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Sauti's arrival at the wooJs of Naimisha . 

The desire of the Rishis to hear the Mahabharata 

Invocation to Isana , 

The order of creation 

Vyasa's desire to publish tiie Bharata 

The Graud-sire comes to him 

Ganesa undertakes to write the BhS-rata 

Sauti's praise of the Bharata , 

Dhritarashtra's lamentations 

Sanja}a's consolations to Dhritarashtra . 

Sauti's eulogies on the study of the Bharata 

The history of Samantapanchaka 

Explanation of terms indicating the divisions of an army 

Parva Sangraha, 
Summary of the contents of the Eighteen main Parvas 

Pausya Parva. 

Curse on Janamejaya 

Measures adopted by him to evade it 

Story of the sage Dhaumya 

Story of Aruni 

Story of Upamanyu . , 

Story of Veda 

Story of Utanka 

Story of Paushya 

Utanka's arrival at Janamejaya's court 

His incitement of Jiuiamejaya against Takshaka 

PaiUoma Parva. 

The Rishis wait for Saunaka . » 

Genealogy of the Bhargava raae , 

Story of Puloma . . . 

Story of the birth of Cbyavana 

Bhrigu'a curse on Agui ^ , 











Hymn to Agnl b}* Brahma . * 

History of -Rtiru . . . 

Story of the Dimduva . , 

Astika Parva. 

Story of Jaratkaru . , * 

Birth of Astika . i 

History of Kadru and Vinata , . 

Churning of the Ocean 

The wager between Kadru and Vinata 

Kadru's curse on the snakes 

Kadru and Vinata go to see Uchchaisravas, and 

see the Ocean . . . 

Birth of Gadura 
Hymn to Gadura 
Wrath of the Sun, and the appointment of Aruna 

as his charioteer . . . 

Hymn to Indra by Kadru 
Gadura's inquiry as to the cause of his bondage 
Gadura devisee means to bring the Amrita 
Of Kasyapa and Gadura 
Story of the Elephant and the Tortoise . 
Bad omens are seen by the gods and their preparation 

for battle 
Battle of the gods with Gadura t 

Gadura takes away the Amrita 
Of Gadura and Vishnu 
The mutual grant of boons . • 

Conversation of Indra with Gadura and Gadura's 

obtaining the name of Suparna 
Indra steals the Amrita from the snakes 
The cleaving of their tongues . 
Enumeration of the names of the chief serpents 
Asceticism of Sesha , 
Sesha obtains boons from Brahma 
Consultation of the snakes on the subject of their 

mother'a curse , « , 















The snakes bring up Jaratkaru * I 120 

Parikshit's hunt . , * » 121 

The curse on Parikshit . . . 124< 

Conversation between Sringin and Samika , 125 

Despatch by Samika of a disciple to Parikshit . 126 

Speech of Gaurmukha in the court of Parikshita . ib 

Parikshit takes counsel of his ministers . . 127 

Conference of Kasyapa and Takshaka . » 128 
Kasyapa desists on receiving money from Takshaka, 

from going to Parikshit's court . . 129 

Death of the king in consequence of Takshaka's bite 131 

Installation of Janamejaya as king . , ib 

History of Jaratkaru , i • 132 

His marriage » . . . 136 

Birth of Astika . . . . 140 

Janaraejaya's vow to celebrate the snake sacrifice . 146 

Preparations for the sacrifice . . 147 

Falling of the snakes into the sacrificial fire . 14«8 

Astika's arrival at the sacrifice ► . 152 

Staying of the sacrifice .. . • 159 

AcUvansavatarana Parva. 

Short history of the Paaliva anl Kara princes , 164 

Story of king tJparichara . . » 171 

Description of the Indraddhaja festival . » 172 

Origin of GlriicS and the king's marriage with her 174 

Story of Adrika ...» 175 

Story of Satyavati . . ♦ . 176 

The meeting of Parasara with Satyavati . , ib 

Birth of Dwaipayana . . • 177 

History of Animandavya . » • 178 
Histories of Kama, Vasudeva, Satyaki, Kritavarman, etc ib 
The revival of the Kshatriya order from the Brahmanas 181 

The over-burdened Earth goes to Brahma • 183 

The gods are enjoined to be incarnate , " ,. 184 



Sambhava Parva, 

Brief account of the origin of gods and all 

creatures on earth . . » . 185 

Birth of Bhrigu, and the genealogy of Adharma 

(unrighteousness) .... 191 

Genesis of the animals, etc . . , 192 

Previous liistory of Jarasandha, and others . 194 
Origin of Drona, Kripa, Dhritarashtra, Yudhishthira, 

and others .... 197 

History of Draupadi, Kunti, and Madri . . 201 

Story of Dushmanta . . r . 205 

He sees Sakuntala . ♦ » , 212 

Birth of Sakuntala . . . • 213 

Espousal by Dushmanta of Sakuntala . y 217 

Sakuntala gives birth to a son , . , 219 

She goes to her husband's home , , 220 

No recognition of her by Dushanta » . ib 

Her disappearance and the aerial voice , » 226 

Dushmanta recovers his lost wife and son » 227 

Installation of Bharata in the kingdom . , ib 

Account of the race of Prajapati . , 228 

Story of Pururavas .... 229 

Story of Nahusha . * . . 230 

Story of Yayati . . ► , ib 

Destruction of Kacha by the Danavas . . 234 

Sukra brinors back Kacha into life , . iib 

He is killed and revived a second time . . 235 

Curse on wine by Sukra . . « 237 

Sharmishtha throws Devayani into a well . 241 

Her rescue therefrom by Yayati . • 242 

Sarmistha becomes the maid-servant of Devayani . 246 

Yayati again sees Devayani . • , 247 

Yayati's marriage with Devayani . . 250 

Yayati marries Sharmishtha in secret . . 252 

Sharmishtha gives birth to three sons . i ib 

Devayani sees Sharmistha's sons, and becomes jealous ib 

Yaykti is cursed by Sukra . , . 254 



Piiru takes upon liimself the decrepitude of hia father 257 
Yayati takes back his decrepitude, and installs Puru 

on the throne .... 259 

Descendants of the ciu'sed Yadu and others » 260 

Ascension of Yayati to heaven , . 261 

His fall til ere from .... 264 

Yayati sees Ashtaka and others , » ib 

He re-ascendeth to heaven . , * 277 

Short history of the Paurava race , , 278 

Story of Mahabhisa ...» 288 

Story of Pratipa . . . . 290 

Birth of Shantanu . . . , 291 

Marriaofe of Shantanu with Gano-a . , 293 

History of the incarnation of the Vasus . » 294! 

Story of Shantanu .... 298 

Installation of Bhisma as the heir-apparenb . 301 

Sliantanu sees Satyavati and is enamoured of her ib 
Devavrata asks of Dasaraja his daughter on behalf 

of his father .... S03 

Devavrata receives the appellation of Bhisma . 305 
Shantanu begets offspring on Satyavati and goes to heaven ib 

Vichitravirya obtains the kingdom . » 306 
Bhisma carries away the daughters of the king 

of Kashi from their Saydmvara . , 307 

Bhisraa's encounter with the invited monarchs , 308 

Death of Vichitravirya . . ^ 311 

Conversation between Bhisma and Satayavati » ib 

Story of Jamadagni .... 313 

Story of Utathya . . , • , ib 

Story of Dirghatamag . . » 314 

Satyavati relates to Bhisma the birth of Vyasa . 317 

Origin of Dhritarashtra and others , , 321 

History of Gandhari . . , , 328 

History of Pritha . . , , 329 

Origin of Kama . . , , 330 

Sayamvara of Kunti .... 332 

Marriage of Pandu aod Madri . . » 334 

v5 Contents. 


Pandu'a retreat into the forest » ► I 336 

Marriage of Vidura . , , , 337 

Gaadhari brings forth a hundred sons . , 339 

The names of the hundred sons , ^ 342; 

Jjiyadratha marries Duhshala . . » ib 

How PSudu slew a Brahmana in the shape of a deer 343: 

The curse on Pandu » ► ► » 345^ 

Pandu's lamentations » . ^ 346 

His retirement iiito the woods with his wives . 34S 

Pandu enjoins upon Kunti to beget offspring by others 351 

The story of VyushiiasAva .. » ^ 353 

Origin of the institution of marriage , ^ 356 

Births of Yudhishthira and the rest . ► 359' 

Death of Pandu .... 36T 

Madri sacriftees herself on the funeral pyre of Pandu 369' 

Yudhishthira and his brothers come to Hastinapore ib 

Funeral obsequies of Pandu . , ». 372 

Sports of the Kurus and the Pandus » ► 374 

Bhima is poisoned by Duryodliana , » 37& 

Bhima goes to the region of the Nagas , » ib 

His return from the region of the Nagas • 379' 

Origin of Kripa and Kripi . , » 381 

History of Drona ...» 382 
Drona becomes the preceptor of the Kurus and the Pandus 391 

The princes begin to learn the use of arms . 392 

Arjuna's exceptional proficiency » • ib 

Story of Ekalavya . . ♦ . 393 

Drona tries his pupils . . . 396 

Arj una obtains the weapon called jBra/i»ia-sAira . 396 

Trial of the princes .... 399 

Duryodhana installs Kama on the throne of Anga 406 

Invasion of Panohala by the Kauravaa . . 408 
Arjuna takes Diupada captive and delivers him into the 

hands of his preceptor , . • 412 

Drona sets Daupada free . . . ib 

Installation. of Yudhishthira as the heir-apparent . 413 

Counsels of Kanika the politician » » 416 


Jatugriha Parva. 

Intrigues of Duryodhana and Sakani 
The exile of the Pandavas to Varanavata 
Duryodhana takes counsel with Purochana 
Vidura'e speech unto Yndhiehthira 
The arrival of the Paniavas at Varanavata 
Burning of the house of lac . » 

Fiiglit of the Paodavas to the forest 

Hidhnva-hadha Parva. 




Hldirav§, is inspired with desire on seeing Bhima . 447 

Bhima encounters Hidimva and slays him , 451 
Bhima goes to kill Hidimva and is dissuaded 

by Yudhishthira , . ^ . 454 

Hidirava takes Bhima with her , , 456 

Birth of Ghatotkacha . . . ib 

Vak-a-hadka Parza. 

The Pandavas dwell in. Ekachakra , . 459 

Life of the Pandavas at Ekachakra . . ib 
Bhima and Kunti hear the wail of the Brahmana 

and his wife . » * . 460 

Speech of the Brahmana . . . 461 

Speech of his wife . , « , 462 

Speech of his daughter . . . 465 

Converse of Kunti with the Brahmana . , 467 

Bhima's vow to slay the Rakshasa Vaka . , 470 

Bhima goes to Vaka with his food . . 472 

He fights with and slays Vaka . . , 473 
Return of Bhima dragging the body of Vaka 

to the town-gate .... 474 
Concourse of the citizens in the morning to see 

the body of the Rakshasa . . , ib 
Arrival of the Brahmanas of the town at the house 

where the Pandavas dwelt . . . 475 

Story of Bharadwaja .... 576 

Drona obtains all the weapons of Rama . , 477 

Drupada celebrates a sacrifice to obtain a sou , 481 



a Angara 



A son arises from the sacrificial fire 

Origin of Dnipadi 

Dhrishtadyumna learns the use of arms 

The PanJavas set out for Pauchala 

Their meeting with Vyasa 

On the way they meet with the Gandharv 

on the banks of the Ganges 
Fii'ht with the Gandharva 
The Gandharva's defeat 
The Gandharva exchanges gifts with Arj 
Story of Taj)ati 

King Saravarana sees Tapati . 
Disappearance of Tapati 
Tapati'a reappearance 
Tapati relates her history 
She again disappears . 
Marriage of Samvarana and Tapati 
Story of Vusishtha 
Story of Viswamitra . 
Viswamitra attempts to carry away by for 

Vasishtha's cow named Nandini 
Viswamitra' £j discomfiture at the hands the mlcchcha host 

sprung from the different parts of the cow's body 
His ascetic austerities 
Shaktri curses king Kalmashapada to be possessed 

with a Raksbasha .... 
A certain Brahmana asks the king for meat , 

The king gives him human flesh to eat . . " 

The king cursed by the Brahmana 
The Raksasha-possessed king devours Vasishtha's sons 
The Rishi resolves to kill himself 
Speech of Adrishyanti 

Vaahishta with his daughter-in-law sees Kalmashpala 
Kalmashapada is freed from the curse 
Birth of Parashara .... 
His intention of destroying all the worlds . 

Story of Kartavirya • « . i 





































The pergecution of the Bhrigu race I I 513 

History of Aurva . . . t . 514 

Origin of the vadava fire . . • 517 

Parashara celebrates the Rakshasa sacrifice . 518 

Pulastya and others stop it . . . 519 
Vashishta begets a son upon king Kalmashapada's wife 521 

The Pandavas take leave of Angaraparna . ib 

They appoint Dhaumya as their priest . , 522 

Saiuayamvara Parva. 

The Pandavas see Vyasa on their way to Panchala . 522 
Arriving at Panchala they dwell in the house of a potter 524 

Description of Draupadi's Swayamvara , , ib 
Enumeration of the princes that came to the Siuayamvara 527 

Krishna recognises the disguised Pandavas . 529 

The discomfiture of the kings in stringing the bow 530 

Kama is declared ineligible to bend the bow , ib 

The kings desist from stringing the bow . ib 

Arjuna goes towards the bow . , , ib 

The Brahmanas dissuade him . . , 531 

Arjuna strings the bow and hits the mark , 532 

The wrath of the invited kings , , 533 

The kings attempt to slay Drupada , , 534 

Arjuna and Bhima prepare for fight , . ib 

Krishna's recognition of them . . '. ib 

Arjuna fights with Kama and defeats him , 536 

Bhima fights with Shalya and overthrows him . 537 

The kings wonder at this . . . ib 

Krishna iiiduces the monarchs to abandon the fight 538 

Arjuna and Bhima depart with Draupadi . ib 

Kunti's anxiety . . . • ib 

Conversation of Kunti -with Yudhishthira . 539 

Yudhishthira asks Arjuna to marry Draupadi , ib 

Arjuna's reply . . . • Jb 

Rama and Krishna visit the Pandavas . . 540 
Dhrishtadyumna comes secretly to the abode of the potter 541 
The Pandavas talk on different subjects after having 

taken their meals . i i i ib 



Taivahika Parva. 

•Dliiishtadyumna haviug heard the talk of the Paiulavas 

informs Drnpada of it on his return . 
Drupada sends a priest to the Paadavas ", 
Speech of Yudhishthira 
Arrival of Drupada's messenger there 
The Pandavas go to the house of Dfupada 
Drupada interrogates the Pandavas with the view 

ascertaining their identity , 
Yudhishthira's reply , 
Drupada's joy there-ab 
His vow to restore the Pandavas 
Drupada expresses his intention of marrying his daughter 

to Arjuna * 

Drupada's conversation with Yudhishthira 
Arrival of Vyasa 

Story of Jatila , . • 

Kunti's expression of opinion . . 

Speech of Vyasa thereon 

Account of the sacrifice of the gods at the Naimishi 
The gods see a golden lotus 
Indra sees a female , . . 

ludra interrogates the female . 
He sees a young man at play with a young lady 
Indra and the young man interchange questions 

and answers 
Indra sees the former Indras 
Vyasa's speech 
Account of the origin of Valarama and Keshava 

from a couple of Narayana's hairs 
Prior history of the Pandavas and Draupadi 
Gifted with divine vision Draupada sees the Pandas 

in their native forms 
Former history of Draupadi 
Speech of Vjaea to Drupada 
Preparations for the nuptials 
The h\ meneal uesembly 

a forest 































"Consecutive marriages of the five 
Kunti blesses Draupadi . . 

•Krishna sends dower .... 

Vidurdgatnana Parva. 

Duryodhana hears of the marriage of the Pandavaa 

Vidura acquaints Dhritarashtra with it . 

Conference of Duryodhana and Dhritarashtra 

Kama's speech 

Bhisma's speech 

Drona's speech 

Kama's reply 

Speech of Vidura'' 

Speech of Dhritarashtra 

Vidura's departure for Panchala 

He sees the Pandavaa , 

Speech of Vidura to Drupada , , -, 

Rajyalav<i Parva. 

Drupada's reply . . , ^ 

Speech of Vasudeva .... 
Return of the Pandavas to flastina with the Consent 

of Krishna .... 

Speech of the citizens on seeing the Pindavas 
The Pandavas take half of the kingdom and enter 

The building of the city— its description 
Krishna and Valar^ma return to Dwaraka 
Arrival of Narada at the house of the Pandavas 
Story of Sunda and Upasunda . 
The Pandavas bind themselves with a rule in respect 

of Draupadi .... 

Arjunavanavasa Parva, 
The lives of the Pandavas at Khandavaprastha 
Arjuna violates the rule for rescuing the kine of a 


• • . 

Arj ana's voluntary exile 

















Marriage of Arjuna with Ulupi . ,' 595 

Arjima obtains Chitrjlngada . . . 598 
He rescues some Apsaras from a curse at the Pancha- 

tirtha ..... 599 

Arjuna sees Krishna at Prabhasha . . 602 
They both go to the Raivataka mountain for purposes 

of pleasure .... ib 
Arjuna goes to Dwaraka with Krishna, and puts up at the 

house of the latter , . . 603 

Suhhatlrdharana Parva. 

The festival called Vrishnandhaka on the Raivataka 

mountain. . i . . 603 

Arjuna sees Subhadra there . , e 604? 

He forcibly carries away Subhadra . » 606 
The Vrishnis prepare to fight with Arjuna and finally desist ib 

Harandhara^d Parva. 

Arjuna returns with Subhadra to Khandavaprastha 608 
Draupadi's speech to Arjuna , . . 609 
Krishna and Valarama and others come to Khandava- 
prastha with dowers . . . ib 
The festivitie3 at Indraprashta on the arrival of the 

Vrishnis and Andhakas . . . 610 

Birth of Abhimanyu . . , 612 

He learns the art of arms . . , ib 
The five sons of Draupadi . . . • 613 

Khmidava-daha Parva 

The administration of Yudhis-hthira . , 614 

Krishna and Arjuna goes to sport in the woods . 615 

Sports of the females . . , ib 

Arrival of Agni in the guise of a Brahmana . 616 

His suit with Krishna and Arjuna . . 617 

Anecdote of Swetaki . . . ib 
Varuna furnishes Krishna and Arjuna with cars, the 

discus, and the bow Gandiva . . 624 

Escape of Aswasena from the buruiug Khauiava . 628 



Fight of Badra and Arinna . ", 

Fight of Krishna and Arjuna with the celestials 
Defeat of the gods , , , 

Indra desists from fight , 

Conflagration of Khandava , , 

Flight of the Asura Maya , . 

Approach of Agni towards Maya to consume him 
Arjuna protects Maya ^ , 

Story of the Rishi Mandapala . 
Austerities of Mandapala . , 

Why he was deprived of the merit of his devotions 
Speech of the gods to Mandapala j 

He assumes the form of a bird ^ 

His hymn to Agni , , , 

Bestowal of a boon on him by Agni , 
History of his four sons . , 

Grant of boons by Indra to Arjuna and Krishna 











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Several persons of note and personages even in high rank, 
sympathising with the objects of the " Datavya Bharat Karj^a- 
lya," have from time to time recommended to me that the Ma- 
habharata, if translated into English, would, to quote the senti- 
ments of the Right Honorable the Marquis of Hartingtou, 
as conveyed to me in Mr. Rost's letter of the 6th of October, 
1882, and published at the time in nearly all the Indiau news- 
papers, " supply a want long felt and be a real boon to the ever- 
increasing band of students of Indian history and archaeology." 
These recommendations exactly falling in with the views 
entertained by me from some time past, have been taken into 
earnest consideration. The ancient literature of India is our 
glorious inheritance. In his letter to me Prof. Max Miiller 
remarks, " I expect the time will come Avhen every educated 
native will be as proud of his Mahabharata and Ramayana as 
Germans are of their Nibelunge, and Greeks,even modern Greeks, 
of their Homer." The vanity is excusable, if it were only 
vanity, that persuades a Hindu to seek the means of placing this 
splendid inheritance of his before the eyes of foreign nations, 
of foreigners particularly who from their culture are capable of 
appreciating and understanding it. But such an endeavour, if 
successful, may not satisfy vanity alone. It is really fraught 
with results of the utmost importance to the cause of historical 
and philological research, in fact, to the cause of Knowledge in 
all her principal departments. 

Apart from all these, there is another consideration the im- 
portance of which it is difficult to exaggerate. Providence in 
its inscrutable wisdom has linked the destiny of this country 
with that of an island in the remote west which, though unable 
to boast of a bright past, has, nevertheless, a splendid present, 
and, if signs are to be trusted, a more glorious future still. 
England, however, by her wise administration of this her ri- 
chest and most extensive dependency, has already ceased to be 
regarded in the light of a conquering power bent only upon 
self- aggrandisement at the expense of the children of the soil. 
Untrue to the traditions of Empire and the instincts of their 

[ 2 ] 

own better nature, individual Englishmen might now and tlicn 
advocate the policy of repression ; but, thank God, force has 
long ago ceased to be regarded as an efficacious instrument in 
the Government of two hundred million of human beings. In 
her gracious Proclamation, constituting the Charter of our 
liberties, the Queen-Emjaress of India enunciates tlie noblest 
principles of government, and confesses to her determination of 
founding her rule npon the love and gratitude of the people. 
Occasional lapses on the part of those in authority under her 
rnifdit produce temporary irritation, b^t the two races are daily 
approaching each other with fraternal feelings as best befit -th-s 
children of the same mother. Instead of looking upon the con- 
quered people as outer barbarians, tliose inautliority over them 
always manifest a sincere desire to enter into their feelings and 
understand their aspirations by personal converse and, what is 
certainly nTore efficacious in this line, -by a study of -their 
national literature. Professor Monier Williams in his preface to 
Dr. H. H. Milman's metrical translation of Kcdo-jjahhycmct, 
remarks, " Now that our Indian Empire has passed its firsfc 
great climacteric, and vast changes are being effected in its 
constitution, the value of Sanskrit to all preparing for the 
Civil Service * * * cannot be insisted on too forcibly. 
Its relations to'the spoken languages is not its only attraction. 
The study of Latin bears closely on Italian, and yet if the 
empire of Italy belonged to this country, Y/e should not attach 
more importance to proficiency in Latin than we do at present, 
because, in fact, the people who now speak Italian have little 
community of character with the Romans who once spoke Latin. 
Tlieir tastes, customs, habits of thoug-iit, laws, institutions, 
religion, and literature are all different. But in India the lapse 
of centuries causes little disturbance in the habits and charac- 
ter of the people, iiowever numerous and violent the political 
revolutions. " And again, " How is it, then, that knowing all 
this. Englishmen, with [ two hundred million of ] Indian 
fellow-subjects, have hitherto paid less attention to the study 
of this language, than other nations who have no material 
interests in the East ' " 

Since the time, however, that tlie Professor wrote, some- 

[ ^ I 

tiling has been done towards encon raging the study of Sanskrit 
by the Civil Servants of India. It isa matter of regret, how- 
ever, that tlie little that is acquired under compulsion while 
in course of training for the first test or the Departmental 
examinations, is rarely improved from a love of knowledge 
ill after life. The c<aiiso, however, is not far to seek. The 
study of Sanskrit is attended with difficulties that are nearly 
insuperable in tiie cas-e of tJie over-worked Indian official. 
Unless blessed with linguistic faculties of an exceptional nature, 
the little leisure that the Indian official might command, even 
if wholly devoted to the acquirement of Sanskrit, can scarcely 
produce desirable results.- Viewed also in the light of a mean 
to-an end, the end, viz,, of understanding the wishes and aspira- 
tions of the Indian races for purposes of better government, 
the study of Sanskrit may be dispensed with if all that is 
contained in tlie great Sanskrit works of antiquity becomes 
obtainable by Englishmen through the medium of translation. 
Any effort, therefor-e, that is mad'e towards unlocking Manu and 
Yiijnyavalkya, Vyasa and Valmiki, to Englishmen at home or 
iu India, can not but be regarded as a valuable contribution to 
the cause of good government. 

With regard to the Mahabha'rata in particular, on which, 
as remarked by Oriental scholars, Aryan poets and prose- 
wri'^ers of succeeding ages have drawn as on a national bank 
of unlimited resources, I amfiilly persuaded that the usefulness 
.of such a translation and its- gratuitous distribution in India 
and Europe (America also has been included at the suggestion 
of my friends) would recommend- itself to the patriotism of 
xay countrymen without the need of any eloquent elaboration. 
.It is impossible to suppose that the liberality of my country- 
m-en could have been exhausted by supporting the " Bharat 
Karyalya " for a period of seven years- only. The English 
.translation will cost, at a rough estimate, Rs. 100,000. After 
my experience of the li>berality ef my countrymen, this sum, 
apprently large though it be, seems^ to me to be a trifle. I pur- 
pose tlierefore ta publish an English translation of the Malia- 
bharata- in month I3' parts of ]0 forms each, octavo, demy, the 
nrst part of Avhich is issued herewith. 

[ 4 ] 

The present edition shall consist of 1250 copies. 250 copies 
are intended for distribution in India free of all charges, among 
the gentry, the aristocracy, and reigning chiefs ; 300 among 
Indian officials of the higher ranks ; 250 for distribution out 
of India, chiefly among the savants of Europe and America. 
200 copies must be reserved ( as experience has taught me ) for 
making up losses caused to recipients by negligence and in tran- 
sit. The remaining 250 copies shall be charged for at Ss 50 and 
SrS 65 per copy inclusive of postal costs, Rs 50 being payable 
by persons in India and Rs 65 by those in Europe and America. 
It is needless to say that the selection of recipients shall, in 
regard to the present publication, rest entirely with the Karya- 
laya. Any person desirous of taking a copy, but whose name 
may not be entered in the free list, may, if he likes, have his 
iiame registered in the list of those to whom the aforesaid 250 
copies are to be supplied for Rs 50 or 65 a copy. In case, however, 
of sheer inability on the part of these, copies may even be 
supplied, as long as available, at Eb 12 or Rs 25 according as 
the address is Indian or foreign. It is needles, however, to 
say that this last class of recipients must necessarily be very 

Since the foundation of the •' Datavya Bharat Karyalya," 
not a single copy of any of its publications has ever been parted 
with for price. The present departure, therefore, from the Kar- 
yalya's uniform practice, in regard to at least 250 copies of the 
projected publication, requires a word of explanation. During 
the last seven years I have found a few gentlemen evincing 
some reluctance in accepting in gift the publications of the 
" Bharata Karyalya, " although this latter is no institution be- 
longing to any private individual but is rather a national con- 
cern supported by a nation's patriotism. Many of the persons 
evincing such delicacy are too important to be overlooked in the 
distribution of our publications. It is to meet their case espe- 
cially that 250 copies of the proposed translation are reserved. 
These gentlemen might easily accept copies now, on pay- 
ment, which, as stated above, is Rs 50 in India and Rs 65 
out of India. So far as the " Bharata Karyalya, " however, 
is concerned; gentlemen taking copies on payment of the above 

C 5 1 

sum'?, without being looked upon as purchaserSj will be regarded 
as donors to the Karyal ya. 

Although in the collection of funds necessary for the 
accomplishment of the present scheme, my chief reliance is 
upon my own countrymen, yet in an undertaking of this 
nature the Bharat Karyalya can not very well refuse outside 
support, if only to make an insurance against failure. The 
Editor of the Sind Gazette, in reviewing the Karyalya's 
prospectus issued in March last, remarked " there are many 
" Natives and Europeans of culture who will view the scheme 
"in the highly favorable light in which it presents itself 
" to men so unlike as the Marquis of Hartington and Pro- 
*' fessor Max Muller, both of whom have given it their warm 
" support. The translation will cost the Bharat Karyalya some 
" Rs 100,000, and this is a large sum for even so influental and 
" wealthy a body to expend on such an object. But so brilliant 
" an instance of intellectual charity is certain to attract out- 
" side support, and, at the same time, it ought to have the 
*' effect of swelling the member-roll of the Society. ** While 
thanking the European Editor most sincerely for his kind words 
in reference to my scheme, I would observe that if that sche- 
me is rightly appreciated in Europe and America, I should not 
be justified in not accepting any offer of aid that is voluntarily 
made, or even in not seeking (actively, if need be) contributions 
to ensure success. Literature, in respect of its demand or use- 
fulness either, is, more than anything else in the world, a 
cosmopolitan concern. The productions of genius are the 
common inheritance of the world. Homer lived as much for 
Greeks, ancient or modern, as for Englishmen or Frenchmen, 
Germans or Italians. Valmiki and Vyasa lived as much for 
Hindus as for every race of men capable of understanding them. 


Impressed from my very youth with the desire of render- 
ing the great religious works of India easily accessible to ray 
countrymen from a hope that such a step, if accomplished, 
would, to a certain extent, counteract the gFowing scepticism 
and irreligion of the age, I nursed the wish for years in secret, 
my resources having been quite disproportionate to the grand- 
eur of the scheme. The occupation to which I betook my- 
self Avas that of a Book-seller and general Agent. Afrer some 
years of unremitting toil, I achieved a success in my business 
which, in the face of the keen competition of the times, I 
could consider as in every respect fair. I secured a competence 
upon which, if I liked, I could retire. But without doing 
anything of the kind, I resolved to carry out, of course to the 
extent of my means, the scheme I Imd always nursed regard- 
ing the great Sanskrit works of antiquity. I soon brought out 
an edition in Bengali of the Mahabharata, the great epic of 
Vyasa, a perfect storehouse of religious instruction im])arted 
not by dry precepts but enforced by the history of living 
men, princes and warriors, sages and hermits, in fact, of 
every specimen of humanity that can interest man in general. 
My edition consisted of 3,000 copies, and it took me a little 
more than seven years to complete it. The price I fixed for 
a copy, taking all circumstances into consideration, was Rs 42. 
although a little Avhile before certain dishonest recipients of 
Babu Kaliprasanna Singha's edition of the same work ( Babn 
Kaliprasanna Singha having distributed his edition gratis) had 
sold their copies for IjLs 60 ta 70 per copy in tlie open market. 

A little after my edition had been brought out, I was afflicted 
by a domestic calamity with the details of which I need not 
acquaint the reader. Suffice it to say that for some time 
I was like one demented. On the advice of friends and physi- 
cians, I tried the effect of a temporary separation from old 
sights and scenes. But mine was no disorder of the nerve.^^ 
that a change of climate or scene could do me any good, 
Mme Mas " a mind diseased, a rooted sorrow to be plucked from 

[ 7 ] 

the memory," and I stood in need of "some sweet oblivions nr>- 
tidote to cleanse the stuffed bosom of that perilous stuff which 
weighs upon the heart." My pui-poseless wanderings could be 
of no avail. At length I mustered determination enough to 
forget m.y sorrows. The desire that I had all along cherished 
of doino- something in my humble way towards counteracting 
the progress of irreligion by a circulation amongst my coun- 
trymen of the o-reat religious works of ancient India, and which 
had been only temix)rarily suspended during my affliction, 
returned to me with renewed vigor. Besides, during my 
purposeless wanderings through the Mofussil, I met with vari- 
ous perssns in humble stations of life to whom I Avas well 
knov/n by my previous publication of the Miihabharata, many 
of whom gave me to understand that my edition of the Maha- 
bharata though cheap in all conscience, was still out of the reach 
of persons of their class. They regretted that no cheaper edi- 
tion could be brought out to satisfy their thirst. Pondering 
upon all these circumstances, I retraced my way homewards. 
Coming back to my office, I took stock and found that after the 
sales ali'eady effected, about one thousand copies, more or less 
complete, ot the Mahabharata I had brought out, remained in 
my hands unsold. I had nobody to provide for in the world. 
My only daughter had been disposed of in marriage and 
she was happy with her husband 2>ossessing a decent indepen- 
dence. By that time I had also secured, from the profits of 
my concern, a sum tliat could secure me a competence for the 
rest of my days. Now was the the time, I thought, for making 
an attempt towards even a partial accomplishment of the de- 
sire I had all along cherished. The thousand copies of the 
Mahabharata that I had in my hands I began to distribute 
gratis amongst my countrymen. 

My ill-digested project, however, soon became a failure, 
I was not very discriminate in the selection of recipients. My 
simplicity was taken advantage of by a number of persons 
whom I should not have trusted. These obtaining copies from 
me gratis began to sell them for price in the market. Experi- 
ence made me wise, but the wisdom came too late. The copies 
I had in my hands had all been exhausted. 

C 8 ] 

It was at this time that I began to mature some plan wherea 
by the desire I cherished could be carried out without designing 
persons being able to take any undue advantage. After 
much deliberation, I succeeded in forming a plan which when 
submitted to my friends was fully approved of by them. The 
details of this plan will appear from the sequel. 

My plan being matured, I resolved to bring out a second 
edition of the Mahabharata, the whole intended for gratuitous 
distribution, subject, of course, to proper restrictions. I selected 
the Mahabharata in particular, for more reasons than one. The 
editions of the Mahabharata brought out under the auspices of 
the Maharaja of Burdwan and the late Babu Kali Prasanna 
Singha, and distributed gratis, had comprised a few thousand 
copies utterly inadequate to satisfy the public demand. The 
manner also in which these copies had been distributed preclu- 
ded the possibility of the great body of Mofussil readers being 
benefitted to any considerable extent. It would seem, besides, 
that such gratuitous distribution by the Maharaja of Burdwan 
and Babu Kali Prasanna Singha by its very insufficiency had 
tended more to tantalize the public than allay its thirst for the 
ancient literature of India. 

In view, therefore, of tliis thirst for the ancient literature 
of our Father-land, — a thirst that could not but inspire feelings 
of pride in every patriotic bosom, feelings also that were 
particularly gratifying to me on account of the anxiety I 
had entertained at the sight of the growing irreligiousness of 
a portion of my countrymen, I resolved to establish a permanent 
Institution for the gratuitous distribution of the great reli- 
gious works of ancient India. In this connection, as offering a 
ground of utility that would recommend itself more generally, 
I may again quote Professor Max Muller. " Printing " says he, 
"is now the only means of saving your Sanskrit literature from 
inevitable destruction. Many books which existed one or two 
centuries ago, are now lost, and so it will be with the rest, unless 
you establish Native Printing Presses, and print your old texts." 
The fruit then of my resolution has been the " Datavya 
Bharata Karyalya. " I felt, from the beginning, that such an 
institution, to be successful, would require large funds. The suns 

[ 9 3 

I could devote to the purpose would be quite inadequate. Bub 
I was persuaded that of all countries in the world, India is 
pre-eminently the land of charity. The modes in Avhich her 
charity exhibits itself might not be in accordance with the 
dictates of the political economy that is now in vogue in the 
West. But of the measure of that charity and. of its disin- 
terested character, there could be no question. I was persua- 
ded that an appeal to my countrymen giving away their thou- 
sands at the beck of officials for the accomplishment of schemes 
of doubtful utility, could not fail to be responded to . Such 
an appeal was made, and with what success is already before 
the public. " I am particularly glad to see, " again remarks 
the Professor quoted above, "that you do all that you are doing 
with the help of your own countrymen. That is the right way 
to go to work. " For the success achieved small credit is due to 
me. The credit belongs almost whollj' to my countrymen. 

The " Datavya Bliarat Karyalya " has, within the course of 
the last seven years, printed and gratuitously distributed two 
editions of the Mahabharata in Bengalee translation, each edi- 
tion comprising nearly 3,000 copies. The fourth edition of 
the M.'diabharata (the third of the series for gratuitous distri- 
bution) has been commenced and will take some time before ib 
is completed. One edition of the Harivansa comprising 3,000 
copies has been exhausted. The Ramayana also has been taken 
in hand and is nearlj/ completed, the text of Valmiki publish- 
ing along with the translation. Roughly estimated, the"Bharafc 
Karyalya" has distributed up to date nearly Nine thousand 
copies of the Mahabharata and the Harivansa taken together, 
and that number would swell to Eighteen thousand, when the 
fourth edition of the Mahabharata and the first edition of the 
Ramayana (both diglot; will be complete. A single copy of the 
Mahabharata consists of about 1,033 forms, octavo, demy ; a 
single copy of the Harivansa, 112 forms ; and a single copy of 
the Ramayana, 578 forms. The Arithmetical result, therefore, 
of the operations of the " Bharat Karyalya " has been that 
1,37,83,500 separate printed forms liave been already gratui- 
tously distributed and in coarse of distribution. 

[ 10 ] 

Leaving aside the arithmetical results of the Karyalya's 
operations, it might be fairly presumed that the genuine de- 
mand for 18,000 copies of the sacred books of India represents 
a degree of interest taken by the people in the history of 
their past that is certainly not discouraging to patriotic 
hearts. So far as I myself am concerned, I would consider 
myself amply repaid if my exertions have contributed in 
the least towards withdrawing any portion of my country- 
men and country-women from a perusal of the sensational 
literature of the present day in which, under the pretence 
of improvement, the plots and situations of fifth-rate French 
novels are introduced, vitiating the manly Aryan taste, and 
leaving no substantial instruction behind. If the publica- 
tions of the Bharat Karyalya have succeeded in withdrawing to 
some extent readers of this class of literature from the unheal- 
tliy excitement for Avhich alone it is sought, and turning them 
to contemplate the purity of Aryan society, the immutable 
truths of Aryan philosophy, the chivalry of Aryan princes and 
warriors, the masculine morality that guides the conduct of 
men even in the most trying situations, the bright examples of 
loyalty, constancy, and love, which the Aryan poet describes 
with a swelling heart, the end of those publications has at least 
been partially achieved. May I indulge the hope that my 
countrymen, even as they now are, be preserved from foreign 
influences in their manners, and may I also indulge the hope 
that my countrymen continue to look upon Vyasa and Valmiki 
with feelings of proper pride ! 


Datavya Bharata Karyalya, 


The object of a translator shoukl ever be to hold the 
mirror up to his author. That being so, his chief duty is to 
represent, so far as practicable, the manner in which his 
author's ideas have been expressed, retaining, if possible, at 
the sacrifice of idiom and taste, all the peculiarities of his 
author's imagery and of language as well. In regard to 
translations from the Sanskrit, nothing is easier than to dish 
up Hindu ideas so as to make them agreeable to English taste. 
But the endeavor of the present translator has been to give in 
the following pages as literal a rendering as possible of the 
great work of Vyasa. To the purely English reader there ig 
much in the following pages that will strike as ridiculous. Those 
unacquainted with any language but their own are generally 
very exclusive in matters of taste. Having no knowledge of 
models other than what they meet with in their own tongue, 
the standard they have formed of purity and taste in composi- 
tion must necessarily be a narrow one. The translator, how- 
ever, would ill-discharge his duty if for the sake of avoiding 
ridicule he sacrificed fidelity to the original. He must re- 
present his author as he is, not as he slioidd he to please the 
narrow taste of those entirely unacquainted with him. Mr. 
Pickford, in the preface to his English translation of the Mahtc 
Viva Charita, ably defends a close adherence to the original 
even at the sacrifice of idiom and taste against the claims of 
what has been called '* free translation" which means dressing 
the author in an outlandish garb to please those to whom he is 

In the preface to his classical tr;inslation of Bhartrihari s 
Niti Satakavi and Vairagya-Satakam, Mr. C. H. Tawney 
says, " I am sensible that, in the present attempt, I have 
retained much local coloring For instance, the idea of wor- 
shipping the feet of a god or great man, though it frequently 
occurs in Iiidi in literature, will undoubtedly move the laugh- 
ter of Englir^hmen unacquainted with Sanskrit, especially if 
thev happen to belong to that claPS of renders who rivet their 
attention on the accidental and remain blind to the ssseuual. 

I 2 ] 

But a certain' measure of fidelity to the original, even at the 
risk of making oneself ridiculous is better than the studied 
dishonesty which characterises so many translations of oriental 
poets." We fully subscribe to the above, although, it must be 
observed, the censure conveyed to the class of translators 
last indicated is rather undeserved, there being nothing like 
a " studied dishonesty " in their efforts which proceed only 
from a mistaken view of their duties and as such betray only 
an error of the head but not of the heart. 


A D I P A R V A. 

Section 1. 

Om ! Having bowed down to Narayana and Nara, the 
most exalted male being, and also to the goddess Saraswati, 
must the word success be uttered. 

Ugra-srava, the son of Lomaharshana, surnamed Sauti, well 
versed in the Puranas, bending with humility one day ap- 
proached the great sages of rigid vows, sitting at their ease who 
had attended the twelve years' sacrifice of Saunaka, surnamed 
Kulapati, in the forest of Naimisha. Those ascetics, wishing to 
hear his wonderful narrations, presently began to address him 
who had thus arrived at that recluse abode of the inhabitants of 
the forest of Naimisha. Having been entertained with due 
respect by those holy men, he saluted those Munis (sages) with 
joined palms, even all of them, and inquired of the progress of 
their asceticism. Then all the ascetics, being again seated, the 
son of Lomaharshana humbly occupied the seat that was assigned 
to him. Seeing that he was comfortably seated and recovered 
from fatigue, one of the E-ishis, beginning the conversation, asked 
him, " Whence comest thou, lotus-leaf-eyed Sauti, and where 
hast thou spent the time ? Tell me, who ask thee, in full ?" 

Accomplished in speech, Sauti, thus questioned, gave, in the 
midst of that spacious assemblage of contemplative Munis, a full 
and proper answer, in words consonant with their mode of life. 

Sauti said: — "Having heard the diverse sacred and wonderful 
stories composed in his Mahabharata by Krishna-Dwaipayana, 
and which were recited in full by Vaisampayana at the Snake- 
sacrifice of the high-souled royal sage Janamejaya and in the 
presence also of that chief of princes, the son of Parikshita ; 
having wandered about, visiting many sacred waters and holy 
shrines, I journeyed to the country venerated by the Dwijas 
(twice-born) and called Samantapanchaka, where formerly were 


fought the battles between the children of Kuru and Panda., 
and all tho chiefs of the land ranged on either side. Thence, 
being anxious to see you, I am come into your presence. Ye 
reverend sages, all of whom are to me as Brahma ; ye greatly 
blessed, who shine in this place of sacrifice with the splendour 
of the solar fire ; ye who have performed ablutions and are 
pure ; ye who have concluded the silent meditations and have 
fed the holy fire ; and ye who are sitting without care ; what, 
O ye Dwijas, (twice-born) shall I repeat ? Shall I recount the 
sacred stories collected in the Puranas containing precepts of 
religious duty and of worldly profit, or the acts of illustrious 
saints and sovereigns of mankind ? " 

The Rishis replied : — " The Purana, first promulgated by the 
great Rishi Dwaipayana, and which after having been heard both 
by the gods and the Brahmarshis was highly esteemed, which is 
the moat eminent narrative that exists diversified both in diction 
and division, possessing subtile meanings logically combined, and 
embellished from the Vedas, is a sacred work. Composed in 
elegant language, it includeth the subjects of other books. It is 
elucidated by other Sastras, and comprehendeth the sense of the 
four Vedas. We are desirous of hearing that history, also called 
Bharata, the holy composition of the wonderful Vyasa, which 
dispelleth the fear of evil, just as it was cheerfully recited by the 
Rishi Vaishampayana, under the direction of Dwaipayana himself, 
at tbe snake-sacrifice of Raja Janamejay ?" 

Sauti then said : — " Having bowed down to the primordial 
male being Isana, to whom multitudes make offerings, and who 
is adored by the multitude ; who is the true incorruptible one, 
Brahma, perceptible, imperceptible, eternal ; who is both a non- 
existing and an existing-non-existing being ; which is the uni- 
verse and also distinct from the existing and non-existing uni- 
verse ; who is the creator of high and low ; the ancient, exalted, 
inexhaustible one ; who is Vishnu, the beneficent and benefi- 
cence itself, worthy of all preference, pure and immaculate ; who 
is Hari, the ruler of the faculties, the guide of all things mo- 
veable and immoveable ; I will declare the sacred thoughts of 
the illustrious sago Vyasa, of marvellous deeds and worshipped 
here by all. Some bards have already published this history, 


some are now teaching it, and others, in like manner, will here- 
after promulgate it upon the earth. It i3 a great source of 
knowledge, established throughout the three regions of the 
world. It is possessed by the twice-born both in detailed and 
■compendious forms. It is the delight of the learned for being 
embellished with elegant expressions, conversations human and 
divine, and a variety of poetical measures. 

"In this world, when it was destitute of brightness and light, 
and enveloped all around in total darkness, there came into 
being, as the primal cause of creation, a mighty egg, the one in- 
exhaustible seed of all created beings. It is called Mahadivya, 
and was formed at the beginning of the Yuga, in which, 
we are told, was the true light Brahma, the eternal one, the 
wonderful and inconceivable being present alike in all places ; 
•the invisible and subtile cause, whose nature partaketh of entity 
and nonentity. From this egg came the lord Pitamaha, Brahma, 
the one only Prajapati ; with Suraguru and Sthanu ; so Manu, 
Ka, and Parameshti ; also Pracheta and Daksha, and the seven 
sons of Daksha. Then also appeared the twenty-one Prajapatis, 
and the man of inconceivable nature whom all the Rishis know ; 
so the Visiua-devas, the Adityas, the Vasus, and the twin Asiui- 
nas ; the Yakshas, the Sadhyas, the Pisachas, the Guhyakas, 
and the Pitris. After these were produced the wise and most 
holy Brahnarshis, and the numerous Rajarshis distinguished by 
every noble quality. So the waters, the heavens, the earth, the 
air, the sky, the points of the heavens, the years, the seasons, 
the months, the fortnights, called Pakshas, with day and night 
in due succession. And thus were produced all things which 
are known to mankind. 

"And what is seen in the universe, whether animate or in- 
animate, of created things, will, at the end of the world, and 
after the expiration of the Yuga, be again confounded. And, at 
the commencement of other Yugas, all things will be renovated; 
and, like the various fruits of the earth, succeed each other in 
the due order of their seasons. Thus continueth perpetually to 
revolve in the world, without beginning and without end, this 
wheel which causeth the destruction of all things. 

"The gencratiop ol Devas. as a brief example, was thirty- 


three thousand thirty-three hundred and thirty-three. The sons 
of Div were Brihadbhanu, Chakshush, Atma, Vibhavasu, Savita, 
Richika, Arka, Bhanu, Ashabaha, and Ravi. Of these VivasM-ans 
of old, Mahya was the youngest whose son was Deva-brata. The 
latter had for his son, Su-brata, who, we learn, had three sons, — 
Dasa-jyoti, Sata-jyoti, and Sahasra-jyoti, each of them produ- 
cing numerous offspring. The illustrious Dasa-jyoti had ten 
thousand, Sata-jyoti ten times that number, and Sahasra-jyoti 
ten. times the number of Sata-jyoti's offsprings. From these 
are descended the family of the Kurus, of the Yadus, and of 
Bharata ; the family of Tayati and of Ikshiuaku ; also of all 
the Rajarshis. Numerous also were the generations produced, 
and very abundant were the creatures and their places of abode,- 
the mystery which is threefold, — the Vedas, Yoga, and Vijnana,- 
Dharma, Artha, and Kama, — also various books upon the sub- 
ject of Dharma, Artha, and Kama, — also rules for the conduct 
of mankind, — also histories and discourses, with various srutis : 
all of which having been seen by the Rishi Vyasa are here in 
due order mentioned as a specimen of the book. 

"The Rishi Vyasa published this mass of knowledge in both 
a detailed and an abridged form. It is the wish of the learned 
in the world to possess the detail and the abridgment. Some 
read the Bharata beginning with the initial mantra (invocation) 
others with the story of Astika, others with Uparichara, while 
some Brahmanas study the whole. Men of learning display 
their various knowledge of the institutes in commenting on the 
composition. Some are skilful in explaining it, while others in 
remembering its contents. 

"The son of Satyavati having, by penance and meditation, 
analysed the eternal Veda, afterwards composed this holy history. 
And when that learned Brahmarshi of strict vows, the noble 
Dwaipayana Vyasa, offspring of Parasara, had finished this great- 
est of narrations, he began to consider how he might teach it 
to his disciples. And the possessor of the six attributes, Brahma, 
the world's preceptor, acquainted with the anxiety of the 
Rishi Dwaipayana, came in person to the place where the 
latter was, for gratifying the saint, and benefitting the 
people. And Avhen Vya^a, surrounded by all the tribes of 


Munis, saw him, he was surprised ; and standing with joined 
palms, he bowed and he ordered a seat to be brought. And Vyasa 
having gone round him who is called Hiranyagarbha seated on 
that distinguished seat, stood near it ; and being commanded 
by Brahma Parameshti, he sat down near the seat, full of affect- 
tion and smiling in joy. Then the greatly glorious Vyasa, ad- 
dressing Brahma Parameshti, said, ' O divine Brahma ,by me a 
poem hath been composed which is greatly respected. The mys- 
tery of the Veda, and what other subjects have been explained 
by me ; the various ritual of the Vedas and of the Upanishads 
with the Angas ; the compilation of the Puranas and history 
formed by me and named after the three divisions of time, 
past, present, and future ; the determination of the nature 
of decay, death, fear, disease, existence, and non-existence ; a 
description of creeds and of the various modes of life ; rules for 
the four castes, and the import of all the Puranas ; an account 
of asceticism and of the duties of a religious student ; the dimen- 
sions of the sun and moon, the planets, constellations, and stars, 
together with that of the four ages ; the Rik, Sama, and Yajur 
Vedas ; also the Adhyatma ; the sciences called Nyaya, Orthoepy, 
and treatment of disease ; charity and Pasupata ; birth, celestial 
and human, for particular purposes ; also a description of places 
of pilgrimage and other holy places ; of rivers, mountains, forests, 
and the ocean ; of heavenly cities and the kalpas ; the 
art of war ; the different kinds of nations and language ; and 
what is the nature of the manners of the people ; and the all- 
pervading spirit ; all these have been represented. But, after all, 
no writer of this work is to be found on earth. ' 

" Brahma said: ' I esteem thee, for thy knowledge of divine 
mysteries, before the whole body of celebrated Munis distin- 
guished for the sanctity of their lives. I know thou hast 
revealed the divine word, even from its first utterance, in the 
language of truth. Thou hast called thy present work a poem, 
wherefore it shall be a poem. There shall be no poets whose 
works may equal the descriptions of this poem, even as the 
three other modes, called Asramas, are ever unequal in merit to 
the domestic Asrama. Let Gancsa be thought of, Muni, 
for the purpose of writing the poem, ' " . 


Sauti said, " Brahma having thus spoken to Vyaaa, retired 
to his own abode. Then Vyasa began to call to his remembrance 
Ganesa. And Ganesa, obviator of obstacles, ready to fulfil the 
desires of his votaries, was no sooner thought of, than he repaired 
to the place where Vyasa was seated. And when he had been 
saluted, and was seated, Vyasa addressed him thus : — ' O guide 
of the ganas ! be thou the writer of the Bharata which I have 
formed in my imagination, and which I am about to repeat. ' 

" Ganesa, upon hearing this address, thus answered : — ' I 
will become the writer of thy work, provided my pen do not 
for a moment cease writing. ' And Vyasa said unto that divi- 
nity, ' Wherever there be any thing thou dost not comprehend, 
cease to continue writing. ' Ganesa having signified his assent, 
by repeating the word Om ! proceeded to write ; and Vyasa 
began ; and, by way of diversion, he knit the knots of compo- 
sition exceeding close ; by doing which, he dictated this work 
according to his engagement. 

"I am (continued Sauti) acquainted with eight thousand eight 
hundred verses, and so is Suka, and, perhaps, Sanjaya. From 
the mysteriousness of their meaning, Muni, no one is able, to 
this day, to penetrate those closely knit difficult slokas. Even the 
omniscient Ganesa took a moment to consider ; while Vyasa, 
however, continued to compose other verses in great abundance. 

" The wisdom of this work, like unto an instrument for 
appl3dng coll}Tium, hath opened the eyes of the inquisitive 
world, blinded by the darkness of ignorance. As the sun 
dispelleth the darkness so doth the Bharata by its discourses on 
religion, profit, pleasure and final release, dispell the ignorance 
of men. As the full moon by its mild light expandeth the buds 
of the water-lily, so this Puran, by exposing the light of the 
Sruti hath expanded the human intellect. By the lamp of history, 
which destroyeth the darkness of ignorance, the whole mansion 
of the womb of nature is properly and completely illuminated. 

"This work is a tree, of which the chapter of contents is 

the seed; the divisions called Pauloma and Astikaare the root ; 

the part called Samhhava is the trunk ; the books called Sabha 

and Aranya are the roosting perches ; the book called Arani is 

the knitting knots ; the books called Virata .and Uchjoga 


tile pitli ; the book named Bhiskma, the main branch ; the book 
called Drona, the leaves ; the book called Kama, the fair 
flowers ; the book named Salya, their sweet smell ; the books en- 
titled Strl and Aishika, the refreshing shade ; the book called 
Santi, the mighty fruit ; the book called A»wamedha, the 
immortal sap ; the book denominated Asramavasihet,, the spot 
where it groweth ; and the book called Mausala, is an epitome 
of the Vedas and held in great respect by the virtuous Brahmans. 
The tree of the Bharata, inexhaustible to mankind as the clouds, 
shall be as a source of livelihood to all distinguished poets." 

Sauti continued, "I will now speak of the undying flowery and 
fruitful productions of this tree, possessed of pure and pleasant 
taste, and not to be destroyed even by the immortals. Formerly, 
the spirited and virtuous Krishna Dwaipayana, by the injunctions 
of Vishma, the wise son of Ganga and of his own mother, 
became the father of three boys, who were like the three fires, 
by the two wives of Vichitra-virya ; and having thus raised 
up Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura, he returned to his recluse 
abode to prosecute his religious exercises. 

"It was not till after these were born, grown up, and depar- 
ted on the supreme journey, that the great Rishi Vyasa pub- 
lished the Bharata in this the region of mankind ; when being 
Bolicited by Janamejaya and thousands of Brahmans, he instruct- 
ed his disciple Vaiaampayaiia, who was seated near him ; and 
he, sitting together with the Sadasyas, recited the Bharata, 
during the intervals of the ceremonies of the sacrifice, being 
repeatedly urged to proceed. 

"Vyasa hath fully represented the greatness of the house 
of Kuril, the virtuous principles of Gandhari, the wisdom of 
Vidura, and the constancy of Kunti. The noble Rishi hath 
also described the divinity of Vasudeva, the rectitude of tbe 
sons of Pandu, and the evil practices of the sons and parti- 
sans of Dhrita-rashtra. 

"Vyasa executed the compilation of the Bharata, exclusive 
of the episodes, originally in twenty-four thousand verses ; 
and so much only is called by the learned as the Bharata. 
Afterwards he composed an epitome in one hundred and fifty 
verses, consisting of the introduction with the chapter of con- 


tents. This he first taught to his son Suka ; and afterwards 
he gave it to others of his disciples who were possessed of the 
same qualifications. After that he executed another compilation, 
consisting of six hundred thousand verses. Of these, thirty hun- 
dred thousand are known in the world of the Devas ; fifteen 
hundred thousand in the world of the Pitris ; fourteen hundred 
thousand among the Gandharvas, and one hundred thousand 
in the regions of mankind. Narada recited them to the Devas, 
Devala to the Pitris, and Suka published them to the Gand- 
harvas, Yakshas, and Rakshasas ; and in this world they were 
recited by Vaisampaj^ana, one of the disciples of Vyasa, a man 
of just principles and the first among all those acquainted with 
the Vedas. Know that I, Sauti, have also rejaeated one hundred 
thousand verses. 

"Darjodhana is a great tree formed of passion, Kama is its 
trunk; SakiLni is its branches ; Dusshasana, its full-grown fruit 
and flowers; and the weak-minded Raja Dhrita-rashtra, its roots. 

" Yiulhish-thira is a vast tree, formed of religion and virtue ; 
Arjiuia is its trunk ; Bhima-sena, its branches ; the two sons of 
Madri are its full grown fruit and flowers ; and its roots are 
Krishna, Brahma, and the Brahmanas. 

"Pandu, after having subdued many countries by his wisdom 
and prowess, took up his abode with the Munis in a certain 
forest as a sportsman, where he brought upon himself a very 
severe misfortune for having killed a stag coupling with its 
mate, which served as a warning for the conduct of the princes 
of his house as long as they lived. Their mothers, that the 
ordinances of the law might be fulfilled, admitted as substitutes 
to their embraces the gods Dharma, Vayu, Sakra, and the 
divinities the twin Aswinas. And when their offsprings were 
grown up, under the care of their two mothers, in the society 
of ascetics, in the midst of sacred groves and holy recluse 
abodes of religious men, they were conducted by Rishis into 
the presence of Dhrita-rashtra and his sons, following as students 
in the habit of Brahmacharis, having their hair tied in knots 
on their heads. 'These our pupils,' said they, 'are as your sons, 
your brothers, and your friends ; they are Pandavas, ' Saying 
this, the Munis disappeared. ' 


'■' When the Kauravaa saw them introduced as the sons of 
Pandu, the distinguished class of citizens shouted exceedingly 
for joy. Some, however, said, they were not the sons of Pandu ; 
others said, they were ; \vhile a few asked how they could be 
his ofifspriug, seeing he had been so long dead. Still ou all 
sides voices were heard crying, 'They are on all accounts welcome! 
Through divine Providence we behold the family of Pandu ! 
Let their walcorae be proclaimed 1' As these acclamations 
ceased, the plaudits of invisible spirits, causing every point 
of the heavens to resound, were tremendous. There were 
showers of sweet-scented flowers, and the sound of shells and 
kettle-drums. Such were the wonders that happened on the 
arrival of the young princes. The joyful noise of all the citizens, 
in expression of their satisfaction on the occasion, was so great 
that it reached the very heavens in magnifying plaudits. 

" Having studied the whole of the Vedas and sundry other 
shastras, the Pandavas resided there, respected by all and without 
apprehension from any one. 

" The principal ni3n were pleased with the purity of Yudish- 
thira, the fortitude of Bhima-sena, the courage of Arjuna, 
the submissive attention of Kunti to her superiors, and the 
humility of the twins Nakula and Sahadeva; and all the people 
rejoiced because of their heroic virtues. 

" After a while, Arjuna obtained the virgin Kirshna at 
the siuayamvara, in the midst of a concourse of Rajas, by 
performing a vei-y difficult feat of archery. And from this time 
he became very much respected in this world among all 
bowmen; and in fields of battle also, like the sun, he wa3 
hard to be beheld by foe-men. And having vanquished all the . 
neighbouring princes and every considerable tribe, he accom- 
plished all that was necessary for the Raja (his eldest brother) 
to perform the great sacrifice called Rajasuya. 

" Yudhishthira, after having, through the wise counsels of 
Vasudeva and by the valor of Bhima-sena and Arjuna, slain 
Jarasandha (the king of Magadha) and the proud Chaidya 
acquired the right to perform the grand sacrifice of Rajasuya 
abounding in provisions and offerings and fraught with trans- 
cendent merits, And Duryodhaua came to this sacrifice ; and 



when he belielJ the vast wealth of the PanJavas scattered all 
around ; the ofterings ; the precious stones, gold, and jewels ; 
the wealth in cows, elephants, and horses ; the curious textures, 
garments, and mantles ; the precious shawls and furs, with 
ctirpets made of the skin of the Mankib ; he was filled with 
envy and became exceedingly displeased. And when he beheld 
the hall of assembly elegantly constructed by Maya (the Asura 
architect) after the fashion of a celestial court, he was inflamed 
with rage. And having started in confusion at certain architec- 
tural deceptions within this building, he was derided by Bhima- 
sena in the presence of Vasudeva, like one of mean descent. 

" And it was represented to Dhrita-rashtra that his son, while 
partaking of various objects of enjo3'ment and diverse precious 
things, was becoming meagre, wan, and pale. And Dhrita-rashtra, 
sometime after, out of affection for his son, gave his consent ta 
their playing (with the Pandavas) at dice. And Vasudeva 
coming to know of this, became exceeding wrath. And being 
dissatisfied, he did nothing to prevent the disputes, but over- 
looked the gaming and sundry other horrid unjustifiable transac- 
tions arising therefrom ; and in spite of Vidura, Bhishma, 
Drona, and Kripa the son of Sharadwan, he made the Kshetrias 
kill each other in the terrific war that ensued. 

" And Dhrita-rashtra hearing the ill news of the success 
of the Pandavas and recollecting the resolutions of Duryodhana, 
Kama, and Sakuni, pondered for a while and addressed Sanjaya 
the following speech : — 

' Attend, Sanjaya, to all I am about to say, and it will 
not become thee to treat me with contempt. Thou art well 
versed in the shastms, intelligent, and endued with wisdom. 
My inclinations were never for war, nor did I delight in the- 
destruction of my race. I made no distinction between my 
own children and the children of Pandu. My own sons were 
prone to wilfulness and despised me because I am old. Blind 
as I am, because of my miserable plight and through paternal 
affection, I bore it all. I was foolish after the thouo-htless 
Duryodhana ever growing in folly. Having been a spec- 
tator of the riches of the mighty sons of Pandu, my son was 
4erided for his awkwardness while ascending the hall. UnabW 


t'o bear it all and unable himself to overcome the sons of 
Panda in the field, and though a soldier, unwilling yet to 
obtain good fortune by his own exertions, with the help of the 
king of Gandhara, he concerted an unfair game at dice. 

' Hear, Sanjaya, all that happened thereupon and came to* 
my knowledge. And when thou hast heard all I say recollect- 
ing everything as it fell out, thou shalt then know me for one 
with a prophetic eye. When I heard that Arjuna, having bent 
the bow, had pierced the curious mark and brought it to the 
ground, and bore away in triumph the maiden Krishna, in the 
sight of the assembled princes, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hopq 
of success. When I heard that Subhadra of the race of Madhu 
had, after forcible seizure, been married by Arjuna in the city of 
Dwaraka, and that the two heroes of the race of Vrishni (Krishna 
and Balai'ama, the brothers of Subhadra) without resenting it 
had entered Indraprastha as friends, then, O Sanjaya, I had no 
hope of success. When I heard that Arjuna, by his celestial ar-. 
rows preventing the down-pour by Indra the king of the gods, had 
gratified Agni by making over to him the forest of Khandava^ 
then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that, 
the five Pandavas with their mother Kunti had escaped from the 
house of lac, and that Vidura was engaged in the accomplish- 
ment of their designs, then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.. 
When I heard that Arjuna, after having pierced the mark in. 
the arena had won Draupadi, and that the brave Panchalas had 
joined the Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 
When I heard that Jarasandha, the foremost of the royal 
line oi Magadha and blazing in the midst of the Kshetrias, 
had been slain by Bhima with his bare arms alone, then, 

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that irt 
their general campaign the sons of Pandu had conquered the 
chiefs of the land and performed the grand sacrifice of the' 
Rajasuya, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When 

1 heard that Draupadi, her voice choked with tears and 
heart full of agony, in the season of impurity and with but one 
raiment on, had been dragged into court and though she had 
protectors had been treated as if she had none, then, O Sanjaya,- 
I had no hope of success. When I heard that the wicked wretch- 


Duslisahana, ia striving to strip her of that single garment, had 
only drawn from her person a large heap of cloth without being 
able to arrive at its end, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of 
success. When I heard that Yudhishthira, beaten by Saubala 
at the game of dice and deprived of his kingdom as the con- 
sequence thereof, had still been attended upon by his brothers 
of incomparable prowess, then Sanjaya, I had no hope of 
success. When I heard that the virtuous Pandavas weeping 
with affliction had followed their elder brother to the wilderness 
and exerted themselves variously for the mitigation of his 
discomforts, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 

' When I heard that Yudhishthira had been followed into the 

Tv-ilderness by Snatakas and noble-minded Brahmanas who live 

upon alms, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When 

I heard that Arjuua, having in combat pleased the god of gods, 

Tryamhaka (the three-eyed) in the disguise of a hunter, 

obtained the great weapon Pcmqxita, then, O Sanjaya, I had 

no hope of success. When I heard that the just and renowned 

Arj una, having been to the celestial regions, had there obtained 

celestial v/eapons, from Indra himself then, O Sanjaya, I had 

no hope of success. When I heard that afterwards Arj una had 

vanquished the Kalakeyas and the Paulomas proud with the boon 

they had obtained and Avhich had rendered them invulnerable 

even to the celestials, then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 

When I heard that Arj una, the chastiser of enemies, having 

gone to the regions of Indra for the destruction of the Asuras, 

had returned thence successful, then, O Sanjaya, I had no 

hope of success. When I heard that Bhima and the other 

sons of Pritha (Kunti) accompanied by Vaisravana had arrived 

at that country which is inaccessible to man, then, O Sanjaya, 

I had no hope of success. When I heard that my sons, guided 

by the counsels of Kama, while on their journey of Ghosayatra, 

had been taken prisoners by the Gandharvas and Avere set free 

by Arjuna, then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I 

heard that Dharma (the god of justice) having come under the 

form of a Yaksha had proposed certain questions to Yudhishthira, 

then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard 

that mv sons had failed to discover the Pandavas under their 


disguise while residing with Draupadi in the dominions of 

Virata, then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I 

heard that the principal men of my side had all been vanquished 

by the noble Arjuna with a single chariot while residing in the 

dominions of Virata, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 

When I heard that the king of Matsya had offered his virtuous 

daughter Uttara to Arjuna and that Arjuna had accepted her 

for his son, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When 

I heard that Yudhishthira, beaten at dice; deprived of wealth, 

exiled and separated from his connections, had assembled yet an 

army of seven Akshauhhiis, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of 

success. When I heard that Vasudeva of the race Madhn, 

who covered this whole earth by one foot, was heartily 

engaged in the welfare of the Pandavas, then, O Sanjaya, 

I had no hope of success. When I heard Narada declare 

that Krishna and Arjuna were Nara and I'Tarayana and he 

(Narada) had seen them together in the regions of Brahma, 

Ihen, O Sanjya. I had no hope of success. When I heard 

that Krishna for the welfare of mankind, anxious to bring 

about peace, had repaired to the Kurus, and went away without 

having been able to effect his purpose, then, O Sanjaya, I had 

no hope of success. When I heard that Kama and Diiryodhana 

resolved upon imprisoning Krishna but that Krishna displayed 

in himself the whole universe, then, Sanjaya, I had no 

hope of snccess. When I heard that upon the departure of 

Krishna, Pritha (Kunti) standing full of sorrow near his chariot 

received consolation from him, then, O Sanjaya, I had no 

hope of success. When I heard that A^asudeva and Bhisma 

the son of Santanu were the counsellors of the Pandavas 

and Drona the son of Bharadwaja pronounced blessings on 

them, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When 

Kama said unto Bhisma — I will not fight when thou art 

fighting — and quitting the army went away, then, Sanjaya, 

I had no hope of success. V7hen I heard that Vasudeva 

and Arjuna and the bow gandlva of immeasurable prowess, 

three beings of dreadful energy, had come together, then, 

O Sunjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that 

upon Arjuna having been seized with compunction on big 


chariot and ready to sink, Krishna showed him all the worlds 
within his body, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 
When I heard that Bhisma, the desolator of foes, killing ten- 
thousand charioteers every day in the field of battle, had not 
elain any amon;?st the (Pandavas) of note, then, O Sanjaya, I had 
DiO hope of success. When I heard that Bhisma the righteous 
son of Gano-a had himself indicated the means of his deatli 
in the field of battle, and that the same were accomplished 
by the Pandavas with joyfulness, then, Sanjaya, I had no 
hope of success. When I heard that Arjuna having placed 
Sikhandi before himself in his chariot, had wounded Bhisraa' 
of infinite courage and invincible in battle, then, Sanjaya, 
I had no hope of success. When I heard that ancient hero 
Bhisma, having reduced the numbers of the race of shomaka- 
to a few, overcome with various wounda was lying on a bed of 
arrows, then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I 
heard that upon Bhisma's lying on the ground distressed for 
water, Arjuna, being requested, had pierced the ground and 
allayed his thirst, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 
When Vayu together with Indra and Surya united as allies for 
the success of the sons of Kunti, and the beasts of prey 
(by their inauspicious presence) were putting us in fear, then^ 

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When the wonderful 
warrior Di'ona, displaying various modes of fight in the field^ 
did not slay any of the superior Pandavas, then, Sanjaya, 

1 had no hope of success. When I heard that the Maharatha 
^ansaptaJcas of our army appointed for the overthrow of Arjuna 
were all slain by Arjuna himself, then, Sajnaya, I had no hope 
of success. When I heard that our disposition of forces, im-r 
penetrable by others, and defended by Bharadwaja himself well-: 
armed, had been singly forced and entered by the brave son of 
Subhadra, then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When 
I heard that our Maharathas, unable to overcome Arjuna, bore 
the face of joy after having jointly surrounded and slain the 
boy Abhimanyu, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of .-^uccessri 
When I heard that the blind Kauravas were shouting for joy^ 
after having slain Abhimanyu and that thereupon Arjuna in 
angor made his celebrated speech referring to Saindhava, then 


Saujaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Arju- 
na had vowed tlie deatli of Saiudhava and fulfilled his vow in tiie 
presence of his enemies, then, O Saujaya, I had no hope of 
success. When I heard that upon the horses of Arjuna being 
fatigued, Vasudcva releasing them made them drink Avater and 
bringing them back and re-harnessing them continued to guide 
them as before, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 
When I heard that while his horses were fatigued, Arjuna 
staying on his cliariot checked all his assailants, then, O San- 
jaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that Yuyu- 
dhana of the race of Vrishni, after having thrown into con- 
fusion tiie army of Drona rendered unbearable in prowess 
owing to the presenca of elephants, retired to wliere Krishna 
and Arjuna were, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.' 
When I heard that Kama even though he had got Bhima 
within his power allowed him to escape after only addressing 
him in contemptuous terms and dragging him with the end of 
his bow, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When 
I heard that Drona, Kritavarma, Kripa, Kama, the son of 
Drona, and the valiant king of Madra ( Salya) suffered 
Saindhava to be slain, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of 
success. When I heard that the celestial Sakti given by Indra 
(to Kama) was by Madhava's machinations caused to be 
hurled upon the Rakshasa Ghatotkacha of frightful countenance, 
then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard 
that in the encounter between Kama and Ghatotkacha, that 
Sakti was hurled against Ghatotkacha by Kama, the same 
which was certainly to have slain Arjuna in battle, then, 

Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that 
Dhristadyumna, transgressing the laws of battle, slew Drona 
while alone in his chariot and resolved on death, then, O Sanjaya, 

1 had no hope of success. When I heard that Nakula, the 
son of Madri, having in the presence of the whole army 
engaged in single combat with the son of Drona and showing 
himself equal to him drove his chariot in circles around, then, 
O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When upon the death 
of Drona, his son misused the weapon called Narayana but 
failed to achieve the destruction of the Paudavas, . then, 


Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that 
Bhima-sena drank the blood of his brother Dushshana in 
tJie field of battle without anybody being able to prevent him, 
then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard 
that the infinitely brave Kama, invincible in battle, was slain 
by Arjuna in that war of brothers mysterious to even the gods, 
then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard 
that Yudishthira the just overcame the heroic son of Drona, 
Dushshana, and the fierce Kritavarma, then, O Sanjaya, 

1 had no hope of success. When I heard that the brave king 
of Madra who ever dared Krishna in battle was slain by 
Yudhishthira, then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 
When I heard that the wicked Sauvala of magic power, the 
root of the gaming and the feud, was slain in battle by Sahadeva 
the son of Pandu, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 
When I heard that Duryodhana, spent with fatigue, having 
gone to a lake and made a refuge for himself within its waters, 
was lying there alone, his strength gone and without a chariot, 
then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard 
that the Panda vas having gnnc to that lake accompanied by 
Vftsudeva and standing on its beach began to address contemp- 
tuously my son who was incapable of putting up with affronts, 
then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard 
that while displaying in circles a variety of curious modes 
(of attack and defence) in an encounter with clubs, he was 
unfairly slain according to the counsels of Krishna, then, 
Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard that 
the son of Drona and others by slaying the Panchalas and the 
sons of Draupadi in their sleep, perpetrated a horrible and in- 
famous deed, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. 
When I heard that Aswatthama while being pursued by Bhima- 
sena had discharged the first of weapons called AisJiika, by 
which the embryo in the womb (of Uttara) was wounded 
then, Sanjaya, I had no hope of success. When I heard 
that the weapon Brahmashlnt (discharged by Aswatthama) 
was repelled by Arjuna with another weapon over which he 
had pronounced the word "Sasti," and that Aswatthama had to 
give up the jewel-like excrescence on his head, then, Sanjaya, 


1 had no hope of success, When I heard that upon the embryo 
in the v/omb of Virata's daughter being wounded by Aswat* 
thama with a mighty weapon, Dwaipayana and Krishna de-» 
nounced curses on him, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success^ 
' Alas ! Gandhari, destitute of chihh-en, grand-childrenj 
parents, brothers, and kindred, is to be pitied. Diincult is the 
task that hath been performed by the Pandavas : by thein 
hath a kingdom been recovered without a rival. 

* Alas ! I have heard that the war hath left only ten alive : 
three of our side, and of the Pandavas, seven ; in that 
dreadful conflict eighteen Akshaiihinis of Kshetrias have been 
elain! All around me is utter darkness, and a fit of swoon 
assaileth me ; consciousness leaves me, O Suta, and my 
mind is distracted,' " 

Sauti said, " Dhrita-rashtra, bewailing his fate in these 
words, was overcome with extreme anguish and for a time 
deprived of sense ; but being revived, he addressed Sanjaya 
in the following words : 

* After what hath come to pass, O Sanjaya, I wish to 
abandon life without delay ; I do not see the least advantage 
in cherishing it any longer.' ** 

Sauti said, — " the wise son of Gavalgana, (Sanjaya) then 
addressed the distressed lord of Earth while thus talking 
and bewailing, sighing like a serpent and repeatedly fainting, 
in these words of deep import : — 

' Thou hast heard, O Raja, of the greatly powerful men 
of vast exertions, spoken of by Vyasa and the wise Narada ; 
men born of great royal families, resplendent with Avorthy 
qualities, versed in the science of celestial arms, and in glory 
emblems of Indra ; men who having conquered the world 
by justice and performed sacrifices with fit offerings (to the 
Brahmans), obtained renown in this world and at last succumb- 
ed to the sway of time. Such were Saivya ; the valiant 
Mahratha j Srinjaya, great amongst conquerors ; Suhotra ; 
Ranti-Deva, and Kakshivanta great in glory ;. Valhika 
Damana, Saryati, Ajita, and Nala ; Viswamitra the destroyer 
of foes ; Amvarisha, great in strength ; Marutta, Mann, 
Ikshaku, Gny.a,. and Bhara^ta ; Kama the son' oC Dasaratha-; 



Sasavindu, anJ Bhagiratha ; Kritavirya the greatly fortu«» 
nate, and Janamejaya too ; and Yayati of good deeds who 
performed sacrlno.-s being assisted therein by the celestiaU 
themselves, aa.l by whose sacrificial aii irs and stakes this earth 
"with her habited and uninhabited regions hath been marked 
all over. These twenty-four Rajas were formerly spoken of 
by the celestial Rishi Narada unto Saivya when much affiicted 
for the loss of his children. Besides these, other Rajas had 
gone before, still more powerful than they, mighty charioteers, 
noble in mind, and resplendent with every worthy quality. 
These were Puru, Kuru, Yadu, Sura, and Viswagaswa of 
great glory ; Anuha> Yuvanaswa, Kakutstha, Vikrami, and 
Baghu ; Vijaya, Vitihotra, Anga, Bhava, Sweta, and 
VrihadgurHj-Udiuara, Sata-ratha, Kanka, Duliduha, and Druma; 
Dambhoubliava, Para. Vena, Sagara, Sankrita, and Nimi ; 
Ajeyaj Parasti, Pundra, Sambhu, and the holy Deva-Vridha ; 
Devahwuya, Supritiraa, Supritika, and Vrihad-ratha ; Mahot- 
eaha, Viuitatma, Sukratu, and Nala the king of the Nishadhas; 
Satyabrata, Santa-bhaya, Sumitra, and the chief Subala ; 
Janujatigha, Anaranya, Arka, Priyabhritya, Shuchi-brata, 
Balabandhu, ^'iramardda, Ketusringa, and Brihadbala ; 
Dhrishtaketu, Ei-ihatketii, Driptaketu, and Niramaya ; Abik- 
shit, Ciajiala, Bliurta, Kritabandhu, and Dridhe-shudi ; Maha* 
purana-sambhavya, Pratyanga, ParahS,, and Sruti. These, O 
Chief, and other Rajas, we hear ennuraerated by hundreds and 
by thousands, and still others by millions, princes of great 
power and wisdom, quitting very abundant enjoyments, met 
death as thy sons have done ! Their heavenly deeds, valor, and 
generosity, their magnanimity, faith, truth, purity, simplicity 
and mercy, are jmblished to the world in the records of former 
times by sacred bards of great learning. Though endued with 
every noble virtue, these have yielded up their lives. Thy 
sons were malevolent, inflamed with passion, avaricious, and 
very evil-dispositioned. Thou art versed in the Shastras, 
O Bharata, and art intelligent and wise ; they never sink 
under misfortunes whose understandings are guided by the 
Shastras. Thou art acquainted, O prince, with the lenity 
and severity of fate : this anxiety therefore for the safety of 


thy children is unbecoming. Moreover, it fcehoveth thee 
not to grieve for that which is to be : for who can avert, by 
his wisdom, the decrees of fate ? No one can leave the way 
marked out for him by Providence. Existence aud non-existence, 
pleasure and pain, ali have Time for their root. Time crea^^eiU 
all things and Time desfroyeth all creatures. It is Time 
that burnetii creatures and it is Time that extinguishetii the 
fire. All states, the good and the evil, in the three worlds, 
are caused by Time. Time cutteth siiortall things and creatcth 
them anew. Time alone is awake when all things are 
asleep : indeed, Time is incapable of being overcome. Time 
passeth over all tilings without being retarded. Knowing 
as thou dost that all things past and future and all that exist 
at the present moment, are the offsprings of Time, it behovetU 
thee not to abandon thy reason.'" 

Sauti said : — '* The son of Gavalgani, havlno; in thig 
manner administered comfort to the royal Dlirifa-rashtra over- 
whelmed with grief for his sons, then restored his mind to 
peace. Taking these facts for his subject, Dwuipayana com- 
posed a iioly Upanishad that has been published to tlie world 
by learned and sacred bards in the Puranas composed by them. 

*' The study of the Bharata is an act of piety. He that 
readeth even one foot, believing, hath his sins entirely puro-ed 
away. Herein Devas, Devarshis, and immaculate Brahma« 
rshis of good deeds, have been spoken of; and likewise Yakhas- 
and great Uragas (Nagas). Herein also hath been described 
the eternal Vasudeva possessing the six attributes. He is the 
true and just, the pure and holy, the eternal Brahma, the 
supreme soul, the true and constant light, whose divine deeds 
wise and learned men recount ; from whom hath proceeded 
the non-existent and existent-nonexistent universe with 
principles of generation and progression, and birth, death, 
and re-birth. That also hath been treated of which is called 
Adhyatma (the superintending spirit of nature) that partaketh 
the attributes of the five elements. That also hath been des- 
cribed who is^%r%s/ia being above such epithets as *undisp1nyed* 
and the like ; also that which ihe first of yotis exempt from 
the common destiny and endued with the power of meditation 


and Tapft behold dewelling in their hearts as a reflected 
image in the mirror. 

*' The man of faith, devoted to piety, and constant in 
the exercise of virtue, on reading this section is freed from 
ein. The believer that constantly heareth recited this sec- 
tion of the Bharata, called the Introduction, from the 
beginning, falleth not into difficulties. The man repeating 
any part of the Introduction in the two twilights is during 
such act freed from the sins amassed during the day or the 
nicrht. This section, the body of the Bharata, is truth 
and nectar. As butter is among curds, Brahmana among 
bipeds, the Aranyaka among the Vedas, and nectar among 
medicines ; as the sea is eminent among receptacles of water, 
and the cow among quadrupeds ; as are these (among the 
things mentioned) so is the Bharata said to be among histories, 

*' He that causeth it,, even a single foot thereof, to be 
recited to Brahmans during a Sradha, his offerings of food and 
drink to the manes of his ancestors become inexhaustible. 

*' By the aid of history and the Puranas, the Veda may be 
expounded ; but the Veda is afraid of one of little information 
lest he should Injure it. The learned man who recites to 
others ^/iis Veda of Vyasa reapeth advantage. It may with- 
out doubt destroy even the sin of killing the embryo and 
the like. He that readeth this holy chapter at every change 
©f the moon, readeth the whole of the Bharata, I ween. 
The man who with reverence daily listeneth to this eacred 
work acquireth long life and renown and ascendeth to heaven. 

** In former days, having placed the five Vedas on one 
side and the Bharata on the other, these were weighed in the 
balance by the celestials assembled for that purpose. And 
as the latter weighed heavier than the four Vedas with their 
mysteries, from that period it hath been called in the world 
Mahabharata (the great Bharata) ; for it being esteemed supe* 
rior both in substance and gravity of Import is denominated 
Mahabharata liom such substance and gravity of import. He 
that knoweth its meaning is saved from all his sins. 

*' Tapa is innocent, study Is harmless, the ordinances of 
the Vcdaa prescribed for all the tribes are harmless, the acquiai- 

• ADI PARVA. ?1 

tion of wealth by exertion is harmless ; but when these are 
abused in their practice it is then that they become sources, 
of evil. 

Section II. 

The Rishis said : — " O son of Suta, we wish to hear a full 
and circumstantial account of the place mentioned by you as 

Sauti said : — " Listen, O ye Brahmans, to the sacred des- 
criptions I utter. Ye best of men, ye deserve to hear of 
the place known as Saraanta-panchaka. In the interval between 
the Treta and the Dwapara yugas, Rama (the son of Jamadagni) 
great among all who have borne arms, urged by impatience 
of wrongs, repeatedly smote the noble race of Kshetrias. And 
when that fiery meteor, by his own valor, annihilated 
the entire tribe of the Kshetrias, he formed at Samanta-panch- 
aka five lakes of blood. We are told that his reason being 
overpowered by anger he offered oblations of blood to the 
manes of his ancestors, standing in the midst of the sanguine 
waters of those lakes. It was then that his forefathers of 
whom Richika was the first having arrived there addressed 
him thus : — ' O Rama, O blessed Rama, O offspring of Bhrigu, 
wa have been gratified with the reverence thou hast shown 
for thy ancestors and with thy valor, O mighty one ! Blessings 
be upon thee, O thou illustrious one, ask the boon that thou 
mayst desire. ' 

" Rama said : — ' If, fathers, ye are favorably disposed to- 
wards me, the boon I ask is that I may be absolved from the 
sins begotten of my having annihilated the Kshetrias in anger, 
and that the lakes I have formed may become famous in the 
world as holy shrines.' The Pitris then said, ' So shall it be. 
But be thou pacified.' And Rama was pacified accordingly. 
The region that lieth near unto those lakes of gory water, 
from that time hath been celebrated as Samanta-panchaka 
the holy. The wise have declared that every country should 
be distinguished by a name significant of some circumstance 
which may have rendered it famous, In the interval between 


the Dwapara and the Kali yugas there happened at Samanta- 
panchaka the encounter between the armies of the Kauravas 
and tiie Pandavas. In that holy region, without ruggedness 
of any kind, were assembled Eighteen Akshauhinis of soldiers 
eager for battle. And, O Brahmanas, having come thereto, 
they were all slain on the spot Thus the name of that region, 
O Brahmans, hath been explained, and the country described 
to you as a sacred and delightful one. I have mentioned the 
whole of what relateth to it as the region is celebrated 
throughout the three worlds." 

The Rishis said : — " We have a desire to know, O son of 
Suta, what is implied by the term Akshauhini that hath been 
used by thee. Tell us in full what is the number of horse 
and foot, chariots and elephants, which compose an Akshau- 
hini, for thou art fully informed." 

Sauti said : — " One chariot, one elephant, five foot soldiers, 
and three horse, form one Patti ; three pattis make one 
Sena-muhha ; three sena-mukhas are called a Guhna ; three 
gulmas, a Gana ; three ganas, a Vahini ; three vahinis to- 
gether are called a Pritana ; three pritanas form a Chartiu ; 
three chamus, one Anikini ; and an Anikini taken ten times 
forms, as it is' styled by those who know, an Akshauhini. 
O Ye best of Brahmans, arithmeticians have calculated that 
the number of chariots in an Akshauhini is twenty one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy. The measure of elephants must 
be fixed at the same number. O Ye pure, you must know 
t])at the number of foot soldiers is one hundred and nine 
thousand three hundred and fifty. The number of horse is 
sixty-five thousand six hundred and ten. These, O Brahmans, 
as fully explained by me, are the numbers of an Akshauhini as 
said by those acquainted with the principles of numbers. 
O best of Brahmans, according to this calculation were 
composed the eighteen Akshauhinis of the Kaurava and the 
Pandava army. Time, whose acts are wonderful, assembled 
them on that spot and having made the Kauravas the cause, 
destroyed them all. Bhisma acquainted with choice weapons, 
fought for ten days. Drona protected the Kaurava Vahinis 
for five days, Kama the desolator of hostile armies fought 


Ibr two days ; and Salya for half a day. After that lasted 
for half a day the encounter with clubs between Duryodhana 
and Bliiina. At the close of that day, Aswatthama, Krita- 
varma and Kripa destroyed the army of YudhLshthira iu the 
night while sleeping without suspicion of danger. 

" O Saunaka, this best of narrations called Bharata which 
has begun to be repeated at thy sacrifice, was formerly repeated 
at the sacrifice of Janamejaya by an intelligent disciple of Vyasa. 
It is divided into several sections : in the beginning are 
Paushya, Pauloma, and Astikaparvas, describing in full the 
valor and renown of kings. It is a work whose descriptions, 
diction, and sense are varied and wonderful. It contains an 
account of various manners and rites. It is accepted by the 
wise as the state called Vairagya is by men desirous of final 
release. As Self among things to be known, as life among 
things that are dear, so is this history that furnisheth the means 
of arriving at the knowledge of Brahma the first among all 
the shastras. There is not a story current in this world but 
doth depend upon this history even as the body upon the food 
that it taketh. As masters of good lineage are ever attended 
upon by servants desirous of preferment, so is the Bharata 
cherished by all poets. As the words constituting the several 
branches of knowledge appertaining to the world and the Veda 
display only vowels and consonants, so this excellent history 
displayeth only the highest wisdom. 

" Listen, O ye ascetics, to the outlines of the several divi- 
sions ( parvas ) of this history called Bharata, endued with 
great wisdom, of sections and feet that are wonderful and vari- 
ous, of subtile meanings and logical connection, and embellish- 
ed with the substance of the Vedas. 

" The first parva is called Anukrama.nika ; the second, 
Sangraha ; then Pausya ; then Pauloma ; then Astika. ; then 
Adivansav'xtarana. Then comes the Sa^nvava of wonderful and 
thrilling incidents. Then comes Yatugriha-daha (setting fire 
to the house of lac) and then Ilidimba-badha (death of 
Hidimba) parvas ; then comes Baka-badlm ( death of Baka) 
and then Ghaitra-ratha. Th» next is called Swyamvara 
(election of husband by Panchali). in which Atjuna by the 


exercise of Kshetria virtues won Draupadi for wife, Theii 
comes Vdivahika (marriage). Then come Viditragamance, 
( advent of Vidura ), Rajya-lava ( acquirement of kingdom ), 
Arjiina-hanahasha, (exile of Arjuna; and Siibhadra-liarana (the 
ravishment of Subhadra). After these, come Harana-harika, 
Khandava-daha ( the burning of the Khandava forest), and 
Maya-darshana ( the meeting with Maya the Asura architect)* 
Then come Sabhd, Mantra, Jarasandha, Digbijaya (general 
compaign). After Digbijaya come Raja-syuika, Argkavikarana, 
( robbing of the Arghya ) and Shisupala-badha ( death of 
Shishupala ). After these, Dyuta ( gambling ), Anudyida, 
(subsequent to gambling). Aranyaka, and Kinnira-badkd 
(destruction of Kirmira). Then, Arjunavigamanct ( the tra- 
vels of Arjuna), and Kairdti. In the last hath been described 
the battle between Arjuna and Mahadeva in the guise of a hun- 
ter. After this Indra-lokavigdmana ( the journey to the 
regions ] of Indra ) ; then that mine of religion and virtue and 
highly pathetic Nalopdkhydna (the story of Nala). After this 
last, Tirtha-yattra or the pilgrimage of the wise prince of the 
Kurus, the death of Jatasura, and the battle of the Yakshas, 
Then the battle with the Nibata-kabachas, Ajagara, and Markan^ 
dyea-Samasya (the meeting with Markunde^^a). Then the meet- 
ing of Draupadi and Satyavama, Ghoshayathra, Mrlga-sivapna 
(dream of the deer). Then the story of Brihadaranayka and 
then Aindra-drumna. Then Draiipadi-harana (the abduction 
of Draupadi), and Jayadratlia-bimoksana (the realease of 
Jayadratha.) Then the story of Savitri illustrating -the great 
merit of connubial chastity. After this last, the story of 
■Rama. The parva that comes next is called Kiindala-harana 
(the theft of the ear-rings.) That which comes next is 
Aranya and then Vairata. Then the entry of the Pandavas, 
and the fulfilment of their promise (of living unknown for one 
year.) Then the destruction of the Kichakas, then the attempt 
to take the kine (of Virata by the Kauravas). The next is 
called the marriage of Avimanyu with the daughter of Virata. 
The next you must know is the most wonderful parva called 
Udyoga. The next must be known by the name of Sanjaya- 
yana (the arrival of Sanjaya). Then comes PrajagarXi. .(the 


•sloenlessness of Dlirita-raf.htra owing to lils anxiety.) Then 
Sanat-sujata in wliich are the m3^steries of spiritual philosophj-. 
Then Tana-sandhi , and then the arrival of Krishna. Then 
the story of Mahdl, and then of Galava. Then the stories of 
Savitrl, Vama-cleva, and Vcdnya. Then the story of Yamadag- 
iv/a and ^hoda^^lia-rajiha. Then the arrival of Krishna at 
the court, and then Bldiihpnfra-sho.f^hnna. Then the muster 
■<)? troops and the story of Sheta. Then must you know com?3 
tlie quarrel of the high-souled Kama. Then the march to 
the field of the troops of both sides. The next hath been 
called numbering the Rathis and Afirathaf^. Then comes 
the arrival of the messenger JJlid-a which kindled the wratli 
(of the Pandavas). The next that comes you must know i.^ 
the story of Amha. Then comes the thrilling story of the 
installation of Bhisma as Commander-in-chief. The next is 
called the creation of the insular region Jamhu ; then Bhumi ; 
then the account about the formation of islands. Then comes 
JBhifjih'if-glM ; and then the death of Bhisma. Then the 
mstallation of Drona ; then the destruction of the Sansaptahas. 
Then the death of Abhiman3-'u ; and then the vow of Arjuna 
(to slay Jayadratha.) Then the death of Jayadratha, and then 
of Ghatot-kacha. Th^n must you know comes the story of the 
death of Drona of surprising interest. The next that comes 
is called the discharge of the weapon called Ravaijana. Then 
Wiust you know is Kama, and then Salya. Then comes the 
immersion into the lake, and then the encounter (between 
Bhima and Diiryodhana) with clubs. Then comes Siuaraswata; 
and then descriptions of holy shrines, and then genealogies. Then 
comes SdibptilM describing incidents disgraceful (to the honor 
of the Kurus.) Then comes the Aialuka of harrowing incidents. 
Then comes /ak^?ra(Z'Uia (oblation? of watir to the manes of 
the deceased), and then the wailings of the women. The 
next must be known as /Si/imfZr^/i'X describing the funeral rites 
performed for the slain Kauravas. Then comes the destruction 
of the Rakshasha Charvaka who had assumed the disguise of a 
Brahmana (for deceiving Yudhish-thira.) Then the coronation 
<of the wise Yudhish-thira. The next is called the Orihcfprahi- 
bhaji. Then comes SanfT then Rijcullutrni'x-amWiasana, then 



Apaddhanna,thenMoIcsha-clharma. Those that follow are called 
respectively Siika-prashna-avigamana, B rkama-prashna-anii^ 
shasana, the origin of Durvasa, the disputations with Maya. The 
next is to be known as Aniishasanika. Then the ascension of 
Bhisma to heaven. Then the horse-sacrifice, which when read 
purgeth all sins away. The next must be known as the Anu- 
qita in which are words of spiritual philosophy. Those that 
follow are called AsroinvascL, PiUtra-darshana (meeting with 
the spirits of the deceased sons), and the arrival of Narada. 
The next is called Mansala which abounds with terrible and 
cruel incidents. Then come Mahaprasthanika and ascension 
to heaven. Then comes the Purana which is called Khila- 
Harivansa. In this last are contained Visnu-parva, Vishnu's 
frolics and feats as a child, the destruction of Kansa, and lastly, 
the very wonderful Bhavishya-parva (in which are prophesies 
regarding the future.)" 

The high-souled Vyasa had composed these hundred parvas 
of which the above is only an abridgment : having distributed 
them into eighteen, the son of Suta recited them consecutively 
in the forest of Naimislia as follows : — 

"In the Adi parva are contained Pausya, Paidoma Astika,. 
Adivansavatara, Samhhava, the burning of the house of lac, the 
slaying of Hidimva, the destruction of the Asura Vaha, Chitra- 
ratha, the Swayamvara of Draupadi, her marriage after the over- 
throw of rivals in war, the arrival of Vidura, the restoration, 
Arjuna's exile, the abduction of Subhadra, the gift and receipt 
of the marriage dower, the burning of the Khandava forest, 
and the meeting with (the Asura- architect) Maya. The Pausya 
parva treats of the greatness of Utanka, and the Pauloma, 
of the sons of Biirigu. The Astika describes the birth of 
Garuda and of the race of the Nagas (Snakes), the churn- 
ing of the ocean, the incidents relating to the birth of the 
celestial steed Uchchaisrava, and finally, the dynasty of 
Bharata. as described in the Snake-sacrifice of king Janamejaya. 
The Sariibhava parva narrates the births of various kings and 
heroes, and that of the sage, Krishna-Dwaipayana ; the partial 
incarnations of deities, the generation of Daityas and Dana- 
va-i und Yakshas of great prowess, and of serpents, Gandharvas, 


Thirds, and of all other creatures ; and lastly, of the life and 
adventures of king Bharata — the progenitor of the line that 
goes by his name — the son born of Sakuntala by Dushshanta 
in the asylum of the ascetic Kanwa. This parva also des- 
cribes the greatness of Bhaglrathi, and the births of the 
Vasus in the house of Santanu and their ascension to hea- 
ven. In this parva is also narrated the birth of Bhisma 
uniting in himself portions of the energies of the other 
Vasus, his renunciation of royalty and adoption of the Brah- 
macharya mode of life, his adherence to his vows, his protec- 
tion of Chitrangada, and after the death of Chitrangada, his 
protection of his younger brother, Vichitravirya, and his plac- 
ing the latter on the throne ; the birth of Dharma among 
men in consequence of the curse of Animandyavya ; the births 
of Dhrita-rashtra and Pandu through the potency of Vyasa s 
blessing ; and also the birth of the Pandavas ; the plottings 
of Duryodhana to send the sons of Pandu to Varanavata, 
and the other dark counsels of the sons of Dhrita-rastra in 
recrard to the Pandavas : then the advice admiaistored to 
Yudhish-thira on his way by that well-wisher of the Pan- 
davas — Vidura — in the mlechchd language — the digging of 
the hole, tlie burning of Purochana and the sleeping woman 
of the fowler caste, with her five sons, in the house of lac ; 
the meeting of tlie Pandavas in the dreadful forest with Hidim- 
ba, and the slaying of her brother Hidimba by Bhima of great 
prowess. The birth of Ghatot-kacha ; the meeting of the 
Pandavas with Vyasa, and in accordance with his advice their 
stay in disguise in the city of Ekachchatra, in the house of a 
Brahmana ; the destruction of the Asura Vaka, aiid the amaze- 
ment of the populace at the sight ; the extraordinary births of 
Krishna and Dhrista-dyumna ; the departure of the Pandavas 
to Panchala in obedience to the injunction of Vyasa, and 
moved equally by the desire of winning the hand of Draupadi 
on learning the tidings of the Swayamvara from the lips of a 
Brahmana ; the victory of Arjuna over a Gandharva, called 
Angara-parna, on the banks of the Bhagirathi, his contraction 
of friendship with his adversary, and his hearing from the 
Gandharva the history of Tapatij Vasistha and Aurva. Thiis 


parva treats of the journey of the Panda vas towards l*;iin'b;8Tflf;, 
the acquisitiou of Draupadi iu the midst of all the Rajahs, 
by Arjuna, after having successfully pierced the mark ; and in 
the ensuing fight, tlie defeat of Salya, Kama, and all the other 
crowned heads, at tho hands of Bhima and Arjuna of great 
prowess ; the ascertainment by Balarama and Krishna at sight 
©f these matchless exploits, that the heroes were the Pan- 
davas, and the arrival of the two brothers at the house of the 
potter whore the Pandavas were staying ; the dejection of 
Drupada on learning that Draupadi was to be wedded to 
five husbands ; the wonderful story of the five ludras related 
in consequence ; the extraordinary and divinely-ordained 
wedding of Draupadi ; the sending of Vidum by the sons 
of Dhrita-rashtra as envoy to the Pandavas ; the an'ival of 
Vidura and his sight of Krishna ; the abode of the Pandavas 
in Khandava-prastha, and then their rule over one half of 
the king lorn; the fixing of turns by the sons of Pandu, iu 
obedience to the injunctions of Narada, for connubial com- 
panionship with Krishna. In like manner hath the history 
ef Sunda and Upasunda been recited in this. This parva then 
treats of the departure of Arjuna for the forest according to the 
vow, he having seen Draupadi and Yudhish-thira sitting to- 
gether as he entered the chamber to take out amis for deli- 
vering the kinc of a certain Brahmana. This parva then des- 
cribes Ai;j Una's meeting on the way with Ulupi, the daughter 
of a Naga (serpent) ; it then relates his visits to several 
sacred spots ; the birth of Vabruvahana ; the deliverance 
by Arjuna of the five celestial damsels who had been turned 
into alligators by the imprecation of a Brahmana ; the meet- 
ing of Madhava and Arjuna on the holy spot called Pra- 
vh;s\ ; the ravishment of Subhadra by Arjuna, incited there- 
to by her brother Krishna, in the wonderful car moving on 
land, water, and in mid air, according to the wish of the 
rider ; the departure to Indra-prastha, with the dower ; the 
birth in the womb of Subhadra of that prodigy of prowess 
Abhinianyu ; Yajnaseni's giving birth to children ; then follows 
the pleasure-trip of Krisna and Aijuua to the banks of the 
Jumna tind the licquisilion by them of the discus und the 


celebrated bow GanJiva ; the burning of tlie forest of Khan- 
dava ; the rescue of ^Maya by Ai^una, and the escape of the 
serpent, — and the begetting of a son by that be&t of Rishis, 
Mandapala, in the womb of the bird SarncfL This parva is 
divided by Vyasa into two hundred and twenty seven chap- 
ters. These two hundred and twenty seven chapters contain 
eight thousand eight hundred and eighty four slokas. 

"The second is the extensive parva called Sabha or the 
assembly, full of matter. The subjects of this pan-a are the 
establishment of the grand hall by the Pandavas ; their review 
of their retainers ; the description of the courts of the lohapalas 
by Narada well acquainted with the celestial regions ; the 
preparations for the Rajasuya sacrifice ; the destraction of 
Jarasandha ; the deliverance by Vasiideva of the princes con- 
fined in the mountain pass ; the compaign of imiversal conquest 
by the Pandavas ; the arrival of the princes at the Rajasuya 
sacrifice with tribute ; the destruction of Shishupala on the 
occasion of the sacrifice, in connection with the offering o^arghya; 
Bhiraa-sena's ridicule of Duryodhana in the assembly ; Duryo- 
dhana's sorroAv and envy at the sight of the magnificent scale 
on whicii the arrangements had been made ; the indignation 
of Duryodhana in consequence, and the preparations for the 
game of dice ; the defeat of Yudliish-thira at play by the 
wily Sakuni ; the deliverance by Dhrita-rashtra of his afflicted 
daughter-in-laAv Draupadi sunk in the ocean of distress caused 
by the gambling, as of a boat tossed about by the tempestuous 
■waves. The endeavors of EKiryodhana to engage Yudhish- 
thira again in the game ; and the exile of the defeated 
Yudhish-thira with his brothers. These constitute what has 
been called by the great Vyasa the Sabhd parva. This parva 
is divided into seventy eight sections, and consists, O best of 
Brahmanas, of two thousand five hundred and eleven slokas. 

"Then must you know is the third parva called AmnyaJcd 
(relating to the forest). This parva treats of the weudiug oi* 
the Pandavas to the forest and the citizens' following the wise 
Yudhish-thira ; Yudhish-thira's adoration of the god of day, 
according to the injunctions of Dhaumya, to be gifted with 
the power of maiutaiuing the dependant Brahmanas with food 


and drink ; the creation of food through the grace of the Sun ; 
the expulsion by Dhrita-rashtra of Vidura who always spoke 
for his master's good ; Vidura's coming to the Panda vas and 
his return to Dhrita-rashtra at the solicitation of the latter ; 
the wicked Druyodhana's plottings to destroy the forest-ranging 
Pandavas, being incited thereto by Kama ; the appearance of 
Vyasa and his dissuasion of Duryodhana bent upon going to 
the forest ; the history of Surabhi ; the arrival of Maitreya ; 
his laying down to Dhrita-rashtra the course of action ; and hb 
curse on Duryodhana ; Bhima's slaying of Kirmira in battle ; 
the coming of the Panchalas and the princes of the Vrishni 
race to Yudhish-thira on hearing of his defeat at unfair 
gambling by Sakuni ; Dhananjay's allaying the wrath of 
Krishna ; Draupadi's lamentations before Madhava ; Krishna's 
cheering her ; the fall of Sauva also has been here described 
by the Rishi ; also Krishna's bringing Subhadra with her son 
to Dwaraka ; and Dhrista-dyumna's bringing the sons of Drau- 
padi to Panchala ; the entrance of the sons of Pandu into the 
romantic Dwaita wood ; conversation of Bhima, Yudhish- 
thira, and Draupadi ; the coming of Vyasa to the Pandavas and 
his endowing Yudhish-thira with the power of Pratismriti ; 
then, after the departure of Vyasa, the removal of the Pan- 
davas to the forest of Kamyaka ; the wanderings of Arjuna of 
immeasurable prowess in search of weapons ; his battle with 
Mahadeva in the guise of a hunter ; his meeting with the lok i- 
palas and receipt of weapons from them ; his journey to the 
regions of Indra for arms and the consequent anxiety of Dhrita- 
rashtra ; the wailinofs and lamentations of Yudhish-thira on the 
occasion of his meeting with the worshipful great sage Brlhad- 
aswa. Here occurs the holy and highly-pathetic story of Nala 
illustrating the patience of Damayanti and the character of 
Nala. Then the acquirement by Yudhish-thira of the mysteries 
of dice from the same great sage ; then the arrival of the Rishi 
Lomasha from the heavens to where the Pandavas were, and the 
receipt by these high-souled dwellers in the woods of the in- 
telligence brought by the Rishi of their brother Arjuna staying 
in the heavens ; then the pilgrimage of the Pandavas to various 
sacred spots in accordance with the message of Arjuna, and their 

ADT PAPvTA. ■ 31 

attainment of great merit and virtue consequent on such pil- 
grimage : then the pilgrimage of the great sage Narada to the 
shrine Pulnsta ; also the pilgrimage of the high-souled Pan- 
davas. Here ia the deprivation of Kama of his ear-rings by 
Indra. Here also is recited the sacrificial magnificence of Gaya; 
then the story of Agastya in which the Rishi ate up the Asura 
Vatapi, and his connubial connection with Lopa-mudra from 
the desire of offspring. Then the story of Rishya-sringa who 
adopted the Brahmacharya mode of life from his very boyhood ; 
then the history of Rama of great prowess the son of Yama- 
dagni in which has been narrated the death of Karta-virya and 
the Haihayas ; then the meeting between the Pandavas and 
the Vishnis in the sacred spot called Pnivhasa ; then the story 
of Sii-kanya in which Chyavana, the son of Bhrigu, made 
the twins, Aswiuas, drink, at the sacrifice of king Saryati, the 
Som'X jwice (from which they had been excluded by the other 
gods ), and in which, besides, is shown how Chyavana himself 
acquired perpetual youth (as a boon from the grateful Aswinas). 
Then hath been described the liistory of king Mandhata ; then 
the story of prince Jantu ; and how king Somaka by offering up 
his only son (Jantu) in sacrifice obtained a hundred others ; then 
the excellent history of the hawk and the pigeon ; then the ex- 
amination of king Shivi by Indra, Agni, and Dharma ; then the 
story of Ashtavakra, in which is the disputation, at the saci'i- 
fice of Janaka, between that Rishi and the first of logicians, 
Vandi, the son of Varuna ; the defeat of Vandi by the great 
Ashtavakra, and the release by the Rishi of his father from the 
depths of the ocean. Then the story of Yava-krita, and then 
that of the great Raivya ; then the departure (of the Pandavas) 
for Gandha-madana and their abode in the asylum called 
Narayana ; then Bhima-sena's journey to Gandha-madana at the 
request of Draupadi (in search of the sweet-scented flower). 
Bhima's meeting on his way, in a grove of bannanas, with 
Hanumana, the son of Pavaua, of great prowess ; Bhima's 
bath in the tank and the destr>iction of the flowers therein 
-for obtaining the sweet-scented flower (he was in search of ) ; 
.his consequent battle with the mighty Rakshasas and the Yak- 
shas of groat prowe^^s including Maniman. the destruction 


of the Asnra Jata by Bhima ; the meeting (of the Pandaras) 
with the royal sage Vrisha-jxirva ; their departure for the 
asyhim of Arsliti-shena and abode therein ; tlie incitement 
of Bhima (to acts of vengeance) by Dranpadi. Then is narra- 
ted the ascent of the hills of Kylasa by Bhima-sena, his 
terrific battle with the mighty Yakshas headed by Maniman ; 
then the meeting of the Pandavas with Vaisravana (Kuvcra), 
and the meeting with Arjiina after he had obtained for the 
purposes of Yudhish-thira many celestial weapons ; then Arju- 
na's terrible encounter with the Nivata-Kavachas dwelling in 
Hiranya-parva, and also with the Paulomas, and the Kalakeyas; 
their destruction at the hands of Arjuna ; the commencement 
of the display of the celestial weapons by Arjuna before Yudhish- 
thira ; the prevention of the same by Narada ; the descent of 
the Pandavas from Gaudha-madana ; the seizure of Bhima in 
the forest by a mighty serpent huge as the mountain ; his 
release from the coils of the snake, upon Yudhish-thira's answor- 
ino- certain questions ; the return of the Pandavas to the 
Kamyaka woods. Here is described the reappearance of Va- 
sudeva to sec the mighty sons of Pandu ; the arrival of Mar- 
kandeya, and various recitals ; the history of Prithu the son of 
Vena recited by the great Kishi ; the stories of Swaraswati 
and the Kislii Tarhhya. After these, is the story of Matsya ; 
other old stories recited by Markandej'a ; the stories of Indra- 
dyiimna and Dhundhu-mara ; then the history of the chaste 
■wife ; the history of Angira, the meeting and conversation of 
Draupadi and Satyabhama ; tlie return of the Pandavas to the 
forest of Dwaita ; then the procession to see the calves and the 
captivity of Duryodhaua ; and when the wretch was being 
carried off, his rescue by Arjuna ; here is Yudhish-thira's dream 
of the deer ; then the re-entry of the Pandavas into the Ka- 
myaka forest ; here also is the long story of Vrihi-draunika. 
Here also is recited the story of Diirvasa ; then the abduction 
by Jayadratlia of Draupadi from the asylum ; the pursuit of 
the ravishor by Bhima swift as the air and the ill shaving of 
■Jayadratha's crown at Bhima's hands. Hero is the long history 
of Rama in wliich is shown how Rama by his prowess slew Ra- 
*vana in battle. Here also is narrated the story of Savitri'; 


then Kama's deprivation by Indra of hiaear-ringfl ; tlien tlie 
presentation to Kama by the gratified Indra of a 8aktl (missile 
weapon) vvliich had the virtue of killing one only person 
against whom it might be hurled ; then the story called 
Aranya in which Dharma (the god of justice) gave advice 
to his son (Yudhish-thira) ; in which, besides, ia recited how the 
Pandavas after having obtained a boon went towards the west. 
These are all Included in the third Parva called Arunyaka, 
consisting of two hundred and sixty-nine sections. The number 
of slokas is eleven thousand six hundred and sixty four. 

'• The extensive Parva that comes next is called Vairata. 
The Pandavas arriving at the dominions of Virata saw in a 
cemetery on the outskirts of the city a large skami tree 
whereon they kept their weapons. Here hath been recited 
their entry into the city and abo le there in disguise. Then 
the slaying by Bhima of the wicked Kichaka who seuseles.s 
with lust, had sought Draupadi for his embraces ; the appoint- 
ment by prince Duryodhana of clever spies, and their despatch 
to all sides for tracing the Pandavas : the failure of these to 
discover the mighty sons of Pandu ; the first seizure of Virata's 
kine by the TrljaHas and the terrific battle that ensued ; the 
capture of Virata by the enemy and his rescue by Bhima-sena j 
the release also of the kine by the Pandava f Bhima) ; the 
seizure of Virata's kine again by the Kurus ; the defeat in 
battle of all the Kurus by the single-handed Arjuna ; the 
release of the king's kine ; the bestowal by Virata of his 
daughter Uttara for Arjuna's acceptance in behalf of his son 
by Subhadra — Abhimanyu the destroyer of foes. These are 
the contents of the extensive fourth Parva — the Vairata. The 
great Rishi Vyasa has composed in this sixty seven sections. 
The number of slokas is two thousand fifty. 

'♦ Listen then to (the contents of) the fifth Parra which 
must be known as Udyoga. While the Pandavas, desirous of 
victory, were residing in the place called Upaplavya, Duryo- 
dhana and Arjuna both went at the same time to Vasudeva, 
and said ' you should render us assistance in this war.' The 
high-souled Krishna, upon these words being uttered, replied 
*0 ye first of men, a couneeilor iu myaelt who will not fi^^ht 



an.l one Akshauhmi of troops, whicli of these shall I give to 
which of you ?' Bliad to his own interests, the foolish Duryo- 
dhana asked for the troops ; while Arjuna solicited Krishna 
as an unfigliting counsellor. (Then is described how) when the 
kino- of Madra was coming for the assistance of the Pandavas, 
Duryodhana, having decieved hira on the way by presents and 
hospitality, induced him to grant a boon and then solicited his 
assistance in battle ; how Salya, having passed his word to 
Duryodhana, went to the Paudavas and consoled them by 
reciting the history of Indra's victory (over Vitra). Then 
comes the despatch by the Pandavas of their Pwrohita 
(priest) to the Kauravas. Then is described how king Dhrita- 
rashtra of great prowess, having heard the words of the 
purohita of the Pandavas and the story of Indra's victory, 
decided upon sending his purohita and ultimately despatched 
Sanjaya as envoy to the Paudavas from desire of peace. Here 
hath been described the sleeplessness of Dhrita-rashtra from 
anxiety upon hearing all about the Pandavas and their friends, 
Vasudeva and others. It was on this occasion that Vidura 
addressed to the wise king Dhrita-rashtra various counsels 
that were full of wisdom. It was here also that Sanat-sujata 
recited to the anxious and sorrowing monarch the excellent 
truths of spiritual philosophy. On the next morning Sanjaya 
spoke, in the court of the King, of the identity of the lord 
Vasudeva and Arjuna. It was then that the illustrious Krishna, 
moved by kindness and desirous of peace, went himself to the 
Kaurava cai)ital, Hastinapore, for bringing about peace. Then 
comes the rejection by prince Duryodhana of the embassy of 
Krishna who had come to solicit peace for the benefit of both 
parties. Here hath been recited the story of Damvodvava ; 
then the story of the high-souled Matuli's search for a 
husband for his daughter ; then the history of the great sage 
Galava ; then the story of the training and discipline of the 
son of Bidula. Then the exhibition by Krishna, before the 
assembled Rnjas, of his Yoga powers upon learning the evil 
counsels of Duryodhana and Kama ; then Krishna's taking 
Kama on his chariot and tender to him of advice, and Kama's, 
rejection of the same from pride Then the return of Krishna 

ADI rAFxYA. oa 

tlie chastiscr of enemies from Hastinaporc to Upaplavya, 
and his narration to the Pandavas of all that had happened. 
It was then that those oppressors of foes, the Pandavas, having 
heard all and consulted properly with each other, made every 
preparation for war. Then comes the march from Ilastinapore, 
for hattle, of foot soldiers, horse, charioteers, and elephants. 
Then the tale of troo{.s by both parties. Then the despatch 
by prince Duryodhana of UIuJm as envoy tu the Pandavas 
on the day previous to the battle. Then the talc of charioteers 
of different classes. Then the story of Ainha. These all 
have been described in the fifth Parva called Udyoga of the 
Bharata, abounding with incidents appertaining to war and 
peace. O ye ascetics, the great Vyasa hath composed one 
hundred and eighty six sections in this Parva. The number 
of slokas also composed in this by the great Rishi is six thou- 
sand six hundred and ninety eight. 

" Then is recited the Bhisma Parva abounding with 
wonderful incidents. In this hath been narrated by Sanjaya 
the formation of the region known as Jambtt. Here hath 
been described the great depression of Yudhish-thira's army, 
and also the fierce fight for ten successive days. In this 
the high-souled Vasudeva by reasons based on the philosophy 
of final release drove away Arjuna's compunction springing 
from the hitter's regard for his kindred (whom he was on the 
eve of slayingj In this the magnanimous Krishna, attentive 
to the welfare of Yu<lhish-thira, seeing the loss inflicted (on 
the Pandava army,) descending swiftly from his chariot, himself 
ran, with dauntless breast, his driving whip in hand, to elTect 
the death of Bhisma. In this, Krishna also smote with piercing 
words Arjuna the bearer of the Gandiva and the foremost in 
battle among all wielders of weapons. In this, the foremost 
of bowmen, Arjuna, placing ShlJcandi before him and pierc- 
ino- Bhisma with his sharpest arrows felled him from his 
chariot. In this, Bhisma lay stretched on his bed of arrows. 
This extensive Parva is known as the sixth in the Bharata. 
In this have been composed one hundred and seventeen sec- 
tions. The number of slokas is five thousand eight hundred 
and eighty four aa told by Vyasa cognisant of the Vcdas. 


*' Then is recited the wonderful Parva called Drorta^ full 
of incidents. First comes the installation in the -command 
of the army of the great instructor in arms, Drona : then the 
row made by that great master of weapons of seizing the wise 
Yudhish-thira in battle to please Diiryodhana j then the 
retreat of Arjiina from the field before the Sansaptakas ; then 
the overthrow of Bhagadatta like to a second Indra in the field, 
•with his elephant Supritika, by Arjuna ; then the death of the 
hero Abhimanyu in his teens, alone and unsupported, at the 
hands of many Maharathas including Jayadratha ; then after 
the death of Abhimanyu, the destruction by Arjuna in battle 
of seven Akshauhinis of troops and then of Jayadratha ; 
then the entry, by Bhima of mighty arms and by that foremost 
of charioteers Satyaki, into the Kaurava ranks impenetrable 
to even the gods, in search after Arjuna in obedience to the 
orders of Yudhish-thira, and the destruction of the remnant of 
the Sansaptakas. In the Drona Parva, is the death of Alara- 
vusha, of Srutayus, of Jalasandha, of Shoraa-datti, of Virata, 
of the great charioteer Drupada, of Ghatotkacha, and others ; 
in this Parva, Aswatthama, excited beyond measure at the 
fall of his father in battle, discharged the terrible weapon 
Narayana. Then the glory of Rwdra in connection with 
the burning (of the three cities). Then the arrival of Vyasa and 
recital by him of the glory of Krishna and Arjuna. This is the 
great seventh Parva of the Bharata in which all the heroic chiefs 
and princes mentioned were sent to their last account. The 
number of sections in this is one hundred and seventy. The 
number of slokas as composed In the Drona Parva by Rishi Vyasa 
the son of Piirasara and the possessor of true knowledge, after 
much meditation, is eight thousand nine hundred and nine, 

" Then comes the most wonderful Parva called Kama. In 
this is narrated the appointment of the wise king of Madra as 
(Kama's) charioteer. Then the history of the fall of the 
Asura Tripura. Then the application to each other by Kama 
and Salya of harsh words on their setting out for the field. 
Then the story of the swan and the crow recited in insulting 
aUusion ; then the death of Pandya at the hands of the 
bigh-soulcd Aswatthama ; then the death of Danda-scna ; then 

A r> I P A R V A. 37 

that of Danda ; then Yudhish-thira's imminent risk in single 
combat with Kama in the presence of all the warriors ; then 
the wrath of Yudhish-thira and Arjuna to each other ; then 
Krishna's pacification of Arjuna. In this Parva, Bhima in ful- 
filment of his vow, having ripped open Dushshasana's breast in 
battle drank his heart's blood. Then Arjuna slew the great 
Kama in single combat. Readers of the Bharata call this the 
eighth Parva. The number of sections in this is sixty nine 
and the number of slokas is four thousand nine hundred and 
sixty four. 

" Then hatli been recited the wonderful Parva called Salya. 
After all the great warriors had been slain, the king of Madra 
became the leader of the (Kaurava) army. The encounters,, 
one after another, of charioteers have been here described. 
Then comes the fall of the great Salya at the hands of 
Yudhish-thira the just. Here also is the death of Sakuni 
in battle at the hands of Sahadeva. Upon only a small rem- 
nant of the troops remaining alive after the immense slaught- 
er, Duryodhana went to the lake and creating for himself room 
within its waters lay stretched there for some time. Then is 
narrated the receipt of this intelligence by Bhima from the 
fowlers ; then is narrated how, moved by the insulting speeches 
of Yudhish-thira, Duryodhana ever unable to bear affronts 
came out of the waters. Then comes the encounter with clubs 
between Duryodhana and Bhima ; then the arrival, at the time 
of such encounter, of Balarama ; then is described the sacred- 
ness of the Swaraswati ; then the progress of the encounter 
with clubs ; then the fracture of Duryodhana's thighs in battle 
by Bhima with a terrific hurl of his mace. These all have been 
described in the wonderful ninth Parva. In this the number of 
sections is fifty nine and the number of slokas composed by the 
great Vysa — the spreader of the fame of the Kauravas — is three 
thousand two hundred and twenty. 

"Then shall I describe the Parva called Sauptika of fright- 
ful incidents. On the Pandavas having gone away, the mighty 
charioteers, Kritavarma, Kripa, and the son of Drona, came to 
the field of battle in the evening and there saw king Duryo- 
dhana lying on the ground, his thighs broken, and himself 


covered with blood. Then the great charioteer, the son of 
Drona, of terrible wrath, vowed, ' without killing all the 
Panchalas including Dhrishta-dyumna, and the Pandavas also 
with all their allies, I will not take off my armour.' Having 
spoken these words, the three warriors leaving Duryodhana's 
side entered the great forest just as the sun was setting. While 
sitting under a large banian tree in the night, they saw an owl 
killing numerous crows one after another. At sight of this, 
Aswatthama, his heart full of rage at the thought of his 
father's fate, resolved to slay the slumbering Panchalas. And 
wending to the gate of the camp, he there saw a Rakshasa 
of frightful visage and head reaching to the very heavens, 
guarding the entrance. And seeing that Rakshasa obstructing 
all his weapons, the son of Drona speedily pacified by 
worship the three-eyed Rudra. And then accompanied by 
Kritavarma and Kripa slew all the sons of Draupadi, all the 
Panchalas with Dhrishta-dyumna and others, together Avith 
their relatives, slumbering unsuspectingly in the night. All 
perished on that fatal night except the five Pandavas and the 
great warrior Satyaki. These escaped owing to Krishna's 
counsels. Then the charioteer of Dhrishta-dyumna brought to 
the Pandavas intelligence of the slaughter of the slumbering 
Panchalas by the son of Drona. Then Draupadi distressed at 
the death of her sons and brothers and father sat before her 
lords resolved to kill herself by fasting. Then Bhima of terrible 
prowess, moved by the words of Draupadi, resolved to please 
her ; and speedily taking up his mace followed in wrath the 
son of his preceptor in arms. The son of Drona from fear of 
Bhima-sena and impelled by the fates and moved also by anger 
discharged a celestial weapon saying ' this is for the destruction 
of all the Pandavas ' ; then Krishna saying ' this shall not be ' 
neutralised Aswat-thama's speech. Then Arjuna neutralised that 
weapon by one of his own. Seeing the wicked Aswat-thama's 
destructive intentions, Dwaipayana (and Krishna) denounced 
curses on him which the latter returned. The Pandavas 
then deprived the mighty charioteer Aswat-thama of the 
jewel on his head and became exceedingly glad, and boastful of 
their success made a present of it to the sorrowin^^ Draupadi, 


This the tenth Parva, called Sauptlka, is recited. The great 
Vyasa hath composed in this eighteea sections. The number 
of slokas also composed in this by the great reciter of sacred 
truths is eight hundred and seventy. In this Parva have been 
put together by the great Rishi the two Parvas called Sauptlka, 
and Aishika. 

"After this hath been recited the highly pathetic Parva 
called Strl. Dhrita-rashtra of prophetic eye, afflicted at 
the death of his children, and moved by enmity towards Bhima, 
broke into pieces a statue of hard iron deftly placed before 
him by Krishna (as a substitute for Bhima). Then Vidura, 
removing the distressed Dhrita-rashtra's affection for worldly 
things by reasons pointing to final release, consoled that wise 
monarch. Then hath been described the wending of the dis- 
tressed Dhrita-rashtra accompanied by the ladies of his house to 
the field of battle of the Kauravas. Here follow the pathetic 
wailings of the wives of the slain heroes. Then the wrath of 
Gandhari and Dhrita-rashtra and their loss of consciousness. 
Then the Kshetria ladies saw those heroes, — their unreturning 
sons, brothers, and fathers, — lying dead on the field. Then 
the pacification by Krishna of the wrath of Gandhari distressed 
at the death of her sons and grandsons. Then the cremation 
of the bodies of the deceased Rajahs with due rites by that 
monarch (Yudhish-thira) of great wisdom and the foremost 
also of all virtuous men. Then upon the presentation of water 
to the manes of the deceased princes having commenced, the 
story of Kunti's acknowledgment of Kama as her son born in 
secret. These have all been described by the great Rishi Vyasa 
in the highly pathetic eleventh Parva. Its perusal moveth 
every feeling heart with sorrow and even draweth tears from 
the eye. The number of sections composed is twenty seven. 
The number of slokas is seven hundred and seventy five. 

"Twelfth in number cometh the Santl Parva, which increaseth 
the understanding and in Avhich is related the despondency of 
Yudhish-thira on his having slain his fathers, brothers, sons, 
maternal uncles and matrimonial relations. In this Parva is 
described how from his bed of arrows Bhisma exposed various 
systems of duties worth the study of kings desirous of know- 


ledge ; this Parva exposeth the duties relative to emergencies, 
with full indications of time and reasons. By understanding these, 
a person attaineth to consummate knowledge. The mysteries 
also of final emancipation have been expatiated upon. This 
is the twelfth Parva the favorite of the wise. It consists of 
three hundred and thirty-nine sections, and contains fourteen 
thousand seven hundred and thirty two slokas. 

"Next in order is the excellent Aniishashana Parva. In it is 
described how Yudhish-thira the king of the Kurus was re- 
conciled to himself on hearing the exposition of duties by 
Bhisma, the son of Bhagirathi. This Parva treats of rules 
in detail and of Dharma and Artha ; then the rules of cha- 
rity and its merits ; then the qualifications of donees, and the 
Bupreme rule regarding gifts. This Parva also describes the 
ceremonials of individual duty, the rules of conduct, and the 
matchless merit of truth. This Parva showeth the great merit 
of Brahmanas and kine, and unraveleth the mysteries of duties 
in relation to time and place. These are embodied in the ex- 
cellent Parva called Aniishashana of varied incidents. In this 
hath been described the ascension of Bhisma to Heaven. • This 
is the thirteenth Parva which hath laid down accurately the 
various duties of men. The number of sections in this is one 
hundered and forty-six. The number of slokas is eight thousand. 
"Then comes the fourteenth Parva called Aswamedhika. 
In this is the excellent story of Samvarta and Marutta. Then 
is described the discovery (by the Pandavas) of golden treasu- 
ries ; and then the birth of Parikshita who was revived by 
Krishna after having been burnt by the (celestial) weapon (of 
Aswat-thama). The battles of Arjuna the son of Pandu, while 
following the sacrificial horse let loose, with various princes who 
in wrath seized it. Then is shewn the great risk of Arjuna ni 
his encounter with Vavru-vahana the son of Chitrangada (by 
Arjuna) the appointed daughter (of the chief of Mauipura). 
Then the story of the mungoose during the performance of the 
horse sacrifice. This is the most wonderful Parva called Aswa- 
medhika. The number of sections is one hundred and three. 
The number of slokas composed in this by Vyasa of true know- 
ledge is three thousand three hundred and twenty. 


• -'Then comes the fifteenth Parva called ARvnmavasiJia. In 
this Dhrita-rashtra, abdicating the kingdom, and accompanied 
by Gandhari and Vidura, went to the woods. Seeing this, the 
virtuous Pritha also, ever engaged in cherishing her superiors, 
leaving the court of her sons, followed the old couple. In this 
is described the wonderful meeting through the kindness of 
Vyasa of the King (Dhrita-rashtra) with the spirits of his slain 
children, grand-children, and other princes, returned from the 
other world. Then the monarch abandoning his sorrows acquir- 
ed with his wife the highest fruit of his meritorious actions. 
In this Parva, Vidura after having leaned on virtue all his life 
attaineth to the most meritorious state, 

"The learned son of Gavalgana. Sanjaya also, of passions 
under full control, and the foremost of minister.^, attained, in 
this Parva, to the blessed state. In this. Yudhish-thira the 
just met Narada and heard from him about the extinction of 
the race of the Vrishnis. This is the very wonderful Parva 
called Asramavasika. The number of sections in this is forty 
two, and the number of slokas composed by Vyasa cognisant 
of truth is one thousand live hundred and six. 

" After this, j^ou know, comes the Maushala of painful inci- 
dents. In this, those lion-hearted heroes (of the race of 
Vrishni) with the scars of many a field on their bodies, oppress- 
ed with the curse of a Brahmana, while deprived of reason 
with drink, impelled by the fates, slew each other on the shores 
of the salt sea with the Eraka grass which (in their hands) 
became (invested with the fatal attributes of the) thunder. 
In this, both Balarama and Keshava (Krishna) after causing 
the extermination of their race, their hour having come, 
themselves did not rise superior to the sway of all-destroy- 
ing Time. In this, Arjuna the foremost among men, going to 
Dwaravati (Dwaraka) and seeing the city destitute of the 
Vrishnis was much affected and became exceedingly sorry. 
Then after the funeral of his maternal uncle Vasudeva the 
foremost among the Yadus (Vrishnis), he saw the heroes of the 
Yadu race lying stretched in death on the spot where they had 
been drinking. He then caused the cremation of the bodies 
of the illustrious Krishna and Balarama and of the principal 



members of the Yrishui race. Then as he was joiinieying from 
Dwaraka with the women and the children, the old and the 
decrepit, — remnants of the Yadu race — he was met on the 
way by a heavy calamity. He witnessed also the disgrace of 
his bow Gandiva and the unpropitiousness of his celestial wea- 
pons. Seeing all this, Arjuna became despondent and pursuant 
to Vyasa's advice went to Yudhish-thira and solicited permission 
to adopt the So.nyasa mode of life. This is the sixteenth Parva 
called Maushala. The number of sections is eight and the 
number of slokas composed by Vyasa cognisant of truth is three 
hundred and twenty. 

" The next is Mahaprastkanika the seventeenth Farva. 
"In this those foremost among men the Pandavas abdicating 
their kingdom went with Draupadi on their great journey 
culled Mahaprasthan. In this they met with Agni having 
arrived at the sea of red waters. In this, asked by Agni 
himself, Arjuna having worshipped him duly, returned to hhn 
the excellent celestial bow called Gandiva. In this, leaving 
his brothers who dropped one after another and Draupadi 
also, Yudhish-thira went on his journey without once looking 
back on them. This tlie seventeenth Parva is called Maha- 
prasthanika. The number of sections in this is three. The 
number of slokas also composed by Yyasa cognisant of truth 
is three hundred and twenty. 

" The Parva that comes after this you must know is the 
extraordinary one called Sarga of celestial incidents. Then 
seeing the celestial car come to take him, Yudhish-thira moved 
by kindness towards the dog that accompanied him, refused to 
ascend it without his companion. Observing the illustrious 
Yudhish-thira's steady adherence to virtue, Dharma (the god of 
justice) abandoning his canine form showed himself to the king. 
Then Yudhish-thira ascending to heaven felt much pain. The 
celestial messenger showed him hell by an act of deception. Then 
Yudhish-thira the soul of justice heard the heart-rending lament- 
ations of his brothers abiding in that region under the disci- 
pline of Yarna. Then Dharma and Indra showed Yudhish-thira 
(the region appointed for sinners). Then Yudhish-thira after 
leaving hi?, human body by a pluno:e ia the celestial Ganges 


attained to that region which his acts merited, and' began tio 
live in joy respected by Indra and all the gods. This is tlio 
eighteenth Parva as narrated by the illustrious Vyasa. The 
number of sections is five, and the number of slokas composed, 
O ascetics, by the great Rishi in this is two hundred and nine. 
"The above are the contents of the Eighteen Parvas. In the 
appendix (Khila)B.rc the Ilarlvansa and the Vauish'^a. The num- 
ber of slokas contained in the Harwansa is twelve thousand. " 
These are the contents of the section called Parva-sangraha, 
Sauti continued : — Eighteen Akshauhinis of troops came to- 
gether for battle. The encounter that ensued was terrible and 
lasted for eighteen days. He who knows the four Vedas with 
all the Angds and Upanishadas, but doe& not know this history 
(Bharata), cannot be regarded as wise. Vyasa of immeasur- 
able intelligence has spoken of the Mahabharata as a treatise 
on Artha, on DJiarma, and on Kama. Those who have listened 
to this history can never bear to listen to others, as, indeed,- 
they who have listened to the sweet voice of the male Kokila, 
can never hear the dissonance of tlie crow's cawing. As the 
formation of the three worlds proceedeth from the five elements, 
so do the inspirations of all poets proceed from this excellent 
composition. O ye Brahmanas, as the four kinds of creatures 
(viviparous, oviparous, born of filth, and vegetables) are depend- 
ent on space for their existence, so the Puranas depend upon 
this history. As alt the senses depend for their exercise upon 
the various modifications af the mind, so do all acts (ceremo- 
nials) and moral qualities depend upon this treatise. There is 
not a story current in the world but doth depend on this 
history, even as the body upon the food it taketh. All poets 
cherish the Bharata even as servants desirous of preferment 
always attend upon masters of good lineage. Even as the 
blessed domestic Asrama can never be surpassed by the three 
other Asramas (modes of life) so no poets can surpass this poem. 
"Ye ascetics, shake ye O'ff all inaction. Let your hearts 
be fixed on virtue, for virtue is the one only friend of him that 
has gone to the other world. Even the most intelligent by 
cherishing wealth and wives can never make these their own • 
nor ure these possessions that are lasting. The Bharata uitcrcst 


by the lips of Dwaipayana is without a parallel ; it is virtue 
itself and sacred. It destroyeth sin and produceth good. 
He that listeneth to it while it is being recited hath no need 
of a bath in the sacred waters of Pushkara, A Brahmana, 
whatever sins he may commit during the day through his 
senses, is freed from them all by reading the Bharata in the 
evening. Whatever sins he may commit also in the night 
by deeds, words, or mind, he is freed from them all by reading 
the Bharata in the first twilight (morning). He that giveth a 
hundred kine with horns plaited with gold to a Brahman cog- 
nisant of the Vedas and all branches of learning, and he that 
daily listeneth to the sacred narrations of the Bharata, acquireth 
equal merit. As the wide ocean is easily passable by men having 
ships, so is this extensive history of great excellence and deep 
import with the help of this chapter called Parva-sangraha. " 

Thus endeth the section called Parva-sangraha of the 
Adi Purva of the blessed Mahabharata. 

Section III. 

(Pausya Paria). 

Sauti said, " Janamejaya the son of Parikshita was with 
his brothers attending his long sacrifice on the plains of Kuru- 
kshetra. His brothers were three, Sruta-sena, Ugra-sena, and 
Bhima-sena. And as they were sitting at the sacrifice, there 
arrived at the spot an offspring of Sarama (the celestial bitch.) 
And belaboured by the brothers of Janamejaya, he ran away to 
his mother, crying in pain. And his mother seeing him crying 
exceedingly asked him, ''Why criest thou so ? Who hath beaten 
thee ?" And being thus questioned, he said unto his mother, 
' I have been belaboured by the brothers of Janamejaya. ' 
And his mother replied, 'apparently then, thou hast committed 
some fault for which hast thou been beaten !' He answered, ' I 
have not committed any fault. I have not touched the sacri- 
ficial butter with my tongue, nor have I even cast a look upon 
it." His mother Sarama hearing this and much distressed at the 
affliction of her son went to the place where Janamejaya with 
his brothers was at his lung-exteading ssaciitice, And she 


addressed Janamejaya in anger, saying, * this my son hath com- 
mitted no fault : he hath not looked upon your sacrificial butter, 
nor hath he touched it witli his tongue. Wherefore hath he 
been beat ?' They gave not her a word in reply ; whereupon 
she said, ' as ye have beat my son who hath committed no fault, 
therefore shall evil come upon ye when ye least expect it.' 

" Janamejaya, thus addressed by the celestial bitch Sarama, 
became exceedingly alarmed and dejected. And after the sacrifice 
was concluded, he returned to Hastinapura, and began to take 
great pains in searching for a Purohita who could by procuring 
absolution for his sin, neutralise the effect of the curse. 

"One day Janamejaya the son of Pai-ikshita Avhile ahunting, 
observed in a particular part of his dominions a hermitage 
where dwelt a certain Rishi of name Sruta-srava. He had a 
son named Soma-srava deeply engaged in ascetic devotions. 
Being desirous of appointing that son of the Rishi as his 
Purohita, Janamejaya the son of Parikshita sainted the Rishi 
and addressed him saying, * O possessor of the six attributes, 
let this thy son be my purohita.' The Rishi thus addressed, 
answered Janamejaya, ' O Janamejaya, this my son, deep in 
ascetic devotions, accomplished in the study of the Vedas, and 
endued with the full force of my asceticism, is born of the 
womb of a she-snake that had drunk my vital fluid. He is 
able to absolve thee from all offences save those committed 
against Mahadeva. But he hath one particular habit, viz., he 
would grant to any Brahmana whatever might be demanded of 
him, ' If thou canst put up with it, then take thou him.' 
Janamejaya thus addressed replied to the Rishi * it shall be 
even so.' And accepting him for his Purohita, he returned to 
his capital ; and he then addressed his brothers saying, * this is 
the person I have chosen for my spiritual master : whatsoever 
he may say must be complied with by you without examination.' 
And his brothers did as they were directed. And giving these 
directions to his brothers, the king marched towards Takshya- 
shila and brought that country under his authority. 

" About this time there was a Rishi of name Ayodha-Dhau- 
mya. And Ayoda-Dhaumya had three disciples, Upamanyti, 
Aruni, and Veda. And the Rishi bade one -of these disciples; 


Arimi of Panchala go and stop up a breach in the water-course 
of a certain field. And Aruni of Panchala, thus ordered by 
his preceptor, repaired to the spot. And having gone there 
he saw that he could not stop up the breach in the water-course 
by ordinary means. And he was distressed because he could 
not do his preceptor's bidding. But at length he saw a way 
and said ' well, I will do it in this way,' He then went down 
into the breach and lay down himself there. And the water 
was thus confined. 

" And sometime after, the preceptor Ayoda-Dhaumya asked 
his other disciples where Aruni of Panchala Avas. And they 
answered, Sir, he hath been sent by yourself saying — Go, stop 
up the breach in the water-course of the field : — ' Thus re- 
minded, Dhaumya, addressing his pupils, said, ' then let us 
all go to the place where he is.' 

* And having arrived there, he shouted, ' Ho Aruni of Pan- 
chala, where art thou ? Come hither, my child.' And Aruni 
hearing the voice of his preceptor speedily came out of the 
water-course and stood before his preceptor. And addressing 
the latter, Aruni said, ' here I am in the breach of the water- 
course. Not having been able to devise any other means I 
entered it myself for the purpose of preventing the water 
running out. It is only upon hearing thy voice that having 
left it and allowed the waters to escape I have stood before thee, 
I salute thee, Master ; tell me what I have to do.' 

" The preceptor, thus addressed replied ' because in getting 
up from the ditch thou hast opened the water-course, therefore 
hence-forth shalt thou be called Uddalaka as a mark of thy 
preceptor's favor. And because my words have been obeyed by 
thee, thou shalt obtain good fortune. And all the Vedas shall 
shine in thee and all the Dhdrma-shastras also.' And Aruni, thus 
addressed by his preceptor, went to the country after his heart. 

"The name of another of Ayoda-Dhaumya's disciples was 
Upamanyu. And Dhaumya appointed him saying, " go, my 
child, Upamanyu, look after the kine. " And according to 
his preceptor's orders, he went to tend the kine. And having 
watched them all day, he returned in the evening to his pre- 
ceptor's house and standing before him he saluted him respect- 


fttlly. And his preceptor seeing him, in good condition of body 
asked him, 'Upamanyu, my child, upon what dost thou support 
thyself ? Thou art exceeding plump. ' And he answered his 
preceptor, 'Sir, I support myself by begging.' And his precept- 
or said 'what is obtained in alms should not be used by thee 
without offering it to me. ' And Upamanyu, thus told, went 
away. And having obtained alms, he offered the same to his 
preceptor. And his preceptor took from him even the whole. 
And Aruni, thus treated, went away to attend the cattle. And 
having watched them all day, he returned in the evening to 
his preceptor's abode. And he stood before his preceptor and 
saluted him with respect. And his preceptor perceiving that 
he still continued to be of good condition of body said unto 
him, ' Upamanyu, my child, I take from thee even the whole of 
what thou obtainest in alms, without keeping anything for thee. 
How then dost thou, at present, contrive to support thyself V 
And Upamanyu said unto his preceptor, 'Sir, having made 
over to you all that I obtain in alms, I go abegging a second 
time for supporting myself. ' And his preceptor then replied, 
'This is not the way in which thou shouldst obey thy preceptor. 
By this thou art diminishing the support of others that live by 
begging. Truly, having supported thyself so, thou hast proved 
thyself covetous. ' And Upamanyu, having signified his 
assent to all that his preceptor said, went away to attend the 
cattle. And having watched them all day, he returned to his 
preceptor's house. And he stood before his preceptor and salu- 
ted him respectfully. And his preceptor observing that he was 
still fat, said again unto him, ' Upamanyu, my child, I take 
from thee all thou obtainest in alms and thou dost not go 
abegging a second time, and yet art thou in healthy condition. 
How dost thou support thyself ?' And Upamanyu, thus ques- 
tioned, answered, 'Sir, I now live upon the milk of these 
cows. ' And his preceptor thereupon told him, ' it is not law- 
ful for thee to appropriate the milk without having first ob- 
tained my consent.' And Upamanyu having assented to the 
justice of these observations, went away to tend the kine. And 
Avhen he returned to his preceptor's abode, he stood before him 
axul saluted him as usjual, And his preceptor seeing that be 


was still fat, said. IJpamanyu, my child, thou eatest no longei' 
of alms, nor dost thou go abegging a second time, nor even 
driukest of the milk ; yet art thou fat. By what means dost 
thou contrive to live now ? ' And Upamanyu replied, ' Sir, I 
now sip the froth that these calves throw out while sucking 
their mothers' teats. ' And the preceptor said, ' these generous 
calves, I suppose, out of compassion for thee throw out large 
quantities of froth. Wouldst thou stand in the way of their 
full meals by acting as thou hast done ? Knov/ then that it is 
unlawful for thee to drink the froth. ' And Upamanyu, having 
signified his assent to this, went as before to tend the cows. 
And restrained by his preceptor, he feedeth not on alms, nor 
hath he anything else to eat ; he drinketh not of the milk, nor 
tasteth he of the froth ! 

" And Upamanyu, one day, oppressed by hunger, when in 
a forest ate of the leaves of the Arka ( Ascle^ias gigantea ). 
And his eyes being affected by the pungent, acrimonious, 
crude, and saline qualities of the leaves which he had eaten, 
he became blind. And as he was crawling about, he fell into a 
pit. And upon his not returning that day when the sun was 
sinking down behind the summit of the western mountain, the 
preceptor observed to his disciples that Upamanyu was not yet 
come. And they told him that he had gone out with the cattle. 
" The preceptor then said, ' Upamanyu being restrained 
by me from the use of everything, is, of course, displeased, 
and, therefore, doth not come home until it be late. Let us 
then go in search of him.' And having said this, he went with 
his disciples into the forest and began to shout saying, ' Ho, 
Upamanyu, where art thou ?' And Upamanyu hearing his 
preceptor's voice answered in a loud tone, ' here I am at the 
bottom of a well.' And his preceptor asked him how he hap- 
pened to be there. And Upamanyu replied, ' having eaten of 
the leaves of the ^rA;a plant I became blind, and so have I 
fallen into this well.' And his preceptor thereupon told him, 
' glorify the twin Aswinas, the joint physicians of the gods, 
and they will restore thee thy sight.' And Upamanyu thus 
directed by his preceptor began to glorify the twin Aswinas, 
in the following words of the Rig Yeda: — 


'Ye have existed before the creation ! Ye first-horn beings, 
ye are displayed in this wondrous universe of five elements 1 
I desire to obtain ye by help of the knowledge derived from 
hearing and of meditation, for ye are Infinite ! Ye are the 
course itself of Nature and the intelligent Soul that pervades 
that course ! Ye are birds of beauteous feathers perching 
on the body that is like to a tree ! Ye are without the 
three common attributes of every soul ! Ye are incomparable 1 
Ye, through its spirit in every created thing, overspread the 
universe ! 

'Ye are golden Engles ! Ye are the essence in which all 
things disappear ! Ye are free from error and know no de- 
terioration ! Ye are of beauteous beaks that wound not un- 
justly and are victorious in every encounter ! Ye certainly 
prevail over Time ! Having created the Sun, ye weave the 
wondrous cloth of the year by means of the white thread 
of the day and the black thread of the night ! And with the 
cloth so woven ye have established two courses of action apper- 
taining respectively to the Devas and the Pitris. The bird of 
Life seized by Time which represents the strength of the In- 
finite soul, ye set free for delivering her unto great happi- 
ness ! They that are in deep ignorance, as long as they are 
under the delusion of their senses, suppose ye who are inde- 
pendent of the attributes of matter to be gifted with form 1 
Three hundred and sixty cows represented by three hundred 
and sixty days produce one calf between them which is the 
year. That calf is the creator and destroyer of all. Seekers 
of truth following different routes, draw the milk of true 
knowledge with its help. Ye Aswinas, ye are the creatora 
of thcat calf ! 

' The year is but the nave of a wheel to which is attached 
seven hundred and twenty spokes representing as many daj's 
and nights. The circumference of this wheel represented by 
twelve months is without end. This wheel is full of delusion 
and knows no deterioration. It affects all creatures whether of 
this or of the other world. Ye Aswinas, this wheel of time is 
set in motion by ye ! 

' The wheel of Time as represented by the year has a nave 



represented by , the six seasong. The niimbcr of spokes attaclied 
to that nave is twelve as represented by the twelve signs of the 
Zodiac, This wheel of Time manifests the fruits of the acts 
of all beings. The presiding deities of Time abide in that wheel. 
Subject as I am to its distressful influence, ye Aswinas, liberate 
me from that wheel of Time, Ye Aswinas, ye are this imi- 
verse of five elements ! Ye are the objects that are enjoyed in 
this and in the other world ! Make me independent of the 
infiaence of the five elements I And though ye are the Supreme 
Brahma, yet ye move over the Earth in forms enjoying the 
delights that the senses can afford. 

' In the beginning, ye created the ten points of the universe I 
Then have ye placed the Sun and the Sky above ■ The Rishis, 
according to the coni^e of the same Sun, perform their sacrifices^, 
and the gods and men, according to what hath been appointed 
for them, perform their sacrifices also enjoying the fruits &f 

those acts t 

' Mixing the three colors ye have produced all the objects 
of sight ! It is from these objects that the universe hath sprung, 
whereon the gods and men are engaged in their respective 
occupations, and, indeed, all creatures endued with life I 

' Ye Aswinas, I adore ye '. I also adore the Sky which is 
your handiwork ! Ye are the ordainers of the fruits of all acts 
from which even the gods are not free I Ye are yourselves free 
from the fruits of your acts 1 

' Ye are the parents of all ! As males and females it is ye 

that swallow the food which subsequently develops into the 

life-creating fluid and blood ! The new-born infant swcks 

the teat of its mother. Indeed, it is ye that take the shape of 

the infant ! Ye Aswinas, grant me my sight to protect my life 1' 

" The twin Aswinas, thus invoked, appeared and said, ' We 

are satisfied. Here is a cake for thee. Take and eat it.' And 

Upamaayu, thus addressed, replied, 'your words, O Aswinas, 

bavs never proved untrue. But without fiist oflEering this 

cake to my preceptor I dare not take it.' And the Aswinas 

thereupon told him, * formerly, thy preceptor had invoked 

liS. We thereupon gave him a cake like this j and he took it 

without offering it to his master. Do thou that which thj 


preceptor cUd,' Thus addressed, Upamanyu again said unto 
them, ' Aswinas-, I crave your pardon. Without oftering it 
to my preceptor I dare not apply this cake.' The Aswinaa 
then said, ' O we are pleased v/ith this devotion ot fhine to 
thy preceptor. Thy master's teeth are of black iron. Thine 
shall be of ffcld. Thou shalt be restored to siij-lit and shall 
have good fortune.' 

*' Thus spoken to by the Aswinas he recovered his sight, and 
having gone to his preceptor's presence he saluted hirxi and told 
him all. And his preceptor was well pleased with him and 
said unto him, 'Thou shalt obtain prosperity even as the As- 
winas have said. All the Vedas shall shine in thee and all 
the Dharma-shastras,' And this was the trial of Upamanyu, 

*' Then the other disciple of Ayoda-Dliaumya was called 
Veda. His preceptor once addressed him, sa3ang, *Veda, my child, 
tarry sometime in my house and serve thy preceptor. It shall 
be to thy profit,' And Veda having signified his assent tarried 
long in the family of his preceptor mindful of serving him. 
Like an ox under the burthens of his master, he bore 
heat and cold, hunger and thirst, at all times uncomplainingly. 
And it was long before his preceptor was satisfied. And as a 
consequence of that satisfaction, Veda obtained good fortune 
and universal knowledge. And this was the trial of Veda. 

" And Veda,, having received permission from his preceptor, 
and leaving the latter's residence after th« completion of his 
studies, entered the domestic mode o-f life. And while living 
in his own house, he got three pupils. And he never told them 
to perform any work or to obey implicitly his own behests ; 
for having experienced himself much woe while abiding in 
the family of his preceptor, he liked not to treat them with 

** After a certain time, Janamejaya and Paushya, both of 
the order of Kshetrias, arriving at his residence appointed the 
Brahmana, Veda, as their spiritual guide ( Upadhyaya ). And 
one day while about to depart upon some business relative to 
a sacrifice, he employed one of his disciples, Utahka, to take 
charge of his household. ' Utanka,' said he, ' whatsoever 
should have to be done in my house, let it be done by thee 


•without neglect. ' And having given these orders to Utanlsai, 
he went on his journey. 

" So Utanka always mindful of the injunction of his pre- 
ceptor took up his abode in the latter's house. And while 
Utanka was residing there, the females of his preceptor's 
house having assembled addressed him and said, ' O Utanka, 
thy mistress is in that season when connubial connection might) 
be fruitful. Thy preceptor is absent ; then stand thou in his 
place and do the needful. ' And Utanka, thus addressed, 
said unto those women, ' It is not proper for me to do this at 
the bidding of women. I have not been enjoined by my pre- 
ceptor to do aught that is improper. * 

"After a while, his preceptor returned from his journey. 
And his preceptor having learnt all that had happened, became 
well pleased and, addressing Utanka, said, ' Utanka, my child, 
what favor shall I bestow on thee ? I have been served by 
thee duly ; therefore hath our friendship for each other in- 
creased. I therefore grant thee leave to depart. Go thou, 
and let all thy wishes be accomplished.' 

" Utanka, thus addressed, replied, saying, ' Let me do some- 
thing that you wish, for it hath been said, — He who bestoweth 
instruction contrary to usage, and he who receiveth it contrary 
to usage, one of the two dieth, and enmity springeth up between 
the two. — I, therefore, who have received thy leave 'to depart, 
am desirous of bringing thee some gratuity due to a preceptor.' 
His master upon hearing this replied, ' Utanka, my child, wait 
a while.' Sometime after, Utanka again addressed his preceptor, 
saying, ' Command me to bring that for gratuity which you 
desire, ' And his preceptor then said, ' my dear Utanka, thou 
Last often told me of your desire to bring something by way 
of acknowledgment for the instruction thou hast received. Go 
then in and ask thy mistress what thou art to bring for gratui- 
ty. And bring thou that which she directs. ' And thus di- 
rected by his preceptor, Utanka addressed his preceptress, say- 
ing, ' Madam, I have obtained my master's leave to go home, 
and I am desirous of bringing something agreeable to thee as 
gratuity for the instruction I have received, in order that I may 
not depart his debtor, Therefore, please to command me what 


I am to bring as gratuity.' Thus addressed, his preceptress 
replied, ' Go unto King Paushya and beg of him the pair of 
ear-rings worn by his Queen, and bring them hither. Four days 
hence is a sacred day when I wish to appear before the Brah- 
manas ( who may dine at my house ) decked with these ear- 
rino-s Then accomplish this, O Utanka ! If thou shouldst 
succeed, good fortune shall attend thee ; if not, what good 
canst thou expect ? ' 

*' Utanka, thus commanded, took his departure. And as 
he was passing along the road he saw a bull of extraordinary 
size and a man of uncommon stature mounted thereon. And 
that man addressed Utanka and said, ' Eat thou of the dung 
of this bull. ' Utanka, however, Avas unwilling to comply. 
The man said again, ' Utanka, eat of it without scrutiny. 
Thy master ate of it before.' And Utanka signified his 
assent and ate of the dung and drank of the urine of that 
bull, and rose respectfully, and washing his hands and mouth 
went to where King Paushya was. 

*' Arrived at the place, Utanka saw Paushya seated ( on 
his throne ). And approaching him Utanka saluted the mon- 
arch by pronouncing blessings and said, ' I am come a peti- 
tioner to thee.' And King Paushya, having returned Utanka's 
salutations, said, 'Sir, what shall I do for thee ?' And Utanka 
said, ' I am come to beg of thee a pair of ear-rings as gratuity 
for my preceptor. It bchoveth thee to give me the ear-rings 
worn by thy Rani. ' 

*' King Paushya replied, ' Go Utanka into the female 
apartments where the Rani is and demand them of her. ' And 
Utanka went into the women's apartments. But as he could 
not discover the Rani, he again addressed the Raja, saying, 'it is 
not proper that I should be treated by thee with deceit. Thy 
Rani is not in the private apartments, for I could not find her.' 
The Raja, thus addressed, considered for a while and replied, 
'Recollect, Sir, with attention whether thou beest not in a state 
of defilement in consequence of contact with the impurities of a 
repast. My Rani is a chaste wife and cannot be seen by any one 
who is impure owing to contact with the leavings of a repast. 
Nor doth she herself appear in sight of any one who is defiled.' 


" Utanka, thus informed, reflected for a while and then 
said, 'Yes, it must be so. Having been in a hurry I performed 
my ablutions ( after meal ) in a standing posture. ' Raja Pau- 
sliya then said, ' Here is a transgression. Purification is not 
properly effected by one in a standing posture, nor by one 
while he is going along. ' And Utanka having agreed to tliis, 
sat down with his face towards the East, and washed 
his face, hands, and feet thoroughly. And he then, without 
noise, sipped thrice of water free from scum and froth, and not 
warm, and just sufficient to reach his stomach and wiped his face 
twice. And he then touched with water the apertures of his 
organs ( eyes, ears, &c. &c. ) And having done all this, he once 
more entered the apartments of the wo-men. And this time he 
saw the Rani. And as the Rani perceived him, she saluted him 
respectfully and said, 'Welcome, Sir, command me what I am to 
do.' And Utanka said unto her, ' it behoveth thee to give me 
those ear-rings of thine, I beg them as a present for my preceptor.' 
And the Rani having been highly pleased with Utanka's con- 
duct and, considering that Utanka as an object of charity could 
not be passed over, took off her ear-rings and gave them to him. 
And she said, ' these ear-rings are very much sought after by 
Takshaka, King of the Serpents. Therefore shouldst thou carry 
them with the greatest care.' 

And Utanka being told this, said unto the Rani, ' Lady, bo 
under no apprehension. Takshaka, Chief of the Serpents, is 
not able to overcome me.' And having said this, and taking 
leave of the Rani, he went back into the presence of Paushya, 
and said, ' Paushya, I am gratified.' Tlien Paushya said to 
Utanka, 'A fit object of charity can only be had at long in- 
tervals. Thou art a qualified guest, therefore do I desire to 
perform a sraddha. Tarry thou a little. And Utanka replied, 
* Yea, I will tarry, and beg that the clean provisions that are 
ready may be soon brought in.' And the Raja having signified 
his assent, he entertained Utanka duly. And Utanka seeing 
that the food placed before him had hair in it, and also that it 
was cold, thought it unclean. And he said unto Paushya, 
' Thou givest me food that is unclean, therefore shalt thou 
lose thy sight.' And Paushya in answer said ' And because 


dost thou impute unci eanness to food that is clean, therefore 
shalt thou be without issue.' And Utanka thereupon rejoined, 

* It behoveth thee not, after having offered me unclean food, 
to curse me in return. Satisfy thyself by occular proof.' 

" And Paushya seeing the food alleged to be unclean satis- 
fied himself of its uncleanliness. And Paushya having ascer- 
tained that the food was truly unclean, being cold and mixed 
with hair, prepared as it was by a woman with unbraided 
hair, began to pacify the Rishi Utanka, saying ' Sir, the food 
placed before thee is cold, and doth contain hair, having been 
prepared without sufficient care. Therefore I pray thee pardon 
me. Let me not become blind. ' And Utanka answered, 'what 
I say must come to pass. Having become blind, thou mayst, 
however, recover thy sight before long. Grant that thy curse 
also doth not take effect on me. ' And Paushya said unto him, 

* I am unable to revoke my curse. For my wrath even now hath 
not been appeased. But thou knowest not this. For a Brah- 
mana's heart is soft as new-churned butter, even though his 
words bear a sharp-edged razor. It is otherwise in respect of 
these with the Kshetriya. His Avords are soft as new-churned 
butter, but his heart is as a sharp-edged tool. Such being 
the case, I am unable, because of the hardness of my heart, to 
neutralise my curse. Then go thou thy ways. ' To this Utanka 
made answer, 'I showed thee the uncleanness of the food offer- 
ed to me, and I was even now pacified by thee. Besides, saidsfc 
thou at first that because I imputed uncleanness to food that 
was clean I should be without issue. But the food being truly 
unclean, thy curse cannot affect me. Of this I am sure. ' And 
Utanka having said this departed with the ear-rings. 

" On the road Utanka perceived coming towards him a 
naked idle beggar sometimes coming in view and sometimes 
disappearing. And Utanka, having occasion, put the ear- 
rings on the ground and went for water. In the meantime the 
beggar came quickly to the spot and taking up the ear-rings 
ran away. And Utanka having completed his ablutions in 
water and purified himself and having also reverently bowed 
down to the gods and his spiritual masters pursued the thief 
with the utmost speed. And having with great difficulty over- 


taken him, lie seized him with force. But at that instant the 
person seized, quitting the form of a beggar and assuming his 
real form, viz, that of Takshaka, sj^eedily entered a large hole 
open in the ground. And having got in, Takshaka proceeded to 
his own abode, the region of the serpents. 

" Now, Utanka, recollecting the words of th« Rani, pursued 
the Serpent, and began to dig open the hole with a stick but 
was unable to make much progress. And Indra beholding 
his distress sent his thunder-bolt (Vajra) to his assistance. 
Then the thunder-bolt entering that stick enlarged that hole. 
And Utanka began to enter the hole after the thunder-bolt. 
And having entered it he beheld the region of the Serpents 
infinite in extent, filled' with hundreds of palaces and elegant 
mansions with turrets and domes and gateways, abounding with 
wonderful places for various games and entertainments. And 
Utanka then glorified the serpents by the following slokas : — 

Ye Serpents, subjects of King Airavata, splendid in 
battle and showering weapons on the field like lightning-charg- 
ed clouds driven by the winds ! Handsome and of various 
forms and decked with many-colored ear-rings, ye children of 
Airavata, ye shine like the Sun in the firmament ! On the 
northern banks of the Ganges are many habitations of serpents. 
There I constantly adore the great serpents. Who except Ai- 
ravata would desire to move in the burning rays of the Sun ? 
When Dhrita-rashtra ( Airavata's brother ) goes out, twenty- 
eight thousand and eight serpents follow him as his attendants. 
Ye who move near him and ye who stay at a distance from him, 
I adore all ye that have Airavata for your elder brother. 

' I adore thee also, to obtain the ear-rings, O Takshaka, Avho 
formerly dwelt in Kurukshetra and the forest of Khandava ! 
Takshaka and Aswasena, ye are constant companions Avho 
dwell in Kurukshetra on the banks of the Ikshumati ! I also 
adore the illustrious Srutasena, the younger brother of Takshaka, 
who resided at the holy place called Mahadyuman with a view 
to obtain the Chiefship of the Serpents.' 

" The Brahmana Rishi Utanka having saluted the chief 
serpents in this manner, obtained not, however, the ear-rings. 
And he thereupon became very thoughtful. And when he 


saw that he obtained not the ear-rings even though he had 
adored the serpents, he then looked about liim and beheld 
two women over a loom weaving a piece of cloth with a fine 
shuttle ; and in the loom were black and white threads. And 
he likewise saw a wheel, with twelve spokes, turned by six 
boys. And he also saw a man with a handsome horse. And 
he began to address them the following mantras : — 

' This wheel whose circumference is marked by twenty four 
divisions representing as many lunar changes is furnished with 
three hundred spokes ! It is set in continual motion by six 
boys ( the seasons ) ! These damsels representing universal 
mature are v/eaving without intermission a cloth with threads 
black and white, and thereby ushering into existence the 
manifold worlds and the beings that inhabit them ! Thou 
wielder of the thunder, the protector of the universe, the slayer 
of Vritra and Namuchi, thou illustrious one who wearest the 
black cloth and display eth truth and untruth in the universe, 
thou who ownest for thy carrier, the horse received from the 
depths of the ocean, and which is but another form of Agni 
< the god of fire ), I bow to thee, thou supreme Lord, thou 
Lord of the three worlds, O Purandara !' 

"Then the man with the horse said unto Utanka, 'lam 
gratified by this thy adoration. What good shall I do to thee V 
And Utanka replied, ' even let the serpents be brought under 
my control.' Then the man rejoined, 'Blow into this horse.' And 
Utanka bleAv into that horse. And from the horse thus blown 
into, there issued, from every aperture of his body, flames of fire 
with smoke, by which the region of the Nagas was about to be 
consumed. And Takshaka, surprised beyond measure and terri- 
fied by the heat of the fire, hastily came out of his abode 
taking the ear-rings with him, and said unto Utanka, ' Pray, 
Sir, take back the ear-rings.' And Utanka took them back. 

"But Utanka having recovered his ear-rings thought, '0 this 
is that sacred day of my preceptress. I am at a distance. 
How can I, therefore, show my regard for her V And when 
Utanka was anxious about this, the man addressed him and 
said, ' Ride this horse, Utanka, and he will in a moment 
carry thee to thy master's abode. ' And LTtanka having signi- 



fied his assent, mounted the horse and presently reached his 
preceptor's ihonse. 

" And his preceptress that morning after having bathed was 
dressing her hair sitting, thinking of uttering a curse on Utanka 
if he should not return within time, Eut in the meantime 
Utanka entered his preceptor's abode and paid his respects to 
his preceptress and presented her the ear-rings. ' Utanka/ said 
she, ' thou hast arrived at the proper time at the proper 
place. Welcome, my child ! Thou art innocent and therefore 
I do not curse thee ! Good fortune is even before thee. Let 
thy wishes be crowned with success !' 

" Then Utanka waited on his preceptor. And his preceptor 
said, ' Thou art welcome ! What hath occasioned thy long 
absence ? ' And Utanka replied to his preceptor, ' Sir, in the 
execution of this my business obstruction was offered by 
Takshaka the King of serpents. Therefore had I to go to the 
region of the Nagas, There I saw two damsels sitting over a 
loom, v/eaving a fabric with black and white threads. Pray, v/hat 
is that ? There likewise I beheld a wheel with twelve spokea 
ceaselessly turned by six boys. What too doth that import ? 
Who also is the man that I saw ? And what the horse of 
extraordinary size likewise beheld by me ? And Avhen I was 
on the road I also saw a bull with a man mounted thereon, 
by whom I was endearingly accosted thus — Utanka, eat of 
the dung of this bull, which v/as also eaten by thy master. — So 
I ate of the dung of that bull according to his words. Who 
also is he ? Therefore, enlightened by thee, I desire to hear 
all about them. ' 

"And his preceptor thus addressed said unto him, 'Tiie 
two damsels thou hast seen are Dhata and Vidhata ; the black 
and white threads denote night and day ; the wheel of twelve 
spokes turned by the six boys signifieth the year comprising six 
seasons. The man is Parjanya, the deity of rain ; and the horse 
is Agni, the god of fire. The bull that thou hast seen on the 
road is Airavata, the king of elephants ; the man mounted 
thereon is Indra ; and the dung of the ,bull which was eaten by 
thee was Aiarlta. It was certainly for this (last) that thou hast 
not met with death in the region of the Nagas ; and Indra 

AD I PARVA,' o9 

mho is my friend having been mercifully inclined showed thee 
favor. It is for this that than rcturnset safe, taking the ear- 
rings with thee. Then, O thou amiable one, I give thee leave 
to depart. Thou shalt obtain good fortune.' 

" And Utanka, having obtained his master's leave, moved by 
anger and resolved to revenge himself on Taksh^ka, proceeded 
towards Hastinapura. That excellent Brahmana soon reached 
Hastinapura, And Utanka then waited upon King Janamejaya 
who had sometime before returned victorious from Takshashilaj 
And Utanka saw the victorious monarch surrounded on all sides 
by his ministers. And he pronounced benedictions on him in 
proper form* And Utanka addressed the monarch at the 
proper moment in^ speech of correct accent and melodious 
sounds, saying, ' O thou best of monarchs ! How is it that 
thou spendest thy time like a child when there is another matter 
that urgently demandeth thy attention ? ' " 

Sauti said : — " The monarch Janamejaya, thus addressed, 
saluting that excellent Brahmana replied unto him, 'In cherish- 
ing these my subjects I do discharge the duties of my noble 
tribe. Say, what is that business to be done by me and which 
hath brought thee hither.' 

" That foremost of Bmhman-as and distinguished, beyond 
all for good deeds, thus addressed by the excellent monarch of 
large heart, replied unto him, ' O King ! the business is tby 
©wn that demandeth thy attention ; therefore do it please. O 
thou King of kings ! thy father was deprived of life by Taksh- 
ak-a. : therefore do thou avenge thy father's death on that 
vile serpent. The time hath come, I ween, for the act of ven- 
geance ordained by the fates. Go then and avenge the death 
of thy magnanimous father who, unoffending being bitten by 
that vile serpent, was reduced to the five elements even like 
a tree stricken by thunder. The wicked Takshaka, vilest of 
the serpent race, intoxicated with power committed an un- 
necessary act when he bit the King, thy god-like father., the 
protector of the race of royal saints. Wicked in. his deeds, 
he even caused Kasyapa ( the prince of physicians ) to turn 
back when he was coming for the relief of thy father. Ife 
behoveth tkee to burn the wicked wretch in the blazing fire 


of a Snake-sacrifice. King ! give instant orders for the 
sacrifice. It is thus that thou canst avenge the death of thy 
father. And a very great favour shall have also been shown 
to me. For by that malignant wretch, O virtuous Prince, 
my business also was on one occasion obstructed while proceed- 
ing on account of my preceptor.' " 

Sauti continued : — ^"The monarch having heard these words, 
was enraged with Takshaka. The speech of Utanka inflamed 
the prince, even as the sacrificial fire with clarified butter. 
Moved by grief also, in the presence of Utanka himself the 
prince asked his ministers the particulars of his father's journey 
to the regions of the blessed. And when he heard all the 
circumstances of his father's death from the lips of Utanka, 
he was overcome with pain and sorrow. " 

And thus ends the section called Paushya of the Adi Parva,. 
of the blessed Mahabharata. 

Section IV. 

(Pauloma Parva). 

Ugrasrava Sauti, the son of Lomaharshana, versed in the 
Puranas, being in the forest of Naimisha, at the twelve 
years' sacrifice of Saunaka surnamed Kulapati, stood before the 
Rishis in attendance. Having studied the Puranas with great 
pains and therefore acquainted with them thoroughly, with 
joined hands he addressed them thus, " I have graphically des- 
cribed to ye the history of Utanka which is one of the causes 
of King Janamejaya's Snake-sacrifice. What, reverend Sirs, 
do ye wish to hear ? What shall I relate to ye ? " The holy 
men replied, " son of Lomaharshana, we shall ask thee and 
thou wilt reply unto us anxious to hear, recounting some ex- 
cellent stories. Saunaka our reverend master is at present 
attending in the apartment of the holy fire. He is acquainted 
with those divine stories which relate to the gods and Asuraa. 
He adequately knoweth the histories of men, serpents, and 
Gandiiarvas. Further, O Sauti, in this sacrifice that learned 
Brahmana is the chief. He is able, faithful to his vows, wise, 
a master of the shastras and the Aranyaka, a speaker of 


trutli, a lover of peace, a mortifier of the flesh, and an observer 
of the penances according to the ordinance. He is respected 
by us all. It behoves us therefore to wait for him. And when 
he is seated on his highly respected seat, thou wilt answer what 
that best of Dwijas shall ask of thee. " 

Sauti said, " Be it so. And when the high-souled master 
hath been seated, by him questioned I will narrate sacred 
stories on a variety of subjects." After a while that excellent 
Brahmana (Saunaka) having duly performed all his duties, 
and having propitiated the gods with prayei-s and the manes 
of his fathers with oblations of water, came back to the place 
of sacrifice, where with Sauti seated hefore were the assembly 
of saints of rigid vows sitting at their ease. And when 
Saunaka was seated in the midst of the Ritwikas and Sadasyas, 
who were also returned to their places, he spake as foUoweth. 

Section V, 
C Pauloma Parva continued. ) 

Saunaka said, " Child, thy father formerly read the whole 
of the Puranas, O son of Lomaharshana, and the Bharata with 
Krishna-Dwaipayana. Hast thou also made them thy study ? 
In those ancient records are interesting stories and the history 
of the first generations of the wise men, all which we heard 
rehearsed by thy sire. In the first place, I am desirous of 
hearing the history of the race of Bhrigu. Recount thou that 
history ; we are attentive to listen to thee. " 

Sauti answered : — " By me hath been acquired all that was 
formerly studied by the high-souled Brahmanas including Vai- 
sampayana and repeated by them ; by me hath been acquired 
all that had been studied by my father. O descendant of the 
Bhriofu race, attend then to so much as relateth to the exalted 
race of Bhrigu, revered by Indra and all the gods, by the 
tribes of Rishis and Marutas (Winds). O great Muni, I will 
first then properly recount the story of this family, belonging 
to the Puranas. 

" The great and blessed saint Bhrigu, we are informed, was 
begot by the self-existing Brahma from the fire at the sacrifice 


of Varuna. And Bhrigu had a son whom he dearly loved named 
Chyava7ia. And to Chyavana was born a virtuous son called 
Pramati. And Pramati had a son named Ruru by Ghritachi: 
(the celestial danceuse). And to Ruru also by his wife Pramad- 
vara, was born a son, whose name was Sunaka. He was, 
O Saunaka, thy great ancestor exceedingly virtuous in his ways. 
He v/as devoted to asceticism, of great peputartion, learned in 
the law, and eminent among those having a knowledge of the- 
Vedas. He was virtuous, truthful, and of well regulated fare. " 
Saunaka said.—" son of Suta, I ask thee why the illus- 
trious son of Rhrlgu was named Chyavana. Do tell me all. " 

Sauti replied : — " Bhrigu had a vnfe v/hom he dearly loved^ 
named Puloma. She became quick with child by Bhrigu. And 
one day while the virtuous and continent Puloma was in that 
condition, Bhrigu, great among those that are true to " their 
religion, leaving her at home went out to perform his ablutions. 
It was then that a Rakshasa called Puloma came to Bhrigu 's 
abode. And entering the Rishi's abode, the Rakshasa saw the 
wife of Bhrigu, irreproachable in everything. And seeing her 
he became filled with lust and lost his reason. The beautiful 
Puloma entertained the Rakshasa thus arrived, with roots and 
fruits of the forest. And the Rakshasa burning with desire 
upon having seen her, became very much delighted and resolv- 
ed, good sage, to bear her away who was so blameless in 
every respect. 

" 'My design is accomplished' said the Rakshasa, and so seiz- 

incT that beautiful matron he carried her away. And, indeed, 

she of agreeable smiles had been betrothed by her father to the 

Rakshasa himself, although the former subsequently bestowed 

her according to due rites on Bhrigu. O thou of the Bhrigu race, 

this wound rankled deep in the Rakshasa's mind and he thought 

the present a very good opportunity for carrying the lady away. 

" And the Rakshasa saw in the apartment in which the 

sacrificial fire was kept that element burning brightly. And 

the Rakshasa then asked the flaming element, 'Tell me, 

O Agni, whose wife this woman rightfully is. Thou art the 

mouth of the gods, therefore art thou bound to answer my 

question. This lady of superior complexion had been first ac- 


tepted by me as wife ; but her father subsequently bestowed 
her on the false Bhrigu. Tell me truly if this fair one can be 
regarded as the wife of Bhrigu, for having found her alone I am 
resolved to bear her away by force from the hermitage. My 
heart burneth with rage when I reflect that Bhrigu hath got 
possession of this woman of slender waist first betrothed to 

Sauti continued : — " la this manner the Rakshasa asked 
the flaming god of fire again and again whether the lady was 
Bhrigu's wife. And the ged was in fear to return an answer. 
' Thou, O god of fire,' said he, ' residest continually within every 
creature, as witness of their merits and demerits. O thou 
respected one, then answer my question truly. Has not Bhrigu 
appropriated her who was chosen by me as my wife ? Thou 
shouldst declare truly whether, therefore, she is my wife by 
first choice. After thy answer as to whether she is the wife of 
Bhrigu, I will bear her away from this hermitage even in thy 
sight. Therefore answer thou truly.' " 

Sauti continued : — " The Seven-flamed god having heard 
these words of the Bakshasa became exceedingly distressed, 
being afraid of telling a falsehood and equally afraid of Bhrigu's 
curse. And the god at length made answer in words that came 
out slowly. * This Puloma was, indeed, first chosen by thee, 
O Rakshasa, but she was not taken by thee with holy rites and 
invocations. But this far-famed lady was bestowed by her 
father on Bhrigu in gift from desire of a blessing. She was not 
bestowed on thee ! O Rakshasa, this lady Avas duly made by 
the Rishi Bhrigu his wife with Vedic rites in my presence. 
This is she — I know her. I dare not speak a falsehood. O thou 
best of RakshasaS; falsehood is never respected in this world.' " 

Section VI. 

( Pauloma Parvd continued. ) 

Sauti said : — " O Brahmana, having heard these words of 

the god of fire, the Rakshasa assumed the form of a boar, and 

seizing the lady carried her away with the speed of the wind, 

even of thought, Then the child of Bhrigu residing in her body 


enraged at such violence, dropped from his mother's womb, for 
which lie obtained the name of Chyavana. And the Rakshasa 
perceiving the infant drop from the mother's womb, shining 
like the sun, quitted his grasp of the woman and fell down 
and was instantly converted into ashes. And the beautiful 
Puloma distracted with grief, O Brahmana of the Bhrigu race, 
took up her offspring Chyavana the son of Bhrigu and walked 
away. And Brahma, the Grand-father of all, himself saw her, 
the faultless wife of his son, weeping with eyes full of tears. 
And the Grand-father of all comforted her who was wedded to 
his son. And of the drops of tears which fell from her eyes was 
formed a great river. And tliat river began to follow the foot- 
steps of the wife of the great ascetic Bhrigu. And the Grand- 
father of the woi-lds seeing that river follow the path of his son'.s 
wife gave it a name himself, and he called it Vadhusard. And 
it passeth by the hermitage of Chyavana. And in this manner 
was born Chyavana of great ascetic power, the son of Bhrigu, 

" And Bhrigu saw his child Chyavana and its beautiful 
mother. And the Rishi in a rage asked her, * By whom wast 
thou made known to that Rakshasa resolved to carry thee 
away ? O thou of agreeable smiles, the Rakshasa could not 
know thee for my wife. Therefore tell me who it was that told 
the Rakshasa so, inorder that I may curse him from anger.' 
And Puloma replied, ' O possessor of the six attributes, I was 
discovered to the Rakshasa by Agni (the god of fire). And he 
bore me away crying like the Kurari ( female Osprey. ) And 
it was only by the ardent splendour of this thy son that I was 
rescued ; for the Rakshasa (seeing this infant) let me go and 
himself falling to the ground was turned into ashes.' " 

Sauti continued : — " Bhrigu upon hearing this account from 
Puloma became exceedingly enraged. And in excess of passion 
the Rishi cursed Agni, saying, 'Thou shalt eat of all things.' " 

So ends the sixth Section called " the curse on Agni " in 
the Adi Parva, 

Section VII. 

( Pauloma Parva continued, ) 

Sauti said : — " The god of fire enraged at the curse of 
Bhrigii, thus addressed the Rishi : — ' What meaneth tliis rash- 
ness, O Brahmana, that thou hast displayed towards me ? What 
transgression can be imputed to me v/ho was laboring to do 
justice and speak the truth impartially ? Being asked I gave 
the true answer. A witness who when interrogated respecting 
a fact of which he hath knowledge representeth otherwise than 
it is, ruineth his ancestors and descendants both to the seventh 
generation. He too, who, being fully informed of all the 
circumstances of an affair, doth not disclose what he knoweth 
when asked, is undoubtedly stained with guilt. I also can curse 
thee, but Brahmanas are held by me in high respect. Al- 
though these be known to thee, O Brahmana, I will yet speak 
of them, so please attend ! Having by ascetic power multiplied 
myself, I am present in various forms, in places of the daily 
homa, in sacrifices extending for years, in places where holy 
rites are performed (such as marriage, &c.), and in other sacri- 
fices. With the butter that is poured upon my flame accord- 
ing to the ordinances declared in the Vedas, the Devas and the 
Pitris are appeased. The Devas are the waters ; the Pitris are 
also the waters. The Devas have with the Pitris an equal right 
to the sacrifices called the Davshas and Pwrnd-mashas. The 
Devas therefore are the Pitris ; and the Pitris, the Devas. They 
are identical beings, worshipped together and also separately at 
the changes of the moon. The Devas and the Pitris eat what h 
poured upon me. I am therefoi'e called the mouth of the Devas 
and the Pitris. At the new moon the Pitris, and at the full moon 
the Devas, are fed through my mouth, eating of the clarified 
butter that is poured on me. Being, as I am, their inouth, how 
am I to be an eater of all things (clean and unclean) ? ' 

" Then Agni, after reflecting for a Avhile, withdrew himself 
from all places ; from places of the daily homa of the Brah- 
manas, from all long-extending sacrifices, from places of holy 
rites, and from other ceremonies. Without their 0ms and 
Vashats, and deprived of their Siuadhds and Siudhds (sacrificial 
mantras of great mystery), the whole body of creatures became 



much distressed for the loss of their (sacrificial) fire. The Rislus 
in great anxiety went to the gods and addressed them thus :— 
* Ye immaculate beings ! the three regions of the universe are 
confounded at the cessation of their sacrifices and ceremonies 
in consequence of the loss of nre ! Ordain what is to be done 
in this matter, so that there may be no loss of time.' Then the 
Kishis and the gods went together into the presence of Brahma. 
And they represented to him all about the curse on Agni 
and the consequent interruption of all ceremonies. And they 
said, ' O thou greatly fortunate one ! Agui hath been cursed by 
Bhrigu. for -some reason. Indeed, being the mouth of the goda 
and also the first who eateth of what is offered in sacrifices, 
the eater also of the sacrificial butter, how shall Agni be 
reduced to the condition of one who eateth of all things 
promiscuously ?' And the creator of the universe hearing those 
words of theirs summoned Agni to his presence. And BrahmS, 
addressed Agni the creator of all and eternal as himself in these 
gentle wxjrds :— 'Thou art the creator of the worlds and thou art 
their destroyer ! Thou preservest the three worlds and thou 
art the promoter of all sacrifices and ceremonies ! There- 
fore behave thyself so that ceremonies be not interrupted. 
And O thou eater of the sacrificial butter, why dost thou 
act so foolishly, being as thou art the Lord of all ? Thou 
alone art always pure in the universe and thou art its 
stay ! Thou shalt not, with all thy body, be reduced to the 
state of one who eateth all things promiscuously. O thou of 
flames, the flam.e that is in thy viler parts shall alone eat of 
all things alike. That body ef thine which eateth of flesh 
(being in the stomach of all carnivorous animals) shall also eat 
of all things promiscuously. And as every thing touched by 
the sun's beams becometh pure so shall everything be pure 
that shall be burnt by thy flames. Thou, O fire, art the supreme 
energy born of thy own power. Tlien, O Lord, by that power 
of thine make the Rishi's curse true. Continue to receive thy 
own portion and that of the gods, offered at thy mouth.' " 

Sauti continued : — " Then Agni replied to the Grand-father, 
'So be it.' And he then went away to obey the command of the 
supreme Lord. The gods and the Eishis also in delight returued 


to tlie place whence ihoy came. And the Rishis began to per- 
form as before their ceremonies and sacrifices. And the gods in 
heaven and all creatures of the world rejoiced exceedingly. And 
Agni too rejoiced in that he was fi*ee from the prospect of sin. 

" Thus, O possessor of the six attributes, had Agni been 
cursed in days of yore by Bhrigu. And sucli is the ancient 
history founded thereon, the destruction of the Rakshasa Pu- 
loma, and the birth of Chyavana. " 

Thus endeth the seventh Section of the Pauloma of the 
Adi Parva of the blessed Mahabharata, 

Section VIII. 
(Pauloma Parvci continued.) 

SautI said : — '* O Brahmana, Chyavana the son of Bhrigu 
begot in the womb of his wife Su-kanya a sou. And Ihat 
eon was the illustrious Pramati of resplendent energy. And 
Pramati begot in the womb of Ghritachi a son called Ruru. 
And Ruru begot by his wife Pramadvara a son called Sunaka. 
And I shall relate to you in detail, O Brahmana, the entire 
history of Ruru of abundant energy. listen to it then in full ! 

" Formerly there was a great Rishi called Sthula-kesha 
possessed of ascetic power and learning and kindly disposed .to- 
wards all creatures. At that time, O Brahmana sao-e, Viswa- 
vaahu, the King of the Gandharvas, it is said, knew Menaka 
the celestial dancing-girl. And the Apsara, Menaka, O thou of 
the Bhrigu race, when her time was come, dropped the infant 
in her womb near the hermitage of Sthula-kesha. And 
dropping the new-born infant on the banks of the river 
the Apsara, Menaka, O Branmana, being destitute of pity 
and shame, went away. And the Rishi, Sthula-kesha, of great 
ascetic power discovered the infant lying forsaken in a lonely 
part of the river side. And he perceived that it was a 
female child, bright as the ofF^pring of an Immortal and as it 
were blazing with beauty. And the great Brahmana, Sthula- 
kesha, that first of Munis, seeing that female child, and filled 
with compassion, took it up and reared it. And the lovely child 
gre^ up in hia holy habifcationj th« noble-minded and blegsed 


Rialii Sthula-kesha performing in due succession all the cere- 
monies beginning v/ith that at the birth a3 ordanied by the 
divine laAv. And because she surpassed all of her sex in good- 
ness, beauty, and every quality, the great Rishi called her by 
the name of Praraadvara. And the pious Ruru having seen 
Pramadvara in the hermitage of Sthula-kesha became cue 
whose heart was pursued by the god of love. And Ruru by 
means of his companions made his father Praraati, the son of 
Bhrigu, acquainted with his passion. And Pramati demanded 
her of the far-famed Sthula-kesha for his son. And her 
foster-father betrothed the virgin Pramadvara to Ruru fixing 
the nuptials for the day when the star Varga-Daivatci, (Purva- 
phalguni) would be ascendant. 

" Then within a few days of the time fixed for the nuptials, 
the beautiful virgin while at play with companions of her own 
sex, her time having come, impelled by fate, trod upon a 
serpent she did not perceive as it lay in a coil. And the 
reptile, urged to execute the will of fate, violently darted itg 
envenomed fangs on the body of the heedless maiden. And 
stung by that serpent, she instantly dropped senseless on the 
ground, her color faded and all the graces of her person gone. 
And with disheveled hair she became a spectacle of woe to 
her companions and friends. And she who was so agreeable to 
behold became in death what was too painful to look at. And 
the slender-waisted girl, lying on the ground like one asleep — 
being overcome with the poison of the snake — once more 
became more beautiful still than in life. And her foster- 
father and the other holy ascetics who were there, all saw her 
lying motionless upon the ground with the splendour of a lotus. 
And then there came many noted Brahmanas filled with com- 
passion, and they sat around her. And Swastyatreya, Mahajana, 
Kushika, Sankhya-mekhala, Udclalaka, Kat-ha, and Sweta of 
great renown, Bharad\v«ja, Kauna-kutsya, Arshti-sena, Gau- 
tama, Pramati, and Pramati'sson Ruru, and other inhabitants of 
the forest, came tliere. And when they saw that maiden lying 
dead on the ground overcome with the poison of the reptile 
that had stung her, filled with compassion, they all wept. But 
Ruru, paiued exceedingly, retired from the scene." 


So ends the eighth Section of the Piiuloma of the Adi 
Parva of the blessed Mahabharata, 

Section IX. 
( Pauloma Parva continued ) 

Sauti said: — *' While those illustrious Brahraanas were 
sitting around the dead boly of Pramadvara, Ruru, sorely 
afflicted, retired into a deep wood and wept aloud. And over- 
whelmed with grief he indulged in much piteous lamentation.' 
And remembering his beloved Pramadvara he gave vent to 
his sorrow in the following words: — 'Alas! the delicate fair 
one that increaseth my affliction lieth upon the bare ground I 
What can be more deplorable to us her friends ? If I have 
been charitable, if I have performed acts of penance, if I have 
ever reverenced my superiors, let the merit of these acts res- 
tore to life my beloved one ! If from my birth I have, con- 
trolling my passions, adhered to my vows, let the fair Pramad- 
vara rise from the ground.' 

"And while Ruru was indulging in these lamentations for 
the loss of his bride, a messenger from heaven came to him in 
the forest and addressed him thus : — ' The words thou utterest, 
O Ruru, in thy affliction can have no effect. For, O pious man, 
one belonging to this world whose days are runout can never 
come back to life. This poor child of a Gandharva and Apsara 
has had her days run out ! Therefore, O child, thou shouldst 
not yield up thy heart to sorrow. The great gods, however, 
have provided before-hand a means. And if thou compliest 
with it thou mayest receive back thy Pramadvara.' 

" And Ruru replied, ' what is that which the gods have 
provided, O messenger of heaven ! Tell me in full so that 
hearing I may comply with it. It behoveth thee to deliver me !' 
* And the celestial messenger said unto Ruru, 'Resign half of 
thy own life to thy bride, and then, O Ruru of the race of 
Bhrigu, thy Pramadvara shall rise from the ground.' And 
Ruru replied, ' O best of celestial messengers, I give up a 
moiety of my own life in favor of my bride. Then let my be- 
loved one rise up in the dress and form of love.' " 


Sauti saiJ, " Then the king of the GanJharvas (the fathei? 
of Pramadvara) and the celestial messenger, both of excellent 
qualities, went to the god Dharma(the Judge of the dead) and 
addressed him, saying, ' If it be thy will, O Dharma-raja, let 
the amiable Pramadvara, the betrothed wife of Euru, now 
lying dead, rise up with a moiety of Ruru's life,' And Dharma- 
raja answered, ' O messenger of the gods, if it be thy wish, 
let Pramadvara the betrothed wife of Euru, rise up endued 
with a moiety o.f Ruru's life !' " 

Sauti continued : — " And when Dharma-raja had said so, 
that maiden of superior complexion, Pramadvara, endued with 
a moiety of Ruru's life, rose as from her slumbers. This bes- 
towal by Ruru, endowed with length of days, of a moiety of 
his owa life to resuscitate his bride afterwards led, it was 
Been, to a curtailment Ruru's life. 

" And on an auspicious day their fathers gladly married 
them with due rites. And the couple passed their days devoted 
to each other. And Ruru having obtained such a wife as is hard 
to be found, beautiful and bright as the filaments of the lotus, 
made a vow for the destruction of the serpent race. And 
whenever he saw a serpent, he became filled with great wi V 
and always killed it taking up a weapon. 

" One day, O Brahmana, Ruru entered an extensive forest. 
And he there saw an old serpent of the Dundubha species 
lying stretched on the ground. And Ruru thereupon lifted up 
in anger his staff even like to the staff of Death, for the purpose 
of killing it. Then the Dundubha, addressing Ruru, said, 
'^ I have done thee no harm, O Brahmana! Then wherefore 
wilt thou slay me in anger ?' " 

So ends the ninth Section of the Pauloma of the Adi Parva. 
of the blessed Mahabharata. 

Section X. 
( Pauloma Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said: — "And Ruru on hearing those words replied, 
*My wife, dear to me as life, was bit by a snake ; upon which, 
I made, snake^ a dreadful vow, viz^ that I would kill every 


snalce tliat I might see. Therefore shall I smite thee and 
thou shalt be deprived of life.' 

" And the Dundubha replied, ' Brahmana, they are other 
snakes that bite man. It behoveth thee not to slay Dundubhaa 
who are serpents only in name. Subject with other serpents to 
the same calamities but not sharing their good fortune, in woe 
the same but in joy different, the Dundubhas should not be 
slain by thee for thou canst judge between right and wrong.' " 

Sauti continued : — " And the Rishi Ruru hearing these 
words of the serpent, and seeing that it was perplexed with fear 
besides being really of the Dundubha species, killed it not. 
And Ruru, the possessor of the six attributes, comforting the 
snake addressed it, saying, ' Tell me fully, Snake, who art 
thou thus metamorphosed ? ' And the Dundubha replied, 
' Ruru ! I was formerly a Rishi of name Sahasrapat. And 
it is by the curse of a Brahmana that I have been metamor- 
phosed into a snake.' And Ruru asked, ' O thou best of 
Snakes, for what wast thou cursed by a Brahmana in wrath ? 
And how long also shall thy form continue so ?' " 

And so ends the tenth Section of the Pauloma of the Adi 

Section XI. 
( Pauloma Parvd continued. ) 

Sauti continued : — " The Dundubha then said, ' in former 
times, I had a friend Khagama by name. He was keen in his 
speech and possessed of spiritual power by virtue of his austeri- 
ties. And one day when he was engaged in the Agni-hotra 
(Fire-sacrifice), I made a mock snake of blades of grass, and in 
a frolic attempted to frighten him with it. And anon he went 
into a swoon. On recovering his senses, that truth-telling and 
vow-observing ascetic, burning with wrath, exclaimed, — Since 
thou hast made a powerless mock snake to frghten me, thou 
shalt be turned even into a venomless serpent thyself by my 
curse. — O ascetic, I well knew the power of his penances ; 
therefore with an agitated heart, I addressed him thus, lowly 
bending with joined hands, — Friend I have done this by way 


of joke, to excite thy laughter. It behovetli thee to forgive 
me and revoke thy curse. — And seeing me sorely troubled, the 
ascetic was moved, and he replied, breathing hot and hard, — 
What I have said, must come to pass. Hear what I say and lay 
it to thy heart. O pious one ! When Ruru, the pure son of 
Pramati, will appear, thou shalt be delivered from the curse 
the moment thou seest him. — Thou art the very Ruru and the 
son of Pramati. On regaining my native form, I will tell thee 
something for thy good.' 

" And that illustrious man and best of Brahmanas then left 
his snake body, and attained his own form and original bright- 
ness. He then addressed the following words to Ruru of incom- 
parable power. ' O thou first of created beings, verily the 
hio-hest morality is sparing life. Therefore a Brahmana should 
never take the life of any creature. A Brahmana should ever 
be mild. This is the most sacred injunction of the Vedas. A 
Brahmana should be versed in the Vedas and Vedangas, and 
should inspire all creatures with confidence. He should be 
benevolent to all creatures, truth-speaking, and forgiving, even 
as it is his paramount duty to retain the Vedas in his memory. 
The duties of the Kshetria are not thine. To be stern, to hold 
the sceptre and to rule the subject are the duties of the 
Kshetria. Listen, O Ruru, to the account of the destruction 
of snakes at the sacrifice of Janamejaya in days of yore, 
and the deliverance of the terrified reptiles by that best of 
Dwijas, Astika, profound in Vedic lore and mighty in spiritual 
energy.' " 

And so ends the eleventh Section of the Pauloma of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XIL 
( Pauloma Parva continued. ) 

Sauti continued :— " Ruru then asked, '0 best of Dwijas, why 
was the king Janamejaya bent upon destroying the serpents ? 
And why were they saved by the wise Astika ? I am anxious 
to hear all this in detail.' 

" The Rishi replied, ' Ruru, the important history of 


Astika yon will learn from the lips of the Brahmanas'. Saying 
this, he vanislied. 

" Ruru rushed out in search of the disappearing Rishi, and 
havinf; failed tx) find him in all the wood, fell down upon the 
ground. And revolving in his mind the words of the Rishi, he 
swooned away. On regaining his senses, he went home and 
asked his father to relate the history in question. Thus asked, 
his father related all about the story." 

And so ends the twelfth Section in the Pauloma of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XIII. 

( Astika Parva ). 

Saunaka asked, "For what was it that the mighty monarch 
Janamejaya determined to take the lives of the snakes by means 
of his sacrifice ? O Sauti, pray tell us in full the true story. 
Tell us also why that best of Dwijas and foremost of those that 
have controlled their passions (Astika), rescued the snakes from 
the flaming fire. Pray, whose son was that monarch who celebra- 
ted the snake sacrifice ? And whose also that best of Dwijas ? " 

Sauti said, " O best of speakers, the story of Astika to 
which you have alluded is long. 1 will relate it in full, 
O listen ! " 

Saunaka said, " I am desirous of hearing at length the 
charming story of that Rishi of old, the illustrious Brahmana, 
Astika. " 

Sauti began, " This history fir.-st recited by Krishna-Dwai- 
payana is called a Purana by the Brahmanas. It was formerly 
narrated by my wise father, Suta Lomaharshana, the disciple of 
Vyasa, before the dwellers of the Naimisha forest, at their 
request. I was present at the recital, and, O Saunaka, since thou 
askest me, I will narrate the history of Astika exactly as I 
heard it. O listen as I recite in full that sin-destroying story ! 

" The father of Astika was powerful like Prajapati. And 
he was a Brahmachari, and was always engaged in austere 
devotions. And he ate sparingly, was a mighty ascetic, and had 
his lust under complete control. And he was known by the 



name of Jaratkaru. And that beat of the Yaijdvaras and 
virtuous and vow-observing Brahmana once undertook a 
journey over the world, equipped with spiritual energy. And 
•he visited divers holy spots, and rested where night overtook 
-him. And he practised religious austerities hard to be 
practised by men of undeveloped minds. And the sage lived 
•upon air and renounced sleep for ever. Thus going about 
like flaming fire, one day he happened to see his ancestors, 
hanging head foremost in a great hole, their feet pointing to 
the sky. On seeing them, Jaratkaru addressed thein thus : — 
* Who are ye thus hanging head foremost in this hole by a 
rope of virana fibres that is again secretly eaten into on all 
sides by rats living here ?' 

" The ancestors sard, * We are vow-observing Rishis of the 
Yayavara sect. We have come by this low state in conse- 
quence of want of descendants. We have a son named Jarat- 
karu. Woe is us I that wretch hath entered upon a life of austeri- 
ties and the fool doth not think of raising offspring by mar- 
riage. It is for that reason that we have met with this fate. 
Having means, we fare like v/retches as if we had none. Pray, 
O excellent one, wlio art thou that thus sorrowest as a friend 
on our account ? We are desirous to learn who thou art 
standing by us, and why thou sorrowest for us.' 

"Jaratkaru said, 'Ye are even mv/ ancestors. I am thafc 
Jaratkaru. tell me how I may serv« ye !' 

" The fathers then answered, ' Try thy best, child, to be= 
get a son to extend our line. Thereby thou wilt achieve, 

excellent one, a meritorious act for both thyself and 
oui'selves ! Not by doing one's duties, not by practising 
penances, one acquireth the merit one doth by being a 
father. Therefore, O child, at our command, do thou make 
up thy mind to marry and produce offspring. Herein 
consisteth our chief good.' And Jaratkaru replied, 'I shall 
not marry for my sake nor earn wealth for enjoyment, but 

1 shall do so for your welfare alone. In proper time, and ac- 
cording to the ordinance, I shall take a wife so that I may attain 
the end. I shall not do otherwi>>e. If a bride may be had of the 
same name with me, who-?e friends would besides willingly give 


her to me in marriage as a gift in charity, I shall take her hand, 
according to ritca. But who will give away his daughter to a 
poor man like myself? I shall accept, however, any daughter 
given to me in alms, I shall endeavour, O sires, to compass a 
union. I will abide by my word, I v/ill raise offsjn-ing for your 
redemption, so that, O fathers, ascending tO' the celestial regions 
ye may joy as ye like.' " 

So ends the thirteenth Section in the Astika of the Adi 

Section XIV. 
( Astika ParvcC contln,ucd'. ) 

Santi said, "That Brahmana of rigid vows then began to 
search for a wife, but found he none. One day he went into the 
forest, and recollecting the words of his ancestors, in a faint voice 
thrice begged for a bride. Thereupon rose before the Brahman-a^ 
Vasuki with his sister and offered for the former's acceptance 
the hand of the fair one. But the Dwija hesitated to accept 
her, thinking her not of the self-same name with himself. The 
great Jaratkaru thought within himself, ' I will take none save 
one who is my namesake.' Then the v»'ise Jaratkaru o-f 
austere devotions asked the Snake, ' tell me truly, what is tlie 
name of this thy sister V 

" Vasuki replied, 'O Jaratkaru, the name of this my younger 
sister is Jaratkaru. Pray, accept this slender- Avaisted one for thy 
spouse. O best of Dwijas, it was to unite her with thee 
that I have brought her up. Tlierefore do thou take her!* 
Saying this he offered his beautiful sister to Jaratkaru who 
then espoused her with ordained rites. " 

So ends the fourteenth Section in the Astika of the Adi 

Section XV. 

( Aatika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, "O foremost of the Brahm-(truth) knowing Rishis^ 
the mother of the serpents had cursed them of old, saying. 


' Agni shall burn ye all in the sacrifice of Janamejaya ! ' It was 
to neutralise that curse that the chief of the serpents married 
his sister to that high-souled and vow-observing Rishi. The 
Rishi having formally wedded her, begat in her the great Astika, 
who became an illustrious ascetic, profound in the Vedas and 
Vedangas, who regarded all with an even eye, and who removed 
the fears of his parents. 

" Then aft^r a long space of time, the king of the Panda va 
line celebrated a sacrifice known as the Snake sacrifice. After 
that sacrifice intended for the extermination of the serpents had 
commenced, the powerful Astika delivered the reptiles, — bis bro* 
thera and uncles. He delivered his fathers also by raising off- 
spring to himself. And by his austerities, O Brahmana, and by 
various vows and the study of the Vedas, he became freed from 
his debts. By sacrifices he propitiated the gods ; and by the 
aloption of the Brahmacharya mode of life he conciliated the 
Bishis ; and by bagetting offspring he gratified his ancestors. 

"Thus discharging his great debts, and having acquii'ed great 
merit, Jaratkaru went to heaven with his ancestors, leaving 
Astika behind. This is the story of Astika, which I have 
related as I heard it. Now, tell me, O powerful one of the 
Bhrigu race, what more I am to narrate." 

So ends the fifteenth Section in the Astika of the Adi 

Section XVI. 

( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Saunaka said, " O Sauti, relate in detail the history of the 
virtuous and learned Astika. We are extremely curious to 
hear it. O thou amiable one, thou speakest sweetly, and we are 
well pleased with thy speech. Thou speakest even as thy father. 
Thy sire was ever ready to please us. Now tell us the story as 
thy father told it. " 

Sauti said, " O thou blest Avith length of days, I will 
narrate the history of Astika as I heard it from my father. O 
Brahmana, in the Krita (golden) age Prajapati had two fair and 
virtuous daughters named Kadru and Vinata, The sisters vvere 


the wives of Kasj'apa. Highly gratified with his virtuous wives, 
Kasyapa, resembling Prajapati himself, was desirous of confer- 
ring on each of them a boon. Tlie ladies were all joy because 
their lord was willing to confer on them choice blessings. 
Kadru said, ' I would be mother of a thousand snakes of equal 
vigor.' And Vinata wished to bring forth two sons surpassing 
the thousand offspring of Kadru in strength, energy, size of body, 
and bravery. And Kasyapa said, ' be it so/ to Vinata extremely 
desirous of having offspring. And having obtained her prayer, 
she rejoiced greatly. And having obtained two sons of slpendid 
prowess, she regarded her boon fulfilled. And Kadru also 
obtained her thousand sons of equal vigor. ' Bear your 
children carefully ' said Kasyapa and went to the forest, 
leaving his two wives gratified with his blessings. " 

Sauti said, " O best of Dwijas, after a long time, Kadru 
brought forth a thousand eggs, and Vinata two. Their maid- 
servants deposited the eggs separately in warm vessels. Five 
hundred years passed away, and the thousand eggs produced 
by Kadru bui^st and out came the progeny. But the twins of 
Vinata did not appear. And Vinata was jealous, and she broke 
one of the eggs and found in it an embryo with the upper 
part developed but the lower undeveloped. At this, the child 
in the egg became angry and thus cursed his mother: 'O 
mother, since thou hast prematurely broken this egg, thou 
shalt even serve as a slave. And shouldst thou wait five thousand 
years, and not destroy, by breaking the otiier egg through 
impatience, the illustrious child within it, or render it half- 
developed, he will deliver thee from slavery. And if thou wouldsfc 
have the child strong, thou must take tender care of the egg for 
all this time.' And thus cursing his mother the child rose to 
the sky. O Brahmana, even he is the charioteer of the Sun, 
always seen in the hour of moniing. 

"Then at the expiration of the five liundred years, bursting 
open the other egg, out came Gadura, the serpent-eater. O 
tiger of the Bhrigu race, immediately on seeing the light, the 
son of Vinata left his mother, and the lord of birds feeling 
hungry mounted on his wings to seek for the food assigned 
to him by the great ordainer of all. " 


And so eails the sixteenth Section iu the Astika of the AJi' 
Parva. ^^ 


Section XVII. 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, " O ascetic, about this time the two sisters saw 
Uchchaisrava approaching near, — that Uchchaisrava of com- 
placent appearance who was worshipped by the gods, that best 
of steeds, who at the churning of the Ocean for nectar 
arose, divine, graceful, perpetually young, creation's masterpiece, 
of irrisistible vigor, and blest with every auspicious mark. " 

Saunaka asked, ' Why did the gods churn the ocean for 
nectar and under what circumstances (an which occasion, 
as you say, sprang that best of steeds so powerful and resplen- 
dent) was it undertaken ?" 

Sauti said, " There is a mountain named Mem of blazing ap- 
pearance, and looking like a huge heap of effulgence. The raya 
of the sun falling on its peaks of golden lustre are dispersed by 
them. Abounding with gold and of variegated tints, that, 
mountain is the haunt of the gods and the Gandharvas. It is 
immeasurable, and unapproachable by men of manifold sins. 
Dreadful beasts of prey inhabit its breast, and it is illuminated 
with divine herbs of healing virtue. It standeth kissing the 
heavens by its height and is the fii-st of mountains. Ordinary 
people cannot so much as think of ascending it. It is graced 
with trees and streams and resoundeth with the charming melody 
of winged choirs. Standing high for infinite ages, upon it once 
all the mighty celestials sat them down and held a conclave. 
They came in quest of amrita, they who had practiced penances 
and observed the rules according to the ordinance. Seeing 
the celestial assembly in anxious consultation, Narayana said 
to Brahma, ' Do thou churn the Ocean with the Suras ( gods ) 
and the Asuras. By doing so, amrita shall be obtained 
together with all drugs and all gems. O ye gods, churn ye the 
Ocean, and ye shall discover dmriia.' " 

And so ends the seventeenth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XVIII. 

( Ast'tka Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, " There is a mountain of name Mandara adoraed 
with peaks like those of the clouds. It is the best of mountains, 
and is covered all over with intertwining herbs. There no end 
of birds pour forth their melody, and there beasts of prey roam 
febout. The gods, the Apsaras, and the Kinnaras visit the place. 
Upwards it riseth eleven thousand yojanas, and descendeth 
downwards as much. The gods failed to tear it up and they 
came to Vishnu and Brahma who were sitting, and said. 
' devise you some efficient scheme. Consider, ye gods, how 
Mandara may be upraised for our good. " 

Sauti continued, "And Vishtui, with Brahma, assented to it, 
O son of Bhrigu ! And the lotus-eyed one laid the hard task on 
the mighty Ananta, the prince of Snakes. And the mighty 
Ananta, directed thereto both by Brahma and Narayana, 
O Brahmana, upraised that mountain with tlie woods 
thereon and with the dwellers of those woods. And the gods 
came to the shore of the Ocean with Ananta, and addressed 
the Ocean saying, ' O Ocean, we have come to churn thy 
waters for obtaining nectar. ' And the Ocean replied, ' be 
it so, as I am to have a share of the nectar, I am able 
to bear the agitation of my waters by the mountain.' And 
the gods went to the king of tiie tortoises and said to 
him, ' Tortoise-king, thou shalt have to hold the mountain 
on thy back.' The tortoise-king agreed, and Indra placed 
the mountain on the former's back by means of instruments. 

" And the gods and the Asuras made Mandara their churn- 
ing staff and Vasuki the cord, and set about churning the main 
for amrlta. The Asuras held Vasuki by the hood and the gods 
by the tail. And Ananta who was for Narayana, at intervals raised 
the Snake's hood and suddenly lowered it. And in conserpience 
of the friction he received at the hands of the gods and the 
Asuras, black vapours with flames issued out of his- mouth 
which becoming clouds charged with lightning poured down 
showers to refresh the tired gods. And blossoms beginning to 
rain on all sides of the go Is from the trees on the whirling 
Mandara, also refreshed them, 


" And, Brahraana, out of the deep then came a tremendous 
roar, like unto the roar of the clouds at the universal dissolu- 
tion. Various aquatic animals were crushed by the great 
mountain, and gave up their being in the salt-waters. And 
many dsvellers of the lower regions and inhabitants of the 
world of Varuna were killed. Fix>m the revolving Mandara, 
large trees were torn up by the roots, and flying into the air 
like birds, they fell into the water. And the mutual friction 
of the trees produced a fire which surrounded the mountain. 
And the mountain looked like a mass of dark clouds charged with 
lightning. O Brahmana, the fire increased, and burnt the lions, 
elephants and other creatures that were on the mountain. And 
carcasses of no end of animals floated down the waters. Then 
Indra extinguished that fire by descending showers. 

"0 Brahmana, after the churning had gone on for sometime, 
the gums of various trees and hei'bs mixed witli the waters 
of the Ocean. And the celestials attained immortality by 
drinking of the Avaters mixed with those gums vested with the 
properties of amrita, and with the liquid extract of gold. By 
degrees, the milky water of the agitated deep produced clarified 
butter by virtue of the gums and juices. But nectar did not 
rise even then. And the gods appeared before boon-granting 
Brahma, seated on his seat and said, ' Sir, we are spent, we have 
not strength left to churn further. Nectar hath not yet arisen. 
So that now we have no resource save Narayana.' 

"Hearing them, Brahma said to Narayana, ' Lord, vouchsafe 
to grant the gods strength to churn afresh the deep.' 

" And Narayana agreeing to grant their various prayers, 
said, ' wise ones, I grant ye sufficient strength. Go, insert 
the mountain and churn the waters.' 

"Re-equipped with strength, the gods began the churning 
again. After a while, the mild Moon of a thousand rays 
emerged from the ocean. Thereafter, Lakshmi dressed in white, 
and wine, the white steed, and then the celestial gem Kaus- 
tuva which graces the breast of Narayana. Lakshmi, wine, 
and the steed fleet as the mind, all came before the gods on 
high. Then arose the divine Dhanwantari himself with the 
white vessel of nectar in his hand. And seeing him, the 


Asiiras set up a louj cry, saying, " Ye have taken all, l(e must 
be ours.' 

" Aud at length rose the great elephant, Airavata, of huge 
bod}' ami with two pairs of white tusks. And him took the 
holder of the thuiider-bolt. But the churning still went on, 
so that poison at last appeared, and began to overspread the 
earth, blazing like a flame mixed with fumes. And at the 
s(\ent of the fearful Kahikuta, the three Avorlds were stupefied. 
And then Mahadcva of the Mantra form, solicited by Bralima, 
to save the creation swallowed the poison ami held it in hia 
throat. And it is sairl that the god from t'lat time is called Nila' 
hintha, ( blue-throated. ) Seeing all these wondrous thing's, 
the Asuras were filled with despair, and prepared to enter 
into hostilities with the gods for the possession of Lakshmi and 
nectiir. Thereupon Narayana called his bewitching Maya. 
to his aid, and assuming a ravisliing female form, co pietted with 
the Asuras. And the Daityas, ravished with her charms, lost 
their reason and unanimously placed the nectar in the hands of 
that fair woman. " 

So ends the eighteenth Section in the Astika of the Adi 

Section XIX. 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, " Then the Daityas and the Danavas with first 
class armours and various weapons pursued the gods. In the 
meantime the valiant liord Vidhnu accompanied by Nara took 
away the nectar in his hands from those mighty Danavas, 

"And then all the tribes of the gods during that time of 
great fright drank the nectar receiving it from Vishnu. And 
while the gods were drinking that nectar after which they had 
80 much hankered, a Danava named Rahu was drinkino^ it in 
the guise of a god. And when the nectar had only reached 
Rahu's throat, the Sun and the Moon (discovered him and) 
communicated the fact to the gods. Ami Narayana instant- 
ly cut off with his discus the well-adorned head of the 
Dauavu who was drinking the aectur without permission. Audi 



the linge head of the Danava cut off by the discus and re- 
sembling a mouutain-peak then rose to the sky and began 
to utter dreadful cries. And the Danava's headless trunk 
fallinfT upon the ground and rolling thereon naade the Earth 
tremble with her mountains, forests, and islands. And from 
that time ha4h arisen a long-standing quarrel between Rahu's 
head and the Sun and the Moon. And to this day it swalloweth 
the Sun and the Moon, (causing the eclipses.) 

And Narayana quitting his ravishing female form, and hurl- 
ino' many terrible weapons at them, made the Danavas tremble. 
And thus on the sliores of the sea of salt-water, commenced the 
dreadftjl battle of the gods and the Asuras. And sharp-pointed 
javelins and lances and various weapons by thousands began 
to be disehai*ged on all sides. And mangled with the discus and 
wounded with swords, saktis, and maces, the Asuras in large 
nnmbers vomitted blood and lay prostrate on the earth. Cut off 
from the trunks with sharp double edged swords, heads adorn- 
ed with bright gold fell continually on the field of battle. Their 
bodies drenched in gore, the great Asuras lay dead everywhere. 
It seemed as if red-dyed mountain peaks lay scattered all 
around. And when the sun rose in his splendour, thousands of 
warriors striking one another with their weapons, the sounds 
'Alas!' and ' 0h ! ' were heard everywhere. The warriors 
fiohtinEC at a distance from one another brought one another 
down by sharp iron missiles, and those fighting at close quarters 
slew one another by blows of the fist. And the air was filled 
with shrieks of distress. Everywhere were heard the alarming 
fvounds, 'cut off,' 'pierce/ 'after,' 'hurl down,' 'advance.' . 

"And when the battle was raging fiercely, Nara and Nara- 
yana entered the field. And Narayana seeing the heavenly bow 
in the hand of Nara, called to his mind his own weapon — the 
Danava-destroying discus. And lo ! the discus, Sudarshana, 
destroyer of enemies, like to Agiii in effulgence, and dreadful 
in battle, came from the sky as soon as thought of. And when 
it came, Aehyuta of fierce energy, of arms like the trunk of an 
elephant, hurled with great force the weapon, effulgent as flam- 
ing tire, dreadful, and of extraordinary lustre, and capable of 
destroyidg hostile towns. And that discus bla :ing like the fire 



that burneth all things at the end of time, hurlel with force 
from the handg of Narayana, falling constantly everywhere 
destroyed the Daityas and the Danavas by thousand,^. Some- 
times it flamed like fire and consmued them all, eonietiioes it 
struck them down &s it coursed through the sky; and some- 
times, falling on earth; like a goblin it drank their life blood. 

" And on their &ide, the Danavas, white as the clouds from 
which the rain hath been extracted, possessing great strength 
and bold hearts, ascended the sky and hurling down thousands 
of mountains continually harassed the gods. And those dreadful 
momitaina, like masses of clouds, with their trees and flat tops, 
falling from the sky, collided with one another and produced a 
tremendous roar. And when thousands of warriors shouted 
without intermission on the field of battle and the mountains 
with the woods thereon began to fall around, the Earth with be? 
forests trembled. Then the divine Nara coming to that dread* 
ful conflict of the Asuras and the Ganas (the followers of 
Rudra), reducing those rock-s by means of his gold- 
headed arrows covered the heavens with the dust. And dis- 
corafittcd by the gods, and seeing the furious discus scour- 
ing the fields of heaven like a blazing flame, the mighty Dana- 
vas entered the bowels of the Earth, while others plunged into 
the sea of salt waters. 

" And having gained the victory, the gods otTering due respecti 
to Mandara placed him on bis own base. And the nectar-bear- 
ing gods making the heavens resound with their shouts, v^^eut to 
their own abotles. And the gods returning to the heavens re- 
joiced greatly, and the vessel of nectar ludra and the other 
gods made over to Nara for careful keep. " 

And so ends the nineteenth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XX. 

( Astikd Parvcb Gontinued. ) 

Sauti said :— '■ Thus have I recited to you all about ho"r 
amrita (nectar) was churned out ot the Ocean, and on which 
oocfitsiou the horse Uchcbaiarava of great beauty and iiiivm- 


parable prowess was obtained. It was this horse seeing whona 
Kadru asked Vinata, ' Tell me, amiable sister, without taking 
much time, of what color is Uchchaisrava ? ' And Vinata 
answered, 'that king o( horaes is certainly white. What dost 
thou think, sister ? Say thou what is its color. Let ue lay a 
wager upon it.' And Kadru replied, ' O thou of agreeable 
smiles, I think that horse is black in its tail. Beauteous 
one, bet with me that she who losetb shall be the other'a 

slave.' " 

Sauti continued, "Thus wagering with each other about 
menial service as a slave, the sisters went home resolved to 
satisfy themselves by examiuing the horse the next day. And 
Kadru bent upon practising a deception, ordered her thousand 
eons to transform themselves into black hair and speedily 
cover the horse's tail inorder that slie might not become a 
slave. But her sons the snakes refusing to do her bidding, 
ehe cursed them, saying, 'during the snake-sacrifice of the 
wise king Jauamejaya of the Pandava race, fire shall consume 
ye.' And the Grand-father (Brahma) himself heard this ex- 
ceedingly cruel curse denounced by Kadru impelled by the 
fates. And seeing that the snakes bad multiplied exceed- 
ingly, the Grand-father moved by kind consideration for his 
creatures sanctioned with all the gods tiiis curse of Kadru. 
Indeed, of flaming poison, great prowess, excess of strength, 
and ever bent on biting other creatures, in consequence of such 
poison and for the good of all creatures the conduct of their 
mother towards those persecutors of all creatures was very 
proper. Fate always inflicts the punishment of death on those 
who seek the death of other creatures. The gods having 
exchanged such sentiments with each other then applauded 
Kadru (and went away.) And Brahma calling Kasyapa to 
him spake uuto him these words: 'O thou pure one who 
overcomest all enemies, these snakes of flaming poison, of 
huge bodies, and ever intent on biting other creatures, that 
thou hast begot, have been cursed by their mother. Child, do 
not grieve for it in the least. The destruction of the snakes 
in the sacrifice hath, indeed, been indicated in the Puranas.' 
paying this, the divine Creator of the universe propitiated 


the Prajapati (LorJ of creation, Kasyapa) and bestowed on 
that illustrious one the knowledge of neutralising poiaous. " 

And so ends the twentieth Section in the Astika of the Adi 

Section XXI. 

(Astika Parva cmitinued), 

Sauti said, " Then when the night had passed away and the 
sun had risen in the morning, O thou whose wealth is ascetism, 
the two sisters, Kadru and Vinata, having laid a wager 
about slavery, with haste and impatience went to view the 
horse Uchchaisrava from a near ix)int. On their way they 
saw Ocean, that receptacle of waters, vast and deep, agitat- 
ed and in a tremendous roar, full of fishes large enough 
to swallow the whale, and abounding with huge makaras 
and creatures of various forms by thousands, and rendered 
inaccessible by the presence of other terrible, monster-shaped, 
dark, and fierce aquatic animals ; abounding also with 
tortoises and crocodiles, the mine of all kinds of gems> the 
home of Varuna (the water-god), the excellent and beautiful 
residence of the Nagas, the lord of rivers, the abode of the 
subterranean fire, the friend (or asylum) of the Asuras, 
the terror of all creatures, the grand reservoir of waters, 
knowing no deterioration. It is holy, beneficial to the gods, 
and the great mine of nectar ; without limits, inconceivable, 
Bacred, and highly wonderful. Dark, terrible with the voice 
of aquatic creatures, tremendously roaring, and full of deep 
whirl-pools. It is an object of terror to all creatures. 
Moved by the winds blowing from its shores and heaving high 
with agitation and disturbance, it seems to dance everywhere 
with uplifted hands represented by its surges. Full of heav- 
ing billows caused by the Avaxing and waning of the moon, the 
parent of (Vasudeva's great conch called) Panchajanya,, the 
great mine of gems, its waters were formerly distitrbed in con- 
sequence of the agitation caused within them by the Lord 
Goviuda (Vishnu) of immeasurable prowess when he assumed 
the form of a wild-boar for raising the (submerged) Earth. Iti 


bottom lower than the nether regiona tlie vow-observing 
Brahmavshi, Atri, could not fathom after (toiling for) a hundred 
years. It becomes the bed of the lotus-naveled Vishnu when 
at the dawn of every Yiij(t that deity of immeasurable power 
enjoys the deep sleep of spiritual meditation. It is the refuge 
of Mainaka under th^ fear of falling thunder, and the retreat 
of the Asaras overcome in fierce encounters. It offers water 
as sacrificial butter to the blazing fire emitted from the mouth 
of Vadava (the ocean-mare). It is fathomless and without 
limits, vast and immeasurable, the lord of rivers. 

"And they aawthat unto it rushed mighty rivers by thousands, 
in pride of gait, like competitors in love, each eager for a meet- 
ing forestalling the others. And they saw that it was always full, 
and always dancing with the waves. And they saw that it was 
deep and abounding with fierce timls and makarois. And it 
roared constantly with the terrible sounds of aquatic creatures. 
And they saw that it was vast, and wide as the expanse of space, 
unfathomable, and limitless, and the grand reservoir of waters." 

And 80 ends tho twenty-first Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXII. 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

*' The Nagas after a debate arrived at the conclusion that 
they should do their mother's bidding, for if she failed in obtain- 
ing her desire she might burn them all abandoning her affection ; 
on the other hand if she were graciously inclined, the magnani- 
mous one might free them from her curse. They said, 'We will 
certainly render the horse's tail black.* And it is said that they 
then went and became as hairs in the horse's tail, 

*• In the meantime, the two co-wives had laid the wager. 
And having laid the wager, O excellent of Brahmanas, the two 
sisters, Kadru and Vinata, the daughters of Daksha, proceeded 
in great delight along the sky to the other side of the ocean. 
And on their way they saw the Ocean, that receptacle of waters, 
incapable of being easily disturbed, mightily agitated all on a 
sudden by the ^viud, and roaring tremendously, Abounding with 


fishe<5 capable of swallowing the whale (timi) and full of 
maharcis ; containing also creatures of various forms computed by 
thousands ; frightful from the presence of horrible monsters, in- 
accessible, deep, and terrible ; the mine of all kinds of gems ; the 
home of Varuna (the water-god), the wonderful habitation of the 
N;igas ; the lord of rivers ; the abode of the sub-terranean fire ; 
the residence of the Asuras and of many dreadful creatures ; the 
reservoir of waters ; not subject to decay ; romantic, and wonder- 
ful ; the great mine of the amrlta of the celestials ; immeasurable 
and inconceivable ; contaiuing waters that are holy; filled to the 
brim by many thousands of great rivers ; dancing as it were in 
waves ; such the ocean, full of liquid waves, vast as the expanse 
of the sky, deep, of body lighted with the flames of sub-terranean 
fire, and roaring, which the sisters quickly passed over." 

And so ends the twenty-second Section in the Astika of th e 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXIIT. 
( AstUm Parva continued.. ) 

Sauti said, " Having crossed the ocean, Kadru of swift speed, 
accompanied by Vinata, soon alighted at the vicinage of the 
horse. They then both beheld that foremost of steeds, of great 
fleetness,with body Avhite as the rays of the moon but (tail) having 
black hairs. And observing many black hairs in the tail, Kadru 
put Vinata who was deeply dejected into slavery. And thus 
Vinata having lost the wager entered into a state of slavery and 
became exceeding sorr}'. 

"And in the meantime, bursting the errg without (the help of 
his) mother, Gadura also, of great splendour, when his time 
came, was born enkindling all the points of the universe, — that 
mighty being endued with strength, that bird capable of 
assuming at will any form, of going at will everywhere, and of 
calling to his aid at will any measure of energy. Effulgent like 
a heap of fire, he blazed terribly. Of lustre equal to that of 
the fire at the end of the Yuija, his eyes were bright like the 
lightning flash. And soon after birth that bird grew in size 
and increasing his body ascended the skies. Fierce and fiercely 


roariiiG^, He was terrible like a second ocean-fire. And all tlja 
deities seeing liim, sought the protection of Bibhavasu (Agni.) 
And they bowed down to that deity of manifold forms seated 
on his seat and spake unto him these words : — 'O Agni, extend 
not thy body. Thou wilt not consume us ? Lo ! this huge 
heap of thy flames is spreadinc^ wide ' And Agni replied, 
'O ye persecutors of the Asuras, it is not as ye imagine. This ia 
Gadura of great strength and equal to me in splendour, endued 
with great energy, and born to promote the joy of Vinata, 
Even the sight of thh heap of effulgence hath caused this 
delusion in ye. He is the mighty son of Kasyapa, the 
destroyer of the Nagas, engaged in the good of the gods, and 
the foe of the D.dtyjis and the Rakshasas. Be not afraid of 
it in the least. Come with me and see. ' And thus addressed, 
the gods along with tlie Rishis wending towards Gadura 
adored him from a distance with the following words. 

" Tlie gods said, * Thou art a Rishi {i. e., cognisant of all 
mantras), sharer of the largest portion in sacrifices, ever 
displayed in splendour, the controller of the bird of life, the 
presiding spirit, of the animate and the inanimate universe ! 
Thou art the destroyer of all, the creator of all ; thou art 
Brahma of the Hiranyagarva form ; thou art the lord of 
creation in the form of Daksha and the other Prajapatis ; thou 
art Indra (the king of the gods), thou art the steed-necked 
incarnation of Vishnu ; thou art the arrow (Vishnu himself, 
as he became such in the hands of Maha leva on the burning of 
Ti'lpiira) ; thou art the lord of the universe ; thou art the 
mouth of Vishnu; thou art the four-faced Padmaja; thou art 
a Brahmana {i.e., wise), thou art Agni, Pavana, &c., {i.e., the 
presiding deities of every olyect in the universe). Thou art 
knowledge; thou art the illusion to which we are all subject ; 
thou art the all-pervading spirit, thou art the lord of the gods ; 
thou art the great truth ; thou art fenrless ; thou art ever 
unchanged; thou art the Brahma without attributes; thou art 
the energies of the Sun, &c. ; thou art the intellectual functions ; 
thou art our great protection ; thou art the ocean of holiness; 
tliou art the pure ; thou art bereft of the attributes of darkness, 
&c, ; thou art the possessor of the six high attributes ; thou art 


he wlio cannot be withstood in oontest ! From iheo hnve 
emanated all things ; thou art of excellent deeds; thon art; 
all that hath not been and all that liath been ! Thon art pure 
knowledge ; thou displayest to us, as the Sun by his rays, this 
animate and inanimate universe; darkening the splendour of 
the Sun at every moment, thou art the destroyer of all ; thou 
art all that is perishable and all that is imperishable ! O thou 
of the splendour of Agni, thou burnest all even as the Sun ia 
his ana;er burneth all creatures ! O thou terrible one, thou risest 
even as the fire at the final dissolution of the creation 1 Thou 
destroyest even him that destroyeth all at the revolutions of 
the Yugas ! Having reached thee, O mighty Gadura, who mov- 
est in the skies, we seek thy protection, O lord of birds, whose 
energy is great, whose splendour is that of fire, whose bright- 
ness is as that of lightning, whom no darkness can approach, who 
reachest the very clouds, who art both the cause and the effect, 
the dispenser of boons, and invincible in prowess ! O Lord, this 
whole universe is rendered hot by thy splendour bright as the 
lustre of heated gold ! Protect these high-souled gods, who, 
overcome by thee and terrified withal, are flying along the 
heavens in ditferent directions on their celestial cars ! O thou 
best of birds, thou lord of all, thou art the son of the merciful 
and high-soule J Rishi Kasyapa ; therefore, be not wroth bufi 
have mercy on the universe ! Thou art supreme, O assuage 
thy anger, and preserve us! At thy voice, loud as the roar of 
thunder, the ten points, the skies, the heaven?, this earth, and 
our hearts, bird, are continuously trembling! O diminish 
this thy body resembling Agni ! At the sight of thy splendour 
resembling that of Yama (the great destroyer) in wrath, our 
hearts losing all equanimity are quaking ! O thou lord of birds, 
be propitious to us who solicit thee ! O thou illustrious one, 
bestow on us good fortune and joy !' 

"And that bird of fair feathers, thus adored by the deities 
and the tribes of the Rishis, diminished his own energy and 

And thus ends the twenty-third Section in the Astika of 
the Adi Parva, 


Section XXIY. 
(Astika Parva contimied,) 

Sauti Siiid, "Then having heard about, and beholding his own 
body, that bird of beautiful feathers diminished his size, 

" And Gadura said, 'Lei no creature be afraid ; and as ye 
also are in a fright at sight of my terrible form, I will diminish 

my energy.' " 

Sauti continued, " Then that bird capable of going every- 
where at will, that ranger of the skies capable of calling to his 
aid any measure of energy, bearing Aruna on his back wended 
from his father's home and arrived at his mother's side on the 
other shore of the great ocean. And he placed Aruna of great 
splendour in the eastern region, when the Sun had resolved to 
burn the worlds with his fierce rays. " 

Saunaka said, " What for did the worshipful Sun resolve at 
that time to burn the worlds ? What wrong was done to him 
by the gods which provoked his ire ? " 

Sauti said. "0 thou sinless one 1 when Rahu in the act of 
drinking nectar was discovered to the gods by tlie Sun and the 
Moon, the former from that time conceived an enmity towards 
those deities. And upon the Sun being sought to be devoured 
by that afflicter (Rahu), he became wroth, and thought, ' O 
this enmity of Rahu towards me hath sprung from my desire of 
benefitting the gods. And this sore evil I alone have to sustain. 
Indeed, at this pass help I obtain not. And the dwellers of the 
heavens see me about to be devoured and suffer it. And there- 
fore for the destruction of the worlds must I sit.' And with 
thid resolution he went to the mountains of the west. 

" And from that place he began to scatter his heat around 
for the destruction of the worlds. And then the great Rishis 
approaching the gods spake unto them : ' Lo 1 in the middle of 
the night s[)ringeth a great heat striking terror into every 
heart, and destructive of the three worlds'. And then the 
gods accompanied by the Rishis wended to the Grand-father, 
and said unto him, ' O what is this great heat to-day that 
causeth such panic ? The Sun hath not yet arisen, still the 


destruction (of tlie world) is obvious. O Lord, wliat shall it 
be when he doth arise ? ' And the Grand-father replied, ' In- 
deed, the Sun is prepared to rise to-day for the destruction of 
the worlds. As soo-n as he appeareth he will burn everything 
into a heap of asiies. By me hath been provided the remedy 
beforehand. Tlie intcllij^ent son of Kysyapa is known to all 
by the name of Aruna. He is huge of body and of great 
splendour ; he shall stay at the front of the Sun, doing the 
duties of charioteer and taking away all the energy of the 
former. And tliis will secure the welfare of the worlds, of thd 
Risliis, and of the dwellers of the heavens,'" 

And Sauti continued, " And Aruna, ordered by the Grand- 
father, did all that he was ordered to do, Atid the Siin rose 
veiled by Aruna's person. I have told thee all about why the 
Sun was in wrath, and how Aruna also was appointed as the 
Sun's charioteer. Now hear of that other question propounded 
by thee a little while ago. " 

And so ends the twenty fourth vSection in the Astika cf the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXV, 

( Adlkd Parva continued, j 

Sauti said, " Then that bird of great strength and energy 
and capable of going at will into every place repaired to hia 
mother's side on the other shore of the great ocean. For 
thither was Vinata in affliction, defeated in wager and put 
into a state o-f slavery. And sometime after, on a certain 
occasion, Kadru calling Vinata who had prostrated herself 
to the former, addressed her these words in the presence of her 
san: *0 gentle Vinata, there is in the midst of the ocean, in 
a remote quarter, a delightful and fair region inhabited by the 
Nagas, Bear me thither.' And then the mother of that bird 
of fair feathers bore (on her back or shoulders) the mother of 
the snakes. And Gadura alsa, directed by his mother's v/ords, 
carried (on his back) the snakes. And that ranger of the 
skies born of Vinata began to ascend towards the FJun. And 
thereupon the snakes, scorched by the rays of the Sun, swoou- 


ed away. And Kadru seeing her sons in that state adored 
Indra, saying, 'I bow to thee, thou lord of all the deities : 
I bow to thee, thou slayer of (the Asura) Vala ! I bow to thee, 
thou slayer of Namuchi, O thou of thousand eyes, thou lord of 
BhacJd ! By thy showers, be thou the protector of the snakes 
scorched by the Sun ! O thou best of the deities, thou art 
our great protection 1 O thou Purandara, thou art able to 
grant rain in torrents ! Thou art Vayu (the air), thou art the 
clouds, thou art fire, and thou art the lightning of the skies ! 
Thou art the propeller of the clouds, and thou hast been 
called the great cloud {i. e. that which will darken the universe 
during the end of the Yuga) ! Thou art the fierce and incom- 
parable thunder, and thou art the roaring clouds ! Thou art 
the creator of the worlds and their destroyer ! Thou art 
imconquered ! Thou art the lij,^ht of all creatures, thou art 
Aditya, thou art Vibhavasu, thou art the highest knowledge, 
thou art wonderful, thou art the greatest being ! Thou art 
wonderful and thou art a King ! Thou art the best of the 
deities ■ Thou art Vishnu ! Thou hast thousand eyes, thou 
art a god, and thou art the final resource ! Thou art, 
O deity, all amrita, and thou art the most adored Soma 
(juice) ! Thou art the moment, thou art the lunar daj*, thou 
art the lava ( minute ), thou art the kshana (4 minutes). 
Thou art the fortnight of the full moon and the fortnight 
of the new moon ! Thou art the kala, thou the kashtha, and 
thou the Tvid'i. (These are all divisions of time.) Thou art 
the year, thou the seasons, thou the months, thou the nights, 
thou the days ! Thou art the fair Earth with her mountains 
and forests ! Thou art also the firmament resplendent with 
the Sun ! Thou art the great Ocean with heaving billows 
and abounding with timis, swallowers of thnis, tnakaras, 
and various fishes ! Thou art of great renown, always adored 
by the wise, and by the great Rishis with minds rapt in 
contemplation ! Thou drinkest, for the good of creatures, 
the Soma juice in sacrifices and the clarified butter offered 
with Vashats (mantras of a kind). Thou art always Avor- 
shippcd ill sacrifices by Brahmanas moved by desire of fruit. 
Q thou incomparable mass of strength, thou art sung in the 


Vedmigas I It is for that reason that the learned Brahmanas 
bent upon pertbnning sacrifices study the Vedangas with 
every care.' " 

And so ends the twenty-fifth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXVI. 
( Astika Parvd continued. ) 

Sauti continued, "And then the illustrious one having 
the best of horses for his bearer, thus adored by Kadru, 
covered the entire firmament with masses of blue cloudsi 
And he commanded the clouds, saying, 'pour ye your vivifyiag 
and blessed drops. ' And those clouds luminous with light- 
ing, and incessantly roaring against each other in the welkin, 
poured abundant water. And the sky looked as if the end of 
the Yuga had come, in consequence of those wonderful and 
terribly-roaring clouds that were incessantly begetting vast 
quantities of water. And in consequence of myriads of waves 
caused in the falling torrents, the deep roar of the clouds, the 
flashes of lightning, the violence of the wind, and the general 
agitation, the sky looked as if dancing in madness. And tlien 
the sky became dark, the rays of the sun and the moon totally 
disappeaing in consequence of the incessant downpour by 
those clouds. 

" And upon Indra's causing that downpour, the Nagas 
became exceedingly delighted. And the Earth whs filled with 
water all around. And the cool clear water reached even the 
nether regions. And there were countless watery waves all 
over the Earth. And the snakes with their mother reached 
(in safety) the island called Ramaniaka. 

And so ends the twenty-sixth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXVII. 

(' Aatika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, ''And then the Nagaa wetted with the shower 
became exceedingly ghid. And borne by that bird of fair 
feathers, they soon arrived at the island. And that ishiud 
had been appointed by the creator of the universe as the 
abode of the makaras. They had seen in that island ou 
a former occasion the fierce Asnra of the name of Luvana. 
And arrived there with Gadiira, they saw there a beautiful 
forest, washed by the waters of the sea and resounding with 
(the music of) winged choirs. And there were clusters of 
trees all around with various fruits and flowers. And there 
were also fair mansions all around ; and many tanks abound- 
ing with lotuses. And it was also adorned with many fair 
lakes of pure water. And it was refreshed with pure incense- 
breathing breezes. And it was adorned with many a tree 
that grows only on the hills of Malaya (sandal wood) which 
seemed by Its tall ness to reach the very heavens, and which 
shaken by the breeze dropped showers of flowers. And there 
were also various other trees whose flowers were scattered all 
around by the breeze. And it seemed as if these bathed the 
Nagaa arrived there with showers of rain represented by 
their dropping flowers. And that forest was charming and 
dear to the Gandharvas' and always gave them pleasure. 
And it was full of bees mad with the honey they sucked. 
And the sight of its appearance was exceedingly delightful. 
And in consequence of many things there capable of charming 
everybody, that forest was fair, delightful, and holy. And 
echoing with the notes of various birds, it delighted greatly 
the sons of Kadru. 

"And then the snakes having arrived at that forest began 
to enjoy themselves. And they commanded the lord of birds, 
Gadura, of great energy, saying, ' convey us to some other fair 
island with pure water. Thou ranger of the skies, thou 
must have seen many fair regions in thy course (through the 
air.)' And Gadura, after reflecting for a few moments, asked. 

, ADI PARYA, 95 

his mother Yinata, why, mother, am I to do the hidding of 
the snakes V And Vinata thus questioned by him thus spake 
unto that ranger of the skies, her son, invested with every 
virtue, of great energy, and great strength. 

"Vinata said, 'O ihou best of birds, I have become, from 
misfortune, the slave of her who hath the same husband with 
me. The snakes by an act of deception caused me to lose my 
bet and have made me so. ' And when liis mother had told 
bim the reason, that ranger of tlie skies, dejected with grief, 
addressed the snakes, saying, ' Tell me, ye snakes, by bringing 
what thing, or gaining a knowledge of Avhat thing, or doing 
what act of prowess, we may be freed from this state of bond- 
age to ye.' " 

Sauti continued, "And the snakes hearing him said. 
'Bring thou amrita by force. Then. O bird, shalt thou be 
freed from bondage.' " 

And so ends the twenty-seventh Section in the Astika of 

the Adj Parva. 

Section XXVIII. 

( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, " Gadura, thus addressed by tlie snakes, then 
«!aid unto his mother. ' I shall go to bring amrita. I desire 
to eat something. Direct me to it.' And Vinata replied : 
'In a remote region in the midst of the ocean, the Nishadas 
have their fair home. H aving eaten the thousand Nishadas 
that live there, bring thou amrita. But let not thy heart be 
ever set on taking the life of a Brahmana. A Brahmana of all 
creatures must not be slain. He is, indeed, like fire. A Brah- 
mana when angry becomes like fire or the Sun, like poison or an 
edged weapon. A Brahmana, it hath been said, is the master 
of all creatures. For thei^e and other reasons, a Brahmana is 
the adored of the virtuous. child, he is never to be slain by 
thee even in anger. Hostility with the Brahmanas, therefore, 
would not be proper under any circunii^tances. O thou sinless 
one, neither Agni nor the Sun truly consuineth so as doth a 
Brahmana of rigid vows when angry. By these vai ious iudica- 


tions must thou know a good Brahmana, Indeed, a Brahmana 
is the first-born of all ereatnres, the foremost of the four 
orders, the father and the master of all.' 

" And Gadura then asked, ' mother, of what form is a 
Brahmana, of what behaviour, and of what prowess ? Doth he 
shine like fire, or is he of tranquil mien ? And, O mother, 
it behoveth thee to tell my inquirin«^ self, assigning reasons, 
those auspicious signs by which I may recognise a Brahmana !' 

*' And Vinata replied, saying, ' O child, him shouldst thou 
know as a ball amongst Brihmanas who having entered thy 
throat will torture thee as a fish-hook or burn thee as flaming 
charcoal. A Brahmana must never be slain by thee even in 
anger.' And Vinata from affection for her son again told 
him. these words: ' Him shouldst thou know as a good Brahm- 
ana who shall not be digested in thy stomach. " And Vinata, 
from parental affection, rniterated those words. And although 
she knew the incomparable strength of her son, she yet bless- 
ed him heartily, for deceived by the snakes she was very much 
afflicted by woe. And she said, ' Let Maruta (the god of the 
winds) protect thy wings, and the Sun and the Moon thy verte- 
bral regions; let Agni protect they head, and the Vasus thy 
whole body ! I also, O child, engaged in beneficial ceremonies, 
shall sit here to give thee prosperity. Go then, O child, in 
safety to accomplish thy purpose. 

Sauti continued, " Then Gadura, having heard the words 
of his mother, stretched his wings and ascended the skies. 
And endued with great strength, he soon came upon the Ni- 
shadas, hungry and like to another Yama. And bent upon 
slaying the Nishadas, he then raised a great quantity of dusb 
that overs{)read the firmament and sucking up water from amid 
the ocean, shook the trees growing on the adjacent mountains. 
And then the lord of birds obstructed the principal thorough- 
fare of the Nishadas by his mouth having increased its cleft 
at will. And the Nishadas begaa to fly in great haste in 
the direction of the open mouth of the great serpent-eater. 
And as birds in great affliction ascend by thousands into the 
skies when the trees of the forest are shaken by the wind, so 
those Nishadas blinded by the dust raised by the storm entered 


the wule-extending cleft of Gadura's moutli open to receive 
them. And then the hungry lord of all rangers of the skies, 
the oppressor of enemies, endued with great strength, and 
moving with the greatest activity to achieve his end, closed his 
mouth killing innumerable Nishadas following the occupatioa 
of fishermen." 

And so ends the twenty-eighth Section in the Astikaof the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXIX. 
( Astllrt Parva continued. ) 

Sauti continued, '' A certain Brahmana with his wife had 
entered the throat of that ranger of the skies. And the former 
thereupon began to burn the bird's throat like flaming charcoal. 
And him Gadura addressed, saying, ' O thou best of Brahm- 
anas, come out soon from my mouth which I open for thee. 
A Brahmana must never be slain by me although he may be 
always engaged in sinful practices.' And to Gadura who had 
thus addressed him, that Brahmana said, ' let this woman of 
the Nishada caste who is my wife come out with me !' And 
Gadura said, 'Taking the woman also of the Nishada caste with 
thee, come out soon. Save thyself without delay inasmuch aa 
thou hast not yet been digested by the heat of my stomach.' " 

Sauti continued, '* And then that Brahmana accompanied 
by his wife of the Nishada caste came out, and eulogising 
Gadura wended whithersoever he liked. And upon that Brahm- 
ana coming out with his wife, that lord of birds, fleet as the 
mind, stretching his wings ascended the skies. And he then 
saw his father ; and hailed by him, Gadura of incomparable 
prowess made proper answers. And the great Rishi (Kasyapa) 
then asked him, ' O child, is it well with thee ? Dost thou getj 
sufficient food every day ? Is there food in plenty for thee in 
the world of men ? ' 

"And Gadura replied, ' My mother is ever well. And so 
my brother, and so am L But, father, I do not always obtain 
plenty of food for which my peace is incomplete. I am sent 
by the snakes to fetch the excellent amrUa (Soma). And, 



ill Jeeil, I shall fetch it to-day for emancipating my mother from 
her l^oudage. My mother had commanded me, saying, — Etit 
thou the Nishadas. — I have eaten them by thousands but my 
hunger is not appeased. Therefore, O worshipful one, point 
out to me some other food, by eating which, O master, I may 
be strong enough to bring away amrita by force. Thou shouldst 
indicate some food wherewith I may appease my hunger and 
thirst. ' 

" And Kasyapa replied, ' This lake thou seest is very sacred. 
It hath been heard of even in the heavens, Tiiere an elephant 
with face downwards doth continually drag a tortoise his elder 
brother, I shall speak to you in detail of tiieir hostility in 
former life. I will tell you in full of their enmity in another 
life. Hear from me the truth, in proof whereof are they both 
(in this place.) 

" 'There was of old a great Rishi of the name of Vibha- 
vasu. He was exceedingly wratiiful. He had a younger brother 
of the name of Supritika who also was a great ascetic. And 
the great sage Supritika was averse to keep his wealth joint 
with his brother's. And Supritika would always speak of parti- 
tion. After a certain time his brother Vibhavasu told Supri- 
tika, — It is from great foolishness that persons blinded by love 
of wealth always desire to make a partition of their patrimony. 
And after effecting a partition they fight with each other. Then 
again, enemies in the guise of friends cause an estrangement 
between ignorant and selfish men after they become separated 
in their wealth ; and pointing out faults confii-m their quarrels 
so that they soon fall one by one. And downright ruin very 
soon overtakes the separated. For these reasons, the wise, 
never speak well of partition amongst brothers who when 
divided regard not the most authoritative Shastras and are 
always in fear of each other. But as thou Supritika, without 
regarding my advice, impelled by desire of separation always 
wishest to make an arrangement about your property, thou 
must become an elephant.— And Supritika, thus cursed, then 
spake unto Vibhavasu : — Thou also must become a tortoise 
moving in the interior of the waters. — 

" • Aud thus on account of wealth those two fools, Supritika 


and Vibhavagu, from each other's curse, have become an ele- 
phant and a tortoise, Owinor to their wrath, they have both 
become inferior animals. And they are engaged in hostilities 
with each other, proud of their excessive strength and the 
weight of their bodies. And in this lake those two of huge 
bodies are engaged in acts according to their former hostility. 
The other amongst them, the handsome elephant of huge body, 
is even how approaching. And hearing his roar, the tortoise also 
of huge body, living witliin the waters, cometh out agitating 
the lake exceedingly. And seeing him, the elephant, with 
trunk in a curl, goeth into the water. And endued with great 
energy, with motion of his tusks, of fore-part of his trunk, of 
tail, and of feet, he agitates the waters of the lake abounding with 
fishes. And the tortoise also of much strength, with upraised 
head, cometh forward for an encounter. And the elephant is 
six yojctnas in height and twice that measure in circumference. 
And the height of the tortoise also is three yojanas and his 
circumference ten. Eat thou both of them, madly engaged 
in the encounter and bent upon slaying each other, and accom- 
plish this business that thou desirest. Eating that fierce ele= 
phant, — looking like a huge mountain and resembling a mass of 
dark clouds, bring thou amrita.' " 

Sauti continued, "And having said so unto Gadura, he 
(Kasyapa) blessed him then. ' Blest be thou when thou art 
engaged with the gods in combat. Let pots filled to the brim, 
Brahmanas, kine, and what other auspicious objects there are, 
bless thee, O thou oviparous one. And O thou of great 
strength, when thou art engaged with the gods in combat, let 
the Richas, the Yajus, the Samas, the sacred sacrificial butter, 
all the mysteries (of the Vedas), and all the Vedas, be thy 
strength. ' 

" And Gadura, thus addressed by his father, wended to the 
side of that lake. And he saw that expanse of clear water 
with birds of various kinds all around. And remembering the 
words of his father, that ranger of the skies possessed of great 
swiftness of motion seized the elephant and the tortoise, one 
in each claw. And that bird then soared high into the air. 
And he came upon a sacred place called Alamixi and saw 


many divine trees. And struck by the wind raised by his 
•wings, those trees began to shake with fear. And those di- 
vine trees growing on golden summits feared that they would 
break. And the ranger of the skies seeing that those trees 
capable of granting every wish were quaking with fear, went to 
other trees of incomparable appearance. And those gigantic 
trees were adorned with fruits of gold and silver and branches 
of precious gems. And they were washed with the waters of the 
sea. And there was a large banian among them grown into 
gigantic proportions, that then spoke unto that lord of birds while 
coursing towards it fleet as the mind : ' Sit thou on this large 
branch of mine extending a hundred yojanas and eat thou the 
elephant and the tortoise.' And when that best of birds of great 
swiftness, and of body resembling a mountain, quickly alighted, 
that banian, the resort of thousands of birds, shook and that 
branch also full of leaves broke. " 

And so ends the twenty-ninth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXX. 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, " The moment the arm of the tree was touched 
by Gadura of great might with his feet, it broke. And as it 
broke, it was supported by Gadura. And as he cast his eyes 
around in wonder after having broken tliat gigantic branch, he 
saw that a tribe of Rishis called Valakhilyas were suspended 
therefrom with heads downwards. And having seen those 
Brahmarshis engaged in ascetic practices suspended therefrom, 
Gadura said unto himself, ' Indeed, there are Rishis suspended 
from it ; I will not kill them. ' And reflecting that if that 
branch fell down, the Rishis would be slain, the mighty one 
held by his claws the elej)hant and the tortoise yet more firmly. 
And the king of birds, from fear of slaying the Rishis and 
desirous of saving them, held that branch in his beaks and rose 
on his wings. And great Ritihis seeing that act of his which 
WJ^s beyond even the power of the gods, their hearts moved by 
wonder, gave that mighty bird a name. And thpy eaid, ' Aa 


this ranger of the skies rises oa its wings bearing a heavy 
burden, therefore let this foremost of bir Js having snakes for 
his food be called Gadivra (bearer of heavy weight.)' 

" And slinking the mountains by his wings, Gadura leisurely 
coursed through the skies. And as he soared with the elephant 
and the tortoise (in his claws), he beheld various regions under- 
neath. And desiring as he did to save the Valakhilyas, he saw 
not a spot whereon to sit. And at last he wended to the 
foremost of mountains called Gandhamadana. And he saw 
there his father Kasyapa engaged in ascetic devotions. And 
Kasyapa also saw his son — that ranger of the skies, of divine 
form, possessed of great splendour, energy, and strength, and 
endued with the speed of the wind or the mind, huge as a 
mountain peak, a ready smiter like the curse of a Brahmaua, 
inconceivable, indescribable, frightful to all creatures, endued 
with great prowess, terrible, of the splendour of Agni himself, 
and incapable of being overcome by the deities, Danavas, and 
invincible Rakshasas, capable of splitting mountain summits 
and of sucking the ocean itself and of destroying the worlds, 
fierce, and looking like Yama himself. And then the illus- 
trious Kasyapa seeing him approach and knowing also his 
motive, spake unto him these words. 

" And Kasyapa said, ' child, don't commit a rash act, for 
then thou wouldst have to suffer pain. The Valakhilyas, sup- 
porting themselves by drinking the rays of the Sun, might, if 
angry, consume thee.' " 

Sauti continued, " And Kasyapa then propitiated, for the 
sake of his son, the Valakhilyas of exceeding good fortune 
and whose sins had been destroyed by ascetic penances. And 
Kasyapa said, ' Ye whose wealth is asceticism, the essay of 
Gadura is for the good of all creatures. The task is great that 
he is striving to accomplish. It behoveth ye to accord him 
your permission ? ' " 

Sauti continued, " The Munis thus addressed by the illus- 
trious Kasyapa abandoned that branch and wended to the 
sacred mountain of Himavata for purposes of ascetic penances. 
And upon those Rishis going away, the son of Vinata, with voice 
obstructed by the branch in his beaks, asked his father Kasyapa, 


' thou illustrious one, where am I to throw tliis arm of the 
tree ? Illustrious one, indicate to me some region that is with- 
out human beings.' And then Kasyapa spoke of a mountain 
without human beings, with caves and dales always covered 
with snow and incapable of ^approach by ordinary creatures 
even in thouf^ht. And the great bird bearing that branch, 
the elephant, and the tortoise, then proceeded with great speed 
towards that mountain of broad waist. And the great arm 
of the tree with which that bird of huge body flew away could 
not be girt round with a cord made of a hundred (cow) 
hides. And Gadura, the lord of birds, then flew away for 
hundred thousands of yojanas within the shortest time. And 
going according to the directions of his father to that moun- 
tain almost in a moment, the ranger of the skies let fall 
the gigantic branch. And it fell with a great noise. And 
that king of rocks shook, struck with the storm raised by Ga- 
dura's wings. And the trees thereon dropped showers of flowers. 
And the cliffs of that mountain decked with gems and gold 
and adorning that great mountain itself, were loosened and 
fell down on all sides. And the falling branch struck down 
numerous trees which with their golden flowers amid their 
dark foliage shone there like clouds charged with lightning. 
And those trees, bright as gold, falling down upon the ground 
and becoming dyed with mountain metals, shone as if they 
were bathed in the rays of the sun. 

" And the best of birds, Gadura, perching on the summit 
of that mountain then ate both the elephant and the tortoise. 
And he the son of Tarkhya, endued with great speed, having 
eat of the tortoise and the elephant, then rose on his wingS 
from the top of the mountain summit. 

" And various omens began to appear among the gods fore- 
boding fear. Indra's favorite thunder-bolt blazed up in a fright. 
And meteors with flames and smoke, loosened from the welkin, 
shot down during the day. And the respective weapons of 
the Vasus, the Rudras, the Adityas, of all of them, of the 
Sadhyas, the Marutas, and of all the other tribes of the gods, 
began to spend their force against each other. And such 
things had never happened even in the war of the gods and the 


Asiiras. And the winds blew accompanied with thunder, and 
meteors fell by thousands. And the sk}^ although it Avas 
cloudless, roared tremendously. And even he who was the 
god of gods, dropped showers of blood. And the lustre of the 
flowery garlands on the necks of the gods was dimned. And 
their prowess suffered a diminution. And terrible masses of 
clouds dropped thick showers of blood. And the dust raised 
by the winds darkened tlie splendour of the very coronets of 
the gods. And he of a thousand sacrifices (Indra), with the 
other gods, perplexed with fear at sight of these dark disasters, 
spake unto Vrihaspati thus : ' Why, worshipful one, have 
these dark disasters suddenly arisen ? No foe do I behold who 
would oppress us in war. ' And Vrihaspati answered, ' O thou 
chief of the gods, thou of a thousand sacrifices, it is from thy 
fault and carelessness, and owing also to the ascetic penances of 
of the high-souled great Rishis, the Valukhilyas, that the son 
of Kasyapa and Vinata, a ranger of the skies endued with 
great strength and possessing the capacity to assume at will 
any form, is approaching to take away the Soma. And that 
bird, foremost among all endued with strength, is able to rob 
ye of the Soma. Every thing is possible, I ween, in him : 
the un-achievable he can achieve.' " 

Sauti continued, "And Indra having heard these words 
then spoke unto those that guarded the amrita : ' A bird 
endued with great strength and energy has set his mind on 
taking away the amrita. I warn ye beforehand so that he may 
not succeed in taking it away by force. Vrihaspati has told 
me that his strength is immeasurable.' And the gods hearing 
of it were amazed and took precautions. And they stood 
surrounding the amrita, and Indra also of great prowess, the 
Avielder of the thunder, stood with tbem. And the gods wore 
curious breastplates of gold, of great value and set with gems, 
and bright leathern armour of great toughness. And the 
mighty deities wielded various siiarp-edged weapons of terrible 
shapes, countless in number, emitting, even all of them, sparks 
of fire mixed with smoke. And they were also armed with 
many a discus and iron mace furnished with spikes, and trident, 
and battle-axe, various kinds of sharp-pointed short missiles 


and polished swords raid maces of terrible forma, all befitting 
their respective bodies. And decked with celestial ornaments 
and resplendent with those bright arms, the gods waited there, 
their feai-s allayed. And the gods, of incomparable strength, 
energy, and splendour, resolved to protect the amrita, capable 
of splitting the towns of the Asnras, all displayed themselves 
in forms resplendent as the fire. Thus the gods having stood 
there, that [would be] battle-field, in consequence of hundred 
thousands of niaces furnished with iron spikes, shone like 
another suddenly arrived sky illumined by the rays of the sun. " 
And so ends tiie thirteeth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXXI. 
( Af^tlhi Parva contimied. ) 

Saunaka said, '' O Son of Suta, what was ludra's fault, 
what his act of carelessness ? How was Gadura born in conse- 
quence of the ascetic penances of the Valakhilyas ? Why also 
had Kasyapa — a Brainnana — the king of birds for his son ? Why 
too was he invincible of all creatures and un-slayable of all ? 
Why also was that ranger of the skies capable of going into 
every place at will and of mustering at will any measure of 
energy ? If these are described in the Purana, I should like 
to hear them !" 

Sauti said, " What thou askest me is, indeed, the subject 
of the Purana. twice-born one, listen as I briefly recite it 
all ! ■ 

" Once upon a time, wlien the Prajapati, Kasyapa, was 
engaged in a sacrifice from desire of offspring, the Rishis, the 
gods, and the Gandiiarvas, gave him help. And Indra was 
appointed by Kasjapa to bring the saerificial wood ; and with 
him those ascetics — the Vahikhilyas, and all the other deities. 
And the lord Indra taking up according to his own strength a 
weight that was mountain-like, brought it without any fatigue. 
And he saw on the way some Pashis, of bodies of the measure 
of the tiiumb, together carrying one single stalk of the Palasha 
(Butea frondosa) leaf. And those Rishis were, from want of food, 


very lean-fleshed as if merged into their OAvn bodies. And they 
were so weak that they were much afflicted when sunk in the 
water that collected in an indentation on the road caused by the 
hoof of a cow. And Purandara, proud of his strength, beheld 
them with surprise, and laughing at them in derision soon left 
them behind, insulting them besides by passing over their 
heads. And those Rishis were at tlus possessed with rage and 
sorrow. And they made preparations for a great act at Avhich 
Indra was terrified. Hear thou, O Saunaka, of the wish for (he 
accomplishment of which those vow-observing, wise, and excellent 
ascetics poured clarified butter on the sacrificial fire with 
ioudly uttered mantras ! ' There shall be another Indra of all 
the gods, capable of going everywhere at will and of muster- 
ing at will any measure of energy, imparting fear unto the (pre- 
sent) king of the gods. By the fruit of our ascetic penances, 
?et one arise, an hundred times greater than Indra in coura^-e 
and strength, fleet as the mind, and fierce v/ithal.' And the 
king of the gods, he of a hundred sacrifices, iiaving come to 
know of this, became very much alarmed and sought the pro- 
tection of the vow-observing Kasyapa. And the Prajapati, 
Kasyapa, hearing everything from Indra went to the Valakhi- 
lyas and asked them if their act had been successful. And 
those truth-speaking Rishis replied to him, saying, 'Let it be aa 
thou say est. ' And the Prajapati, Kasyapa, pacifying them, 
spake unto them as follows : — ' By the word of Brahma, 
this one hath been made the lord of the three worlds. Ye 
ascetics, ye also have been striving to create another Indra \ 
Ye excellent ones, it behove th ye not to falsify the word of 
Brahma ! Let not also this purpose for (accomplishing) which 
5'e are striving be rendered futile. Let there sjiring an Indra 
(Lord) of winged creatures, endued with excess of stren<^th. 
Be gracious unto Indra who is a suppliant before ye !' And the 
Valakiiilyas, thus addressed b}' Kasyapa, after reverenc- 
ing that first of Munis, the Prajapati, Kasyapa, spake unto 

" The Valakhllyas said, ' O Pr.ijnpati, this essay of us all 
is for an Indra. Indeed, this essay hath been also meant for 
a sou being born unto thee. Let ihis huccessful act theu be 



accepted by llioe ' And in this matter appoint tlioii wlialr>o» 
ever thou seest is good and proper.' " 

Sauti continued, " Meanwhile, moved by the desire of 
ciffspring, the s^ood daughter of Daksha, the vow-observing, 
amiable, and fortAinate Vinata, her ascetic penances over, 
having purified herdelf vath a bath in that season when connu- 
bial iutercourde might prove fruitful, approached her lord. 
And Kasyapa spake unto her, ' Respected one, the sacrifice 
commenced by me hath borne friut : what hath been desired by 
thee shall come to pass. Two heroic sons shall be born unto 
thee, the lords of the three worlds. And by the ascetic pen- 
ances of the Valakhilyas and by virtue of the desire with 
which I had commenced my sacrifice, those sons shall be of 
exceeding goo<l fortune and worshipped of the three worlds.' 
And the worshipful Kasyapa spake unto her again, ' Bear thou 
these auspicious seeds with great care. These two shall 
be the lords of all winged creatures. And the heroic rangers 
of the eky shall be respected of the worlds, and capable of 
assuming at will any form.' 

*' And the Prajapati, gratified with all that took place, 
then addre?.-ed him of a hvmdred sacrifices, saying, 'Thou 
shalt hnve two brothers of great energy and prowess, who shall 
be to thee oven as thy help-mates. And from them no 
injury shall result unto thee. Let thy sorrow cease ; thou shalt 
continue as the lord of all. By thee also let not the utterers 
of Brahma (the Veda) be ever again slighted. Nor by thee also 
let the very wr.ithl'ul ones whose words are even as the thunder- 
bolt be ever agidii insulted.' And Indra, thus addressed, went 
to heaven, his fears di^spelled. And Viuata also, her purpose 
fulfilled, was exceeding glad. And she gave birth to two sons, 
Aruna and Gadura. And Aruna of undeveloj>ed body became 
the fore-rui"i.ner of tlie Sun. And Gadura was vested with the 
lordship of the VnwU. O thou of the race of Bhrigu, hearken 
now to the mighty achievement of Gadura!" 

And so eudp. the thirty-first Section in the Astika of the 
Adi P:\rva. 

Section XXXIE 
( Astlka Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, "O thou foremost of Brahnianas, upon the 
gods having stood prepared for war in that vmy, Gadura the 
king of birds soon came upon those wise ones. And the 
gods beholding him of excessive strength began to quake 
with fear, and strike one another with all their weapons. And 
amongst those that guarded the Skoma was Bhav.mana (tlic 
celestial architect), of measureless might, effulgent as the 
electric fire, and of great energy. And after a terrific encoun- 
ter of only a moment, mangled by the lord"^ of birds with 
his talons, beak, and wings, he lay as dead on the field. And 
that ranger of the skies darkening the worlds by the dust 
raised by the hurricane of his wings, overwhelmed' the celes- 
tials with it. And the cclei^tiala overwhelmed by that dusfc 
swooned away. And lo, the immortals who guarded the 
amrita, blinded by that dust, could not sec Gadura ! And 
Gadura thus agitated the region of the hciivens. And ha 
mangled the gods thus v/ith the wounds iniiict^d by, his wings 
and beaks. 

"And then the god of thousand eyes commanded Vayu 
(the god of wind); saying, 'dispell thou this shower of dust 
soon. O Maruta, this is, indeed, thy v/ork !' And then the 
mighty Vayu soon dispelled that dust. And when the dark- 
ness had disappeared, the celestials attacked Gadura, And 
as he of great might was attacked by the gods, he began to 
roar loudly, like the great cloud that' appeareth in the, sky at 
the end of the Fit^ft, fi-ightening every creatm-e„ And that 
king of birds of great energy and slayer of hostile heroes, 
then rose on his v.'ings. And him sta^nng in the skies over 
the heads of the gods, all the wise ones (the celcstialb) 
with Indra amongst them covcrad with double-edged broad- 
swords, iron-maces furnished with sharp spikes, pointed lances, 
maces, bright kt<hvynq)ras, and many a discus of the form of 
the sun. And the king of birds, attacked on all sides with 
vbo^Ycrs of Yiuioiis weyi'-ous, fau^ht exceeding haid with.- 


out wavering for a moment. And tlie son of Vlnata, of 
great prowess, blazing in the sky, attacked the gods on all 
sides with his wings and breagt. And blood began to flow 
copiously from the bodies of the gods mangled by the talons 
and the beak of Gadura. And overcome by the lord of birds, 
the Sadhyas with the Gandharvas fled eastwards, the Vasus 
with the Rudras towards the south, the Adityas towards the 
west, and the twin Aswinas towards the north. And gifted 
Tvithgreatcnergy, they retreated fighting, looking back every 

moment on their enemy. 

« And Gadura had encounters with (the Yakshas) Aswa- 
kranda of great courage, with Rainuka, with the bold Kra- 
thanaka, with Tapana, with Uluka and Shasanaka, with Ni- 
inisha, with Puruja, and with Pulina. And the son of Vinata 
mangled them with his wings, talons, and beak, like that 
oppressor of enemies — the holder of the Pinalm himself m 
anger at the end of the yuga. And those Yakhas of great 
might and courage, mangled all over by that ranger of the 
skies, looked like masses of black clouds dropping thick showers 

f>£ blood. 

" And Gadura depriving them of life then went to where 

the amrita was. And he saw that it was suiTounded on all 
sides with fire. And the terrible flames of that fire covered 
the entire sky. And moved by violent winds, they seemed 
bent on burning the Sun himself. And the illustrious Gadura 
then assumed ninety times ninety (eight thousand and one hun- 
dred) mouths. And soon drinking in many rivers with those 
mouths and returning with great speed, that oppressor of ene- 
mies, having wings for his vehicle, extinguished that fire with 
those rivers. And extinguishing that fire, he assumed another 
small form, desirous of entering into (where the Soma was.) 

And so ends the thirty-second Section in the Astika of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section XXXIII. 
( Astiha Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, " Aud that bird, assuming a golden body bright 
as the rays of the sun, entered with great force (the 
region where the Soma was), like a torrent entering the 
ocean. And he saw in the vicinage of the Soma a wheel 
of steel, keen-edged, and sharp as the razor, revolving 
incessantly. And that fierce instrument, of the lustre 
of the blazing sun and of terrible form, was devised by 
the gods for cutting to pieces all robbers of the Soma. And 
Gadura seeing a passage through it stopped there for a moment. 
And diminishing his body, in an instant he passed through 
the spokes of that wheel. And within the line of the wheel, 
he beheld, stationed there for guarding the Soma, two great 
snakes of the lustre of blazing fire, of tongues bright as the 
lightning flash, of great energy, of mouth emitting fire, of 
blazing eyes, containing poison, very terrible, always in anger, 
and of great activity. And their eyes were ceaselessly inflam- 
ed with rage and were winkless. And he who is seen by 
even one of the two is instantly reduced to ashes. And 
the bird of fair feathers suddenly covered their eyes with 
dust. And unseen by them he attacked them from all 
sides. And the son of Vinata — that ranger of the skies — 
attacking their bodies, mangled them into pieces. And he then 
approached the Soma without loss of time. And the mighty 
son of Vinata, taking up the amrita from the place where 
it was, rose on his wings with great speed, breaking into 
pieces the instrument that had surrounded it. And the 
bird soon came out taking the amrita but without drinking 
it himself. And he then wended on his way without the least 
fatigue, darkening the splendour of the Sun. 

" And the son of Vinata then met with Vishnu in his path 
along the sky. And Narayana was gratified with that act of 
self-denial on the part of Gadura. And that deity knowing no 
deterioration said unto the ranger of the skies, ' O I am in- 
clined to grant thee a • boon. ' And the ranger of the skies 
thereupon said, ' I shall stay above thee. ' And he again spake 


unto Narayana these words : — 'I shall be immortal and free 
from disease without (drinking) amrita. ' And Vislinu said 
unto the son of Vinata, 'Be it so. ' And ,Gadura, receiving 
those two boons, told Vishnu, ' I also shall grant thee a boon ; 
therefore, let the possessor of the six attributes ask of me. ' 
And Vishnu asked the raighty carrier of great weights to be- 
come his vehicle. And he made the bird sit on the flag staff of 
his car, saying, ' Even thus thou shalt stay above me. ' And the 
i'anger of the skies, of great speed, saying unto Narayana, 
' Be it so, ' swiftly vfcnded on his way, mocking the wind 
with his fleetness. 

"And while that foremost of all rangers of the skies, that 
first of winged creatures, Gadura, was coursing through the 
air after robbing the amrita, Indra hurled at him his thunder- 
bolt. A^nd Gadura, the lord of birds, struck with the thunder 
bolt, spake laughingly unto Indra engaged in the encounter, in 
sweet words, saying, ' I shall respect the Eishi (Dadhichi) of 
whose bone tlie Vajra hath been made. I shall also respect the 
Vajra, and thee also of a thousand sacrifices. I cast this 
feather of mino whose end thou shalt not attain. Struck with 
thy thunder I have not felt the slightest pain. ' And having 
said this, the king of birds cast a feather of his. And all crea- 
tures became exceeding glad, beholding that excellent feathci' 
of Gadura so cast oif by himself. And seeing that the feather 
was very beautiful, they said, ' Let this bird be called Suparna 
(having fair feathers,)' And Pnrandara of a thousand eyes 
witnessing this wonderful incident thought tha,t bird to be 
some great being and addressed him thus. 

" And Indra said, ' O thou best of birds, I desire to know 
the limit of thy great strength, and I desire also eternal friends- 
ship with thee,' " 

And so enda the thirty-third Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva» 

Section XXXIT. 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Siuti continued, " And Gadura Baid, 'O Piiraiidaralet there 
1)6 friendship between thee and me as thou desirest. My 
strenf^tli, know thou, is great and hard to bear. O thou 
of a thousand sacrifices, the good never approve of speaking 
highly of their own strength, nor do they speak of their own 
merits. But being made a friend, asked by thee, O friend, I 
will answer tfeee, although self-praise without reason is ever 
improper. I can bear on a feather of mine, O Sakra, 
this Earth with her mountains and forests and with the waters 
of the ocean, and with thee also stationed thereon. Know 
thou, my strength is such that I can bear without fatigue even 
all the worlds put together, with their animate and iuauimate 
objects.' " 

Sauti continued, " Saunaka, after Gaduraof great cour- 
age had thus spoken, the chief of the gods — the wearer of 
the (celestial) crown, the lord bent upon the good of the worlds, 
replied, saying, ' It is as thou sayest. Everything is possible 
in thee. Accept now my sincere and hearty friendship. And 
if thou liast no business with the Soma, return it to me. 
Those to whom thou wouldst give it would always oppose us. ' 
And Gadura, answered, ' There is a certain reason for which the 
Soma is being carried by me. I shall not give the Soma to 
any one for drink. But where I myself, O thou of thousand eyes, 
place it down, thou lord of the heavens canst then, taking it 
up, instantly bring it away. ' And Indra then said, ' O thou 
oviparous one, I am highly gratified with this speech now* 
spoken by thee ! O thou best of all rangcrd of the skies, 
accept from mo any boon that thou desirest.' " 

S;iati coi\tinuod, " And Ga'hira, recollecting then the eons 
of Kadru an 1 romembeiing also the b"ii,]age of l>is motlier, 
caused by an act of deception, owing to the well-known i-easoa 
(the curse of Aruua), said, ' Although I have power over all 
creatures, yet I shall do your bidding. Let, Sakra, the 
mighty snakes become my food '.' And the flayer of the Dii- 


navas, having' saiJ unto liiiu ' Be it so,' tLen went to Harl the 
god of god'^, of great soul, the lorJ of Yogees. And the 
latter sanctioned everything that had been said by Gadura. 
And the worshipful lord of the heavens again said unto Gadura, 
'I shall bring away the Soma when tliou placest it down." 
And having said so, he bade farewell to Gadura. And the 
bird of fair feathers then went to the vicinage of his mother 
with great speed. 

" And Gadura in joy then spake unto all the snakes, ' Here 
have I brought the amrita. Let me place it on some kusa 
grass. O ye snakes, sitting here, drink of it after ye have per- 
formed your ablutions and religious rites. As said by ye, let 
this my mother become from this day a freed- woman, for by 
me hath been accomplished your bidding. ' And the snakes 
having said unto Gadura ' Be it so, ' then went to perform their 
ablutions. And Sakra in the meantime taking up the amrita 
wended back to the heavens. And the snakes, after performing 
their ablutions, their daily devotions, and other sacred rites, 
returned in joy, desirous of drinking the amritd. And they 
saw that the bed of kusa grass whereon the amrita had been 
placed was empty, the amrita itself having been taken away 
by a counter act of deception. And they thereupon began to 
lick with their tongues the husa grass as the amrita had been 
placed thereon. And the tongues of the snakes bj' that act 
became divided in twain. And the Jaisa grass too from con- 
tact with amrita became sacred from that time. And thus by 
the illustrious Gadura was amrita brought (from the heavens) 
and brought for the snakes, and by him thus were the snakes 
made of divided tongues. 

" And the bird of fair feathers very much delighted, enjoyed 
himself in those woods accompanied by his mother. And he 
of grand achievements, deeply reverenced by all rangers of tlie 
skies, gratified his mother by eating of the snakes. 

"And that man who would listen to this story, or read it 
to an assembly of good Brahmanas, must surely go to heaven 
acquiring great merit from the recitation of (the deeds of) 
Gadura. " 



And so enJa the tliirfy-fourtli Section iu the Astlka of the 
Adi Parrfi. 

Section XXXV. 
( Astlka Parva continued. ) 

Saunaka said, " O son of Suta, thou hast nnfolded tlie 
reason why the snakes were cursed by their mother, and why 
Vinata was also cursed by her son. Thou bast also related the 
bestowal of boons by their husband on Kadru and Vinata. 
Thou hast likewise told us the names of Vinata's sons. 
But thou hast not yet recited the names of the snakes. We 
are anxioi^s to hear the names of the principal ones. " 

Sauti S£^d, " O thou whose wealth is asceticism, from feau 
«f being lengthy, I shall not mention the names of all the snalcesr. 
But I will recite the names of th« chief ones. Listen ye to me. 

Sesha was born first, and then Vasuki. (Then were born) 
Airavata, Takshaka, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya, Kalakeya, the ser- 
pent Mani, Purana, Pinjarakaand Elapatra, Vamana,Nila, Anila, 
Kalmasha, Savala, Aryaka, Ugraka, Kalasapotaka, Suramu- 
kha, Dadhimukha, Vimalapindaka, Apta, Karotaka, Sanklia, 
Valisikha, Nisthanaka. Hemaguha, Nahusha, Pingala, Bahya- 
karna, Hastipada, Mudgarapindaka, Kamvala, Aswatara, Ka- 
liyaka, Vritta, Samvartaka, Padma, Mahapadma, Sankhamu- 
kha, Kuslimandaka, Kshemaka, Pindaraka, Karavira, Pushpa- 
danstraka, Vilwaka, Vilwapandara, Mushakada, Sankhashirah, 
Purnabhadra, Haridraka, Aparajita, Jyotika, Srivaha, Kaura- 
vya, DhritaraRtra,Sankhapinda, Virajah, Sabahu, Salipinda, Has- 
tipinda, Pitharaka, Sumukha, Kaunapasliana, Kuthara, Kunjara, 
Prabhakara, Kumuda, Kum.udakshya, Tittiri, Halika, Kardama, 
Vahuniulaka, Karkara, Akarkara, Kundodara and Mahodara, 

Thus, O best of Dwijas, have I told the names of the 
principal serpents. From fear of length I have not told the 
names of the rest. O thou whose wealth is asceticism, the 
sons of these snakes, with their grandsons, are innumerable. 
Reflecting upon this, I shall not name them to thee. O best of 
ascetics, in this world the number of snakes defies calculation, 
there being many thousands and arbudas of them, 



And so suds the thirty-fifth Section iu the Astika of the 
Alii Parva, 

Section XXSVI. 

( Astika Pai^t^a continued.. ) 

Saunaka said, " O child, thou hast named many o-f the 
serpents gifted with great energy and incapable of being easily 
overcome. What did they do after liearing of that cui-se ?" 
Sauti said, "Tlie illustrious Bhesha amongst them, of great 
renown, leaving his mother, practised hard penances, living 
upon air and rigidly observing his vows. And he was en- 
gaged in these ascetic devotions, having arrived at Gandha- 
inadana, Vadari, Gokarna, the woods of Pushkara, and the 
foot of Himavat. And he passed his days in those sacred 
recrions, some of which were sacred for their waters and others 
fur their soil, in the rigid observance of his vows, with a 
sinoleness of aim and his passions in complete central. And 
the Grand-father of all srav him — that ascetic with knotted 
liair and clad in rags, his flesh, skin, and sinews dried 
ivn, owing to the hard penances he v/as practising. And 
rhe Grand-father addressing him — that penance-practising 
one of firm fortitude, said, 'What is this that thou doest, 
O Shesha ? Let the welfare of the creatures of the worlds also 
eJio-acre thv thoughts. O thou sinless one, thou art afflicting 
all creatures by thy hard penances. O Shesha, tell me 
the desire that is implanted in thy breast.' 

'' And Shesha replied, 'My uterine brothers are all of 
wicked hearts. I do not desire to live amongst them. Let 
this be sanctioned by thee. Like enemies, they are always 
jealous of one another. I am therefore engaged in ascetic 
devotions : I will not see them even. They never show any 
kindness for Vinata and her son. Indeed, Vinata's son, 
capable of ranging through the skies, is another brother of 
ours. They always envy him. And he too is much stronger, 
from the bestowal of the boon by our father— the high-souled 
Kasyapa. For these, I am engaged in ascetic penances, and I 

ADI PARVAi ]15^ 

wiH cast off this body of mine, so that companionship with 
them I may avoid, even in another state of life.' 

" And the Grand-father spake unto Shcsha who had said 
so, ' Q Shesha, I know the behaviour of all thy brothers, and 
their great danger owing to their offence against their mother. 
But, O Snake, a remedy hath been provided by me even 
before-hand. It behoveth thee not to grieve for thy brothers. 
O Shesha, ask then of me the boon that thou desircst. I have 
been highly gratified v;ith thee and I will grant thee to-day a 
boon. O thou best of snakes, it is fortunate that thy heart 
hath been set on virtue. Let thy heart be more and more 
firmly set on virtue. ' 

"And Shesha replied, '0 divine Grand-father, this is (he 
boon that is desired by me, that my heart may always joy in 
virtue and in blessed ascetic penances, O Loi'd of all ! ' 

" And Brahma said, ' O Shesha, lam exceedingly gratified 
by this thy self-denial and love of peace. But by my com- 
mand, let this act be done by thee for the good of my crea^ 
tures ! Holding properly and well this Earth with her motm- : 
tains and forests, her seas and towns and retreats for enjoyments; 
80 unsteady, remain thou, Shesha, so that she may be 
steady ! ' 

" And Shesha said, ' divine lord of all creatures, grantor 
of boons, O lord of the Earth, lord of every created thing, lord 
of the universe, I will, even as thou sayest, hold the Earth 
steady. Therefore, lord of all creatures, place thou that on 
my head. ' 

" And Brahma said, ' O beat of snakes, go thou underneath 
the Earth, She will herself give thee a crevice to pass 
through. And, O Shesha, by holding this Earth thou shalt 
certainly do what is prized by me very greatly.' " 

Sauti continued, "And then the elder brother of the king 
of the snakes entering by a hole passed to the other Bule 
of the Earth, and holding her, supports with his head the: 
goddess Earth with her belt of seas going all round. 

"And Brahma said, 'O Shesha, be&tof snakes, thou art the 
god Dbarma^ because alone, with thy huge body, thou 5U£- 


portest this Earth taking everything with her, evert as I 
myself or Vala\ it (Indra) can'." 

Sauti continued, *' And the snake, the lord Ananta^ 
of great prowess, lives underneath the Earth, alone sup- 
porting the world at the command of Brahma, And 
the illustrious Grand-father, tlie best of the immortals, then 
gave unto Ananta the bird of fair feathers — the so-n of Vinata,, 
lor Anauta's help." 

And so ends the thirty- sixth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XXXVII. 

( Astilca Parvd continii^ed. } 

Sauti said, ''That best of snakes, Vasiiki, on hearing the 
curse of his mother, reflected how to render it abortive. Then 
he held a consultation with all his brothers, Airavata and all 
othersjintent upon doing what they deemed best foy themselves. 

And Vasuki said, ' O ye sinless ones ! The object of this 
curse is known to ye. It behoveth us to strive to neutralise 
it. Remedies certainly exist for all curses, but no remedy is 
available to those cursed by their mother. Hearing that this 
curse hath been uttered in the presence of the immutable, the 
infinite, and the true one, my heart trembleth ! Surely, this our 
annihilation hath come ; otherwise why should not the immut- 
able god prevent her (our mother) while uttering the curse ? 
Therefore will we consult to-day bow we may secure the 
safety of the snakes. Let us not waste time. All of ye are 
wise and discerning. We will consult together and find out the 
means of deliverance, — as (did) the gods of yore to regain losi 
Agni who had concealed himself within a cave, — §o that the 
sacrifice of Janamejaya for the destruction of the snakes may 
not take place, and so that also we may not meet with dis- 
comfiture.' " 

Sauti continued, "Thus addressed, all the offspring of 
Kadru assembled together, and wise in couneels, submitted 

AUl PARVA. 117 

their opinions to one another. One party of serpents said, ' we 
should assume the guise of Superior Brahmanas, and beseech 
Janamejaya^saying, — this (intended) sacrifice of yours ought not 

to take place '. Other snakes thinking themselves wise, saidy 

* we should all become his favorite councellors. He shall thett 
certainly ask for our advice in all projects. And we will thea 
give him such advice that the sacrifice may be obstructed 
The king, the foremost of wise men, thinking us of sterling 
worth shall certainly ask us about his sacrifice, and we shall 
say, — It must not be-. And pointing to many and serious evils 
in this and the next world with rcasons and causes we should 
take care that the sacrifice may not take place. Or let one of 
the snakes approaching bite the person who intending the mon- 
arch's good, and well acquainted with the rites of the snake sac- 
rifice, may be appointed as the sacrificial priest, so that he 
may die. And the sacrificial priest dying, the sacrifice shall 
not be completed. We shall also bite all those who, acquainted 
with the rites of snake sacrifice, may be appointed Ritiuijas 
of the sacrifice, and by that attain our object.' Other snakes, 
more virtuous and kind, said, ' O this counsel of yours is evil. 
It is not meet to kill Brahmanas. In danger, that remedy is 
proper which is based on the practices of the honest. Un- 
righteousness finally destroyeth the world.' Other serpents 
said, 'we shall extinguish the flaming sacrificial fire by ourselves 
becoming clouds luminous with lightning and pouring down 
showers.' Other snakes, the best of their kind proposed, 
' Going by night, let us steal away the vessel of Soma juice; 
this will disturb the rite. Or in that sacrifice, let the snakes 
by hundreds and thousands bite the people, and spread terror 
around. Or let the serpents defile the pure food with their 
own food-defiling urine and dung.' Others said, 'let us be- 
come the king's Ritiuijas, and obstruct his sacrifice by saying 
at the outset, — Give us the sacrificial fee — He (the king) being 
placed in our power, shall do whatever we like.' Others 
there said, ' when the king will sport in the waters, we shall 
carry him to our home and bind him, so that the sacrifice 
may not take place.' Other serpents who conceived themselves 
wise, said/ approaching him (king) let us bite the monarchy 


SO that our object may be accomplished. By his death the roof 
of all evil ^7ill be severed. This is the final deliberation of us- 
a^ll, thou who hearest by thy eyes ! Then, do that speedily 
which thou deemest proper.' Having said this, they looked 
intently at Vasuki, the best of snakes. And Vasuki also, after 
reflecting answered the snakes, saying. * Ye snakes, this final 
determination of ye all doth not seem worthy of adoption. 
The advice of ye all is not to my liking. What shall I appoint 
which would be for your good ? I think the grace of the 
illustrious Kasyapa (our father) can alone do us good. Ye 
snakes, my heart doth not know which to adopt of all your sug- 
gestions for the welfare of iny race as also of mine. That must 
be done by me which would be to your weal. It is this that 
makes me so anxious, for the credit and the discredit are mine 

And so ends the thirty-seventh Section in the Astika of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section XXXVIII. 

( Astihd Parvd conthiued. ) 

Sauti said, " Hearing the respective speeches of all the' 
snakes, and hearing also the words of Vasuki, Elapatra began- 
to address them, saying, ' That sacrifice is not such that it may 
not take place. Nor is king Janamejaya of the Pandava race such-. 
(as can be hindered), from whom this our great fear proceedeth. 
The person, O king, who is afflicted by fate hath recourse to fate 
alone ; nothing else can be his refuge. Ye best of snakes, this fear 
of ours hath fate for its root. Fate alone must be our refuge 
in this. Listen ye to what I say. When that curse was uttered, 
ye best of snakes, in fear I had crouched on the lap of our 
mother. Ye best of snakes, and O lord (Vasuki) of great splen« 
dour, from that place I heard the words the sorrowing gods 
spake thereupon unto the Grand-father. The gods said :— O 
Grand-father, thou god of gods, who else than- the cruel Kadru 
could thus, after getting such dear children, curse them so,^ 
even in thy presence ? And Graud-father, by thee also hath 


been spoken in reference to those words of liers, Be it so. We 
wish to know the reason wliy thou didst not prevent her.— » 
And Brahma thereupon replied, — The snakes have been many, 
cruel, terrible in form, and highly poisonous. From desire of 
the good of my creatures, I did not prevent her then. Those 
poisonous serpents that a-re always disposed to bite, they 
who bite for little faults, they who are sinful, biting for no 
faults, shall indeed be destroyed, not they who are harmless 
and virtuous. And hear ye, how, when the liour comes, the 
snakes may escape this dreadful calamity. There shall be 
fooni in tlie race of the Yayavaras a great Rishi known by 
the name of Jaratkara, intelligent, given up to ascetic devo- 
tions, and having his passions under complete control. That 
Jaratkaru shall have a son also given up to ascetic penances, 
of name Astika. He shall put a stop to that sacrifice. And 
those snakes who shall be virtuous shall escape therefrom.--' 
And the gods replied,— O thou truth-knowing one, in whom 
•shall Jaratkaru that first of munis, gifted with great energy 
and asceticism, beget his illustrious son ? — And Brahma 
answered, — Gifted with great energy, that best of Bralimanas 
shall beget a son possessed of great energy in a wife of the 
same name with him. Vasuki the king of the snakes hath a 
sister, of name Jaratkaru ; the son of whom I speak shall be 
born in her, and he shall liberate the snakes. — ' 

" Elapatra continued, ' And the gods said unto the 
Grand-father — Be it so. And the lord Brahma having said 
so unto the gods went to heaven. O Vasuki, I see before me 
that sister of thine known by the name of Jaratkaru. For 
relieving us from fear, give her as alms unto Jam,, the Rishi 
Jaratkaru, of excellent vows, who shall roam abegging for a 
bride. This means of release hath been lieard of by me." 

And so ends the thirty-eighth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 


( Astika Parva continued. ) 

^aiiti said, "O beat of dwijas, on hearing these words of 
Elapatra, all the serpents, in great delight, exclaimed, ' weli 
jsaid, well said !' And from that time Vasuki set about carefully 
bringing up that maiden, his sister, Jaratkani. And he took 
great delight in rearing her. 

" And a long time did not elapse from this, wh^en the deities 
and the Asuras, assembling all together, churned the abode of 
Varuna. And Vasuki, the foremost of all gifted with strength, 
became the churning-cord. And directly the work was over, 
the king of the snakes presented himself before the Grand- 
father. And the gods, accompanied by Vasuki, addressed the 
Orand-father, saying, ' O lord, Vasuki is suffering great afflic- 
tion from fear of (Ins mother's) curse. It behoveth thee to draw 
out the dart, begotten of the curse of his mother, that hath 
pierced the heart of Vasuki desirous of the weal of his race. 
The king of the snakes is ever our friend and Ijenefactor. 
O thou lord of the gods, be gracious to him and allay his 
mind's fever.* 

" And Brahma replied, ' O ye immortals, I have thought 
in my mind what ye have said. Let the king of the snakes 
himself do that which hath been communicated to him before 
by Elapatra. The time also hath arrived. Those only shall 
foe destroyed that are wicked, not those that are virtuous, 
Jaratkaru hath been born, and that Brahmana is engaged in 
hard ascetic penances. Let Vasuki, at the proper time, bestow 
on him his sister. Ye gods, what hath been spoken by the 
snake Elapatra for the weal of the snakes is true and not 
otherwise. ' 

Sauti continued, "And the king of the snakes, Vasuki, 
afflicted with the curse of his mother, on hearing these words 
of the Grand-father, and intending his sister for bestow^al on 
the Rishi Jaratkaru, commanding all the serpents, even large 
numbers of them that were ever attentive to their duties, set 
them to watch the Rishi Jaratkaru, saying, when the lord 


^aratkai'u will ask for a wife, come immediately and iuform 
me of it. The weal of our race depends upon it.' " 

And so ends the thirtj'-niuth Section in the Astika of the- 
Adi Parva. 

Section XL. 

( Astika Parva continued, ) 

Saunaka said, " O son of Suta, I desire to know the reason 
•why the illustrious Ki.shi whom thou hast named Jaratkaru 
eame to be so called on earth. It behoveth thee to tell ua 
the etymology of the name Jaratkaru,." 

Sauti said, " Jara is said to mean waste, and Karii implies 
huge. This Rislii's body had been huge, and he gradually 
reduced it by severe ascetic penances. For the same reason, 
O Brahmaua, the sister of Vasuki was called Jaratkaru." 

The virtuous Saunaka, when he heard this, .smiled, auj 
addressing Ugrasrava said, " It is even so." 

Saunaka then said, " I have heard all that thou hast before 
recited. I desire to know how Astika was born." 

And Sata, on hearing these words, began to say according 
to what was written in the Shastras. 

Sauti said, " And Vasuki desirous of bestowinsf his sister 
upon the Tashi Jaratkaru gave the snakes (necessary) orders. 
But days went on, yet that wise Muni of rigid vows, deeply 
engaged in ascetic devotions, sought not for a wife. And thab 
high-souled Rishi, engaged in study and deeply devoted to 
asceticism, his vital seed under full control, fearlessly wauder- 
ed over the whole earth and felt not a wish even for a wife. 

" Afterwards, once upon a certain time, there was a king, 
O Brahmaua, of the name of Parikshita, born of the race of 
the Kauravas. And, like his groat-grand-father Pandu of 
old, he was of mighty arm, the first of all bearers of bows ia 
war and given up to hunting. And the monarch wandered 
about piercing deer, wild boars, wolves, and buifitloes, aa4 



various other kiinU of vvilJ animal.s. One day having pierced 
a (leer with a sharp arrow and shmg his bow on his back, he 
penetrated into the deep forest, searching for the animal here 
and there, like the illastrious Rudra himself of old pursuing 
ill tlje heavens, with bow in hand, the deer which was 
the celestial sacrtfice itself turned into that shape, after 
having pierced it. No deer that was pierced by Parikshita 
had ever escaped in the woods Avith life. This deer, however, 
wounded as before, fled with speed, as the (proximate) cause 
©f the king's attainment of heaven. And the deer that Pari- 
kshita — that king of men — had pierced was lost to his gaze 
and drew the monarch far enough into the forest. And fa- 
tigued and thirsty, he came upon a Muni, in the forest, seated 
in a fold of kine and drinking to his fill the froth oozing out 
of tiie mouths of calves sucking the milk of their dams. And 
approaching liitn hastily, the monarch, hungry and fatigued, 
and raising his bow, asked that Muni of rigid vows, saying, ' O 
Brahmana, I am king Parikshita, the son of Abhimanyu. A 
deer pierced by rae hath been lost. Hast thou seen it ?' But 
that Muni, observing then the vow of silence, spake not unto 
him a word. And the king in anger thereupon placed upon 
his shoulder a dead snake, taking it up with the end of his bow. 
And the Muni sufifered him to do it without protest. And 
he spake not a word, good or bad. And the king seeing him 
in that stake, cast off his anger and became sorry. And he 
returned to his capital, but the Rishi continued in the same 
state. And the forgiving Muni, knowing that the monarch 
who was a tiger amongst kings Avas true to the duties of his 
order, cursed him not though insulted. And that tiger araongsb 
monarchs, the foremost of the Bharata race, also knew him 
Hot for a virtuous Rishi. And it was for this that he had in- 
sulted him so. 

" And that Rishi liad a son by name Sringi, of tender 
years, gifted with great energy, deep in ascetic penances, severe 
in his vows, very Avrathful, and difficult to be appeased. At 
times, he worshipped with great attention and respect his 
preceptor, seated with ease on his seat and ever engaged 
in the good of all creatures. 

"And commanded by his preceptor he was coming home when, 

ADl PAllVA. i2S 

O best of Brahinanas, a companion of his, a Pislil's son named 
Krisha in a playful mood laughingly spake unto liim. And* 
Srinj^i, wrathful and like unto poison itself, hearing those 
words in reference to his father, flamed up in a rage. 

" And Krisha said; ' Be not proud, OSringi, for ascetic as 
thou art and possessed of energy, thy father bears on his 
shoulder a dead snake. Henceforth speak hot a word to sona of 
Rishis like ourselves who have knowledge of the truth, arc deep 
in ascetic penances, andhave attained success. Where is that man- 
liness of thine, those high words of thine begotten of pride, when 
thou must have to behold thy father bearing a dt-ad snake ? 
O'thou best of all the Munis, thy father too had done nothing to 
deserve this treatment, and it is for this that lam particularly 
sorry as if the punishment were mine.' " 

And so ends the fortieth Section in the Astika of the 
MHi Parva. 

Sectiox XLF. 

(Astlka Par va continued.) 

Sauti said, "Thus addressed, and hearing that his sire was- 
Bearing a dead snake, the powerful Sringi burned with wrath; 
And looking at Erisha) and speaking softly, he asked him, 
'Pi-ay, why doth my father bear to-day a dead snake ?' And 
Krisha replied^ 'Even as the king Parikshita was roving £ot 
purposes of hunting, 0dear one, he placed the dead snako 
on the shoulder of thy sire ?' 

"And Sringi asked, ' What wrong was done to that wicked 
monarch by my father ? O Krisha tell me this, and witness 
thou the force of my asceticism. ' 

" And Krisha answered, ' King Parikshita; the son of Abhi- 
man}^!, while hunting, wounded^ a- fleet stag with an. arrow 
and chased it alone. And the king lost sight of tiie animal 
in that extensive wilderness. And; on seeing thy sire, he im- 
mediately accosted him. He was then observing the vow of 
silence. Oppressed by hunger, thirst, and labour, the prince 
•again Mid agaiu usked thy fathep hiii'ing mutionkes, about th* 


mlsslnof deer. And the sage beinj]j under the vow of silence 
retnrneth no reply. And tlie king- tliereupon placeth the 
snake on thy father's shoukler with the end of his bow. O 
Sringi, thy father engaged in devotion is in the same posture 
still And the king also hath gone to his capital named after 
the elephant ?'" 

Sauti continued, "Having heard of a dead snake being 

placed upon his (father's) shoulder, the son of the llishi, his eyes 

reddening with anger, as it were flamed up witii rage. And 

possessed by anger, the puissant Rislii then cursed the king, 

touching water and overcome with wrath. 

"And Sringi said, 'That sinful wretch of a monarch who hath 
placed a dead snake on the shoulder of my lean anil old parent, 
that insulter of Brahmanas and tarnisher of tlie fame of 
the Kurua, shall be taken within seven nights hence to the 
reo-ions of Yama by the snake Takshaka, the powerful king of 
Ecrpents, stimulated thereto by the strength of my words.' " 

Sauti continued, " And having thus cursed (the king) froin 
anger, Sringi went to his father, and saw the sage sitting in 
the cow-pen, bearing the dead snake. And seeing his parent 
in that plight, he was again inflamed Avith ire. And he shed 
tears of grief, and addressed his sire, saying, 'Father, having 
been informed of this thy disgrace at the hands of that wick- 
ed wretch, the king Parikshita, I have from anger even cursed 
liim ; and that Avorst of Kurus hath richly deserved my potent 
curse. Seven days hence, Takshaka, the lord of snakes, shall 
take the sinful king to the horrible mansions of death.* And 
the father said to the enraged sou, ' Child, I am not pleased 
with thee . Ascetics should not act thus. We live in the 
domains of that great king. We are protected by him 
righteously. In all he does, the reigning king should by the 
like of us be forgiven. If thou destroy Dharma, verily 
Dharma will destroy thee. If the kin^ doth not properly 
protect U3, we fare very ill ; we can not perform our 
religious rites according to our desire. But protected by 
righteous sovereigns, we attain immense merit, and they are 
entitled to a share thereof. Tlicrefore reigning royalty is by all 
laieaus to bt^ forgiven. And Parikshita like unto his great-grand- 
^ire protecteth us as a king should protect bis euhjects, Thut 


ponancc-practising monarch was fatigued and oppressed witlr 
hunger. Ignorant of my vow (of silence) he did this. A 
kingless country always suffereth from evils. The king punisheth 
offeuJerfi, and fear of punishments conduceth to peace ; and 
people do their duties and perform their rites undisturbed. The 
king establisheth religion (Dhartna) and religion establisheth 
the kingdom of heaven. The king protecteth sacrifices froni 
annoyance, and saQrifices please the gods. The gods cause 
rain, and rain produceth medicinal herbs, which are always 
useful to man. Manu sayeth, a ruler of the destinies of men is 
equal (in dignity) to ten veda-studying priestss Fatigued and 
oppressed Avith hunger, that penance-practicing prince hath 
done this through ignorance of my vow. Wiiy then hast thou- 
rashly done this unrighteous action, through chihlishness ? O 
son, in no ways doth the king deserve a cui*se from us. ' " 

And so ends the forty-first Section in the Astika of tho 
Adi Parva. 

Section XLII. 

(Astika Parva continued.) 

Sauti said, " And Sringi then replied to his father, saying, 
'Whether this be an act of rashness, O father, or an improper 
act that I have done, whether thou likest it or dislikest it, the 
words spoken by me shall never be vain. O father, I tell 
thee, this '(curse) can never be otherwise. I have never 
spoken a lie even in jest.' 

"And Shamika said, 'Dear child, I know that thou art of 
great {)rowess, and truthful' in speech. Thou hast never spoken 
Eb falsehood before, so that thy curse shall never be falsified. 
The son, even when he attaineth to age, should yet be always 
counselled by the father, so that crowned with good qualities he 
may acquire great renown. A child as thou art, how much 
more dost thou stand in need of counsel ? Thou art ever 
engaged in ascetic penances. The wrath of even the illustrious 
ones possessing t lie six attributes iucreaseth greatly. O thou 
fyj.eiaoat of ordinance-observing persons, seeing that thuu art 


niy Ban and a niinor too, and beholding also thy raHlincss, 1 
see that I must coinifel thee. Live thou, O son, inclined to» 
peace and — eatin.g o>f the fruits and roots of the forest. KiU 
this thy anger and destroy not the fruit of thy ascetic acts so^ 
Wrath surely decreaseth the virtue that ascetiss acquire witHt 
great pains. And then for those deprived of virtue, the blessed 
state existeth not. Peacefukiess ever givefch success to forgiv- 
ing ascetic^. This world and the next are both for the forgiv- 
ing. Therefwe beeaming forgiving in thy tentper and conquering 
thy passions, shauldst thou always live. By forgiveness shalt 
thou obtain worlds that are beyond the reach of Brahma' 
himself. Having adopted peacefulness myself, and with a desire 
also of doing gooK.J as n\Hch as lies in my power, I must do some- 
thing ; even must I send to that king, telling him, — monarchy 
thou hast been cui-sed by my son of tender years and undeve- 
loped intellect, in wrath at seeing thy act of disrespect towards 
myself.—' " 

Sauti continued, "And that great ascetic, observant of 
vows, moved by kindness, sent with proper instructions a dis- 
ciple of his to king Parikshita. And he sent his disciple 
Gaurmukha of good manners and engaged also in ascetic 
penances, instructing him to first inquire about the welfare 
of the king and then to communicate the real message. And 
that disciple soon approached that monarch — the head of the 
ii^uru race. And he entered the king's palace having first 
Bent notice of his arrival through the servant in attendance' 
6t the gate, 

"And the twice-born Gaurmukha was worshipped by themon- 
ftvch with proper forms. And after resting for a while, he detailed 
fully to the king in the presence of his ministers the words of 
Shamika, of cruel import, exactly as he had been instructed. 

" And Gaurmukha said, ' O kiug of kings, there is a Rishi,. 
Shamika, by name, of virtuous soul, his passions under control, 
peaceful and given up to hard ascetic devotions, living in thy 
dominions. By thee, O tiger amongst men, was placed on the 
shoulders of that Rishi observing at present the vow of silence, 
a dead snake, with the end of thy bow. He himself forgave 
thee that act. But his son could not. And by the latter hast 
thou ta-day b(;en curbed, king of kings, without the know- 


Ifjdge of laiH father, to the effect that witlun seven nights 
hence shall (tlie suake) Takshaka be thy death. And Shamika 
repeatedly asked his son to save thee, but there is none to falsify 
his sou's curse. And because he hath been unable to pacify 
his sou possessed with auger, therefore have I been sent to thee, 
O king, for thy good. ' 

"And that king of the Kuru race, himself engaged in as* 
cetic practices, having heard these cruel words and recollecting 
his own sinful act, became exceedingly sorry. And the king, 
learning that foremost of Rishis in the forest had becu 
observing tiic vow of silence, was doubly afflicted with sorrow. 
And learning the kiuduess of the Rishi Shamika, and his own 
sinful act towards him, the king became very repentant. And 
the king looking like a very god, did not grieve so much fo( 
hearing of his death as for having done that act to the Rishi. 

"And then the king sent away Gaurmukha, saying, 'Let the 
worshipful one (Shamika) be gracious to me.' And when 
Gaurmukha had gone away, the king, in great anxiety, without 
loss of time, "consulted with Ids ministers. And liaving con- 
sulted with his ministers, the king, wise in counsels himself, 
caused a mansion to be erected upon one solitary column. 
And it was w^ell-guarded day and night. And for its protec- 
tion were placed there physicians and medicines and Brahma- 
nas skilled in mantras, all around. And the monarch, protected 
on all sides, discharged his kingly duties fi'om that place snr- 
vounded by his virtuous ministers. And no one could ap- 
proach that best of kings there. The air even could not go 
there, being prevented from entering. 

" And when the seventh day had arrived, that best of Brah-* 
manas, the learned Kasyapa, was coming (towards the king*$ 
residence) desirous of treating the king (after the snake-bite.) 
He had heard all that had taken place, viz., that Takshaka, 
that first of snakes, would send that best of monarchs to the 
vicinage of Yama. And he thought, ' I would cure the mon- 
arch after he is bit by the first of snakes. By that I may have 
wealth and may acquire virtue also.' But that prince of snakes; 
Takshaka. in the form of an old Bndunana, saw Kasyopo. 
approacliing on his way, his lieart set upon curing the king. 
And the prince of snakes then spake unto that bull aniongstJ 


Munis, Kar,yapa, naying, ' Whitlier dost thou go 'witb such 
speed? What, besides, is the business upon which thou art 
intent ?' 

"And Kasyapa, thus addressed, replied, ' Takshaka, by 
his poison, will to-day burn king Parikshita of the Kuru race, 
that oppressor of all enemies. And I go with speed, O ami- 
able one, to cure, without loss of time, that king of inmreasur- 
able prowess, the sole representative of the Pandava race, 
after he is bit by the same Takshaka like to Agni himself iu 
energy.' And Taksliaka answered, ' I am that Taksliaka, O 
Brahmana, who shall burn that lord of the earth. Stop thou, 
for thou art unable to cure one bit by me. ' And Kasyapa 
rejoined, ' I am sure that possessed of the power of learning, 
going tiiither I shall cure that monarch bit by thee.' " 

And so ends the forty-second Section in the Astika of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section XLIII. 
( Astika Farva continued. ) 

Sauti said, " And Takshaka, after this, answered, ' If, in- 
deed, thou art able to cure any creature bit by me, thou, O 
Kasyapa, revive thou this tree bit by me. O thou best of 
Brahmanas, I burn this banian in thy sight. Try thy best and 
fihow me that skill iu mantras of which thou hast said. ' 

" And Kasyapa said, ' If thou art so minded, bite thou thcua, 
O king of snakes, this tree.. O snake, I shall revive it bit 

by thee.' " 

Sauti continued, " That king of snakes, thus addressed by 
the illustrious Kasyapa, bit then that banian tree. And that 
tree, bit by the illustrious snake, and penetrated by the poison 
of the serpent, blazed up all around. And having burnt the 
banian so, the snake then spake again unto Kasyapa, saying, 
'O first of Brahmanas, try thy best and revive t'lis lord of the 
forest.' " 

Sauti continued, " The tree was reduced to ashes b} the 
poison of the king of snakes. And taking up thoae ashes. 

,.• ADl PAP.TA, 129^ 

KaSj^apa spake these words : — ' O kinc^ of snakes, beliold the 
power of my knowledge as applied to this lord of the forest ! 
G snake, in thy very sight I sliall revive it.' And then that 
l?est of Brahnianas, the illustrious and learned Kasyapa revived, 
by his learning, that tree v/hich had been reduced to a heap 
of ashes. And first he created the -spront, then he furnished 
i-t with two leaves, and then he made the stem, and tiien the 
brandies, and then the full-grown tree Avith leaves and all. 
And Takshaka seeing the tree revived by the illustrious 
Kasyapa said unto him, ' It is not wonderful in thee that thou 
wouldst destroy my poison or that of any one else like myself. 
O thou whose wealth is asceticism, desiring what wealth 
thither goest thou ? The reward that thou expectest to have 
fi'om that best of moiiarchs, even / Avill give thee, liowever 
difficult it may be to obtain it. Decked with fame as thou 
art, thy success may be doubtful on that kin^ affected by a 
Brahmana's curse and whose period itself of life hath been 
shortened. And in that case, this blazing fame of thine that 
hath overspread the three worlds will disappear like tlie sua 
when deprived of his splendour (on the occasion of eclipses.)' 

"And Kasyapa said, ' I go there for wealth ; give it nnta 
me, O snake, so that taking thy gold, I may return.' An^l. 
Takshaka answered, '0 best of Dwijas, even I will give 
thee wealth more than what thou expectest from that kino*. 
Therefore, cease to go." 

Sauti continued, "And that best of Brahmanas, Kasyapa," 
of great prowess and intelligence, hearing those words of 
Takshaka sat in yoga meditation over the king. And the 
foremost of Munis, Kasyapa, of great prowess and gifted with 
spiritual knowledge, ascertaining that the period of life of 
that king of the Pandava race had really come to its end. 
returned, receiving from Takshaka as much wealth as he desired, 

" And upon the illustrious Kasyapa retracing his steps, 
Takshaka at the proper time speedily entered the city of 
Hastinapore. And on his way he heard that the lord of the 
earth was living very carefully, protected by means of poisoa- 
neutralising mjiiitras and medicines. " 

Sauti continued, " And he thcrc-upon reflected, saying-, 



' The monarch must be deceived by my power of illusiou. But) 
v*^hat must be the means V And then Takshaka sent to 
;the king (his attendant) snakes in the guise of ascetics taking 
with them fruits, the kiisa grass, and water (as presents). 
And Tak«haka, addressing them, said, ' Go ye all to the king 
a^'eging urgent business, without sign of impatience, as if to 
make -the monarch only accept the fruits, flowers and water 
(rbsit yeshall carry as presents to him).' " 

Sauti continued, *'And those snakes, thus commanded by 
Takshaka, acted accordingly. And they took to the hing kusa 
grass, water, and fruits. And the foremosf of kings, of 
great prowess, accepted those offerings. And after thier 
business was finished, he said unto them, 'Retire'. And when 
those snakes disguised as ascetics had gone away, the king 
of men then addressed his ministers and friends, saying, 'Eat 
•ye, with me, all these fruits of excellent taste brought by the 
ascetics.' And then moved by fate and the words of the Rishi, 
the king, with his ministers, entertained the desire of eating 
^those fruits. And the particular fruit, within which Takshaka 
\was, was eaten by the king himself. And when he was eating 
the fruit, there appeared, O Saunaka, in it an ugly insect, 
of shape scarcely discernible, of eyes black and color as copper. 
And the formemost of kings, taking that insect, addressed 
Lis ccnncillors, saying, 'The sun is setting ; to-day I have no 
more fear from poison. Therefore, let this insect becoming 
as Takshaka, bite me, so that my sinful act be expiated 
and the words of the ascetic rendered true. ' And those 
councillors also, impelled by fate, approved of that speech. 
And then the monarch smiled, losing his senses, his honr 
bavino' come. And he quickly placed that insect on his neck. 
And as the king was smiling, Takshaka, who had (in the form of 
that insect) come out of the fruit that had been offered to the 
king, coiled with his own body, round the neck of the monarch. 
And quickly coiling round the king's neck and uttering a 
tremendous roar, Takshaka, the lord of snakes, then bit the 
protector of the earth, " 

And so ends the forty-third Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva, 

Section XLIV. 
( Astiha Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said; " And the councillors beholding the king in the 
coils of Taksliaka, became pale with fear, and they all wept 
in exceeding grief. And hearing the roar of Takshaka, the 
ministers all fled. And as they were flying away in great 
grief they saw Takshaka, the king of snakes, that wonderful 
of serpents, coursing through the blue sky like a lotus-colored 
streak, very much looking lik;e the vermeil-colored line on a 
woman's crown dividing iu the middle the dark masses of 
her hair. 

" And the mansion in which the king was, blazed up with 
Takshaka's poison* And the king's counicillors on beholding it 
fled away in all directions. And the king himself fell down 
as if struck with lightning, 

*' And when the king was fairly laid low by Takshaka's 
poison, the councillors of the m.onarch, v/ith the king's priesL 
—a holy Brahmana, performed all his last rites. And all the 
citizens assembling together made the minor son of the de- 
ceased monarch their king. And the people called their new 
king, that slayer of all enemies, that hero of the Kuru race, 
by the name of Janamejaya. And that excellent of monarchs, 
Janamejaya, though a child, vras wise in mind. And with his 
councillors and priest, the eldest son of that bull amongst 
the Kurus, ruled his kingdom like his heroic great-grand-father 
( Yudhish-thira. ) And then the ministers of the youthful 
monarch beholding that he could now keep his enemies in 
check, went to Suvarnavarmana, the king of Kasi (Beneras) 
and asked him his daughter Vapushtama for a bride. And 
the king of Kasi, after due inquiries bestowed with ordained 
rites his daughter Vapushtama on the mighty hero of the Kuru 
race. And the latter receiving his bride became exceedingly 
glad. And he gave not his heart at any time to any other 
woman. And gifted with great energy^. h« wandered in pur- 
suit of pleasure, with a cheerful heart, on expanses of water 
and amid vroods and flowery fields. And that first of monarcha 


passecl his time In pleasure as Pururava of old did on recolvm^ 
the celestial damsel XJrvasi. And the fairest of the fair, the 
tlamsel Yapushtauia too, devoted to her lord and celebrated for 
her beauty, having gained a desirable husband, pleased him by 
the excess of her affection during the period he spent ia 
the pursuit of pleasure." 

And so ends the forty-fourth Section in the Aslika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XLY. 

( Astlka Parva continued. ) 

Meanwhile, the grent ascetic Jaratkaru wandered over the 
•whole Earth making the place where evening fell his home 
for the nio^ht. And gifted with ascetic power, he roameJ, 
practising various vows difficult of being practised by the in- 
mature, and bathing also in various sacred watera. And the 
Muni had air alone for his food, and was free from the desire o-f 
worldly enjoyment. And he became daily emaciated and grew 
iean-Seshed. And he saw one day the spirits of his ancestors 
banging with heads downward in a hole, by a cord of virand 
loots having one only thread entire. And that single thread 
even was being gradually eaten away by a large rat dwelling in 
that hole. And the pltris in that hole were without food, ema- 
ciated, pitiable, and eagerly wishing for their salvation. And 
Jaratkaru approaching the pitiable ones, himself in humble 
guise, asked them, 'Who are ye hanging by this cord of virana 
roots ? The single weak root that is still left in this cord of 
virana, roots already eaten away by the rat dwelling in this 
hole, is itself being gradually eaten away by the rat with his 
isharp teeth. The little tiiat remains of that single thread will 
soon be cut away. It is clear ye shall then fall down into 
this pit. with faces downwards. Seeing ye with faces down- 
wards, and overtaken by this great calamity, my pity hath 
been excited. What good can I do to ye ? Tell me q^uickly, 
whether this calamity can be relieved by a fourth, a third, 
or even with a half of this my ascelioism, relieve your^ 


selves with even the whole of my asceticism. I consent to 
all this. Do ye as ye please !' 

'' And the pitris said, ' Venerable Bralwiacliarin, thoit 
desirest of relieving us \ But, foremost of Brahmanas, thoa 
canst not dispel our affliction by thy asceticism. O chiUl, O 
thou first of speakers, we too have the fruits of our asceticism. 
But, O Brahmana, it is for the loss of children that we are fall- 
ing down into the unholy hell 1 The Grand-father himself hath 
said, that a son is a great merit. Prone as we are in this hole, 
our ideas are no longer clear ; therefore, child, we know tliee 
not, although thy manhood is well-known on earth. Venerable 
thou art and of good fortune, who thus from kindness grievest 
for us wortliy of pity and greatly afflicted. O Brahmana, listen, 
who we are. 

" ' We are Rishis of the Yayavara sect, of rigid vows. 
And, Muni, from loss of children, we liave fallen down from 
a sacred region. Our severe penances have not been destroyed ; 
we have a thread yet. But we have one only thread now. 
But it matters little whether he is or is not. Unfortunate as 
we are, we have a thread in one known as Jaratkaru. The 
unfortunate one has crossed the Vedas and the Vedangas and, 
has adopted asceticism alone. Of soul under complete control, 
of desires set high, observant of vows, and deeply engaged in 
ascetic penances, by him, from temptation of the merits of 
asceticism, have we been reduced to this deplorable state. 
He hath no wife, no son, no relatives. Therefore do we hang 
in this hole, our consciousness gone, like men having none to 
take care of us. If thou meetest him, O tell him, from thy 
kindness to ourselves, — Thy pitris, in sorrow are hanging with 
faces downwards in a hole. Holy one, take to wife and beget 
children. O thou of ascetic wealth, thou art, amiable one, 
the only thread that remaineth in the line of thy ancestors.—- 
O Brahmana, the cord of virana roots that thou secst we are 
hanging by, is the cord representing our grown up race. 
Aiul, O Brahmana, those threads of the cord of Virana roots 
that thou seest have been eaten away, are ourselves who have 
been eaten up by Time. This root that thou seesfc hath been 
hal f-eaten and by which wo are hanging in this hole, is h& that 


hath adopted asceticism alone. The rat that thou beholdest 
is Time of inflnite strength. And he (Time) is gradually 
weakening the v/retch Jaratkaru engaged in ascetic penances 
tempted by the merits thereof, but wanting in prudence and 
heart. O thou excellent one, his asceticism cannot save us. 
Behold, our roots being torn, cast down from higher regions, 
deprived of consciousness by Time, we are going downwards 
like sinful wretches ! And upon our going down into this 
hole with all our relatives, eaten up by Time even he shall 
sink with us into hell. O child, v/hether it is asceticism, 
©r sacri^ce, or v/hatever else there be of very holy acts, 
everything is inferior. These cannot count with a son. O 
child, having seen all, speak unto that Jaratkai'u of ascetic 
wealths Thou shouldst tell him in detail everything that 
thou hast beheld. And, O Brahmana, from thy kindness to- 
wards ourselves, thou shouldyt tell him all that would induce 
him to take a wife and beget children. Amongst his friends, 
©r of our own race, who art thou, O excellent one, that thus 
grieveth for us all like a friend ? We wish to hear who thou 
art that stayest here.' " 

And so ends the forty-fifth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XLVI. 

(Astika Parva cantinued.) 

Sauti said, " Jaratkaru, hearing all this, became excessively 
sorry. And from sorrow he spake unto those pitris in words 
obstructed by tears. And Jaratkaru said, ' Ye are even my 
fathers and grand-fathers gone before me. Therefore tell me 
what must I do for your welfare. I am that sinful son of 
yours, — Jaratkaru ! Punish me of sinful deeda and worthless 
as I am. ' 

"And the p^'^ris replied, saying, ' O son, by good fortune 
hast thou arrived at this spot in the course of thy rambles. O 
Brahmana, why hast thou not taken a wife V 

" And Jaratkaru said, * ye pitris, this desire hath always 
existed in my heart that I would, with vital seed drawn up,. 

./ ADl PARVA. 135 

carry tliis body to the other workh My rnincl hath been 
possessed with the idea that I would not take a wife. But ye 
grand-fathers, having seen ye hanging like birds, I have 
diverted my mind from the Brahmachar^a mode of life. I 
will truly do what ye like. I will certainly marry, if ever I 
get a maiden of my own name. I shall accept her who shall, 
bestowing herself of her own accord, be as alms unto me, 
and whom I shall not have to maintain. I shall many if I 
get such a one ; otherwise, I shall not. This is the truth, ye 
grand-fathers ! And the offspring that will be begot in her 
shall be your salvation. And, ye 'pltrls of mine, ye shall 
live forever in blessedness and without fear of fall.'" 

Sauti continued, " And the Muni having said so unto the 
Pitris, wandered over the earth again. And, O Saunaka, old as 
he was, he obtained not a wife. And he grieved much that 
he was not successful. Bat directed (as before) by his ances* 
tors, he continued the search. And going into the forest he 
wept loudly in great grief. And having gone into the forest, 
the wise one, moved by the desire of doing good to his ances- 
tors, said, ♦ I will ask for a bride distinctly rejjeating these 
words thrice.' And he said, ' Whatever creatures are here, 
fixed and moving, or whatever that are invisible, O hear my 
words ! My ancestors, afflicted with grief, have directed me 
engaged in the most severe penances, saying, — Marry thou for 
the acquisition of a son. — O ye, directed by my ancestors, I am 
roaming, in poverty and sorrow, over the wide world for wed- 
(\in(r a maiden I may obtain as alms. Let that creature, amongst 
those I have addressed, who hath a daughter, bestow her on 
myself roaming on all sides ! Such a bride who is of the same 
name with me, to be bestowed on me as alms, and whom 
besides I shall not maintain, O bestoAV on me ! ' Then 
those snakes that had been set on Jaratkaru, ascertaining this 
his inclination gave information to Vasuki. And the king of 
the snakes hearing their words, taking with him that maiden 
decked with ornaments, went into the forest unto that Rishi. 
And, O Brahmaua, Vasuki the king of the snakes, having 
gone there, offered that maiden as alms to that high-souled 
liishi. But the Risbi did not at once accept her, And the Rislii 


thinking her not to be of the same name with him.self, and the 
question ot" her maintenance also being unsettled, reflected 
(or a few moments, hesitating to accept her. And then, O 
son of Bhrijjn, he asked Vasuki the maiden's name, and also 
said unto him, ' I shall not maintain her.'" 

And so ends the farty -sixth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Pa,rva, 

Section XLVII. 

( Astika Parvd continibed. ) 

Sauti said, " And then Vasuki spake unto the Rishi Jarat- 
karu these words : — ' O best of Brahmanas, tiiis maiden is 
of the same name with thee. She is my sister and hath ascetic 
merit. I will maintain thy wife ; accept of her. O thou of 
ascetic wealth, I shall protect her with all my ability. And 
O thou foremost of great Munis, she hath been reared by me 
for thee !' And the Bishi replied, ' This is appointed between 
us that I shall not maintain her : and she shall not do aught 
that I do not like. And if she do, I leave her.' " 

Sauti continued, " And when the snake had promised, sa}^- 
ing, ' I shall maintain ray sister, ' Jaratkaru then went to 
the snake's home. Then that first of maTiira-knowing Brah- 
manas, observant of rigid vows, the virtuous and veteran 
ascetic, took her hand presented to him with ordained mantras. 
And taking his bride with him, adored by the great Rishis, he 
tlien entered the delightful chamber set apart for him by 
the king of the snakes. And in that chamber was a bed- 
stead covered with very valuable coverlets. And Jaratkaru 
lived there with his wife. And the excellent Eishi made aa 
appointment with his wife, saying, ' Nothing must 'ever be 
done or said by thee that is against my liking. And upon thy 
doing any such thing I would leave thee and no longer continue 
in thy house. Take these words that have been spoken by me.' 

" And then the sister of the king of the snakes, in great 
anxiety and grieving exceedingly, spake unto him, saying, 'Be 
it so.' And moved by the desire of doing good to her rela- 
tives, of unsullied reputation, she then began to attend upon 

ADl PARVA, 137 

her lord Avith the wakefulness of the dog, the timidity of the 
deer, and knowledge of signs possessed by the croAV. And the 
sister of Vasuki, one day, when her season arrived, approached, 
after bath according to the custom, her lord the great Muni. 
And she conceived, and the being conceived was like unto a 
flame, possessed of excessive energy, and resplendent as fire. 
And he grew like the moon in the lighted fortnight. 

"And one day, within a short time, Jaratkaru of great 
fame, placing his head on the lap of his wife, slept, looking like 
one fatigued. And as he was sleeping, the sun entered his 
chambers in the western mountain. And, O Brahmana, as the 
day was fading, she, the excellent sister of Vasuki, became 
thoughtful, fearing the loss of her husband's virtue. And she 
thought, ' What is proper for me now to do ? Shall I wake 
my husband or not ? He is both exacting and punctilious in. 
his religious duties. How can I so act as not to offend ? The 
alternatives are his anger and the loss of virtue of a virtuous 
man. The lo§s of virtue is the greater of the two evils, I ween. 
Again, if I wake him, he will be angr}^ But if twilight 
passeth away, he shall certainly sustain loss of virtue.' 

"And, having resolved at last, the sweet- voiced Jaratkaru, 
the sister of Vasuki, then spake softly unto that Rishi res- 
plendent with his ascetic devotions, and lying prostrate like 
a flame of fire. ' O thou of great good fortune, awake, the 
sun is setting ! O thou of rigid vows, thou illustrious one, 
adore the twilight after touching water ! The time for the 
evening homa hath come. Twilight, O lord, is even now 
gently covering the western side ■ ' 

'• And the illustrious Jaratkaru of great ascetic merit, thus 
addressed, spake unto his wife these words, his upper lip qui- 
vering in anger. ' Thou amiable one of the Naga race, thou 
hast insulted me. I shall no more abide with thee, but shall 
go whithersoever I came from. O thou of beautiful lower limb, 
I believe in my heart that the sun hath not power to set 
in the usual time, if I am asleep. An insulted person should 
never live where he hath met with the insult, far less should 
I — a virtuous person, or those that are like me !' And Jaratkaru, 
the sister of Vasuki, thus addressed by her lord, began to 



quake with terror, and she spake unto liim, siiying, ' 
Brahmana, I have not waked thee from desire of insult ; but 
I have done it so that thy daily rites may not be passed over 
unperformed. ' 

" And the Rishi Jaratkaru, great in ascetic merit, possessed 
•with anger and desirous of forsaking his spouse, thus address- 
ed, spake unto his wife, saying, ' O thou fair one, never have 
I spoken a falsehood. Therefore, go I shall. This was also 
the appointment between ourselves made by me with thee. 
Amiable one, I have passed the time happily with thee. And, 
O fair one, tell thy brother when I am gone that I have left 
thee. And upon my going away, it behoveth thee not to 
grieve for me. ' 

*' Thus addressed, Jaratkaru, the fair sister of Vasuki, of 
faultless features, steeped in anxiety and sorrow, having mus- 
tered sufficient caurage and patience, though her heart was 
quaking yet, then spake unto the Rishi Jaratkaru. And her 
words were obstructed v;ith tears and her face was hueless with 
fear. And the palms of her hands v/ere joined together, and 
her eyes were bathed in tears. And she said, 'It behoveth 
thee not to leave me without fault. Thou art ever in virtue's 
v/ays ? I too have been in the same path, with heart fixed 
on the good of raj' relatives. And, O best of Brahmanas, the 
purpose for which I have been bestowed on thee hath not 
been accomplished yet. Unfortunate as I am, what shall 
Vasuki say unto me ? And, O excellent one, the offspring 
d«sired of thee by my relatives afflicted by a mother's curse, 
doth not yet appear ! The welfare of my relatives dependeth 
en the acquisition of an offspring from thee ! And in order 
that my connection with thee may not be fruitless, O illustri- 
ous Brahmana, moved by the desire of doing good to my race 
do I entreat thee ! And, O excellent one, high-souled as thou 
art, why shalt thou leave me who am faultless ? This concep- 
tion of mine is as yet indistinct.' 

" Thus addressed, the Muni of ascetic merit then spake 
unto his wife, Jaratkaru, these words that were proper and 
suitable to the occasion. And he said, ' O thou fortunate one, 
ti»e being thou hast conceived, even like unto Agni himself, 


is a. Rishi of soul highly virtuous, and a master of the Vedas 
aad the Vedangas. ' 

" And having said so, the great Rishi Jaratkaru, of virtu- 
ous soul, went away, his heart firmly fixed on practising again 
the severest of penances, " 

And so ends the forty-seventh Section in the Aslika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section XLVIII. 
(Astika Parva cmitinued.) 

Sauti said, " thou of ascetic wealth, as soon as her lord 
left her, Jaratkaru went to her brother. And she told him 
everything as it transpired. And tlie first of snakes, hearing 
the calamitous news, spake unto his miserable sister, himself 
more miserable still. 

"And he said, ' Thou knowest, amiable one, v/hat the pur- 
pose of thy bestowal, what the reason thereof. If from that, 
for the welfare of the snakes, a son be born, he of energy 
shall save us all from the snake sacrifice ! The Grand-father 
had said so of old in the midst of the gods. O thou fortunate 
one, hast thou conceived from thy union with that best of 
Rishis ? My heart's desire is that my bestowal of thee on that 
wise one may not be fruitless. Truly, it is not proper for me 
to ask thee about such a business. But from the gravity of 
that business do I ask thee. Knowing also the obstinacy of 
thy lord ever engaged in severe penances, I shall not follow 
him, for he may curse me. Tell me in detail all that thy 
lord, amiable one, hath done, and extract the terribly 
afflicting dart that is implanted, from a long time past, in 
my heart. ' 

" Jaratkaru, thus addressed, consoling Vasuki, the king of 
the snakes, atlengh replied, saying, 'Asked by me about offs- 
pring, the high-soul ed and mighty ascetic said — There is, and 
then he went away. I do not remember him to have ever before 
spoken even in jest aught that is false. Why should he, O 
king, speak a falsehood at such a serious occasion ? He said,^ — 
Thou shouldst not grieve, daughter of the snake-racC; with 


regard to the purpose of our union ! A son shall be barn to 
thee, resplendent as the blazing 8un.— O brother, having said 
this to me, my husband of ascetic wealth hath gone away. 
Therefore let this great grief abiding in thy heart disappear.' " 

Sauti continued. '* Thus addressed, Vasuki, the king of the 
snakes, accepted those words of his sister, and in great joy 
said, ' Be it so.' And the best of snakes then adored his 
uterine sister with his best regards, gift of wealth, and fitting 
adorations. Then, O best of Brahmanas, the embryo gifted 
with great energy and of great splendour, began to develop, 
like the moon in the heavens in the lighted fortnight. 

" And in due time, the sister of the snake, O Brahmana, 
gave birth to a son of the splendour of a celestial child, and 
the reliever of the fears of his paternal ancestors and mater- 
nal relatives. And the child grew up there in the bouse of 
the kino- of the snake?. And he studied the Vedas and the 
Vedano-as with the Muni Chyavana the son of Bhrigu. And 
though but a boy, his vows were rigid. And he was gifted 
with o-reat intelligence, and with the several attributes of virtue, 
knowledo-e, freedom from the world's indulgences, and saintli- 
ness. And the name by which he was known in the world was 
Astika. And he was known by the name of Astika (ivhoever 
is) because his father had gone to the woods, saying. There is, 
when he was within the womb. And though but a boy he had 
great gravity and intelligence. And he was reared with great 
care in the palace of the king of the snakes. And he was like 
the illustrious lord of the celestials, Mahadeva of the golden 
form, the wielder of the trident. And he grew up day by 
day, the delight of all the snakes. " 

And so ends the forty-eighth Section in the Astika of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section XLIX. 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Saunaka said, " Tell me again in detail all king Jana- 
mejaya had asked his miuistera about his father's asceusion to 
heaven, " 


Sauli said, " Brahmana, hear all that the kinor asked his 
ministers, and all that they said about the death of Parikshita. 

" Janamejaya asked, ' Know ye all that befell my father T 
How also the famous one, in time, meet with his death ? Hear- 
ing from ye the incidents of my father's life in detail, I shall 
ordain something if it be for the benefit of the world : other- 
wise I shall do nothing. ' 

" And the ministers replied, ' Hear, O monarch, what thou 
askest, — an account of thy illustrious father's life, and how 
also that king of kings hath gone on his final journey. Thy 
father was virtuous, and high-soul ed, and the protector of his 
people. And hear how he of high soul conducted himself on 
earth. Like unto an impersonation of virtue and justice, 
the monarch, cognisant of virtue, virtuously protected the four 
orders, each engaged in the pi*actice of their specified duties. 
Of incomparable prowess, and blessed with fortune, he pro- 
tected the goddess Earth. He had none who hated him and 
he himself hated none. Like unto Prajapati (Brahma) he 
was equally disposed to all creatures. And, O monarch, 
Brahmanas and Kshctrias and Vaisyas and Sudras, all engaged 
contentedly in the practice of their respective duties, were 
impartially cherished by that king. Widows and orphans, the 
maimed and the poor, he maintained. Of handsome features, 
he was unto all creatures like another Shoma (Moon.) Cherish- 
ing his subjects and keeping them contented, blessed with 
good fortune, truth-telling, of severe prowess, he was the 
disciple, in the science of arms, of Sharaclwat (Kripachai'ya.) 
And, O Janamejaya, thy father was dear unto Govinda ! 
Of great ftime, he was loved by all men. And he was born 
in the womb of Uttara when the Kuru race was almost 
extinct. And, therefore, the mighty son of Saubhadra (Abhi- 
manyu) came to be called Parikshita (born in an extinct 
line.) Well-versed in the interpretation of treatises on the 
duties of kings, he was gifted with every virtue. Of passions 
under complete control, intelligent, possessing a retentive 
memory, the practiser of all virtues, the ctujtpieror of the 
six passions, of powerful mind, excellent over all, and fully 
acquainted with the science of morality and political con- 


verse, thy father ruled over these subjects for sixty years. And 
he then died making all his subjects deeply sorry. And, 
after him, first of men, thou hast acquired this hereditary 
sovereignty of the Kurus, for the last thousand years. Thou 
hast been installed while a child and art protecting every 
creature . ' 

" And Janamejaya said, ' There hath not been born in our 
race a king who hath not sought the good of his subjects or 
been loved by them. Behold especially the conduct of my 
grand-fathers ever engaged in grand achievcmcntes. How did 
my father, blessed with so many virtues, receive bis death ? 
Describe everything to me as it fell out. I am desirous of 
bearing it from ye !' " 

Sauti continued, " And thus directed by the monarch, 
those councillors, ever solicitous of the good of the king, told 
him everything exactly as it fell out. 

" And the councillors said, ' O king, that father of thine, 
the protector of the whole Earth, the foremost of all obedient 
to the injunctions of the shastras, became addicted to the 
sports of the field, even as Pandu of mighty arm and the 
first of all bearers of the bow in battle. And he made over 
to us all the affairs of state, from the most trivial to the most 
inportant. And one day, going into the forest, he pierced a 
deer with an arrow. And having pierced it he followed it 
quickly on foot into the deep woods, armed with sword and 
quiver. But thy father could not come upon the lost deer. Sixty 
years of age and decrepit, he was soon fatigued and became 
hungry. And he then saw in the deep woods an excellent Rislii. 
And the E-ishi was then observing the vow of silence. And the 
king asked him, but though asked he made no reply. And 
the king, tired with exertion and hunger, suddenly became 
angry with that Risbi, sitting motionless like a piece of Avood 
in observance of his vow of silence. And the king knew not 
that he was a Muni observing the vow of silence. And being 
under the control of anger thy father insulted him. And, O 
excellent one of the Bharata race, the king, thy father, taking 
up from the ground with the end of his bow a dead snake, 
placed it on the shoulders of that Muni of pure soul, But the 


Minn spake not a word trood or ba^ and became not angry. 
And he continued in the same posture, bearing the dead 
snake. " 

And so ends the forty-ninth Section in the Astika of the 
AJi Parva. 

Section L. 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti continued, " And the ministers said, ' The king of 
kings then tired with hunger and exertion, having placed the 
snake upon the shoulder of that Muni, wended back to his capi- 
tal. The Rishi had a son, bom of a cow, of name Sringi. 
And he was widely known, of great prowess, excessive energy, 
and very wrathful. And going to his preceptor he was in the 
habit of worshiphing him. And commanded by him he was 
returning home, when he heard from a friend of his about the 
insult to his father by thy parent. And, O tiger among kings, 
he heard that his father, without having committed any fault, 
was bearing, motionless like a stake, upon his shoulder a dead 
snake placed thereon. And, O king, the Rishi, insulted by thy 
father, was severe in ascetic penances, the foremost of Munis, 
the controller of passions, pure, and ever engaged in wonder- 
ful acts. And his soul was enlightened with ascetic penances, 
and his organs and their functions were under complete control. 
And his practices and his speech were both handsome. And 
he was contented and without avarice. And he was without 
meanness of any kind and without envy. And he was old and 
in the observance of the vow of silence. And he was the refuge 
whom all creatures might seek in distress. 

"And such was the Rishi insulted by thy father ! And the 
son of that Rishi in wrath cursed thy father. And though 
young in years, the powerful one was old in ascetic splendour. 
And speedily touching water he spake, from anger and burning 
as it were with energy, these words in allusion to thy father : — 
'Behold the power of my asceticism ! Directed by my words, 
the snake Takshaka of powerful energy and virulent poison, 
siiall, within seven nights hence, burn with his poison, the 


wretch that hath placed the dead snake upon my unofifending 
father !' And having said this, he went to where his father 
was. And seeing his father he told him of his cnrse. And 
that tif^er amonor Rishis thereupon sent to thy father a disciple 
of his, named Gourmukha, of amiable manners and possessed 
of every virtue. And having rested awhile (after arrival at 
court) he told the king everything, saying in the words of 
his master, 'Thou hast been cursed, O king, by my son. 
Takshaka shall burn thee with his poison : therefore, O king, 
be careful.' And, O Janamejaya, hearing those terrible words, 
thy father took every precaution against the powerful snake 

" 'And when the seventh day had arrived, the Brahmana 
Eishi, Kasyapa, desired to come to the vicinage of the monarch. 
But the snake Takshaka saw Kasyapa. And the prince of 
snakes si)ake unto Kasj-apa without loss of time, saying, — 
Where dost thou go so quickly, and what is the business after 
■which thou goest ? — And Kasyapa replied, saying, — Brah- 
mana, I am going whither king Parikshita, the best of the 
Kunis, is. He shall to-day be burnt by the poison of the 
snake Takshaka. I go there quickly in order to cure him, 
in fact, in order that, protected by me, the snake may not bite 
him to death. — And Takshaka answered, saying, — Why dost 
thou seek to revive the king to be bitten by me ? I am that 
Takshaka. O Brahmana, behold the wonderful power of my 
poison ! Thou art incapable of reviving that monarch when 
bit by me. — And so saying, Takshaka, then and there, bit a lord 
of the forest (banian tree.) And the banian, as soon as bit 
by the snake, was converted into ashes. But Kasyapa, O king, 
revived the banian. And Takshaka thereupon tempted him, 
saying, — Tell me thy desire. And Kasyapa too, thus addressed, 
spake again unto Takshaka, saying, — I go there from desire of 
wealth. And Takshaka, thus addressed, then spake unto the 
high-souled Kasyapa in these soft words : — sinless one, receive 
thou from me more wealth than what thou expectest from that 
monarch, and go back thy way.— And Kasyapa, the foremost 
of bipeds, thus addressed by the snake and receiving from 
Takshaka as much wealth as he desired, wended back his way. 


*' 'And on Kasyapa Avending back his way, Takshaka, 
approaching in disguise, burnt with the fire of his poison thy 
virtuous father, that first of kings, then staying in his mansion 
with all precautions. And after that, thou hast, O tiger among 
men, been installed (on the throne.) And, O best of monarchs, 
we have thus told thee all that we have seen and heard, cruel 
though the account be. And hearing all about the discomfit- 
ure of the monarch thy father, and of the insult to the Rishi 
Utanka, appoint thou tiiat which should follow.' " 

Sauti continued, *'And king Janamejaya, that punislier 
of enemies, then spake unto all his ministers. And he said, 
' Whence have ye learned all that happened unto that banian 
reduced to ashes by Takshaka, v/onderful as it is, which wa3 
eubsequently revived by Kasyapa ? Assuredly, my father 
could not have died, for the poison could have been neutra- 
lised by Kasyapa with his mantras. The worst of snakes, of 
sinful soul, thought within his mind that if Kasyapa would 
revive the king bit by him, he, Takshaka, would be an object 
of ridicule in the world owing to the neutralisation of hia 
poison. Assuredly, having thought so, he pacified the Brah- 
mana. I have devised a way, however, of inflicting punish- 
ment upon him. I like to know, however, how have ye seen 
or heard what happened in the deep solitude of the forest, — 
the words of Takshaka and the speeches of Kasyapa. Having 
known it, I shall devise the means of exterminating the snake 
race. ' 

" And the ministers said, ' Hear, O monarch, of him who 
told us before of that meeting between the foremost of Brah- 
manas and the prince of snakes in the woods. A certain per- 
son, O monarch, had climbed on that free containing some dry 
branches with the object of breaking them for sacrificial fuel. 
He was not perceived by both of the snake and the Brahmana, 
And, O king, that man was reduced to ashes along with the 
tree itself. And, O king of kings, he was revived with the 
tree by the power of the Brahmana. That man — a Brahmana'a 
menial — having come to us represented fully everything as it 
happened between Takshaka and the Brahmana. Thus have 
we told thee, king, 9JI that we have seen and heard, Au<l 



having heard It, O tiger among kings, appoint that v»'hich 
should follow.' " 

Sauti continued, " And king Janamejaj'a, having listened 
to the words of his ministers, afflicted Avith grief, began to 
weep. And the monarch began to squeeze his hands. And 
the lotus-eyed king began to exhale long and hot sighs, and 
shed tears with his two eyes, and shrieked aloud. And possessed 
v/ith grief and sorrow, and shedding copious tears, and touch- 
ing water according to the form, the monarch spake. And 
reflecting for a moment, as if settling something in his mind, 
the angry monarch, addressing all his ministers, said these 
v^ords : — 

* I have heard your account ©f my father's ascension to 
heaven. Now know ye what my fixed resolve is. I conceive, 
no time must be lost in avenging this injury upon the wretch 
Taki^haka tliat hath slain my father. He hath burnt my father 
making Sringi only a secondary cause. From malignity alone 
he made Kasyapa return. If that Brahmana had arrived, my 
'father assuredly would have lived. What would he have lost 
if the king had revived by the grace of Kasyapa and the pre- 
cautionary measures of his ministers ? From ignorance of the 
effects of my v/rath, he prevented Kasyapa — that excellent af 
Brahmanasand whom he could not defeat, from coming to my 
father -with the desire of reviving hiua. The act of aggression 
is great of the wretch Takshaka who gave wealth unto that 
Brahmana in order that he might not revive the king. I must 
now avenge on my father's enemy to please myself, the Rishi 
-Utanka, and ye all.' " 

And so enda the fiftieth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. ;.. 

' " Section LI. i 

- (Astika Parva continued.) 

Sauti said, " King Janamejaya having said so, his minis- 
ters expressed their approbation. And the monarch then ex- 
pressed his determination of performing a Snake-sacrifice. 
And the lord of the Earth — that tiger of the Bharata race— 

J1.D1 PARVXi i^T 

ihe son of Parikshita, then called hk priest and Ritwijiia ; aniJ 
accomplished in speech, he spake unto them these words relative 
tv> the accomplishment of hia great task : — ' I must avenge on 
the wretch Takshaka who hath slain my father. Tell me v/hafe 
must I do. Do ye know any act by which I may cast into 
the blazing fire the snake Takshaka with his relatives ? I 
desire to burn that wretch even aa he of yore had burnt by 
the fire of his poison my fatlier. ' 

'* And the chief priests answered, ' There . is, O king, a 
great sacrifice for thee devised by the gods themselves. It is 
known as the snake-sacrifice, and is read of in the Purana. O 
king, thou art alone the accomplisher of it, and no one else. 
Men versed in the Puranas have told us, there' is such a 
sacrifice.' " 

Sauti continued, " Thus addressed; the king, O excellent 
®ne, thought Takshaka to be already burnt and thrown into 
the blazing mouth of the eater of the sacrificial butter. The 
king then spake unto those Brahmanas versed in mantras, * I 
shall make preparations for that saerifice. Tell me the things 
that are necessary.' Aixl the king's Ritwijas then, O excellent 
Brahmana, versed in the Vedas and wise in knowledge, mea- 
sured, according to the shastras, the land for the sacrificial 
platform. Anid the platform was decked with much valuable 
wealth and' with Brahmanas. And it was full of wealth and 
paddy. And the Ritwijas sat upon it at their ease. And after 
the sacrificial platform had been thus constructed according 
to the rule and aS' desired, they then in&talled the king in the 
snake-sacrifice for the attainment of its object. And before the 
commencement of the snake-sacrifice that was to come, there 
occurred this very important incident foreboding obstruction 
to the sacrifice. For when the sacrificial platform was being 
constructed, a professional builder of great intelligence and 
well-versed in the knowledge of laying foundations, a Suta 
by caste and acquainted with the Puranas, said, 'The soil 
^pon which and the time at which the measurement for the 
sacrificial platform hath been made, indicate that this sacrifice 
vssill not be completed, a Brahmana becoming the reason there- 
of. ' Hearing this, the king, before his installation, gave 


©rders to his gate-keepera not to admit anybody •without hia 
knowledge. " 

And 80 ends the fifty-first Section in the Astika of tha 
Adi Parva» 

Section LII. 
( Astika ParvO, continued. ) 

Sauti said, " The Snake-sacrifice then commenced according 
to due form. And the sacrificial priests, competent in their 
respective duties according to the ordinance, clad in black 
garments and their eyes red from contact with smoke, poured 
clarified butter into the blazing fire, uttering proper mantras^ 
And causing the hearts of all the snakes to tremble with fear, 
they poured clarified butter into the mouth of Agni uttering 
the names of the snakes. And the snakes thereupon began 
to fall into the blazing fire, benumbed and piteously calling 
upon each other. And swollen and breathing hard, and twin- 
ing each other with their heads and tails, they came in large 
numbers and fell into the fire. The white, the black, the 
blue, the old, and the young, all fell alike into the fire, uttering 
various cries. Those measuring a cross, and those measuring 
a yojana, and those of the measure of a gokarna^ fell con- 
tinuously with great violence into that first of all fires. And 
thus hundreds and thousands, and ten thousands and hundred 
thousands of snakes, deprived of all control over their limbs, 
perished on that occasion. And amongst those that perished, 
there were some that were like horses, others like the trunka 
of elephants, and others of huge bodies and strength like 
maddened elephants. Of various colors and of virulent poison, 
terrible and looking like maces furnished with iron spikes, .of 
great strength, ever inclined to bite, the snakes afflicted with 
their mother's curse, fell into the fire. i 

And so end;s the fifty-second Section in the Astika of the 
AdiParva. ' 

Section LIII. 
( Aatika Parvd continued. ) 

Saunaka asked, " What great Rishis became the Ritwijas 
in the snake-sacrifice of the wise king Janamejaya of the 
Pandava line ? Who also became the Sadasyas in that terri- 
ble snake-sacrifice, so frightful to the snakes, and begetting 
such sorrow in them ? It behoveth thee, O child, to describe 
all these in detail, so that, O son of Suta, we may know who 
were acquainted with the ritual of the snake-sacrifice ! " 

Sauti answered, " I shall recite the names of those wise 
ones who became that monarch's Ritwijas and Sadasyas. The 
Brahmana, Chanda-vargava, became the Hota in that sacri- 
fice. He was of great reputation, and was born in the race of 
Chyavana and was a Brahmana, foremost of those acquainted 
with the Vedas. The learned old Brahmana, Kautsa, became the 
Udgata (the chaunter of the Vedic hymns.) Jaimini became 
the Brahma, and Saranga-rava and Pingala became the Adhivar- 
yus. Vyasa with his son and disciples, Uddalaka; Pramataka. 
Shetaketu, Pingala, Asita, Devala, Narada, Parvata, Atreya, 
Kunio-jathara, the Brahmana Kalghata, Vatsya, old Sruta- 
srava ever engaged in japa and the study of the Vedas, 
Kohala, Deva-sarma, Maud-galya, Sama-saurava, these, and 
many other Brahmanas who had crossed the Vedas, became the 
Sadasyas in that sacrifice of the son of Parikshita. 

" When the Ritwijas in that Snake-sacrifice began to pour 
clarified butter into the fire, terrible snakes, striking fear unto 
every creature, began to fall into it. And the fat and the marrow 
of the snakes thus falling into the fire began to flow in rivers. 
And the atmosphere was filled with an insufferable stench 
owing to the incessant burning of the snakes. And cries also 
were incessant of the snakes fallen into the fire and of those 
in the air about to fall into it. 

*' Meanwhile, Takshaka, the prince of snakes, as soon as 
he heard that king Janamejaya was installed in the sacrifice, 
went to the palace of Puraudara. And that best of snakes 
having represented i\\\ that h^id taken pUce, soli^ht 'in terror 


the protection of Indra after having acknowledged his faiilfe 
And Indra, gratified, then told him, ' Thou prince of snakes, 
Takshaka, here thou hast no fear from that Snake-sacrifice. 
The Grand- father was pacified by me for thy sake. Therefore, 
thou hast no fear. Let this fever of thy heart be dispelled.' " 

Saiiti continued, " Thus encauraged by him, that best of 
snakes began to dwell in Sakra/s abode in joy and happiness.. 
But Vasuki seeing that the snakes were incessantly falling 
into the fire, and that his family was reduced to only a few, 
became exceedingly sorry. And the king of the snakes was- 
pierced with great grief, and his heart began to swim. And- 
summoning his sister he spake unto her, saying, ' amiabla 
Cne, my limbs are burning and I no longer see the points of 
the heavens. I am about to fall down from loss of conscious- 
ness. My mind is turning, my sight? is failing, and my heart 
is breaking. Benumbed, I may fall to-day into that blaziug- 
fire. This sacrifice of the son of Parikshita is for the exter- 
mination of our race. It is evident I also shall have to go to 
the abode of the king of the dead. That time is arrived, O 
tay sister, on account of which thou wert bestowed by me on- 
Jaratkaru. O' protect us with our relatives ! Thou best of: 
the women of the snake race, Asbika shall put an end to the 
sacrifice that is going on. The Grand-father himself told me 
this of old. Therefore, O child, solicit thy dear son who is 
fully conversant with the Vedas and regarded even by the old; 
for the protection of myself with those dependent on me !' " 

And so ends the fifty-third Section iu the Astika of ths- 
Adi Parva. 

Section LIV. 
( Astiha Parva continued: ) 

Sautisaid, " Then, the snake-dame Jaratkaru, calling her 
own son, told him these words according to the directions of 
Vasuki the king of the snakes. ' son. the time is come 
for the accomplishment of that object for which I was bestow- 
ed on thy father by my brother. Therefore do thou wba^b 
should be done. ' 



" And Astlka Jisked, ' For what wert thou, O mother, bes- 
towed on my father by my uncle ? Tell me all truly so that 
hearing I may do what is prosper.' 

" Then Jaratkaru, the sister of the king of the snakes, 
■herself unmoved by the general distress, and ever desirous 
of the welfare of her relatives, said unto him. 'O son, 
it is said that the mother of all the snakes is Kadru. Know 
tliou for what she cursed in anger her sons ! Addressing the 
snakes she said,— As ye have refused to falsify <the color of ) 
Uchchaisrava, the prince of horses, for bringing about Vinata'a 
bondage according to the wager, therefoi'e, sliall he whose 
charioteer is Vayn burn ye all in Janamejaya's sacrifice. And 
perishing in that sacrifice, ye shall go to the region of unre- 
deemed spirits.— The Grand-father liimself of all the worlds 
spake unto her while uttering this curse — Be it so, and thn.<=i 
approved her speech. And Vasiiki having heard that curse and 
then the words of the Grand-father, sought the protection of 
the gods, G child, on the occasion when the amrita was being 
churned for. And tlie gods, their object fulfilled, they having 
obtained the excellent aiiwita, with VasRki ahead, approached 
the Grand-father. And all the gods with king Vasuki, sought 
to incline him who was born of the lotus into grace so that 
the curse might be made abortive. 

" 'And the gods said, — G Lord, Vasuki, the king of the 
snakes, is sorry on account of his relatives. How may his 
•mother's curse prove abortive ? 

" 'And Brahma thereupon replied, saying, — Jaratkaru shall 
take unto himself a wife of the name of Jaratkaru : the Brah- 
mana born in her shall relieve the snakes, 

" 'And Vasuki, the best of snakes, hearing these words, 
bestowed me, O thou of god-like looks, on thy high-souled 
father a little before the commencement of the sacrifice. And 
from that marriage art thou born of me. That time hath 
come. It behoveth thee to protect us from this danger. It 
behoveth thee to protect my brother and myself from the fire, 
BO that the object — our relief—for which I was bestowed on 
thy wise father may not be unfulfilled. What dost thou think, 



SautI continued, " Thus addressed, Astika said unto hh 
mother, 'Yea, I shall.' And he then spake unto the afflicted 
Vasuki, as if infusing life into him, saying, * O Vasuki, thou 
best of snakes, thou great being, truly do I say, I shall relieve 
thee from that curse. Be easy, O snake ! There is no fear 
any longer. I shall strive earnestly so that good may come. 
Nobody hath ever said that ray speech even in jest hath been 
false. As to serious occasions I need not say anything. O 
uncle, going thither to-day, I shall gratify, with words mixed 
with blessings, the monarch Janamejaya installed in the 
sacrifice, so that, O excellent one, the sacrifice may stop. O 
thou high-minded one, thou king of the snakes, believe all 
that I say. Believe me, my resolve can never be unfulfilled. ' 

" And Vasuki then said, * O Astika, my head swims and 
my heart breaks ! I cannot discern the points of the Earth, 
^.fflicted as I am with a mother's curse !' 

" And Astika said, ' Thou best of snakes, it behoveth thee 
not to grieve any longer. I shall dispell this fear of thine 
from the blazing fire. This terrible punishment, capable of 
burning like the fire at the end of the yiiga, shall I extinguish. 
Nurse not thy fear any longer!' " 

Sauti continued, "Then that best of Brahmanas, Astika, 
dispelling the terrible fever of Vasuki's heart, and taking it, 
as it were, on himself, wended, for the relief of the king of 
the snakes, with speed to Janamejaya's sacrifice blessed with 
every merit. And Astika having gone thither, beheld the 
excellent sacrificial compound covered with numerous Sadasyas 
of splendour like unto that of the Sun or of Agni. But that 
best of Brahmanas was denied admittance by the door-keepers. 
And the mighty ascetic gratified them, being desirous of 
entering the sacrificial compound. And the best of Brah- 
manas, — the foremost of all virtuous men, having entered the 
excellent sacrificial compound began to adore the king of in- 
finite achievements, the Ritivigas, the Sadasyas, and also the 
sacred fire. " 

And so ends the fifty-fourth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Parva, 

Section LV. 

(Astikd ParvCl continued.) 

Astika said, " Shoma and Varuna and Prajapati had per- 
formed sacrifices of old in Prayaga. But thy sacrifice, O thou 
foremost of the Bharata race, thou son of Parikshit'a, is not 
inferior to any of those. Let those dear to us be blessed ! 
Sakra had performed an hundred sacrifices. But this sacri- 
fice of thine, thou foremost of the Bharata race, thou son of 
Parikshita, is fully equal to ten thousand sacrifices of Sakra. 
Let those dear to us be blessed ! Like the sacrifice of Yama, 
of Harimediia, of king Rantideva, is this sacrifice of thine, 
thou foremost of the Bharata race, thou son of Parikshita. Let 
those dear to us be blessed ! Like the sacrifice of Maya, of 
Lfng Shashavindu, of king Vaisravana, is this sacrifice of 
thine, thou foremost of the Bharata race, thou son of Pariks- 
hita. Let those dear to us be blessed ! Like the sacrifice of 
Nriga, of Ajamida, of the son of Dasaratha, is this sacrifice of 
thine, thou foremost of the Bharata race, thou son of Pariks- 
hita. Let those dear to us be blessed ! Like the sacrifice of 
Yudhish-thira the son of a god, and of king Ajamida, both 
heard even in the heavens, is this sacrifice of thine, thou fore- 
most of the Bharata race, thou son of Parikshita. Let those 
dear unto us be blessed ! Like the sacrifice of Krishna (Dwai- 
payana) the son of Satyavati, in which, besides, he himself 
was the chief-priest, is this sacrifice of thine, thou foremost of 
the Bharata race, thou son of Parikshita. Let those dear unto 
us be blessed ! These (Ritwijas and Sadasyas) that sitting 
here make thy sacrifice like unto the sacrifice of the slayer of 
Vritra, are of splendour equal to that of the sun. There now 
remains nothing for them to know, and gifts made to them 
become inexhaustible (in merit.) There is none in the world 
equal to thy Ritwija. This has been settled by Dwaipayana 

himself. His disciples, becoming Ritwijas competent in their 
duties, travel over the earth. 

In this world of men there is no other monarch equal to 
thee iu the protection of subjects, I am ever well pleased witli 



thy abstinence. InJeeil, thou art either Varuna, or Yaina the 
god of justice ! Like Sakra himself with thunderbolt iu 
hand, thou art, in this world, the protector of all creatures. 
In this earth there is no man so great as thou, and no monarch 
who is thy equal in sacrifice. Thou art like Khatwanga, 
Nabhavga, and Dilipa, in pi'owess like Yayati and Mandhta, 
in splendour equal to the measure of the sun's, a monarch 
like Subrata Vishma ! Like Valmiki thou art of energy con= 
cealed ! Like Vashishta hast thou controlled thy wrath ! Like 
Indra is thy lordship ! Thy splendour also shines like that of 
Narayana ! Like Yama art thou conversant with the judg- 
ments of justice ! Thou art like Krishna decked with every 
virtue ! Thou art tlie home of the good fortune that belong- 
eth to the Vasus ! Thou art also the refuge of the sacrifices ! 
In strength art thou equal to Damvodvava (Indra) ! Like 
Rama (the son of Jamadagni) art thou conversant with the 
Bhastras and arms ! In energy art thou equal to Aurva and 
Trita. Thou inspirest terror by thy looks like Bhagiratha !" 

Sauti said, " Astika, having thus adored them, gratified 
them all, — the king, the Sadasyas, the Ritwijas, and the sacri- 
ficial fire. And king Janamejaya, beholding the signs and 
indications manifested all round, addressed them as follows." 

And thus ends the fifty-fifth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Pai'va. 

Section LVL 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti continued, "Janraejaya said, 'Though this one is 
but a boy he speaks yet like a wise old man . He is not a boy 
but wise and eld do I think. I desire to confer on him a boon. 
Therefore, ye Brahmanas, give me the necessary permission.' 

"The Sadasyas said, ' A Brahmana, though a boy, deserves 
the respect of kings. He again who is learned does more so. 
This boy deserves the fulfilment of every desire from thee, bub 
not before Takshaka comes Avith speech' " 

Sauti continued, " The king, being inclined to grant the 
Brahmaua a boon^ said, ' Ask thou the boon.' The Eota, hovv> 

AD I PAllVAi 1S5 

ever, being rather displeased, said, ' Taksliaka liatli not come as 
yet into this sacrifice. ' 

" And Janamejaya refilled, ' Exert ye to the heio;ht of your 
power so that this sacrifice of mine may attain to completion, 
and so that Takshaka also may soon come here. He is my 

"And the Ritwijas replied, 'As the Shastras declare unto U3, 
and as the fire also saith, O monarch, Takshaka is now stay- 
inn; in the abode of Indra, afHicted with fear. 

Sauti continued, "The illustrious Stita Lohitaksha also, 
conversant with the Paranas, had said so before. Asked 
by the king on the present occasion, he again told the monarch, 
' Sir, it is even so as the Brahraanas have said. Knowing the 
Puranas, I say, O monarch, that Indra hath granted him this 
boon, saying,-— Dwell thou v/ith me in concealment, and Agni 
shall not burn thee. — ' " 

Sauti continued, " Hearing this, the king installed in fcha 
sacrifice became very sorry and urged the Hota to do his duty. 
And as the Hota, with mantras, began to pour clarified butler 
into the fire, Indra himself appeared on the scene. And the 
illustrious one came on his car (in the sky) adored by all the 
gods standing around, foUov/ed by masses of clouds, celestial 
singers, and the several tribes of celestial dancing girls. And 
Takshaka, anxious v/ith fear, hid himself in the upper gar- 
ment of Indra and came not. And the king in anger again told 
his mcmirct-knowing Brahmanas these words, desirous of the 
destruction of Takshaka : — ' If that snake Takshaka be in the 
abode of Indra, cast him into the fire with Indra himself^'" 

Sauti continued, " Urged by king Janamejaya in reference 
to Takshaka, the Hota poured libations in the name of Taks- 
haka then staying there. And as the libations were poured^ 
Takshaka, with Purandara himself, anxious and afflicted,, be- 
came visible in a moment in the skies. And Purandara see- 
ing that sacrifice became much alarmed. And quickly casting 
Takshaka off, he wended back to his own abode. And when 
Indra had gone away, Takshaka the prince of snakes, insensi= 
ble with fear, was, by virtue of the mantras, brought to ths 
vicinage of the flnmcs of the sacri*ficial fire» 

15S mahabharata", 

*' And the Ultwijas then said, 'O king of kings, this sacri- 
fice of thine is being performed duly. It behoveth thee, O 
Lord, to grant a boon now to this first of Brahmanas. ' 

"And Janamejaya then said, 'Thou immeasurable one, I de- 
sire to grant thee that art of such handsome child-like features 
a worthy boon. Therefore, ask thou that which thou desirest 
in thy heart. I promise thee, that I will grant it even if it be 
ungrantable !' 

" And the Ritwijas said, ' O monarch, this Takshaka is 
soon coming under thy control ! Uttering terrible cries, his 
loud roar is being heard ! Assuredly, the snake hath been 
forsaken by the wielder of the thunder. And his body dis- 
abled by our mantras, he is falling from the heaven. Even 
now, rolling in the skies, and deprived of consciousness, the 
prince of snakes cometh, breathing loudly.' " 

Sauti continued, " While Takshaka the prince of snakes 
was about to fall into the sacrificial fire, during those few 
moments Astika spake as follows : — ' Janamejaya, if thou 
wouldst grant me a boon, let this sacrifice of thine come to an 
end and let no more snakes fall into the fire." 

" O Brahmana, the son of Parikshita, thus addressed by 
hira, became exceedingly sorry and spake unto Astik? thus :— 
"Thou illustrious one, gold, silver, kine, what other boon 
thou desirest, shall I give unto thee ! But let not my sacri- 
fice come to an end !' 

" And Astika thereupon replied, ' Gold, silver, or kine, I 
do not ask of thee, monarch ! But let thy sacrifice be ended 
so that my maternal relations be relieved.' " 

Sauti continued, " The son of Parikshita, thus addressed 
by Astika, repeatedly said this unto him, that foremost of 
speakers : — ' Thou best of superior Brahmanas, ask thou some 
other boon. 0, blest be thou !' But, O thou of the Bhrigu race, 
he did not beg any other boon. Then all the Sadasyas conver- 
sant with the Vedas told the king with one voice, 'Let the 
Brahmana receive his boon.' " 

And so ends the fifty-sixth Section in the Astika of the 
Adi Par V II, 

Section LVII. 
(Astika Parva continued.) 

Saunaka said, " O son of Suta, I desire to hear the names 
of all those snakes that fell into the fire of this snake-sacrifice. " 

Sauti replied, " Many thousands and tens of thousands and 
Arbudas ( of snakes fell into the fire. ) O excellent of Brah- 
manas, so great is the number that I am unable to count them 
all. As far, however, as I remember, hear thou the names I 
mention of the principal snakes cast into the fire. Hear first 
the names of the principal ones of Vasuki's race alone, of 
color blue, red, and white, terrible in form, and of body huge, 
and of dreadful poison. 

" Kotisha, Manasa, Purna, Shala, Pala, Halimaka ; Pitch- 
chala, Kaunapa, Chakra, Kalavega, Prokalana ; Hiranya-bahu, 
Sharana, Kakshaka, Kala-dantaka. These snakes, born of 
Vasuki, fell into the fire. And, O Brahmana, numerous other 
snakes born of the same race, of terrible form and great 
strength, were burnt in the blazing fire. I shall now mention 
those born in the race of Takshaka. Hear thou their names ! 
Puchchandaka, Mandalaka, Pinda-sekta, Ravenaka; Uchchi- 
kha, Sharava, Vanga, Vilwa-teja, Virohana; Shili, Shali, Kara, 
Muka, Sukumara, Pravepana ; Mudgara and Shishu-roma, and 
Suroma and Moha-hanu. These snakes born of Takshaka fell 
into the fire. And Paravata, Parijata, Pandara, Harina, Krisha ; 
Vihanga, Sharava, Meda, Praraoda, Sanha-tapana. These born 
in the race of Airavata fell into the fire. Now hear, O best of 
Brahmanas, the snakes I mention born of the race of Kaura- 
vya ! Eraka, Kundala Veni, Vcni-skandha, Kumaraka ; Va- 
huka, Sringa-vera, Dhurtaka, Prata and Ataka. These born ia 
the race of Kauravya fell into the fire. Now hear the names I 
mention, in order, of those snakes endued with the speed of 
the wind and with virulent poison, born in the race of Dhrita- 
rashtra. Shanku-karna, Pitharaka, Kuthara, Sukha-shechaka ; 
Purnangada, Purna-mukha, Prahasa, Sliakuni, Dari ; Ama-hatha, 
Kamathaka, Sushcna, Manasa, Avya ; Vairava, Munda-vedan- 
ga, Pishanga, Udraparaka ; Rishava, the snake Begavana, Pin- 
dcirtika, MuUu,=hanu ; Rdktanga, Stirva-saranga, Samridha, Pa^ 


tha-vasaka ; Varahaka, Viranaka, Sucliitra, Cliitra-veglka, Para* 
sliara, Tarunaka, Maui-skandha, and Aruni. 

'O Brahmana, thus I have recited the names of the prmclpal 
snakes known widely for their achievements ! I have not been 
able to name all, the ntimber being countless^ The sons of 
these snakes, the sons of those sons, that were all burnt, having 
fallen into the fire, I am unable to mention. They are so 
many ! Some of three heads, some of seven, others of ten, of 
poison like unto the fire at the end of the yiiga, and terrible ia 
form, were burnt by thousands ! 

" Many others, of huge bodies, of great speed, tall as moutt^ 
tain summits, of the length of a yama, a yojana, and of two 
yqjanas, capable of assuming at will any form and of muster- 
ing at will any degree of strength, of poison like unto blazing 
fire, afilictcd by the curse of a mother, v/ere burnt in that 
great sacrifice !" 

And so ends the fifty-seventh Section in the Astika of tha 
Adi Parva. 

Section LVIII. 
( Astika Parva continued. ) 

Sauti said, " Listen now to another very wonderful incident 
in connection with Astika ! When king Janamejaya was about 
to (^ratify Astika by granting the boan, the snake ( Takshaka, ) 
thrown off Indra's hands, remained in mid-air without actually 
falling. King Janamejaya thereupon became curious, for Tak- 
shaka afflicted with fear did not at once fall into the fire 
although libations were poured in proper form into the blazing 
sacrificial Agni in his name. " 

Saunaka said, " Was it, O Suta, that the mantras of those 
wise Brahmanas were not propitious, as Takshaka did not fall 

into the fire ?" 

Sauti replied, " Unto the unconscious Takshaka, that best of 
snakes, after he had been cast off Indra's hands, Astika had 
said thrice these words—' stay '— ' stay. ' And he succeeded m 
staying in the skies, with afflicted heart, like a person betweea 
the vault of the welkin and the Eiulh, 


" The king then, repeatedly urged by hia SaJasyas, said, 
'Let it be done as Astika hath said. Let the sacrifice be ended, 
let the snalics be safe, let this Astika also be gratified, and let, O 
Siita, thy words also be true.' And when the boon was granted 
to Astika, plaudits rang through the air expressive of joy. 
And that sacrifice of the son of Parikshita — that king of the 
Pandava race — came to an end. And king Janamejaya of 
the Bharata race was pleased liimself. And unto the Ritwijas 
with the Sadasyas, and unto all who had come there, the king, 
bestowed money by hundreds, and thousands. And unto the 
<S^i6to Lohitaksha^conversant with the rules of buildings and 
foundations — who had at the commencement said that a Brah- 
mana would prove the cause of the interruption of the snake- 
sacrifice, the king gave much wealth. And the king, of im- 
measurable kindness, also gave iiim various things, with food 
and wearing apparel, according to his desert, and became very 
much pleased. And then he concluded his sacrifice according 
to the rites of the ordinance. And after treating him with every 
respect, the king in joy sent home the wise Astika exceedingly 
gratified for he had attained hia object. And the king said unto 
him, 'Thou must come again to become a Sadasyain my great 
horse-sacrifice ? And Astika said, yea, and then returned home 
in great joy, having achieved his great end after gratifying 
the monarch. And returning in joy to his uncle and mother 
and touching their feet he recounted to them everything as it 
had happened. " 

Sauti continued, " Hearing all he said, the snakes that had 
come thither became very much delighted, and their fears were 
dispelled. And they were mightily pleased v/ith Astika and 
asked him to solicit a boon. And they repeatedly asked him, 
' O thou learned one, what good shall we do unto thee ? We 
have been very much gratified, having been all saved by thee ! 
What shall we accomplish for thee, O child !' 

" And Astika said, ' Those Brhamanas, and other men, who 
shall, in the morning or the evening, cheerfully and with atten- 
tion, read the sacred account of this ray act, let them have no fear 
from ye !' And the snakes in joy thereupon said, ' O nephew, 
iu the matter of thy boon, let it be exactly as thou sayest ! 


That which tliou askest shall we all cheerfully tlo nephew ? 
And those also that recall to their minds Asita, Artiman, and 
^unitha, in the day or in the night, shall have no fear of 
snakes. He again shall have no fear of snakes who will say, — 
I recall to ray mind the famous Astika born of Jaratkaru by 
Jaratkaru, that Astika who saved the snakes from the snake- 
sacrifice, therefore, ye snakes of great good fortune, it be- 
hoveth ye not to bite me, but go ye away, blessed be ye, or go 
away thou snake of virulent poison, and remember the words 
of Astika after the snake-sacrifice of Janamejay. — That snake 
who does not cease from biting after hearing such mention of 
Astika, shall have his hood divided a hundred-fold like the 
fruit of the shingsha tree.' " 

Sauti continued, '* That first of Brahmanas, thus addressed 
by the foremost of the chief snakes assembled together, was 
very much gratified. And the high-souled one then set his 
heart upon going away. 

"And that best of Brahmanas, having saved the snakes 
from the snake-sacrifice, ascended to heaven when his time 
came, leaving sons and grandsons behind him. 

" Thus have I recited to thee this history of Astika exactly 
as it happened. Indeed, the recitation of this history dis- 
pelleth all fear of snakes." 

Sauti continued, *' O Brahmana, thou foremost of the Bhrigu 
race, as thy ancestor Pramati had cheerfully narrated it to 
his inquiring son Ruru, and as I had heard it, thus have I re- 
cited this blessed history, from the beginning, of the learned 
Astika ! And, O Brahmana, thou oppressor of all enemies, 
having heard this holy history of Astika that increaseth virtue, 
and Avhich thou hadst asked me about after hearing the story 
of the Dundubha, let thy ardent curiosity be satisfied ! " 

And thus ends the fifty-eighth Section iu the Astika of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section LIX. 

{Ad ivansavataran a Parva. ) 

Saunaka said, " O child, thou hast narrated to me this ex- 
tensive and great history commencing from the progeny of 
Bhrigu ! O son of Suta, I have been much gratified with thee ! 
I ask thee again, recite to me, O son of Suta, the history com- 
posed by Vyasa ! The varied and wonderful narrations that 
were recited amongst those illustrious Sadasyas assembled in the 
sacrifice, in the intervals of their duties in that long-extending 
snake-sacrifice, and the objects also of those narrations, I de- 
sire to hear from thee, O son of Suta ! Recite then, therefore, 
all those to me fully ! " 

Sauti said, "The Brahmanas, in the intervals of their duties, 
spake of many things founded on the Vedas. But Vyasa re- 
cited the wonderful and great history called the Bharata." 

Saunaka said, " That sacred history called the Mahabharata, 
spreading the fame of the Pandavas, which Krishna Dwaipa- 
yana, asked by Janamejaya, caused to be duly recited after the 
completion of the sacrifice, I desire to hear duly ! That 
history hath been born of the ocean-like mind of the great 
Rishi of soul purified by yoga. Thou foremost of good men, 
recite it unto me, for, son of Suta, my thirst hath not been 
appeased by all thou liast said," 

Sauti said, " I shall recite to thee from the beginning that 
great and excellent history called the Mahabharata composed 
by Vyasa. O Brahraana, listen to it in full, as I recite it ! I 
myself feel a great pleasure in reciting it ! " 

And eo ends the fifty-ninth Section in the Adivansavatarana 
of the Adi Parva. 


Section LX. 
(Adivansavatarana Parva continued.) 

Sauti said, " Hearing that Janamejaya was installed in the 
snake-sacrifice, the learned Rishi Krishna-Dwaipayana went 
thither on the occasion. And he, the grand-father of the Pan- 
da vas, was born in an island of the Yamuna, of the virgin 
Kali by Sakti's son Parashara. And the illustrious one de- 
veloped by his will alone his body as soon as he was born, and 
mastered the Vedas with the Angas, and the histories. And 
be readily obtained that which no one could obtain by ascet- 
icisin, by the study of the Vedas, by vows, by fasting, by 
progeny, and by sacrifice. And the first of Veda-knowing ones, 
he divided the Veda into four parts. And the Brahamana Rishi 
had knowledge of the supreme Brahma, knew the past by 
intuition, was holy, and cherished truth. Of sacred deeds and 
great fame, he begat Pandu and Dhritarashtra and Vidura 
in order to continue the line of Shantanu, 

"And the high-souled Rishi with his disciples all conversant 
with the Vedas and the Vedangas entered the sacrificial tent 
of the royal sage Janamejaya. And he saw that the king 
Janamejaya was seated in the sacrificial compound, like the 
god Indra, surrounded by numerous Sadasyas, by kings of 
various countries worshipping him with heads downwards, and 
by competent Ritwijas like unto Brahma himself. And the 
best of the Bharata race, the royal sage Janamejaya, beholding 
the Rishi come, advanced quickly with his followers and re- 
latives in great joy. And the king with the approval of his 
Sadasyas gave the Kishi a golden seat like Indra to Vrihaspati 
(the spiritual guide of the celestials.) And when the Rishi, capa- 
ble of granting boons and adored by the celestial Risliis them- 
selves had been seated, the king of kings then worshipped him 
according to the rites of the shastras. And the king then offer- 
ed him — his grand-father Krishna — who fully deserved them, 
Padya, Achmanya, Arghya, and kine. And accepting those 
offerings, from the Pandava Janamejay and ordering the kine 
also not to be slain, Vyasa became very much gratified. And 



tbe king after these adorations then bowed down to his great- 
grand-father, and sitting in joy asked him about his welfare. 
And the illustrious Rishi also, casting his eyes upon him and 
asking him about his welfare, then worshipped the Sadasyas. 
having been before worshipped by them all. And after all this, 
Janamejaya with all hia Sadasyas, asked that first of Brah- 
manas, with joined hands, (he following: — 

* O Brahmana, thou hast seen with thy own eyes the acts 
of the Kurus and the Pandavaa. I am desirous of hearing thee 
recite their history ! What was the cause of the disunion amongst 
them of extraordinary deeds ? Why also did that great war 
which was the death of countless creatures occur between 
all my grand-fathers— their clear sense over-clouded by fate ? 
O excellent of Brahmanas, tell me all this in full, as every- 
thing had happened ! ' 

"And hearing those words of Janamejaya, Krishna-Dwai- 

payana then directed his disciple Vaisampayana seated at hia 

side, saving, 'The disunion that happened between the Kurus 

and the Pandavas of old, repeat all to him about as thou hast 

heard from me.' 

"Then that bull amongst Fraliman as, at the command of 

his master, recited the whole of that old history unto the king, 
the Sadasyas, and all the princes and chieftains there assem- 
bled. And he told them all about the hostility and the utter 
extinction of the Kurus and the Pandavas." 

And so ends the sixtieth Section in the Adivansavatarana 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXI 

(Adiuansavatarand Parva continued.) 
Yaisampayana said, " Bowing doAvn in the first place to my 
preceptor with the eight parts of the body touching the ground, 
with devotion and reverence, and singleness of heart, worship- 
ing the whole assembly of Brahmanas and other learned per- 
sons, I shall recite in full the narration I have heard of this 
high-souled great Rishi Vyasa, the first of intelligent men 
m the three worlds. And having got' it within thy reach^ 


O monarch, thou also art a fit person to hear the composition 
called Bharata. And encouraged by the command of my pre- 
ceptor, my heart feeleth no fear. 

" Hear, monarch, why that disunion occurred between 
the Kurus and the Pandavas, and why also that exile into 
the woods immediately proceeding from the game at dice 
prompted by the desire ( of the Kurus ) for rule. I shall re- 
late all to thee who askest it, tiiou best of the Bharata race. 

" On the death of their father, those heroes (the Pandavas) 
came to their own home. And within a short time became 
well-versed in the science of the bow. And the Kurus behold- 
ing the Pandavas gifted with physical strength, energy and 
power of mind, popular also with the citizens and blessed with 
good fortune, became very much jealous. And then the crook- 
ed-minded Duryodhana, and Kama, with ( the former's mater- 
nal uncle) the son of Suvala, began to persecute them and devise 
means of their exile. Then the wicked Duryodhana, guided 
by the counsels of that bird of ill omen, Sakuni ( his mater- 
nal uncle ), persecuted the Pandavas in various ways for the 
acquirement of undisputed sovereignty. The wicked son of 
Dhritarashtra gave poison to Bhima, but Biiima of the stomach 
of the wolfe digested the poison with his food. And then the 
wretch again tied the sleeping Bhima of the wolfe's stomach 
on the margin of the Ganges and casting him into the water 
went away. But when Bhiraa-sena of strong arms, the son 
of Kunti, awoke, he tore the strings with which he had been 
tied and came up, his pains all gone. And while asleep and 
in the water, black snakes of virulent poison bit him in every 
part of his body but the slayer of foes did not perish still. 
And in all those persecutions of the Pandavas by their cousins 
the Kurus, the high-minded Vidura became attentively engag- 
ed in neutralising the evil designs and rescuing the persecuted 
ones. And as Sakra from the heavens keeps in happiness the 
■world of men, so did Vidura ever keep the Pandavas from 

all evils. 

" And when Duryodhana, by various means, both secret 
and open, found himself incapable of destroying the Pandavas 
protected by the fates and kept alive for grave future purposes 


( gucli as the extermination of the Kuril race), he then called 
together his councillors consisting of Vrisha ( Kama ), Dush- 
shasana and others, and with the knowledge of Dhrita-rashtra 
caused a house of lac to be constructed. And king Dhrita- 
rashtra — the son of Amvica, — fi'om affection for his children, 
and tempted by the desire of sovereignty, sent the Pandavas to 
exile. And the Pandavas then went away with their mother 
from the city called after the name of the elephant. And 
when they went away, Vidura ( born of a Vaisya woman by a 
Kshetria) became the adviser of those illustrious ones. Rescued 
by him from the house of lac, they fled in the deep mid-night 
to the woods. 

"The sons of Kunti having reached the town of Varana- 
vata, lived there with their mother. And according to the 
command of Dhrita-rashtra, those illustrious slayers of all ene- 
mies lived in the palace of lac while in that town. And they 
lived in that palace for one year, protecting themselves from 
Purochana very wakefuUy. And causing a subterranean 
passage to be constructed, acting according to the directions of 
Vidura, they set fire to that house of lac and burnt Purochana 
(their enemy and spy of Duryodhana) to death. Those slayers 
of all enemies anxious with fear then fled with their mother. 
In the woods beside a fountain they saw a Rakshasa of the 
name of Hidimva, And they slew that king of Rakshasas. 
But alarmed at the risk they ran of exposure by such an act, 
the sons of Pritha (Kunti) fled in the darkness, afflicted with 
the fear of the sons of Dhrita-rashtra. It was here that Bhima 
acquired Hidimva (the sister of the Rakshasa he slew) for a 
wife, and it was of her that Gatotkacha was born. Then the 
Pandavas, of rigid vows and conversant with the Vedas, wend- 
ed to a town of name Ekachakra and dwelt there in the guise of 
Brahmacharis. And those bulls among men dwelt in that 
town in the house of a Brahmana for some time, in tem- 
perance and abstinence. And it was here that Bhima of the 
Wolfe's stomach and of mighty arms came upon a hungry and 
mighty and man-eating Rakshasa of the name of Vaka. And 
Bhima the son of Pandu, that tiger among men, slew him 
speedily with the strength of hii? arms and made the citizens 


Bafe and fearless. Then they heard of Krishna (the princess 
of Punchala) having become disposed to elect a husband from 
among the assembled princes. And hearing they went to 
Panchala and going there they obtained the maiden. And 
having obtained Draupadi (for their common wife) they then 
dwelt there for a year. And after they were known, those 
persecutors of all enemies went back to Hastinapura. And 
they were then told by king Dhrita-rashtra and the son of 
Shantanu (Visma) as follows :— ' In order that, dear ones, 
dissensions may not take place between ye and your cousms, 
we have settled that Khandava-prastha should be your abode. 
Therefore, go ye, casting all jealousy away, to Khandava- 
prastha containing many towns and divided by many broad 
roads for dwelling there !' And according to these words, the 
Pandavas went, with all their friends and followers, to Khan- 
davaprastha, taking with them many jewels and precious stones. 
And the sons of Pritha dwelt there for many years. And 
they brought, by force of arms, many princes under their 
subjection. And thus, setting their hearts on virtue and 
firmly adhering to truth, unexcited by affluence, calm in 
deportment, and putting down numerous evils, the Pandavaa 
gradually rose in power. And Bhima of great reputation 
subjugated the East; the heroie Arjuna, the North ; Nakula, 
the West ; and Sahadeva — the slayer of all hostile heroes, the 
South. And having done this, their dominion was spread 
over the whole world. And owing to the five Pandavas, each 
like unto the Sun, with the Sun himself in his splendour, the 
Earth looked as if she had six Suns. 

" Then for some reason, Yudhlsh-thira the just, gifted 
with great energy and prowess, sent his brother Arjuna (the 
right and left handed one) dearer unto hira than life itself, into 
the woods. And Arjuna, that tiger among men, of firm sotil, 
and gifted with all virtues, lived in the woods for eleven 
years and ten months. And during this period, on a certain 
occasion, Arjuna went to Krishna in Dwaravati. And Vivatsu 
(Arjuna) there obtained for wife the lotus-eyed younger sister 
of Vasudeva, of name Suvadra, of sweet speech. And she 
became united, in gladness, with Arjuna the son oi Pandu^ 


like Shaclii with the great Iniha, or Sri with Krishna himself. 
And then, O best of monarchy the son of Kunti, Arjuna, 
with Vasudeva, gratified A^ni — the carrier of the sacrificial 
butter, in the forest of Khandava (by burning the medicinal 
j)lants in that wood to cure Agni of his indigestion.) And t(i 
Arjuna, assisted as he was by Keshava, the task did not at all 
appear as heavy, even as nothina is heavy to Vishnu with the 
help of means in the matter of destroying his enemies. And 
Agni gave unto the son of Pritha the excellent bow Gandiva, 
and a quiver inexhaustible and a war-chariot marked by the 
sign of the monkey. And it was on this occasion that Arjuna 
relieved the great Asura (Maya) from fear (of being consumed 
in the fire.) And Maya, in gratitude, built (for the Pandavas) 
a celestial court decked with every sort of jewels and precious 
stones. And the wicked Duryodhana, beholding that build- 
ing, was tempted with the desire of possessing it ; and de- 
ceiving Yudhish-thira by means of the dice played throuf^h 
the hands of the son of Suvala (Duryodhana's maternal uncle 
and chief adviser,) sent the Pandavas into the woods for twelve 
years and one additional year to be passed in concealment 
thus making the period full thirteen. 

"And on the fourteenth year, O monarch, when the Pandavas 
returned and claimed their own property, they did not obtain 
it. And thereupon war was declared. And the Pandavaa 
exterminating the whole race of Kshetrias and slaying king 
Duryodhana obtained back their ruined kinordom. 

" This is the histor}- of the Pandavas who never acted un- 
der the influence of evil passions ; and this the account, O 
first of victorious monarchs, of the disunion that ended in the 
loss of their kingdom by the Kurus and the victory of the 
Pandavas. " 

And so ends the sixty-first Section in the Adivansavaturana 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXII. 
(Adivansavatara7ia parva continued- ) 

Janamejaya said, " O excellent of Brahmanas, thou hast, 
indeed, told me, in abstract, the history, called Mahabharata, 
of the great acts of the Kurus. But, O thou of ascetic wealth, 
recite now that woaderful narration very fully. I feel a great 
curiosity to hear it. It behoveth thee to recite it therefore ia 
full. I am not satisfied with hearing in the abstract the great 
history. That could never have been a trifling cause for which 
the virtuous ones could slay those they should not have slain, and 
for which they are yet applauded by men. Why also those tigers 
among men, perfectly innocent and quite capable of avenging 
themselves upon their enemies, calmly suffered the persecu- 
tions of the wicked Kurus ? And why also, O best of Brah- 
manas, Bhima of mighty arm and having the strength of ten 
thousand elephants controlled his anger even though wronged ? 
Why also the chaste Krishna — the daughter of Drupada, 
wronged by those wretches, and able to burn them, did not 
burn the sons of Dhrita-rashtra by her wrathful eyes ? Why 
also did the two other sons of Pritha ( Bhima and Arjuna) and 
the two sons of Madri ( Nakula and Sahadeva, ) themselves in- 
jured bj' the wretched Kurus, follow Yudhishthira inveterately 
addicted to the evil habit of gaming ? Wiiy also did Yudhish- 
thira, the foremost of all virtuous men, the son of Dharma 
liimself, and fully acquainted with all duties, suffer that excess 
of affliction ? Why also did the Pandava Dhananjaya having 
Krishna for his charioteer, who by his arrows sent to the other 
world that dauntless host of fighting men, ( sufier such perse- 
cution ? ) O thou of ascetic wealth, tell me all these as every 
thing liappened, and every thing that those mighty charioteer? 
achieved ! " 

Vaisampayana said, " monarch, appoint thou a time for 
hearing it. This history spoken by Krishna-Dwaipayana ia 
very extensive. This is but the beginning. I will recite it. I 
will repeat the whole of the comjiosition in full, of the illus- 
trious and great Rishi Vyasa of immeatiurable mental power and 

ADI PAnVA. 169 

wofshippod ill all the world;^. This Bharata consists of an 
hinidred thousand sacred sloJcas composed by the son of Satya- 
vati of imineasaral)le mental powers. He that shall read it 
to others, or they who shall hear it read, shall attain to the 
world of Brahma and be equal to the very gods. This Bharata 
i^ equal unto the Vedas, i^^ holy and excellent ; is the worthiest 
of all to he listened to, an<l is a Purana worshipped by the 
Rishis. It containeth much useful instruction on Artka an<I 
Kama (i)rofit and pleasure.) This sacred history maketh tha 
heart desire for salvation. Learned persons by reciting thia 
Veda of Krishna-DwnipajTina to those that are noble and 
liberal, truthful and believing, earn much wealth. Sins such 
as killing the embryo in the womb are destroyed assuredly by 
this. A person, however cruel and sinful, by hearing this historj'^, 
escapes from all his sins like the Sun from Hahu (after the 
eclipse is over.) This history is called Ja,ya. It should be 
heard by those desirous of victory. A king by hearing it 
may bring the whole world under subjection and conquer all 
his foes. This history of itself is a mighty act of propitious- 
ness, a mighty sacrifice, to give blessed fruit. It should ever 
be heard by a young monarch with his queen, for then they 
may have a heroic son or a daughter who shall be the heiress 
to a kingdom. This history is the sacred Dhxrina-shaMra ; 
this too is the great Artha-shastra ; and this also is the il/o/c- 
sha-shastra : it hath been so said hy Vyasa himself of mind 
that is immeasurable This history ir, recited in the present a'^g 
and will be so recited in the future. They that hear it have 
sons and servants always obedient to them and doing their 
behests. All sins that are committed either by body, word, or 
mind, immediately leave him who hath heard this history. 
They who hear, without a spirit of fault-finding, the story of 
the birth of the Bharata princes, have no fear of maladies, 
let alone the fear of the other world. 

"For extending the fame of the hi-h-souled Pandavas and 
of other Kshatriaa versed in all branches of knowled^re, hi'>-h-. 
spirited, and already known in the world for their achieve- 
ments, Krishna-Dwaipayana, guided also by the desire of 
)>euefitting the world, huth composed this work that is excel- 



lent, bestowing fame, granting length of life, sacred, and 
heavenly. He who, from desire of acquiring religious merit,, 
causeth this history to be heard by sacred Brahmanas, doth 
acquire great merit and virtue that is inexhaustible. He that 
reciteth the famous generation of the Kurus becometh imme- 
diately purified, and acqnireth a large family himself, and is 
respected in the world. That Brahmana who regularly studies 
this sacred Bhiirata for the four months of the rainy season, 
is cleared of all his sins. He that hath read the Bharata may 
be. regarded as one acquainted v/ith the Vedas. 

" In this have been described the goda, the royal sage.s, 
the holy Brahmarshis ; the sinless Keshava ; the god of gods 
Mahadeva and the goddess Parvati ; the birth of Kartikeya 
(the generalissimo of the celestials) sprung from and reared 
by many mothers ; and the greatness of Brahmanas and of 
kine. This Bharata is a collection of all the Srutis, and is 
fit to bo heard by every virtuous person. That learned man 
who reciteth it to Brahmanas during the sacred lunations, 
becometh purified of his sins, and not caring for the hea- 
vens as it were, attaineth to a union with Brahmn. He tliati 
cause til even a single foot of this poem to be heard by Brah- 
manas during the performance of a Shraddha, that Shraddha 
becometh inexhaustible, the Pitris becoming ever gratified with 
the articles once presented to them. The sins that are com- 
mitted daily by our senses or the mind, those that are com- 
mitted knowingly or unknowingly by any man, are all destroy- 
ed by hearing the Mahabharata. The history of the exalted 
birth of the Bharata princes is called the Mahabharata. Ho 
who knoweth this etymology itself of the name is cleared of all 
his sins. And because this hi.story of the Bharata race is so 
-wonderful, there foru, when recited, it assuredly puriiieth mor- 
tals from all sins. Tlie Muni Krishna-Dwaipayana attained 
his object in three years. Rising daily and purifying himself 
and performing his ascetic devotions, he composed this Maha- 
bharata. Therefore should this be heard by Brahmanas with 
the formality of a vow. He who reciteth (his holy narration 
composed l»y Kri.shua (Vyasa) for the hi^aring of others, and 
tUey who hoar it, iu \vhc\tovor .^UUo they may be, can uover bo 


affected by the fruit of their deods Ji^oorl or bad. The mean 
desirous of acquiring virtue should hear it all. This is equi- 
valent to all histories, aiid he that hoarcth it alwnys attalnetb 
to purity of heart. The gratification that one deriveth on attain- 
ing to heaven is scarcely equal to that which one deriveth on 
hearing this holy history. The virtuous man who with rever- 
ence heareth it or causeth it to be heard, obtaineth the fruit of 
the Rajasuya and the horse sacrifice. This Bharata is said to be 
as much a mine of gems as the illustrious Ocean or the great 
mountain Moru. This history is sacred and excellent, and 
is equivalent to the Vedas ; worthy of being heard, pleasing to 
the ear, purifying, and virtue-increasing. O monarch, he 
that giveth a copy of the Bharata to one that aslceth for it, 
doth, indeed, make a present of the whole Earth v/ith her 
helt of seas. O son of Parikshita, this pleasant narration 
that giveth virtue and victory, I am about to recite in its 
entirety. Listen to it ! The Muni Krishna-Dwaipayana re- 
gularly rising for three years composed this Avondcrful history 
Galled the Mahabharata. O thou bull amongst the Bharata 
monarchs, whatever about religion, profit, pleasure, and sal- 
vation is contained in this, may be seen elsewhere ; but what- 
ever is not contained herein is not to be found anywlicre.' " 

And thus endetli the sixty-second Section in the Adivansa*. 
vatarana of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXIII. 

(Adivansavatarana Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " There was a king of name Upari- 
ehara. And the monarch was devoted to virtue. And he was 
very much addicted also to hunting. And this monarch of 
the Paurava race, called also Vasu, conquered the excellent 
and delightful kingdom of Chedi under instructions from 
Indra. Sometime after, the king gave up the use of arms, and 
dwelling in a recluse asylum practised the most severe austeri- 
ties. And the gods with Indra ahead once approached the 
monarch during this period, believing that he sought the head- 
ship of the gods by those ;ievere austerities of his. AuJ the 


celestials, becoming objects of his sighf, by soft speeches 
succeetled in winning hiin away from his ascetic austerities. 

"And the gods said, 'O lord of the Earth, thou shouldst 
take care so that virtue may not sustain a diminution on 
Earth ! Protected by thee, virtue itself will in retuz'n protect 
the universe '/ And Indra said, ' O king, protect thou vir- 
tue on Earth, attentively and rigidly ! Being virtuous, thou 
shult, for all time, behold (in after life) many sacred regions ! 
Aitd though I am of heaven, and thou art of the Earth, yet 
art thou my friend and dear to me. And, O king of men, 
dwell thou in that region of the Earth which is the most de- 
liglitful, which aboundeth in animals, is sacred, full of wealth 
and corn, well-protected like heaven, of agreeable climate, 
graced v/ith everj^ ohject of enjoyment and blessed with ferti- 
lity. And, O monarch of Ciiedi, this tliy dominion is full of 
riches, of gems and precious stones, and containelh besides 
much mineral wealth. The cities and towns of this region are 
all devoted to virtue ; the people are honest and contented ; 
they never lie even in jest. Sons never divide their wealth 
with their fathers atul are ever mindful of the welfare of their 
parents. Lean cattle are never yoked to the plough or the 
cart, or engaged in carrying merchandise ; on the other hand, 
they are well-fed and fattened. In Chedi, O thou reverencer 
of the gods and guests, the four orders are always engaged 
in their respective vocations. Let nothing be unknown to 
thee that happens in the three worlds. I shall give thee a 
crystal car such as the celestials alone have, capable of carry- 
ing thee through mid- air. Thou alone, of all mortals on the 
Earth, riding on that best of cars, shalt range through mid- 
air like a celestial endued with a physical frame. I shall also 
give thee a triumphal garland of unfading lotuses wearing 
which in battle thou shalt not be w^ounded by weapons. And, 
O king, this blessed and incomparable garland, widely known 
on Earth as Indra's garlancl, shall be thy distinctive badge.' 

" And the slayer of Vitra also gave the king, for his 
gratification, a bamboo pole for protecting the honest and the 
peacefMl. And after the ex[»iratiou of a year, the king planted 
it ou the ground for the purpose of worshipping the gives: 

. ADI PARVA. 173 

thereof, viz, Sahrd. From that time foi'bh., O monarch, all 
kings, following Vasu'.s example, plant a pole for the celebra- 
tion of Indra's worship. Tlie next-day, the pole that is erect- 
ed is decked with golden cloth and scents and garlands and 
various ornaments. And the god Vasava is worsliipped m due 
form with such garlands and ornaments. And the god, for 
the gratification of the illustrious Vasu, assuming the form of 
a swan came himself to accept the wor&hip thus offered. 
And the god, the great Indra, beholding the au picrous worship 
thus made by V.isu — that just of monarchs, was delighted, 
and said unto him, ' Those men, and kings also, who shall 
worship me and joyously observe this festivity of mine like 
the king of Chedi, shall liave glory and victory for their 
countries and kingdoms. And their cities also shall expand 
and be ever in joy.' 

*' King Vasu was thus blessed by the gratified Maghavat— 
the high-souled chief of tlie gods. Indeed, those men who 
cause this festivity of Sakra to be observed with gifts of land, 
of gems and precious stones, do become the respected of the 
world. And king Vasu — the lord of Chedi — bestowing boons 
and performing great sacrifices atid observing the festivity of 
Sakra, was respected by Indi-a. And from Cliedi he ruled the 
whole Avorld virtuously. And for the gratification of Indra, 
Vasu, the lord of Chedi, observed the festivity of Indra. 

"And Vasu had five sons of great energy and immeasura- 
ble prowess. And the emperor installed his sons as governors 
of various provinces. 

*' And his son Vriliadratha was installed in Magadha and 
was known by the name of Maharatha. And another son of 
his was Pratyagra ; and another, Kusamva, who was also 
called Mani-vahana. And tlie two others were Mavellya and 
Yadu of great prowess and invincible in war. 

" These, O monaich, were the sons of that royal sage of 
mighty energy. And the five sons of Vasu planted kingdoms 
and towns in their own names and founded separate dynasties 
that lasted for long ages. 

"And when king Vasu was seated on that cryst;ti car, tlio^ 
gift of ludra, and courted through the sky, he was approached 


by Gandharvas and Apsaras (the celestial singers nnd dancing- 
maids.) And because he coursed through the upper rcginug, 
therefore was he called Uparichara. And by his capital (low- 
ed a river called Shuktimatl. And that river was once attack- 
ed by a life-endued mountain called Kolahala maddened by 
lust. And Vasu, beholding the foul attompt, struck the 
mountain with his foot. And by the indentation caused by 
Vasu's stamp, the river came out (of the embraces of Kola- 
hala.) But the mountain begat in the river two children that 
were twins. And the river, grateful to Vasu for his having 
set her free from Kolahala's embraces, gave them both to 
Vasu. And the child that was male was made by Vasu — that 
best of royal sfiges and giver of wealth and the punisher of 
his enemies — the generalissimo of his forces. But the daughter, 
called Girika — was by Vasu made his wife. 

"And Girika the wife of Vasu, when her season came, be- 
coming pure after a bath, represented her state unto her lord. 
But that very day, the Pitris of Vasu came unto that best of 
monarchs and foremost of the wise, and asked him to slay 
fleer (for their Shradha.) And the king, thinking that the 
command of the Pitris should not be disobeyed, went ahuu- 
ting, wishfully thinking of Girika alone who was gifted with 
great beauty and like unto another Sree (Laksmi) herself. And 
the season being spring, the woods within which the king was 
roaming, liad become delightful like unto the garden of the 
king of the Gandharvas himself. There were Ashokas and 
Champahns, and Ghutas and AtiviuJdas in abundance ; and 
there were Punnagas and Karnikaras and Vakulas and 
Bivya Poialas and Patalas and Narikelas and Chandanas 
and Arjunas and such other beautiful and sacred trees res- 
plendant with fragrant flowers and tasteful fruits. And the 
whole forest was maddend by the sweet notes of the Kakila and 
echoed with the hum of the maddened bee. And the king be- 
came possessed with desire and he saw not his wife before him. 
Maddened by desire as he was roaming iiither and thither, he 
paw a beautiful Ashoka decked with dense foliage and its 
branches covered with flowers. And the king ^at at his ease 
in the shade of thi!.t tree. And excited by the ira";rance of 


the season and the charming odours of the flowers around, 
and maddened also by the delicious hicQ/.c, (lie king could 
not keep away from his miud the thoughts of the beautiful 
Girika, Ibique in sUvis semen suiini continere non potuit. 
Rax autem, illiid frustra profundi nolens, ut excidit, in 
folium receplt. Agnovit etiam tempes livani conjugis sua3 
koram adventarn esse. Itdqiie rex rem rnidta cogitatlone 
iterum atqiie itei'um revolvens, ( scivit enion semen suum 
fi'ustra 2^&vdi non posse at tempus jam adesse in quo conjux 
illvivs egeret ), carmina swper illo recitavit. And beholdin-^ 
that a swift hawk was resting very near to him, the king, 
acquainted with the subtle truths of Dharm,a and Artha, went 
unto him and said, ' Amiable one, carry thou this seed for my 
wife Girika and give it unto her. Her season hath arrived.' 

"And the hawk, swift of speed, took it from the king find 
rapidly coursed through the air. And while thus passing, 
the hawk was seen by another of his species. And thinking 
that the first one was carrying meat, the second one flew at 
him. And the two fought with each other in the sky wiih 
their beaks. And while they wore fighting, the seed fell into 
the waters of the Yamuna (Jumna.) And in those waters 
dwelt an Apsara of the higher ranks, known by the name of 
Adrika, but transformed by a Brahmana's curse into a fish. 
And that Adrika, transformed into a fish, as soon as the seed 
of Vasu fell into the water from the claws of the hawk, 
rapidly approaching, swallowed it at once. And that fish wa*^, 
sometime after, caught by the fishermen. And it was the 
tenth month of the fish's having swallowed the seed. And 
from the stomach of that fish came out a male and a female 
child of human form. And the fishermen wondered much, and 
wending unto king Uparichava (for they were his subjects) 
told him all And they said, 'O king, those two of liumau 
sliape hiive been horu iu thj body of a fisli.' And the male child 
amongst the two was taken by Uparichara. And this child 
afterwards became the virtuous and truthful jnonarch Matsya. 

" And after the birth of the twins, the Apsara herself be- 
came freed from her curse. For she had been told before by 
th^ ilIu,sU'iou3 one (who had cursed her) that she would, whil<3 


living in her piscatorial Corm, give birth to two children of hu- 
nian shape and then would be freed ft-oin the curse. And then, 
according to these words, having given birth to the two, and 
slain by the fishermen, leaving her fish form she assumed her 
own celestial sh.ape. And that Apsara then went away into the 
regiona of the Rishis crowned witii success and of the Charanas, 

"And the fish-smelling daughter of the Apsara in her 
piscatorial form was then given b) the king unto the fisher- 
men, saying, ' Let this one be thy daughter.' And the daugh- 
ter was known by the name of Satyavati. And gifted with 
great beauty aiid possessed of every virtue, she of agreeable 
smiles, owing to contact with fishermen, was for some time 
of fishy smell. And wishing to serve her (foster) father, she 
plied a boat on the waters of the Yamuna. 

" While engaged in this vocation, Satyavati was seen one 
day by the great Rishi Parashara, in course of his wanderings. 
Gifted with great beauty and an object of desire with even 
an anchoret, and of graceful smiles, the wise one, as soon as 
he beheld her, desired to have her. And tliat bull amongst 
Munis addressed the daughter of Vasu, of celestial beauty and 
t'-tpering thighs, saying, 'Accept my embraces, O blessed one !' 
And Satyavati replied, '0 thou possessor of six attributes, 
behold the Kishis standing on both banks of the river. Seen 
by them, how can I grant thy wish ?' 

" Thus addressed by her, the illustrious lord thereupon 
created the fog (which existed not before) and by which the 
whole region was enveloped in dnrkness. And the maiden, 
beholding the fog that was created by the grent Rishi wondered 
much. And the helpless one became suffused with the blushes 
of bashfulness. And she said, ' thou possessor of the six 
attributes, know that I nm a maiden always under the con- 
trol of my father. O t!iou sinless one, by accepting your em- 
br.ices my virginity will be sullied. thou best of Brah- 
Hianas, my virginity being sullied, how shall I, O Rishi, be 
able to return home ? Indeed, I shall not then be able to 
bear life 1 Reflecting upon all this, O illustrious one, do that 
which should be next done.' And the best of Rishis gratified 
with all she said, replied, ' Thou shalt remain a virgin evea 


if thou grantegt, my wish. And, timid fair one, do thou 
solicit the boon that tliou desirest ! Thou of fair smile.s, niy 
grace hath never before proved fruitless.' And thus addressed, 
the maiden aslced for the boon that her body might emit a 
sweet scent (instead of the fish}- odor that it had.) And the 
illustrious Rlshi thereupon granted the wish of her heart. 

" And having obtained her boon, she became very much 
gratified, and her season immediately came. And she accept- 
ed the embraces of tiiat Rishi of wonderful deeds. And she 
thenceforth became known among men by the name of Gan- 
dhavati (the sweet-scented one.) And men could perceive her 
scent from the distance of a yojana. And for this she Avaa 
known by another name which was Yojanagandha (one who 
scatters her scent for a yojana all around.) And the illustrious 
Farashara, after this, went to his own asylum, 

" And Satyavati gratified with having attained the excel- 
lent boon (viz, tliat she became sweet-scented and that hei* 
virginity also remained unsullied), conceived in consequence of 
having admitted Farashara unto herself. And she brought forth 
the very day, on an island in the Jumna, the child begot in 
her by Farashara and gifted with great energy. And the 
child, with the permission of his mother, set his mind on 
asceticism. And (he went away) saying, ' As soon as remem- 
bered by thee when occasion comes, shall I appear unto thee.' 

"And it was thus that Dwaipayana was born of Satyavati by 
Farashara. And because he was born in an island, therefore 
was he called Dwcdpayana, ( Dwipa- or island'born. ) And 
the learned Dwaipayana, beholding that virtue is destined to 
become lame by one pada each yuga (there being four padoji 
in all ) and that the period of life and strength too of men 
followed the yugas, and moved by the desire of doing good to 
Brahma and the Brahmanas, arranged the Vedas. And there- 
fore came he to be called Vyasa (the ai'ranger or compiler of 
the Vedas.) The boon-giving great one then taught Sumantu, 
Jaimini, Paila, his own son Suka, and Vaisampayana, the 
Vedas having the Mahabharata for their fifth. And the com- 
pilation of I he Bharata was published by him through them 



" Then Bhis-ma of great energy and fame and of Immeasur- 
able splendour, and spnrag from the component {)arts of the 
Vasiis, was born ia the womb of Ganga by king Shantanu. 
And tliere was a Ri&hi of the name of Animandavya of great 
fame. And he was conversant with the interpretation of the 
Yedas, was the possessor of the six attributes, gifted with 
great energy, and of great reputation. And accused of theft 
though innocent, the old Rishi was impaled. And he thereupon 
summoned Dharma and told him these words ;— ' In my 
childliood I had pierced a little fly in a blade of grass. 
O Dharn^a, I do recellect that one sin ; but I cannot call to 
mind any other. I have, however, since practiced penances 
a thousand- fold. Hath not that one sin been conquered by 
this my asceticism ? And because the killing of a Brahmana 
is more heinous than that of any other living thing, tiierefore, 
bast thou, O Dharma, been sinful Thou shalt, therefore, be 
born on Earth in the Sudra caste !' And for that curse was 
Dharma born a Sudra in the form of the learned Vidura of pure 
tody and perfectly sinless. And Suta Sanjaya, like a Muni, was 
born of Gavalgana. And Kama of great strength was born 
of Kunti in her maidenhood by Surya ( the Sun ). And 
he came out of his mother's womb with a natural armour and 
face brightened by ear-rings. And Vishnu himself, of world- 
wide fame, and worshipped of the worlds, was born of Devaki 
by Vasudeva, for the benefit of the three worlds. He is with- 
out birth and death, displayed in splendour, the creator of (he 
universe and the lord of all ! Indeed, he who is called the 
invisible cause of all, who knoweth no deterioration, who is 
the all-pervading soul, the centre round which every thing 
moveth, the substance unto which the three attributes of 
Satwa, raja, and tamd co-inhere, the universal soul, the im- 
mutable, the material out of which hath been created this 
xiniverse, the creator himself, the controlling lord, the invisible 
dweller in every object, whose work is this universe of five 
elements, who is united with the six iiigh attributes, is the 
Pranava or Oin of the Vedas, is Infinite, incapable of being 
moved by any force save bis own Avill, displayed in splendour, 
the eiub'i>di ment of the mode of life called Sannyasa, who floated 

ADl PARVA, 179 

en the wafers before the creation, who is the source whence 
hath sprung tliis mighty frame, wlio is the great combiner, 
the increate, the invisible essence of all, the great immutable, 
who is THE ONE, is- bereft of those attributes that are know- 
able by the senses, who is the universe itself, v/ithout begin- 
ning, birth, and decay, — that male being possessed of infinite 
wealth and the Grand-fatlier of all creatures, took his birth 
in the race of the Andhaka-Vrishnis for the increase of virtue! 
"And Satyaki and Kritavarma, conversant with arms, 
possessed of mighty energy, well-versed in all branches of 
knowledge, and obedient to Narayana in everything and com- 
petent in the use of weapons, took their births from Satyaka 
and Hridika. And the seed of the great Rishi Varadwaja of 
severe penances, kept in a pot, began to develop. And from 
thsit seed csivae Drona (the pot-barn.) And from the seed oF 
Gautama, fallen upon a clump of reeds were born two that 
were tv/ins, the mother of Aswathama, (called Kripi,) and 
Kripa of great strength. Then was born the mighty Aswa- 
thama from Drona. And then was born Dhrishta-dyumna, of 
the splendour of Agni himself, from the sacrificial fire. And 
the mighty hero was born with bow in hand for the destruction 
of Drona. And from the sacrificial altar was born Krishna 
(Draupa'U) resplendent and handsome, of bright features and 
excellent beauty. Then were born the disciples of Pralhad — 
Nagnajit and Suvala. And from Suvala was born a son Sakuni 
who from the curse of the gods became the slayer of creatures 
and the foe of virtue. And unto him was also born a daughter 
(Gandhari) the mother of Duryodliana. And both were well- 
versed in acquiring worldly profits. And from Krislma-Dwai- 
payana were born, in the soil of Vichitravirya, Dhrita-rasli- 
tra — the lord of men, and Pandu of great strength. And 
from Dwaipayana was also born, in the Sudia caste, the wise 
and intelligent Vidura, conversant with both Dharma and 
Artha, and free from all sins. And unto Pandu by his two 
wives were born five sons like the celestials. The eldest of 
them Avas Yudhish-thira. And Yudhish-thira was born (of 
the seed) of Dharma (Yama — the god of justice) ; and Bhima 
of the Wolfe's stomach of Mtuutu (Fuvauu or Va}u— the god 


of wind); and Dhananjaya (Arjuna) blessed with p;ood for* 
tune and the first of all vvielders of weapons, of Indra ; and 
Nakula and Shahadeva, of handsome features and ever engag- 
ed in the service of their superiors, were born of the twin 
Aswinas. And unto the wise Dhrita-rashtra were born an 
hundred sons, tiz, Diiryodhana and others, and (in addition to 
the hundred) another, named Yuyutsu who was born of a 
Vaisya woman. And amongst those hundred and one, eleven, 
viz, Dush-shasana, Dush-saha, Durmarshana, Vikarna, Chitra- 
sena, Vivingsati, Jaya, Satyavrata, Purumitra, and Yuyutsu 
bv a Vaisya wife, w^ere all Maharailtas (first class charioteers.) 
And Avimanyu was born of Suvadra, the sister of Vasudeva, 
by Arjuna, and was therefore the grandson of the illustrious 
Pandu, And unto the five Pandavas were born five sons by 
(their common wife) Panchali (Draupadi.) And these princes 
were all very handsome and conversant with all branches of 
knowledge. From Yudhish-tiiira was born Pritivindhya ; from 
Vrikodara, Suta-soma ; from Arjuna, Sruta-kirti ; from Naku- 
la, Shatanika ; and from Sahadeva, Sruta-sena of great prowess. 
And Bhima, in the forest, begat in Hidimva a son named Gha- 
totkacha. And from Drupada was born a daughter Shikhandi 
who was afterwards transformed into a male child. And Shi- 
khandi was so transformed into a male by a Yaksha named 
Shuna for his own purposes. 

"In that great battle of the Kurus came hundreds and 
thousands of monarchs for fighting against each other. The 
names of that innumerable host I am unable to recount even 
in ten thousand years. I have named, however, the principal 
ones who have been mentioned in this history (of tbe Bharuta.)" 

And so ends the sixty-third Section in the Adivansavata- 
rana of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXIV. 
(Adivansavatarana Parva continued.) 

Janamejaya said, " Brahmana, those thou hast named 
and those thou hast not named, I wish to hear of in detail, as 
also of other kings l>y thousands. And, O thou of great good 
fortune, it behoveth thee to tell me in full the object for 
which those Maharathas, equal unto the celestials themselves, 
were born on earth. 

Vaisampayana said, " It hath been heard by us, O monarch, 
that what thou askest is a mystery to even the gods. I shall, 
however, speak it unto thee, after bowing down to Swayarnvw 
( the self-born. ) The son of Jamadagni ( Parushurama ) after 
thrice seven times making the earth bereft of Kshatrias wend- 
ed to that best of mountains — Mahendra — and there began his 
ascetic penances. And then when the earth was made bereft of 
Kshatrias, the Kshatria ladies, desirous of offspring, came, O 
monarch, to the Brahmanas. And Brahmanas of rigid vows had 
connections with them during the womanly season alone, 
but never, O king, lustfully and out of season. And Kshatria 
ladies by thousands conceived from such connections with 
Brahmanas. Then, O monarch, were born many Kshatrias of 
greater energy — boys and girls-so that the Kshatria race might 
thrive. And thus sprung the Kshatria race from Kshatria 
ladies by Brahmanas of ascetic penances. And the new gener- 
ation, blessed with long life, began to thrive in virtue. And 
thus the four orders having Brahmanas at their head were re- 
established. And every man at that time went unto his wife 
during season, and never from lust and out of season. And, 
O thou bull of the Bharata race, in the same way, other crea- 
tures also, even those born in the race of birds, went unta 
their wives during season alone. And, O thou protector of 
the earth, hundreds of thousands of creatures were born, and 
all were virtuous and began to multiply in virtue, all being 
free from sorrow and disease. And, O thou of the elephant's 
tread, this wide earth having the ocean for her boundaries, 
with her mountains and woods and towns, wi*o once more 


governed by the Kshatrias. And when the earth began to be 
again governed virtuousiy by the Kshatrias, the other orders 
havinor Brahnianas for their first were filled with great joy. 
And the kings, forsaking all vices born of lust and anger and 
juatly awarding punishments on those that deserved them, 
protected the earth. And he of a Imndred sacrifices possessed 
also of a thousand e3"es, beholding that the Kshatria monarchs 
ruled so virtuously, pouring down vivifying showers at proper 
times and places, blessed all creatures. And, O king, then no 
one of immature years died, and none knew a woman before 
attaining to age. And thus, O bull of the Bharata race, this 
earth to the very shores of the ocean became filled with men 
that were all long-lived. The Kshatrias performed great sacri- 
fices bestowing much wealth. And the Brahmanas also all stud- 
ied the Vedas with their branches and the Upanisadaa. And, 
O king, no Brahraana in those days ever sold the Vedas ( i. e. 
taught for money) or ever read aloud the Vedas in the pre- 
sence of the Siidras. And the Vaisyas with the help of bull- 
ocks caused the earth to be tilled. And they never yoked the 
cattle themselves. And they fed with care all cattle that were 
lean. And men never milched kine as long the calves drank 
only the milk of their dams (without having taken to grass or 
any other food.) And no merchant in those days ever sold his 
articles by false scales. And, O tiger amongst men, all per- 
sons living in the ways of virtue did everything Avith eyes 
set upon virtue. And, O monarch, all the orders were mind- 
ful of the respective duties that appertained to them. Thus, 
O tiger among men, virtue in those days never sustained any 
diminution. And, O bull of the Bharata race, both kine and 
women gave birth to their offspring at the proper time. And' 
the trees bore flowers and fruits duly according to the seasons. 
And thus, O king, the hrita age having then duly set in, the 
whole earth was filled with numerous creatures. 

*'And, bull of the Bharata race, when such was the 
blessed state of the terrestrial world, the Asuras, O lord of 
men, began to be born in kingly lines. And the sons of Diti 
(Daityas) being repeatedly defeated in war by the sons of Aditi 
(celestials) aud deprived also oH sovereignty and heaven, began 


to be incarnaie on earth, And, O king, the Asuras possessed 
of great power, and desiroua of sovereignty among men, began 
to be born on earth amongst various creatures, such as kine, 
horses, asses, camels, buffaloes, among creatures such as Raks- 
hasas and others, and in elephants and deer. And, O protector 
of the eartii, owing to those already bora and those that were 
being born, the Earth became incapable of supporting herself, 
And amongst the sons of Diti (Daityas) and of Danu (Dana- 
vas) cast out of heaven, some were born on this earth as kings 
of great pride and insolence. And possessed of great energy^ 
they covered the earth in various shapes. And capable of 
oppressing all foes, they filled this earth having the ocean for 
her boundaries. And by their strength they began to oppress 
Brahmanas and Kshatrias and Vaisyas and Sudras and all 
other creatures also. Terrifying and killing ail creatures, they 
traversed the earth, O king, in bands of hundreds and thou- 
sands. And bereft of truth and virtue, proud of their strength 
and intoxicated "with the wine of insolence, they even iu- 
sulted the great Rishis in their asylums, 

" And the Earth tlms oppressed by the mighty Asuras 
endued with great strength and energy and possessed of abun- 
dant means, began to think of going to Brahma. The united 
strength of the creatures (such as Shesha, the tortoise, and the. 
huge Elephant), and of many Shesbas too, became incapable of 
supporting the Earth rnih her mountains, burdened as she 
was with the weight of the Danavas. And then, king, the 
Earth, oppressed with the weight and afflicted with fear, 
sought the protection of the Grand-father of all creatures. 
And she beheld the divine Braiima — the creator of the worlds- 
knowing no deterioration — ^surrounded by the gods, Brah- 
manas, and great Rishis, of exceeding good fortune, and ador- 
ed by delighted Gandharvas and Apsaras always engaged in 
the business of the celestials. And the Earth then adored 
the Grand-father, having approached him. And the Earth, 
desirous of protection, then represented everything unto him, 
in the presence, O Bhai'ata, of all the Protectors of the world. 
Bat, O king, the Earth's object had been known before-hand 
to the Omniscient Self-create Supreme Lord. Aud, Bharata, 


creator as he is of the universe, why should he not know fully 
■what is in the minds of all his creatures including the gods 
and the Asuras ? And, O king, the lord of tlie Earth, the 
creator of all creatures, Isa, Smnbhu, Prajajyati, then spake- 
unto the Earth. And Bralima said, '0 thou holder of wealth, 
for the accomplishment of the ohject for which thou hast ap- 
proached me, I shall appoint all the dwellers of the heavens.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Having said so unto the Earth, 
O king, the divine Brahma bade her farewell. And the crea- 
tor then commanded all the gods saying, 'To ease the Earth 
of her burden, go ye and take your births on her according to 
your respective parts and seek ye strife (with the Asuras al- 
ready born there.)' And the creator of all, summoning also 
all the tribes of the Gandharvas and the Apsaras, spake unto 
them these words of deep import : — ' Go ye and be born 
amongst men according to your respective parts in forms that 
ye like.' 

" And all the gods with Indra, hearing these '.vords of the 
lord of the celestials, — words that were true, desirable under 
the circumstances, and fraught with benefit, — accepted them. 
And they all having resolved to come on Earth in their res- 
pective parts, then went to Baikuntha where was Narayana — 
the slayer of all foes, he who has the discus and the mace in 
his hands, who is clad in purple, who is of bright splendour, 
•who hath the lotus on his navel, who is the slayer of the foes 
of the o-ods, who is of eyes looking down upon his wide chest 
(in yoga attitude), who is the lord of the Prajapati himself, 
the sovereign of all the ^ods, of mighty strength, who hath 
the badge of the Sreevatsa {the biggest jewel), wlio is the mover 
of every one's faculties, and who is adored by all the gods. 
Him — the most exalted of persons, Indra addressed, saying, 
' Be incarnate.' And Hari replied, saying, 'Let it be.' 

And thus endeth the sixty-fourth Section in the Adivansa- 
vatarana of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXY. 
( Samhliava Parva. J 

Vaisampa5'ana said, " Then Indra held a consultation with 
Narayana about the latter's decent on earth from heaven with 
all the gods according to their respective portions. And having 
commanded all the dwellers of heaven, Indra returned from 
the abode of Nara3'ana, And the dwellers of heaven gradually 
became incarnate on Earth for the destruction of the Asuras 
and the welfare of the three worlds. And then, O tiger 
amongst kings, the celestials took their births, according as 
they pleased, in the lines of BroJimarshis and royal sages. 
And they slew the Danavas, Rakshasas, Gandharvas and Snakes, 
other man-eaters, and, indeed, many other creatures. And, 
O bull of the Bharat^ race, the Danavas and Rakshasas, 
Gandharvas and Snakes, could not slay the incarnate celestials 
even in their infancy, they were so strong !" 

Janamejaya said, " I desire to hear, from the beginning, 
of the births of the gods, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the 
Apsaras, men, Yakshas, and Rakshas, Therefore, it behoveth 
thee to tell me about the births of all creatures." 

Vaisampayana said, " Indeed, I shall, having bowed down. 
to the self-create, tell thee in detail the ^origin of the celes- 
tials and other creatures. It is known that Brahma hath six 
spiritual sons, viz, Marichi, Atri, Angira, Pulastya, Pulaha, 
and Kratu. And Marichi's son is Kasyapa, and from Kasyapa 
have sprung these creatures. Unto Daksha (one of the Praja- 
patis) were born thirteen daughters of great good fortune. 
Tlie daughters of Daksha are, O tiger among men and prince 
of the Bharata race, Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kala, Danayu, Sinhi- 
ka, Krodha, Pradha, Viswa, Vinata, Kapila, Muni, and Kadru. 
The sons and grand-sons of these, gifted with great energy, 
have been infinite. From Aditi have sprung the twelve Adi- 
tyas who are the lords of the universe. And, O Bharata, as 
they are according to their names, shall I recount them . to 
thee. They are Dhata, Mitra, Aryama, Sakra, Varuna, Angsa, 
Yaga, Yivaswan, Pusha, Savita, Tashta, and Yishuu. The 



youngest, liowever, is superior to them all in merit. Diti had 
one son called HLranya-kashipu. And the illustrious Hiranya- 
kashipu had five sons, all famous throughout the worlds. The 
eldest of them all was Prahradha, the next was Sangljradba ; 
the third was Anuhrada ; and after him were Shivi and Vash- 
kala. And, O Bharata, it is known everywhere that Prahrada 
had three sons. They were Yiroehana, Kumva, and Nikumva. 
And unto Virochana was born a son, Vali, of great prowess. 
And the son of Vali is known to be the great Asura Vana. 
And blessed with good fortune Vana was a follower of Rudra, 
(Siva) and was known also by the name of Mahakala. And 
Danu had forty sous, O Bharata ! The eldest of them all was 
king Vipra-chitti of great fame. Sham vara, and Namuchi, and 
Pnloma ; Ashiloma, and Keshi, and Diirjaya; Ayashira, Aswa- 
ehira, and the powerful Aswa-sanku ; also Gagana-murdha, and 
Vegavana, and he called Keturaana ; Swarvanu, Aswa, Aswa- 
pati, Vrishaparva, and then Ajaka ; and Aswa-griva, and 
Sukshma, and Tuliundu of great strength ; Ekapada, and Eka- 
chakra, Virupaksha, Mahodara ; and Nicliandra, and Nikumva, 
Kupata, and then Kapata ; Sarava, and Salava, Surya, and 
then Cfiaudrama; these in the race of Danu are stated to be 
•well-known. The Surya and Chandrama (the Sun and the 
Moon) of the celestials are other persons, and not the sons of 
Danu as mentioned above. The following ten gifted with great 
strength and vigour were also, O king, born in the race of 
Danu : — Ekaksha, Amritapa of heroic courage, Pralamva and 
Naraka ; Vatapi, Shatru-tapana, and Shat-ha the great Asura; 
Gavishta, and Vanayu, and the Danava called Dirghajihva. 
And, O Bharata, the sons and the grand-sons of these were 
known to be countless. And Singhika gave birth to Rahu the 
persecutor of the Sun and the Moon ; to three others, Su- 
chandra, Chandra-hauta, and Chandra-pramardana. And the 
countless progeny of Krura (Krodha) were as much crooked and 
wicked as herself. And the tribe was wrathful, of crooked 
deeds, and persecutors of their foes. And Danayu also had 
four sons who were bulls among the Asuras. They were Viks- 
hara, Vala, Vira, and Vritra the great Asura. And the sons 
of Kala were all like Kala (Yama) himself and emiters of all 


foes. Ami tliey were of great fame, of jrreat energy and 
oppressors of all foes. And the sons of Kala were Vinashana ; 
and Krodha, and then Krodha-hanta, and Krodha-shatru. 
And there were many others among the sons of Kala. And 
Sukra the son of a Rishi was the chief priest of the Asuras. 
And the celebrated Sukra had four sons who were priests of 
the Asuras. And they were Tashtadhara and Atri and two 
others, Raudra and Karmi. They were like the Sun him- 
self in energy, and devoted to Brahma and the welfare of the 

" Thus liath been recited by me, as heard in the Purana, 
the progeny of the gods and the Asuras both oi great strength 
and energy. I am incapable, O king, of counting the des- 
cendants of thes€, countless as they are and not much known 
to fame. 

" And the sons of Vinata were Tarkhya, Arishta-nemi, and 
then Gadura and Aruna, Aruni, and Varuni. And Shesha, 
Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka, Kurma, and Kulika, are known 
to be the sons of Kadru ; and Bhima-sena, Ugra-sena, Su- 
parna, Varuna, Gopati, and Dhritarashtra, and Surya-varcha 
the seventh ; Satyavak, Arkapania, Prayuta, Bhima, and Chi- 
traratha known to fame, of great learning, and the controller 
of his passions, and then Shalishira, and, king, Parjannya, 
the fourteenth in the list; Kali, the fifteenth, and Narada, 
the sixteenth ; these Devas and Gandharvas are known to be 
the sons of Muni (Dak^-ha's daughter as mentioned before.) I 
shall recount many others, O Bharata ! Anavadya, Manii, 
Vansa A sura, Margana-pria, Anupa, Suvaga, Vasi, were the 
daughters brought forth by Pradha. Sidha, and Purna, and 
Varhi, and Purnayu of great fame ; Brahmachari, Ratiguna, and 
Suparna who was the seventh; Viswavasu, Vanu, and Shuchandra 
who was the tenth, were also the sons of Piadha ; and they were 
gods some of them and some Gandharvas. And it is also known 
that this Pradha of great good fortune by the celestial Rishi 
( Kasyapa her husband ) brought forth the sacred race of the 
Apsaras. Alamvusa, Misra-keshi, \'i'Ivut-parna, Tilot-tama, 
Aruna, Rakshita, Ramva, Monorama, Keshini, Suvalm, Surata 
Surtija, Supria, were the daughters, and. Ativahu, and the 


celebrated Haba and Hiihu, and TumviiriT were the sons — the? 
best of Gandharvas — of Prodha. And Amrita, the Brahmanas, 
kine, Gandharvas, and Apsaras, wei'e born of Kapila as stated 
in the Parana. 

"Thus hath been recited to thee by me the birth of all 
creatures duly — of Gandharvas and Apsaras, of Snakes, Supar- 
nas, Rudras, and Marutas ; of kine and of Brahinanas blessed 
with great good fortune and of sacred deeds. And this account, 
(if read) extendeth the period of life, is sacred, worthy of all 
praise, and giveth pleasure to the ear. It should be always 
heard and recited to others, in a proper frame of mind. 

"He who duly readeth this account of the birth of all high- 
soiiled creatures, in the presence of the gods and Brahmanas, 
©btaineth large progeny, good fortune, and fame, and attaineth 
also to excellent Avorlds hereafter." 

And so ends the sixty-fifth Section in the Sambhava of the 
Adi Purva, 

Section LXYI. 

(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " It is known that the spiritual sons of 
Bralima were the six great Rishis (already mentioned.) There 
was another of the name of Sthanw^ And the sons of Sthanu 
gifted with great energy were, it is known, eleven. They 
were Mriga-vj^adha, Sai'pa, Niriti of great fame ; Ajaikapat, 
Ahivradhna and Pinaki the oppressor of foes ; Dahana, and 
Iswara, and Kapali of great splendour ; Sthanu, and the illus- 
trious Bharga. And these are called the eleven Rudras. lb 
hath been already said, that Marichi, Angira, Atri, Pulastya, 
Pulaha, and Kratu — these six great Rishis of great energy — 
are the sons of Brahma. It is well-known in the world that 
Angira's sons are three,^ — ^Vrihaspati, Utatliya, and Samvarta, 
all of rigid vows. And, O king, it is said that the sons of 
Atri are numerous. And being great Rishis they are all con- 
versant with the Vedas, crowned with ascetic success, and of 
souls in perfect peace. And, O tiger among kings, the sons 
)of -Pulastya of great wisdom are the Rakshagas, Monkeys^ 


Kinnaras ( balf-raen and half-horses ), and Yakshas. And, 
O king, the sons of Pulaha were, it is said, the Salavas ( the 
"winged insects ), the lions, the Kimpurushas (half-lions and 
lialf-inenX the tigers, bears, and wolves. And the sons of 
Kratu, sacred as sacrifices, were the companions of Surya, 
(the Valakhilyas), known in the three worlds and devoted to 
truth and vows. And, O thou protector of the Earth, the 
illustrious Rishi Daksha, of soul in complete peace, and greait 
asceticism, sprung from the right toe of Brahma. And from 
the left toe of Brahma sprang the wife of the high-souled 
Daksha. And the Muni (Daksha) begat in her fifty daughters ; 
and all those daughters were of faultless features and limbs, 
and of eyea like lotus leaves. And the Prajapati Daksha, 
not having any sons, made those daughters his PutriJcas (so 
that their sons might belong both to himself and their hus- 
bands.) And Daksha bestowed according to the sacred ordi- 
nance, ten of his daughters on Dharma, tvventy-seven on 
Chandra (the Moon), and thirteen on Kashyapa. Listen as I 
recount the wives of Dharma according to their names ! 
They are ten in all — Kirti, liaksmi, Dhriti, Medha, Pushti, Sra- 
dha, Kria, Budhi, Lajja, and Mati. These are the wives of 
Dharma as appointed by the self-create. It is known also 
throughout the worlds that the wives of Shoma (Moon) are 
twenty-seven. And the wives of Shoma, all of sacred vows, 
are employed in indicating time ; and they are the Nakshattras 
and the Yoginis and they became so for assisting the courses 
of the worlds. 

"And Brahma had another son named Manu. And Manu 
had a son of name Prajapati. And the sons of Prajapati were 
ei»ht and were called the Vasus whom I shall name in de- 
tail. They were Dhara, Dhruva, Shoma, Aha, Anila, Anala, 
Pratyusa, and Prabhasa. These eight are known as the Vasus, 
Of these, Dhara and the truth-knowing Dhruva were born of 
Dhurara; Chandrama ( Shoma) and Shasana (Anila)were bom 
of the amiable Shasa ; Aha was the son of Rata ; and Hu- 
tashana (Anala) of Shandilya ; and Pratyusha and Prabhasa Averc 
the sons of Prabhata. And Dhara had two sons, Dravina and 
Hutahavyavaha. And the son of Dhiuva is the illugtrious Kal» 


(Time) the destroyer of the worlds. And Shoma's son i8 the 

resplendant Varcha. And Varcha begets in hia wife Manohara 

three sons— Shishira, Prana, and Ramana. And the sons of 

Aha were Jyoti, Shama, Slianta, and also Muni. And the 

son of Agni is the handsome Kuraara born in the forest of 

reeds. And he is also called Kartiheya because he was reared 

by Krittika and the others. And after Kartikeya were born 

his three brothers Shakha, Vishakha, Naigameya. And the 

wife of Anila is Shiva. And Shiva's sons were Manajava and 

Avijnata-gati. These two were the sons of Anila. The son of 

Pratyusha, you must know, ia the Rishi by name Devala. 

And Devala had two sons who were both exceedingly forgiving 

and of great mental power. And the sister of Vrihasptai, the 

first of women, uttering the sacred truth, engaged in ascetic 

penances, roamed over the whole Earth. And she became the 

wife of Prabhasha the eighth Vasu. And she begat the illustrious 

Viswakarma the founder of all arts. And he was the originator 

of a thousand arts, engineer of the immortals, the maker of 

all kinds of ornaments, and the first of artists. And he it was 

who constructed the celestial cars of the gods. And mankind 

are enabled to live in consequence of the inventions of that 

illustrious one. And he is worshipped for that reason by men. 

And he is eternal and immutable this^-Viswakarraa. 

" And the illustrious Dharma, the dispenser of all happi- 
ness, assuming a human countenance came out through the 
right breast of Brahma. And Ahasta (Dharma) hath three ex- 
cellent sons capable of charming every creature. And they 
are Shama, Kama, and Harsha. (Peace, Desire, and Gladness,) 
And by their energy they are supporting the worlds. And the 
wife of Kama is Rati, of Shama is Prapti ; and the wife of 
Harsha is Nanda. And upon them, indeed, are the worlds 
made to depend (for all that their inhabitants do.) 

"And the son of Marichi is Kasyapa. And Kasyapa's offs- 
pring are the gods and the Asuras. And therefore is Kasyapa 
the Father of the worlds. And Tastri, of the form of .(a mare) 
Vadava, became the wife of Savitri. And she gave birth, in 
the skies, to two greatly fortunate twins the Aswinas. And, O 
king, the sons of Adili are twelve with Indra heading them 


all. And the youngest of them all was Vishnu upon whom are 
the worlds dependent. 

"These are the thirty three gods (eight Vasus, eleven Rudrag, 
twelve Adityas, Prajapati, and Vashatkara). And I shall now 
recount their pro;:;eny according to their Pakshas, Kulas, and 
Ganas. The Rudras, the Sadhyas, the Marutas, the Vasus, the 
Bhargavas, and the Viswadevas are each reckoned as a Paksha. 
Gadura the son of Vinata and the miglity Aruna also, and the 
illustrious Vrihaspati are reckoned among tiie Adityas. The 
twin Aswinas, all annual plants, and all inferior animals, are 
reckoned among the Guhyakas. 

"These are the Ganas of the gods recited to thee, O king ! 
This recitation washes men of all sins. 

" The illustrious Bhrigu came out, ripping open the breast 
of Brahma. The learned Sukra is Bhrigu 's son. And the 
learned Sakra becoming a planet and engaged according to the 
command of the self-existent in pouring and withholding rain, 
and in despensing and remitting calamities, for sustaining the 
lives of all creatures in the three worlds traverses through ilie 
skies. And the learned Sukra, of great intelligence and wis- 
dom, of rigid vows, leading the life of a Brahmachari, divided 
himself in twain by power of asceticism, and became the spiri- 
tual guide of both the Daityas and the gods. And after Sukra 
was thus employed by Brahma in seeking the welfare (of the 
gods and the Asuras), Bhrigu begat another excellent son. 
This was Chyavana who was like the blazing sun, of virtuous 
soul, of great fame. And he came out of his mother's womb 
in anger and became the cause of his mother's release, O king, 
(from the hands of the Rakshasa.) And Arushi, the daughter 
of Manu, became the wife of the wise Chyavana. And in her 
was born Aurva of great reputation. And he came out rip- 
ping open the thigh of Arushi. And Aurva begat Richika. 
And Richika in his boyhood even became possessed of great 
power and energy, and of every virtue. And Richika begat 
Jamadacjni. And the hicjh-souled Jamadagni had four sons. 
And the youngest of them all was Rama (Parashurama). And 
Rama was sui>erior to all his brothers in tlie possession of good 
qualities, Aad he was skilful in all weapons, and became the 


slayer of the Kshatrias. And he had his passions under com- 
plete control. And Aurva had an hundred sons with Jamadagni 
the eldest. And these hundred sons had offspring by thousands 
spread over this Earth. 

" And Brahma had two other sons, viz, Dhata and Vidhata, 
who stayed with Manu. Their sister is the auspicious Laksmi^ 
having her abode amid lotuses. And the spiritual sons of* 
Laksnii are the sky-ranging horses. And the daughter bora 
of Sukra, named Divi, became the eldest wife of Varuna. In 
her were born a son named Vala, and a daughter named Sura 
(wine) giving joy unto the gods. And Adharma (Sin) was 
born when creatures (from want of food) began to devour each 
other. And Adharma always destroys every creature. And 
Adharma had Niriti for his wife, whence the Rakshasas who 
are called Nairitas (offspring of Niriti.) And she hath also 
three other cruel sons always engaged in sinful deeds. They 
are Vaya (fear), Mahavaya (terror), and Mrityu (Deatb) who 
is always engaged in slaying every created thing. And all- 
destroyer as he is, he hath no wife, and no son. And Tamvd 
brought forth five daughters known throughout the worlds. 
They are Kaki (crow), Shyeni (hawk), Vashi (hen), Dhrita-rasli- 
tri (goose), and Shuki ([)arrot). And Kaki brought forth the 
crows ; Shyeni, the hawks ; Vashi, the cocks and vultures ; 
Dhrita-rashtri, all ducks and swans ; and she also brought forth 
all Chakravakas ; and the fair Shuki of amiable qualities and 
possessing all auspicious signs brought forth all the parrots. 
And Krodha gave birth to nine daughters all of wrathful 
disposition. And their names were Mrigl, Mrigamanda, 
Hari, Bhadrammia, Matangi, Sharduli, Sheta, Suravi, and 
the agreeable Siirasd blessed with every virtue. And, thou 
foremost of men, tlie offspring of Mrigi are all animals of the 
deer species. And the offspring of Mrigamanda are all ani- 
mals of the bear species and those called Srimara (swift-footed.) 
And Bhadramana begat the celestial elephant Airavata for her 
eon. And the offspring of Hari are all animals of the monkey 
species endued with great activity and also all the horses. And 
those animals also that are called Golangula (the cow-tailed) 
are said to be the offspring of Hari, And Shwduli begat 

ADi PARVA, 193 

lions and tigers in numbera, and also leopards and, no doubt 
of it, all other strong animals. And, kino;, the offspring of 
Matangi are all the elephant!?. And Sheta begat the large 
elephant known by the name of Sheta endued with great] 
speed. And, O king, Suravi gave birth to two daughters, 
tlie amiable Rohini and the far-famed Gandharvi. And, O 
Bharata, she had also tAvo other daughters named Vimala and 
Anala. From Rohini have sprung all kine, and from Gan- 
dharvi all animals of the horse species. And Anala begat the 
seven kinds of trees yielding pulpy fruits. (They are the do.te, 
the palm, the hintald, the tali, the little date, the nut, and 
the cocoanut. ) And she had also another daughter called 
ShitJci (the mother of the parrot species.) And Surasa begafc 
a son called Knnha (a species of long-feathered birds.) And 
Shyeni, the wife of Aruna, gave birth to two sons of great 
energy and strength named Savipati and the mighty Jatayw. 
Surasa also begat the Nagas and Kadru the Pannagas (snakes.) 
And Vinata begat two sons Gadura and Aruna known exten- 
sively. And, O king of men, O thou first of intelligent per- 
sons, thus hath the genealogy of all the principal creatures 
been fully described by me. By listening to this a man is 
fully cleansed from all his sins, and acquireth great knowledge, 
and finally attaineth to the first of states in after life." 

And thus endetb the sixty-sixth Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXVIL 

(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Janamejaya said, "Worshipful one, I wish to hear from 
thee in detail about the birth, among men, of the gods, the 
Dauavas, the Gandharvas, the Raks^has, the lions the tif^ers 
and other animals, the snakes, the birds, in fact, of all crea- 
tures ! I wish also to hear about the acts and achievements 
of these, in due order, after they became incarnate in human 
forms !" 

Vaisampayana said, " king of men, I shall first tell thee 
all about those celestials and Dauavas that were born among 


194 MA«Ai3HAKATA. 

men. The first of D;iiiav;i3 who was known by the name of 
Vipra-chitti became that bull among men noted as Jarasau- 
dha. And, O king, that son of Diti who was known as Hi- 
ranya-kasipu was known in this world among men as the 
powerful Shishupala. He who had been known as Sang-hlatla, 
the younger brother of Prahlada, became among men the 
famous Salya, — that bull amongst the Vahlikas. The spnted 
Auuhlad wlio had been the youngest became note'i in the 
world as Dhrista-ketu. And, O king, that son of Diti who 
hud been known as Shivi became on earth the famous monarch 
Druma. And he who was known as the great Asura Vashkala 
became on earth the great Bhaga-datta. The five great Asuras 
gifted with great energy, Aya-shira, Aswa-shira, the spirited 
Aya-shanku, Gagana-murdha, and Vegavana-, were all born 
in the royal line of Kekaya and all became great monarchs. 
That other Asura of mighty energy who was known by the 
name of Ketumana became on earth the monarch Amitouja 
of terrible deeds. That great Asura who was known as Swar- 
vanu became on earth the monarch Ugra-seua of fierce deeds. 
That great Asura who was known as Aswa became on earth 
the monarch Asoka of exceeding energy and invincible in 
battle. And, O king, the younger brother of Aswa who 
was known as Aswapati, a son of Diti, became on earth the 
mighty monarch Hardikya. The great and fortunate Asura 
who was known as Vrisha-parva became noted on earth as 
king Dhirgha-prajna. And, O king, the younger brother of 
Vrisha-parva who was known by the name of Ajaka became 
noted on earth as king Shalya. The powerful and mighty 
Asura who was known as Aswa-griva became noted on earth 
as king Rocha-mana. And, O king, the Asura who was known 
as Sukama, endued with great intelligence and whose achieve- 
ments also were great, became on earth the famous king Vri- 
had-ratha. And that firrft of Asuras who was known by the 
name of Tuhunda became noted on earth as the monarch Sena- 
¥indu. That Asura of great strength who was known as 
Ishupa became the monarch Nagua-jita of famous prowess. 
The great Asura who was known as Ekachakra became noted 
QHk ^arth as PriU-viudhya, The great Asuru Virunaksha capabk 


of displaying various modes of fight became noted on earth 
as king Chitravarma. The first of Danavas, the heroic Hora> 
who quelled the pride of all foes became on earth the famous 
and fortunate Suvahu. The Aaura Suliara of great energy and 
the destroyer of foemen became noted on earth as king Vahli- 
ka. That best of Asuras called Nichandra whose face was 
as handsome as that of the Moon became noted on earth as 
the fortunate monarch Munja-kesha. That A sura of greafe 
intelligence called Nikumbha Avho v/as never vanquished in 
battle was born on earth as king Devadhipa the first among 
monarchs. That great Asura known amongst the sons of 
Diti by the name of Sharava became on earth the royal sage 
called Paurava. And, king, the great Asura of exceedin/5 
energy, the fortunate Kupatha was born on earth as the fa- 
mous monarch Suparsha. The gr^at Asura, O king, who wag 
called Kratha was born on earth as the royal sage Parvatya of- 
form resplendent like a golden mountain. He amongst?ii the 
Asuras who was known as Shalava the second became on 
eartli the monarch Prahlad in the country of the Vahlikas. Tha 
foremost among t!ie sons of Diti knov/n by the name of 
Chandra and handsome as the lord of the stars himself be- 
came on earth noted as Chandra-varina the king of the 
Kambojas. That bull amongst the Danavas who was known 
by the name of Arka became on earth, O king, the royal sage 
Rishika. That best of Asuras v/ho was known as Mritapa 
became on earth, O best of kings, the monarch Paschimanu- 
paka. That great Asura of surpassing energy known as 
Garishta became noted on earth as king Druma-sena. The 
great Asura who was knov/n as Mayura became noted on- 
earth as the monarch Visv^a. He who v/as known as the young- 
er brother of Mayura became noted on earth as the monarch 
Kalakirti. The mighty Asura who was known as Chandra- 
hanta became on earth the royal sage Sunaka. The great 
Asura who was called Chandra- vinashana became noted on 
earth as the monarch Janaki. That bull amongst the Dana- 
vas, O prince of the Kuru race, who was called Dhirgha-jihva, 
became noted on earth as Kashi-raja, The Graha who was 
brought forth by Singhika and who persecuted the Sun and 


tlie Moon because noted on earth as tlic monarch Kialha« 
The eldest of the four sods of Danayu who was known by 
the name of Vikshara became on earth the spirited monarch 
Vasumitra. The second brother of Vikshara — that great 
Asura, was born on earth as the king of the country called 
Pandya. That best of Asuras who was known by the name 
of Valina became on earth the monarch Paundra-raatsyaka. 
And, O king, that great Asura who was known as Vilra be- 
came on earth the royal sage known by the name of Mani- 
mana. That Asura who was the younger brother of Vitra 
and known as Krodha-hanta became noted on earth as king 
Danda. That other Asura who was known by the name of 
Krodha-vardliana became noted on earth as the monarch 
Danda-dhara. The eight sans of the Kaleyas that were born 
on earth all became great kings endued also with the prowess 
of tigers. The eldest of them all became king Jayat-sena in 
Magadha. Tiie second of them, in prowess like ta Indra, became 
noted on earth as Aparajita. The third of them, endued 
with great energy and power of producing deception, was born 
on earth as the king of the Nishadhas gifted with great 
prowess. That other amongst them who was known as the 
fourth was noted on earth as Sreniman, that best of royal sages. 
That great Asura amongst them who was the fifth became 
noted on earth as king Mahouja the oppressor of' enemies. 
That great Asura possessing great intelligence who was the 
sixth of them became noted on earth as Abhiru that best of 
royal sages. The seventh of them became known through- 
out the earth, from the centre to the sea, as king Samudra- 
scna well-acquainted with the truths of the Dharma Shasti'as, 
The eiglith of the Kaleyas known as Vrihat became on earth 
a virtuous king ever engaged in the good of all creatures. The 
mighty Danava known by the name of Kukshi became known 
on earth as Parvatia of form resplendent as a golden moun- 
tain. The mighty Asura Krathana gifted with great energy 
became noted on earth as the monarch Suryaksha. The great 
Asura of handsome features known by the name Surya, be- 
came on oarth the monarch of the Vahlikas by name Darada, 
the loicmoot ul hII kings, And. king, froua the tribe 

ADirAllVA. 197 

of Agiiras called KroJhavasa, of whom I Lavo already spoken 
to thee, were born many heroic kings on earth. Madraka, 
and Karna-veshta, Sidhartha, and also Kitaka ; Suvira, and 
Suvahu, and Mahavira, and also Vahlika ; Kratha, Vichitra, 
Saratha, and tho handsome king Nila ; and Chiravasa, and 
Bhumi-pala; and Dmtavakra, and he who was called Durjaya ; 
that tiger amongst kings named Rukmi, and king Janamejaya ; 
Ashada, and Vahu-vega, and also Bhuriteja ; Ekalavya, and 
Sumitra, Vatadhana, and also Gomukha ; the tribe of kin-'-s 
called the Karushakas, and also Khema-dhurti ; Srutayu, and 
Udvaha, and also Vrihat-sena ; Kshema, Ugra-tiitha, the king 
of the Kalingas; and Matiman, and he who was known as king 
Iswara; these first of kings were all born of the Asnra class 
called Krodhavasa, 

" There was also born on earth a mighty Asura known 
amongst the Danavas by the name of Kalanemi, endued with 
great strength, of grand achievements, and blessed with a 
large share of prosperity. He be came the mighty son of Ugra- 
sena and was known on earth by the name of Kansa. And he 
who was known among the Asuras by the name of Devaka and 
was besides in splendour like unto Indra himself, was born on 
earth as the foremost king of the Gandharvas. And, O mon- 
arch, know thou that Drona the son of Varadwaja, not born of 
any woman, sprung from a portion of the celestial Rishi Vri- 
haspati of grand achievements. And he was the prince of all 
bowmen, conversant with all weapons, of mighty achieve- 
ments, of great energy. Thou sljouldsb know he was also well 
acquainted with the Vedas and the science of arms. And he 
was of wonderful deeds and the pride of his race. And, O 
king, his son the heroic Aswathama, of eyes like the leaves of 
lotus, gifted with surpassing energy and the terror of all 
foes, the great oppressor of all enemies, was born on earth of 
the united portion of Mahadeva, Yama, Kama, and Krodha. 
And from the curse of Vashista and the command also of 
Indra, the eight Vasus were bora of Ganga by her husband 
Shantanu. The youngest of them was Visma the dispeller of 
the fears of the Kurus, gifted with great intelligence, conver- 
sant ^Yith tho Yedas, the first of speakers, and the thinner of 

193 UA^A'BKA'RA'TA. 

the enemy's ranks. And possessed of mighty energy and tlie 
first of all persons acquainted with all weapons, he encountered 
the iHustrious Rama himself the son of Jamadagni of the Bhriga 
race. And, O king, that Brahmana sage who on earth was 
known by the name of Kripa and was the embodiment of all 
manliness, was born of the tribe of the Rudras. And the 
mif^hty charioteer and king who on eartli was known by tlie name 
of Sakimi, that crusher of foe&, thou shouldst know, O king^, 
was Dwapara himself (the third yioga.) And he who was 
S \tyaki of sure aim and the upholder of the pride of the Visni 
race, that oppressor of foes was begotten of the portion of the 
gods called the Marutas. And that royal &age Drupada who 
on earth was a monarch the first among all persons bearing 
arms was also born of the same tribe of the celestiab. And^ 
O king, thou shouldst alsa know that Kritavarma, that prince 
among men, of deeds, unsurpassed by any one, and the fore- 
most of all bulls amongst Khalrias, was born of the portion 
of the same celestials. And that royal sage also, Virata by 
name, the scorcher of the kingdoms of others, and the great 
oppressor of all foes, was born of the portion of the same 
gods. That son of Arishta who was known by the name of 
Hansa was born in the Kuru race and became the monarch of 
the Gandharvas. He who was known as Dhrita-rashtra born of 
the seed of Krishna-Dwaipayana, and gifted with long arms 
and great energy, a monarch besides of the prophetic eye, 
became blind in consequence of the fault of his mother and the 
wrath of the Rishi. His younger brother possessed of great 
strength and who was really a great being, known as Pandu, 
was devoted to truth and virtue and was purity's self. And, O 
king, thou shouldst know that he who was known on earth as 
Vidura, who was the first of all virtuous men, who was the 
god himself of justice, was the excellent and greatly fortunate 
son of the Rishi Atri. The evil-minded and wicked king 
Duryodhana, the destroyer of the fair fame of the Kurus, 
was born of a portion of Kali on earth. He it was who 
caused all creatures to be slain and the earth to be wMsted ; 
and he it was who fanned the fire of hostility that ultimately 
cousuracd all. Thcv who had been the sons of Pulastya (the 


Rakshasas) were born on earth among men as Duryodliana'a 
brotliers — that century of wicked individuals commenciug 
with Dush-shasana as tlieir first. And, O bull among tlie 
Bharata princes, Durmukha, Dush-shaha, and others whose 
names I do not mention, who always supported Duryodhuna 
(in all his schemes*), were, indeed, the sous of Pulastya. Ami 
over and above these hundred, Dhrita-rashtra had one sou 
named Yuyutsu born of a Vaisya wife." 

Janamejaya said, " illustrious one, tell me the names of 
Dhrita-rashtra's sons according to the order of their births 
beginning from the eldest." 

Vai.sampayana said, " king, they are as follows : — Duryo- 

dhaua, and Yuyutsu, and also Dush-shasana ; Dushshaha, and 

Dush-shala, and then Durmukha ; Viving-shati, and Vikurna, 

Jala-sandha, Sulochana; Vinda and Anuvinda, Dud-dharsha, 

Suvahu, Dushpradharsana ; Durmarshana, and Durmukha, 

Dushkarna, and Kama ; Chitra and Upachitra, Chitraksha, 

Charuchitra, and Angada ; Durmada, and Dushpradharsha, 

Vivitsu, Vikata, Sama ; Urua-nava, and Padma-nava, Nanda 

and Upanandaka ; Senapati, and Sushena, Kundodara and 

Mahodara ; Chitra-vahu, and Chitra- varma, Suvarmu, Dur- 

virochaua ; Ayavahu, Maha-vahu, Chitrachapa and Sukundala ; 

Bhima-vega, Bhim-vala, Valaki, Bhima-vikramu ; Ugrayudba, 

Bhima-shara, Kanakayu, Dridhayudha ; Dridha-varma, Dn- 

dha-kshatra, Soma-kirti, Anudara; Jara-sandha, Dridha-sau- 

dha, Satya-sandha, Sahasra-vak ; Ugrasrava, Ugra-sena, and 

Kshema-murti ; Aparajita, Fanditaka, Vishalaksha, Duradhara; 

Dridha-hasta, and Suhasta, Vata-vega and Suvarchasa ; Adi- 

tya-ketu, Vahvasi, Naga-datta and Anuyaina; Nishangi, Kava- 

chi, Dandi, Danda-dhara, Dhanugraha ; XJgra, Bhima-ratha, 

Vira, Viravahu, Alolupa ; Abhaya, and Raudra-karma, also he 

who was Dridha-ratha ; Ana-dhrishya, Kunda-veda, Viravi, 

Dhirgha-lochana; Dirgha-vahu, Maha-vahu, Vyudhoru, Kaua- 

kangada ; Kundaja, and Chitraka. There was also a daughter 

named Dush-shala who was over and above the hundred. And 

Yuyutsu who was Dhrita-rashtra's son by a Vaisya wife was 

also over and above the hundred. Thus, O king, have I re- 

Qit<^d Xh^ uumgs of the Uundi'<^d ^qu^ mi the uiviue ulso oi tU^ 


d.wgliter (of Dhrita-rashtra.) Thou hast now kno^YU their 
names according to the order of their biiths. All of them 
were heroes and great charioteers, and skilled in the art of 
war. All of them were, besides, versed in the Vedas, and, O 
king, all of them had crossed the Shast^xis. All of them were 
mighty in attack and defence, and all were graced with learn- 
ing. And, monarch, all of them had wives suitable to 
themselves in grace and accomplishments. And, O king, when 
the time came, the Kaurava nlonarch bestowed his daughter 
Dush-shala on Jayadratha the king of Sindhu agreeably to the 
counsels of Sakuni. 

"And, O monarch, know thou that king Yudhish-thira 
was a portion of Dharma ; that Bhim-sena was of the diety of 
wind; that Arjuna v/as of Indra the chief of the celestials ; 
and that Nakula and Sahadeva, the handsomest beings among 
all creatures, aad unrivalled in beauty on earth, were similar- 
ly portions of the twin Aswinas. And he who was known as 
the migiity Varcha — the son of Shoma — became Abhimanyu of 
wonderful de^ds, the son of Arjuna. And before his incarna- 
tion, O king, the god Soma had said these words to the celes- 
t,*ml-i : — 'I cannot give (part with) my son. He is dearer to 
me than life itself. Let this be the compact and let it not be 
transgressed. The destruction of the Asuras on earth is the 
work of the celestials and therefore is it our work as well. 
Let this Varcha therefore go thither l)ut let him not stay 
there long. Nara, whose companion is Narayana, will take his 
birth as Indra's son and, indeed, will be known as Arjuna the 
mighty son of Pandu. This boy of mine shall be his son and 
become a mighty charioteer in his boyhood. And let him, ye 
best of immortals, stay on earth for sixteen years. And when 
he attaineth to his sixteenth year that war shall take place 
in which all who are born of your portions shall achieve the 
destruction ol mighty warriors. But a certain encounter shall 
take place without both Nara and Narayana (taking any 
part in it.) And, indeed, your portions, ye celestials, shall fight 
having made that disposition of the forces which is known by 
the name of the Chakra-viiha. And my son shall compell 
all foes to retreat before him, The boy of mighty arms Laving 

&D1PARVA, Sol 

penetrated the impenetrable Vuha shall ran^e within it fear- 
lessly and send a t'ourth part of the hostile force, in coarse of 
half a day, unto the I'egious of tlie king of the dead. Then 
numberless heroes and mighty charioteers returning to the [ 
charge towards the close of the day, shall my boy of mighty 
arms re-appear before me. And he shall beget one heroic son 
in his line who shall continue the almost extinct Bharata race,' 
Heai'ing these words of Shoma, the dwellers of heaven replied, 
'So be it.' And they then all together applauded and worship- 
ped (Shoma) the kiug of the stars. Thus, king, have I re- 
cited to thee the (particulars of the) birth of thy fathers 
father ! 

"Know thou also, O monarch, the mighty charioteer Drishta- 
tlyumna was a portion of Agni. And know also that Shi- 
khandi, who was at first a female, was (the incarnation of ) a 
Rakshasa. And, O thou bull of the Bharata race, they who 
had become the five sons of Draupadi — those bulls amongst 
the Bharata princes — were the celestials known as the Viswas, 
Their names were Pritivindhya, Suta-soma, Sruta-kirti, Sata- 
nika the son of Nakuia, and Sruta-sena endued with mighty 

"Shura — the first of the Yadus — was the father of Vasudeva, 
He had a daughter called Pritha who in beauty was unrivalled 
on earth. And Shura, having promised in the presence of 
fire that he would give his first-born child to Kunti-bhoja 
the son of his paternal aunt who was without offspring, gave 
his daughter unto that monarch in expectation of his favors. 
Aud Kunti-bhoja thereupon made her his daughter. And 
she was thenceforth, in the house of her (adoptive) father, 
engaged in attending upon Brahmanas and guests. One day 
she had to attend upon the wrathful ascetic of rigid vows — 
Durvasha by name — acquainted with truth and fully conver- 
sant with the mysteries of religion. And Pritha with all 
possible care gratified the v/rathful Rishi of soul under com- 
plete control. And the worshipful one gratified with the atten- 
tions bestowed on him by the maiden told her, ' I am satisfied, 
O fortunate one, with thee ! By this oyiantra (that I am about 
to give thee, thou shalt be able to summon (to thy side) what-^ 



ever celestials thou likep.t. And by tlieir grace shall thon also 
obtain chiMren '/ Thus axMressed, the girl, (a little while 
after) possessed witli curiosity, summoned, during the period 
of her maiden-hood, the god Arka (Sun.) And the lord of 
light tiiereupon made her conceive and begat in her a son who 
was the first of all wielders of weapons. And from fear of 
her relatives she brought forth in sceresy that child who came 
out with ear-rings and coat of mail. And he was gifted with 
the beauty of a celestial infant, and in splendour was like unto 
the maker of day himself and every part of his body was 
symmetrical and well embellished. And Kunti cast the handsome 
thild into the water. But the child thus thrown into the water 
was taken up by the excellent husband of Radha and given 
by him to his wife to be by her adopted as their son. And the 
couple gave him the name of Vasu-sena by which appellation 
ihe child soon became known all over the land. And as he grew 
up he became very strong and excelled in all arms. And the 
first of all successful per.^ons, he soon mastered the Vedangas. 
And while the intelligent one who ha,d truth for his streno-th 
was studying the Vedas, there was nothing he would not give 
to the Brahmanas, At that time Indra — the oriojinator of 
all things — moved by the desire of benefiting his own son 
Arjuna, assuming the guise of a Brahmana, came to him and 
begged of the hero his ear-rings and natural armour. And 
the hero taking ofif his ear-rings and armour gave them unto 
the Brahmana. And Sakra (accepting the gifts) presented to 
the giver a Sakti (missile weapon) surprised (at his open-hand- 
cduess) and addressed him these words: — 'O invincible one, 
amongst the celestials, Asuras, men, Gandharvas, Nagas, and 
Rakshasas, he at whom thou hurlest (this weapon), that one 
shall certainly be slain •' And the son of Surya was at first 
known in the world by the name of Vasu-sena. But for his 
deeds he subsequently came to be called Kama. And because 
the hero of great fame had taken off his natural armour there- 
fore was he — the first son of Pritha — called Kama. And, O 
thou best of kings, the hero began to grow up in the Suta 
caste. And, O king, know thou that Kama — the first of all 
exalted men — the foremost of all wielders of weapons — the 

kDl PARVA. 20-3 

feTayer of foes — and the best portion of the maker of day — was 
the friend and counsellor of Duryodhana. And he called 
Vasudeva, endued with great valor, was among men a portion 
of him called Narayana — the god of gods — eternal ! And' 
Valadeva of exceeding strength was a portion of the Naga 
Shesha. And, O monarch, know thou that Pradyumna (Kama) 
of great energy was Sanat-kumara. And in this way the 
portions of vai'ious other dwellers of heaven became exalted 
men in the race of Vasudeva increasing the glory thereof. And, 
O king, the portions of the Gana of Apsaras v/hich I have 
mentioned already, also became incarnate on earth according 
to Indra's commands. And sixteen *housand portions of those 
goddesses became, O king, in this world of men the wives of 
Yasudeva. And a portion of Sri herself became incarnate on 
earth, for the gratification of Narayana, in the line of Bhismaka, 
And she was by name the chast;e Rukmini. And the fault- 
less Draupadi, slender-v/aisted like the wasp, was born of the 
portion of Shachi (the queen of the celestials) in the line of 
Drupada. And she was niether low nor tall in stature. And 
she was of the fragrance of the blue lotus, of ej^es large as 
lotus leaves, of thighs fair and round, of dense masses of 
black curly hair. And endued with every auspicious feature 
and of complexion like that of the emerald, she became 
the charmer of the hearts of five foremost of men. And the 
two goddesses Siddhi and Dhriti became the mothers of those 
five and were called Kunti and Madri. And she who wag 
Mati became the daughter (Gandhari) of Suvala. 

" Thus, O king, have I recited to thee all about the in- 
carnations, according to their respective portions, of the gods, 
the Asuras, the Gandharvas, the Apsaras, and of the Raksh- 
asas. They who were born on earth as monarchs invincible 
in war, those high-souled ones who were born in the wide 
extended line of the Yadus, they v/ho were born as mighty 
monarchs in other lines, they who were born as Brahmanas 
and Kshatrias and Vaisyas, have all been recited by me duly. 
And this account of the incarnation (af superior beings accord- 
ing to their respective portions) capable of bestowing wealth, 
lame, offspring, long life, and success; should always be heard 


in a proper frame of mind. And having listened to tliis account 
of incarnations, according to their portions, of gods, Gandharvas, 
and Rakshasas, the hearer becoming acquainted with the 
creatian, preservation, and destruction of the universe and 
acquiring wisdom, is never depressed even under the mosti 
engrossing sorrows." 

And so ends the sixty-seventh Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXYIII. 
(Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Janamejaya said, "O Brahmana, I have, indeed, heard 
from thee this account of the incarnation, according to their 
portions, of the gods, the Danavas, the Rakshasas, and also 
of the Gandharvas and the Apsaras. I, however, again desire 
to hear of the dynasty of the Kurus from the very beginning. 
Therefore, O Brahmana, speak of this in the presence of ali 
these Brahmarshia \ " 

Vaisampayana said, " O exalted one of the Bharata race, 
the founder of the Paurava line was Dushmanta gifted Avitb 
great energy. And he was the protector of the earth bounded 
by the four seas. And that king had full sway over four quarters 
of this world. And he was the lord also of various regions in 
the midst of the sea. And that great oppressor of all foes 
had sway over the countries even of the mlecchas. 

And during his rule there were no men of mixed castes, no 
tillers of the soil (for the land of itself yielded produce), na 
workers of mines (for the surface of the earth yielded abun- 
dance), and no sinful men. All were virtuous, and did every 
thing from motives, O tiger among men, of virtue. There 
■was no fear of thieves, O dear one, no fear of famine, no fear 
of disease. And all the four orders took pleasure in doing their 
respective duties and never performed religious acts for obtain- 
ing fruition of desires. And his subjects depending upon him 
never entertained any fear. And Parjannya (Indra) poured 
showers at tiie proper time and the produce of the fields was 
alwaya I'uipy and juicy. And the earth was full of all kinds 


of wealth and all kiads of animals. And the Brahmanaa 
were always engaged in their duties and they were always 
truthful. And the youthful monarch was endued with wonder- 
ful prowess and a j^hysical frame hard as thunder-bolt so that 
he could, taking up the mountain Mandara, support it in his 
arms with its forests and bushes. And he was well-skilled ia 
four kinds of encounters with the mace (hurling it at foes in a 
distance, striking at those that are near, whirling it in the 
midst of many, and driving tl»e foe before.) And he was 
skilled also in the use of all kinds of weapons and in riding 
elephants and horses. And in strength lie was like unto 
Vishnu, in splendour like unto the maker of day, in gravity 
like unto the Ocean, and in patience like unto the E.irth, 
And the monarch was loved of al 1 his subjects, and he ruled 
his contented people virtuously. " 

And thus ends the sixty-eighth Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXIX. 
( Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Janamejaya said " I desire to hear from thee about the 
birth and life of the high-souled Bharata and of the origin of 
Sakuntala. And, O worshipful one, I also desire to hear all 
about Dushmanta — that lion among men — and how the hero 
obtained Sakuntala. It behoveth thee, O knower of truth and 
first of all intelligent men, to tell me everything. " 

Vaisampayana said, " Once on a time (king Dushmanta) of 
mighty arm and accompanied by a large force went into the 
forest. And he took with him also hundreds of horses and 
elephants. And the force that accompanied the monarch was of 
four kinds (foot-soldiers, charioteers, cavalry, and elephants,) — > 
heroes armed with swords and darts and bearing in their hands 
maces and stout clubs. And surrounded by hundreds of warriors 
with Prasa and Tomara (missile weapons) in their arms, the 
monarcii set out on his journey. And with the leonine roar 
of the warriors and with the notes of the conch and the 
sound of the drum, with the rumbling of the chariot wheebjj 


and with the deep roar of the huge elephants, all mingling- 
with the neighing of horses and the clashing of weapons 
of the variously armed attendants in diversified dresses, there 
arose a deafening tumult while the king was on hia march. 
And ladies gifted with great beauty, from the terraces of goodly 
mansions, beheld that heroic monarch the achiever of hia own 
fame. And the ladies saw that he was like unto Sakra, the 
slayer of bis enemies, capable of repulsing the elephants of foes. 
And they believed that he was the wielder of the thunder-bolt 
himself. And they said, 'This is that tiger among men who in 
war is equal unto Vasu in prowess, and in consequence of the 
might of whose arm there are no foes left.' And saying this, 
the ladies from affection gratified the monarch by showering 
flowers on his head. And followed by foremost of Brahmanaa 
uttering blessings all the way, the king in great gladness of 
heart went towards the forest eager on slaying the deer. And 
many Brahmanas, Kshatrias, Vaisyas, and Sudras followed the 
monarch who was like unto the king of the celestials seated 
on the back of a proud elephant. The citizens and other 
classes followed the monarch for some distance. And they at 
last refrained from going further at the command of the king. 
And the king, then, ascending on his chariot, of winged speed 
tilled the whole earth and even the heavens, with the ghav- 
ghm^a of his chariot wheels. And as he went he saw around 
him Si forest like unto Na}ida7ia itself (the celestial gardens.) 
And it was full of Vihva, Arkd, Khddira (catechu) Kopithiua, 
and Dhava trees. And he saw that the soil was uneven and 
scattered over with blocks of stone loosened from the neigh- 
bouring cliffs. And he saw that it was v;ithout Avater and 
without human beings and lay extended for many Yojanas 
around. And it was full of deer and lions and other terrible 
beasts of prey. 

" And king Dushmanta, that tiger among men, assisted by 
his followers and the warriors in his train, agitated that forest 
killing numerous animals. And Dushmanta, piercing them 
with his arrows, felled numerous tigers that were within shoot- 
ing range. And the king wounded many that were too distant, 
and killed many that were too near with his heuvy swoid, And 

ADl PARYA, 207 

that foremost of all wieUlers of darts killed many by hurling 
bis darts at them. And well conversant \Yitb the arts of 
whirling the mace, the king of immeasurable prowess fearless- 
ly wandered over the forest. And the king roamed about 
killing the inmates of the wilderness som times by his swords 
and sometimes by fast-descending blows of his mace and heavy 
short clubs. 

"And when the forest was so agitated by the king possessed 
•of wonderful energy and by the warriors in his train delight- 
ing in warlike sports, the lions began thereupon to desert it 
in numbers. And herds of animals deprived of their leaders, 
from fear and anxiety began to utter loud cries as they fled in 
all directions. And fatigued with flight they began to fall 
down on all sides, unuble to slake their thirst having reached 
river-beds that were perfectly dry. And many so falling were 
eaten up by the hungry warriors. While others were eaten up 
after having been duly quartered and roasted in fires lit up 
by the warriors. And many strong elephants maddened with 
the wounds they received and alarmed also beyond measure 
fled with trunks ujn-aised on high. And those wild elephants 
betraying tiie usual symptoms of alarm by urinating and 
ejecting the contents of their stomach and vomitting blood 
in large quantities trampled, as they ran, many warriors to 
•death. And that forest which had been fiill of animals was 
by the king with his masses of followers and .sharp weapons 
soon made bereft of lions and tigers and other monarchs of the 

And thus endeth the sixty-ninth Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXX. 

(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, "Then the king with his followers 
having killed thousands of animals entered another forest for 
purposes of hunting. And attended by a single follower and 
fatigued with hungrer and thirst he came upon a large desert 
on the frontiers of the forest. And having crossed thia herb- 


less plain the king came upon another forest full of the re- 
treats of ascetics, beautiful to' look at, delighting the heart, 
and of cool, agreeable breezes. And it was full of trees 
covered with blossoms, the soil overjjrown with the softest and 
greenest grass, extending for many miles around, and echoing 
with the sweet notes of winged warblers. And it resounded 
also with the notes uf the male Kokila and of the shrill cicala. 
And it abounded with maguificient trees with outstreched 
branches forming a shady canopy overhead. And the bees 
hovered over flowery creepers all around. And there were 
beautiful bowers iu every place. And there was no tree Avith- 
out flowers, none without fruits, or none that had prickles on 
it, or none that had no bees swarming around it. And the 
whole forest resounded with the melody of winged choristers. 
And it was decked with various flowers. And there were re- 
freshing shades of blossoming trees. 

" Such was the delicious and excellent forest that the great 
Ibowmau entered. And trees wath branches beautified with 
clusters of flowers began to gently wave at the soft breeze and 
rain their flowers over the monarch's head. And the trees clad 
in their flowery attire of all colors, with sweet-throated 
warblers perching on them, stood there in rows with heads 
toucliing the very heavens. And around their branches hang- 
ing down with the weight of flowers the bees tempted by 
the honey hummed in sweet chorus. And the king endued 
with great energy beholding innumerable spots covered with 
bowers of creepers decked with thick clusters of flowers, from 
excess of gladness became very much charmed. And the forest 
was exceedingly beautiful in consequence of those trees ranged 
around with flowery branches twining with each other and 
looking like so many rain-bows for gaudiness and variety of 
color. And it was the resort of bands of ascetics crowned 
with success, of the Ckaranas, of tribes of Gandharvas and 
Apsaras, of monkeys and Kinnaras drunk with jo3^ Delici- 
ous, cool, and fragrant breezes conveying the effluvia of fresh 
flowers blew in all directions as if tliey had come there to 
sport with the trees. And the king saw that charming forest 
, gifted with isuch beauties, Audit was situate iu a delta of 


the river, and the cluster of high trees standing together made 
the place look like a gaudy flatstaff. 

" And in that forest which was the resort of ever-cheerful 
birds, the monarch saw a delightful and charming retreat 
of ascetics. And there were many trees around it. And the 
sacred fire was burning within it. And the king worshipped! 
that unrivalled retreat. And he saw sitting in it numerous 
Yotls, Valakhillyas, and other Munis, And it was adorned 
with many chambers containing the sacrificial fire. And the 
flowers dropping from the trees had formed a thick carpeft 
spread over the ground. And the spot looked exceedingly 
beautiful with those tall trees of large trunks. And by it flowed, 
O king, the sacred and transparent Malini with every species 
of water-fowl playing on its bosom. And that stream infused 
gladness into the hearts of the ascetics who resorted to it for 
purposes of ablutions. And the king beheld on its banks many 
innocent animals of ihe deer species and was exceedingly de- 
lighted with all he saw. 

"And the monarch, the course of whose chariot no foe could 
obstruct, then entered that asylum which was like unto the 
region of the celestials, being exceedingly beautiful all over. 
And the king saw that it was on the margent of the sacred 
stream which was like the mother of all the living creatures 
residing in its vicinage. And on its beach sported the Chakra' 
vaka, and waves of milk-white foam. And there stood also the 
habitation of Kinnaras. And monkeys and bears too disported 
in numbers. And there lived also holy ascetics engaged in 
study and meditation. And there could be seen also elephants 
and tigers and snakes. And it was on the banks of that 
stream that the excellent asylum of the illustrious Kasyapa 
stood offering a home to numerous Rishis of great ascetic merit. 
And beholding that river, and the asylum also washed by 
that river which was studded with many islands and which 
possessed banks of so much beauty, — an asylum like unto that 
of Nara and Narayuna laved by the waters of the Ganges, — 
the king then resolved to enter into that sacred abode. And 
that bull among men, desirous of beholding the great Rishi of 
ascetic wealth, the illustrious Kanwa of the race of Kasyapa, 



one Avho possessed every virtvie and who for his splendouf 
could with difHciilty be gazed at, then approached tliat forest 
resounding with the notes of maddened peacocks and like 
unto the gardens of the great Gandharva Chittra-ratha him- 
self. And halting his army, consisting of flags, cavalry, in- 
fantry, and elephants, at the entrance of the forest, the 
monarch spoke as follows : — ' I shall go to behold the mighty 
ascetic of Kasyapa'a race, he who is without darkness. Stay 
ye here until my return I ' 

" And the king having entered that forest which was 
like unto Indra's garden, soon forgot his hunger and thirst. 
And he was pleased beyond measure. And the monarch, laying 
aside all signs of royalty, entered that e;vce'ly:ii asylum with 
but his minister and his priest, desirous of beholding that Rishi 
■who was an indestructible mass of ascetic merit. And the 
king saw that the aylum was like unto theregion of Brahma, 
There were bees sweetly humming here and winged warblera 
of various species pouring forth their melodies there. At 
particular places tliat tiger among men heard the chaunting of 
the Rig hymns by first-rate Brahmanas according to the just 
rules of intonation. Other places again were decked with 
Brahmanas acquainted with the ordinances of sacrifices, of 
the Angas, and the hymns of the Yayurveda. Other places 
again were filled with the harmonious strains of Sama hymns 
sung by vow-observing Rishis. At other places the asylum 
was decked with Brahmanas learned in the Aiharva Veda. 
At other places again Brahmanas learned in the Atharva Veda 
and those capable of chaunting the sacrificial hymns of the 
Sama were reciting the Sanhitas according to the just rules of 
voice. At other places again other Brahmanas well-acquainted 
with the science of ortho-epy were reciting mantras of other 
kinds. In fact, that sacred retreat resounding with these holy 
notes was like unto a second region of Brahma himself. And 
there were many Brahmanas skilled in the art of makinor 
sacrificial platforms and in the rules of Krama in sacrifices, 
conversant with logic and the mental sciences, and possessing 
a complete knowledge of the Vedas, There were those also 
who were fully acquainted with the meanings of all kinds ol 


*!fpre?siong, those that were conversant with al! especial riteg, 
those also that were followers of Moksha-dharma ; those agasa 
that were well-skilled in establishing propositions, rejecting 
superfluous causes, and drawing right conclusions. There 
were those having a knowledge of the science of words (gram- 
mar), o^f prosody, of NirvJda ; those again who were conversant 
with astrology and learned in the properties of matter and the 
fruits of sacrificial rites, possessing a knowledge of causes 
and effects, capable of understanding the cries of birds and 
monkies, well-read in large treatises, and skilled in various 
sciences. And the king, as he proceeded, heard their voices. 
And the retreat resounded also with the voices of men capable 
of charming human hearts. And the slayer of hostile heroes 
also saw around him learned Brahmanas of rigid vows engaged 
in Japa and homa. And the king wondered much on behold- 
ing the beautiful carpets which those Brahmanas offered to 
him respectfully. And that excellent of monarchs, at sight 
of the rites with which those Brahmanas worshipped the gods 
and great Rishis, thought within himself that he was in the 
region of Brahma. And the more the king saw that auspi- 
ciaus and sacred asylum of Kasyapa protected by that Rishi's 
ascetic virtues and possessing all the requisites of a holy retreat, 
the more he desired to see it. In fact, he was not satisfied 
with his short survey. And the slayer of heroes at last, ac- 
companied by his minister and his priest, entered that charm- 
ing and sacred retreat of Kasyapa peopled all around with 
Rishis of great ascetic wealth and exalted vows." 

And thus ends the seventieth Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva, 

Section LXXI. 
( Sambhava Pdrva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " The monarch then, as he proceeded 
left even his reduced attendants at the entrance of the asy- 
lum. And entering quite alone, he saw not the Rishi (Kanwa) 
of rigid vows. And not seeing the Rishi and finding that the 
abode was empty, he bailed loudly, saying, ' Whut ho, who is 


here V And the sound of his voice was echoed back, loud as i& 
was. And hearing the sound of his voice, there came out of the 
Rishi's abode a maiden beautiful as Sree herself but dressed 
as an ascetic's daughter. And the black-eyed fair one, as soon 
as she saw king Dushraanta, bade him welcome and worshipped 
him duly. And showing him due respect by the offer of a 
seat, Padya and Arghya, enquired after, O king, about the 
monarch's health and peace. And having worshipped the 
king and asked him about his health and peace, the maiden> 
reverentially asked, 'What must be done, O king ! I await your 
commands.' The king duly worshipped by her, then said unto 
that maiden of faultless features and sweet speech, 'I have come 
to worship the greatly fortunate Rishi Kanwa. Tell me, O 
amiable and beautiful one, where has the illustrious Rishi gone?* 
"Sakuntala then answered, 'My illustrious father hath gone 
away from the asylum to fetch fruits. Wait but a moment and 
thou wilt see him when he arrives.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The king not seeing the Rishi, 
and addressed thus by her, beheld that the maiden Avas exceed- 
ingly beautiful and endued with perfect symmetry of shape. 
And he saw that she was of sweet smiles. And she stood 
decked in beauty for her faultless features, for ascetic penan- 
ces, and for humility. And he saw that she was in the bloom 
©f youth. She therefore asked her, ' Who art thou ? And 
whose daughter, O beautiful one ! Why hast thou come into 
the woods also ? O handsome one, gifted with so much beauty 
and such virtues, whence hast thou come ? O charming one, 
at the very first glance hast thou stolen my heart ! I desire 
to learn all about thee ; therefore tell me all !' And thus 
addressed by the monarch in the aslyum, the maiden smilingly 
replied in these sweet words : — ' O Dushmanta, I am the 
daughter of the virtuous, wise, high-souled, and illustrious 
ascetic Kanwa 1 ' 

Dushmanta, hearing this replied, "The universally worship- 
ped and greatly fortunate Rishi is one whose seed hath been 
drawn up. Even Dharma himself might fall off from his 
course, but ascetics of rigid vpws can never fall ofif so. There- 
fore, tliou of the fwirest complexion, how hast thou beea 


jborn his daughter ? This great doubt of mine it behoveth 
thee to dispel !' 

Sakutala then replied, 'Hear, king, what I have learnt 
regarding all that befell me of old and how I am the daughter 
of the Muni ! Once on a time, a Rishi came here and asked 
about my birth. All that the illustrious one (Kanwa) told him 
hear now of me, king ! 

" 'My father Kanwa, in answer to that Rishi's enquiries said, 
Viswamitra of old having been engaged in the most austere 
of penances alarmed Indra the chief of the celestials who 
thought that the mighty ascetic of blazing energy would, by 
his penances, hurl him down from his high seat in the heavens. 
And Indra thus alarmed, summoned Menaka, and told her, 
"Thou, Menaka, art the first of all the celestial Apsaras ! 
Therefore, O amiable one, do me this service. Hear what 
I say. This great ascetic Viswamitra, like unto the Sun him- 
elf in splendour, is engage i in the most severe of penances. 
My heart is trembling with fear. Indeed, O slender-waisted 
Menaka, this is thy business ! Thou must see that Viswa- 
mittra, of soul rapt in contemplation and engaged in the 
most austere of penances, who might hurl me from ray seat. 
Go and tempt him, and frustrating his continued austerities 
accomplish my good ! Win him away from his penances, 
O beautiful one, by tempting him with thy beauty, youth, 
agreeableness, arts, smiles and speech." Hearing all this, 
Menaka replied, " The illustrious Viswamitra is endued with 
great energy and is a mighty ascetic. He is very wrathful 
also as is known to thee. The energy, penances, and wrath 
of the high-souled one have made even thee anxious. Why 
should not I also be anxious ? He it was who made even the 
illustrious Vasishta bear the pangs of witnessing the premature 
death of his children. He it was who though at first was born 
a Kshatria subsequently became a Brahmana by strength of his 
ascetic penances. He it was who for purposes of his ablu- 
tions created a deep river that can with difficutly be forded, 
and which sacred stream is known by the name of the Kausiki. 
It was Viswamitra whose wife in a season of distress was 
muiutaiued by the royal sage Matanga (Trisankuj who was thca 


living under a father's curse as a hunter. It was Vis\yamitra 
who, returning after the famine was over, changed the name of 
the stream laving his asylum from Kausiki into Para. It was 
Viswamitra who, in return for the services of Matanga, Limself 
became the latter's priest for purj^oses of a sacrifice. The 
lord of the celestials himself went from fear to that sacrifice 
for drinking the Soma juice. It was Viswamitra who ia 
anger created a second world and numerous stars beginning 
with Sravana. He it was who granted protection to Trisanku 
under a superior 's curse. I am frightened to approach him 
whose deeds are such ! Tell me, O Indra, the means that 
should be adopted so that I may not be burnt by his wrath. 
He can burn the three worlds by his splendour, can, by a, 
stamp, cause the earth to quake. He can sever the great 
Meru from the earth and hurl it at any distance. He can 
go round the ten points of the earth in a moment. How can 
a woman like us even touch such a one full of ascetic virtue, 
like unto blazing fire, and having his passions under complete 
control I His mouth is like unto the blazing fire, the pupile 
of his eye are like the Sun and the Moon, his tongue is like 
unto Yama himself. How shall, O chief of the celestials, a 
woman like us even touch him ? At the thought of his prowess, 
Yama, Shoma, the great Rishis, the Saddhyas, the Viswas, the 
Valakhillyas, are terrified ! How can a woman like me refrain 
from gazing at him in alarm ? Commanded, however, by thee, 
O king of the celestials, I shall somehow approach that Rishi. 
But, chief of the gods, devise thou some plan whereby, pro- 
tected by thee, I may safely move about that Rishi ! I think 
that when I begin to play before the Rishi, Maruta (the god of 
wind) had better go there and rob me of my dress, and Man- 
matha (the god of love) had also, at thy command, better help 
me then. And let also Maruta on that occasion bear thither 
fragrance from the woods to tempt the Rishi. " Saying this, 
and all she said having been duly provided, Menaka then went 
to the retreat of the great Kaushika. 

And thus endeth the seventy-first Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LKXIL 

(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Kanwa continued, — And Sakra, thus addressed by her, 
then commanded him who could aproach every place (the god 
of wind) to be present with Meua^ka at the time the latter 
would be before the Hishi, And the timid and beautiful 
Menaka then entered the retreat and saw there Viswamitra 
who had burnt, by his penances, all his sins, and was engaged 
yet in ascetic penances. And saluting the Rishi, she then 
began to sport before him. And just at this time Maruta 
robbed her of her garments that were white as the moon. 
And she thereupon ran, as if in great bashfulness, to catch 
her attire, and as if she was exceedingly annoyed with Maruta. 
And she did all this in the very sight of Viswamitra who 
was endued with energy like that of lire. And Viswamitra 
saw her in that attitude. And beholding her divested of her 
robes, he saw that she was of faultless features. And the 
best of Munis saw that she was exceedingly handsome, with 
no marks of age on her person. And beholding her beauty 
and accomplisliments, that bull amongst Rishis was possessed 
■with desire, and made a sign that he desired her compa- 
nionship. And he invited her accordingly and she of fault- 
less features expressed also her accej^tance of the invitation. 
And they then passed a long time there in each other's com- 
pany. And sporting with each other just as they pleased, for 
a long time as if it were only a day, the Rishi begat in Mena- 
ka a daughter named Sakuntala. And Menaka (as her con- 
ception advanced) went to the banks of the river Malini 
coursing along a valley of the charming mountains of Him- 
vat. And there she gave birth to that daughter. And she 
cast the new-born infant on the bank of that river and went 
away. And beholding the new-born infant lying in that forest 
destitute of human beings but abounding with lions and tigers, 
a number of vultures sat around to protect it from harm. No 
Rakshasas or carnivorous animals took its life. Those vultures 
protected the daugh^«i4 of Meuaka. I had gome there to per«i 


form my ablutions and beheld the infant lying in the solitude 
of the wilderness surrounded by vultures. Bringing her hither 
I have made her my daughter. Indeed, the maker of the 
body, the protector of life, the giver of food, are all three, in 
their ordei', fathers according to the Dliarma shastras. And 
because she was surrounded, in the solitude of the wilderness, 
by Sakuntas (birdsj), therefore hath she been named by me 
Sakantala (bird-protected.) O Brahmana, know that it is thus 
that Sakuntala hath been my daughter. And the faultless 
Sakuntala also regards me as her father. 

"This is what my father had said unto the Rishi having been 
asked by him. And, O king of men, it is thus that thou 
must know I am the daughter of Kanwa. And not knowing 
my real father, I regard Kanwa as my father. Thus have I 
told thee, O king, all that hath been heard by me regarding 
my birth.' " 

And thus ends the seventy-second Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

SectioxN LXXIII. 

( Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana continued, " King Dushraanta hearing all 
this said, 'Well-spoken by thee, O princess, all that, O blessed 
one, thou hast said ! Be my wife, O beautiful one ! What 
shall I do for thee ? Golden garlands, robes, ear-rings of gold, 
whitest and handsomest pearls from various countries, golden 
coins, finest carpets, I shall present thee this very day. Let the 
whole of my kingdom be thine to-day, O beautiful one ! Come 
to me, O timid one, wedding me, O beautiful one, according 
to the Gandharva form ! O thou of tapering thighs, of all 
modes of marriage, the Gandharva is regarded as the first.' 

"And Sakuntala, hearing this, said, 'O king, my father 
hath gone from this asylum for fetching fruits. Wait but a 
moment, he will bestow me on thee!' 

"And Duslimanta replied, '0 thou beautiful and faultless 
one, I desire that thou shouldst be my companion. Know 
thou that I exist for thee, and my heart is in thee, One is 


eertaiul}^ one's own friend, and one certainly may depend 
upon one's own self. Therefore, according to the ordinance, 
thou canst certainly bestow thyself. There are, in all, eight 
kinds of marriage. These are Brahma, Daiva, Arsha, Praja- 
patya, Asura, Gandharva, Rakshasa. and Paishacha the 
eighth. The self-create Manu hath spoken of the 'appropriate- 
ness of all these forms according to their order. Know thou, 
O faultless one, that the four first of these is fit for the 
Brahmanas, and six first for the Kshatrias. As regards kings, 
even the Rakshasa form is permissible. The Asura form ia 
permitted to the Vaisyas and the Sudras. Of the five first, 
three are proper, the other two being improper. The Pai- 
shacha and the Asura forms should never be practised. These 
are the institutes of religion, and one may act according to 
them. The Gandharva and the Rakshasa forms are consistent 
with the practices of Kshatrias. Thou needst not entertain 
the least alarm. There is not the least doubt that whether 
according to any of these last mentioned forms, or according 
to a union of both of them, our wedding may take place. O 
thou of the fairest complexion, full of desire as I am, thou 
also in a similar mood canst be my wife according to the Gan- 
dharva form.' 

"Sakuntala having listened to all this, answered, 'If this 
be the course sanctioned by religion, if, indeed, I am my own 
disposer, hear thou, O thou foremost of the Purava race, 
what are my terms. Promise truly to give me what I ask 
thee amongst ourselves alone. The son that shall be begotten 
in me shall become thy heir-apparent. This, O king, is my 
fixed resolve. And, Dushmanta, if thou grantest this, then 
let our union take place.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The monarch, without taking 
time to consider, at once told her 'Let it be. And I will 
even take thee, O thou of agreeable smiles, with me to my 
capital. I tell thee truly. O thou beautiful one, thou 
deservest all this ! And so saying, that first of kings then 
wedded the handsome Sakuntala of graceful tread, and knew 
her as her husband. And assuring her duly he came away, 
telling her repeatedly, *l shall send for thy escort my troops 



of four classes. In«leed, it is even thus that I shall take thee 
to my capital, thou of beautiful smiles.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " O Jauamejaya, having pro- 
mised so to her the king went away. And as he retraced 
his way homewards he began to think of Kasyapa. And 
he asked himself, ' What shall the illustrious ascetic say, 
after he hath known all ?' Thinking of this, he entered his 

"The moment the king had left, Kanv/a arrived at his abode. 
But Sakuntala, from a sense of shame, did not go out to 
receive her father. That great ascetic, hov/ever, possessed of 
spritual knowledge, knew all. Indeed, beholding everything 
with his spiritual eye, the illustrious one was pleased and 
addressing her said, ' Amiable one, what hath been done by 
thee today in secret, without having waited for me, viz, in- 
tercourse with a man, hath not been destructive of thy 
virtue. Indeed, union according to the Gandharva form, 
of a wishful woman with a man full of desire, without mantras 
of any kind, it is said, is the best for Kshatrias. That best 
of men, Dushmanta, is also high-souled and virtuous. Thou 
liast, O Sakuntala, accepted him for thy husband. The son 
that shall be born of thee shall be mighty and illustrious in 
this world. And he shall have sway over the whole of this 
earth bounded by the sea. And the forces of that illustrious 
king of kings, while he goeth out against his foes, shall be 
irresistible. ' 

"And Sakuntala then approached her fatigued father and 
washed his feet. And taking down the weight he had on 
and placing the fruits in proper order, told him, 'It behoveth 
thee to give thy grace to that Dushmanta whom I have accept- 
ed for my husband, as well as to his ministers.' 

"Kanwa replied, ' O thou of the fairest complexion, for 
thy sake, I am inclined to bless him. But receive from me, 
thou blessed one, the boon that thou desirest.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "Sakuntala thereupon moved by 
the desire of benefiting Dushmanta, asked tiie boon that the 
Paurava monarchs might ever be virtuous and never be deprivet^ 
oi their thrones. " 

&D1PARVA, 219 

And so ends the seventy-third Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Purva. 

Section LXXIT. 

(Sambhava Parva, continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, "After Dashmanta had left the asylum 
Ijiving those promises to Sakuntala, the latter of tapering 
thighs brought forth a boy of immeasurable energy. And 
when the child was full three years of age, he became in 
splendour like the blazing fire. And, Janamejaya, he was 
possessed of beauty and magnanimity and every aecomplish- 
Rient. And the first of virtuous men, Kanwa, caused all the 
rites of religion to be performed on that intelligent child 
thriving day by day. And the boy gifted with pearly teeth 
and shining locks, capable of slaying lions even at that age, 
with all auspicious signs on his palm, and broad expansive fore- 
head, grev/ up in beauty and strength. And like unto a celes- 
tial child in splendour he began to grow up rapidly. And 
when he was only six years of age, endued with great strength 
he used to seize and bind to the trees that stood around thafe 
asylum lions and tigers and boars and buffaloes and elephants. 
And he rode on some animals, seized some, and pursued others 
in sportive mood. The dwellers of Kanwa's asylum there- 
upon bestowed on him a name. And they said, because he 
seizes and restrains all animals however strong, let him be 
called Sarva-damana ( the restrainer of all. ) And it was thus 
that the boy came to be named Sarva-damana, endued as he 
was with pi-owess and energy, and strength. And the Rishi 
seeing the boy and marking also his extraordinary acts, told 
Sakuntala that the time had come for his installation as the 
heir-apparent. And beholding the strength of the boy, Kanwa 
commanded his disciples, saying, '' Bare ye without delay thia 
Sakuntala with her son from this abode to that of her 
husband blessed with every auspicious sign. Women should 
not live long in the houses of their paternal or maternal 
relations. Such residence is destructive of their reputation 
their good conduct; their virtue. Therefore delay cot in bei^r* 


ing her hence.' The disciples of the Rishi thereupon, saying 
* so be it, ' went towards the city named after the elephant 
( Ilastinapore ) with Sakuntala and her son before them. 
And then she of fair eye-brows taking with ber that boy of 
celestial beauty endued with eyes like lotus leaves, left the 
woods where she had been first known by Dushmanta. And 
liaving approached the king, she with her boy resembling in 
splendour the rising Sun was introduced to him. And the dis- 
ciples of the Rishi having introduced her, returned to the 
asylum. And Sakuntala having worshipped the king according 
to proper form, told hlra, 'This is thy son, O king ! Let him 
be installed as thy heir-apparent. O king, this child, like 
unto a celestial, hath been begotten by thee in me. There- 
fore, O thou best of men, fulfil now the promise thou gave&t 
me. Call to thy mind, O thou af great good fortune, the 
agreement into which thou hadst entered on the occasioa 
of thy union with me in the asylnm of Kanwa.' 

'•The king, hearing these her words, and remembering 
everything, said, 'I do not remember anything. Whose art 
thou, O wicked woman in ascetic guise ? I do not remem- 
ber having contracted any connection with you in respect of 
Dharma, Kama and Artha. Go or stay or do as thou pleasest.' 
Thus addressed by him, the fair-complexioned innocent one 
became abashed. Grief deprived her of consciousness and she 
stood for a time like an wooden post. Soon, however, her 
eyes became red like copper and her lips began to quiver. 
And the glances she now and then cast upon the king seemed 
to burn the latter. Her rising wrath, however, and the fire of 
her asceticism, she extinguished within herself by an extraordi- 
nary effort. Gathering her thoughts within a moment, her heart 
possessed with sorrow and rage, she thus addressed her lord 
in anger, looking at him. 'Knowing everything, O monarch, 
how canst thou, like an inferior person, thus say that thou 
knowest not ? Thy heart is a witness a regards the truth or 
falsehood of this matter. Therefore speak truly without de- 
grading thyself ' He who being one thing, representeth himself 
as another thing (o others is like a thief and a robber of his 
own 3cU. Of whut •'jin is he not capable ? Thou Ihinkest that 


thou alone hast knowledge of thy deed. But knowest thou 
not that the ancient omniscient one (Narayana) lieth in thy 
heart ? He knoweth all thy sins, and thou sinnest in his 
presence. He that sins thinks that none observeth him. But 
he is observed by the gods and by him also who occupieth 
every heart. The Sun, the Moo n, the Air, Fire, Earth, Sk}^, 
Water, the heart, Yama, the day, the night, both twilights, 
and Dharma, all witness the acts of man. Yama, the son of 
Surya, taketh no account of his sins with whom Naiayana the 
witness of all acts is gratified. But he with whom Narayana is 
not gratified is tortured for his sins by Yama. Him who 
degradeth himself by representing his self falsely, the gods 
never bless. Even his own saul doth not bless him. I am 
a wife devoted to my husband. I have come of my own accord, 
it is true. But do not, on that account, treat me with disres- 
pect. I am thy wife and therefore deserve to be treated res- 
pectfully. Wilt thou not treat me so because I have come 
hither of my own accord ? In the presence of so many, why 
dost thau treat me like an ordinary woman ? I am not cer- 
tainly crying in the wildneness. Dost thou not hear me ? But 
if thou refusest to do what I supplicate thee for, Dushmanta, 
thy head this moment shall burst in hundred pieces. The 
husband entering the womb of the wife cometh out himself 
in the form of the son. Therefore is the wife called by those 
cognisant with the Veda as Jdyd (she in whom one is born») 
And the son that is so born unto persons cognisant of the 
Yedic Mantras, rescueth the spirits of deceased ancestors. And 
because the son rescueth ancestors from the hell call Put, there- 
fore hath he been called by the self-ereate himself Puttra (the 
rescuer from Put.) By a son one conquereth the three worlds. 
By a son's son, one enjoyeth eternity. And by a grand-son's 
son great-grand-fathers enjoy everlasting happiness. She is a 
true wife who is skilful in house-hold affairs. She is a true 
wife who hath borne a son. She is a true wife whose heart ia 
devoted to her lord. She is a true wife who knoweth none 
but her lord. The wife is man's half. The wife is the first 
of friends. The wife is the root of Dharma, Artha, and Kama. 
The wife is the root of salvation, They that havg wives can 


perform religious acts. They that have wives can lead domes- 
tic lives. The}^ that have wives have the means to be cheer- 
ful. They that have wives can achieve good fortune. Sweet- 
speeched wives are as friends on occasions of joy. They are 
as fathers on occasions of religious acts. They are as moth era 
in hours af sickness and woe. Even in the deep woods> a wife 
to a traveller is his refreshment and solace. He that hath a wife 
is trusted by all. A wife tlierefore is one's most valuable 
possession. Even when the husband leaving this world goeth 
into the region of Yama, it is the devoted wife that accom- 
panies him there. A wife gone before waits for the liusband. 
But if the husband goeth before, the chaste wife folloAveth 
close. For these reasons, O king, doth marriage exist. The 
husband enjoj^eth the companionship of the wife both in this 
and the other world. It hath been said by learned persons 
that one is himself born as one's son. Therefore should a 
man whose wife hath borne a son look upon her as his mother. 
Beholding the fiice of the son one hath begot in his wife, like 
his own face in a mirror, one feeleth as happy as a virtu tons 
man on attaining to heaven. Men scorched by mental grief 
or suffering under bodily pain feel as much refreslied in the 
companionship of their wives as one perspiring (under the hofc 
sun) in a cool bath. No man even in anger should ever do 
anything that is disagreeable to his wife, seeing that happi- 
ness, joy, and virtue, everything dependeth on the wife. A 
wife is the sacred field in which the husband is' born himself. 
Even Rishis cannot create creatures without women. What 
happiness is greater than what the father feels when the son 
running towards liim, even 4:hough his body be smeared Avith 
dust, clasps his limbs ? Why then dost thou treat Avith in- 
difference such a son who hath approached thee liimself and 
who casteth wishful glances tOAvavds tliee for climbing thy 
knees ? Even ants support, without destroying, their own 
eggs. Then why shouldst not thou, virtuous as thou art, sup- 
port thy own child ? The touch of soft sandal paste, of 
women, of (cool) water, is not so agreeable as the touch of 
one's own infant son locked in one's embrace. As a Brahmana 
is the foremost of all bipeds, a cow the foremost of all 


qnadrnpeds, a preceptor the foremost of all superiors', so is 
the son foremost of all objects agreeable to the touch. Let 
therefore, this haadsome child touch thee in embrace. There 
is nothing in the world more agreeable to the touch than the 
embrace of one's son. O thou chastiser of the foe, I have 
brought forth this child, O monarch, capable of dispelling all 
thy sorrows, after bearing him in my womb for full three years, 
And, monarch of the Puru race, " He shall perform a hun- 
dred horse-sacrifices" were the words uttered in the skies when 
I was in the lying-in room. Indeed, men going into places 
remote from their homes take up others' children on their 
laps and smelling their heads feel great happiness. Thou 
knowest that Brahmanas repeat these Vedic mantras on the 
occasion of the consecrating rites of infancy. " Thou art born, 
O son, of my body ! Thou art sprung from my heart. Thou 
art myself in the form of son. Live thou for a hundred years! 
My life dependeth on thee, and the continuation of my race 
also on thee. Therefore, O son, live thou in great happiness 
for a hundred years. " He hath sprung from thy body — this 
second being from thee. Behold thyself in thy son as thou 
beholdest thy image in the clear lake ! As the sacrificial fire 
is kindled from the domestic one, so hath this one sprung from 
thee. Though one, thou hast divided thyself. In course of hunt- 
ing while engaged in the pursuit of deer, I was approached 
by thee, king, I who was then a virgin in the asylum of my 
father ! Urvasi, Purva-chitti, Saha-janya, Menaka, Viswaclii, 
and Ghritachi, these are the six foremost Apsaras. Amongst 
them again, Menaka, born of Brahma, is the first. Descend- 
ing from heaven on earth, after intercourse with Viswamitra 
she gave me birth. That celebrated Apsara, Menaka, brought 
me forth in a valley of the Himalya. And bereft of all 
affection, she went away casting me there as if I was any 
body else's child. What sinful act did I do of old in some 
other life that I was in infancy cast off by my parents and at 
present am cast off hy thee ! Cast off by thee I am ready to 
return to the asylum of my father. But it behoveth thee not 
to cast off this child who is thy own.' 

"Hearing all this, Dushmauta said, '0 Sakuntala, I do nob 


know liaving begof; in thee this son. Women generally speak 
untruths. Who shall believe in thy words ? Destitute of all 
affection, the lewd Menaka is thy mother, for by her wast thou 
cast off on the surface of the Himalya as one throws away, after 
the worship is over, the flowery offerings he had made to his 
gods. Thy father too of the Kshatria race, the lustful Viswatiii- 
tra, who was tempted to become a Brahmana, is destitute of 
all affection. However, Menaka is the first of Apsaras, and 
thy father also is the first of Rishis. Being their daughter, 
why dost thou speak like a woman that Is lewd ? Thy words 
deserve no credit. Art thou not ashamed to speak them ? Espe- 
cially before me ? Go hence, O wicked woman in ascetic 
guise. Where is that foremost of great Rishis, where also 
is that Apsara Menaka ? And where art thou, low as thou 
art, in the guise of an ascetic ? Thy child too is grown up. 
Thou sayest he is a boy, but he is very strong. How hath 
he so soon grown like a Shala sprout ? Thy birth is low. 
Thou speakest like a lewd woman. Lustfully hast thou been 
begotten by Menaka. O woman of ascetic guise, all that thou 
sayest is quite unknown to me. I don't know thee. Go whither- 
soever thou choosest.' 

"Sakuntala replied, ' Thou seest, king, the faults of 
others, even though they be so small as a mustard seed. Bub 
seeing, thou noticest not thy own faults even though they be 
as large as the Vilwa fruit. Menaka is of the celestials. Indeed, 
Menaka is reckoned as the first of celestials. My birth, there- 
fore, Dushmanta, is far higher than thine. Thou walkest 
upon the earth, king, but I roam in the skies. Behold, the 
difference between ourselves is as that between (the mountain 
of ) Meru and a mustard seed. Behold my power, O king ! 
I can repair to the abodes of Indra, Kuyera, Yaraa, and 
Varuna. The saying is true which I shall refer to before thee, 
O sinless one ! I refer to it for example's sake and not from evil 
motives. Therefore it behoveth thee to pardon me after thou 
hast heard it. An ugly person considereth himself handsomer 
than others until he sees his own face in the mirror. But when he 
sees his own ugly face in the mirror, it is then that he perceives 
the difference between himself and others. He that is really 

ADl PARVA. 225 

handsome never taunts anyboily. And he that always talketh 
evil becometh a reviler. And as the swine always affect dirt and 
filth even when in the midst of a flower-garden, so the wicked 
always choose the evil out of both evil and good that others 
speak. Those, however, that are wise, hearing the speeches 
of others that are intermixed with both good and evil, accept} 
only what is good, like geese that always extract the milk 
though it be mixed with water. As the honest are always pained 
in speaking ill of others, so are the wicked always rejoiced in 
doing the same thing. As the honest are always pleased in 
showing regard for the old, so are the wicked always rejoiced 
in aspersing the good. The honest are happy in not seeking 
for faults. The wicked are happy in seeking for them. The 
wicked ever speak ill of the honest. But the latter never 
injure the former even if injured by them. What can be more 
ridiculous in the world than that those that are themselves 
wicked should represent the really honest as wicked ? When 
even atheists are annoyed with those tliat have fallen off from 
truth and virtue and who are really like angry snakes of viru- 
lent poison, what shall I say of myself who am nurtured in 
faith ? He that, having begotten a son who is his own image, 
regardeth him not, never attaineth to the worlds he coveteth, 
and verily the gods destroy his good fortune and possesions. 
The pitris have said that the son continueth the race and the 
line and is, therefore, the best of all religious acts. Therefore 
should none abandon a son. Manu hath said that there are 
five kinds of sons : those begotten by one's self in his own 
wife, those obtained (in gift) from others, those purchased for 
a consideration, those reared with affection and those beo-otten 
in others than wedded wives. Sons support the religion and 
achievements of men, enhance their jojs, and rescue deceased 
ancestors from hell. It behoveth thee not, therefore, O tiger 
among kin^rs, to abandon a son who is such. Therefore, O 
lord of the earth, cherish thy own self, truth, and virtue, by 
cherishing thy son. O thou lion among monarchs, it behoveth 
thee not to support this deceitful ness. The dedication of a 
tank is more meritorious than that of an hundred wells. A 
sacrifice again is more meritorious than the dedication of a 



tank, A son is more meritorious than a sacrifice. Truth ia 
more meritorious than an hundred sons. An hundred horse- 
sacrifices had once been weighed with Truth. Truth was 
found heavier than an hundred horse-sacrifices, O king, Truth, 
I ween, may be equal to the study of the whole Vedas and 
ablutions in all holy places. There is no virtue equal to Truth. 
There is nothinrr superior to Truth. O king, Truth is God 
himself. Truth is the highest vow. Therefore, violate nob 
thy pledge, O monarch ! Let Truth and thee be ever united. 
If thou placest no credit on my words, I shall of my own 
accord go hence. Indeed, thy companionship should be avoided. 
But know thou, O Dushraanta, that when thou art gone, this 
son of mine shall rule the whole earth surrounded by the four 
seas and adorned by the king of the mountains.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " And Sakuutala having spoken 
to the monarch in this wise, then left his presence- But as 
soon as she had left, a voice from the skies, emanating from no 
visible shape, thus spoke to Dushmanta as he was sitting sur- 
rounded by his Ritwijas, Purohita, Acharyas, and Minis- 
ters. And the voice said, ' Tiie mother is but the sheath of 
flesh : the son sprung from the father is the father himself. 
Therefore, O Dushmanta, cherish thy son, and insult not 
Sakuntala. thou best of men, the son, who is but a form of 
one's own seed, rescueth (ancestors) from the regions of Yaraa. 
Thou art the progenitor of this boy. Sakuntala hath spoken 
the truth. The husband dividing his body in twain is born 
oi his wife in the form of son. Therefore, O Dushmanta, 
cherish thou, O monarch, thy son born of Sakuntala. To live 
forsaking one's living son is a great misfortune. Therefoi'c, O 
thou of the Puru race, cherish thy high-souled son born of 
Sakuntala 1 And because this child is to be cherished by thee 
even at our word, therefore shall this thy son be known by 
the name of Bharata (the cherished.)' Hearing these words 
uttered by the dwellers of heaven, the monarch of the Pau- 
rava race became overjoyed and spoke as follows unto his 
Purohita and ministers. 'Hear ye these words uttered by the 
celestial messengei- ? I also myself do know this one to be 
i»y son, If I hud takeu him as my son ou the strength of 

A.DI PARVA, 227 

Sakimtala's words alone, my people woiiUl liave been sus- 
picious and my sou also would not have been regarded as 
pure.' " 

Vaisarapayana continued, " The monarch then, O thou of 
the Bharata race, seeing the purity of his son established by 
the celestial messenger, became exceedingly glad. And he 
took unto him that son with joy. And the king with a joyous 
heart then performed all those rites upon his son that a father 
should perform. And the king smelt his child's head and 
hugged him with affection. And the Brahmanas began to utter 
blessings upon him and the bards began to api)laud him. And 
the monarch then experienced the great delight that one feel- 
eth at the touch of one's son. And Dushmanta also received 
that wife of his with affection. And he told her these words, 
pacifying her affectionately. ' O Goddess, my union with thee 
took place privately. Therefore, I was thinking of how best 
to establish thy purit}-. My people might think that we were 
only lustfully united and not as husband and wife ; and 
therefore, thia son that I would have installed as my heir- 
apparent would only have been regarded as of impure birth. 
And, dearest, every hard word thou hast uttered in thy anger, 
have I, O large-eyed one, forgiven thee. Thou art my dearest. ' 
And that royal sage, Dushmanta, having spoken thus to his 
dear wife, then, O Bharata, received her with offerings of per- 
fume, food, and drink. And king Dushmanta then, bestowing 
the name of Bharata upon his child, formally intsalled him as 
the heir-apparent. And the famous bright v/heels of Bharata'a 
chariot, invincible and like unto the wheels of the cars owned 
by the gods, traversed every region filling the v/hole earth 
with their ghar-gkara. And the son of Dushmanta reduced 
to subjection all the kings of the earth. And he ruled virtu- 
ously and earned great fame. And that monarch of great 
prowess was known by the titles of Chahra-vavti and Sarva- 
bhcmma. And he performed many sacrifices like Sakra or the 
lord of the Marutas. And Kanwa was the chief priest in those 
sacrifices in which the offerings to Brahmanas were great. 
And the blessed monarch performed both the cow- and the 
horse-sacririccs. And BharaU gave unto Kuuwa a thousand 


gold coins as the sacrificial fee. It is that Bbarala from whom 
have flowed so many mighty achievemeuts. It is from him 
that the great race hatli sprung called after his name. And 
all monarchs that have come after liim in his race are called 
aUer him. And in the Bhai^ta race there have been bora 
many god-like monarchs gifted with great energy, and like 
unto Brahma himself. Their numbers cannot be counted. 
But, O thou of the Bharata mce, I shall name the principal 
ones that were blessed with great good fortune, like unto the 
gods, and devoted to trutlj and honesty." 

And so ends the seventy-fourth Section in the Sambhava oi 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXV. 
(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, "Hear now,^ as I recite, the recorded 
genealogy, that is sacred and subservient to religion, profit, 
and pleasure, of these royal sages : the lord of creation^ 
Dalisha ; Manu the son of Surya; Bharata; Euru ; Puru ; 
and Ajmida. I shall also recite to thee, sinless one, the 
genealogies of the Yadavas and of the Eurus ; snnd of the 
kings of the Bharata line. These genealogies are sacred and 
their- recitation is a great act of propitiation. That recitation 
confereth wealth, fame, and long life. And, O sinless one, 
all those I have named shone in their splendour and were 
equal unto the great Rishis in energy. 

" Fracheta had ten sons who were all devoted to asceticism 
and possessed every virtue. They burnt of old, by the fire 
emanating from their mouths, several plants of poisonous pro- 
perties, and innumerable large trees that had covered the 
earth and become a source of great discomfort to man. After 
these ten, was born another named Daksha. It is from Daksha 
that all creatures have sj)rung. Therefore is he, O tiger among 
men, called the Grand-father. And born of Pracheta, the 
Muni Daksha, uniting himself with Virini, begat a thousand 
sons of rigid vows, all like himself. And Narada taught these 
ihouBiind sona of Diikaha the c:iculknt philuaopby of Sankbya 

B.DI PAUVA," 229 

as a means of Salvation. [ These, therefore, totally abstained 
from begetting creatures. ] And, O Janamejaya, the lord of 
creation, Daksha, then, from desire of making creatures, begat 
fifty daughters. And he made all of them his appointed 
daughters (so that ^/^e^r sons might be hi^ sons also for the 
performance of all religious acts.) And he bestowed ten of hia 
daughters on Dharma, and thirteen on Kasyapa. And he gave 
twenty-seven to Chandra, who are all engaged in indicating 
time. And Kasyapa, the son of Marichi, begat in her who 
•was the eldest of his thirteen wives, the Adityas, the celestials 
endued with great energy and having Indra as their head, and 
also Vivas wan (the Sun. ) And from Vivaswan was born the 
lord Yama. And Martanda (Vivaswan) also begot another 
son after Yama, gifted with great intelligence and named Manu. 
And Manu was endued with great wisdom and devoted to 
virtue. And he became the progenitor of a line. And ia 
Manu's race have been born all human beings who have, 
therefore, been called Manttvas. And it is from Manu that} 
all men including Brahmanas, Kshatrias, and others have 
been born. And therefore are they all called Manavas. Sub- 
sequently, monarch, the Brahmanas became united with 
the Kshatrias. And those sons of Manu that were Brahmanas 
devoted themselves to the study of the Vedas. And Manu 
begot ten other children named Vena, Dhrishnu, Narishyan, 
Nabhaga, Ikshaku, Karusha, Sharyati, the eighth a daugh- 
ter named Ila, Prishadhru the ninth, and Nabhagarishta 
the tenth. They all betook themselves to the practices of 
Kshatrias. Besides these, Manu had fifty other sons on earth. 
But we heard that they all perished quarreling with each 
other. The learned Pururava v^as born of Ila. It hath been 
heard by us that Ila was both his mother and father. And the 
great Pururava had sway over thirteen islands of the sea. 
And though a human being he was always surrounded by 
companions that were inhuman. And Pururava, intoxicated 
with power, quarreled with the Brahmanas and little caring 
for their anger robbed them of their wealth. Beholding all 
this, Sanatkumara came from the region of Brahma and gave 
him good counsels whiob were, however, all rejected by Puru- 


rava. Then the wrath of the great RIshis was excited, and 
the avaricious monarch, Avho, intoxicated with power, had lost 
his reason, was immediately destroj'ed by their curse. 

"It was Purarava who first brought from the region of the 
Gandharvas the three kinds of fire (for sacrificial purposes. ) 
And he brought thence the Apsara Urvarsi also. And tlie son 
of Ila begat in Urvasi six sons who were called Aya, Dhiraan, 
Amavasu, and Dhridhayu, and Vanayu, and Shatayu. And 
it is said that Ayu begat four sons, named Nahusha, Vridha- 
sarma, Rajingaya, and Anena, in the daughter of Sharvanu. 
And, O monarch, Nahusha, of all the sons af Ayu, was gifted 
with great intelligence and prowess. And he ruled his exten- 
sive kingdom virtuously. And king Nahusha supported evenly 
the Pitris, the celestials, the Risliis, the Brahmanas, the 
Gandharvas, the Nagas, the Rakshasas, the Kshatrias, and the 
Vaisyas. And he suppressed all robber gangs with a mighty 
hand. But he made the Rlshis pay tribute and carry him 
on their backs like beasts of burden. And conquering the 
very gods by the beauty of his person, his asceticism, prowess^ 
and energy, he ruled as if he were Indra himself. And 
Nahusha begot six sons, all of sweet speech, named Yati, 
Yayati, Sangyati, Ayati, Ayati, and Dhruva. Yati betaking 
himself to asceticism became a Muni like unto Brahma himself. 
Yayati became a monarch of great prowess and virtue. He 
ruled the whole earth, performed numberless sacrifices, wor- 
shipped the Pitris with great veneration, and always respected 
the gods. And he brought the whole world under his sway 
and was never vanquished by any foe. And the sons of Yayati 
were all great bowmen and resplendent with every virtue. 
And, O king, they were begotten in (his two wives) Deva- 
yani and Sharmishta. And in Devayani were born Yadu and 
Turvasu, and in Sharmishta were born Drahyu, Ann, and 
Puru. And, king, having virtuously ruled his subjects for 
a long time, Yayati was attacked with hideous decrepitude 
destroying his personal beauty. And attacked by decrepitude, 
the monarch then spoke, O Bliarata, unto his sons Yadu and 
Puru and Turvashu and Drahyu and Ann these words : — 'O 
dear sona, I wish to be a young man and to gratify my appe- 


tites in the company of young women. Do you help me there- 
to !' To him his ehlest son born of Devayani then said, 
* What needesfc thou, O king ! Dost thou want to have our 
3'outh V Yayati tlien told him, 'Accept thou my decrepitude, 
O son ! with thy youth I would enjoy myself. During the 
time of a great sacrifice I have been cursed by the Muni 
Usana ( Sukra. ) O sons, I would enjoy myself with your 
youth. Take any of ye this my decrepitude and with my body 
rule ye my kingdom. I would enjoy myself with a renovated 
body. Therefore, ye my sons, take ye my decrepitude !' But 
none of his sons took his decrepitude. Then his youngest son 
Puru said unto him, ' O king, enjoy thou once again with a 
renovated body and returned youth ! I shall take thy decre- 
pitude and at thy command rule thy kingdom.' Thus addressed, 
the royal sage, by virtue of his ascetic power, then transferred 
his own decrepitude unto that high-souled son of his. And 
with the 3^outh of Puru the monarch became a young man ; 
while with the monarch's age Puru ruled his kingdom. 

*'Then, after a thousand years had passed away, Yayati, 
that tiger among kings, remained as strong and powerful as a 
tiger. And he enjoyed for a long time the companionship of his 
two wives. And in the gardens of Chittra-ratha (the king of 
the Gandharvas), the king also enjoyed the company of the 
Apsara Viswachi. But even after all this, the great king found 
his appetites'unsatiated. The king then recollected the follow- 
ing truths contained in the Puranas. ' Truly, one's appetites 
are never satiated with enjoyment. On the other hand, like 
sacrificial butter poured into the fire, they flame up with indul- 
gence. Even if one enjoyeth the whole earth with its Avealth, 
diamonds and gold, animals and Avomen, one is not yet 
satiated. It is only wlien man doth not commit any sin m 
respect of any living thing, in heart, deed, or word, it is then 
that he attaineth to purity as that of Brahma. When one 
feareth nothing, when one is not feared by any thing, when one 
wisheth for nothing, when one injureth nothing, it is then that 
one attaineth to the purity of Brahma.' The wise monarch 
seeing this and satisfied that one's appetites are never satiated, 
set his miad at rest by meditation, and took back from his sou 


his own (lecrepifude. And giving liim back his yonth though 
his appetites were unsatiated, and installing him on the throne, 
he spoke unto Puni thus : — 'Thou art ray true heir, thon arb 
my true son in whom m}'' race is to continue ! In the world 
shall my race be known after thy name !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "Then that tiger among kings, 
having installed his son Puru on the throne, went away to the 
raount of Bhrjo-u for devoting himself to asceticii^m. And 
having acquired great ascetic merit, after long yenrs he suc- 
cumbed to the inevitable influence of Time. He left hia 
human body by observing the vow of fasting, and ascended to 

heaven with his wives. " 

And thus ends the seventy-fifth Section in the Sambhava 

of the Adi Parva, 

Section LXXVI. 
( Samhhava Parva continued. ) 

Janamejaya said, "0 thou whose wealth is asceticism, tell 
me how our ancestor Yayati who is the tenth from Prajapati 
obtained for wife the unobtainable daughter of Sukra. I desire 
to hear of it in detail. Tell me also, one after another, of those 
monarchs separately who have been the founders of dynasties." 

Vaisampayana said, "The monarch Yayati was in splendour 
like unto Indra himself. I will tell thee, in reply to thy 
question, O Janamejaya, how both Sukra and Vrishaparva 
bestowed upon him with due rites their daughters, and how 
his union took place with Devayani in especial. 

"Between the celestials and the Asuras there happened 
frequent encounters of yore for the sovereignty of the three 
worlds with everything in them. The gods then, from desire 
of victory, installed the son of Angira (Yrihaspati) as their 
priest to conduct their sacrifices ; while their opponents in- 
stalled the learned Usana as their priest for the same purpose. 
And between those two Brahmanas there was always much 
boastful rivalry. Those Danavas assembled for encounter that 
were slain by the gods were all revived by Kavya (Sukra) by 
aid of the power of his knowledge. And then starting agaiu 


into life, these fouorlit, wiHi the gods. The Asuras also slew on 
the field of battlo many of the celestials. But the open-mind- 
ed Vrihaspati could not revive them, because he knew not the 
science called Sanjivani (re-vivification) which Kav3'a endued 
with great energy knew so well. And the gods were, therefore, 
in great sorrow. And the gods in great anxiety of' heart and 
entertaining a fear of the learned Usana, then went to Kacha, 
the eldest son of Vrihaspati, and spoke unto him, .saying, 'We 
pay court to thee, therefore be kind to us and do us a service 
that we regard as very great. That knowledge which resides 
in Sukra — that Brahmana of immeasurable prowess, make 
thy own as soon as thou canst. Thou shalt then be a sharer 
with us in all sacrificial offerings. Thou shalt find the 
Brahmana in the court of Vrishaparva. He always protects 
the Danavas but never us their opponents. Thou art his 
junior in age, and therefore capable of adoring him with rever- 
ence. Thou canst also adore Deva-yani, the favorite daughter 
of that high-souled Brahmana. Indeed, thou alone art capa- 
ble of conciliating them both by worship. There is none else 
that can do so. By gratifying Deva-yani with thy conduct, 
liberality, sweetness, and general behaviour, thou canst cer- 
tainly obtain that knowledge.' The son of Vrihaspati, thus 
solicited by the gods, then saying 'So be it,' went to where 
Vrishaparva was. And, O king, Kacha, thus sent by the gods, 
soon wended into the capital of the chief of the Asuras, and 
beheld SivJcra there. And beholding him he thus spoke unto 
him : — 'Accept me as thy disciple. I am the grand-son of the 
Rishi Angira and son of Vrihaspati himself. By name am I 
known as Kacha. Thy.self becoming my preceptor, I shall 
practise the Brahmacharya mode of life for a thousand years. 
Command me then, O Brahmana !' 

"And Sukra (hearing this) said, ' Welcome art thou, O 
Kacha! I accept thy speech. I will treat thee with regard ; for 
by so doing, it is Vrihasi)ati who is being regarded. " 

Vaisampayana continued, "And Kacha, commanded by 
Kavya or Usana himself called also Sukra, then saying. 
•So be it', took the vow he had spoken of And, O Bharata, 
accepting the vow as he had said, at the proper time, Kacha 



Jaegau to conciliate regardfuUy both his 2>rectplor anil (his 
]>receptor's daughter) Deva-yani. And he began to conciliate 
both. And young as he was, by singing and dancing and 
playing on different kinds of instruments, lie soon gratified 
Deva-yani wlio was herself in her youth. And, O Bharata> 
vith his whole heart set upon it, he soon gratified that maiden 
Deva-yani — already arrived in her youth, by presents of 
flowers and fruits and services rendered with alacrity. And 
Deva-yani also by her songs and sweetness of manners used, 
while they were alone, to attend upon thiit youth carrying 
out his vow. And when five hundred years had thus passed 
of Kacha's vow, the Danavas came to learn of his intention. 
And having uo compunctions about slaying a Brahmana, they 
became very angry with him. And one day they saw Kaclia 
engaged in a solitary pnrt of the woods in tending ( his 
preceptor's) kine. And they then slew Kacha from their 
liatred of Vrihaspjiti and from their desire also of protecting 
the knowledge of reviving the dead from being taken nway 
by him. And having slain him they hacked Ids body into 
pices and gave tliese to be devoured by jackals and wolves. 
And (when twilight came) the kine returned to their fold 
without him who tended them. And Deva-yani, seeing the 
Jiine return from the woods without Kacha, spoke, O Bharata, 
unto her father thus : — 

'Thy Evening fire hath been kindled : the Sun also hath 
pet, O father! The kine have returned without him who 
teudeth them. Indeed, Kacha is not to be seen ! It is jtlaiu 
that Kacha hath been lost or dead. Truly do I say, O father, 
that without him I would not live.' 

"And Sukra hearing this said, 'I will revive him b}' saying 
•—Let this one come.' Then having recourse to tlie science of 
reviving the dead, Sukra summoned Kacha. And summoned 
by his preceptor, Kacha appeared before hiin in gladness of 
heart, tearing by virtue of his preceptor's science the bodies 
of the wolves (that had devoured him.) And asked about the 
cause of his delay, he thu.; spoke unto Bhargava's (Sukra's) 
dau-ghter. Indeed, asked l)y that Brahmaua's daughter, he 
told her, 'I was dead. O thou of pure maunors, bearing the 


sacrificial fuel, Kiisa grass, and logs of wood, I was coming 
towards our abode. I had sat under a banian tree. The kino 
also having been gathered together were staying under the 
shade of that same banian. The Asuras, beholding me, asked — 
'WJto art thou'? They heard me answer — lam tfie son of 
Vrihaspatl. As soon I had snid this, the Danavas slew ma 
and hacking ray bo<ly into pieces gave my remains to jackaLj 
and wolves. And they then went to their homes in gladness 
of heart. O amiable one, summoned by the high-souled Bhar- 
gava, I come before thee somehow fully revived.' 

*' On another occasion, asked l)y Deva-yani, the Brahmana 
Kacha went into the woods. And as he was roving about for 
gathering flowers, the Danavas beheld iiim. They again slew 
him and pounding him into paste they mixed it with the 
waters of the ocean. Finding him late, the maiden again repre- 
sented the matter unto her father. And summoned again by 
the Brahmana with the aid of his science, Kacha appearint^ 
before (his preceptor and his daughter) told evrything as it had 
hap{)ened. Then slaying him for the third time and burning 
him and reducing him to ashes the Asuras gave those ashes to 
the preceptor himself mixing them with his wine. And 
Deva-yani again spoke unto her father, saying, 'O father, Kacha 
had been sent to gather flowers. But he is not to be seen. Ifc 
ia plain he hath been lost or dead, 1 tell thee truly, I would 
not live without him.' 

•'Sukra hearing this said, ' O daughter, the son of Vrihas- 
patl hath gone to the region of the dead. Though revived 
by my science, he is thus slain ■ frequently. What, indeed, 
am I to do ? O Deva-yani, do not grieve, do not cry. Ono 
like thee should not grieve for one that is mortal. Indeed, 
thou art, O daughter, in consequence of my prowess, wor- 
shipped thrice a day, during the ordained hours of prayer, by 
Brahma, Brahmanas, the gods with Indra, the Vasus, the 
Aswinas, the Asuras, in fact by the whole universe. It ia 
impossible to keep him alive, for revived by me he is as often 
killed,' To all this Deva-yani replied, 'Why shall I, father, 
not grieve for him whose grand-father is old Angira himself, 
whose father is Vrihaspatl — that ocean of aacctic merit, who. 


13 the grand-son of a Rishi and the son also of a RisM ? 
He himself too was a Brahmachaii and an ascetic ; always 
wakeful and skilled in everything. I will stai've and follow 
the way Kacha hath gone. The handsome Kacha is, O father, 
dear unto me !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The great Rishi Kavya (Sukra)^ 
then, afflicted by what Deva-yani had said, then cried in. 
anger, 'Certainly, the Asuraa seek .to injure me, for they slay 
my disciple that stayeth with me. These followers of Rudra 
desire to divest me of my character as a Brahmana by making 
me participate in their crime. Truly this crime hath a terrible 
end. The crime of slaying a Brahmana would even burn Indra 
himself.' Having said this, that Brahmana Sukra, urged by 
Deva-yani, began to summon Kacha who had entered the jaws 
of death. But Kacha, summoned with the aid of science, and 
afraid at the consequences to his preceptor, feebly replied 
from within the stomach of his preceptor. And Kacha saidj 
'Be graceful unto me, O lord I I am Kacha that worshippetb 
thee ! Behave unto me as to thy own dearly-loved son.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Sukra then said, 'By what path, 
O Brahmana, entering my stomach, dost thou stay there ?' 
Leaving the Asuras this very moment, shall I go over to the 
gods!' And Kacha then answered, 'By thy grace, memory 
hath not failed me. Indeed, I do recollect everything as it hath 
happened. My ascetic virtues have not been destroyed. It is 
therefore that I am able to bear this insufferable pain. O 
Kavya, slain by the Asuras and burnt and reduced to powder 
have I been given to thee with thy wine. When thou art 
present, O Brahmana, the arts of the Asuras will never be able 
to vanquish the science of the Brahmana !' 

"Hearing this, Suki-a said, ' O daughter, v;hat good can I 
do to thee ? It is with my death that Kacha can have back 
his life ! O Deva-yani, Kacha is even within me. There ia 
no other way of his coming out except by ripping open my 
stomach. But Deva-yani replied, ' Both evils shall, like fire, 
burn me. The death of Kacha and thy own death too are to 
me as same. The death of Kacha would deprive me of life. 
If thou aliso diest, I shull not be able to bear life '.' Then 


Sukra said, ' O son of Vrihaspati, thou art, indeed, one 
already crowned with success, because Deva-yani regardesb 
thee so well. Accept now the science that I v/ill today impart 
to thee, if indeed, thou art no Indra in the form of Kacha j 
None can come out of my stomach with life. A Brahmana, 
however, must not be slain. Therefore, accept thou the 
science I impart to thee. Start thou into life as my son ! 
And possessed of the knowledge, having received it from me, 
and revived by me, look thou that coming out of my body 
thou may est have in view what gratitude dictateth.' " 

Vaisampivyana continued, " Receiving then the science im- 
parted to him by his preceptor, ripping open his stomach the 
handsome Bralmiiana Kacha came out like the moon at evening 
in the fifteenth day of the lighted fortnight. And beholding 
the remains of his preceptor lying like a heap of Brahma, even 
Kacha revived him with the aid of the science he had received. 
And worshipping him with regard, Kacha then said unto his 
preceptor, 'Him who poureth the nectar of knowledge into 
one's ears, even as thou hast done into those of myself who 
am void of all knowledge, him do I regard both as my father 
and mother. And remembering the immense service done by 
him, who is there so ungrateful as to injure him ? They that, 
having acquired knowledge, injure their preceptor who is 
always an object of worship, who is the giver of knowledge; 
who is the most precious of all precious objects on earth, 
become hated on earth and finally go to the regions of 
the sinful.' " 

Vuisampayana continued, " The learned Sukra, having 
been deceived while under wine, and remeinberinor the total 
loss of consciousness that is one of the terrible consequences of 
drink, and beholding too before him the handsome Kacha whom 
he had, in a state of unconsciou3nes&, drunk with his wine, 
then thought of effecting a reform in the manners of the Brah- 
manas. The high-souled Usana rising up from the ground in 
anger then spoke as follows : — ' That wretched Brahmana who 
from this day will, being unable to resist the temptation, 
drink wine, shall be regarded to have lost his virtue, shall be 
reckoned to have committed the sin of slaying a Brahmunaj 


shall be hated both in this and the other world. I set thrsi 
limit to the conduct and dignity of Brahmanas everywhere.. 
Let the honest, let Brahmanas, let those retrardful of theii* 
superiors, let the gods, let the three Avorlds, listen !' Having 
said these woids, that high-souled one — that ascetic of ascetics 
then summoning the Danavas who had been deprived by fate 
of their good sense, then told them these words: — 'Ye foolish 
Danavas, know ye that Kacha hath attained his wishes. He 
will henceforth dwell with me. Indeed, having obtained the 
valuable knowledge of reviving the dead, that Brahmana hath 
become in prowess even as Brahma himself !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " And Bhargava having said so 
much cut short his speech. The Danavas were surprised and 
went away to their homes. And Kacha too having staid with 
his preceptor for a full thousand years then prepared to re- 
turn to the abode of the celestials after having obtained his 
preceptor's permission." 

And thus ends the seventy-sixth Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXVII. 
( Sambhava Parva continued. } 

Vaisampayana said, " After the expiration of the period of 
his vow, Kacha having obtained his precejjtor's leave was about 
to return to the abode of the celestials. Just at this time, 
Deva-yani, addressing him, said, ' O grand-son of the Rishi 
Angira, in conduct and birth, in learning, asceticism, and 
humility, thou shinest most brightly ! As the celebrated 
Rishi Angira is honored and regarded by my father, so is thy 
father Vrihaspati regarded and worshipped by me ! O thou of 
ascetic wealth, knowing this, listen to what I say. Recollect 
my behaviour to thee during the period of thy vow (of Brahma- 
charya.) Thy vow hath now been over. It behoveth thee to 
fix thy affections on me. O accept my hand duly with ordained 
mantras 1' 

"Kacha replied, 'Thou art to me an object of regard 
and worship even as thy father ! Indeed, thou of faultless 


features, tliou art even an object of greater reverence ! Thou 
art dearer than life to I lie iiigU-souled Bhargava ! O amiable 
ene, as the daughter of my preceptor, tliou art ever worthy 
of my worship. As my preceptor Sukra thy father is ever 
deserving of my regards, so art thou, O Deva-yaui ! There- 
fore it behoveth thee not to say so.' Hearing this Deva-yaui 
replied, 'Thou too art the sou of my father's preceptor's son. 
Therefore, O best of Brahmanas, thou art deserving of my re- 
gards and worship. O Kacha, when thou wert slain so many 
times by the Asuras, recollect today the affection I showed 
for thee ! Remembering my friendship and affection for thee, 
and, indeed, my devoted regard also, O virtuous one, it be- 
hoveth thee not to abaudoa me without any fault I I am 
truly devoted to thee !' 

"Hearing all this Kacha said, ' O thou of virtuous vows, 
do not urge me into such a sinful course ! O thou of fair 
eye-brows, be graceful unto me ! Beautiful one, thou art to me 
an object of greater regard than my preceptor ! Full of vir- 
tuous resolves, O large-eyed one, of face, besides, as handsome 
as the moon, the place where thou hadst resided, viz, the body 
of Kavya, hath also been my abode. Thou art tridy my 
sister ! Therefore, O slender-waisted one, do iu)t say so ! 
Amiable one, happily liave we passed the days that we have 
been together. There is perfect good understanding between 
us I ask thy leave to return to my abode. Therefore jiro- 
iiouQce blessings on me so that my journey may be safe. I 
must be remembered by thee, wiien thou dost remember me 
in connection with topics of conversation, as one that hath not 
transgressed virtue ! Always attend upon my preceptor with 
readiness and singleness of heart ! ' To all this, Deva-yani 
answered, 'Solicited by me, if, indeed, thou dost trul}^ refuse 
to make me thy wife, then, O Kacha, this thy knowledge shall 
not bear fruit ! ' 

"Hearing all this, Kacha said, 'I have refused thy request 
only because thou art the daughter of my j)receptor, and not 
because thou hast any fault. Nor hatli my preceptor in this 
respect issued any command. Curse me if it ])leiise thee ! I 
have told thee what the behaviour should be of lli«his. 1 do not 


deserve thy curse, O Dev;i-3'ani ! But yet hast thou cursed me. 
Thou hast acted under the iaflueuce of passion and not from a 
sense of duty. Therefore thy desire sliall not be fulfilled. No 
Rishi's sou shall ever accept thy hand in marriage. Thou hast 
said that my knowledge shall not bear fruit. Let it be so. 
But in him it shall bear fruit to whom I may impart it.' " 

Vaisampa3'ana continued, " That first of Brahnmnas, Kacha, 
having said so unto Deva-yani, speedily v/ended unto the 
abode of the chief of the celestials. And beholding him 
arrived, the celestials with Indra ahead, having first worshipp- 
ed, spoke unto him as follows: — 'Thou hast, indeed, per- 
formed an act of great good for us. Wonderful hath been thy 
achievement ! Thy fame shall never die ! And thou shalt be 
a sharer with us in sacrificial offerings.' " 

And thus end:^ the seventy-seventh Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXVIII. 

( Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " The dwellers of heaven became 
exceedingly glad to welcome Kacha w^ho had mastered the 
wonderful science. And, O thou i)ull of the Bharata race 
the celestials then learnt that science from Kacha and consi- 
dered their object as already achieved. And then assembling 
together they spoke unto him of an hundred sacrifices, saying, 
'The time hath come for showing thy prowess. Slay thy foes, 
O Purandara !' And thus addressed, Maghava, then accom- 
panied by the celestials, set out, saying 'So be it.' But on 
his way he saw a iiumljer of damsels. These maidens were 
sporting in a lake in the gardens of the Gandharva Chittra- 
ratha. And changing himself into wind he soon mixed up 
the garments of those maidens which they had kept on tlie 
bank. A little while after, the maidens getting up from the 
water approached their garments that iiad, indeed, been mingled 
with eacii other. And it so happened that from the inter- 
mingled heap tlie attire of Deva-yani was appropriated by 
Sharmishta the daughter of Yrishaparva, from ignorance that 


it was not hers. And, O king, upon this, between them, Deva- 
yani and Sharmishta, then occurred a dispute. And Deva-yani 
said, 'O daughter of the Asiira (chief), why dost thou take 
my attire, being, as thou art, ray disciple ? Destitute of good 
behaviour, nothing good can happen to thee !' Sharmishta, 
however, quickly replied, ' Thy father occupying a lower seat 
always adoreth, Avith downcast looks like a hired chaunter 
of praises, my father whether when he sitteth at his ease or 
reclineth at full length. Thou art the daughter of one that 
beggeth, one that chaunteth the praises of others, of one 
that accepteth alms. I am the daughter of one who is adored, 
one who bestoweth alms instead of ever accepting them. 
Beggar woman as thou art, thou art free to strike thy breast, 
to use ill words, to vow enmity to me, to give way to thy 
wrath. Acceptress of alms, thou weepest tears of anger in 
vain. Thou art perfectly harmless, whereas, if so minded, I 
can harm thee. Thou desirest to quarrel. But know thou that 
I do not reckon thee as ray equal.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Hearing these words Deva-yani 
became exceedingly angry and began to pull at her clothes. 
Sharmishta thereupon threw her into a well, and went home. 
Indeed, the wicked Sharmishta believing that Deva-jani was 
dead, bent her steps homewards in a wrathful mood. 

" After Sharmishta had left, Yayati the son of Nahusha 
soon came to that spot. And the king had been out ahunting. 
And the couple of horses harnessed to his car and the other 
.single horses with him were all fatigued. And the king him- 
self was thirsty. And the son of Nahusha saw a well that 
was b3^ And he saw that it was dry. But in looking within 
it, he saw a maiden who in splendour was like unto the blazino- 
fire. And beholding her within it, the best of kings addressed 
that girl of the complexion of the celestials, soothing her with 
sweet words. And he said, 'Who art thou, fair one, of nails 
bright as burnished copper, and -with ear-rings decked with 
celestial gems ? Thou seemest to be greatly anxious. Why 
dost thou weep in affliction ? How, indeed, hast thou fallen 
into this well covered with creepers and long grass? And O 
slender-waistedgirl, answer me truly whose daughter thou art!' 



"Deva-yaiii then answered, ' I am the daughter of Sukra 
v/lio brings back into life the Asuraa that are slain by the gods. 
He doth not know Avhat liath befallen me. This is my right 
■hand, O king, with nails bright as burnished copper. Thou 
art well-descended ; I ask thee, take it and raise me up there- 
fore ! I knaw thou art of good behaviour, of great prowess, 
and wide fame ! It behoveth thee, therefore to raise me from 
this well r " 

Vaisampayaua continued, "King Yayati, learning that she 
was a Brahmana's daughter, then raised her from that well 
catching liold of her right haiid. And the monarch promptly 
raising her from the pit and speaking to her who was of tapermg 
thighs, sweetly and courteously, returned to his capital. 

" And when the son of Nahusha had gone away, Deva-yani 
of faultless features, afflicted with grief, then spoke unto her 
maid, Ghurnika by name, who met her at the time. And she 
said, 'O Ghurnika hie thou soon and speak to my father with- 
out loss of time of everything as it hath happened. I shall 
not now enter the city of Vrisha-parva.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " And Ghurnika, thus command- 
ed, repaired quickly to the mansion of the Asura chief. And 
there she saw Kavya and spoke unto him with her perception 
dimmed by anger. And she said, 'I tell thee, great Brahraa- 
na, that Deva-yani hath been ill-used, O fortunate one, in the 
forest by Sharmishta the daughter of Vrishaparva !' And 
Kavya, hearing that his daughter had been ill-used by Shar- 
mishta, speedily went out with a heavy heart, seeking for her 
in the woods. And when he found her in the woods he clasp- 
ed her with affection and spoke unto her with voice choked 
'with grief. '0 daughter, the weal or woe that befalleth people 
is always due to their own faults. Thou hast, therefore, some 
fault, I ween, which hath been expiated thus !' Hearing this, 
Deva-yani replied, 'Be it a penalty or not, listen thou to me 
with attention ! hear all that Sharmishta, the daughter of 
Vrishaparva, hath said unto me ! Really hath she said that 
thou art only the hired chaunter of the praises of the Asura 
king. Even thiis hath she — that Sharmishta, Vrisliaparva's 
daughter, — spoken to mo, with red eyes, these piercing and cruel 


words :— " Thou ai'b the daughter of one that ever cliaunteth 
for hire the praises of others ; of one that asketh for charity ; 
of one that accepteth ahns ; whereas I am the daughter of 
one that receiveth adorations, of one that giveth, of one that 
never accepteth anything in gift." These have been the 
words repeatedly spoken unto i:ne by the proud. Sharmishta, 
the daughter of Vrishaparva, with eyea red in anger. If, O 
father, I am really the daughter of a hired chaunter of praises, 
of one that accepteth gifts, I must offer her my adorations iu 
hopes of obtaining her grace. O, of this I have already told 

" Sukra replied, ' Thou art, Deva-yani, no daughter of 
a hired adorer, of one that asketh for alms and accepteth 
gifts ! Tliou art the daughter of one that adores none ; of 
one that is adored by all, Vrishaparva himself knoweth it, 
and Indra, and king Yayati too, that the inconceivable Brahma, 
the un-opposable God-head, is my strength. The self-create 
himself, gratified by me, hath said that I am for aye the lord 
of that which is in all things on earth or in heaven. I tell 
thee truly that it is I who poureth rain for the good of crea^ 
tures and who nourisheth the annual plants that sustain all 
living things.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " It was by such sweet words of 
excellent import that the father endeavoured to pacify his 
daughter afflicted with woe and oppressed by anger. " 

And so ends the seventy-eighth Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva, 

Section LXXIX. 
(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

" Sukra continued, * Know then, O Deva-yani, that hf? 
that re^ardeth not the evil speeches of others, couquereth 
everything ! The wise say that he is a true charioteer who 
without slackening hoideth tightly the reins of his horses. 
He, therefore, is the true man that subdueth, without indulg- 
ing, his rising wrath. Know thou, O Deva-yani, that by him 
is everything conquered who calmly subdueth his rising anger. 


He is regarded as a man -who by Laviug recourse to forgive- 
ness casteth off his rising anger like a snake casting off liia- 
outerskin. He that suppressetii his auger, lie that regardeth not 
the evil speeches of others, he that becometh not angry though 
there be cause, certainly acquireth the tour objects for which 
we live. (Religion, profit, desire, and salvation.) Between 
him that performeth witiiout fatigue sacrifices every month for 
an hundred years, and him that never feeleth wrath in respect 
of anything, he that feeleth not anger is certaiidy the higher. 
Boys and girls, unable to distinguish between right and wrong, 
quarrel with each other. The v/ise never imitate them.' Deva- 
yani, hearing this speech of her fatlier, said, ' O father, I 
know, though a girl, what are our duties and virtues, I know 
also what the difference is between anger and forgiveness as- 
regards tiie power of each. But when a disciple behaveth dis- 
respectfully, he should never bfr forgiven by the preceptor if 
the latter is realy desirous of benefiting the former. Therefore 
I do not desire to live any longer in a country wiiere evil be- 
haviour is on tiie ascendant. The wise man desirous of good, 
should not dwell among those sinfully-inclined men who al- 
aways speak ill of good behaviour and high birth. But there 
should one live, — indeed, that hath been said to be the best of 
dewelling places, — wh are good behaviour and purity of birth 
are known and respected. The cruel words uttered by Vrisha- 
parva's daughter burn my heart even as men desirous of kind- 
ling a fire burn the dry fuel. I do not think anything more 
miserable for a man in the three worlds than for him to adore 
his enemies blessed with good fortune, himself possessing none. 
Indeed, it hath been said by the learned that for such a man 
even death would be better.' " 

And thus ends the seventy -ninth Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXX. 

(Sanibhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisainpayana said, "Then Kavja tlie foremost of Bhrigu's 
line became angry himself. And approaching Vrishaparva 
where the latter was seated, began to address him without 
weio-hino- his words. 'O king,' he said, 'sinful acts do not, like 
the earth, bear fruit immediately. But gradually and secretly 
do they cut away the roots of their doer. Such fruit is seen 
either in one's own self, in one's son, or in one's grandson. 
Sins must bear their fruit. Like rich food they can never be 
digested. And because ye slew the Brahmana Kaclia, the 
grand-son of Angira, who was virtuous, acquainted with the 
precepts of religion, and attentive to his duties, while resid- 
ing in my abode, even for tiiis act of slaughter — unfit as he was 
for it — and for the mal-tieatment of my daughter too, know, 
O Vrishaparva, I shall leave thee and thy relatives. Indeed, 
O king, for this I can no longer stay with thee ! Dost thou, 

Asura chief, think that I am a raving liar ? Thou makest 
little of thy offence without seeking to correct it.' 

" Vrishaparva then said, 'O son of Bhrigu, never have I 
attributed want of virtue or falsehoood to thee ! Indeed, virtue 
and truth ever dwell in thee ! Be graceful unto me ! Bhar- 
gava, if leaving us thou really guest hence, we shall then go 
into the depths of the ocean. Indeed, there is nothing else for 
us to do.' 

"Sukra then replied, 'Ye Asuras, whether ye go into the 
depths of the ocean or fly away in all directions, I care little. 

1 am unable to bear my daughter's grief. My daughter is ever 
dear to me. My life dependeth on her. Seek ye to please 
her. As Vrihaspati everseeketh the good of Indra, so do I 
always seek thine by my ascetic merits.' 

•'Vrishaparva then said, ' O Bhargava, thou art the absolute 
master of whatever is possessed by the Asura chiefs in this 
world, their elephants, kine, and horses, of even my own self.' 

"Sukra then answered, 'If it is true, O great Asura, that 
I am the lord of all the wealth of the Asuras, then go and 
gratify Deva-jaiii»' " 


Vaisampayana continued, "And when the great Kavya 
had been so addressed by Vrishaparva he then went to Deva- 
yani and told her all. Deva-yani, however, quickly replied, 
'O Bhargava, if thou art truly the lord of the Asura king 
himself and of all his wealth, then let the king himself come to 
me and say so in my presence.' Vrishaparva then approached 
Deva-yani and told her, '0 Deva-yani of sweet smiles, what- 
ever thou desirest I am willing to give thee however difficult 
it may be to grant the same ? Deva-yani answered, 'I desire 
Sharmishta with a thousand maids to wait on me. She must 
also follow me to where my father may bestow me.' 

" Vrishaparva then commanded a maid-servant in attendance 
on him, saying, 'Go and quickly bring Sharmishta hither. 
Let her also accomplish what Deva-yani wisheth.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "The maid servant then repair- 
ing to Sharmishta told her, '0 amiable Sharmishta, rise and 
follow me. Accomplish thou the good of thy relatives. Urged 
by Deva-yani, the Brahmana ( Sukra ) is on the point of 
leaving his disciples (the Asuras.) sinless one, thou must 
do what Deva-yani wisheth !' Sharmishta replied, 'I shal^ 
cheerfully do what Deva-yani wisheth. Urged by Deva-yani 
Sukra is calling me. Both Sukra and Deva-yani must not leave- 
the Asuras through my fault.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Commanded by her father then, 
Sharmishta, accompained by a thousand maidens, soon came, 
in a palanquin, out of her father's excellent mansion. And 
approaching Deva-yani said, 'With my thousand maids I am 
thy waiting-woman. And I shall follow thee v/here thy 
father may bestow thee.' Deva-yani replied, 'I am the 
daughter of one who chaunteth the praises of thy father, and 
who beggeth and accepteth alms. Thou, on the other hand, 
art the daughter of one who is adored. How canst thou be 
my waiting woman ? ' 

"Sharmishta answered, 'One must by all means contribute 
to the happiness of one's afflicted relatives. Therefore shall 
I follow thee wherever thy father may bestow thee !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " When Sharmishta had thus 
promised to be Deva-yani's waiting-woman, the latter, 


'lilng, tlien spoke imto her father thus : — *0 best of all excell- 
ent Brahmanas, I am gratified. I shall now enter the Asura 
capital. I now know that thy science and power of knowledge 
are not futile.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "That best of Brahmanas, of 
great reputation, thus addressed by his daughter, then entered 
the Asura capital in gladness of heart. And the Danavas 
worshipped hina with great reverence. " 

And thus ends tlie eightieth Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXXI. 
( Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " After some length of time, O bef?t 
of monarchs, Deva-yani of the fairest complexion went into 
the same woods for purposes of pleasure. And accompanied 
by Sharmishta with her thousand maids she reached the same 
spot and began to wander in freedom. And waited upon by all 
those companions she felt herself supremely happy. And 
sporting with light hearts, they began di'inking the honey of 
flowers, eating various kinds of fruits and biting some. And 
just at this time, king Yayati the son of Nahusha, again 
came there in course of his wanderings, tired and thirsty, 
in search of deer. And the king saw Deva-yani and Shar- 
mislita, and those other maidens also, all decked with celes- 
tial ornaments and full of voluptuous langour in consequence 
of the flowery honey they drank. And Deva-yani of sweet 
smiles, unrivalled iu beauty and possessing the fairest com- 
plexion amongst them all, was reclining at her ease. And she 
was waited upon by Sharmishta gently pressing her feet. 

"And Yayati seeing all this, said, '0 amiable ones, I would 
ask ye both your names and parentage. It seems that these 
two thousand maids wait on ye two.' Hearing the monarch, 
Deva-yani then answered, 'Listen to me, O best of men. Know 
thou that I am the daughter of Sukra the spiritual guide of 
the Asuras. This my companion h my waiting-woman. She 


attendefh on me wherever I go. She is Sliarmishta the 
daughter of the Asura king Vrishjiparva.' 

" Yayati then asked, 'I am curious to know why is this thy 
companion of fair eye-brows — this maiden of the fairest com- 
plexion — tlie daughter of the Asura cliief — thy waiting- woman !' 
Deva-yani replied, ' O best of kings, everytliing resulteth 
from the fates. Knowing this also to be the result of fate, 
cease to wonder at it. Thy features and attire fire both like 
a king's. Thy speeeii also is fair and correct as that of the 
Veda. Tell me thy name, whence thou art, and whose son 
also !' 

" The monarch replied, 'During my vow of Brahmacharya, 
the whole Vedas entered my ears. I am known as Yayati, 
a king's son and a king myself.' Deva-yani then enquired, 
'O king, what for hast thou come here ? Is it to gather lotuses, 
or to angle or to hunt?' Yayati said, ' O amiable one, tliirsty 
in the pursuit of deer have I come hither in search of water. 
I am very much fatigued. I wait but your commands to leave 
this spot.' 

" Deva-yani answered, 'With my two thousand damsels and 
my waiting-woman Sharmislita, I wait but your commands. 
Prosperity to t]ie3 ! Be thou my friend and lord !' 

"Yayati hearing this replied, 'Beautiful one, I do not de- 
serve thee. Thou art the daughter of Sukra, far my superior. 
Thy father cannot bestow thee even on great kings.' To this 
Deva-yani: 'Brahmanas have before this been mixed with the 
Khatrias, and Khatrias with Brahmanas. Thou art the son 
of a Rishi and a Rishi tlwself. Therefore, O son of Nahusha, 
marry thou me ! ' Yayati, however, replied, '0 thou of the 
handsomest features, the four orders have, indeed, sprung from 
one body. But their duties and purity are not the same. The 
Brahmana is truly superior to all !' Deva-j'ani ansAvered, 
'This hand of mine h;ith never been touched before by any 
man save thee ! Therefore do I accept thee for my lord. 
How, indeed, shall any other man touch my liand which 
hath before been touciied by thj'self who art a Rishi ?' 
Yayati then said, 'The wise know tiiat a Brahmana is more 
to be avoided than an angry snake of virulent poison or a 


Viazing fire of sproading flames.' Deva-yani tlien told the mon- 
arch, '0 thou bull amongst men, why dost tliou, indeed, say 
that a Bralimana should be more avoided than an angry snake 
of virulent poi.«on or a blazing fire of spreading flames?' 
The monarch answered, *rhe snake but killeth only one. The 
sharpest weapon slayeth but a single person. The Brahmaua, 
if angry, destroyeth whole cities and kingdoms. Therefore, 
timid one, do I deem a Brahmana as more to be avoided 
than either. I cannot hence wed thee, amiable one, unless 
thy father bestov/eth thee on me ! ' Deva-yani then said, 'Thoti 
art, indeed, chosen by me. And, O king, it is understood then 
that thou wilt accept me if my father bestoweth me on thee. 
Thou need'st not fear to accept my poor self if bestowed on 
thee. Thou dost not, indeed, ask for me.' 

Vaisarapayana continued, " After thi.i, Deva-yani quickly 
sent a maid-servant to her father. The maid represented to 
Sukra everything as it had happened. And as soon as he had 
heard all, Bhargava came and saw Yayati. And beholding 
Bhargava come, Yayati, that lord of the earth, bowing down 
worshipped and adored that Brahmaua, and stood with joined 
hands in expectation of i)is commands. 

"And Deva-yani then said, 'This, O father, is the son of 
Nahusha. He took hold of my hand when I was in distress. I 
bow to thee. Bestow me unto him. I shall not wed any othei? 
person in the world !' Sukra exclaimed, '0 thou of splendid 
courage, thou hast, indeed, been accepted as her husband by 
this my dear daughter ! I bestow her on thee. Therefore, 
O son of Nahusha, accept her as thy wife ! ' 

"Ya}ati then said, 'I beseech the boon, Brahmana, that 
by so doing, the sin of begetting a mixed caste might not touch 
me ! ' Sukra, however, assured him by saying, *I shall absolve 
thee from sin. Ask thou the boon that thou desirest ! Fear 
not to wed her. I grant thee absolution! Maintain virtuously 
thy wife — the slender-waisted Deva-yani ! Transports of happi- 
ness be thine in her company. This other maiden, Vrishaparva'."? 
daughter Sharmishta, should ever be regarded by thee. But 
thou shalt not summon her to thy bed !' " 

Vaisarapayana continued, "Thus addressed by Sukra, Yayati 



■ then walked round the Brahmana. And the king then went 
through the auspicious ceremony of niarriage according to the 
rites of the Shastras. And having received from Sukra a rich 
treasure in the excellent Deva-jani with Sharmishta and those 
two thousand maidens, and duly honored also by Sukra himself 
and the Asuras, the best of monarchs then, commanded by 
the high-souled Bhargava, returned to his capital with a 
joyous heart 

And so ends the eighty-first Sectiou in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXXTI. 
( Sambhava Parva continued ) 

Taisampayana said, "Yayati then, having returned to bis 
capital which was like unto the city itself of Indra, entered 
his inner apartments and established there his bride Deva-= 
yani. And the monarch, directed by Deva-yani, established 
Vrishaparva's daugiiter Sharmishta in a mansion especially erec- 
ted near the aitificial forest of Asokas in his gardens. And the 
king surrounded Vrishaparva/s daughter Sharmishta with a 
thousand maids and honored her by making every arrange- 
ment regarding her food and garments. But it was with 
Deva-yani that the royal son of Nahusha sported like a celes- 
tial for many years in joy and bliss. And when her season came, 
the fair-Deva-yani conceived. And she brought forth as her 
first child a fine boy. And Avhen thousand years had passed 
away, Vrishaparva's daughter Sharmishta having attained to 
puberty saw that her season too had come. And she became 
thoughtful. And she said to herself, 'My season hath arrived. 
But I have not yet chosen a husband. G what hath happened \ 
What should I do ! How am I to obtain the fruition of my 
wishes ! Deva-yani hath become a mother. My youth is des- 
tined to pass away in vain. Shall I choose him also for my 
husband whom Deva-yani hath chosen ? Indeed, this is my 
resolve : that monarch should give me a son. Will not the 
virtuous one grant me an interview in private T " 

Vaisampayami continued, " While Sharmishta was thus 


busy with her thoughts, the king wandering listlessly came 
to that very forest of Asokas, and beholding Sharmishta 
before hitn, stood there in silence. Then Sharmishta of beau- 
tiful smiles seeing the monarcii before her with nobody to wit- 
ness what might pass, approaching the monarch said, joining 
her hands, '0 sou of Nahusha, no one can behold the ladies 
that dwell in the inner apartments of Shoma, of Indra, of 
¥ishnu, of Yama, of Varuna, and of thine. Thou knowest, O 
king, that I am both handsome and v/eli-boru. I ivilicit 
thee, O king I My season hath arrived : see that it goeth not 
in vain. 

"Yayati answered, Well do I know that the honor of birth 
is thine, born as thou art in the proud race of the Danavas. 
Tiiou art also gifted with beauty. Indeed, I do not see even 
the speck of a fault in thy features. But Usana commanded 
me while I was united Avith Deva-yani that never should 
Vrishaparva's daughter be summoned to my bed.' 

"Sharmishta then said, 'It hath been said, king, that it 
is not sinful to lie on the occasion of a joke, in respect of wo- 
men sought to be enjoyed, on occasions of marriage, in pros- 
pect of immediate death and of the loss of one's whole fortune. 
Lying is excusable on these five occasions. O king, it is false 
that he is fallen who speaks not the truth when asked. Both 
Deva-yani and myself have been called hither as companions 
to serve the same purpose. When, therefore, thou hadst said 
that thou wouldst confine thyself to one only amongst us, that 
was a lie thou hadst spoken.' Yayati replied, 'A king should 
ever be a pattern in the eyes of his people. That monarch cer- 
tainly meets with destruction who speaks untruths. As for 
myself, I do not dare speak an untruth even if the greatest/ 
loss threatens me.' Sharmishta answered, 'O monarch, one 
may look upon her friend's husband as her own. One's friend's 
marriage is the samG as one's own. Thou hast been chosen 
by my friend as her husband. Thou art as much my husband 
therefore.' Yayati then said, Tl is, indeed, my vow to al- 
ways grant what one asketh. Thou askest me. Therefore 
tell me what am I to do !' Sharmishta then said, 'Absolve me, 
king, from ain ! Piotgct mv virtue! Becoming a mother 


by thee let me practise the highest virtue in this world. l£ 
18 said, O king, that a wife, a slave, and a son, can never earn 
■wealth for themselves. That which they earn always belong- 
eth to him who owneth them. I am, indeed, the slave of 
of Deva-yani. Tliou art Deva-yani's master and lord. Thou 
art. therefore, O king, my master and lord as much as Deva- 
yani's. I solicit thee. O fill my wishes !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "Thus addressed by Sharmishta, 
the monarch was persuaded tliat all she spoke was true. He, 
therefore, honored Sharmishta by protecting her virtue. 
And they passed some time together. And taking an affectionate 
farewell of each other they then separated, each returning to 
whence he or she had come. 

"And it came to pass that Sharmishta of sweeb smiles 
and fair eye- brows conceived in consequence of that connec- 
tion of hers with that best of monarchs. And, O king, that 
lotus-eyed lady then in due time brought forth a son of the 
splendour of a celestial child and of eyes like lotus leaves." 

And thus ends the eighty-second Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva, 


(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " When l>eva-ya;a of sv/eet smilea 
licard of the birth of this child, she became jealous, and, 
Bharata, Sharmishta became an object of her unpleasant re- 
flections. And Deva-yani repairirg to her addressed her thus : — 
' O thou of fair eye-brows what sin is this thou hast committed 
by yellding to the influence of lust V Sharmishta replied, 
'A certain Eishi of virtuous soul and fully conversant with the 
Vedas came to me. Capable of granting boons, he was solicited 
by me to grant my wishes that were based on considerations of 
•virtue. O thou of SAveet smiles, I would not seek the sinful 
fulfilment of my desires. I tell thee truly that this child of 
mine is by that Rishi.' Deva-yani answered, 'It is all right if 
that is the case, timid one! But if the lineage, name, and 
family of that Briihmana be known to thee, I bhould like to 


hear them.' Sharniishta replied, ' O tliou of sweet smiles, that 
Rishi, in ascetism and energy is resplendent as the Sun 
himself. Beholding him, I had not, indeed, the power to make 
these enquiries !' Deva-j^ani then said, ' If this is true, if, 
indeed, thou hast obtained thy child from such a superior 
Brahmana, then, O Sharmishta, I Iiave no cause of auger,'" 

Vaisampayana continued, " Having thus talked and lauglied 
with each other, they separated, Deva-yani returning to the 
palace with the knowledge imparted to her by Sharmishta, 
And, king, Yayati also begat in Deva-yani two sons called 
Yadu and Turvasu who Avere like India and Vishnu, And 
Sharmishta the daughter of Vrishaparvu became mother by 
the royal sage of three sons ia all, named Drahyu, Anu, and 

"And, O king, it so came to pass that one day Deva-yani- 
of sweet smiles accampanied by Yayati went into a solitary 
part of the woods (in the king's extensive park.) And thei-e 
she saw three children of celestial beauty playing with perfect 
trustfulness. And Deva-yani asked in surprise, 'Whose child- 
ren are these, O king, so handsome, and so like unto the child- 
ren of the celestials? In splendour and beauty they are like 
thee I think; ' 

Vaisampayana continued, ''And Devayani without waiting 
for a reply from the king, asked the children themselves, *Ye 
children, what is your lineage ? Who is your father ? An- 
swer me truly. I desire to know all,' Those children then 
pointed to the king with their fore-finger and spoke of Shar- 
mishta as their mother, 

"And having said so, the children approached the king to 
clasp his knees. But the king dared not caress them in the 
presence of Deva-yani. The boys then left the place weep- 
ing in grief and going towards their mother. And the king 
at this conduct of the boys became very much abaslied. But 
Deva-yani, marking the affection of the children for the king, 
learnt the secret and addresing Sharmishta said, 'How hast 
thou dared to do me an injury, being as thou art dependent) 
on me ? Dost thou not fear to huve recourse once more to 
thatj Asurti usage-of thiuo V 


"Sharmishta said, 'O tliou of sweet smiles, all that. I told 
tliee of a Rishi is perfectly true. I have acted riglitly and 
according to the precepts of virtue. Therefore I do not fear 
thee. When thou hadst chosen the king for thy hushand I 
too chose him for mine. O thou beautiful one, a friend's hus- 
band is, according to usage, one's own husband also. Thou art 
the daughter of a Brahmana and, therefore, deservest my wor- 
ship and regard. But dost thou not know that this royal sage 
is held by me in greater esteem still ?' " 

Vaisampayana said, " Deva-yani then, hearing those words 
of hers, exclaimed, O king, thus : — ' Thou hast wronged me, 

monarch ! I shall not live here any longer.' And saying 
this she quickly rose, with tearful eyes, to go to her father. 
And the king was grieved to see her thus. And alarmed great- 
ly, lie followed her footsteps endeavouring to appease her 
wrath. But Deva-yani v.'ith eyes red in anger Avould not desist. 
Speaking not a word to the king, with eyes bathed in tears, 
she soon reached the side of her father Usana the son of Kavi. 
And beholding her fatlier, she stood before him after due salu- 
tation. And Yayati also, immediately after, saluted and wor- 
shipped Bhargava, 

"And Deva-yani said, ' father, virtue hath been van- 
quished by vice. The low liave risen, the high have fallen. 

1 have been transgressed by Sharmishta the daughter of 
Vrishaparva. Three sons have been begotten in her by this 
king Yayati. But, O father, luckless as I am, I have got only 
two sons ! O son of Bhrigu, this king is renowned for hig 
knowledge of the precepts of religion. But, O Kavya, I tell 
thee that he hath deviated from the path of rectitude.' 

" Sukra, hearing all this, said, *0 monarch, since thou 
hast made vice thy loved pursuit though fully acquainted with 
the precepts of religion, therefore shall invincible decrepitude 
paralyse thee.' Yayati answered, ' Adorable one, I was soli- 
cited by the daughter of the Danava king to fructify her sea- 
son. I did it from a sense of virtue and not from other motives. 
That male person, who being solicited by a woman in season 
doth not grant her wishes, is called, Brahmana, by those 
cognisant of the Yedn as a slayer of the embryo, He who, soli- 

ADtPARVA. 255 

cited in secret by a woman full of desire and in season, goeth 
not unto her, loseth virtue and ia called by the learned a 
killer of the embryo. O son of Bhrigu, for these reasons, 
and anxious to avoid sin, 1 went unto Sharmishta.' Sukra 
then replied, "Thou art dependent on me. Thou shouldab 
have awaited my command. Having acted falsely in the 
matter of thy duty, O son of Nuhusb a, thou hast been guilty 
of the sin of theft.' "' 

Vais.impayana continued, •' And Yayati the son of Nahusha, 
thus cursed by the angry Usana, was then divested of big 
youth and immediately overcome by decrepitude. And Yayati 
said, ' son of Bhrigu, I have not yet been satiated with 
youth or with Deva-yani. Therefore, O Brahmana, be grace- 
ful unto rae so that decrepitude might not touch me.' Sukra 
then answered, ' I never speak an untruth. Even now, O king, 
art thou attacked by decrepitude. But if thou likest, thou 
art competent to transfer this thy decrepitude to another. ' 
Yayati said, 'O Brahmana, let it be commanded by thee that 
tliat son of m.ine who giveth me his youth shall enjoy my king- 
dom, and shall achieve both virtue and fame.' Sukra replied, 
'0 son of Nahusha, tiiinking of me thou raayst transfer this thy 
decrepitude to whomsoever thou likest. That son who shall 
give thee his youth shall become thy successor on the throne. 
■He shall also have long life, wide fame, and a large progeny.'" 
Thus ends the eighty-third Section in the Sarabhava of thg 
Adi Parva, 

Section LXXXIV. 
(Samhhava Parva contimted.) 

Vaisampayana said, • Yayati then, having been overcome 
with decrepitude, returned to his capital, and summoning his 
eldest son Yadu who was also the most accomplishpfl, address- 
ed him thus :— ' Dear child, from the curse of Kavya called 
also Usana, decrepitude and wrinkles and whiteness of hair 
have come over me ! But I have not been gratified yet with 
the enjoyment of youth. Thou, O Yadu, take this my weak- 
ness abng with my decrepitude. I shall enjoy with thy youth, 


And when a full thousand \-ears have elapsed, returning to thee 
thy youth I shall take back my weakness with this decrepitude.' 
" Yadu replied, ' There are innumerable inconveniences in 
decrepitude, in respect of drinking and eating. Therefore, O 
king, I shall not take th)' decrepitude. This is, indeed, my 
determination. White hair on the head, cheerlessness, a re- 
laxation of the nerves, wrinkles all over the hody, deformities, 
weakness of the limbs, emaciation, incapacity to work, defeat at 
the hands of friends and companions, these are the consequen- 
ces of decrepitude. Therefore, O king, I desire not to take 
if. O king, thou hast many sons some of whom are dearer 
to thee. Thou art acquainted with the precepts of virtue : ask 
some other son of thine to take thy decrepitude.' 

" Yayati replied, ' Thou art sprung from my heart, O son, 
but thou givest me not thy youth. Therefore thy children 
shall never be kings.' And he continued, addressing another 
son of his, ' Turvasu, t;dce thou this v/eakness of mine along 
with my decrepitude. With thy youth, son, I like to enjoy 
the pleasures of life. And after the expiration of a full thou- 
sand years I shall give thee thy youth, and take back from 
thee my weakness and decrepitude !' 

"Turvasu then replied, " I do not like decrepitude, O 
father ! It destroyeth all appetites and enjoyments, strength 
and beauty of person, the intellect, and even life.' Yayati 
told him, ' Thou art sprung from my heart, O son ! But thou 
givest me not thy youth. Therefore, Turvasu, thy race 
shall be extinct. Wretch, thou shalt be the king of those 
whose practices and precepts are impure, amongst whom men 
of inferior blood procreate children in Avomen of superior blood, 
who live on meat, Avho are mean, who hesitate not to appro- 
priate the wives of their superiors, whose practices are as 
those of birds and beasts, who are sinful, and non-Aryan.' " 

Visampayana said, " Yayati iiaving tlius cursed his son 
Turvasu then addressed Sharmishta's son Druhyu thus; — 'O 
Druhyu, take thou for a thousand years my decrepitude 
destructive of complexion and personal beauty and give me 
thy youth. And when a thousand years have passed away I 
shall return thee thy youth aud take back my own weakness, 


and decrepitude.' To this Druhyu answered, ' king, one 
Lhiit is decrepit can never enjoy elepliants aiid cars and hordes 
and women. Even his voice becometh hoarse. Therefore 1 do 
not desire (to take) thy decrepitude.' Yayati told him, ' Thou 
art sprung from ray heart, O son. But thou refusest to give me 
thy youth. Therefore thy most cherished desires shall never 
be accomplished. Thou shalt be king, only in name, of that 
region where there are no roads for the passage of horses and 
cars and elephants, and good vehicles, and asses, and goats 
and bullocks, and palanquins; where there is swimming only 
by rafts and floats.' Yayati next addressed Anu and said, 
Thou, O Anu, take my weakness and decrepitude. I shall 
with thy youth enjoy the pleasures of life for a thousand 
years.' To this Anu replied, 'Those that are decrepit always 
eat like children and are always impure. Tliey can not pour 
libations on Agni in pro[)er times. Therefore I do not like to 
take thy decrepitude.' Yayati told him, 'Thou art sprung from 
my heart. Thou givest mo not thy youth. Thou findest so 
many faults in decrepitude. Therefore shall decrepitude 
overcome thee. And, O Anu, thy progeny also, as soon aa 
they attain to youth, shall die. And thou shall also not be 
able to perform sacrifices before Agni.' 

" Yayati at last turned to his youngest child Puru, and 
addressing him said, 'Thou art, Puru, my youngest sou. 
But thou shalt be the first of all. Decrepitude, wrinkles, 
and whiteness of hair have come over me in consequence of 
the curse of Kavya called also Usana. I have not yet, how- 
ever, been satiated with youth. O Puru take thou thia 
my weakness and decrepitude! With thy youth I shall enjoy, 
for some years, the i)leasures of life. And when a thousand 
years liave passed away I shall give thee thy youth and take 
back my own decrepitude.' " 

Vaisampayana said, " Thus addressed by the king, Puru 
answered with humility, 'I shall do, O monarch, as thou bid- 
dest me. I shall take, O king, thy weakness and decrepitude. 
Take thou my youth and enjoy as thou listeth the pleasureo 
of life. Covered with thy decrepitude and becoming. as one 
old, I shall, as thou comniandest, continue to live, giving to 



tliee my youtli.' Yayati then said, ' O Puru, I liave been gra- 
tified with thee ! And being gratified I tell thee that the people 
of thy kingdom shall have all their desires accomplished.' 

'And having said this, the great ascetic Yayati, then 
thinking of Kavya, transferred his decrepitude unto the body 
of the high-souled Puru. " 

And thus ends the eighty-fourth Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva, 

Section LXXXV. 
( Samhhava Pdrva continued, ) 

Yaisampayana said, " And the excellent monarch Yayati 
the son of Nahusha, having received Puru's youth, became ex- 
ceedingly gratified. And with it he onco more began to in- 
dulge in his favorite pursuits to the full extent of his desires 
and the limit of his powers, according t^o season, so as to derive 
the greatest pleasure thereform. And, O king, in nothing 
that he did, he acted against the precepts of his religion as 
behoved him well. He gratified the gods by his sacrifices ; the 
pitr is by Sradhas; the poor by his charities; all excellent 
Brahmanas, by ful-filling their desire ; all persons entitled to 
the rites of hospitality, by food and drink ; the Vaisayas, by 
protection ; and the Sudras, by kindness. And the king re- 
pressed all criminals by proper punishments. And Yayati, 
gratifying all sections of his subjects, protected them vir- 
tuously like another ludra. And the monarch possessed of 
the prowess of a lion, with youth and every object of enjoy- 
ment under control, enjo3"ed unlimited happiness without tran.s- 
gressing the precepts of religion. And the king became very 
happy iu thus being able to enjoy all the excellent objects of 
his desire. And he was only sorry when he thought that I 

those thousand years would come to an end. And having i 

obtained youth for' a thousand years, the king acquainted 
with t.lie mysteries of time, and Avatching proper Kalas 
and Kashtas, sported with (the celestial damsel) Viswachi, 
Bometimes in the beautiful gardens of Indra, sometimes in 
Alaka (the city of Kuvera), and sometimes on the summit of 


the mountain Mem on the north. And when the -virtuous 
monarch saw that the thousand years were iull, summoning 
his son Puru he addressed him thus :— ' O thou oppressor of 
the foe, with thy youth, O son, I have enjoyed the pleasures 
of life, each according to its season, to the full extent of my 
desires, — to the limit of my powers. Our desires, however, are 
never gratified by indulgence. On the other hand, with in- 
dulgence they only flame up like fire with libations of sacrificial 
butter. If a single person were owner of everything on earth, 
— all its yield of paddy and barley, its silver, gold, and gems, 
its animals and women, he would not yet be content. ThirsO 
of enjoyment, therefore, should be abandoned. Indeed, true 
happiness is theirs who have cast off their thirst for the objects 
of the earth, — a thirst which is difficult to be cast off by the 
wicked and the sinful, which faileth not with failing life, and 
which is truly the fatal desease of man. My heart hath for a 
full thousand years been fixed upon the objects of desire. My 
thirst for these, however, without abating, increaseth day by 
day. Therefore shall I cast it off, and fixing ray mind on 
Brahma shall I pass the rest of my days with the innocent deer 
of the forest, peacefully and without affection for any worldly 
object. And, O Puru, I have been exceedingly gratified with 
thee ! Prosperity be thine ! Receive back this thy youth. 
Receive thou also my kingdom. Thou art, indeed, that son oi' 
mine who has done me the greatest of services.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "And then Yayati, the son of 
Nahusha» received back his decrepitude. And his son Puru 
also received back his own youth. And Yayati was desirous of 
installing Puru his youngest son on the throne. But the four 
orders with the Brahmanas at their head then addressed the 
monarch thus : — ' O king, hov/ shalt thou bestow tiiy kingdom 
on Puru passing over thy eWest son Yadu born of Deva-yani 
and therefore the grandson of the great Sukra ? Indeed, Yadu 
is thy eldest son ; after him hath been born Turvasu ; and of 
Sharmishta's sons, the first is Druliyu. then Anu, and then 
Puru. How doth the youngest deserve the throne passing 
all his elder brothers over ? This we represent to thee : 0, 
conform to virtuous practice 1' 


"Yayatilhen said, ' Ye four orders with Brabmanas at 
their head, hear ye my words, as to why my kingdom should 
not bo given to my ehlest son ! My commands have been 
disobeyed by my eldest son Yadu. The wise say that he is no 
sou who disobeyeth his father. That son, however, who doth the 
bidding of his parents, who seeketh their good, who is agreeable 
to them, is, indeed, the best of sons. I have been disregard- 
ed by Yadu, and by Turvasu too. Much have I been disre- 
garded by Druhyu and Anu also. By Puru alone hath my 
word been obeyed. By him have I been much regarded. There- 
fore shall the youngest be my heir. He took my decrepitude. 
Indeed, Puru is my fricutJ ! He did what was so agieeable to 
me ! It hath also been commanded by Sukra himself — the son 
of Kavi, that that son of mine who should obey me become 
king after me and bring the whole earth under his sway. I 
therefore beseech ye, let Puru be installed on the throne !' 

"The people then .said, ' True it is, O king, that that son 
■who is accomplished and always seeketh the good of his pa- 
rents, deserveth prosperity even if he be the youngest. There- 
fore doth Puru, who hath done thee good, deserve the crown. 
And as Sukra himself hath commanded it, we have nothing ta 

say to it.' " 

Vaisarapayana continued, " And the sou of Nahusha, thus 
addressed by the contented people, then installed his son Puru 
on the throne. And having bestowed his kingdom on Puru, 
the monarch performed the initiatory ceremonies for retiring 
into the woods. And soon after he loft his capital, followed 
by Brahmanas and ascetics. 

''And the sons of Yadu are known by the name of the 
Yadavas ; while those of Turvasu have come to be called the 
Yavanas. And the sons of Druhyu are the Bhojas, while 
those of Anu the Mlechchas. The progeny of Puru, how- 
ever, are the Pauravas amongst whom, monarch, thou art 
born, iuorder to rule for a thousand years with thy passions 
under complete control !" 

And thus ends the cighty-fiifth Section in the Sambhava 

cl the A'.li Pavva. 

Section LXXXVI. 
(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Viiisampayana said, " King Yayati the son of Nahusha, 
having thus installed his dear son on the throne, became ex- 
ceedingly happy, and entered into the woods to lead the life 
of a hermit. And having lived for some time in the forest in 
the company of Brahmanas, observing many rigid vows, eat- 
ing of fruits and roots, patiently bearing privations of all 
sorts, the monarch at last ascended to heaven. And having 
ascended to heaven he lived there in bliss. But soon, however, 
he was hurled down by Indra. And it hath been heard by me, 
O king, that though hurled from heaven, Yayati, without reach- 
ing the surface of the earth, stayed in the firmament. I have 
heard that some time after he again entered the region of the 
celestials in the company of Vasuman, Ashtaka, Pratarddana, 
and Shivi. " 

Janamejaya then said, *'I desire to hear from thee in detail 
why Yayati having first obtained admission into heaven waa 
hurled therefrom and why also he gained re-admittance. Let 
all this, O Brahmana, be narrated by thee in the presence of 
these Brahmana sages. Yayati the lord of the earth was, 
indeed, like the chief of the celestials. The progenitor of 
the extensive race of the Kurus, he was of the splendour of 
the Sun ! I desire to hear in full the story of his life both in 
heaven and on earth, illustrious as he v/as, of world-wide cele- 
brity, and of wonderful achievements!" 

Vaisarapayana said, " Indeed, I shall recite to thee the 
excellent story of Yayati's adventures on earth and in heaven. 
That story is sacred and destroycth the sins of those that 
hear it. 

" King Yayati the son of Nahusha, having installed his 
youngest son Puru on the throne after casting his sons with 
Yadu for their eldest amongst the Mlcchchas, entered the 
woods to lead the life of a hermit. And the king eating of 
fruits and roots lived for sometime in the forest. With mind 
iind passions under complete coutrol, the king grtvtified by 


sacrifices both the pitris and the gods. And he poured li- 
bations of clarified butter into fire according to the rites 
prescribed for those leading the Vanaprasta mode of life. 
And the illustrious one entertained guests and strangers with 
fruits of the forest and clarified butter, while he himself sup- 
ported life by gleaning scattered corn-seeds. And the king 
led this sort of life for a full thousand years. And observing 
the vow of silence and with mind under complete control, he 
passed one full year living upon air alone and without sleep. 
And he passed another year practising the severest austerities 
in the midst of four fires around and the sun overhead. And 
living upon air alone, he stood ei'ect for six months on one leg. 
And then the king, of sacred deeds, ascended to heavea 
covering heaven as well as the Earth (with the fame of his 

And so ends the eighty-sixth Section in the Sambhava of 

the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXXVII. 
( Sambhava Parva continued) 

Vaisampayana said, " While that king of kings dwelt in 
heaven — the home of the celestials — he was reverenced by the 
gods, the Sadhyas, the Marutas, and the Vasus. Of sacred 
deeds, and mind under complete control, the monarch used to 
repair now and then from the abode of the celestials unto the 
region of Brahma. And it hath been heard by me that he 
dwelt for a long time in lieaven. 

" One day that best of kings Yayati went to Indra and 
there in course of conversation the lord of the Earth was asl> 
ed by Indra as follows : — 

' What didst thou say, king, when thy son Puru took thy 
decrejtitude on earth and Avhen thou didst bestow upon him 
thy kingdom ?* 

" Yayati answered, ' I told him that the whole country 
between the rivers Ganges and the Yamuna is thine. That 
is, indeed, the central region of the Earth : while the out- 
lying regions are to be the domiuiona of thy brothcrtj. I aUo 


told him that those without anger are ever superior to those 

under its sway : those disposed to forgive are ever superior to 

the unforgiving. Man is superior to the lower animals, Amnnj^ 

men again the learned are superior to the unlearned. If 

wronged thou shouldst not wrong in return. One's wrath, if 

disregarded, burneth one's own self ; while he that rcgardeth 

it not taketh away all the virtues of him tliat exhihiteth it. 

Never shouldst thou pain others by cruel speeches. Never 

subdue thy foes by despicable means ; and never utter such 

scorching and sinful words as may torture others. He that 

pricketh as with thorns men by means of hard and cruel 

words, thou must know ever carrieth in his mouth a Rakshasa, 

Prosperity and luck fly away at his very sight. Thou shouldst 

ever keep the virtuous before thee as thy models : thou shouldst 

ever in retrospect compare thy acts with those of the virtuous ; 

thou shouldst ever disregard the hard words of the wicked. Thou 

shouldst ever make the conduct of the wise the model upon. 

which thou art to act thyself. The man hurt by the arrows of 

cruel speech emitted from one's lips, weepeth day and night. 

Indeed, these strike at tiie core of the body. Therefore tho 

wise never fling these around at others. There is nothing in 

the three worlds by which thou canst worship and adore the 

dieties better than by kindness, friendship, charity, and sweet 

speeches unto all Therefore shouldst tliou always utter words 

that soothe, never those that scorch. And thou shouldst regard 

those tliat deserve thy regards ; thou shouldst always give bub 

never beg,' " 

Thus ends the eighty-seventh Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXXVIII. 
(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vai.sampayana said, " After this, Indra again asked Yayati, 
'Thou hadst retired into the woods, O king, after accomplishing 
all thy duties. O Yayati son of Nahusha, I would ask thee, 
with wiiom art thou equal in ascetic austerities ? ' Yayati 
then answered, 'O Vasava, I do not, in ascetic austerities^ 


behold my equal among men, the clestials, the Gaiidharvas, 
and the great Rishis !' Indra then said, '0 monarch, because 
thou dost disregard those that are thy superiors, thy equals, and 
even thy inferiors, without, in fact, knowing their real merits, 
therefore, thy virtues have sufiered a diminution and thou 
must fall from heaven!' Yayati then said, 'O Sakra, if, in- 
deed, my virtues have really sustained a diminution and I 
must on that account fall down from heaven, I desire, O 
chief of the celestials, that I may at least fall among the vir- 
tuous and the honest.' Indra then replied, 'Yes O king, thou 
shalt fall among those that are virtuous and wise ; and thou 
shalt acquire also mucii renown. And after this experience of 
thine, O Yayati, never more disregard those that are thy su- 
periors or even thy equals.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Upon this, Yayati fell from 
the region of the celestials. And as he was falling, he waa 
beheld by the foremost of royal sage 5 Ashtaka, the protector 
of his own religion. And Ashtaka beholding him enquired, 
'Who art thon, O youth, of beauty equal to that of Indra 
himself, in splendour blazing as the fire, thus falling from high ! 
Art thou that foremost of sky-ranging bodies — the sun — emerg- 
ing from d;)rk masses of clouds ? Indeed, beholding thee falling 
from the solar course, possessed of immeasurable energy and 
the splen lour of fire or the sun, every one is exercised as 
to wliat it is that is so falling, and is, besides, deprived of 
consciousness ! Beholding thee in the path of the celestials, 
possessed of energy like that of either Sakra, Surya, or Vishnu, 
we have approached thee to ascertain the truth ! If thou 
hadst first asked us to who we are, we would never have been 
guilty of the incivility of asking thee first. We now ask thee 
who thou art and why dost thou approach hither ? Let thy 
fears be dispelled ; let thy woes Tind afHictions cease ! Thou 
art noAv in the presence of the virtuous and the wise. Even 
Sakra himself — the slayer of Vala — can not here do thee aa 
injury ! O thou of the {»rowess of the chief of the celestials, 
the wise and the virtuous are the support of their brethren 
in grief Here there are none but the wise and virtuous like 
thee, assembled together ! Therefore stay thou here in peace. 

ADl PAR VA. 2G;j 

Fire alone hath power to sjivo heat. Tlie Earth alono hatU 
power to infuse life into the seeJ. The Sun alone hath power 
to illuminate everything. So thee guest alone hath power to 
command tlie virtuous and the wise.' " 

Thus ends the eighty-eiglith Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXXXIX. 
(Sambhava Parva continued .) 

"Yayatisaid, 'I am Yayati the son of Nahusha and the 
father of Puru. For liaving disregarded every creature, cast 
off from the region of the celestials and of ?tishis crowned 
with success, I am falling down, my righteousness having sus- 
tained a diminution. In years I am older tlian )e. Therefore 
have I not saluted ye first. Indeed, the Bmlmianas always 
regard him who is older in years or superior in learning oc 

ascetic merit.' 

" Ashtaka then replied, ' Thou sayest, monarch, that he 
who is older in years is worthy of regard. But it is said that, 
he is truly worthy of worship who is superior in learning and 
ascetic merit.' 

" Yayati to this :' It is said that sin destroyeth the meriti 
of our virtuous acts. Vanity containeth the element ot thati 
which leadeth to hell. The virtuous never follow in the wake 
of the vicious. They act in such a way that their religious 
merit always increaseth. I myself had great religious merit. 
All that, however, is gone. I would scarcely be able to re- 
gain it even by my best exertions. Beholding my fate, lie 
that is bent upon achieving his own good, will certainly sup- 
press vanity. He who having acquired great wealth pertorm-* 
eth meritorious sacrifices, who having acquired all kind.s 
of learning remaineth humble, and who having studied the 
whole Vedas devoteth himself to asceticism with a heart with- 
drawn from all mundane enjoyments, goeth to heaven. None 
should exult for having acquired great wealth. None .should 
feel vain on having studied the whole Vedas. In the world 
men vare of different dispositions, Destiny is supreme. Both 


power and exertion are fruitless. Knowing destiny to be all- 
powerful, the wise, whatever their portion, should neither 
esult nor gx-ieve. When creatures know that both weal and 
woe are dependent on destiny and not oa their own exertion 
or power, they should neither grieve nor exult remembering 
that destiny is all powerful. The wise should ever live con- 
tented, neither grieving at woe nor exulting at weal. When 
destiny is supreme, both grief and exultation are both unbe- 
coming. O Ashtak a, I never suffer myself to be overcome by 
fear, nor do I ever entertain grief, knowing for certain that 
I shall be in the world what the great disposer of all hath 
ordained. Insects and worms, all oviparous creatures, vege- 
table existences, all crawling animals, vermin, the fish iu water, 
stones, grass, wood, in fact, all created things, when they 
are freed from the effects of their acts, are united with the 
supreme Soul. Happiness and misery are both transient. 
Therfoi-e, O Ashtaka, why should I grieve ? We can never 
know how are we to act in order to avoid misery. Therefore 
none should grieve at misery.' 

"Possessed of every virtue king Yayati who was the mater- 
nal grand-father of Ashtaka, while staying in the firmament, 
at the conclusion of his speech was again questioned by Ash- 
taka. The latter said, ' O king of kings, tell me in detail of 
all those regions that thou hast visited and enjoyed, as well 
as the periods for which thou hast enjoyed each. Thou speak- 
est of the precepts of religion even like the clever masters 
acquainted with the acts and sayings of great beings !' Yayati 
then replied, ' I was a great king on earth owning the whole 
world for my dominion. Leaving it I acquired by force of 
religious merit many high regions. There I dwelt for a full 
thousand years, and then I attained to a very high region 
which is the abode of Indra, of extraordinary beauty, having 
a thousand gates, and extending a hundred yojanas all around. 
There too I dwelt for a full thousand years and then attained 
to a higher region still. That is the region of perfect beati- 
tude where decay is never, — the region, viz, of the creator and 
the lord ofthe earth, so difficult of attainment ! There also 
Idwelt for a full thousand years, and then attained to another 

&DI PAIIVA. 267 

very h igh region, viz, that of the god of goils (Vishnu) where 
too I have lived in happiness. Indeed, I have dwelt in various 
i'egions, adored by all the celestials, and possessed of prowess 
and splendour equal unto those of the celestials themselves. 
Capable of assuming any form at will, I have lived for a hun- 
dred Ayutas of years in the gardens of Nandana, sporting with 
the Apsaras and even beholding, numberless beautiful trees 
clad in flowery vestments and shedding delicious perfumes all 
ai'ound. And after many many years had elapsed, while still 
residing there in the enjoyment of perfect beatitude, the ce- 
lestial messenger of grim visage one day, in a loud and deep 
voice, thrice shouted to me, Rwiiied, Ruined, Rwivved^ O 
4hou lion among kings, this much I remember. I have 
then fallen from Nandana, my religious merits gone ! I heard 
ill the skies, O king, the voices of the celestials exclaim- 
ing in grief, — " Alas ! What misfortune ! Yayati, with his re- 
ligious merits destroyed, though virtuous and of sacred deeds, 
is falling ! " — And as I was falling, I asked them loudly, 
*'Where, ye clestials, v/here are those wise amongst whom lam 
to fall ? " They then pointed out to me this sacred sacrificial 
region belonging to ye. And beholding the curls of smoke 
felackening the atmosphere and scenting the perfume of clari- 
fied butter poured incessantly into the fire, and guided thereby, 
I am approaching this region of yours, glad at heart that I 
eome amongst ye.' " 

And so ends the eight-ninth Section of the Sam-bhava ia 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXL. 
{Sambhava Parva contiaited.) 
' " Ashtaka thensaid, 'Capable of assuming any form at wiH, 
thou hast lived for an hmvlred AtjvM years in the gardens of 
Nandana. For what cause, thou foremost of those that 
nourished, in the Krita age, hast thou been compelled to 
leave that region and come hither?' Yayati answered, 'As 
kinsmen, friends, and relatives forsake, in this world, those 
whose wealth disappears; so in the other world, the ccluiluUs 

268 MAHABnAllATA. 

with India as their cLiei' forsake him who hath lost his right- 
eousness.' Ashtaka then said, 'I am extremely anxious to know 
liow in the other world men can lose virtue. Tell me also, O 
kino-, wliat regions arc attainable by what courses of action. 
Thou art ac(iuaiutcd, I know, witii the acts and sayings of 
great beings !' 

" Yayati answered, '0 thou pious one, they that speak of 
their own merits are doomed to suffer the pains of the hell 
called Bhauma. Though really emaciated and lean, they appear 
to grow on earth (in the shape of their sons and grandsons) only 
to become food for vultures, dogs, and jackals. Therefore, O 
kinfj, this hifrhly censurable and wicked vice sliould be re- 
pressed. I have now, O king, told thee all. Tell me whafe 
more I shall say.' 

" Ashtaka said, 'When life is destroyed with age, vultures, 
peacocks, insects, and worms eat up the human body. AVherc 
doth man then reside ? How doth he also come again to life ? 
I have never heard of any hell called Bhauma on earth.' 

" Yayati answered, ' After the dissolution of the body, man, 
according: to his acts, re-entereth the womb of his mother and 
etayeth there in an indistinct form, and soon after assuming a 
distinct and visible shape re-appeareth in the world and walketh 
on its surface. This is that Earth-hell (Bhauma) where he 
falleth, for he bcholdeth not the termination of his existence 
and acteth not towards his emancipation. Some dwell for 
sixty thousand years, some for eighty- thousand years in heaven; 
and then they fall. And as they fall they are attacked by 
certain Rakshasas belonging to the world in the form of sons, 
grandsons, and other relatives that withdraw their hearts from 
acting for their own emancipation.' 

"Ashtaka then asked, 'For wliat sin are beings when they 
fall from heaven attacked by these fierce and sharp-toothed 
Bakshasas ? Why are they not reduced to annihilation ? How 
do they again cuter the womb, furnished with the senses ?' 

" Yayati answered, ' After falling from heaven, the being 
bccomcth a subtile substance living in water. This water 
Lccometh the semen which is the seed of vitality. Thence 
entering the mother's womb on the wumunly season, it do- 

ADl PART A. 269 

velopcth into the embryo and next into visible life like the 
fruit from the flower. And entering trees, plants, and other 
vegetable substances, water, air, earth, and space, that watery 
seed of life becoiiieth of quadrupedal or bipedal form. This is 
the case with all creatures that you see.' 

" Ashtaka said, ' O tell me, I usk thee because I have my 
doubts! Doth a being that hath received a human form enter 
the womb in its own shape or in some other ? How doth it 
also acquire its distinct and visible shape, eyes and cars, and 
consciousness as well ? Questioned by me, O explain it all ! 
Thou art, father, one acquainted with the acts and sayings 
of great beings !' Yayati answered, ' According to the merits 
of one's acts, the being that in a subtile form co-inheres in the 
semen that is dropped into the womb is attracted by atmospher- 
ic force for purposes of re-birth. It then developeth there in 
course of time, first becoming the embryo, and is next furnislicd 
with the visible physical organism. Coming out of the womb 
in coui-se of time it becometh conscious of its existence as 
man, and by his ears becometh sensible of sound ; by liis 
eyes, of color and form ; by his nose, of scent ; by his tongue, 
of taste ; by his whole body, of touch ; and by his mind, of 
ideas. It is thus, O Ashtaka, that the gross and visible body 
developeth from the subtile essence.' 

" Ashtaka asked, 'After death, the body is burnt, buried, or 
otherwise destroyed. Reduced to nothing upon such dissolu- 
tion, by what principle is he again revived ? Yayati said, 'O 
thou lion among kings, the person that is dead assumeth a 
subtile form and retaining consciousness of all his acts as in a 
dream entereth some other form with a sprcd quicker than 
of air itself. The virtuous attain to a superior, and the vicious 
to an inferior form of existence. The vicious become worms 
and insects. I have nothing more to say, O thou of great and 
pure soul ! I have told thee how beings are born after deve- 
lopment of embryonic forms as four-footed, two-footed, six- 
footed, and so. What more wilt thou ask me?' 

" Ashtaka said, ' How, father, do men attain to those 
superior regions whence there is no return to earthly life ? 
Is it by asceticism or knowledge ? How nho may one 


gradually attain to felicitous regions ? Asked by me, tell 
it in full !' 

" Yayati answered, ' The wise say that for men there are 
seven gates througli which admis&ion may be gained into 
Heaven : these are Asceticism, Gift, Quiet of mind. Self-com- 
mand, Modesty, Simplicity, and Eindne&s to all creatures. 
The wise also say that a person loseth all these in consequence 
of vanity. That man who having acquired knowledge regard- 
eth. himself as learned, and with- his learning destroyeth the 
reputation of others, never attaineth to regions of indestruc- 
tible felicity. That knowledge also doth- not make the possessor 
competent to attain to Brahma. Study, the vow of silence, 
worship before fire, and sacrifices^ these four remove all 
fear. Wiien Iwwever these are mixed with vanity, instead 
of removing, they cause fear. The wise should never exult 
on receiving honors ; nor should they grieve at insults. Foj? 
it is the wise alone that honor the wise ; the wicked never act 
like the virtuous. I have given away so much — I have per- 
formed so many sacrifices— I have studied so much — I have 
observed these vows, — s'nch vanity i& the root of fear. There- 
fore thou must not indulge such feelings. Those learned men 
who accept aa their support the unchangeable, inconceivable 
Brahma alone that ever showereth blessings on persons virtuous- 
as thee, enjoy perfect peace here and hereafter !' " 

And thus ends the ninetieth Section in the Sambhava oh 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXLI. 
( Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Ashtaka said, ' Those congnisant with the Vedas differ in 
opinion as to how the followers of each of the four modes 
of life, viz, Grihastas, Bhikslms, Brahmacharis, and Vana- 
prashtas, are to conduct themselves in order to acquire religi- 
ous merit.' 

" Yayati answered, ' These are what a Brahmachari must 
do. While dwelling in the abode of his preceptor, he must 
receive lessuus only when his preceptor summons him to do 


so; he must attend to the service of his preceptor without 
waiting for the commands of the latter ; he must rise from bed 
before his preceptor riseth, and go to bed after hia precep- 
tor goeth thei'eto. He must be humble, must have his passions 
under complete control, must be patient, vigilant, and devo- 
ted to study. It is then only that he can achieve success. 
It hath been said in the oldest Upanisihada that a grihastcL 
acquiring wealth by houest means should peribrra sacrifices ; 
be should ever give in charity, should perform the rites of 
hospitality unto all arriving at his abode, and should never 
use anything without giving a portion thereof to others, A 
Muni without search for food should live in the woods depend- 
ing on his own vigour ; should abstain from all vicious acts ; 
should give away in charity, should never inflict pain on any 
creature. It is then only that he can achieve success. He, 
indeed, is a true Bhikshu who doth not support himself by 
any manual arts, who possesseth numerous accoraplishmente, 
who hath his passions under complete control, who is uncon- 
nected with all worldly concerns, who sleepeth not under the 
shelter of a house-holder's roof, who is without wife, and who 
going a little way every daj', travelleth over a large extent of 
country. A learned man should adopt the Vanaprashta mode 
of life after performance of the necessary rites, when he hath 
been able to control his appetites for enjoyment and desire of 
acquiring valuable possessions. When one dieth in the woods 
while leading the Vanaprashta mode of life, he niaketh his 
ancestors and succesors, numbering ten generations including 
himself, fuse with the Divine essence.' 

" Ashataka asked, ' How many kinds of Munis are there, 
and how many kinds of Mounis (observers of the vow of 
silence) ?' 

" Yayati answered, ' He, indeed, is a Muni who, though 
dwelling in the woods, iiath an inhabited place near, or who, 
though dwelling in an inhabited place, hath the woods near.' 

" Ashtaka enquired what it meant. Yayati replied, *A 
Muni withdrawing himself from all worldly objects liveth in 
the woods. And though he miglit never seek to surround 
himself with those ohject;? tiuit are procurable iu iuiiubit^'i 


placeo he luight yet obtain thera all by virtue of liis ascetic 
power. He may truly be said to dwell iu the woods havinor 
an inhabited place near to himself. Again, a wise man with- 
drawn fVom all earthly objects might live in a hamlet leading 
the life of a hermit. He may never exhibit the pride of 
family, birth, or learning. Clad in the scantiest robes he 
may yet regard himself as attired in the richest vestments. 
He may be content with food just enough for supporting life. 
Such a person, though dwelling in an inhabited place, liveth 
yet iu the viroods. 

'■ The person again who, with passions under complete con- 
trol, adopteth the vow of silence, refraining from action and 
entertaining no desire, achieveth success. Wiiy shouklst tiiou 
not, indeed, reverence the man who liveth on clean food, who 
refraineth from ever injuring others, whose heart is ever pure, 
who is displayed in the s[)leudour of ascetic attributes ; who 
is free from the leaden weight of desire, who abstaineth from 
injury even when sanctioned by religion ? Emaciated by 
austerities, and reduced in flesh, marrow, and blood, such a 
one conquereth not only thus but the highest world as well. 
And when the Muni sits in yoga meditation becoming indiffer- 
ent to happiness and misery, honor and insult, he then leavetii 
this world and enjoyeth communion with Brahma. When the 
Muni taketli food like kine and other animals, i. e, without 
providing for it beforehand and without any relish (like a sleep- 
ing infant feeding on the mother's pap) tlien like the all-per- 
vading s[)irit he becometh identified with the whole universe 
and attaineth to salvation.' 

And so ends the ninety-first Section iu the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXLII. 
( Sambhava Parva continued) ■ - 

''Ashtaka asked, 'Who amongst these, O king, both exerting 
constantly like the Sun and the Moon, first attaineth to commu- 
nion with Brahma, — the ascetic or the man of knowledge ?' 

*' VTayuti answered, 'Iho wise, by help of the Veda and of 

A1>I PARVA. 273 

Kiriowledge, havinsf .'i<»certained the visible universe to be ii;,i- 
sory instantly realise the Supreme Spirit as tlie sole existent 
inJepen<leut essence. While they that devote themselves to 
Yoga meditation take time to acquire the same knowledge, for 
it is by practice alone that these latter divest themselves of the 
consciousness of duality. Hence the wise attain to salvation 
first. Then again if the person devoted to yoga findeth not suffi- 
cient time in one life to attain to success, being led astray by 
the attractions of the world, in his next life he is benefited by 
the progress he hath already made, for regretfully he de- 
voteth himself to the pursuit of success. But the man of 
Knowledge ever belioldeth the indestructible Unity, and there- 
fore, though immersed in worldly enjoyments, never affecteth 
them at heart. Therefore there is nothing to impede his sal- 
vation. He, however, who faileth to attain to Knowledo-e 
should yet devote himself to piety as dependent on action (sacri- 
fices, &c.) But he that devoteth himself to such piety, moved 
thereto by desire of salvation, can never achieve success. His 
sacrifices bear no fruit and partake of the nature of cruelty. 
Piety as dependent on action that proceedeth not from the 
desire of gain, is, in the case of such men, yoga itself.' 

" Ashtaka said, * king, thou lookest like a youth ; thou 
art handsome and decked with a celestial garland. Thy splen- 
dour is great ! Whence dost thou come and where dost thou 
go ? Whose messenger art thou ? Art thou going into the 
Earth ?' 

" Yayati said, 'Fallen from heaven upon the loss of all 
my religious merit, I am destined to enter the Earth-hell. 
Indeed, I shall go there after I have finished my discourse 
with ye ! Even now the deities of the ten points of the Uni- 
verse command me to hasten thither. And, O king, I have 
obtained it as a boon from Indra that though fall I must upon 
.the Earth yet I should fall amidst the wise and the virtuous. 
Ye are all wise and virtuous that are assembled here !' 

" Ashtaka said, ' Thou art acquainted with everythino-. I 
ask thee, O king, are there any regions for myself to enjoy 
in heaven or in the firmament ? If there be, then, rhoii 
,shalt not fall though falling I' 


274 M'AnABHAifATA. 

'• Yaj'ati answered, ' O king, there are many regions for 
thee to enjoy in heaven as there are kine and horses in the 
earth with the animals in the rrilderness and the hills !' 

" Ashtaka then said, 'If there are worlds for rae to enjoy, 
as fruits of my religious merits, in heaven, O king, I give 
them all unto thee! Therefore, though falling, thou shalt 
not fall tf^ke thou soon all these, v^^herever they be, in 
heaven or in the firmament i Let thy sorrows cease '/ 

" Yayati answered, 'O thou best of kings, a Brahma-know- 
in<y Brahmana alone can take in gift, but not one like our- 
selves ! And, O monarch, I myself have given away to Brah- 
manas as one should. Let no man not a Brahmana and let 
not the wife of a learned Br.ihmana ever live in infamy by 
accepting gifts ! On Earth I have ever desired to perform 
virtuous acts ! Having never done so before, how shall I now 
accept a gift ?' 

" Pratarddana who was amongst them asked, 'O tliou of 
the handsomest form, I am Pratarddana by name. I ask thee, 
are there any worlds for me to enjoy as fruitsof my religious 
merits, in heaven or in the firmament? Answer me, thou art 
acquainted with everything!' 

" Yayati said, '0 king, numberless worlds full of felicity, 
effulgent like the .solar surface, and where woe can never be, 
await thee. It thou dwellest in each but for seven days, they 
•would not yet be exhausted .' 

"Pratarddana then said, 'These then I give unto thee! 
Therefore though falling thou must not fall ! Let the worlds 
that are mine be thine ! Whether they be in the firmament or 
in heaven, O soon take them ! Let thy woes ceane !' 

"Yayati answered, 'O monarch, no king of equal energy 
should ever desire to receive in gift the religious merits of 
another king acquired by yoga austerities. And no king who 
is afflicted v;ith calamity by the fates should, if wise, yet acb 
in a censurable way. A king keeping his eye ever fixed oa 
virtue should walk in the path of virtue and increase his fame 
thereby. A person of virtue like myself and knoAving what 
a,re his duties should not act so meanly as thou directest. 
■\Yiien others desirous of acquiring r?lJgiQU§ m%nl do ml 

©coept gifts, how can I do what they do not ?' On the conclu- 
sion of this speech, that best of kings Yayati was then addresa- 
ed by Vasumana in the following words. ' 

Thus ends the ninety-second Section in tlie Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva, 

Section LXLIIT. 
(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

"Vasumana said, 'I am Vasumana, the son of Osadawsa, 
r would ask thee, O king, whether there are any worlds for 
me to enjoy, as fruits of my religious merits, in heaven or in 
the firmament. Thou art, high-souled one, acquainted with 
all holy regions !' 

Yayati answered, 'There are as many regions for thee to 
©njoy in heaven as the number of places in the firmament, the 
Earth, and the ten points of the universe, illumined by the 

" Vasumana then said, 'I give them to thee. Let those re- 
gions that are for me be thine. Therefore, though falling, 
thou shalt not fall. If to accept them in gift be improper for 
thee, then, monarch, .buy them with a straw.' 

" Yayati ansv/ered, 'I. do not remember, ever having bo'ught) 
and sold anything unfairly. This has never been done by 
other kings. How shall /do it therefore ?' 

"Vasumana sa,id, 'If to buy them, O king, be regarded by 
thee as improper, then take them in gift from me. For my- 
self I answer that I will never go to those regions that are for 
me. Let them therefore be thine !' 

"Shivi then addressed the king thus: — 'I am, O king, Shivi 
by name, the son of Ushinarn. O father, are there in the 
firmament or in heaven, any worlds forme to enjoy ? Thoa i 
knowest every region that one may enjoy as the fruit of hi3 
religious merit !' 

" Yayati then said, 'Thou hast never, by speech or in mind, 
disregarded the honest and the virtuous that applied to thee. 
There are infinite worlds for thee to enjoy in heaven, all blazin<^ 
like lightning.' Shivi, then said, ' If f hou regaidc^t thei£. 


purchase as improper, I give them to ye. Take them all, O" 
king ! I shall never take them, — those regions where the wise 
never feel the least disquiet.' 

"Yayati then answered, 'O Shivi, thou hast, indeed, obtaiiv 
ed for thyself, possessed as thou art of the prowess of Indra^ 
infinite worlds ! But I do not desire to enjoy regions given to 
uie by others. Therefore, I accept not thy gift.' 

" Ashtaka then said, 'O king, each of us have expressed 
our desire to give thee the worlds that each of us have acquir- 
ed by our religious merit. Thou acceptest not them. Bub 
leavino: them for thee, we shall descend unto the Earth -hell.' 

" Yayati answered, 'Ye all are truth-loving and wise : give 
me that which I deserve. I shall not be able to do that which. 
I have never done before.' 

" Ashtaka then said, 'Whose are those five golden cars tliat 
we see ? Do men that repair to regions of everlasting bliss 
ride on them f 

" Yayati answered, 'Those five golden cars displayed in 
glory and blazing as fire, would, indeed, carry ye to the re- 
gions of bliss.' 

" Ashtaka said, 'O king, ride those cars thyself, and rcpaii* 
to heaven. We can wait. We will follow thee in time.' 

" Yayati then said, we can now all go together. Indeed, 
all of us have conquered heaven. Behold, the glorious path 
to heaven becomes visible l' 

Vaisampayana continued, "Then all those excellent mon- 
archs riding on those cars set out for heaven, for gaining 
admittance into it, illuminating the whole firmament by the 
glory of their virtues. 

*' And Aahlaka, again breaking silence, asked, 'I had al- 
ways thought that Indra was my especial (riend, and that I 
of all the others, should first obtain admittance into heavea. 
But how is it. that Usiuara's sou Shivi, hath already left us 

"Yayati answered, 'This Usinara's son had given all he poss- 
essed for attainiufj to the region of Braluna. Therefore is he 
foremost among ye. Besides, Shivi's liberalitVj asceticism, 
truth, virtue, modtiolVv good-foiLuue, forgiveuesd; amiubility. 


desire of performing good acts, have been so great that none 
can measure them.' 

Vaisainpayana continued, " After this, Ashtaka, impelled 
by curiosity, again asked his maternal grand-father resembling 
Indra himself, saying, 'O king, I would ask thee, tell me 
truly, whence thou art, who thou art, and whose son ? I& 
there any other Brahmana or Kshatria who hath done what thou 
didst on Earth ?' Yayati answered, 'I tell thee truly, I am 
Yayati, the son of Nahusha and the father of Puru. I was 
lord of all the Earth. Ye are my relatives : I tell thee truly> 
I am the maternal grand-father of ye all. Having conquered 
the whole Earth, I gave clothes to Brahmanas and also a hua 
dred handsome horses fit for sacrificial offering. For such 
acts of virtue the gods become propitious to those that per- 
form them. I also gave to Brahmanas this whole Earth with 
her horses and elephants and kine, and gold and all kinds of 
wealth, along with an hundred Arhudas of excellent milch 
cows. Both the Earth and the firmament exist owing to my 
truth and virtue; fire yet burneth in the world of men owing 
to my truth and virtue. Never hath word spoken by me been 
untrue. It is for this that the wise adore truth. O Ashtaka, all I 
have told thee, Pratarddana, and Vasumana, is the truth itself. 
I know it for certain that the gods and the Rishis and all the 
mansions of the blest are adorable only because of Truth 
that characterises them all. He that shall without malice duly 
read to good Brahmanas this account of our ascension to 
heaven shall himself attain to the same worlds with us.' " 

Vaisampayaua continued, " It was thus that the illustrious 
king Yayati of high achievements, rescued by his collateral 
descendants, ascended to heaven leaving this earth and cover- 
ing tlie three worlds b> the fame of his deeds. " 

And <io ends the ninety-third Section iu the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva, 

Section LXLIT. 
{Samhhava Parva cantinued.) 

Janamejaya said, " Adorable one, I desire to hear the his- 
tories of those kings who \v€re decended from Puru. O tell 
me of each as he was in prowess and achievements ! I have^ 
indeed, heard that in Puru's line there w^s not a einorle kin<y 
who was deficient in good-behaviour and prowess, or who wa8 
without sons. O thou of ascetic v/ealth, I desire to hear the 
histories in detail of those famous mouarchs endued with learn- 
ing and all accomplishments^ " 

Vaisarapayana said, " Asked by thee I shall tell thee all 
about the heroic kings of Puru's line, all equal unto Indra in 
prowess, possessing great affluence and commanding the respect 
of all for their accomplishments. 

" Puru had by his wife Paushti three sons, Pravira, Iswara^, 
and Raudraswa, all of whom were mighty charioteers^ Amongst 
them, Pravira was the perpetuator of the dynasty. Pravira 
had by his wife Shurasheni a son named Manushya. And the 
latter, of eyes like lotus leaves, had sway over the whole earth 
bounded by the four seas. And Manushya had for his wife. 
Souviri. And he begat in her three sons called Shakta, San- 
hanana, and Yagmi. And they were heroes in war and 
mighty charioteers. Then again the intelligent and virtuous 
Baudraswa begat in the Apsara Misra-keshi ten sons who v/ere 
all great bowmen. And they all grew up inta heroes, per*- 
forming numerous sacrifices in honor of the gods. And they 
all had sons, were learned in all branches of knowledge, and 
ever devoted to virtue. They were Richeyu, and Kaksheyu 
and Vrikeyu of great prowess, Sthandileyu, and Vaneyu, and 
Jaleyu of great fame, Tejeyu of great strength and intelli- 
gence, and Satyeyu of the prowess of Indra, Dharmeyu, and 
Saunateyu, the tenth, oi the prowess of the celestials. Amongst 
them all, Richeyu became the sole monarch of the whole 
Earth and was known by the name of Anadhrishti. And in 
prowess he was like unto Vasava himself amongst the celes- 
tials. And AuadhrLshti had a son of name Matinara who be- 


came a famous and virtuous king. And he performed both 
the Rajashuya and the horse-sacrifice. And Matinara had 
four sons of inmeasurable prowess, viz, Tansu, Mahan, Ati- 
ratha, and Drahju of inmeasurabie glory. Amongst them 
Tansu of great prowess became the per])etuator of Puru's 
line. And he subjugated the whole earth and acquired great 
fame and splendour. And Tansu begat a son of great prow- 
ess named Ilina, And he was the foremost of all conqueiora 
and he brought the whole world under his subjection. And 
Ilina begat in his wife Rathantarya five sons with Dushmanta 
as their head, all equal in m-ight unto the five elements. 
They were Dushmanta, Shura, Bhima, Pravashu, and Vasii. 
And, O Janamejaya, the eldest of them Dushmanta became 
kino-. And from Dushmanta was born by his wife Sakuntala an 
intelligent son named Bharata who became king. And Bharaba 
gave his name to the race of which he was the founder. And 
it is from him that the fame of that dynasty hath spread so 
wide. And Bharata begat in his three wives altogether nine 
sons. But none of them were like their father and so Bha- 
rata was not at all pleased with them. Their mothers there- 
fore became angry and slew them all. Tiie procreation of 
children by Bharata therefore became in vain. The monarch 
then performed a great sacrifice and through the grace of 
Bharadwaja obtained a son of name Bhumanyu. And then 
Bharata the great descendant of Paru, regarding himself as 
really possessing a son, installed, O thou foremost of the 
Bharata race, that sou as his heir-apparent. And Bhumanyu 
begat in his wife Pushkarini six sons of name Suhotra, Suhota, 
Suhavi, Suyaju, and Diviratha. The eldest of them all, 
Suhotra, obtained the throne and performed many Rajashuya 
and horse-sacrifices. And Suhotra brought under his sway the 
whole Earth surrounded by her belt of seas, and full of ele- 
jjhants, kine, and horses, and all her wealth in gems and gold. 
And the Earth afflicted with the weight of numberless humaa 
beings and elephants, horses, and cars, was as it were about to 
sink. And during the virtuous reign of Suhotra the surface of 
the whole earth was dotted all over with hundreds and thousands 

Qf f^aci'ificiiiil intakes, Aud th§ Emth became full of goia ^ui 


human beiiifrs. And the lord of the Earth Suhotra be- 
gat in his wife Aikshaki three sons, viz, Ajaraida, Sumida, 
and Pururaida. The eldest of them Ajamida was the perpe- 
tuator of the royal line. And he begat six sons in his three 
wives. Of these sons, Siksha was born of the womb of Dhumi- 
ni, Dushmanta and Parameshti in that of Nila and Jahnyu, 
Jala, and Ilupina, were born in that of Keshini. All the tribes 
of the Panchalas are descended from Duehmanta and Para- 
meshti. And the Kushikas are the sons of Jahnyu of immeas- 
urable prowess. And Riksha who was elder than botli Jala 
9,nd Rupina became king. And Riksha begat Sam varana the 
perpetuater of the royal line. And, O king, it hath been 
heard by us that while Samvarana tlie son of Riksha was 
ruling the earth, there happened a great loss of people from 
famine, pestilence, drought, and disease. And the Bharata 
princes were beaten by the troops of enemies. And the Pan- 
chalas setting out to inva<Ie the whole earth with their four 
kinds of troops soon brought the wole earth under their sway. 
And with tlieir ten Akshauhinis the king of Panchala de- 
feated the Bharata prince. Samvarana then, with his wife 
and ministers, sons and relatives, fled in fear. And he took 
shelter in the forest on the banks of the Sindhu extending 
to the foot of the mountains. There the Bharatns lived for a 
full thousand years within their fort. And after they had 
lived there a thousand years, one day the illustrious Rishi 
Vashishta approached the exiled Bharatas. And the Bharatas 
going out saluted the Rishi and worshipped him by the 
offer of the Arghya. And entertaining him with reverence, 
they then represented everything unto that illustrious Rishi. 
And after he was seated on his seat, the king himself 
approached the Ri4u and addressed him, saying, 'Be thou our 
Purohita, O illustrious one. We will endeavour to regain our 
kin"-dom.' And Vashista then answered the Bharatas by say- 
ing 'Oni' (the sign of consent.) And it hath been heard hy us 
that Vashista then installed the Bharata prince in the sover- 
eignty of all the Kshatrias on the Earth, making by virtue 
of his mantras this descendant of Purn the veritable horns 
pf the wild bull or the tusks of the wild ele.i>hant, And the 


king retook the capital tliat had been taken away from 
him and once more made all monarchs pay tribute to him. 
The powerful Samvarana, thus installed once more in the ac- 
tual sovereignty of the whole earth, performed many sacrifices 
in which the offerings to the Brahmanas were great. 

"And Samvarana begat in his wife Tapati the daughter of 
Sura a son named Kuru. This Kuru was exceedingly virtuous. 
Therefore was he installed on the throne by his people. It is 
from his name that the field called Kuru-jangala has become 
so famous in the world. Devoted to asceticism, he made that} 
field (Kuru-Icshetra) sacred by practising his austerities there. 
And it hath been heard by us that Kuru's highly intellif^enb 
wife Vahini brought forth five sons, viz, Avikshit, Abhishya, 
Chaittra-ratha, Muni, and the celebrated Janamejaya. And 
Avikshit begat Parikshit, the powerful Shavalaswa, Adiraja, 
Viraja, Shalmali of great i)hysical strength, Uchaisrava, 
Bhangakara, and Jitari the eighth. In the race of these wera 
born, as the fruits of their pious acts, seven mighty chario- 
teers with Janamejaya as their head. And unto Parikshib 
were born sons who were all acquainted with the interpreta- 
of the shastras. And they were Kaksha-sena, and Ugra-sena, 
and Chittra-seua endued with great energy, and Indra-sena 
and Susena and Biiima-sena by name. And the sons of Jana- 
mejaya were all endued with great strength and became cele- 
brated all over the world. And they were Dhrita-rashtra 
who was the eldest, and Pandu and Valhika, and Nishadha 
endued with great energy, and then the mighty Jambunada, 
and then Kundodara, and Padati and then Vashati the eighth. 
And they were all skilfull in the interpretation of the shastras 
and were kind to all creatures. Amongst them Dhrita-rashtra 
became king. And Dhrita-rashtra had eight sons, viz, Kuudi- 
ka, Ilasti, Vitarka, Kratha, Kundina the fifth, Vahishrava, In- 
drava, and Bhunianyu the invincible. And Dhrita-rashtra had 
many grand-sons, of whom three only were famous. They were, 
king, Pratipa, Dharma-netra, Su-netra. Amongst these 
last three, Pratipa became unrivalled on earth. And, thou 
bull of the Bharata race, Pratipa begat three sons, viz, Deva- 
pi, Shantann, and the mighty charioteer Valhika. The eldest 



Devapi adopted an ascetic course of life impelled thereto by 
the desire of benefiting his brothers. And the kingdom was 
obtained by Shantanu and the mighty charioteer Valhika. 

" O monarch, besides these, there were born in the race of 
Bharata numberless other excellent monarchs endued with 
great energy and like unto the celestial Rishis themselves ia 
virtue and ascetic power. And so also in the race of Manu 
were born many mighty charioteers like unto the celestials 
themselves and who by their number swelled the Aila dynas- 
ty into gigantic proportions." 

And so ends the ninety-fourth Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXLV. 
( Sambhava Parva continued) 

Janamejaya said, "OBrahmana, I have now heard from 
thee this great history of my ancestors. I have also heard 
from thee about the great monarchs that were born in this 
line. But I have not been gratified in consequence of this 
charming account having been so short. Therefore be pleased, 
O Brahmana, to recite the delightful narrative once more in 
detail, commencing from Manu the lord of creation. Who is 
there that will not be charmed with such an account, sacred 
as it is ? The fame of these monarchs, increased by their wis- 
dom, virtue, accomplishments, and high character, hath been 
80 swelled as to cover the three worlds. Having listened to 
the history, sweet as nectar, of their liberality, prowess, l)hy- 
sical strength, mental vigor, energy, and perseverance, I have 
not been satiated. " 

Vaisampayana said, "Hear then, O monarch, as I recite 
in full the auspicious account of thy own race just as I heard 
it from Dwaipayana before. 

" Daksha begat Aditi, and Aditi begat Vivaswan, and Vi- 
Taswan begat Manu, and Manu begat Ila, and Ila begat Puru- 
rava. And Puru-rava begat Ayu, and Ayu begat Nahusha, and 
Nahusha begat Yayati. And Yayati had two wives, vis, Deva- 
yani the daughter of Usana, and Sharmishta the daughter of 

A.DI PARVA. 283 

Vrishaparva. Here occurs a sloka regarding (Yayati's) descen- 
dants. 'Deva-yani gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu ; and Vri- 
shaparva's daughter Sharmishta gave birth to Drahyu, Anu, 
and Puru.' And the descendants of Yadu are the Yadavas, 
and of Puru are the Pauravas. And Puru bad a wife of name 
Kausalya. And he begat in her a son named Janamejaya. 
And Janamejaya performed three horse-sacrifices and a sacri- 
fice called Visiuajit. And then he entered into the woods. 
And Janamejaya bad married Ananta the daughter of Madhava, 
and begat in her a son called Prachinwan. And the prince 
was so called because he had conquered all the eastern coun- 
tries to the very confines of the region where the sun rises. 
And Prachinwan married Ashmaki a daughter of the Yadavas 
and begat in her a son named Sanyati. And Sanyati married 
Varangi the daughter of Drishadwata and begat in her a son 
named Ahanyati. And Ahanyati married Bhanumati the 
daughter of Krita-virya and begat in her a son named Sarva- 
bhauma. And Snrvabhauma married Sunanda the daughter of 
the Kekaya prince, having obtained her by force. And he 
begat in her a son named Jayat-seaa. And Jayat-sena married 
Susrava the daugliter of the Vidharva king and begat in her 
Avachina. And Avachina also married another princess of 
Vidharva of name Maryada. And he begat in her a son 
named Arihas. And Arihas married Angi and begat in her 
Mahabhauma. And Mahabhauma married Suyajna the daugh- 
ter of Prasena-jit. And in her was born Ayuta-nayi. And 
he was so called because he had performed a sacrifice in which 
the fat of an Ayuta of male beings was required. And Ayuta- 
nayi took for wife Kama the daughter of Prithu-sravasa. And 
in her was born a son named Akrodhana. And Akrodhana 
took for wife Karanibha the daughter of the king of Kalinga. 
And in her was born Devatithi. And Devatithi took for wife 
Maryada the princess of Videha. And in her was born a son 
named Arihas. And Arihas took for wife Sudeva the princess 
of Anga. And in her he begat a son named Riksha. And 
Riksha married Jwala the daughter of Takshaka. And he 
begat in her a son of name ]\[atinara. And Matinara perform- 
ed on the banks oi the Saraswati the twelve years' extending 


sacrifice said to be so efficacious. On the conclusion of the 
sacrifice, Saraswati appearing in person before the king chose 
him for her husband. And he begat in her a son named Tangsu. 
Here occurs a sloka descriptive of Tangsu's descendants. 

'Tangsu was born of Saraswati by Matinara. And Tang- 
su himself begat a son named Ilina in his wife the princess of 

Ilina begat in his wife Rathantari five sons, of whom Dush- 
mauta was the eldest. And Dushmanta took for wife Sakuu- 
tala the daughter of Viswamitra. And he begat in her a son 
named Bharata. Here occur two slokas about ( Dushmanta's ) 

* The mother is but the sheath of flesh in which the father 
begets the son. Indeed, the father himself is the son. There- 
fore, O Dushmanta, support thy son and insult not Sakuntala. 
O thou god among men, the father himself becoming as son 
rescueth himself from hell. Sakuntala hath truly said that 
thou art the author of this child's being.' 

It for this (because the king supported his child after hear- 
ing the above speech of the celestial messenger) that Sakun- 
tala's son came to be called Bharata (the siqrpoHed.) And 
Bharata married Sunanda the daughter of Sarva-sena the king 
of Kasi. And he begat in her a son named Bhumanyu. And 
Bhumanyu married Vijaya the daughter of Dasharha. And 
he begat in her a son Suhotra. And Suhotra married Suvarna 
the daughter of Ikshaku. In her was born a son named 
Hasti who founded this city which has therefore been called 
Hastinapore. And Hasti married Yashodhara the princess of 
Trigarta. And in her was born a son named Vikunthana, And 
Vikunthana took for wife Sudeva the princess of Dasharha. 
And in her was born a son named Ajamida. And Ajamida 
had four wives named Kaikeyi, Gandhari, Vishala and Riksha. 
And he begat in them two thousand and four hundred sons. 
But amongst them all Samvarana became the perpetuator of 
the dynasty. And Samvarana took for wife Tapati the daugh- 
ter of Vivaswan. And in her was born Kuru. And Kuiru 
married Suvangi the princess of Dasharha. And he begat in 
her a sou named Vidura. And Vidura took for wife Sampri% 


the daughter of Madbava, And he begat in her a son named 
Anaswa. And Anaswa married Amrita the daughter of the 
Madhavas. And in her was born a son named Parikshit. And 
Parikshit took for wife Yasha the daughter of Vahuda. And 
he begat in her a son named Bhima-sena. And Bhima-sena 
married Kumari the princess of Kekaya. And he begat in 
her Pratisrava. And Pratisrava's son was Pratipa. And Pra- 
tipa married Sunanda the daugliter of Shivi. And he begat 
in her three sons, viz, Devapi, Sbantanu, and Valhika. And 
Devapi while still a boy entered the woods as a hermit. And 
Shantanu became king. Here occurs a sloJca in respect of 

' Those old men that were touched by this monarch not only 
felt an indescribable sensation of pleasure but also became 
restored to youth. Therefore was this monarch called Shan- 

And Shantanu married Ganga. And in her was born a son 
Deva-brata Avho was afterwards called Bhisma. And Bhisma 
moved by the desire of doing good to his father married him 
to Satyavati who was also called Gandhakali. And in her 
maidenhood she had a son by Parashara, named Dwaipayana, 
And in her Shantanu begat two other sons named Chittrangada 
and Vichitra-virya. And before they had attained to majo- 
rity, Cbittrangada was slain by the Gandliarvas. But Vichi- 
tra-virya became king. And Vichitra-virya married the two 
daughters of the king of Kasi, named Amvika and Amvalika. 
And Vichitra-virya died childless. Then Satyavati began to 
think how the dynasty of Dushmanta might be perpetuated. 
And she recollected the Rishi Dwaipayana. The latter coming 
before her asked, ' What are thy commands ?' And she said, 
* Thy brother Vichitra-virya hath gone to heaven childless. 
Bewet virtuous children for him.' And Dwaipayana, consent- 
ing to this, begat three children, viz, Dhrita-rashtra, Pandu, 
Vidura. And king Dhrita-rashtra had an hundred sons by 
bis wife Gandhari in consequence of the boon granted by Dwai- 
payana. And amongst these hundred sons of Dhrita-rashtra, 
four became celebrated. They were Duryodhana, Dush-sha- 
suna, Vikaruti, and Cliittra-seiiR, And Pandu had two jeTfeia 


of wives, viz, fiunti, also called Pritha, and Madri. One day 
Pandu going out to hunt saw a deer coupling with its mate. 
That was really a Rishi in the form of a deer. And seeing 
the deer in that attitude he killed it by his arrows before its 
desire had been gratified. Pierced with the king's arrow, the 
deer quickly changing its form and becoming a Rishi said 
unto Pandu, ' Pandu thou art virtuous and acquainted also 
"with the pleasure devived from the gratification of one's de- 
sire. Before my desire was gratified thou hast slain me. There- 
fore thou also, when in such a state and before thou art grati- 
fied, shalt die.' And Pandu hearing this curse became pale, 
and from that time would not go unto his wives. And he 
told them these words : — ' From my own fault, I have been 
cursed. But I have heard that for the childless there are no 
regions hereafter.' Therefore he solicited Kunti to raise offs- 
pring for liim. And Kunti, saying ' Let it be,' raised up offs- 
pring. By Dharma she had Yudhishthira ; by Maruta, Bhima ; 
and by Sakra, Arjuna. And Pandu well pleased with her, 
said, 'This thy co-wife is also childless. Therefore cause her to 
bear children. And Kunti saying 'Let it be,' imparted unto 
Madri the mantra of invocation. And in Madri were raised, 
by the twin Aswinas, the twins Nakula and Sahadeva. And 
(one day) Pandu beholding Madri decked in ornaments had 
his desire kindled. And as soon as he touched her he died. 
And Madri ascended the funeral pyre with her lord. And she 
said unto Kunti, 'Let these twins of mine be brought up by 
thee with affection.' After some time those five Pandavas were 
taken by the ascetics of the woods to Hastinapore and there 
introduced to Bhisraa and Vidura. And after introducing thera 
the ascetics disappeared in the very sight of all. And after the 
conclusion of the speech of those ascetics, flowers were show- 
ered down upon the earth. And the celestial Dundhuvi also 
rang in the skies. And the Pandavas Avere then taken ( by 
Bhisma.) They then represented the death of their father 
and performed his obsequial rites duly. And as they were being 
brought up there Duryodhana became exceedingly jealous 
of them. And the sinful Duryodhana, acting like a Rakshasa, 
tried by various means to drive them away. But that which 

ADl PARVA. 287 

is to be can never be frustrated. So all Duryodhana's efforts 
proved futile. Then Dhrita-rashtra sent them, by an act of 
deception, to Varanavata, and they went there willintrly. 
There an endeavor was made to burn them to death ; but it 
proved abortive owing to the warning counsels of Vidura. 
After that, the Pandavas slew Hidimva, and then they \vent 
to a town called Eka-chakra. There also they slew a Raks- 
hasa of the name of Vaka and then went to Panchala. And 
there obtaining Draupadi for wife they returned to Hastina- 
pore. And there they dwelt for sometime in peace and begat 
children. And Yudishthira begat Priti-vindliya ; and Bhima, 
Sutasoma ; and Arjuna, Sruta-kirti ; and Nakula, Shatanika ; 
and Sahadeva, Sruta-karma. Besides these, Yudhisthira hav- 
ing obtained for wife Devika the daughter of Gavashana the 
king of Shaivya, in a Sivaymvara (in whicii the bride electa 
her lord from among the assembled princes,) begat in her a 
son named Yaudheya. And Bhima also, obtaining for wife 
Valadhara the daughter of the king of Kasi, offering as dower 
his own prowess, begat in her a son named Sarvaga. And 
Arjuna also, repairing to Dwaravati brought away by force 
Subhadra the sweet-speeched sister of Vasudeva and returned 
in happiness to Hastinapore. And he begat in her a son 
named Abhiraanyu endued with all accomplishments and dear 
to Vasudeva himself. And Nakula obtaining for wife Karenu- 
mati the princess of Chedi begat in her a son named Nira- 
mitra. And Sahadeva also married Vijaya the daughter of 
Dyutimana the king of Madra, obtaining her in Swayamvani, 
and begat in her a son named Suhotra. And Bhima-sena had 
sometime before begat in Hidimva a son named Ghatot-kacha. 
These are the eleven sons of the Pandavas. Amongst them 
all, Abhimanyu was the perpetuator of the family. He married 
Uttara the daughter of Virata. She brought forth a dead 
child whom Kunti took up on her lap at the command of Va- 
sudeva who said ' I will revive this child of six months.' And 
though born before time, being burnt by the fire of (Aswa- 
thama's ) weapon and therefore deprived of strength and 
energy, he was revived by Vasudeva and endued with strength; 
energy, and prowess. And after being revived, Vasudeva said; 


' Because this child hath been born in an extinct race, there- 
fore he shall be called Parikshit, And Parikehit married 
Madravati thy mother, O king ! And thou art born of her, 
O Janameja^a ! Thou hast also begotten two sons in thy 
wife Vapuetama, named Shatauika and Shankukarna. And 
Shatanika also hath begot one son named Aswamedha-datta in 
the princess of Videha. 

"Thus have I, O king, recited the history of the decendants 
of Puru and of the Pandavas. This excellent, virtue increas- 
ing, and sacred history should ever be listened to by vow- 
observing Brahmanas, by Ksliatrius devoted to the practices 
of their order and ready to protect their subjects ; by Vaisj'as 
with attention, and by Sudras with reverence whose chief occu- 
pation is to wait upon the three other orders. Brahraanaa 
conversant with the Veda and other persons, who with atten- 
tion and reverence recite this sacred history or listen to it 
when recited, subdue the heavens and attain to the mansions 
of the blest. They are also always respected and adored by 
the gods, Brahmanas, and other men. This holy history of 
Bharata hath been composed by the sacred and illustrious 
Vyasa. Veda-knowing Brahmauas and other persons who with 
reverence and without malice liear it recited, earn great re- 
ligious merit and subdue the heavens. Though sinning they 
are not yet disregarded by any one. Here occurs a sloka. 
•This (Bharata) is equal unto the Vedas : it is holy and 
excellent. It bestoweth wealth, fame, and life. Therefore 
should it be listened to by men with rapt attention.'" 

Thus ends the ninety-titlh Section in the Sambhava of the 
Adi Parva. 

Section LXLVI. 

(Sambhava Parva contlmted.) 

Vaisampayana said, " There was a king known by the 
name of Mahabhibha born iu the race of Ikshaku. He was 
the lord of all the earth, and was truthful in speech and of 
true prowess. By u thousand horse-sacrifices and an hundred 

AD I I'AiiVA. 289 

RMJuslmyas he had gratified the chief of tlie celestials and 
ultimately attained to heaven. 

"One day the celestials had assembled together and were 
worshipping Brahma. Many royal sages and king Mahabhisha 
also were present on the spot. And Gann^a, the Queen of 
rivers, also came there to pay her adorations to the Grand- 
father, And her garments, white as the beams of the moon, 
became loosened by the action of the wind. And as her person 
was exposed, the celestials bent down their heads. But the royal 
sage Mahabhisha rudely stared at the Queen of the rivers. And 
Mahabhisha was for this cursed by Brahma. And Brahma said, 
' Wretch, as thou hast forgotten thyself ac sight of Gaiiga, thou 
shalt be re-born on Earth. But, nevertheless, thou shalt again 
attain to these regions. And siie too shall be born in the world 
of men and shall do thee injuries. But when thy wrath shall 
be provoked thou shalt thou be freed from my curse.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "And king Mahabhisha then, 
recollecting all the monarchs and ascetics on Earth, wished to 
be born as son to Pi-ati])a of great prowess. And the Queen of 
rivers too seeing king Mahabhisha lose his firmness, went away 
thinking of him wishfully. And on her way she saw those 
dwellers of heaven, the Vasus, also pursuing tiie same path. 
And the Queen of rivers beholding them in that predicament 
asked them, ' Why look ye so dejected ? Ye dwellers of 
heaven, is everything right with ye ?' Those celestials — the 
Vasus — answered her, saying, '0 Queen of river?, we have 
been cursed for a venial fault by the illustrious Vashishta in 
anger. The foremost of excellent Rishis-, Vashishta, had been 
engaged in his twilight adorations. Seated as he was such 
that he could not be seen by us, we crossed him in ignorance. 
Therefore in wrath iiath he cursed us, saying, — Be born among 
men. — It is beyond our power to frustrate what hath been 
said by that utterer of Brahma. Therefore, O river, thyself 
becoming a human female make us, Vasus, thy children ! O 
amiable one, we are unwilling to enter the womb of any 
human female,' Thus addressed, the Queen of riversh told them 
' Be it so,' and asked them, ' On Earth, who is that foremost 
of men whom ye will make your father V 



"The Vasus replied, 'On Earth, unto Pratipa shall be born 
a son Shantanu who shall be a king of world-wide fame/ 
Ganga then said, 'Ye celestials, that is exactly my wish which 
ye sinless ones have expressed ! I shall, indeed, do good to that 
Shantanu. That is also your desire as just expressed !' The 
Vasus then said, It behoveth tiiee to throw thy children, as 
they are born, into the water, so that, O thou of three 
courses, (celestial, terrestrial, and subterranean,) we may be 
rescued soon without having to live on Earth for any length 
of time.' Ganga then answered, 'I shall do what ye desire. 
But inorder that his intercourse with me may not be entirely 
fruitless, provide ye that one son at least may live !' The 
Yasus then replied, 'We shall each contribute an eighth part 
of our respective energies. With the sura thereof thou shalt 
have one son according to thy and his wishes. But this son shall 
not begat any children on Earth. Therefore that son of thine, 
endued with great energy, shall be childless.' 

"The Vasus making this arrangement with Ganga, without 
waiting went away to the place they liked." 

Thus ends the ninety-sixth Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXLVII. 

(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

There was a king of name Pratipa who was kind to all 

creatures. He spent many years in ascetic penances at the 

source of the river Ganges. And the accomplished and lovely 

Ganga one day assuming the form of a beautiful female, 

rising from the waters, approached the monarch. And the 

celestial maiden endued with ravishing beauty, approaching 

the royal sage engaged in ascetic austerities, sat upon his right 

thigh that was for manly strength a veritable Slcal tree. 

And when the maiden of handsome face had so sat upon his 

lap, the monarch said unto her, '0 amiable one, what dost 

thou desire ? What shall I do V The damsel answered, •! 

desire thee, O king, for my husband ! O thou foremost of the 

Kurus, be mine ! To refuse a woman coming of her own 


accord is never applauded by the wise.' Pratipa then answer- 
ed, '0 thou of the fairest complexion, moved by lust I never 
go unto others' wives or Avomeu that are not of my order. 
This, indeed, is my virtuous vow !' The maiden rejoined, 
*I am not inauspicious or ugly. I am every way worthy of 
being enjoyed. I am a celestial maiden of rare beauty. I 
desire thee for my husband. Refuse me not, king !' To 
this Pratipa: 'I am, O damsel, abstaining from that course to 
which thou wouldst incite me. If I break my vow, sin will 
overwhelm and slay me. tliou of the fairest complexion, 
thou hast embraced me sitting on my right thigh. But, O 
timid one, know that is the seat for daughters and daughtcra- 
in-law. The left lap is for the wife, but thou hast not accepted 
that. Therefore, O best of women, I cannot enjoy thee as an 
object of desire. Be my daughter-in-law. I accept thee for 
my son.' 

"The damsel then said, '0 thou virtuous one, let it be as 
thou sayest. Let me be united with thy son. From my res- 
pect for thee, I shall be a wife of the celebrated Bharata 
race. Ye (of the Bharata race) are the stay of all the mon- 
archs on earth. I am incapable of numbering the virtues of 
this race even in an hundred years. The greatness and good- 
ness of many celebrated monarciis of this race are also limit- 
less, O lord of all, let it be understood now that when I be- 
come thy daughter-in-law, thy son shall not be able to judge 
of the propriety of ray acts. Living thus with thy son I shall 
do good to him and increase his happiness. And he shall final- 
ly attain to heaven in consequence of the sons I shall bare 
tim, his virtues, and good conduct.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " O king, having said so, the 
celestial damsel then and there disappeared. And the king too 
waited for the birth of his son inorder to fulfill his promise, 

" About this time Pratipa, that light of tlie Kuru rac<?, 
that bull amongst the Kshatrias, then engaged, along with his 
wife, in ascetic austerities from desire of offspring. And 
when they had grown old, a son was born unto them. This 
was no other than Mahabhisha. And the child was called 
Shaatauu because he wars bora when hio fatUur had controlled 


liis passions by ascetic penances. And the best of Knni?, 
Shantanu, knowing that regions of indestructibl-e bliss can be 
acquired by one's deeds alone, became devoted to virtue. 
And when Shantanu grew up a youth, Pratlpa addressed 
him and said, 'Sometime before, O Shantanu, a celestial 
damsel came to me for thy good. If thou meetcst that fair- 
complexioned one in secret and if she solicit thee for children, 
accept her as thy wife. And, O sinless one, judge not of the 
propriety or impropriety of anything she does, and ask not who 
she is and whose or whence, but accept tliou her as thy wife 
at my command.' " 

Vaisampiyana continued, " And Pratipa, having thus 
commanded his son Shantanu and installing him on his 
throne, then retired into the woods. And king Shantanu 
endued with great intelligence and equal unto Indra him- 
self in splendour became addicted to hunting and passed 
much of his time in the woods. And the best of monarchs 
always slew deer and buffaloes. And one day as he was 
wandering along the banks of the Ganges he came upon a 
rer'ion frequented by the sldddhas (nscetics crowned with suc- 
cess) and charanas. And there he saw a lovely maiden of 
blazing beauty and like unto another Sree herself. Of faultless 
and pearly teeth, and decked with celestial ornaments, she 
was attired in garments of fine texture and resembled in 
splendour the filaments of the lotus. And the monarch be- 
holding that damsel became surprised, and his raptures pro- 
duced instant horripilation. With steadfast gaze he seemed 
to be drinking her charms, but repeated draughts failed to 
quench his thirst. The damsel also, beholding the monarch of 
blazing splendour moving about in great agitation, was 
moved herdelf and experienced an affection for him. She 
gazed and gazed and longed to gaze at him evermore. The 
monarch then in soft words addressed her and said, ' O 
thou slender-waisted one, beest thou a goddess or the 
daughter of a Danava, beest thou of the race of the Gan- 
dharvas or Apsaras, beest thou of the Yakshas or of the Nagas, 
or bcoat thou of human origin, O thou of celestial beauty^ 
I ;&olicit thee to be mv wife,' " 

ADl PARVA, 293 

And so cmls the ninety-seventh Section in the SamLhava 
of the Adi parva. 

Section LXLVIII. 

(Samhhava Parva contmued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " The maiden then, hearing those soft 
and sweet words of the smiling monarch, and remembering 
her promise to the Vasus, then addressed the king in reply. 
Of faultless features and sending a thrill of pleasure into the 
heart by every word she uttered, the damsel said, ' kinrr, 
I shall become thy wife and obey thy commands, Bst, O 
monarch, thou must not interfere with me in anything I do, 
be it agreeable or disagreeable. Nor shalt thou ever address 
me unkiudl3^ As long as thou shalt behave kindly, I promise 
to live with thee. But I shall certainly leave thee the moment 
thou interferest with me or speakest to me an unkind word.' 
The king answered, 'Let it be.' And thereupon the damsel 
obtaining that excellent monarch — the foremost of the Bharata 
race — for her husband, became highly pleased. And king 
Shantanu also obtaining her for wife enjoyed to his fill the 
pleasures of her company. And adhering to his promise he 
refrained from asking her anything. And the lord of earth, 
Shantanu, became exceedingly gratified with her conduct, beauty, 
magnanimity, and attention to his comforts. And the goddess 
Ganga also, of three courses (celestial — terrestrial — and sub- 
terranean) assuming a human form of superior complexion 
and endued with celestial beauty, lived happily as the wife of 
Shantanu, having obtained for her husband, as the fruit of her 
virtuous acts, that tiger among kings equal unto Indra himself 
in splendour. And she gratified the king by her attractive- 
ness and affection, her wiles and love, her music and dance, 
and became gratified herself. And the monarch was so enrap- 
tured with his beautiful wife that months, seasons, and years 
rolled away without his being conscious of them. And the 
king, while thus enjoying himself with his wife, had eight 
children born unto him who in beauty were like the very ce- 
lestials thembclvea, But, Bharuta, these children one after 


another, as soon as they were born, were thrown into the river 
by Ganga saying, ' This is for thy good.' And the children 
sank to rise no more. The king, however, could not be 
pleased with such conduct. But he spoke not a word about it 
lest his wife should leave him. But when the eighth child was 
born, and when his wife as before was about to throw it smil- 
ingly into the river, the king, with a sorrowful countenance 
and desirous of saving it from destruction, addressed her 
and saidj *Slay it not ! Who art thou and whose ? Why dost 
thou slay thy own children ? Murderess of thy sons, the load 
of thy sins is great !' 

" His wife, thus addressed, then replied, ' thou desirous 
of offspring, thou hast already become the first of those that 
have children. I shall not slay this child of thine. But accor- 
dino- to our agreement, the period of my stay with thee is at 
an end. I am Ganga the daughtor of Jauhu. I am ever 
•worshipped by the great sages. I have lived with thee so 
long for accomplishing the purposes of the celestials. The 
eight illustrious Vasus endued with great energy had, from 
Vashishta's curse, to assume human forms. On earth, besides 
thee there was none else to deserve the honor of being their be- 
getter. There is no woman also on earth except one like me — 
a celestial of human form — to become their mother. I assum- 
ed a human form to bring them forth. Thou also, having be- 
come the father of the eight Vasus, hast acquired many re- 
gions of perennial bliss. It was also agreed between myself 
and the Vasus that I should free them from human forms as 
soon as they would be born. I have thus freed them from the 
curse of the Rishi Apava. Blest be thou. I leave thee, O 
king ! But rear thou this child of rigid vows. That I should 
live with thee so long was the promise I gave to the Vasus. 
And let this child be called Ganga-datta.' " 

Thus ends the ninety-eighth Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section LXLIX. 
{Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Shautanu asked, 'What was the fault of the Vasus and 
who Avas Apava through whose curse the Vasus had to be 
born among men ? What also hath this child of thine — Gaa- 
gadatta — done for which he shall have to live among men ? 
Why also were the Vasus — the lords of the three worlds — con- 
demned to be born auougat men ? O daughter of Janhu, 
tell me all.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Thus addressed, the celestial 
the daughter of Janhu, Gauga, then replied to the monarch, 
her husband — that bull amougst men — saying, ' thou best 
of tht Bharata race, he who was obtained as son by Varuua 
Avas called Vashishta— the Muni who afterwards came to be 
known as Apava. He had his asylum on the side of the king 
of mountains Meru. The ground was sacred and abounded 
with birds and beasts, and there bloomed at all times of the year 
flowers of every season. And, thou best of the Bharata race, 
the foremost of virtuous men, the son of Varuua, practi&ed 
his ascetic penances in those woods abounding with sweet 
roots and fruits and water. 

" 'Daksha had a daughter known by the name of Surabhi. 
And, thou bull of the Bharata race, Surabhi, for benefiting 
the world, brought forth, by her connection with Kasyapa, a 
daughter (Nandini) in the form of a cow. The foremost of 
all kine, Nandini, was the cow of plenty (capable of granting 
every desire.) And the virtuous son of Varuua obtained 
Nandini for his Homa cow. And the cow, dwelling in that 
hermitage which was adored by Munis, roved fearlessly in 
those sacred and delightful woods. 

" 'One day, thou bull of the Bharata race, there came, 
into those woods adored by the gods and celestial Rishis, the 
Vasus with Prithu as their head. And wandering there with 
their wives, they enjoyed themselves in those delightful woods 
and mountains. And as they were wandering there, the sleu- 
der-waisted wife of one of the Vasus, thou of the prowesa 
of Indru, saw iu tho^e woydi Nundlui the cow of plenty. And 


as the saw tliat cow possessing the wealth of all accomplish- 
ments, lar^e eyes, full lul'lers, fine tail, beautiful hoofs, and 
every other auspicious sign, and yielding much milk, she show- 
ed it to her husband named Dyau. And, O thou of the prow- 
ess of the tirat of elephants, when Dyau was shown that cow, 
he began to admire its several qualities, and addressing hia 
wife said, — tiiou black-eyed girl of fair thighs, this excellent 
cow belongcth to that Rishi whose is this delightful asylum. 
And, O thou sleuder-waisted one, that mortal who drinketh of 
the sweet milk of this cow remaineth in unchanged youth for 
ten thousand jeurs. — And, best of monarchs, hearing this, 
the sleuder-waisted goddess of faultless features then address- 
ed her lord of blazing splendour and said, — There is on earth 
a friend of mine, by name Jitavati, possessed of great beauty 
and youth. She is the daughter of that god among men, the 
royal sage Udiuara endued with intelligence and devoted to 
truth. I desire to have this cow, O thou illustrious one, with 
her calf for that friend of mine. Therefore, O thou best of 
celestials, bring that cow so that my friend drinking of its milk 
may alone become on earth free from disease and decrepitude. 
thou illustrious and blameless one, it behoveth thee to grant 
me this deaire of mine. There i.s nothing that would be more 
agreeable to me. — Hearing these words of his wife, Dyau, 
moved by the desire of humouring his wife, stole that cow, 
along with hio brothers Prithu and others. Indeed, Dyau, 
commanded by his lotus leaf-eyed wife, did her bidding, for- 
getting at the moment the high ascetic merits of the Rishi 
who owned her. He did not also think at the time that he 
fell with the commission of the sin of stealing the cow. 

" 'When the son of Varuna returned to his asylum in the 
evening with the fruits he had collected, and beheld not the 
cow with its calf there, he began to search for it in the woods. 
But when the great ascetic, of superior intelligence, found 
not his cow on search, he saw by his ascetic vision that it had 
been stolen by the Vasus. His wrath was instantly kindled 
and he cursed the Vasus saying, — Because the Vasus have 
stolen my cow of sweet milk and handsome tail, therefore 
fchuU they certainly be born on eaith, — 


** '0 thou bull of the Bharata race, tho lllusfrious Rishi 
Apava thus cursed the Vasua in wrath. And having curseJ 
them the illustrious one set his heart once more on ascetic 
meditation. And after that Brahmarshi of great power 
and ascetic wealth had thus in wrath cursed the Vasus, the 
latter, O king, coming to know of it, speedily came into his 
asjlum. And addressing the Rishi, O thou bull amono- kino-s 
they endeavoured to pacify him. But they failed, O thou 
tiger among men, to obtain grace from Apava — that Rishi 
conversant with all rules of virtue. The virtuous Apava, 
however, said — Ye Vasus, with Dhava and others, ye have 
been cursed by me ! But ye shall be freed from my curse 
within a year of your birth among men. But he for whose 
deed ye have been cursed by me, he, viz, Dyau, shall, for 
his sinful act, have to dwell on earth for length of time. I 
shall not render futile the words I have uttered in wrath. 
Dyau, though dwelling on earth, shall not beget children. He 
shall, however, be virtuous and conversant with all Shastras, 
He shall be an obedient son to his father, but shall have to 
abstain from the pleasure of female companionship. — 

" 'Thus addressing the Vasus, the great Rishi went away. 
The Vasus then together came to me. And, O king, they 
begged of me the boon that as soon as they would be born 
I should throw them into the water. And, O best of kings, 
I did as they desired, in order to free them from their 
earthly life. And, O best of kings, from the Rishi's curse 
this one only — Dyau himself — is to live on earth for some 
time.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Having said this, the o-oddesg 
then and there disappeared. And taking with her the child 
she went away to the region she chose. And that child of 
Shantanu was named both Gangeya and Deva-brata and ex- 
celled his father in all accomplishments. 

" Shantanu, after the disappearance of his wife, returned 
to his capital with a son-owful heart. I shall now recount to 
thou the many virtues and great good fortune of that illus- 
trious king Shantanu of the Bharata race. Indeed, it ig this 
splendid history that is called the Mahabharata. " 



And so ends the uiiiety-niiith Section in the Sambhava of 
the Acli Parva. 

Section C. 

( Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, "The monarch Shantanu, the adored 
of the gods and of the royal sages, was known in all the worlds 
for his wisdom, virtues, and truthfulness of speech. The 
qualities of self-control, liberality, forgiveness, intelligence, 
modesty, patience, and superior energy dwelt continually ia 
that bull among men, Shantanu, that great being. Endued 
with these accomplishments and skilled also in interpreting 
the Shastras, the monarch was at once the protector of the 
Bharata race and of all human beings. His neck was marked 
with (three) lines like a shell, his shoulders were broad and he 
resembled in prowess an infuriate elephant. It would seem 
that all the auspicious signs of royalty dwelt in his person 
considering that to be their fittest abode. And men seeing 
the behaviour of that monarch of great achievements came 
to ascertain for themselves that virtue is ever superior to plea- 
sure and profit. These were the attributes that dwelt in that 
great being — that bull among men — Shantanu. And truly 
there never was a king like Shantanu. And all the kings of 
the eartl), beholding him devoted to virtue, bestowed upon 
that foremost of virtuous men the title of King of kings. 
And all the kings of the earth during the time of that lord 
protector of the Bharata race,Vere without woes, and fears, and 
anxieties of any kind. And they all slept in peace rising from 
bed every morning after happy drean^s. And owing to that 
monarch of splendid achievements resembling Indra himself ia 
energy, all the kings of the earth became virtuous and de- 
voted to liberality, religious acts, and sacrifices. And when 
the earth was ruled by Shantanu and other monarchs like him, 
the religious merits of every order increased very greatly. 
The Kshatrias served the Brahmanas, and the Vaisyas waited 
upon the Kshatrias, and the Sudras adoring the Brahmanas 
and the Kgh atrias, waited upon the Vaisyas. And Shantanu 

B.DI PARVA. 299 

residing in Haslinapore, the delightful capital oi the Kurus, 
ruled the whole earth bounded by the seas. He was truth- 
ful and guileless, and like the king of the celestials himself 
conversant with the dictates of virtue. And from the com- 
bination in him of liberality, religion, and asceticism, he 
acquired great good fortune. He was free from anger and 
malice, and was handsome in person like Soma himself. In 
splendour he was like the Sun and in impetuosity of valor like 
Vayu. In wi-ath he was like Yaraa, and in patience like the 
Earth. And, O king, while Sbantanu ruled the earth, no 
deer, boars, birds, or other animals were needlessly slain. In 
his dominions the great virtue of kindness to all creatures 
prevailed, and the king himself with the soul of mercy and 
destitute of desire and wrath, extended equal protection unto all 
creatures. Then sacrifices in honor of the gods, the RlsJiis and 
the PitHs, commenced, and no creature was deprived of life 

sinfully. And Shantanu was the king and father of all, of 

those that were miserable and those that had no protectors, of 
birds and beasts, in fact, of every created thino-. And durin<r 
the rule of that best of Kurus — of that King of kings — speech 
became united Avith truth, and the minds of men were set 
upon liberality and religion. And Shantanu having enjoy- 
ed domestic felicity for six and thirty years retired into the 

"And Shantanu's son — the Vasu born of Ganga and named 
Deva-brata — resembled Shantanu himself in personal beautv, 
in habits and behaviour, and in learning. And in all branches 
of knowledge, worldly or spiritual, his skill was very great. 
His strength and energy were extraordinary. He became a 
mighty charioteer. In fact, he was a great being. 

" One day in pursuing along the banks of the Gauges, a 
deer that he had struck with his arrow, king Shantanu ob- 
served that the river had become shallow. And observing 
this, that bull among men, Shantanu, began to reflect upon 
this strange appearance. He mentally asked why that first 
of rivers ran not so quickly as before. And while seeking 
for a cause, the illustrious monarch beheld that a youth of 
great comeliness, of well-built and amiable person, like Indra 


Iiimself, had, by his keen celestial weapons, checked the flow of 
the river. And the king, beholding this extraordinary feat 
of the river Ganga being thus checked in her course near 
where that youth stood, became very much surprised. This 
youth was none other than Shantanu's son. But as Shantanu 
liad seen his son only once a few moments after his birth, 
he had not sufficient recollection to identify that infant with the 
youth before his eyes. The youth, however, seeing his father 
knew him at once. But instead of confessing himself, he 
clouded the king's perception by his celestial powers of illusion 
and disappeared in his very sight. 

" King Shantanu wondering much at what he saw and 
imagining the youth to be his own son, then addressed Ganga 
and said, 'Show me that child.' And Ganga, thus addressed, 
assuming a beautiful form, and holding the boy decked in orna- 
ments in her right hand, showed him to Shantanu. And 
Shantanu recognised not that beautiful female bedecked with 
ornaments and attired in fine robes of white, although he 
had known her before. And Ganga said, ' thou tiger among 
men, the eighth son that thou hadst sometime before begot 
in me is this one. Know that this excellent child is conversant 
with all weapons. O monarch, take him now. I have reared 
him with care. And go home, O tliou tiger amog men, taking 
him with thee. Endued with superior intelligence, he has 
studied with Vasishta the whole Vedas with the Angas. Skilled 
in all weapons and a mighty bowman, he is like Indra him- 
self in battle. And, O Bharata, both the gods and the Asuras 
look upon him with favor. Whatever branches of knowledge 
are known to Usana, this one knoweth completely. And so is he 
the master of all those shastras that the son of Angira (Vrihaa- 
pati) adored by the gods and the Asuras knoweth. And all the 
■weapons known to the powerful and invincible Rama the son of 
Jamadagni are known to this thy illustrious son of mighty arms. 
And, O king of superior courage, take home this thy own 
heroic child given unto thee by me. He is a mighty bowman 
and cognisant with the interpretation of all treatises on the 
duties of kings.' And thus commanded by Ganga, Shantanu 
taking with him his child resembling the Sun himself in glory, 



returned to his capital. And having reached his city that was 
like unto the celestial capital itself, that monarch of Puru's 
line regarded himself as greatly fortunate. And having sum- 
moned all the Pauravas together, for the protection of his 
kingdom he installed his son as his heir-apparent and associate 
on the throne. And, O thou bull of the Bharata race, the 
prince soon gratified by his behaviour, his father, and other 
members of the Paurava race, in fact, all the subjects of the 
kingdom. And the king of incomparable prowess, lived happi- 
ly with that son of his. 

•' Four years had thus passed away, when the king one 
day went into the woods on the banks of the Yamuna (Jumna.) 
And while the king was rambling there he perceived a sweet 
scent coming from an unknown direction. And the monarch 
impelled by the desire of ascertaining the cause, wandered 
hither and thither. And in course of his rambles he beheld a 
black-eyed maiden of celestial beauty, the daughter of a 
fisherman. The king addressing her said, ' Who art thou, and 
whose daughter ? What dost thou do here, timid one !' She 
answered, ' Blest be thou. I am the daughter of the chief of 
the fishermen. At his command, for religious merit I am en- 
gaged in rowing passengers across this river in my boat.' And 
Shantanu beholding that maiden of celestial form endued with 
beauty, amiableness, and such fragrance, desired her for wife. 
And repairing unto her father the king solicited his consent 
to the proposed match. But the chief of the fishermen re- 
plied to the monarch, saying, ' king, as soon as my daughter 
of superior complexion was born, it was, of course, understood 
that she should be bestowed upon a husband. But listen to 
the desire I have entertained all along in my heart. sinless 
one, thou art truthful ; if thou desirest to obtain this maiden 
in gift from me, give me thou this pledge. If, indeed, thou 
givest the pledge, I will truly bestow my daughter upon thee, 
for truly I can never obtain a husband for her equal to thee.' 

" Shantanu, hearing this replied, 'When I have heard of the 
pledge thou askest, I shall then say Avhether I would be able 
to grant it or not. If it is capable of being granted, I shall 
certainly grant it. If otherwise, how shall I grant it ?' The 


fisherman then said, ' king, what I ask of thee is this : 
that the son born of this maiden shall be installed by thee on 
thy throne and none else shalt thou make thy successor.' " 

Vaisampayana continued^ "0 Bharata, when Shantanu 
heard this, he felt no inclination to grant such a boon, though 
the fire of desire sorely burnt him within. The king, with his 
heart afflicted by desire, returned to Hastinapo-re thinking all- 
the way of the fisherman's daughter. And having returned 
home, the monarch passed his time in sorrowful meditation^ 
One day Devabrata approaching his afflicted father said, * All 
is prosperity with thee ; all chiefs obey thee ; then why is it 
that thou grievest thus ? Busied with thy own thoughts, thou 
speakest not a word to me in reply. Thou goest not out on 
horse-back now. Thou lookest pale, and emaciated, having 
lost all animation. I wish to know what is the disease under 
which thou sufiferest so that I may endeavour to apply a re- 
medy.' Thus addressed by his son, Shantanu then ansAvered, 
• Thou sayest truly, O son, that I have become melancholy. I 
will also tell thee why I am so. O thou of the Bharata line, 
thou art the only scion of this our large race. Thou art al- 
ways engaged in sports of arms and achievements of prowess. 
But, O son, I am always thinking of the instability of human 
life. If any danger overtake thee, child of Ganga, the 
result is that we become sonless ! Truly, alone thou art to 
me as a century of sons. I do not therefore desire to wed 
again. I only desire, may prosperity ever attend on thee sO' 
that our dynasty may be -^erpetuated. The wise say that he 
that hath one son hath no son. Sacrifices before fire and the 
knowledge of the three Vedas yield, it is true, everlasting re- 
ligious merits. But all these, in point of religious merit, do 
not come up to a sixteenth part of the religious merit attainable 
on the birth of a son. Indeed, in this respect there is hard- 
ly any difference between men and the lower animals. O thou 
wise one, I do not entertain the shadow of a doubt that one 
attains to heayen in consequence of having begotten a son. 
Tlie Vedas which constitute the root of the Puranas and 
are regarded as authoritative even by the gods contain 
numerous proofs of this. O thou of the Bharata race, thou 


art a hero, of excitable temper and always engaged io exercises 
of arms. It is very probable that thou wouldst be slain on 
the field of battle. If it so happen, what would be the state 
of the Bharata dynasty ? It is this thought that hath made me 
80 melancholy. I have now told thee fully the causes of my 
sorrow.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "Deva-brata who was endued 
with great intelligence, having ascertained all this from the 
king, reflected within himself for a while. He then went to 
the old minister devoted to his father's welfare and asked him 
about the cause of the king's grief. thou bull of the Bha- 
rata race, when the prince questioned the minister, the latter 
told him about the boon that was demanded by the chief of 
the fishermen in respect of his daughter Gandhavati. Thea 
Deva-brata, accompanied by many Kshatria chiefs of venerable 
age, himself repaired to the chief of the fishermen and begged 
of him his daughter on behalf of the king. The chief of the 
fishermen received him after due adorations, and, thou of 
the Bharata race, when the prince took his seat in the court 
of the chief, the latter addressed him and said, '0 thou ball 
among the Bharatas, thou art the first of all wielders of wea- 
pons and the only son of Shantanu. Thy influence is great. 
But I have something to tell thee. If the bride's father 
were ludra himself, even he would have to repent if he were 
to reject such an exceedingly honorable and desirable proposal 
of marriage. That great man from whose seed this celebrated 
maiden named Satyavati hath been born is, indeed, equal to 
ye in virtues. He hath spoken to me on many occasions of 
the virtues of thy father and told me that that king alone was 
worthy of marrying Satyavati. Let me tell you that I have 
even rejected the solicitations of that best of Brahmarshis — the 
celestial Rishi Asita — who liad often asked for Satyavati's hand 
in marriage. I have only one word to say on the part of this 
maiden. In the matter of the proposed marriage there is 
only one great objection founded on the iact of a rival exist- 
ing in a co- wife's son. thou oppressor of all foes, he hath 
no security, even if he be an Asura or a Gandharva, who hath 
a rival in thee I There is this only objection in the proposed 


marriage, and nothing else. Blest be thou ! But this is all 
I have to say in the matter of bestowal or otherwise.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " O thou of the Bharata race, 
Deva-brata having heard these words, and moved by the desire 
of benefiting his father, thus answered in the hearing of the 
assembled chiefs. '0 thou foremost of truthful men, listen to the 
vow I utter. There hath been born no man nor shall be, who 
would have the courage to take such a vow ! I shall accom- 
plish all that thou demandest ! The son that may be born 
of this maiden shall be our king.' Tiius addressed, the chief 
of the fishermen, impelled by desire of sovereignty (on behalf 
of his daughter's son) to achieve the almost impossible, then 
said, '0 thou of virtuous soul, thou art come hither as full 
raana'Tcr on behalf of thy father Shantanu of immeasurable 
glory. Be thou also the sole manager on my behalf in 
the matter of the bestowal of this my daughter. But, O 
amiable one, there is something else to be said, something else 
to be reflected upon by thee ! thou suppressor of the foe, 
those that have daughters, from the very nature of their obli- 
gations, must say what I say. thou devoted to truth, the 
promise thou hast given in the presence of these chiefs for 
the benefit of Satyavati hath, indeed, been worthy of thee. 
O thou of mighty arms, I have not the least doubt of its 
never bjing violated by thee. But I have my doubts in respect 
of the children thou mayst beget.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "Oking, the son of Ganga de- 
voted to truth having ascertained the scruples of the chief of 
the fishermen, then said, moved thereto by the desire of bene- 
fiting his father, ' Chief of the fishermen, thou best of men, 
listen to what I say in the presence of the assembled kings ! 
Ye kings, I have before long relinquished ray rigiit to the 
throne. I shall now settle the matter of my children. fisher- 
man, from this day I adopt the vow of Brahmacharya (study 
and meditation in celebacy. ) If I die sonless, I shall yeti 
attain to regions of perennial bliss in heaven.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "Hearing these words of the 
son of Ganga, all the down of the fisherman's body stood erect 
in glee, and he replied, ' I bestow my daughter.' Immediately 


after, the Apsaras and the gods with the tribes of the Rishia 
'beo-an to ruin down flowers from the firmament upon the head 
of Deva-brata and exchiimcd, 'This one is Bhisma ( the terri- 
ble. )' Bliisma then, for servinj; his father, addressed the illus- 
trious damsel and said, 'O mother, ascend this chariot, and 
let us go unto our house.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Having said this, Bhisma made 
the beautiful maiden ride on his chariot. And arriving with 
her at Hastinapore, he told Shantanu everything as it had 
happened. And the assembled monarchs, jointly and indivi- 
dually, applauded his extraordinary act, and said, 'He is really 
Bhisma (the terrible).' And Shantanu also hearing of the 
extraordinary achievement of his son became highly gratified 
and bestowed upon the high-souled prince the boon of death at3 
choice, saying, 'Death shall never come to thee as long as thou 
desirest to live. Truly, death shall approach thee, sinless one, 
having first obtained thy command.' " 

Thus ends the hundreth Section in the Sambhava of 
the Adi Parva. 

Section CI. 

(Sambhava Parva conthnied.) 

Vaisampayana said, " monarch, after the nuptials were 
over, king Shantanu established his beautiful bride in hia 
household. Soon after was born of Satyavati an intelligent 
and heroic son of Shantanu named Chittrangada. He was en- 
dued with great energy and became the foremost of men. 
The lord Shantanu of great prowess also begat in SatyaVati 
another son named Vichittra-virya wiio became a mighty bow- 
man and who became king after his father. And before that] 
bull among men, Vichittra-virya, had attained to majority, the 
wise king Shantanu realised the inevitable influence of Time. 
And after Shantanu had ascended to heaven, Bhisma, placing 
himself under the command of Satyavati, installed that sup- 
pressor of the foe, Chittrangada, on the throne. Chittran- 
gada soon vanquished by his prowess all monarchs. He con- 
sidered not any man as his equal. And beholding that he 



could vanqiiibli men, Asuras, and the very gods, the powerful 
king of the Gaudharvas bearing the same name, approaclied 
him for an encounter. And between that Gandharva and 
the foremost ©f the Kurus, Avho were both very powerful, 
there occurred on the field of Kurukshetra a fierce combat. 
And the combat lasted for full three jears oa the banks of the 
Saraswati. And in that terrible encounter characterised by 
thick ehowers of weapons and in which the combatants grinded 
each other fiercely, the Gandharva who had greater prowess 
of strategic deception slew the Kuru prince. And having 
slain Chittrangada — that first of men and oppressor of the foe — 
the Gandharva ascended to heaven. And when that tiger 
among men endued with great prowess was slain, Bhisma 
the son of Shautanu performed, O king, all his obsequial rites. 
And he then installed the boy Vichittra-virya of mighty arms, 
yet in his minority, on the throne of the Kurus. And Vi- 
chittra-virya placing himself under the commands of Bhisma 
ruled his ancestral kingdom. And he adored Shantanu's son 
Bhisma who was conversant with all the rules of religion and 
law, as, indeed, Bhisma also protected him who was so obedient 
to the dictates of duty.' " 

Thus ends the hundred and first Section in the Shambhava 
of the Adi parva. 

Section Oil. 

(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " O thou of the Kuru race, after 
Chittriuigada was slain, his successor Vichittra-virya being a 
minor, Bhisma ruled the kingdom placing himself under the 
commands of Satyavati. And when he saw that his brother 
who was the foremost of intelligent men attained to majority, 
Bhisma set his heart upon marying Vichittra-virya. At this 
time he heard that the three daughters of the king of Kasi, 
all equal in beauty to the Apsaras themelves, would be mar- 
ried on the same occasion, electing their husbands in Swyam- 
vara. Then that foremost of charioteers, the vanquisher of all 
foes at the command of his mother went to the city of Bara' 


nasi with a single chariot. There Bhisma the son of Shantanu 
saw that innumerable monarchs had come from all directions ; 
and tliere he also saw those three maidens that would elect 
their own husbands. And when the (assembled) kings were 
being mentioned by name, Bhisma then chose those maidens 
(on behalf of his brother.) And taking them upon his cha- 
riot, Bhisma, that first of smiters in battle, addressed the 
kings, O monarch, and said in a voice like the roar of the 
clouds, 'The wise have directed that after inviting an accom- 
plished person a maiden may be bestowed on him, decked 
in ornaments and along with many valuable presents. Others 
again may bestow their daughters by accepting of a couple of 
kine. Some again bestow their daughters by taking a fixed sum, 
and some take away maidens by force. Some wed with the con- 
sent of the maidens, some by drugging them into consent, 
and some by going unto the maiden's parents and obtaining 
their sanction. Some again obtain wives as presents, for assist- 
ing at sacrifices. Of these, the learned always applaud the 
eighth form of marriage. Kings, however, speak highly of the 
^wyamvara (the fifth form as above) and themselves wed 
according to it. But the sages have said that that wife is 
dearly to be prized who is taken away by force, after slaughter 
of opponents, from amid the concourse of princes and kings 
invited to a Swyamvara. Therefore, ye monarchs, I bear 
aways these maidens from hence by force. Strive ye to the 
best of your might to vanquish me or be vanquished ! Ye 
monarchs, I stand here resolved to fight.' The Kuru prince, 
endued with great energy, thus addressing the assembled mon- 
archs and the king of Kasi, took up on his car those maidens. 
And having taken them up, he sped his chariot away, chal- 
lenging the invited kings to battle. 

" The challenged monarchs then all stood up, slapping their 
arms and biting their nether lips in wrath. And loud Avas 
the din produced as in great hurry they began to cast off their 
ornaments and put on their armours. And the motion of their 
ornaments and armours, Janamejaya, brilliant as tliese 
were, resembled meteoric flashes in the sky. And with b^ .v.^ 
contracted and eyes red iu rage, the monarchs moved in im|.;j- 


tience, their armours and war-ornaments dangling or waving 
with their agitated steps. The charioteers soon brought hand- 
some cars harnessing fine horses thereto. Those splendid warri- 
ors then, furnished with all kinds of weapons, rode on those 
cars, and with upraised weapons pursued the retreating chief of 
the Kurus. Then, Bharata, occurred the terrible encounter 
between those innumerable monarchs on the one side and the 
Kuru warrior alone on the other. And the assembled monarchs 
threw at their foe ten thousand arrows at the same time. 
Bhisma, however, speedily checked those numberless arrows 
before they could come upon him, by means of a shower of 
bis own arrows innumerable as the down on the body. Then 
those kings surrounded him on all sides and rained arrows on 
him like masses of clouds showering on the mountain-breast. 
Bdt Bhisma arresting by his shafts the course of that arrowy 
downpour then pierced each of the monarchs v/ith three shafts. 
The latter, on the other hand, pierced Bhisma, each with five 
shafts. But, king, Bhisma checked these by his prowess 
and pierced each of the contending kings with two shafts. 
The combat became so fierce with that dense shower of arrows 
and other missiles, that it looked very like the encounter be- 
tween the celestials and the Asuras of old, and men of courage 
who took no part in it were struck with fear to even loook at 
the scene. Bhisma cut off on the field of battle, by liis arrows, 
bows, and flajr-staffs, and coats of mail, and human heads by 
hundreds and thousands. And such was his terrible prowess 
and extraordinary lightness of hand and such the skill with 
wiiich he protected himself that the contending charioteers, 
though his enemies, began to applaud him loudly. Then that 
foremost of all wielders of weapons having vanquished in war 
all those monarch.^, pursued his way towards the capital of the 
Bharatas, taking those maidens along with him. 

" It was then, O king, that that mighty charioteer, king 
Shalya of immeasurable prowess, from behind summoned 
Bhisma the son of Shantanu to an encounter. And desirous 
of obtaining the maidens, he came upon Bhisma like a mighty 
leader of a herd of Elephants rushing upon another and 
tearing with his tusks the lutLcr'b hips at sight of a female 

ADl PAllVA. 309 

elephant in season. And Shalya of mighty arms, moved by 
wrath addressed Bhisma and said, 'Stay, Stay.' Then Bhisma, 
that tiger among men, that grinder of hostile armies, pro- 
voked by tliose words, flamed up in wrath like a blazing fire. 
And with bow in hand, and brow furrowed into wrinkles, he 
stayed on his car, in obedience to Kshatria usage, having check- 
ed its course in expectation of the enemy. And all the mon- 
archa, seeing him stop, stood there to become spectators of the 
coming encounter between him and Shalya. And the two 
began to exhibit their prowess towards each other like two 
roaring bulls of great strength at sight of a cow in season. 
Then that foremost of men, king Shalya, covered Bhisma the 
son of Shantanu witli hundreds and thousands of swift-winged 
shafts. And those monarchs seeing Shalya thus covering Bhis- 
ma at the outset with innumerable shafts, wondered much and 
uttered shouts of applause. Beholding his lightness of hand 
in combat, the crowd of kingly spectators became very glad 
and applauded Shalya greatly. That reducer of hostile towns, 
Bhisma then, hearing those shouts of the Kshatrias, became 
very angry, and said, 'Stay, Stay.' In wrath, he commanded his 
charioteer, saying, 'Lead thou my chariot to where Shalya is, 
so that I may slay him instantly as Gadura slays a serpent.' 
Then the Kuru chief fixed the Varuna weapon on his bow- 
string. And with it he slew the four hoi^es of king Shalya. 
And, O tiger among kings, the Kuru chief then, Avarding off 
with his weapons those of his foe, slew Slialya's charioteer. 
Then that first of men, Bhisma the son of Shantanu, fighting 
for the sake of those damsels, slew with the Indra weapon 
the (other) noble steeds if his adversar}'. He then vanquished 
that best of monarchs but left him with his life. thou bull 
of the Bharata race, Shalya after his defeat returned to his 
kingdom and cpntinued to rule it virtuously. And, thou 
conqueror of hostile towns, the other kings also who had come 
to see the Sivymnvara returned to their own kingdoms. 

" The foremost of smiters, Bhisma then, after defeating 
those monarchs, set out, with those damsels, for Hastinapore 
whence the virtuous Kuru prince Vichittra-virya ruled the 
Earth like that best of monarchs his father Shanlauu. And, 


O king, passing many forests, rivers, hills, and woods abound- 
ing with trees, he arrived (at the capital) in no time. Of 
immeasurable prowess in war, the son of the ocean-goin^ 
Ganga, having slain numberless foos in battle without » 
scratch on his own person, brought the dangi)ters of the king 
of Kashi unto the Kurus, as tenderly if they were his daugh- 
ters-in-law or younger sisters, or daughters. And Bhisma 
of mighty arms, impelled by the desire of benefiting his 
brother, having by his prowess brought them thus, then 
offered those maidens possessing every accomplishment unto 
Vichittra-virya. Conversant with the dictates of virtue, the 
son of Shantanu, having achieved such an extraordinary feat 
according to (kingly) custom, then began to make prepara- 
tions for his brother's wedding. And when everything about 
the wedding had been settled by Bhisma in consultation with 
Satyavati, the eldest daughter of the king of Kashi, softly 
smiling, told him these words : 'In my heart I had chosen 
the king of Sauva for my husband. He had, in hia heart 
accepted me for his wife. This was also agreeable to my 
father. In the siuyamvara I would have also chosen him as 
my lord. Tiiou art conversant with all the dictates of vir-» 
tue ! Knowing all this, do as thou likest.' Thus addressed 
by that maiden in the persence of the Brahmanas, the heroic 
Bhisma began to reflect upon what should be done. Conver- 
sant as he was with the rules of virtue, having consulted with 
Brahmanas possessing the mastery of the Vedas, he permitted 
Amva the eldest daughter of the ruler of Kashi to do as she 
liked. But he bestowed with due rites the two other daughters, 
Amvika and Amvalika, on his younger brother Vichittra-vir3'a. 
And though Vichittra-virya was virtuous and abstemious, yet 
proud of youth and beauty he soon became lustful after 
his marriage. And both Amvika and Amvalika were of tall 
stature, and of the complexion of heated gold. And their 
heads were covered with black curly hair, and their finger- 
nails were high and red. And their hips were fair and round, 
and their breasts full and high. And endued with every aus- 
picious mark, the amiable young ladies considered themselves 
wedded to a husband who was everyway worthy of themselves. 


And they loved and respected Vichittra-viryii very greatly. 
And Vichittra-virj^a also, endued with the prowess of the celes- 
tials and the beauty of the twin Aswinas, could steal the heart 
of every beautiful woman. And the prince passed seven years 
uninterruptedly in the companionship of his wives. He was 
attacked, while yet in the prime of youth, wiih pthisis. Friends 
and relatives in consultation with each other tried to effect a 
cure. But in spite of all efforts, the Kuru prince died, setting 
like the evening sun. The virtuous Bhisma then became 
plunged in anxiety and grief, and in consultation with Satya- 
vati he caused the obsequial rites of the deceased to be per- 
formed by learned priests and the several elders of the Kuru 

Thus ends the hundred and second Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section CIII. 
( Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " The unfortunate Satyavati then be- 
came plunged in grief on account of her son. And after per- 
forming with her daughters-in- law the obsequial rites of the 
deceased, consoled as best she could her weeping daughters-in- 
law and Bhisma that foremost of all wielders of weapons. 
And turning her eyes on religion, and on the paternal and ma- 
ternal lines (of the Kurus,) she addressed Bhisma and said, 
'The funeral cake, the achievements, and the perpetuation of 
the line of the virtuous and celebrated Sliantanu of the Kuru 
dynasty, all now depend on thee ! As the attainment of 
heaven is inseparable from good deeds, as longevity of life is 
inseparable from truth and faith, so is virtue inseparable from 
thee ! O thou virtuous one, thou art well acquainted, in de- 
tail and in abstract, with the dictates of virtue, witli various 
Srutis, and with all branches of the Vedas. I know very 
well that thou art equal unto Sukra and Angiia as regards 
firmness in virtue, knowledge of the particular customs of 
families, and readiness of invention under difficulties. There- 
fore, thou foremost of virtuous men, relying on thee greatly 


I shall appoinf thee in a certain matter. Henring me, it be- 
hoveth thee to do my bid<ling. thou bull among men, my 
son and thy brother, endued with energy and dear unto thee, 
hath gone childless to heaven while still a boy. These wives 
of thy brother, the amiable daughters of the ruler of Kashi, 
possessing both beauty and youth, have become desirous of 
children. Therefore, O thou of mighty arms, at my command 
raise up offspring in them for the perpetuation of our line. 
It behoveth thee to guard virtue from loss. Install thyself on 
the throne and rule tiie kingdom of the Bharatas. Wed thou 
duly a wife. Sink not thy ancestors in hell' " 

Vaisampayana contiiuied, " Thus addressed by his mother 
and friends and relatives, that oppressor of all foes, the vir- 
tuous Bhisma gave tliis reply conformable to the dictates of 
virtue, '0 mother, what thou sayest is certainly sanctioned by 
virtue. But thou knowest what my vow is in the matter of 
bef^ettincy children. Thou knowest also all that transpired in 
connection with thy dower. O Satyavati, I repeat the pledge 
I once gave, — I would renounce the three Avorlds, the empire 
of heaven, or anything tliat may be greater than that, but 
truth I would never renounce. Earth may renounce its scent, 
water may renounce its moisture, light may renounce its 
attribute of exhibitting forms, the atmosphere may renounce 
its attribute of being perceivable by the touch, the Sun 
may renounce his glory, the commet its heat, the Moon his 
cool rays, space its capacity of generating sound, the slayer of 
Vitra his prowess, the god of justice his impartiality, but I 
cannot renounce truth.' Thus addressed by her son endued 
with wealth of energy, Satyavati then said unto Bhisma, ' O 
thou whose prowess is truth, I know thy firmness in truth. 
Thou canst, if so minded, create, by help of thy energy, three 
worlds other than those that exist. I know what thy vow 
was on my account. But considering this emergency, bear, 
thou the burden of duty that one oweth to his ancestors. O 
thou oppressor of the foe, act in such a way that the lineal 
string may not be broken and our friends and relatives may 
not grieve !' Thus urged by the miserable and Aveeping Sa- 
tyavati speaking such words inconsistent with virtue from 

iniPAUVA. 313 

crrief at the loss of her aon, Bhisma acUlresspd her again and aaici, 
* O Queen, take not thy eyes away from virtue ! destroy us 
not ! Breach of truth in a Ksliatria is never applauded in our 
treatises on religion. I shall soon tell thee, O Queen, what the 
established Kshatria usage is to which recourse may be had to 
prevent Shautanu's line beconiing extinct on earth. Hearing 
me, reflect on what should be done, in consultation with learn- 
ed priests and those that are acquainted with practices allow- 
able in times of emergency and distress, forgetting not at the 
same time what the ordinary coarse of social conduct ii*.' " 

And so ends the hundred and third Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CIV. 
(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

"Bhisma continued, 'In olden days, Rama, the son of Ja- 
madagni, in anger at the death of his father, slew with his 
battle-axe the king of the Haihayas. And Rama by cutting off 
the thousand arms of Arjuna (the Haihaya king) achieved a 
most difficult feat in the world. Not content with this, he set out 
on his chariot for the conquest of the world, and taking up his 
bow he cast around his mighty weapons to exterminate the 
Kshatrias. And the illustrious scion of the Bhrigu race, by 
means of his swift arrows exterminated the Kshatria tribe for 
one and twenty times. 

" 'And when the Earth was thus deprived of Kshatrias by 
that great Rishi, the Kshatria ladies all over the land raised 
up offspring by means of Brahmanas skilled in the Vedas. It 
has been said in the Vedas that the son so raised belongeth to 
him that had married the mother. And the Kshatria ladies 
went unto the Brahmanas not lustfully but from motives of 
virtue. Indeed, it was thus, that the Kshatria race was revived. 

'"In this conection there is another old history that I will 
recite to you. There was in olden days a wise Rishi of name 
Utathya. He had a wife of name Mamata whom he dearly 
loved. One day, Utathya's younger brother, Vrihaspati, the 
Fii^Tohita of the celestials and endued with great energy, 


514 MAHADHi.RA.Ta- 

approached Mamata. The latter, however, told her husband s 
younger brother — that first of eloquent men — that she had con- 
ceived froui her conuection with his elder brother and that 
therefore he should not seek then for the consummation of 
his wishes. She continued, — O thou illustrious Vrihaspati, 
the child that I have conceived, hath studied in his mother's 
womb the Vedas with the six Angas. Semen timm frustra 
perdi non potest. How shall then this womb of mine afford 
room for two children at the same time ? Therefore it be- 
hoveth thee not to seek for the consummation of thy desire 
at such a time. — Thus addressed by her, Vrihaspati though 
possessed of great wisdom succeeded not in suppressing his 
desire. Qwum autem jam jam cum ilia coitwrus esset, the 
child in the womb then addressed him and said, — O father, 
cease in thy attempt ! There is not space here for two. O 
thou illustrious one, the room is small. I have occupied it 
before. Semen tuum percU non potest. It behoveth thee not 
to afflict me ! — But Vrihaspati Avithout listening to what that 
child in the womb said, sought the embraces of MamatS. 
possessing the most beautiful pair of eyes. Ille tamen Muni, 
qui in ventre erat, id punctum temporis quo humor vitalis 
jam emissum iret providens, mam per quam semen intrare 
posset pedibus obstruxit. Semen, ita exlusum, excidit et in 
terram projectum est. And the illustrious Vrihaspati behold- 
ing this became indignant, and reproaching Utathya's child, 
cursed him, saying, — Because thou hast spoken to me in the 
way thou hast, at a time of pleasure that is sought after 
by all creatures, perpetual darkness shall overtake thee.— 
And from this curse of the illustrious Vrihaspati, Utathya's 
child who was equal unto Vrihaspati in energy, was born 
blind and came to be called Dirghatama (enveloped in per- 
petual darkness.) And the wise Dirghatama possessing a 
knowledge of the Vedas, though born blind, succeeded yet, for 
the sake of his learning, in obtaining for wife a young and 
handsome Brahmini maiden of name Pradweshi. And having 
married her, the illustrious Dirghatama, for the expansion of 
Utathya's race, begat upon her several children with Gautama 
as their eldest. These children, however, were all wedded to 


covetonsneas an«l folly. The virtuous and ilUistrlous Dirgha- 
tama possessing complete mastery over the Vedas, soon after 
learnt from Saravi's son the practices of their order and fear- 
lessly betook to those practices regarding them with reverence. 
(For shame is the creature of sin and can never be where 
there is purity of intention.) Then those best of Munis that 
dwelt in the same asylum, beholding him transgressing the 
limits of propriety, became indignant, seeing sin where sin 
was not. And they said, — Oh, this man transgresseth the limits 
of propriety. No longer doth he deserve a place amongst us. 
Therefore shall we all cast off this sinful wretch. And they 
said many other things regarding the Muni Dirghatama. 
And his wife too, having obtained children, became indignant 
with him. 

" 'The husband then, addressing his wife Pradweshi, said, — 
Why is it that thou also hast been dissatisfied with me ? — His 
wife answered, — The husband is called the Varta because he 
supporteth the wife. He is called Pati because he protecteth 
her. But thou art neither to mc ! O thou of great ascetic 
merit, on the other hand, as thou hast been blind from birth, 
I it is who have supported thee and tiiy children. I shall not 
do so in future. — 

" 'Hearing these words of his wife, the Rishi became indig- 
nant and said unto his wife with her children, — Take me 
unto the Kshatrias and thou shalt then be rich ? — His wife re- 
plied by saying, — I desire not wealth that may be procured by 
thee, for ttiat can never bring me happiness ! O thou best of 
Brahmauas, do as thou likest. I shall not be able to main- 
tain thee as before. — At these words of his wife, Dirghatama 
said, — I establish from this day the rule that every woman shall 
have to adhere to one husband for her life. If the husband 
be dead or alive, it shall not be lawful for a woman to have 
connection with another. And she who may have such con- 
nection shall certainly be regarded as fallen. A woman witli- 
out husbaud shall always be liable to be sinful. And even 
if she hath wealth she shall not be able to enjoy it truly. 
Calumny and evil report shall ever follow in her wake. — 
Hearing these words of her husband, Pradweshi became ^ery 


angry, and commanded her sons, saying, — Throw him into the 
waters of the Ganga. — And at tlie command of their mother, 
the wicked Gautama and the other brothers, those slaves of 
covetousness and folly, exclaiming, — Indeed, why should we 
support this old man ? — tied the Muni on a raft and committing 
Lim to the mercy of tl^e stream returned home without com- 
punction. The blind old man drifting along the stream on that 
raft passed through the territories of many kings. One day 
a king of name Vali, conversant Avitli every duty, went into 
the Gauges for performing his ablutions. And as the monarch 
■was thus engaged, the raft on which the Rishi was, approached 
him. And a& it came, the king took up the old man. The virtu- 
ous Vali, ever devoted to truth, then learning who the man- 
was that was thus saved by him, chose him for raising up offs- 
pring. And Vali said, — O thou illustrious one, it belioveth 
thee to raise in my wife a few sons that shall be virtuous and 
^vise. — Thus addressed, the Rishi endued with great energy 
expressed his willingness. Thereupon king Vali sent his wife 
Sudeshna unto the Rishi. But the queen knowing that the 
latter was blind and old went not unto him. Instead, she 
Bent unto him her nurse. And upon that Sudra woman the 
virtuous Rishi of passions under full control begat eleven child- 
ren of whom Kaksliivan was the eldest. And beholding those 
eleven sons with Kskshivan as the eldest, who had studied 
all the Vedas and who like Rishis were utterers of Brahma and 
possessed of great power, king Vali one day asked the Rishi, 
Baying, — Are these children mine I — The Rishi replied, — No, 
they are mine. Kakshivan and others have been begotten by 
me upon a Sudra woman. Thy unfortunate queen Sudeshna see- 
ing me blind and old insulted me by not coming herself but 
Bending unto me, instead, her nurse ? — The king then pacified 
that best of Rishis and sent unto him his queen Sudeshna. The 
Rishi by merely touching her person told her, — Thou shalt have 
five children named Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Piindra, and Sum- 
bha, who shall be like unto Surya himself in glory. And after 
their names as many countries shall be known on Earth.— It 
is after their names that their dominiona have come to be 
called Aiiga, Bauga, Kalinga. Pundra, and Sumhba. 


"'It was thus that the line of Vali was perpetiiate(T, in daya 
of old, by a great Risbi. And it was thus also that many 
mighty bowmen and great charioteers wedded to virtue sprung 
in the Kshatria tribe from the seed of Brahmanas. Henring 
this, O mother, do as thou likest, as regards the matter in 
hand; " 

Thus ends the hundred and fourth Section in tlie Sarabhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section CV. 
(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

"Bliisma continued, 'Listen, mother, to me as I indicate 
the means by which the Bharata line may be perpetuated ! 
Let an accomplished Brahmana be invited by offer of wealth, 
and let him raise offspring upon the wives of Vichittra-virya.' " 

Vaiaampayaua continued, "Sat;yavati tlien, smiling softly 
and her voice broken in bashfulness, addressed Bhisma saying, 
'O Bharata of mighty arms, what thou sayest is true. From 
my confidence in thee I shall now indicate the means of perpe- 
tuating our line. Thou shalt not be able to reject it, conver- 
sant as thou art with the practices permitted in seasons of dis- 
tress. In our race, thou art Virtue, and thou art Truth, and 
thou too art our sole refuge ! Therefore, hearing what I say 
truly, do what may be proper. 

"' My father was a virtuous man. For virtue's sake he 
had kept a (ferry) boat. One day, in the prime of my youth, 
I went to ply that boat. It so happened that the great and 
wise Rishi Parashara, that foremost of all virtuous men, came 
upon my boat for crossing the Yamuna. As I was rowing 
him accross the river, the Rishi became excited with desire 
and began to address me in soft words. The fear of my father 
was uppermost in my mind. But the fear of the Rishi's curse 
at last prevailed. And having obtained from him a precious 
boon, I could not refuse his solicitations. The Rishi by his 
energy brought me under his complete control, and gratified his 
deriire there and then, having tir.->t enveloped the region wtih 


a tliick fog. Before this there was a revolting fishy odor id 
my body. But the Rishi dispelling it gave me my presen* 
fragrance. The Rishi also told me that bringing forth his 
child on an island of the river, I would continue to be a vir- 
gin. And the child of Parashara so born of me in my maiden- 
hood hath become a great Rishi endued with large ascetic 
powers and known by the name of Dwaipayaria (the island- 
born.) That illustrious Rishi having, by his ascetic poweif, 
divided the Vedas into four parts hath come to be called on 
earth by the name of Vyasa (the divider or arranger.) and 
for the darkness of his color, Krishna (the dark.) Truthful 
in speech, and free from passion, a mighty ascetic who hath 
burnt all his sins, he went awny with his father immediately 
after his birth. Appointed by me and thee also, that Rishi of 
incomparable splendour will certainly beget good children upoa 
the wives of thy brothe)-. He told me when he went away, — 
Mother, think of me, when thou art in difficulty. — I will 
now recollect him, if thou, O Bhisma of mighty arms, so 
desirest. If thou art willing, Bhisma, I am sure that great 
ascetic will beget children in Vichittra-virya's field.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "Mention being made of the 
great Rishi, Bhisma with joined palms said, 'That man is 
truly intelligent who fixes his eyes judiciously on virtue, 
profit, and pleasure ; who after reflecting with patience acteth 
in such a way that virtue may lead to future virtue, profit 
to future profit, and pleasure to future pleasure. Therefore 
that which hath been said by thee, and which besides being 
beneficial to us is consistent with virtue, is certainly the best 
advice and hath my full approval.' And wlien Bhisma had 
said this, O thou of the Kuru race. Kali (Satyavati) thougiit 
of the Muni Dwaipayana. And Dwaipayana who was theu 
engaged in interpreting the Vedas, learning that he was being 
thought of by his mother, came instantly unto her without 
anybody knowing it. Satyavati then duly saluted her son 
and embracing him with her arms bathed him with her tears, 
for the daughter of the fisherman wept copiously at the sight 
of her son after so long a time. And her first sou, the great 
Bibhi Vyasa, beholding her weeping, washed her with cool 

ADl PARVA, 319 

water, and bowing to her, said, ' I have come, O mother, to 
fulfil thy wishes. Therefore, O thou virtuous one, command 
me without delay. I shall accomplish thy desire/ The family 
priest of the Bharatas then worshipped the great Rishi duly, 
and th« latter accepted the oiferings of worship, uttering the 
usual viantras. And gratiSed with the worship he received, 
he took his seat. And Satyavati beholding him seated at his 
ease, after the usual inquiries, addressed him and said, ' O 
thou learned one, sons derive their birth both from the father 
and the mother. They are, therefore, the common property 
of both parents. There cannot be the least doubt about it 
that the mother hath as much poAver over them as the father. 
As thou art, indeed, my eldest son according to the ordinance, 

Brahmarshi, so is Vichittra-virya my youngest son. And 
as Bhisma is Vichittra-virya's brother on the father's side, 
so art thou his brother on the mother's side. I do not know 
what you may think, but this is what, O son, I think. This 
Bhisma the son of Shantanu, devoted to truth, doth not, for 
the sake of truth, entertain the desire of either begetting 
children or ruling the kingdom. Therefore, from affection 
for thy brother Vichittra-virya, for the pepetuation of our dy- 
nasty, for the sake of this Bhisma's request and my command, 
for kindness to all creatures, for the protection of the people, 
and from the liberality of thy heart, O thou sinless one, it 
behoveth thee to do what I say ! Thy younger brother hatU 
left too wives like unto the daughters of the celestials them- 
selves, endued with youth and great beauty. For the sake 
of virtue and religion, they have become desirous of offspring. 
Thou art the fittest person to be appointed. Therefore, beget 
upon them children worthy of our race and for the continuance 
of our line.' 

" Vyasa, hearing this, said, ' O Satyavati, thou knowest 
what virtue is, both in respect of this and the other life. O 
thou of great wisdom, thy affections also are fixed on virtue. 
Therefore, at thy command, making virtue my motive, I 
shall do what thou desirest. Indeed, tl»is practice that is 
conformable to the true and eternal religion is known to me, 

1 shall give unto my brother children that shall be like unto 


Yama and Varima. Let the ladies then duly observe for 
oue full year the vow I indicate. They shall then be purified. 
No woman shall ever approach me without having observed a 
rigid vow.' 

" Satyavati then said, ' O thou sinless one, it must not be 
as you say. On the other hand, take such steps that the 
ladies may conceive immediately. In a kingdom where there 
is no king, the people perish from want of protection ; sacri- 
fices and other holy acts are suspended ; the clouds give no 
showers, and the gjds disappear. How can, O lord, a king- 
dom be protected that hath no king ? Therefore, see thou that 
the ladies conceive. Bhisma will watch over the children as 
long as they may be in their mother's wobms.' 

" Vyasa replied, ' If I am to give unto my brother children 
80 unseasonably, then let the ladies bear my ugliness. That 
of itself shall, in their case, be the austerest of penances. If 
the princess of Koshala can bear my strong odor, my ugly 
and grim visage, my attire and body, she shall then conceive 
an excellent child.' " 

Vaismpayana continued, "Having spoken thus to Satyavati, 
Vyasa of great energy again addressed her and said, 'Let the 
princess of Koshala in clean attire and decked in ornaments 
wait for me in her sleeping apartments.' And saying this the 
Rishi disappeared. Satyavati then went to her daughter-in-law 
and seeing her in private spoke to her these words of benefi- 
cial and virtuous import : '0 princess of Koshala, listen to 
what I say. It is consistent with virtue. The dyaasty of the 
Bharatas hath become extinct from my misfortune. Behold- 
ing my affliction and the extinction of his paternal line, 
the wise Bhisma, impelled also by the desire of perpetuating 
our race, hath made me a suggestion. That suggestion, how- 
ever, for its accomplishment, is dependent on thee. Accom- 
plish it, O daughter, and restore the lost line of the Bhara- 
tas ! thou of fair hips, bring thou forth a child equal in 
splendour unto the chief of the celestials ! He shall bear the 
onerous burden of this our hereditary kingdom.' 

"Satyavati having succeeded with great difficulty in pro- 
curing the assent of her virtuous daughter-in-law to her propo- 

ADl PARVA. 321 

sals not inconsistent with virtue, then fed Brahmanas and 
Rishis and numberless guests who arrived on the occasioa." 

Thus ends the hundred and the fifth Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CVI, 

(Samhhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " Soon after when the princess of 
Koshala had her season, Satyavati purifying her daughter- 
in-law with a bath led her to her sleeping apartments. There 
seating her upon a luxurious bed, she addressed her, saying, 
' O princess of Koshala, thy liusband hath an elder brother 
who shall this day enter thy womb as thy child. Wait for 
him tonight without sinking into sleep.' Hearing these words 
of her mother-in-law, the amiable princess, as she lay on her 
bed, began to think of Bhisma and the other elders of the 
Kuru race. Then the Rishi of truthful speech, who had given 
his promise in respect of Amvika (the eldest of the princesses) 
in the first instance, entered her chamber while the lamp was 
burning. The princess seeing his dark visage, his matted locks 
of copper hue, his blazing eyes, his grim beard, closed her 
eyes in fear. The Risiii, however, from desire of accomplishing 
his mother's wishes, united himself with her. But the latter, 
struck with fear, opened not her eyes even once to look at 
him. And when Vyasa came out he was met by his mother. And 
she asked him, 'Shall the princess have an accomplished son ?' 
Hearing her he replied, 'The son the princess shall bring forth 
will be equal in might unto ten thousand Elephants. He 
will be an illustrious royal sage, possessed of great learning- 
and intelligence and energy. The high-souled one shall have 
in time a century of sons. But from the fault of his mother 
he shall be blind.' At these words of her son, Satyavati said, 
'0 thou of ascetic wealth, how can one that is blind become a 
monarch worthy of the Kurus ? How can one that is blind 
become the protector of his relatives and family, and the glory 
of his father's race ? It behoveth thee to give another king 
unto the Kurus ! ' Saying ' So be it, ' Vyasa went away. 



And the first princess of KoBhaia in due time brought forth a 
blind son. 

" Soon after Satyavati, O thou suppressor of the foe, 
summoned Vyasa, after having procured the assent of her 
daughter-in-law. Vyasa came according to his promise, and 
approached, as before, the second wife of his brother. And 
Amvalika beholdino; the Rishi became pale with fear. And, O 
Bharata, beholding her so afflicted and pale with fear, Vyasa 
addressed her and said, 'Because thou hast been pale with 
fear at sight of my grim visage, therefore shall thy child be 
pale in complexion. And, O thou of handsome face, the 
name also of thy child shall be Fandu (the pale). ' Saying 
this, the illustrious and best of Rishis came out of her cham- 
ber. And as he came out, he was met by his mother who 
asked him about the would-be child. The Rishi told her that 
the child would be of pale complexion and known by the 
name of Paudu. Satyavati again begged of the Rishi another 
child, and the Rishi told her in reply, 'So he it.' Amvalika 
then, when her time came, brought forth a son of pale com- 
plexion. Blazing with beauty, the child was endued with all 
auspicious marks. Indeed, it was this child Avho afterwards 
became the father of those mighty bowmen — the Pandavas. 

" Sometime after, when the eldest of Vichittra-virya's 
wives again liad her season, she was solicited by Satyavati 
to approach Vyasa once more. Possessed of beauty like unto 
a daughter of the celestials, the princess refused to do her 
mother-in-law's bidding, remembering the grim visage and 
strong odor of the Rishi. She, however, sent unto him, a 
maid of hers, endued with the beauty of an Apsara and deck- 
ed in her own ornaments. And Avhen Vyasa arrived, the maid 
rose up and saluted him. And she waited upon him respectfully 
and took her seac near him when asked. And, king, the 
great Rishi of rigid vows was well pleased with her. And when 
he rose up to go away, he addressed her and said, ' Amiable 
one, thou shalt no longer be a slave. Thy child also shall be 
greatly fortunate atid virtuous, and the foremost of all intelli- 
gent men on earth.' And, O king, the son thus begotten upon 
her by Krishna-Dwaipayana was afterwards known by the name 


of Vidura. He was thus the brother of Dhrita-rashtra and 
of the illustrious Pandu. And Vidura was free from desire and 
passion^and conversant with the rules of government, and was the 
god of justice born on earth under the curse of the illustrious 
Rishi Mandavj'a. And Krishna-Dvvaipayana, when he met 
his mother as before, informed her how he was deceived by 
the eldest of the princesses and how he had begotten a sou upon 
a Sudra woman. And having spoken thus unto his mother, 
the Rishi disappeared in her sight. 

"Thus were born, in the field (wives) of Vichittra-virya, 
even from Dwaipayana, those sons of the splendour of celes- 
tial children and expanders of the Kuru race. " 

Thus ends the hundred and sixth Section in the Sambhuva 
of the Adi parva. 

Section CVII. 
( Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Janamejaya said, "What did the god of justice do for 
which he was cursed ? And who was the Brahmana ascetic 
from who3e curse tlie god had to be born in the Suura caste ?" 

Vaisampayana said, " There was a Brahmana known by the 
name of Mandavya. He was conversant with all duties and 
was devoted to religion, truth, and asceticism. That great 
ascetic used to sit at the entrance of his asylum at the foot 
of a tree, with his arms ui)raised in the observance of the 
vow of silence. And as he had sat there for years and years 
together, one day there came into his asylum a number of 
robbers ladeu with spoil. And, O thou bull of the Bhurata 
race, those robbers were then being pursued by a sui)erior 
body of the guardians of the peace. And the thieves entering 
that asylum hid their booty there, and in fear concealed them- 
selves thereabouts before the guards came. But scarcely had 
they thus concealed themselves, the constables in pursuit: 
came into the spot. Tiie latter, observing the Rishi sitting 
under the tree, questioned him, king, saying, 'O thou best 
of Brahmanus, which way have the thieves taken? Point it 
out to us so that we may follow it without loss of time.' Thus 


questioned by the guardians of the peace, the ascetic, king, 
said not a word, good or bad, in reply. The officers of the king, 
however, in searching that asylum soon discovered the thieves 
concealed thereabouts together with the plunder. Upon this 
their suspicions fell upon the Muni, and accordingly they 
seized him with the thieves and brought him before the king. 
The king sentenced him to be executed along with his supposed 
associates. And the officers, acting in ignorance, carried out 
the sentence by impaling the celebrated Rishi. And having 
impaled him, they went to the king with the booty they had 
recovered. But the virtuous Rishi, though impaled and kept 
without food, remained in that state for a long time without 
dying. And the Rishi by his ascetic power not only preserved 
his life but summoned other Rishis to the scene. And they 
came there in the night in the form of birds, and beholding 
him engaged in ascetic meditation though fixed on that stake, 
they became plunged in grief. And telling that best of Brah- 
manas who they were, they asked him saying, 'O Brahmana, 
we desire to know Avhat hath been thy sin for which thou hast 
thus been made to suffer the tortures of impalement.' " 

Thus ends the hundred and seventh Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CVIII. 

{Samhhava Pdrva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " Thus asked, that tiger among Munis 
then answered those Rishis of ascetic wealth, ' Whom shall I 
blame for this ? In fact, none else (than my own self) hath 
offended against me !' After this, monarch, the officers of 
justice seeing him alive informed the king of it. The latter 
hearing what they said, and having consulted with his advisers, 
came to the place and began to pacify the Rishi fixed on the 
stake. And the king said, 'O thou best of Rishis, I have offended 
against thee in ignorance. I beseech thee, pardon me for the 
same. It behoveth thee not to be angry with me.' Thus address- 
ed by the king, the Muni was pacified. And beholding him free 
from wrath, the king took him up with the stake and endea- 


voiired to extract it from liis body. But not succeedino; there- 
in, he cut it off at the point just outside the body. The Mu- 
ni with a portion of the stake within his body walked about, 
and in that state practised the austerest penances and con- 
quered numberless regions unattainable by others. And for 
the circumstance of a part of the stake beinor within his body, 
he came to be known in the three worlds by the name of 
Ani-mandavya (Mandavya with a stake within). And one 
day that Brahmana acqaiuted with the highest truths of 
religion went unto the abode of the god of justice. And 
beholding there the god seated on her throne, the Rishi 
reproached him and said, ' What, pray, is that sinful act 
committed by me unconsciously, for wiiich I am bearing this 
punishment ? tell me soon, and behold the power of my 
asceticism !' 

" The god of justice, thus questioned, replied, saying, *0 
thou of ascetic wealth, a little insect Avas by thee once pierced 
with a blade of grass. Thou bearest now the consequence of 
that act. As, O Rishi, a gift, however small, multiplieth in 
respect of its religious merits, so a sinful act multiplieth in 
respect of the woe it bringeth in its train.' Hearing this, Ani- 
mandavya asked, ' 0, tell me truly when was this act commit- 
ted by mo.' Told in reply by the god of justice that he had 
committed it when a child, tlie Rishi said, ' That shall not be 
sin which may be done by a child up to the twelfth year of 
his age from birth. The shastras shall not recognise it as sin- 
ful. The punishment thou hast inflicted on me for such a 
venial offence hath been di8i)roportionate in severity. The kill- 
ing of a Brahmana involves a sin that is heavier than the kill- 
ing of any other living being. Thou shalt, therefore, O god 
of justice, have to be born among men even in the Sudra 
order ! And from this day, I establish this limit in respect 
of the consequences of acts that an act shall not be sinful 
when committed by one below the age of fourteen years. But 
when committed by one above that age, it shall be regarded 
as sin. 

Valsampayana continued, " Cursed for this fault by that 
illustrious Rishi, the god of justice took his birth as Vidura 


in the Sudra order. And Vidura was well-skilled in the doc- 
trines of morality and also of politics and worldly profit. And 
he was entirely free from covetousness and wrath. Possessed 
of great foresight and undisturbed tranquillity of mind, Vidura 
was ever engaged in the welfare of the Kurus." 

Thus ends the hundred and eighth Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section CIX. 

(Sambhava Pai^a continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " Upon the birth of those three child- 
ren, Kurujangala, Kurukshetra, and the Kurus grew in pros- 
perity. The E;irtl» began to give abundant harvests and tlie 
crops also became of good flavour. And the clouds began to 
pour rain in season and the trees became full of fruits and 
flowers. And the draught cattle were all happy and the birds 
and other animals rejoiced exceedingly. And the flowers be- 
came fragrant and the fruits became well-flavoured. And the 
cities and towns became filled with merchants and traders and 
artists of every description. And the people became brave, 
learned, honest, and happy. And there were no robbers then, 
nor anybody who was sinful. And it seemed that the golden 
age had come upon every part of the kingdom. And the 
people, devoted to virtuous acts, sacrifices, and truth, and 
regarding each other with love and affection, grew up in pros- 
perity. And free from ))ride, wrath, and covetousness, thej 
rejoiced in sports that were perfectly innocent. And the 
capital of the Kurus, full as the ocean, and teeming with hun- 
dreds of palaces and mansions, and possessing gates and arches 
dark as the clouds, looked like a second Amaravati. And 
men in great cheerfulness sported constantly on rivers, lakes, 
and tanks, and in fine groves and charming woods. And the 
southern Kurus in virtuous rivalry with their northern kins- 
men walked about in the company of Charanas and Rishis 
crowned with success. And all over that delightful country 
whose prosperity was thus increased by the Kurns, there were 
no misers and no women that were widows. And the wells 


and lakes were ever full, and the groves abounded with trees, 
and the houses and tlie abodes of Brahmanas were all full of 
wealth. And the whole kingdom was full of festivities. And, 
O king, virtuously ruled by Bhisma, the kingdom was adorned 
with hundreds of sacriticial stakes. Aud the wheel of viitue 
having been set in motion by Bhisma, the country became so 
delightful that the subjects of other kingdoms learing their 
homes came to dwell there and increase its population. And 
the citizens and the people were filled with hope upon seeing 
the youthful acts of their illustrious princes. And, king, 
in the houses of the Kuru chiefs as also of the principal 
citizens, 'Give' and 'Eat' were the words that were constantly 
heard. And Dhrita-rashtra iind Pandu and Vidnra of great 
intelligence were from their birth brought up by Bhisma as if 
they were his own children. And the children having passed 
through the usual rites of their order devoted themselves to 


VOWS and study. And they grew up into fine youths skilled 
in the Vedas and all athletic sports. Aud they became well 
skilled in exercises of the bow, in horsemanship, in encount- 
ers with the mace, sword, and shield, in the manngcment of 
elephants in battle, and the science of morality. And well- 
read in history and the Puranas and various branches of learn- 
ing, and acquainted with the truths of the Vedas and the 
Vedangas, the knowledge they acquired was veisatile and 
deep. And Pandu possessed of great prowess excelled all men 
in the science of the bow, while Dhrita-rashtra excelled all in 
personal strength ; while in the three worlds there was no one 
equal to Viduia in devotion to virtue iind knowledge of the 
dictates of morality. And beholding the restoration of the 
extinct line of Shantanu, the saying became current in all 
countries, viz, that among mothers of heroes, the daughters 
of the king of Kashi were the first ; that among countries 
Kuru-jangala was the first ; that among virtuous men, Vidura 
was the first ; and that among cities Hastiuapore was the first. 
Pandu became king, for Dhrita-rashtra owing to his blindness, 
and Vidura his birth in a Surlra woman, obtained not the 
kingdom. One day Bhisma, the foremost of those acquainted 
with the duties of statesmanship aud dictates of morality, 


properly addressing Vidura conversant with the truths of 
religion and virtue, said as follows.' " 

And so ends the hundred and ninth Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CX. 
{Samhhava Parva eontinued.) 

" Bhisma said, 'This our celebrated race, resplendent with 
every virtue and accomplishment, hath all along exercised 
sovereignty over all other monarchs on earth. Its glory main- 
tained and itself perpetuated by many virtuous and illustrious 
monarchs of old, the illustrious Krishna (Dwaipayana), Satya- 
vati, and myself have raised ye (three) up, inorder that it may 
not be extinct. And it behoveth myself and thee also to take 
such steps that this our dynasty may expand again as the sea. 
It hath been heard by me that there are three maidens, wor- 
thy of being allied to our race. One is the daughter of (Sura- 
sena of ) the Yadava race ; the other is the daughter of Suva- 
la; and the third is the princess of Madra. And, son, 
these maidens are, therefore, all of pure birth. Possessed of 
beauty and pure blood, they are eminently fit for alliances 
with our family. thou foremost of intelligent men, I think 
we should choose them for the growth of our race. Tell me 
what thou thinkest.' Thus addressed, Vidura replied, 'Thou 
art our father and thou too art our mother ! Thou art our res- 
pected spiritual instructor ! Therefore do thou that which 
may be best for us in thy eyes !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Soon after Bhisma heard from 
the Brahmanas that Gandhari the amiable daughter of Suvala 
having worshipped Hara (Siva) had obtained from that deity 
the boon that she should have a century of sons. Bhisma the 
grand-father of the Kurus having heard this, sent messengers 
unto the king of Gandliara (proposing Dhrita-rashtra's mar- 
riage with Gandhari. ) King Suvala hesitated at first on 
account of the blindness of bride-groom. But taking into con- 
sideration the blood of the Kurus, their fame and behaviour, 
he gave his virtuous daughter unto Dhrita-rashtra. And the 

ADl PARVA. 329 

cliaste Gandhari 1 arning that Dhrita-rnshtra was blind and 
that her parents had consented to wed her with him, from love 
and respect for her future husband bandaged her own eyes 
with cloth gathered into many folds. Then Sakuni, the son 
of Suvala, bringing unto the Kurus his sister endued with 
youth and beauty, formally gave her away unto Dhrita-rashtra, 
And Gandhari was received with great respect and the nup- 
tials were celebrated with great pomp under Bhisma's direc- 
tions. And the heroic Sakuni after having bestowed his sister 
along with many valuable robes, and liaving received Bhisma's 
adorations, returned to his own city. And, O thou of the 
Bharata race, the beautiful Gandhari gratified all the Kurus 
by her behaviour and respectful attentions. And Gandhari, ever 
devoted to her husband, gratified her superiors by her c^oocl 
conduct ; and chaste as she was, she never referred, even by 
words, to men other than her husband or such superiors." 

Thus ends the hundred and tenth Section in the Sambhava 
of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXI, 
( Sdmhhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana continued, " There was amongst the Yada- 
vas a chief of name Shura. He was the father of Vasudevn. 
And he liad a daughter called Pritha, who in beauty was un- 
rivalled on earth. And, O thou of the Bharata race, Shura, 
always truthful in speech, gave from friendship this his first- 
born daughter unto his childless cousin and friend the illustri- 
ous Kunti-bhoja— the son of his paternal aunt— pursuant to 
former promise. And Pritha in the house of her adoptive 
father was engaged in looking after the duties of hospitality 
to Brahmanas and other guests. One day she gratified by her 
attentions the terrible Brahmana of rigid vows, known by the 
name of Durvasa and who was well-acquainted with the hid- 
den truths of morality. And gratified with her respectful 
attentions, the Rishi, anticipating by his spiritual power the 
future season of distress (consequent upon the curse to be pro- 
liounced upon Pandu for his unrighteous act of slaying a deer 

. 42 


while coupling with its mate) imparted to her a formula of 
invocation for summoning any of the celestials she liked for 
giving her children. And the Rishi said, 'Those celestials 
that thou shalt summon by this mantra shall certainly ap- 
proach thee and give thee children.' Thus addressed by the 
Brahmana, the amiable Kunti (Pritha) became curious, and in 
her maiden-iiood summoned the god Arka (Sun). And as soon 
as she pronounced the mantra, she beheld that effulgent 
deity — that beholder of everything in the world — approach- 
ing her. And beholding that extraordinary sight, the maiden 
of faultless features was overcome with surprise. But the god 
Vivaswan approaching her said, ' Here I am, O black-eyed 
cirl 1 Tell nxe what I am to do for thee !' 

" Hearing this, Kunti said, 'O thou slayer of the foe, a 
certain Brahmana gave me this formula of invocation as a 
boon. O lord, I have summoned thee only to test the efficacy 
of that formula. For this offence I bow to thee for thy grace. 
A woman, whatever her offence, always deserveth pardon.' 
Surya replied, 'I know that Durvasa hath granted thee this 
boon. But cast off thy fears, timid maiden, and grant me thy 
embraces. Amiable one, my approach cannot be futile. It 
must bear fruit. Thou hast summoned me. If it be for no- 
thing, it shall certainly be regarded as thy fault.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Vivaswan thus spake unto her 
many things with a view to allay her fears. But, Bharata, 
the amiable maiden, from modesty and fear of her relatives, 
consented not to grant his request. And, thou bull of the 
Bharata race, Arka addressed her again and said, '0 princess, 
for my sake, it shall not be sinful in thee to grant my wish.' 
Thus speaking unto the daughter of Kunti-bhoja, the illustri- 
ous Tapana — the illuminator of the universe — gratified his 
wishes. And from this connection Avas immediately born a son 
known all over the world as Kama, encased in natural armour 
and with face brightened by ear-rings. And the heroic Kama was 
the |rst of all wielders of weapons, blessed with good fortune, 
and endued with the beauty of a celestial child. And after the 
birth of this child, the illustrious Tapana granted unto Pritha 
iier maiden-hood and ascended to heaven. And the princess 

ADl PARVA. 331 

of the Vrishni race, beholding with sorrow that son born of 
her, reflected intently upon what was then best for her to do. 
And from fear of her relatives she resolved to conceal that 
evidence of her frailty. And she cast her offspring endued 
with great physical strength into the water. Then the well- 
known husband of Radha, of the Suta caste, took up the 
child thus cast into the water, and with his wife brought him 
up as their own son. And Radha and her husband bestowed 
on him the name of Vasu-se7ia (born with wealth) because he 
was born with a natural armour and ear-rings. And endued 
as he was with great strength, as he grew up he became skill- 
ed in all weai-ons. Possessed of great energy, he used to adore 
the Sun until his back was heated by his rays (i, e. from 
dawn to mid-day) ; and during his hours of Avorship, there 
was nothing on earth that the heroic and intelligent Vasu-sena 
would not give unto the Brahmanas. And Indra desirous of 
beneSting his own son Falguni (Arjuna), assuming the form 
of a Brahmana, approached Vasu-sena on one occasion and 
asked of him his natural armour. Thus asked, Kama took 
off his natural armour, and joining his hands in reverence 
gave it unto Indra in the guise of a Brahmana. And the chief 
of the celestials accepted the gift and was exceedingly gratified 
with Kama's liberality. He therefore gave unto him a fine 
javelin, saying, 'That one (and one only) among the celestials, 
the Asuras, men, the Gandharvas, the Nagas, and the Raksh- 
asas, whom thou desirest to conquer, shall by this javelin be 
certainly slain.' 

" 'The son of Sui-ya was before this knoAvn by the name of 
Vasu-sena. But since he cut off his natural armour, he came 
to be called Kama (the cutter or peeler of his own cover.) " 

Thus ends the hundred and eleventii Section in the Sani- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 


( Sambhitra Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayaua said, " The large-eyed daughter of Kunti- 
bhoja — Pritha by name, was endued with beauty and every 
accomplishment. Of rigid vows, she was devoted to virtue, 
and possessed every good quality. But though endued with 
beauty and youth and every womanly attribute, yet it so hap- 
pened that no king asked for her hand. Her father Kuntr- 
bhoja, seeing this, invited, best of monarchs, the princes and 
kinors of other countries and desired his daughter to elect her 
husband from among his guests. The intelligent Kuuti enter- 
ing the amphitheatre beheld Pandu — the foremost of the Bha- 
ratas — that tiger among kings — in that concourse of crowned 
heads. Proud as the lion, broad-chested, bull-eyed, endued 
with great strength, and out-shining in splendour all other 
inonarchs, he looked like another Indra in that royal assem- 
blage. And the amiable daughter of Kunti-bhoja, of faultless 
feature?, behholding Pandu — that best of men — in that assem- 
bly, became very much agitated. And advancing with mo- 
desty, all the while quivering with emotion, she placed the 
nuptial garland round Pandu's neck. The other monarchs, 
seeing Kunti choose Pandu for her lord, returned to their res- 
pective kingdoms on elephants, horses, and cars, as they 
came. Then, O king, the bride's father caused the nuptial 
rites to be performed duly. The Kuru prince, blessed with 
great good fortune, and the daughter of Kunti-bhoja, formed 
a couple like Maghavan and Paulomi (tiie king and queen of 
the celestials). And, O thou best of Kuru monarchs, king 
Kunti-bhoja, after the nuptials were over, presented his son- 
in-law with much v/ealth and sent him back to his capital. 
Then the Kuru prince Pandu, accompanied by a large force 
bearing various kinds of banners aud penons, and eulogised 
by Brahm'anas and great Rishis pronouncing benedictions, 
reached his capital. And arrived at his own palace, he estab- 
lished his queen therein. " 

Thus ends the hundred and twelfth Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXIII, 

( Samhhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana continued, "Sometime after, Bhisma the in- 
telligent son of Shantanu set his heart upon marrying Pandii, 
to a second wife. And accompanied by an army composed of 
four kinds of force, and also by aged councillors and Brahma- 
nas and great Rishis, he went to the capital of the king of Madra. 
And that bull of the Valhikas — the king of Madra — hearing 
that Bhisma had arrived, v/ent out to receive him. And 
having received him Avith respect, he caused him to enter his 
palace. And arrived there, the king of Madra gave unto 
Bhisma a white carpet for seat, water for washing his feet, 
and the usual oblations of various ingredients indicative of 
respect. And when he was seated at his ease, the king asked 
him the reason of his visit. Then Bhisma — the supporter 
of the dignity of the Kurus — addressed the king of Madra 
and said, 'O thou oppressor of all foes, know that I have come 
for the hand of a maiden. It hath been heard by us that thou 
liast a sister named Madri celebrated for her beauty and en- 
dued with every virtue. I Avould choose her for Pandu. Thou 
art, king, every way worthy of an alliance with us, and we 
also are Avorthy of thee ! Reflecting upon all this, O king of 
Madra, accept us duly.' The ruler of Madra, thus addressed 
by Bhisma, then replied, 'To my mind, there is none else 
than one of thy family a better one to make alliance with. 
But there is a custom in our family acted upon by our ances- 
tors, which, be it good or be it evil, I am incapable of trans- 
gressing. It is well-known, and therefore is known to thee 
as well, I doubt not. Therefore, it is not proper for thee to 
tell me, — Bestow thy sider. — The custom to which I allude 
is our family custom, That with us is virtue and wortliy 
of observance. It is for this only, O thou slayer of all foes, 
I cannot give thee any assurance in the matter of thy request.' 
Hearing this, Bhisma answered the king of Madra, saying, 
' king, this, no doubt, is virtue. The Self-create himself 
hath said it. Thy ancestors have observed the cuetum, There 


13 no fault to find with it. It is also well-known, Sha- 
lya, that this custom in respect of family dignity hath the 
approval of the wise and the good.' Saying this, Bhisma of 
great energy, gave unto Shalya much gold both coined and 
uncoined, and precious stones of various colors by thousands, 
and elephants and horses, and cars and much cloth and many 
ornaments, and gems and pearls and corals. And Shalya 
accepting with a cheerful heart those precious gifts then gave 
away his sister decked in ornaments unto that bull of the 
Kuru race. Then the wise Bhisma, the son of the ocean- 
going Ganga, rejoiced at the issue of his mission, and taking 
Madri with him, returned to the Kuru capital named after the 

" Then selecting an auspicious day and moment as indicat- 
ed by the wise for the ceremony, king Pandu was duly united 
■with Madri. And after the nuptials were over, the Kuru 
king established his beautiful bride in handsome apartments. 
And, O king of kings, that best of monarchs then gave liim- 
self up to enjoyment in the company of his two wives as best 
lie liked and to the limit of his desires. And after thirty days 
had elapsed, the Kuru king, O monarch, started from his capi- 
tal for the conquest of the world. And after reverentially 
saluting and bowing to Bhisma and other elders of the Kuril 
race, and with adieus to Dhrita-rashtra and others of the 
family, and obtaining their leave, he set out on liis grand 
campaign, accompanied by a large force of elephants, horses, 
and cars, and well-pleased with the blessings uttered by all 
around and the auspicious rites performed by the citizens 
for his success. And Pandu, accompanied by such a strong 
force marched against various foes. And that tiger among 
men — that spreader of the fame of the Kurus — first subju- 
gated the robber tribes of Dasharna. He next turned his 
army composed of innumerable elephants, cavalry, infantry^ 
and chariots, with standards of various colors, against, Dhir- 
glia — the ruler of the kingdom of Maghadha— who, proud of 
his strength, had offended against numerous monarchs. And 
attacking him in his capital, Pandu slew him there, and took 
everything in his treasury and also vehicles and draught ani^ 


Bials without number. He then marched into Mithila and 
subjugated the Videhas. And then, O thou bull among men, 
Pandu led his army against Kasi, Sumbha, and Pundra, and 
by the strength and prowess of his arms he spread the fame of 
the Kurus. And Pandu — that oppressor of all foes — like unto 
a mighty fire whose far-reaching flames were represented by 
his arrows, and splendour by his weapons, began to consume 
all kings that came in contact with him. And these with 
their forces, being vanquished by Pandu at the head of his, 
were made the vassals of the Kurus. And all the kings of the 
world, thus vanquished by him, regarded him as the one only 
hero on earth even as the celestials regard Indra in heaven. 
And the kings of the earth with joined palms bowed to him 
and waited on him wiih presents of various kinds of gems and 
wealth — precious stones and pearls and corals, and much gold 
and silver, and first-class kine and handsome horses and fine 
cars and elephants, and asses and camels and buffaloes, and 
goats and sheep, and blankets and beautiful hides, and car- 
pets made of the skin of the Eanku deer. And the king of 
Hastinapore accepting those offerings retraced his steps to- 
wards his capital to the great delight of his subjects. And 
the citizens and others filled with joy, and kings and minis- 
ters, all began to say, ' O the fame of the achievements of 
Shantanu, that tiger among kings, and of the wise Bharata, 
that was about to die, hath been revived by Pandu. They who^ 
before robbed the Kurus of both territory and wealth have 
been by Pandu — that tiger of Hastinapore — subjugated and 
made to pay tribute !' And all the citizens with Bhisma at 
their head went out to receive tlie victorious king. They did 
not proceed far when they saw the attendants of the king lad- 
en with much wealth. And the train of various conveyances 
laden wdth all kinds of wealth, and of elephants, horses, cars, 
kine, camels, and other animals, was so long that they saw 

not its end. Then Pandu — the sweller of Kausalya's joy 

beholding his father Bhisma worshipped his feet and salut- 
ed the citizens and others as each deserved. And Bhisma 
too embracing his son who had returned victorious after o-rind- 
ing many hostile kingdoms, wept tears of joy. And Paudu 


then instilling joy into the hearts of his people with flourish of 
trumpets and conches and kettle-drums, entered his capital. " 

Thus ends the hundred and thirteenth Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXIV. 
(Samhhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana suid, " Pandu then, at the command of 
Dhrita-rashtra, offered the wealth he had acquired by the 
prowess of his arms to Bhisma, their grand-mother Satyavati, 
and their mothers, the princesses of Koshala. And he sent a 
portion of his wealth to Vidura also. And the virtuous Pandu 
gratified his other relatives also with similar presents. Then 
Satyavati and Bhisma and the Koshala princesses were all 
gratified with the presents Pandu made out of the acquisitions 
of his prowess. And Amvalika in particular, upon embracing 
her son of incomparable prowess became as glad as the queen 
of heaven upon embracing Jayanta. And with the wealth 
acquired by that hero, Dhrita-raslitra performed five great 
sacrifices that were equal unto an hundred great horse-sacri- 
fices, in all of which the offerings to Brahmanas were by 
hundreds and thousands. 

" A little while after, thou bull of the Bharata race, 
Pandu who had achieved a victory over sloth and lethargy 
aocompanied by his two wives Kunti and Madri retired into 
the woods. Leaving liis excellent palace with its luxurious beds, 
he become a permanent inhabitant of the woods devoting the 
whole of his time to the chase, of the deer. And fixing 
his abode in a delightful and hilly region overgrown with huge 
shal trees, on the southern slope of the Himavat mountains, he 
roamed about in perfect freedom. The liandsome Pandu in 
the midst of his tAvo wives wandered in those woods like 
Airavata in the midst of two she-elephants. And the dwell- 
ers of those woods beholding the heroic Bharata prince in the 
company of his wives, armed with sword, arrows, and bow, 
encased in his beautiful armour, and skilled in all excellent 
weapons, regarded him as a very god wandering amongst them, 


And at the command of Dhrita-raslifra, people were busy 
in supplying Pandu in his retirement with every object of 
pl-easure and enjoyment. 

" Meanwhile the son of the ocean-going Ganga heard that 
king Devaka had a daughter endued with youth and beauty 
and begotten upon a Sudra wife. Bringing her from her 
father's abode, Bhisma married her to Vidura of great wis- 
dom. And the Kuru prince Vidura begot upon her many 
children like unto himself in accomplishments. " 

Thus ends the hundred and fourteenth Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXV. 
(Samhhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " Meanwhile, O Janamejaya, Dhrita- 
rashtra begat upon Gandhari an hundred sons, and upon a 
Vaisya wife another besides these hundred. And Pandu had 
by his two wives Kunti and Madri five sons who were greafc 
charioteers and who were all begotten by the celestials for 
the perpetuation of the Kuru line. " 

Janamejaya said, " O thou best of Brahmanas, how did 
Gandhari bring forth these hundred sons and in how many 
years ? What were also the periods of life alloted to each ? 
How did Dhrita-rashtra also beget another son in a Vaisya 
wife ? How did Dhrita-rashtra behave towards his loving, 
obedient, and virtuous wife Gandhari ? How were also begot- 
ten the five sons of Pandu — those mighty charioteers — even 
though Pandu himself laboured under the curse of the great 
Rishi (he slew) ? O thou of ascetic wealth and great learn- 
ing, tell me all this in detail, for my thirst of hearing every- 
thing relating to my own ancestors hath not been slaked. " 

Vaisampayana said, " One day Gandhari entertained with 
respectful attention the great Dwaipayana who came to her 
abode exhausted Avith hunger and fatigue. Gratified with 
Gandhari's hospitality, the Rishi gave her the boon she asked, 
viz, that she should have a century of sons each equal unto 
her lord in strength and accomplishments. Sometime after, 



Gandhari conceived., Slie bore the burden in her womb for two 
long years without being delivered. And she was greatly 
afflicted at this. It was then that she heard that Kunti had 
brought forth a son whose splendour was like unto the morn- 
ing sun. Anxious that in her own case the period of gesta- 
tion had been so long, and deprived of reason by grief, with 
great violence she struck her womb without the knowledge 
of her husband. And thereupon came out of her womb, after 
two years' growth, a hard mass of flesh like unto an iron ball. 
When she was about to throw it away, Dwaipayana learning 
everything by his spiritual powers, promptly came there, and 
that first of ascetics beholding that ball of flesh addressed the 
daughter of Suvala and said, 'What hast thou done ?' Gan- 
dhari without endeavouring to disguise her feelings, addressed 
the Rishi and said, ' Having heard that Kunti had brought 
forth a son like unto Suryd himself in splendour, I struck 
in grief at my womb. Thou hadst, O Rishi, granted me the 
boon that I should have an hundred sons. But here is only 
a ball of flesh for those hundred sons.' Vyasa then said, 
'Daughter of Suvala, it is even so. But my words can never 
be futile. I have not spoken an untruth even in jest. I need 
not speak of other occasions. Let an hundred pots full of 
clarified butter be brought instantly, and let them be placed 
at a concealed spot. In the meantime, let cool water be 
sprinkled upon this ball of flesh.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "That ball of flesh then, sprinkled 
over with water, became, in time, divided into an hundred 
and ons parts, each about the size of the thumb. These were 
then put into those pots full of clarified butter that had been 
placed at a concealed spot, and were watched with care. The 
illustrious Vyasa then said unto the daughter of Suvala that 
she should open the covers of the pots after full two years. 
And having said this, and made those arrangements, the wise 
Dwaipayana went to the Himavat mountains for devoting 
himself to asceticism. 

" Then, in time, king Diiryodhana was born from among 
those pieces of the ball of flesh that had been deposited in 
those pots. According tc the order of birth, king Yudhish- 


tliira was the eldest. The news of Diiryo'^hana's birth was 
carried to Bhisma and the wise Vidura. The day that the 
haughty Duryodhana was born was also the birth-day of Bhi- 
ma of mighty arms and great prowess. 

" As soon as Duryodhana was born he began to cry and 
bray like an ass. And hearing that sound, the asses, vultures, 
jackals, and crows uttered their respective cries responsively. 
Violent winds began to blow, and there were fires in various 
directions. Then king Dhrita-rashtra in great fear summoning 
Bhisma, and Vidura, and other well-wishers and all the Kurus, 
and numberless Brahmanas, addressed them and said, 'The 
eldest of the princes, Yudhish-thira, is the perpetuator of 
our line. By virtue of his birth he hath acquired the kingdom. 
We have nothing to say to this. But shall this my son born 
after him become king ? Tell me truly what is lawful and 
right under these circumstances.' As soon as these words were 
spoken, O Bharata, jackals and other carnivorous animals began 
to howl ominously. And marking those frightful omens all 
around, the assembled Brahmanas and the wise Vidura re- 
plied, 'O king, O thou bull among men, when these frightful 
omens are noticeable at the birth of thy eldest son, it is evi- 
dent that he shall be the exterminator of thy race. The pros- 
perity of all dependeth on his abandonment. Calamity there 
must be in keeping him. O king, if thou abandonest him, 
there remain yet for thee nine and ninety sons ! If thou 
desirest the good of thy race, abandon him, O Bhai'ata ! O 
king, do good to the world and thy own race by casting off 
this one child of thine ! It hath been said that the individual 
shoukl be cast off for the sake of the family ; that the family 
should be cast off for the sake of the village ; that the 
village may be abandoned for the sake of the whole country ; 
and that the earth itself may be abandoned for the sake of 
the soul.' When Vidura and those Brahmanas had said so, 
king Dhrita-rashtra from affection for his son had not the heart 
to follow that advice. Then, O king, within a month, were 
born a full hundred sons unto Dhrita-rashtra and a daughter 
also in excess of this hundred. And during the time when 
Gandhari was in a state of advanced pregnancy, there was a 


maid-servant of the Vaisya class who used to attend on Phrita- 
rashtra. During that year, O king, was begotten upon her 
Iby the illustrious Dhrita-rashtra a son endued with great 
intelligence who was afterwards named Yuyutshu. And be- 
cause he was begotten by a Kshatriya upon a Vaisya woman, 
he came to be called a Karana. 

" Thus were born unto the wise Dhrita-rashtra an hundred 
sons who were all heroes and mighty charioteers, and a 
daughter over and above the hundred, and another son Yuyut- 
shu of great energy and prowess begotten upon a Vaisya 
woman. " 

So ends the hundred and fifteenth Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXVI. 

( Samhhava Parva continued. ) 

Janamejaya said, " O sinless one, thou hast narrated to 
me from the beginning all about the birth of Dhrita-rashtra's 
hundred sons owing to the boon granted by the Kishi. But 
thou hast not told me as yet any particulars about the birth 
of a daughter. Thou hast merely said that over and above 
the hundred sons, there was another son named Yuyutshu 
beo-otten upon a Vaisya woman, and a daughter. The great 
Bishi Vyasa of immeasurable energy had said unto the daugh- 
ter of the king of Gandhara that she would become the 
mother of an hundred sons. Illustrious one, liow is it that 
thou sayest, Gandhari had a daughter over and above her 
hundred sons ? If the ball of flesh had been distributed by 
the great Rishi only into an hundred parts, and if Gandhari 
did not conceive on any other occasion, how then was Dush- 
shala born ? Tell me this, O Rishi ! My curiosity hath been 
great. " 

Vaisampayana said, " thou descendant of the Pandavas, 
thy question is just, and I will tell you how it happened. The 
illustrious and great Rishi himself, by sprinkling water over 
that ball of flesh, began to divide it into parts. And as it was 
being divided into parts, the nurse began to take them ud 

ADl PARVA. 341 

and put them one by one into those pots filled with clarified 
butter. While this process Avas going on, the beautiful and 
chaste Gandhari of rigid vows realising the affection that one 
feeleth for a daughter began to think in her mind, 'There ia 
no doubt that I shall have an hundred sons. The Muni hath 
said so. It can never be otherwise. But I should be very 
happy if a daughter were born unto me over and above these 
hundred sons and junior to them all. My husband then may 
attain to those worlds that the possession of daughter's sons 
conferreth. Then again, the affectioii that women feel for 
their sons-in-law is great. If therefore I obtain a daughter 
over and above my hundred sons, then, surrounded by sons 
and daughter's sons, I may feel supremely blest. If I have 
ever practised ascetic austerities, if I have ever given in 
charity, if I have ever performed the homa (through the in- 
strumentality of Brahmanas), if I have ever gratified my su- 
periors by respectful attentions, then (as the fruit of these 
acts) let a daughter be born unto me !' All this while that 
illustrious and best of Rishis, Krishna-Dwaipayana himself waa 
dividing the ball of flesh ; and counting a full hundred of the 
parts, he said unto the daughter of Suvala, 'Here are thy 
hundred sons. I did not speak aught unto thee that was false. 
Here however is one part in excess of hundred intended for 
giving thee a daughter's son. This part shall expand into an 
amiable and fortunate daughter, as thou hast desired.' Then 
that great ascetic bringing another pot full of clarified butter, 
put the part intended for a daughter into it. 

" Thus have I, Bharata, narrated unto thee all about the 
birth of Dush-shala. Tell me, O sinless one, what more I am 
now to narrate. " 

Thus ends the hundred and sixteenth Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXVII. 
(Samhhava Pdrva continued. ) 

Janamejaya said, "Recite, O Brahmana, the nameg of 
Dhrlta-rashtra's sons according to the order of their births. " 

Vaisampayana said, " Their names, O king, according to 
the order of birth, are Duryodhana, Yuyutshii, and Dush- 
shashana : Dush-saha, Dush-shala, Jalasandha, Sama, Saha; 
Vinda, and Anuvinda ; Dad-dharsha, Suvahu, Dushpradhar- 
ehana, Durmarshana, and Diirmukha ; Diishkarna, and Kama; 
Vivingsati, and Vikarna, Sliala, Satwa, Sulochana, Chittra, 
and Upachittra, Chitraksha, Charuchitra, Sarasana ; Durma- 
da, and Durvigaha, Vivitshn, Vikatanana ; Urna-nava, and 
Simava, then Nandaka, and Upanandaka ; Chitra-vana, Chit- 
travarma, Suvarma, Darvilochana; Ayovahu, Mahavahu, 
Chitranga, Chittra-kundala ; Bhima-vega, Bhima-vala, Balaki, 
Bala-vardhana, XJgrayudha ; Bhima, Kama, Kanakaya, Drida- 
yudha, Dhrida-varma, Dhrida-kshatra, Soma-kirti, Anudara ; 
Dhrida-sandha, Jarasandha, Satya-sandha, Sada, Suvak, Ugra- 
srava, Ugra-sena, Senani, Dush-parajaya; Aparajita, Kunda- 
shayi, Vislialaksha, Duradhara ; Dhrida-hasta, Suhasta, Vata- 
vega, and Suvarchas ; Aditya-ketu, Vahvashi, Naga-datta, 
Agra-yayi; Karachi, Krathana, Kundi, Kunda-dhara, Dha- 
nurdhara ; the heroes Ugra, and Bhima-ratha, Viravahu, 
Alolupa; Abhaya, and Raudra-karma, and then he called 
Dhrida-ratha ; Anadhrishya, Kunda-bhedi, Viravi, Dhirgha- 
lochana; Pramatha, and Pramathi, and the powerful Dhirgha- 
roma; Dhirgha-vahu, Mahavahu, Vyudoru, Kanakadhaja; 
Kundashi, and Virajas. Besides these hundred sons, there was 
a daughter named Dush-shala. All were heroes and Ati-ratJias, 
and were well-skilled in war. All were learned in the Vedas, 
and all kinds of weapons. And, king, worthy wives were in 
time selected for all of them by Dhrita-rashtra after proper 
examination. And king Dhrita-rashtra, O monarcli, also bes- 
towed Dush-shala, in proper time and with proper rites, upon 
Jayadratha (the king of Sindhu). " 

Thus ends the hundred and seventeenth Section in the 
Bambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXVIII. 
( Sdmbhava Parva continued. ) 

^anamejaya said, "O thou utterer of Brahma, thou hast 
recited (everything about) the extraordinary births, among 
men, of the sons of Dhrita-rashtra in consequence of the 
Rishi's grace. Thou hast also said \Yhat their names were, 
according to the order of birth. Brahmana, I have heard 
all these from thee. But tell me now all about the Pan- 
davas. While reciting the incarnations on earth of the celes- 
tials, the Asuras, and beings of other classes, thou saidst 
that the Pandavas were all illustrious and endued with the 
prowess of gods, and that they were incarnate portions of the 
celestials themselves. I desire, therefore, to hear all about 
those beings of extraordinary achievements, beginning from 
the moment of their births, Vaisampayana, recite thou 
their achievements. " 

Vaisampayana said, " O king, one day Pandu, while roam- 
ing in the woods (on the southern slopes of Himavat) that 
teemed with deer and wild animals of fierce disposition, saw 
a large deer that seemed to be the leader of a herd coupling 
with its mate. Beholding the animals, the monarch pierced 
them both with five of his sharp and swift arrows winged 
with golden feathers. O monarch, that was no deer that 
Pandu struck at, but a Rishi's son of great ascetic merit who 
was couiDling with his mate in the form of a deer. Pierced 
by Paudu while engaged in the act of intercourse, he fell 
down on the earth uttering cries that were human and began 
to weep bitterl3^ 

" The deer then addressed Pandu and said, 'O king, even 
men that are slaves of lust and wrath, and void of reason, 
and ever sinful, never commit such a cruel act as this ! 
Individual judgment prevaileth not against the ordinance, 
the ordinance prevaileth against individual judgment. The 
wise never sanction anything discountenanced by the or- 
dinance. Thou art born, O Bharata, in a race that has ever 
been virtuous. How is it, therefore, that even thou, suffer- 

344) . .^ MAHABHARA.TA. 

ing thyself to be overpowered by passion and wrath, losest 
thy reason ?' Hearing this, Pandu replied, ' deer, kings 
behave in the matter of slaying animals of thy species 
exactlj^ as they do in the matter of slaying foes. It behoveth 
thee not, therefore, to reprove me thus from ignorance ? Ani- 
mals of thy species are slain by open or covert means. This, 
indeed, is the practice of kings. Then why dost thou reprove 
me ? Formerly, the Rishi Agastya, while engaged in the 
performance of a grand sacrifice, chased the deer, and devot- 
ed every deer of the forest unto the gods in general. Thou hast 
been slain pursuant to usage sanctioned by such precedent. 
Wherefore reprovest us then ? For his especial sacrifices Agas- 
tya performed the homa with fat of the deer.' 

" The deer then said, ' O king, men do not let fly their 
arrows at even their enemies when the latter are unprepared. 
But there is a time for doing it ( viz, after declaration of 
hostilities). Slaughter at such a time is not censurable.' 

" Pandu replied, 'It is well-known that men slay deer 
by various effective means, without regarding whether the 
animals are careful or careless. Therefore, deer, why re- 
provest thou me?' 

" The deer then said, ' O king, I do not blame thee for 
thy having killed a deer, or for the injury thou hast done to 
me ! But, instead of acting so cruelly, thou shouldst have 
waited for the completion of my act of intercourse. What 
man of wisdom and virtue is there that can kill a deer while 
engaged in such an act? The time of sexual intercourse is 
agreeable to every creature and productive of good to all. 
O king, upon this my mate I was engaged in the gratification 
of my sexual desire. But that effort of mine hath been 
rendered futile by thee! king of the Kurus, born as thou 
art in the race of the Pandavas ever noted for white (virtuous) 
deeds, such an act hath scarcely been fit for thee ! O Bharata, 
this act must be regarded as extremely cruel, deserving of 
universal execration, infamous, and sinful, and certainly lead- 
ing to hell. Thou art acquainted with the pleasures of sexual 
intercourse. Thou art acquainted also with the teachings of 
morality and the dictates of duty. Like unto a celestial aa 


thou art, it behoved the 3 not to do such an act as leadeth 
to hell ! thou best of kiugs, thy duty is to chastise all 
who act cruelly, who are engnged in sinful practices, and all 
who have taken leave of religion, profit, and pleasure, as 
explained in the Shastras. "What hast thou done, O best of 
men, in killing me who have done thee no offence ! I am, O 
king, a Muni that liveth on fruits and roots, though disguised 
as a deer ! I was living in the woods in peace with all. Thou 
hast killed me yet, king, for which I will curse thee cer- 
tainly. Cruel as thou hast been unto a couple of opposite 
sexes, death shall certainly overtake thee as soon as thou 
feelest the influence of desire. I am a Muni of name Kimiu- 
dama, possessed of ascetic merit. I was engaged in sexual 
intercourse with this deer because my feelings of modesty do 
not permit me to indulge in such an act in human society. la 
the form of a deer I rove in tlie deep woods in the company 
of other deer. Thou hast slain rae without knowing that I 
am a Brahmana. The sin of having slain a Brahmana shall 
not, tlierefore, be thine. But, senseless man, having killed me, 
disguised as a deer, at such a time, thy fate shall certainly 
be even like mine ! When, having approached thy Avife 
lustfully, thou art united with her even as I had been with 
mine, in that very state thou shalt have to go to the world of 
spirits. And that wife of thine with wliom thou mayst be 
united in intercourse at the time of thy death shall also follow 
thee with affection and reverence to the domains of the king 
of the dead which no one can avoid. Thou hast brought 
me grief while I was happy. So shall grief come to thee 
while thou art in happiness.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Saying this, that deer, afflict- 
ed with grief, gave up life; and Pandu also was plunged iu 
woe at the sight." 

Thus ends the hundred and eighteenth Section in the Sam- 


Section CXIX. • 

(Samhhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " After the death of that deer, king 
Pandu Avith his Avives was deeply afflicted and wept bitterly. 
And he exclaimed, 'The wicked, even if born in virtuous 
families, deluded by their own passions, are overwhelmed 
with misery as the fruit of their own deeds. I have heard 
that my father, though begotten by Shantanu of virtuous soul, 
was cut off while still a youth, only because he had become 
a slave of lust. In the soil of that lustful king, the illus- 
trious Rishi Krishna-Dwaipayana himself, of truthful speech, 
begot me. Son though I am of such a being, with my wicked 
heart devoted to vice, I am yet leading a wandering life in 
the woods in the chase of the deer ! Oh, the very gods have 
forsaken me ! I shall seek salvation now. The great impedi- 
ments to salvation are the desire to beget children, and the 
other concerns of the world. I shall now adopt the Brahma- 
charya mode of life and follow in the imperishable wake of my 
father ! I shall certainly bring my passions under complete 
control by severe ascetic penances. Forsaking my wives and 
other relatives and shaving my head, alone shall I wander over 
the earth, begging for my subsistence from each of these trees 
standing here. Forsaking every object of affection. and aver- 
sion, and covering my body with dust, I shall make the 
shelter of trees or deserted houses my home. I shall never 
yield to the influence ■of sorrow or joy, and I shall regard 
slander and eulogy in the same light. I shall not seek bene- 
dictions or bows. I shall be in peace with all, and shall 
not accept gifts. I shall not mock anybody or contract my 
brows at any one, but shall be ever cheerful and devoted to 
the good of all creatures. I shall not harm any of the four 
orders of life gifted with power of locomtion or otherwise, 
viz, ovi-parous, vivi-parous, worms, and vegetables, but, on 
the other hand, preserve an equality of behaviour towards all 
as if they were my own children. Once a day I shall beg of five 
or ten families at the most, and if I do not succeed in obtain- 

ADl PARVA. * 347 

ing alms, I shall then go without food. I shall rather stinfc 
myself than beg more than once of the same person. If I 
do not obtain anything after completing my round of seven 
or ten houses, moved by covetousness I shall not enlarge my 
round. Whether I obtain or fail to obtain alms, I shall be 
equally unmoved like a great ascetic. One loppiug off an 
arm of mine with an hatchet, and one smearing another witb 
sandal-paste, shall be regarded by me equalI3^ I shall nob 
wish prosperity to the one or misery to the other. I shall not 
be pleased with life or displeased with death. I shall neither 
desire to live nor to die. Washing my heart of all sins, I 
shall certainly transcend those sacred rites productive of 
happiness that men perform in auspicious moments, days, 
and periods. I shall also abstain from all acts of peliaion 
and profit and also those that lead to the gratification of the 
senses. And freed from all sins and snares of the world, I 
shall be like the wind subject to none. Treading in the path 
of fearlessness and bearing myself in this way I shall at last 
lay down my life. Destitute of the power of begetting child- 
ren, firmly adhering to the line of duty I shall not certainly 
deviate therefrom in order to tread in the vile path of the 
world that is so full of misery. Whether respected or disrespect- 
ed in the world, that man who from covetousness easteth on 
others a begging look, certainly behaveth like a dog. (Desti- 
tute as I am of the power of procreation, I sliould not cer- 
tainly, from desire of offspring, solicit others to give me 
children.) ' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The king having wept thus 
in sorrow, with a sigh looked at his two wives Kunti and 
Madri, and addressing them said, 'Let the princess of Koshalai 
(my mother), Vidura, the king with our friends, the vener- 
able Satyavati, Bhisma, the priests of our family, illustrious 
Soma-drinking Brahinanas of rigid vows, and all other 
elderly citizens depending on us, be all informed, after ^being 
prepared for it, that Pandu hath retired into the woods to lead 
a life of asceticism.' Hearing these words of their lord who 
had fixed his heart upon leading a life of asceticism in the 
woodS; both Kunti and Madri addressed him iu theae ])roper 

248 mahabhara'ta, 

words : 'O thou bull of the Bharata race, there are many 

other modes of life which thou canst adopt and in which thou 
canst undergo the severest of penances along with us thy 
wedded wives ; in which, for the salvation of thy body (free- 
dom from re-birth) thou mayst obtain heaven as thy reward, 
or even become the lord of heaven ! We also, in the company 
of our lord, and for his benefit, controlling our passions and 
biddincT farewell to all luxuries shall subject ourselves to the 
severest austerities. king, O thou of great wisdom, if thou 
abandonest us, we shall then this very day truly depart from 
this world.' 

" Pandu replied, 'If indeed, this your resolve springeth 
from virtue, then with ye both I shall follow the imperishable 
path of my father. Abandoning the luxuries of cities and 
towns, robed in barks of trees, and living on fruits and roots, 
I shall wander in the deep woods practising the severest of 
penances. Bathing both morning and evening I shall perform 
the homa, I shall reduce by body by eating very sparingly 
and shall wear rags and skins, and bear knotted locks on my 
head. Exposing myself to both heat and cold and regard- 
less of hunger and tliirst, I shall reduce my body by severe 
ascetic austerities. Living in solitude, I shall give m3'self up 
to contemplation. I shall eat fruits ripe or raw that I may 
find. I shall offer oblations to the pitris and the gods with 
speech, water, and fruits of the wilderness. I shall not see, 
far less harm, any of the dwellers of the woods or any of my 
relatives, or any of the dwellers of cities and towns. Until 
I lay down this body, I sliall thus practise the severe ordinances 
of the Vana-prastka scriptures, always searching for severer 
ones that they may contain.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The Kuru king having said 
this unto his wives gave away to Brahmanas the big jewel 
on his diadem, his necklace of precious gold, his bracelets, 
bis large ear-rings, his valuable robes, and all the ornaments 
of his wives. Then summoning his attendants he commanded 
them saying, 'Return ye to Hastinapore and proclaim unto all 
that Pandu with his wives hath gone into the woods abandon- 
ing wealth, desires, happiness, and even sexual appetite.' Then 


those followers and attendants hearing these and other soft 
words of the king sent forth a loud wail, uttering ' Oh, we are 
undone !' Then leaving the monarch, with hot tears trick- 
ling down their cheeks they returned to Hastinapore with 
speed, carrying that wealth with them (that was to be distri- 
buted in charity). Then Dhrita-rashtra, that first of men, 
hearing from them everything that had happened in the woods, 
wept for his brother. He brooded over his affliction continually, 
little relishing tlie comfort of beds and seats and dishes. 

"Meanwhile, the Kuru prince Pandii (after sending away hia 
attendants), accompanied by his two wives, and eating of fruits 
and roots, went to the mountains of Naga-shata. He next 
went to Chaitra-rathd, and then crossed the Kala-kuta. 
Finally, crossing the Himavat he arrived at Gandhamadana. 
Protected by Maha-bhutas, Shidhas, and great Rishis, Pandu 
lived, O king, sometimes on level ground and sometimes on 
mountain slopes. He then journeyed to the lake of Indra- 
dyumna, whence crossing the mountains of Hansa-kuta he 
went to the mountain of hundred peaks and there practised 
ascetic austerities. " 

Thus ends the hundred and nineteenth Section in the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXX. 
(Samhhava Pavva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " Pandu possessed of great energy 
then devoted himself to asceticism. Within a short time he 
became the favorite of the whole body of the Shidhas and the 
Charanas residing there. And, O Bharata, devoted to the 
service of his spiritual masters, free from vanity, with mind 
imder complete control and the passions fully subdued, the 
prince, becoming competent to enter heaven by his own energy, 
attained to great (ascetic) prowess. Some of the Rishis would 
call him brother, some friend, while others cherished him 
as their son. And, O thou bull of the Bharata race, having 
acquii-ed after a long time great ascetic merit coupled with 


complete sinlessness, Pandu became even like a BrahmarsM 
(though he was a Kshatriya by birth). 

" On a certain day of the new moon, the great Rishis of 
rigid vows assembled together, and desirous of beholding 
Brahma were on the point of starting on their expedition. 
Seeing them about to start, Pandu asked those ascetics, sa}ing, 
'Ye first of eloquent men, where shall ye go ?' The Rishis 
answered, 'There will be a great gathering today, in the abode 
of Brahma, of celestials, Rishis, and Pitris. Desirous of behold- 
ing the Self-create we shall go there today.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Hearing this, Pandu rose up 
suddenly, desirous of visiting heaven along with the great 
Rishis. Accompanied by his two wives, Avhen he was on the 
point of following the Rishis in a northerly direction from the 
mountain of hundred peaks, those ascetics addressed him, say- 
ing, 'la our northward march, while gradually ascending the 
king of mountains, we have seen on its delightful breast 
many regions inaccessible to ordinary mortals ; retreats also of 
the gods, Gandharvas, and Apsaras, with palatial mansions 
by hundreds clustering thick around and resounding with the 
sweet notes of celestial music ; the gardens of Kuvera laid 
out on even and uneven grounds ; banks of mighty rivers, and 
deep caverns. There are many regions also on those heights 
that are covered with perpetual snow and are utterly destitute 
of vegetable and animal existence. In some places the down- 
pour of rain is so heavy that they are perfectly inaccessible and 
incapable of being utilised for habitation. Not to speak of 
other animals, even winfred creatures cannot cross them. The 
only thing that can go there is air, and the only beings, Sidhas 
and great Rishis. How shall these princesses ascend those 
heights of the king of mountains ? Unaccustomed to pain, 
shall they not droop in affliction ? Therefore, come not with 
us, thou bull of the Bharata race !' 

♦' Pandu replied, 'Ye fortunate ones, it is said that for the 
sonless there is no admission into heaven. I am sonless ! In 
affliction I speak unto ye ! Ye whose wealth is asceticism, 
I am afflicted because I have not been able to discharge the 
debt I owe to iny ancestors ! It is certain that with the 


iljssolution of this my body my ancestors perish ! Men are 
boru ou this earth with four debts, viz, those due unto the 
(deceased) ancestors, the gods, the Rishis, and other men. In 
justice these must be discharged. The wise have declared 
that no regions of bliss exist for them who neglect to pay 
these debts in due time. The gods are paid (gratified) by 
sacrifices; the Rishis, by study, meditation, and asceticism; 
the (deceased) ancestors, by begetting children and offering the 
funeral cake ; and, lastly, other men, by leading a humane 
and inoffensive life. I have justly discharged my obligations 
to the Rishis, the gods, and other men. But those others 
than these three are sure to perish with the dissolution of my 
body! Ye ascetics, lam not yet freed from the debt I owe 
to my (deceased) ancestors ! The best of men are born in this 
world to beget children for discharging that debt. I would 
ask ye, should children be begotten in my soil (upon my 
wives) as I myself was begotten in the soil of my father by the 
eminent Rishi ?' 

" The Rishis said, ' king of virtuous soul, there is pro- 
geny for thee in store, that is sinless and blest with good for- 
tune and like unto the gods ! We behold it all with our pro- 
phetic eyes ! Therefore, thou tiger among men, accomplish 
by your own acts that which destiny pointeth at. Men of in- 
telligence, acting with deliberation always obtain good fruits. 
It behoveth tiiee, therefore, O king, to exert thyself. The 
fruits thou wouldst obtain are distinctly visible. Thou wouldst 
really obtain accomplished and agreeable progeny.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Hearing these words of the 
ascetics, Pandu, remembering the loss of his procreative pow- 
ers owing to the curse of the deer, began to reflect deeply. And 
calling his wedded wife the excellent Kunti unto him, he told 
her in private, ' Strive thou to raise up offspring at this time 
of distress ! The wise expounders of the eternal religion 
declare that a son, O Kunti, is the cause of virtuous fame in 
the three worlds. It is said that sacrifices, gifts in charity, 
ascetic penances, and vows observed most carefully, do not 
confer religious merit on a sonless man ! O thou of sweet 
smiles, knowing all this, I am certain that sonless as I am, I 


shall not obtain regions of true felicity | O thou timid one, 
wretch as I was and addicted to cruel deeds, as a consequence 
of the polluted life I led my power of procreation hath been 
destroyed by the curse of the deer. The religious institutes 
mention six kinds of sous that are heirs and kinsmen, and 
six other kinds that are not heirs but kinsmen. I shall speak 
of them presently ; O Pritha, listen to me ! Thy are 1st, the 
son begotten by one's own self upon his wedded wife ; 2nd, 
the son begotten upon one's wife by an accomplished person 
from motives of kindness ; 3rd, the son begotten upon one'a 
wife by a person for a pecuniary consideration ; 4th, the son 
begotten upon the wife after the husband's death ; 5th, the 
maiden-born son (or piotrlkd-putra) ; 6th, the son born of an 
unchaste wife ; 7th, the son given ; 8th, the son bought for a 
consideration ; 9th, the son self-given ; 10th, the son received 
with a pregnant bride ; 11th, the brother's son ; and 12th, the 
son begotten upon a wife of lower caste. On failure of off- 
spring of a prior class, the mother should desire to have off- 
spring of the next class. At times of distress, men solicit off- 
spring from accomplished younger brothers. The Self-create 
Manu hath said that men failing to have legitimate offspring 
of tiieir own may have offspring begotten upon their wives by 
others, for sons confer the higli est religious merit. Therefore, 

Kunti, being destitute myself of the power of procreation, 

1 command thee to raise up good offspring by some person 
that is either equal or superior to me ! Kunti, listen to the 
history of the daughter of Shara-dandayana who was appointed 
by her lord to raise up offspring ! That warrior-dame, when her 
season came bathed duly and in the night went out and waited 
at a spot where four roads met. She did not Avait long 
when a Brahmana crowned with ascetic success came there. 
The daughter of Sbara-dandayana solicited him for offspring, 
and after pouring libations of clarified butter into the fire ( in 
the performance of the sacrifice known by the name of Pungs- 
havana) she brought forth three sons that were mighty chario- 
teers and of whom Durjaya was the eldest, begotten upon her 
by that Brahmana. O thou of good fortune, do thou follow 
that warrior-dame's example at my command, and speedily 


raise up offspring from the seed of some Brahmana of high 
ascetic merit.' " 

Thus ends the hundred and twentieth Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXI. 
( Sambhava Pdrva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " Thus addressed, Kanti replied unto 
her heroic lord king Pandu — that bull amongst the Kurus — 
saying, * thou virtuous one, it behoveth thee not to say so 
unto me ! I am, thou of eyes like lotus-leaves, thy wedded 
wife, and devoted to thee ! Bharata of mighty arms, thy- 
self shalt, in righteousness, beget upon me children endued 
with great energy. Then shall I ascend to heaven with thee ! 
prince of the Kuru race, receive me in thy embraces for 
begetting children ! I shall not certainly, even in imagina- 
tion, accept any other man except thee in my embraces ! 
What other man is there in this world superior to thee ? O 
thou virtuous one, listen to this Pauranic narrative that hath 
been, thou of large eyes, heard by me, and that I shall pre- 
sently narrate. 

"'There was in ancient times a kinor of the race of Puru, 
known by the name of Vyusliitaswa. He was devoted to 
truth and virtue. Of virtuous soul and mighty arms, on one 
occasion, while he performed a sacrifice, the gods with Indra 
and the great Rishis came to him. And Indra was so intoxi- 
cated with the Soma juice he drank, and the Brahmanag 
with the large presents they received, that both the gods and 
the great Rishis began themselves to perform evervthino* 
appertaining to that sacrifice of the illustrious royal sao-e. 
And thereupon Vyushitaswa began to shine above all men like 
the sun appearing in double splendour after the season of 
frost is over. And the powerful Vyushitaswa was endued 
with the strength of ten ele])hants. And he soon enough 
performed the liorse-sacrifice, overthrowincj O 'best of 



archs, all the kings of the East and the North, the West and 
the South, and exacting tribute from them all. There is a 



proverb, O thon best of the Kurus, that is sung by all 
reciters of the Puranas, in connection with that first of all 
men — the illustrious Vyushitaswa ; Having- conquered the 
v/hole earth to the shores of the sea, Vyusliitaswa protected 
every class of his subjects like a father clierishing hia own 
begotten sons. Performing many great sacrifices he presented 
much wealth to the Brahmanas. And collecting jewels and 
precious stones without limit, he made arrangements for 
performing still greater ones. And lie performed also the 
Agni-shtoma, and other special Vedic sacrifices, extracting 
great quantities of Soma juice. And, O king, Vyushitaswa 
had for his dear wife Vadra, the daughter of Kskshivana and 
unrivalled on earth for beauty. And it hath been heard by 
us that the couple loved each other deeply. KingV3Ushi- 
taswa was seldom separated from his wife. Sensual indulgence, 
however, brouglit on an attack of pthisis and the king died 
within a few days, sinking like the sun in his glory. Then 
Vadra, his beautiful queen was plunged in woe, and sonless 
as she was, O tiger among men, she wept in great affliction. 
Listen to me, O king, as I narrate to you all that Vadra said 
with bitter tears trickling down her cheeks, — virtuous one, 
she said, women serve no purpose when their husbands are 
dead ! She who liveth after her husband is dead, draggeth 
on a miserable existence that can hardly be called life ! O 
thou bull of the Kshatrij^a or:ler, death is a blessing to women 
without husbands. I wish to follow the way thou hast gone ! 
Be kind, and take me witli thee ! In thy absence, I ara 
unable to bear life even for a moment! Be kind to me, O 
king, and take me hence soon enough ! tiger among men, 
I shall follow thee over even and uneven ground. Thou hast 
gone away, b'rd, never more to return ! I shall follow thee, 
O king, as thy own shadow ! O tiger among men, I will be 
obedient to thee (as thy slave) and will ever do what is 
agreeable to thee and what is for thy good ! O thou of eyes 
like lotus-leaves, without thee, from this day, mental agonies 
will overwhelm me and eat into my heart ! Wretch that I 
am, some loving couple had doubtless been separated by me 
iii former life for which in this I am made to suffer the pangs 


©f separation myself from thee ! king, that wretched 
woman who liveth even for a moment, separated from her 
lord, liveth in woe and sutferefch the pangs af liell even here! 
Some loving couple had doubtless been separated by me in 
former life, as the consequence of which sinful act I am suffer- 
ing this torture born of my separation irom thee ! O king, 
from this day I will lay myself down on a bed of Kusa grass 
and abstain from every luxury desiring once more to behold 
thee ! thou tiger among men, show thyself to me ! O king, 
O lord, command once more thy wretched and bitterly weeping 
wife plunged in woe ! — ' ^ 

" Kunti continued, 'It was thus, Pandu, that the beau- 
tiful Vadra wept on the death of her lord. And the weeping 
Vadra clasped in her arms the corpse in anguish of heart. Then 
she was addressed by an incorporeal voice in these words : — Rise 
up, O Vadra, and leave this place ! thou of sweet smiles, I 
grant thee this boon. I will beget offspring upon thee. Lie 
thou down with me on thy own bed, after the eatamenial bath, 
on the night of the eighth or the fourteenth day of the 
moon. — Thus addressed by the incorporeal voice, the chaste 
Vadra did as she was directed, for obtaining offspring. And, 
O thou bull of the Bharatas, the corpse of her husband 
begat upon her seven children in all, viz, three Shalwas and 
four Madras. O thou bull of the Bharatas, do thou also 
beget offspring upon me, like the illnstrious Vyushitaswa, 
in the exercise af that ascetic power which thou possessest !' " 

Thus ends the hundred and twenty first Section in the Sara- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXIL 
( Samhhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " Thus addressed by his loving wife, 
king Pandu, well-acquainted with all rules of morality, replied 
in these words of virtuous import: '0 Kunti, what thou hast 
said is quite true. Vyushitaswa of old did even as thou hast 
said. Indeed, he was equal to the celestials themselves t 
But I shall now tell tbee about the practices of old indicated 


by illustrious Rishis fully acquainted with every rule of 
morality. O thou of handsome face and sweet smiles, women 
formerly were not immured within houses and dependent 
on husbands and other relatives. They used to go about 
freely, enjoying as best liked them. thou of excellent 
qualities, they did not then adhere to their husbands faith- 
fully, and yet, O handsome one, they were not regarded sinful, 
for that was the sanctioned usage of the times. That very 
usage is followed to this day by birds and beasts without any 
exhibition of jealousy. That practice, sanctioned by precedent, 
is applauded by great Rishis. And, thou of tapering thighs, 
the practice is yet regarded with respect amongst the northern 
Kurus. Indeed, this usage so lenient to women hath the sanc- 
tion of antiquity. The present practice, however, (of women 
being confined to one husband for life) hath been established 
but lately. I shall tell thee in detail who established it and 
for what. 

" 'It hath been heard by us that there was a great Rishi 
of name Uddalaka. He had a son of name Shetaketu who 
also was an ascetic of merit. O thou of eyes like lotus leaves, 
the present virtuous practice hath been established by that 
Shetaketu from anger. Hear thou the reason. One day, in 
the presence of Shetaketu's father, a Bralimana came and 
catching Shetaketu's mother by the hand, told her, Let us go. 
Beholding his mother seized by the hand and taken away 
apparently by force, the son, moved by wrath, became very 
indignant. Seeing his son indignant, Uddalaka addressed 
him and said, — Be not angry, O son ! This is the practice 
sanctioned by antiquity. The women of all orders in this 
world are free. O sou, men in this matter, as regards their 
respective orders, act as kine. — The Rishi's son Shetaketu, 
however, disapproved of the usage and established in the world 
the present usage as regards men and women. It hath been 
heard by us, O thou of great virtue, that the existing practice 
dates from that period among human beings but not among 
beings of other classes. Accordingly, since the establishment 
of the present usage, it is sinful for women not to adhere to 
their husbands. Women transgressing the limits assigned by 


the RishI become guilty of slaying the embr}-©. And men too 
violating a chaste and loving wife who hath from her maiden- 
hood observed the vow of purity become guilty of the same 
sin. The woman also who, being commanded by her husband 
to raise up offspring refuses to do his bidding, becometh equally 

Thus, O timid one, was the existing usage established 
of old by Shetaketu the son of Uddalaka in defiance of anti- 
quity. O thou of tapering thighs, it hath also been heard 
by us that Madayanti the wife of Saudasa, commanded by 
her husband to raise up offspring, went unto the Rishi 
Vashishta. And going unto him, the handsome Madayanti 
obtained a son named Asmaka. She did this, moved by the 
desire of doing good to her husband. O thou of eyes like 
lotus leaves, thou knowest, timid girl, how we ourselves, for 
the perpetuation of the Kuru race, were begotten by Krish- 
na-Dwaipayana. O thou faultless one, beholding all these 
precedents, it behoveth thee to do my bidding, which is not 
inconsistent with virtue. O princess devoted to thy husband, 
it hath also been said by those acquainted with the rules of 
virtue that a wife when her season cometh must ever seek her 
husband, though at other times she deserveth liberty. The 
wise have declared this to be the ancient practice. But be 
the act sinful or sinless, those acquainted with the Vedas have 
declared that it is the duty of wives to do what their 
husbands bid them do. Especially, thou of ftiultless features 
I who am deprived of the power of procreation, having 
yet become desirous of beholding offspring, deserve the more 
to be obeyed by thee. O amiable one, joining my handa 
furnished with rosy fingers, and making of them a cup as of 
lotus leaves, I place them on my head to propitiate thee ! O 
thou of fair locks, it behoveth thee to raise up offspring, at 
my command, by the instrumentality of some Brahmana 
possessed of high asectic merit ! For then, owing to thee 
O thou of fair hips, I may go the way that is reserved for 
those that are blessed Avith children ' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Thus addressed by Pandu— 
that -subjugator of hostile cities— the handsome Kunti, ever 


attentive to what was agreeable and beneficial to her lord, 
then replied unto him, saying, 'In my girlhood, O lord, I was 
in my father's home engaged in attending upon all guests. I 
used to wait respectfully upon Brahmanas of rigid vows and 
great ascetic merit. One day I gratified with my attentions that 
Brahmana whom people call Durvasa, of mind under full control 
and possessing knowledge of all the mysteries of religion. 
Pleased with my services, that Brahmana gave me a boon in the 
form of a mantra (formula of invocation) for calling to my 
presence any one of the celestials I liked. And the Rishi 
addressing me said, — Any one among the celestials whom thoit 
callest by this, shall, O girl, approach thee and be obedient 
to thy will, whether he liketh it or not. And, princess, 
thou shalt also have offspring, by his grace. — Bharata, that 
Brahmana told me this when I was in my father's home. The 
words uttered by the Brahmana could never be false. The 
time also hath come when they may yield fruit. Commanded 
by thee, O royal sage, I can by that mantra summon any of 
the celestials, so that Ave may have good children. O thou 
foremost of all truthful men, tell me which of the celestials 
I shall summon. Know that as regards this matter I await your 

"Hearing this, Pandu replied, '0 thou handsome one, strive 
thou duly this very day to gratify our wishes ! Fortunate 
one, summon thou the god of Justice ! He is the most 
virtuous of the celestials. The god of justice and virtue will 
never be able to pollute us Avith sin. The world also, O 
beautiful princess, will then think that what we do can never 
be unholy. The son also that we shall obtain from him shall in 
virtue be certainly the foremost among the Kurus. Begotten 
by the god of justice and morality, he would never set his 
heart upon anything that is sinful or unholy. Therefore, O 
thou of sweet smiles, steadily keeping virtue before thy eyes, 
and duly observing holy vows, summon thou the god of 
justice and virtue by the help of thy solicitations and in- 
cantations !' " 

Vaisampnyana corrtinued, " Then Kunti, that best of 
women, thus addressed" by her lord, said, 'So be it.' And 

ADl PARVA. 359 

"feowing down to liim and reverently circumambulating his 
person, she resolved to do his bidding. " 

Thus ends the hundred and twenty second Section in the 
Sarabhava of the Adi Parva, 

Section CXXIIL 

( Samhhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " O Jauamejaya, when Gandhari's 
conception had been a full year old, it was then that Kunti 
summoned the eternal god of justice to obtain oftspring from 
him. And she offered, without loss of time, sacrifices unto 
tiie god and began to duly repeat the formula that Durvasa 
had imparted to her sometime before. Then the god, over- 
powered by her incantations, arrived at the spot where Kunti 
was, seated on his car resplendent as the sun. Smiling he 
asked, 'O Kunti, what am I give thee V And Kunti too, smiling 
in her turn, replied, 'Thou must even give me offspring !' 
Then the handsome Kunti was united (in intercourse) with 
the god of justice in his spiritual form and obtained from him 
a son devoted to the good of all creatures. And she brou"^hb 
forth this excellent child, who lived to acquire great fame, at 
the eighth Muhurta called Avijit, of the hour of noon of that 
very auspicious day of the eighth month (Kartik) viz, the fifth 
of the lighted fortnight, when the star Jeshtha in conjunction 
with the moon was ascendant. And as soon as the child was 
born, an incorporeal voice (in the skies) said, 'This child shall 
be the best of men — the foremost of those that are virtuous. 
Endued with great prowess and truthful in sjieech, he shall 
certainly be the ruler of the Earth. And this first child 
of Pandu shall be known by the name of Yudhish-thira. 
Possessed of prowess and honesty of disposition, he shall be 
a famous king, known throughout the three worlds.' 

" Pandu, having obtained that virtuous sou, again address- 
ed his wife and said, 'The wise have declared that a Kshatriya 
must be endued with physical strength, otherwise he is no 
Kshatriya. Therefore, ask thou for an offspring of superior 
strength.' Thus commanded by htr lord, Kunti then invoked 


Vayu. And the mighty god of wind, tlius invoked, came 
unto her, riding upon a deer, and said, ' What, O Kunti, am 
I to give thee ? Tell me, what is in thy heart V Smiling 
in modesty, she told him, ' Give me, O best of celestials, a 
child endued with great strength and largeness of limbs and 
capable of humbling the pride of everybody !' The god of 
wind thereupon begat upon her the child afterwards known 
as Bhima of mighty arms and fierce prowess. And upon the 
birth of that child endued with extraordinary strength, an 
incorporeal voice, O Bharata, as before, said, 'This child shall 
be the foremost of all endued with strength.' I must tell you, 
O Bharata, of another wonderful event that occured on the 
birth of Vrikodara (Bhima). Falling from the lap of his 
mother upon the mountain's breast, the violence of the fall 
broke into fragments the stone upon which he fell without his 
infant body being injured in the least. And he fell from his 
mother's lap, because Kunti, frightened by a tiger, had risen 
up suddenly, unconscious of the child that lay asleep on 
her lap. And as she had risen, the infant, of body hard as the 
thunder-bolt, falling down upon the mountain's breast, broke 
into an hundred fragments the roc^y mass upon which he 
fell. And beholding this, Pandu wondered much. And it so 
happened that that very day on which Vrikodara was born, was 
also, O best of Bharatas, the birth-day of Duryodhana, who 
afterwards became the ruler of the whole earth. 

" After the birth of Vrikodara, Pandu again began to 
think, 'How am I to obtain 'a very superior son who shall 
.achieve world-wide fame ? Everything in the world dependeth 
on Destiny and Exertion. But Destiny can never be fulfilled 
except by timely exertion. It hath been heard by us that 
Indra is the chief of the gods. Indeed, he is endued with 
immeasurable might and energy and prowess and glory. Gra- 
tifying him with my asceticism, I shall obtain from him a son 
of great strength. Indeed, the son he giveth me must be supe- 
rior to all and capable of vanquishing in battle all men and 
creatures other than men. I shall, therefore, practise the 
severest austerities with heart, deed, and speech.' 

"After this, the Kuru king Pandu taking counsel with the 


great Rising commanJeJ Kunti to observe an auspioious vow 
for oae full year, wliile he himself commenced, O Bharata, to 
stand upon one leg from morning to evening, and practise 
other severe austerities with mind rapt in meditation, for 
gratifying the lord of the celestials. 

" It was after a long time that Indra (gratified with such 
devotion) approached Pandu and addressing him, said, ' I shall 
give tiiee, O king, a son who will be celebrated all over the 
three worlds and who will promote the welfare of Brahmanas, 
kine, and all honest men. The son I shall give thee will be 
the sraiter of the wicked and the delight of friends and rela- 
tives. Foremost of all men, he will be an irresistible slayeu 
of all foes.' Thus addressed by V^sava, the virtuous king of 
the Kuru race, well recollecting those words, said unto Kunti, 
' Fortunate one, thy vow hath been successful. The lord 
of the celestials hath been gratified, and is willing to give 
thee a son such as thou desirest, of super-human achieve- 
ments and great fame. He will be the oppressor of all 
enemies and possessed of great wisdom. Endued with a 
great soul, in splendour equal unto the Sun, invincible ia 
battle, and of great achivements, he will also be extremely 
handsome. thou of fair hips and sweet smiles, the lord 
of the celestials hath become graceful to thee. Invoking 
him bring thou forth a child who will be the very home of 
all Kshatriya virtues !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The celebrated Kunti, thus 
addressed by her lord, invoked Sakro, who thereupon came 
unto her and begat him who was afterwards called Arjuna. 
And as soon as this child was born, an incorporeal voice, loud 
and deep as that of the clouds and filling the whole welkin, 
distinctly said, addressing Kunti in the hearing of every 
creature dwelling in that asylum, 'This child of thine, O 
Kunti, will be equal unto Kartyavirya in energy, and Shiva 
in prowess ! Invincible like Sakra liimself, he will spread 
thy fame far and wide ! As Vishnu (the youngest of Aditi's 
sons) had enhanced Aditi's joy, so shall this child enhance thy 
joy! Subjugating the Madras, the Kurus along with the 
Somakas, and the peoples of Chedi, Kashi, and Kaiusha, 



he will support the prosperity of the Knrns. ( Smfeitecl 
with libations at the sacrifice of king Shwetaki), Agni will 
derive great gratificatiou from the fat of all creatures dwell- 
ing in the Kliandava woods (to, be burnt down) by the might 
of this one's arms. This mighty hero, vauquisliing all tlie 
effiminate monarchs of the earth, will, with his brothers, per- 
form three great sacriiices. In prowess, O Kunti, he will be 
eA'en as Jamadagnya or Vishnu. The foremost of all men 
endued with prowess, he will achieve great fame. He will 
gratify in battle (by his heroism) Shankara, the god of gods 
(Mahadeva), and will receive from him the great weapon 
named Pashupata. This thy son af mighty arms will also 
s-iay, at the command of Indra, those Duityaa called the 
!Nivata-kavachas who are the enemies of the gods. He will 
also acquire all kinds of celestial weapons, and this bull among 
men will also retrieve the fallen fortunes of his race.' 

" Kunti heard these extraordinary words while in the lying- 
inxoora. And hearing those words uttered so loudly, the \ 
ascetics dwelling on that mountain of hundred peaks, and the 
celestials with Indra sitting on their curs, became exceedingly 
glad. The sounds of the (invisible) DiMirZitw filled the entire 
welkin. There were shouts of joy, and the whole region was 
covered with flowers showered down by invisible agents. The 
various tribes of celestials, assembled together, began to offer 
their respectful adorations to the son of Pritha. The sons o-f 
Kadru (Nagas), the sons of Vinata, the Gandharvas, the 
Apsaras, the lords of the creation, and the seven great Rishis, 
viz, Bharadwaja, Kasyapa, Gautama, Viswamitra, Jamadagni, 
Vashishta, and the illustrious Atri who illumined the world 
of old when the Sun was lost, all came there. And Marichi, 
Angira, Pulasta, Pulaha, Kratu, the lord of creation Daksha, 
the Gandharvas and Apsaras, came there also. The various 
tribes of Apsaras, decked with celestial garlands and every 
ornament, and attired in fine robes, came there and danced 
in joy, chaunting the praises of Vivatsii (Arjuna). All around, 
the great Rishis began to utter propitiatory formulae. And 
Tumvuru accompanied by the Gandiiarvas began to sing in 
charming notes. And B imasenaand Ugra-sena, Urnayu and 


AnagTia, Gopati and Dlirita-rashtra, Snrya and Varcha the 
eighth, Yuf^apa and Trinapa, Karslmi, Nandi and Chitra-ratha, 
Shalishira the thirteenth, Parjanya the fourteenth, Kali the 
fifteenth, and Narada the sixteenth in this list, Sad-dha, Vri- 
had-dlia, Vrihaka, Karala of great soul, Brahmachari, Vahu- 
guna, Suvarna of great fame, ViswavjiKu, Bhumanyu, Sii- 
chandra, Sham, and the celebrated tribes of Haha and Huhii 
both gifted with wonderful melody of voice,, these celestial 
Gandharvas, king, all went there. Many illusfrions Apsa- 
ras also of large eyes, decked in every ornament, came there 
to dance and sing. And Anuchana and Anavadya, Guna- 
mukhya and Gunavara, Adrika and Soma, Misra-keshi and 
Alamvusha, Marichi and Shuchika, Vidynt-parua and Tilot- 
tama and Amvika, Lakshmana, Kshema, Devi, Rambba, 
Manorama, Ashita, Suvahu, Supria, Suvapii, Pundarika, Su- 
gandha, Surasa, Pramathini, Kamya, and Sharadhvati, all 
danced there together. And Menaka, Saha-janya, Karnika, 
Punjika-sthala, Ritu-sthala, Ghritachi, Viswachi, Purva-chiti, 
the celebrated Umlocha, Pramlocha the tenth, and Urvashi 
the eleventh, — these large-eyed dancing-girls of heaven came 
there and sang in chorus. And Dhata and Aryama and Mitra 
and Varuna and Angsha, and Vaga, and Indra, Vivaswan, 
Pusha, Tashta, and Parjanya or Vishnu, — these twelve Adityas, 
and the Pavakas came there to glorify Pandu's son. And, 
O king, Mirga-vyada, Sarpa, the celebrated Niriti, Ajaika-pada, 
Ahi-vradhna, Pinaki, Dahana, Iswara, Kapali, Sthanu, and the 
illustrious Bhagavana, — these eleven Rudras also came there. 
And the twin Aswinas, the eight Vasus, the mighty Marutaa, 
the VJswa-devas, and the Sadhyas, also came there. And 
Karkotaka, Vasuki, Kachchapa, Kunda, and the great Naga 
Takshaka, — these mighty and wrathful snakes possessed, of 
high ascetic merit, also came there. And Tarkshya, Arishta- 
nemi, Garuda, Asita-dhaja, — these and many other Nagas 
came there. And Aruna and Arnni and other sous of Vinata 
also came there. It was only the great Risliis crowned with 
ascetic success and not others that saw thofie celestials and 
other beings seated on their rars or waiting on the mountain 
peaks. Those best oi Munis beholding that wonderful sight) 


became amazed, and their love and affection for the childreti 
of Paudu were in consequence enhanced. 

" The celebrated Pandu, tempted by the desire of having 
more cliildren, wished to speak again unto his wedded wife 
(for invoking some other god). But Kunti addressed him, say- 
ing, ' The wise do not sanction a fourth delivery even in a 
season of distress. The woman having intercourse with four 
different men is called a Shairini, while she having inter- 
course witli five becometh a harlot. Therefore, learned one, 
well acquainted as thou art with the scripture on this subject, 
why dost thou, beguiled by the desire of offspring, tell me so 
in seeming forsfetfulness of the ordinance ?' " 

Thus ends the hundred and twenty-third Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXIV. 
(Samhhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " After the birth of Kunti'a sons and 
after the hundred sons also of Dhrita-rashtra were born, the 
daughter of the king of Madra privately addressed Pandu, 
saying, 'O thou slayer of all foes, I have no complaint even 
if thou art unpropitious to me ! I have, sinless one, also 
no complaint that though by birth I am superior to Kunti 
yet I am inferior to her in station ! I do not grieve, O 
thou of the Kuru race, that Ghandhari hath obtained an 
hundred sons ! This, however, is my great grief that while 
I and Kunti are equal, I should be childless while it should 
so chance that thou shouldst have offspring by Kunti ! If 
the daughter of Kunti-bhoja should so provide that I should 
have offspring, she would then be really doing me a great 
favor and benefiting thee likewise. She ia my rival. There- 
fore am I ashamed of soliciting any favor of her. If thou art, 
O king, be propitiously inclined to me, then ask thou her to 
grant my desire !' 

" Hearing her, Pandu replied, 'O Madri, I do revolve this 
matter often in my own mind. But I had hitherto hesitated 
to tell thee anything, not knowing how you would receive 


it. Now that I know what your wishes are, I shall cer- 
tainly strive after that end. I think that asked by me she will 
not refuse.' " 

Vaisarapayana continued, " After this, Pandu addressed 
Kund in private, saying, 'O Kiinti, grant me some more 
offspring for the expansion of my race, and benefit thou the 
world ! O blessed one, provide tiiou that I myself, my ances- 
tors, and thine also, may always liave offered to us the funeral 
cake ! O, do what is beneficial to me, and grant me and the 
•world what, indeed, is tlie best of benefits ! O, do what, 
indeed, may he difficult for thee, moved by the desire of 
achieving undying fame ! Behold, Indra, even though he 
Iiath obtained the sovereignty of the celestials, doth yet, for 
fame alone, perform sacrifices ! handsome one, Brahmanas, 
well acquainted with the Vedas, and having achieved high 
ascetic merit, do yet, for fame alone, approach their spiritual 
masters with reverence ! So also all royal sages and Brahmana3 
possessed of ascetic wealth have achieved, for fame only, the 
most difficult of ascetic feats ! Therefore, O thou blameless 
one, rescue thou this Madri as by a raft (by granting her the 
means of obtaining offspring,) and achieve thou imperishable 
fame by making her a mother of children !' 

" Thus addressed by her lord, Kuuti readily yielded, and 
said unto Madri, 'Think thou, Avithout loss of time, of some 
celestial, and thou shalt certainly obtain from him a child 
like unto him.' Reflecting for a few moments, Madri then 
thought of the twin Aswinas. Those celestials coming unto 
her with speed begat upon her two sons that were twins named 
Nakula and Sahadeva, unrivalled on earth for personal beauty. 
And as soon as they were born, an incorporeal voice said, 
'These twins in energy and beauty shall transcend even the 
twin Aswinas themselves.' Indeed, possessed of great energy 
and wealth of beauty they illumined the whole region. 

" O king, after all the children were born, the Rishis 
dwelling on the mountain of hundred peaks, uttering blessings 
on them and affectionately performing the first rites of birth, 
bestowed appellations on tliem. The eldest of Kunti's child- 
ren was called Yudhish-thira, the second Bhima-sena, and the 


third Arjuna. And of Madri's sons, the first-born of the twins 
was called Nakula, and the next Sahadeva. And those best of 
the Kurus, born at intervals of one year after one another, 
looked like an embodied period of five years. And king 
Pandu beholding his children of celestial beauty and endued 
with super-abundaut energy, great strength and prowess, and 
largeness of soul, rejoiced exceedingl}'. And tiie children 
became great favourites of the Rishia, as also of their wives-, 
dwelling on the mountain of hundred peaks. 

" Sometime after Pandu again requested Kunti on belialf 
of Madri. Addressed, O king, by her lord in private, Kunti 
replied, 'Having given her the formula of invocation only 
once, she hath, O king, managed to obtain two sons. Have 
I not been thus deceived by her ? I fear, king, that she 
will soon surpass me in the number of her children ! Thi9, 
indeed, is the way of all wicked women ! Fool that I was I 
did not know that by invoking twin gods I could obtain at one 
birth twin children, I beseech thee, king, do not command 
me any further ! Let this be the boon granted to me ! ' 

" Thus, king, were born unto Panda five sons begotten 
by the celestials, endued with great strength and who all 
lived to achieve great fame and expand the Kuru race. Each 
bearing every auspicious mark on his person, handsome like 
Soma, proud as the lion, well-skilled in the use of the bow, 
and of leonine tread, breast, heart, eyes, neck, and prowess, 
those foremost of men, resembling the celestials themselves 
in might, began to grow up. And beholding them and their 
virtues expandiug with years, the great Rishis dwelling on 
that sacred mountain capt with snow were filled with wonder. 
And the five Paudavas and the hundred sons of Dhrita-rashtra — 
expanders of the Kuru race — grew up rapidly like an assemblage 
of lotuses in a lake." 

Thus euds the hundred and twenty-fourth Section in the 
Sambbava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXV. 

(Samhhava Parva continued,) 

Vaisampayana said, " Beholding his five handsome sons 
growing up before him in that o;reat forest on the charming 
mountain slope, Paudu felt the lost might of his arms once 
more revive. One day in the season of spring which maddena 
every creature, the king, accompained by his wife (Madri), 
began to rove in the woods where every tree had put forth 
new blossoms. He beheld all around Palashas and Tilakas 
and Mangoes and Channpahas and Asohas and Kesharas and 
Atimuhtas and Kuriivahas Avith swarms of maddened bees 
sweetly humming about. And there were flowers of blossom- 
ing Parijatas with the Kohila pouring forth its melodies from 
under every twig and echoing with the sweet hum of the 
black bee. And he beheld also various other kinds of trees bent 
down with the weight of their flowers and fruits. And there 
■were also many fine pieces of water overgrown with hundreds 
ef fragrant lotuses. Beholding all this, Pandu felt the soft 
influence of desire. Roving like a celestial with a light heart 
amid such scenery, Pandu was alone with his wife Madri in 
semi-transparent attire. And beholding the jouthful Madri thus 
attired, the king's desires flamed up like a forest-conflagration. 
And ill able to suppress his desires thus kindled at the sight 
of his wife of eyes like lotus leaves, he was completely over- 
powered by them. The king then seized her against her will ; 
but Madri, trembling in fear, resisted him to the best of her 
might. Consumed by his desires, he forgot everything about 
his misfortune. And, thou of the Kuru race, unrestrained 
by the fear of (the Rishi's) curse and impelled by fate, the 
monarch, overpowered by his passions, forcibly sought the 
embraces of Madri, as if to put an end to his own life. His 
reason, thus beguiled by the great destroyer himself, after 
intoxicating his senses, was itself lost with his life, ^nd the 
Kuru king Pandu, of virtuous soul, thus succumbed to the 
inevitable influence of time, while united in intercourse with 
his wife. 


" Then Madri, clasping the body of her senseless lord, 
bef au to weep aloud. Then Kiinti with her sons and the twins 
of Madri, hearing those cries of grief, came to the spot where 
the kino; lay in that state. Then, O king, Madri addressiag 
Kunti in a piteous voice, said, 'Come hither alone, O Kunti, 
and let the children stay there !' Hearing these words, Kunti, 
bidding the children stay, ran with speed, exclaiming, 'Woe 
is rae!' And beholding both Pandu and Madri lying pros- 
trate on the ground, she wept in grief and affliction, saying, 
'Of passions under complete control, this hero, O Madri, had 
all along been watched by me with care ! How did he then, 
forgetting the Rishi's curse, approach thee with enkindled 
desire ? O Madri, this foremost of men should have been pro- 
tected by thee ! Why didst thou then tempt him into soli- 
tude ? Always melancholy at the thought of the Rishi's 
curse, how came he to be merry with thee in solitude ? O 
princess of Valhika, more fortunate than myself, thou art 
really to be envied, for thou hast seen the face of our lord 
expand with gladness and joy !' 

" Madri then replied, saying, 'Revered sister, with tears 
in my eyes, I resisted the king, but he could not control him- 
self, as if bent on making the Rishi's curse true !' 

" Kunti then said, 'I am the elder of his wedded wives : 
the chief religious merit must be mine. Therefore, O Madri, 
prevent me not from achieving that which must be achieved, 
I must follow our lord to th6 region of the dead ! Rise up, 
O Madri, and yield me his body. Rear thou these children.' 
Madri replied, saying, 'I do clasp our lord yet, and have not 
allowed him to depart ; therefore shall I follow him. My 
appetite hath not been appeased. Thou art my elder sister. 
O, let me have thy sanction ! This foremost of the Bharata 
princes had approached rae desiring to have intercourse. 
His appetite unsatiated, shall I not follow him to the region 
of Yama to gratify him ? O revered one, if I survive thee, it 
is certain I shall not be able to rear thy children as if they were 
mine. Shall not sin touch me on that account ? But thou, 
Kunti, shalt be able to bring up my sons as if they were thine ! 
The king in seeking me wishfully hath gone to the region of 


spirits ; therefore should my body be burnt with his. rever- 
ed sister, refuse not thy sanction to this which is agreeable to 
me ! Thou wilt certainly bring up the children carefully. 
That, indeed, would be very agreeable to me. I have no other 
direction to give.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Having said this, the daughter 
of the king of Madra — the wedded wife of Pandu — ascended 
the funeral pyre of her lord — that bull among men." 

Thus ends the hundred and twenty fifth Section ia the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXVI. 
{ Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " The god-like Rishis wise in counsels, 
beholding the death of Panda, consulted with each other. 
And they said, 'The virtuous and renowned king Pandu, 
abandoning both sovereignty and kingdom, had come hither 
for practising ascetic austerities and resigned himself to the 
ascetics dwelling on this mountain. He hath hence ascended 
to heaven leaving his wife and infant sons as a trust in our 
hands. Our duty now is to repair to his kingdom with these 
his offspring, his body, and his wife ! " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Then those god-like Rishis of 
magnanimous hearts and crowned with ascetic success, summon- 
ing one another, resolved to go to Hastinapore with Pandu's 
children in the van, desiring to place them in the hands of 
Bhisma and Dhrita-rashtra. The ascetics set out that very 
moment, taking with them those children and Kunti and the 
two dead bodies. And though uuused to toil all her life, the 
affectionate Kunti now regarded as very short the really long 
journey she had to perform. Arrived at Kuru-jangala within 
a short time, the illustrious Kunti presented herself at the 
principal gate. The ascetics then charged the porters to 
inform the king of their arrival. The men carried the mess- 
age within a trice to the court. And the citizens of Hastina- 
pore, hearing of the arrival of thousands of Charanas and 
Munis, were filled with wonder. And it was soon after sun- 



rise that they began to come out in numbers with their wives 
and children to behold those ascetics. Seated on all kinds 
of cars and conveyances by thousands, vast numbers of Ksha- 
triyas with their wives and Brahmanas accom}>anied by Brah- 
manis came out. And the concourse of Vaisyas and Sudras too 
was as large on the occasion. The vast assemblage was as peace- 
ful as ever, for every heart then Avas inclined to piety. And 
there also came out Bhisma the son of Shantanu, and Soma- 
datta of Valhika, and the royal sage (Dhrita-rashtra) endued 
with the vision of knowledge, and Vidura himself, and the 
venerable Satyavati, and the illustrious princess of Koshala, 
and Gandhari accompanied by the other ladies of the royal 
household. And the hundred sons of Dhrita-rashtra, decked 
in various ornaments, also came out. 

" The Kauravas then, accompanied by their Purohitas, 
saluting the Rishis by lowering their heads, took their seats 
before them. The citizens also, saluting the ascetics and 
bowing down to them with heads touching the ground, took 
their seats there. Then Bhisma, seeing that vast concourse 
perfectly still all arround, duly worshiiDped, O king, those 
ascetics by offering them water to wash their feet and the 
customary Arcfhya. And having done this, he spoke to them 
about the sovereignty and the kingdom. Then the oldest of 
the ascetics, with matted locks on head and loins encased in 
animal skin, stood up, and with the concurrence of the other 
Rishis spoke as follows : — 'Know ye all that that possessor of 
the sovereignty of the Kurus who was called king Pandu, had, 
after abandoning the pleasures of the world, repaired hence 
to dwell on the mountain of hundred peaks. He had adopted 
the Brahmacharya mode of life, but for some inscrutable purpose 
the gods have in view, this his eldest son — Yudhish-thira was 
born there, begotten by Dharma himself. Then that illustri- 
ous king obtained from Vayu this other son — the foremost of 
all mighty men — called Bhima. This other son, begotten upon 
Kunti by Indra, is Dhananjaya whose achievements will 
humble all bowmen in the world. Look here again at these 
tigers among men, mighty in the use of the bow, — the twin 
children begotten upon Mudri by the twiu Aswiaas ! Leading 


in righteousness the life of a Vanaprastha in the woods, the 
illustrious Pvandu hath thus revived the almost extinct line of 
his grand-father. The birth, growth, and Vedic studies of 
these children of Pandu, will, no doubt, give ye great pleasure ! 
Steadily adhering to the path of the virtuous and the wise, 
and leaving behind him these children, Pandu hath departed 
hence, seventeen days ago. His wife Madri, beholding him 
placed on the funeral pyre and about to be consumed, herself 
ascended the same pyre, and sacrificing her life thus, hath 
gone with her lord to the region reserved for chaste wives. 
Accomplish now whatever rites should be performed for their 
benefit. These are (the unburnt portions of ) their bodies. Here 
also are their children — these oppressors of all foes — with their 
mother ! Let these be now received with due honors. And, 
after completion of the first rites in honor of the dead, let 
the virtuous Pandu, who had all along been the supporter 
of the dignity of the Kurus, have the first annual sradim 
(sapincUkarana) performed with a view to install him formally 
among the pitris.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The ascetics with the Guliya- 
has, having said this unto the Kurus, instantly disappeared 
in the very sight of the people. And beholding the Rishis 
and the Sidhyas thus vanish in their sight, like vapoury forma 
appearing and disappearing in the skies, the citizens, filled 
with wonder, returned to their homes." 

Thus ends the hundred and twenty sixth Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXVIL 

( Saynbhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana continued, " Dhrita-rashtra then said, 'O 
Vidura, celebrate the funeral ceremonies of that lion among 
kings — Pandu, and of Madri also in a right royal style ! For 
the good of their eouls, distribute cattle, cloths, gems, and 
various kinds of wealth, every one having as much as ha 
asketh for, Make arrangements also for Kunti's performing 


the last rites of Madri in such 'style as pleaseth her. And 
let Madri's body be so carefully wrapped up that neither the 
Sun nor Vayu may behold it ! Lament not for the sinless 
Pandu, — he was a worthy king and hath left behind five heroic 
sons equal unto the celestials themselves !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Then Vidura, O Bharata, say- 
ing, 'So be it,' in consultation with Bhisina, fixed upon a sacred 
spot for the funeral rites of Pandu. The family priests 
went out of the city without loss of time, carrying with them 
the lit up sacred fire that was fed with clarified butter and 
rendered fragrant therewith. Then friends, relatives, and 
adherents, wrapping it up with cloth, decked the body of 
the monarch with the flowers of the season and sprinkled 
various excellent perfumes over it. And they also decked the 
hearse itself with garlands and rich hangings. Then placing 
the covered body of the king with that of his queen on 
that excellent bier decked out so brightly, they caused it to 
be carried on human shoulders. With the white umbrella (of 
state) held over the hearse, and waving Chamaras and the 
sounds of various musical instruments, the whole scene looked 
bright and grand. Hundreds of people began to distribute 
gems among the crowd on the occasion of the funeral rites of 
the king. At length some beautiful robes, and white umbrel- 
las, and larger Chamaras, were brought for the great dead. 
The priests, clad in white, walked in the van of the proccesion, 
pouring libations of clarified butter on the sacred fire blaz- 
ing in an ornamented vessel. And Brahmanas, and Ksha- 
triyas, and Vaisyas, and Sudras in thousands followed the 
deceased king, loudly Availing in these accents : — ' prince, 
where dost thou go, leaving us behind, and making us for- 
lorn and wretched for ever ! ' And Bhisma, and Vidura, 
and the Pandavas also all wept aloud. At last they came to 
a romantic wood on the bank of the Ganga. There they de- 
posited down the car on which the truthful and lion-hearted 
prince and his spouse lay. Then they brought water in many 
golden vessels, washed the body of the prince before besmeared 
with several kinds of fragrant paste, and smeared it anew 
with itandal paste, They then dressed it in a white dress made 


of national fabrics. And with this new suit on, the king 
seemed as if he was living and only sleeping on a costly bed. 

" When the other funeral ceremonies had been finished in 

consonance with the directions of the priests, the Kauravaa 

set fire to the dead bodies of the king and queen, — bringing 

lotuses, sandal paste, and other fragrant substances to the 


*' Then seeing the bodies aflame, Kausalya burst out, '0, my 
son, my son !' — and fell down sensless on the ground. And see- 
ing her down, the loyal citizens began to wail from grief. And 
the birds of the air and the beasts of the field were touched 
by the lamentations of Kunti. And Bhisma, son of Shantanu, 
and the wise Vidura, and others also became disconsolate. 

" Thus weeping, Bhisma, Vidurd, Dhrita-rashtra, the Pan- 
davas, and the ladies performed the watery ceremony of the 
king. And when all this was over, the magnates with their 
servants and subjects fell to consoling the bereaved sons of 
Pandu. And the Pandavas with their friends began to sleep ou 
the ground. Seeing this, the Brahmanas and other citizens 
also renounced their beds. Young and old — all the citizens 
grieved on account of the sons of king Pandu, and passed their 
days in mourning with the weeping Pandavas." 

Thus ends the hundred and twenty-seventh Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXVIII. 
( Samhhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " Then Bhisma and Kunti with their 
friends celebrated the sradha of the deceased monarch, and 
offered the pinda. And they feasted the Kauravas and thou- 
sands of Brahmanas, to whom they also gave gems and lands. 
Then the citizens returned to the city with the sons of king 
Pandu, now that they had been cleansed from the impurity 
incident to the demise of their father. All then fell to 
weeping for the departed king, — it seemed as if they had lost 
one of their own kin. 

" When the sradha had been celebrated in the manner men- 


tioned atove, the venerable Vyasa, seeing all the suhjects 
sunk in grief, said one day to his mother S.atyavati ' Mother, 
our days of happiness have gone by and days of calamity have 
succeeded. Sin beginneth to increase day by day. The world 
hatli got okl. The empire of the Kauravag will no longer 
endure, because of wrong and oppression. Go thou then into 
the forest, and devote thyself to contemplation through the 
Yoga 1 Henceforth society will be filled with illusion and 
wrong. Good works will cease. Do not witness the annihila- 
tion of thy race, in this old age ! 

" And acquiescing in the words of Vyasa, SatyavatI entered 
the inner apartments, and addressed her daughter-in-law, say- 
ing, ' O Ambika ! I hear that in cDnsequence of the deeds of 
your grand-sons, this Bharata dynasty and their subjects will 
perish ! If thou permit, I would go to the forest with Kausalya, 
so grieved at the loss of her son.' king, saying this, the 
qtieen, taking the permission of Bhisma also, went to the forest.** 
And arriving there with her two daughters-in-law, she became 
engaged in profound contemplation, and in good time leaving 
her bo'Iy ascended to heaven." 

Vaisampayana continued, " Then the sons of king Pandit, 
having gone through all the purifying rites prescribed in the 
Vedas, began to grow up in princely style in the home of their 
father. Whenever they were engaged in play with the sons of 
Dhrita-rashtra, their superiority of strength was marked. Alike 
in speed and in securing objects aimed at, alike in consuming 
articles of food and in throwing up dust, Bhim-sena beat all 
the sons of Dhrita-rashtra. That son of the wind-god pulled 
them by the hair and made them fight with one anather, 
laughing all the while. They could not have defeated him had 
their number been one hundred and one. The second Pandava 
used to take hold of them by the hair, and throwing them on 
the ground, to rub their faces over the earth. By this, some 
had their knees broken, some their legs, some their heads. 
Th,at strong youth sometimes holding ten of them drowned 
them in water ; and did not release them till they were well 
nigh dead. When the sons of Dhrita-rashtra got up to the 
boughs of a tree for plucking fruits, Bhima used to shake 


the tree, "by striking it with his foot, so that down came the 
fruits and the fruit-pl ackers at the same time. In fact those 
princes were no match for Bhiniaia pugilistic encounters, in 
speed, or in skill, Bhima used to make a childish display of 
his strength by thus tormenting them. 

"And seeing these wonderful exhibitions of the might of 
Bhima, Duryodhana, the powerful eldest son of Dhrita-rashtra, 
began to conceive hostility towards him. And the wicked and 
unrighteous Duryodhana, through ignorance and ambition, 
prepared himself for an act of sin. He thought, 'There is 
no other individual who can compare with Bhima tiie second 
son of Pandu in point of prowess. I shall have to destroy 
him by artifice. Singl}^, Bhima dares us all one hundred to 
the combat. Therefore, when he shall sleep in the garden, 
I shall throw him into the current of the Gangn, Afterwards, 
confining his eldest brother Yudish-thira and his younger 
Arjuna, I shall reign sole king without molestation.' Deter- 
mined thus, the wicked Duryodhana was ever on the Avatch 
to find out the failings of Bhima. And, son of Bharata, at 
length at a beautiful place called Praman-koti on the banks of 
the Ganga, he built a palace decorated with hangino'S of 
broadcloth and other, rich stuffs. And he built thi.^ palace for 
sporting in the water there, and filled it with all kinds of 
entertaining things, and choice viands. Gay flags waved on the 
top ef this mansion. The name of the house was Udahahvirana. 
Skilful cooks prepared various kinds of viands. When all was 
ready, the officers gave intimation to Duryodhana. Tiien the 
evil-minded prince said to the Pandavas, ' Let us all go to 
the banks of the Ganga graced with trees and crowned with 
flowers, and sport there in the waters.' And on Yudliish-thira 
agreeing to this, the sons of Dhrita-rashtra, taking the Pan- 
davas with them mounted huge elephants and a car resembling 
a city, and left the metropolis. 

" On arriving at the place, the princes dismissed their 
attendants, and surveying the beauty of the grove, entered 
the palace, like lions entering their dens. On euterino- 
they saw that the architects had handsomely plastered the 
walls and the ceilinga and that painters had painted them 


beautifally. The windows looked very graceful, and the arti- 
ficial fountains were splendid. At places, were tanks of pellucid 
water in which bloomed forests of lotuses. The banks were 
decked with various flowers whose fragrance filled the atmos- 
phere. The Kauravas and the Pandavas sat down and began 
to enjoy the things provided for them. They became engaged 
in play and began to exchange morsels of food with one 
another. In the meantime the evil Duryo-dhana had mixed 
halhvbta (a kind of powerful poison) with a quantity of food, 
with the object of making away Avith Bhima. That wicked 
youth (who had nectar in his tongue, and poison in his heart) 
rose at length, and in a friendly way fed Bhima largely 
with that poisoned food, and thinking himself lucky in hav- 
ing compassed his end was exceedingly glad at heart. Then 
the sous of Dhrita-rashtra and Pandu together became cheer- 
fully engaged iu sporting in the water. On their sports having 
been finished, they dressed themselves in white habiliments, 
and decked themselves with various ornaments. Fatigued with 
the play, they felt inclined in the evening to rest in the 
pleasure house belonging to the garden. Having made the 
other youths exercise in the waters, the powerful second 
Pandava was excessively fatigued. So that on rising from the 
water, he lay down on the ground. He was weary and under 
the influence of the poison. And the cool air served to spread 
the poison over all his frame, so that he lost his senses at 
once. Seeing this, Duryodhana bound him with chords of 
shrubs, and threw him into the water. The insensible son of 
Pandu sank down till he reached the Naga kingdom. The 
Nagas, furnished with fangs containing virulent venom, bib 
him by thousands. The vegetable poison, mingled in the blood 
of the son of the wind-god, was neutralised by the serpent- 
poison. The serpents had bitten all over his frame, except 
his chest, the skin of which was so tough that their fangs 
could not penetrate it. 

" On regaining his consciousness, the son of Kunti burst 
his bands and began to bury the snakes under the ground. A 
remnant fled for life, and going to their king Vasuki, repre- 
sented, ' king of snakes, a man sank under the water, 


bound in chords of shrubs. Probably he had drunk poison. 
For when lie fell amongst ns, he was insensible. But when we 
began bitinf^ him, he regained his senses, and bursting hia 
fetters, commenced lajdng at us. May it please your majegty 
to enquire who he is.' 

" Then Vasuki, in accordance with the prayer of tha 
inferior Nagas, went to the place and saw Bhim-sena. Of 
the serpents, there was one, named Aryaka. He was tha 
grand-father of the father of Kunti. The lord of serpents 
saw his relative and embraced him. Then, Vasuki, learning 
all, was pleased with Bhima, and said to Aryaka with satis- 
faction, ' How are we to please him ? Let him have monej 
and gems in profusion.' 

" On hearing the words of Vasuki, Aryaka said, ' O king 
of serpents, when your majesty is pleased with iiim, no need 
of wealth for him. Permit him to drink of your rasa-kundi} 
(nectar-vessels) and thus acquire immeasurable strength. 
There is the strength of one thousand ele[)hant3 io each one o£ 
those vessels. Let this prince drink as much as he can.* 

" The king of serpents gave iiis consent. And the serpents 
thereupon began auspicious rites. Then purifying himself care- 
fully, Bhim-sena sat facing the east, and began to drink tha 
nectar. At one breath, he quaffed off" a whole vessel, and in 
this manner drained off eight successive jars, till he was full, 
Atlength the serpents prepared an excellent bed for him, on 
which he lay down at ease. " 

Thus ends the hundred and twenty-eighth Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXIX. 

( Sdmhhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " Meanwhile after having thus sported 
there, the Kauravas and the Pandavas, without Bhima, set outj 
for Hastiuapore, some on horses, some on elephants, while 
others preferred cars and other conveyances. And on their 
way they said to one another, -'Perhaps, Bhima hath gone 



before us.' And the wicked Duryodhana was glad at heart to 
miss Bhima, and entered the city with his brothers in joy. 

" The virtuous Yudhish-thira, unacquainted with vice and 
wickedness himself, regarded others as honest as himself. The 
eldest son of Pritha, filled with fraternal love, going unto hia 
mother, said, after making obeisance to her, '0 mother, hath 
Bhima come ? O good mother, I don't find him here ? Where 
can he have gone ? We long sought for him everywhere iu 
the gardens and the beautiful woods ; but found him nowhere. 
At length, we thought that the heroic Bhima had come before 
us all. O illustrious dame, we come hither in great anxiety. 
Arrived here, where hath he gone ? Have you sent him any- 
where ? tell me, I am full of doubts respecting the mighty 
Bhima ! He had been asleep and hath not come. I conclude 
he is no more !' 

" Hearing these words of the highly intelligent Yudish- 
thira, Kunti shrieked ui alarm, and said, 'Dear son, I have nob 
seen Bhima. He did not come to me. O, return in haste 
and with your brothers seek for him !' 

" Having said this, in afiliiction to her eldest son, she sum- 
moned Vidura, and said, ' O illustrious Khatta, Bhima-sena 
•is missing! Where hath he gone ! The other brothers have 
all come back from the gardens, only Bhima of mighty arms 
doth not come home! Duryodhana liketh him not. The 
Kaurava is crooked and malicious and low-minded and im- 
prudent. He coveteth the throne openly. I am afraid lest he 
have in a fit of anger slain my darling ! This afflicteth me 
sorely, indeed, burnetii my heart 1' 

" Vidura replied, 'Blessed dame, say not so ! Protect thy 
other sons with care! If the wicked Duryodhana be accused, 
he may slay thy remaining sons. The great Muni hath said 
'that thy sons will all be long-lived. Therefore Bhima will 
surely return and gladden thy heart !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The wise Vidura having said 
this unto Kunti returned to his abode, while Kunti, iu great 
anxiety, continued to stay at home with her children. 

" Meanwhile, Bhima-sena awaked from that slumber on the 
eighth day, aud felt himself strong beyond measure iu cou- 


sequence of the nectar he had taken having been all digested. 
Seeing him awake, the Nagas began to console and cheer him, 
saying, '0 thou of miglity arms, the strength-giving liquoc 
thon hast drunk will give thee the might of ten thousand 
elephants ! No one now will be able to vanquish thee in fight ! 
O thou bull of the Kuru race, do thou bathe in this holy and 
auspicious water and return home. Thy brothers are disconso- 
late because of thee.' 

'^ Then Bhima purified himself with a bath in those waters, 
and decked in white robes and flowery garlands of the same 
hue, ate of the 25^^'<^^'^<^'^^''^<^'^ (rice and sugar pudding) offered 
to him by the Nagas. Then that oppressor of all foes, decked 
in celestial ornaments, received the adorations and blessings 
of the snakes, and saluting them in return, rose from the 
nether region. Bearing up the lotus-eyed Pandava from under 
the waters, the Nagas placed him in the self-same gardens 
■wherein he had been sporting, and vanished in his very sight. 

" The mighty Bhima-sena, arrived on the surface of the 
earth, ran with speed to his mother. And bowing down unto 
her and his eldest brother, and scenting the heads of his 
younger brothers, that oppressor of all foes was himself em- 
braced by his mother and every one of those bulls amono- 
men. Affectionate unto one another, they all repeatedly ex- 
claimed, 'What joy is ours today, O, what joy 1' 

" Then Bhima, endued with great strength and prowess, 
related to his brothers everything about the villany of Duryo- 
dhana, and the lucky and unlucky incidents that had befallen 
him in the world of the Serpents. Thereupon, Yudiiish-thira 
wisely said, 'Brother, do thou observe silence on this. Do not 
speak of tiiis to any one. From this day, protect ye all 
one another with care.' Thus cautioned by the righteous 
Yudhish-thira, they all, with Yudhish-thira himself, became 
very vigilant from that day. And inorder that no negligence 
might occur on the part of the sons of Kunti, Vidura continual- 
ly offered them sage advice. 

"Sometime after, Duryo-dhana again mixed in the food 
of Bhima a poison that was fresh, virulent, and very deadly. 
But Yuyutsu (Dhrita-rashtra's son by a Vysya wife), moved 


by Ins friendship for the Pandavas, informed them of this. 
Vrikodara, however, swallowed it without any hesitation, and 
digested it completely. And though virulent, the poison 
produced no change on Bhima. 

" And when that terrible poison intended for the destruc- 
tion of Bhima failed of effect, Duryo-dhana, Kama, and Sakuni, 
"without giving up their wicked designs, had recourse to nu- 
merous other contrivances for accomplishing the death of the 
Pandavas. And though every one of these contrivances Avas 
fully known to the Pandavas, 3^et in accordance with the 
advice of Vidura they suppressed their indignation. 

"Meanwhile, the king (Dhrita-rashtra) beholding the Kura 
princes passing their time in idleness and growing naughty, 
appointed Gautama as their preceptor and sent them unto him 
for instruction. Born among a clump of heath, Gautama was 
well-skilled in the Vedas, and it was from him (also called 
Kripa) that the Kuru princes began to learn the use of arms. " 
Thus ends the hundred and twenty-ninth Section in the 
Sambbava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXX. 
( Samhhava Parva continued. ) 

Janamejaya said, " Brahmana, it behoveth thee to re- 
late to me everything about the birth of Kripa ! How did 
he spring from a clump of heath ? And whence also obtained 
lie his weapons ? " 

Vaisampayana said, " king, the great sage Gotama had 
a son named Saradwau. This Saradwan was born with arrows 
(in hand). thou oppressor of all foes, the son of Gotama 
exhibited great aptitude for the study of the Dhaniir-veda 
(science of weapons), but none for the other Vedas. And 
Saradwan acquired all his weapons by those austerities by 
which Brahmanas in student life acquire the knowledge of the 
Vedas. And Gautama (the son of Gotama) by his aptitude 
for the science of weapons an:l by his austerities also made 
Indra himself greatly afraid of him. Then, O thou of the 
Kuru race, the chief of the gods summoned a celestial dam- 


gel named Jaiia-pacH and sent her unto Gautama, saying, 
*Do thy best to disturb the austerities of Gautama.' Repair- 
ing unto the charming asylum of Saradwan, the damsel began 
to tempt that ascetic equipped witli bow and arrows. Behold- 
ing that Apsara, of figure unrivalled on earth for beaut}^, 
alone in those woods and clad in a single piece of clolh, 
Saradwan's eyes expanded with delight. At sight of the 
damsel, his bow and arrow slipped from his hand and his frame 
shook all over with emotion ; but possessed of ascetic forti- 
tude and strength of soul, the sage mustered sufficent patience 
to bear up against the temptation. The suddenness, however, 
of his mental agitation, caused an unconscious emission of 
his vital fluid. Leaving his bow and arrows and deer-skin be- 
hind, he went away, flying from the Apsara. His vital fluid, 
however, having fallen upon a clump of heath, was divided into 
two parts, Avhence sprang two children that were twins. 

" And it happened that a soldier in attteudance upon king 
Shantanu while the monarcli was out ahuuting in the woods, 
came upon the twins. And seeing the bow and arrows and deer- 
skins on the ground, he thought they might be the offspring 
of some Brahmana proficient in the science of arms. Deciding 
thus, he took up the children along with the bow and arrows, 
and showed what lie found to the king. Beholding them the 
king was moved with pity, and saying, 'Let these become my 
children,' brought them to his palace. Then that first of men, 
Shantanu the son of Pratipa, having brouifht Gautama's 
twins into his house, performed in respect of them the usual 
rites of religion. And he began to bring them up and called 
them Kripa and Kripl, in allusion to the fact that he 
brought them up from motives of pity {KriiJo). The son of 
Gautama having left his former asylum continued his study of 
the science of arms in right earnest. By his spiritual insight 
he learnt that his son and daughter were in the palace of Shan- 
tanu. He thereupon went to the monarch and represented 
everything about his lineage. He then taught Kripa the four 
branches of the science of arms, and various other branches of 
knowledge, including all their mysteries and recondite details. 
In a short time Kripa became au eminent professor of the 

382 mahabharata; 

science (of arms). And the hundred sons of Dlirita-rashtra, 
and the Pandavas along with the Yadavas, and the Vrishnis, 
and many other princes from various lands, began to receive 
lessons from him in that science. " 

So ends the hundred and thirtieth Section m the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXXI. 

(Samhhava Parvd continued.) 

Vaisnmpayana said, " Desirous of giving his grand-sons 
a superior education, Bhisraa was on the look-out for a teacher 
endued with energy and well-skilled in the science of arms. 
Deciding, O thou foremost of the Bharatas, that none who 
was not possessed of great intelligence, none who was not 
illustrious or a perfect master of the science of arms, none 
who was not of god-like might, should be the instructor of 
the Kuru (princes), the son of Ganga, O thou tiger among 
men, placed the Pandavas and the Kauravas under the tuition 
of Bharadwaja's son, the intelligent Drona skilled in all the 
Vedas. Pleased with the reception given him by the great 
Bhisma, that foremost of all men skilled in arms — the'illustrious 
Drona of world-wide fame — accepted the princes as his pupils. 
And Drona taught them the science of arms in all its branches. 
And, O monarch, both the Kauravas and the Pandavas endued 
with immeasurable strength, in a short time became proficient 
in the use of all kinds of arms. " 

Janamejaya asked, " Brahinana, how was Drona born ? 
How and whence did he acquire his arras ? How and why 
came he unto the Kurus ? Whose son also was he endued 
with such energy ? Again, how was born his son Ashwa- 
thama the foremost of all skilled in arras ? I wish to hear 
all this ! Please recite them in detail. " 

Vaisampayana said, "There dwelt at the source of the Gan- 
ges, a great sage named Bharadwaja, ceaselessly observing 
the most rigid vows. One day, of old, intending to celebrate 
the AgniJiotra sacrifice, he went along with many great Kishis 
to the Ganges to perform his ablutions, Arrived at the bank 

ADl PARVA, 383 

of the stream, he saw Ghritachi herself — that Apsara endued 
with youth and beauty, who had gone there a little before. 
With an expression of pride in her countenance, mixed with 
a voluptuous langour of attitude, the damsel rose from the 
water after her ablutions were over. And as she wa? gently 
treading on the bank, her attire which was loose was disordered. 
Seeing her attire disordered, the sage was smitten with burn- 
ing desire. The next moment his vital fluid came out, in con- 
sequence of the violence of his emotion. The Rishi imme- 
tliately held it in a vessel called a clrona. Then, king, Drona 
sprang from the fluid thus preserved in that vessel, by the wise 
Bharadwaja ! And the child thus born studied all the Yedaa 
and Vedangas. Before now Bharadwaja of great prowess and 
the foremost also of those possessing a knowledge of arms, 
had communicated to the illustrious Agnivesha a knowledge 
of the weapon called Agneya. O thou foremost of the Bha- 
rata race, the Rishi (Agnivesha) sprung from fire now commu- 
nicated the knowledge of that great weapon to Drona the son 
of his preceptor. 

*' There was a king named Prlshata who was a great friend 
of Bharadwaja. And about this time, Prishata had a son 
born unto him, named Drupada. And that bull among Ksha- 
triyas — Drupada the son of Prishata — used every day to come 
to the hermitage of Bharadwaja to play with Drona, and study 
in his company, monarch, when Prishata was dead, thia 
Drupada of mighty arms became the king of the northern 
Panchalas. About this time, the illustrious Bharadwaja also 
ascended to heaven. Drona continuing to reside in his father's 
hermitage devoted himself to ascetic austerities. And having 
become well-versed in the Vedas and Vedangas, and having 
burnt also all his sins by his asceticism, the celebrated Drona, 
obedient to the injunctions of his father and moved by the 
desire of offspring, married Kripi — the daughter of Shara- 
dwan. And the daughter of Gautama, ever engaged in vir- 
tuous acts and the Agni-hotra and the austerest of penances, 
obtained a son named Ashwathama. And as soon as Aswa- 
thama was born, he neighed like the (celestial) steed Ucchai- 
srava, And hearing that cry, an invisible being ia the 


skies saul, 'The voice of this child, hath, like the neighing 
of a horse, been audible all around. The child shall, there- 
fore, be known by the name of Asivathama (the horse-voiced).' 
And the son of Bharadwaja (Drona) was exceedingly glad at 
having obtained that child. And continuing to reside in that 
hermitage he devoted himself to the study of the science of 

" kins:, it was about this time that Drona heard that the 
illustrious Erahraana Jamadagnya, the slayer of all foes, the 
foremost of all wielders of weapons versed in all kinds of 
knowledge, had expressed his desire of distributing in gifts all 
his wealth amontr Brahmanas. Having heard of Rama's know- 
ledge of arms and of his celestial Aveapons also, Drona set his 
heart upon them as also upon the knowledge of morality that 
Rama possessed. Then Drona of mighty arms and endued 
with high ascetic virtues, accompanied by disciples who were 
all devoted to vows and ascetic austerities, set out for the 
Mahendra mountains. Arrived at Mahendra, the son of Bhara- 
dwaja possessed of high ascetic merit, beheld the son of Bhrigu, 
that exterminator of all foes endued with great patience and 
with mind under complete control. Then, approaching with 
his disciples that scion of the Bhrigu race, Drona giving him 
his name told him of his birth in the line of Angira. And 
touching the ground with his head, he worshipped Rama's feet. 
And beholding the illustrious son of Jamadagni intent upon 
retiring into the woods after having given away all his wealth, 
Drona said, ' Know me to have sprung from Bharadwaja, bub 
not in any woman's womb ! I am a Brahmana of high birth, 
Drona by name, come to thee with the desire of obtaining 
thy wealth !' 

" On hearing him, that illustrious grinder of the Kshatriya 
race replied, 'Thou art welcome, O best of Dwijas ! Toll me 
what thou desirest.' Thus addressed by Rama, the son of 
Bharadawja replied unto that foremost of all smiters desirous 
of giving away the whole of his wealth, '0 thou of multifarious 
vows, I am a candidate for thj' eternal wealth.' ' thou of 
ascetic wealth,' returned Rama, ' My gold and whatever other 
wealth I had, have all been given away unto Brahmanas, 

AD! PARVA. 385 

This earth also to the verge of the sen, deched with towng 
and cities, as with a garland of flowers, I have also g-iven 
unto Kasyapa. I have now my body alone and my various 
valuable weapons left. I am prepared to give either my body 
or my weapons. Say, which thou wouldst have, I would give 
it thee. Say quickly !' 

" Drona answered, '0 son of Bhrigu, it behoveth thee to 
give me all thy weapons together with the mysteries of hurling 
and recallin«r them!' 

" Saying, 'So be it,' the son of Bhrigu gave away all his 
weapons unto Droua, — indeed, the whole science of arms with 
its rules and mysteries. Accepting them all, and thinking 
himself amply rewarded, that best of Brahmanas then, glad 
at heart, set out, for (the city of ) his friend Drupada. " 

Thus ends the hundred and thirty first Section iu the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva, 

Section CXXXIL 

(Sambhava Parva contlnwed, ) 

Vaisampayana said, " Then, king, the mighty son of 
Bharadwaju presented Idmself before Drupada, and address- 
ing that monarch, said, ' Know me for thy friend !' Thus 
addressed by his friend, the son of Bharadwaja with a joyous 
heart, the lord of Panchahi was ill able to bear that speech. 
The king, intoxicated with the pride of wealtli, contracted 
his brows in wrath, and with reddened eyes spake these words 
unto Droua, '0 Brahmana, thy intelligence is scarcely of a 
liigh order, inasmuch as tliou sayest unto me, all on a sudden, 
that thou art my friend ! O thou of dull apprehension, 
great kings can never be friends with such luckless and 
indigent wights as thou. It is true there was friendship 
between thee and me before, for we were then both equally 
circumstanced. But Time that impaireth everything in its 
course, imjjaireth friendship also. In this world, friendship 
never endureth for ever in any heart. Time weareth it 
off and anger destroyeth it too. Do thou not stick therefore 
to that worn-off friendship. Think not of it any longer. The 



friendship I had with thee, O thou first of Brahmanas, was 
for a particular purpose. Friendship can never subsist be- 
tween a poor man and a rich man^ between a man of letters 
•and an unlettered hind, between a hero and a coward. Why 
dost thou therefore desire the continuance of our former friend- 
ship ? There may be friendship or hostility between persons 
-equally situated as to wealth or might. The indigent and 
the affluent can neither be friends nor quarrel with each other. 
One of impure birth can never be a friend to one of pure 
birth; one who is not a charioteer can never be a friend to one 
who is SD ; and one who is not a king can never have a king 
for his friend. Therefore, why dost thou desire the continuance 
of our former friendship ?' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "Thus addressed by Drupada, 
•the mighty son of Bharadwaja became filled with wrath, and 
reflecting for a moment, made up his mind as to his course of 
action. Seeing the insolence of the Panchala king, he wished 
to check it effectually. Hastily leaving the Panchnla capital, 
Drona bent his steps towards the capital of the Kurus, named 
after the elephant. " 

Thus ends the hundred and thirty-second Section io the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXXIII. 
( Samhhnva Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " Arrived at Hastinapore, that best of 
Brahmanas — the son of Bharadwaja — continued to live privately 
in the house of Gautama (Kripa). His mighty son (Aswa- 
thama) at intervals of Kripa's teaching, used to give the sons 
of Kunti lessons in the us« of arms. But as yet; none knew 
of Aswathama's prowess. 

" Drona had thus lived privately for sometime in the house 
of Kripa, when one day the heroic princes, all in a company, 
came out of Hastinapore. And coming out of the city, they 
began to play with a ball and roam about in gladness of heart. 
And it so happened that the ball with which they had been 
playing fell into a well And thereupon the princes strove their 


Best to recover it from the well. But all the efforts the 
princes made to recover it proved futile. And they began to 
eye one another bashfully, and not knowing how to recover it, 
their anxiety was great. Just at this time they beheld a 
Brahmana near enough unto them, of darkish hue, decrepit 
and lean, sanctified by the performance of the Agni-hotra, 
and who had finished his daily rites of warship. And behold- 
ing that illustrious Brahmana, the princes who had despaired 
of success surrounded him immediately. Drona ( for that 
Brahmana was no other) seeing the princes unsuccessful, and 
conscious of his own skill, smiled a little, and addressing them 
said, ' Shame on your Kshatriya might, and shame also on 
your skill in arms ! Ye have been born in the race of Bharata I 
How is it that ye can not recover the ball (from the bottom 
of this well) ? If ye promise me a dinner to-day, I will, with 
these blades of grass, bring up not only the ball ye have lost 
but this ring also that I now throw down.' Thus saying', 
Drona — that oppressor of all foes — taking off his ring threw 
it down into that dry well. Then Yudhish-tlura, the son of 
Kunti, addressing Drona, said, ' Brahmana, (thou askest for 
a trifle !) Do thou with Kripa's permission, obtain of us 
that which would last thee for life !' Thus addressed, Drona 
with smiles replied unto the Bharata princes, saying, 'This 
handful of long grass I would invest, by my mantras, with 
the virtue of weapons. Behold, these '^blades possess virtues 
that other weapons have not ! I will, with one of these 
blades, pierce the ball, and then pierce that blade with ano- 
ther, and that another with a third, and thus shall I, by a 
chain, bring up the ball' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Then Drona did exactly what 
he had said. And the princes were all amsized and their eyes 
expanded with delight. And regarding what they had wit- 
nessed to be very extraordinai-y, they said, ' O learned Brah- 
mana, do thou brinor up the ring also without loss of time.' 

" Then the illustrious Drona, taking a bow with an arrow, 
pierced the ring with that arrow and brought up the ring 
at once. And taking the ring thus brought up from the well, 
still pierced with his arrow, he coolly gave it to the astonished 


princes. Then the latter, seeing the ring thus recovered, said, 
' We bow to thee, O Brahmana ! None else owueth such 
skill. "We long to know who thou art and whose son. Whats 
also can we do for thee ?' 

" Thus addressed, Drona replied unto the princes, saying, 
* Do ye repair unto Bhisma and describe to him my likeness 
and skill. That mighty one will recognize me.' The princes 
then saying 'So be it,' repaird unto Bhisma and telling him 
of the pur[Dorfc of that Brahmana's speech, related everything 
about his (extraordinary) feat. Hearing everything from the 
princes, Bhisma at once understood that the Brahmana Avas 
none else than Drona, and thinking that he would make the 
best preceptor foif the princes, went in person unto him and 
•welcoming him respectfully, brought him over to the palace. 
Then Bliisma — that foremost of all wielders of arms — adroitly 
asked him the cause of his arrival at Hastinapore. And asked 
by him, Drona represented everything as it had happened^ 
saying, ' sir, in times past I went to the great Rishi Agni- 
vesha for obtaining from him weapons and desirous also of 
learning the science of arms. Devoted to the service of my 
preceptor, I lived with him for many years in the humble 
guise of a Brahmachari, with matted locks on my head. At 
that time, actuated by the same motives, the prince of Pan- 
ci^ala — the mighty Yajna-sena — also lived in the same asylum. 
He became my friend, always seeking my welfare. I liked him 
much. Indeed, we lived together for many many years. O 
thou of the Kuru race, from our earliest years we had 
studied together and, indeed, he was my friend from boyhood, 
always speaking and doing what was agreeable to me. For 
gratifying mo, O Bhisma, he used to tell me — Drona, I am 
the favorite child of my illustrious father. When the king 
installeth me as monarch of the Panehalas, the kingdom shall 
be thine, O friend ! This, indeed, is my solemn promise. 
My dominion, wealth, and happiness, shall all be dependent 
on thes.— At last the time came for his departure. Having 
finished his studies, he bent his steps towards his country. 
I offered him my regards at the time, and, indeed, I remem- 
bered hia words ever afterwards. 

■ ADI PAliTA. 389 

*" Sometime after, in obedience to the injiinctiong of ray 
father and tempted also by the desire of offspring, I married 
Kripi of short hair, who, gifted with great intelligence, had 
observed many rigid vows, and was ever engaged in the Agni- 
hotra and other sacrifices and rigid austerities. And Gautami, 
in time, gave birth to a son named Aswathama of great prow- 
ess and equal in splendour unto the Sun himself. Indeed, I 
was joyed on having obtained Aswathama, as much as my 
father had been on obtaining myself. 

*"Aud it so happened that one day the child Aswathama ob- 
serving some rich men's sons drink milk, began to cry. At thia 
I was so beside myself that I lost all knowledge of direction. 
Instead of asking him who had only a few kine (so that if he 
gave me one, he would no longer he able to perform his sacrifices 
and thus sustain a loss of virtue), I was desirous of obtaining 
a cow from one who had man^y, and for that I wandered from 
country to country. But my wanderings proved unsuccessful, 
for I failed to obtain a milch cow. After I had come back 
unsuccessful, some of his playmates gave him water mixed 
with powdered rice. Drinking this, the poor boy, from in- 
experience, was deceived into the belief that he had taken 
milk, and began to dance in joy, saying, — 0, I have taken 
milJc, I have taken milk ! — Beholding him dancing with joy 
amid his playmates smiling at his 8im[)licity, I was exceed- 
ingly touched. Hearing also the derisive speeches of busy- 
bodies who said. Fie upon the indigent Drona, who strives not 
to earn wealth ! "Whose son drinking water mixed with pow- 
dered rice mistaketh it for milk and danceth with joy, saying, 
I have taken milk — I have taken milk ! — I was quite beside 
myself. Reproaching myself much, I at last resolved that 
even if I should live cast off and censured by Brahmanas, I 
would not yet, from desire of Avealth, be anybody's servant, 
which is ever hateful. Thus resolved, O Bhisma, I went for 
form'Cr friendship, unto the king of the Somakas, taking with 
me my dear child and wife. Hearing that he had been ins- 
talled in the sovereignty (of the Somakas), I regarded myself 
as blest beyond compare. Joyfully I went unto that dear 
friend of mine seated on a throne, remembering my former 



friflndahip with him and also his own words to me. And, 
illustrious one, approaching Drupada, I said, — O thou tiger 
among men, know me for thy friend ! — Saying this I ap- 
proached him confidently as a friend should. But Drupada, 
laughing in derision, cast me off as if I were a vulgar fellow. 
And addressing me he said, — Thy intelligence scarcely seem- 
eth to be of a high order, inasmuch as, approaching me 
suddenly, thou sayest thou art my friend ! Time that im- 
paireth everything impaireth friendship also. My former 
friendship with thee was for a particular purpose. One of im- 
pure birth can never be a friend of one who is of pure birth. 
One who is not a charioteer can never be a friend of one who 
is such. Friendship can subsist between persons that are of 
equal rank, but not between those that are unequally situated. 
Friendship never subsisteth for ever in any heart. Time im- 
paireth friendships, as also anger destroyeth them. Do thou 
not stick, therefore, to that worn-ofF friendship between us. 
Think not of it any longer. The friendship I had with thee, 
O thou best of Brahmanas, was for a special purpose. There 
cannot be friendship between a poor man and a rich man, 
between an unlettered hind and a man of letters, between a 
coward and a hero. Why dost thou therefore desire the revival 
of our former friendship ? O thou of simple understanding, 
great kings can never have friendship with such indigent and 
luckless wights as thou ? One who is not a king can never 
have a king for his friend. I do not remember ever having 
promised thee my kingdom. But, O Brahmaua, I can now 
give thee food and shelter for one night.-^Thus addressed by 
him, I left his presence quickly with my wife, vowing to do 
that which I will certainly do soon enough. Thus insulted by 
Drupada, O Bhisma, I have been filled with wrath. I come 
to the Kurus desirous of obtaining intelligent and docile 
pupils. I come to Hastinapore to gratify thy wishes. 0, tell 
me what I am to do,' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Thus addressed by the son of 
Bharadwaja, Bhisma said unto him, 'String thy bow, O 
Brahmaua, and make the Kuru princes accomplished in arms. 
Worshipped by the Kurus, enjoy with a glad heart to thj 


Bll every comfort in their abode. Thou art the absolute lord, 
O Brahmana, of whatever wealth the Kurus have and of 
their sovereignty and kingdom. The Kurus are thine (from 
this day). Think that as already accomplisiied which may 
be in thy heart. Thou art, Brahmana, obtained by us as 
the fruit of our great good luck ! Indeed, the favor thou 
hast conferred upon me by thy arrival is great !' " 

Thus ends the hundred and thirty-third Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

~ Section CXXXIV. • 

( Sambhava Parva contlnxied. ) 

Vaisampayana said, "Then worshipped by Bhlsma, Drona — 
that first of men— endued with great energy, took up his 
quarters in the abode of the Kurus and continued to live 
there, receiving their adorations. And after he had rested 
awhile, Bhisma taking with him his grand-sons the Kawrava 
princes, gave them unto him as his pupils, making at the 
same time many valuable presents. And the mighty one 
(Bhisma) also joyfully gave unto the son of Bharadwaja a 
house that was tidy and neat and well filled with paddy and 
every kind of wealth. And that first of bowmen Drona there- 
upon joyfully accepted the Kauravas, r^iis;, the sons of Pandu 
and Dhrita-raslitra, as his pupils. And having accepted them 
all as his pupils, one day Drona called them apart and making 
them touch his feet, told them with a swelling heart, ' I have 
in my heart a particular purpose. Promise me truly, ye sinless 
ones, that when ye have become skilled in arms, ye will 
accomplish it.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Hearing these words, the Kuru 
princes remained silent. But Arjuna, king, vowed to 
accomplish it whatever it was. Drona then cheerfully clasped 
Arjuna to his bosom and took the scent of his head repeated- 
ly, shedding tears of joy all the while. Then Drona enduei 
with great prowess taught the sons of Pandu ( the use of ) 
many weapons both celestial and human. And, thou bull 
of the Bharata race, many other princes also flocked to that 


best of Brahmanas for instruction in arms. The Vrishnis and 
the Andhakas and princes from various huids and the (adopted) 
son of Radha of the Suta caste, (Kama), all became pupils 
of Drona. But of them all, the Suta child Kama from jea- 
lousy frequently defied Arjuna, and supported by Duryodhana, 
used to disregard the Pandavas. Arjuna, however, from devo- 
tion to the science of arms, always stayed by the side of his 
preceptor, and in skill, strenc]5th of arm, and perseverance, 
excelled all (his class-fellows). Indeed, although the instruc- 
tion the preceptor gave was the same in the case of all, yet 
in lightness and skill Arjuna became the foremost of all 
his fellow pupils. And Drona was convinced that none of 
his pupih would (at any time) be able to equal that son 
of Indra. 

"Thus Drona continued giving lessons to the princes in the 
science of weapons. And lyhile he gave unto every one of 
his pupils a narrow-mouthed vessel (for fetching water) in- 
order that much time may be spent in falling them, he gave 
unto his own son Aswathama a broad-mouthed vessel, so that 
filling it quickly, he might return soon enough. And in the 
intervals so gained, Drona used to instruct his own son in 
several superior methods (of using weapons). Jishnu (Arjuna) 
came to know of this, and thereupon filling his narrow- 
mouthed vessel with water by means of the Varuna weapon, 
he used to come unto his preceptor at the same time with his 
preceptor's son. And accordingly the intelligent son of Pritha 
that foremost of all men possessing a knowledge of weapons — 
had no inferiority to his preceptor's son in respect of excellence. 
Arj Una's devotion to the service of his preceptor as also tQ 
arras was very great, and he soon became the favorite of his 
preceptor. And Drona beholding his pupil's devotion to 
arms, summoning the cook, told him in secret, / Never give 
Arjuna his food in the dark, nor do thou tell him that I have 
told thee this.' A few days alter, however, when Arjuna 
was taking his food, a wind rose and thereupon the lamp 
that was burning went out. But Arjuna, endued with energy, 
continued eating in the dark, his hand, from habit going up 
to his mouth. His attention being thus called to the force of 


foi'je of habit, the ftronof-arnied son of Paiidn set his hcarfc 
upon practising with liis how in the niglit. And, O Bhaiata, 
Drona, hearing the twang of his bow-string in the night, 
came to him, and cLisping him, snid, 'Truly do I tell thee that; 
I shall do that unto thee by which there shall not be a bow- 
man equal to thee in the worhh' " 

Vaisainpayana continued, ' Thereafter Drona began to 
teach Arj una the art of fighting on horse-back, on the back 
of elei»hants, on chariots, and on the ground. And the 
mighty Drona also instructed Arjuna in figliting with the 
mace, the sword, the toinara, the prasa, and the sakti. And 
he also instructed him in using many weapons and fighting 
with many men at the same time. And hearing reports of 
his skill, kings and princes, desirous of learning the science 
of arras, flocked to Drona by thousands. And amono-sfc those 
that came, there, monarch, was a prince named Ekalavya, 
who was the son of Hiranya-dhanu, king of the Nishadas 
(the lowest of the mixed orders). Drona, however, cognisant; 
of all rules of morality, accepted not the prince as his pupil 
in archery, seeing that he was a Nishada, who might (ia 
time) excell all his high-born pupils. But, O thou oppress- 
or of all enemies, the Nishada prince, touching Drona's feefc 
with bent head, wended into the forest. And there makinor 
a clay image of Drona began to worship it respectfully, as if 
it were his real preceptor, and practise weapons before it with 
the most rigid regularity. lu consequence of his exceptional 
reverence for his preceptor, and of his devotion also to his 
purpose, all the three processes of fixing arrows on the 
bow-string, aiming, and letting ofT eliafts became very easy 
to him. 

"And one day, O thou grinder of all foes, the Kuru and the 
Pandava princes, with Drona's leave, set out on their chariota 
on a hunting excursion. A servant, O king, followed the party 
at liesure, with tiie usual implements and a dog. Having 
arrived at the woods, they wandered about intent on the pur- 
pose they had in view. Meanwhile, the dog also, in wandering 
alone about the woods, came upon the Nishada j)rince (Eka- 
lavya). And beholding the Nishnda of dark hue, of body 



"besmeared with filth, dressed in black, and bearing matted 
locks on head, the dog began bark to aloud. 

" Thereupon the Niahada prince, desirous of exhibiting 
las lightness of hand, struck seven arrows into its mouth 
(before it could shut it). And the dog thus pierced with seven 
arrows came back to the Pandavas. And those heroes, behold- 
JDg that sight, were filled with wonder. And ashamed of 
their own skill, they began to praise the lightness of hand and 
precision of aim by auricular perception (exhibited by the un- 
known archer). And they thereupon began to seek in those 
woods for the unknown dweller thereof (who showed such skill). 
And, O king, the Pandavas soon found out the object of their 
search ceaselessly discharging arrows from the bow. And behold- 
ing that man of grim visage, who Avas a total stranger to them, 
they asked, 'Who art thou and whose son ?' Thus questioned, 
the man replied, 'Ye heroes, I am the son of Hiranya-dhanu 
king of the Nishadas. Know me also for a pupil of Drona,, 
labouring for the acquisition of the art of arms.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " The Pandavas then, havicg 
made themselves acquainted wiih everything connected with 
him, returned (to the city ), and going unto Drona, told him 
of tiiat wonderful feat of archery which they had witnessed in 
the woods. But Arjuna, however, in particular, thinking all 
the v/hile, O king, of Ekalavya, saw Drona in private and 
relying upon his preceptor's affection for him, said, 'Thou 
hadst lovingly told me, clasping me to thy bosom, that no 
pupil of thine should be equal to me. Why then is there a 
pupil of thine, viz, the mighty son of the Nishada king, 
superior to me ?' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Hearing these words, Drona 
reflected for a moment, and resolving upon the course of ac'fion 
he should follow, took Arjuna with him and went unto the 
Nishada prince. And he beheld Ekalavya with body besmear- 
ed with filth, matted locks (on head), clad in rags, bearing 
a bow in hand and ceaselessly shooting arrows therefrom. 
And when Ekalavya saw Drona approaching towards him, 
wending a few steps forward, he touched his feet and prostrat- 
ed himself on the ground. Aud the son of the Nishada king 

&DI PARVA. §95 

worshipping Drona, duly represented himself as his pnpil, and 
clasping his hands in reverence, stood before him (awaiting 
his commands). Then Drona, O king, addressed Ekalavya, 
saying, 'If, O hero, thou art really my pnpil, give me then 
my fee.' Hearing these words, Ekalavya was very much 
gratified, and said in reply, 'O illustrious preceptor, what shall 
I give ? Command me ; for there is nothing, O thou foremost 
of all conversant with the Yedus, which I may not give unto 
my preceptor.' Drona answered, ' O Ekalavya, if thou art 
really intent on making me a gift, I should like then to have 
the thumb of thy right hand.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Hearing these -cruel words of 
Drona, who had asked of him his thumb as tuition-fee, Eka- 
lavya, ever devoted to truth and desirous also of keeping his 
promise, with a cheerful face and an unafHicted heart, cut off 
without ada his thumb, and gave it unto Drona. After this, 
when the Nishada prince began once more to shoot with the 
help of his remaining fingers, he found, O king, that he had 
lost his former lightness of hand. And Arjuna at this became 
happy, the fever (of jealousy) having left him. 

" Two of Drona's pupils became very much accomplished in 
the use of the mace. These were Duryodhana and Bhima, 
who were, however, always jealous of each other. Asv/athama 
excelled everyone in the mysteries of the (science of arms). 
The twins (Nakula and Sahadeva) excelled everybody in 
handling the sword. Yudish-thira excelled everybody as a 
charioteer. Arjuna, however, excelled everyone in every res- 
pect ; surpassing everyone in intelligence, resourcefulness, 
strength, and perseverance. ^Accomplished in all weapons, 
Arjuna became the foremost of even the foremost of chariot- 
eers ; and his fame spread all over the earth to the verge of 
the sea. And although the instruction had been equal, yet 
the mighty Arjuna excelled all (the princes) in lightness of 
hand. Indeed, in weapons as in devotion to his preceptor, 
he became tiie first of them all. And amongst all the princes, 
Arjuna alone became an Atiratha (a charioteer capable of 
fighting at one time with sixty thousand foes). And the 
wicked sous of Dluita-rashtra, beholding Bhima-sena endued 


with great strength nud Arjuna accoiDplisbed in all arm», 
became very jealous of them. 

" O thou bull among mei), cue day Drona desirous of 
ieet'iDg the comparative excelleuse of all his pupils in the 
use of arms, collected them all together after their education 
had been com[)leted. And before assembling them together, 
he had caused an artificial bird, us the would-be aim, to be 
placed on the top of a neighbouring tree. And when they 
were all together, Drona said unto them, 'Take up your bows 
quickly and stand here aiming at that bird on the tree, with 
arrows fixed on your bow-strini,'s ; shoot and cut off the bird's 
liead, as soon as I give the order. I shall give each of ye a 
turn, one by one, my children. 

Vaisampayana continued, " Then Drona, that foremost of 
all Angira's sons, first addressed Yudhish-thira saying, 'O 
irrepressible one, ain^ with thy arrow and let it off as soon as I 
give the order. Yudishthira took up the bow first, as desired, 
O king, by bis preceptor, and stood aiming at the bird. But, 
O thou bull of the Bharata race, Drona in an instant, 
addressing the Kuru prince standing with bow in hand, said, 
'Behold, O prince, that bird on the top of the tree.' Yudhish- 
thira replied unto his preceptor, saying, 'I do.' But the ins- 
tant after, Drona again asked him, 'What dost thou now see, 
O prince? Seest thon the tree, myself, or thy brothers?' 
Yudhish-thira answered, 'I see the fcree, thyself, my brothers, 
and the bird.' Drona repeated his question, but was answered 
as often in the same words. Drona then, vexed with Yudhish- 
thira, reproachingly told him, 'Stand ihou apart. It is not 
for thee to strike the aim.' Then Di-ona repeated the experi- 
ment with Duryo-dhana and the other sons of Dhrita-rashtra 
one after another, as also with his other pupils, Bhima and 
the rest, including the princes who had come unto him from 
other lands. But the answer in every case was tlie same as 
Yudhish-thira's, viz, ('We behold the tree, thyself our fellow- 
pupils, and the bird).' And reproached by their pn^i^cptor, they 
were all ordered, one after another, to stand apart." 

Thus ends the hundred and thirty-fourth Sjotiou in the 
kjambhu\ a of the Adi Parva. 

SectiOxX CXXXV. 

( Sambkava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisanipayana said, " When everyone had failed, Drona 
smiliugly called Arjuna and said unto him, 'By thee the aim 
must be shot at ; therefore, turn thy eyes to it. Thou must 
let fly the arrow as soon a^ I give the order. Therefore, O 
son, stand here with bow and arrow for an instant.' Thus 
addressed, Arjuna stood ainiiui^ at the bird, as desired by his 
preceptor, with bow bent. An instant after Drona asked him 
as in the case of others, 'Seest thou, O Arjuna, the bird 
there, the tree, and myself?' Arjuna replied, 'I see the bird 
©nly, but not the tree or thyself.' Then the irrepressible 
Drona, well pleased with Arjuna, the instant after, again said 
unto that mighty charioteer amongst the Pandavas, 'If thou 
seest the vulture, then describe it to me. And Arjuna said, 
'I only see the head of the vulture, not its body. At these 
words of Arjuna, the down on Drona's body stood on end for 
delight. And he then said to Partha. 'Shoot tiiou.' And the 
latter instantly let fly (liis arrow) and with his sharpened shaft 
speedily struck off the head of the vulture on the tree and 
brought it to the ground. No sooner was the deed done than 
Drona clasped Falgoona to his bosom and thought that Dru- 
pada with his friends had already been vanquished in fight. 

" Sometime after, O thou bull of the Bharata race, Drona, 
accompanied by all his pupils, went to the banks of the Ganges 
to bathe in the sacred stream. And when Drona had plunged 
in the stream, a strong alligator, as if sent by Death himself, 
seized him about his thigh. And though quite capable him- 
self, Drona asked in seeming hurry his pupils to rescue him. 
And he said, '0 kill this monster and rescue me.' Contem- 
poraneously with this speech, Vivatsu f Arjuna) struck the 
monster within the water with five sharp arrows irresistible 
in their course, while the other pupils stood confounded 
each at his place. Beholding Arjuna's readiness, Drona con- 
sidered him to be the foremost of all his pupil?, and be- 
eaino highly pleased. The monster, in the meantime, cut 

398 Mahabharata; 

into pieces by the arrows of Arjuna, released the tlngh of 
the illustrious Drona and gave up the ghost. The son of 
Bharadwaja then addressed the illustrious and mighty chariot- 
eer Arjuna and said, ' Accept, O thou of mighty arms, this 
very superior and irresistible weapon called Brahma-shira, 
with the methods of hurling and recalling it. Thou must 
not, however, ever use it against any human foe, for if hurled 
at any foe endued with inferior energy, it might burn the 
whole universe. It is said, child, that this weapon hath 
not a peer in the three worlds. Keep it therefore with great 
care, and listen to what I say. If ever, hero, any foe not 
human contendeth against thee, then shalt thou employ it 
against him for compassing his death in battle.' Pledging 
himself to do what he was bid, Vivatsu then, with joined hands, 
received that great weapon. The preceptor then, addressing 
him again, said, 'None else, in this world, will ever become a 
superior bowman to thee. Vanquished thou shalt never be by 
any foe, and thy achievements will be great.'" 

Thus ends the hundred and thirty-fifth Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXXVI. 

{Samhhava Pdrva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " O thou of the Bharata race, behold- 
ing the sons of Dhrita-rashtra and Pandu accomplished in 
arms, Drona, O monarch, addressed king Dhrita-rashtra, in 
tiie presence of Kripa, Soma-datta, Valhika, the wise son of 
Ganga, Vyasa, and Vidura, and said, '0 thou best of Kuru 
kings, thy children have completed their education. With 
thy permission, king, let them now show their proficiency.' 
Hearino- him, the king said with a glad heart, 'O thou best 
of Bi-ahraanas, thou hast, indeed, accomplished a great deed. 
Command me thyself as to the place and the time where 
and when and the manner also in which the trial may be 
held. Grief arising from my own blindness maketh me envy 
those men who, blesssed with sig^^t, will behold my children's 
prowess iu arms. O Khatta (Vidura), do all that Drona 



■sayeth. O thou devoted to virtue, I think there is nothing 

that can be more agreeable to me.' Then Vidura giving the 

necessary assurance to the king, went out to do what he wa3 

bid. And Drona, endued \yith great wisdom, then measured 

out a piece of land that was void of trees and thickets and 

furnished with wells and springs. And upon the spot of 

land so measured out, Drona — that first of eloquent men^ 

selecting a lunar day wheu the star ascendant was auspicious, 

offered up sacrifice unto the gods, in the presence of the 

citizens assembled by proclamations to witness the same. And 

then, thou bull among men, the artificers of the king 

built thereon a large and elegant stage according to the rules 

laid down in the scriptures. And it was furnished with all 

kinds oi weapons. And they also built another elegant hall 

for lady spectators. And the citizens constructed many plat- 

foms, while the wealthier of them pitched many spacious and 

high tents all around. 

" And when the day fixed for the exhibition came, the king 
accompanied by his ministers, with Bhisma and Kripa the fore- 
most of preceptors, walking ahead, came unto that theatre of 
almost celestial beauty, constructed of pure gold, anj decked 
with strings of pearls and the lapis lazuli. And, thou 
first of victorious men, Gandhari blessed with great (^ood 
fortune and Kunti, and the other ladies of the royal house- 
hold in gorgeous attire and accompanied by their waiting- 
women, joyfully ascended the platforms, like celestial ladies 
ascending the Sumeru mountain. And the four orders includ- 
ing the B ahmanas and Kshatriyas, desirous of beholding 
the princes' skill in arms, left the city and came running to 
that spot. And so impatient was every one to behold the 
spectacle, that the vast crowd assembled there in almost an 
instant. And with the noise of blowing trumpets and beating 
drums and the sound of many voices, that vast concourse 
became like the agitated ocean. 

" At last, Drona accompanied by his son, dressed in Avhite 
attire, with white sacred thread, white locks, white bread, 
white garlands, and white sandal paste besmeared over his 
body, entered the lists, It seemgd as if the Moon hinvv ;) 


accompanied by the plmet Mars appeared in an unclouded sky. 
On entering, Bharadwaja pei-fonned timely worship, and caused 
Brahmanas versed in the tnantra'^ to celebrate the auspicioui5 
rites. And after auspicious sweet-sounding musicial instru- 
ments had struck U|) as a propitiatory ceremony', entered some 
persons equipped with various arms. And then having girt up 
their loins, entered those mighty warriors, he best of the 
Bharata race (the princes) furnished with the finger-i)rotect- 
ors, and bows and quivers. And with Yudishtliira at their 
head, the puissant princes entered in the order of age and be- 
gan to show wonderful sJcill with their weapons. Some of the 
spectators lowered their heads, apprehending fall of arrows. 
While others fearlessly looked ou with wonder. And swiftly 
riding on horses and managing them, dexterously, the prin- 
ces began to hit marks with shafts graced with their res- 
pective names. And seeing the prowess of the princes furuish- 
ed with bows aud arrows, the spectators thought that they were 
seeing the city of the Gandharvas, and became filled with 
amazement. And, O Bharata, all of a sudden some hundreds 
and thousands, with eyes expanded with wonder, exclaimed 
'Well done! Well done!' And having repeatedly displayed 
their skill and dexterity in the use of the bow and arrow 
and in the management of cars, the mighty warriors took up 
their swords and bucklers, and began to range the lists, 
playing tlieir weapons. The spectators saw (with wonder) 
their agility, the symmetry of tlieir bodies, their grace, their 
calmness, the firmness of tlieir grasp and their use of the 
sword and buckler. Then Vrikodara and Suyodhana inter- 
nally delighted (at the prospect of fight) entered the arena, 
mace in hand, like two one-peaked mountains. And the 
mighty armed warriors biaced their waist, and summoning 
up their energy, roared like two mad (male) elephants con- 
tending for a female one; and like two mad male elephants 
those mighty heroes faultlessly (in consonance with the dictates 
of the science of arms) went right and left, circling the lists. 
And Vidura described to Dhrita-rashtra and the mother 
of the Pandavas (Kunti) to Gandhaii all the feats of the 
priuces. " 

ADl PAUVA. 401 

Thus ends the hundred and thirtv-slxth Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva, 

Section CXXXVII. 
( Samhhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayaiia continued, " And upon the Kuru king and 
Bhiraa the foremost of all endued with strength, having entered 
the arena, the spectators were divided into two parties, in 
consequence of their partiality swaying their affections. And 
some cried 'Beijold the heroic king of the Ivurus !' And some, 
'Behold Bhiraa !' And on account of these cries there was all 
of a sudden a loud uproar. And seeing the place became like 
a troubled ocean, the intelligent Bharadwaja said unto his dear 
son Aswathama, 'Restrain thou both these mighty warriors so 
proficient in arms ! Let not the ire of the assembly be pro- 
voked by this combat of Bhima and Duryo-dhana.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " And the son of the preceptor 
of the princes then restrained those combatants with uplifted 
maces and. who reseuibleJ two swollen oceans agitated by the 
winds that blow at the universal dissolution. And Drona 
himself entering the yard of the arena commanded the mu- 
sicians to stop and with a voice deep as that of the clouds 
addressed these words : 'Behold ye now that Partha who is 
dearer to me than my own son, the master of all arras, the 
son of Indra himself, and like unto the younger brother of 
Indra (Vishnu) !' And having performed the propitiatory rites, 
the youth Falgnna, furnished with the finger-ptotector and his 
quiver full of shafts anl bow in hand, doning on his golden 
mail, appearel in the lists even like an evening cloud reflect- 
ing the rays of the setting sun, and illumined by the hues 
of the rainbow and flashes of lightning. 

" And on seeing Arjuna the whole assembly were delighted, 
and conches began to be blown all around with other musical 
instruments. And there arose a great uproar in consequence of 
the spectators exclaiming, 'This is the graceful son of Kunti !'— 
'This is the middle (third) Pandava !' — 'This is the son of the 
mighty ludra !' — 'This ia the protector of the Kuras !' — 'TLia is 



the foremost of those versed in arms '.'—'This is the foremost 
of all cherishers of virtue !'— 'This is the foremost of all well- 
couducted persons, the great repository of the knowledge of 
manners !' At those exclamations, the tears of Kunti, mixing 
with the milk of lier breast, drenched her bosom. And having 
his ears filled with that uproar, that first of men, Dhrita- 
rashtra, asked Vidura with delight, 'O Kshatta, what is this 
great uproar, like unto that of the troubled deep, arising all of 
a sudden, and rending the very heavens ?' Vidura replied 'O 
mighty monarch, the son of Pandu and Pritha, Falguna, clad 
in mail hath entered the lists. And hence this uproar !' Dhrita- 
rashtra said, '0 thou of soul so great, by the three fires sprung 
from Pritha who is even like the sacred fuel, I have, indeed, 
been blessed, favored and protected !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, "And when the spectators excited 
with delight, had somewhat regained their equanimity, Vivat- 
shu began to displ.iy before his preceptor iiis lightness in the 
use of weapons. By the Agneya weapon he created fire, and 
by the Fanuia weapon, he created water. And by the Vaya' 
'vya weapon, he created air, and by the Paryanya weapon, he 
created clouds. And by the Bhaunna weapon, he created 
land, and by the Parvatya weapon mountains came into 
being. And by the Antar-dhana weapon these all were 
made to disappear. Now the beloved of his preceptor (Arjuna) 
appeared tall, and now short ; now he was seen on the yoke 
of his car, and now on the car itself ; and the next mo- 
ment he was on the ground. And the hero favored by 
his practised dexterity, hit by his arrows various butts, some 
tender, some fine, and some of thick composition. And like 
one shaft, he let fly at one time into the mouth of a moving 
iron boar five shafts together from his bow-string. And that 
hero of mighty energy discharged one and twenty arrows 
into the hollow of a cow's horn hung up on a rope and 
swaying to and fro. In this manner, O sinless one, Arjuna 
showed his profound skill in the use of the sword, the bow, 
and the mace, walking over the lists in circles. 

"And, O Bharatft, when the exhibition had well nigh ended, 
^he excitement of the spectators cooled, aad the sound of the 

ADl PARVA. 40^ 

musical instruments been suspended, there was heard proceed- 
ing from the gate, the slappinor of arms, betokening might and 
strength, and even like unto the roar of thunder. And, O king, 
fts soon as this sound was heard, the assembled multitude 
instantly thought, 'Are tiie mountains splittiDj:{,or is the Earth 
itself rending asunder, or is the welkin resounding with the 
roar of gathering clouds ?' And then all the spectators turned 
their eyes towards the entrance. And Drona stood surrounded 
by the five brothers — the sons of Pritha, and seemed like 
the moon in conjunction with the five-starred constellation 
Hasta, And Duryodhana, that slayer of foes, stood up ia 
haste and was surrounded by his century of liaughty brothers 
■with Aswathama amongst them. And that prince, mace ia 
hand, thus surrounded by his hundred brothers with uplifted 
weapons, appeared like Purandara in days of yore, encircled 
by the celestial host on the occasion of the battle with the 

Thus ends the hundred and thirty-seventh Section in the 
Sambhava af the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXXVIII. 

( Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisarapayana continue 1, " When the spectators, with eyes 
expan3ei with wonder, male v/ay for that subjugator of hostile 
cities, Kama, that hero with his natural mail and face 
brightened up with ear-rii>gs, taking his bow and girding on 
his sword, entered the spacious lists, like a walking cliff. 
That far-famed destroyer of hostile hosts, the large-eyed, 
Kama, was born of Pritba in her maideiihood. He was a por- 
tion of the hot-beamed Sun. His energy and prowess v/ere 
like unto those of the lion, or the bull, or the leader of a herd 
.of elephants. He resembled the sun in splendour, the moon in 
loveliness, and the fire in energy. Born of the Sun himself 
he was tall in stature like a golden palm tiee, and endued 
with the vigor of youth he was C!>pable of slaying a lion. 
Handsome in features, he was possessed of countless accom- 
plishments. The mighty-armed v/arrior eyeiu-g all around th^' 


arena, bowed indifferently to Drona and Kripa. And the 
entire assembly, motionless and with steadfast gaze, thought 
'Who is he ?' And they became agitated in consequence of 
their curiosity to know the warrior. And that foremost of 
eloquent men, the offspring of the Sun, in a voice deep as 
that of the clouds, addressed liis unknown brother, the son of 
the subduer of the Asura Paka (Indra) saying, '0 Partha ! 
I shall perform feats before this gazing multitude, excelling 
all thou hast performed ! Beholling them thou shalt be 
amazed 1' And, O thou best of those blest with speech, he 
had hardl}'' ended when the spectators stood up all at once, 
as if uplifted by some instrument. And, O tiger among men, 
Duryodhana was filled with delight, while Vivatshu was ins- 
tantly all abashment and anger. Then with the permission of 
Drona the mighty Kama delighting in battle, there did all 
that Partha had done before. And, O Bharata, Duryodhana 
with his brothers thereupon embraced Kama in joy and then 
addressed him saying, 'Welcome, O mighty-armed warrior ! I 
liave obtained thee by good fortune, O polite one ! Live thou 
as thou pleasest, and command myself and the kingdom of the 
Kurus !' Kama replied, 'When thou hast said it, I regard it 
as already accomplished ! I only long for tliy friendship ! And, 
O lord, my wish is even for a single combat with Arjuna!' 
Duryodhana said, 'Do thou with me enjoy the good things of 
life ! Be thou the benefactor of thy friends, and, O thou re- 
pressor of enemies, place thou thy feet on the heads of all 
foes.' " 

Vaisarapnyana continued, "And Arjuna, after this, deeming 
himself disgraced, said unto Kama stationed amidst the 
brothers like unto a cliff, ' Tiiat path wliich the unwelcome in- 
truder and the uninvited talker cometh to, shall he thine, 
Kama, being slain by me !' Kama replied, 'This arena is meant 
for all, not for thee alone, OFalguna! They are kings who 
are superior in energy ; and verily, the Kshatriya regardeth 
might alone. What need of altercation which ia the excercise 
of the weak ! Bharata, speak then in arrows, until with 
arrows I strike off thy head today before the preceptor 
himself !'" 


Vuisampayana continued, " And then, hastily embraced by 
his brothers, Partlia, that subduer of hostile cities, with the 
permission of Drona advanced for the combat. On the 
other side Kama having been embraced by Duryodhana 
with his brothers, taking up bin bow and arrows, stood ready 
for fight. Then the firmament became enveloped in clouds 
emitting flashes of lightning, and the colored bow of Indra 
ap[)eared shedding its effulgent rays. And the clouds seemed 
to laugh in consequence of rows of white vakas that were 
then on their wing. And seeing Indra thus viewing the arena 
from affection (for bis son), the Sun too dispersed the clouds 
from over his own offspring. And Falguna remained deep hid 
undercover of the clouds, while Kama remained visible, being 
surrounded by the rays of the Sun. And the sons of Dhrita- 
rashtra stood by Kama, and Bharadwaja, and Kri{)a, and 
Bhisma remained with Partha. And the assembly was divided 
as also were the female spectators. And knowing the state of 
things, Kunti, the daughter of Blioja, swooned away. And 
by help of female attendants, Vidura, versed in the lore of 
all duties, revived the insensible Kunti by sprinkling sandal 
paste and water on her person. On being restored to conscious- 
ness, Kunti seeing her two sons clad in mail was seized with 
fear, but she could do nothing (to protect then»). And behold- 
ing both the warriors with bows strung in their hands, the son 
of Saradwan, Kripa, knowing all duties and cognisant of the 
rules regulating duels, addressed Kama, saying, "This Pandava 
is the youngest son of Kunti. He belongeth to the Kaurava 
race. He will engage in combat with thee. But, O thou 
mighty-armed one, thou too must tell us thy lineage and the 
names of thy father and mother; and the royal line of which 
thou art the ornament! Learning all this, Partha will fight 
with thee or not (as he shall see fit). Sons of kings never fight 
with men of inglorious lineage.'" 

Vaisampayana continued, " Thus addressed by Kripa, Kar- 
na's countenance became like unto a lotus pale and torn with 
the pelting showers of the rainy season. Duryodhana said, 
'O preceptor, verily, the shastras have it that three classes 
of persons can lay claim to royalty, viz, persons of the blood 


royal, heroes, and, lastly, those that lead armies. If Falgvina 
is unwilling to fight with one who is not a king, I will install 
Kama king of Anga !' " 

Vaisampayana said, " And at that very moment, seated on 
a golden seat, with fried paddy and flowers and water-pots and 
much gold, the mighty warrior Kama was installed king by 
Brahmanas versed in mayitras. And the royal umbrella was 
held over his head, while chamaras waved around that re- 
doubted hero of graceful mien. And the cheers having ceased, 
king (Kama) said unto the Kaurava Duryodhana, 'O tiger 
among mouarchs ! What shall I give unto thee that may 
compare with thy gift of a kingdom ? king, I will do all 
thou biddest ! And Suyodhana said unto him, 'I eagerly wish 
for thy friendship!' Thus spoken to, Kama replie'l, 'Be it so.' 
And they embraced each other in joy, and experienced great 

Thus ends the hundred and thirty-eighth Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXXXIX. 
( Sambhava Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " After this, with his sheet loosely 
hanging down, Adhiratha entered the lists, perspiring and 
trembling, and supporting himself on a staff. 

" Seeing him Kama left his bow and impelled by filial 
regard bowed his head still wet with the water of inauguration. 
And then the charioteer, hurriedly covering his feet with the 
end of his sheet, addre^^sei Kama crowned with success as his 
son. And the charioteer embraced Kama and from excess of 
affection bedewed his head with tears, that head still wet 
with the water sprinkled over it on account of his coronation 
as king of Anga. And seeing the charioteer, the Pandava 
Bhima-sena took Kama for a charioteer's son, and said by 
way of ridicule, '0 thou son of a charioteer ! Thou dost 
not deserve death in fight at the hands of Partha ! As befits 
thy race take thou anon the whip ! And, O worst of 
mortals ! surely, thou art not worthy to sway the kingdom 
-of Anga, even as a dog doth not deserve the butter placed 


before the sacrificial fire. Kama, thus addressed, with slightly 
quivering lips fetched a deep sigh and looked at the god of 
day in the skies. And even as a mad elephant riseth frona aa 
assemblage of lotuses, rose the mighty Duryodhanain wrath 
from among his brothers. And addressing that performer of 
dreadful deeds, Bhima-sena there present, the Kauiava said, 
'0 Vrikodara ! it behoveth thee not to speak such words. 
Might is the cardinal virtue of a Kehatriya, and even a 
Kshatriya of inferior biith deserveth to be fought with. The 
linea<^e of heroes, like the sources of lordl}' rivers, is ever 
unknown. The fire that covereth the whole world riseth 
from the waters. The thunder that slayeth the Danavas was 
made of a bone of (a mortal named) Dadhichi. The illustri- 
ous deity Guha, who combines in his composition the portions 
of all the other deities, is of lineage unknown. Some call 
him the offspring of Agni ; some, of Krittika; some, of 
Rudra; and some, of Ganga. It hath been heard by us that 
persons born in the Kshatriya order have before become 
Brahmanas. Viswamitra and others (born Kshatriyas) have 
obtained the eternal Brahma. The foremost of all wielders 
of weapons — the preceptor Drona — hath been born in a Avater- 
pot, and Kripa of the race of Gotama hath sprung from a 
clump of heath. Your own births, ye Pandava princes, are 
known to me. Can a she-deer bring forth a tiger (like Kama 
of the splendour of the Sun, and endued with every auspi- 
cious mark, and bom also with a natural mail and ear-rings ? 
This prince among men deserveth the sovereignty of the world, 
not of Anga only, in consequence of the might of his arm 
and my disposition to obey him in everything. If there be 
anybody here to whom all tliat I have done unto Kama hath 
become intolerable, let him ascend his chariot and bend his 
bow with the help of his feet.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, '' Then there arose a confused 
murmur amongst the spectators approving of Duryodhaua's 
speech. The sun, however, went down, but prince Duryo- 
dhana taking Kama's hand led him out of the arena lighted 
with countless lamps. And, king, the Pandavas also, 
accompanied by Droua and Kripa evnd Bhisrna, returned to 


their abodes. And the people too came away, some naming 
Arjuna, some Kama, and some Diiryodhana, (as the victor 
of the day. ) And Kanti recognising her son in Kama by the 
various auspicious marks on his person and beholding hira 
installed in the sovereignty of Atiga was, from motherly 
affection, very well pleased. And Duryodhana, O monarch, 
having obtained Kama (in tliis way), banished his fears ari- 
sing out of Arj Una's proficiency in arms. And the heroic 
Kama, accomplished in arms, began to gratify Duryodhana 
with sweet speeches, while Yudbish-thira was impressed with 
the belief that there was no warrior on earth like unto Kama. 

Thus ends tlie hundred and thirty-ninth section in the 
Sarabhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXL. 
(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisarapayana continued, " Beholding tlie Pandavas and 
the sons of Dhrita-rashtra accomplished in arms, Drona 
thought the time had come when he could demand the pre- 
ceptorial fee. An I, king, assembling his pupils one day 
together, the preceptor Drona asked of them the fee, saying, 
'Seize ye Drupada the king of Panchala in battle and bring 
him unto me. Tiiat shall be the most acceptable fee 1' Those 
warriors then, answering *So be it,' speeiily ascended their 
chariots, and for bestowing upon their preceptor the fee he 
demanded, marched out accompanied by him. Those bulls 
among men smiting the Panchalas on their way laid siege to 
the capital of the great Drupada. And Duryodhana and 
Kama and the mighty Yuyutshu, and Dush-shasana and 
Vikarna and Jala-shauiha and Sulochana — these and many 
other foremost of Kshatriya princes of great prowess vied 
with each other in becoming the foremost in the attack. And 
the princes riding ou first chiss chariots and followed by 
cavalry, entering the hostile capital, proceeded along the 

" Meanwhile, the king of Panchala beholding that mighty 
fjrce and hearing its loud clamour, came out of his palace 


accompanied by his brothers. And king Jagna-sena was well- 
armed. But the Kuril sCrmy assailed him with a shower of 
arrows uttering their war-cry. But Jagna-sena, difficult of 
being subdued iu battle, upon his white chariot approaching 
the Kurus began to rain his fierce arrows arround. 

" Before the battle commenced, Arjuna, beholding the 
pride of prowess displayed by the princes, addressed his 
preceptor — that best of Brahmanas — Drona and said, 'We 
shall exert ourselves after these have displayed their prowess. 
The king of Pduchala can never be taken on the field of battle 
by any of these!' Having said this, the sinless son of Kunti, 
surrounded by his brothers waited ontside the town at a dis- 
tance of a mile from it. Meanwhile Drupada, beholding the 
Kuru host, rushed forward and pouring a fierce shower of 
arrows around, terribly afflicted the Kuru ranks. And such 
was his lightness of motion on the field of battle that though 
fighting unsupported on a single chariot, the Kunis from panic 
supposed that there Avere many Drnpadas opposed to them. 
And the fierce arrows of that monarch fell fast on all sides, 
till conches and trumpets and drums by thousands began to 
be sounded by the Panchalas from their houses (giving the 
alarm). Tiien there arose from the mighty Panchala host a 
roar terrible as that of tiie lion, while the twang of their bow- 
strings seemed to rend the very heavens. Then Duryodhana 
and Vikarna, Suvahu and Dirgha-lochana and Dush-shasana, 
becoming furious, began to shower their arrows upon the enem}'. 
But the mighty bowman — Prishata's sou — invincible in battle, 
though very much pierced with the arrows of the enemy, 
instantly began, Bharata, to afflict the hostile ranks with 
greater vigor. And moving over the field of battle like a fiery 
wheel, king Drupada with his arrows smote Duryodhana and 
Vikarna and even the mighty Kama, and many other heroic 
princes and numberless warriors, and slaked their thirst of battle. 
Then all the citizens showered upon the Kurus various missiles 
like clouds showering rain-drops upon the earth. And young 
and old they all rushed to battle assailing the Kurus with 
vigor. The Kauravas then, Bharata, beholding the battle 
become frightful, broke and fled wailing towards the Paudavas. 



"The Pandavas, hearing the terrible wuil of the beaten host, 
reverentially saluted Droiia and ascended their chariots. Thea 
Arjana hastily bidding Yudhish-thira nob to engage in the 
fi'dit, rushed forward, appointing the sons of Ma.iri (Nakula 
and Sabadeva) the protectors of his chariot wheels, while 
Bhima-seua, ever fii^bting in the van, with mace in hand, ran 
ahea.!. The sinless Arjuna, thus accompanied by his brothers, 
hearing the shouts of the enemy, advanced towards them 
filling the wiiole region with the sound of his chariot-wheels. 
And like a Makara entering the sea, the miohly-armed 
]3hima, resembling a second Yama with mace in hand, entered 
the Puuchala ranks, — fiercely roaring like the ocean in a 
teuipest. An'l Bhima., mace in htmd, first rushed towards the 
array of elephants in the hostile force, while Arjuna, proficient 
in war, assailed that force (in some other point) by the prowess 
of his arm. And Bhima, like the great destroyer himself, 
began to slay thos" elephants with his mace. Those hug© 
finimtils like unto mountains, struck with Bhima's mace, had 
their heads broken into pieces, and covered with streams of 
blood, began to fail upon the ground like cliffs loosened by 
thundfT. And the Pandava prostrated on the ground ele= 
pha* *i r.nd horses and cars by thousands and slew much in- 
fantry and many cutirioteers. Indeed, as a iierdsman in the 
woods driveth before him with his staff countless cattle with 
ease, so did Vrikodara drive before him the chariots and ele- 
puunts of the hostile force. 

" Meauwhile FJ;Tuna, impelled by the desire of doing 
good unto Bharadwiija, assailed the son of Prishata with a 
shov/er of arrov^s and felled him from the elephant on which 
he was seated. And, O monarch, Arjuna, like unto tho 
terrible fire that consumeth at the end of the Yuga, began to 
prostrate on the ground horses and cars and elephants by thou- 
sand?. The Panchalas and the Srinjiyas, on the other hand, 
thus assailed by the Pandava, met lii u with a perfect shower 
of weapons of various kinds. An. I they sent up a loud 
shout :avd fought desperately with Arjuna. The battle 
became furious and terrible to behol I. Hearing the enemy's 
shout, the son of Indra was filled wiih wrath. Assailing the 


hostile host with a, thick shower of arrows, lie rushetl towarig 
it furiously, ufflicting it with renewed vigor. They who 
observei the iUustrious Arjiina at that time coull not mark 
any interval between his fixing the arrows on the bowstring 
and letting them off. Loud were the shouts that rose there- 
upon mingled with cheer.s of approval. Then the king of 
Panchala, accoin[>ai)ied by (the generalissimo of his forces), 
Satya-jit, rushed with speed 'xt Arjuna like tLo Asura Sam- 
vara rushing at the chief of the celestials (in days of yore). 
Then Arjuaa covered the king of Panchala with a thick 
ehower of arrows. Then there arose a frigh'f.i! uproar 
among the Panchala host like unto the roar of a mightjr 
lion springing the leader of a herd of elei)Ii!i!its. And be- 
holding Arjuna rushing at the king of Panchala f^r eoizing 
him, Satyajit of great prowess rushed at hiin. And the 
two warriors, like unto ludra and the Asura Virochana's 
son ( Vali ), apj)roachinnr each other for combat, began to 
grind each other's ranks. Then Arjuna with great fo<.ce 
pierced Satyjijit with ten keen shafts r,t wh'ch feat the 
spectators were all amazed. But Satyajit without losing any 
time assailed Aijuna with a hundred shafts. Then 
mighty charioteer, Arjuna, endued with remarkable light- 
ness of motion, thus covered by that shov/er of arrows, 
rubbed his bow-string to increase tlie velocity of hia shiifis. 
Then cutting in twain his antagonist's bow, Aijana rushed 
at the king of Panchala. But Satyajit quickly taking up a 
tougher bow pierced with his arrows Partha, his chariot, 
charioteer, and horse.s. A.-juna, thus assailed in battle Uy 
the Panchala warrior, forgave nut his foe. E;igt^-r to tlay Liai 
at once, he pierced with a number of r.rrows his antiigonisi's 
horses, flags, bow, clenched ( left ) fist, charioteer, nni the 
attendant at his back. Thou S;ctyajit, finding his Lows re- 
peatedly cut in twain and his horses slain as often, desisted 
from the {\rf]\t. 


" The king of Panchala, beholding his general thus discom- 
fited in the encounter, himself began to shower his arrows 
upon the Pandava prince. Then Arjuna, that foreniosc of 
warriors crowned with success, began to fight furiously. Ai;d 


quickly cutting his enemy's bow in twain as also his flag-staffs 
which he caused to fall down, lie pierced his antagonist's 
horses and charioteer also with five arrows. Then throwing 
aside his bow, Arjuna took his quiver, and taking out a scimi- 
tar and sending forth a loud shout, leaped from his own 
chariot upon that of his foe. And standing there with perfect 
fearlessness he seized Drupada as Gadura seizeth a huge snake 
after agitating the waters of the deep. At sight of this, the 
Panchala troops ran away in all directions. 

"Then Dhananjaya, having thus exhibited the might of 
his arm in the presence of both hosts, sent forth a loud shout 
and came out of the Panchala ranks. And beholding him 
returning (with his captive), the princes began to lay waste 
Drupada's capital. Addressing them Arjuna said, 'This best 
of monarchs, Drupada, is a relative of the Kuru heroes. 
Therefore, Bhima, slay not his soldiers ! Let us only give 
unto our preceptor his fee !'" 

Vaisampayana continued, "O king, thus prevented by 
Arjuna, the mighty Bhima-aena, though unsatiated with the 
exercise of battle, refrained from the act of slaughter. And, 
O thou bull of the Bharata race, the princes then taking Dru- 
pada with them, after having seized him on the field of battle 
along with his friends and counsellors, offered him untoDrona. 
And Drona beholding Drupada thus brought under complete 
control — humiliated and deprived of wealth — remembered that 
monarch's former hostility and addressing him said, ' Thy 
kingdom an I capital have been laid waste by me. But fear 
not for thy life though it dependeth now on the will of 
thy foe ! Dost thou now desire to revive thy friendship 
(with me) ?' Having said this he smiled a little and again said, 
^Fear not for thy life, brave king ! We Brahmanas are ever 
forgiving. Ani, thou bull amongst the Kshatriyas, my 
affection and love for thee have grown with my growth in 
consequence of our having sported together in child-hood in 
the hermittage. Therefore, O king, I ask for thy friendship 
again. And as a boon (unasked) I give thee half the king- 
dom (that was thine; ! Thou toldst me before that none who 
is not.a king could be a king's friend. Theretore is it, Q 


Jagna-seiia, that I retain half thy kingdom ! Thou art the 
king of all the territory lying on the southern side of the 
Bhagirathi while I become kinfr of all the territory on the 
north of that river. And, O Panchala, if it pleaseth thee, 
know me from hence for thy friend !' 

"Hearing these words, Drupada answered, 'Thou art of 
noble soul and great prowess. Therefore, O Brahraana, I am 
not surprised at what thou dost ! I am very much gratified 
with thee, and I desire thy eternal friendship !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " After this, O Bharata, Drona 
released the king of Panchala, anl cheerfully performing the 
usual offices of reg.ird, bestowed upon him half the kiugdom. 
Thenceforth Drupada began to reside sorrowfully in (the city 
of ) Kampilya within (the province of ) Makandi on the banks 
of the Ganges filled with many towns and cities. And after 
his defeat by Drona, Drupada also ruled the southern Pan- 
chalas up to the banks of the Charmanwati river. And Dru- 
pada from that day was well convinced that he could not, 
by Kshatriya might alone, defeat Drona, being very much his 
inferior in Brahma (spiritual) power. And he, therefore, began 
to wander over the whole earth for finding the means of 
obtaining a son (who would subjugate his Brahmana foe). 

" Meanwhile Drona continued to reside in Ahichchatra. 
Thus, O king, was the territory of Ahichchatra, full of towns 
and cities, obtained by Arjuna, and bestowed upon Drona!" 

Thus ends the hundred and fortieth Section iu the Sam- 
bhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CLXI. 

(Sambhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana continued, "After the expiration, O kino-, 
of a year from this, Dhrita-rashtra, moved by kindness for 
.the people, installed Yudhish-thira the son of Pandu as the 
heir-apparent of the kingdom on account of his firmness, 
fortitude, patience, benevolence, frankness, and unswerving 
honesty of heart. And within a short time Yudhish-thira 
the son of Kuuti, by his good behaviour, muuuers, and close 


applicfttion to business, darkened the deeds of liis father. And 
the second Pandava, Vrikoiara, began to receive continued 
lessons from Sankarshana (Vula-ratna) in encounters with the 
sword and the mace and on the chariot. And after Bhima's 
education was finished, he became in strength like unto Dyu- 
mat-sena himself. And continuing to live in harmony with 
his brothers he began to exert his prowess. And Arjuna be- 
came celebrated for tlie firmness of his grasp fof weapons), 
for his lightness of motion, precision of aim, and his profi- 
ciency in ttie use of tlie Kshura, Naracha, Valla, and Vipa- 
tka weapons, indeed, of all weapons whether straight, or 
crooked, or heavy. And Drona certified that there was none 
in the world who was equal unto A)juna in lightness of hand 
and general proficiency. 

*' One day Drona, addressing Arjuna before the assem- 
bled Kaurava princes, sjiid, 'There was a disciple of Agastya 
in the science of arms called Agni-visha. He was my precep- 
tDV and I his disciple. By ascetic merit I obtained from him 
a weapon called Brahma- shir a which can never be futile 
and which is like unto thunder itself and capable of con- 
suming the whole earth. That weapon, O Bharata, from 
what I have done, may now discend from disciple to disciple. 
While imparting it to me, my preceptor said, — son of 
Bharadwaja, never shouldst thou hurl tiiis weapon at any 
human being, especially at one who is of small energy ! — Thou 
hast, hero, obtained that celestial weapon ! None else 
deserveth it. But obey thou the command of the Rishi (Agni- 
visha). And, behold, Arjuna, give me now the preceptorial 
fee in the presence of these thy cousins and relatives !' And 
when Arjuna, hearing this, pledged his word that he would 
give what the preceptor demanded, the latter said, '0 sin- 
less one, thou must fight with me when I fight with thee !' 
And tiiat bull among the Kuru princes thereupon pledged his 
word unto Drona and touching his feet went away northwards. 
Then there arose a loud sliout covering the whole earth bounded 
by her belt of seas to the effect that there was no bowman in 
the whole world like unto Arjuna. And, indeed, Dhananjaya, 
in encounters with the mace and the sword and on the chariot. 

ADl P ARYA. 415 

as also with the bow, acquired woiulerful proficiency. And 
Sahadeva obtaining the whole science of morality and duties 
from (Vrihaspati) the spiritual chief of the celestials, contin- 
ued to live under the control of his brothers. And Nakula — 
the favorite of his brothers — taught by Drona became known 
us a skillul warrior and a great charioteer ( Ati-ratha). 
Indeed, Arjuna and the other Pandava princes became so 
powerful that they slew in war the great Sauvira who had 
performed asacrihce extending for three years undaunted by 
the inroads of the Gandharvas. And the king of the Yavanas 
himself whom the powerful Pandu even had failed to bring 
under subjection was brought by Arjuna under control. Then 
rgain, Vipula, the king of Sauvira, endued with great prowess, 
who had always shown a disregard for the Kurus, was made 
by the intelligent Arjuna to feel the edge of his power. And 
Arjuna also repressed by means of his arrows (the pride of ) 
king Sumitra of Sauvira, also known by the name of Datta- 
mitra, who had resolutely sought an encounter with him. 
The third of the Pandava princes, assisted by Bhima, with only 
a single chariot subjugated all the kings of the East backed 
by ten thousand chariots. In the same way, having conquer- 
ed with a single chariot the whole of the South, Dhanaujaya 
sent unto the kingdom of the Kurus a considerable spoil. 

" Thus did those foremost of men — the illustrious Panda- 
vas — conquering the territories of other kings extended the 
limits of their own kingdom. But beholding the great prow- 
ess and strength of those mighty bowmen, king Dhrita- 
rashtra's sentiments towards the Pandavas became suddenly 
poisoned, and from that day the monarch became so anxious 
that he could not sleep." -• 

• Thus ends the hundred and forty-first section in the Sam- 
bhavu of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXLII. 
(Samhhava Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana continued, "Hearing that the heroic sons 
of Pania endued with excess of energy had hecome so mighty, 
king Dhrita-rashtra became very miserable witlj anxiet}'. 
Then summoning unto his side Kanika — that foremost of 
ministers — well-versed in the science of politics and expert in 
eeunsels, the king said, '0 best of Brahmanas, the Pandavaa 
are daily over-shadowing the earth. I am exceedingly jealous 
of them. Should I have peace or war with them ? O Kanika, 
advise me truly, for I shall do as thou biddest !'" 

Vaisampayana continued, " That best of Brahmanas, thus 
addressed by the kiu<^, freely answered him in these pointed 
words well-agreeing with the import of political science. 

' Listen to me, O sinless king, as I answer thee ! And, 
O best of Kuru kings, it behoveth thee not to be angry 
with me after hearing all I s^y. Kings should ever be 
ready with uplifted maces (to strike when necessary), and 
they should ever extend their prowess. Carefully avoiding 
all flaws themselves, they should ceaselessly watoh for the 
flaws of their foes and take advantage of them. If the king 
is always ready to strike, everybody feareth him Therefore, 
should the king ever have recourse to chastisement in all he 
doeth. He should so conduct himself that his foe may not 
detect any flaw iu him. But by means of the weakness 
he detecteth in his foe he should pursue him (to destruction). 
He should always conceal, like the tortoise hiding its body,, 
his means and ends, and he should always conceal his own 
weaknesses from the sight of others. And having begun a. 
particular act, he should ever accomplish it completely. Be- 
hold, a thorn, if not extracted wholly, produceth a festering, 
sore ! The slaughter of a foe who doeth thee evil is always 
praiseworthy. If the foe be one of great prowess, one should 
always watch for the hour his disaster and then slay hira 
without any scruples. If he should happen to be a great 
warrior, his hour of disaster also should be watched and 
he should then be iaiuced to fly. 0, father, an enemy 


should never be scorned however contemptible. A spark 
of fire is capable of consuming an extensive forest if only 
it can spread from one object to another in proximit}''. 
Kings should sometimes feign blindness and deafness, for if 
impotent to chastise they should pretend not to notice the 
faults that call for chastisement. On occasions such as these 
let them regard their bows as made of straw. But they 
should be always alert like a herd of deer sleeping in the 
woods. When thy foe is in thy power destroy him by every 
means open or secret. Do not show him any mercy although 
he seeketh thy protection. A foe or one that hath once injured 
thee should be destroyed by lavishiiig money if necessary, 
for by killing him thou mayst be at your ease. The dead can 
never inspire fear. Thou must destroy the three, five and 
seven (resources) of thy foes. Thou must destroy thy foes, 
completely tearing them up by their roots. Then shouldst 
thou destroy their allies and partisans. The allies and parti- 
sans can never exist if the principals are destroyed. If the 
root of the tree is torn up the branches and twigs can never 
exist as before. Carefully concealing thy own means and 
ends, thou shouldst always watch thy foes, always seeking 
their flaws. Thou shouldst, king, rule thy kingdom always 
anxiously watching thy foes. By maintaining the perpetual 
fire, by sacrifices, by brown cloths, by matted locks, and by 
hides of animals for thy bedding, shouldst thou at first gain 
the confidence of thy foes, and when thou hast gained it 
thou shouldst then spring upon them like a wolf. For it hath 
been said that in the acquisition of wealth even the garb of 
hoHness might be employed as a hooked staff to bend down a 
branch in order to pluck the fruits that are ripe. The method 
followed in the plucking of fruits should be the method in 
destroying foes, for thou shouldst proceed by the principle of 
selection. Bear thou thy foe upon thy shoulders till the time 
Cometh when thou canst throw him down, breaking him into 
pieces like an earthen pot thrown with violence upon a stony 
surface. The foe must never be let off even though he 
addresseth thee most piteously. No pity shouldst thou shew 
him but slay him at once. By the arts of conciliation or 



the expenditure of money should the foe be slain. By produ^ 
cing disunion amongst his allies or by the employment of 
force, indeed, by every means in thy power shouldst thou 
destroy thy foe.' 

" Dhrita-rashtra then said, 'Tell me truly how can a foe 
be destroyed by the arts of conciliation or the expenditure of 
money, or by producing disunion or by the employment 
of force.' 

" Kanika replied, 'Listen, O monarch, to the history of a 
jackal dwelling in days of yore in the forest and fully 
acquainted with the science of politics. There was a wise 
jackal, mindful of liis own interests, who lived in the company 
of four friends, mz, a tiger, a mouse, a wolf, and a mon- 
goose. Gne day tliey saw in the woods a strong deer — the 
leader of a herd— whom, however, they could not seize for 
his fleetness and strength. They thereupon called a council for 
consultation. The jackal, opening the proceedings, said, — O 
tiger, thou hast made many an effort to seize this deer, but 
all in vain, simply because this deer is young, fleet, and very 
intelligent. Let now the mouse go and eat into its feet when 
it lieth asleep. And when this is done, let the tiger approach 
and seize it. Then shall we all, with great pleasure, feast 
Qver it. — Hearing these w^ords of the jackal, they all set to 
work very cautiously as he directed. And the mouse ate into 
the feet of the deer and the tiger killed it as anticipated. 
And beholding the body of the deer lying motionless on the 
ground, the jackal said unto his companions, — Blessed be ye ! 
Go and perform your ablutions. In the meantime I will look 
after the deer. — Hearing what the jackal said, they all went 
into a stream. An:l the jackal waited there, deeply meditating 
•upon what he should do. And the tiger, endued with great 
strength, returned first of all to the spot after having per- 
formed his ablutions. And he saw the jackal there plunged 
in meditation. The tiger said, — Why art thou so sorrowful, 
O wise one! Thou art the foremost of all intelligent persons. 
Let us enjoy ourselves today by feasting on this carcase. — 
The jackal said, — Hear, O mighty-armed one, what the mouse 
hath said. He hath even said, — '0, fie on the etrength of the 


king of the beasts ! This deer hath "been slain by me ! By 
the might of my arm he"] will today gratify his hunger !' — 
When lie hath boasted in such language, I, for my part, do 
not wish to touch this food. — The tiger ^replied, — If, indeed, 
the mouse hath said so, my sense is now awakened. I shall, 
from this day, slay, with the might of my own arm, ci'eaturea 
ranging the forest and then feast on their flesh. — Having said 
this, the tiger went away. 

"'And after the tiger had left the spot, the mouse came. 
And seeing the mouse come, the jackal addressed him and said, 
* — Blest be thou, O mouse, but listen to what tlie mongoose 
htah said. He hath even said, — 'The carcase of this deer is 
poison (the tiger having touched it with his claws). I will 
not eat of it. On the other hand, if thou, jackal, permittest 
it, I will even slay the mouse and feast on him !' Hearing 
this the mouse became alarmed and quickly entered his hole. 
And after the mouse had gone, the wolf, O king, came there 
having performed his ablutions. And seeing the wolf come, 
the jackal said unto him, — The king of the beasts hath been 
angry with thee! Evil is certain to overtake thee ! He is 
expected here with his wife. Do as thou pleasest ! — Thus was 
the wolf also, fond of animal meat, got rid off by the jackal. 
And the wolf fled contracting his body into the smallest dimen- 
sions. It was then that the mongoose came. And, O king, the 
jackal, seeing him come, said, — By the might of my arm have 
I defeated the others who have already fled. Fight with me 
first and then eat of this meat as you please! — The mongoose 
replied, — When, indeed, the tiger, the wolf, and the intelli- 
gent mouse, have all been defeated by thee, heroes as they 
are, thou seemest to be a greater hero still ! I do not desire 
to fight with thee. — Saying this, the mongoose also went 

" Kanika continued, 'When they all had thus left the place, 
the jackal, well-pleased at the success of his policy, alone 
ate of that meat. If kings ever act in this way, they can be 
happy. Thus should the timid by exciting their fears, the 
courageous by the arts of conciliation, the covetous by gift 
of wealth, and equals and inferiors by exhibition of prowess 


be brought under thy sway. Besides all this, king, that I 
have said, listen now to something else that I say.' 

"Kanika continued, 'If thy son, friend, brother, father, 
or even spiritual preceptor, becoineth thy foe, thou shouldst, 
if desirous of prosperity, slay him without scruples. By curses 
and iucantatious, by gift of wealth, by poison, or by decep- 
tion, the foe should be slain. He should never be neglected 
fiom disdain. If both the parties be equal and success uncer- 
tain, then he that acteth with deligence groweth in prosperity. 
If the spiritual preceptor himself be vain, ignorant of what 
should be done and what left undone, and vicious in his 
ways, even he should be chastised. If thou art angry, show 
thyself as if thou art not so, speaking even then with smiles 
on thy lips. Never reprove any one with indications of anger 
(in thy speech). And, Bharata, speak soft words before 
thou smiteth and even while thou art smiting ! After the 
smiting is over, pity the victim, and grieve for him, and 
even shed tears. Coniforting thy foe by conciliation, by gift of 
wealth, and smooth behaviour, thou must smite him when he 
walketh not aright. Thou shouldst equally smite the heinous 
offender who hath since been living in the practice of virtue, 
for the garb of virtue simply covereth his offences like black 
clouds covering the mountains. Thou shouldst burn the 
house of that person whom thou punishest with death. And 
thou shouldst never permit beggars and atheists and thieves 
to dwell in thy kingdom. By a sudden sally or pitched battle, 
by poison or by corrupting his allies, by gift of wealth, by any 
means in thy power, thou shouldst destroy thy foe. Thou 
mayst act with the greatest cruelty. Thou shouldst make thy 
teeth sharp to bite with fatal effect. And thou shouldst ever 
smite so effectually that thy (be may not again raise his head. 
Thou shouldst ever stand in fear of even one from whom 
there is no fear, not to speak of him from whom there is fear. 
For if the first be ever powerful he may destroy thee to the 
roots (for thy unpreparedness). Thou shouldst never trust 
the faithless, nor trust too much those that are faithful, for 
if those in whom thou coufidest prove thy foes, thou art cer- 
tain to b3 auuihiUtcd. After testing their faithfulness thou 

ADl PARVA. 421 

shouUlst employ spies in thy own kingdom and in the king- 
doms of others. Thy spies in foreign kingdoms should be apt 
deceivers and persons in the garb of ascetics. Thy spies 
should be placed in gardens, places of amusement, temples 
and other holy places, drinking places, streets, and with the 
(eighteen) thirthas (viz, the minister, the chief priest, the heir- 
presum{)tive, the commander-in-chief, the gate-keepers of the 
court, persons of the inner apartments, the jailer, the chief 
purveyor, the head of the treasury, the general executant of 
orders, the chief of the town police, the chief architect, the 
chief justice, the president of the council, the chief of the 
punitive department, the commander of the fort, the chief 
of the arsenal, the chief of the frontier guards, and the 
keeper of the forests), and in places of sacrifices, near wells, 
on mountains and rivers, in forests, and in all i>laces where 
people congregate. In speech thou shouldst ever be humble,, 
but let thy heart be ever sharp as the razor. And when thou 
art engaged in doing even a very cruel and terx-ible act, thou 
shouldst talk with smiles on thy lips. If desirous of pros- 
perity, thou shouldst adopt all arts, — iiumility, oath, conci- 
liation, worshipping the feet of others by lowering thy head, 
inspiring hope, and the like. A person conversant with the 
rules of policy is like a tree decked with flowers but bearing 
no fruits ; or, if bearing fruits, these must be at a great height 
not easily attainable from the ground ; and if any of these 
fruits seem to be ripe, care must be taken to make them 
appear as raw. Conducting himself in such a way, he shall 
never fade. Virtue, wealth, and pleasure have both their 
evil and good effects closely knit together. While extracting 
the effects that are good, those that are evil should be 
avoided. Those that practise virtue (incessantly) are made 
unhappy for want of wealth and the neglect of pleasure. 
Those again in pursuit of wealth are made unliappy for the 
neglect of the two others. And so those who pursue pleasure 
suffer for their inattention to virtue and wealth. Tlierefore 
shouldst thou pursue virtue, wealth, and pleasure, in such 
a way that thou mayst not have to suffer therefrom. With 
humiliation and utteutiou, without jealousy and solicitous of 


accomplishing thy purpose, shouldst thou, in all sinceritt,. 
consult with the Brahmanas. When thou art fallen, thou 
shouldst raise thyself by any means, gentle or violent ; and 
after thou hast thus raised thyself, thou shouldst practise 
virtue. He that hath never been afflicted with calamity can 
never have prosperity. This may be seen in the life of 
one who surviveth his calamities. He that is afflicted with 
sorrow should be consoled by the recitation of the history of 
persons of former times (like those of Nala and Rama). He 
whose heart hath been unstrung by sorrow should be consol- 
ed by hopes of future prosperity. He again who is learned 
and wise should be consoled by pleasing offices presently 
rendered unto him. He who having concluded a treatsy 
with an enemy reposeth at ease as if he hath nothing more 
to do, is very like a person who awaketh having fallen down 
from the top of a tree whereon he had slept. A king should 
ever conceal his counsels without fear of calumny, and while 
beholding everything Avith the eyes of his spies, he should 
take care to conceal his own emotions before the spies of his 
enemies. Like a fisherman who becometh prosperous by catch- 
ing and killing fish, a king can never grow prosperous without 
tearing the vitals of his enemy and without doing some violent 
deeds. The might of thy foe, as represented by his armed 
force, should ever be completely destroyed, by ploughing it up 
(like weeds) and mowing it down and otherwise afflicting it 
by disease, starvation, and want of drink. A person in want 
never approacheth (from love) one in affluence; and when one's 
purpose hath been accomplished he hath no need to approach 
Lim whom he had hitherto looked to for its accomplishment. 
Therefore when thou dost anything never do it completely, 
but ever leave something to be desired for by others (whose 
services thou mayst need). One who is desirous of prosperity 
should with diligence seek allies and means, and carefully 
conduct his wars. His exertions in these respects should 
always be guided by prudence. A prudent king should ever 
act in such a way that friends and foes may never know his 
intent before the commencement of his acts. Let them know 
all when the act hath been commenced or ended. As long afe 


danger cloth not come so long only sbalt thou act as if thou 
art afraid, But when it hath overtaken thee, thou must 
grapple with it courageously. He who trusteth in a foe who 
hath been brought under subjection by force, sumraoneth his 
own death as a she-naule by her act of conception. Thou 
shouldst always reckon the act that is future as already 
arrived (and concert measures for meeting it), else, from want 
of calmness caused by haste, thou mayst even overlook aa 
important point in meeting it when it is before thee. A 
person desirous of prosperity should always exert with pru- 
dence adapting his measures to time and place. He should, 
also act with an eye to destiny as capable of being regulated 
by mantras and sacrificial rites, and to virtue, wealth, and 
pleasure. It is well-known that time and place ( if taken 
into consideration) always produce the greatest good. If the 
foe is insignificant, he should not yet be despised, for he mny 
soon grow like a palm tree extending its roots, or like a spark 
of fire in the deep woods that may soon flame up into an ex- 
tensive conflagration. As a little fire gradually fed with fago-ots 
soon becometh capable of consuming even the bio-o-est blocks 
so the person who increaseth his power by makiuf^ alliances 
and friendships soon becometh capable of subjugating even the 
most formidable foe. The hope thou givest unto thy foe 
should be loog deferred in the filling; and when the time 
cometh for its fulfilment, invent some pretext for deferring it 
still. Let that pretext be shown as founded upon some rea- 
son, and let that reason itself be made to appear as founded 
on some other reason. Kings should, in the matter of destroy- 
ing their foes, ever resemble razors in every particular: un- 
pitying as these arc sharp, hiding their intents as these are 
concealed in their leathern cases, striking when the oppor- 
tunity cometh as these are used on proper occasions, sweeping 
off their foes with all allies and dependents as these shave the 
head or the chin without leaving a single hair. thou 
supporter of the dignity of the Kurus, bearing thyself towards 
the Pandavas and others also as policy dictateth, act in such a 
way that thou mayst not have to grieve in future. Well 
do I know that thou art endued with every blessin<y, and 


possessed of every mark of good fortune. Therefore, king, 
protect thyself from the sons of Pandu ! O king, the sona 
of Paudu are stronger than their cousins (thy sons) : therefore, 
O thou oppressor of all foes, I tell thee plainly what thou 
shouldst do. Listen to it, O king, with thy ciiildren, and 
having listened to it, exert yourselves (to do the needful). 
O king, act in such a way that there may not be any fear 
unto thee from the Pandavas. Indeed, adopt such measures 
in consonance with the science of policy that thou mayst 
not have to grieve in the future.' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Having delivered himself thus, 
Kanika returned to his abode, while the Kuru king Dhrita- 
rashtra became pensive and melancholy. " 

Thus ends the hundred and forty-second Section in the 
Sambhava of the Adi Parva. 

Section CLXIII. 
(Jatit-griha Parva.) 

Vaisampayana said, " Then the sou of Suvala (Sakuni^, 
king Duryodhana, Dush-shasana, and Kama, in consultation 
with each other, formed an evil conspiracy. With the sanc- 
tion of Dhrita-rashtra the king of the Kurus, they resolved 
to burn to death Kunti and her (five) sous. But the wise 
Vidura, capable of reading the heart by external signs, 
ascertained the intention of those wicked wights by obser- 
ving their countenances alone. Then the sinless Vidura, of 
soul enlightened by true knowledge, and devoted to the 
good of the Pandavas, came to the conclusion that Kuuti 
with her children should tly away from her foes. And pro- 
viding for that purpose a boat furnished with engines and 
flags and strong enough to withstand both winds and waves, 
he addressed Kunti and said, 'This Diirita-rashtra hath been 
born for destroying the fame and offspring of the (Kuru) 
race. Of wicked soul, he is about to cast off eternal virtue ! 
O blessed one, I have kept ready on the stream a boat capable 
of withstanding both winds and waves. By it escape thou with 
thy children from the net that Death hath spread around ye 1' 


Valsampayana continued, 'Hearing these words, the illus- 
trious Kunti was deeply grieved, and with her children, O thou 
bull of the Bharata race, stepped into the boat and went over 
the Ganges. Then leaving the boat according to the advice 
of Vidura, the Pandavas took with them the wealth that had 
been given to them (while at Varanavata) by their enemies 
and safely entered the deep woods. In the house of lac, 
however, that had been prepared for the destruction of the 
Pandavas, an innocent Nishada woman who had come there for 
some purpose, was, with her children, burnt to death. And 
that worst of Mleohchas — the wretched Purochana — (who was 
the architect employed in building the house of lac) was 
also burnt in the conflagration. And thus were the sons of 
Dhrita-rashtra with their counsellors deceived in their expec- 
tations. And thus also were the illustrious Pandavas, by the 
advice of Vidura, saved with their mother. But the people 
(of Varanavata) knew not of their safety. And the citizens 
of Varanavata, seeing the house of lac consumed (and believ- 
ing the Pandavas to have been burnt to death) became ex- 
ceedingly sorry. And they sent messengers unto king Dhrita- 
rashtra to represent everything that had happened. And 
they told the monarch, 'Thy great end hath been achieved ! 
Thou hast at last burnt the Pandavas to death ! Thy desire 
fulfilled, enjoy with thy children, O king of the Kurus, the 
kingdom !' Hearing this, Dhrita-rashtra with his children, 
made a show of grief, and along with his relatives, including 
Khatta (Vidura) and Bhisma the foremost of the Kurus, per- 
formed the last rites of the Pandavas. " 

Janameja3'a said, 'O best of Brahmanas, I desire to hear 
in full this history of the burning of the house of lac and the 
escape of the Pandavas therefrom. That was a cruel act 
of theirs (the Kurus) acting under the counsels of the wicked 
(Kauika). Recite thou the history to me of all that happened. 
I am burning with curiosity to hear it ! " 

Valsampayana said, " O thou chastiser of all foes, listen 
to me, monarch, as I recite the (history of the) burning 
of the house of lac and the escape of the Pandavas. The 
wicked Duryodhaua, beholding Bhima-seua surpass (every- 



body) in strength and Arjuna highly accomplished in arms, 
became pensive and sad. Then Kama the offspring of the Sun 
and Sakuni the son of Suvala endeavoured by various means 
to compass the death of the Pandavas. The Pandavas too 
counteracted all those contrivances one after another, and 
in obedience to the counsels of Vidura, never spoke of them 
afterwards. Then the citizens, beholding the sons of Pandu 
possessed of all accomplishments, began, O Bharata, to speak 
of them in all places of public resort. And assembled ia 
courtyards and other places of gathering, they talked of the 
eldest son of Pandu (Yudhish-thira) as possessed of the quali- 
fication for ruling the kingdom. And they said, 'Dhrita- 
rashtra, though possessed of the eye of knowledge, being 
(born) blind, obtained not the kingdom before. How can he 
(therefore) become King now ? Then Bhisma, the son of 
Shantanu, of rigid vows and devoted to truth, having for- 
merly relinquished the sovereignty, would never accept it now. 
We shall, therefore, now install (on the throne) with proper 
ceremonies the eldest of the Pandavas endued with youth, 
accomplished in war, versed in the Vedas, and truthful and 
kind. Worshipping Bhisma the son of Shantanu and Dhrita- 
rashtra conversant with the rules of virtue, he will certainly 
maintain both the former and the latter with his children in 
every kind of enjoyment.' 

" The wretched Duryodhana, hearing these words of the 
prating partisans of Yudhish-thira, became very much dis- 
tressed. And afflicted deeply, the wicked prince could not 
put up with those speeches. Inflamed with jealousy he went 
«nto Dhrita-rashtra, and finding him alone he saluted him 
with reverence, and distressed at (the sight of ) the partial- 
ity of the citizens for Yudhish-thira, he addressed the mon- 
arch and said, 'O father, I have heard the prating citizens 
utter words of ill omen. Passing thee by, and Bliisma too, they 
desire the son of Pandu to be their king ! Bhisma will sanc- 
tion this, for he will not rule the kingdom ! It seems, there- 
fore, that the citizens are endeavouring to inflict a great 
injury on us ! Pandu obtained of old the ancestral kingdom 
by virtue of his own accomplishments. Thou, from blindness, 


Obtain edsb nob thy kingdom though fully qualified to hava 
it. If Panda's son now ohtaineth the kingdom as his inheri- 
tance from PanJu, then his son will obtain it after him and 
that son's son also, and so on will it descend in Panda's line. 
In that case, O king of the world, ourselves with our children, 
excluded from the royal line, shall certainly be disregarded 
of all men ! Therefore, O monarch, adopt thou such coun- 
sels that we may not suffer perpetual distress becoming 
dependents on others for our food. O king, if thou hadst 
obtained the sovereignty before, we would certainly have suc- 
ceeded to it, however much the people might be imfavourable 
to us !' " 

Thus ends the hundred and forty-third Section in the Jatu- 

griha of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXLIV. 

(Jatu-griha Parvd continued. ) 

Vaisampayana continued, " King Dhrita-rashtra whose 
kowledge was his only eye, hearing these words of his son 
and recollecting everything that Kanika had said unto him, 
became afflicted with sorrow. And his mind also thereupon 
began to waver. Then Duryodhana and Kama and Sakuni 
the son of Suvalaand Dush-shasana the fourth held a consul- 
tation together. Then prince Duryodhana said unto Dhrita- 
rashtra, 'Send, O father, by some clever contrivance, the Pan- 
davas to the town of Varanavata ! We shall then have no fear 
of them !' Dhrita-rashtra, hearing these words uttered by his 
son, reflected for a moment and then replied unto Duryodhana, 
saying, 'Pandu, ever devoted to virtue, always behaved duti- 
fully towards all his relatives but particularly towards myself. 
He cared very little for the enjoyments of the world, but 
devotedly gave everything unto me, even the kingdam. Hia 
son is as much devoted to virtue as he, and is possessed of 
every accomplishment. Of world-wide fame, he is again the 
favorite of the peojjle. Possessed of allies, how can we by 
force exile him from his ancestral kingdom ? The counsellors 
and soldiers (of the state) and their sons an.l grandsons have 


all been clierisbed anil maintained by Pandu. Thus benefited 
of old by Pandu, shall not, O child, the citizens slay us with 
all our friends and relatives now on account of Yudhish-thira?' 
" Duryodhaaa replied, 'What thou sayest, father, is perfectly 
true. But in view of the evil that is looming in the future 
as regards thyself, if we conciliate the people with wealth 
and honors, they would assuredly side with us for these 
proofs of our power. The treasury and the ministers of state, 
O king, are at this moment under our control. Therefore, 
it behoveth thee now to banish, by some gentle means, the 
Pandavas to the town of Varanavata. And, O king, when 
the sovereignty shall have been vested in me, then, O Bharata, 
may Kunti witii her children come back from that place.' 

" Dhrita-rashtra replied, 'This, O Duryodhana, is the very 
thought existing in my mind. But from its sinfulness I have 
never given expression to it. Neither Bhisma, nor Drona, nor 
Khatta, nor Gautama (Kripa), Avill ever sanction the exile of 
the Pandavas. In their eyes, O dear son, amongst the Kurus 
both ourselves and the Pandavas are equal. Those wise and 
virtuous persons will make no difference between us. If, 
therefore, we behave so towards the Pandavas, shall we not, 
O son, deserve death at the hands of the Kurus, of these 
illustrious personages, and of the whole world ?' 

" Duryodhana answered, 'Bhisma hath no excess of affec- 
tion for either side and will, therefore, be neutral (in case of 
a dispute). The son of Drona (Aswathama) is on ray side. 
There is no doubt that where the son is, there the fath er will 
also be. Then Kripa the son of Saradwan must be on the side 
on which Drona and Aswathama are. He will never abandon 
Drona and his sister's son (Aswathama). Khatta (Vidara) is 
dependent on us for his means of life though he is covertly 
with the foe. But siding the Pandavas, alone he can do us 
no injury. Therefore, exile thou the Pandavas to Varana- 
vata witliout any fear. And take such steps that they may 
go thither this very day. By this act, O father, extinguish 
thou the grief that consumeth me like a blazing fire, that 
robbeth mc of sleep, and that hath pierced my heart even 
like a terrible dart !' " 


Thus ends the hundred and forty-fourth Seclion iu the 
Jatu-griha of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXLV. 
{Jatu-griha Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " Then prince Duryodhana along with 
his brothers began gradually to win over the people to his side 
by grants of wealth and honors. Meanwhile, some clever coun- 
cillors instructed by Dhrita-rashtra, one day began to describe 
(in court) the town of Varanavata as a charming place. And 
they said, 'The festival of Pashupati (Siva) hath commenced 
in the town of Varanavata. The concourse of people is irreat 
and the procession is the most delightful of all ever witnessed 
on earth. Decked with every ornament, it charmeth the 
hearts of all spectators.' Thus did those councillors, ins- 
tructed by Dhrita-rashtra, speak of Varanavata. And whilst 
they were so speaking, the Pandavas, O king, entertained 
the desire of going to that delightful town. And when the 
king (Dhrita-rashtra) ascertained that the curiosity of the 
Pandavas had been awakened, the son of Amvika addressed 
them, saying, 'These men of mine often speak of Varanavata 
as the most delightful town in the Avorld. If, therefore, ye 
children desire to witness that festival, go ye to Varanavata 
with your followers and friends and enjoy yourselves there like 
the celestials. And give ye away pearls and gems unto the 
Brahmanas and the musicians (that may be assembled there) 
And sporting there for sometime as ye please like the resi)leud- 
ent celestials and enjoying as much hapiness as ye like, return 
ye to Hastinapore again !' " 

Vaisampayana continued, " Yudhish-thira, fully under- 
standing the motives of Dhrita-rashtra and considering that 
he himself was weak and friendless, replied unto the\ing 
saying, 'So be it.' Then addressing Bhisma the son of Shau- 
tanu, the wise Vidura, Drona, Valhika, the Kaurava Soma- 
datta, Kripa, Aswathama, Bhuri-srava, and the other rever- 
end councillors, and Brahmanas and ascetics, and the i)riest 
and the citizens, and the illualrious Gundhari, Yudhish-thii'a 


said slowly and humbly, 'With our friends and followers we 
go to the delightful and j)opulous town of Varanavata at the 
command of Dhrita-rashtra ! Cheerfully give us your bene- 
dictions so that acquiring prosperity therewith we may not 
be touched by sin !' Thus addressed by the eldest of Pandu's 
sons, the Kaurava cliiefs all cheerfully pronounced blessings 
on them, saying, 'Ye sons of Pandu, let all the elements bless 
ye along your ways and let not the slightest evil befall ye !' 

"The Pandavas, having performed propitiatory rites for 
obtaining (their share of ) the kingdom, and finishing their 
preparations, set out for Varanavata." 

Thus ends the hundred and forty-fifth Section in the 
Jatu-griha of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXLVI. 

( Jatu-griha Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " The wicked Duryodhana became 
very much pleased when the king, O Bharata, had said so unto 
the Pandavas. And, thou bull of the Bharata race, Dur- 
yodhana then summoning his counsellor Purochana in private 
took hold of his right hand and said, 'O Purochana, this 
world, so full of wealth, is mine! But it is thine equally 
with mine! It behoveth thee, therefore, to protect it! I 
Lave no more trustworthy counsellor than thee with whom 
to consult. Therefore, O father, keep my counsel and exter- 
minate my foes by a clever device. do as I bid thee ! The 
Pandavas have, by Dhrita-rashtra, been sent to Varanavata. 
They will, at Dhrita-rashtra's command, onjoy themselves 
there during the festivities. Do that by which thou mayst 
this very day reach Varanavata upon a chariot drawn by swift 
mules ! Repairing thither, cause thou to be erected a quad- 
rangular palace in tlie neighbourhood of the arsenal, rich in 
materials and furniture, and guard thou the mansion well 
(from prying eyes) ! And use thou (in erecting that house) 
hemp and resin and all other inflammable materials that 
are procurable. And mixing a little earth with clarified 
butter and oil and iat and a large measure of lac, make thou 


a plaster for lining the walls. And scatter tlion all around 
that house hemp and oil and clarified butter and lac and 
wood in such a way that the Pandavas, or any others, may 
not, even with scrutiny, behold them there or conclude the 
house to be an inflammable one. And having erected such a 
mansion, cause thou the Pandavas, after worshipping tiiem 
with great reverence, to inhabit it, with Kunti, and all 
their friends. And place tliou there seats and conveyances 
and beds, all of the best workmanship, for the Pandavas, so 
that Dhrita-rashtra may have no reason to complain. And 
thou must also so manage it all that none of Varauavata may 
know anything till the end we have in view is accomplished. 
And assuring thyself that the Pandavas are sleeping within 
in confidence and without fear, thou must then set fire to that 
mansion beginning at the outer door. The Pandavas thereupon 
must be burnt to death, but tlie people will say that they 
have been burnt in (an accidental) conflagration of their 

*'Sa}'ing 'So be it' unto the Kuru prince, Purochana 
repaired to Varanavata on a car drawn by fleet mules. And 
going thither, O king; Avithout loss of time, obedient to the 
instructions of Duryodhana he did every tiling that that 
prince bade him do." 

Thus ends the hundred and fort3'-sixth Section in the Jatu- 
griha of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXLVII. 

( Jatii-griha Pdrva continued. ) 

Vaisampayana said, " Meanwhile the Pandavas ascended 
their chariots yoking thereto some fine horses endued with 
the speed of the wind. And while they were on the 
point of riding on their cars, they touched, in great distress, 
the feet of Bhisma, of king Dhrita-rashtra, of the illustrious 
Drona, of Kripa, of Vidura, and of the other elders of the 
Kuru race. Thus saluting reverentially all the older men, and 
embracing their equals, and receiving the farewell of even 
the children, and taking leave of all the venerable ladies of 


theii* household and walking round them respectfully, and bid- 
ding farewell unto all the citizens, the Pandavas, ever mindful 
of their vows, set out for Varanavata. And Vidura of great 
■wisdom and the other bulls among the Kurus and the citizens 
also, in great affliction followed those tigers among men for 
some distance. And some amongst the citizens and the country- 
people who followed the Pandavas, afflicted beyond measure 
at beholding the sons of Pandu in such distress, began to 
say aloud, 'King Dhrita-rashtra of wicked soul seeth not 
things with an equal eye ! The Kuru monarch casteth not 
his eye on virtue ! Neither the sinless Yudhish-thira, nor 
Bhima the foremost of mighty men, nor Dhanaujaya the 
(youngest) son of Kunti, will ever be guilty of (the sin of 
waging a rebellious wa:). And when these will remain quiet, 
how shall the illustrious sons of Madri do anything ? Having 
inherited the kingdom from their father, Dhrita-rashtra could 
not bear them. How is it that Bhisnia who suffers the exile 
of the Pandavas to that wretched place, sanctions this act of 
great injustice? Vichitra-virya the son of Shantanu and the 
royal sage Pandu of the Kuru race both cherished us of old 
with fatherly care. But now that Pandu — that tiger among 
men — hath ascended to heaven, Dhrita-rashtra cannot bear 
these princes — his children. We who do not sanction this 
(5xile shall all go, leaving this excellent town and our own 
homes, to where Yudhish-thira will go.' 

" Unto those distressed citizens talking in this way, the 
virtuous Yudhish-thira, himself afflicted with sorrow, reflect- 
ing for a few moments said, 'The king is our father, worthy 
of regard, our spiritual guide, and our superior ! To do with 
unsuspicious hearts whatever he biddeth is, indeed, our duty. 
Ye are our frieuds ! Walking round us and making us happy 
by your blessings, return ye to your abodes ! When the time 
Cometh for anything to be done for us by ye, then, indeed, 
accomplish all that is agreeable and beneficial to us !' Thus 
addressed, the citizens walked round the Pandavas and blest 
them with their blessings and returned to their respective 

" And after the citizens ceased following the Pandavas, 


Vilura, conversant with all the dictates of morality, desirous 
of awakening the eldest of the Pandavas (to a sense of hia 
dangers) addressed him in these words. The learned Vidura, 
conversant with the jargon (of the Mlechchas), addressed the 
learned Yudhish-thira also conversant with the jargon (of 
the Mlechchas) in words of the Mlechcha tongue so as to 
be unintelligible to all except Yudhish-thira. And he said, 
'He that knoweth the schemes his foes contrive in accordance 
with the dictates of political science, should, knowing 
them, act in such a way as to keep himself oiF from all 
danger. He that knoweth that there are sharp weapons 
capable of cutting the body though not made of steel, and 
understandeth also the means of warding them off, can never 
be injured by his foes. He liveth who protecteth himself by 
the knowledge that neither the consumer of straw and wood 
nor the drier of the dew burneth the inmates of a hole in 
the deep woods. The blind see no way nor have any know- 
ledge of direction. They who have no patience never acquire 
prosperity. Remembering this, keep thyself alert. The per- 
son who accepteth an inflammable abode assigned to him by 
liis foes can escape from fire by making his abode like unto 
that of a jackal (having many outlets). By wandering a maa 
can acquire the knowledge of ways, and by the stars he caa 
ascertain the directions, and he who keepeth his five (senses) 
under control can never be oppressed by his enemiea.' 

" Thus addressed, Pandu's son Yudhish-thira the just 
replied unto Vidura the foremost of all learned men, saying, 
'I have understood thee.' Then Vidura, having instructed 
the Pandavas and followed them (thus far), walked around 
them and bidding them farewell returned to his own abode. 
And when the citizens and Bhisma and Vidura had all ceased 
following, Kunti approched Yudhish-thira and said, 'The 
words that Kliatta said unto thee in the midst of many people, 
so indistinctly as if he said not anything, and thy reply also 
to him in similar words and voice, we have not understood. 
If it is not improper for us to know them I should then like 
to hear everything that passed between him and thee !' 

" Yudhidh-thira replied, 'The virtuous Vidura said unto 



me that we should know the mansion (for our accommodation 
at Varanavata) hath been built of inflammable materials. 
He also said unto me, — the path of escape too shall not be 
unknown to thee, — and, further, that — those that can control 
their senses can acquire the sovereignty of the whole world,— 
The reply that I gave unto Vidura was, — I have understood 

Vaisampayana continued, " The Pandavas set out on the 
eighth day of the month of Falgoona when the star Rohiny 
■was ascendant, and arriving at Varanavata they beheld the 
town and the people." 

Thus ends the hundred and forty-seventh Section in the 
■ffatu-griha of the Adi Parva. 

■Section CXLVIII. 
(Jatit-griha Parva. Continued.) 

"Vaisampayana said, " Then all the citizens (of Varana- 
vata), hearing that the sons of Pandu had come, and filled 
with joy at the tidings, with great actvity came out of Vara- 
navata, on conveyances of various kinds by thousands, and 
taking with them every auspicious article, as directed by the 
BhaStras, to receive those foremost of men. And the people 
of Varanavata having approached the sons of Kunti blessed 
them by uttering the word Jaya and stood surrounding them. 
That tiger among men — the virtuous Yudhish-thira — thus 
surrounded by them looked resplendent like him having the 
'thunder-bolt in his hands (Indra) in the midst of the celestials. 
And those sinless ones welcomed by the citizens and welcom- 
ing the citizens in return then entered the populous town of 
Varanavata decked with every ornament. And entering the 
town, those heroes first went, O monarch, to the abodes of 
Brahraanas engaged in their proper duties. Those foremost 
of men then went to the abodes of the SiUas and of the 
Vaisyas and even of the Sudras. And, thou bull of the 
Bharata race," thus adored by the citizens, the Pandavas at 
last went, with Purochana walking before them, to the palace 
that had been built for them. And Purochana then began 

ADl PARVA. 43>5 

fco place before them food and drink and beds and carpets, 
all of the first and most lianisome kind. And the Pandavas, 
dressed in costly attire, continued to live there, adored by 
Purochana and the people having their homes in Varanavata. 

" After the Pandavas had thus lived for ten nights, Puro- 
chana spoke to them of the mansion (he had built) called 
'The blessed home,' but in reality the cursed house. Then, 
those tigers among men attired in costly dress, entered thafc 
mansion at Purochana's word, like Guhyakas entering the 
palace (of Shiva) on the Kylasa mount. The foremost of 
all virtuous men — Yudhish-thira — inspecting the house said 
unto Bhima that it was really built of inflammable materials. 
And scenting the smell of fat mixed with clarified butter and 
preparations of lac, he said unto Bhima, 'O thou oppressor 
of all enemies, this house is truly built of inflammable 
materials ! Indeed, it is apparent that such is the case ! TI13 
enemy, it is evident, by the aid of trusted artists well-skilled 
in the construction of houses have finely built this mansion, 
after procuring hemp, resin, heath, straw, and bamboos all 
soaked in clarified butter. This wicked wretch, Purochana, 
acting under the instructions of Duryo-dhana, stayeth here 
with the object of burning me to death when he seeth me 
trustful. But, son of Pritha, Vidura of great intelligence 
knew this danger and, therefore, hath apprised me of it 
beforehand. Knowing it all, that youngest uncle of ours, ever 
wisliing our good, from affection hath told us that this house 
80 full of danger hath been constructed by the wretches under 
Duryo-dhana acting in secrecy.' 

" Hearing this, Bhima replied, 'If, sir, you know this 
house to be so inflammable, it would then be well for us to 
return thither where we had taken up our quarters first/ 
Yudhish-thira replied, 'It seemeth to me that we should 
rather continue to live here in seeming unsnspiciousuess but 
all the while with caution and our eenses wide awake, and 
seeking for some certain means of escape. If Purochana 
findeth from our countenances that we have fatiiomed his 
designs, acting with haste he may suddenly burn us to death. 
Indeed, Purochana carcth little for obloquy or ein. The- 


■wretch stayeth here, acting under the instructions of Duryo- 
dhana. If we are burnt to death, will our grandfather Bhisma 
"be angry ? Why will he, by showing his wrath, make the 
Kauravas angry with him ? Or, it may he that our grand- 
father Bhisma and the other hulls of the Kuru race, regard- 
ing indignation at such a sinful act to be virtuous, may 
become indignant. If, however, from fear of being burnt we 
fly hence, Duryo-dhana, ambitous of sovereignt}', will cer- 
tainly compass our deaths by means of spies. While we have 
no rank and power, Duryodhana hath both : while we have 
DO friends and allies Duryo-dhana hath both : while we are 
without wealth, Duryodhana commandeth a full treasury. 
May he not, therefore, certainly destroy us by adopting ade- 
quate means? Let us, therefore, deceiving this Avretch (Puro^ 
chana) and that other wretch Duryo-dhana, pass our days> 
disguising ourselves at times. Let us also lead a hunting 
life, wandering over the earth. We shall then, if we have 
to escape our enemies, be familiar with all paths. We shall 
also, this very day, cause a sub-terranean passage to be dug 
in our chamber in great secrecy. If we act in this way, 
concealing what we do from all, fire shall never be able to 
consume us. We shall live here actively doing everything 
for our safety but with such secrecy that neither Purochana 
nor any of the citizens of Varanavata may know anything 
we do.' " 

Thus ends the hundred and forty-eighth Section in the 
Jatu-griha of the Adi Parva. 

Section CXLIX. 
( Jatu-griha Parva continued. ) 

Vaisampayaua continued, " A friend of Vidura, a person 
well-skilled in mining, coming unto the Pandavas, addressed 
them in secret, saying, 'I have been sent by Vidura and am 
a skilful miner. I am to serve the *Pandavas. Tell me what 
I am to do for ye ! From the trust he reposeth in me, 
Vidura hath said unto me, — Go thou unto the Pandavas and 
accomplish thou their good, — What shall I do for ye ? Puro- 


chaua will set fire to the door of thy house on the fourteenth 
night of this the dark lunation. To burn to death those 
tio-ers ainona: men — the Pandavas — with their mother is the 
design of that Avicked wretch the son of Dlirita-rashtra. And, 
O son of Pandu, Vidura also told thee something in the 
Mlechcha tongue to which thou also hadst replied in the 
same language. I state these particulars as my credentials.' 
Hearing these words, Yudhish-thira the truthful son of Kunti 
replied, saying, 'O amiable one, I now know thee as a dear 
and trusted friend of Vidura, true and ever devoted to him. 
There is nothing that the learned Yidura doth not know! 
As his so ours art thou ! Make no difference between him 
and us. We are as much thine also as his. O protect us as 
the learned Vidura ever protecteth us ! I know that this 
house so inflammable hath been contrived for me by Puro- 
chana at the command of Dhrita-rashtra's son. That wicked 
wretch commanding wealth and allies pursueth us without 
intermission. O save us with a little exertion from the 
impending conflagration! If we are burnt to death here, 
Duryoihana's most cherished desire will be satisfied. Here 
is that wretch's well-furnished arsenal. This large mansion 
hath been built abutting the high ramparts of the arsenal 
without any outlet. But this unhoUy contrivance of Duryo- 
dhana was known to Vidura from the first, and he it was who 
enlightened us beforehand. That danger of which Khatta had 
foreknowledge is at our door. Save us from it without Puro- 
chana being able to know that we are saved.' Hearing these 
words the miner said, 'So be it,' and carefully beginning his 
work of excavation made a large subterranean passage. And 
the mouth of that passage was in the centre of that house, and 
it was on a level with the floor and closed up with planks. 
And the mouth was so covered from fear of Purochana. That 
wicked wretch kept a constant watch at the door of the house. 
And the Pandavas used to sleep within their chambers with 
arms ready for use, while daring the clay they went ahunting 
from forest to forest. And thus, O king, they lived (in that 
mansion) very guardedly, deceiving Purochana by a show 
of trustfulness and contentment while in reality they were 


trustless and discontented. Nor did the citizens of Varanavata 
know anything about these plans of the Pandavas. In fact, 
none else knew of them except Vidura's friend that good 

Tbus ends the hundred and forty-ninth Section in the 
Jatu-griha of the Adi Parva. 

Section CL. 
(Jatu-griha Parva continued.) 

Vaisampayana said, " Seeing the Pandavas living cheep- 
fully and without suspicion for a full year, Purochana became 
exceedingly glad. And beholding Purochana so very glad, 
Yudhish-thira the virtuous son of Kunti, addressing Bhima 
and Arjuua and the twins (Nakula and Sahadeva) said, 'The 
cruel-hearted wretch hath been well-deceived. I think the 
time is come for our escape. Setting fire to the arsenal and 
burning Purochana to death and letting his body lie here, 
let us six persons fly hence unmarked by all.' 

" Then on the occasion of a gift, king, Kunti fed on a 
certain night a large number of Brahmanas. And there came 
also a number of ladies. These eating and drinking enjoyed 
there as they ]»leased, and with Kunti's leave at last returned 
to their respective homes. And desirous of obtaining food, 
there came, as if impelled by the fates, to that feast, in 
course of her wanderings a Nishada woman — the mother of 
five children — accompanied by all her sons. And, king, she 
and her children, intoxicated with the wine they drank, became 
incapable. And deprived of consciousness and mo