more, shall grow schismatical, rending itself, from 
the communion of other churches, or shall walk incorrigibly and obstinately 
in any corrupt way of their own, contrary to the rule oJ tiie word; in such 
case the magistrate, [Josh. 22.] is to put forth his coercive power, as the 
matter shall require. The tribes on this side Jordan intended to make war 
against the other tribes, for building the altar of witness, whom they suspected 
to have turned away therein, from following of the Lord. 

FINIS. 



Histoncal Remarls upon the Discipline practised in the Churches of 

New-England. 

§. 1. When ihe platform of ehurch-discipJine had been presented by the 
sijnod unto the general court which called it, several persons from several 
churches gave into the court some objections against sundry passages and par- 
agraphs of this platform. The secretary did, by order, lay ihesewritten ob- 
jections, before the chief, and most ofthe ministers in the colony, who ap- 
pointed Mr. Richard Mather to draw up an answer to them : the answer by 
him composed, and by the rest approved -was given in; and the result of all 
was, that the ecclesiastical model thus fortified, obtained a more abundant re- 
commendation unto and among this people of God. The churches have cheer- 



204 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

fully embraced It, practised it, and been prospered in it, unto this very day. 
And some have imagined that there has been herein fulfilled tlie observation, 
if not inspiration of the holy Brightman (in Apoc. IJ. S.) That some faith- 
ful people in a wilderness should have the most clear discoveries of the abo- 
minations of the Man of Sin. 

§. 2. JMore than thirty years after this, there was a synod ni all the churches 
in the colony, assembled at Jioston, wliereiu a vote was propounded, whether 
^Afi platform of church-discipline were approved by that ussvmhly ? Upon 
which both the elders and brethren, unanimously lifted up their hands in the 
ajfir7natice, in the negative not one appearing. The vote was passed in these 
words. 

' A s)/nod of the churches in the colony of the Massachusetts being called 
' by the honomW general c ourt, to conxene at Boston, the lOth of September, 
' 1679. having read and considered iUq platform of church-discipline, agreed 
•' upon by the synod assembled at Cambridge, anno 1()4S. do unanimously 
' apjjrove of the said platform, for the substance of it ; desiring that the 
' churches may continue stedfast, in the order of the gospel, according to 
' what is therein declared from the word of God. 

Now in this vote there is that clause, [/or the substance of it] which must 
be explained by my acknowledgment, that there are several circumstanticds 
in the platform which are dispided by many judicious ministers of the pres- 
ent generation : who upon long enquiry and experience think that in those 
points the pluffonn indeed is not substantial. Reader, we will for a while en- 
tertain ourselves with the j)articulars. 

§. o. It is very true that i\w. platform denies not, the power of a pastor, to 
administer the sacraments unto other congregations besides his own, upon 
their desires to have their necessities thus relieved; by the same token that 
in the first copy of the answer to the objections brought into the general 
court, against Che plaf or m, there were these words inserted, as we receive the 
members of other churches to communion in our churches, so we know no just 
7u;ason, ichy in the want or absence of the minister of another church, we 
may not at their request, administer an act of our office unto them, by virtue 
of church-communion; yet \\\e platform, in a complaisance unto the many 
bretheren which were otherwise perswaded, asserts not such a power, so fully 
as has been by many wished. The fullest words used by the synod unto this 
purpose are those in the second section of the ffteenth chapter ; but they 
were not so full, as to have hitherto encouraged (that I can learn) any one pas- 
tor in the country to administer the Supper, (tho' some do the baptism) of our 
Lord, in any other assembly but his own, oi\\y Mr Philips the pastor af Wa- 
tertown, did, as I have been infurni'd, administer that, as well as the other sa- 
crament unto the church of Boston, when Mr. Wilson, the pastor of that 
church was gone for England. However, as 'tis well known that in the pri- 
mitive times of tlie A'C/fl Testament, the power of a /;a.>,Yor to dispense the 
seals of the new-covenant, as well as to preach and bless authoritatively, in 
other churches, besides his own, calling for it, was not questional ; when some 
diflerence in opinion happened between Anicetns, the pastor of the church at 
Rome, and Pulyrarpm, the pastor of the duuch at Smyrna, tlie tatter took a 
long journey, even from Smyrna unto Rome, to visit the former, for the bet- 
ter comprehending and composing of the difference : Anicetus tiierc, to tes- 
tilie his respect unto Polyrorpus, requested him to adminisler the Eucharist 
junto that pure and great cluirch, with which he was now but sojourning as a 
visitant, and die thing was done, by this excellent man, of whom Irena:us testi- 
fies, t/uit he always taught the churches to observe those things which he had 
learned of the apostles ; and of whom other interpreters judge, that, as he 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW ENGLAND. 205 

was the scholar of John, so he was the unblameable angel, addressed by the 
second of the seven epistles in John's Revelation. Thus, in the primitive 
times of our New- England, the most eminent of our divines, acknowledged 
this power, defended it, and maintained it. There is now publish'd, a letter of 
Mr. Richard Mather unto Mr. Thomas Hooker, which demonstrates that it is 
altogether as lawful for an officer of a chinch to administer the sacraments to 
another congregation, at their entreaty, as it would be to accept a member of 
another congregation, unto an occasional communion in the sacraments with 
his own ; and that the presence of his own church is not at all more necessary 
onto such an administration, than the presence of the other congregation would 
be to the transient communion of that particular member. Mr. Norton in his 
answer to Apollonius. affirms, a pastor may charitably perform the viinister- 
ial acts of his office in another church. Mr. Shcpard, in the defence of the 
nine positions, affirms, (tho'Mr. Davenport, in the positions themselves, does 
deny it,) that a minister, occasionally called thereto, by the desire of the 
church, may latofully administer the seals to another congregation. And I 
suppose there are now few ministers in the country, but what consent unto 
the words of Dr. Owen. Altho' we have no concernment in the figment of an 
indelible character, accompanying sacred orders, yet we do not think the pas- 
toral office is such a thing, as a man must leave behind him every time he goe.^ 
from home For my own part, if I did not think myself bound to preach as a 
minister authoriz'd in all places, and on all occasions, when I am called there- 
unto, I think Ishoidd never preach more in this world. 

Nor are there many that would withold their consent from the thoughts of 
Dr. Goodivin: an elder, one set apart for that office in any church, is truly 
a minister, occasionally to exercise ministerial acts, as he is called theremito. 
Every true minister, actually to such his own church, is medium applicabile : 
o means and instrument that may apply any ministerial act, out oj his own 
church in any other church, if he be called thereunto. 

Wherefore, for the fuller explanation of the platform, in tliis article, there 
was this vote passed, ni a meeting of the neighbouring ministers at Cam- 
bridge. 

W Inasmuch as the imstors of any evangelical churches, are, tho' not hav- 
ing a pastoral charge of more than one, to be acknowledged in all of them, as 
ordained ministers of our Lord Jesus Christ, and are actually acknowledged. 
as preaching in that capacity, when they are occasionally put upon preach- 
ing of the gospel abroad. 

Inasmuch also as the communion of chjirches, which makes the members of 
any capable of admission to the special ordinances of the Lord Jesus Christ 
in a// of them, doth likewise render it reasonable, for the pasters of any to be 
capable of administring those ordinances in all. 

It is therefore our judgment, that the pastor of a neighbouring church, 
may. upon the request of a destitute church, occasionally administer the sa- 
craments unto them. 

And it is our lurfher judgment, that the second article in the fifteenth 
chapter of om platform of church-discipline, is to be understood as approving 
ofit. 

Nor is it unknown, that eminent Congregational churches, have, by their 
praci/ce, manifested themselves to have been of this judgment before us. 

And it seems in the purest andeailiest of the primitive tii7ies to have been 
allowed 

Nevertheless, we think it convenient that as the destitute churches do, by 
their vote, call the neighbouring pastors to that occasional service, before they 



206 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

atteiifl it, so that the consent of the churches, whereto those pastors belong, 
be not lelt unconsidered in it. 

We do moreover ihi'.k. that nothing should be done in this matter, that 
may, in ar.y wise, obsiriicl liie weilare of any bereaved churches, in tlieir 
specihj seeking of a settled snpphj, for all ordinances among them ; or other- 
wise interrupt and iijcommode C()tna)on edification. 

4. Anollier pDUit in the platform, not universally received, is, the distinct 
office of rifling elders,, to join with thi; pastors in those acts o( ckurch-rule, 
which are distinct from tlie ministry of the word and sacraments, or to ivatch 
over the conversation of the cliurch-menibers with authority There are some 
who cannot see any sucli officer as what we call a riding elder, directed and 
appointed in the word ofUod; and the inconveniencies, whereunto many 
churciies have been plunged by eWers, not of such a number, or not of such a 
wisdom, d^ were desirable, have much iiicreased a prejudice against the office 
itself; be sure, partly through a prejudice against the office, and partly, in- 
deed cliielly, througli a peniiri/ of men well qualified for the discharge of it, as 
it has been heretofore understood and applied, our churches are now generally 
destitute of such helps in government. On the other side; there are others, 
who, if they asked, irhat order for \ay-e\deis in the word of God ? Answer, 
that properly, the only lay elders known to be in any church, are the chayi- 
rellours in the church of England ; persons entriiste.d with the rules of the 
church, and yet not ordained unto any office in it But, that unless a church 
have divers elders, i\i^ church-government must needs become cither prc/o</c 
ox popular ; and that a church's needing but one elder, is an opinion contrary 
not only to the sense of the faithful in all ages, but also to the law of the scrip- 
tures, where there can be nothing plainer, than, elders, ivho rule well, and arc 
worthy of double honour, thous^h they do not labour in word a?id doctrine ; 
whereas, if tliere were any teaching elders, who do not labour in word and 
doctrine, they would be so far from worthy of double honour, that they would 
uot be worthy (f any honour at all. Towards the adjusting of the diiference, 
which has thus been in the judgments of judicious men, some essays have 
been made; and one particularly in such terms as these; ' let it be first re- 
' cognized, that all the other church-officers are the assistants of the pastor ; 
' who was himself (as you find, even about what the deacon has now to do,) 
' entrusted with the whole care of all, until the further pity and kindness of 

• our Lord Jesus Christ, joined other officers unto him. for his assistance in it. 
' I suppose, none will be so absurd as to deny this at least : that all the 

• church-officers are to take the advice of the pastor with them. Upon which 

• I subjoin, that a man may be a distinct officer from his j:;«s/o?', and yet not 
'' have a distinct office (iom him ; the jnistor may be the ruling elder, and yet 

• he may have f7c/rr,v to assist him in ruling, and in the actual discharge of 

• some things, which they are able and proper to be serviceable to him in. 

• This consideration beinir laid, I will perswade myselt", every yja.s-^or among 
•' us will allow me, that there is much work to be done for God, in preparing 

• of what belongs to the admission and exclusion of church-members ; in care- 

• fully inspecting the wf/// and walk of them all, and the first appearance of 
' evil with them ; in preventiiis; the very beginnings of ill blood among thein, 
' and instructing of all from house to house more privately , nnd warning of all 
' persons unto the thiuL^s more peculiarly incumbent on them; in visiting all 
' the afflicted, and informing of and consulting with, the ministers for the 
' welfare of the whole flock. And they must allow me, that this work is too 
^ heavy for any ojie man ; and that more than one man, yea, all our churches 
' do suffer beyond measure, because no more of this work is thoroughly per- 

• formed. Moreover, they will acknowledge to me that it is an usual thing, 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAxND. 207 

'with a prudent and faithful pastor, himself to single out some of the more 
'grave, soHd, aged brethren in his congregation, to assist him in many parts 

* of this work, on many occasions in a year ; nor will such a pastor ordinarily 
' do any important thing in his government, without having first heard the 
' counsel of such brethren. In short, there are \'e\v discreet pastors, but what 

* make many occasional ruling elders, every year. I say then, suppose the 
' church by a vote recommend some such brethren, the fittest they have, and 
' always more than one, unto the more stated assistance of their pastor, in 

* the church-rule, wherein they may he helps unto him ; I do not propose, 

* that they should be Biennial or Triennial only tho' I know, very famous 
' churches throughout Europe have them so ! yea, and what, if they should 
' by ^o\emn foMing and prater, be counnetided unto the benediction of God, 
' in what service they have to do ? What objection can be made against the 
' lawfulness? I think none can be made against the uscfidness, of such a 

* thing. Truh', for my part, if the^^yV/i chapter of the first epistle to Timo- 
' thy would not bear me out when conscience both of my dnti/ and my weak- 
' ness made me desire such assistance, 1 would see whether the Jirst chapter 
' of Deuteronomy would not.' Such things as these have been offered unto 
the consideration of the diversl'/'perswaded ; and accordingly in a meeting 
of ministers, that had been diverslij-perswaded \n this matter, at Cambridge, 
an unanimous vote was passed for these conclusions. 

^] Propositions co?icerning the Office of Ruling-Elders. 

I. Though the pastors of churches are originallt/ entrusted with the 
whole care of what is to be done, in the feeding Rm\ riding of the societies, 
whereof the Holy Spirit liath made them overseers, 3'ot the wisdom and 
goodness of our Lord Jesus Christ, has made provision for their assistance 
in the managemnt of those church-affairs, which would otherwise too nuich 
incumber them, in devoting themselves unto the word dwd prayer. 

II. Ruling-elders are appointed for the assistance of their pastors in the 
government of their churches, and the inspection of the Horks. And al- 
though these officers may not be furnished witii all those attain.ncnfs which 
are necessary to a pastor, yet if they art so accomplished, as that they may 
be heljis to the\r pastor in the management of tiieir church rule, they may be 
chosen thereunto with much benefit and advantnge to the peoi)le of (Jod. 

III. Whereas 'tis the business of a riding-elder to assist h\?. pastor, in vis- 
iting of the distressed, instructing of the ignorant, reducing of the errone- 
ous, comforting of the afllicted, advising of the def'^ctive, rebuking of the 
unruly, discovering the state of the whole flock, exercising the discipline of 
the gospel upon offenders, and promoting the desirable ^ro?/'i/* of the church ; 
'tis necessary that he be a person of a wisdom, courage, leisure, and exem- 
plary holiness and gravity, agreeable to such employments. 

§ 5. One more passage in the platform, which hath been but rnrely prar- 
tised, and as little approved, is, that in churches ?vhere there are no elders, 
imposition of hands for the ordinatirm of elders may be performed by some 
of the brethren, orderly clupjcn by t.lie church tliereunto ; w'ach is indeed 
mollified with a concession, that in churches where there are no elders, and 
the church so desire, the imposition of hands, may be performed by the el- 
ders of other churches. It was the opinion of the'^e worthy men, that the 
call and power whereof a pastor becomes [indeed they^r.v^J recipient subject, 
is derived unto him from the Lord .Tesus Christ, by the choice of a church in- 
viting him to tiie pastoral care of their souls. The essence of his vocation, 
they judged was in an election by the multitude of the faithful, agreeing to 



208 MAGNALIA CnillSTI AMERICANA: [Book v. 

submit themselves unto his conduct in the Lord, and his acceptance of, his 
compliance with, that election. Ordination they looked upon, but as a cer- 
e/nony, whereby a called minister, was declared by imponition of hands, to 
be solemlv ^et a|)art for his ininictri/, and in the same rife, the assistances 
and protections !iud manilold I)lessin5>s of the Holy Ghost, in the exercises of" 
his ministry were solemnly implored for him. 

Brielh', they reckoned not ordination to be essential unto the vocation of 
a minister, any more than coronation to the being of a king ; but that it is 
onh' a consequent and convenient adjunct o\ hh vocation ; and a solemn ac- 
knowhnlgnient ot it, with an useful and proper benediction of him in it. 

Now in as much as the ^eipoTeviu lifting up of the hands of the fraterni- 
ft/, was that which performed the greater things ; even, to apply the voca- 
tion of a pastor ; said they, why may not the ^sioa-^frja laying on of the 
hands of the f rater nit 1/ also perform the Aw.st?- thing; the thing which, in- 
deed, is but the ncconiplisliment of what they have already begun, even to 
publish, proclaim and pray over {\va\ vocation? To countenance this liberty 
of \.\\ef rater iiiiy, they brought the example of what was done in the church 
of Israel, when certain principal members of the congregation, which were 
certainly no ecrlesinsiical offirers, did in the jiame of the rest, impose hands, 
upon the Levites : and afterwards, when all the congregation, in the like 
manner, anointed Zadok, (o be the priest : and they further considered, that 
there were several cases, wheiein an ordination by the hands of eWers, could 
not be obtained in any tolierable circumstances ; perhaps Amrrica had more 
than once alVordcd such ; in which cases Hiey said, v)hy may not the people 
of the land now take a ma.i of their coasts, and, then, do all that is neccssa- 
ry to set him nj) for their watchman? But whereas it was objected unto our 
JSew-English divines, by such writers as the sweet-sj/iriled Ilerle, and warm- 
spirited Rutherford, that the New Testament a fords no example of imposi- 
tion of hands by the people, it was answered, that tl)e Neto Testa me7it w- 
stances not tlie imposition of hands on ordinary pastors, by any ordinary 
pastors at all. In all the examjites, there, concerning this matter, either the 
persons by whom, or the persons on whom, hands were imposed, were ex- 
traordinary-officers : and thus the objectors will find as much dissonanry 
fvom ihii scriptural example, in their own practice as they could in ours : 
besides, ttie exam|)le in the Old Testament was of a moral aad of a lasting 
equity. And in line, they supposed that liny had on their side, a thousand 
concessions, in the i:h\cf (h fenders and prindplcs of the reformation; par- 
ticularly the words of the incomparable H'hitaker, (de iiiccles. Quaes, f) 
Cap. 6.) If they grant the calling of our ministers to be lauful, we care the 
Irssfor ortlination, /or th(y that hare authority to call, have also authority 
fo ordain, ?/■ lawful ordination cannot otherwise begotten: /or ordination 
doth follow cnW'w^', he that is called is, as it were, thereby put into possess- 
ion (f his office. And it was the learned Calderwood, who taught them to 
distinguish, bf!tween what was receiveil by (^ix) and what was received only 
with(H-'-'i») 'li<" laying on of the hands of the presbyter]/ ; tlie fiuiner notes a 
vausal virtue in the rite, which accordiniily is not adirmed in the text ; the 
latter notes only the concurring ant^^ ajiproving of \hem xhni y^?,iid \\\g rite ; 
and accordingly our good men wete desirous to have the consent of a neigh- 
bouring presbytery unto tlieir elections testified, in their ordinations, where 
it could be comfortably procured. On the other side: because the scripture 
30 expressly mentions, the laying on of the hands of the presbytery, very 
jndiiions men, throuohont the country, were altogether averse to, the laying 
on if the hands of the fraf entity. They reckoned, that in the imposition of 
hands, there \\',xilhi;\r consecration to tlieir ministry, and by this consecra- 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 209 

tion they were to be owned, as admitted into the order oi pastors, through 
the wliole church of God ; but they could not allow the rites of this order 
to be regularly and conveniently performed by any but such as were them- 
selves of the same order ; which persvvasion has been so general, that settino- 
aside a iew plebeian ordinations, in the beginning of the world here among 
us, there have been rarely, any ordimitions managed in our churches but by 
the hands oi presbyters : yea, any nrdinations, but such, would be but mat- 
ters of discourse and wonder. Tlie custom of Neiv-England, cannot be 
better described, than in the terms which describe the modes of the African 
churches ^Si/nod. African, ajmd Cyprian. Epit. 6%. \^. 2). 202.] Apud 
nos, ct fere per Proinnicas universas tenetur, ut ad ordinationes, rite cele- 
hrandas, ad earn plehem, cui Prcepositas ordinatur, Episcopi Ejusdem Pro- 
vincice proximi quiq ; conveniant, et Episcopiis deligatur, plebe prcesente, 
quce singulorum vitam plenissime novit, et uniiis cujusq ; actum de ejus con- 
versatione perspexit ; quod factum videmus in sabini ordinatione, ut de uni- 
versoifraternitatis svjf'rugio, et de Episco^joruin Judicio, episcopatus ci De- 
f&ratur. 

And so much respect have our churches had unto the interests of the 
presbytery in this point of orJination, that altho' upon the translation of 
pastors from one church unto another among us, iaw of the pastors thus trans- 
lated, have scrupled being re-ordained, yet upon the arrival of some desira- 
ble pastors formerly ordained in England, who scrupled at it, our destituted 
churches have gladly elected them, and embraced them, and solemnizing the 
transaction with fasting and prayer, have enjoyed them to all evangelical in- 
tents and purposes, without their being re-ordained at all. 

§6. If I have reported three difficulties in ow platform of church disci- 
pline, I can add ?i fourth, which hath been as difficult as any of the rest. 

Tlie direction given by the Synod about the admission of members into 
the church, amounts to thus much. ' Repentance towards God and faith to- 
' wards our Lord Jesus Christ, are the things whereof men are to be examin- 
" ed at their admission into the church, and which, then, they must profess 
' and hold forth in such sort as may satisfie rational charity that the things 

* are there indeed. The weakest measure of faith is to be accepted in those 

* that desire to be admitted into the church: such charity and tenderness is 
' to be used, as the weakest christian, if sincere, may not be excluded or dis- 
' couraged. Severity of examination is to be avoided ; in case any through 
' excessive fear, or other infirmity be unable to make their personal relation 
' of their spiritual estate in publick, it is sufficient, that the elders having re- 
' ceived private satisfaction, make relation thereof in publick before the 
'church, they testifying their assents thereunto: this being the way that 
' tends most to edification. But where persons are of greater abilities, there 
' it is most expedient that they make their relations and confessions, personal- 
' ly with their own mouth, as David professeth of himself. A personal and 

* publick confession, and declaring of God's manner of working upon the 
' soul, is both lawful, expedient and useful.' And the platform in Chap. 12. 
-§, 5. gives the grounds of this direction. The jews tell us of j<'''73 or a scare- 
crow upon the top t)f the temple, which kept off the fowls from defiling of it ; 
and it has been the opinion of many that this custom of relations, to be made 
by candidates lor admission to the church, of what operations of the regener- 
ating spirit liave been upon their souls, is a scare-crow to keep men out of 
the temple ; but, it may be, it has been the opinion of as many, that none 
but the di'fders of the temple would be kept out by such a scare-crow. 

Ow the one side, the churches demanding an account oi experiences, from 
those wiiich they receive to stated church fellowship, has been by some de- 

VOL. 11 27 



210 MAGxNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v 

cryed as an humane invention : and llipy tell us, that, indeed, according to the 
report o( Cccswiiis, there have l)een popish monasteries which have demand- 
ed such an account from those that eutred thereinto ; hut that few protestant 
ftorieties iiavo, till of hite, ol)servefl such an usage. Yea, they say, that in- 
stead of haviiic; any i\\\'nw prcrcpt for the hottom of this prnctice, there is no 
bottom at all tor it, but this, that it has been a practice. The first churches 
of New-England began only with a profession of assent and consent unto the 
confession of faith, and the covenant of communion. Afterwards, they that 
sought for the communion, were but privately examined about a work of 
grace in their souls, by the elders and then publickly propounded unto the 
congregation, only that so, if there wer^ any scandal in their lives, it might be 
objected and considered. But in the year l634, one of the brethren having 
leave to hear the examination of the elders, magnified so much the advantage 
of being present at such an exercise, that many others desired and obtained 
the like leave to be present at it: until, at length, to gratifie this useful ct/ri~ 
osit}/, the whole church always expected the //6('r/;/ of being thus particularly 
acquainted with the religious disjjositions, of those with whom they were 
afterwards to sit at the table of tlie Lord; and that church which began this 
way was quickly imitated by most of the rest, who wlif-n all come to, have 
little else to plead for it, but that the good men tind tiiemselves exceediuijly 
edified, when they hear other good men describing the tneans which the Lord 
has demscd, for the bringing back ef their banished souls. 

On the other side, it has been argued by others, that nothing less than a 
probable and a credible pr<fession nfa saeing faith must be made bi/ a man, 
before the supper of the Lord may be administered unto him. The churches 
to whom the apostles directed their epistles, were still vh\h\y saints, and such 
as were made meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light : 
how many scores of passages to this purpose have we concerning those 
churciies, about the understanding whereof we may use the words of Calvin, 
Quod exponunt quidam de sola professione mihi frigidum videtur, et ah us7i 
Scripturoi est alienum ? It is on all hands agreed, that the Lord's supper is 
an ordinance communicable unto none but penitents : now the primitive 
churches, if Di/onysius of Alexandria mny be credited, would not accejU a 
penitent, until having examined him, they discerned his co7iversion and re- 
pentance to be such as would be arcrpfed by God. And the council of N ire 
gave this for a general rule, that the inward state of penitents be observed in 
order to their admission to the cominuninn. AVhereu[)on "tis argued, if they 
that are im))enitent for this or tiiat particular sin, may not come to the table 
of the Lord, surely, they tiiat may be thought impenitent for an whole course 
of sin, are aUo to be kept out of doors ; which is to be esteemed the case of 
all them, whom we may not reasonably as well as charitably, jud^e renewed 
by the Holy Ghost. Accordingly Origen writes ; ' that the christians of the 
' first churches did most exqusitely search the souls of them that asked a full 
' communion with tliem ; and says, when men have made such a proficiency, 
' that they apjiear sanctified by the divine word, then we call them up to our 
' mysteries.' TertuUian, among others, doth advise us of the strict scrutiny 
used in his days, upon the hearts of the catechumens: whether thry did, in- 
deed, renounce rdl their former vanities. 

It was the order, Fiani scrutinia, an verba Fidei radicilus Corde dcfixe- 
rint. Cyprian reports, Vix plebi] persuadeo : he could not easily persuade 
lite frater nil y of his flock to consent unto the receiving of such in whom sin- 
cerity was fjuesfionablc. yiustin afTirms, th^t according to the ancient cus- 
tom, grounded on the most evident truth, none were admitted into the church 
on earth, who were visibly stieh as the scrivturr excludes from the kinr^dam 



Book v.] OR THE HlSTOllY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 211 

of God in heaven. Aud the agreement of the pastors in the days of Con- 
stance, about the disceming of the sincere, is very memorable. If the ques- 
tion be put, what it is, that we may safely judge, a probable and a credible 
profession of a saving faith ? It has been answered, that scrijjfnre must be 
followed and applied by reason in this matter : if the sciipture assert such 
and such marks to be in the experiences of all the regenerate, then reason is 
in this case to make an humane enquiry, whether our neighbours have those 
marks in their experiences ? 'Tis not enougii to restore a man under chuich- 
censure, for the man barely to say I repent ; no, but for us to proceed ra- 
tionally in observing, whether the likely symptoms of repenting do appear 
upon him, is to proceed scripturally : even so, 'tis not enough to qualitie a 
man under church-trial, for the man to say / believe ; while there may be 
discovered in him such an ignorant or insipid state of soul, as ma}' render it 
justly suspicious, that he is yet a stranger to the new birth. Briefly the thing 
has been thus discoursed. 

We must beware of unscripturalimpositions in this affair ; we must no( 
impose any modes of profession, which we have no warrant for. 'Tis a 
tyranny to enjoin upon every man, a relation about the precise time and way 
of their conversion unto God. Few that have been restrained by a religious 
education, can give such an one. Nor is it any other than a cruelty, to en- 
joyn upon every man an orcd and a puhlick relation of their experiences- 
Every good man has not such a courage and presence of mind, as can speak 
pertinently before a congregation of many hundreds. But still, as the pro- 
hationers for our commimion are to make a profession of their faith in the 
Lord Jesus Christ, as that redeemer in whom allfulness dwels, and on whom 
they rely for communications from that fulness to their own souls : thus we 
must look for some justityiiig circumstance of that profession. Our charity 
towards all men, of whom we know nothing amiss, is to hope all things, and 
believe the best : but when we come to make a judgment of them, that lay 
claim to j)rivileges with us, 'tis but reason that our charity should require a 
more positive evidence of the quHlification, on which the claim is made. In 
the primitive times they made such a profession, at their being added unto 
the church ; and the profession had this justifying circumstance in it, when 
they endangered their very lives to make it. I make no doubt, but in such 
a time of persecution, the like profession ought to be esteemed sufficient. — 
But in places where the true religion is in repute and fashion, then to look 
tor some other justifying circumstance of a profession, is but a reasonable 
conformity to the custom and manner of the apostles. Now, reason cannot 
readily dictate an easier, a fairer, a fitter method for this, than that a man of 
a blameless and fruitful conversation, should either by tongue or pen express, 
what impressions the word of God has made upon him. The savour of such 
a relation, will usually very much manifest the spirit of him that makes it : 
and besides, nothing is more for the honour of God, or for the comfort of his 
people, than to hear good christians, thus making that invitation, come and 
hear all ye that fear God, and I will declare what he halh done for my soul. 
it is true, that after all, we cannot be infallibly sure, that we do not admit ar 
hypocrite in heart, into our communion ; nor indeed after the distinctest pro- 
fession of a dogmaticcd and historical faith, can we be sure that the person 
whom we admit, is not an heretick in heart. Nevertheless, no man scarce 
ever doubted, that communicants must be examined about their orthodoxy. 
But we should go, as far as we reasonably can to prevent- the pollution of 
holy things by the unregencrute. 

Weil, the result of these various apprehensions has been this : that some 
umcriptural severities urged In this matter by several of our churches, in tht 



21J MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

beginning of tlio plaiitatjo'i, are nnw scnorally laid aside; but still, for tlie 
most part' there is exp'^ctcd from thoso tliat would join unto 'em, a bi'wt a<l^ 
rlrcss, ill the languaire of an ( xitcrvnc.ntal chrislifin , intimating something of 
wliat the eternal spirit of (iod has done to conform their hearts and lives un- 
thosi' principles of rhri.sfiatiiti/. whereof (liey then make a ])rot'ession. 'Tis 
frne, in some chnrches. if the cirlrrs, declare their salisfirtion al)oiit the (pial- 
itications of those that oiler themselves, the pcop/r are, without any further 
inquiry, satisfied : but in most churches, the people do desire llie elders to 
entertain them with a more parlic;ilar account of such things, as the persons 
have to present for their own more thorough recommendation unto the good 
aflection of those, with whom they are to eat bread in the kin<^dom q/'God. 
Nevertheless, there seems to have been thought needful on both sides a con- 
cession to what has been sometimes propounded in such terms as these. 

' Our churches do ordinarilly expect from those, whom they admit unto 
' constant and compleal commimion with them, some few savoury expressions 
' [wrilten, if not oral] of what regenerating iujluenres the ordinances or the 
' providences of G<hI, have had upon their souls. There are some who dc- 
' mand this, as a thing required by the word of God, when a confession icit/i 
•■■ the mouth and apiofession of repentance as well as faith, and a giving a 
' reason of the hope that is in iis is required : and they look upon this as a 
'jvstifi/ifig circumstance, which a reasonable charity is to seek, before it 
' pronounce upon the credibility of that confession and profession, whereupon 
' men lay claim to privileges. Others can't see thro' this; they rather decry 
' it, as an humane invention, yet, rather than church-work should be at any 
' sfai/, both sides may gi ant, that it is but a piece of reaconable civility. 
' for any that would be accepted as members of any society whatsoever, to 
' address that society for their acceptance ; and that whoever doth address a 
' church of the Lord Jesus for their fellowship, should endeavour to do it 

* with such language and matter, as may be like that of one returning iinto 
' God. If there be any further contest whether the brethren, of right, are to 
' have an acquaintance with, or interest in, the management of this matter, I 
'am confident, that as the pastors, who are the porters to the house of God, 
'will generally examine what experiences tUc'ir communicants have attained 
' unto ; so, the pastors will as generally grant, that it is not wdawful for them 
' to communicate unto the brethren of the church, the taste which they have 
' had of the graces, in such as tliey now propound unto them, to be received 
" as brethren ; yea, that it is niany ways comfortable atui prof table, if not 
' altogether Herpsw/;-?/. Behold then n temper, wherein we ?Hr/y, as hitherto 
' we do in this thii.g unite. I have been concerned with some godly people of 
' the Scotch nation, who have at first shewn much and Unt a nti pat hi/, -agninst 
' thiswat/ of onr churrhfs, and vet asked admittance to the taijie of the Lord. 
' These have consented unto me, that I should put what (pienlions I pleased 

* in my trials of them ; that I should herewitlial 'ake in writing what minutes 
'I pleased of their answers to me; that being myself now satisfied concern- 
' ing them. 1 might, if ! pleased, ofi'er that satisfaction unto any or all of 

* the cliurch, who looked for it, at our usual opportunity. These concessions 

* iminediately opened their way in ours unto the table of the Lord, without 
' any dilfi< iilty unto either of us.' 

<^ 7- I think [ have now reported the most contested passages of our phtt- 
form; nevertheless, to give a t'urtlier elucidation of some other passages in 
&,at platform, I will subjoin the determination given by a late assembly of 
our ministers at Cambridge., upou these two points : the power of synods, 
and the pov.-er of elders. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. • 213 

51 Propositions concerning the power of Synods, icifh respect unto pariic- 

idar cJiurches. 

I. Particular churches, ha\'mg the same original ciuls and interests, and 
being mutually concerned iii the^oorfand evil of each other, there is the light 
of nature as well as of scripture, to direct the meeting of churches by their 
delegates, to consult and conclude things of common concernment unto them. 

li. St/nods, duly coujposed of messengers chosen by them whom they are 
to represent, and proceeding with a due regard unto the will of God in his 
svord, are to be reverenced, as determining the mind of tlte Holy Spirit con- 
cerning things necessary to be received and practised, in order to the edifica- 
tion of the churches therein represented. 

HI. All the commands of God, which bid us to be well-advised, and regard 
a multitude of counsellors, do jjarticularly oblige us with reverence to entei- 
tain the advice o( si/nods assembling in the name and fear of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, for an enquiry after his directions. And if one church be to be heard, 
much more are many chuiches to be so, in things that properly fall under the 
cognizance thereof'. 

IV. Spiods being o^ apostolic examjjle, recommend as a necessary ordi- 
nance, it is but reasonable, that their judgment be acknowledged as decisive, 
the afiairs for which they are ordained; and to deny them the power of such 
a judgment, is to render a necessary ordinance o/'/iOrte effect. 

V. The power of synods, is not to abate, much less to destroy the liber- 
ties of particular churches, but to strengthen and to direct those churches, in 
the right use of the powers given by the Lord Jesus Christ unto them. And 
such assemblies are therefore to be used as a relief ordained by God for those 
difficulties, for which the care and state of a particular church affords not a 
sufficient remedy. 

The rights allowed unto synods, in the Irenicum, of the excellent Jeremiah 
Bui-roughs, chap. J. we fully consent and subscribe unto. 

*| VviOPOaiTiONS concerning the poiver of Eiders in the government of the 

Church. 

I. The power of church government belongs only to the elders of the 
church. 

The names of the elders, in the scriptures are but insignificant, and unin- 
telligible /rte^o^^Aoy*, if the rule of the chinch be not only in the hands of its 
elders. 

The word of God hath ordered the people to obey the elders of the church, 
as having the rule over them, and di watch over their souls. 

An ability to rule well is a qualification particularly required in the ciders 
of the church, that they may be able to take a due care of it. 

Governments are enumerated among those things in the church, which all 
are not, but which are compatible to so?«p only: now, who but the elders f 

Were the government of the church, as much in the brethren as in the ci- 
ders, then the whole 6o^/y were all eye ; which it is not. 

H. There are yet certain cases, wherein the elders in the management of 
tlieir church governme?it are to take the concurrence of the fraternity. 

'Tis to be done in those acts, to attain the ends whereof, there are to follow 
certain duties of the fraternity, namely elections, and admissions and ce7i- 
sures. 

Hence, in such things, we find the injunctions of the scripture addressed 
nnto the whoh church. 



214 • MAGNALIA CIIRIST[ AMKRICANAr [Book v. 

Hence, ail antiquity assures us, that such matters were in the primitive 
church, done still Co/tsaitiiiile plcbe. 

And the brethren of the church migiit otherwise be obliged unto the doing 
of things wherein the\' cannot act in faith, or be conacientionsli/ satisfied thai 
such things are to be done. 

III. Nevertheless, the pastor of a church may by himself nw^/ior/Zaf/jW^f 
suspend from the Tjonl's-tablc, a brotlier accused or suspected of a scandal, 
till the matter may, and should be regularly exaniined. 

Our Lord forbids the coming of such an ollender to his altar, if even one ol 
less, of no authority in the church, dosignifie a reasonable dissatisfaction. 

The pastors of the church are the porters of the temple, 'empowered suffi- 
ciently to detain smh, astiieysee whh moral imrUanness upon them. 

And its belonging unto the porters of the church to direct the brethren in 
the application of the necessary discipline ; it is not reasonable that they 
should be bound in the mean time, to ducXnYe practical! y , what shall be con- 
trary to such direction, by administering the Lor d\'i-S upper unto a person 
against whom the discipline is to be urged. 

IV . But the elders of the church, have a negative on tlie votes of the 
hrethi-en ; who indeed, in the exercise of their liberty and privilege are under 
the conduct of the elders. 

To take away the negative oi the elders, or the necessity of their consent 
unto such acts, indeed is to take away all government whatsoever, and it is to 
turn the whole regimen of the church into a pure democracy. 

And, if ihe positive of the brethren can supersede' a negative of the elders, 
either the elders may be driven to do things quite contrary unto the light of 
their conscience, or else the brethren may presume to do tl)ings which belong 
not unto them. 

<§, 8. because there arc several church-cases of a very general importance, 
which our platform hn^ not resolved so particularly, as has been desired by 
them, that have been more immediately concerned in those cases, an assembly 
of ministers, meeting at Cambridge hath taken cogni/.ance of them ; from 
whose registers I have taken leave to transcribe the following memorials. 
Reader, allow the general title of them to be pillul.*; siNfc; quibus. 

'f Propositions concerning the obligations lying upon ministers of the gos- 
pel, to visit the sick, in times of epidemical and contagious distempers, 

I. Ministers of the Gospel, arc to have a great concern for ihe sick under 
their pafUoral chari'-e. and endeavoin- the fiiKilling of their ministry, not only 
by fitting the necessities of their sick, with their prayers, but also by leaving 
them unacquainted with none of those counsels, which may prepare them for 
their end. 

If. Neverth(>less, in times of epidemical contagion, the ministers of the 
gosjtel may by various methods, attend what is necessary thus to be attend- 
ed, without the ordinary visitations of the infected chambers. 

III. A minister solicitous about his duty in visiting the sick of his flock, 
when pestilential contagions are prevailing, may receive much direction bom 
the courage wherewith he may find the God of heaven fortifying his heart un- 
to such an unilertaUing. 

IV. The bare desires of the sick, to be visited by a minister have often so 
much of evident nnseasonableness, unreasonableness, and perhaps o( worse 
causes in them, that it is no ways fitting a life should be sacrificed meerly 
thereunto. 

V. Wlicn a minister is well assured, that the sick of his ownflock, are labour- 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 215 

ing under such loads upon their consciences, as cannot fitly be unburdened un- 
to any but himself, he has a call from heaven to venture himself to the ut- 
most, for the service of such a soul, and may expect the protection of iieaven 
accordingly to be a shield unto him. 

VI. A mimster in limes oi' general mortalities may do well, before he ex- 
pose himself unto the evident hazards of those mortalities, to take the advice 
and consent of that church unto whose edification the labours of his life are 
dedicated whether they are wiliuig, that he should sacrifice riis life unto the 
private services of the sick. And the opinion of a people thus asked, will 
afford much satisfaction unto a minister, as to what may be, in I'lis case in- 
cumbent upon him. 

\ II. In times extraordinarily j;>e.9//7e«fio/, if the neighbouring ministers, do 
by a Zo^f solemnly single out one of their number, to devote himself, with the 
exemption of the rent, unto the help of the sich, it were a course not to be dis- 
approved : but a minister, so devoted, may cheerfull}' commend himself unto 
the acceptance of God, in the service of the distressed. 

^ Propositio.ns concerning the cases wherein a minister maij leave /;,'V 

j)eople. 

I. A pastor settled in the service of a people, is to be so sensible of his «/e- 
signation by the spirit, and the providence of the Lord Jesus Christ, for that 
service, and of the rtctoMH? that he must give unto Hod about his behaviour in 
it, that his removal must not be rashlj' attempted, but with much considera 
tion, consultation, supplication and sincere desire to follow the conduct of 
heaven in it. The froums of God use to follow removes, that have not so 
been regulated. 

II. That the ivi II of our Lord, about the removal of any [lastor from his 
people may be understood, it is requisite, tiiat the minister do not entirely as- 
sume to himself the jndgmeut of his own cail to remove, but a great regard 
must be had unto the direction of the churches of oiu- Lord in the neigbour- 
hood. 

III. They unto whom thejudgment of a pastor's removal from his people 
is to be referred, should exactly weigh both the present and future circum- 
stances of both ; and endeavour a provision, that neither party may sufier in 
the removal of a. minister from his iiock. 

IV. In case there be arisen those incurable prejudices, dissentions, animos- 
ities, and implacable ofiences between a pastor and his people, that all 7'eve- 
rence for, and henejit by, his ministry is utterl}^ to be despaired, he may 
he removed. The icant of success, otherwise, is not a sufficient cause of 
removal, but it is to be endured, with all humble jjaiience bv the minister, 
as a great affliction ; and, yet with this encouragement, that God will reward 
him. Secundum laborem, non secundum provcntum. 

V. A pastor mtiy be removed from his people, in case his translation be 
found necessary for the common good. T!ie welfare of the CatJiolick church 
in the general edification of a community, should be of such weight, as to 
make any parfiadar churches, give way thereunto. But, yet, it becomes not 
any minister, to seek his oion translation, by first oftering himself unto it. 

VI. Tliere are some things, which dissolve the vinculum pastorale between 
a pastor and his people; and in case those disasters happen, he may be re- 
moved. Thus if a minister have a tolerable subsistence, wherewith he may, 
atter a Christian manner provide for his own, deny'd him : or, if a minister 
have no way to avoid a storm of persecution, purely pcrsoncd, but by feeing 

from one citu to another : a remove may be justified. And the dissohdion 



216 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book V. 

of a church, gives the like liberty, to liiui, that had been the shepherd of the 
now scattered jlock. 

VII. Althougli ay^ru'^or should be willing to encounter many difficulties 
diuA iiifirmities \\\i\\ his people; yet, in case that c/t/-o«/ra/ ^/jst'oscs, wiiich 
evidently threaten iiis life, might liopetully be relieved by his removal, it. 
should then, on all hands, be allowed and advised. Mcrci/ is here to be prc- 
lerred before tiucr/jicc, and so we jind it was in i\vi primitioe churches accord- 

\ ill. If much ot s( fuifhd \v\\\ certainly ensue, upon the removed oi a pas- 
tor from iiis people, thtd sliould weigh down many circumstanc(;s, that would 
rather invite such a rcuKuud. 

Question — Whether it be lawful for u man to marry his wife's sister. 

I. A marriaq-e between a man and his wife's own sister, is positively pro- 
liibited in that law of God, Lev. 18. l6. that a man may not marry his broth- 
er- s itvfe. By the plainest consetiuence a woman may not marry her sister's 
husband. The degree prohibited, is exactly the same. 

II I'he law that has prohibited the marriage of a man to his wife's own 
sister has an authority and an obligation reaching even to the Gentiles, upon 
whom the ends of the world arc come. 'Tis evident, that the violation of this 
fate, is declared one of those abominations fur which the ancient Canaanites 
were spued out of their land. And we liud tlie New Testauient, in divers 
places, insisting upon those prohibitions, among which this law, is one. The 
good order which God has by this law establislied in humane society, is that 
which the light of nature, in mankind, as 7iow increased, does abundantly 
testifie luito. The dispensation which the sovereign law-giver once gave, in 
one instance, hereunto, w;!s extraordinary. The example of Jacob, in this 
matter, is to be disapproved by all that would be esteemed his children, as 
well as that of his polygamy. 

III. 'Tis the law of our God, in IjCV. 18. 6. none of you shall approach (in 
a marriage) 2into any that is near of kin to him. Now the kindred betwixt 
a man and his wife's own sister, is of the nearest sort : For, Ititer Virum et 
muUerciii non contrahitur ojfinitas, sed ipsi sunt ajfinitatis causa : so then 
this affinity is not less than in prima gencre, and therefore unlawful. It is 
likewise the concurrent sense of the greatest divines (particularly asserted in 
the Assemblies cojfes.sion of faith,) that of what degree any one is of consan- 
guinity to his \v)fvi in the same degree of affinity is that person to the hus- 
band. And that an husband is forbidden to marry with the consanguines of 
his wife, by the same rule that consanguines are forbidden to marry an)0ng 
themselves. And this assertion may be demonstrated from the rules given, 
in the 18th chapter of Leviticus. Wherefore as a man may not marry his 
own sister, so not the sister of his wife, which is one fesh with him. 

IV. Tiie marriage in the question, has been so scandalous among the 
whole people of (iod, that whosoever is guilty of it, is therein worthy to be 
cutoff from the communion of the Catholic church; yea, it hath been one nl 
the iujperial laws, Duabus Sororibus Conjungcndi, penitns Licentiam sub- 
macemus. Much less may such an iniquity be countenanced among the people 
of our profession. 

Qi'ESTioN — jrheiher, and how far, the discipline of our Lord in our chun. It 
es,is to be extended to the children therein baptized ? 

1. We judge, that the discipline of our Lord .Te'siis ( ;hr:.>st in our churfhes 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 217 

ought to be extended unto the children baptised in tliem : in as much as these 
persons are certainly those, which tlie scripture calls within, and not vnthout ; 
and the Iambs as well as others in \\\e jioc.ks oi our Lord are to he fed : and 
the practice of the purest churches has been agreeable to this principle, as 
well the pninitive before, as the Bohemian and others since the refoi'matinn : 
reason also says, that where h priviledge is expected, a discipline is to be ac- 
knowledged 

II. Although it is a membership in the Catholic churchy tliat gives right 
unto baptism, yet particular churches, as well as the pastors of those church- 
es, owe a dutv to the Catholic church, part of which duty is the application 
of discipline, unto those baptised persons, whon) the providence of God shall 
cast under their inspection. 

III. The discipline, which we count owing unto these persons, is, an in- 
fttruction in the laws of our Lord Jesus Christ an admonition upon a scanda- 
lous violation of those laws, and upon inrorrigilJlcncss \n evil, an open rejec- 
tion from all ecclesiastical privileges : and although persons are most clearly 
liable to this process, when they have actually reviewed their baptismal cove- 
nant, and recognized their subjection to the govei'nment of our Lord, in his 
church, and the children of the church are to be accordingly laboured withal, 
that they may be brought hereunto, yet we do not think, that any of the 
said persons, refusing, or tieglecting thus to do are thereby exempted from 
such a care of the church, to bring them unto repentance. 

Question — In what rases is a divorce of the married, jwsfZy to be pursued, 

and obtained? 

I. To judge, determine and accomplish a divorce, of any married persons, 
the civil magistrate is to be addressed or concerned. 

II. In case any married persons be found under natural incapacities, and 
insuificiencies, which utterly disappoint the confessed ends of marriage, the 
marriage is to be declared a nullitif. 

in. In case any married person, be found already bound in a marriage to 
another, yet living, a divorce is to be granted unto the aggrieved party. 

IV. In case any m«/ncrf person be coiwicted ri( ^unh criminal unclean- 
nesscs, as render them one flesh, with another object than that unto which 
their marriage has united them, the injured party may sue and have their di- 
vorce from the ofTending; which is the plain sense of the sentence, passed by 
our Lord, Meitth. 19- 9- 

V. In case tliere be found incest in a marriage, a divorce is to command 
the separation of the married. 

VI. In case it be found that a person married, had by fornication before 
marriage, been made one with a person, related unto the person with whom 
they are noto married, within the degrees made incestuous by the law of God, 
it is a just plea for a divorce. 

VII. In case of a malicious desertion by a married person, who is obliged 
and invited to return, a divorce may be jirHnted by lawful authority unto the 
forsaken. For the word of God is plain, that a Christian is not bound in 
such cases, by the marriage unto one, which has thus wilfully violated the 
covenant ; and tho' our Saviour forbids a. man s putting atcay his wife, except 
it be for fornication, yet he forbids not rulers to rescue an innocent person 
from the enthralling disadvantages of another, that shall sinfully go away. 

VIII. As for married persons long absent from each other, and not heard 
of, by each other, the government may state what ievgth of tvfve in this case, 

voj.. IF. 28 



218 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book v. 

ma\- give suclia presumption oi death in the person abrond, as may reckon u 
second vKirrid^c. free from scandal. 

IX. A divorce beinp legally pursued, and obtained, tlie innocent person 
that is released may proced imto a .second marria.^e in the Lord : otherwise 
the state of believers under the Nen) Tetifanienf,\\ou\d in sdineol these cases, 
be worse than what the God of heaven directed for his people under the Old. 

^ PjiorosiTiONS. — Concerning Ordination. 

I. A solemn separation to the service of our Lord Jesus Christ in hi5> 
church, is essential to the call^of a church-officer. 

II The election of the church, and a compliance with, and an acceptance 
of tliat election, by a person comintr under a separation, is that wherein lies 
the essence oi\\h call to minister unto ihal particular church. 

III. The imposition of hands, in the ordination of a church-ojfuer, is a 
rite, not only lawful to be retained, but it seems by a divine institution di- 
rected and required ; so that althoufrh the call of a person to chnrch-ojfice 
may not become null and void, where that rite may have been omittefl,as it 
is in the seniors and deacons in nsi'st of the reformed churches : yet we cannot 
approve the omission of it. A ceremonial defect may he blameworthy. 

IV. When it is enjoyned, lai/ hands suddenli/ on no man ; there seems h 
[ilam positire. in that neiratirc : and it is iniplied, that hands are to be laid 
on S07PC. Now when, or where, but in ordination? 

V. The lohole ordination to a ministry, seems intended in the apostles 
expression, of a J?//"/ if /^'CH /ivV/( the laying on of hands ; yea, nothing less 
than the whole ministry, under that ordination, seems comprised in the 
apostles expression of the doctrine of laying on of hands: and such a syn- 
ecdoche intimates that this rite is no inconsiderable j^ftrt of that, whereof "tis 
put for the whole. 

VI. The church of God, in all acres, has used an imposition of hands, as a 
rite, many ways agreeable to the will of God ; and besides the use of this 
rite, sometimes on miraculous accounts, there has still been a more constant 
use of it, on ecclesiastical accounts ; not conferring but confessing of (luali- 

fications. the subj<^cts that received it; wliich one reason has in it many and 
weighty considerations. 

VII. The imposition of hands, being a rite u^ed by the primitive churches 
in the confirming and restoring of church-members, and this not altogether 
without the countenance of scripture, it seems very much to take away all 
pretence for laying it aside in the ordination ol church officers. 

VIII. 'Tis well known, that the .Jews even in their schools, and in almost 
every .special work for Gorl whereto men were set apart, used imposition oj 
hands, as a rite accompanying such r\ dedication. 

IX. The imposition (f hands, having been a rite, wlii^-h the people of God 
under the Old Testament in his name apphed unto such purposes, as a bene- 
diction of a person, a designation to a function, an oblation of what was to 
to be presented unto dad, and a devolution of certain burdens, on the heads 
of such, as were treated with it : tiie Lord has continued this rite -in the or- 
daining of church oijicers. with some to such intents Mnil purposes. 

X. iMost nnexci'ptionable is the imposition of hands, hy a presbytery; 
but more excepfionalilc i)y i\ fraternity. Tlif word of (iod meulions the for- 
7ner expressly, but not th« latter in the ?iew Testament. They were such 
hands as Titu.s's, that were left to ordain elders: What need of that, if the 
hands of couumon believers were sufficient? '^[ hey were such hands i\^ Timo- 
thy's that were to make Over church-betrustments, unto faithful men, able to 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 219 

teach others. Who fitter to signifie the needed approbation of other churches? 
And inasmuch as in ordinatwn,there is an acknowledgment of admission in- 
to an order, it is but reasonable, that some who are in some oro'er of church- 
poioer should give it. 

*\[ Propositions. — Touching the Poincr of chusmg a Pastor. 

A societif of believers, combined for the worship of the Lord Jesus Christ 
in all Wis. ordinances, have the right of chusing the^^os/o/', that is to athninis- 
terunto them those ordinances. 

The scriptures do still call for the suffrages of the brethren, in the 
churches, for all elections in those churches, and particularly that oi elders. 

In the oldest and purest uf its times, we slill find the brethren of the 
church, possessed of a power to chuse for itself, and the destruction of the 
power was amongst none of the earliest encrortchinents oi Antichrist. 

The jus j)atronat us in some churches pretended unto, is an usurpation up- 
on the j^or^- of God. justly to be exploded. 

The pretences of the civil magistrate unto the like disposal for the same 
causes, were for many ages no less justly than sharply denied. 

A particular church, owing a great regard unto the church catholick, in the 
using of its own right, is bound in duty to consult the satisfaction and edifi- 
cation of others, in their election of a pastor. 

Ministers and messengers, of neighbouring churches, have power to except 
against any election of a pastor, who by errors or scandals, may be rendred 
unfit for the common service of the gospel. 

Churches in the election of a pastor are to consider the benefit of all that 
are to be his hearers ; and more particularly the concurrence of such as are 
by the covenant and appointment of God, under the church-tvatch among 
them. 

The respect that churches do shew to others in the election of a pastor, 
ought so to be managed, as that they do not permit their own just privileges 
to be extinguished, by anticipating impositions upon them. 

Churches may sutler their elections to be directed, yea, and be diverted by 
consideratifHis which they owe to others in the vicinity, without surrendering 
their liberties to be smothered b}' any, that would unjustly impose thereupon. 

Question. — Whether there are any Cases, ivherein a Minister r/f/Z/e Gospel, 
may lay down his Ministry ? 

No man can rightly, wisely, or safely become a minister of the gospel, 
without a call of God, which call is mediate, and manifested by ministerial 
gifts, with some inclination and opportunity to exercise those gifts. 

When a minister of the gospel does by the compelling providence of God, 
become deprived of those essential things, whereby his call was discovered, 
without any rational prospect ol' recovering them, he may then lay doivn his 
ministry. 

But before one called unto the ministry, do relinquish it there should be 
such a concurrence of incapacities, that a person's own arbitrary inclina- 
tions, acted by temptations, may not be the things, that shall dismiss him. 
One consecrated unto the ministry, is thus, pro termino vitce ; nor may a man 
setting his hand unto this plough, at his own pleasure hole bach. 

For one in the sacred ministry to leave it, for the sake of riches or honours, 
more likely to be acquired in another icay of living, or for the sake of dis- 



220 MAGNALIA CHRISTl AMERICANA: [Book v. 

courngcments, arising iVorn unsucccsfifulness, or persecution, or other diji- 
culfits, is no waysaliowabk-. 

A pjrrson disabled l)y the infirmities of old age for the labour of the minis- 
try, biill retaining his ofiico, is to be still considered, in the dutiful regards of 
the (hurch, as tiieir paslur notwithstanding. 

A censure, though an unjust one of a civil magistrate, silencing a particular 
minister, may in some cases bo a suflicient reason for his forbearing to do liis 
work, for some time, or in this place, though it release him not from tlie obli- 
gation ot his fio/i/ calling 

Tlie disasters, which have been observed, as frecjueritly following those, 
who have deserted tiieir spiritual trarfare, without the leave of the Lord, are 
just admonitions unto all ministeis of our Lord, against any undue desertion 
of the service wherein they have been listed. 

Qi'JESTJON. — Whether the Pastor of a Church, upon a common fame oj" a 
Scantial, committed bif an;/ in his Church, he not bound in Duty to enquire 
into that Scandal although there should not be brought amj formal com- 
plaint unto him of it? 

L According to the apostolical direction, an enquir}' into an offence, was 
ordereil upon this consideration, [l Cor. 5. 1.] It is reported conimonbj. 

IL The elders of /sr«e/ were to make an inqifny into an offence after this 
manner, [Deul. 13. 12, 14.] If thou shall hear say — Then shalt thou enquire 
and make search, and ask diligently. 

IlL The commendation of a c/r/7 rw/f'r, does by proportion and parity of 
reason belong to an ecclesiastical one, [Job, 2(>. l6.J The cause which I kncv: 
not, I searched out. 

IV. The same that may move others to complain of a scandal unto the 
pastor, should move the pastor to enquire after a reported scandal ; namely, 
the glory of the Lord, the defence of the church, and the welfare of the erring 
person ; every one of whom will suffer if such enquiry be not made. 

V. The neighbours may be so tar under the power of temptation, as to 
forbear making orderly delaiions of scand{ds committed; and it is therefore 
necessary, that such things fall under the enquiry of the pastor, thereto by 
common fame alarmed. 

VL The pastor of a church, is by office, to watch over the conversation oi' 
the people, and a noise of scandal arisen in the conoersation of those under 
hh watch is a sufficient provocation tor his enquiry after it. 

V IL Finally, a rumour of a scandcd in a cliuich-meniber, is that wherein 
the name of the Lord Jesus Christ is concerned, and for the vindication of 
that worthy name, an enquiry being made into it, there may appear such 
powerful presumptions, while there are not yet sufiRient coneictious of guilt 
in the i)arty concerned, that the person shall be bound (except in a capital 
case) either to give a positive denial, or to make a penitent confession, of the 
mailer con)monly famed of him. 

QijKSTiON. — How far the (A)nfessions of a guilty and troubled Conscience, 
are to be kept secret by the Minister or Christian, to whom the Confessions 
have been made ? 

I. 'Tis very certain, that ordinarily tiie confessions of a guilty and a troub- 
led conscience, are to be kept secret by those, to whom they are made. The 
cud;, for which the Lo;d Jesus Christ has directed unto such confessions. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 221 

would be all frustrated, if they should not be most religiously concealed ; and 
they are made, as unto the Lord. 

n. Nevertheless, when evident misrhirf will arise, general or personal, 
either in point oi safety or oi justice, by the concealment of a secret confes- 
sion, it is no longer to be kept secret. In such cases the confessing person 
himself can have no ease in his own conscience (which is the design of con- 
fession) without publishing his own crime ; and therefore there can be no ob- 
ligation upon any other to assist him in covering of it. 

III. When the endangered safety or interests o\' olhars, make it necessary 
for the confession of a secret sin. to be exposed, it is fit for the person, who 
has heard this confession, to advise the person himself, that within a tinie 
limited and convenient, he do himself make it known to the persons concerned ; 
which if he fail to do, then is the time for the frst hearer «f the confession 
to do liis duty. 

IV. In the great cayitals, if there be no other ways, a divulgation thereof, 
he that hath had the confession of such a secret sin, may come in as a second 
witness, to reveal the secret, for the conviction of the malefactor under judicial 
process. 

V. Where the confession of a secret sin is to be further divulged, it is to 
be examined, whether the sin may not be told, without the name of the j)er- 
son, that has committed and confessed it 

VI A minister of the gospel receiving a confession, ol'ten times has cause to 
consider, whether the person that makes it, may not n)ake his knowledgt" 
thereof, many ways injurious to himself; and if so, he may with his best pru- 
dence provide against such injuries 

VII. In those land defiling sins, where a person is not bound by a conl'es- 
sion, to deliver himself up to the hazard of the law, no nsinisteris bound, from 
the meer nature of the crimes, to betray the confession that has been made un- 
to him. 

Question. — JFhat is the Duty oioing from the Church, to persons who upon 
private prejudices, toithdraw from the Communion of it ? 

I. Persons that have taken up any private prejudices against any in the 
communion of the church, whereto they do belong, are directed by the com- 
mandment of the Lord Jesus Christ, and are engaged by the covenant, of 
watchfulness, to endeavour the repentance of the persons under supposed of- 
fence by dL personal application. 

II. They that upon q^'e?ires taken, do neglect this way of proceeding, are 
guilty of sin against the Lord's commandment, and tiieir own covenant ; and 
by their withdrawing from the table of the Lord, their sin is aggravated. 

III. The withdrawing of persons thus irregularly from the communion of 
the church at the Lord's Table, does carry an hard and high imputation up- 
on the church itself, which adds more of a fault unto so sinful a schism 

IV. If the person that hath been offended, hatli done his duty, and either 
the pastor do refuse to lay the matter before the church, for the insignificancy 
of it, or the church upon the hearing of it, do pronoun'-e it satisfied, the person 
is obliged still to continue his communion with the church, until a council of 
churches declare the contrary. 

V. Such a sinful sejaration from the communion of the church, being a 
moral evil, the scandal is to be by the discipline of the church proceeded 
against, as other censurable scandals. The pastor upon observation and in- 
formation of the sia. hxo send for the person vv'ithdrawing, and instruct, an*i 



222 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [13ook v. 

convince and admonish him ; and upon contumacious obstinacy, the church 
is to deal witli him, as one unruly, and walkius^ disorderly. 

VI Nevertheless, compassion towards the ip^norant, or injured, is very 
much to determine the more or less ingour, wherewith such ofl'ences are to be 
prosecuted. 

Question. — What Loan of JMoney, vpoii Usury, may he practised. 

I. Usury, beine an nilranee upon any thing lent by contract, it is not re- 
strained unto moficfi only ; I'ictuals or any other thing (as the oracles of the 
sacred scripimcs declare unto us) are capable of being knf upon usi/ry. The 
main ililTcrence o\' /itfiirt/ front other ways of dealings is the owners not run- 
ning the \\>.(\yw(>i\.\\Q principal. 

II. That there is an usnri/ lawful to be taken, is from several passages iu 
ih.v divine law, sutliciently signified unto us. For first, under the Old Testa- 
n)ent, God allowed unto his people the practice o^ usury ; he expressly said, 
\^Deid. 28. L'O.] Unto a stranger thou mayst lend upon usury. And the allow- 
ance oi usury upon a stranger, had never been given, if usury iiad in it any 
intrinsick turpitude. Yea, in all the places of the Old Testament, prohibiting 
unto the Israelites the demand of usury upon a brother, there are clauses in 
the context, which seem to intimate, as if the poor brother only were intend- 
ed, in the prohibition However, the peculiar constitution of the Israelitish 
commonwealth, is enough to release us Gentiles from the obligation of the ed- 
kts against usury, given thereunto And the words of the Psalmist and 
Pro^/tc^, that seem to reproacii usury, must accordingly be expounded with a 
limitation, to the usury, which the law had counternnindcd. Hence also in the 
Mew Testament, our Saviour has a passage of such importance, as to give 
countenance, in IMat. 2.3. 27. unto a man's receii>ing his own with usury ; 
and in the New Testament also, John Baptist, in Luke 13. 3. forbad not unto 
^e publicans, the usury which their condition of life led them unto. 

HI. There is every sort of law, except the Popish, to justifie a regulated 
usury. 'Tis justified by the law of necessity and utility; humane society, as 
now circun»stanced, would sink, if all usury were impracticable. 'Tis justi- 
fied by the law of equity ; it is very equal that a man should partake in the 
benefits which his estate procures for another man. Yea, it may be the duty 
uf another man to give ine a usury, namely, when he gains by my posses- 
sions ; it would be iniquity in him to do otherwise : and certainly then it can- 
not be a .sv/n, for me to take, that which "tis his duty to give. 'Tis justified by 
the law of parity ; there is no manner of reason, why the usury of money, 
should be more faulty, than that of any other thing; for money is as really 
improveable a thing, as any other commodity whatsoever : nor can a contract 
in this case, be more blameable, than in any other- Nor is it contrary to the 
law of charity, that a man should expect something, for the support and com- 
fort of hisuwn family, for the profitable use, which other men make of those 
things whereof he is himself the proprietor. 

IV. Nevertheless tlie law of charity, is to regulate our usury, that it may 
not become unlawful, by the biting extremity, into which it may otherwise 
be carried. It is an eternal and a glorious rule of charity, that in dealing with 
a neighbour, a man must propose his neighbour's advantage, as well as his 
own, and he should not propose to make his own advantage by adding to his 
neighbour's iuisery. ISioreover, when the general rules of charity oblige a 
man to relieve ihc^neccssitirs of a neighbour, or to remit of what he might 
have exacted from a neighbour, if it had not been for those necessities, usury 
must not superseiie that charity. U'lieuce also, to demond vsurif from the 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 223 

poo?; when we accommodate them for their mere necessary sustenance and 
subsistence, is a sin. 'Tis a sin Hkewiso, to refuse helping the poor because 
we would keep all that we have to serve the designs oi usury. Nor can it be 
any other than a sin to require as much for »9«r^, as for hire, which are care- 
fully to be distinguished. And an idle usury, whicii is, when men to confine 
themselves to the way of living upon usury, as to render themselves otherwise 
umiscful unto the publick. This is justly become a thing of an evil character. 
But yei in all these things, the application of the rules of charity, is to be left 
unto a man's own conscience, which is to be advised from the ivord of God, 
with the best helps of understanding that word. 

All these things being thus considered, the severe declamations of the an- 
cients against usury, must be of no further account with us, than their dis- 
courses against limning, or swearing, or fighting, or sitting and acting, in a 
court of civil j udicuturc. 

Question. — Whether it he in the Potver of Men to State any Days o/" Pub- 
lick Worship ? 

I. No time is to be made holy to the Lord, but wiiat is made holy by the 
Lord ; and if tlicre be no institution of God, the great lord of time, for a stated 
time to be made holy to himself, 'tis a superstition in any man to make it so. 

n. Very sensible is the difference, between taking a time to do a sacred 
work, and doing a loork to keep a stated time. The light of nature tells us 
there nmst be a time for every work ; but it is only the fourth commandment of 
God, that separates one time from the rest, for the constant performance of 
religious work upon it. 

IIL To esteem any good work the better, for it's being done on such or 
such a return of time, which God hath not, in his word, set apart for it, is to 
make the time itself a^a/-^ of the worship ; and it is an unwarrantable impos- 
ing upon Heaven with our own inventions. 

IV Solemn humiliations and thanksgivings, are moral duties to be observ- 
ed ^ro causis et temporibus. And the direction oi tVw'me providence \n laying 
before us fresh occas/oHs of them, is to be regarded ; which cannot be done, it 
they be made perpetual. 

V. The church oi Israel, kept no days of religious worship, except what 
were of divine institution. The (.lays of" Purim. are by a dijferent Hebrew 
word i'or them plainly intimated to have been of no other character thnnjjoli- 
tical commemorations ; and besides, Mordechai who ordered them, was a 
prophet. The feast of dedication among the Jews, can have nothing pleaded 
for it, from the presence of our Lord at it ; nor were the former dedications of 
the Vemple^ under any anniversary commemorations 

VI. 'Tis not a work, but a ivord, that mui^t sa net i fie a dai/ ; and if an ex- 
traordinary icork of God, were enough to prefer one day before another for 
the devotions of Christianity, the Protestant Kalendcr must soon be as full as 
tiie Popish. 

VII. W^hen the apostle blamed the Galatians. for observing the days, 
which GofZ himself had instituted, much more does he blame us, if we cele- 
brate such days, as only men have devised. And when the apostle forbail the 
Cofossian3,to let any man judge them in respect of an holi/ day, he suffers 
not us to sacrifice our christian liberty, unto humane impositions of sfated 
holy days upon us, por a private pertton to impose it upon himself. 



224 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Boor vv 

Question — Whether it be lawful to eat blood, and things strangled ? 

I. Plain are tlie words of the wpostle, in Rom. 14. 14. I hiow and am 
persii'adcd bij the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing vndeon of itself. In 
which passage there may bo respect iin-to tiiose aords ol our Lord Jesus, in 
Math. 15. 11. Not that irhieh goeth into the month, defh-fh the man. 

II. The scriptures oC tiie jYfw Testament s've an a.h)wance for eating- all 
sorts of meat, wherein blood is inchided. The apoitle speaks of him as an 
orthodox man, in Rom. 14. 2. mho bel evvth he may eat allthings ; intimating 
that it was from iceakness in faith, and ignorance in the doctrine of the gos- 
pel, to doubt about it. The scripture condemns the superstition of those, in 
1 Tim. 4. 3, 4. Jfho abstain from meats, which God had created to be re- 
ceived with thanlsgicing : for nothing is to be refused : if nothing, then 
sure, not blood. The scripture permits us that liberty, in 1 Cor. 10. 25. 
Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat, asking no question for con- 
science sake. Now it was usual to sell blood in the shambles. 

III. The use of blood, in medicine, is not questioned : the spirit and the 
po2i'der of blood, is by the warrant of the sixth commandment, freely used for 
our health : why then should the use of blood in diet, be any question .f" 

IV. If a thing strangled may be eaten, then blood may be so too. Chris- 
tians do not ordinaril}' scruple to cat a thing strangled; and the eating of a 
thing w hich dies of itself (which is the same case) was never unlawful for the 
gentiles. 

V. The re.'ison of the precept t'orbidding blood, unto {\\ejews was merely 
ceremonial : namely, because blood was typical of that great blood, which 
makes attonement for our sins, and because, being the organ of life, it must 
be sacred unio God the author of Ife. Now since the blood of our Lord 
Jesus Christ has been shed ; every precept, which is only ceremonial, is ab- 
rogated. 

VT. The forbidding of blood unto Noah, in Ge7i 9- 4. seems to have been 
living blood, and for the prevention of that bloody, ferocious, inhumane dis- 
position which was then prevailing in the world. And all the command- 
ments given to Noah were not moral. 

VII. The forbidding of blood unto the primitive churches, in Jets 15. 20. 
•was a temporary advice, for ihe avoiding of scandal. It would not only have 
prejudiced ihejV«',s against all Christianity, but also it would have contirmed 
ihe^r<^'^«/*.s', in their idolatrv ; tor the principal entanglements of their idola- 
tn/, lay in these four thin2;s, ol' idolathi/tes^ fornicatioji., blood and strangu- 
iafes, which are el.sewliere smnmed up in two, the eating of things sacrificed 
unto idols, and committing fornication-. I'o forbear these things, was to 
tcstifie a renunciation of heat/icuism. To use any of these things among the 
heathens, was to justifie their di nil worship. Now the world is in other cir- 
«'iunstance.«, and, Cessaiio Ctfusa- f fficit, ut cessaret obserratio. Fornication 
yet remains upon other, and farther, and moral, and more general accounts, 
a .S('/t. 

Question — Whether siszuifirajit ceremonies, /// the worship of God, not 
instituted bi/ him, are lawful to be used? 

I. Thk sign of iulcrnal, ure parts of external worship; in both where- 
of, the trreat (Jod hath conimanded us to glorifie him : even with our spirits, 
and with our bodies which are his. 

II. There are natural cerrmonies, with which the light of nature does di- 
rect men to the worslii{) of God : and these are to be used in the worship of 



BooKv.j OR Tllh: HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND 22,-« 

God, as far as we have the word of God, lehiforcnng and countenancing of 
them. 

III. Some ceremonies of respect among men, are used in exercises of reli- 
gion, but as expressions of civility to the people of God, with whom we as- 
semble, for the worship of God ; and these are to be distinguished from 
those actions, which we apply to the Lord /n'/«seZ/' immediately. 

IV. There are ceremonies appointed, for some signification of imoard 
graces and moral duties, in the worship of God ; which, without that ap- 
pointment, would not signifie what they do : and it is the prerogative of 
God alone, to ordain all such rights as these. 

V. For men to take upon them, to declare, what ceremonies of tporship, 
the God of heaven shall accept, and reward, and bless, otherwise than he 
hatii himself, in his holy laws declared, is a very criminal presum])tion : and 
this pride of man has generally been chastized, with a r^ianifold curse of God. 

VI. The second comnuindment, forbids not all imaged (or significant cere- 
monies) in the worship of God, but, thy making them foi' thyself 

VII. The authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, as the glorious king and 
prophet, of his church, is profanely invaded, when the worship of God, with 
the significant ceremonies of it, is taught by the inventions of men. 

VJII, Tlje sacred scriptures pronounce it, an argument sutiicient, for thr 
rejecting and condemning of any thing, in the worship of God, if God iiim- 
self hath not prescribed it. Thus, Jer. 7- 31. They did that loMch I com- 
manded them not, neither came it into my heart. Thus, Heb. 7. 14. Of 
that Moses spake nothing. Thus, Lev. 10. 1. They offered strange f re, be- 
fore the Lord, lohich he commanded them. not. 

IX. 'Tis very certain, that under the Old Testament, there was not any 
one significant ceremony allow'd in the worship of God, but what God him- 
self had instituted. If the churches of the New Testament will proceed in 
this matter, without a divine institution, let them then produce their charter. 

X, The apostolical writings to the Gcdatians and the Colossians, forbid 
us to practice any significant ceremony in the worship of God which God 
himself had once appointed,' but now abolished. Much less may we now 
practice any which God never appointed at all. 

Question — Whether <//,e games q/" cards or dice, he hnvful to be used, among 
the prof essors of tlie christian religion. 

I. There is, at least, a great suspicion brought on the laufnlness of these 
,'anies, by the lottery, wiiich they turn ujion. 

Lots being mentioned in the sacred oracles of tiie scripture, as used only 
in weighty cases, and as an acknowledgment of God sitting in judgment, 
with a desire of his power and providence to be manifested, and not without 
an invocation of God, for the end (f strife, tiierein implied : they cannot be 
made the tools and parts of our common sports, without, at least, such an 
appearanre of evil, as is forbidden in the word of God. 

II. The general rules, which in all recreations are to be observed, are so 
generally transgressed in these games, that ordinarily it can be no othdr than 
a sin to use them. 

These di versions /rtsc/«cr^e tlie minds of those that practice them, at such 
a rate, that if ever those persons come to be converted unto God, they bit- 
terly lament the loss of time in which that practice hath involved them. 
And the many olhev passions and follies almost inseparable from these di- 
versions, render the diversions themselves to be, sins against the command- 
vients, which pKohibit the evils thereby occasioned. 
VOL. llo ?_() 



220 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA [Cook ij. 

III. TliP scandah-){ these gcmiefi. declares it a scancialous tiling for thrh- 
tiana to niecJdle wit!) them. 

Tliey^V character givf.ii to these usuj^es. not only hy c/irisdans of all sorts 
and ranks, and in all aties, whose, just iiivtttirrs against them would fill 
volnnies, but by the sober and moral pagaiiit also, has brought them among 
the things of cvii report, which by chr/f;tia>is are to be avoided. That man's 
heart is inordinately set upoi\ plai/, who had rather do things under such an 
universal condemnation, than forbear a I'lWle play, that may certaiidy be for- 
born without any damage. 

IV. Gains of money or estate, by games, be the games what they will, are 
a sini'ul violation of the law of honest)/ and induidri/, which God has giv- 
en us. 

Q1.EST10N — Tf^hai respect is due to i)iaces of piihlic icorship f 

Holy places were ajipointed under the law of okl, by the great law-giver 
of Israel, partly to prevent idolatry among the p(Xiple, but chiefly to direct 
the thoughts of the laithful unto the Messiah, wherein God was resolved for 
to dwell forever. Notwithstanding, 

I. There is now no place which renders the worship of God, more accepta- 
ble for its being there perfornied : it's I'oretold concerning the times of the 
gospel, in Zf/)/<. '2, 11. Men shall tcorship him, ever if one from his place. 
'Tis foretold in Mai. 1. II. In eve ry place incense shall be offered to my 
name, and a pure offering. 

'Tis foretold in John 4. 24. That the sinritual worship of God, shall now 
be accepted with him, in other places as well as in Jerusalem. 

We are commanded in 1 Tim. 2. 8. That men pray in every place. 

There is a truth, in the famous Dr. LVj^rs observation : ' In times of per- 
' seculion, th(> godly did often meet in barns, and such obscure places; which 
' were indeed |)ublick, because of tiie church of God there ; as wherever the 
' prince is, there is the court, tho" it were in a poor cottage.' 

There were parts of worship in the Mosaivk pedagogy, which could not 
be performed any where but at \\w holy places, appointed. There are no 
parts of the woishiji confined unto any jilaces under the Nriii Testament. 

They wiio expect the divine regard for wiiat they do in the v/orship of 
God, liecause "lis done in this or that place, do not pray looking towards the 
temple ; our Lord Jesus Christ, the in-.e temple of God, is tiierein overlook- 
ed. 

IJ. To prepare and repair places for the pnblick worship of God, and 
keep those places in such a condition, that they be not unfit for the solemn 
exercises of religion : this is but an act of obedience to him, who, when he 
requires woiship from us, doth also suppose that there must be places for it. 
But the setting of these places off", with a theatrical gaudiness, does not 
savour of the spirit ol a true christian society. 

III. While the duties of divine worship, are jiert'orming in any places, an 
agreeable reverence is to be maintained in those places ; not so much out of 
respect unto the places, as unto the tlulies thtMein performed, and the persons 
concerned with us in the chities. Nevertheless, the synagogues also are to be 
considered, as the houses (f (iod. 

IV. To ofl"cr affronts to plac»;s built for the worsliip of God, with design 
therein to affront the worship for which they are built, is a vile impiety. Nor 
will the great God hold them guiltless, who so take his name in vain 

V. Places intended for the sacred worship of (iod, may lawfully be put 
unio any civil service, for which they may be accommodated, at the times 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 



'ZZ( 



when tlie sacred worship is not there to he attended ; so far as contempt of 
<iod and his ordinances (Uuh not naturally and necessarily follow thereupon ; 
even cis courts were; kept in ihe syn'agogues among the jews. 

Question — W/utltcr, to drink healths, be o thing Jit to he practised, by the 
professors of the Christixm religion? Answered in ihe folhming propo- 
sitions. 

T. Tt is too notoiions to be denied, that it was originally an heathen custom 
to drink those which were called, the caps of health, in token of respect to 
the object mentioned in their cups. The great Austin truly says, De pctga- 
noriim observatione remansit. it is a reiiqiie of Paganism. And inasmuch 
as it is not a natural action, but an action of a religious nature, and as them- 
selves called it. a demotion, it is novv reached by liiose oracles of God, which 
forbid our learning the ways and the works of the heathen, and our walking 
as the Gentiles in the vanity of their minds, and our keeping the vain conver- 
sation received by tradition from oxir fatiiers. 

II. That which very much adcis to the oblig^ations lying upow Christians 
to abandon this relique of Paganism, is the idolatrous and diabolical inten- 
tions that gave the first rise unto it. We are assured from all the monuments 
of antiquity, that the healths drunk by the Pagans were fust of all drink offer- 
ings to their demons, they were a ci/p of devils ; and then sufficiently to com- 
pliment their princes and patrons they carried on the ofl'erings to those mor- 
tals also ; and lastly, the compliment proceeded so far as to take in any 
friends, whom they saw cause to treat with such flourishes of affection. It 
becomes Christians to beware of having uny fellowshij^ with such unfruitful 
works of darkness. 

III. To drink a cup, as a part, or sign, of our invocation upon the blessed 
God, for the health of any person, is a superstition directly forbidden by the 
second commandment : nor is it ordinarily free from a violation of the third. 
And that the drinking of an health is thus designed, and so becomes no other 
than a jjrophane sacrament, was the jiu]gment of Ambrose, wheu he wrote 
those words, Quid memorem Sacramental Bibamus pro salute Imperatorum. 
To drink an health implies an application to some object for that health : 
this way of it is unwarrantable. 

IV. To begin or follow healths, which bind persons to drink off their cups, 
is a manifold offence against charity, justice and reason. Such healths being 
as the ancients truly called them, the devils shooing-horns to draw on drunk" 
enness,are scandals wherein much brutish folly is committed, and more occa- 
sioned. The primitive Christians therefore justly refused them, and con- 
demned them. Great emperors have made edicts against them. Pagan wri- 
ters have satyrically lashed them. And even Popish writers have reproach- 
ed the Protestant profession, lor their being so much practised under it. 

V. Not only the numberless, and prodigious exhorbitancies of health drink- 
ing, are to be avoided by every Christian, but the very proposing our cups to 
the prosperity of what is therein remembered. 'Tis a vain plea, that we 
drink no more than a civil remembrance of the person, or affairs mentioned in 
our cups. Why is the action of drinking singled out rather than any other 
for the token of the remembrance ? and why is there such stress laid upon a 
concurrence in the action ? It is but a continuation of the old Paganism, 
which had better be utterly abolished, than thus refined and preserved. Ev- 
ery thing that serves either to revive, or to maintain the old Pagan follies, and 
harden men in them should be declined by them, that would adorw the doc- 
trine of God our Saviour. 



228 MAGNALIA CimiSTI AMKRICANA: [Book > . 

QuEBTiON — iVhctlier instrumental musick may laiofvlly he iidroduced info 
tlic icorship of (!od, in the churches of the I\e\v Testament ? Considered 
and answered in the following conclusions. 

I. The instrumental nnisick used in tiie old church of Israel, was an insti- 
iution of God : it was [2 Chron. 29- 2 j.] the commandment of the Lord by 
Ihc propheta. And the instruments are called God's instruments, [i Chron. 
iG. 42.] and inr,truinen(s of the Lord, [2 Chron. J. 6.] Now there is not 
one word of institution in the New Testament, for instrumental musick in the 
worship of God. And because the holy God rejects all he does not com- 
mand in his worship, he now therefore in effect says unto us, I will not hear 
the melody of thy organs. But, on the other side, the rule given doth abund- 
antly intimate, that no voice is now to be lienrd in the church, but what is sig- 
nificant and edifying, by signification; wiiich the voice o{ inst7-uMents is not. 

II. Tiio' instrumental musick were admitted and appointed in the worship 
of Gud under the Old Testament, yet we do not iind it practised in the syna- 
gogue of the Jews, but only in the tanple. It thence appears to have been a 
part of the ceremonial pedagogy , which is now abolished ; nor can any say it 
was a part of moral worship. And, whereas the common usage now hatli 
confined instrumenlal musick to cathedrals, it seems therein too much to Ju- 
daize ; which to do is a part o( the Anti-Christian apostacy, as well as to 
Paganize. 

III. In our asserting, a matter of the Old 'Testament, to have been typical, 
'tis not iieedfid, that we be always able to particularize Any future mysteries 
of the New Testament therein referred unto ; truths which were then oi a pres- 
ent consideration, were sometimes represented in the types then used among 
the people of God, which helps to understnnd the case of instrumental musick. 

IV. Instrumental musick in the worship of God, is but a very late inven- 
tion and corruption in the church of the New Testament. The writings that 
go under the name of Justin Martyr deny it and decry it. Chrysostom 
speaks meanly of it. E\en Aquinas himself, about 400 years ago, deter- 
mines against it, as Jewish and carnal. Bellarmine himself confesses, that it 
was but late received in the church. 

V. If we admit instrumental musick in the worship of God, how can we re- 
sist the imposition of all the instruments used among the ancient Jews ? yea, 
danci/ig as well as playing, and several other Judaic actions:^ or, how caii 
we decline a whole rabble of church-otBcers, necessary to be introduced for 
instrumental musick, whereof our Lord Jesus Christ iiath left us, no manner 
•)f direction ? 

Question — Whether baptism is to he administered by any but the ordain- 
ed ministers of our Lord Jesus Christ ? 

I. ^^ E Iind no commission or permission iVoni our Lord Jesus Christ, for 
any to be the administrators of baptism, except those whose work it is by his 
commission to preach the go^^pel, Matth. 28. 9. And none have a commis- 
sion, to make the preaching of the gospel their 70ork, but such as are, with the 
call of the faithful thereunto, set apart for that work, jRo7/j. 10. 15. 

Baptism is a seal of the covenant ; for any but an officer to apply the seal, 
in the name of the great king of heaven, is a presumptuous arrogance. 

Jiapiism is one of the eiuingelical mysteries, c^nd none but stewards in the 
house of our Lord Jesus Christ, may jnctend imto liio dispensation of those 
mysteries. 

The apostolical writings intimate, that some are sent to baptise. Hence 
none are to baptise, but those that itro .w??/. 



Book, v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 229 

II. As both the primitive and Protestant churches, have signified their dis- 
Jike of baptism administered by common hands : thus the disorder, and con- 
fusion, and the contempt of the institutions of the Lord Jesus Christ, whiph 
would be thereby introduced, is a sufficient prejudice against it. 

III. The original of the allowance and countenance, given in some church- 
es, unto undue adminislrators of baptism has been from gross errors in the 
minds of men, about the necessity and operation of that sacrament, whereof, 
non Privatio sed Conteinptus damnat. 

^\ Propositions concerning tlic marriage of cousin-germans. 

I. Tiio' ill the first propagation of mankind from one head, by the grea! 
God resolved and required, it was necessary for brothers to marry their sis- 
ters, yet that so the bonds of amity in humane society might be the better in- 
creased, the Lord afterwards prohibited several marriages, under the title of 
incest ; and some were now too near akin to be united : there were degrees of 
ton.sanguinity , and so oi affinity, wherein marriages might not be contracted. 

II. Albeit the light of nature teaches men to preserve a distance, awd hon- 
our, for some that are very nearly related, and natural conscience relucts 
with horror at some conjunctions ; like, what the apostle calls, a fornication- 
that is not so much as named among the Gentiles, and those which the poets 
themselves call, Vetitos Hymencens, and impieties ; yet it is a moral lata oi 
God, positively given, or a latv,the general reason whereof, is in the nature of 
the thing but the particular limitation of it is by revelation from God, that it- 
to determine the degrees, wherein marriages are to be judged unlauful and 
incestuous. 

III. In the eighteenth chapter of Le?JiY<a<s, there is a law of heaven, de- 
claring the degrees, wherein juarriages are forbidden ; and there is no doubt, 
that all that come within those degrees, are as much forbidden, tho' they be 
not expressly mentioned. 

What is pronounced a sin, by tiiai law,, is to be esteemed a sin, by the 
Gentiles, as well as Jews, (which the conclusion of it, abundantly intimates :) 
but what falls not within the reach of that laio, is no sin: and i\\(t canon-law. 
which for some covetous and enslaving ends, hath made vast additions to this 
latv of God, is to be rejected, as full of superstitious impositions. 

IV. If we exactly consider the line in the fifteenth chapter of Leviticus 
we shall find, that the most remote relations forbidden to marry, (which art 
the brother, and the brothers daughter^ stand one degree nearer to the root^ 
tlian cousin-germans do. An uncle or an aunt therefore, being the furtherest. 
witii whom a marriage is interdicted, it seems plain, that the marriage of cous- 
in-germans is not incestuous. 

V. Altho' cousin-gerinans, that are married unto each other, now may and 
should, with all peace of mind, live together in the fear of God, and not give 
way to distressing scruples ; or question tiie lawfulness of their marriage any 
more than the famous Holoman would have done, who has written to prove 
h, plum et Christianum esse. Kevortholess, there is much to be said for the 
dissuading o( cousin-germajis, from coming together in marriage. Inexpedi- 
ence we know sometimes does produce unlaivfulness. This marriage may 
be very inexpedient, it borders as near, as is possible, to what is unlawful. 
Then- is no need of coming so near, while we have such a toide world before 
us. One end of marriage, namely to promote, and extend alliances, is 
damnified herein. Some wise and good men have been so troubled in their 
minds, concerning these marriages, that it is an easier thing to abstain here 
from, than to extirpate such a trouble from the minds of the faithful. 



230 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book v 

Some of the most considerable among the ancients, especially Ambrose, 
and Austin, besides five several councils have severely censured them ; and 
the churches of the Ao.gvslan confession, do to this day prohibit them. So 
that upon the whole, tiie advice of the renowned Ames may seem not amiss, 
Tutius est ubstincre. 

Question — Whether, or how far the discipline of our churches up6n offen- 
ces in them, is to depend upon the conviction of those offences in the 
Courts q/'civil judiiiilure ? 

I. To brinjf tlie discipline of the church, into a de|)endance on the direc- 
tion of the civil magistrate, is to put it under undue, and unsafe disadvan- 
tages. The mutual dependance of those, on each other, as 'tis not founded 
in tlie oracles of our Lord Jesus Christ, so it has been the occasion of no little 
confusion in the world. 

II. Some things may be censured in the court, for transgressions of the 
laws, which may scarce deserve the censures of the church. 

III. Some things may be censin-ed in the church for offences, against which 
tlie court has no censures by any law provided. 

IV. Persons may be so defective in their defence of themselves by legal 
formalities, a?, to i'-dll under the censures of the court; and yet the c/i«/T/t 

may see cause, and do well, to acquit them. 

Y. Persons may beacquited in the co«r^ of crimes laid to their charge, for 
want of conviction, and yet the evidence may be so convictive, that a church 
may condemn them thereupon. 

VI. When a church passes a censure on any delinquent, it is convenient 
and advisable, that the circumstances of it be so managed, as to expose as 
little as may be, the censured person unto the sentence of the court. 

VII. A church may do well sometimes, to express it's faithfulness unto 
the Lord Jesus Christ, by censuring some evils, which a court may faultily 
neglect to animadvert upon. 

YIII. Sometimes a case may be so dark, that a church may hope to be 
eased o( labour, and freed from error, by a court first sifting of it, and then 
christian prudence would make use of that help, to come at the knowledge 
of the truth. 

IX. When a session of a court is very near, a church may prudently for- 
bear for a little while, a process, which the necessity of a soul fallen into sin, 
and the vindication of the name of the Lord, makes not proper to be forborn 
for a greater while. 

X. \V hen things are not very apparent, or, very important, it is prudently 
done ol' ii church, to defer the early decision of a matter, which will produce 
between it, and the court, a controversie of dangerous consequence. 

XI. As 'tis the duty of a church to see that tiie witness of a crime, to be 
judged by it, be obliged to speak, as in the special presence of the great God, 
so if it be feared that the witnesses will not be faithful, uidess they be upon 
oath, it is prudence to defer 'till the civil magistrate have examined them. 

XII. Or, if witnesses refuse to come at all unto the church, which the 
civil magistrate may and will compel to give in their testimonies, a church 
can in prudence do no other than defer, 'till those witnesses can Ue brought 
to testifie what is expected I'nmi them. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. -31 

The judgment of the ministers, met at Boston, IMayll. J 699- vpon a 
case addressed unto them, concerning Lotieuies. 

I. Great is the difference, between, a lottery set up, by persons acting in 
a private capacitij ; and a lottexij set up, by the government, who have 
power to lay a tax ii]ion the people, but choose to leave unto the more easie 
determination of a lottery, the persons who shall pay the summ which the 
necessities of the publick require. A parliamehtari/ loftfry takes only fronl 
the voluntary, what the government might have demanded, with a more ^e«- 
rrai imposition ; and only when the })eople are plunged into such distress, 
that a more general imposition would be grievous to them; and it employs 
{or the welfare of the publick, all that is thus raised by the lottery. Where- 
as a mora private lottery, is managed by those that have no antecedent claim 
unto any thing of their neighbours, and it is designed merely i'or private ad- 
vantage. 

n. It is a principle embraced among all well-infoi*med christians, that no 
calling is lawful, but what is useful unto humane society, in some of its in- 
lercts, except there be in a calling, some tendency, to make an addition un- 
to the enjoyments and interests of humane society, no christians may set it 
up. The oracles of heaven, tell us, christians must learn to possess honest 
trades for necessary uses To set up a lottery is to set up a calling. But 
tho' this or that particular man may be a gainer ; yet it would puzle any 
man to tell, what necessary, or convenient uses, of humane society, where 
the lottery, is opened, are at all served. The minds, the bodies, the riches, 
the defence, or the regular delights, of humane society, have by this lottery, 
no addition made unto them. 

HI. Not only the undertakers of a lottery, have a certain gain unto them- 
selves, from humane society ; but so likewise have they, who in the lottery, 
draw the tickets of benefit : and every one that ventures, doth it with a de- 
sire to fall upon those tickets in drawing. 'Tis very certain, that for this 
benefit, none of those can pretend, that they do any one thing beneficial to 
humane society. They only hire the undertakers, to transfer the estates of 
others unto them, without any service done by them, to the interest of any 
others under heaven. But we do not judge this pleasing unto God, that 
mens rights be ordinarily transferred from one to another, merely in a way 
of reference to divine Providence, without considering any service therein 
intended unto the conmiunity, or an}' help to mankind in its true interests. 
Nor is ventring in a lottery on shore, of the same nature with venturing in a 
merchandise at sea. 

IV. In a lattery so contrived, that when all the prizes be drawn, they do 
not make up, and fetch out, near the whole summ that was deposited by the 
adventurers, there is a plain cheat upon the people. The undertakers in 
such a lottery, only resolve to pillage the people of such a considerable 
summ ; and invite a number to assist them in their action, with hopes of 
going shares with them in the advantage ; and such is the corruption of man- 
kind, that the mere hopes of getting the riches of other men, without the doing 
of any service to them for it, will engage men to run the hazard of being 
losers 

II l)on the whole : we cannot approve it, thai any particular persons dc 
either undertake, or countenance any such lotteries, as have been sometimes 
practised in oilier places, and the danger which there is, lest the lusts of 
iiien, once engaged in these lotteries, proceed unto a multitude of other disor- 
ders, to the ruine of their employments and their famiheSj does further move 
us, to withold our apprsbation from them. 



232 iMAGJNALlA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Bcoii v. 

<^9- Having so ofieii produced the propositions voted by an assembly ol 
ministers at Cambridge-, for the explanation of our platform, 'tis not, here, 
amiss, on this occasion to give some history of that assembly. 

Know then, that ac«?ording to the advice of Mr. Hooker, who about a week 
before lie fell sick of his last, let fall ih r-,e words, ice must agree upon con- 
stant meetings of ministers, and settle the consociation of churches, or else 
we are ultvrlij itndonr / It has been the care of the ministers, in the several 
vicinages throughout the most jtart of the countrey, to Oitablish such con- 
stant meeting!^, whereat they have informed one another of their various ex- 
ercises, and assisted one another in the work of our Lord : besides a general 
appearance of all the ministers in each colony, once a year, at the town, and 
the tiint of the General Court for elections of magistrates in the colonies. 
These meetings have not all obliged themselves to one inethod of proceedings, 
in pursuing of nmtual edification; some do sWWfast Dud pray together, and 
speak in their turn to a proposed sid)jecf, much after the manner of the great 
Grindai^s lectures, then, held in the congregation of that pastor, to whose 
liouse they adjourn, confer a while together upon matters of concernment : 
but one of these meetings is regulated by the following orders. 

It is agreed by (fs whose names arc under-written, that we do associate our 
selves for the promoting of t lie gospel, and our mutual assistance and fur- 
therance in that great work : 

In order thereunto, 

I. ' That we meet constantly, at the College in Cambridge, on a Monday 
' at nine or ten of the clock hi the morning, once in six loeeks, or oftener, if 

• need be. 

II. ' That in such meetings, one shall be chosen moderator pro tempore, 

• for the better order and decency of our proceedings, which moderator is to 
' be chosen, at the end of every meeting. 

III. ' That the Moderator's work be, 

1. * To end the meeting, wlierein he is chosen, and to begin (lie next 
' with prayer. 

2. * To propose matters to be debated, and receive the suffrages of 
' the brethren. 

3. ' To receive with the consent of the brethren, the subscriptions of 
' such as shall join with us ; and keep all papers belonging to the 
' association. 

4. ' To give and receive notices., and appoint meetings, upon emer- 
gent occasions. 

IV. ' That we shall snbnii* unto tlie counsils, reproofs and censures of the 
^ brethren so associated and assembled, in all things in the Lord. [^Eph. 
.'i. 21.] 

V. ' That none of us shall relinquish this association, nor forsake the ajt. 
' pf/int'-d meetings, without giving sufticient reassm lor the same. 

VI. ' 'I hat our work, in llie said meeting shall be; 

1. ' To debate any matter referring to ourselres. 

2. ' To hear and consider any cases that shall be proposed nuto us. 

' from churches or private persons. 

3. • To answer any A//e/vJ directed unto us, from ix\^y oihcv associa- 

' tions or persons. 

4. ' To discourse of any question proposed at the former meeting. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 233 

'^. 10, Sitch and so hath been our platform nf church discipline : if our 
brethren of the Presbyterian perswasion be still uueasie in any article of it, let 
these things be offered for a close. 

First, The Presbyterian ministers of this country do find it no difficulty 
to practise tlie substance of it, in and with their several congregations; and 
when it conies to the practice they do not find so much of difficulty, as, at 
first, appear'd in the notion. 

Secondly, The reverend persons of the PresbyteiHan way, who wrote the 
JusDivinum Ministerii Evangelici, as long since as the year 1654. declared, 

' As we agree wholly in the same confession of faith, so we agree in 

• many things of greatest concernmnit in the matters of church discipline. 
' And tiiose things wherein we differ, are not of such consequence as to cause a 
' schism between us, either in worship, or in love and affection. 

' Our debates are (as it was said of the disputes of the ancient fathers, one 

• with another about lesser differences) not contentiones but collationes We 
' can truly sa}', as our brethren do in their preface, that it is far from t(s 
' so to attest the discipline of Christ as to detest the disciples of Christ ; so to 
' contest for the sea7n-less coat of Christ, as to crucife the living members of 

• Christ ; so to divide ourselves about church-coinmunion, as thro' breacftes 
' to open a wide gap, for a deluge of Antichristiaii and profane malignity, to 
' sivaUow up both church and civil state.' 

Thirdly, The brethren of the Presbyterian way in England, are lately come 
unto such an happy union, with those of the Congregational, that all former 
names of distinction, are now swallowed up in that blessed one of imited 
brethercn. And now partly because one of New-England, namely Mr. In- 
crease Mather, then resident at Loudon, was very singularly instrumental in' 
effecting of that union; but more because that utuon hath been for many 
lustres, yea, many decads of 3'ears exemplified in the churches of Netv-Eng- 
land, so far, that [ believe, 'tis not possible for me to give a truer description 
of our ecclesiastical constitution, than by transcribing thereof the articles of 
that union which shall here be repeated. 

Heads of Agreement, assented to by the United Ministers, formerly 
calFd Presbyterian and Congregational. 

I. Of Churches and Church-Members. 

1. We acknowledge our Lord J^sus Chri.H to have one catholick church, 
or A:iM^c?OOT, comprehending all tiiat are united to him, whether in Heaven or 
Earth. And do conceive the whole multitude of visible believers, and their 
infant seed (commonly call'd the catholick visible church) to belong to Christ's 
sj)iritual kingdom in this world. But for the notion of a catholick visible 
church here, as it signifies it's having been collected into any formed society, 
under a visible humane head on earth, whether one person singly, or many 
collectively, we, with the rest of protestunts, unanimously disclaim it. 

2. We agree, that particular societies of visible saints, vk'ho under Christ 
their head, are statedly joined together, for ordinary communion with one au- 
thor in all the ordinances of Christ, are particular churches, and are to be 
owned by each other, as instituted churches of Christ, though differing in ap- 
prehensions a\\A practice in some lesser things. 

3. That none shall be admitted as members, in order to communion in all 
the special ordinances of the gospel, but such persons as are knowing, and 
sound in the fundamental doctrines of the Christian religion, without scandal 
in their lives; and to a judgment regulated by tjie word of God, are persons 

VOL n. 30 



234 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

of visible holiness and honesty ; credibly possessing cordial subjection to Je- 
sus Christ. 

4. A great number of such visible saints, (as before described) do become 
the capable subjects of stated communion in all the special ordinances of 
Christ upon tlieir mutual declan-d consent and agreement to walk together 
therein according to gospel ride. In which declaration, different degrees of 
explicitencss, shall no ways hinder such churches from owning each other, as 
instituted churches 

5. TUo' parochial hounds, be not oi divine right, yet for common edifica- 
tion, the mr'mbers o{ n^ particular church ought (as much as conveniently may 
be) to live near one another. 

6. That each particular church hath right to use their own oificcrs ; and 
being furnished with sdich as are dull/ qunlljied and ordained according to the 
gospel rule, hath authority from Christ tor exercising government, and of en- 
joying all the ordinances of loorshlp within itself. 

7. In the athninistration of church power, it belongs to the pastors and 
other elders of every particular church, if such there be to r?^fe and govern, 
and to the brotherhood to co/isen^ according to the rule of the gospel. 

8. That all professors as before described, are bound in duty, as they have 
opportunity to join themselves asjixed members of some particular church ; 
their thus joining being part of their professed subjection to the gospel of 
Christ, and an instituted means of their establishment and edification ; where- 
by they are under the pastoral care, and in case of scandalous or offensive 
walking, may be authoritatively admonished or censured for their recovery, 
and lor vindication o( the tru/h and the church professing it. 

9- That a visible professor thus joined to a particular church ought to 
continue stedfast with the said church ; and not forsake the ministry, and or- 
dinances there dispensed, without an orderly seeking a recommendaiion unto 
another church, which ought to be given, when the case of the person appa- 
rently requires it. 

N 11. Of the JMinistry. 

1. We agree that the ministerial office is instituted by Jesus Christ for the 
gathering, guiding, edifying and governing of his church j and continue to tlie 
end of the world. 

2. They who are called to this office ought to be endued with competent 
learning and ministerial gifts, as also with the grace of God, sound in judg- 
nient, not novices in the faith and knowledge of tiie gospel ; without scandal, 
of holy conversation, and such as devote themselves to the work and service 
•hereof. 

3. That ordinarily none shall be ordained to the work of this ministry, but 
such as are called and chosen thereunto by a particular church. 

4. That in so great and w-eighty a matter as the calling and chusinga ^ms- 
for, we judge it ordinarily requisite, that every such church consult and ad- 
vise with the pastors of neighbouring congregations. 

5. That after such advice the person consulted about, being chosen by the 
brotherhood of that particular church over which he is to be set, and he ac- 
cepting, be duly ordained and set apart to his office over them ; wherein 'tis 
oTclinarily requisite that the pastors of neighbouring congregations concur 
with the preaching elder or elders, if such there be. 

6. That whereas such ordination is only intended for such as never before 
had been ordained to the miniiitcrial office ; if any judge, that in the case al- 
m of the removal of one formerhj ordained, to a new station, or pastoral 
r.harge, there ought to be a like, .solemn recommending him and his labours 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 235 

to the grace and blessing of God ; no different sentiments or practice here- 
in, shall be any occasion oi contention or breach, of communion among us. 

7. It is expedient, that they who enter on the work of preaching the gos- 
pel, be not only qualified for communion of saints ; but also, that except in 
cases extraordinary, they give proof of titeir gifts and fitness for the said 
loork- unto the ^as^ors of churches, of A;noii'n abilities to discern and judge of 
ihe'w qualifications ; that they maybe sent forth with solemn approbation 
and prayer ; which we judge needful, that no doubt may remain concerning 
their being called unto the work j and for preventing (as much aa in us ly- 
eth) ignorant and rash intruders. 

ni. Of Censures. 

1. As it cannot be avoided, but that in the purest churches on earth, there 
will sometimes offences and scandals arise by reason of hypocrisie and pre- 
vailing corruption; so Christ hath made it the duty of every church, to re- 
form itself by spiritual remedies appointed by him to be applyed in all such 
cases, viz. admonition and excommunication. 

2. Admonition, being the rebuking of an offending member in order to 
conviction, is in case of private offences to be performed according to the rule 
in Matth. 18. 15, 16, IJ. and in case of publick offences openly before the 
church; as the honour of the gospel, and the nature of the scandal shall re- 
quire : and, if either of the admonitions take place for the recovery of the 
fallen person, all further proceedings in a way of c^nswre are thereon to cease, 
and satisfaction to be declared accordingly. 

3. When all due means are used, according to the order of the gospel for 
the restoring an offending and scandalous brother, and he, notwithstanding 
remains impenitent, the ctnsure oi' excommunication is to be proceeded unto; 
wherein the pastor and other elders (if there be such) are to lead and go be- 
fore the church ; and the brotherhood to give their consent in a way of obe- 
dience unto Christ, and to the elders, as over them in the Lord. 

4. It may sometimes come to pass that a church-member, not otherwise 
scandalous may sinfully withdraio, and divide himself from the communion 
of the church to which he belongeth : in which case, when all due means for 
the reducing him, prove ineffectual, he having thereby cut himself off from 
that churches communion ; the church may justly esteem and declare itself 
discharged of any further inspection over him. 

IV. 0/' communion o/" churches. 

1. We agi'ee that particular churches ought not to walk so distinct and sep- 
arate from each other, as not to have care and tenderness towards one another. 
But their pastors ought to have frequent meetings together, that by mutual 
advice, support, encouragement, and brotherly intercourse, they may strength- 
en the hearts and hands of each other in the icays of the Lord. 

2. That none of our particular churches shall be subordinate to one anoth- 
er, each being endued with equality of power from Jesus Christ. And that 
none of the said particular churches, their officer or officers, shall exercise any 
power, or have any superiority, over any other church or their officers. 

3. That known members of particular churches constituted as aforesaid, 
may have occasional communion with one another in the ordinances of the 
gospel, viz, the word, prayer, sacraments, singing of Psalms, dispensed ac- 
cording to the mind of Christ; unless that church, with which they desire 
communion, hath any just exception against thera. 



236 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AiMERICANA : [Book v. 

4. That we ought not admit any one to be a member of our respective con- 
gregations, that iiath ioin''cl himself to another, without endeavours of mutual 
satisfaction of the covgregatioiia concerned. 

5. That one church ought not to blame the proceedings of another, Until it 
hath heard, what that cluirch charged, its elders or messengers, can say in 
vindication of themselves from any chaige of irregular or injurious proceed- 
ings. 

6. That we are most willing and ready to give an account of other church- 
proceedings to earh other, when desired ; for preventing or removing any of- 
fences, that may arise among us. Likewise we shall t>e ready to give the 
right hand of fellowship, and walk together according to the gospel rules of 
communion of churches. ' 

V. Of deacons one? ruling-elders. 

We agree, the ofRce of a deacon is of divine appointment, and that it be- 
longs to their oflice to receive, lay out, and distribute the churches stock to its 
proper uses, by the direction of the pastor, and, bretheren, if need be. And 
whereas diverse are of opinion, that there is also the office of ruling-elders, 
who labour not in word and doctrine; and others think otherwise; we agtee 
that this difference make no breach among us. 

VI. Of occasional mceUwg of ministers, S!,c. 

1. We agree that in order to concord, and in other weighty and difficult 
_ ies, it is needful and according to the mind of Christ, that the ministers of 
several churches be consulted and advised with about such matters. 

2. That such meetings may consist of smaller or greater numbers, as the 
matter shall require. 

3. That particular churches, their respective elders and members, ought 
to have a reverential regard to their judgment, so given, and not dissent there- 
from without apparent grounds from the word of (iod. 

VII. Of oltr demeanour toioards the civil magistrate. 

1. We do reckon our selves obliged continually to pray for God's protec- 
tion, guidance and blessing upon the riders set over us. 

2. That we ought to yield unto them not only subjection in the Lord, but 
support, according to our station and abilities. 

3. That if at any time, it shall be their pleasure to c;dl together any num- 
ber of us, to require an account of our affairs, and the state oi" our congrega- 
tions, we shall most readily express all dutiful regard to them herein. 

VIII. Of a confession o/ faith. 

As to what appertains to soundness of jud'Tment in matters of faith, we es- 
teem it sufficient that a chuich acknowledge the scriptures to be the word of 
God, the perfect and only rule of faith and practice, and own either the doc- 
trinal part of those commonly called the articles of the church of Engfand, 
or the confession or catechisuis, shorter or larger compiled by the assembly 
at Westminster.) or the confession agreed on at the Savoy, to be agreeable to 
the said rule. 



cases 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 237 

IX. Of our duty and deportment towards them that are not in communion 

icith Its. 

1. We judge it our duty to bear a Christian respect to all Christians, acr 
cording to their several ranks and stations, that are not of our perswasion or 
communion. 

2. As for such as may be ignorant of the principles of the Christian reli- 
gion, or of vicious conversation, we shali in our respective places, as they 
give opportunity, endeavour to explain to them the doctrine of life and sal- 
vation, and to our utmost perswade them to be reconciled to God. 

3. That such who appear to have the essential requisites to church-com- 
munion, we shall willingly receive them in the Lord, not troubling them with 
disputes about lesser matters. 

As we assent to the afore-mentioned heads of agreements so we unani- 
mously resolve as the Lord shall enable us to practise according to 
them. 



THE THIRD PART. 

'The principles owned, and the endeavours used, by the churches of new- 
ENGLAND: Concerning the church-state of their posterity. 

Si Ecclesia debet unquam Reforescere, necesse est, at d pucrorum Institu- 
tione Exordium fiat. — Luther. 

1. As the English nation has been honoured above most of the Protestan? 
and reformed world, with clearer discoveries of several most considerable 
points in our Christian religion; particularly the points of a true evangelical 
church-order ; so the New-English part of this nation hath had a singular 
share in receiving and imparting the illuminations, which the light shining in 
a dark place hath given thereabout. Very true and just arc the printed 
words of the well known Mr. Nathaniel Mather, on this occasion. 

' Amongst all that have suffered for, and searched into these truths, they of 
' New-England, justly deserve and will have a name and a glory, as long as 
' the earth shall have any remembrance of an English nation. After ages 
' will honour them for that great and high adventure of theirs, in transporting 
' themselves, their wives and little ones, upon the rude waves of the vast 
' ocean into a remote, desolate and howling wilderness, and there encountriug 
' by faith and patience with a world of temptations and streights and pressing 
' wants and diliiculties, and this upon no other inducements, but that they 
' might meet with him whom their souis loved, in the midst of his golden can- 
' dlesticks, and see him, as they have there seen him in his sanctuary'. It 
might rationally be now expected, that oin- compassionate Lord Jesus Christ 
would graciously gratifie the desires and labours of such an holy generation 
with as full an understanding of his revealed will about his instituted worship, 
as he has at anytime granted unto any of his people ; and that especially the 
officers of instituted churches humbly, prayerfully and carefully engaged in 
studies for their service, would lye under as direct an influence of his Holy 
Spirit, as any inquirers whatsoever. But there is one very important article 
of ecclesiastical discipli7ie whereahonts the churches of NettJ-England haw 
had a most peculiar exercise and coiiccinment ; and that is the ecclesiastical 
state of their posterity. 



238 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : ['Book v. 

2. When our churches were come to between twenty and thirty years of age. 
a nun\evous poster it J/ was advanced so far into the world, that the ^rst plant- 
ers began apace in their several families, to be distinguished by the name of 
grand-fathers : but among the immediate parents of the grand-children, there 
were multitudes of well disposed persons, who partly thro' their own doubts 
and fears, and partly thro' other culpable neglects, had not actually come up 
to the covenanting state of communicunts at the table of the Lord. The good 
old generation could not without many uncomfortable apprehensions, behold 
their ofi'-spring excluded from the baptism of Christianity, and from the ec- 
clesiastical inspection which is to accompany that baptism ; indeed it was to 
leave their off-spring under the shepherdly government of our Lord Jesus 
Christ in his ordinances, that they had brought their lambs into this wilder- 
ness. When the apostle bids churches to look diligently, lest any man fail 
of the grace of God^ there is an ecclesiastical word used for that looking dili- 
gently ; intimating that God will ordinarily bless a regular church-watch, to 
maintain the interests of grace among his people : and it was therefore the 
study of those prudent men, who might be call'd our seei's, that the children of 
the faithful may be, kept as far as may be, under a church-watch, in expectation 
that they mightbe in the fairer way to receive the ^race of God; thus they were 
looking diligently, that the prosperous and prevailing condition of religion in 
our churches, might not be Res iinius a:tatis, a matter of one age alone. More- 
over, among the next sons or daughters descending from that generation, there 
was a numerous appearance of sober persons, who professed themselves desi- 
rous to renew their baptismal-covenant, and submit unto the church-discipline^ 
and so have their houses also marked for the Lord's ; but yet they could not 
come up to that experimental account of their own regeneration, which would 
sufficiently embolden their access to the other sacrament. Wherefore, for our 
churches now to make ne ecclesiastical difference between these hopeful can- 
didates and competents for those our further mysteries ; and Pagans, who 
might happen to hear the word of God in our assemblies ; was judged a most 
unwarrantable strictness, which would quickly abandon the biggest part of 
our country unto heathenism. And on the other side, it was feared, that if 
all such, as had not yet exposed themselves by censurable scandals found up- 
on them, should be admitted unto all the priviledges in our churches, a world- 
ly part of Mankind might, before we are aware, carry all things into such a 
course of proceeding, as would be very disageeable unto the kingdom of 
heaven. 

§ 3, The questions raised about these matters, came to some figure Just, 
in the colony of Connecticut ; where the pious iiwgistratcs observing the be- 
gun dangers of paroxysms, which might affect the state as well as the church, 
on this occasion, produced a draught of the agitated questions, and sent them 
to the magistrates of the Massachusetts colony, with a request, that several of 
the ablest ministers, in both colonies might upon mature deliberation, give in 
their answers thereunto. Accoriiingly, the letters of the government, procur- 
ed an assembly of our principal ministers at Boston on June 4. l()f)7. who by 
the 19th of that month prepared and presented an elaborate answer to twent} 
one questions ; which was afterwards printed in IiO«r/on, under the title of, 
a disputation comcrning church-members and their children. Besides othei 
cases referring to the church-state of children born in the bosom of the 
church, it is in this disputation asserted and maintained, ' That it is the duty 
'■ of infants, who confederate in their parents, when grown up unto years of 
* discretion, tho' not yet fit, for the hordes Supper, to own the covenant, they 
' made with their jiarcnts, by entering thereinto, in their own persons : and it 
' is the duty of the church, to call upon them for the performance thereof ; 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 239 

' and, if bdng called upon, they shall refuse the performance of this great du- 
' ty, or otherwise do continue scandalous, they are liable to be censured for 
' the same, by the church And in case they understand the grounds of re- 
' Ugion, and are not scandalous, and solemnly own the covenant, in their own 

* persons, wherein they give up both themselves and their children unto the 

* Lord, and desire baptism for them, we see not sufficient cause to deny bap- 
' tism unto their children.' 

*^ 4. The practice oi church care, about the children of our churches thus 
directed and commended, was but gradually introduced ; yea, it met with 
such opposition as could not be encountred with any thing less than a synod 
of elders and messengers, from all the churches in the Massachuset colony. 
Accordingly, the general court, having the necessity of the matter laid before 
them, at their second session in the year 1661 . issued out their desire and or- 
der for the convening of such a synod at Boston in the spring of the year en- 
suing. And for the deliberations of that synod, besides the grand question, 
about tJie subject of baptism, there was another question propounded about 
the consociation of churches, which was of no small consequence to the in- 
terests of Christianity in the country. As the divines of New-England were 
solicitous that i\ie jiropagaticn of our churches migiit hold pace with that of 
our off-spring, so they were industrious for the comhination of our churches in- 
to such a bundle of arrowes. as might not easily be broj^en. However, they 
had by their adversaries been termed independents, nevertheless they solemn- 
ly, on this occasion, repeated and subscribed, that profession of their famous 
bretheren in the English nation ; ' That it is the most to be abliorred maxim, 
' that any religion hath made profession of, and tht-refore of all other the 

* most contradictory, and dishonourable unto that of Christianity, tlial a siu- 
•^ gle and particular society of men, professing the name of Ciirist, and pre 
'tending to be endowed with a power from Christ, to judge them that are 

* of the same body and sorieiy with themselves, should further arrogate 
' unto thenselves an exemption from giving account, or being censurable by 
' any otiier, either Christian magistrate above them, or neighbour churches 
' about them. Under the influence of these concernments, the elders and mes- 
sengers of the churches assembled at Boston, in the year l662. Who under 
the conduct of several successive moderators, at length agreed upon certain 
propositions ; which being tendered unto the general Court, there was an or- 
der there passed on Oc/. 8, 1 662, for the publication and commendatior. 
thereof imto all the churches in the jurisdiction. They were as followeth. 



The answer of the Elders and other Messengers of the churches, assembled 
at Boston, in the year l662. To the questions propounded to them, by or- 
der of the Honoured General Court. 

Question L — Who are the subjects of baptism f 

Ansioer — THE answer may be given in the following propositions, brief- 
ly confirmed from ihe scriptures. 

1. ' They that, according to scripture, are members of the visible churcli. 
' are the subjects of baptism. 

2. ' The members of the visible church, according to scripiure, are confed- 
' erate visible believers, in particular churches, and their infant seed, i. e. chil- 
' dren in minority, whose next parents, one or both, are in covenant. 

3. ' The infant seed of confederate visible believers, ^re members of the 



240 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [;Book v- 

' same church with their parents, and when prown up are personally under the 

* watch, disciphne and government oftliat church. 

4. ' These aduh persons, are not therefore to be admitted to full commun- 
' ion, merely because they are, and c(MUinue members, without such further 
' qualifications as the word of God requiieth thereunto 

5. ' Church members who were admitted in minority, understanding the 
'doctrine of faith, and publickly professing tlieir assent thereto not scanda- 
' lous in life, anil solemnly owning the covenant before the church, wherein 

* they give up themselves and their cliildren to the Lord, and subject them- 

* sflves to the government of Christ in tiie church, their children are to be bap- 
' tised. 

C ' Such church members, who either by death, or some other extraordi- 
' nary providence, have been inevitably hindred from publick acting as afore- 
'said, yet have given the church cause in judgment of charity, to look at them 

* as so qualified, and such as had th(*y been called thereunto, would have so 
' acted, their children are to be baptised. 

7. ' The members of orthodox churches, being sound in the faith and not 
'scandalous in life, and presenting due testimony thereof; these occasionally 
' coming from one churcli to another may have their children baptised in the 
'church, whither they come, by virtue of coinmunion of chinches : But if 
' they remove their habitation, they ought orderly to covenant and subject 
' themselves to the government of Christ in the church, where they settle their 
' abode, and so their children to be baptised. It being the churche's duty to 
*' receive such into communion, so far, as they are regularly fit for the same. 

The confirmation of these propositions from the scripture, foUoweth. 

Proposition I. 

Thei/. that according to scripture, are members of the visible church, are 
the subjects of baptism. 

The truth hereof may appear by the following evidences from the word of 

(Jod. 

1. Whkn Christ saith, go ye therefore and teach, or (as the Greek is) 
disciple all nations, baptising them, JMatth. 28, 19- He expresseth the 
ada'quate subject of bajjlism, to be disciples or discipled ones But disciples 
there, is the same with members of the visible church. For the visible 
chiucli is Christ's school, wherein all the members stand related and sub- 
jected to him, as their master and teacher, and so are his scholars or disci- 
ples, and under his teaching, as ver. 20. And it is that visible spiritual king- 
dom of Christ, which he, there, fron> his kingly power, v. 18. sendeth them 
to set up and administer, in v. 19- The subjects whereof are under his laws 
and government, v. 20. Which subjects for members of that kingdom, i. e. 
of the visible church) are termed disciples, r. 19- Also in the Acts (f the 
Apostles (the story of their accomplishment of that commission) disci[)les are 
visually put for niembers of the visible church, Acts 1.15. /// the midst of 
the disciples, who, with others added to them, are called the Church, Act 2. 
47. The members whereof are again called Disciples, Acts (3. 1,2 Acts 
9. 1. Against the disciples of the Lord ; i. e. against the church of God, 
1 Cor. 15. 9. (ialat. I. l.S. Acts 9. 26. He as.<iayed to join himself to the dis- 
ciples. The disciples ol' Lijstra, Iconium and Jntioih, Acts 14. 21, 22. are 
called the church in each of those places, v. 23. so the church, v. 27- the </w- 
ciples, c. 28. Acts \S 22. The church at Cwsarea , Acts 21. iG. The 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 241 



^ les of Ccesarea : So Acts 18. 23. wilh chap. 15. 41. and Gal 1.2. 
Acts\%. 27. and chap. 20. 1. From all which it appeareth, that disciples 
in Matth. 28. 19. and members of the visible church, are terms equivalent ; 
and disciples being, there, by Christ himself made the subjects of baptism, it 
follovveth that the members of the visible church are the subjects of baptism. 

2. Baptism is the seal of the first entrance or admission into the visible 
church; as appeareth from those texts, 1 Cor. 12 13 Baptised into onebo- 
drj, i. e. our entrance into the body or church of Christ, is sealed by baptism : 
And Rom 6. 3, 5. Gfil. 3. 2?. where 'tis shewed that baptism is the sacra- 
ment of ?/m'o/?, or of ingrafting into Christ the head, and consequently into 
the church his body, and from the Apostle's constant practice of baptising 
persons upon their first coming in, or first giving up themselves to the Lord 
and them. Acts 8. 12. and l6, 15 33. and 18. 8. and Jicts 2. 41, 42. they 
were baptised at their first adding to the church, or admission into the Apos- 
tle^s Fellowship, wherein they, afterward, continued. And from its answer- 
ing unto circumcision, which was a seal of initiation or admission into the 
church ; hence it belongs to all, and only those that are entered into, that are 
within or that are members of the visible church. 

3. They that according to scripture are members of the visible church, 
are in covenant. For it is the covenant, that coiistituteth the church, Deut. 
28. 12, 13. They must enter into covenant, that they mieht be established 
the people or church of God, Now the initiatory seal is affixed to the cove- 
nant, and appointed to run parallel therewith. Gen 17. 7-, 9, 10. 11. so cir- 
cumcision was, and hence called the covenant, Gen. 17- 13. Acts J 8. And 
so baptism is being in like manner annexed to the promise or covenant. Acta 
2. 38, 39. and being the seal that answereth to circumcision. Col. 2 1 1, 12. 

4. Christ doth sanctifie and cleanse the church by the loashing of water ; 
i. e. by baptism, Eph. 5. 25, 26. Therefore the whole church, and so all 
the members thereof (who are also said in scripture to be sanctified in Christ 
Jesus, 1 Cor. 1.2) are the subjects of baptism. And altho' it is the invisi- 
ble church, unto the spiritual and eternal good whereof, this and all other or- 
dinances lastly, have respect, and which the place mentioned in Eph. 5. may 
in a special manner look unto, yet it is the visible church that is the next and 
immediate subject of the administration thereof. For the subject of visible 
external ordinances to be adminislred by men must needs be visible And 
so the Apostle baptized sundry persons, who were of the visible, but not of 
the invisible church, as Simon Magus, Ananias and Suphira, and others. 
And there are visibly j^jjo'c/msefi? and sanctified by the blood oiChrhi, the 
blood of the covenant, Acts 20. 28 Heb. 10. 29- Therefore the visible seal 
of the covenant and of cleansing b}' Christ's blood belongs to them. 

5. The circumcision is of ten put for the ichole Jeivish church, or for the 
members of the visible church under the Old Testament "Those ivithin are 
expressed by [the circumcised^ and those without by [the uncircumcisedJi 
Rom. 15. S. and 3 30. Eph. 2. 11. Judges 14. 3 and 15 18. 1 Sam. 14 6. 
and 17 26, 36 Jer. 9- 25, 26. Hence by projiortion baptism (which is our 
gospel circumcision. Col. 2. 11. 12.) belongs to the whole visible church un- 
der the New Testament. Actual and personal circumcision, was indeed 
proper to the males of old, females being but inclusively and virtually circum- 
cised and so counted of the circumcision : But the Lord has taken away 
that difference now, and appointed baptism to be personally applied to both 
sexes v4cfe 8. 12. and l6 15. Ga/. 3. 28. So that every particular mem- 
ber of the visible church is now a subject of baptism. We conclude, there- 
fore, that baptism pertains to the whole visible church., and to all and every 
one therein, and to no other. 

VOL. II 31 



242 MAGNALIA ClIRISTl AMERICANA: [Dcok v. 

1 Rorosrrrox II. — The members nf the viaible church according In .scrip- 
ture, arc confih'i ate visible believers, in particular churches, and their in- 
fant-seed, i. e, children in minority, tohosc next parents, one or both are in 
covenant. 

^untlry particulars are comprised in this proposition, wliicli «e may consitl- 
er and conlirm distinctly. 

Partic. 1. Adult persons, ivhoare members of the visible church, are bi/ 
rule confederate visible believers, yicts 5-14 Believers were added to the 
Lord. The believing Corinthians wcilP members of \he cluncli {have, /lets 
IS. S witli 1 Cor 1 2 and 12 2/. Tlie inscription ottlic Epistles written 
to churches, and caUing tlic members thereof saints and faithful, shew the 
same thing, jK///i 1, 1 Phil 1. 1 Col. 1 2. And that consideration, z". e. 
covenanting expiicite or implicite (the hitter preserveth the essence of con- 
federation, tiie former is (hity and most desirable) is necessary to make one 
a member of the visible church, a|ipears, 1. because the church is constituted 
by covcjiant ; for there is between Christ and the church, the mutual engage- 
ment and relation of king and subjects, husband and spouse; this cannot be^ 
but by covenant (internal if you speak of the invisible church, external of the 
visible) a church is a company that can say, Cod is our God and we are his 
people, this is from tiie covenant between God and them. Detit. 29- 12, 13. 
Ezek. l6. 8. 2. The church of the Old Testament was the church of God 
by covenant. Gen. IJ. Dent. 29. and was reformed still by the renewing of 
the covenant, 2 Chron. 15. l6. and 23. 12. and 34. 31. 32. Neh. 9- 38. Now 
the churches of the Gentiles under the Netv Testament stand upon the same 
basis or root, with the church of the Old J['t'.sf«??/eHi, and therefore are constitut- 
ed by covenant, as that was, Rom. 11. 17, 18. Eph. 2. 11, 12, 19- and 3- 6. 
Heb. 8. 10. 3. Baptism enters us into the church sacramentally, i. e. by seal- 
ing the covenant. The covenant, therefore, is that which constitutes the 
church, and iiitcrs membership, and is tlie vote in baptism commonly spoken 
of. 

Partic. 2. TIh' members of the visible church are sjich as are confederate 
in particular charchcs. It may be minded that we are here speaking of mem- 
bers, so stated iu the visible churcli. as that they are subjects, to whom church 
ordinances may regularly be administered, and that according to ordinary dis- 
pensation. For were it granted, that the Apostles and Evangelists did some- 
times baptise such, as were not members of any particular church, yet their 
extraordinary office large power and commission renders them not imitable 
therein by ordinari/ officers. For then they micht baptise in private, without 
the presence of a Christian assembly, as Vhiiip did the Eunuch. But that 
in ordinaiy (hspensation the members of the visible churcIi, according to the 
scripture, are, such as are members of some particular church, appears, 1 . 
Because the visible believer that professedly covenants with God doth therein 
give up himself to wait on God in all his ordinances, Deut. 26. 17- 18. Matt. 
28. 19,20. But all the ordinances of God are to be enjoyed only in a par- 
ticular church. For how often do we find in the scripture that they came to- 
gether into one place, (or met as a Congregational particular church) for the 
observation anil enjoyment of the ordinances, ylcts 2. 1 , 44, 40. and 4. 31. and 
11. 26. and 20. 7- 1 Cor. 5. 4. and 11. 18. and 20. ;;3. and 14. 23. 2. The 
Apostle in his Epistles writing to saints ur believers, writes to them as in 
particular churches, 1 Cor. 1. 2. Eph. 1. 1. Phil. 1.1. Col. I. 2. And when 
the story of the Acts speaks of disciples, other places shew that those are un- 
derstood to bc7n€mbers of particular churches^ Acts 18. 23. with Gal. 1. 2. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 243 

Acts 21. 16. with 18. 22. and 11. 26 and 14. 22, 23, 27, 28. All which 
shews that tlie Scripture acknowledgeth no settled orderly estate of visible 
believers in covenant, with God, but only in particular churches. 3. The 
members oftlie visible church are discijiles, as was above cleared, now disci- 
j)les are under discijdine, and liable to church censures : for they are stated 
subjects of Christ's laws and government, 3hdt. 28. 19, 20. but church gov- 
ernment and censures are extant now in ordinary dispensation only in a par- 
ticular dnuxh. Matt. 18. 17. 1 Cor. 5. 4. 

Partic 3. The infant-seed of confederate visible belie7;ers are also 7nem- 
hers of the visible church. I'he truth of this is also evident from the Scrip- 
tures and the reasons following. 

Argum. 1. The covenant o/'Abraham, as to the substance thereof, viz. 
That wherebi/ God declares himself to be the God of the faithf id and their 
seed, Ge>.\. IJ.T. continues vnder the Gospel as appears. 1. Because the 
believing inchurched Gentiles under the New Testament, do stand upon the 
same root of covenanting Abraham: which the Jews were broken ojf from. 
Rom. 11. l6, 17, 18. 2. Because yVrra/iam in regard of that covenant was 
nicide a father of many nations, Gen. ij- 4, 5. even of Gentiles as v/ell as 
.tews, under New Testament as well as old. Rom. 4. 16, 17- GoZ. 3. 29- i- e. 
in Abraham as a Pattern and root, God not only sheweth how he justifies the 
believer. Gal. 3.6 9- Rom. 4. but also conveyed that covenant to the faith, 
and their seed in all nations, Luke 19- 9- if a son of Abraham, then Salva- 
tion, i. e. the covenant-dispensation of salvation is come to his house. 3. As 
that covenant was (Tommunicated to proselyte Gentiles under the Neiv Testa- 
ment, so its communication to the inchurched Gentiles under the Neio Testa- 
ment is clearly iield forth in diverse places, Gal. 3. 14. Thp blessing oi A- 
braliam compriseth both the internal benefits of justification by faith, &:c. 
which the Apostle is there treating of; and the external dispensation of grace 
in the visible shurch to the faithful and their seed, Gen. 28. 4. but the whole 
blessing of Abraham (and so the whole covenant) is come upon the Gentiles 
thro' Jesus Chri.9t, Eph. 2. 12, 19. They had been strangers, but now were 
nomore strangers from the covenants of grace, which had often been renew- 
ed, especially wiih Abiaham, and the house of Israel and had been in the ex- 
ternal dispensation of it, their peculiar portion, so that the Ephesians, who 
were afar off, being now called and made nigh, v. 13. 17- they have the prom- 
ise or the covenant of promise to them and to their children, according to y^c^s 
2. 39. and so are Partakers of that covenant of Abraham, that we are speak- 
ing of, Eph. 3. 6. The inchurched Geniiles are put into the same inherit- 
ance for substance (both as io invisible and visible benefits, according to their 
respective conditions) are of the same body, und partakers of the same prom- 
ise v/ith tiie Jews, the children of Abraham, of old. The same may be 
gathered from G'ra. 9- 27. Mat. 8. 11. &2]. 43. 4. Sundry Scriptures 
which extend to gospel-times do confirm the same interest to the seed of the 
faitiiful which is held forth in the covenant of Abraliam, and consequently 
do confirm the continuance of that covenant, as Exod 20. 6. there in the 
sanctions of a moral and perpetual commandment, and that respecting ordin- 
ances, the portion of the Church, God declarelh himself to be a God of nier- 
cv to them that love him, and to their seed after them in their generations, 
consonant to Gen. 17. J. compare herewith, Pscdm 105. 8, 9- and Dcut. 7- 
9. Dent. 30. 6. The grace signified by circumcision is there promised to 
parents and children, importing the covenant to both, which circumcision 
sealed. Gen. 17 ^nd that is a gospel promise, as the Apostles citing part of 
that context, as the voice of the gospel shews Ro7)i. 10, 6, 8. with Deut. 20, 
11. 14. and it rearheth to the Jew- in the latt'-r davs. v I. 5. Lsa. 65. 23. 



244 MAGNALTA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

Ill the most glorious gospel state of the church, v. 17» 19. The blessing of 
the Lord is the promised portion of the ojf'spinng or children as well as of the 
faithful parents, so ha. 34. 40, 21. Ezek. 37,25, 26. at the future calling of 
the Jews, which those texts have reference {^Rom 11. 26. Ezek. SJ. 19, 22, 
23, 24 ) their children shall bu under the promise or covenant of special grace 
to be conveyed to them in the ordinances, Isa. 59- 21. and be subjects of Da- 
vid, i. e. Christ their king, Ezek 37. 25. and have a portion in his simctuary, 
V. 26. and this according to tlie tenor of the ancient covenant of Abrahainj 
whereby God will be their God {viz. both of parents and children) and they 
shall be his people, i-. 26, 27. Now allho' more abundant fruits of the cove- 
nant may be seen in those times, and the Jews then may have more abundant 
grace given to the body of them to continue in the covenant, yet the tenor and 
frame of the covenant it self is one and the same both to Jews and (jentiles 
under the New testament, Gal. 3. 28 Cul. 3. 1 1. Hth. S. 10. T/ie house of 
hrael, i e the church of C/'or/both among Jeto.'i nud Gentiles under the New 
Testament have that covenant made with them, the samm whereof is, / will 
be their God, and they shall be my people, which is a renewing of that Cov- 
enant of Abraham in Gen IJ. (as the same is very often over in those terms 
renewed in Scripture, and is distinguished from the law. Gal. 3. \G, IJ. Heb. 
8. 9.) wherein is implied God's being a God to the seed-, as well as parents, 
and taking both to be his people, tho' it be not expressed ; even as it is often 
plainley implied in that expression of the covenant in other places ofthe cove- 
nant in other places of Scripture, De</< 29. 13. Jer. 31. Land 32. 38, 39. and 
30.22,20. Ezek. 37- 27,25. Wso the writing of the law in the heart in 
Heb. 8. 10. is that heart cireumcision, which Deut. 30. 6. extends both to 
parents and seed. And the term house of Israel doih according to Scripture 
use fitly express and take in (especially as to the eternal administration of the 
covenant) both parents and children : among both wliich are found that elect 
and saved number; that make up the invisible Jsrat/, ctmipare Jer. 13. 11. 
and 9, 26. Isaiah 5 7- Hos. 1. 6. Ezek. 39. 25. Neither may we exclude 
the lea.st in age from the good of that promise, Heb. 8. 11. (they being some- 
times pointed to by that phrase, from the least to the greatest, .ler. 44. 12. 
with V 7.) no more than the least in other respects, compare Isaiah 54. 13. 
Ill Acts 2. 39. At the })assing of those Jews into New Testament Church- 
state, the Lord is so far from repealing the covenant interest that was grant- 
ed unto children in the former testament, or from making the children there 
losers by their parents faith, that he doth expitssly renew the old grant, and 
tells them, that the jiromise or covenant (for the promise and the covenant are 
terms that do mutually inter each other, compare Acts S. 25. Gal. 3. l6, 17, 
18, 29. Rom. 4. 16. Heb. 6. 17.) is to them and their children, the same 
is asserted to be the appointed portion of the far off Gentiles, when they 
should be c«/Ze<'/. By all wliich it appears that the covenant of Abraham, 
Gen. 17.7. whereby God is the God of the faithful and their seerf, contin- 
ues under the Gospel. 

Now if the seed of the faithful be still in the covenant oi Abraham, then 
they are members of the visible church. 1. Because that covenant of Abra- 
ham, Gen. 17- 7- was properly Church covenant or the covenant which God 
makes with his visible church, i. e. The covenant of grace considered in the 
external dispensation of it, and in the promises and priviledges that belong to 
that dispensation. For many were taken into that covenaut. that were never 
of the invisible Church, and by that Covenant the Family of ^i6/«/mm, as al- 
so by the renewing thereof the House of Israel afterwards were established 
the visible church of God, Gen. IJ. and Dcut. 29- 12, 13. and from that cov- 
enant me« might be broken off; Gen. IJ. 14. Rom. 11. 17? 19. aiid to that 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 245 

covenant, circumcision, the badge of church-membership, was annexed. — 
Therefore the covenantees therein, were and are church-members. 2. Be- 
cause in that covenant the seed are spoken of in terms describing or inferring 
church-membership, as well as their parents: for they have God for their 
God and are his people as well as the parents. Gen 17- 7, 8 with Dent. 29- 
11, 13. They have the covenant made with them. Dent 29. 14, 15, and the 
covenant is said to be between God and the?n (between me and thee and be- 
tween thy seed after thee ; So the Hebrew runs) Gen. 17- 7 They are also 
in that covenant appointed to be the subjects of the initiatory seal of the cov- 
enant, the seal of membership. Gen. 17^9, 10, 11. Therefore the seed are 
according to that covenant, members of the visible church as well as their pa- 
rents. 

Arguni. 2 Such seed or children are federally holy 1 Cor 7- 1 4- the word 
IHoly] as applied to any sort of persons, is never in Scripture used in a lower 
sense, than t'ov federal ov covenant Jtoliness {the covenant holiness of the visi- 
ble church) but very often in that sense Ezr. 9 2 Dei/t. 7 6 and 14 2, 21. 
&nd 26 19 .and 28 9- Exod. 19 6 Dan. 8. 24. and 12 7 Rom. 11 iG So 
that to say, they are holy in this sense, viz. by covenant relation and separa- 
tion to God in his church, is as much as to say, They are in the covenant of 
the visible church or members of it. 

Argum. 3 From Mark 10 14, 15, l6 Matt. 19- 14. Children's mem- 
bership in the visible Church, is either the next and immediate sense of those 
words of Chrht, of such is the kingdom of heaven; and so the kingdom of 
heaven or of God, is, not rarely, used in other Scriptures to express the visi- 
ble church, or church estate, Matth. 25. 1. and 21. 43. and 8. 11, 12. or it 
evidently follows from any other sense, that can rationally be given of the 
words. For those may not be denied a place or portion in the visible 
church whom Christ affirms to have a portion in the kingdom either of invis- 
ible grace or of eternal glory: Nor do any in ordinary course pass into the 
kiygdom of glory hereafter, but thro' the kingdom of grace in the visible 
church here. And also, that Christ, there, graciously invites and calls little 
children to him, is greatly displeased with those that would hinder them, as- 
serts them., notwithstanding their infancy, to be exemplary in their receiving 
the kingdom of God, embraceth them in his arms and blesseth them : all 
which shews Christ's dear affection to, and owning of the children of the 
church, as a part of his kingdom ; whom we, therefore, may not disown, lest 
we incur his displeasure, as the disciples did. 

Argum. 4. Such seed or children are disciples, according to Matth. 28. 19' 
as appears 1. Because subjects of Christ's kingdom are equivalent with dis- 
ciples there, as the frame of that text shews, v. 18. 19, 20. but sucli children 
are subjects of Christ's kingdom , or of the kingdoin of heaven, Matth. 0. 14. 
In the discipling of all nations intended in Matth. 28. 19- the kingdom of 
God, which had been the portion of the. Tews, w;!s communicated to the Gen- 
tiles ac<..rdingto Matth. 21 43. But in the kingdom of God these children 
have at, interest or portion, Mark. 10. 14, 2. The Apostles in accomplish- 
ing that commission Matth. 28. 19- did disciple some children, viz. the chil- 
dren of discipled parents. Acts 2. 39. and 15. 10. They are there called and 
accounted disciples, whom the false teachers would have brought under the 
yoke of circumcision alter the manner of Moses, v. 1.4. But many of those 
were children; Exod. 12. 48. Acts 2\. 11. Lydia and her household, 
the Jaylor and all his were discipled and baptised. Acts l6. 15, 31, 33. Paul 
at Corinth took in the children into the holy school of Christ 1 Cor. 7. 14. 
3. Such children belong unto Christ; for he calls them unto him, as his, to 
"receive his blessing, Ma rA^ 10. 13, l6. They are to be received in his name. 



24G MAGxNALIA CIIRISTI AINIERICANA : [Book v. 

Mark 9- 37- Luke 9- 48. They have a part in the Lord, Jn.^h. 22. 24, 25 
therefore they are his disciples : for to belong to Christ, is to be a disciple ol 
Christ, Mark 9- 41. with Matth 10. 42. Now if they be disciples, then they 
are members of the visible church, as from the equivalency of those terms 
was before shewed. 

Argum. 5. 'J'/ic whole current and harmony of Scripture sheiCN, that cr- 
er since there teas a visible church on earth, the children thereof have by the 
Lord's appointment been apart of it. So it was in the old, and it is and 
shall be so in the sS'eio Testament- Eve, the mother of all livin.!r hath a 
promise made, (ien. 3. 15. not only of Christ the heafl-seed, but thro' him 
also of a church-seed, to proceed from her in a continued lineal succession, 
which sliDuld continually be at visible enmity with, and stand at a distance, 
or be separated from the seed of the serpent. Under that promise made to 
Eve and her seed the children of Adam are born, and are a part of the 
church in Adani's family ; Even Cain was so, Gen. 4. 1,3. till east out of 
the presence of (lod therein, v. 14. being now manifoslly one of the seed of 
the serptnt, 1 John 3. 12. and so becoming the Father of a wicked unchurch- 
ed race. Cut, then («od appointed unto EvC) another, viz. Seth, in whom 
to continue the line of her church-seed, Gcw. 4. 25. How it did continue in 
his seed in their generations, GV/t. 5. sheweth. Hence the chUdren of the 
church are called sons of God, (which is as much as members of the visible 
chmch) in contradistinction to the <liiughlers of men, (len. 6. 2 h righteous 
Noah betaken into the ark (then the only preserving place of the church; 
his children are taken in with him, Ge7i. J. I. tlio' one of tl:em, viz. Ham, 
jl'ter proved degenerate anil wicked; but till he so appears, he is continued in 
the church with his brethren : So Gen 9 25, 20, 27. as the race of Ham or 
his son Canaan (parents and children) are cursed; so Shem (parent and chil- 
dren) is blessed, and continued in the place of blessing, the church, as Japhet 
also, or Japhet' s posterity (still parent and children) shall in lime be brought 
in. The holy line mentioned in Gen. 1 1. 10, 26. shews how the chinch con- 
linued in the seed of Shem, from him unto Abraham. When that race grew 
degenerate. Josh. 24. 2. then God called Abraham out of his country, and 
from his kindred, and established his covenant with him, which still took in 
parents and children, Gen. 17. 7, 9. so it did alter in the house of Israel, 
Deut. 29. 11,12, 13. and when any eminent restoration or establishment, is 
promised totlte church, the children thereof are still taken in as sharers in the 
same, Psal 102, 16, 23. and 69- 35, 36. Jer. 32. 38, 39. /•?«• 65. IS, I<), 
23. Now when Christ ccniies to set up the gospel administration of his church 
in the New Testament, under the term of the King of Heaven, Mat. 8. 2. 
and 11. 11. He is so far from taking away children's portion and member- 
ship therein, that himself asserts it. Mat. \9- 14. The children of the Gen- 
tile, but now believing Corinthians, are holy, 1 Cor. 7' 14. The apostle 
writing to the church of i^/j//e.?«/s and Colosse, speaks to children, ns a part 
thereol', Epk. 6. 1. Col, 3. 20. The inchurched Rotnans, and other Gentiles 
stand on the root ofcovenantini^ Abraham, nmWn the olive or visible church, 
they and their children, till broken ofi' (as the Jews were) by positive unbe- 
lief, or rejection of Christ, his truth or government, Rom. 11. 13, 16, 175 22. 
The children of the Jews, when they shall be called, shall be as aforetime in 
church-estate, Jc/-. 30. 20. with 31. 1. Ezek. 37- 25. 28. from all which it 
appears, that the series, or whole frame and current of scripture expressions 
doth hold forth the continuance of children's membership in the visible church, 
from the beginning to the end of the world. 

Partic. 4 The seed or children, who become members together with their 
parents (i. e. by means of their parents covenanting) are children in minority. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF ^NEW-ENGLAND. 247 

Tliis appears, 1. Because such children are holy by their parents covenant- 
ing, who wouUI else be unclean, 1 Cor. J. 14. but they would not else neces- 
sarily be unclean, if they were adult ; tor then they might act tor themselves, 
and so be holy by their personal covenanting; neither, on the other hand 
would they necessarily be hnli/, if adult, (as he asserts l!ie children there to 
be,) for they might continue Pagans Therefore the apostle intends only in- 
fants, or children in minority. 2. It is a principle, that carries evidence of 
light and reason with it, as to all transactions civil and ecclesiastical, that if a 
man be of age, he should answer for himself Joh. [). 2). They that are 
come to years of discretion, so as to have knowledge and understanding fit to 
act in a matter of that nature, are to covenant by their own personal act. 
i\W(. 10 28,29 Isa. 44 5 3. They that are regularly taken in with their 
parents, aae reputed to be visible entertainers of the covenant and avourh- 
ers of God to be their God, Dent. 26. 7, iS.Vith Deut. 29. 11, 12. But 
if adult children should without regard to their own personal act, be taken in 
with their parents then some might be reputed entertainers, that are manifest 
rejectors of the covcnnnt, for so an adult son or daughter of a godly parent 
may be. 

i'artic. 5. It is requisite unto the membership of children, that the next 
parents, one or both, being in a covenant. For altho' after-generations have 
no small benelit by their pious ancestors, who derive federal holiness to their 
succeeding generations in case they keep their standing in the covenant, and 
be not apostates from it; yet the piety of ancestors sufficeth not, unless 
the next parent continue in covenant, Rom. 11. 22. 

1. Because if the next parent be cut or broken otT, the following seed are 
broken ofl" also, jBxorf. 20. 5. Rom. 11. 17, 19, 20. as the Gentile believing 
parents and children were taken in ; so the Jeios, parents and children, were 
then broken off. 

2. One of the parents must be a believer, or else the children are unclean, 
1 Cor. 7. 14. 

3. If children may be accounted members and baptised, though the next 
parents be not in covenant, then the church should be bound to baptise those, 
whom she can have no power over nor hope concerning, to see them brought 
in the true Christian religion, and under the ordinances , for the next parents 
being wicked, and not- in covenant, may carry away and bring up their chil- 
dren to serve other Gods. 

4. If we stop not at the next parent, but grant that ancestors may, notwith- 
standing the apostacy of the next parents convey membership unto children, 
then we should want a ground where to stop, and th(;n all the cliildren on 
earth should have right to membership and baptism. 

Proposition. III. — The Infant-Seed of Confederate visible Believers, are 
Members of the same Church with their Parents, and when grown up are 
personally under the umtch, discipline, and government of that Church. 

1. That they are members of the same church with their parents, ap- 
pears; 1. Because so wcve Isaac and Ishmael ot Abraham's family-church, 
and the children of Jews, and proselytes of IsraeFs national church : and 
there is the same reason, for children now to be of the same C->ngregational- 
church with their parents ; Christ's care for cliildren and the scope of the 
covenant, as to obligation unto order and government is as great now, as then. 
2. Either they are members of the same church with their parents, or of 
some other church, or non-members : but neither of the latter ; therefore the 
former. That they are not non-members was before proved in Fropos. 2. Pan ■ 



'24S MAGNALIA CHRIST! AMERICANA : [Book v. 

icul. 3. and if not members of the same church with their parents, then of wo 
other. For if there be not reason sutficient to state them members of that 
church, where their parents have covenanted for them, and where ordinarily 
they are baptised and do inliabit, then much less is there reason to make them 
members of any other : and so they will be members of no particular church 
at all, and it was before shewed that there is no ordinary, and orderly stand- 
ing estate of church-members, bat in some particular church. 3. The same 
rovcnant-act is accounted the act of parent and child : but the parents cov- 
enanting rendered himself a member of that particular cluircli ; therefore so 
it renders the child also. How can children come in, wilh and by their pa- 
rents, and yet come into a church wherein and whereof their parents are >iot, 
so that as they should be of one church, and their |)arents of another. 4. Chil- 
dren are in anordcrly and rc^u/ar sfnte : for they are in (hat state, wherein 
the order of Cod's covenant, and his institution therein hath placed them ; 
they beiiic members by virtue of the covenant of God. To say their standing 
is disorderly, would be to impute disorder to the order of God's covenant, or 
irregularity to the rule. Now all will :;rant it to be most orderly and regular, 
that every christian be a member in some particular church, (and in that par- 
ticular church) where his regular habitation is, which to children usually is, 
where their par«'nts are. If the rule call them to remove, then their member- 
ship ought orderl}' to be translated to the church, whither they remove. Again, 
order requires, that </<r' c/w/r/, and the power of government over the child, 
should go together. It would bring shame and confusion, for the child to be 
from under government. Frov. 29- 15. and |)arental and ecclesiastical gov- 
ernment concurring do mutually help and strengthen each other. Jlenre the 
parent and the child must be members of the same church unless the ch.ild bo 
by some special Providence so removed, as that some other person hath the 
j)owerover him. 

2. That when these children are grown up, they are personulh/ under the 
rvateh, discipline and government of tiuit church, is manitest 5 fori. Chil- 
dren were under patriarchal and Mosaical discipline of old, Gnn 18. 19- 
and 21. 9, 10, 12. Gal. 5. 3. and therefore, under Conjfregational discipline 
now. 2. They are within the church, or members thereof, (as hath been, and 
after will be fuither proved) and therefore sul)ject to church judicature, I Cor. 
5. 12. 3. They are disciples, and, therefore, under discipline in ('hrist's 
school. Mat. 28. 19, 20. 4. They are in church-covenant, and, therefore, 
subject to church-power. Gen. 17- 7- with chap- 18. 19- 5- They an' sub- 
jects of the kingdom of Christ, and therefore under the laws and government 
of his kingdom, Ezek. 37. 25, 20. 6. Baptism leaves the baptised (of which 
number these children are) in a state of subjection to ihe authoritative teach- 
ing of Christ's ministers, and to the observation of all his commandments, 
Mat. 28. 19, 20. and therefore in a state of subjection unto discipline. 7- El- 
ders are charge<i to take heed unto, and to feed, (that is both to teach and 
rule, compare Ezek. 7,4. 3, 4.) all the jlock, or church, over which the Iloli/ 
Ghost hath made them overseers, Acts 20. 28. That chihiren are a part of 
the flock, was before proved : and so Paul accounts them, writing to the 
same flock or church of Ephesus, Eph. 6. 1 . 8 otherwise irreligion and apos- 
tacy would inevitably break into churches and no church-way left by Christ 
to prevent or htval the same : which would also bring many church-members 
imder that dreadtiil judgment of being let alone in their wickedness, Hoz, 4. 
>f). 17. 



Book v.J OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 249 

Proposition IV. — These adult persons are not therefore to be admitted to 
full communion, mperhj because they are and continue members, without 
such further qualif cations as the word of Godrequireth unto. 

The Truth hereof is plain. 

1. From 1 Cor. 1 1. 28, 29. wliere it is required that such as come to the 
Lord's Supper, be able to examine themselves, and to discern the Lord's 
Bodii ; else liiey will cot and drink unworthib/, and cat and drink damnation, 
or judgment, to ihcmseloes, when they partake of tliis ordinance, but mere 
membersliip is separable frorn such ability to examine one's self, and discern 
ilie Lord's Body : as in the children of the covenant that grow up to years is 
too often seen. 2. In the Old Testament, though men did continue members 
of the church, yet for ceremonial uncleanness they were to be kept from full 
communion in the iioly things, Leait. 7 20, 21. Numb. 9. 6, J. and 19, 13, 
20. yea and the priests and porters in the Old Testament had special charge 
committed to them, tliat men skoidd not partake in all the hob/ things, unless 
duly qualified for the same, notwithstanding their membership, 2 Chr. 23. 
19- Ezek. 22. 26. and 44. 7, 8, 9, '23. and therefore much more in these times, 
where moral fitness and spiritual qualifications are wanting, membership 
alone, is not sufficient (or full communion. More was required to adult per- 
sons eating the Passover, than mere membersliip, tiierefore so there is now 
to the Lord's Supper. 

For they were to eat to the Lord, Ex. 12. 14. which is expoimded in 2 
Chro. 30. where keeping the Passover to the Lord, Ver 5. iniports and re- 
quires exercising repentance, ver. 6, 7- their actual giving up themselves to 
the Lord ver. 8. Heart preparation for it, ver. 19- and holy rejoycing before 
the Lord, ver. 21, 25. See the like in Ezra 6. 21, 22. 3 Tho' all members 
of the church are subjects of baptism, they and their children, yet all mem- 
bers may not partake of the Lord's Supper, as Js further manifest from the 
different nature of baptism and the Lord's Supper. Baptism first and properly 
seals covenant-holiness ; as circumcision did, (Jeji. 17. church-membership, 
Rom. 1j. 8. Planting into Christ, Rom. 6. and so members, as such, are the 
subjects of baf»tism. Mat. 28. 19- But the Lord's Supper is the sacrament of 
growth in Christ, nnd of special communion with him. 1 Cor. 10. l6. which 
supposetli a special renewing and exercise of I'aith and repentance, in those 
that partake of that ordinance. Now if persons even when adult may be and 
continue members, and yet be debarred from the Lord's Supper, until meet 
qualificationsfor the same do appear in them ; then may they also (until like 
qualifications) be debarred from that power oi voting m the church, whicii 
pertains to males in full communion. It seems not rational, that those, who 
are not themsplves fit for all ordinances, should have such an influence refer- 
ring to all ordinances, as voiing in election of officers, admission and censures 
of members doth import. For how can they, that are not able to examine 
and judge themselves, be thought able and fit to discern and judge in the 
weighty affiiirs of the house of God, 1 Cor. 11. 28, 31. with 1 Cor. 5. 12. 

Proposition V. — Church-members ivho were admitted in minoriti/, under- 
standing the doctrine of faith, and publickb/ professing their assent there- 
to ; not scandalous in life, and solemnly owning the covenant before the 
church, wherein they give up themselves and children to the Lord, and suh- 

VOL. II. 32 



2:0 ]MAGNALIA CHRISTI AiMERICANA : [Book v. 

jcct th"infeh'cs to the government of Christ in the church, their children 
are to he baptised 

This is C'vidoiit fiom the arguments following. 

Arg. 1. Thcs^v children are partakers of that which is the main groitnd of 
baptising any children whaisoerer. and neither the jmrents nor the children 
do put in any bar to hinder it. 

1. lyiaf they porta l:e of that, which is the wain ground of baptising any, 
is clear; because interest in the covenant is the main ground of title to bap- 
tism, and tliis these children have. 1. Interest in the covenant is the main 
ground of title to baptism ; for so in the Old Testament, this was the ground 
of title to circumcision, Gen. 17-7, 9, 10. 11. to which baptism now answers, 
Col. 2. 11, 12. and Acts 2. 38, 39. tiiey are on this ground exhorted to be 
baptised, because the promise or covenant was to them., and to their children. 
J'luit a member, or one in covenant, as .snch, is the subject of baptism, was 
further cleared before, j>ropo.v. J . 2. That these children have interest in 
the covenant appears ; because if the parent be in covenant, the child is also : 
for the covenant is to parents and their seed in their generations, Gen. 17- 7, 
V- the promise is to you, and to your children, Acts 2. 39- If the parent 
stands in the ciiurch, so doth the child among the Gentiles now, as well as 
among the Jews of old, Rotn. 11. i6, 20,21, 22. It is unheard of in scrip- 
lure tiiat the progress of tlie covenant sto))s at the infant-child., But the pa- 
rents in ([vestion arc in covenant as ap()ears. 1. Because they were once in 
covenant, and never since discovenanted. If they had not once been in cove- 
nant, they had not warrantably been baptised; and they are so still, except 
in some way of God ihcy have been discovenanted, cast out, or cnt off from 
their covenant relation, wiiich these have not been : neither are persons once 
in covenant, broken off \\om it, according to scripture, save for notorious sin 
and incorrigibleness therein, /?o;h. 1 1. 20. which is not the case of these pjijf 
rents. 2. Because the tenor of the covenant is to the faithful, and their seed 
after them, in their generations, Cjen. 17. 7- even to a thousand generations, 
i. e. conditionally, provided that the jiarcnts successively do continue to be 
keepers of the covenant, E.vod. 20. (>. Dent. 7- 9- H. Psal. lOj. 8. whicii the 
parents in question are, because they are not (in scripture accoimt in this case) 
rorsakers or rejecters of the God and covenant of their fathers : See Deut. 
':<{). 25, 2(i. 2 kings 17-15,20. 2 Chro. 7- 22. Derit. 7- 10. 

2. Tlial tiiese parents, in question, do not put any bar to hinder their 
children from baptism, is plain from the words of the proposition, wherein 
I hey are described to be such as vnderstand the doctrine offdith, and pub- 
iicidy pnfvss their assent thereto : therefore, they put not in any bar of gross 
Ignorance, Allieism, lleresie or Infidelity : also they are not .scandalous in 
7/fc, but solemnly own the covenant, before the c/n/jv7j. therefore they put not 
in any bar of i)rr)phaiieness, or wickedness, or npostacy from the covenant, 
whereinto they entred in minority : that the infant children, in question d<i. 
ihemselvcs put any l)ar. none will imagine. 

Arg. 2. 'I'he cihldren of the parents in question, iwe cifhcr children of the 
iovenunt, or strangers from tlie covenant, l-lph. 2. J 2. either holy or unclean, 
I Cor. 7. 14. either within the church or without. 1 Cor. 5. 12. either such as 
have God for their God or without God iv the world, Mph. 2. 12. But lit- 
that considers the pro|)ositiou, will not aflirm the latter concerning these 
children : and the former being granted, infers their right to baptism. 

Arg. 3. To deny the proposition would be, 1, To straiten the grace of 
Christ in the gospel dispensation, and to make tlic chui'ii in \'0w Testament 



Book, v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 2,^1 

limes ill a worse case, relating to their children successively, than were the 
Jews of old. 2. To render the children of the Jacs, when they shall be call- 
t»d, in a worse condition, than under the legal adniinistration ; contrary to Jer. 
30. 20. Ezck. 37. 25, 26. 3 To deny the application of the initiatory-seal 
to such as regularly stand in the church and covenant, to whom the Mosakal 
dispensation, nay. the first institution in the covenant of Abraham, appointed 
it to be applied, (Jea. 17. 9, 10. Joh. J. 22, 23. 4. To break God's cove.- 
nant by denying the initiatory seal to those that are in covenant, Gen. 17. 9, 
10, 14. 

Arg 4. Confederate visible believers, tho' but in tlie lowest degree such, are 
to have their children baptized ; witness the practice of John Baptist and the 
apostles, who baptised persons upon the first beginning of their Christianity. 
But the parents in question are confederate visible believers, at least in some 
degree. For, 1. Charity may observe in them sundry positive arguments for 
it ; witness the terms of the pro|iosition, and nothing evident against it. 2. 
Children of the godly qualitied but as the persons in the proposition, are said 
to be faithful. Tit. 1.6. 3. Children of the covenant (as the parents in ques- 
tion are) have frequently the beginning of grace wrought in them in younger 
years, as scripture and experience shews. Instance Joseph, Samuel, David, 
Solomon, Abijah. Josia, JJaniel, John Baptist and Timothy. Hence this 
sort of persons showing nothing to the contrary, are in charity, or to ecclesias- 
tical reputation visible believers. 4. They that are regularly in the church 
''as the parents in question be) are visible saints in the account of scripture 
(which is the account of truth) for the church is, in scripture-account, a com- 
pany of saints, 1 Co/-. 14. 33. & 1. 2. 5. Being in covenant and bapti/,ed, 
they have I'aith and repentance imlejinitclji given to them in the promise, and 
sealed up in baptism, Dent. 30. 6. which continues valid, and so a valid testi- 
mony ftti- them while they do not reject it. Yet it does not necessarily follow, 
that these persons are immediately fit for the Lord's Supper, because, tho' 
they are in a latitude of expression, to be accounted visible believers, or in 
Numero Fidclium, as even infants ia covenant are, yet they may want that 
ability to exaniine themselves, and that special exercise of faith, which is re- 
quisite to that ordinance ; as was said ttpon proposit. 4. 

Arg. .'>. The denial of baptism to the children in question, hath a danger- 
ous tendency to irreligionand apostacy ; because it denies them, and so the 
children of the church successively, to have any part in the Lord ; which is 
the way to nxake them cease from fearing the Lorrf, Jos. 22. 24, 2.">, 27- For 
if they have a part in the Lord, i. e. a portion in Israel, and so in the Lord 
the God of Israel, then they are in the church, or members of it, and so to be 
baptized, according to ^;rr>;;o,s. 1. The owning of the children of those thni 
successively continue in covenant to l)e a [uirt of the church, is so far from be- 
ing destructive to the purity and prosperity of the church and of religion there- 
in, (as some conceive) that this imputation belongs to the contrary tenet. To 
seek to be more pure than the rule, will ever end in impurity in the issue. 
God hath so framed his covenant, and consequently the constitution of his 
church thereby, as to design a continuation and propagation of his kingdom 
therein, from one generation to another. Hence the covenant runs, to us, and 
to our seed after us in their generations. To keep in the line, and uniler 
the inlluence and etllcacy of this covenant of God, is the true way to the 
church's glory : to cut it off and disavow it, cuts off the posterity of Zion, anil 
hinders it from being (as in the most glorious times it shall be) an eternal 
excellency and the joy of many generations. This progress of the covenant 
establisheth the church, Deut. 29. 13. Jer. 30. 20. The contrary therefore 
doth disestablish it. This obligeth and advantageth to the conveyance of re-; 



252 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMKRK A^A ; [Hook v. 

ligion d<iun (o nUrv generations : the care whereof is strictly cominaiul^d. 
and highly }i(»proved by the Lord, Fsa/tii JX. 4, 5, 6, J. Gen. IS. If). Tiiis 
continues a nursery still in (Jhrisl's orchard or vin<'\ar(U /«/• T). 1 . 7 . the con- 
trary nej^lects that, and so lets the wiiole run to ruine. Surely (lod was an 
lioly God, and loved the puriti/ and glori/ of the church in the GId Testa- 
ment ; but when lie went in this way of a successive jjrogresn of the cove- 
nant to that end, Jer. 13. 11. If some did then, or do now. decline to unbe- 
lief and apostacy, that doth not make the faith of GW in his covenant of 
none effect, or the advantage of interest therein, inconsiderable ; yea, ilie 
more holy, reforming and glorious that the times are or shall be, the more 
eminently is successive continuation and propagation of the church therein 
desi{;ned, promised and inieiuled. ]m. ()0. lo. & Oy. 21. Ezek. SJ.^b, 28. 
P^a/m 102. If), 28. Jer. 32- 39. 

Arg. 6. The parents, in question, are peiHOval, immediate, and yet eon- 
tinning memherf of the chiirrk. 

1. That they are personal nx'mbers or members in their own persons, a|)pear.s;, 
1. Because they are (lersonally holy. 1 Cor. 7.14. not parents (Mily. but [your 
children] are holy. 2. They are personally baptized, or have had baptism, 
the seal of membership applied to their own persons ; which being regularly 
done, is a divine testimony, that they are in their own persons members of 
the church. 3. They are personally under discipline, and liable to church 
censures in their own persons : vide propos- 3. 4. They are personally (by 
means of the covenant) in a visible state of salvation. To say they are not 
members in their own persons, but in their own parents, would be as if one 
should say, they are saved in their parents, and not in their persons. .0. 
When they commit iniquity, they personally break the covenant, therefore 
are personally in it, Jc-cm. 11, 2, 10. Ezek. 1 6. 

2. By the like reasons, it appears, that children are immediate members, 
as to the essence of membership (i e. that they themselves in their own per- 
sons, are the immediate subjects of this adjunct of church-membership) 
though they come to it by means of their parents covenanting For as 
touching that distinction of mediate and immediate, as applied to membership 
(which some urge) we are to distinguish, 1. Between the efficient and es- 
sence of meni'iership. 2 Between the instrumental efficient, or means there- 
of, which is the parents profession and covenanting ; and the principal effi- 
cient, which is divine institution They may be said to be mediate (or rath- 
er mediatelf) members, as they bocon)e members hji means of their parents 
covenanting, as an instrumental cause thereof: but that doth nothing vary or 
diminish the essenee of their membership. For divine institution giveth or 
granleth a real and personal meml)ersliip unto then), as well as unto their 
parents, and maketh the parent a publick person, and so hi.-, act theirs to tluii 
end. 

Hence the essence of membership, thfit is, eoeenant-intere.'it, or a plaee 
and portion within the risible ehireh is really, |)roperly, personally and im- 
mefliately tiie portion of the child, by divine <;ift and grant, Jos. 22. 25, 27. 
their children have a part in the Lord as well as themselves. A part in the 
Lord, there, and church membership (or memhers.'iip in Isrnel) are tei|n)s 
equivalent. Now the children there, and a part in the Lord, are suhjeit 
and adjunct, which nothing comes between, so as to sever the adjunct 
from the subject ; t'lu refore they are immediate s^ihjects of that ad- 
\iifn\ofimmedl(de members. Acain, their visible ingrnfiine into Christ the 
head, and so into the church hi-; body, is sealerl in their baptism : but in in- 
grafting nothing cumes betwi.xt the graft and the stock : their union is imme- 
diate; hence they are immediately inserted into the visible church, or immc- 



-Book v.] OR TilE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 25^ 

mediate members thereof. The little children in Deiit. 29. 11 were person- 
ally and immediately a part oi the people of God, or members of the church 
of Israel, as well as their parents. To be in covenant, or to be a coi^enantee 
is iheformalis ratio of a church member. If one come to be in covenant one 
way, and another in another, but l)oth are in covenant or covenantees (/. e. 
parties with whom the covenant is made, and wliom (iod takes into covenant) 
as children here are, Geu. IJ- 7, S. then both art iu tlieir own persons tlie 
immediate subjects of ine formalis ratio of membership, and so immediate 
members. To act in covenanting is but the instrumental means of member- 
ship, and yet children are not without this neither. For the act of the parent 
(their pnblick person) is accounted their's, and they are said to enter into 
covenant, Deut. 29. 11, 12. So that what is it that children want unto an 
actual, compleat, proper, absolute and immediate meml>ership ? (so far as 
these terms may with any propriety or pertinency be applied to the matter 
in hand) Is it covenant-interest which is the formalis ratio of membership ? 
No,.tliey are in covenant. Is it Divine grant and institution, which is the 
principal efficient ? ISo, he hath clearly declared himself, that he grants unto 
the children of his people a portion in his church, and appoints them to be 
members thereof. Is it an act of covenanting, which is the instrumental 
means? No, they have this also reputatively by divine appointment, making 
the parent a ^M^/Zc/c^^^rsoH, and accounting them to covenant in his cove- 
nanting. A different manner and means of conveying the covenant to us, 
or of making us members, doth not make a different sort of the membership, 
we now are as truly personally and immediate members of the body of fallets 
mankind, and, by nature heirs of the condemnation pertaining thereto as 
Adam was, though he came to be so by his oivn personal act, and we by the 
act of our pnblick person. If a prince give such lands to a man and his 
heirs successively, while they continue loyal ; the following heir is a true 
and immediate owner of that land, and may be personally disinherited if dis- 
loyal, as well as his father before him. A member is one, that is according 
to rule, (or according to divine institution) within the visible church. 

Thus the child is properly and personally, or immediately. Paul casts 
all men into two sorts, those within, and those witkojit. i. e. Members and 
non-members, 1 Cor. 5. 12. It seems he knew of no such distinction of me- 
diate and immediate as puts a medium between these two objects. If children 
be compleat and immediate members as their parents are, then they shall 
immediately have all church privileges, as their parents have, without any 
further act or qualification. Ansiv. It follows not. jKW privileges that be- 
long to members, as such, do belong to the children as well as the parents : 
but all church privileges do not so. A member as such (or all members) 
may not partake of all privileges ; but they are to make progress both in 
inemberly duties and privileges, as their age, capacity and qualifications do 
fit them for the same. 

3 That their membership still continues in adult age, and ceaseth not with 
their infancy, appears ; 1. Because in scripture persons are brokcn^off on]y 
for notorious sin, or incorrigible impenitency and unbelief, not for growing 
up to adult age, i?0?rt. 11. 20. 2. The Jew children circumcised did not 
cease to be members by growing up, but continued in the church, and were 
hy virtue of their membership, received in infancy, bound unto various du- 
ties, and in special unto those solemn personal professions that pertained to 
adult members, not, as then, entring into a neio membership, but as making a 
progress in memberly duties, Deut. 26. 2, 10 and l6 l6, \7- with Gal. 5 3. 
3. Those relations of born-servants and subjects, which the scripture makes 
nse of tn set forth the state of uhildren in the chiurh by Lev. 25. 41, 42. 



254 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book v, 

Ezeh. 37' 2i5. do not (as all men know) cease with infancy, but continue in 
adult aije. Whence also it (ollows, t' at one speci-il end of membership re- 
ceived in infancy, is to leave persons under engagement to service and sub- 
jection to Christ in his cluirch, when grown up, when ihey are fittest for it, 
and have most need of it. 4- There is no ordinary way of cessation of mem- 
bership, but by death, dismission, excommunication, or dissolution of the so- 
ciety : none of which is the case of the persons in question. 5. Either they 
are, when adult, members or non-members: if non-members, then a person 
admitted a member, anil sealed by baptism, not cast out, nor deserving so to 
be, mav (the church whereof he was still remainiu<j) become a non-member 
and out of the church, and of the unclean world ; whicii the scripture ac- 
knowledgelh not. INow if the parent stand member of the church, the child 
is a member also: for now the root is holy, therefore so a e the branches, 
Rom. Jl. iG. 1 Cor, 7. 14. The parent is in covenant, therefore so is the 
child, Ge.n. 17- 7- and if the child be a men)ber of the visible church, then 
he is a subject of baptism, according to Propos. 1. 

Pkoposition VJ. — Svcli cluirvli-mcmherti^ who either hi/ deaths or some other 
exAraordinnry Providence, have been ineritahli/ hindred from puhlick 
acting as aforesaid, yet have given the church cause, in judgment of 
charity, to look at them, as so qnalijied, and such, as had they been called 
thereunto loould have so acted, their children are to be baptised. 

This manifest. 

1. Because the mam ibundation of the rijiht of the child to privilege re- 
mains, u?z. God's institution, and the force of his covenant carrying it to the 
generations of such as continue keepers of the covenant, i. e. not visibly 
breakers of it. By virtue of wiiich institution and covrnanf the cl'.ildren in 
question, are members, -and llieir membership being distinct from the parents 
membership, ceaseth not, but continues, notwithstanding the parent's decease 
or necessary absence : and, if members, then subjects of baptism. 2. Be- 
cause the parents' not doing v^hat is required in the fifth proposition, is 
through want of opportunit3' ; which is not to be imputed as their cuilt, so 
as to be a bar to the child's privilege. S, God reckoneih that as done in his 
service, to which there was a manifest desire and endeavour, albeit the acting 
of it, were hindered ; as in David to build the temple, 1 King. 8. 18, 19- In 
j4braham to snci'\l\ce his son, //r6. 11. 17. accoidiug to that in 2 Cor. 8. 
12. If here there is a willing mind, it is accepted according to irhat a man 
hath, and not according to what he hath not: which is true of this church 
dutv, as well as of that of alms. It is a usual phrase with the ancients to 
stile such and such martyrs in voto, and baptised in voto, because there was 
no want of desire that way, thougli their desire was not actually accomplish- 
ed. 4. The terms of the proposition import that irl charily, that is here 
done intv^icratively , which is mentioneil to be done in the filth proposition 
express^. 

PnoposiTioN Vn. — The mcmhers of orthodox churches, being sound in the 
faith, and not scandalous in life, and presrntini; due testimony thereof ; 
these occnsionally coniin'^ from one church to another, may have their chil- 
dren baptized in the church, ivhiljier they come by virtue of communion oj 
churches: but if Ihey remove their habitation, they ought ordrrly to cov- 
enant and subject thetnselves to the government of Christ in the church, 
ivkere tliey settle their abode, and .so their children to be baptised. It 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND 255 

being the churches dutij to receive such unto communion, so far, as they 
are regularly fit for the same. 

] . Such members of other churches, as are here described, occasionally 
coming from one church to another, their children arc to be baptised, in the 
church ichither they come, by virtue of communion ofc/nirchcs. 

1. Because he that is regiilaily a uicniber ol a true particular church, - a 
subject of baptism according to j/irojt>OA\ first and second. But the children 
of the parents here described are sucli, according to jrrojtos. fdth and sixth ; 
therefore the}- are meet and lawful subjects of baptism^ or have right to be 
baptised. And communion of churches, infers such acts as liiis is, viz. to 
baptize a fit subject of baptism, tho' a member of another church, when thf 
same is orderly desired, (see jjlatform of discipliuc, chap. 15. Sec. 4.) For 
look as every church, hath a double consideration, viz. I. Of its own con- 
stitution and communion within itself: 1'. Of that communion which it holds 
and ought to maintain with other churches. So tiie otlicer (the pastor or 
teacher) thereof, is there set. (l ) To administer to this church (•o/^v/«/?^ 
ly ; (2.) To do acts of communion occasionally, viz. Such as belong to his 
oflice as bnptising doth, respecting the members of other churches, with whom 
this church holds, or ought to hold cummunion. 

2 To refuse communion with a true church in Itt.'/ful and pious actions. 
is unlawful, and justly accounted schismaticnl. For, if the church be true 
Christ holdeth some communion with it ; and therefore so must we: but if 
we will not have communion with it in those acts that are good and pious, 
then in none at all : Total separation from a true church is unlawful : but to 
deny a communion in good actions is to make a total separation. Now to 
baptize a fit subject, as is the child in question, is a lauful and a pious ac- 
tion, and therefore by virtue of conivi union of churches, in the case mention- 
ed to be attended. 

And if baptism lawfully administered, may and ought to be received by 
us, for our children, in another true church, where Providence so casts us, as 
that we cannot have it in our own, (as doubtless it may and ought to be) 
then also we may and ought in like cases to dispense baptism, when desired 
to a meet and lawful subject, being a member of another church. To deny or 
refuse either of these, would be an unjusliiiable refusing of communion or 
churches, and tending to sinful separation. 

2. Such as remove their habitation, ought orderly to covenant and sub- 
ject themselves to the government of Christ in the church, where they settle 

their abode, and so their children to be baptised. 1. Because the regularly 
baptised are disciples, and under the discipline and government of Christ : 
but they that are absolutely removed from the church, whereof they were, so 
as to be uncapable of being under discipline there, shall be under it, no where, 
if not in the church where they inhabit. Tlieytliat would have church-priv- 
ileges ought to be under church-power : but these will be under no church- 
power, but as lambs in a large place, if not under it there, where their settled 
abode is 2. Every christian ought to covenant for himself and for his chil- 
dren, or professedly to give up himself, and his to the FA>rd, and that in the 
way of his ordinances, D<??<^ 26. IJ. and 12. 5. and explicite covenanting is 
a duty especially where we are called to it, and have opportunity for it : nor 
can they well be said to covenant implicitly, that do exjilicitly refuse a pro- 
fessed covenanting, when called thereunto. And especiall}' this covenanting is 
a duty when we would partake of such church-priviloge, as baptism for our 
children is. But the parents, in question, will now be professed covenanters 
Bp where, if not in the church, where their fixed habitation is. Therefore thin 



256 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v 

ought urihrbj to covenant, there, and so their children to be baptised. 3. 
To refuse covenanting and subjection to Christ's goveniinpnt in the cliurch 
where they live, heinp so removed us to be utterly uncapable of it elsewhere, 
would be a loalking disorderh/, and would too much savour of profunrness 
and separation ; and hence to administer baptism to the children of such as 
stand in that way, woidd be to administer Christ's ordinances to such as arc 
in a way of sin and disorder ; which ought not to be, 2 Thes 3. 6. 1 Chron. 
15. 13. and would be contrary to that rule, 1 Cor. 14. 40. Let all things be 
done decently and in order. 

Question II. — Whether according to the Word of God there ought to be a 
Consociation of Churches, and what should be the vianner of it ? 

Answer. — The answer may be briefly given in the propositions fol- 
lowinc. 

1. Krery church or p(trticidnr congregation of visible saints in gospel- 
order, being furnished with n preshyiery, at least loith a. teaching elder, and 
nmlking together in truth and peace, hath received from the Lord .fesusfull 
power and authority ecclesiastical within itself, rcgidarly to administer all 
the ordinances of Christ, and is not vnder any other ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion what soe re r. For to sucli a church Christ hath givc7i the keys of the 
kingdom of Heaven, that what they hind or loose on earth, shall be bound or 
loosed in Heaven, Mat. l6. )[). ami IS 17, 18. Eldvts mo ordained in every 
church., Acts \A. 23. Tit. 1.5. and are therein authorised ofticially to ad- 
minister in the word, prayer, sacraments and censures, Mat. 28. 19, 20. Acts 
6. 4. 1 Cor. 4. 1. and 5. 4, 12. Acts 20. 28. 1 Tim 5. 17- and 3. 5. The 
reproving of the church of Corinth, and of the Asian cliurclies severally, im- 
ports they had power each of them within themselves to reform the abuses 
that were amongst them, 2 Cor. 5 Rev. 2 14, 20. Hence it follows that 
consociation of churches is not to hinder the exercise of this power; but by 
counsel from the word of God to direct, and strengthen the same upon all just 
©ccasions. 

2. The churches of Christ do stand in a sisterly relation each to other ^ 
Cant. 8. 8 being united in the same faith and order, Eph. 4. 5 Col 2. 5 
To 7valk by the sarue rule, Phil. 3. iG. J/i the exercise of the same ordinances 
for the s(nue end, ICph 4. 1 1, 12, 13. 1 Cor. l6 1 under one and the same 
political head, the Lord Jesus Christ, Eph. 1 22,23. and 4. 5. Rev. 2. 1. 
which union infers a communion suitable thereunto, 

3. ' Communion of churches is the faithful improvement of the gifts of 
' Christ bestowed upon them, for his service and glory, and their mutual 
' good and edification, according to capacity and opportunity, 1 Pet. 40, 11. 
1 Cor. \1. 4, 7. and 10. 24 1 Cor.3. 21,22. Cant 8.9. Rom. 1. 15. Gal 
ih. 10. 

4 ' Acts of communion of churches are such as these. 

I. ' Hearty care and prayer one for another, 2 Cor. 11. 28. Cant. 8. 8. 
' Rom.'l. 9. Col 1. 9- Eph. 6 18. 

'. ' To afford relief by conununication of their gifts in temporal or spir- 
' itual necessities, Rom. 15 26, 27- Acts II. 22, 29- 2 Cor. «. 1. 
' 4, 14. 

J. ' To maintain unity and peace, by giving an account one to another 
■ of their publick actions, when it is orderly desired, Acts 11. 2, 3 4 
■ — x?,. Josh 22 13, 21,30. 1 Cor. 10 32. and to strengthen one 
' another in their regular administrations ; as in special by a concur- 
' rent testimony against persons justly censured, Acts 5. 41, and l6. 
• .4, 5. 2 Tim. 4. l.'i. 2 Thes. 3. 14- ' 



IB^ooK v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 257 

4. 'To seek and accept help from, and give help unto each other, 

1. 'In case of divisions and contentions whereby the peace of any 
' church is disturbed, //cYs 15. 2. 

2. ' In matters of more tlian ordinary importanoe, [Prnv. 24. 6. and 
' 15. 22.] as ordination, translation and deposition of elders and 
' and such like, 1 Tim. 5. 22. 

3. ' In doubtful and ditficult questions and controversies, doctrinal or 
' practical that may arise, Acts 15 2 6. 

4. ' For the rectifying of male-administrations, and healing of errors 
' and scandals, that are unhealed among themselves, 3 Job. v. 9, 
' 10. 2 Cor. 2. 6, 11. 1 Cor. 15. Rev. 2. 14, 15, l6 2 Cor. 12, 
•' 20, 21. and 13. 2. Churches now have need of help in like cases^ 

• as well as churches then ; Christ's care is still for whole churches^ 

• as well as for particular persons; and apostles being now ceased 
' there remains the duty of brotherly love and mutual care, and 
' helpfulness incumbent upon churches, especially elders for that 
' end. 

5 ' In love and faithfulness to take notice of the troubles and difFicul- 
' ties, errors and scandals of another church, and to administer help, 
' (when the case necessarily calls for it) tho' they should so neglect 
' their own good and duty, as not to seek it, Exod. 23. 4, 5. Frov. 
' 24. 11, 12. 

6. ' To admonish one another, when there is need and cause for it, and 
' after due means with patience used, to withdraw from a church, or 
' peccant party therein, obstinately persisting in error or scandal ; 
' as in the platform of discipline (Cap. 15. Sect. 2. Partic. 3.) is 
' more at large declared, Gal. 2. 11, 14.. 2 Thes. 3. 6 Rom. l6. 17- 
5. ' Consociation of churches is their mutual and solemn agreement to ex- 
' ercise communion in such acts, as aforesaid, amongst themselves, with spe- 

* cial reference to those churches, which by Provide-ce are planted in a con- 

* venient vicinity, tiiough with liberty reserved without oHence, to make use 

* of others, as the nature of the case, or tlie advantage of opportunity may lead 
' thereunto. 

C ' The churches of Christ in this country having so good opportunity for 
' it, it is meet to be connnended to them, as their duty thus to coasociate. 
' For 1. Communion of churches being commanded, and consociation being 

* but an agreement to practise it, this nuist needs be a duly also, P.tal. 119. 
*■ 106. Nch.'IS. 29 2. TrtM/ an apostle sought with much labour the confer- 

* ence, concurrence, and right hand of fellowshiji oi' other apostles: and or- 

* dinary elders and churches have not less need of each other, to prevent their 

* running in vain. Gal. 2. 2, 6, 9. 3. Those general scripture rules, touching 

* the need and use of counsel, and help iu weight}^ cases, concern all societies 
' and polities, ecclesiastical as well as civil, Prot\ 11. 14. and 15. 22. and 
'20 18. and 24 6. Eccles. 4. 9, 10, 14 4. The pattern in Jets 15. holds 
' forth a warrant for councils, which may be greater or lesser, as the matter 
^ shall require. 5. Concurrence and communion of churches in gospel times, 

* is not obscurely held forth in Isa. 19- 23, 24, 25. Zeph 3 9- 1 Cor. 11. 

* l6. and 14 32, S6. 6. There has constantly been in these churches a pos- 

* session of communion, in giving the right hand of fellowship in the galher- 

* ing of churches, and ordination of elders ; which importeth a consociation, 
•' and obligeth to the practice thereof. Without which we should also want an 

* expedient, and sufficient cure for emergent church difficulties and differen- 
^ ces : with the want whereof our way is charged, but unjustly^ if this part of 
' the doctrine thereof were duly practised. 

VOL II. 33 



2jS MAGiNALi a CHRiSTl AMERICANA: [Book v. 

7. • The manner of the chinch's agreement herein, or eiitring into this con- 
' sociation, nniy be by eacli churclrs o|icii consenting nnlo the things, \wie, 
' dechued in answer to the second question, as also to what is said thereabout, 
' in chap. 15 and 10. of the platl'orni of disciphne, with reference to otlier 
' churches in tliis colony and coniilrey, as in propos. T). is before e.\j)ress<."d. 

8. ' Tlie manner of exercising and practising that connnnnion, which (his 
' consent or agreement specially tendetli unto, may be, by making use occa- 
' sionally of elders or able brethren of other chnrcht's ; or by the more solemn 
' meetintrs of both elders and messengers in lesser or greater conncils, as llie 
* matter shall require. 



Remarks upon the Svnodk;aj, Pkoi'ositions. 

^ 1. T\{¥. proi)ositiQm\\vci% voted by the major part, more than seven ie 
one in the,s//;mf/, were cIogM by the dissent of several reverend and juiiicidii- 
pers(nis, in that venerable assembly : who were jealous lest the sacred «)rdi- 
nance of baptism, should come to be applied unto sncii unmeet subjects, as 
would in a while put an end unlo Ncir-EiigiancPs primitive and pecuhar glo- 
ry oi' nndcfi/cd administrations. Tho- we cannot say, that in this our synod, 
tiie observation of Thuanus was verified, Lollnqiiin.(/i>(f ?d T/aologocis cun- 
trnveriiiis J'^inis imponatur, institKirntiir, majoruin r.vcitaiidantm so'pe initi- 
um exisiimt ; yet tlie reciprocations ol argument, which ensued onthisdifler- 
ence, quickly became sensible to mankind, as by some other common effects of 
controversies so especially by the disquisitions which were, on this occasion, 
published unto the world. Here not concerning our selves with the Antisyno- 
dniia Americana, composed by Mr. Charfis Chaunccy, the president of the 
College, and answered l\y Mr. John Alien., pastor of Dcdham., we shall 
only take notice of t'.^ two twin-discourses, which made most figure in the 
management of titis disputation. First, Mr John Davenport in opposition to 
the synod, emitted a treatise, under the title of another Essay for inves- 
tigation of the truth : whereto there was by another hand prefixed, that 
which the elders of the synod judged the distinctest and exactest thing, thai 
lias been written on that side, under the title of, an Apologeti.cal Preface for 
the defence of tiu^ synod. Mr. Rich Mather, being thereunto appointed, 
wrote a full answer to the Essay ; and Mr. Jonathan Mitchcl wrote a fuller 
answer to the Preface ; both of whicii quickly saw tiie li<:lit. 

<^ 2. The true state of the difference cannot be better given liian by epitom- 
izing the posiiifms and arguments in the close of the .^pologeticol Preface 
on tlie one part, and the answers to those positions and arguments, on the 
other And I am the more willing to give it, because the ecclesiastical aflairs 
of this country have so much turned npon it. 

On the one side, thus reasoned the learned apologist. 

1. The Synod (\k\ acknowledge, that there or git to he true saving fait!, 
in the parent, according to the judgment of ra(i<rn(d. ehnrity, or elvj the child 
ought not to he baptized We onlrealed and urgetl again and again, that //vV, 
which thev themselves acknowledged was n principle of truth, might be s(f 
dozen for a conclusion, and then we should (dl. agree. But tl.o.^e reverend 
persons would not consent to this. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 25f> 

On the other side, fhm replied the excellent answerer. 

We are to distinizuish between faith in tli^ hopeful begi^ining of it, the 
.haritable JDclgnieiit whiM-eof runs upon a great latitude ; nndfailh in the spe'» 
cial exercise of it, unlo the visible discovery whereof, more experienced ope- 
rations are lo be enquired after. The words of Dr. Ames are, children are 
not to he admitted to partale of all church privilcdges, till first increase of 
faith do appcfir ; hut from those 7vhich belong to the beginning of faith, and 
entrance into the church, they are not to be excluded. ^ 

The apostles constantly baptised persons upon the first beginning of their 
Christianity, but the LorfPs Supper followed after, as annexed unto soniep'O- 
gress in Cljristianity The same strictness as to out/card signs, is not necessa- 
ry unlo a cliaritable judgment of that initial faith, which entitles unto baptism, 
as there isunto the like judgment of that exemserZ/fi/i'A, which is requisite unto 
the Supper of tlie Lord. We all own, that only visible believers, are to have 
their children /;a;>^/zpf/ ; and it is expressed in the iiynof/'s result ; but the 
question is, who are visible believers f Our brethren strove so to scrue u[) 
the expressions for baptism xhal all that have their children 6fljj//saZ must 
unavoidably be brought u>Uo the Lord's table, and unto a power oi' voting in 
the churches. This we say, will prove a church-corrupting principle. 

APOLOG^^ 

IL We have no warrant in all the scripture to apply the seal of baptism 
unto those children whose parents are in a state of unfitness for the L • d's 
Supper. Those Acts 2. 41 who were baptized, continued breaking bread al- 
so, unless the father were in a state of fitness for the passover, his child might 
not be circumcised. Neither do we read that in the primitive times, baptism 
was of a greater latitude, as to the subject thereof, than the Lord's Supper. 
Catechutneni ad Baptisterium nunqiiam admittendi sunt- Coned Ara. chap. 
19 In th^ dawnings of reformation in England our Juel could plead against 
Harding, that baptism was as much to be reverenced, as the body and blood 
of Christ. Nay, a grievous error has therefore, been committed informer 
ages, and other churches, to administer the Lord's Supper vnto infants. 

ANSWER. 

By a state of unfitness, must be meant either, non-membership : but the 
parents, in the question, are members of the church ; and so to them do be- 
long all church priviledues, according as they sliall be capable thereof, and 
appear duly qualified for the same : they have a Jus ad rem.\\\o\\g\\ not Jus 
in re ; as a child has a right unto his father's estate, however he have not the 
actual fruition of it, until he be qualified with such and such abilities. Or 
else is meant, a want of actual qualifications fitting, «heieby a person is 
either in himself short of actual fitness for the Lord's table, or wanteth a 
church-approbation of his fitness Now we conceive there is a warrant in 
scripture for the applying of baptism to children, whose parents do want actu- 
al qualifications fitting them for the Lord's Supper. The parent might want 
actual fitness for the passover by manitbld ceremonial uncleannesses, and yet 
that hindered not the circumcision of the child. He must be judged clean by 
the priest of the church whereof he was a member, and so free to partake ol 
the holy things. Thus the parents in the question must iiave their fitness for 
the Lord's table judged by those, to whom the judgmeut belongs. But what 
fitness for the Lord's Supper, had those that were baptized by John Baptist., 
and by Christ's disciples at his appointment, in the beginning of his publick 



260 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: fBooK v. 

ministry ? What fitness had the jaylor, when liimselfand all his were bapliz- 
ed after an hour's instruction, wheroin probahly he had not so much as heard 
any thing of the Lord's Supper ? Tiie leaching of which, foUowed after dis- 
ciphiiing and baptizing, as is hinted by tliat order in Matth J8 J 9, 20. and 
by the ancient practice of not teaching the catechumeni any thing about the 
Lord's Supper, till after they were baptized, as is aflirmed by Hanmer and 
Baxter, out of Albospina'us We constantly read in the Acts, that persons 
were baptized, immediately i!|ion their first entrance into membership ; but 
we never do read, that they did immediately upon their first membership, re- 
ceive the Lord's Supj)cr. Yea, so far is baptism from being inseparable from 
immediate admission to the Lord's Supper, that we read of no one, (no not of 
the adult) in all the IScw Toitament, that was admitted to the Lord's Supper, 
immediately upon his baptism. 

The only place that sounds, as if it were quickly after, viz Arts 2. 41, 42. 
is alledgcd by our brethren. Dut it is here said, they (after their being added 
and baptized) continued in (or gave sedulous attendance to) the ajwstles doc- 
trine [first] and then breaking of bread. There was a time of gaining further 
icqnaintance with Christ, and with his ways and ordinances, by the apostle's 
instruction, between their baptizing and their participation of the Lord's Sup- 
per. And llie churches of Christ in ail, especially in the best ages, and the 
choicest lights therein, both ancient and modern, have concurred in tliis prin- 
ciple, that baptism is of larger extent, than the Lord's Supper, and that vta- 
inj that arc leithin the visible church, may have baptism for themselves, at 
feast for their children, ivho j/et at present want actual fitness Jor the hord's 
Suptr. The authors, that wiite of co??^r«/fr//o/t do abundantly prove this 
assertion. Here is not room to insert the evidences, that in the first ages of 
the church, there were many within the church, who were debarred from the 
Lord's Supper, and yet had their children baptized. And since the reforma- 
tion, the reforming divines have in their doctrine unanimously taught, and in 
their practice many of them endeavoured, a strict selection of those that should 
be admitted unto the Lord's Su[)per ; when yet they have been more large in 
point of baptism. Plentit'ul testimonies are cited, first from Calvin, from 
Cretins, from Bucan, from Beza, from Polanus, from Ursin and Parous, and 
from the Jlarmony of Confessions ; and then from Ames, from Hooker, and 
from lUldcrsham, to tliis purpose. 

APOLOGY. 

III. The parents of the children in question, are not members of any insti 
luted church, according to gospel rules; because they were never under any 
explicit and personal covenant. If this second generation do retain their 
membership by virtue of their parents covenant, made for tlieni in minority; 
then in case all the pro-parents were dead, this second generation would be a 
I rue church of Christ ; without any further act of covenanting Eut this they 
are not. For, then, they would have tiie power to manage all chiu'ch-aflairs. 
as every true church hath : which the synod will not grant untotheni. 

ANSWER. 

We doubt not to alfirin with Dr Anics, that children are members of 
an instituted church, according to gospel-rules ; and that they are under 
personal covenant or personally taken into covenant by God, according 
to his gospel-rules, tlio' they have not performed the act of covenanting 
in their own persons; yea, under the explicit covenant also, if the parent's 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 56l 

covenanting was explicit. Though we take it for a principle granted by 
Congregational men, with one consent, that an implicit covenant, pre- 
serves the being' of a true churcli, and so of true church-membership. We 
also say, the second generation, continuing in a visible profession of the 
covenant, faith and religion of their fathers, are a true church of Christ, though 
they have not yet made any explicit personal expression of their engagement, 
as their fathers did. Even, as the Israelites, that were numbred in the plains 
of M006. were a true church, and under the covenant of God, made with 
them in Horeb, though their parents, wiih whom it was first made, in Horeh, 
were all dead ; and that before the solemn renewal of the covenant with them 
in the plains of Moab. Our denial of liberty unto these to vote in church- 
affairs, till they be qualified for, and admitted to the Lord's supper, is no pre- 
judice to our grant of their being a true church. For the case of a true, 
church may be such, as that they may be, at present unfit to exercise a power 
oi' acting in church-aftairs, which yet may be radically in them ; even, till, by 
the use o( needful means, they, or a select number among them, be brought up 
unto a better capacity for it. We might also ask whether it would provt^- 
icomen to be no mpnibers of an instituted church, because if all the men were 
dead, they could not then be a church ? We may add ; if discipline, and 
other ordinances be kept up, we may hope God will so bless his ordinances, 
that a considerable number shall, from time to time, have such grace given 
them, as to be fit for full communion, and carry on the things of his house 
with competent strength, beauty and edification. 

APOLOGY. 

iV. It is not mere membership, but qualified irtembersliip that gives rigfit 
unto baptism. Johi's baptism, which was christian, might not be applied to 
some, who were members of the visible church, because they were not quali- 
fied with repentance, Luke 3 8 and 7 30 This seems to cut the sinews of 
the strongest argument brought by the synod, for the enlargement of bap- 
tism ; which 'i%\.\\Q membership of the children in controversie. 

ANSWER. 

Some privileges in the churcli belong to persons merely because I hey are 
members of it : so dolh baptism and church-watch. But other privileges 
belong to them as cloathed with such and such qualifications ; thus the Lord's 
Supper now, as the Passover of old If children in their minority are mem- 
bers, as our bretheren acknowledge them to be, then there are members that 
are not yet fit for full communion. And for the adult, when a man is by 
admonition debarred from the Lord's Table, and yet not excommunicated ; 
he continues a member, yea, a personal member, in our bretheren's account, 
and yet is not in full communion; It is clear then that membership and full 
communion, are separable things. Besides, 'tis a membership de jure, and 
not only de facto, whereof we speak, when we speak of mere membership. 
Now such a membership implies a qualification, that a person being a church 
member, is not under such gross and incorrigible ignorance, lieresie, scandal 
or apostac}', as renders him an immediate subject of excommunication. 
Hence mere membership is not so to be opposed unto qualified membersiii(i. 
as if it were destitute of all qualifications. Understand mere memh/'rship. 
for [_merely this, that a man is regularhj a member, or, tJiat the chinxh act- 
ing regularhj, may own him as acceptedby rule into conenant^ and then the 
assertion, that it is not sufficient to give a person a right unto baptism., that 
he be regularly a member of the visible churchy btU lie must hare some fur- 



2()2 . MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book v. 

ther qualification than so, or else he hath not a right thereunto : Tliis is in- 
deed an antist/nodalian assertion, and we doubt not to affirm, that it is anti- 
scriptural. 

The synod builds upon rovenant-intcrest, or federal-holiness, or visible 
cluireh-mcmbership, as that which gives right mito baptism : and accordingly 
in lhc\r fifth p.roposition, they have comprised both the right to b apt ism, and 
the manner of administration ; which manner is not therefore to be neglect- 
ed, because wr'7»/j(V67t/y; alone gives r/^/// ; for God hath made it o»t' com- 
mandment of four, to |)rovide for tlie manner of his worship, that it be at- 
tended in a solemn, hnmble, reverent and profitable manner. Hence all re- 
formed churches do in their directories wqinvf; jirofcssions and promises, 
fiom those who present the child unto baptism ; though tliev unanimously 
grant the child's right unto baptism, by its being born within the risible 
church. Besides, wliat have infants more than me)-e mcmbershi]i, to give 
them right unto bapbtism ? V\'e know no stronger argument for infant bap- 
tism, tiian this, that church-members, or Foederati arc to J:c baptised. At 
the transition from Old to New Testament church membership, something 
more miglit well be required, than a mere membership in the jeieish church, 
which was then also under an extreain degeneracy : it was necessary that the 
reformed administration should penitently be embraced. And much of what 
was required by John, may be referred unto the manner of administration, 
which the general scandals then fallen into calked for. Nor will he that 
reads the scriptures, think that the persons baptised by John, did excel those 
who are described in tlie si/nods propositions. While the parent that was 
born in the church, regularli/ continues in it without scandal, he is ecclesias- 
tically accounted to have the being of repentance ; and so to have the thing 
that John requireii. But if- any stand guiltv of open scandals, we know not 
why lhe\' should not make a purticuloj' confession of their sin thereiui 

APOLOGY. 

V. That which will not make a man capal)le of receiving baptism himselt, 
in case he were nnbaptised, doih not make him capable of transmitting right 
of baptism unto his child. But a man may be an unbeliever, and yet come 
up to all that the synod hath said in their fifth proposition. Buc*'r is ac- 
counted by P(/:/-ATr, justly to mention, that none ought to be confirmed mem- 
bers of the church, besides those who do hold forth not only verbal prof cs-- 
sion of faith, but apparent signs of regeneration. 

ANSWER. 

'Tis true, that wliicli doth not put a man into a state of right of baptisn) lor 
himself, (that is, into a st.ite of church membership) will not enable him to 
give baptism right unto his chUd. But it is possible for an adult person in 
such a state nevertheless to have something fall in, which may hinder the ac- 
tual application of baptism to himself, or his actual fitness lor baptism, in 
case he were unl)aptised And yet the same thing may not hinder a person 
already baptised, and standing in a covenant state, from conveying baptism 
right unto his child. Besides the synods proposition speaks of church mem- 
bers. Vea, and he will iiavc an hard task of it, who shall undertake to 
prove, that adult persons, understanding, believing, and professing publick- 
hj, the doctrine of faith, not scandalous in life, and now solemnly entering 
into that covenant, wherein they give up themselves and theirs, to the Lord 
in his church, and subject themselves to the government of the Lord therein. 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 2bS 

may he denied baptism upon their desire thereof. 'Tis not easie to believe, 
that nuiltiiiides baptised, in the scriptures liad more to render thcni visiblu 
believers, than the persons described by the Synod, ft is argued, a man [vioi/ 
ie] an unbeliever, and yet come up to all this ? Simon ]\Iagi(s and Ananias, 
and Sopphira, not only might be, but ircre unbelievers, and yet regularly 
baptised. But if it be said, that a man may come up to all that the synod 
hath said, and yet be ecclesiastically judged an unbeliever, shew us any 
ground for such a judgment. As for Bucer and Parker, tiiey plainly speak of 
such a cnnfirmation, or owning men for confirmed members, as imports their 
admission to the Lord's table. But if the jud'iment of Bucer and Parker 
may be taken in this coiiiroversie, it will soon be at end, for it is evident 
enou;j;h [by quotations too many for this place] that Bucer and Parker fully 
concur witli the synod, in the extent ofbaptism, 

APOLOGY. 

VJ. 1 he application of tlie seal of baptism unto those, who are not true 
"oeiievers, (we mean visibly, for De Occultis non Judicat Ecclcsia) is a pro- 
fanation thereof, and as dreadful a sin, as if a man should administer the 
Lord's supper unto unworthy receivers ; which is, (as Calvin saith) as sac- 
rilegious impiety, as if a man should take the blood or body of Christ, and 
prostitute it unto dogs. We marvel that any should think, that the blood ol 
Christ, is not as much profaned and vilified by undue administration of bap- 
tism, as by undue administration of the Lord^s supper. Yea, that saying of 
Austin's is solemn and serious ; Qui indigne accipit baptisma, Judicium 
accipit, non saluttm ; and the same Austin in his book, De Fide et Opcribus, 
pleads for strictness in the administration of baptism, and so did Tertullian 
before liim. 

ANSWER, 

We readily grant, that baptism is not to be applied to any but visible be- 
lievers. We marvel, that any should speak, as if any oi us did think 
that the blood of Christ, is not profaned by the undue administration of bap- 
tism, as well as by undue observation of the Lord's Supper: though we sup- 
pose the degree of sinful profanation of the Lord's name in any ordinance, 
will be intended by the decree of special communion that wc have with the 
Lord in that ordinance ; and by the danger that such profanation infers unto 
the whole church, and unto the particular partaker. But where is there any 
thing lo shew that the administration of baptism extended by the synod, is 
undue ? The rule concerning the tv/o sacraments, appoint.^ baptism to all 
disciples ; but the Lord's supper only tor self-e.\aniing disciples : hence the 
one may be extended further than the other, without undue administration. 
Neitiicr did Ca/ym conceive it a profanation to extend baj)ti"-ra further than 
the Lord's supper. Nor did ever Austin or Tertullian plead for greater 
strictness in baptism than the synod : except where Tertullian erroneously 
plead for the delay of baittism : whereas Austin requires not more of aduk 
ronverts from heathenism, than is in the parents, who are described by tlie 
synod. 

APOLOGY. 

V n. It hath in it a natural tendency, to the hardening o( unregeneraies in 
ih"air sinful condition, when life is not only promised but sealed unto them, h\ 



264 JMAGxNALIA CHRISTI AMERICAJNA : [Book v. 

the precious blood of Jesus Christ. Capfism is a seal of the whole covenant 
of grace, as well as tiie Lord's Supper ; and therefoie tiiose that are not inter- 
ested in this covenant by I'aith, ougiit not io have the seal thereof applied unto 
them. We might add nnto all this, that there is danger of great corrnpt-ion, 
and pollution, creeping into the churches h}' the enlargement of the subject of 
baptism. 

ANSWER. 

The Lord's truth and grace, however it may be abused, by the corruption 
of man's perverse and sinful nature, hath not in its self any natural tendency, 
to harden any, but the contrary. And how can our doctrine have any such 
natural tendency, when as men are told over and over, that only outward ad- 
vantages are more absolutely sealed unto them in baptism ; but the saving 
benefits of the covenant, conditionally ; so that if they fail of the condition, 
wliich is effectual and unltygned faitli, they niiss of salvation, notwithstanding 
their baptism ? The outward priviledges must not be rested in. but improv- 
ed as incouragements to the obtaining of internal and special grace. On the 
other side, the scrip.tuies tell us, that men's denyiug the children of the church 
to ha\e any part in f lie Lord, Unth a strong tendency in it to make them 
ceanefrom fearing the Lord, and harden their hearts from his fear. But 
the awful obligations of covenant-interest, have a great tendency to soften the 
heart, and break it, and draw it home to God. Hence when the Lord would 
powerfully win men to obedience, he often begins with this, that he is their 
God. The natural tendency of man's corrupt heart, are no argument against 
any ordinance of God. 'Tis true, baptism is a seal of the whole covenant of 
grace ; but it is by way of initiation. Hence it belongs to all that are within 
the covenant, or have but 'd, fust entrance thcieiulo. And is there no danger 
of corruption by over f^t raining the subject of bap'isni ? Certainly, it is a cor- 
ruption to take from the rule, as well as add to it. Moses found danger in 
not ajiplying the initiating seal, to such for whom it was appointed. Is there 
no danger of putting these out of the visible church, whom our Lord would 
have kept in ? Gur Lord's own disciples may be in danger of his displeasuie 
by keeping poor little ones away from him. To pluck up all the tares, was 
a zealous motion ; but there was clanger in it. Besides if the enlarg^^ment be 
beyond the bounds of the rule, it will bring in corruption ; else not. Our 
work is there/ore to keep close unto the rule, as the onl\- true way unto the 
churches purity and glory. The way of the Ana-haptists to admit none un- 
to membership and baptism, but adult |)rofessors, is the straitest way ; one 
would think it should be a way of great purity; but experience hath shew'd 
that it has been an inlet unto great corrui)tion, and a troublesome, dangerous 
underminer of reformation. If we do not keep in the way of a converting, 
grace-giving covenant, and keep pers(ms under those church-dispensations, 
wherein grace is giv<Mi, the church will die of a lingriug, though not violent, 
death. The Lord hath not set up churches only, that a if^w old Christians, 
may keep one another warm while they live, and then carry away the church 
into the cold grave with them, when they die : no, but that they might with 
all care, and with all the obligations and advantages to that care, that may lie, 
nurse up still successively another generation of subjects to oui Lord, that 
may stand up in his kingdom, when they are gone. In ehiirch reformalivn. 
'tis an obscrro.b/e trnfh, f'sailh Pu'triis) thai those that ((re for too natch 
strictness, do more hart than proft the church. Finally, there is apparently 
a greater danger ofcoriuplion to the churches, by enlarging the subjects of 
full comnumion, and admitting miqualilied, or meanly qualified ))ersons, to 
the Lord's table, and voting in the clunch : whereby the interest of the power 



BooKvri OR THE HISTORY OF ^EW-ENGLAI^D. 26a 



will soon be prejudicrd, and elections, admissions, censures, so 
nil be hazardous thereunto. Now 'tis evident, that this will be 



of godliness, 

carried, as wi 

the temptation, even, /o overlnrge full comimmion, if baptism be limited unto 

the children of such as are admitte;! thereunto. 

§. 3. These were the swiima capita of the disputation between those two 
Reverend persons ; but the remarkable event and eftect of this disputation is 
now to be related. Know then, that Mr. Michael partly by the light of truth 
fairly offered, and partly by the force of prayer for the good success of the 
offer was too hard for the most learned apologist ; who after he had written 
so exactly on the antisynodalian side, that, 

Si pergavi dextrd 



Defendi poterant, etiam hue defensa finssent : 

finding that scripture, and reason lay most on the other side, not only sur- 
rendred himself a glad captive thereunto, but also obliged the church of (iod, 
by publishing unto the world a couple of most nervous treatises, in defence ot 
the synodiccd propositions. The former of tiiese treatises, was entituled, the 
Jirst principles r^ New-England concerning the subject of baptism, and com^ 
miinion ofchu'ches : wherein, because the aritisi/ncdists commonly reproach- 
ed the doctrine of the synod, as being no less new, than the practice of it, lie 
answers this popular imputation of innovation and npos*acy, by demonstra- 
ting from the uquestionable writings of the chief and fust fathers in our church- 
es, that the doctrine of the synod was then generally believed by them; al- 
beit the practice thereof had been buried in the circumstances ol the neii> 
plantation. Together with this essay, he shews his inexpressible value, tor 
iiis excellent opponent and conqueror, not only by professing a deep respect 
for that blessed man, and nsing about him the words oi Beza about Ccdmn, 
now he is dead, life is less sweet, and death will be less bitter to me ; but aisy 
by inserting an elaborate letter, which that worthy man had written to him, 
wherein among other passages there are these word^; please to consider, 
which of these three propositions you icoidd deny 1 . The tohole visible 
church under the New -Testament is to be baptized. 2. If a man be 
once in the church, nothing less than censurable evil can j^'t him out. 3. If 
the parent be in the visible church, his infant child is so too. And he adds. 
whether they should be baptized, as i?i a catholick, or iti a j^^riiculur 
church, is another question, and I confess myself not so peremptory in this 
latter, as I am in the thing itself that they ought to be baptized, lei siill I 
think, that when all stones are turned., it will come to this that all the baptiz- 
ed are, and ought to he under discipline in particular churches. 

Tiie other of these treatises was intituled, A discourse concerning the sub- 
ject of baptism; wherein having elahoratply proved, //;f<^ the qualifications 
expressed in the fifth proposition of the synod gii'e right to baptism : and 
that persons, tlnis cpialitied are chuch-members, and visible believers, and of 
old had a rig'it unto circumcision, and have church-discipline belonging to 
them ; and tuat the apostles did baptize persons, who were no further quali- 
fied ; he then distinguishes between a particular church, as it is more strictly 
taken for a particular company of covenanting believers entrusted by our 
Lord with the keys of the kingdom of Heaven, and as it is more largely tak- 
en for that special part of our Lord's visible church, which doth subsist in 
this or that particular place : and he shews that a membership of the cath- 
olick cliurch, discovered by a relation to a particular church, not in the former 
but in the latter sense, is the formal reason of baptism : concluding with a 
full answer to all objections. Indeed the learnoc^anthor of the book, was not 

VOL. U .'I'i 



266 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: [Book v. 

the least argument in the book. This alone might have passed as no inconsid- 
erable argument, tor the synodical propositions, that besides diverse others 
who did tiie like, so considerate a person as the apologist after he luid so open- 
ly and so solidly appeared against i.liem, shoidd at last as ptiblick!>' declare 
it, //((// atudy and prai/er, and much ajflirtion had brought him to be of an- 
other belief. It was a notable observation of Mr. Co^/ort, once in bis letter to 
INlr. WiUiams, that one might suspect the tcaij of the rigid setaiiation t9 
be not of God, because those, who in tenderness of conscience had been 
dream into the error of that way, yet when they have grown in grace, they 
hacc also g7'own to discern the error of the separaUou. Thus it was observ- 
ed, that several very excellent men, who did according to their present light 
conscientiously dissent from the synod, yet, as they grew in the manifold 
grace of God, and in ripeness for Heaven, they came to see that the rigidity 
of their former principles, had been a failing in them. And if the apologist 
were one, who so signalized, a modest sense of second thoughts unto the 
world, it can be reckoned no disparagement unto him ; until the humility of 
Austin in his retractations, or the ingenuity of Bcllarmine in his recognitions 
come to be accounted their blemishes; or until Bwcer's, yea, and Lutka'\s; 
change of their opinions about consubstantiatinn, and the recovery cf Zing- 
lius from inclinations to Antipaidobaptism, shall be esteemed the disgrace of 
those renowned men ; or, until IMr. Robiiuion shall be blamed for composing 
his weiglity arguments, against the rigid separation which once he had zeal- 
ously defended. I shall to this occasion, but apply the words of Dr. Owc7i un- 
to Mr. Cawdry,{o take off the charge of inconstancy laid upon him, for his 
appearing on behalf of the Congregational churcli-discipline. he that can glory 
that in fourteen years, he hath not altered nor improced his conceptions of 
wmc things, of no greater importance th«n that mentioned, shall not have 
me for his rival. 

^. 4. Very gradual was the procedure of the churches to exercise that 
church-care of their children, which the synodicel propositions had recom- 
mended : for, though the pastors were generally principled for it, yet in very 
many of the churches, a number of bretheren were so stiilly and fiercely set 
the other way, that the pastors did forbear to extend their practice, unto the 
length of their judgment, tli.jugh the tear of uncomfortable schisms, which 
might thereupon ensue. Anil there tell out one singular temptation which had 
a great influence upon this matter! that famous and faithful society of chris- 
tians, the first church in Boston, had, alter much agitation, so far begun to 
attend the discipline (hrected in the doctrine of the synod, that they proceeded 
ecclesiastically to censure the adidt ciiildren of several communicants (or scan- 
dals, whercinto they liad fallen. But that church, lor a supply of their vacan- 
cy' upon the death of their former more synodalial ministers, applying tliem- 
5elves unfo Mr. John Davenport, the greatest of lUn antisynodists, all the in- 
terests oi the synod caine to be laid asitie, therein, on that occasion. Hereup- 
on, thirty brelheren of that eminent church, ofiVred several reasons of their 
dissent. iVom their call of that worthy person ; whereof one was in these terms, 

* We should walk contrary to Rev. 3. 3. not holding fast what ice have re- 
' ceived ; nor should we, as we have received Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk 
' in him. [The doctrine of the synod] it having been a received and a profess- 
' cd truth, by the holy body of the church, who have voted it in tiie afhrm- 
' ative, and that after much patience with.^ and casidor towards those that 
' were otherwise minded ; diverse days having been spent about this great 

• generation-truth, which since hath been confirmed by the synod. Full liber- 
' ty hath also been granted, unto those who scrupled, to propose their ques- 
'tions; and they were answered, with such })ublick saiisfactiouj that those 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 261 

"' few, who remained unsatisfied, promised to sit down and leave the body to 
"' act, excepting one or two. Accordingly there was an entrance upon the 
' work; but the Lord lay it not to the charge of those that hindred progress 

• therein, which with great blessing and success has been, and is practised in 

• neighbour churches.' But the diflerence produced so much division, that the 
major part of the church, by far, proceeded to their election of that great man, 
this lesser part nevertheless carefully and exactly following the advice of 
councils, fetched from other churches in the neighbourhood, set up another 
church in the town of Boston, which hath since been one of the most con- 
siderable in the country. Very uncomfortable were the paroxims, which were, 
ihe consequents of this ferment; 

-Longa est injuria, Longa 



Anihai[es- 



•and the whole people of God throughout the colony, were too much distin- 
guished into such as favoured the new church ; whereof, the former, were 
for it. Indeed, for a considerable while, tho" the good men on both sides really 
loved, respected and honoured one another, yet through some unhappy misun- 
derstandings in certain particular persons, the communicants of these two 
particular churches in Boston, like the two distinguish'd rivers, not mixing, 
tho' running between the same banks, held not communion with one an- 
other at the table of the Lord : but in two sevens of years, that breach was 
healed, and unto the general joy of the christians in the neighbourhood, both 
the churches kept a solemn day together, wherein, lamenting the infirmities 
that had attended their former contentions, they gave thanks to the great 
peace-maker for effecting this joyful reconciliation. The schism was not so 
long lived, as that which happened at Antiodi, about the ordination of a minisr 
ter ; whereof, Tiieodoret says, Uev'^i x^ oy^oy/xovru S'nfA.emv fTsj, it endured four- 
score and five years. Hov^ever, the two cliurches continued still their various 
dispositions to the propositions of the synod ; and it is well known, that the 
example of Boston, has from the beginning as the prophets once intimated of 
Jerusalem, had no small efficacy upon the land. 

§. 5. But it is, at last, come to this ; that tho' some of our churches yet 
baptise the children of none but their communicants, and extend their church- 
watch to none but the persons of their communicants, and tho' some of the 
churches go a step further, and extend their church-watch to the children of 
their comnumicants, but yet most unaccountably will not baptise the ofispring 
of these, till these parents become themselves comnnmicants ; nevertheless. 
the most of the ministers in the countrey, have obtained of their churches, not 
only to forbear all expressions of dissatisfaction at the baptism of such as the 
synod has declar'd the subjects of it, but to coiiciu" with them, when theii 
votes are upon occasion demanded for such a disciple as the synod has from 
the eighteenth o( JSIatthew, directed for the baptised. 

Very various, have been the methods of the pastors, to bring their churches 
into the desired order ; many the mt?etings, the debates, the prayers and the 
fasts, with which this matter has been accomplished : and much more many 
the ditficulties, wliere the matter had been so long delayed, that the retrieval 
was well nigh to be despaired. Yea, it was as late, as the year l69^, that the 
last church, which after a long omission thereof did effectually set upon the 
church care of the disciples I'ormerly neglected, came to their duty: and they 
did it with such a further explanation of their principles, as diverse great op- 
posers of the synod, professed themselves, at last, able to comply withal. Now 
because the particular history of the proceedings used, when things had run 



2CS IMAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : pBooK v. 

ihus far into an inveterate neglect, mny be very isubservient unto one mnin 
design of our church hiktory, uliicli is to give an experimental direction for 
more arduous church casea. 1 shall here give it niito my reader. 

Know then, that the pastor of the church, after solemn supplications for 
the direction of heaven about it, h(iv\ug previvnsli/ pleached am] printed the 
State of the Triit/t, which he was now reducing into practice, and havint; pri- 
vately witb ^;pr.vo««/ co/(^*'/T«cf.s'. endeavouied the satisfaction of such dis- 
senters ns he counted more siLfnificant, he then, avoiding aiJ publick incetingii 
or debates , drew up the followiiiii; instrument, wiiicli by the hands of two or 
three chosen persons, he sent uWoitt niito the brethren. 

Persuasions and Proposals laid before the church in — . 



I. It is my persuasion that our Lord Jesus Christ liatli in the world a catii- 
olio church, wliich is his mystical body, and hiith all his elect-called peo[)lc 
belonging thereunto. 

II. It is my persuasion, that the catholic church of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
becomes in Various degrees, visible unto us ; and according to the degrees of 
its visibility, it becomes capable of a visible communion, with its glorious 
head. 

HI. It is my persuasion, that when men profess the faith of the gospel, with 
obedience unto the Lord Jesus Cluist, according to that gospel, and overthrow 
not that profession by a scandalous conversation, they are to be looked upon 
as members of tlie visil)le catholic church of our Lord they are to be treat- 
ed as christians ; to call tlienij or count them heathen, is to do-them a griev- 
ous injury. 

IV. It is mv persuasion, that when such prolessors, regularly combine into 
a society for the evangelical worship and service of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and furnish themselves with officers of his appointment, they then become a 
part of the catholic church, so visible, as to be a body politic, entrusted with 
the administration of those ordinances which are priviledges in that kingdom 
of heaven 

V. It \s my persunsion, thht A particular chirrch thus betrusted with the 
ordinances of our Lord Jesus Christ, is to be concerned for the ajiplying some 
of those ordinances, unto sulyects, that have not yet arrived so far in visible 
Christianity, as to be constituent parts of that holy society. 

It is mv persuasion, that baptis-ni is an ordinance lo bo administered unto 
them that are in the \isiblecatiuuic church, while those christians have not 
yet joined themselves unto a particular church, but are only in a state of in- 
itiation ami preparation for it. In the scripimo we do not read of any that 
were baptized rf/i^cr their joining to liiil communion in a paiticular church of 
the New-Testament, but of many that were so before. 

Cnder the inlluence of ihise /vc/-.s'«'«.sVo;/,9, there arc now these proposals, 
which I would make unto ihnt particular church ol' God, whereof I am 
an unworthy overseer in the Lord. 

I. It is my ^;/-o/Kj.sY//, that if any person instructed and orthodox in our 
christian religion, do bring testimonials of a sober and idameless conversation, 
and publicly submit themselves unto the bonds of such a sacred covenant as 
now fbllowelh. 

' You now from your heart professing a serious belief to the christian reli- 
' gioifi,as it has been generally declared and embraced by the faithful in this 
' place, do here give up yourself to God in Christ ; promising with hisjhelp to 
' endeavour, to walk according to the rules of that lioly religion, all your days ; 
'choosing of God as vour best good, and your last end, and Christ , as liie 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAxXD 269 

' Prophet, and Priest, and the king of your sou! forever. You do therefore sub- 

• mit unto the laws of his kingdom, as they are administered in this church of 
"' his; and you will also carefully and sincerely labour after iliose more posi- 

• tive and increased evidences of regeneration, which may further eucourage 
'you to seek an admission unto iho table of the Lord. 

I say I propound, that I may without ufl'ence baptize this person and his 
house, and that such per&ons may be watched over, if not as brethren, yet as 
disciples, in the porch of the Lord's temple ; of wlmm we have cause to 
hope, that they will shortly express their desires after the Lord's supper, with 
such tokens of growth in grace upon them, as that we nuiy chtarfuiiy receive 
them thereunto. 

l\. It is my ^>ro^)o.sa/ that as for the children thus baptized in their minor- 
ity, the elders of the church may be inquisitive and industrious about their 
being brought up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. But that when 
ihey come to be adult, the elders of the church may, to confirm them in their 
church-state, put them upon the open renewal of their baptismal covenant, 
with a subjection of tiiemselves unto the watch of the church; and if any 
of them do upon examination appear to have mure sensible and plenary symp- 
toms of conversion unto God, they may be exhorted immediately to make 
regular approaches unto the table of the Lord ; and that if any of them con- 
tumaciously despise and refuse their duty of renewing their covenant, and 
owning the government of the Lord over them, they may after proper admo- 
nitions be debarred from standing among the people of God. which otherwise 
they might lay claim unto 

I, therefore, propound, that the church may seasonably look after a full 
supply of officf^rs, whereby this work may be fully prosecuted. In the 
mean time, I am willing to attend as much of this work, as God shall en- 
able me unto : Asking of you, that none of you would object about 
my giving meat in due season, to any part of my blessed master's fami- 
ly, which he hath made me a steward of; but that all of you would 
iiclp me with your daily prayers, and whatever other assistances may be 
useful unto, 

Your solicifous Pasfor and .fcrvmif. 

This instrument was within a few days brought back unto rlie pastor, witli 
such a return at the close of it. 

< We, the brethren of the church in- consider how fully those 

• reverend persons that have rule over us, and watch fur our souls, have de- 

• clared what they judge to be the mind of God, about the subject of baptism, 
' and apprehending that we niay have lain too long in the omission of duty 
'thereabouts; do now signifie, that we are not unwilling to have the perswa- 
" sionsand proposals, v.hich our pastor hath here laid before us, carefully put 

into practice ; and that we would have no obstruction given to the holy eri- 

• deavours which may be used this way, to advance the interest of religion in 

• the midst of us. 

Hereunto the generality of the brethren, perhaps twenty to one, had sub- 
scribed their names. And those few that w ere not yet so wholly rescued from 
their aufisijHodalian scruples, yet verbally signified their christian and peace- 
able assurances, that it should give no uneasiness unto their minds, to see the 
desires of their pastor accomplished ; which was done accordingly. 

But thus much concerning the proceedings in a synod of New-England 
Churches, for the church care of their posterity. We'll couc.iude all by an 
agreeable speech of the great Ramus (m Comment, dc Relig. I. 4. r. 6. ,) Li- 
herifdeliunt baptizantur, at participes sinil, S{ hocrendes divinonan bcnefcio- 



270 MAGN ALl A CHRISTI AMERICANA. [Book Vv 

rumecclesiix proniisorum, iifq ; oatttte provecti parcntum religionem et pietqr- 
tan, projiteantitr. 



THE FOURTH PART. 

Tlip Reforming Synod ol' INkw-England, with subsequent essays of reforma* 
tin II in the Churches. 

vera pceni/entia, quid de te Novi referam! Omnia ligata tu solins, omnia 
clausa tu reserns, omnia adcersa tu mitigas, omnia contrita tu sanas, om- 
nia confusa tu lucidas, omnia desperafa tu animus. — Cyprian. 

§ 1. The settlement of the New-English churches, with a long series of 
preserving and prosperous sniilos from lieaven upon them, is doubtless to be 
reckoned amongst the more wonderful works of God, in this age ; the true 
glories of tlie young plantation had not upon the face of God's earth a paral- 
lel, our adversaries themselves being judi;es. But when people began more 
notoriously to forget the en-and inio the wilderness, and when the enchant- 
ments ol this vmrld caused the rising generation more sensibly to neglect the 
primitive designs and interests of >-e//i?7"o/? [iropounded by their fatliers ; « 
change in the tenonr of the divine dispensrtiions towards this country, was 
quickly the matter of every body's observation. By land, some of the prin- 
cipal grains, especially our wheat and onr pease, iaW under an unaccnuntal)le 
blast, from which we are not, even unto this day delivered ; and besides that 
constant frown of heaven upon our /?«s/j(7Hr/;?/, recurring every year, few 3 ears 
have passed, wherein either worms or droughts, or some consuming disasters 
have not belallen the labour of the husbandman. By sea, we were visited 
with multiplied shipwrccLs, enemies prey'd on our vessels and oin- sailors, 
and the affairs of the inerchant were clogged witli losses abroad ; or fires, 
breaking forth in the chief seats of trade at home, wasted their substance with 
yet more costly desolations. Nor did the land and the sea. more proclaim 
the conti oversie of our God against us, than that other clement of the air, by 
the contagions vapours whereof several pestilential sicknesses did sometimes 
become epidemical among us. Yea, the judijments of God having done first 
the part of the moth upon us, proceeded tiien to do the part of a lion, in la- 
mentable ?/'fl'r.v, wherein the barbarous Indians cruelly butchered many hun- 
dreds of our inhabitants, and scattered whole towns with miserable ruins. 
When dismal calamities bofel the prin)itive Ch' istians, as acknowledged by 
the great Ci/jirian, tliat the cause thereof was, because they were Patrimonio 
ef Lucro studcntes, too in{}c\i minding to get estates and riches; Su2>erbiam 
Sectantes, too proud ; oinvdationi et dissentioni vacantes, given to conten- 
tion ; simpliritatisjidei negligentes, negligent of the plain faith of the gospel ; 
SkcuIo verbis solis. et non faetis, renunciantes, worldly ; unusquisque sibi 
plaeenles et omnibus displicentes, pleasing themselves and vexing others. 
These were the sins, which, he said, brought them into sujferings ; for these, 
he said Vapulamns itaque ut merentur. Truly, if New-England had not 
abounded with the like offences, it may be supposed, such calamities had not 
befallen it. It intimated a more than ordinary displeasure of God for some 
offences, when he proceeded so far, as to j)nt over his poor people into the 
hands of tawny and bloody &Y///'r/^e.s' : and the whole army had cause to en- 
quire into their own rebellions, when they saw the hord of Hosts, with a 
dreadful /lrci7nf'fion,U\hh\ii olVso many of our brethren by flie worst of exe- 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 271 

cutioners. The cry of the last of the British kings, then was the cry of the 
Neto-English Christians, Ve nobhs peccatorihus oh immania scelera nostra J 

§ 2. The serious people throughout the coiiiitry, were awakened by hese 
ilitiinations of divine displeasure, to enqvire into the causes and matters of 
the co7it rover sie. And besides the self -re forming effects of these calamities 
on the hearts and lives of many jjarticufar Christians, who were hereby 
brought unto an exacter walk with God, ^ar<ir?//a/' cAwrc/tes exerted their 
power of self-reformation, especially in tlie time of the Indian war ; wherein 
with much solemn fasting and prayer, they renewed their covenants with 
God and oue another. Moreover, the general courts enacted what laws were 
judged proper for the extinction oi' those jjrovoking evils, which might expose 
the land unto the anger of heaven : and the ministers in their several congre- 
gations, by their ministry, set themselves to testifie against those evils. Nor 
is it a thing unworthy of a great remark, that great successes against the ene- 
my accompanied some notable transactions both in chwxh and in court, for 
the reformation o{ owr provoking evils. Indeed, the peopk of God in this 
land were not gone so far in degeneracy, but that there were further degrees 
oi disorder and corruption to be found, I must freely speak it, in other, yea, in 
all other places, where the Protestant religion is professed : and the most im- 
partial observers must have acknowledged, that there was proportioi,.bly still 
more ol true religio7i, and a larger number of the strictest saints in this 
country, than in any other on the face of the earth. But it was to be contiess- 
ed, that the degeneracy of New-England, in any measure, into the spirit of 
the world, was a thing extreamly aggravated, by the greatness of our obliga- 
tions to the contrary, and even sinful o?nissions in this, were no less criminal, 
than the most odious commissions, in some other countries. 

§ 3. Ahev peace was restored unto the country, the evil spirit of aposfacy 
from the 2)otver of Godlitiess, and the various discoveries and consequences ot 
such an apostasie, became still more sensible to them that feared God. 
Wherefore, that there might be made a moie exact scrutiny into tiie causes oi 
the divine displeasure against the land, and into the methods of removing and 
preventing the matter of lamentation, and that the essays of reformation, 
might be as well more extensive as more ejfectucd, than they had been hither- 
to, the general Cojirt of the Massac/iuset colony were prevailed withal, to call, 
upon the churches, that they would send their elders and other messengers, to 
meet ma synod, for the solemn discussion of those two questions, what are the 
provoking tvils of PNew- England ? and, tchat is to be done, that so those eviht 
may be reformed? It is very certain, that the controversic wliich the God 
of heaven had, (and still hath /) with New-England, was a matter, about 
wiiicli, many did not enquire wisely. As of old, several of our ancients com- 
plained, that the Pa^o«s looked u[)on the Christians (in their way of wor- 
ship) as the causes of all the plagues on the Roman empire : whatever mis- 
chief came, forthwith, Christianos ad Leoiies : Thus, among the people of 
New-England, many assigned the plagues upon the country, unto very strange 
causes, as their several iiUerests and affeciions led them. A synod was con- 
vened therefore, to enquire more wisely of that matter : it would astonish one, 
to be told, that an assembly of Lutherans com\ng together to enquire after the 
cause oi' the judgments, which God had brought upon their churches, most un- 
happily determined, that their not paying respect enough unto images in 
their churches, was one cause of the Lord's conti-oversie with them. Unhap- 
py enquirers ! instead of their dream, that they had not sinned enough 
against the second commandment, they should have thought, whether they had 
not sinned too much against the fourth. But we hear not a word of their bc- 
bewailiug their tmiversa! prophauatious of the Lord's-day to this day. Oui 



272 MAGNALIA CIIRISTI AMERICANA: [IJookv 

i\>/o-E//4^?/.s'A assembly did eiifiuirc to bettor purpose. Tlie cliiirclics, having' 
first kept a general yV/.v^, tint tlie gracious presence and spirit oC God jnight be 
obtained, for tlie direction ot'tlie approaching st/nod, the sj/nod convened at 
Boston, Sc'iff. 10. 167L). chusing Mv. Juliii Skcrmon, and Mr. Vrian Oakes, 
for joint moderators, during the biggest j)art of the session. 'I'here was at 
first, sonje agitation in this reverend assembly, about the matter of a regular 
st/iwd, raised upon this occasion, that sonic of the ciiurclies, notwithstanding 
the desires of their f>W(7\9 to be accompanied with other wies-se/jgcrs, would 
send no mcsscHgef'S, but their cldcm to the assembly. Upon the debate, it 
was resolved, tliat not only elders, but other mcsseug-ei's also, were to be dele- 
gated by churches, and have their sulTrage in a synod, representing those 
churches; the primitive pattern of n si/ nod in the fifteenth cha])tcr of the 
y4cfs, and the primitive practice of the churches in the ages next I'ollowiiig 
the apostles: and the arguments of such eminent writers as Jiiel, WhUaker, 
Farker, and others, against those, who mention that laleks are no fit matter 
for such assemblies ; being judiciously considered, as countenancing of this 
assertion. The assembly kept a day oi' prayer w'nh fasting before the Lord, 
and spent several days in discoursing upon the two grand questions laid be- 
fore them, with utmost liberty granted unto every person, to express his 
thought* thereupon A committee was appointed, then to draw up the mind 
of the assembly ; which being done, it was read over once and again, and each 
paragraph distinctly weighed, and then upon a mature deliberation, the whole 
was unaniniously voted, as to the substance, end and scope, thereof. So 
'twas presented unto xhf general court, who by an act of October 15. l679. 
'^commended it unto the serious consideration of all the churches and people 
•' in the jurisdiction, enjoining and requiring all persons in their respective 
■*' capacities to a careful and diligent retbrmation, of all those provoking evils 
"' mentioned therein, according to the true intent thereof, that so the anger 
*' and displeasure of Ood many ways manifested, might be averted, and his 
•' favour and l)lessing obtained " 

§ 4. When the punishment of scourging was used upon a criminal in Is- 
rael, it was the order and usage, that while the executioner was laying on his 
blows, with an instmmejit, every stroke whereof, gave three lashes to the de- 
linquent, there were still present three judges ; whereof, while one did num- 
her t\\c blows, 9.n(\ another kept crying out, smite him; a third read threa 
scriptures, during the time of the scourging, and the scourging ended with 
the reading of them. The first scripture was that in Deut. 28. C)^. If thou 
irill not observe to do all the words of this law, then the Lord will make thi/ 
plagues wonderful. The second scri[»ture was that in Deut. 2[). 9. Keep 
therefore the words of this covenant, that ye may prosper in all that ye do. 
The third scripture was that in Psalm 78. 38. But he, being full of compus^ 
.'■ion, forgave their in/(piity and destroyed them not. This was done j)aitly 
for the admonition, partly for the consolation, of the criminal. Trul}', when 
the scouiges of heaven were imploycd upon the churches of New-England, 
lor their miscarriages, and they were sorely lashed with one blow after anoth- 
er, not only particular ministers, but a whole synod of them, took upon tiiem- 
selves the ollite of reading to the whole comury, those words of God which 
werejudged agreeable to the condition of such a scourged people. 

Nothing shall detain my reader from the admonitions of this reforming sy- 
nod, when I have recited the solemn words in the. preface to those admoni- 
tions. " The things insisted on (say they) have, at least many of them, 
" been often mentioned and inndcated by those, whom the Lord hath set as 
'• watchmen to the house of Israel; though alas! not witii that success, 
" which their souls have desired. It is not a small matter, nor ought it to 



Book, v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 273 

''•'seem little in our eyes, tiiat tlie churches have in this way confessed and 
" declared the truth, which coming from a synod, as their joint concurring 
'^ testimony will carry more authority with it, tiian if one man only, or many 
" in their single capacities should speak the same things. And undoubtedly 
•' tlie issue of this imdertaking, will be most signal, either as to mercy or 
" misery, li New-England remember wlience she is fallen, and do the iirst- 
" works, there's reason to hope, that it shall be better with us than at our 
'• beginnings. But if this, after all other means in and by which the Lord 
" hath been striving to reclaim us, shall be despised, or become ineffectual, 
" we may dread what is like to follow. 'Tis a solemn thought tliat the jew- 
" ish ■•hurch had, as the churches in NeiP-Englandhave tiiis day, an opportu- 
'' nity to reform, if they wotild in Josiah's time : but because they had no 
" heart unto it, the Lonl quickly removed them out of his sight. What God 
'' out of his sovereignty may do for us, no man can say ; but according to 
•' his wonted dispensations, we are a perishing people, if now we reform not,'' 
And now therefore hear the synod. 



The Necessity of Reformation, with the expedients subservient thereun- 
to, asserted, in answer to two questions. 

Question L — What are the evils that have provoked the Lord to bring 
his judgments on New-England ? 

Answer. — That sometimes GocS hath had ; and pleaded a controversie 
with his people, is clear from the scripture, Hos. 4. 1. & 12. 2. Mich. 6. 1. 
2. Where God doth plainly, and fully propose, state and plead his contru- 
Versie in all the parts and causes of it, wherein he doth justifie himself bv 
the declaration of his own infinite mercy, grace, goodness, justice, righteous- 
ness, truth and faithfulness in all his proceedhigs with them; and judge his 
people, charging them with all those provoking evils, which had been the 
causes of that controversie, and that with the most high and heavy aggrava- 
?ion of their sins, ar.d exaggeration of tiie guilt and punishment, whence 1 e 
should have been most just, in pleading out his controversie with them unto 
the utmost extremity of justice and judgment. 

That God hath a controversie with i-.is New-England people is undenia- 
ole, the Lord having written his dis|j!easure in dismal characters against us. 
Though personal alllictions, do oftentimes come only or chielly for probation, 
vet as to publick judgments, it is not wont to be so; especially when bv a 
continued series of Providence, the Lord doth appear and plead against "his 
people, 2 Sam. 21. 1. As with us it hath been from year to year. Would 
the Lord have whetted his glittering sword, and his hand have taken hold on 
judgnient ? Would he have sent such a mortal contagion, like a besom of de- 
struction in the midst of ns ? Would he have said, sword ! go througli the 
land, and cut oti' man and beast. Or would he have kindled such devouring 
fires, and made such fearful desolations in the earth, if he had not been angrv ? 
It is not for nothing that the merciful God, who doth not willingly afflict no^ 
grieve the children of men, hath done all those things unto us'; yea, and 
sometimes with a cloud hath covered himself, that our prayer should not pas- 
thorough, and although 'tis possible ihat the Lord may contend with us part- 
ly on account of secret unobserved sins, Josh, J. II, 12. 2 Kiw^s 17. o. 
Fsahn 90. 8. In which respect, a deep and most serious enquiry into the 
causes of his controversie ought to be attended ; nevertheless it is^sadly evi- 

VOL. II. 5b 



-74 MAGNALIA CHRIS 11 AMERICANA: [Book v. 

dent, dial tiune are viblble, evils, manifest which without doubt the Lord is 
provokiMJ bv. For, . 

I There is a -rent and visible decay of t!ie power oi bodhness amons^st 
many professors in these churches. It may be feared that (here is .n too ma- 
ny spiritual, and heart aposiary from God. wluMice romnmuion with nm in 
the ways of his worship, especially in secret is much neglected, and whereby 
men cease to know and fear, and love, and trust in him : but take up their 
contentment and satisfaction in somelhing else : this was tl'<^p-^^""<l;'";J J^^''- 
lom of the Lord's coi.troversie witii his people ol old, I s^/;// {b.l<. 37- &^ 
8l.ll.Jer. 2. b, II, 13. and with his people under the i\ai-^i^'sf«mrH.', 

also, T?^:?'. 2. 4, 5. , , ,. tt 

II. The pride that doth abound in Nno-E>i gland testdies a<ramst us, i/os. 
5. 4. Ezek.7. 10. both spiritual prid<', Zrph. S. 11. Whence two great evils 
and provocations have proceeded, aod prevailed amung us. 

4. A refusinsi to be subject to order, according to divine appoiutnieut, 

Numb. 16. 3.1 m 5. 5. ■ .,■..! 

2 Contention. Prov. 13. 10. xVn evil that is, most enmiently against the 
.olemn charge of the Lord .Fesus Christ, Josh. 13. 34, 35. And (hat lor 
which God hath by severe judgments punished his people, both m former and 
latter ages. This malady hath been very general in the country ; we have, 
therefore, cause to fear, that the wolves, which God in his holy Providence 
hath let loose upon us have bern sent to chastise his sheep for dividings and 
strayings one from another; and that the wars and fightings, winch have pro- 
ceeded from the lust of pride in special, have be^n punished with the sword, 

Jatn.4. 1. Job ly. 29. , ^ ^ . i 

Yea, and pride in respect of apparel hath greatly abounded ; servants and 
the poorer sort of people are notoriously guilty in this matter, who (too gen- 
erally) go above their estates and degrees, th(;reby transgressing the laws 
both of God and man, Matth. 11. 8 Yea, it is a sin that even the light ot 
nature and laws of civil uations have condemned, 1 Cor. 11. 14. Also, many 
not of the meaner sort have offended God by strange apparel, not becoming 
serious christians, especially in these days of afdiction and misery, wherem 
the Lord calls upon men to put o(f their ornaments, h.voTl. 33. .">. Jer. 4. oO. 
A sin which brings wrath uiwii tho greatest that shall be lound guilty ol it, 
Zepk. 1. S. with Jer. f>2. 13. Particularly the Lord hath threatened to visit 
with sword and sickness, and with loathsome diseases lor this very sin, ha, 

^' III. Inasmuch as it was in a more peculiar manner with respect to the 
second comn.andment, that our fathers did follow the Lord into this wilder- 
ness, whilst it was a land not sown, we may fear that the breaclu^ ot that 
rommandmeiu are some part of the Lord's coutioversie ,vnh ^ew-tng^a7u/. 
Chnrch-felh.wship and other divin.' institutions are greatly neglected. Many 
of the risinc generation are not mindful of that, which their baptism doth 
engage them unto, viz. to use utmost endeavours that they may lje ht tor, 
and so partake in all the iioly ordinances of the Lord Jesus, MaWi. 2t>. 20. 
There are too many that with profane Ksox slight spiritual priviledges. 
\or is there so much of discipline extended towards the children ol the 
covenant, as we are sre.ierallv agreed ought to be di.ue. On the other hand 
humane inventions, and will-worship have l)een set up even in Jerusalem. 
jMen have set up their thresliolds by God's lhre>hold, and their posts by his 
cost. Quakfr.s- .ne false wnriililpoers ; and such /niabapUsts as hav^ risen 
i-p amon- us in oppositiou to the churches ot liie Lord Jesus, receiving into 
their society those, that have 'been for scandal delivered unto Satan ; yea, 
and improVing those as administrators of holy things, who have been (as 
Hoth appear- justly, under rianrh-censtires, do no better than set up au altar 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 27fi 

against the Lord's altar. Wherefore it must needs be provoking to God if 
these things be not duly and iully testified against, by every one in their 
several capacities respectively. Josh. 22. !<). 2 Kings 23. 13. Ezek. 43. 8. 
Ps. 09 8 Has 11. 6. 

IV. I'he holy and glorious name of God hath been polluted and profaned 
amongst us, more especially. 

1. By oaths and imprecations in ordinary discourse ; yea, and it is too 
common a tiling for men in a more solemn way to swear uimecessary oaths: 
when as it is a breach of tiie third commandment, so to use the blessed name 
of God. And many (if not the most) (»f those that swear, consider not the 
rule of an oath, Jer. 4. 2. So that we may justly fear that because of swear- 
ing the land mourns, Jer. 23. 10. 2. There is great prophaneness in res- 
pect of irreverent behaviour in the solemn worship of God It is a frequent 
thing for men (though not necessitated thereunto by any infirmity) to sit iii 
prayer tinje, and some wilh their he;ul.s almost covered, and to give way to 
tvheir own sloth und sleepiness, when they should be serving God wilh atten- 
tion and intention, under the solemn dispensation of his ordinances. We 
read but of one man in scripture, that slept at a sermon, and that sin had 
like to have cost him his life, ./ictn 20. 1). 

V. There is much sabbath-breaking ; since there are miiltitudes that do 
profanely absent themselves or theirs from the public wor-^hip of God, on his 
holy day, especially in the must populous places of the land ; and many 
under pretence of differing apprehensions about the beginning ot the Sabbath, 
do not keep a seventh part of time holy imto the Lord, as the fourtii com- 
mandment requireth, walking abroad, and travelling (not meerly on the ac- 
count of worshipping God in the solemn assemblies of his people, or to 
attend works of necessity or mercy) being a common practice on the Sab- 
bath day, which is contrary unto that rest enjoyn<-d by the comtoandment. 
Yea, some that attend their particular servil* callings and employments after 
the Sabbath is begun, or before it is ended. Worldly, unsuitable discourses 
are very common upon the Lord's Day, contrary to the scripture, which 
requireth that men should not on holy times find their own pleasure, nor 
speak their own words, Isa. 58. 13. Alany that do not take care so to dis- 
patch their worldly businesses, that they may be free and fit for the dutie.'- 
of the Sabbath, and that do (if not wholly neglect) after a careless, heartless 
manner, pet form the duties tliat concern the sanctification of the Sabbath. 
This brings wrath, fires and other judgments upon a professing people, Neh. 
3. 17,18. JiT. 17.27. 

VI. As to what concerns families and government thereof, there is much 
amiss. There are many families that do not pray to God constantly morn- 
ing and evening, and many more, wherein the scriptmes are not daily read, 
that so the word of Christ might dwell richly with them. Some, and too 
many houses, that are full of ignorance and I'rophaneness, and these not duly 
inspected, for which cause wrath may come upon others round about tliem, 
as well as upon themselves, Jo,s. 22. 20. Jcrein. 5. J. and 10. 25. And many 
housholders who profess religion, do not cause all that are within their gates 
to become subjects unto good order as ought to be, Exod. 20. 10. Nay, 
children and servants, that are not kept in due subjection, tlieir masters and 
parents especially being sinfully indulgent towards them. This is a sin 
which brings great judgments, as we see in Elvs, and Dav'KFs family, hi. 
this respect christians in this land, have become too like unto the Indians, 
and then we need not wonder, if the Lord hath afuicted us by them. i*ome- 
Times a sin is discerned by the instrument that Providence doth punish with. 
Most of the evils that abound amonest sis. proceed from defect-^ as to family 
government. 



276 MAGNALIA CHRISTl AMERICANA: [Booktv. 

VII. Inordinate passions. Sinful heats and hatreds, and that among 
church nicnibcrs themselves, who abound with evil surinisings, uncharitable 
anil unrighteous censures, back-bitings, hearing and telling tales, few that 
renioniber and duly observe tlie rule, with an angry countenance to drive 
uwtiy the tale-bearer: Reproachful and reviling expressions, sometimes to or 
of one another. /lence law-suites are frequent, brother going to law with 
brother, and provoking and abusing one another in publick courts of judica- 
ture, to the scandal of their holy jirofession, Isa. 58. 4. I Cor. 6. 6, 7- And 
in managing the discipline of Christ, some (and too many) are acted by their 
passions, and prejudices, more than by a spirit of love and faithfulness to- 
wards their brother's soul, wiiicli things are, as against the law of Christ, so 
dreadful violations of the church-covenant, made in the presence of God. 

Vlil. There is much inten)perance. That heathenish and idolatrous 
practice of health-drinking is too frequent. That shameful iniquity of sinful 
drinking is become too general a provocation. Days of training, and other 
publick solemnities, h^ve been abused in this res))ect : And not only Eng- 
lish, but Indians have been debauched by those that call themselves chris- 
tians, who have put their bottles to them and made them drunk also. This 
is a crying sin, and the more aggravated in that the first planters of this 
colony did (as is in the patent expressed) come into this laud with a design 
to convert the heathen unto Christ, but if instead of that they be taught 
wickedness, which before they were never guilty of, the Lord may well 
punish us by them. Moreover the sword, sickness, poverty, and almost all 
the judgments which have been upon Ne/v-England are mentioufni in the 
scripture, as the woful fruit of that ain, Jer. 5. 11, 12. and 28. 1,2. and 56. 
9, 12. Proo. 23. 21,29, 30. and 21. 17. //«*•• 7- 5. and 28. 9. There are 
more temptations and occasions unto that ,sin, publickly fdlowed of, than 
any necessity doth require ; the proper end of taverns, &c. being for the 
entertainment of strangers, which if they were improved to that end only, 
a far less number would suffice: But it is a common practice for town-dwel- 
lers, yea, and church-members to freijuent publick houses, and there to 
misspend precious tinie, unto the dishonour of the gospel, and the scandal- 
izing of others, who are by such exam|)les induced to sin against (iod. In 
which respect for church-members to be unnecessarily ia such houses, is 
sinful, scandalous, and provoking to God, 1 Cor. 8. 9, 10. Rom. 14. 21. 
Matth. 17. 27. and 18 7- 

And there are other hainnus breaches of the. seventh commandment. 
Temptations thereunto are become too common, viz. such as iminodest ap- 
parel, Prov. 7- 10. laying out of hair, borders, naked necRs, and arms, or 
which is more abominable naked breasts, and mixed dancings, light behav- 
ioin-, and expressions, sinful company-keeping with light and vain persons, 
unlawful gaming, an abundance uf idleness, which brought ruinating Judg- 
ment uj)on Sodom, and much more upon Jcriisak'/n, Ezck. l6. 49. and doth 
sorely threaten Neio-England, unless efiectual remedies be thoroughly and 
tiniously applied. 

IX. There is nuicli want of truth amongst men. Promise-breaking is a 
common sin. for which Ncw-Enqland doth hear ill abroad in the world. 
And the Lord hath ihreateneil for that transgression to give his people into 
the hands of their enemies, and that their dead bodies should be for meat 
unto til" fowls of heaven, and lo the beasts of the earth, which judgments 
nave bi en verified upon us, Jcr. .'J4. 18, 20. And false reports have l)een 
too couimon. yea, walking with reproaches and slanders, and that sometimes 
against the most faiihful and eminent servants of God. The Lord is not 
wont to suffer such iniquity to pass unpunished, Jer. \). 4, 5. Nmnb. l6. 41. 



Book v.] OR TflE fllSTORY OF NEW-ENGLANO. 277 

X. Inordinate affection unto the world. Idolatry is a God-provoking, 
judoment-procuring sin. And covetonsness is idolatry, EfJt 5. 5. There 
hath been in many professors an insatiable desire after land, and worldly 
accommodations; yea, so as to forsake churches and ordinances, and to live 
like heathen, only that so they might have elbow-room enongh.in the world. 
Farms, and merchandisings have been preferred bel'ore the things of God. 
In this respect the interest of New-England seemeth to be changed. We 
"differ from other out goings of our nation, in that it was not any worldly 
considerations that brought our fathers into this wilderness, but religion, even 
that so they might build a sanctuary unto the Lord's name ; whereas now 
religion is made subservient unto worldly interests. Such iniquity causeth 
war to be in the gates, and cities to be burnt up, Jmlg. 8. 5. Mat. 22. 5, 7- 
Wherefore, we cannot but solemnly bear witness against that practice of 
settling plantations without any ministry amongst them, which is to prefer 
the world before the gospel : When Lot did forsake the land of Canaan., 
and the church, which was ni! Abraham: s family, that so he might have bet- 
ter worldly accommod;»tions in Sodom, God tired him out of all, and he 
was constrained to leave his goodly pastures, which his heart (though other- 
wise a good man) was too mucli set upon. Moreover that many are under 
the prevailing power of the sin ui worldliness is evident. 

1. From that oppression which tiie land groaneth under. There are 
some traders, who sell their goods at excessive rates, day-labourers and me- 
chanicks aie unreasonable in their demands ; ^ea, there have been those that 
have dealt deceitfully and oppressively towards the heathen, among whom 
we live, whereby they have been scandalized and prejudiced against the 
name of Christ. The scripture doth frequently threaten judgments for the 
sin of oppression, and in special the oppressing sword cometh as a punish- 
ment of that evil, Ezek. 7- 11. and 22. 15. Proo. 28. 8. 7s. 5. 7. 

2. It is also evident, that men are under the prevailing power of a worldly 
spirit, by their strait-handedness, as to pubiick concernments. God by a 
continued series of providence, for many 3'ears, one after another, hath been 
blasting the fruits of the earth in a great measure; and this year more abun- 
dantly ; now, if we search the scriptures, we shall find that when the Lord 
hath been provoked to destroy the fruits of the earth, either by noxious crea- 
tures, or by his own immediate hand in blastings, or droughts, or excessive 
rains (all which judgments we have experience of) it hath been mostly for 
this sin of strait-handedness with reference unto pubiick and pious concerns, 
Hag. I. 9. Mai. 3. 8, 9, 11. As when peoples hearts and hands are en- 
larged upon these accounts, God hath promised (and is wont in his faithful 
providence to do accordingl}) to bless with outward plentv and prosperity. 
Prov. 3. 9, 10. Mai. 3. 10, 1 Cor. 9- C, 8, 10. 2 Chron. Si. 10, so on the 
other hand, when men withold more than is meet, the Lord sends impover- 
ishing judgments upon them, Prov. 11. 24. 

XI. Tliere hath been opposition to the work of reformation. Althougii 
the Lord hath been calling upon us, not only by the voice of his servants, but 
by awful judgments, that we should return unto him, who hath been smiting 
of us, and notwithstanding all the good law.s, that are established for the sup- 
pression of growing evils, yet men will not return e\fry one from his evil 
wa3'. There hath been great incorrigibleness under lesser judgments; sin 
and sinners have many advocates. They that have been zealous in bearing- 
witness against the sins of the times, have been reproached, and otlicr ways 
discouraged ; which arguoth an heart unwilling to reform. Hence the Lord's 
controversie is not yet done, but his hand is '^tretclied out sii!!. Ler. 26. 2.'i» 
24. ha. 12, 13. ' 



278 MAGNALIA (^IIRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

XII. A publick spirit is greatly wanting in tlie most of men. Few that 
are of Nekemiah's spirit, N(h. 0. IT), all seek their own, not the things that 
are Jesus Christ's; serving themselves upon Christ and his holy ordinances. 
Matters appertaining to the kingdom of Cod, are either not at all regarded, 
or not in the;, first place. Hence schools of learning and other publick con- 
cerns are in a languishing state. Hence also are unreasonable complaints 
and njurmtnings because of publick charges, which is a great sin ; ami a pri- 
vate self-seeking spirit, is one of those evils that renders the last times peri- 
lous, 2. Tim. 3. 1. 

\ni. There are sins against the gospel, whereby the Lord has been pro- 
voked. Ciirist is n<it prized and cndjraced in all his ofllces and ordi- 
nances as he ought to be. Manna hath been loathed, the pleasant land despis- 
ed, Paal. 10(). -4. Though the gospel and covenant of grace call upon men 
to repent, yet there are multitudes that refuse to repent, when the Lord doth 
vonclisale them time and means. No sins provoke the Lord more than im- 
penitency and unbelief, Jcr. 8. 6. Zec/i. 7- 11, 12, 13 hkb. 3. 17, IS. B.ev. 
'1. 21, 22. There is great unfruitfulness under the means of grace, and that 
brings the most descTlaiing judgments, 7.v«c. 5. 4, 5. Mat. 3. 10. and 21. 43. 

Finally ; there are several considerations, which seem to evidence, that the 
evils mentioned are the matters of the Lord's controversie. 

1. In that (though not as to all) as to most of them, they are sins which 
many are guilt}' of. , 

2. Sins which have been acknowledged before the Lord on days of humili- 
ation appointed by authority, and yet not reformed. 

3. ^Iany of them not punished (and some of them not punishable) by men, 
therefore the Lord himself doth punish for them. 

QuKSTiON II. — What is to be done, that so these ccih may be reformed? 

Answer. — I. It would tend mucli to promote the interest of reformation, 
if all that are, in place, above others, do as to themselves and families, be- 
come every way exeniplary. Moses being to reform others, begHu with what 
concerned himself and his. People are apt to follow the example of tiiose, 
that are above them, 2 Chron. 12. 1. Gal 2. 14. If then, there be a divided 
heart, or any other of the sins of the times, found in any degree among those 
(or any of them) that are leaders, either as to civil or ecclesiastical order, 
reformation there would have a great and happy influence upon many. 

II. In as much as the present standing generation (both as to leaders and 
people) is for the greater part another generation, than what was in AVw- 
England forty years ago, for us to declare our adherence to the faith and or- 
der of the gospel, according to what is in scripture expressed in the platform 
of discipline, may be likewise a good means both to recover those that have 
erred from the truth, and to prevent apostacy for the future. 

III. It is requisite that persons be not admitted unto communion in the 
Lord's supper, without making a personal and publick profession of their 
faith and repentance, either orally, or in some other way, so as shall be to the 
just satisfaction of the church; and that thcrelore both elders and churche.'; 
be duly watchl'ul and circujnspect in this matter, 1 Cor. 11. 28, 29- Acts 2. 
41, 42. Ezek. 44. 7,8,9- 

IV. In order to reformation, it is necessary that the discipline of Christ in 
the power of it should be upheld in the churches. It is evident from Christ'.^ 
epistles to the chinches in the lesser Asia, that the evils and degeneracies 
then prevailing among Christians, proceeded chiefly from the neglect of dis- 
cipline. It is a known and true observation, that remissness in the exerci>;e 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 279 

iif discipline, was altended with corruption of manners, and that did provoke 
the Enrd to give men up to strong dehisions in matters ofl'aith. Discipline 
is Cinisl's ordinance, both for tin; prevention of apostacy in churches, and to 
xecover them, when collapsed. And these New-JEiiglis/i churches are und.sr 
peculiar enga^^ements to he faithful unto Christ, and unto his truth in this mat- 
ter, by virtue of the church covenant, as also that the management of disci- 
pline according to the scrijiture, was the special design of our fathers in com- 
ing into this wilderness. The degeneracy of the rising generation (so much 
complained of) is in a great measure to be attributed inito neglects of this 
nature. If all church discipline, in these respects, were faithfully and dili- 
gently attended, not only towards parents, but also towards the children of 
the church, according to the rules of Christ, we may hope that the sunk and 
dying interest of religion will be revived, and a world of sin prevented for the 
future ; and that disputes respecting the subjects of baptism, would be com- 
fortably issued. 

V. it is requisite that utmost endeavours should be used, in order unto a full 
supply of officers in the churches, according to Christ's institution. The de- 
fect of these churches, on this account, is very lamentable, there being in most 
of the churches only one teaching officer, fur the burden of the whole congre- 
(^ation to lye upon. The Lord Clirist would not have instituted pastors, 
teachers, ruling-elders (nor the apostles have ordaine<l elders in every church, 
Acts 14. 23. Titus 1. O.J if he had not seen there was need of them for the 
good of his people ; and therefore for men to think, they can do well enough 
without them, is both to break the second commandment, and to reflect uf)on 
the wisdom of Christ, as if he did appoint unnecessary officers in his church. 
Experience hath evinced, that personal instruction and discipline, hath been 
an happy means to reform degenerated congregations ; yea, and owned by 
the Lord for the conversion of many souls: but where there are great congre- 
gations, it is impossible for one man, besides ids labours in publick fully to 
attend these other things of great importance, and necessary to be done in or- 
der to an effectual reformation of families and congregations. 

VL It is incumbent on the magistrate to take care that these officers have 
due encouragement and maintenance afforded to them. It is high injustice 
and oppression, yea a sin, tliat cries in the Lord's ears for judgment, when 
wages are witheld from faithful and diligent labours, Jainea 5. 4. And if it be 
so to those that labom- about carnal things, much more as to those who labour 
tiay and night, about the spiritual, and eternal welfare of souls, 1 Cur. 9. H- 
13, 14. And the scriptineis express, that not only the members of churches, 
but all that are taught in the word are bound to coninnmicate to him that 
teacheth in all good things. Gal. 6. 4. Luhe 10. 7 1 Tim 5. 17, 18- If 
therefore people be unwilling, to do what justice and reason calls for, the ma- 
gistrate is to see them do their duty in this matter. Wherefore, magistrates, 
and that in srri[)tures referring to the days of the New-Testament, are said to 
he the churches nursing fathers, h 49. 23. For that it concerns them to lake 
rare, that the churches be fed with the bread and water of life The magis- 
trate is to be a keeper of both tables, which as a magistrate he cannot be, if 
he do not promote the interest of reli<rion, by all those means, which are of 
the Lonl's appointment. And we hud in scripture, that when the Lord's 
ministers have been forced to neglect the house of God, an go every one into 
the field (as too much of:hathaih been amongst us) because the people did 
not allow them that maintenance, which was necessary, the magistrate did 
look upon himself as concerned to effect a reformation, Neh 13. lO. 

VIl. Due care and faithfulness with respect unto the establishment and ex- 
(^'•iition of wholesome laws, would very much promote (he interest of refor- 



280 iMAGNALlA ClIRISTI AIMKRICANA : [Book v 

matioii. If there be no laws established in the common wealth, but what there 
is scripture wanant for, and those laws so worded as that they nia\' not be- 
come a snare unto any that are bound lo animadvert upon the violaters of 
tbeni, and that then they be impartiidly executed ; profaneuess, heresie. 
schism, disorders in famili<'s, towns, churches would be happily prevented 
and reformed In special it is necessary that those laws for rel'orniation oi 
provokii^t; evils enacted and emitted by the aeneral court, in the day of oui 
calamity should be duly considered lest we become guilty of dissembling and 
dallyint: with the Almighty, and thereby sin and wrath be autijmented upon us : 
in particular those laws, w hich respect the regulation of houses for publick 
entertainment, that the number of such houses do not exceed what is necessa- 
ry, nor any so entrusted but persons of known ap|)roved piety and fidelity, and 
that inhabitants be proliibited drinking in sucii houses, and those that shall 
without licence from authority sell any sort of strong drink, be exemplarily 
punished. And if withal inferior officers, constables and tithing men, be cho- 
sen constantly of the ablest and most prudent in tlie place, authorized and 
sworn to a faithful discharge of their respective trusts, and duly encouraged 
in their just informations against any, that shall transgress the laws so estab- 
lished, we may ho])e that much of that profaneness which doth threaten the 
ruiue of the uprising generation will be prevented. 

Vlli. Solenuiaud explicit renewal of covenant is a sciipture expedient for 
reformation. We seldom read of anysoleum reformation, but it was accom- 
plished in this way, as the scripture dotli abundantly declare and testifie. 
And as the judgments which befel the Lord's people of old are recorded for 
our admonition, 1. Cor. 10. 11. so the course, which they did (according to 
God) observe, in order to reformation, and averting (hose judgments, is re- 
corded for our imitation, and this was an explicit renovation of covenant. 
And that the Lord doth call us to this work, these considerations seem to 
evince. 1. If implicit renewal of covenant be an expedient for reforniation, 
and to divert impending wrath and judgment, then much more an explicit re- 
newal is so ; but the first of these is indubitable. In prayer, and more espe- 
cially, on days of solemn humiliation before the Lord, there is an implicit re- 
newal of covenant, and yet the very dictates of natural conscience put men 
upon such duties, when they are apprehensive of a day of wrath approaching. 
If we may not renew our covenants with (nnl, for fear lest men should not be 
true and laithful in doing what they promise, then we must not observe days 
of firsting and prayer; which none will say. 2. When the church was over- 
run wiili idolatry and superstition, those whom the Lord raised up as reform- 
ers put them upon solemn renewal of covenant. So Asa, Jpkoshaphat.,Hez- 
f'hiiilt, Joaiah. I>y a |>arity of reason, when churches are over-grown with 
worldliness, (which is spiritual idnlulry) ami other corruptions, the same 
course may and should be observed in order to reformation, nay, .". We find 
in scripture, that when corruption in manners (ihoueh not in worship) hath 
prevailed in the church, renovation of covenant hath been the expedient, 
whereby reformation hath been attempted, and in some measure attained. 

The Jews have dreaded the sin of idolatry, ever since \\\q Bahyloinaa cap- 
tivity, Jnhn 8. 41. IJut in Ezrah and NvhcmidlCH time, too nuuh sensuality 
and Sabbath-breaking, oppression, strait-handt:dness respecting the publick 
worship of (lod the very same sins that are found with us) were common pre- 
vailing iniquities. Therefore did th(ise relormers put them upon renewing their 
covenant, and solenmly to jiromise God that they would endeavour not to of- 
fend by those evils, as formerly, Ezr. 10. .". Ar//. 5. 12, 13. and 10. per totim. 
and 13. J .'>. 4. The tilings which are mentioned in the .scriptme, as grounds 
9f renewing coveuant. are applicable imto us, e.g. The averting of divine 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 281 

wrath is expressed, as a sufficient reason for attendance unto this duty, 2 Chi 
29. 10. Ezra 10. 14. Again being circumstanced with diflicuUies and dis- 
tresses is mentioned as the ground of explicit renovation of covenant, Neh. 9- 
9. 38. Hence the Lord's servants, when so circumstanced have been wont 
to make solemn vows (and that is an express covenanting) Gen. 2%. 20,21. 
Judg. 11. 30. Numb. 21. 1,2. Now that clouds of wrath are hanging over 
these churches every one seeth ; and that we are circumstanced with some 
distressing difficulties is sufficienth' known. This consideration alone might 
be enough to put us upon more solemn engagements unto the Lord our God. 
3. Men are hereby brought under a stronger obligation unto better obedience. 
There is an awe of God upon the consciences of men, when so obliged. As 
it is in respect of oaths, they that have any conscience in them, when under 
SHch bonds are afraid to violate them. Some that are but legalists and hypo- 
crites, yet solemn covenants with God have such an awe upon conscience, as 
to enforce them unto an outward reformation, and that doth divert temporal 
judgments. And they that are sincere, will thereby be engaged unto a more 
close and holy walking before the Lord, and so become more eminently bles- 
sings unto the societies, and places, whereto they do belong. 6. This way is 
to prevent (and therefore also to recover out of) apostacy. In this respect, 
although there were no visible degeneracy amongst us. yet this renovation of 
covenant might be of singular advantage. There was no publick idolatry (or 
other transgression) allowed of in the days of Joshua, Judg. 2. 7- Josh. 23. 8. 
yet did Joshua perswade the children of hrael to renew their covenant ; 
doubtless that so he might thereby restrain them from future idolatry and 
apostacy, Josh. 24. 25. 

Lastly, The churches, wi]ich have lately and solemnly attended this scrip- 
ture expedient for reformation, have experienced the presence of God with 
them, signally owning them therein ; how much more might a blessing be ex- 
pected, should there be a general concurrence in this matter ? 

IX. In renewing of covenant, it is needful that the sins of tlie times should 
be engaged against, and reformation thereof (in the name and by the help of 
Christ) promised before the Lord, Ezra 10. 3. ISeh. 5. 12, 13. and chap. 10. 

X. It seems to be most conducive unto editlcation and reformation, that in 
renewing covenant such things as are clear and indisputable be expressed, 
that so all the churches may agree in covenanting to promote the interest of 
holiness and close walking with God, 

XI. As an expedient for reformation, it is good, that eflVctual care should 
be taken, respecting schools of learning. The interest of religion and good 
literature have been wont to rise and fall together. We read in scripture of 
masters and scholars, and of schools and colleges, 1 Chron. 25. S. Mai. 2. 12. 
Acts 19- 9. and 22. 3. And the most eminent reformers amongst the Lord's 
people of old, thought it their concern to erect arid ujdiold them. Was not 
.Saw we/ (that great reformer) president ('f the college at Nayoth, 1 Sam. IQ. 
IS, 19- and is thought to be one of the iirst founders of colleges. Did not 
Elijah and Elisha, restore the schools erected in the land of hrael? And 
Josiah (another great reformer) shewed respect to the college at Jerusalem, 
I Kings 22. 14. Ecclesiastical story informs tliat great care was taken by the 
apostles, and their immediate successors, for the settling of schools in all pla- 
ces, where the gospel had been preached, that so the interest of religion might 
be preserved, and the truth propagated to succeeding generations. It is men- 
tioned as one of the greatest mercies, that ever God bestowed upon his people 
fsi-ael, ihni he raised up their sons for prophets, y^/H06^ 2. 11. which hath re- 
spect to their education in schools of learning. And we have all cause to 
bless God, that put it into the hearts of our fathers to take care concerning this 

VOL. IL 36 



282 JMAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v- 

matter. For these churches had been in n state most clrj)lnrablo, if the Lor^ 
had not blessed th»' college, so as from tiience to supply most of the churches, 
as at this day. When Nnr-Eti,cflon(l was poor, and we were but Cmv in nun)- 
ber comparatively, there was a spirit to cucourasfp learning and the college 
was full of students, whom God hnth made blessings, not only in this, but in 
other lands; but it is deeply (o be lameiUed that now when we are become 
many, and more able than at our beginnings, that society, and other inferior 
schools are in such a low and languishing state. Wherefore, as we desire that 
reformation and relitrion should iiourish, it concerns us to endeavour that both 
the college, and all oUier schools of learning in every place, be duly inspected 
and encouraged. 

XII. In as much as a thorough and hearty reformation is necessary, in or- 
der to obtaining peace with God Jer 3. 10. and all outward means will be In- 
cfl'ecturil unto that end, except the Lord pour down his spirit from on high ; it 
doth, therefore, concern us to cry mightily unto (jod,both in ordinary and ex- 
traordinary manner, that he would be pleased to rain down righteousness up- 
on us, Im. 32. 15 Hns. 10. 12. Ezck. 3'J. 2'J. Luke 11. 13. Anuni. 



Remarks ujwn the Reforming Synod 

^. 1. That a reforming .s//??or7 could not accomplish an universal reform- 
ation o^ provoking evils in the country, has been acknowledged as a matter 
of most sensible observation : and the increased frowns of Heaven upon the 
country, since that svnod, have been but agreeable to such an increase of prov- 
ocation. Alas ! how many instances have wc seen, upon which our God 
might say unto us. When I would hrtre healed New-England, then it's ini- 
quities were but the more diseovered .' Nevertheless, it must be mentioned unto 
the glory of God, that the admonitions of the synod, were not without very 
desirable effects, upon many of his people Faithlul ministers were thereby 
strengthened in lilting up their voices like trumpets to shew us onr transgret^- 
sions'^an.d onr sinn, a"nd private cliristiniis were awakened unto an exacter 
walk with God But of all the elVects that followed upon the synod, there was 
none more comprehensive and significant than the renewal nf covenant, 
which was attended by many of our churches, in pursuance of tiie laigest ar- 
ticle of the reforming expedients, which liad been reconiniended. In this re- 
nerval of covenant, there were some churches, who, from I know not what 
objections, of there being no express warrant for it in the Netv Testament, 
and, their doing if, implieitlij in every act of divine worship, and, the ima^ 
ginari/ danger of innovuiions, would not comply with the advice of the 
synod: but all tlie virgins were not so sleepy, and very remarkable was the 
blessing of God upon the churches, which did not so s/crp, not only by a 
creat advancement oi holiness in the people, who in their lesser societies for 
*he exercises of religion, as well as in their privacies vind retirements often 
perused the copies of their covenants; but also by a great addition of con- 
verts, unto their hoh/ fellowship. In short, many of the churches, under the 
conduct oflheir holy pastors, having on previous days of fasting and prayer 
set apart for tliat purpose, cor.sideied the expectations of God concerning 
them they were willing anew, to declare then- most explidf consent unto the 
covenant of grace, and most explicitly to engage a growing waiehfnlness in 
such duties of the covenant, as were more peculiarly accommodated imto 
their present circumstances. When their preparatory church-meetings, had 
produced a concurrence in this resolution, they publickly devoted another 



Book v.] OR TH£ HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND. 28a 

day to fasting aiul prayer, « hereat a vast confluence of other neighbours were 
usually present ', and on this day tlie minister of the place having in the tore- 
noon pray'd and preach'd suitably to tlie occasion, he proceeded then to read 
the covenant; whereunto the assent of the churches was then expressed, by 
the brethren lifting up their hands, and by the women only standing up ; 
and tho' in some churches none but the communicants, yet in others those al- 
so, which we call the children of the chnrch, were actively concerned iu 
these transactions. But ordinarily in the afternoon, some other minister pray- 
ed and preached and inculcated the covenant obligations : and many thou- 
sands of spectators will testifie, that they never saw the special presence of 
the great God our Saviour, more notably discovered, than in the solemnities 
of these opportunities. 

'^. 2 The forms used by the several churches in the renetcal of covenant, 
were not in all points the same, nor did our churches at all find that this vari- 
fonnity was an inconvenience ; but that it gave them a liberty and advan- 
tage to consult their own edification, by adapting their forms unto their own 
special circumstances. However the form which, with little variation, was 
most used shall be now recited. 

' We, who thro'' the exceeding riches of the grace and patience of God, 
' do continue to be a church of Christ, being now a>isemblc.d in the hohj 
^presence of God, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, after humble con- 
'fession of our manifold breaches of the covenant, bifure the Lord our God, 
^ and earnest supj)lication of pardoning mercy thro^ the blood of Christy 
' and deep acknowledgment of our great unworthiness to be own'd to be the 
' Lord's covenant-jyeoplc ; also acknoicledging our own inability to keep 
' covenant with God or to perform anif spiritual duty tinless the Lord Jesus 
' do enable us thereto by his Sjnrit dwelling in us ; and being awfully sen- 
' sible, that it is a dreadful thing for sinful dust and ashes personally to 

* transact ivith the infinitely glorious Majesty of Heaven and Earth ; we do 
' in humble confidence of his gracious assistance and acceptance thro^ 

* Christ, each one of us, for ourselves, a7id jointly as a church of the living 
'■ God, and one with another, in manner following, i. e. 

' We do give up ourselves to that God, whose name alone is Jehovah^ 
' Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the one only true and living God, and to our 
' blessed Lord Jesus Christ, as our only blesserl Saviour, prophet, priest and 
' king, over our souls, and only mediator of the covenant of grace, promis- 
' ing(by the help of his spirit and grace) to cleave unto God, as our chief 
' good, and to the Lord Jesus Christ, by faith, and gospel-obedience, as be- 

* Cometh his covenant-people tor ever. AVe do also give up our offspring un- 
' to God in Jesus Christ, avouching the Lord to be our God, ixnd the God of 
'our child?-en, cLT\(i ourselves with our children to be his people ; humbly 
' adoring the grace of God, that we and our offsj)ring with us may be looked 
"■ upon to be the Lord's. 

' We do, also, give up ourselves one to another in the Lord, and accord- 
' ing to the will of God; A^ely covenanting and binding ourselves to walk 
' together as a right ordered congregation and church of Christ, in ;dl the 
' ways of his worship, according to the holy rules ofthe word of God ; prom- 
' ising in brotherly love to watch over one another's souls faithfully, and to 
' submit ourselves unto the discipline mvi government of Christ in his church, 
' and duly to attend all those ordinances, which Christ hath instituted in his 
" churcli, and commanded to be atteoded by his people, according to the or- 
' der ofthe gospel, and degrees of communion, unto which we have attained; 
' not resting in measures attained, but pressing after all. And whereas the 
' messengers oi'thr'ie chm-ches, who have isiet together in the name of Christ. 



284 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA : [Book v. 

' to enquire info the reason of God's controversie with his people, have tak- 
' en notice of many provoking evils, as tlie procuring causes of the Judgments 
' of God upon New-England; so far as we or any of ns have been guiUy of 

• provoking God by any sin therein discovered to us, we desire from our 
' hearts to bewail it before the Lord, and humbly to entreat for pardoning 

• mercy, for the sake of the blood of t/ie everlasting covenant. And as an ex- 
' pedient to the 7-eforniation of those evils, or whatsoever else, have provoked 
' the eyes cf God's glory amongst us, we do freely engage and promise, as \a 
' the presence of God ; 

' First, That we will (Christ's helping) endeavour every one of us to re- 
\form our heart and life, by seeking to mortifieall our sins, and labouring to 
' walk mcue closely witli (Jod, than ever yet we have done; and will con- 

• tinueto worship God in publick, private, secret; and this without formality 

• or hypocrisie : and more fully and faitliftjlly tiian heretofore, to discharge all 

• covenant duties, one to another in church communion. 

' Secondly, To walk before God in our houses, nnth a perfect heart, and 
' that we will uphold the worship of God therein continually, according as he 
' in his word doth require; both in respect of prai/cr and reading the scrip- 

• tures, that so the word of God may dwell richly in us : and we will do what 
- in us lies to bring up our children for Christ, that they may be such as have 
' the Lord's name put upon them b}' a solemn dedication to God in Christ, 

ought to be. And will therefore (as need shall be) catechise, exhort and 

• charge them to the fear of the Lord ; and endeavour to set an holy example 
' before them, and be much in prayer for their conversion and salvation. 

' Thirdly, To endeavour to be pure from the sins of the times, especially 
■ those sins, which have been by the late si/nod solemnly declared and evi- 
' denced to be the evils that have brought the judgmonls of God upon Ncw- 
' England ; and in our places to endeavour the suppression thereof, and be 
' careful so to walk, as that we may not give occasion to others to sin, or 
" s}»eak evil of our holy profession. 

' Now that we may observe and keep this sacred covenant and all the 

• branches of it inviolable for ever, we desire to deny ourselves and to depend 
"' wholly upon the poiccr of the eternal Spirit of Grace, and on the free mer- 

• cy of God, and merit of Christ .Tesus : and where we shall fail, there to 
■• wait upon the Lord Jesus for pardon, acceptance, and healing for his name's 

• sake.' 

§. 3. The Dlossachusett colon\- was not alone, in such essays of reforma' 
tion : but the colonies of Pli/moufft and Connecticut shewed themselves in 
like manner concerned: that they might avert the tokens of the divine dis- 
pleasure, whereat thejj who dwelt in these tittermost parts were afraid. The 
rulers, both in church and state, had their serious deliberations with one an- 
other, and they together enquired of the Lord, at the oracle of his written 
word, what might be the grounds of the divine controversie The ministers 
drew up the results of their deliberations, which {he 7uagistrates recommend- 
ed unto the consideration of the inhabitants in the several jurisdictions. The 
/josio?** of the churches, hence took occasion, in their lively sermoiis, to pro- 
secute the ends of these admonitions ; and some of them, reduced their in- 
structions into a catechetical UK thod, that so the young people in their con- 
gregations, might echo back, upon fit questions, those things which were 
needful to be known and to be done, relating to the reformation of the land. 
Thus particularly, did that most worthy man, Mr. James Fitch, at Norwich ; 
who has obliged more than his whole colony, by suffering to be published (as 
well as another elaborate catechism, containing, a hodi/ of diviniti/) in form 
of a catechism, an cxphmation of the solemn advice, recommended by tjie 



Book v.] OR THE HISTORY OF NEW-ENGLAND 285 

council of the colony to the inhabitants, respecting the reformation of those 
eirils, 2vhich have been the procuring cause of the late judgments upon New- 
England. 

<§.. 4. Our manifold indispositions to recover the dying^oj/'er of godlingss, 
were punished with successive calamities; under all of which our apostacies 
from that godliness have rather proceeded than abated. Although there hath 
been a glorious ^ro/ess/on of religion made by the body of this people unto 
this day ; yea, and although there be thousands which hy heeping their hearts 
tcith all diligence, and by ordering their conversations aright, jastifie their 
profession, yet the Dumber of them that so strictly walk loith God, has been 
wofully decaying. The old spirit of NeiP-England hath been sensibly going 
out of the world, as the old saints in whom it was, have gone; and instead 
thereof the spirit of the world with a lamentable neglect of strict piety, has 
crept in upon the rising generation. At last, the country by some changes 
passing over it, was thrown into a condition, in which not only the pasto7'S. 
without whoni no reformation is to be hoped, were miserabl}' cripled as to 
the doing of any notable thing in reforming, but also the churches were many 
ways uncapable of doing any general thing to retrieve our growing defec- 
tions. However, when the compassion of God by strange providences, fetch- 
ed the country out of that condition, the general court, returning to the exer- 
eise of their former authority, were willing to shew their sense of the present 
circumstances, by publishing the following instrument. 

By the Governour and General Court of the Colony of the Massachusetts^ 
Bay in New-England. 

It having been a thing too sensible and obvious, to escape the observa- 
tion of all, who are not wholly strangers in our Israel ; that this poor land 
hath laboured under a long series of afflictions, and calamities, whereby we 
have suflered successively in all our precious and pleasant things, and have 
seen the anger of the righteous God against us, expressed in characters, 
which ought to be as terrible, as they must needs be visible unto us ; it hav- 
ing also both by the testimonies of those that after the most humble and ex- 
act enquiries into the mind of God, have discovered the same unto us, and 
by their own general and repeated confessions, become undeniable ; that it 
corruption of manners, attended with inexcusable degeneracies and apois- 
tacies, found in too many of this people, is the cause of that controversie, 
which the God of our fathers has, for many years been maintaining with us; 
It being likewise at this day, such a probation-time with all Netv-England 
as this country has never before seen from the first foundation of it, and thf:? 
judgments of that Holy God, who hath beheld, how incorrigible we have 
hiiherto been, under all his dispensations, now arriving to such an extremity, 
that the ax is laid to the root of the trees, and we are in eminent danger of 
perishing, if a speedy reformation of our provoking evils prevent it not ; 
This Court have therefore thought it needful to preface their other endeav- 
ours for the publick welfare, with a very solemn adinonition unto this whole 
people, that they every where give demonstrations of a thorough repentance, 
without which we have little reason to hope for any good success in oui 
affairs. 

Wherefore, it is ordered that the laws of this colony against ince, and all ' 
sorts oi debauchery and profaneness (which laws have too much lost their 
edge by the late interruption of the government) be now faithfully and vig- 
orously put in execution ; particularly the laws against blasphemy , cursing. 
prophane-swearing, lying, nnlaioful-g anting, sabbath-breaking, idleness: 



286 MAGNALIA CHRISTI AMERICANA: ' [Book v. 

driinkenness, uticleanness. and all the enticements and nurseries of sucji im- 
pieties : Together with all other the wholsome Icaos and orders agreeable to 
the present circumstances of the country ; by the exe