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Full text of "The Mahávansi, the Rájá-Ratnácari, and the Rájá-Vali, forming the Sacred and historical books of Ceylon: also, a Collection of tracts illustrative of the doctrines and literature of Buddhism; tr. from the Singhalese"

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^arrcti anti l&i£(toriral Mo'^si oi Ceglon; 





^ranslatctr from tije ^mgDakse. 


.::^DWARD UPHAM, M.R.A.S. & F.SA. 

■"■oyj^ .. »<**- *^^ \ OTIOMAN EMl'IRE, &C. \c. 


^O/f ATtt1#^ 





JAN 23 18y 



J. hlOVEi, CA3TLK STRlfBT, LEICl^ifCR .<gt'AAS. 




The MahdvansI, Raj4 Ratn^cari, and R^javali, al- 
though containing the train of national history, and 
recording the events most materially connected there- 
with, attach such an ahsorbing importance to the doc- 
trine of Guadma, as renders it highly desirable, and 
indeed necessary, to give that extension to this work 
which the following original tracts supply. Collected 
in Ceylon by Sir Alexander Johnston, from the same 
sources as those which supplied the histories, and 
thereby stamped with a species of official guarantee for 
their authenticity, it may be confidently hoped that 
their contents will contribute to enlarge our means of 
examining the dogmas of the Buddhist faith, as pre- 
vailing in this beautiful portion of our Indian emj^ire. 

The collection commences with three series of 
Seventeen Questions each, and one tract of Ninety 
Questions, proposed by the Dutch governor to the most 
distinguished Buddhist priests on the island, on the 
chief points of their doctrine ; and although some of 
the questions do not evince much acumen on the 
part of the propounder, yet, as the exoteric or popular 
sense of the system may be fully gathered from the 
import of the answers, their acquisition, in our present 
state of comparative ignorance of Buddhist literature, 

VOL. III. ]i 


may be deemed l)otli interesting and instructive. Al- 
though the dogmas of Guadma fall far beneath the 
kindred writings of Nipal for ethical refinement, yet 
these replies demonstrate their growth from the same 
root. One example may suffice to illustrate this asser- 
tion. Mr. Hodgson was justly struck with surprise at 
the Nipalese statement respecting the creation of man ; 
his remarks tliereon are contained in the 2d volume 
of the " Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society," 
page 234, and the ninth note in the Appendix to that 
paper. The reader who will take the pains of com- 
paring these passages with the details in pages 16 
and 157 of this volume, will perceive their perfect con- 

If again we examine the reply made in the shorter 
tracts to Queiy 5, " How sin entered into the world?" 
avarice and anger are stated in each answer. The fatal 
effects of anger, by introducing death into the visible 
creation, we know from higher authority ; and the 
enlarged sense given to the expression *' avarice," in 
the reply of the Mahabadda priests, namely, " the 
love of riches," is sufficiently indicative of that base 
passion of the heart which he who read its inmost 
recesses terms the root of all evil. The true meanina: 
of the answer, rendered "■ stupidity and thoughtless- 
ness," must be deemed very ambiguous ; but the pro- 
bal)le meaning may be drawn from the Ninety Ques- 
tions, page 157, vjhich refers sin to the corrupted and 
mischievous temper of man. 

The list of manuscripts contained in the chief 
Viharis, although it merely presents the titles of these 
literary stores, yet exhibits extensive classes, on various 


subjects, which would probably yield much important 
information ; and therefore it may be deemed a step to 
acquire a knowledge of the titles of Buddhist collections 
of tracts, especially when, as in the present instance, 
they are accompanied by comments or notices on their 
contents, however scanty. 

The Pittakas, Winne Sutras, and Abidharma, con- 
tain a classification of some of the most important 
doctrines of Guadma ; the Mahavansi regularly re- 
ferring to them as the treatises which are most in 

The tract on the transport of the Bogaha-tree to 
Ceylon, is rendered valuable from its connexion with 
the account of the lakes, those great and stupendous 
national works, which are so honourably mentioned 
and eulogised in the report made by command of the 
British Government on the present state of the island 
of Ceylon. The same official paper makes mention of 
a curious exhibition of the datu of the Buddha, so 
often named in the histories, taking place in 1828, 
before a vast concourse of Singhalese resorting for that 
purpose to Kandy : the deep-rooted influence of the 
doctrine cannot be more strongly exemplified than by 
quoting this fact. 

The Jutakas may probably appear to many of our 
readers as flat and insipid. Three of the most esteemed 
by the Singhalese, namely, Bombadat Raja, Userate- 
nam Raja, and Wessantara, were, in fact, so charac- 
terised in a French review of " The Doctrine of Bud- 
hism," which appeared in the " Journal Asiatique" of 
Paris, January 1830. It may be deemed suflicient in 
justification of their publication, simply to state the 


rank "svliich these books always occupy in Butldliist 
literature ; which fact may be safely rested on Note I, 
conveying so clearly the sentiments of a Buddhist 
(Enanse on these tales ; the influence also which their 
doctrine of individualism exclusively illustrates, being 
the main hinge of the metempsychosis, the manifesta- 
tions of the thoughts and words of Guadma, as embo- 
died in these tales, are eagerly consulted for moral 
guidance when in similar circumstances. This point 
was not deemed either trivial or unimportant by avow- 
edly the best-informed individual on Buddhist litera- 
ture which France possessed, the deeply regretted 
M. Abel Remusat ; and his remarks are also sub- 
joined, that this point may rest on its true merits. 

In discussing the dogmas which influence and ex- 
ercise the belief of millions of our race, entertainment 
is not so much the object of our efforts as the know- 
ledge of facts : it is probable that these translations 
may express somewhat obscurely their scope and sense; 
but no alteration has been made in the original words, 
lest their real meaning might be perverted : matters of 
narration may be often successfully corrected by the 
context, but matters involving ethical points are rarely 
made clearer by emendations. 

The minor treatises, such as the Piija to the Bud- 
dha, the question of the lawfulness of taking oaths, and 
the remarks on the priests' dresses, &c., having been 
so often referred to in the histories, were thought en- 
titled to insertion. 

Although every effort has been made by the Editor 
to render this collection available for the elucidation of 
the Buddliist faith and its literature, he is well aware 


that much remains undone ; but it may be hoped that 
future research will present us with histories that blend 
with Indian epochs, and thus enlarge our knowledge 
of essential facts. The dialectics of Buddhism may 
amuse, but they rarely instruct us ; while every relic 
of really authentic history we can rescue from the 
oblivious cloud which at present enshrouds all Indian 
records of the past, must be deemed alike interesting 
to the public, and highly useful as illustrative of the 
character of our species. 


" There is a tradition among the Cingalese, that one of the 
kings of Hindostanee, immediately after Budhu's death, col- 
lected together 500 learned ascetics, and persuaded them to 
write down on palmyra leaves, from the mouth of one of 
Budhu's principal disciples, all the doctrines taught by Bud- 
hu in his life-time. The Cingalese admit that they received 
their religion from the hands of a stranger ; and it is pro- 
bable that it was propagated in the Burman empire soon 
after its reception in Ceylon, that is, about 450 years after 
Budhu's death. The Burmans believe, that 650 years after 
that event, in the reign of Muhumoone, Booddhughoskft, 
a brahmin, was deputed to Ceylon to copy the work Vis- 
hooddhimargu, which includes all the jutakas, or histories of 
the incarnations of Budhu ; and it is fabled, that the iron 
stvle with which he copied this work was given him by a 
heavenly messenger, though others will have it that Budhu- 
Siitwu gave it to him. 

" These jutakas are said to have amounted to 550 books, 


some of which are, however, lost. A work called the Ten 
Jutakas is now the best known, and is held in the highest 
veneration. The names of these jutakas are Timee, Junishu, 
Sooburmu-ranui, Neuee, Muhoshutla, Bhoouduttu, Chuda, 
Koomani, Nardil, and Wessantara. Since the above period, 
many Burmans have translated and commented on those 
•writings. In a work entitled " The great History of the 
Burman and Pegu Kings," it is recorded, that during the 
I'hiooru-Kshutriya dynasty, not fewer than fifty-five transla- 
tions were made, and as many comments written on these 
books. But the Burmans are believed to possess works of 
greater antiquity than these jutakas, on history, poetry, 
medicine, astronomy, grammar, &c., borrowed from the 
Sungskulu, or the productions of the Budhu sect : time must 

" It is a singular circumstance, that the Budhus should 
have chosen for their hero, like the Hindoos for Vishnu, ten 
incarnations ; and still more singular, that they should have 
designated the histories of these incarnations by the names of 
ten Hindoo sages." 


Yin-youan. Ce mot exprime la relation qui lie I'efFet a la 
cause, et marque la destinee, la fatalite, Tenchainement qui 
existe entre tons les actes dont la succession constitue I'in- 
dividualite. On dit que, par I'efFet du Yin-youan, I'ame d'un 
homme passe dans le corps d'un autre homme ; par exemple, 
une pauvre femme qui vivait, il y a des milliers des siecles, au 
temps du Bouddha Vipasyi, ayant fourni un peu d'or et une 
perle pour reparer une defectuosite qui deparait le visage 
d'une statue de ce Bouddha, forma la voeu d'etre par la suite 
Tepouse du doreur qui fit cette reparation ; ce vceu se realisa ; 
elle renaquit durant quatre-vingt-onze kalpa, ou periodes du 


monde, avec une face de couleur d'or ; ensuite elle renaqiiit 
encore comme dieu Brahma ; sa vie comme dieu etant 
epuisee, elle devint brahtnane dans le pays de Mdgadha, 
et ce fut dans sa famille que naquit Mahd-kaya, le pre- 
mier disciple de Shakia; de-la lui vint le nom de Kin-se 
(couleur d'or). C'est un exemple de ces Yin-youan ou 
dispositions individuelles. — Observations sur quelques Points 
de la Doctrine Samaneene, par M. Abel Remusat, Nouv. 
Journ. Asiat. torn. vii. p. 291. 


Fo (Shakia mouni) racontait a ses disciples comment, 
dans des existences anterieures et prodig-ieusement ancien- 
nes, il avait merite, par d'assez mauvaises actions, de soufFrir 
des peines graves ; et comment alors meme qu'il etait par- 
venu a la dignite de Bouddha, il lui restait encore ^ en- 
durer un reste de ces justes punitions pour d'antiques 
mefaits ; ce qui expliquait comment un etre actuellement si 
parfait pouvait etre soumis a de si rudes epreuves. Une 
femme nommee Sun-tho-li avait accable d'injures Shakia 
Bouddha ; celui-ci en apprit la raison a ses auditeurs en 
ces tennes : " II y avait autrefois, dans la ville de Benares, 
un comedien nomme Tching-yan (I'oeil pur). Dans le meme 
temps vivait une courtisane nommee Lou-siang. Le come- 
dian emmena cette femme avec lui dans son char, et la 
conduisit hors de la ville dans un jardin plante d'arbres, 
od ils se divertirent ensemble. Dans ce jardin un Pratyeka 
bouddha se livrait a la pratique des oeuvres pieuses. Le 
comedien attendit que ce saint personnage fut entre dans la 
ville pour y mendier sa nourriture, et ayant tue la courti- 
sane, il I'enterra dans la chaumi^re du Pratyeka bouddha, 
et mit sur son compte le crime que lui-meme avait commis, 
Cependant, au moment ou le saint allait etre mis k mort, il 


eprouva des remortis, se fit connaitre pour la veritable coup- 
able, ot fut livre au supplice par ordre du roi. Ce conie- 
dion," ajouta Shakia, " c'etait moi-meme ; la courtisanec'etait 
Sun-tho-U. Voila pourquoi, pendant une longue duree de 
si^cles, j'ai souffert, en consequence demon crime, des peines 
infinies ; et quoique je sois maintenant devenu Bouddha, 
il me restait encore k endurer, comme reste de chatiment, 
les injures et les calomnies de la femme Sun-tho-li." Beau- 
coup d'anecdotes du meme genre attestent, dans la personne 
nieme de Shakia, I'inevitable influence de ces Yin-youan, 
ou destinees individuelles ; mais outre ces cas particuliers, 
on distingue douze degres ou chainons de fatalites communes 
a tous les hornmes, et c'est ce qu'on nomme en Sanscrit les 
douze Nidunas, en Chinois Yin-youan. M. Deguignes, qui 
avait a sa disposition le vocabulaire pentaglotte. y aurait 
pu lire les noms Sanscrits des douze termes de cette cate- 
gorie : Avidya, I'ignorance ; Sanskura, Taction ou la passion ; 
Vidjucinam, la perception ; Namaroupam, le nom et la 
forme (I'individualite), &c. On pent voir, dans les extraits 
des livres bouddhiques de TInde, quel est le ncEud qui s'eta- 
blit, dans I'opinion des moralistes ou psychologistes de I'lnde, 
entre ces actes successifs, supposes enchaines les uns aux 
autres, comme I'effet a la cause. L'ame y est assujettie ; elle 
est comme enfermee dans le cercle qu'ils constituent, tant 
qu'elle n'a pas pu parvenir a s'affranchir de ses rapports avec 
les etres qui composent le monde exterieur. — Page 292. 










1. Mulgirri Galle, Chief Priest Karatotta Oeiianse. 

2. The Galle Priests. 

3. Mahagodda Oenanse. 

4. The Mahabadda Priests. 

5. A Doctrinal Tract, communicated by Rajapaxe. 



Karatotta Oenanses Answers. 

Query 1. What views have you of the Supreme 
Being ? or are there more gods than one ? 

Answer. Maha-Brachma-Rajeya is the Su- 
preme Being when Budhu is not in the world, but 
when he comes to be born in the world then he 
is the Supreme Being, for Maha-Brachma-R. mi- 
nisters to him. According to the doctrine of 
Budhu there are an immense number of gods, 
as well in the sixteen heavens called Brachma- 
Loka, and six called Dewa-Loka, as in the 
trees, rocks, rivers, &c. 

2. How do you account for the creation of 
the world ? 

The creation of the world is not to be ascribed 
to any person : its rising and perishing is by na- 
ture itself. 

3. How long since it was created, and by 
whom was it created ? 

The time of its rising does not appear in the 
doctrine of Budhu : its rising is by nature. 

4. How do you account for the creation of 
the first man and woman ? for there must have 


been a first man and woman from whom we 
have all proceeded. 

Accordino; to the belief of the Budhists there 
/ was no such thincf as that of the creation of the 
first man and woman ; we all have proceeded 
from those who, having ended their lives in the 
heaven called Bambelowa, have been transmi- 
grated to this world in the first calpa. 

5. How did sin enter into the world ? 

Sin did not enter into the world by any other 
means than by the three principal means, as 
that of avarice, covetousness, and anger : the 
heart which is given up to one, two, or all three 
of these vices, is called a sinful heart, and what 
we say, do, or think, with such a heart, is sin. 

6. Have men souls, or some principle or 
spirit that lives after the body dies ? 

All men have some principle called Win- 
yanaskandaya, that lives after the body dies, in 
order to be born (by transmigration) in some 
. place according to their merits or bad actions. 

7. Are there further rewards and punish- 
ments after this life, or do all men go to the 
same place ? 

Surely there are rewards and punishments 
after this life, as every one deserves, for their 
good or bad acts, but there is no such thing as 
that of all men going to the same place. 


8. What are your views of heaven or a place 
of happiness ? 

There is a place of happiness called Nirwana- 
pooraya, where is neither misery nor death, but 
they enjoy happiness for ever and ever. 

9. What are your views of hell or a place 
of misery ? 

There are 136 places of misery where the 
sinners suffer great misery. 

10. How is the place of misery to be 
shunned ? 

The place of misery is to be shunned by 
doing charities, and by avoiding all sorts of 


11. How is the place of happiness to be 

secured ? 

The place of happiness is to be secured by // 
a true belief in the doctrine of Budhu, and by 
fulfilling the same. 

12. What are your views of moral good 
and evil ? 

That moral good and evil make men happy 
and miserable. 

13. What laws or commandments have you ? 
There are many commandments of Budhu, 

all which dictate to do good and avoid evil, 
and purify the conscience. 

14. Is there any such thing in man as con- 


science, whereby he feels uneasy when he breaks 
the law or does wrons: ? 

There is such a thing in man as conscience, 
which makes a man uneasy when he breaks 
the law or does wrong, and also makes him 
happy when he does good and performs cha- 

15. In what does your worship consist ? 

jQ It consists in a true faith, remembering 

always virtue. 

16. What are the perfections' of your god 
or gods / 

The perfections of the supreme beings, that 
is to say of the Budhus, consist in thirty-two 
great accomplishments, and eighty joint accom- 
plishments, and more other virtues, wisdom, &c. 

17. Have you any books or ancient ^viitings 
to direct you ? 

Yes ; there are many books in the Palee lan- 
guage containing the doctrines of Budhu. 

The Answei's of the Galle Priests. 

Query 1. What views have you of the Supreme 
Being ? or are there more gods than one ? 

Answer. Yes ; it appears that there are. It 
further appears in the law of Budhu, that there 


are a great num})er of beings who go under the 
name of gods, but, when it is translated into Cin- 
galese, it signifies " those who enjoy happiness :" 
besides those there is a supreme and chief god 
over them all. 

2. How do you account for the creation of 
the world? 

The creation of the world (which is called 
in Cingalese Loka, that is, " existing it existeth 
not,") appears to have been self-created, as it 
was natural at all times that the world should 
be self-created and perish by itself, and likewise 
by means of the power of gods and the fortune 
of the animals who are on it. It further appears, 
that there is in the midst of the ocean a large 
rock called Meroo, eighty-four yoduns* high, 
only the part above the surface of the water 
having four sides of four different colours, and 
around which are seven circles of rocks, which are 
successively diminishing in height, as much as a 
half from one to the other, having different seas 
in the intervals from one to the other, at such 
a breadth as equal to the height of each of them 
successively. At each of the four sides of the 
above-mentioned Meroo, on the sea, there are 

* One yodun is equal to sixteen English miles, or there- 


500 countries and one large country, conse- 
quently there are, at the said four sides, 2000 
small and four large countries. There is one 
Chakkra-Vattah (a circle of rock) surrounding 
the whole, together with the sea, which forms 
the limit of the world ; and the said Chakkra- 
Vattah is 82,000 yoduns high, and in circum- 
ference, 36 lacses 10,350 yoduns. And there 
are under this earth 136 hells, and above this 
earth there are in the sky 26 heavens, each over 
the other in due order. That enclosed within 
the said Chakkra-Vattah (the circle of rock), 
when every thing above stated, as well above 
as below, &c. are complete, makes one world ; 
besides which, from without the said Chakkra- 
Vattah there are innumerable worlds like this 

3. How long since it was created, and by 
whom was it created ? 

It is not possible to fix the number of years, 
or say how long the world had been created ; 
however, the already created world has four 
paritchades, namely, the self- creation of the 
world, its existency, the gradual destruction, and 
the time of its being in destruction. Within 
these four paritchades, some anthag-calpas re- 
volve, that is to say : of time if the world should 
grow one inch high in the space of every thousand 


years, it would grow seven and a half gau* high 
before one of the said anthag-calpas is passed ; 
four such anthag-calpas have passed. Gau 
is reckoned, as it is mentioned in the law of 
Budhu, as follows : about twenty measures from 
a seven cubits pole is called one ismbah, and 
eighty ismbahs make one gau. It does not appear 
that this world has been created by any one. 

4. How do you account for the creation of 
the first man and woman ? for there must have 
been a first man and woman from whom we 
have all proceeded. 

On the destruction of the former world, which 
also was self-created before this present world, 
the animals who were on it being born by trans- 
migration in the heaven or Brahma-Loka, came 
to the world again on its self-revival, and became 
acquainted with the worldly pleasure as men 
and women, and it appears that we are de- 
scended from them ; but it does not appear to 
have been multiplied by one man and one woman 

5. How did sin enter into the world ? 

It appears that when those the above-men- 
tioned first came to the world, sin appeared not 
to have been in them, as covetousness, anger, 

* Gau is about four Ensrlish miles. 


and stupidity ; afterwards those things gra- 
dually increased in them, in consequence of 
which they began to commit sinful acts ; so the 
happiness of the world passed away and sin 

6. Have men souls, or some principle or 
spirit that lives after the body dies ? 

It appears that none of the following four 
things do live after the death of the person, 
namely: the earth or flesh, the water, the fire, 
and the winds, such as breath, &:c. which are in 
the body. It further appears, that there are in 
the body fifty things that are not visible but 
nominal, which also do not exist; and twelve 
others, like the above, but distinct from them, 
and twenty-two more, which are also resembling 
the above, but distinct from them ; besides 
which there are a great number of others, all 
of which do not appear to have any existence. 
There is also one principal thing that does live, 
concerning which what appears in the law of 
Budhu will inform. 

7. Are there further rewards and punish- 
ments after life, or do all men go to the same 
place ? 

It appears that after this life, in futurity, 
there are abodes of fortune and misfortune, and 
that all will go to one or the other place, and 


obtain the same, but they acquire them by 
means of their virtue or sin accordingly. 

8. What are your views of heaven, or a place 
of happiness ? 

For the enjoyment of the happiness of the 
blessed it appears that there are twenty- six 

9. What are your views of hell, or a place 
of misery ? 

It appears that there are 136 hells, but they 
all are contained in one hell. 

10. How is the place of misery to be 
shunned ? 

He who has gone to the place of misery, 
after he has suffered enough for his miserable 
deeds or sins, it appears that he can become free 
of it. 

11. How is the place of happiness to be 
secured ? 

It appears that the securing of the place of 
happiness is the securing of the body and 
mind without entering into the wrongful deeds 
of sin, and the securing of the faith towards 
the glorious Omnipotent Being by behaving ac- 
cording to his law. 

12. What are your views of moral good 
and evil ? 

As to moral good and evil, or doing good 


actions and leaving sinful deeds, there are com- 
mandments, or many preachings of the Omnipo- 
tent Master of all the worlds. 

13. What laws or commandments have you ? 
The commandments are ten : — 1st, Do not 

kill ; 2d, Do not steal ; 3d, Do not commit adul- 
tery ; 4th, Do not lie ; 5th, Do not slander ; 
6th, Do not call ill-names ; 7th, Do not speak 
words which are to no purpose but harm ; 8th, 
Do not covet others property ; 9th, Do not 
envy ; 10th, Do not err in the true faith, or 
think Jt to be false. 

14. Is there any such thing in man as 
conscience, whereby he feels uneasy when he 
breaks the law, or does wrong ? 

Yes ; besides the above-mentioned command- 
ments, there are five kinds of heavy, or more 
mortal sins, namely, the killing of parents, &c. 
It appears natural, that whosoever commits 
any such sin shall go to hell ; for he cannot 
be comforted either by doing any other act of 
charity, or by any faith. 

15. In what does your worship consist ? 
The true faith, which is like a precious 

stone that cleareth the troubled water, must 
be kept in mind. 

16. What are the perfections of your god or 
gods ? 


There appears in the law of Buclhu only one 
Omnipotent Being. I give here a short answer 
as to his perfections, as appears in the law. As 
difficult as it would be to chop a ship's mast 
into a handle of a chisel, so difficult will it also 
be to state the same. But all these are per- 
fections that he has : — heavenly wisdom, hea- 
venly eyes and ears, such as could perceive, see, 
and hear every thing throughout all the different 
worlds, in present, past, and future times ; and 
also he has Sarira-Irddy and Chitta-Irddy, &c. 

17. Have you any book or ancient writings 
to direct you ? 

Yes ; there are books to direct. Those are 
the books of Toonpittaka, which contain 84,000 
chapters of sermons how to direct these three 
things, namely, — the body and mind ; good and 
evil deeds, which are produced by means of 
them ; and how to purify the body and mind 
from evil deeds. 

Mahagodda Oenanse's Answers. 

Query 1 . What views have you of the Supreme 
Being, or are there more gods than one ? 

Ansiver. That he is a Supreme Being above 
.all others ; and, although there are many gods. 


yet there is a supreme one, who is god of the 

2. How do you account for the creation of 
the world ? 

The creation of the world, or rather the 
rising of the world, is a natural case. 

3. How long since it was created, and by 
whom was it created ? 

Since the commencement of the risinsr of the 
world there having been an immense time, it 
is not to be reckoned, therefore it is infinite. 

4. How do you account for the creation of 
the first man and woman ? for there must have 
been a first man and woman from whom we 
have all proceeded. 

As it is always the case, in the beginning of 
this calpa some Brahma-rajas came from the 
heaven called Ahbassara Bambelowa to this 
world, from whom we have all proceeded. 

5. How did sin enter into the world ? 

By means of avarice, covetousness, and anger. 

6. Have men souls, or some principle that 
lives after the body dies ? 

They have souls, or some principle that 
lives after the body dies. 

7. Are there further rewards and punish- 
ments after this life, or do all men go to the 
same place ? 


Surely there are rewards and punishments 
after this hfe ; but all men do not go to the 
same place. 

8. What are your views of heaven, or a place 
of happiness ? 

The heaven is an empty place, but there is a 
residence of happiness in it. 

9. What are your views of hell, or a place 
of misery ? 

There is a hell, or a place of misery. 

10. How is the plafce of misery to be shunned ? 
The place of misery is to be shunned by 

avoiding the sins. 

11. How is the place of happiness to be 
secured ? 

The place of happiness is to be secured by 
charity, with pure heart. 

12. What are your views of moral good and 

Moral good makes man happy, and evil 
makes him miserable. 

13. What laws and commandments have you ? 
The five commandments, and also the ten 

commandments, and many others. 

14. Is there any such thing in man as con- 
science, whereby he feels uneasy when he breaks 
the law or does wrong ? 

There is such a thing in man. 


15. In what does your worship consist ? 

It consists in a true faith, according to the 

16. What are the perfections of your god or 

The perfections of the gods appear in the 
rehgious hooks. 

17. Have you any books or ancient writings 
to direct you ? 

There are many books and ancient writings. 

Mahabadda Priests Answers. 

Query 1. What views have you of the Supreme 
Being ? or are there more gods than one ? 

Answer. That he is a being above all others. 
There are many gods; the god called Sahanpati- 
maha-brahmayo is above all others ; so that it 
does not appear in our religion that there is only 
one god. 

2. How do you account for the creation of 
the world ? 

The creation of the world is to be ascribed 
to nature, as having risen on account of the 
good and bad deeds of all the souls. 

3. How long since it was created, and by 
whom was it created ? 


It was created as above-said, about 1756 
coties, 15 lacses, 97,357 years since. It was 
not created by any person, as appears in the 
second answer. 

4. How do you account for the creation of 
the first man and woman? for there must have 
been a first man and woman from whom we 
have all proceeded. 

We do account for the creation of the man 
and woman as follows : — After the rising of the 
world, some souls, called Brahmayo, who had 
ended their lives in the heaven called Brahma- 
Lowa, having been transmigrated into this 
world, lost all their perfections and happiness 
(which they formerly enjoyed), on account of 
their covetousness, and by eating* of all sorts 
of food which lust effected in them. Thus they 
became man and woman, according to their fate, 
from whom we have all proceeded. 

5. How did sin enter into the world ? 

Sin entered into the world on account of 
the riches, consisting in gold, silver, pearls, 
precious stones, &c. 

6. Have men souls, or some principle or 
spirit that lives after the body dies ? 

* See " Sketch of Budhisra," by H. B. Hodgson, Esq. 
in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. ii. 
page 234, query 2 ; also note 9, 


They have souls, which are transmigrated 
from one place to the other, after the body 
dies, till the same shall obtain the happiness of 
Moksaya, which is the important one to man- 

7. Are there further rewards and punish- 
ments after this life ? or do all men go to the 
same place ? 

After this life, those who have done good are 
transmigrated, as well in this world as in the 
heavens called Dewa-Loka and Brahma-Loka, 
where there is happiness, and they enjoy all 
sorts of blessedness ; those who have done evil 
transmigrate into the four gi'eat hells called 
Ahpahya, and suffer all sorts of miseries : but at 
the perishing of the worlds all go to the same 
place, except those who have denied this and 
the next world, their father and mother, the 
god and the Budhu, the doctrine and the 
priests, &c. 

8. What are your views of heaven, or a 
place of happiness ? 

The heavens are places of happiness, and 
they are called Dewa-Loka and Brahma- 

9. What are your views of hell, or a place 
of misery ? 

According to our views there are several 


hells, or places of misery, where sinners suffer 
for their sins. 

10. How is the place of misery to be 
shunned ? 

The place of misery is to be shunned by 
doing good. The wicked will be transmigrated 
to the places of misery, where they shall remain 
till they have suffered for their guilt. 

11. How is the place of happiness to be 
secured ? 

The doctrine dictates that it is to be secured 
by doing good. 

12. What are your views of moral good and 
evil ? 

Moral good is the doing all sorts of charities, 
being virtuous and perfect in the ten sorts of 
good called Dassa-coosala ; the moral evil is the 
doing all sorts of wickedness, being vicious, and 
subject to Dassa-acoosal-carmaya (ten sorts of 

13. What laws or commandments have you ? 
The laws or commandments are nmnerous ; 

all which dictate to do good and avoid evil. 

14. Is there any such thing in man as con- 
science, whereby he feels uneasy when he breaks 
the law, or does wrong ? 

There is such a thing in man. 

15. In what does your worship consist ? 



Our worship consists in the laws and com- 

16. What are the perfections of your god 
or fifods ? 

Our God has seen and known all things of 
the three sorts of worlds. He is perfect in every 
thing above all others. The perfections of our 
god or gods cannot be stated in few words; 
according to our faith they are the supreme 
beings, above all others. 

17. Have you any books or ancient writings 
to direct you ? 

We have thousands of religious books, cal- 
led Sootrabe-darma-Wenaya and Sankayata-tri- 
pitakayee ; besides which, many other books or 
ancient writings, called Attoowah, Teekah, Get- 
tapahda, Yojanahprakarana, &c. 

Tramlation of a Doctrinal Tract replying to the 
Queries made by order of the Dutch Governor. 

1. What views have you of the Supreme 
Being ? or are there more gods than one ? 

There are, according to the religion of 
Budhu, innumerable gods, namely : Uppa-Pa- 
dooka gods and Utpatty gods, who are born, and 


who shall be born, by transmigration, in the fol- 
lowing places, to wit : Aroopaboomy, that is, 
a place where there is no body, but soul : 
these gods shall be born in this place by means 
of four affections,, called Aroopa-Wachera Koo- 
sela-Wipakas ; secondly, Solos-Rootalla, that is, 
the sixteen places where gods are born, and 
shall be born, by transmigration, having bodies, 
by means of five different passions, called Roo- 
pa-Watchara-Kooselawipakas ; thirdly, Camah- 
Boomiah, that is, where the gods are born, and 
shall be born by transmigi'ation, with bodies 
where they enjoy the pleasures of the five 
senses, and they shall be born by means of 
eight different passions, called Cama-Watchera- 
Kooselawipakas. This world belongs to the 
said Camah-Boomiah, where there are born and 
shall be born gods, by transmigration, on the 
trees, rocks, seas, rivers, and lakes, &;c. 

2. How do you account for the creation of 
the world ? 

This sackwalla (this world) is in circumfe- 
rence 36 lacses 10,350 yoduns. Together with 
this sackwalla there are other different sackwal- 
las, in number kella lacses, each of them of the 
same bigness with this. When the time of their 
destruction comes, they all naturally perish at 
once ; when the time of their growth comes. 


they all rise at once. This is the way of the 
destruction and the rising of the worid, even 
in the former times, and as it will be in future ; 
but it does not appear to have been made, or 
caused to be made, by any body. 

3. How long since it was created ? and by 
whom was it created ? 

Now the time is thus : four calpas called 
asanka, make one maha-calpa ; one asanka-calpa 
makes twenty anthag-calpas. Out of the above- 
mentioned four asanka-calpas, three asanka- 
calpas are passed: they are called Sanwarta, 
Sanwarttastayis, and Wiwarta. The present 
asanka-calpa is called Sanwarttastaja, out of 
whicli three anthag-calpas are passed : the 
fourth is the present anthag-calpa. There re- 
main sixteen anthag-calpas more to come, and 
then will be the end. An answer to the ques- 
tion " Who created the same?" is given in the 
second answer. 

4. How do you account for the creation of 
the first man and woman ? for there must have 
been a first man and woman, from whom we 
all proceeded. 

Wiwartha - Sagarah (the flood) abating by 
degrees, the world was self-created, as it was 
before, on the same place where it had been. 
After which, some of the brachmas who were 


in the heaven called Abaswartaiah dying, came 
and were born in this world, in Soonnaih- 
Brahma-Wemans ; and by their multiplying in 
this world they lost the hght of their bodies ; 
and when they had begun to eat the rice called 
Soyanjahta-El, there were produced within 
them excrement and urine, and, in order to 
discharge them, there were produced the dif- 
ferent orifices, as had been natural from the 
former time. And further, there were produced 
the sexes of men and women ; and by the con- 
stant looking of the men and women at each 
other came lust, from which they had been free 
from long time, by means of Dianayah. After 
that, by means of the carnal enjoyment of the 
men and women, they began to conceive chil- 
dren, &c., up to this time, and it will be so till 
the end of the calpa. 

5. How did sin enter into the world ? 

The three principal causes of all sin are co- 
vetousness, anger, and thoughtlessness; these 
three things cleave to a man always. Such 
men, when they are born by transmigration in 
any place, those three things, namely, the said 
covetousness, &c., will go with them, in the 
same manner as a shadow goes with the sub- 
stance, and give root to many different sins. 

6. Have men souls, or some principle or 
spirit that lives after the body dies ? 


The five parts of a man are, the body, feel- 
ing, imagination, thinking, and mind ; these are 
called in general a person. When the mind is 
gone, the aspiration .and respiration of the 
breath, and the passing and repassing, laughing 
and speaking, &c., and the different other acts, 
together ^^^th the aforesaid feeling, imagination, 
and thinking, all these will perish, and the body 
will only remain as a wooden image, but nothing 

7. Are there further rewards and punish- 
ments after this life ? or do all men go to the 
same place ? 

Had a man done charity before his death, 
when he is dead he shall be born in heaven, and 
enjoy happiness ; had he committed sin, he shall 
be born in the six apayas (hells or places of 
misery), and be subject to different sufferings 
and punishments. Men who had done charity 
in their former life shall be born in the follow- 
ing seven places, namely, the six lowermost 
heavens, and the world, by transmigration. Men 
who had committed sins, shall be born in one or 
other of the 136 hells, in the form of beasts, 
pretah, and in the Asoora-Nikayah, according 
to their sins. On that account there is not a 
fixed place where they must be born. 

8. What are your views of heaven, or a 
place of happiness ? 


Nirvvana (place of happiness) is the highest 
and best place, which destroys all sorrow, and 
acquires all happiness. Wise men \^dll obtain 
Nirwana, and fools will lose it; and the same 
must be obtained by doing good. 

9. What are your views of hell, or a place 
of misery ? 

There are four apayas (places of misery) ; 
namely, eight gi'eat hells, having sixteen osoo- 
pats (hells) on the four sides of each of them ; 
altogether 136 hells : all these are one apaya. 
One pretah-nikayah (a life), one asoorah-ni- 
kayah (a life), and the other is Tirisan-apayah 
(the life of beasts) : these four apayas are de- 
signed for the wretched, or sinners. Wise men, 
who perform charities, avoiding bad deeds, and 
who do not allow themselves to be possessed 
of sins by means of the following three doors, 
namely, body, word, and the mind, they shall 
not be subjected to any sufferings of the said 
apayas. Men who do not so, are subjected to 
sufferings in those apayas. 

10. How is the place of misery to be 
shunned ? 

He who becomes righteous himself, getting 
free from the following sins, viz. killing animals, 
lying, covetousness, &c., which proceed from the 
body, word, and mind ; and who becomes him- 


self kind and good towards mankind, and does 
other chanties, shall be saved from the four 
apayas designed for the wretched, or sinners. 

11. How is the place of happiness to be 
secured ? 

By all means getting free from sins, and 
by keeping, or by the assistance of the law, 
doing good, by behaving himself well ; minding 
these three things, viz. anittayah (not lasting for 
ever), dook-kayah (sorrow), anatmayah (not a 
body), thus may be obtained Moksayah. 

12. What are your views of moral good and 
evil ? 

What is good ? That is the getting rid of 
sin, and the ha\dng a mind to do charity. What 
is evil ? That is the neglect of charity, and the 
having a mind to sin. So the man who does 
charity shall obtain every good, even in this 
world, and heavenly happiness, &c. in the next 
world. The bad man shall be subject to every 
misfortune and evil in this world, and likewise, 
in the next life he shall be born in one of the 
four apayas, according to his sins, and be sub- 
jected to sufferings and punishments. 

13. What laws or commandments have you ? 
The commandments are : the not delaying 

agriculture and trade, &c. ; the doing charity ; 
the not doing all the sin that proceeds from 


the inlets above mentioned, such as body, &c. ; 
the acquiring of blessings by means of alms; 
keeping commandments; thoughtfulness with 
regard to religion ; the faculty of the mind in 
destroying the different sinful senses; and the 
joy, &c. When the mind is blotted by covetous- 
ness, &c., he surely takes the bad jomiiey which 
goes to helL So the mind must be made pure 
by avoiding covetousness, thoughtlessness, &c., 
which are the causes of e\il. The casting away 
shame and fear from the mind is the origin 
of all sin ; and retaining of shame and fear is 
favourable to every good ; and as thoughtless- 
ness is a cause of many evils, one must always 
be thoughtful. 

14. Is there any such thing in man as con- 
science, whereby he feels uneasy when he breaks 
the law or does wrong ? 

Those who break the law, and commit heavy 
crimes, shall have no comfort nor pardon in the 
Budhu's law; but there is no killing, binding, 
punishing, &c., in the law of Budhu : a man who 
commits such crimes shall merely be put away 
from his priesthood. If it be not a heavy crime, 
such as anantariah (matricide or parricide), 
&c., he may become again a layman ; and if he 
does charities, as alms, and keeps commandments, 
&c., and behave himself as a righteous man, it is 


possible for him to obtain happiness in the next 

15. In what does your worship consist? 

As a man who is desirous of fruits, leaving the 
imfruitful trees goes in search of a fruitful one, 
even so those who search for the happiness of 
heaven and Nirwana, must believe the man who 
shall be so kind and able as to accomplish their 
desire. These kind persons are Budhu, his 
words, and priests. Budhu is void of lust, and 
every other sinful desire ; void of every sort of 
passions ; void of every thoughtlessness ; his 
words are a conveyance to heaven : the priests 
are those who properly keep the commandments. 
Those who know for certainty that such good 
and kind persons are able to accomplish their 
desires, as above stated, shall believe in those 
three things. These three things, which are 
precious, ought to be believed. The believing 
is a matter of the thought, that is, a part of 
Sangiskaras-Kandayah. This Sangiskaras-Kan- 
dayah is one of the five parts mentioned in the 
sixth answer. On that account, know hence 
that belief is within one's mind. 

16. What are the perfections of your god or 

The pure god, Budhu, has a body possessed 
or composed of the accomplishments called 


Roopa-kayah, that is, thirty-two manly great 
accomphshments, called Detismahapoorsalah- 
senah, and eighty manly accomplishments, lesser 
than the ahove : they are called Anoowenjanah- 
laksenah ; and he is likewise composed of the 
accomplishments called Darma-kayah, that is, 
ten bodily powers, ten powerful wisdoms, fom* 
daring wisdoms, called Warsaraddatnanah ; six 
piercing minds or sensibilities, called Satabitna- 
nah ; and fourteen other wisdoms, called Bood- 
datnanah ; eighteen Awenika-darmas, that is, 
certain virtues or quahties belonging to a Budhu ; 
seventy-seven sorts of wisdoms called Satsatte- 
tynana-wastoo ; twenty-four<kella lacses of palah, 
that is, certain rewards a Budhu has got already, 
by means of his good deeds in the former life ; 
and he is thus accomphshed with all these 
Mahawatjaratnana (piercing wisdom), namely, 
the above said Roopa-kayah and Darma-kayah. 
Know hence, that many other innumerable 
Budhus were possessed of the like accomplish- 
ments, namely, of endless dispositions, wisdoms, 
charities, glories, &c. Besides which, in answer 
to the question made about the Utpatty gods, the 
following are given : — The palace in which the 
god Sakkraia Rajah resides, is in the heaven 
called Tawootisabawanah, is 10,000 yoduns in 
length, and the same in circumference, and 


700 yoduiis liigh. His seat, called Pawndoo- 
kambcla-Saylasanah, is GO yodiins ; his state 
elephant is 150 yoduns high ; his coach is 
drawn by 1000 horses, called Sayindavva ; his 
gardens are called Nanda^^^lan-wannah, Chitter- 
lata-wannah, and Misserka-wannah ; he has two 
kellas and 50 lacses of heavenly women, toge- 
ther \vith his queen Soojatiih : he is king over 
two heavens. This is the glory of one god 

17. Have you any books or ancient writings 
to direct you ? 

The doings or acts for the acquirement of 
the following blessings, namely, worldly hap- 
piness, heavenly happiness, and the happiness of 
Nirwana, and the instructions given for ob- 
taining relief, or escaping from the sorrows, are 
composed in 12 lacses 37,000 grantas (verses) ; 
and there are books in which these verses are 
fully contained. 

When these books are used, it will appear in 
them what one ought to do or accept, and what 
one ought to avoid; in the same manner as 
when lamps are lighted in a dark house, every 
thing in the house may be seen. Each of the 
above-said verses contain thirty-two letters. 







A Series of Ninety Queries proposed by the Dutch 
Governor on Points of Budhist Doctrine ; also, 
the Answers thereto, by the Chief Priest of 
Mulgiri-galle Vihari. 

Query 1. What signifies Mulgiri-galle ? and 
why is it so called ? 

Answer. Mulgiri-galle signifies a rock lying 
in the country of Giriepawda-ratta, and that has 
a subterranean cavity, in the centre of which 
rock there has been constructed a statue of 
Budhu ; and, as a series of offerings are made at 
the place, and as the rock is in size superior to 
any other in that quarter, it is therefore called 
the Mulgiri-galle, or chief rock. 

2. What is impHed by Nayka Oenanse ? 
Nayka Oenanse (chief priest) is to express 

a principal of many others ; and, in consequence 
of his working for the good of many, he is named 
the Nayka Oenanse. 

3. What is called Samenaira ? and what does 
it signify ? 

Samenaira signifies one who studies to obtain 
that chief priesthood called the Oepasampala, 
and although a disciple only, is considered as a 
son by the principal priests. 

4. What is meant by the term Swamy ? Is 
he who has that name a sacred person ? 



Swamy (lord) means a person bearing a 
superiority over a body of men, whom being 
treated both good and bad by that superior, 
they must consequently acknowledge him their 
swamy. Amongst such swamies there will be 
many who are pure and impure : but the reli- 
gion allows that Budhu is the only swamy free 
from impurities of all kinds. And, in short, 
the word swamy implies one who provides for 
the good of many people, &c., favouring, instruct- 
ing, and protecting them. 

5. Are the two deities, namely, Satagiry 
and Assoory, those supreme gods who protect 
the universe ? and do they govern the heaven 

The first-mentioned, Satagerenam-Dewatawa, 
is a chief over the multitude of devils, subject 
to the king of devils, named Wayes-Srawanam, 
who it does not appear governs the heaven, but 
who commands the devils under him. And as 
to the Assoory, there appears no deity by that 
name ; but, on the contrary, a celebrated god, 
as Assoora, who is the sovereign of the world 
Assoora-Loka, lying beneath the Mahameroo- 
Parkwatte (world stone), and consequently he 
is called the Assoora Rajah, or Assoora King. 

6. Who is Sakkraia ? Is he the chief of the 
heavens ? 


Sakkraia is an inhabitant of the heaven 
called Tawateinzaia, and is only chief of the 
heavens Dewa-Loka, and the next lower heaven, 
Chatoork-maha-rajikai ; but not over all the six- 
teen heavens. 

7. Who is Maha Brahma, and what are his 
attributes ? Has he the power of illiuninating 
and obscuring the world ? 

Maha Crahma is the very King Sahampati- 
nam- Maha -Brahma -Rajah, inhabiting the six- 
teenth highest heaven, and is twelve yoduns high, 
and exhibits the four virtues, namely, affability, 
munificence, meekness, and kindness, towards 
every one. He has the power of illuminating 
one world through the brightness which issues 
from wherever his finger is pointed, and trans- 
mits down to the world every blessing* but the 
hall of glory, and possesses a supremacy above 
every other, excepting the Budhu, and is blessed 
with an age of 84,000 years. 

8. How are the above-mentioned four gods 
called in the Palee language ? 

They are termed, in the Palee language, 
Sathagiria, Assuriadaia, Sakkraia, and Maha- 

* This passage manifests the pertinacity of the Budhist 
doctrine in ascribing the acquirement of Nirwana solely to 
moral deeds. 


9. Are there four gods who govern this 
world ? If so, how are these described ? What 
are their attributes, and how are they termed 
in the Palee language ? 

There are no four appointed gods for go- 
verning this world; but from the region of 
Sakkraia down to this human world it is all 
under the government of Sakkraia, who hath 
devolved the several quarters of this world to 
the superintendence of the subordinate deities, 
namely, Iswara, Maheswara, and those who pro- 
tect the earth. 

10. How many worlds are said to have exist- 
ence in the religious books of the Cingalese ? 

There will be within a universe many places 
inhabited by men, such as the Brahma world, 
the world of gods, and the Naga-Loka, or world 
of cobra capiles, which all being thus divided 
into three, it appears by the religion they are 
termed the worlds Kame-Loka, Roopa-Loka, and 

11. There were a great many Budhus; but 
of whom did the gods ask for advice, and hear 
the sermons ? 

An infinite number of Budhus have descend- 
ed into the world, from all of whom gods did 
solicit advice, and attend to the sermons. 

12. Could a human being himself attain to 


the dignity of Budhu ? And could such a one 
give advice and instruction to God ? 

It is appointed to become Budhu by being 
born a human soul ; but for a deity, Brahma, 
&c., it is not possible ; neither for every man, nor 
for a brute so much as to think of it, for it is 
attainable only by means of exercising all kinds 
of difficult, wonderful, and innumerable works 
of charity, and amongst them ten grand deeds 
in particular, and incessant bestowing of alms 
during a space of four sanke caplaxe, or eight 
sanke caplaxe, or twelve sanke caplaxe ; but 
it is not possible for every other human being to 
obtain it. 

13. Would an accomplished scholar (if there 
be any) in every science oppose Budhu ? 

Such a learned person would not oppose 

14. What are the three worlds respectively, 
and the histories thereof? 

The three worlds are Kame-Loka, Roopa- 
Loka, and Aroopa-L5ka; and of them, wherever 
there exist the five senses, namely, hearing, 
smelhng, seeing, &c., there is the first-mentioned 
world, Kame-Loka, which contains the four 
hells, the world Naga-Loka, the human world, 
and the world Assura-Loka, and the six lower 


The sixteen higher heavens of Brahmas (which 
are free from the sensual indulgence), namely, 
Bramah-parie-Sadjaia, Brahma-Parohietaia, Ma- 
ha - brahmaia, Paritta - baia, Ap - pamana - baia, 
Ahassaraia, Paretta-Subaia, Ap-pamana-Subaia, 
Suba - Kiranaia, Wehat - talaia, Assainje -tallaia, 
Awenjaia, Attap-paia, Sudassaia, Sud-dhssaia, 
and Aka-nitta-Kaia, are the second-mentioned 

The place where prevails the delightful sen- 
timents (which exist by means of rendering acts 
of difficult charities), is invariably called the 
last-mentioned Aroopa-Loka, which comprises 
Akasa-Nanchaia-tanaia, Wignia-Nanchaia-tanaia, 
Akinja-tanaia, and Nirwasanjanai-Sanjaia-tanaia. 

15. In the time of Bramah-Dewanam Budhu, 
Maha-bodie-Satwaio having exhausted all the 
riches in the exercise of charity, as well as the 
soul itself, hoped to become Budhu. What are 
the circumstances of that Brahma - Dewanam 
Budhu ? 

That Brahma-Dewanam Budhu having wit- 
nessed the former Budhus, and, like unto our 
Maha-bodie-Satwaio, being far advanced in acts 
of various charities, at a distance of time of one 
calpa-laxe and twenty asanka - calpas to the 
present Mahabaddra calpa, and in the time of the 
Nandanam-asankai, and at the solicitation of the 


Siranam-dewoo-Banboom (both gods and brah- 
mas) having made his exit from the region of 
Tosita-pooaia, was, in honour of the King Jha- 
nadepanam, conceived in the womb of the 
Queen Marigulanam, at the city of Yasa-watie- 
nuwara, in Maddie-desay, of Jambu-dwipa, and 
at the expiration of a space of ten months was 
dehvered into the golden sein, held by Maha- 
Brahma, and standing on the flower, emerged 
from the earth, looked up and down into the ten 
directions. And intending not to expect any 
to excel or equal him, and pronouncing " I will 
be the most high and the supreme," gave a loud, 
yet unterrifying noise ; and thenceforth was, by 
the care and protection of gods and brahmas, 
gradually brought up, and, like unto our Budhu 
Gautama, attained the Budhuhood, and wrought 
for the good of the world. 

16. Does there appear an explanation of the 
powers and attributes of the Budhu Gautama ? 
If so, relate it ? 

After the long train of Budhus who (from 
the period of the Budhu Brahma-Devanam) had 
existed in the course of one caplaxe and seven 
asanka-calpas, and at a distance of one caplaxe 
and teles asanka-calpas to the present Maha- 
baddra calpa, and in the time of the Sarkwe- 
baddranam-Assankai, the said Poorana Gautama 


Biidhu did, after the manner of the preceding 
Budhiis, make his exit at the heaven Tosita 
Dewa-Loka, and, in honour of the King Yasa- 
niewasa, was conceived in the womb of the 
Queen Wiemaba-Maha-dewie, in the city of 
Yasamewasa-Nuwara in Jambu-dwipa, and being 
dehvered into the golden sein, and held up by 
Maha-Brahma, he was elevated as the Budhu 

17. Describe the powers and attributes of 
Diepan-kare Budhu ? 

After the train of Budhus who (since the 
period of the aforesaid Poorana-Gautama Budhu) 
had become elevated in the course of one cap- 
laxe and nine asanka-calpas, and at the distance 
of one caplaxe and four asanka-calpas to the 
present Mahabaddra calpa, and in the calpa 
of Saranandanam, Diepan-kare Budhu, like unto 
the preceding Budhu, being far advanced in 
deeds of charities, attained unto the heaven 
Tosita Dewa - L5ka, from whence making his 
exit, he was, in honour of the King Sudewanam, 
conceived in the womb of the principal Queen 
Sumedanam, at the city of Rammawatie, in 
Jambu-dwipa, and was born and treated after the 
manner of the former Budhus, having an age 
of seka lacse, and being eighty cubits high. 

18. To whom did the Prince Sumeda Pau- 


detanam-Brahma-Kumaraia offer his wealth in 
charity? in what manner was it, and what 
became of himself afterwards ? 

That Sumedanam-Brahma-Kumara-Teina, or 
Prince, having exerted himself in such works 
of charity as were necessary for becoming 
Budhu during a course of one calpa lacse, and 
twelve asanka-calpas, and at a distance of one 
lacse of calpas and four asanka-calpas to the 
present Maha-baddra calpa, was born a Prince 
Sammedanam, in the nation of Maha-Brahma, 
and in the city of Ammarawatie Nuwara, and 
having grown up, and seeing the plentiful riches 
and treasures which had been amassed by his 
ancestors for seven generations together, and 
reasoning within himself that his relatives had 
departed this life and gone to the other world, 
leaving behind them the said riches, he re- 
solved that he would disperse those riches in 
charities and almsgivings ; and for that purpose 
having obtained the sanction of the king, he, 
by beating of tom-tom, caused every beggar in 
Jambu-dwipa to be assembled; but not being 
able to exhaust those immense riches in deeds 
of charity, at last he retired into the wilderness 
called Himalawane, and betook himself into 
the monastery which Sakkraia had created for 
him, in the vicinity of the rock Dharmieka-Park- 


watai ; and there being invested with the priest- 
hood, and being, in the course of seven days, 
animated with the power of flying in the air 
(which is called the Tatsanaia), and thus spend- 
ing his days in that felicity, he was one day 
flying in the air over and above the city of Ram- 
mawatie Nuwara, when he understood that Dei- 
pankara Budhu, who had in this interval arrived 
to the state of Budhu, was coming into the city 
of Rammawatie Nuwara. He then descended 
from the above element, and extended himself 
on the road through which Budhu was to pass, 
with his face downwards, and with his head 
towards Budhu ; and at the same time prostrating 
and hoping for Budhuhood, he obtained the 
final and solemn ratification of it from the said 

19. Where is the city called Rammawa- 
tie Nuwara situated ? 

It is impossible to point out or speak as 
to the site where that city Rammawatie stood, 
because one lacse of calpas and four asanka- 
calpas have been extinguished and created 
again ; and more particularly when a calpa is 
expired, the earth also is destroyed, so that it 
would be impossible to speak accurately as to 
the above. 

20. What was the cause of the pair of 


ear-rings of Sakkraia, called Cundala - barana, 
which have a constant wavering and a shining 
lustre ? 

There may be gods throughout the heavens 
who are both superior and inferior to Sakkraia, 
and each of whom will have their ear orna- 
ments ; and as to the Cundala-baranaia of Sak- 
kraia, there is no other particular explanation 
to be drawn from it than the bright lustre which 
it emits when in the act of trilling. 

21. In what place did Sumeda-Tapasaio die 
at, what was his country, where was he born 
afterwards, and who were his parents ? 

Sumeda-Tapasaio, or hermit, made his exit 
in the very monastery created for him by Sak- 
kraia, and was born in the heaven of glory; 
and as it is said that gods in their heavens spon- 
taneously come into vision, and as it is considered 
they then are as mere apparitions, there appears 
to be no parents for a god. 

22. What was the country that King Wes- 
santera was born in, and what were the names 
of his parents ? 

The King Wessantera was born in the city 
of Jaya-turanam Nuwara ; his father was the 
King Sanjaianam, and his mother the Queen 
Tusatienam Deiwie. 

23. Where is situated the kingdom of the 


King Siiddodana, and what were his attri- 
butes ? 

The city of the King Suddodana was the 
province Kapilawastoo - Pooraia, lying to the 
soutli of the banian-tree standing in the middle 
of the continent of Jambudwipa; and from among 
the train of princes who reigned in succession 
since the period of the King Maha-summata, in 
the former calpa, there were 22,010 kings in 
number, all of whom reigned in the country of 
Kapilawastoo - Pooraia ; and of them the King 
Sinhabanoo, son to the King Jaiasena, was the 
last who reigned : the King Suddodana, father to 
our Budhu, w^as the son of the said King Sinha- 
banoo. The attributes of this King Suddodana 
cannot be fully illustrated by a succinct detail. 
He having been full of hopes, during a period 
of one caplacse, to be made himself father to a 
Budhu, at last attained his ends by being father 
to our Budhu ; and having experienced favours 
and assistance both from deities and Brahmas, 
when anived at the age of 120 years, he, from 
his seat on the throne, vanished and attained 
the hall of glory. 

24. Describe all the strange things or won- 
ders that took place on the birth-day of the 
Budhu Gautama. 

At the moment of the birth of our Budhu, 


Maha-Brahma received him in a golden net, 
and feasting his eyes with his beauty, he ad- 
dressed the queen : " I congratulate thee on the 
birth of a son from your womb, who is supreme 
over the whole three worlds ;" and soon after 
two bodies of water, similar to a large bar of 
silver, having come from above, and washing 
the mother and the child, it instantaneously 
vanished ; then from the hands of the Maha 
Brahma the child was received in a soft and 
convenient hide of a tiger, by the kings called 
Weeran -Rajas, and by the priests in a super- 
fine linen cloth, from whose hands the child 
wanting to descend, pointed its feet towards 
the earth, and instantly a large flower emerged 
forth and received the child's feet, who then 
standing on the flower, looked up and down into 
the ten directions (according to the Cingalese 
calculation), when all the gods, the Brahmas, 
and the human beings, with offers of fragrant 
flowers, lifting up their hands unto their forehead, 
addressed him : " Lord there is no one either to 
equal or excel you; you are the most high." 
And thereupon he went seven steps towards the 
north, when step by step sprung forth flowers ; 
then stopping, and saying, " I will be the highest ; 
I will be the chief and the superior over all 
the worlds," he set up a loud but not terrifying 


noise, which noise, piercing into the 10,000 
worlds, the 10,000 Bralnnas in those worlds, 
holding white umbrellas each three leagues in 
height, offered the same ; the 10,000 Sakkraias 
made offerings of blowing of 10,000 conch-shells, 
all ^vl'eathed to the right, and each were 120 
cubits in length, and which when blown sup- 
port an unremitted and unslackened echo for 
a space of fom* months and two pooyas (full 
moon days) ; 10,000 rajas, or kings of the third 
heaven, made offerings of display of fire - works 
called chamaiTa, each of which was three yodnns 
in height ; 10,000 Sootusita kings made offerings 
of 10,000 diamond fans; 10,000 musicians play- 
ed on the violin, each of which was three leagues 
in length ; and the rest of the subaltern deities, 
such as Sienerinita and Parenerinita, made offer- 
ings of golden caranduas, or cases, rubied ca- 
randuas, golden sandals, rubied sandals, diamond 
crowTis, head-bands, royal sabres, di\ine perfumes 
in heaps, and other solemn works ; and, at the 
moment of the above-said birth, the world ex- 
perienced thirty-two unprecedented acts of boun- 
ty; namely, 1st, the earth of the 10,000 worlds 
quaked; 2d, every world paid homage unto one; 
3d, all born blind obtained sight ; 4th, the deaf 
obtained their hearing ; 5th, the dumb the power 
of speech ; 6th, the lame the power of walking ; 


7th, the humpbacked and the bowed were 
straightened ; 8th, the confined had their re- 
lease ; 9th, the hell fire suffered a momentary 
extinguishment ; 10th, the demons had their 
hunger satisfied; 11th, the brutes banished 
their dread;* 12th, the infirm were made whole; 
13th, the world was esta])lished by parental 
words ; 14th, horses neighed ; 15th, the ele- 
phants yawled; 16th, the lions roared; 17th, 
.all the rest of the quadrupeds made a melodious 
howhng; 18th, every jeweller's utensils made a 
sound ; 19th, a body of light dispersed through- 
out every ten directions ; 20th, the air was agi- 
tated with gentle winds; 21st, the heavens rained; 
22d, a body of water emerged up, penetrating the 
earth ; 23d, all kinds of poultry descended into the 
earth, without flying in the air; 24th, the streams 
of the river stopped ; 25th, the salt water of the 
ocean became fresh ; 26th, the sea was adorned 
with flowers ; 27th, the flowers were blown on 
the surface of both the land and sea; 28th, 
every tree was bent down with flowers ; 29th, 
flowers emerged up by penetrating through the 
ground, stones, and trunks of trees ; 30th, the 
heaven was canopied with the flower canopy ; 

* Does this import, lost their fear of man ? If this be its 
true meaning, it is a curious and important allusion respecting 
the gift to Adam of supremacy and rule over the creation. 


31st, tlie whole world rained upon throughout 
with flowers ; 32d,the whole world was filled with 
banners : and beside all these thirty-two things, 
a variety of other miracles reached the world, 
both at the moment the Budhu was conceived 
in his mother's womb, and at the moment he 
was born, and therefore it is too tedious to 
describe by a concise enumeration. 

25. Whose daughter was the Queen Yaso- 
dara-dewie ? 

She was the daughter of the Queen Ami- 
tawnan, who was the youngest sister to the 
eldest brothers of the Queen Maha-maia-dewie ; 
namely, the kings Suprabadda and Suddodana. 

26. What is the description of the place 
called Maddye - Mandelai, and are there any 
other countries also in it ? 

It is the very village known by the name of 
Kanjagalanam-Mamgame of the east, in which 
there is situated a sal-tree, at the very extreme 
length of the \dllage, and is bounded to the east by 
the river Salalawake Ganga, to the south by the 
village Setakarnakanam Niangamme, to the west 
by the village Toonanam Bahmoonu-gamme, and 
to the north by the rock Badjanam Parkuataia. 
This place, which is 1200 leagues in length, 
1000 in breadth, and 3600 leagues in circum- 
ference, is called the Madde-desaia ; and to the 


east of the above Madde-desaia are situated 
the six cities, namely,* Hastipooraia, Matangaia, 
Ganwieraia, Gaiekastraia, Poondariekaia ; to the 
west the six cities called Sawatty, Jetuttara, 
Sagala, Kiisawatie, Rajaegaha, and Mitilaia; to 
the south are the eight cities Assapura, Kula- 
sawoo, Ay-yodja, Kosasie, Pawtaliputta, Kauiia, 
Gauda, and Daddapooraia ; and to the north are 
the eight cities Oettara, Pauchalai, Roja, Was- 
sana, Takkasiela, Kusinara, Tamba-Pannie, and 
Goudadesaia : all these are within the aforesaid 

27. What were the symptoms observed on 
the journey to the orchard, or oeyana ? 

Making three journeys, and having met a 
wretched figure, with teeth worn out, gray- 
haired, corrugated skin, bowed down, and stand- 
ing trembhng with a staff in the hand ; also an 
infirm figure, with a body infected and badly 
formed; also a withered shape, with a body 
swelled and wan, worms issuing from it, with a 
mouth wide opened. Having thus witnessed 
these three shapes at three several periods, and 
having never seen the like before, he inquired 
of the waggoner about the same, and being 
satisfied of the whole, he deferred his journey 
to the orchard, and returned to the city with an 

* Only five cities are here enumerated. 


agitated heart. On his fourth journey he be- 
held a figin-e of a priest, and having questioned 
and learnt the same, he was delighted that 
eternity should be unto him who had assumed 
this sedate metempsychosis, and he resolved to 
continue his way to the orchard, and be himself 
introduced into the priesthood. The said four 
exhibitions were wrought by God. 

28. Who is he that calls himself Wisme- 
karmaia ? 

Wisme-karmaia, properly Wisme-karmanam 
Deewya Pootraia, is an inhabitant of the heaven 
of Sakkria-poorai, and is the chief artisan of 
Sakkraia; and as he is famous for, and emi- 
nently skilled in, works of architecture in a man- 
ner not to be excelled nor paralleled by any one 
(else, he is called the Wisme-karmaia, or won- 
derful artist. 

29. Give a detail of the war of the Assuraia 
with Sakkraia, if it is to be found among the 
good histories. 

This Assuraia was born in the heaven called 
Tawootissa-Dewa-Loka ; and when living there, 
Sakkraia* having seen the birth of Assuraia, 
proposed going there with a company of other 

* Another portion of the doctrine asserts that it was 
Guadma, in an anterior stage of his existence, on whom this 
deceit was attempted to be practised. 


deities, in order to attend the festival of the 
birth of Assuraia, which the Assuraia being ac- 
quainted with, had prepared a jiapane (toast) to 
be drunken, which Sakkraia having understood, 
charged his divine company not to drink that 
toast; but the Assuraia having mistaken, and 
taken the toast himself, became inebriated, and 
lay exposed from place to place. At last, Sak- 
kraia, aided by his other deities, took the Assu- 
raia by the feet, and flung him into the ocean ; 
and having overcome the above-said heaven, he 
made himself king of the gods thereof. Now 
when the paloU-tree, of the height of 100 yo- 
duns, which had been given for Assuraia, through 
the merits of his charitable deeds, and which 
had thrived to a distance of 10,000 yoduns 
throughout the Treekootta, beneath the Maha- 
meru, puts forth flowers, the Assuraia, con- 
templating that the flowers of their parasa- 
too-tree were not like these, he and the whole 
body of Assuraias, wanting to regain their native 
heaven, took arms and marched off, and climb- 
ing up to the Mahameru, went forward, without 
halting at the four guard places called Koom- 
banda-hudaia,* Yakhsa-hudaia, Garoonda-hudaia, 

* These are the regions immediately above the earth, 
inhabited by the inferior guardian deities of Sakkraia. 


and Naga-hudaia, wlien the Assuraias saw the 
chakkra-walalla* (a very sharp and circular 
weapon invented by Wismekarma) in the hands 
of Sakkraia and his followers, armed also with 
offensive weapons, upon this the Assuraias were 
greatly terrified and took to flight ; but Sak- 
kraia being aided by other deities, repulsed the 
Assuraias. This expedition of the Assuraias 
was to make themselves masters of the kingdom 
of Sakkraia. 

30. Give a perfect detail of the circumstances 
of Kissa-Gautamie. 

Amongst the 80,000 queens, wives to the 
Budhu Gautama when he was in a lay state, 
the Queen Kissa-Gautamie was a woman who, 
in point of beauty, might be compared to the 
Queen Yasodarawau, who was born of the ma- 
ternal aunt of the Queen Parabnamwoe-Yaso- 
dara-Dewie, youngest sister to the King Suddo- 
dana, and her (the said Kissa-Gautamie) father 
was the King of Weggre-pooraia. 

31. What is the history of the minister Ja- 
nanam-Amaptaia ? 

This Jananam-Amaptaia having, during a 
period of one lacse of calpas, exercised acts of 

* The walalla is described in similar terms as the thunder- 
bolt of Jove, or the shackra of Vishnu, are described in the 
Grecian and Braminical myths. 


charity, with sanguine hopes of aiding at the 
induction into the priesthood of one who was 
to become Budhu, was, on the very day of the 
birth of our Budhu, born in a ministerial family, 
and endowed with the strength of 1000 men, 
and in his infant state playing and amusing 
himself with Budhu all the time, and regarding 
him (Budhu) with due deference; at last, on 
the journey of Guatama to become Budhu, he 
attended the Budhu, and after Budhu was so 
become, he, Jananam-Amaptaia, was made priest, 
and soon after vanished, and obtained the hall 
of glory. 

32. Describe the particular circumstances of 
Kantakanam Aswa-rajah. 

Kantakanam Awsa-rajah, hoping to be formed 
for a conveyance of a person going to become 
Budhu, exerted himself in acts of charity for 
a space of one caplaxe, and being born on 
the very birth-day of our Budhu, and having 
safely grown up in length to eighteen cubits, 
and in proportion thereto in height, and as 
white as a pohshed conch-shell; so that the 
Budhu was carried upon the Kantakanam Aswa 
rajah, being fixed to a superb chariot, (which 
could in fifteen hours drive round the universe, 
which is 36 lacse 1,000,350 yoduns in circum- 
ference, and return to the spot whence it set 


off,) when, with Budhu upon his back, he leaped 
over the river called Anoomanam, which is 800 
cubits in width; and there the Budhu, having 
professed himself priest, gave charge of the 
horse to the care of his grooms, and sent him 
up to the city; but at the spot where the said 
Kantakanam Aswa-rajah lost the sight of Budhu, 
through mere grief he died of a broken heart, 
and was born in the heaven of glory ; and there 
having attended to the sermon preached by 
Budhu, he from thence obtained the hall of 

33. In w^hat kingdom was the door which 
had been made only to shut with the aid of a 
thousand men ? 

It was the door made by the King Sud- 
dodana for the east gate of the city Capila- 

34. The Cingalese deny that the sun and 
moon are eclipsed, and infer that they are taken 
away by devils : if so, state the names of those 

According to the Cingalese religious books, 
the eclipse of the sun and moon denotes an 
attack of Rahu (one of the nine planets), but 
not by a devil; much less the religion allows 
(except in some astrological books) that the 
same is an attack of both Rahu and the planet 


called Kehetty,* whose body below the head 
resembles the trunk of the snake cobra capile.f 

35. Where runs the river called Annomanam 

It lies to the south of the banian-tree, at 120 
miles distance from the city Kapilawastoo. 

86. Where is the city called Rajegaha-Nu- 
wara? and where is the kingdom of the King 
Bimsare ? 

This city Rajegaha - Nuwara is situated at 
a distance of thirty yoduns (a yodun is four 
miles) fi'om the said river Annomanam, and is 
the city of the King Bimsare, who is the 

* Such is the representation made of Kehettoo in the 
Bah, or Incantations. Vide Plates in " Doctrines of Bud- 

t The following amusing legend is given of this subject in 
" Le Pancha Tantra," translated by the Abbe Dubois : — 

" In former times, when the gods and the giants resolved 
to churn the ocean of milk, and to extract the amritta, 
which would confer immortality, two giants, enemies of the 
gods, mixed themselves by stratagem in their assembly without 
being detected, and thus drank of the amritta, which made 
them immortal. The sun and the moon having observed 
them, discovered them to Vishnu, who, enraged at the 
fraudulent introduction of these impious beings, and of their 
deceit, sought to slay them by striking them with his terrible 
shackra ; but it was in vain, as the amritta rendered them 


sovereign over the two kingdoms Ango and 

37. It is said that the milken rice was re- 
ceived on the full-moon day of the month of 
May, mider the tree called Ajapawlanam-Nig- 
groda-Mooleaiah : calculate in what year was it. 

From the reception-day of the milken rice to 
the Satm-day of the 20th November, of the year 
of Christ 1813, it makes 2400 years and 27 

38. Who was Sujatawoo? 

She is that virtuous woman who wrought 
many good works during 1,000,000 calpas, 
hoping to be so beneficent as to make an offer 
of milken rice to a Budhu on the very day of his 

" Vishnu then, in order to punish them in some degree, 
changed them into two planets ;* and these two giants 
henceforth became transformed, the one into the planet 
Rahu and the other into the planet Ketty. From that time 
these planets have preserved an implacable hatred against 
the sun and the moon, the cause of their disgrace ; and 
although by far more feeble than these luminaries, they cease 
not to wage war with them, and often make them suffer from 
their enmity, by obscuring their brightness in consequence of 
the eclipse which they occasion." — '• Pancha Tantra," p. 160. 

* Rahu and Ketty are the two fixed stars which form the 
head and the tail of the constellation of the dragon, of which 
the Indians have made two planets. 


promotion, which she at last fulfilled by being 
born daughter to a sitawno (a rich man), of the 
country Senananam Neangame, and as wife to 
the chief sitawno of the Bareness,* she having 
offered a golden bowl to the worth of 1,000,000 
gold massa full of milken rice to the Budhu on 
the day of his promotion ; and after his promo- 
tion, having attended the sermon of his preach- 
ing, she obtained mokse, or hall of glory. 

39. Where runs the river called Neranjanam 
Ganga ? 

This river runs through the city of Bareness, 
which is situated to the south of the banian-tree, 
the water of which is sacred. 

40. What are the trees that are called 
saigas ?f 

They are not produced in any of the petty 
islands, but in Jambu-dwipa, even where the 
same are excellent species of trees, and to be 
had only in orchards or botanic gardens of great 

41. What is Kusatana? 

Kusatana is a very salubrious and superior 
species of grass, which affords wholesome feel- 
ings to a man when he sits upon it, and has a 

* Benares. 

t The saigas, or sal-trees, named in a former tract. 


fraj^raiit smell, which grass is produced no where 
else but in Jambu-dwipa. 

42. Who is Wasawarty-Dewa Rajah? 

The deity Wasawarty-Dewa Rajah is a pow- 
erful but bad deity, who sins against the com- 
mandments of the Wasawarty-Dewa-Maha Rajah, 
or the supreme being of the sixth heaven, or 
more properly the kingdom of Wasawarty, being 
inclined unto sinful deeds, refractory and disobe- 
dient towards the said Wasawarty-Dewa-Maha 
Rajah, and living in a part of the said kingdom 
with a great company of wicked, turbulent, and 
diabolical deities. 

43. What was the conduct of Mahabody- 
Satwaio after he had obtained the sanction from 
Brahma-dewanam Budhu? 

Our Body-Satwaio, or the expectant of Bud- 
ship, is he who, through a variety of his good 
and meritorious works, has acquired the hap- 
piness of promotion to Budhuship, which he at 
last accomplished in the following manner, to 
wit: he entertained the wished -for purpose in 
heart, by making a regular appearance to 125,000 
Budhus, who were successors to each other, 
regularly descended down from age to age, 
namely, from the Budhu Brahma-nadeweh to 
the Budhu called Pooranne. After the comple- 
tion of which, he wished the intended purpose 


by word, by making his appearance again to 
30,887 Budhus, of whom he obtained the sanc- 
tion for his promotion, but the time not spe- 
cified, till at last it was limited by the Budhu 
called Diepankara, and afterwards by twenty- 
four Budhus, who were promoted to Budhuship 
successively, in the space of 10,000,000 calpas 
and 4 asanka-calpas, and at last he was made a 

44. Give an explanation of the circumstances 
of the priests Aja-Kondanjan after they were 
made priests. 

Those Paswaga Mahanoo - nanses, or the 
five priests, are brahmins, who, far advanced in 
knowledge of all sorts of arts, and among them 
that of soothsaying, having seen the charac- 
teristic marks of his person, namely, twenty- 
three symptoms called Assoolakoonoo, and 216 
ditto called Magool-lakoonoo, had borne a fore- 
knowledge of the certainty of his promotion as 
Budhu, they forsook their famihes, and became 
themselves priests, and followed him and minis- 
tered to him during six years before he became 
Budhu; and after having attended his sermon, 
which he preached in the first instance, from 
thence they attained the hall of glory. 

45. Give a description of the temple Issa- 


It is a temple wliich is situated on a very 
pleasant spot of land, to the south of the 
banicUi-tree, at a distance of eighteen yoduns, 
in which all the Budhus have performed their 
first preaching after being promoted to Budhu- 
ship; and the same is frequented by a great 
number of magis, or wise men, who are able to 
fly in the air; in consequence of which, this 
temple is named by those who have seen it Issa- 

46. Did Budhu treat the gods in the right 
v/ay, by preaching forth his religion to them? 
or how is it to be understood ? and if so, did 
these gods at any time afterwards deviate from 
the right path ? 

By virtue of a sermon, which was preached 
on that day, called Damma-Chakka Sootray, a 
number of eighteen kelas of brahmas, three 
asankas of deities, and one of the men, named 
Anja-Kondanja Teroonancy, who was a priest, 
have attained the Nirwana ; the state of which 
is so good, that none of those can be again 
changed; but it is impossible to give a descrip- 
tion thereof to those who have little knowledge 
of the Budhu's faith, but to those only who are 
skilled therein. There may be thousands and 
millions of reasons of every kind whereby to 
understand the above. 


47. Did Budhu, on the 15th day of the 
month of January, and in the ninth month of 
his succession to that situation, arrive at Ceylon 
and extirpate the de\ils? if so, what are the 
histories thereof? 

Budhu resorted to Ceylon purposely to pro- 
pagate his religion here, by dispelling the devils 
Kuwaraia, Jayasainia, Manebaddraia, Tambra- 
datiea, Wierasainea, &c., all of whom were then 
divided into two parties against each other, and 
were ready to make war. 

48. Where is situated the place called Mahi- 
yangania, and by what name is it now known? 

It is situated in the country called Bintenne, 
which is on the east of the city Seukada Sayla, 
or Kandy, and the cupola, which is in the 
temple called Mihingoo-Vihare, or Kauke-Cha- 
tize, is the one that was built upon the very 
spot of ground on which he was sitting on the 
day the devils were expelled. 

49. To whom belonged the palace which 
was twelve miles in length and six in breadth? 

As Ceylon was then void of people, there 
were no cities nor palaces, except a garden of 
naw (iron-wood) trees, which contained in its 
length twelve miles and breadth eight miles; 
and the same was the habitation of the devils till 
the time of Wijayia, who invaded Ceylon from 


Jambu-dwipa with a great multitude of people, 
and set forth to reign, after which the same was 
turned to use for the population. 

50. Who is Saman-dewie Rajah ? 

The deity Saman-dewie Rajah is the chief of 
a number of other subaltern deities, who having 
attended the preaching of Budhu at his first 
arrival at Mayhangamy, and having denounced 
all wickedness, is now living, with his said 
deities, upon the top of Samanalagalle (Adam's 
Peak), with power over Ceylon. 

51. Where is situated the Oeruwel- Dana- 
woo wa ? 

Oeruwel-Danawoowa is a country which is 
situated at Madde-Mandaley, in Jambu-dwipa, 
between the great banian-tree and the river Ne- 

52 What did Budhu do at Ceylon on his 
first journey there ? 

In his first voyage to Ceylon he went to 
Mayhangany ; then terrified all the devils, who 
were ready to war, and sent them out to an 
isle called Yakgirie-dewainna. And having af- 
terwards preached to Saman-dewie, and other 
deities, and having delivered them to Nirwana, 
he remained a moment on the spot where now 
stands the cupola Mijoogoona-Vihari, making 
supplications, as it was customary, to all Budhus; 


and then on the same day he returned to 

53. Where and in what kingdom is Jeta- 
wana Ramaia situated ? 

Jetawana Ramaia is situated towards the 
south-east of the banian-tree, in a garden of 
Prince Jatch, which is in the city called Sra- 
warty, in the country called Kosalek. 

54. Explain the animosity that subsisted 
between the two kingly snakes, cobra capiles, 
namely, Choolodera and Mahodera ? 

Those two kingly snakes had found a pre- 
cious stone (the Minnypalange) among their 
haunts, and a consequent altercation ensued be- 
tween them ; sa3dng each to the other, " It is 
mine," " It is mine." But being unable to gain 
it one from the other, they began to make war 
with their great hosts of snakes. 

55. Where is the place called Wadunna-galle 
situated ? 

Wadunna-galle is situated at Wannia, which 
is to the south of Naga-Diepe (the isle of 

56. What tree is that called Kiripaloogaha ? 
and what is the cause of it ? 

The Kiripaloogaha-tree is a species of tree 
called Kirre-naga, also called Rajaiatenah. 


57. Where is lying the rock called Samanta- 
Koota-Parkwate ? 

Samanta-Koota (Adam's Peak) is situated in 
the country called Saffergam, in the wilderness 
of Sree-pawde Adawisa, which being a moun- 
tain of five miles high, is called Samanta-Koota ; 
so that no other mountain in Ceylon will be 
found superior to this, either in height or size. 

58. Who is Wibiesana-Dewie Rajah?* and 
what are his properties ? 

Wibiesana - Dewe Rajah is he who pro- 
tects the temple of Calany, and is a mighty 
chief over a certain number of deities, equal to 
Samana-Dewe Rajah. 

59. Who is Wisme ? and what are his attri- 
butes ? 

It appears in the ancient story-books called 
Pooranerawme, &c,, that Wisme is a powerful 
deity, having great influence, and living in the 
mountain of Waykoote, which is in the wilder- 
ness of Jambu-dwipa, called Himmalawanne, to 
whose charge Ceylon has been committed by 

* The deities of Adam's Peak, Calany, &c., namely, 
Sumana Dewe, Wiebesenne, and Wisme, are the Pattina 
gods, and are intermixed with the ancient demonolatry of 


Sakkraia, and is consequently protecting the 
religion of Budhu there. 

60. What became of the precious stone 
Minnypalange, and the tree Kirepaloo after- 
wards ? 

It appears by the religion that the stony seat 
Minnypalange has been buried below the tree 
Kiri-naga Rooka^ which is in the isle Minni- 
naga Dewe-inne, the same being left, by the 
charge of the deity called Samana-de we Rajah, for 
the purpose of offering and making supplica- 
tion thereon by the heavenly snakes, that they 
may thereby obtain blessedness, as the same is 
the stony seat which was placed below the said 
tree, which is in the said island, whereupon the 
Budhu sat down, leaning himself towards the said 
tree, and preached ; and the feelings of his body 
were conferred upon that seat. 

61. After that where did the god go to? 
The answer to this question will be the same 

as appears in the paragraph 60. 

62. Give an explanation of the attributes of 
the kingly snake Naga Rajah, by whom the 
Budhu was requested to come to Ceylon for the 
third time? 

Dewe Naga's haunt is in the rocks called 
Ganga-parweta, having illuminative apartments at 
divers places, and they are equal in other felicities 


66 BunmsT tracts. 

to other deities. They are capable of becoming 
transformed into divers shapes, as they please, 
at all times, except in four cases, namely, rest- 
ing in sleep, becoming liable to death, eating 
food, and enjoying the carnal pleasure ; they 
have also mighty power, even so far as to destroy 
the country, by breathing out venomous fumes, 
rain, fire, and winds ; independently of all hap- 
piness and long life, they have equally with 
others celestial bliss ; and the divine snakes 
who invited Budhu at the third time, called 
Mani-Okkeke, and who live in the river of 
Calany, have also the same power and hap- 

63. Where is the place called Deganakaia 
situated ? 

The monument called Deganakaia is situate 
at Battecolo, which is also called Naka-wehera. 

64. Where is the situation of the hells? 
what is their description? 

The hells called Sanjeewe, Cawle-soottraia, 
Sangawtas, Sanjataia, Rourawaia, Maha-Rawraia, 
Thawpaia, Prethawpaia, and Awiechia, are si- 
tuated below the earth, gradually each upon the 
other, in the form of a case of pots, and each of 
which eight gi'eat hells are accompanied by six- 
teen petty hells, called Oossadeho, all of which 
amount to 130 ; in which hells the wicked 


souls of men who have committed the five sins, 
namely, murder (meaning both of man and 
beast), thefts, adultery, lying, and drunkenness, 
and various other sins, are smarting beneath 
pungent miseries, according to the nature of 
their deeds ; which miseries are indescribable by 
a brief detail. 

65. Where is to be found the state of the 
Dewa-Loka, or heavens of glory, in the Cinga- 
lese books ? 

The first heaven, called Chawtoor-Maha-Ra- 
jakai, is situated upon the rock called Sakwal- 
lagala (this, according to the European calcula- 
tion, is supposed to be the pole), which is in 
form of a circle, and which is in circumference 
3,610,350 yoduns, and in height it reaches to 
the rock called Yugandara-Parwatte, which is 
42,000 yoduns high from the earth, and is pa- 
rallel to the rim of the said Sakwallagala. In 
the four corners of the said heaven, the four 
guardians, or divine kings, subject to Sakkraia, 
namely, Satawaran Rajah Dradarasta, Wiroo- 
dah, Wieroopaxe, and Wayssrauana, reigned. 
Above the said heaven, to the same height from 
thence, is situated the second heaven, called Ta- 
watensaya, upon the rock called Mahameru- 
Parwatte (world stone), extending to the above- 
said Sakwallagala throughout ; in which heaven 


Sakkraia, who is the sovereign king of the fore- 
going two heavens, reigned ; so that the heavens 
called Yawmey, Tosite, Nummane-rata, Para- 
nermite, and Wasawatty, are regularly situated, 
each above the other, and the divine kings, 
called Soojame, Santosite, Sonemmite, and Wa- 
sawattie, reigned each in his respective heaven, 
ascendinof bv degrees. 

66. In wliat manner is denoted, in the reli- 
gion of Budhu, the end of hfe, or mokse ? and 
what was the will of the Budhu on that point ? 

The salvation of men is the mokse, in which 
neither the birth nor the death is renewed : and 
the same is therefore called Amanta-maha Nir- 
wana, or the eternal happiness; the moral of 
which imports the blotting out, or the death 
of both the bodv and soul for ever, and which 
mokse is obtained only by those who are ad- 
vanced in good works, &c. The intention of 
Budhu was to lead men to mokse, the state of 
which it is not possible to explain at large, but I 
will relate in a concise manner, so as every man 
of penetration may form an idea, that is to say, 
that this mokse is obtained only by all those 
who have abstained from every sensual indul- 

67. Give an explanation about the people of 
the kingdom called Sewet Nuwara, who pur- 


posely arrived at the kingdom called Jetavvana- 
Ramaia, to see, worship, and offer things for 
Budhu ; and on their not finding him there, they 
returned home with grieved hearts, leaving there 
the offerings they had carried with them. 

Budhu, while he dwelt in the temple of 
Dewooran-Vihari, understood, through his omni- 
sciences whether there were any benefit, with re- 
gard both to this and the other worlds, to the 
multitude who dwell in the regions thereabout, 
which they may gain by beholding him ; and if 
so, he used to go either in a public manner, in 
company with thousands of priests, and displaying 
great miracles, or privately, by himself, either 
through the sky, or by diving through the earth, 
or by his usual walk, displaying himself to every 
one, that they may obtain mercy by seeing him. 
And when he had paid such a visit once to the 
city, some of the 7,000,000,000,000,000 devout 
people called Oepasakayas, who were unacquainted 
of his arrival, came as usual, offering odoriferous 
flowers and lamps ; but finding him not there, 
nor a person suitable to whom to offer those 
things, as the same are not applicable to their 
own use, they were thrown by them within the 
fence of the temple. 

68. What is Jetawana ? and by whom was 
it offered ? 


As appears in the answer 53, the Sitano, 
called Anede-Pandike, who had longed to offer 
a temple to Budhu, during one lacse of calpas, 
havmg purchased a garden, by paying in gold 
spread out on the ground, built thereon a temple, 
by expending fifty-four kelas, and offered the 
same to the Budhu. 

69. When Budhu had arrived at Jetawana 
Ramaia, the citizens waited on him, and with 
reverence begged permission to have his portrait 
taken, which he granted. Relate it particularly. 

The offerings which, as appears in the 
answer 67, were thrown within the fence of 
the temple, having been seen by the King Kosal, 
the Sitano Anepedoo, and Wisakawo, and other 
virtuous women, having combined themselves 
together, they repaired to Budhu on the day 
on which he was to come to the temple, say- 
ing that they wished to make an image in the 
likeness of Budhu, that they might gratefully 
worship the same, in his stead, during his 
absence ; whereupon he permitted them to do 
so, saying, that their proposal was eminently 
laudable, as the four cases, namely, the making 
and offering of such images, the offering of 
things to his banian-tree, his cups, and his 
clothing, into which the feeUngs of his body were 
conveyed, and the offerings to his remains after 


his demise, would lead them to the Brachma- 
L5ka and mokse. And he further permitted 
them to take a branch from the banian-tree 
called Sree-maha-bodie, and plant the same 
in the temple, and worship it. And they ac- 
cordingly, rejoicing with great delight, took a 
piece of red sandal-wood, to the worth of one 
lacse, of which they shaped an image of Budhu, 
and planted a banian-tree ; and they worshipped 
it in his absence, and obtained thereby great 

70. Who was Annanda-Maha-Teroonancy ? 
Give an account of him. 

Each of all the Budhus has got a high- 
priest, who will infallibly know their thoughts, 
which priests are called Aggre-oopastayekes ;* 
and thus the Aggre-oopastayeke of our Budhu 
was he who is also called Annanda-Maha-Teroo- 
nancy, who, with the same hopes to become 
Budhu, has wrought many good works, during 
one lacse of calpas, and who is the son of the 
Budhu's uncle, or the younger brother of his 
father, and is a king called Dowtrowdene Sackje 
Maha Raja, who was so capable as to learn by 
heart all the doctrines of 84,000 heaps of books, 

* The Aggre of the Budhu is a perfect example of the Ferwer 
of Mithras. See Porter's " Travels iu Persia," vol. i. p. 657. 


when the same are only once preached by 
Budhu in very high Palee language : and the 
said king is mightier than the five following 
skilful people ; namely, those who have sound 
memory, those who bear knowledge so as to 
understand many things, those who are expe- 
rienced by questioning upon many things, those 
who are skilled in the tenets of Budhu, and 
those who are called oopastayeke. 

71. There is said to be a variety of worlds: 
in those worlds does the human race exist ? 

In the Sackwalla, or world, is contained a 
number of gods, Maha-Bambas ; so men, &c. in 
the same manner are contained in divers innu- 
merable Sackwallas, Budhus and Sakwity Rajas, 
or the kings who solely reign over the whole 
world ; all of whom are produced here. 

72. In heaven, also, does adultery prevail; 
and if so, what is the origin thereof? 

Because gods in their celestial habitations 
are satisfied by only seeing divine meats, but 
taste not : they have no urethra, in conse- 
quence of which, though they indulge not in 
libidinous intercourse with the other sex as well 
as men, yet they desire it ; and they indulge, to 
their extreme satisfaction, in the divine desire 
they enjoy by hugging bodies one with the 
other ; and as their origin is said to be of 


mere spontaneous appearance, and of coming 
into vision, their ranks and qualities are thus 
discriminated : if a goddess, on the conjugal 
seat or throne ; if a son, on the lap ; if in- 
ferior beings, in divers apartments in the divine 

73. What are the blessings and the hap- 
piness in the heavens ? describe the state 

It is not possible to relate particularly the 
nature of the happiness in heaven in a summary 
w^ay, but I will mention it so briefly as the wise 
may comprehend; namely, every thing that is in 
colour grateful to the eye, or in music melodious 
to the ear, a smell grateful to the nose, a taste 
delicate to the palate, a convenience wholesome 
to the body, a proposal pleasant to the heart, are 
spontaneously brought about, according to the 
wishes formed. Another enjoyment of the divine 
felicities is, by indulging in the pleasure of feast- 
ing the eye on the charms of the goddesses 
dancing in the beautiful and divine palaces, which 
are constantly illuminated by the rays of every 
kind of invaluable diamonds. 

74. Who is the King Dharma-Soka-Raja- 
juwo ? what is his condition ? and how many 
years after the death of Budhu was he 
born l 


The Kincf Dharma-Soka* was the son of the 
King Bindusare, and who, putting the circle of 
order in force in the land of Jambu-dwipa, up to 
a distance of two yoduns, one from the sky and 
the other from the land, exacted services from 
the snaky demons; and doing charities at the 
expense of three lacses out of his riches, and 
causing the number of 84,000 of both convents 
and monasteries to be erected throughout Jam- 
bu-dwipa, he, in a most laudable and praise- 
worthy manner, accommodated and satisfied the 
mansion of Budhu ; in short, he was a most ex- 
cellent king, of great virtues, might, power, and 
influence; and it was 218 years after the extinc- 
tion of Budhu that he was elevated king. 

75. How many years after the decline of 
Budhu was the King Dootoogameny born, and 
what were his attributes ? 

It was a year after the extinction of Budhu 
that the King Dootoogameny was crowned king, 
and he was the brave son of the King Ka- 
kawaine Tissa. Dootoogameny having invaded 
thirty-two cities, taken captive ten lacse and 
thirty-four thousand Malabars that inhabited 
them, and put their king, Ellala, to the sword, 

* The particulars of the reign of Dharma-Soka, also of 
Dootoogameny, the subject of the next query, are fully given 
in the histories of the two preceding volumes. 


and established the region Lacdiva; and also 
caused to be constructed ninety-nine high and 
eminent temples, and, at the expense of twenty 
kelas of his riches, caused the monument Me- 
resawetty, and another temple roofed with nine 
stages, with 1000 auxiliary buildings, to be con- 
structed at the charges of thirty kelas ; also 
another monument, or cupola, known by the 
name of Ruan welly, where he entertained ninety- 
six kelas of priests with alms ; he celebrated a 
festival by expending eighty-four of his precious 
jewels and 1000 kelas ; also by various other 
deeds of charities then done by him, at the charge 
of immense wealth. 

76. Is the state of Mulgiri-galle the same as 
when the King Moottusiwe reigned ? 

Yes, it is now in the very same state. 

77. Explain what is to be inferred from the 
term Budhu. 

The full interpretation of the word Budhu 
cannot be enlarged upon by a short detail, but 
will be hereafter stated so briefly as the wise 
may understand, that is to say, in consequence 
of the knowledge of every event belonging to 
the times past, present, and future, he was called 
by the name Budhu. 

78. Who are termed Attapiris ? 

They are the eight persons, namely, the four 


gods Bialinia, Mawra, Tawatinsaia, Chatoork- 
Maha-Rajikaia ; and the four human beings, 
namely, Xestriea, Brahmana, Grahapatrea, and 

79. What is the knowledge that is called 
Astawedsawe ? 

It is the eight omnisciences:* of foreknowing 
the death and birth of the creation in the time 
to come ; of seeing any distant place, when 
wished for, near at hand ; of increasing the little 
and decreasing the much ; drawing close the dis- 
tant, and lengthening that which is the nearest ; 
the power of hearing any noise or sound that 
goes on in any part of the world ; the power of 
seeing every thing in the world ; the wisdom of 
knowing the hearts of others ; the penetration 
of knowing the shape lived in in the past trans- 
migrations; and the prudence of suppressing 
every lustful desire. 

80. Who was the King Malla-Rassooroowo ? 
and what w^as his kingdom ? 

He was a descendant of the family Maha- 
sammata, and a prince of great virtues, influ- 
ence, might, and power ; his city was Kusina 

* This definition fully illustrates the Budhist term of 
Omniscience, viz. knowing the past, the present, and the 
future; wliich clearly defines itself to be the knowledge of the 
transmigrations of the existing calpe only. 


Nuwara, lying to the north of the banian-tree, 
and it was in this very city that our Budhu made 
his exit. 

81. It is said that there are 2000 islands 
(excepting the one called Satara - Mahadiwe) ; 
describe how they are situated. 

There are situated 500 petty islands circum- 
jacent to each of the superior ones, so that there 
are 500 petty islands (which are appropriated to 
the superior island Jambu-dwipa) round about 
Jambu-dwipa, and the three other islands are 
situated in the very same manner. 

82. Is Sakkraia the protector of Ceylon ? 
Since Sakkraia has been charged by Budhu 

with the protection of his religion in Ceylon, it 
is the fact that he (Sakkraia) preserves the island. 

83. Has Sakkraia any pagodas devoted to 
him in Ceylon ? 

As no pagodas have been consecrated on this 
nether world for those gods who inhabit the 
heavens (except to those earthly deities who 
are begotten for the sake of trees and rocks), 
so the deity Sakkraia Diwerajaia has no pa- 
goda dedicated to him in Ceylon. 

84. What is the shape of the deity Sak- 
kraia ? 

The deities that inhabit the heavens are 
of bright shining bodies, similar to the hght 


of a lamp, and are three leagues in height, 
wearing diamond crowns of one league height 
each, their bodies being constantly bathed with 
perfumes, clothed with divine raiments, and 
ornaments emitting rays from their apparel; 
and as the god Sakkraia also presides over them 
as king, he has a superiority in point of every 
thing stated above. 

85. In what year was it that Sakkraia deli- 
vered the charge of Ceylon to Wisnoo ?* 

From the day of the delivery to the 29th 
of November, of the year of Christ 1813, it makes 
2,355 years, eight months, and seven days. 

86. It is said that there are many Sakkraias ; 
state how and what are they. 

The regions or sack wallas are numerous, each 
of which has a god Sakkraia ; consequently, their 
numbers also are numerous, but from amongst 
them only 10,000 Sakkraias, belonging to 10,000 
regions or sackwallas, can assemble to the festival 
of Budhu. 

87. There are many worlds : what are their 
names ? 

There are three worlds; the first of them 
constitutes the twenty regions of Brahmas, four 
hells, human region, &c., so that within a world 

* Wisnoo, or Wismekarma. 


there are thirty-one regions that are inhabited 
by creation ; of which, from the world of snakes 
unto the sixteen heavenly kingdoms, all the 
regions that are inhabited by creation are known 
by Kamelokaia, from the heaven Brahma -pa- 
risadjaia Bambalowa, mito the utmost heaven 
Bambalowa; the eight regions between them 
which are inhabited by creation are called Roo- 
pelokaia; and the other four regions, also in- 
habited by creation, namely, Akasanan - chaca- 
tena, Wigniananchaia-tenai, Akinjaia-tanaia, and 
Niwesansaia-tanaia, are called the Aroopalokaia ; 
so that there appear three several worlds in the 
religion ; and all the future worlds will contain 
as those already stated. 

88. Is it a sin in the Cingalese to take their 
night's repast? 

It is no sin for every Cingalese (except to 
those who are consecrated by being admitted to 
fulfil the ten commandments of Budhu, called 
Dahasil, also another eight commandments, 
called Atasil) to receive their night's repast; and 
as the same has been so strictly forbidden by 
Budhu to the priests, unto those in the above 
hallowed state, it would be a sin of high degree 
for a person so forbidden to take the night 

89. It is mentioned that Budhu was raised in 



consequence of his having abstained from all the 
suis ; if so, explain how it was. 

It is true that Budhu was so promoted on 
account of his having avoided many sinful deeds : 
such a brief statement as this will not admit of 
the whole particulars thereof, wherefore it will 
be related in such a short manner as the wise 
may understand, namely, as the desires are the 
chief aptitude of all sins, the Budhu abstained 
from all sensual indulgence, and by that means 
attained his end. 

90. Why are the priests excluded from re- 
ceiving goats, sheep, oxen, &c. ? 

In former ages the priests, like unto all sen- 
sualists in the secular state, were accustomed 
to deal in goats, sheep, oxen, and hogs, and 
subsisted thereby, but the people beginning to 
murmur, remonstrating that no distinction was 
thereby to be made between the sensualists and 
the priests, it came to the knowledge of Budhu, 
who thereupon strictly forbade the same to the 
priests ; in consequence of which, woe be unto 
him who now presumes to sin in the hke 

manner ! 








Sent, on the 3d of December, 1766, to His Excellency 
the Honourable Iman Willem Falck, Doctor of Law, 
Governor and Director of the Island of Ceylon and 
its Dependencies, in compliance with his Excel- 
lency's desire (when in the Pagoda Mulgirri-galle), 
by the High Priest residing there, named Sue 
Bandare Metankere Samenere Samewahanse. 




The powerful gods Satagierre and Assoere, the 
four gods who are the supreme rulers and pro- 
tectors of all the worlds, tlie god Sakkraia who 
governs six heavens, and Maha-Brahma who 
illuminates all the worlds, have, with several 
other gods, proceeded to the Budhu, and, stoop- 
ing down before him, prayed him to make a 
sermon out of love to them. 

The said Budhu, who is a king in making 
such sermon, and a lord in governing the three 
worlds, Brahma-Loka, Dewe-Loka, and Maneispe- 
Loka ; — the first, a world above the Dewe-Loka 
heavens; the second, one that is in heaven itself; 
and the third, which is inhabited by men — is also 
a person who removes the evil from the inhabit- 
ants of all the three worlds, and is very great and 
beautiful ; and when the other gods and inhabit- 
ants of worlds approach him, all their beauties, 
power, and other qualities, are impaired, and in 
him alone are so transparent, that the others re- 
joice at it. Before he came to the state of Budhu, 
he had, as he wished, abandoned all his riches 


and shewed all possible mercifulness, after which 
he died often, and being born again, he met 
first the Budhu named Bragmedewe, and then 
wishing to become also Budhu, fell at his feet. 
Since that, walking during innumerable years, 
with a sincere intention of his heart, he met a 
second Budhu called Gauteme, and worshipped 
him also with such desire. 

Afterwards, flattering himself with that hope 
during immemorial years, he remained under 
the government of the Budhu Diepankerenan, 
who, like a shining light, was the highest ruler 
of the said three worlds in the city of Ammera- 
wetie. Born from the high parentage of bra- 
mins, and called the Prince Soomedenam, as 
he grew up there, he had an aversion to all 
temporal riches, and, on the other hand, con- 
ceived a desire to go over to the priesthood ; 
whereupon he proceeded to the king of that 
country, and informed him of all the treasures 
of his ancestors as far as seven generations, and 
that he wanted to distribute the same among 
the poor. The king was very glad of it, and 
praised his intention, causing the poor to be 
gathered by beat of tom-tom, amongst whom the 
prince caused his treasures to be distributed ; 
after which he proceeded to the woods, and, 
deep in the same, discovered a rock with a 


building upon it like a palace, called Parne, 
which, with whatever was to be found in it, by 
order of the god Sakkraia, was produced by his 
favourite, named Wismekarma, in the twink- 
ling of an eye. The garment, which was also to 
be found in it, was put on by him, and then he 
appeared like a pilgrim ; and, walking in the 
air, and seeing that the roads in the city of Ptam- 
Jenam were beaten and decorated by the inha- 
bitants, asked them for what purpose it was 
done ? They said for the arrival of the Budhu 
Diepankerenan, " who, with 400,000 rahatoons, 
signifying spirits in the air, were expected there, 
asking him whether he did not hear of it? As 
he who was in the air heard it, he stepped with 
such a trembling noise upon earth as if an ear- 
ring of the god Sakkraia had fallen down, and 
asked them whether they could not give him also 
a spot to clear ? They gave him thereupon a val- 
ley to fill up. He then thought he should be able 
to cause the necessary earth to be brought from 
heaven ; but it being a knowledge by his faith 
that it would be better to do it by his own labour, 
he therefore took a basket, in which he himself 
conveyed the necessary quantity of earth, and 
filled up that valley. In the middle of his work, 
it happened that the said Budhu Diepanke- 
renan, with several gods more, and the said 


400,000 rahatoons, came to the said place with 
much splendour and pomp ; and when the valley 
was not perfectly filled, the pilgrim thought that 
it was not good to make such illustrious persons 
go through that half-filled valley, the more so 
as he who could do so much had undertaken 
that work ; on which account he laid a sheet 
over it, and went and lay himself forward upon 
the same, in order to serve as a bridge when 
those great people should pass by. The Budhu 
came then and stood near his head, and being 
inspired, said to his people, " O ! happy men, 
look at this happy pilgrim, Soomedenam, who, 
after innumerable years, shall also attain to the 
state of Budhu like me, and procure to all the 
gift of Nirwana;" and predicted further in which 
city he would again be born as Budhu, who 
would be his parents, and who his wife and 
children, what would be his support, and the 
consequence of him, and also that he would be 
called Guadma Budhu ; after which he, having 
walked with joy around him three times, and 
having offered eight handsful of flowers, went 
away from there with those who were with him, 
who also, together with several gods, brahmins, 
and other people of the earth, did so : where- 
upon the said pilgrim went and sat upon a heap 
of flowers brought there to be offered ; and recol- 


lecting very well that he did not neglect to give 
all his treasures to the poor, and to be chari- 
table, satisfied, courageous, true, hoping, just, 
industrious, and to have knowledge of the birth 
after this life, upon that assurance he lived and 
died. He was again born anew, with the name 
of the King Wesantara, gave all his wealth to 
the poor, and died ; but afterwards, being born 
again in the fifth heaven, called Tosite, all the 
gods that were in that heaven requested him, 
when he was in the glory of his life, to come in 
the world of men, and to accept of the dignity 
of Budhu ; and thus he, having been conceived 
in the womb of the lawful wife of the King Sud- 
dodarna, called Mahamaarie, was born of her 
after ten months. 

He was then growing like the increasing 
moon, and became the king of the four parts of 
the world ; afterwards, he having Uved in carnal 
conversation with the princess named Jasodera 
and 40,000 concubines, during thirty-one years, 
upon the three signs which he saw he proceeded 
to his country house, and being in the middle of 
it, there appeared before him Wismekarme, by 
order of 1000 gods, in the shape of one who 
always, adhered to him, and dressed him in 
clothes in which 1000 points were hanging, 
adorned him with several jewels, tied his head 


with 1000 heavenly head-dresses, and crowned 
him with a crown of precious stones ; where- 
upon being informed that a son was born for 
him, he called him Rahulla, and went out as 
cheerful as Sakkraia returning after having con- 
quered his enemies the Assuras. On the road 
he met a woman called Kisagooteme, who, in a 
song, represented to him the good and evil 
which befal men during life : he rejoiced at it 
so much, that he took off a chain which he had 
about his neck and gave it to his followers, 
desiring it to be given to her, and afterwards 
came into his palace, which was as bright as 
that of Sakkraia, where, he having sat in his 
apartment upon his chair, some women came to 
divert him ; but he not liking it, and coming near 
the door, he thought if he entered his house, 
and saw his wife and children, that they would 
not allow him to become Budhu. He there- 
fore returned, and went to his courtier named 
Tjannenam, who was asleep, whom he awoke, 
and ordered to saddle the horse called Kante- 
kenan, which was eighteen cubits long, and high 
in proportion, and to bring the same, which 
having also been done, he got on horseback, and 
rode on as a ruler of the aforesaid three worlds, 
when the large gate which was opened and shut 
by 1000 men went open of itself by the manage- 


ment of God ; and in consideration of his having 
formerly always kept an open door for the poor, 
he, like the moon which escapes the swallowing 
of the eclipse, and being also freed from all 
worldly things, came on the border of the river 
Anomanam, and alighted from his horse, after 
having ridden 120 miles. Afterwards he with his 
right hand, laying hold of his hair, took his 
gold sword with the left, and cut off a good part 
and threw it towards heaven, where it was taken 
up by Sakkraia, and having put it in a gold 
box, took it to his habitation. 

Hereupon Maha Brahma Rajah brought a 
garment of a priest and delivered it to him, 
which he also took and put on, and afterwards, 
out of joy, remained there during seven days; 
then he crossed the river, and having arrived 
in the city called Rayegahanoewere, begged of 
every one for a handful of rice, and sitting near 
a stone, ate it. 

Thence he came into the city of King Bin- 
sere, who having asked him why he begged, as 
he was the son of King Suddodarna, and was a 
king himself? he said he did so to become 
Budhu, and intended also to come ere long as 
such in the city. Afterwards he spent his days 
during seven years in many difficulties, and, on 
the 15th of May, having come near a devil-tree. 


there he got an offering, from a virgin called 
Soeyata, of rice boiled with cocoa-nut milk, 
which he brought near a river named Neran- 
jene, and having made of it forty-nine balls, ate 
the same ; sitting on the border upon the sand, 
he afterwards threw the gold basin in which he 
got the rice (of the value of 100,000 larins) in 
the river, thinking, should he become Budhu, 
that it ought to float against the stream, which 
happened also. After that he proceeded into an 
adjoining wood of certain sort of trees called 
sal, and having rested there the whole day, he 
went at night on a road which was cleared by 
the cjods to another devil-tree. On the road he 
met a brahmin, who gave him eight handsfiil of 
gi'ain called Kusatane, which having been 
strewed by him near that tree, the earth was 
split open, and out of it came a seat of the 
height of fourteen cubits ; upon which he went 
and sat, leaning against that devil-tree, which 
was. like a silver pillar, when all the gods ap- 
peared there, and having praised him, a great 
light appeared there. Then came also, upon an 
elephant, of the extent of a large mountain, in a 
frightful shape, a deity called Wassewarti-mara, 
with innumerable followers, armed with pikes and 
swords, and he himself had a sword in his hand 
wherewith heaven could be hewn, in order to 


frighten the Biidhu and other gods, and to take 
away the seat ; for which purpose he also caused 
it to rain nine times, but nothing could preju- 
dice the Budhu; he, on the contrary, having 
recollected himself the ten virtuous deeds done 
by him, they were all driven away, as it were, 
by ten giants ; whereupon he, on account of the 
good which he did since the time of the Budhu 
Bragme-dewe until he ascended the seat, obtained 
forgiveness of his sins, and became Budhu, with 
the name of Guadma, being of a high birth, where 
he remained during seven weeks. Afterwards, 
at the request of Maha Brahma Rajah, having 
gone to the city Barennas (Benares), he made 
his introductory sermon there, in the large hall 
called Issipattene, whereby a high priest called 
Anjakendanje, and innumerable people, were 
converted, and many blind were made to see, and 
many miracles occurred; and the gods and others 
were by his doctrine brought to a clear state 
and in the right path. Nine months afterwards, 
or on the l5th January, he came to this island 
of Ceylon, and went to the devil who was on 
Mayjanginne, in the palace of Nangewenoden- 
neje, twelve miles long and four miles broad, 
where he, hovering in the air, produced a thick 
darkness over the whole earth, and thereby 
frightened the devils so much that they all re- 


tired ; and he got thereby an opportunity to tread 
upon the earth, and to go and sit upon a seat which 
came forth of itself, and to cause fire to issue 
forth from the four corners, whereby the devils 
were more frightened; but he comforted them, 
and caused afterwards a wood called Jakgierrie, 
through his power, to come there from the place 
where it was situated, where he having banished 
the devils, sent the said wood again to the place 
where it was formerly situated. Afterwards he 
edified the gods who were assembled at Mayjan- 
ginne aforesaid with his sermon, and liberated 
them from hell ; and having given to Samandiwe 
Rajah a handful of his hair, pointed out this 
island for the habitation of men, and afterwards 
proceeded to Oerroewieldanauwe. Whereupon 
the said Samandiwe Rajah, having put the hand- 
full of hair received in a chest with precious 
stones, kept the same at the aforesaid place, 

This is what our Budhu did the first time he 
came to Ceylon. Five years afterwards he came 
forth from the pagoda Telewanne, and put a stop 
to the battle of the two gods in the shape of 
snakes, by name Tchulodere and Magodere, the 
first whereof was at Waddoenagelle, and the other 
at Calany, who kept themselves under the earth, 
and were at war on account of the seat of precious 


stones, and he edified them with his doctrine; 
whose innumerable followers were also converted 
by him. Then both the snake-gods, saying, that 
if either of them had retained the seat a contest 
would have arisen again, offered to the Budhu 
the same, as well as some victuals which they 
brought forth through their power, who then, 
having sat upon the seat and having eaten the 
victuals, delivered afterwards a tree called Ke- 
riepalloe, which, when he came from the said 
pagoda, was used by the god Samman-dewa as 
an umbrella to protect himself from the sun, and 
also the said seat, which were both used in his 
service, to the god Wiebiesinne, in order that 
the snakes, by worshipping the same, might 
obtain Nirwana; and afterwards he returned 
again to the pagoda. When he came again 
to this island on the 15th of May, in the eighth 
year, at the request of the snake Mannier- 
keyeram, he sat on that very beautiful seat; 
then he also ate the meat brought there by 
the said snake, and converted many persons by 
his sermon ; and having also remained for some 
time in the pagoda Balance, with 500 rahatoons, 
appeared, at the request of the god Samman- 
dewa Rajah, as the moon which comes from 
the east, on the rock called Sammantekoete ; 
where he, having attended, the gods, out of joy. 


rained down flowers and precious stones ; and 
he afterwards left the impression of his foot 
upon that rock. Subsequently, having remained 
with his suite, and other priests who were with 
him, for some time, he departed with great joy 
to a place called Dieganekeye, and thence to the 
city Anurahde-pura, where he visited the places 
Srimahabode-distaen, Ratnemales-taene, Toepa- 
ramettame, and Wonnissakenani Barroewattes- 
taene ; and having remained a little time upon 
each of the said places, and having preached 
before the gods who were there, he returned to 
the said pagoda, and remained there forty-five 
years, preaching and shewing his good works. 
Afterwards he proceeded to the court of the 
King Mallele, and there went and lay, according 
to his own pleasure, on one of the cots which 
were decorated in the two halls, and considered 
in which quarter of the world his divinity and 
laws would be best acknowledged and adopted, 
which is the extent of thirty-six hundred times 
hundred thousand ten thousand three hundred 
and fifty yoduns, and whereof the one part of the 
world, called Poerewewideeseje, is 7000 yoduns ; 
the second, called Jambu-dwipa, 10,000 yoduns ; 
the third, called Apperego-jancge, 7000 yoduns ; 
and the fourth, called Oetoeroekoeroe-diweine, 
8000 yoduns ; besides 2000 small islands more ; 


and knowing, through his omniscience, what 
would happen in this quarter during 5000 years, 
whereupon he called fi'om amongst the gods that 
were there, one named Sakkraia, and said to him 
whilst on Ceylon, which he had visited three 
times, and had driven the devils from it, that his 
laws would be better followed there, and directed 
him to protect Ceylon and its inhabitants well ; 
which order Sakkraia took also upon his head, 
bowing down, and afterwards devolved the pro- 
tection on his assistant god Wisnu. Budhu 
Guadma died blessed, on a Tuesday, the 15th of 
May, after he had edified all the gods and inhabit- 
ants of the highest heaven by his sermons ; whose 
corpse afterwards being put in a golden coffin, 
was burned by the assembled Sakkraias, Brahmas, 
and others, who came from 10,000 worlds, 
with sandal-wood, which was heaped up to the 
height of 120 cubits ; after which they made 
sacrifices during three weeks. 

Of the good works of the said Budhu, which 
are as great as the ground of the world is large, 
the sea is deep, the heaven is high, or the air is 
full, something more is mentioned here : he was 
guiltless of slaying any thing which enjoyed life, 
of the commission of theft, and of fornication, of 
telling lies, of speaking evil, and of speaking in- 
decent words, of eating at nights, of dancing. 


singing, playing, smelling flowers and other 
smelling things, of sitting at higher places than 
the height of a carpenter's measm'e, of being 
covetous of gold and silver, of desiring all sorts 
of paddy, slaves, goats, lambs, fowls, pigs, ele- 
phants, horses, cows, buffaloes, gardens, and 
fields, of delivering any writings or presents, of 
taking or giving away treasures, of keeping false 
measures and weights, of disinheriting any heirs 
of gifts or presents, of deceit in falsifying gold 
and precious stones, and of taking villages and 
other possessions ; besides all those things, he 
was moreover free from all indecency, and, on 
the other hand, performing every thing which is 
good, like the priests who keep the laws of 
Budhu, and commit also no crime, namely, kil- 
ling, or other such deeds, but live according to 
their honour. 

Now is described the high doctrine of the 
Budhu, who is the lord of the three worlds, who 
several times, leaving his magnificence, proceeded 
to the world as a beggar, and being moved with 
mercy over men, and ha^^ng suffered many 
oppressions, has attained to the said state. 

Of whatever the people in the world were 
instructed, each in his own language in an in- 
telligible manner, the good and evil being at the 
same time represented to them, but so little is 


spoken here as a drop of water taken from the 

1st. That whoever kills, or causes such to 
be done, must undergo, even in this hfe, many- 
oppressions, and hereafter be born again in 
hell ; and although he, after having made amends 
there, may again be born in the world from a 
good family, he will not however have the least 
benefit, but be subject to wretchedness. 

2d. That whoever steals is punished in this 
life, his hands and feet are cut off, and other 
castigation is undergone, and hereafter he goes 
to hell ; and although he, having suffered there 
much, may again be born in the world, he 
however would be obliged to beg, without being 
allowed to have any thing to fill his stomach 
with, or to cover his nakedness, or to find 
a dwelling for shelter. 

3d. That whoever desires women shall be 
obliged to suffer many oppressions in this world 
itself, and hereafter be born again in hell ; and 
although he, after having lingered there long, 
may be born in this world as a girl 100 times, 
no man however will look at her, as such woman 
will only have the figure of a human being, with- 
out being created either as man or woman, and 
consequently will undergo many difficulties and 

VOL. in. H 


4th. That wlioever speaks hes shall cUe in 
this life itself in his sins, and be again born in 
hell ; and although he, having suffered there 
long, may again at any time be born in this 
world, he shall have no fine figure or good 
voice, but a stinking breath, and shall have 
two tongues like the snakes, and, speaking the 
truth, shall not be believed, and in any thoughts, 
words, or works, although innocent, shall be 
considered as guilty. 

5th. That he who drinks himself drunk loses 
his understanding, and is detested by every one. 
That a drunkard, moreover, treats his parents 
and masters unjustly, and, in his journey to 
heaven, shall be surrounded by impediments like 
a jungle in the road ; that his bad thoughts 
shall tend to his own destruction, and be more 
and more augmented : the killing of cattle, com- 
mitting robbery and adultery, and speaking lies, 
backbiting, speaking unnecessary and idle words, 
coveting the wealth of his neighbour, and envying 
the works of his neighbour, imagining himself 
that there is no sin or eternal salvation ; all these 
things, which happen through drunkenness, are 
prohibited by the Budhu ; so that whoever dies 
in such sins shall be born again in hell, and suf- 
fer there much; and at some future time being 
born in this world, shall be delirious, and be 


subject to incurable diseases. That he who 
seeks dirty treasure, by selling liquor, beef, living 
cattle, arrows and bows, firelocks, or such arms 
wherewith birds are shot, ought to leave it off; 
and, on the other hand, to mind such things 
as these, viz. good riches obtained by one's own 
labour, by sowing and reaping, and by carrying 
on good trade, to give to the poor with joy, to 
think of Budhu, to maintain his good doctrine, 
to assist his adherents, to keep his institutions, 
to be equally charitable to all men, to honour 
parents, masters, Budhu, and his followers, and 
do them good according to his ability, to teach 
the doctrine to others as far as he knows it, to 
hsten attentively to the instruction thereof, and 
to place a constant faith upon it. He who is 
and remains so, shall, after this life, go to 
Brachma-Loka, and, enjoying every thing good 
there, inherit Nirwana. 

Whoever does good works in this world on 
behalf of Budhu, as well during his presence as 
afterwards, and persists in it, shall have the force 
of the sun ; whoever esteems his doctrine shall 
obtain so much wisdom as the ground of the 
world is large ; whoever honours his adherents 
shall obtain gold, silver, precious stones, vil- 
lages, and lands, according to the promise of 
Budhu ; so that whoever leaves off evil as afore- 


said, and observes good deeds, shall share Nir- 

When the said Budhu remained in a certain 
city called Sewas, in the pagoda sitnated there, 
called Jetewanemaha -Vihari, he perceived at 
once, by the spirit of omniscience, the whole 
world, and seeing that there were many blessed 
people, he, to make them happy, went to them 
from that pagoda ; and exactly on that day the 
king of that place, called Kosol, came there, 
together with several other people, but not meet- 
ing the Budhu, he thought to himself and said, 
that that pagoda was abandoned, and that he 
who was so favourable to men was now lost ; at 
which he became very sorrowftil, and laid in the 
hall all the treasures which he brought with him, 
and returned to his city ; but the Budhu came 
there shortly after. 

The next day the said King Kosol appeared, 
taking with him many people and much treasure, 
in the said pagoda, and seeing the Budhu sit there, 
he said to him, falling at his feet, that he came 
there the preceding day with his people, but not 
seeing him, returned with great grief: therefore 
he asked for leave to cause an image to be made 
like him, for the comfort of mankind. The Budhu 
being very glad at it, said that his intention was 
very good, and permitted him to get such an image 


made ; whereupon the king, on account of tlie 
affection of the Budhu, fell at his feet and wor- 
shipped, asking how that image was best to be 
made ? He answered thereupon and said, it 
could be made, according to his pleasure, of wood, 
stone, earth, metal, iron, copper, silver, gold, or 
precious stones, long or short, large or small, say- 
ing, at the same time, that although any person 
had the ability to fill this part of the world (which 
is to the extent of 10,000 yoduns) with small 
grains, and afterwards to count the same one by 
one, yet the happiness of those who make such 
images cannot be estimated : which exhortation 
respecting the making of images the king very 
gladly heard, and, upon permission obtained, 
going again with his suite to his palace, caused 
a piece of red sandal-wood to be brought out of 
his treasury, and an image to be made thereof 
according to the hkeness of Budhu ; after which 
he dressed the same with a yellow garment, and 
kept it at a secure place : all those who saw it 
were very glad. Hereafter the said King Kosol 
went again fi-om him with a numerous retinue, 
provided with flowers and burning lamps, to the 
said pagoda to Budhu, and worshipped him, 
saying, that the image was finished, and was 
pleasing to be seen ; at which he became very 
glad. The king returned to his palace, and 


caused there to be made a hall, with gold and 
all sorts of precious stones, which was covered 
with gold tiles, and fine cloth and curtains ; and 
decorating the same in this costly manner, caused 
an altar to be erected towards the south side 
thereof, and placed the image there, causing also 
the roads to be cleaned thence to the pagoda, 
and all high places to be levelled, white sand to 
be strewn, and fine cloth to be spread thereupon, 
and on both sides to be decorated with bows 
of honour and painted cloth, and the lamps to 
burn with fragrant oil ; then he, taking his people 
with him, and all sorts of music and sacrifices, 
proceeded to the said pagoda, and prayed Budhu 
to go with him. The Budhu thereupon imme- 
diately dressed himself in a yellow garment, and 
covered himself therewith, when he shined like 
the sun, and, hke it, attended by 500 rahatoons, 
and treading upon flowers, which through the 
force of his happiness and providence came spon- 
taneously from earth, and enjoying the honour 
which all the gods shewed him, proceeded to the 
said hall, to the great joy of every one. Having 
arrived there, the image which was made by the 
king and his people was devoted to Budhu and 
his rahatoons. But when Budhu went into the 
said hall, the image of red sandal-wood made 
some motions upon the altar, as if it thought 


that it was not proper, when the Budhu arrived, 
to sit on such high places, and on that account 
wished to come down ; but the Budhu perceiv- 
ing it, said, pointing with his right hand towards 
it, that as he intended within a short time to go 
to Nirwana, his name would be thought of 
5000 years on account of that image, and there- 
fore did not allow that image to come down : 
and in order that thus long all gods and men 
should make sacrifices to the same with love, 
he took eight handsful of flowers and offered 
himself; which the rahatoons having perceived, 
did the same with all kinds of flowers, as well as 
all the Brahmin princes, and about 4000 wives 
of the king ; and all the inhabitants of the town 
came with flowers and treasure ; on account of 
which high sacrifices, the king treated, out of 
joy, the Budhu, in the said gold hall, upon a 
throne made expressly for that purpose ; and 
placing the said rahatoons in the same, treated 
them during seven days with nice sweetmeats. 
After which he, informing the Budhu of his igno- 
rance, and of the Budhu's great abilities in 
making images, prayed to know what benefit a 
person who makes images can expect in this 
world, how he would proceed to heaven from 
this life, and what he would enjoy there ; and he 
said he wished much to hear it, and to keep it 


in liis heart. The Biidhu repHed, that he asked 
it rightly, and promised that he would ftdly ex- 
plain it, in order that he might keep it in his 
heart. His servant, the priest Annedemahateroe- 
wahanse, interrupted him in the meantime, and 
asked what good a person who writes his sermon 
can expect ? He then said he was glad at that 
question also, and answered upon these points 
in the manner following : — 

1. That he, who according to his ability, 
makes an image or writes sermons, shall never 
be born in either hell. 

2. That such shall not be born out of the 
circumference of the world, but in the same. 

3. That he will not be born from the womb 
of any one's slave, but from a respectable family, 
and shall faithfully maintain the laws of Budhu. 

4. That he will not be born as a girl, or be 
subject to the falling sickness, frenzy, want of 
speech, deafness, deformity; nor be subject to 
any eruption or other complaints ; but, on the 
contrary, shall be made like a gold image with 
tiger's teeth. 

5. That he will not be frightened by tigers, 
bears, &c., nor undergo any injustice at any time, 
but be born from a respectable family, and 
obtain wealth every where, which also shall be 
augmented like as the moon increases after its 


appearance; and that the family from which 
such a one shall be born shall receive no affront. 

6. That he shall become rich in pearls, 
precious stones, paddy, rice, fine clothes, slaves, 
faithful subjects, elephants, horses, coaches, pa- 
lenkeens, cows, and buffaloes. 

7. That he shall be born in heaven, and with 
1000 heavenly wives live in an unspeakably shin- 
ing habitation, and in every thing obtain his wish, 
and enter the glory mokse. 

In this manner the Budhu having stated the 
happiness of. those who make his image and 
write his sermon-book, it was heard with joy 
by the King Kosol and the high priest Annede- 
mahateroe-wahanse, and kept in their hearts ; 
and since that time the making of images and 
writing of sermons were introduced into the world, 
and by the king of this quarter of the world 
called Dharma-Soka, under whom 84,000 other 
kings were subject ; as many pagodas were erected 
in which sacrifices of joy were made, according 
to the lesson of Budhu, happiness was to be 
derived therefrom ; also, the king of this island, 
called Dootoogameny, caused for that purpose 
ninety-nine pagodas to be erected, and great 
sacrifices to be made therein ; and his followers 
therefore caused also hundreds of houses for 
sacrifices to be erected, and, in consequence 


thereof, inherited the Brahma heaven. Another 
king of this island, called Dieweni-patisse, who 
resided in the city Anuradhe-pura, caused, in the 
809th year after the birth of Roedoo, in conse- 
quence of the happiness which consisted in his 
doctrine, this pagoda, called MuUegirri, to be 
erected in a most splendid manner, which is 
situated within the Girrewadoloosda-haspattoo ; 
and, mth the consent of the necessary villages, 
and many people, caused great sacrifices to be 
made therein, from which time also it has re- 
mained in the same state. 










The Lord Budhu, who rules like the sun over 
the whole world, is a brahma of the brahmas, 
a god of gods, and king of kings ; he subdued 
the five senses, and, according to the predictions 
of the Budhus, &c. arrived at the eminent and 
surpassing state of Budhu, by virtue of such be- 
neficent acts as he performed in the unuttera- 
ble number of lives through which he passed. 

He became Budhu on the 15th day of the 
month Ursenje ; and since that day he sojourned, 
during seven weeks, at seven different places. 
Among others, he remained seven days under 
the tree Kiripaluruke, on the south side of the 
tree Burweke, where he enjoyed celestial hap- 
piness. When he left this place, the god Sak- 
dewirajun, who had become acquainted with the 
wish of Budhu, offered to him the medicinal 


gal-nut, and the nalijedawetu (a certain root), 
and the water of the river Anukattewille, with 
which he washed his face, and then took up his 
abode there. 

On this occasion two merchants, by name 
Tapasjuye and Ballakeje, two brothers, who had 
been born and educated in the city Puskereweti 
Nuwara,* in the kingdom Raamanne Mandeleje, 
and were on their journey with a great company, 
and 500 loaded waggons, to trade in the country 
Maddemepredereje, came into the country where 
Budhu was. A goddess wiio had inhabited the 
earth, and who, in her former hfe, had been the 
mother of these two brothers, caused the wag- 
gons to stop. Upon this the merchants pro- 
mised to make an offering. The goddess then 
addressed them, saying, " Hark ye, fortunate 
men, our Lord Budhu is under the tree Kiri- 
paluruke, you, who go to trade, make an offer- 
ing to him of fresh butter and honey,'f and you 

* It would be in vain to inquire where the places men- 
tioned in these accounts are to be found. These are mysteries 
too great even for the priests, who generally content them- 
selves by saying, that the places have perished in some of the 
destructions of the world. 

t It is scarcely requisite to say, that these are and have 
been ever the chief offerings of the East, and are still so in Per- 
sia, to instance only the ceremonies exhibited at the entrance of 


will obtain satisfaction for a great length of 

After this, the merchants made an offering 
to Budhu, which he accepted, and ate out of the 
ruby vessel given by the god Sienwarandewi- 
rajun ; he then preached his doctrine to them, 
by which they were converted, and became 

When the merchants resumed their journey, 
Budhu, with his right hand, took eight blue 
hairs from his head, and gave them to the mer- 
chants as a pledge that they should in future 
promote his religion. 

The merchants were exceedingly gratified at 
this, and conveyed the hair in a golden box to 
the city Puskereweti Nuwara, where they laid 
it at the east gate of the city, and built a tower 
over it, from which issues blue rays at particular 
seasons, and, like Budhu himself, still contribute 
to the dehght of both gods and men. This was 
the first tower that was erected at Anurahde-pura. 

theShah intoTeheran,&c., as detailed in Morier's "Embassy." 
Virgil also alludes to the sacred character of honey, when, in 
the Georgics, book iv. he thus sings : — 

" His quidam signis, atque hasc exempla secuti 
Esse apibus partem divinge mentis, et haustus 
^therios dixere : deum namque ire per omnes 
Terrasque, tractusque maris, coelunique profundum." 


Some time after this, these merchants pro- 
ceeded to their own country, and preached to 
the world the doctrines of Budhu. It was by 
them also that this persuasion was first intro- 
duced at Anurahde-pura, the country of the King 

Budhu arriving some time after at the temple 
Iswerepatneranaye, in the country of Benares, 
whither he had repaired at the request of the 
god Maha-Bambehee, preached a sermon to the 
people. He then proceeded to the temple 
Nisadwiam Vihari, in the country Sawetnoewere, 
where he preached to a merchant, by name 
Mahapunneje, who, being converted, became a 
priest that could walk on the air. He then 
became a member of the college of the eighty 
high-priests of Budhu. 

After this, a merchant, by name Chidepan- 
neje, sailing to an island to purchase sandal- 
wood, when he had loaded his vessel, and was 
about to set sail, was terribly frightened by the 
devils who inhabited that place ; but, through 
the power of the priest Mahapunneje, the mer- 
chant and his ship were safely conveyed to his 
own country; and the merchant himself was 
made a priest. The merchant then gave half 
of the sandal to the priest, with which he built 
a temple in the country called Sunaparanteratte. 


He then prayed Budhu and his suite to come to 
the temple, intending to offer it to them. 

The god Sakkraia, who knew the intention of 
the merchant, caused golden palanquins to come 
down from heaven, in which Budhu and his suite 
were seated. These palanquins first appeared 
on the rock Sachebaddepaovaba, where he 
converted the heathen pilgrims ; and, having 
made them priests, he came with them to the 
country Sunaparante, where he accepted the 
offering of the temple, and made a sermon, by 
which a great number of souls inherited Nir- 

He returned afterwards to Dewram Vihari, 
and thence, at the request of the king of the 
snakes, called Narmadaanam, he proceeded to 
Nababhuvana, and preached there. After which, 
he set his feet upon a precious rock, situated 
on the shore of the river Narmadaanam-ganga, 
whence he returned to the temple Dewram 

At the request of the high priest Salchebadde 
Terehu, and for the welfare of many gods and 
men, the Lord Budhu set his feet upon the rock 
Sachebaddeparaweteje, and thence he proceeded 
to Jeeteweneraameje. After this, the principal 
high-priests, Punnemahaterun-wahanse and Sa- 
chebaddeterun - wahanse, promoted the persua- 



sion of Biidlni at Anurahde-pura, as well as in 
several other countries. This was the second 
propagation of the persuasion of Budhu at 

The Lord Budhu, ha^dng executed every 
thing for the public benefit, died in blessed state 
on the 1 5th day of the month Wesenge, at the 
age of eighty years. 

After a lapse of 208 years, the Emperor of 
Jambu-dwipa, by name Dharma-S5ka Maharaja, 
ha\dng heard the doctrine of Budhu from the 
high -priest Nikgroda Terun-wahanse, was con- 
verted, and immediately set about spreachng 
that doctrine. The high-priest Mokgehputte- 
tisse Terun-w^ahanse, perceiving that the persua- 
sion of Budhu was to take effect, made a sermon 
to 1000 rahatoons. 

He afterwards sent the priests Joonekedam- 
merakki Maharakkite Terun-wahanse, Jooneke- 
ratte, Sooneje Terun-wahanse, Vettereje Te- 
run-wahanse, and Swarnebumije, in order to 
promote the doctrine of Budhu. This was also 
done at Anurahde-pura, and was the third time 
the persuasion of Budhu was taught at that 

The laws and sermons of Budhu have long 
existed at this capital, or, as it is otherwise 
called, the country of the King Mahadliarme, 


under Janibu-dwipa, and on the island of the 
Cingalese, according to the traditions of the 
priests and their posterity. 

The King Walegamabaa, who descended 
from the first King of Ceylon, by name Vijaya- 
raja, had the laws and sermons called Turn- 
pittike written out, within the term of seven 
months, in the sixth year of his reign, and 450 
years after the death of the Lord Budhu, by 
500 rahatoons, at the temple Alu Vihari, at 

In the sixth year of the reign of the King 
Maha-Naaone, and in the year of Budhu 930, 
the high-priest Buddothegooseke Terun-wahanse, 
coming to the island of Ceylon, composed the 
books called Visuddhimarge, &c. Upon his 
return to Swarnabhumiye, he composed the 
Turnpittike also, and employed himself in 
teaching the doctrine of Budhu ; while the 
King Aniniddha Maha Maja propagated the 
same persuasion in the country Arunardene- 
pureje, &c. 

It might be unnecessary to add any thing 
more in order to shew in what manner the 
Budhists believe their religion to have been 
taught. The follo\Wng is intended further to 
illustrate their belief as to the existence of the 
last Budhu. 


This Guadnia of such gi'eat might, who so 
soon attained to the state of Budhu, in mercy 
to mankind, ha\ing studied throughout four 
lacses of asankas, and done amazing works of 
charity in every state of his existence, departed 
at length from the being of Wessantera Raja, 
and was born again in the seventeenth heaven 
called Tosite Dewa-Loka, where he enjoyed the 
divine bliss : and when the time to become 
Budhu had arrived, at the request of the deitical 
brahmas, and agreeably to former custom, he 
departed from the said heaven, and was con- 
ceived in the womb of Mahamava De\i, the 
principal Queen of Suddodana, the King No- 
dana Maha Raja; and having remained during 
a period of ten months in his mother's womb, 
he was born on the 15th, or full-moon day, 
attended by many miracles. 

At length, after much reflection on the mi- 
series and vicissitudes of human life, he was 
presented by God with the image of a hermit, 
with which he was so much pleased, that he 
immediately quitted his kingdom, riches, and 
every pleasure ; and secluding himself from the 
laity, and assuming the habit of a hermit, he 
repaired to the wilderness, where, through a 
period of six years, he cherished the sil, or 
)iety, and led a life of austerity and self-denial. 


During this time he had many dreams and omens 
afforded him, which plainly foretold his promo- 
tion to the estate of Budhu, upon which he took 
encouragement, resolving not to forsake his 
station till he was initiated into that desirable 
state. He accordingly laid himself down, and 
placing his back against the bo or braman-tree, 
called Sri-maha-bodin-wahanse, on the 15th, or 
full moon, of Ursinje (May), he expired ; and 
losing all corporeal feelings, he became endowed 
with the powers of omniscience, enabling him at 
once to view the three calpas.* After this, at 
the request of Brahma, he set out to Isipatana- 
rame, where he preached from the bana,f made 
by former Budhus, and thereby provided in- 
struction for a great number of people. From 
this time he went preaching and working mi- 
racles, as former Budhus had done ; and by 
continually insisting on works of charity, piety, 
prayer, as well as the torments of the four hells, 
he succeeded in affording consolation to brahmas, 
princes, brahminical philosophers, the sixty-two 
images then renowned in the world, and many 

Budhu, by his preaching, is said to have 

* Different ages or states of the world. 

t The sermons extant of primitive Budhist doctrine. 



saved twenty asankas of human beings ; and, 
after the space of thirty-two years of labours, 
he attained to the state of Nirwana. While 
attaining this state, he ordered that some relics 
of his body might be preserved for the adoration 
of mankind, which was accordingly done, and 
these are still kept in several temples under the 
name of dawtoo. 

The following is an extract from a still more 
circumstantial account of Budhu. 

The powerful gods Satagiry and Assoory, the 
four gods who are the supreme rulers and pro- 
tectors of all the worlds, the god Sakkraia, who 
governs six heavens, and Maha Brahma, who 
illuminates all the worlds, with several other 
gods, went to Budhu, and bowing before him, 
requested the favour of a sermon from him. 

Budhu, who is very experienced in such per- 
formances, and who is, moreover, lord of the 
three worlds Brahma-L5ka,* Dewa-L6ka,f and 
Manape-Loka,J is also the god who guards the 
three worlds from all misfortune. His person is 
most beautiful and majestic, insomuch that, upon 
comparison with him, the other gods seem to 

* The heaven of the brahmas, 

t The next inferior heaven of gods. 

I The residence of men. 


lose all tlieir beauty, while his alone remains 

Before he arrived at the state of Biidhu, he, 
upon his own simple volition, abandoned all his 
riches, and became liberal in the extreme. After 
this he died ; and, being born again, met the 
Budhu Brahma Deva, and wishing to become a 
Budhu, fell at his feet. After this, he met a 
second Budhu, named Gautama, to whom he 
paid divine honours, hoping some day to arrive 
at the same state of holiness. Continuing in 
this state, and fostering this desire through time 
immemorial, he at length found himself subject 
to the Budhu Diepankerenan, who, shining like 
the sun, was the highest ruler of the three 
worlds, and had his residence in the city Amara- 
wati. He was of the brahmin class, and was 
called the Prince Soomedanam Budhu. Growing 
up under this prince, he began to have an aver- 
sion to all temporal riches, and, at the same time, 
conceived a desire of becoming a priest. Upon 
this he proceeded to the king of that country, 
informing him of all the wealth of his ancestors, 
as far as seven generations, and expressed a wish 
to distribute the same among the poor. The 
king was much rejoiced at this; and causing all 
the poor to be assembled by the beat of tom- 



torn, caused his treasures to be distributed among 

After this, Budhu retired to a wood, in the 
recesses of which he discovered a rock, upon 
which a building hke a palace had been erected. 
This building was called Parne. Whatever was 
in this building was ordered by the god Sak- 
kraia to be produced in the twinkling of an eye ; 
whereupon a certain garment was brought forth 
and put upon Budhu, which gave him the ap- 
pearance of a pilgrim, and moreover enabled 
him to walk in the air. 

Budhu, thus elevated above other mortals, 
looking about him, saw the roads about the city 
Ramjenan adorned and decorated by the in- 
habitants ; and asking for what purpose this had 
been done, he was told that the Budhu Diepan- 
kerenan was expected that way with 400,000 
rahatoons. Upon this, he alighted upon the 
earth with a noise no less terrible than if the ring 
of the god Sakkraia had fallen on the ground. 
He then asked them to give him some employ- 
ment in this way; and, in reply, he received 
command to fill up a valley which lay in the 
same road. 

In this he hoped to have some assistance 
from heaven ; but reflecting, that in order to 


make it a work of merit it must be his own, he 
took a basket, and began to carry earth to fill 
up the valley. In the middle of his work the 
Budhu Diepankerenan, with his suite, made his 
appearance. Budhu was rather disconcerted at 
this : he soon resolved upon an expedient by 
whicli the Budhu and his followers might be 
accommodated ; he, accordingly, spread a sheet 
over the half-filled valley, and laying his head 
at the one extremity and his feet at the other, 
presented a bridge for the accommodation of 
the illustrious travellers. The Budhu arriving 
at his head, and inspired with delight and sur- 
prise at the sight, said : " Cast your eyes, my 
friends, on this happy pilgi'im, who, like me, 
shall, after the lapse of innumerable years, arrive 
at the state of Budhu, and procure for many 
Nirwana." He further foretold the city in which 
he should be born, the names of his parents, 
wife, and children ; and also that his name 
should be Guadma Budhu. 

After this, he walked three times round the 
prostrate pilgi'im, made an offering of eight 
handsful of flowers, which was also done by the 
brahmins, and other people present, and then 
each went his way. 

The pilgrim upon this got up, sat on the 
flowers that had thus been offered, and reflect- 


ing upon the riches which he had given to the 
poor, on the merit of being charitable, brave, 
patient, just, and industrious, and, moreover, 
meditating on the birth after tliis hfe, he 
expired, and was accordingly born again with 
the name of King Wessantera. In this state 
he gave all his riches to the poor, and died, 
and was again born in the fifth heaven called 
Tosite. Upon this occasion all the gods of the 
fifth heaven requested him to accept the dignity 
of Budhu, and to come down into the world of 
men. Soon after this he was conceived by the 
Queen Mahamaya, and after ten months was 
born in the world. 

The child grew and increased like the moon, 
and became king of the fom- quarters of the 
world. He was married to the princess Jasoda, 
by whom, as well as 40,000 concubines, he had 
children. In this state he continued till the age 
of thirty-one, when, seeing certain portentous 
signs, he retired to his country seat, and, meeting 
Wismekarma, who had been dispatched to him 
by 1000 gods in the form of a servant, he was 
adorned with a most magnificent dress, studded 
\\ith jewels, and a crown of precious stones. At 
the same time, being informed of the birth of a 
son, he became cheerful as Sakkraia after the 
defeat of the Assuras. 


Soon after this he met a woman called Kisa- 
goutame, who, in a song, represented to him 
all the good and evil which befal man in this 
life. He was so much pleased with this repre- 
sentation, that he took the gold chain which 
hung from his neck, and presented it to the 

He soon after arrived at his palace, which 
was splendid as that of the god Sakkraia; 
but some women being admitted in order to 
divert him, he took offence, insomuch that he 
quitted the palace Avithout taking leave of the 
princess and his children, fearing they might 
persuade him from becoming Budhu. He ac- 
cordingly ordered his servant Kantekenan to 
saddle his horse, which was eighteen cubits in 
length, and large in proportion in other respects ; 
which being done, he mounted, and rode on till 
he came to a gate so large that it could not be 
shut by fewer than 1000 men. This gate, in 
consideration of his always having kept an open 
door to the poor, opened to him by the imme- 
diate command of God. He then rode on till 
he came to the banks of the river Anomanam, 
where he alighted, having performed a journey 
of 120 miles. 

He then drew his golden sword, and with it 
cut off some of his hair, and throwing it towards 


heaven, it was taken up, and preserved in a 
golden box by the god Sakkraia. 

Upon this occasion he was presented with 
the garment of a priest by Maha Brahma Raja, 
which he put on ; and, from the joy he ex- 
perienced on this occasion, he determined to 
remain where he was for the space of seven 
days. He then crossed the river, and arrived 
at the city called Rajegaha-nuwara, where he 
begged a handfLil of rice from the inhabitants, 
and sat near a stone till he had eaten it. 

He next arrived at the city of King Bimsare, 
who, asking him why he begged since he was 
the son of a king ? he answered, he did it in 
order to become Budhu, a state which he hoped 
soon to attain. 

The seven succeeding years were spent in 
great difficulties. At length, meeting a virgin 
called Sujata, who made him an offering of 
boiled rice and cocoa-nut milk, he sat down 
near the river Neranjara, where he made the 
rice into forty-nine balls, which he ate ; he then 
threw the golden basin which he had used into 
the river, laying it down as a proof, that if the 
basin should swim against the stream he should 
at length attain to the state of Budhu. 

The miracle was accordingly wrought, and 
he then set out with fresh vigour on his journey. 


After this he came to a wood of sal trees, 
where he rested for the day ; at night, he pro- 
ceeded onward to a road that had been cleared 
by the gods, where he found a bogas-tree. On 
the road thither he had been met by a brahmin, 
who had given him eight handsful of grain called 
kusatane, which he strewed on the ground near 
the tree ; whereupon the earth clave, and a seat 
fom'teen cubits high rose out of the ground. 
On this he immediately seated himself, and lean- 
ing his back against the tree, which now ap- 
peared like a column of silver, he was visited 
by the whole assembly of the gods, who did him 
homage, and bestowed large praises on his vir- 
tuous exploits. 

There then appeared an elephant as large as 
a mountain, on which was seated a person of 
terrific demeanour, armed with a sword large 
enough to . cut heaven in two ; his name was 
Wassewarti Raja. With him was an innumerable 
army armed with pikes and swords, all of whom 
marched directly towards Budhu, in order, if 
possible, to dispossess him of his seat, and to 
put the gods to flight. But Budhu recollecting 
the ten virtuous deeds which he had done, they 
were all instantly put to flight, as though they 
had been attacked by ten giants. Upon this 
occasion it was that he received fors^iveness of 


all his sins and became Budliu, and obtained the 
name of Guadma, in consideration of the good 
actions he had done since the time of Brahma- 

In this place he remained seven weeks ; but, 
at the request of Maha Brahma Raja, he pro- 
ceeded to Benares, where he made his introduc- 
tory sermon. 

On this occasion, a high-priest called Anja- 
kendange, with innumerable others, were con- 
verted to the faith. Many miracles were also 
performed, as heahng the bhnd and lame, by 
which many gods and men were brought to the 
true religion. 

Nine months afterwards, on the 17th Jan., 
Budhu arrived at the island of Ceylon. He 
first went to the devil, who resided at the spa- 
cious palace of Nangewenodennaje, which was 
twelve miles in length by four in breadth, where, 
hovering in the air for some time, he produced 
a thick darkness throughout the whole earth, 
which so much alarmed the devils, that they 
immediately retired. By this means he had an 
opportunity of alighting upon the island, and to 
seat himself upon a seat which again rose out of 
the ij-round for his accommodation. He next 
caused fire to issue from the four corners of 
the world, whereby the devils were more than 


ever alarmed ; but their fear of destruction was 
assuaged on receiving the sentence of banish- 
ment from the island. On this occasion, the 
Budhu caused a wood, called Jakgierrie, to come 
from a distant place, and which he afterwards 
placed in its original situation. 

After this, the Budhu preached a sermon to 
the gods, by which they were edified and deh- 
vered from hell. He then gave a handful of his 
hair to Samandewe-Raja, informing him, at the 
same time, that the island was now fit for the 
habitation of men. The Raja took the hair, and 
putting it into a chest with precious stones, laid 
it up at Mayanginne. 

This is what our Budhu did when he first 
came to Ceylon. 

Five years after this, coming from the pagoda 
Telewanne, he put a stop to a battle between 
two gods in the shape of snakes. These gods 
were called Chulodere and Mayodere, who had 
for some time kept themselves under the earth 
on account of the seat of precious stones. The 
Budhu then edified them, as well as their nu- 
merous suite, by his doctrine, and they were at 
length converted; when they confessed, that 
had either of them remained in possession of 
the seat, some future contest must unavoidably 
have arisen. They then made an offering of 


victuals to the Budhii, which they had the 
power to produce. This was accepted by 
Budhu, who placed himself upon the seat and 
ate it. He then gave a tree called Kiriepalloe, 
which liad been used as an umbrella by the god 
Samane, as well as the above-mentioned seat, 
to the god Wismekarma, that he might obtain 
salvation by worshipping them. After which, he 
returned to the pagoda. 

Some time after this he again visited the island 
of Ceylon, at the request of the snake -king 
Manaerkijeram : on this occasion, as before, 
he rested on his beautiful seat, where he re- 
ceived and ate the offerings made by the 
snake. During this time, also, he converted 
many to his religion. He then took up his 
residence with 500 rahatoons, upon the pagoda 

The next miracle which he performed, was 
causing himself to appear like the moon from 
the top of the rock Sammantekule, which he 
did at the request of the god Samandewe-Raja ; 
upon which occasion, the gods caused it to rain 
down flowers and precious stones.* Upon this 

"* This is probably the Budhist legend regarding the mark 
of a foot which is still said to be seen on Adam's Peak, in 
Ceylon. The Portuguese, it seems, upon finding such a 
story extant respecting Budhu, had the address to apply it to 


rock the Biidhii left the impression of his foot. 
He went, soon after, to Dieganskeje, and thence 
to the city Anurahde-pura, where he visited the 
places Srimaha Buddhistan, Ratnemahstan, Tu- 
paramettaene, and Wonissakenaniparru Wattis- 
tan. At each of these places he remained a 
short time, and preached before such gods as 
were found there. He then returned to the 
pagoda, where he resided during the subsequent 
forty-five years, preaching and exhibiting his 
good works to all around him. 

He next proceeded to the court of the King 
Mallele, and laying himself down on one of the 
decorated cots which stood in the hall of the 
palace, he began to consider in what quarter of 
the world his doctrine would be best received. 
Now, the extent of the world is 360,000,000 
yoduns, each yodun being computed at four 
miles in length. Of this, one part, called Pure- 
wewidesije, extends 7000 yoduns ; a third, called 
Apperego Janege, 7000 yoduns ; and the fourth, 
called Uturukudewine, 6000 yoduns, beside 2000 
small islands. After some consideration, it oc- 
curred to his omniscience, that his doctrine would 
flourish most in the island of Ceylon, and 

Adam, hoping by this means to soften the prejudices of the 
people against Christianity. 



it would continue there for the space of 5000 
years. This he declared to the god Sakkraia, 
and moreover appointed him the tutelary deity 
of the island. The care of the island was after- 
wards intrusted to the god Vishnu. 

Soon after this, and on the 15th day of 
May, the Budhu died in happy state, having 
edified the gods of the highest heaven with his 
sermons. His body was deposited in a golden 
coffin, and burned by the Chakkeneassen brah- 
mins, and others, who had come from 10,000 
worlds. The funeral pile was of sandal-wood, 
and was in height 120 cubits. The three weeks 
following were occupied in offering sacrifices to 
the departed Budhu. 

The following is a short enumeration of his 
good works : to enumerate the whole would be 
impossible, being more in number than the sum 
of the solid contents of the earth, the depths of 
the sea, the height of heaven, or the abundance 
of the atmosphere. He was guiltless of slaying 
any thing that enjoyed life, of the commission of 
theft, fornication, lying, slandering, obscenity, 
of eating at night,* of dancing, singing, playing, 
smelling flowers and other odoriferous sub- 

* This is thought so great a sin among the Cingalese, 
that a fine is said to be imposed on any one who should be 
guilty of it. 


stances ; of sitting on any place higher than a 
cubit,* of being covetous of gold and silver, of 
desiring all sorts of paddy, slaves, goats, lambs, 
fowls, hogs, elephants, horses, cows, buffaloes, 
gardens, and fields ; of delivering away writings 
or presents, of taking or giving any treasures, of 
keeping false weights and measures, of disin- 
heriting any heir, of deceit in falsifying gold and 
precious stones, of taking villages, and other 
possessions ; besides all this, he persevered in 
every good and laudable action, as the priests 
of Budhu, who still keep his laws, continue 
to do. 

Here follows a summary of the high doctrine 
of Budhu, which is but as a drop of the ocean. 

1st. Whoever kills any hving thing, or causes 
the same to be done, shall undergo much op- 
pression in . this world, and at length shall be 
bom again in hell. After atoning there for his 
sins, he may again be born in the world; and 
although this might happen in a good family, 
still he shall experience nothing but wretched- 

* We must, of course, except the seat of precious stones, 
said to have been fourteen cubits in height, which is the 
same throne or mystic couch on which all the statues of 
the Budhu are placed. 


2(llv. AVlioovcr steals shall be punished in 
this lite by the amputation of his hands and feet, 
and other castigations ; after this, he shall be 
born in hell ; then, after much suffering, he 
mav be born again in the world, where his por- 
tion will be to beg, but shall receive nothing 
either to satisfy his hunger or cover his na- 

3dly. Whoever is a slave to lusts shall suffer 
many oppressions in this life. After this, he may 
be born 100 times into this world in the shape 
of a young woman, yet shall he be unnoticed 
and undergo many vexations. 
. 4thly. Whosoever speaks lies shall die in 
his sins, and be .born again in hell. Having 
made atonement there for his sins, he may again 
be born in the world, but shall possess neither 
a fine figure nor fine voice, his tongue shall be 
forked like that of a snake, his breath shall be 
offensive, and he shall not be beheved although 
he speak the truth. 

5thly. Whosoever gets drunk loses his under- 
standing and is detested by all ; such a one, also, 
treats both his parents and master unjustly. 
After his death, and in his journey to heaven, 
he shall meet \vith impediments on his way as 

The wicked thoughts of the dnmkards shall 


become worse and worse : besides this^ the kil- 
ling of cattle, committing robbery, adultery, 
speaking lies, slandering, speaking unnecessary 
and idle words, coveting the wealth of his neigh- 
bour, envying the good works of his neighbour, 
as well as imagining himself without sin, and in 
the way of salvation, is all prohibited by the 
law of Budhu ; so that whoever dies in any of 
these sins shall be born again in hell : after 
atonement there, he may again appear in the 
world only to undergo new scenes of suffering. 

All, therefore, who seek wealth by selling 
liquor, beef, Hving cattle, arrows and bows, fire- 
locks, or such arms wherewith birds may be 
shot, should leave it off, and turn their attention 
to the following : — To seek to acquire good 
riches by the labour of their own hands ; such 
as sowing, reaping, and carrying on honest 
trades, to give cheerfully to the poor, to think 
of Budhu, to maintain his doctrine, assist his 
adherents, keep his laws, and be equally charit- 
able to all men; to honour parents, masters, 
Budhu, and his followers, and to do them good 
to the best of their ability ; to teach his doctrine 
to others ; to listen attentively to the instruc- 
tions of his priests ; and constantly to place faith 
in their doctrine. He who thus hves, shall, after 


this life, go to heaven, where he shall enjoy 
every good thing for ever and ever. 

A further account of the doctrines of the 
Budhists, originally written in the Dutch lan- 
guage in questions and answers, as proposed to 
the Candians, and answered by them. 

Do the learned acknowledge a most high 
and sole supreme being? and how do they de- 
scribe him ? 

No; at least no such conclusion is to be 
drawn from their writings. They acknowledge 
one Sagampati Maha Brahma, as the first and 
chief of all the gods ; and they say, that both he 
and his servants have neither flesh nor bone, 
that they have a shining skin, teeth in their 
mouth, and hair on the head and body, which 
are not to be felt, but are mere appearances; 
hence it should seem they consider them as 
spirits, though this is not positively asserted in 
their writings. Budhu, who is described as 
having been human, is, nevertheless, superior to 
Maha Brahma in knowledge, as well as in other 
respects. He has, moreover, the power of om- 
niscience, so that he is able to be present in the 
ninth heaven, where Brahma keeps his court, 
and, at the same time, to surpass him both in 
splendour and dimensions. 


It is further said, that Budhu (we speak of 
the last Guadma Budhu) after attaining Nir- 
wana in the glory-hall Mokse, a place higher 
and more excellent than the twenty-sixth heaven, 
was born again, and is still living there in joy, 
magnificence, and immortality; and that his 
doctrine, which is still maintained in full lustre, 
should, according to his prophecy, last 5000 
years after he attained Nirwana ; so that it shall 
still continue 2,623 years, as, according to the 
chronology of the Cingalese, 2,377 years have 
already elapsed since the decease of Guadma 
Budhu. A long time after these years shall have 
expired, another Budhu is to be born, who shall 
be called Maitreya. After an unutterable num- 
ber of ages the superintendence of Maha Brahma 
shall cease, when the world shall perish, and 
another shall arise in its place. After this, Maha 
Brahma shall, by degrees, ascend through the 
seventeen superior heavens, till he shall at last 
arrive at the state of Budhu. The names of 
these heavens, beginning with the lowest, and 
ascending to the highest, are the following : — 

1. Chatturmaharajekije. 

2. Tawetiengseje. 

3. lameje. 

4. Tusitteje. 


5. Nirmaneratije. 

6. Parrenirmitre Wassewartie. 
These are called Kama-L5kas, and are the 

residences of inferior gods : women are said to 
be found in these places. 

7. Brahmeparisatjeje. 

8. Brahme Puruhiteje. 

9. Brahme Kajekanam. 

10. Paritrabheje. 

11. Appemanibheje. 

12. Abhassereje. 

13. Parrite Subheje. 

14. Appemane Subheje. 

15. Subhekiemeje. 

16. Whabhehege. 

17. Assanjasattheje. 

These are called Brahma-L5kas, also Roopa- 
Lokas, that is, heavens of superior gods. 

18. Arriheje. 

19. Attapheje. 

20. Suddasseje. 

21. Suddasseje. 

22. Akkenieshkeje.* 

* The doctrine of Budhism, although it inculcates practi- 
cally the tenet of materialism, yet contains a germ of ancient 
doctrine in these triumphing- heavens — mansions for the souls 


The numbers 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22, desig- 
nate the triumphing heavens. 

23. Akasanancha Jattenieje. 

24. Winjannancha Jatteneje. 

25. Bkinchanija Jatteneje. 

26. Newesanjan Samijajatteneje. 
Aroopa-Lokas — these are heavens above all 

heavens, or worlds above all worlds. There are 
in some, souls without bodies ; and in others, 
bodies without souls, which live notwithstanding. 
The Cingalese believe that the world has been 
destroved and restored several times under the 
direction of one or more, if not fewer than five, 
Budhus; and although no Budhu has now the 
care of it, yet a Maha Brama is always to be 
found who has. 

Have the Cingalese any notion of a ghost or 
immaterial being ? 

No : it does not appear from any of their 
writings that they have ; yet, from their de- 
scription of the gods, they seem to consider 
them as immaterial beings. 

Did the Supreme Being create the inferior 
gods ? 

No : in the first place, a supreme being is 

who shall survive the great catastrophe of the destruction of 
the universe. — Vide " Doctrine of Budhism," p. 74. 


denied; and, in the second, no god has the 
power of creating any inferior being. On the 
contrary, all proceed from nature. When men 
die, such, for instance, as are of the lower 
heavens, they are first judged according to their 
works; and, in proportion as these are found 
good or evil, they are again born into the world, 
either as rational or irrational creatures. This 
death and regeneration takes place several 
times, till the objects of such probation gra- 
dually ascend through all the Brahma-Lokas, 
and at length arrive at the highest heaven ; so 
that the regeneration only takes place in such 
as are inhabitants of the Dewa-Lokas, and in no 
other. The Budhists, moreover, believe in no 
such thing as the creation of souls. The breath 
of life, say they, by which they mean the soul, 
loses not its hold on this life, till it has a 
prospect of enjoying some other, just as a leech 
loses not his hold at the head till he has 
fastened on some part with the tail. Hence 
they conclude, that the soul, before it leaves 
this mortal body, has either a prospect of 
getting to heaven, or is conscious of its liabi- 
lity to the torments of hell. 

Is the Supreme Being also creator of heaven 
and earth, and does that Supreme Being still 
interfere in the direction thereof? 


A supreme being is denied, and, as aforesaid, 
all proceeds from nature, for these reasons : if 
there were a creator, the world could not perish, 
but would by him be kept permanent and en- 
tire ; but the direction of heaven and earth is in 
the first case subject to the Budhu ; after him, 
Sagampati Maha Brahma has the rule ; and after 
him, the gods in their several order. 

The Candians speak of four gods as chiefs 
and directors of the world ; who are they ? 

The names of these gods are Dertheraach- 
tirre, Viruddhi, Vesoepaeskani, and Waysre- 

Are these gods equal to each other in power ? 
and what are their chief transactions ? 

They are independent of their chief god 
Sakkraia, who is director of the world, and of 
the lowest heaven called Chatturmaharayea, 
where he resides with the four gods just men- 
tioned. These four gods, who are equal in 
power, employ themselves constantly in guard- 
ing their superior god ; and, as he presides over 
the four quarters of the world, each of them has 
one quarter assigned to him. 

The first of these gods, who is called Dir- 
theraachtirre, has his residence in the east ; 
himself, his clothing, servants, horses, carriages, 
&c., are all white; his weapons are of white 


crystal ; while his office is that of presiding over 
all music, both vocal and instrumental. 

The second, who is called Viruddhi, hast he 
superintendence of the south ; his colour, as 
well as that of his servants, is sky-blue ; he is 
also head of a great number of angels called 

The third, called Vesoepaeskani, directs the 
western part: his distinguishing colour is that 
of red coral ; he, moreover, presides over the 
Nagebattejo, a sort of snakes said to be in the 
heavens : the upper portion of their body re- 
sembles that of a man ; the lower, that of a 
snake. The servants of this deity are said to 
have the power of transforming themselves into 
men, birds, quadrupeds, reptiles, &c., and even 
to become wood or stone. 

The fourth and last of these gods is called 
Waysrewenne : his province is the north ; he 
has the superintendence of the devils ; and his 
distinguishing colour is that of gold. 

The office of these four gods is to guard 
their chief god Sakkraia against the attacks of 
his enemy, the god Wessetjiette Assurendria, 
who is equal in power to Sakkraia himself, and 
whose residence is lower than the world called 
Assura-Loka, and deeper than the bottom of the 
sea. The four gods above mentioned send out 


their emissaries on or near the day of the new 
moon, in order to take an account of the actions 
of men : on the first eight days they investigate 
and record the sins committed by them ; on the 
eight following they go about in order to con- 
firm or correct their account. After this, the 
statement is presented to the god Sakkraia 
in council, who is attended with thirty-two gods, 
superior in rank to the above-mentioned four. 
On this occasion, should the virtuous men be 
found more in number than the vicious, there is 
gi'eat joy in heaven ; if the contrary, there is 
much sorrow. 

Is any book extant said to be written by 
Sakkraia ? and if so, in what language ? 

There are many such books in the pos- 
session of the priests of Budhu. They are in 
the Pali language, and are to be had in Ceylon, 
of which the book Deewadutesustere is one. 

How many inferior gods are there besides 
the four above mentioned ? 

The number, with that of their attendants, is 
unutterable. Those whose names are known 
amount to 120,535. 


Of these, 35 reside in the Dewa-Lokas, or inferior 

heavens 35 

120,500 reside on the earth, viz., in the kingdom 

of Kimbulwatnuwere* 7,000 

The gods that reside in the unknown southern 

countries amount to 1 13,500 

Viz., in a rock called Himaleparkwete .... 10,000 

In a rock called Satagirenampartwete 3,000 

In a rock called Wissameteparkwete 500 

In the rock called Wepuleparkwete 10,000 

Total 120,535 

The gods that reside on the earth may, if 
they choose, ascend to the Dewa-Lokas, or six 
inferior heavens. 

Do these inferior gods, hke our angels, exe- 
cute the will of the Supreme Being? 

Neither the superior nor inferior gods are 
angels; their servants are the angels, and are 
therefore called Kumbandijo. These angels, as 
well as the inferior gods, obey the commands^ 
their superiors ; and they succeed each other in 
rank, in the following order : 

1st, Budhu; 2d, Mahabrahma; 3d, The 
gods of Dewa-L5ka ; 4th, thirty-two counsellors, 

* This kingdom is said to be situated on the south of 
Hindoostan; but, from the change of names which those 
places have undergone, is not now to be found. 


or Chaen ; 5th, the before-mentioned four gods ; 
6th, the other inferior gods; 7th, the Kumban- 
dijo; 8th, the gods on earth, with their servants. 

Is there any book extant giving an account 
of these gods? and in what language is it 
written ? 

In Candia, and in the district of Matura, 
such books are to be found, written both in the 
Pah and High Cingalese languages, particularly 
the books Diksangieje and the History of Maha 
Sameje Sastra. 

Does it appear in the Cingalese books that 
there were more Budhus than those that were 
in Ceylon? 

This question will be more fully answered 
in the sequel, and is merely touched upon here 
to shew that the word Budhu signifies om- 
niscient, a saint superior to all saints, and even 
superior to the chief god Mahabrahma. Still 
the Budhu, properly speaking, is no god, but is 
considered as having been born human, and in 
process of time attained to the state of Budhu. 
This power, however, was not given him by any 
superior being, but he took it of his own sove- 
reign will. 

Is Budhu descended from gods or men ? 

He was god before his birth as man, and 
had the superintendence over the gods in the 


heaven Tusitieje. Afterwards, at the request of 
all the gods, he was born of the Princess Maha- 
maya, and as son of the King Suddodana Ra- 
jah. The manner of his birth differed not from 
that of other men ; so that the opinion of some, 
that he was born from the left side of the 
princess, is false. 

Is he not to be considered as one sent from 
heaven to publish to men the way of salva- 

No : in the fulness of time, and according to 
the predictions of numberless ages, at the re- 
quest of the said gods, and by his own sovereign 
will, he became man, for the salvation of all who 
should embrace his doctrine. 

How many such Budhus have there been ? 

According to the Cingalese writings, there 
were twenty-two Budhus before the creation of 
the present world. These Budhus hved during 
the ten creations and destructions which pre- 
ceded the present creation. It is also believed 
that many creations and destructions have pre- 
ceded the ten above referred to ; but there is no 
account of the Budhus who existed during this 
time. For the direction of this world, however, 
five Budhus have been appointed, of which four 
have already appeared, whose names are these — 
Kakusande, Konagamme, Diepankerenan, and 


Guadma. The fifth, called Maitri, is still ex- 
pected ; he is said to be now in heaven, and is 
to be born of a brahmin woman. 

Who was the Budhu Diepankerenan ? 

He was the principal of the above-mentioned 
twenty-two Budhns, which he became on ac- 
count of his gi'eat personal beauty, and because 
the nvnnber of people in his time is said to have 
been greater than in the time of any other 
Budhu. His doctrine, however, differed not 
from that of other Budhus ; nor did he possess 
any peculiar privilege relative to the point of 

Was he on Ceylon ? 

Yes : as were Guadma and the other Budhus, 
where they proceeded whithersoever they pleased, 
for the purpose of promulgating their doctrines. 

What has he done upon earth ? 

He published his doctrine and saved men. 

Are there any books at hand treating of him 
and his doctrine ? 

Yes, there are many, particularly those en- 
titled Satyadharma, Ratnavali, Thuparvanyse, 
and Buddhavansa, which are all written in the 
Pali language. 

Is it not Guadma Budhu who, in the Si- 
amese language, is called Sammona Kodom and 
Pootisat ? 



It is; yet it is not in the Siamese, but the 
Pali language, that he is so called. Sammona 
signifies a principal saint known by his dress; 
Kodom (i. e. Gautame) is a proper name ; Poo- 
tisat is a title given to all Buddhisatwe before 
they arrive at that state in heaven. 

What is that god which is worshipped at 
Katteregam ? 

He is one of the gods of the earth. His 
place of residence is near a rock called Maha 
Mirreparkesette, situated between the bottom of 
the sea and the lower world, called Assura-Loka. 

What is his name ? 

Kande Kumara. He has six heads and 
twelve hands. In his hands he has ten wea- 
pons, namely, 1, a trisuli, or harpoon ; 2, a 
pallas; 3, a large ring, or spring, called para- 
wallalle, which is sharp on the outsides, and 
which, by turning it round on the finger, is 
thrown at the enemy ; 4, a javelin ; 5, a line ; 
6, a leg -breaker; 7, a standard, with a cock 
painted on it ; 8, a throwing chain ; 9, a bow ; 
10, an arrow. He is further delineated as 
standing, or riding, on a flying peacock, with 
such other insignia as his good works in this 
world merited. These insignia are generally 
some of the following : a god of great courage 
has on his shield a lion; a believer has an 


eagle ; one who has performed laborious ex- 
ploits, an ox ; and so on. 

What good works is this god said to have 

It is said, that when Guadma Budhu was in 
his pagoda at Kattegeram, Kande Kumara was 
on guard, on the tree called bogaha,* some- 
times called devil's tree ; and that, upon making 
his obeisance to Budhu, he obtained the power 
of heahng the sick, particularly such as are of 
royal blood ; of performing miracles ; of doing 
good to irrational beings, and to men in dis- 
tress : with this caution, that he should never 
aspire to the honour of being worshipped as a 
god; but might claim such respect from the 
followers of Budhu as is generally given to other 
inferior gods. Hence it was that the offering- 
house at Katteregam was consecrated to him, 
and which is held in greater esteem than the 
temple at Candy, insomuch that the king him- 
self not only sends presents to it, but permits 
his subjects to visit it in great numbers. 

Does his power still extend to the world, 
and is it exerted for the good of the creatures ? 

* Every Budhu is said to have a tree sacred to himself; 
which, when it has been consecrated, never perishes. The 
tree to be chosen by the last Budhu, Maitri, is the iron- 
wood tree, called nagaha. 


Yes : he heals the sick, and performs mi- 

How is he worshipped in his temple ? 

The first day after the new moon in July is 
that on which the ceremonies begin. Should 
the astrologers, however, determine • that day to 
be unlucky, the ceremonies are deferred to the 
day of the new moon in the following month, 
when people, in great numbers, assemble from 
all parts. Budhists, brahmins, Gentoos, pat- 
tanies, and Moors,* are found among the con- 
course, as well as many who come out of curiosity 
from the coasts of Madura and Coromandel. 
On the day appointed for the ceremonies, the 
following order is observed : The three prin- 
cipal officers of the place, called the Maha Bitme- 
ralehaine, the Kuda Bitmeralepami, and the Bas- 
naykeralehami, meet the three inferior officers, 
called the Maha Kappuraales, and Kuda Kap- 
puraales,f as well as the other inferior servants, 
and sixteen married women chosen to prepare 
the procession. Three elephants, with tusks, one 
larger in size, the other two smaller, are also 

* The Moors (i. e. Mahometans) are said to affirm that 
the temple at Katteregam formerly belonged to a nabi, or 
prophet of theirs. 

t These temple-servants will be described in a subse- 
quent tract. 


provided. The large elephant is adorned with 
seven valuable pieces of cloth, with golden 
flowers, and other valuable ornaments, con- 
sisting of pearls, precious stones, gold chains, 
and jewels. On the elephant's back is placed a 
bench, wrought with gold, silver, and precious 
stones. Upon the extremities of the bench are 
placed six supporters, and over these is laid 
an arched roof, the covering and curtains of 
which are of very costly silk. On the bench is 
laid a golden sword. 

On each side of the large elephant the 
smaller ones are placed, in their usual accou- 
trements. Upon each of these sits a Kappu- 
raale, having in his hand a tail of the cha- 
mara,* with which they fan the sword. On 
this occasion, many open umbrellas are held 
near the great elephant, in order to protect the 

The sixteen women then divide themselves 

* This animal is said to be found only in Hindoostan, and 
that its hair is of such an extraordinary length as frequently 
to entangle the animal in the jungles ; and that, rather than 
disturb the hair, it submits to be taken, which is, therefore, 
frequently done. It is the same as the yak, which is de- 
scribed in the " Asiatic Researches." 

t Herodotus affirms that the Scythians worshipped their * 
war-god under the symbol of a sword. 


into two companies, placing themselves on the 
right and left of the elephants, and carrying in 
their hands brazen bowls filled with saffron- 
water. As the procession moves on, it is the 
business of the women to pronounce short bene- 
dictions on the people, such as. May those who 
are assembled here prosper! In this manner, 
and attended by drums, trumpets, and other 
musical instruments, as well as colom's flying, 
the procession proceeds through the four prin- 
cipal streets, and as the sun has by this time 
set, the houses are brilliantly illuminated, and 
many of the attendants are provided with torches 
for the occasion. This procession is repeated 
through the following fifteen days successively, 
or till the next day of full moon. On the last 
day of the procession, the ceremonies continue 
till the morning of the foUomng day, when the 
gold sword, &c. is taken from the back of the 
elephant, and is put into a magnificent palanquin 
provided for the purpose. 

The palanquin is then carried in procession 
by two kapuwas to a shallow river, which is 
about a mile from the temple, and is thrown 
into the water ; upon which one of the kapuwas, 
called Diejekappenerale, or wood-cutter, steps 
' into the stream, and taking the golden sword 
from the scabbard, strikes the water, which im- 


mediately stands still. This miracle is generally 
believed ; and those who doubt, account for the 
phenomenon by saying, that as the people all 
rush into the stream on this occasion, a tempo- 
rary stagnation is produced, which does not 
amount to a miracle. 

This ceremony generally ends about seven 
in the morning, when the palanquin and sword 
are carried back in great pomp to the temple. 
The people now assemble for the purpose of 
making the usual offerings, which consist of gold 
coin, gold and silver in bars, slaves, &c. : fields 
and gardens are also given for the use of the 
temple. Those who are sick either come in 
person or send images of gold and silver, with 
their names, to be offered in the temple, in 
order to obtain a recovery, or to avert death. 
For the purpose of getting relief for animals, 
images of them are sent with their names and 
presented to the priests. 

Three bowls are provided, in which the offer- 
ings are collected ; the first is of gold, and in it 
are collected the offerings of the nobles and 
wellales ; the second is of silver, and is used to 
collect the offerings of the fishermen, chandos, 
and superior castes ; the third is of inferior metal, 
and receives the offerings of the berrewais and 
low castes. When these bowls are filled, they 


are emptied by the servants in attendance, and 
are again placed on the offering-bench. 

These presents serve to defray the expenses 
of the temple, as well as to maintain the superior 
and inferior officers, who act as judges to the 
people. There is, moreover, a vessel filled with 
a part of these offerings, and sent to Candia for 
the use of the temple there. 

After the ceremonies are ended, it is ex- 
pected that the people depart for their respective 
homes on the day following, which is the ancient 
custom. Such as are sick are permitted to suit 
their convenience in this particular. 

There is, beside the above-mentioned cere- 
monies, a general illumination, in the month 
of November, at Katteregam, as well as at the 
three other principal temples of Ceylon. 

What do the Candians beheve of devils ? 

They beheve that there are devils in the 
world, but, according to the doctrines of Budhu, 
they are not permitted to honour them. 

What is the origin of devils? did the Supreme 
Being create them, or are they from eternity, or 
are they fallen gods or angels ? 

They say, that when nature produced the 
sun, moon, and stars, the devils were human 
beings, and, on account of their horrible sins, 
did fall from their state of happiness. But their 


having been gods, or fallen angels, or having 
been created, or existing from eternity, is denied. 
They also say, that devils who commit gi-eater 
sins than those already committed by them, are 
condemned to greater suffering. Men who have 
been condemned for their sins are also said to 
be placed among the infernal devils. On the 
other hand, such devils as have died and been 
born again as men, and have not committed sin, 
are finally restored to their former happy state. 
Indeed, angels, as well as devils, rank in exact 
proportion to the good or evil done by them, 
and not according to imputation of either the 
one or the other. 

What is the employment of the devils ? 

They obey their chief, the god Waysrewenne ; 
they make war against the enemy of the god 
Sakkraia, namely, the god Wessetjiette Assuren- 
drra ; they eat the flesh of the dead, and al- 
though the doctrines of Budhu forbid divine 
honours being paid to them, the Cingalese do, 
notwithstanding, shew them some honours, be- 
cause, as they have the power of inflicting sick- 
ness, &c. on human beings, they think it best 
to conjure them, and then to make to them 
offerings of money, of boiled and unboiled meat, 
and to pay them some other honours. They 
also cause the throat, arms, legs, and other parts 


of the sick man's body, to be tied about by the 
con jm-ors "with necklaces or threads dyed with 

What do the Candians further beheve of 
devils ? 

According to the doctrine of Budhu, they 
believe nothing but that they are enemies to the 
human race. 

How is the most sacred law-book or Scrip- 
ture of the Cingalese called ? 

Abidarmepeteke Sattaperkarreneje. 

In what language is it written ? 

In the renowned Pali or Magadi language, 
in which Budhu first preached his doctrine. 

Is the book to be had here ? 

In Candia it is to be had complete : at Mul- 
girigalle, or Adam's Hill, it is not complete. 

Is it not the same that the brahmins have, 
and which they call the Vedam ? 

No ; the book of the brahmins called Vedam 
is a collection of secular learning :* there are 
many such books. 
, , May any one read this law-book or bible ? 

None but the learned, who can understand 
it, are permitted to do so. 

* It was doubtless the exalting of the Banas of the Budhu 
above the Vedam of braminism, which drew on the Budhists 
their relentless persecutions. 


When was the world or universe created, or, 
according to the Cingalese system, produced by 
nature ? 

In order to state this correctly, it would be 
necessary to know how long the world was 
without a ruler after the above-mentioned four 
Budhus; but this is not possible for want of 
a complete copy of the Cingalese Scripture. 

In what manner did nature produce the 
world ? 

The worlds which preceded the present (for 
besides this there were, and there are, many 
others, as the sun, moon, and stars, &c.), all 
perished by wind, fire, and water, excepting hell 
only, which is said to have lain concealed be- 
neath the abyss of the earth. The gods whose 
time had arrived for their removal to the 
triumphing heavens, were removed thither ; 
the others were sent to the unknown worlds. 
Whereupon a violent motion took place by 
means of the wind. Seven suns, or pillars of 
fire, upon this descended on the earth, which 
burnt every thing to ashes, and, at the same 
time, destroyed the fourteen lower heavens. 
After this, a general deluge took place, or, to 
express it in the words of the Cingalese, the 
whole was filled up with the general rain of the 
world called Sampattiekere Mahamege. 


Some time after this, hitherto undetermined, 
the gods who were in the heaven Subhekierneje, 
to which the waters had nearly risen, seeing the 
lotos floating on its surface, supposed, for the 
first time, that a new earth existed beneath. 
Such, therefore, whose time had expired for 
quitting this heaven, seated themselves upon the 
flowers, and, as the waters descended, arrived 
at length at the smface of the earth.* The gods, 
who were then without bodily parts or passions, 
and reflecting from themselves light suflEicient 
without the aid of the sun or moon, ^vere much 
delighted with their new situation. After a 
while these gods became so much inflated with 
pride, and debased by lust, that they were 
changed into human beings of both sexes. Their 
resplendent properties being now gone, they 

* The Cingalese suppose that the whole surface of the 
earth is flat, and that it is terminated by the circle which the 
horizon seems to present. All beyond this circle, though it 
might be inhabited, is in another world, and so separated from 
this, that none but the gods can pass from the one to the 
other. They also believe, that though a great part of the 
sea lies without this circle, it is still attached to the earth. 
The four parts of the world, they say, are enlightened by the 
reflection of four precious stones. Asia, Africa, Europe, and 
America, are indebted for their light to the blue sapphire: 
white sapphire, ruby, and topaz, enlighten the rest, which, ac- 
cording to them, is unknown. 


lived a great length of time in entire darkness, 
until the sun, moon, and stars, were produced 
by nature. Their god was the clay of the 
earth, which was at this time sweet; but, on 
account of the avarice of these gods in accu- 
mulating great quantities for their pleasure, it 
was rendered tasteless for their punishment. 
After this, they subsisted on a kind of shrub, 
which, for similar reasons, also became tasteless. 
A sort of kampernulje, commonly called devil's 
bread, or paddestulen, was their next food ; but, 
conceiving an aversion to this, they were sup- 
ported on a sort of seed, in the use of which 
they grew more wicked than formerly, and were 
accordingly condemned to till the gi'ound for 
their future maintenance. 

As the supreme god is perfectly good and 
holy, and consequently has a great aversion to 
sin, from whence then came sin ? 

The origin of sin is to be attributed to the 
mischievous and corrupted temper of man. 

Is the devil, or any other powerful spirit, the 
cause of sin ? 

By no means. 

What are the principal precepts of Budhu, 
and where were they given ? 

They are the following, which are ten in 
number, and considered threefold : 1st, extend- 


ing to the thoughts; 2d, to the words; 3d, to 
the works. 

1st. Call not truth by the name of falsehood, 
and be not suspicious. 

2d. Desire not the wealth of others. 

3d. Never wish for the death of your ene- 

4th. Avoid lying. 

5th. Betray not the secrets of others, 

6th. Avoid all injurious and foul words. 

7th. Abhor all idle conversation which may 
tend to the ruin of yourself and others. 

8th. Commit no murder. 

9th. Do not steal. 

10th. Commit neither fornication nor adul- 

This is the moral law of the Budhists, which 
was given from time to time by the several 
Budhus, and last of all by Guadma Budhu, in 
the kingdom of Rajaguham. 

Is there any life to be expected after this? 
If so, are rewards and punishments to be ex- 
pected for the good or evil done in this, and 
what are those rewards and punishments ? 

There is, undoubtedly, a life after this, in 
which the virtuous may expect the reward of 
their good deeds ; but that reward is not to be 
enjoyed till they have died many times, and 


been born again in the six Dewa-Lokas, and again 
born into the world. After they have thus en- 
joyed the eleven Brahma-L5kas, and a foretaste 
of felicity, they arrive at the five upper Brah- 
ma- Lokas, or triumphing heavens, where the 
transmigration ceases, and they remain for ever 
in felicity. Wicked men, on the contrary, are, 
after their death, born in hell, as irrational 
animals. If they have done any good thing 
during their lifetime, they are, after a long time, 
released from this hellish banishment, and are 
born again into the world as men. If, in this 
state, they abstain from evil and do good, it 
is possible for them to arrive at the state of 

What and where is paradise ? what and 
where is hell? and what is believed concerning 

The Cingalese know neither the name nor 
the situation of paradise. They suppose it to 
be a place full of joy and delight. Nirwana, or 
Mokse, is the place of departed Budhus ; and, 
according to the doctrine of the last, is situated 
above the twenty -sixth heaven, and is mag- 
nificently adorned with gold, silver, and precious 

With regard to hell, it is, as aforesaid, si- 
tuated beneath the abyss of the earth, and is 


continually agitated by winds, more violent than 
the strono'est liurricane. 

Accordhig to the doctrine of Budhu, there 
are eight large hells, in each of which there are 
sixteen smaller ones. Part of these hells is 
square, and is walled round with walls of iron, 
thirty-six miles thick. The floor and roof are 
of the same materials and thickness. In each 
of the walls there is a gateway. The punish- 
ments inflicted in each of these places are such 
as are proportionate to the crimes of the 
damned. In the hell called Awitgege, the 
greatest punishments are inflicted with bills, 
sledges, bone -breakers, hammers, pincers, spits, 
&c. The skin is also taken off occasionally 
from head to foot, and melted lead poured down 
the throat. 

Is a last judgment and resurrection of the 
body to be expected ? 

No ; that judgment immediately follows 
death ; and this is pronounced by the inferior 
god Wassewartija on such as may have done 
some good in their lifetime, and may have 
hopes of arri\ing at last at the Brahma-Lokas ; 
but the flagrantly wicked shall go to hell un- 

Have the Cingalese any peculiar form of 
prayer ? 


No : they have, however, many prayers for 
both piibhc and private use, which were given 
by Guadma Budhu, as occasion required. 

These prayers were pubhshed 433 years 
after his death by the King Wattegemmoense 
Abejereje,* who is said to have been the in- 
ventor of writing. 

Are there stated times of prayer ? and if so, 
what are they ? 

The stated times of prayer are three daily, 
namely, in the morning at half-past four or five 
o'clock, at noon, and in the evening at half-past 
six. Some, however, who wish more parti- 
cularly to obtain the favour of Budhu, pray 
much more frequently. 

To whom do the Cingalese pray ? 

To Budhu ; to his arhatas, or saints ; to 
his doctrine, law-book, and other rehcs : these 
latter are addressed without attributing any mi- 
raculous power to such relics, &c. 

Are any days set apart for pubhc prayer ? 

Four days in every month are thus set 
apart, namely, the new and full moons, and 
the others in the first and last quarters, 
when the people assemble in the temples for 
religious service. Such as are unable to go 

* The accuracy of this date is confirmed by the Mahavansi. 


to the temples, perform their services at 

Are there any appointed festivals ? 

Besides such as have been above noticed, 
any one may, by meditation and abstinence 
from sin, set apart any day for prayer and fast- 
ing in honour of Budhu. 

In what manner do they perform their re- 
ligious services in the temples ? 

It has been said that the Cingalese pray 
three times a-day. In the morning, from eight 
to eleven o'clock, dressed victuals are offered 
for the priests, whose duty it is to keep the 
temples clean, and to perfume the altar and 
images with incense. 

In the afternoon, offerings of flowers are 
made. When the priests worship, all others are 
excluded; but when the people worship, one 
priest remains, who instructs the ignorant what 
to say in their prayers, which is to this effect : 
" The health and salvation of Budhu befal me ; 
and for this end, may his doctrine and rahatoons 
assist me." 

When this has been said, vows are some- 
times made not to sin in thought, word, or 
deed, and to keep the five following command- 
ments : 

1st. Kill neither man nor beast. 


2d. Do not steal. 

od. Do not commit adultery. 

4th. Tell no lies. 

5th. Drink no intoxicating liquors. 

Others undertake to observe eight com- 
mandments, adding three more to the above- 

Those who are still more rigid, add the two 
following commandments, making in the whole 
ten : 

1st. Smell no odoriferous flowers, &c. 
2d. Wear no sumptuous apparel, gold, silver, 
or precious stones. 

To these they add some other austerities, 
such as to eat no dressed victuals after noon, but 
to subsist upon the juice of fruits, excepting the 
milk of the young cocoa-nut, the juice of cu- 
cumbers, and some others. 

To attend no pleasure parties of dancing, 
singing, &c., and to sleep upon no bed more 
than a cubit in height. 

In what way do they perform their religious 
services in the dewales and kowiles ? 

In the dewales, drums and tom-toms are 
beaten in honour of the god to whom the place 
is dedicated. In the morning and evening. 


trumpets and horns are sounded. In the month 
of July, as before-stated, the great offering takes 
place ; and in November there is a general 
illumination. But as the dewales are held by 
inferior servants only, the priest's service is not 
performed there. 

The kowiles are mere chapels, situated in 
hamlets and villages, where no other religious 
service is observed except that of a fev^ offer- 
ings of boiled food, for the maintenance of the 
officers who reside there. 

Do the Budhists do penance for sin, use 
holy water, or any other preservatives against 
wicked spirits, &c., as the brahmins do, who rub 
their forehead with ashes for this purpose ? 

No : these outward ceremonies are, by the 
Budhists, considered as superstitious, and there- 
fore rejected. 

Why have the Budhists such respect for 
cattle ? 

Not because they suppose any peculiar vir- 
tue inherent in them, but from gratitude. The 
great services which these animals render, in 
ploughing the ground, &c., as well as the milk 
they afford for sustenance, is with them reason 
sufficient for such a conclusion. 

It is also said by the learned, that there is a 
prohibition regarding the slaughter of cattle. 


made formerly by a king, whose name is un- 
known. This king gave order for a general 
illumination in honour of Budhu, for which the 
lamps were to be supplied with butter. He was 
told by his ministry that it was impossible this 
order could be executed, unless he issued ano- 
ther prohibiting the slaughter of cattle. With 
this the king complied; and, since that time, 
none but the lowest castes, such as tom-tom 
beaters, have taken the liberty to eat beef. 

Is suicide considered as a crime amongst the 
Budhists ? 

It is considered a gi'eater sin than even 

Have the Candians any knowledge of Adam 
and Eve ? Was Paradise on Ceylon, and did 
Adam leave the imprint of his foot on the hill 
called Adam's Peak? Is the lake found there 
said to have originated from the tears shed by 
Eve, on account of her sins ? Are Adam and 
Eve represented by the images in the temple of 
Mulgiri-galle ? What idols are those which have 
the shape of women ? 

The Candians have no knowledge of Adam 
or Eve, &c. The footstep visible on the hill 
called Adam's Peak is that of Guadma Budhu. 
The large images in the temple of Mulgiri-galle 
are images of Budhu alone ; the smaller ones 


are those of the inferior gods. Wherever pic- 
tiu'es of women are found painted on walls, 
they represent former queens and princesses, of 
whom accounts are to be found in Cingalese 





1. Mulgirri Galle Vihari. 

2. The Chief Vihari in the District of Matura. 

3. The Galapata Vihari in the District of Bentotte. 

As the only information respecting the contents of 
these Pali and Cingalese works is contained in the 
scanty notices comprised in the Series of Tracts No. II., 
which follow the List of the Collections in possession of 
the Viharis of Mulgirri Galle, of Matura, and of Ben- 
totte, the numhers added are intended to facilitate a 
reference to these notices, as their information becomes 
valual)le by supplying a key to their contents which 
we cannot otherwise possess : in this view the reference- 
figures on the left margin of the text shew the number 
of the Tract in the Second Series which contains any 
matter referring to the work that it precedes. It 
also has been considered a matter of utility to ascertain 


the books composing the collection of the three Viharis 
named in the Title, which being the chief Temples of 
Ceylon, and superintended by the most learned of the 
Budhist priesthood, it is fair to conclude, that the works 
wliich are found in the whole three Viharis are books 
particularly in estimation. No. 1, therefore, shews that 
the book is in the collection of the Vihari of Mulo-irri 
Galle ; No. 2, of the Vihari of Matura ; No. 3, in that 
of Bentotte ; and consequently indicates that such work 
is in all three of these religious establishments whenever 
the three figures follow a title. 





The Temple of Mulgirri Galle, No. 1. 
The Temple of Matura, No. 2. 
The Temple of Bentotte, No. 3. 

6. Digsangiya. 12 3. 
6. Maidum-sangiya. 12 3. 
6. Sanyut-sangiya. 12 3. 
6. Angottra-sangiya. 12 3. 

Samanda-pasadicanan-atuwa. 12 3. 

1. 6. Sumangala-wilaseninan-atuwa. 12 3. 

Manorata-puraninan-atuwa. 12 3. 
Mangaladipaninan-atuwa. 3. 
Wimatiwinodaninan-atuwa. 3. 
Pansiya-panas Jataka-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Sarartadipaninan-atuwa. 12 3. 

2. 6. Dampiya-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Terigata-atuwa. 12 3. 


6. Teregata-atuwa. 1 2 3. 

Tikamaha-wanse. 1 3. 
6. Jataka-tika. 

Piriwana. 12 3. 
Abidarma-pitaki. 12 3. 
The above-mentioned books are in Pali 
language, and contain each from 4 to 800 leaves 
of one cubit's length. 

Wisuddi-magge-pela. 12 3. 
6. Aratasahninan-artawarnana. 1 3. 
6. Parapka. 12 3. 

Pavviti. 1 3. 
6. Maha-waga. 12 3. 
6. Suluwaga. 1 3. 
6. Pariwara-pate. 12 3. 

Pahmuttaka-wine. 1 3. 

Canka-witarane. 12 3. 
6. Winaya-winitche. 1 3. 
2. Maha-wanse. 12 3. 
6. Suttra-nipate. 12 3. 
6. Upasaka-Janalankare. 12 3. 
6. Wisuddimarga-tika. 12 3. 

Milindapprasne. 12 3. 
6. Wimana-wastu. 12 3. 
6. Preta-wastu. 12 3. 
1. G. Sarasan-grahe. 12 3. 

Maha-bodiwanse. 12 3. 


6. Rasa-wahini. 12 3. 

6. Bodiwanse-tika. 12 3. 

6. Abidarma-arta-sangrahi. 12 3. 
Jina-lankare. 12 3. 

The above books are likewise in Pali lan- 
guage, and contain each about 250 or 300 leaves 
of a cubit and a half in length. 

6. Parajika. 12 3. 

Mangala-dipaninan-atuwa. 12 3. 

These two books, which were brought from 
Camboya country, are in Camboya language, 
and contain each about 200 or 300 leaves. 

Sataramaha - sangiyehi - linarta - warnana. 

1 3. 
This book is written in Pali language, and 
contains 200 leaves of two cubits long. 

1. Pansiya-panas Jateke. 12 3. 
This book is written in Cingalese, and con- 
tains 1500 leaves, each a cubit and a half long. 

3. Puja-waliya. 12 3. 
Ratana-waliya. 12 3. 
Saddarma-ratanakare. 1 2 3. 
Sararta-sangrahe. 12 3. 
Wisuddimarga-sanne. 12 3. 


Wimana-wastii-prakarane. 12 3. 
These books are written in Cingalese, and 
contain each about 500 or 600 leaves of one and 
a half cubits long. 

Teleatara-gata-sanne, or explanation. 1 3. 

Dampiya-sanne, or ditto. 12 3. 

Amawatura. 12 3. 

Paritcheda. 12 3. 

Tupa-wanse. 12 3. 

Carma-wibage. 12 3. 
6. Anagata-wanse. 12 3. 

Saddarma-dipica. 12 3. 
2. 7. Brahma-jalasustra-sanne, or explanation. 

12 3. 

Raja-ratna-kara. 12 3. 

Sanga-sarane. 12 3. 

Gehiwini. 1 2 3. 

Attanagalu-wanse. 12 3. 
These books are written in Cingalese, and 
contain each about 100 or 150 leaves of one 
cubit long. 

Gatipattana-suttra-sanne, or explanation. 1 . 
Salaya-suttra-sanne. 12 3. 
Chulakamma - wibanga - suttra - sanne. 

12 3. 
Singa-lowada-suttra-sanne. 12 3. 


Cala-carama-suttra-sanne. 1. 

Chula -hattipadoma-suttra- sanne. 1. 

M angala-suttra-sann e . 1 . 

Aloka-siittra-saiine. 1. 

Daksina-wibanga-suttra-sanne. 1 . 

Damsakpawatun-suttra-sanne. 12 3. 

Uposata-suttra-sanne. 12 3. 

Balapandita-suttra-sanne. 12 3. 
6. Kudusika-sanne- 1 3. 

Angulimala-suttra-sanne. 1 3. 
6, Mulusika-sanne. 12 3. 

Prati-moksa-sanne. 12 3. 
These books are written in Cingalese, and 
contain each about sixty or seventy leaves of 
one cubit long. 

Sadu-charitode. 12 3. 
Cudu-sika. 1 3. 
Mulusika. 12 3. 
6. Prati-mokse. 12 3. 
Dampiyawa. 12 3. 
Sikkapada-walawjani. 12 3. 
The above books are written in Pali lan- 
guage, and contain about fifty or sixty leaves of 
one cubit long. 

Abidane. 1 2 3. 
Amara-sinhe. 1 3. 


Pada-sadane. I 2 3. 

Saibda-lakkate. 12 3. 

Sandicappe. 1 2 3. 

Prayoga-siddiya. 12 3. 

Balawa-tare. 12 3. 

Nigandu-sanne, or explanation. 1 3. 

Saibda-lankata-sanne. 1 2 3. 

Balawatara-sanne. 12 3. 

Wratto-de. 12 3. 

Wratta-ratnakari. 12 3. 
These books are written in Pali-waikarna, 
and contain about 100 or 200 leaves of one 
cubit long. 

A List of the ReUg'ioiis Books which are in the 
Teinples in the District of Matura, 

6. Damnia-sangani. 2 3. 
6. Arta-salini. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 
6. Wibaneja-prakaranaya. 2 3. 
6. Sammoha-winodani. 2 3. 
6. Catawastu-prakaranaya. 2 3. 

The orimnal of the same in Pali. 2. 
6. Datuprakara-naya. 2. 

The original of the same in Pali. 2. 


6. Pattana-prakaranaya. 2. 

The original of the same in Pah. 
6. Abidarmawa-taraya. 12 3. 

The original of the same in Pali. 2. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 

1 2. 
6. Abidarmarta-sangi'ahaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 2. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 

6. Abidarma-pitapota. 12 3. 
6. Maha-waga. 12 3. 
6. Sulu-waga. 12 3. 
6. Parajika. 12 3. 

Pachiti. 12 3. 

Samanta-pasadika-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Sararta-dipanitika. 12 3. 
6. Wajira-bodi-tika. 2 3. 

Wimati-winodani-tika. 2 3. 

Canka-witarani. 12 3. 

Pah-mnttaka-winaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 3. 

Budda-sikka. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 2. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 


Sikkapada-walanjiniya. 12 3. 


The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 


6. Mulusika. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 

6. Prati-moksaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 
6. Diksangiya. 12 3. 

Sumangala-'\^dlasini. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 2. 
6. Maidum-sangiya. 12 3. 
6. Prapancha-sudani. 12 3. 
6. Sarujul-sangiya. 12 3. 
6. Sararta-prakasani. 2. 
6. Angottara-sangiya. 12 3. 
6. Manorata-pm'ani. 12 3. 
6. Dampiya-pela. 12 3. 

The original of the same. 2. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 

6. jNIaha-nerdesaya. 2 3. 
6. Chula-nerdesaya. 2 3. 

Pansiya-panas-jataka-atuwa. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 



6. Teregata-atuwa. 12 3. 

0. Terigata-atuwa. 12 3. 

6. Wimana-wastu-atuwa. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 


Patisampida-pela. 2 3. 

The original of the same in Pali. 2 3. 

Nettipprakaranaya. 2 3. 
6. Udana-atuwa. 2 3. 
6. Etiwuttaka. 2 3. 
6. Pretawastu-atuwa. 1 2 3. 
6. Suttra-nipata-atuwa. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 

6. Budda-wansa-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Chariya-pitaka-atuwa. 2 3. 
6. Wisuddi-margaya. 12 3. 

Paramarta-manjusa. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 

Piriwana. 12 3. 

Melindapprasnaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 
1. 6. Sara-sangrahaya. 12 3. 

Saddarma-sangrahaya. 2 3. 

Jina-lankaraya. 12 3. 

Maha-bodi-wansaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pah. 2. 



The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 

6. Rasa-wahini. 12 3. 
6. Upasaka-janalankaraya. 12 3. 
2, Maha-wansaya. 12 3. 

Data-wanseya. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cingalese. 


Padda-maduwaya. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 

Jina-charitaya. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 

Sadu-charitodaya. 12 3. 

Saddammo-payanaya. 2. 

The explanation of the same. 2. 

Saddarma-ratana-waliya. 12 3. 

Butsaranaya. 2 3. 

2. Saddarma-lankaraya. 2 3. 
Daham-saranaya. 2 3. 

3. Puja-waliya. 12 3. 
Paritchedaya. 12 3. 
Sanga-saranaya. 1 2 3. 
Ama-watura. 12 3. 
Tupa-wanse. 12 3. 
Carma-wihagaya. 12 3. 
Anagata-wanseya. 12 3. 
Saddarma-pradipikawa. 2 3. 

3. Raja-ratna-karaya. 12 3. 


Gehi-winaya. 12 3. 
Attanagalu-wanseya. 12 3. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
Sarata-sangrahaya. 12 3. 
Abidana-pradipikana. 12 3. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
Sandikappaya. 12 3. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
Muka-matta-dipaniya. 2 3. 
Maha-rupa-siddiya. 2. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
The better explanation of the game. 2. 
Balawa-taraya. 1 2 3. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
Another explanation of the same. 2. 
Maha-sannaya. 2 3. 
Datu-manjusuya. 2 3. 
Datu-pataya. 2 3. 
Sabda-laksanaya. 12 3. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
Pada-sadanaya. 12 3. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
Prayoga-siddiya. 2 3. 
Panehi-cawa. 2 3. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
Wrattodaya. 12 3. 
The explanation of the same. 2. 
2. Brahma-jala-suttraya. 12 3. 


Singalowada-sannaya. 1 2 3. 
Salaiyaka-suttraya-sannaya, or explana- 
tion. 12 3. 
Werawjaka-suttra-sannaya, or ditto. 2 3. 
llposata-suttra-sannaya, or ditto. 12 3. 
Chula-camma-wibanga-suttraya. 12 3. 

List of the Cingalese Books belonging to the 
Temple Galapata Vihari, in the District of 

Pansiya-panasjataka. 12 3. 

Ratnahwahlija. 12 3. 
3. Poojahwahlija. 1 2 3. 

Angottra-sanmva. 1 2 3. 
6. Madoon-sangiya. 1 2 3. 
6. Sanyot-sangiya. 1 2 3. 
6. Dicksangiya. 12 3. 
6. Parpancha - soodaneenam - attoowahwa. 

2 3. 

Sawmantepawdee - kawnam - attoowahwa. 

12 3. 
6. Dampeeyaw-attoowahwa. 12 3. 

Saddarma-rattanakarv. 12 3. 

Madoorawrta-deepaneeya. 3. 

Soettraneepawta. 12 3. 


Meeleendapprasna. 12 3. 
Aloopotwahansa. 3. 
Peeroewana-potwawhansa. 12 3. 
Pawleewimawna-wastoowa. 3. 
Aloowimawna-wastoowa. 3. 

1. Predeepikawwa. 3. 
Jeena-awlankawra. 12 3. 
Maha-awnawgata-wansa. 1 2 3. 
Saddarma-awlankawra. 2 3. 
Satty-pattana-soostra-sanna. 3. 
Unmagga-jawtaka. 3. 
Brachma-jawla-soostra-sanna. 1 2 3. 
Rattapawla-soostra. 3. 
Bawlapanditta-soostra-sanna. 12 3. 
Soostra-sanna. 3. 
x\nawgata-wansa. 12 3. 
Satty-pattawna-soostra-sanna. 3. 
Toopaw-wansa. 12 3. 
Boodsawrana. 12 3. 
Pawreecbada-potwawhansa. 12 3. 
Coosala-soostra. 3. 

2. Brachmajawla - soostra - pawda - anoema. 

12 3. 
Rawna-dawham-potwawhansa. 3. 
Attanagalloe-wansa. 12 3. 
6. Cawtaw-wastoo-potwahansa. 2 3. 
Sangrahaw-potwavvhansa. 3. 
Mangala-soostra. 12 3. 


6. Rawsa-wawhena-potwawhansa. 12 3. 
Waranjaka-soostra. 2 3. 
Damsakpawatoon-soostra. 12 3. 
Sooba-soostra. 3. 

Dampejaw-pawle-potwawhansa. 12 3 
Sanna-potwawhansa. 3. 
Sooroochy-rawtaw-potwawhansa. 3. 
Pawleeneegandoewa. 3. 
Bawlawatawi'a-pawle-potwawhansa. 3. 
Sanna-potwawliansa. 3. 
Maittrewarnaw-potwawhansa. 3. 
Sangee-sawkrata-aksarawdeya. 3. 
Brachmawyoe-soostra. 3. 
Singawla-wawda-soostra. 12 3. 
Awlawaka-soostra. 3. 

Maha-damma-sawmawdawna-soostra. c 
Angoely-mawla-soostra. 2 3. 
Sawrawrta-sangraha. 12 3. 
Amaw-wawtoora-potwawhansa. 12 3. 
1. 6. Sawra-sangraha. 12 3. 
Negandoe-sanna. 12 3. 
Ratty-kawneesansaw-potwawhansa. 3. 
Wena-potwawhansa. 3. 
Bawwoodda-sawtaka. 3. 
Annorda-sawtaka. 3. 
Sooreeya-sataka. 3. 
Nawmasta-sawtaka. 3. 
Waisana-sataka. 3. 


Caumene-kondala. 3. 

Cawuya-maneemawlawa-sanna. 3. 

Wawrayogawsawra. 3. 

Yogasawtaka. 3. 

Yogaratnawkawra. 3. 

Goenados-sangraha. 3. 


Digsangiya. 12 3. 


Maidun-sangiya. 12 3. 


Sanyut-sangiya. 12 3. 


Angottra-sangiya. 12 3. 

Samantapasadikanan-atuwawa. 1 2 3 


Sumangala-wilasininan-atuwa. 12 3. 


Prapancha-sudaninan-atuwa. 2 3. 

6. Manorata-puraninan-atuwa. 12 3. 

Mangala-dipaninan-atuwa. 1 3. 

Wimati-winodaninan-atuwa. 2 3. 

Pansiyapanas-jataka-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Sararta-dipaninan-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Dampiya-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Terigata-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Teragata-atuwa. 12 3. 

Tika-wahanse. 12 3. 
6. Jataka-tika. 1 3. 

Piriwana. 12 3. 

Abidarma-pitake. 12 3. 
The above-mentioned books are written in 
the Pah language ; some of them contain 
about 400 or 500 olas each, others about 700 


or 800 ; and they are about a cubit and a half 
in length. 

6. Wisuddi-mangepela. 12 3. 
6. Artasalininan-artawarnana. 3. 
6. Parajikanan. 1 2 3. 

Pachiti. 12 3. 

Mahawaga. 12 3. 
6. Suluwaga. 1 3. 

Pariwara-pate. 12 3. 

Palimuttaka-wine. 12 3. 

Kanka-witarane. 12 3. 
6. Winaya-winiche. 12 3. 
2. Maha-wanse. 12 3. 
6. Suttra-nipate. 12 3. 
6. Upasaka Janalankare. 12 3. 
6. Wisuddi-marga-tika. 12 3. 

Milindapprasne. 12 3. 

Wimana-wastu. 12 3. 
6. Preta-wastu. 12 3. 

Sarasangrahe. 12 3. 
6. Mahabodi-wanse. 1 2 3. 

Rasa-wahini, 12 3. 
6. Bodiwanse-tika. 1 2 3. 
6. Abidarma-sancrraha. 12 3. 

Jinalankare. 1 2 3. 
The above-mentioned books are also written 
in the Pali language ; they contain about 250 or 


300 olas each, about a cubit or a cubit and a 
half in length. 

6. Parajika, which had been brought from 
the Camboya country, after having 
been written in the same characters. 

1 3. 
Mangaladipaninan-atuwa, which had also 
been brought from the above country, 
after having been written in the same 
characters. 12 3. 
These books are written in the same lan- 
guage, and contain each about 200 or 300 olas, 
about a cubit and a half in length. 

Sataramaha-sangiyehi-linarta-warnana ; this 
book is written in the Pali language, 
and contains 200 olas, and are in 
length two cubits. 1 3. 
Ratana-waliya. 12 3. 
Saddarma-ratnakara. 1 3. 
Sarartasangraha. 12 3. 
6. Wisuddimarga-sanne. 12 3. 
6. Wimana-wastuprakarane. 12 3. 
These books are written in Cingalese, and 
contain about 500 or 600 olas each, about one 
or two cubits in length. 


Telcatara-yatasanne. 1 3. 

Dampiya-sanne. 12 3. 

Amawatura. 12 3. 

Paratchida. 1 2 3. 

Tupawanse. 12 3. 

Carma-wibage. 12 3. 
6. Anagata-wanse. 12 3. 

Saddarmapradipika. 12 3. 

Brahmajala-sustrasanne. 12 3. 
3. Raja^ratnakare. 12 3. 

Sangasarane. 12 3. 

Gehiwine. 12 3. 

Attaiiagala-wanse. 12 3. 
The above-mentioned books are written in 
the Cingalese language, and contain each about 
100 or 150 olas, about one cubit in length. 

Saleya-suttra-sanne. 12 3. 
Chulakamma-wibanga. 12 3. 
Suttra-sanne. 12 3. 
Singalowada-suttra-sanne. 12 3. 
Calakaracha-suttra-sanne. 1 3. 
Chulahattipadoma-suttra-sanne. 1 3. 
Mangala-suttra-sanne. 12 3. 
Aloka-suttra-sanne. 1 3. 
Daksinawibanga-suttra-sanne. 1 3. 


Damsak-paiwatun-suttra-sanne. 1 3. 

Uposata-suttra-sanne. 1 2 3. 

Balapandita-suttra-sanne. 1 3. 
6. Cudusika-sanne. 1 3. 

Angulimala-suttra-sanne. 1 3. 
6. Mulusika-sanne. 12 3. 

Pratimoksa-sanne. 12 3. 
These books are written in Cingalese, and 
contain each about sixty or seventy olas, about 
one cubit in length. 

Sadu-charitode. 12 3. 
Kudusika. 1 3. 
6. Pratimokse. 12 3. 
9. Dampiyawa. 12 3. 

Sikkapada-walanjene. 12 3. 
These books are written in Pali, and con- 
tain each about fifty or sixty olas, about one 
cubit in length. 

Abidane. 12 3. 
2. Amarasinhe. 1 3. 
Padasadane. 12 3. 
Saibdalakkate. 12 3. 
Sandikappe. 12 3. 
Prayoga-siddiya. 12 3. 
Balawatare. 12 3. 
Nigandu-sanne. 12 3. 


Padasadane-sanne. 12 3. 

Saibdalakkane-sanne. 12 3. 

Balawatare-sanne. 12 3. 

Wrattode. 12 3. 

Wratta-ratnakare. 1 3. 

These Pali - waikarne books contain each 

about 100 or 200 olas, about one cubit in 


6. Damma-sangane. 2 3. 

Arta-salini. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same. 3. 
6. Wibangaprakaranaya. 2 3. 
6. Sammoha-winodani. 2 3. 

Catawastu-prakaranaya. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pah. 3. 
6. Datu-prakaranaya. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 3. 
6. Yamaka-prakaranaya. 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali, 3. 
6. Pattana-prakaranaya. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 2 3. 
6. Abidarmawa-taraya. 12 3. 
6. The explanation of tlie same in Pali. 

1 2 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 

Abidarmarsta-sangrahaya. 3. 


The explanation of the same in Pah. 

1 2 8. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 

Abidarmapita. 3. 

Mahawaga. 12 3. 
6. Sulumaga. 12 3. 
6. Parajika. 12 3. 

Pachiti. 1 2 3. 
6. Pariwara. 12 3. 

Samantapasadika-attuwa. 1 2 3. 

Sarartadipini-tika. 1 2 3. 
6. Wajirabode-tika. 2 3. 

Wimatiwinodani-tika. 2 3. 

Kanka-witarani. 12 3. 

Palimuttaka-winaya. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 3. 

Budda-sinka. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 3. 

Sikkapada-walanjanaya. 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 12 3. 

Prati-moksaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 

Mulusika. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 



The explanation of the same in Pah. 

1 2 3. 

Maidum-sangiya. 12 3. 

Prapancha-sudani. 12 3. 

Sanyut-sangiya. 12 3. 

Sararta-prakasani. 1 3. 

Sangottara-sangiya. 3. 
6. Manorata-purani. 12 3. 

Dampiya-pela. 12 3. 

Attuwawa. 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 

Mahanirddesaya. 2 3. 
6. Chulanirddesaya. 2 3. 
6. Teragata-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Terigata-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Wimana-wastu-attuwa. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 
6. Patisampida-pela. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 3. 

Netti-prakaranaya. 2 3. 
6. Udana-atuwa. 2 3. 
6. Eti-wuttaka. 3. 

Preta-wastu-atuwa. 12 3. 

Suttra-nipata-atuwa. 12 3. 


The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 
6. Buddawansa-atuwa. 12 3. 
6. Chariapitaka-atuwa. 12 3. 

Wisuddi-margaya. 12 3. 

Paramarta-manjussa. 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 2 3. 

Piriwana. 12 3. 

Milindapprasnaya. 12 3. 

Explanation of the same. 3. 

Sarasangrahaya. 2 3. 

Saddarma-sangrahaya. 12 3. 

Jinalankaraya. 12 3. 

Mahabodi-wanseya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Pali. 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 
6. Rasa-mahini. 2 3. 

Upasaka-janalankare. 1 2 3. 

Maha-wanseya. 12 3 

Data-wanseya. 1 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 

Paddai-maduwaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same. 3. 

Jina-charitaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same. 3. 


Saducharitodaya. 12 3. 
Saddaininopayanaya. 2 3. 
The explanation of the same. 3. 
Saddarma-ratanawahya. 12 3. 
Butsaranaya. 12 3. 

2. Saddarmalankaraya. 2 3. 
Saddarma-ratnakaraya. 1 2 3. 
Daham-saranaya. 2 3. 

3. PujawaHya. 12 3. 
Paritchedaya. 12 3. 
Sanga-saranaya. 12 3. 
Ama-watura. 12 3. 
Tupa-wanseya. 12 3. 
Karma-wibagaya. 3. 
Anagata-wanseya. 12 3. 
Saddarma-pradipikawa. 2 3. 
Raja-ratnakaraya. 12 3. 
Gihi-wineya. 12 3. 
Atwanagalu-wanseya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same in Cinga- 
lese. 3. 
Sararta-sangrahaya. 12 3. 
Abidana-pradipikawa. 12 3. 
The explanation of the same. 3. 
Sandi-kappaya. 12 3. 
The explanation of the same. 3. 
Mukamatta-dipaniya. 2 3. • 
Maharu-pasiddiya. 2 3. 


The explanation of the same. 3. 

The better explanation of the same. 3. 

Balawataraya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same. 3. 

Another explanation of the same. 3. 

Maha-sannaya. 2 3. 

Datu-manjusaya. 2 3. 

Datu-pataya. 2 3. 

Sabdu-laksanaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same. 3. 

Padasadanaya. 1 2 3. 

The explanation of the same. 3. 

Prayoga-siddiya. 12 3. 

Panchikawa. 2 3. 

The explanation of the same. 3. 

Wartodaya. 12 3. 

The explanation of the same. 3. 

Brahmajala-suttra-sannaya. 12 3. 

Singa-lowada-sannaya. 12 3. 

Saleyyana-suttra-sannaya. 12 3. 

Werajaka-siittra-sannaya. 2 3. 

Uposata-suttra-sannaya. 12 3. 









The brief account of the religion of Budhu 
agrees with and may be seen at large in the 
following books : — 


The Commentary of the book Pansiya- 

Saddharma-alancaraya, signifying an illus- 
tration of the genuine writings which relate 
the thirty-two majestic bodily perfections in 
Budhu, eighty simple perfections, and 216 other 
simple natural signs in Budhu ; the merits due 
in the next world for the honour, respect, 
homage, &c., paid to Budhu and other sacer- 
dotal characters; the blessing already obtained 
in the preceding state of life, by those who 
had done in the like manner; also the good 
resulting to those who followed the doctrine 
of the religion, and the evil resulting to those 
who sinned against the same; the reward or 
punishment that is expected by those who do 


good or commit sin licre, in the futm'e state of 


1 . Dampiyawa. — This book contains ser- 
mons of Budhu to his priests, and other people, 
with rules of life. 

2. Brahmajala-sustraya. — ^This book shews 
how the priests are to preserve the command- 
ments of Budhu, and how to abstain from sins ; 
and also the fraud of the sixty-two other re- 

3. Mahawanse. — This book contains the 
histories of the kings ; and it also appears 
there, how those kings believed in Budhu's re- 
ligion, and continued to preserve it. 

4. Saddarma-lankare. — This book contains 
histories about Ceylon, and some about Jambu- 

5. Wakkai-potta. — This book teaches how 
to calculate the years, months, and days. 

6. Guna-pata. — This book gives a descrip- 
tion of the effects of different sorts of me- 


7. Wattoru-weda-pota. — This book contains 
accounts of different sorts of the choicest 

8. Nidana-pata. — This book contains an 
assertion of the truth of Budhu's rehgion. 

9. Yantra-pota. — This book contains a col- 
lection of figures, one of which is to be copied 
out, and tied on the body of the sick person, 
when the cause of his disorder is supposed to 
have arisen from any evil spirit. 

10. Amara-pura-warna-nawa. — This book 
shews how the inhabitants of Amara-pura began 
first to embrace the Budhu's religion. 

11. A List of Lands. — A list of all the lands 
that belong to the Budhu temples in the district 
of Matura. 

12. Graha-chare, or Almanac. — The Cin- 
galese Almanac. 

13. Anne-pana-tikitsawa. — This book con- 
tains an account of the effects of different sorts 
of food. 



A Sketcli of the contents of the Cinfralese Book 
called Rajaratnaliare, according to the state- 
ment of the chief priest of Galle. 

Paryepty, Pretypanty, and Pretiwaide. 

Paryepty signifies the scripture of the Bud- 
hist rehgion. 

Pretypanty signifies the mode of exercising 
the same. 

Pretiwaide signifies the good fortune that 
awaits good deeds. 

It appears, says the priest, that when the 
wicked, that cared not themselves, and deviated 
from these three principles, were multiplied to 
a considerable number, this book was written 
by one Abeyeraje Pariwainaste (a high priest) 
in the reign of one of the kings of the royal 
family of Sriesangebo, for the purpose of re- 
forming them, and re-establishing the law. 

The chief priest of Galle, and every other 
of his profession, regard the contents of this 
book as a true and holy Scripture. 



Manjoosey. — First book of the doctors, 
by which every thing about physic may be 

Weeraha-meerey. — By which astronomical 
matters may be known. 

Abidarraepitteka. — Praise to the idols. 

Wineepitteka. — Praise to the priests. 

Soottrepitteka. — Praise to the men. 


Sudderme-alancalny. — Sermons, or Bana of 

Brachmagahle Locha. — A dialogue between 
a Budhu priest and a bramin, in which the 
brahmin is at last converted. 



A List of the different sorts of Boohs amongst 
the Cingalese. 

Bannepot, or religious books, are of three 
different sorts, namely, Wineepitteka, Soottre- 
pittcka, and Abidarmapitteka. 

Wineepitteka consists of the follo^ving 
books : — 

Pawrajikaya, Pachittia, Suluwarge, Maha- 
warge, Pariwarepawtte, Samantasawjikawe, Wa- 
jirabuddhia, Sawrartediepania, Wineawinisiea, 
Wineasangrahaya, Pawti-moksea, Wankawtina- 
ranea, Wineyalankaria, Kudusikaya, Mulusikaya, 

Soottrepitteka consists of — 

Dicksangia, Medunsangia, Angottrasangia, 
Sanyutsangia, Buddahpawte, Dampiyawe, Oe- 
dawney, Ittioetteke, Suttra-nipawne, Wimawne- 
wastua, Praytewastua, Theregata, Theerigata, 
Jawtekka, Chulanerdeve, Mahanerdese, Patti- 
sambidawmarge, Apadawne, Buddahwanse, Ana- 
gatawanse, Bodiwanse, Diepawanse, Kaisa-daw- 
too-wanse, Lallatte-dahtoo-wanse, Charria-pit- 
teka, Sumangala - lasania, Prapancha - soodana. 


Manoratta - poorania, S awrawrta - prakawsania, 
Rassawahinee, Buddeke-pawteya, Oepawseke- 
janawlankawre, Sawra-sangrahe, Wissuddhi- 

Abidarniapittekka consists of — 

Paramawrtaj otikawe, Dahrmasangranippre- 
karane, Wibahnga-prekarane, Kattawwastuppra- 
karane, Puggalla-prag-gnaptia, Dawtoo-preka- 
rane, Yamakapprakarane, Pantawnapprakarane, 
Artasalia, Sammoha-winodania, Abhidahrma- 
wetawre, Abhidarma - sangrahaye, Mani-diepe, 
Manimanjuse, Abhidahrma-wikawsania, Gcela- 
hattawdiepennia, Satcha-sanke, Sankawpewarne- 
nawe, Paramawrta-winischea, Suchittaw-lan- 
kawre, Dhawtoo-kattaw-warnenawe, Madoosaw- 
ratta-diepania, Apeggoe-sawre, Pantawnasawra- 
dienia, Mahanayasawra-goona, Cheeda-wiha- 
sania, Abhidarma-prakawsenia. 

Weddepot, or medical books. 

Charawke, Moela-game, Helay, Buddah- 
gaggia, Buddah-wedeke, Halceke, Assina-saw- 
hitawe, Kahra-nawde, Catchayaniea, Waidawp- 
pieya, Mahakassapia-kahra-pawne, Preyoga-kose, 
Bissak=miitlia, Chickit-cha-kalli-kawe, Wara- 
rooche, Watcha-kassapia, Preyoga-ratna-wallia, 
Ammette - mawlawe, Can - cawnia, Harriettee, 


Chandettee, Sussutte, Yogakose, Maha-yawne, 
Boja-rajia, Jawtoo-kannia, Bindhu-sawre, Waray- 
awne, Siissiitta-bahatte, Pawta-suddia. 

Nacksastrapot, or astrological books. 

Dhywag-gne-kawme-deenua, Waraha-meree, 
Dosesan-grahe, Hora-bharene, Dose-winischea, 
Nacksastra-diepa-mawlawe, Santawne-diepikawe, 
Soorye-siddahnte, Chandra-siddahnte, Nawe-pat- 
tawle, Chandra -charne, Soorye-charne, Prasna- 
sawre, Bahg-gyesanhitawe, Siridhare, Why-kon- 
tye-alankawre, Sawhit-thyea-chooda-mania, Jo- 
teaw- lankawre. Saw- raw - wallia. 

Cahwye-sastra-pot, or poetical books. 

Caw-silu-mina, Moowe- dew-daw- watte, Sa- 
sanda - watta, Yamakap - prati - hawrye - satteke, 
Cawye-sekkere, Girra-sandese, Selle-lihini-san- 
dese, Parrem-sandese, Tisserre-sandese, Cowul- 
sandese, Lowe-wedde-sangrahe, Himawle-wis- 
terre, Cauminny-condelle, Cau-minny-mal- dam- 
me, Camnoot-harre, Lanka-msterre, Gannedewi- 
lielle, Wadan-kawi-potte. 


There are several historical books amongst 
the Cingalese (wherein the histories of Ceylon 
are recorded), namely : — 


Maha-wanse, Mahawanse - tiekawe, Rajarat- 
nakare, Raja-wallia, Siehelle-wastua. 

Wye-carne, or grammatical books, are of 
three different kinds, namely, Pali, Sangis- 
kritta, and Elua. 

Pali Wye-carne consists of — 

Sandy-cahg-ghe, Maha-roopa-siddia, Choola- 
riipa- siddia, Balawe - tawre, Mooka-matta-die- 
pania, Sebdhe-niddhese, Casawne-chede, Gan- 
dha-charne, Abhidahane-warne-nawe, Sebde- 
nietiya, Sambandha-chintawe, Sadda-sawratwa- 
jalinseya, Sad-dwanta-cheede-chintawe, Wache- 
natwe-jotikawe, Wachekopedese, Abhi-dhne-pra- 
diepi-kawe, Waran-negilla, Dahtoo-pawya, Dah- 
too-manjoose, Samaya-chakkre. 

Sangiskritta consists of — 

Ammara-sinhe, Dor-ge-sinhe, E-kawksera- 
kose, Kriya-mawlawe, Roopa-mawlawe, Chandra- 
cau-mudia, Saras-wettiya, Maha-siddahnte-cau- 
mudia, Chula-siddahnte-kan-mndia, Moogdha- 
chode, Buddha -garge^ Sakkas-kadda, Nawe- 
ratne, Wye-sene - sattekke, Naw-maws - ta- sat- 
tekke, Anoo - rud - dha-sattekke. Baud - dye - sat- 
tekke, Soor -ye - sattekke, Wartha - maw - lawk- 
kye-we, Wartha-ratna-kerre. 


Eluii consists of — 

Sidat-sange-rawe, Lack-senne-sawre, Cauye- 
ratneniaw-lawe, &c. &c. &c. 

Soostrakienne-pot, or astrological books. 

Garbad - dware, Panche - pakse, Dandoo- 
marenne, Indra - gurullua, Sareve - to - chaddre, 
Niwitty-potte, Baw-daw-wallia. 


Brachmah Jawle Sootra consists of a dialogue 
between two bramins respecting the principles 
of the Budhii religion, originally written in Pali : 
it is written in this book both in Pali and Cin- 
galese ; the Pali and Cingalese words being 
placed alternately. The disciples of Budhu are 
supposed to have heard all that was urged 
against their religion, which they then related 
to the Budhu, who controverts the objections. 

Kaala Karame Sooha contains sermons, 
almost all of which are written in Cingalese, only 
a small portion being in Pali. 



The Books belotig'mg to the Temple of Calany. 














Piroewawhanaw- potwawhansa. 



In this temple were several other books, 
which were lost when the priests were impri- 



All explanation of the contents of the book 
called Dainpiyawa, which had been preached by 
Budhii, who was the chief of all the worlds, and 
displaying the doctrine in the said book. 

Thought is the root and the principal thing 
which marks every intention. 

A person commits the four following sins 
by words, viz. speaking falsehood by hiding the 
truth ; speaking falsehood with an intention to 
deprive friends of their friendships ; abusing a 
person as if he had pierced into his heart by 
a weapon ; and by vain talking in such a 
manner as is of no use to himself nor to any 
one else. 

A person commits the three following sins 
by his body, viz. either by punishing another 
severely ; by teasing or killing any living thing ; 
taking away the property of other people either 
by theft or force ; and by enjoying carnal plea- 
sure with women belonging to others. 

A person commits the three following sins 
by his thoughts, viz. by covetousness to get the 
wealth of other people ; by wishing for another's 
death; and thinking to one's-self that there is 
no sin, there is not a good act, there is nothing 


in this world, there is nothing in the other 
world, there are no good priests nor brahmins, 
and there is nothing to expect in return from 
charity that is given to the poor; and also by 
persuading a person to believe another religion. 

Thus the people commit the said ten differ- 
ent sins by their bodies, words, and thoughts, 
on account of their ignorance, and by which 
means they descend themselves into the four 
following hells, viz. Narakaya (or bad), Tirisa- 
nyoniya (or that of becoming beasts), Preta- 
lokeya (or the place of inferior devils), and 
Asurakaya (or the place of another sort of devils 
called Asurayas) ; and though they be born in 
a world where men are, yet they are exposed 
to many vices, griefs, troubles, pains, and dis- 
eases. Moreover, when such a sinner is born at 
any time in the habit of a man, there he again 
follows his old custom of committing sins, which 
are greater than what he had committed in the 
other world. For an example ; as the wheels 
of a cart follow always the bullocks wherever 
they draw it, a person who has once committed 
such sin, follows his custom of committing sins 
wherever he is born again. 

A person performs the following four good 
acts by his words, viz. speaking always what is 
true without any falsehood; persuading those 



that are on bad terms to live amicably; speak- 
ing in such a manner as always to please the 
hearer ; and by conversing about matters which 
are either useful to himself or to others. 

People who observe these will enter into 
Nirwana (or the place of everlasting happiness), 
after having enjoyed much happiness and plea- 
sure as gods and men. For an example ; as 
the shadow of a man will not leave him at any 
time, a person who has once done a good act, 
as above-mentioned, will not forget to do good 
acts always wherever he is born. 

A person, either a priest or a common man, 
gets himself into a passion by the following 
means, viz. either when he is affronted or abused ; 
when he is beat, kicked, or flogged ; when he 
is stabbed or wounded ; when he has lost his 
case on account of the false evidence of another; 
or when he is robbed either of his movable or 
immovable property ; which passion often turns 
into hatred, and which hate he hides in the 
bottom of his heart, as a lump of spoiled flesh 
hidden under some straw, and this bad passion 
increases day by day, as the scent of the flesh so 
hidden increases. 

When a person, either a priest or a common 
man, is so treated, in either of the modes named, 
if he thinks to himself. This is nothing, the hfe of 


this world is nothing, and I am so treated now 
by them as they were treated by me in the other 
world, so I deserve thus to be treated, and then 
drop off the hatred from his heart, the passion 
will also decrease, and will not increase, as the 
fire cannot be much where there is no fire- 

Hatred which the people of this world bear 
in their hearts, can never be turned into good- 
will through the hatred itself, but by good acts, 
patience, compassion, and wisdom, — as a place 
filled with filth can never be cleaned by filth 
itself, but by clean water. 

The ignorant people of this world often make 
quarrels without ever considering that they are 
mortal; but those that are wise will always 
endeavour to avoid quarrels, considering to them- 
selves, " What is the use of making quarrels 
when we are all mortal ?" and by which means 
a person who bears an ill-will towards a wise 
man will, in a short time, be his good friend. 

The great Budhu often preached thus, " Ye 
priests, live together amicably without quarrel- 
hng or bearing in your heart any hatred ;" but 
if a priest should happen to make a quarrel by 
accident or impatience, he will soon appease it 
by his wisdom. 



The book called Dampiyawa contains twenty- 
six sorts of Budhu's exhortations. 

1. Is called Yamakka; of this sort there are 
twenty exhortations having double meanings in 

2. Appamada ; of this sort there are twelve 
exhortations concerning things which ought not 
to be delayed. 

3. Chitta ; of this sort there are eleven ex- 
hortations concerning the different thoughts of 
a person. 

4. Puppa; of this sort there are sixteen ex- 
hortations in comparison to flowers. 

5. Bala; of this sort there are seventeen 
exhortations in comparison to fools. 

6. Panditta ; of this sort there are fourteen 
exhortations in comparison to wise men. 

7. Arrehantakka ; of this sort there are ten 
exhortations in comparison to Budhu priests, 
who can walk on the sky. 

8. Sahassa; of this sort there are sixteen 
exhortations in comparison to number. 

9. Papa ; of this sort there are thirteen ex- 
hortations concerning sins. 

10. Danda; of this sort there are seventeen 
exhortations concerning punishments. 


11. Jtarrah ; of this sort there are eleven ex- 
hortations concerning infirmities. 

12. Atta; of this sort there are twelve ex- 
hortations concerning the soul. 

13. Loka; of this sort there are twelve ex- 
hortations concerning the world. 

14. Budhu; of this sort there are sixteen 
exhortations concerning Budhu. 

15. Sooka ; of this sort there are twelve ex- 
hortations concerning health. 

16. Piya ; of this sort there are twelve ex- 
hortations concerning love. 

17. Kroda ; of this sort there are fourteen 
exhortations concerning anger. 

18. Mala ; of this sort there are twenty ex- 
hortations concerning blemish. 

19. Dammatta ; of this sort there are seven- 
teen exhortations concerning justice. 

20. Magga; of this sort there are sixteen 
exhortations on good behaviour. 

21. Pakinna; of this sort there are sixteen 
exhortations concerning common concerns. 

22. Nirraya ; of this sort there are fourteen 
exhortations concerning hell. 

23. Naga ; of this sort there are fourteen 
exhortations in comparison of elephants. 

24. Tanha; of this sort there are twenty- 
two exhortations concerning covetousness. 


25. Bikkoo ; of this sort there are twenty- 
three exhortations concerning Budhu priests. 

26. Bralniianna ; of this sort there are forty 
exhortations concerning brahmins. 

Altogether there are 417 exhortations. 

The several exhortations "of the first sort 
are these, viz. : — The mind is the origin of all 
the different thoughts ; and whatsoever sins a 
person does by means of his mind, they go io- 
gether with him or her into his or her next life 
in hell, in the same manner as a wheel goes 
after an ox who draws it. 

Whatsoever good or charity a person does 
by means of his mind, it goes in the manner as 
a shadow with that person, &c. 

Of the second sort, viz. — He who does not 
delay of doing charity, has already obtained 
the everlasting glory. He who does delay in 
doing charity is already dead. He who does 
charity, though he is dead, he is like unto a 
man who is not dead. He who puts off doing 
charity though he is not dead, he is like unto 
a dead man, &c. 

Of the third sort, viz.— The wandering mind, 
a wise man would make it straight in the 
manner that a carpenter m.akes straight an 
arrow, &c. 


On the hooks called Sariputtra and 

The first contains the art of constructing 
of Budhu's image, by taking the measure of 
the length, breadth, circumference, and size of 
each part, each hmb or joint, from the head to 
the feet of the same ; and the second contains 
the manners, forms, and the different colours 
of all and every distinct part or parts for con- 
structing the different images of different deities, 
devils, and animals, &c. 

The book called Amarapura-warna-nawa 
contains the story of the last Budhu's coming to 
Amarapura country, and how the Budhu's re- 
ligion prevailed in that country. 

This book is in the Pali language, and has 
no Cingalese explanation of it. 










The King Patissa the Second having constructed 
ships, then sent for ninety-six kelles of maha- 
rahatoons, (those were Budhu priests who could 
walk on the sky) ; and, together with them, 
after a seven months' navigation, landed at the 
place called Bodimandella ; when the king of 
that country, Sribodi-Rajah, came out of his pa- 
lace, and, after having bade the said rahatoons 
to sit down, he asked the cause of their coming 
thither. Then the King Patissa the Second said 
that he came to take away the bodinwahansa 
(that is, a tree which the Budhists worship); 
whereupon Sribodi-Rajah replied and said, that 
he would not allow it. Then the priests cried 
out, saying, that they could not settle the 
dispute between the parties (meaning the two 
kings), and they adjured the bodinwahansa. 
The King Patissa the Second stretched forth 
one of his hands towards heaven, and the other 
towards the earth, and said, " Our bodinwahansa 
be ours ; and our bodinwahansa witness us, if 
you have mercy upon our Cinhala (Ceylon)." 
Thereupon, the bodinwahansa roared like thun- 



der M-ithoiit rain. The King Sribodi-Rajah, 
being affrighted, desired them to take away the 
bodinwahansa ; then the priests said to the King 
Patissa the Second, no one could take the bodin- 
wahansa away except a bickshou (a female her- 
mit), of your Cinhala-Sakka-Coola, (that is, of 
the royal family called Sakka-Coola, in Ceylon,) 
who never felt the breath of a male. The priest 
ha\'ing seen by their heavenly eyes such an one, 
desired to send messengers to call the priest 
Mihidoomaha-Teroonancy's younger sister, who 
had been performing her functions as a hermit, 
in a painted cave in the rock called Sayagri- 
parwetta. Upon that, the two priests, namely, 
MaUiyamaha and Mihidooma, went up to the 
said Sayagri-parwetta in less time than a spider's 
web, taking fire from the lower side, could blacken 
the upper side ; and after having called the said 
sister of the priest, Mihidoo-maha desired her 
that she would not eat any food cooked on the 
hearth but fruits, and that she should change her 
dress thrice a-day after having washed herself 
in smeUing-water. So saying, the priests went 
to heaven, when the gods Sakkraia, Brahma, &c., 
having constructed two seats called Watjrasen- 
nah, fourteen cubits high, making them sit upon 
them, offered to them Dassawidderatnah, (that 
is, the ten precious things, namely, pearl, pre- 


cious stones, gold, silver, &c.) and began to 
hear their preaching. The priests desired the 
gods to offer as a gift to their Tonuroan, (that 
is, Biidhu, his word, and his priests,) two hea- 
venly clothes, and sixteen golden pots, which 
they accordingly got from them, and afterwards 
giving blessing to the gods, and taking with them 
sixteen heavenly women, came to the lake Ano- 
tatta-Willah, and having taken sixteen potsful 
of smelling-water from that lake, went their way 
back to Sayagri-parwetta, and caused the said 
female hermit to wash in sixteen pots of smel- 
ling water, after which she took in her hand the 
heavenly cloth brought by the priests to dress 
herself; and hardly had she taken off the cloth 
which she had already on, than she obtained the 
power of going on the sky ; so she proceeded to 
go with the heavenly women, and the priests 
followed them. 

When they came to Bodimandella they in- 
troduced themselves to the king; and having 
sent for the flowers of Dambagassa, (a tree, 
the leaves, flowers, &c. of which are said to 
be gold,) and the said flowers being gold were 
ground in mercury, and it being made liquid, 
it was given into the hands of the female 
hermit. The golden ladder being placed, she 
climbed the ladder, taking with her the gold 


coach, the golden cup, and the golden pencil; 
and she being so directed by the heaven and 
earth, did draw a line on the tree bodinwahansa, 
saying, " Bodinwahansa, come to our Cinhala." 
Then the tree fell asunder from the place where 
the line was drawn, as if it was cut with a golden 
saw, and went up to the sky, and came back 
and set itself in the golden coach. There also 
issued blood* from the two ends of the tree that 
was so cut. The female hermit having torn the 
heavenly cloth which she had on her, covered 
the two ends of the tree ; then the blood stopped. 
Sribodi Rajah permitted the Mallawa princes to 
conduct the bodinwahansa, giving them three 
golden tiles to offer them to the bodinwahansa 
at any place where it would set itself, with fur- 
ther directions to offer Satroowan and Mini- 
roowan flowers, (that is, seven precious things of 
which the flowers are made, namely, gold, silver, 
pearl, precious stones, &c.) ; and further desired 
the King Patissa the Second to keep peace with 
the said Mallawa princes. 

Now, the bodinwahansa tree, in the space of 
seven days, came to Mahatotta, or Matura, 
thence to Samanalla-Sripada, and thence to Mai- 

* The personification of the tree reminds the reader of 
Tasso's enchanted grove, and the northern legends. 


hangana. But the people of Ceylon, not having 
been able to know where the bodinwahansa went 
thence, began to lament and cry, which cry was 
heard like thunder throughout the whole of Jam- 
budwipa. Sribodi-Rajah having heard this cry, 
went up to the said mountain Maihangana, and 
begged the bodinwahansa to come forth : (since 
that time that mountain was called Hunnasgri- 
Canda). The bodinwahansa came forth, and 
thence proceeded to the place called Santaneya ; 
when it came there gifts were offered to it. 
Thence it went to the mountain called Yaba- 
hoo, belonging to the priest Yama ; thence to 
the village Nalligamma, where the bodinwa- 
hansa let fall a piece of bark ; and from thence 
went to the mountain or rock at the place 
called Allegalla. There it tarried some time, 
and, by the power of the bodinwahansa, those 
who were in the cave of that rock were caused to 
come out, and they were made stones on the 
spot. The upasakka (a religious man) of that 
village seeing this, took a golden cupful of honey, 
and went and offered the same to bodinwahansa, 
befifgincf it to come down. The bodinwahansa let 
fall a branch with leaves into that golden cup, 
and sunk itself thirty cubits deep into the earth, 
and stood stretching forth its branches ; thence 
proceeded again and went to the mountain Dem- 


mettedenny ; after having placed there a sandal- 
wood tree, it went to Calany ; thence it went to 
Bopittiya, and after having let fall there a piece 
of bark, went to the wood Mahatal-himay : there 
having caused to be made a fortification of a 
hedge of Sal-trees, and in the middle of that 
fortification having placed a golden - coloured 
branch with leaves, it went to the wood called 
Nitipatma-Unnewanney, in the village of Maha- 
daiwa- gamma, where the bodinwahansa stood 
still in the golden- coach on the sky; so it 
stood seven weeks viewing the earth. Now, the 
King Patissa the Second having caused to be 
assembled gods and men, and ninety-six kelles 
of maha-rahatoons, or Budhu priests, nine kelles 
and nine lacses of men, seven kelles of wissi- 
maha-yodeas (giants or warriors), sent for the 
blacksmith Drowah, and, on the lucky hour 
Uttersala-Nakketta caused to be made the fol- 
lowing instruments, viz. kettes, mammetties, 
axes, adzes, chisels, iron crows, and anvils ; and 
begun to prepare a ground (such as is called 
in Cingalese Maluwa) for bodinwahansa, which 
was in breadth 100 cubits, in circumference 
440 cubits, and 32 cubits high. There was 
placed in this Maluwa a golden pot of seven 
cubits, called Kallessa : after which, the bodin- 
wahansa proceeded to descend from the sky to 


come to tlie Maluwa, on the lucky hour of 
Rehenne - nekketta, on a Tuesday full moon, 
(according to the Cmgalese reckoning of time, 
by the shadow), the sun to be at meridian, or 
height, in the month Assalla (July) ; but the 
bodinwahansa, looking at the golden pot above- 
mentioned, would not come down ; upon that 
the golden pot sunk itself mto he ground at 
the Maluwa, or the gi'ound prepared for the 
bodinwahansa. Whereupon Sonattra - Teroo- 
nancy, by his heavenly eyes penetrating the 
earth at a look, went to the bottom of Ma- 
hameru ; thence he brought Satroowan - welly 
(that is, seven precious kinds of sand), putting 
the same into one end of his cloth which 
he had on, and came as the water-fowl called 
Diyakawah, and sphtting the earth, rose up from 
the Maluwa as the full moon ; and after having 
scattered the sand in the Maluwa, cried out 
*' Sadu !" and the gods called out so as to cause 
the earth to tremble, saying, " The virtue of the 
bodinwahansa will endure for 5000 years hence- 
forth ;" and they then gave this island the name 

Then were granted to the Maluwas, by the 
King Patissa the Second, on account of theij* 
expertness shewn on behalf of him, the follow- 
ing lands : Sry-sakan, Sry-boomi, Pihitty-Ratta, 



Maya-Ratta, Maddegam-Nuwcrra, Jayaboomy, 
as far as to the step of marble stones of the 
city called Pandoohas. Prince Rama got the 
lands Trinanboomy and Yapa-Pattoona, or Jaffna, 
after which the king departed this hfe. There- 
upon the lands, beginning from the city Pandoo- 
has, became a dependency of Malakka ; and the 
other lands, including the city of Anm'ahde- 
Pura, went to Heddy-Demallos (a Malabar na- 
tion). So it remained mider them for 120 years. 
Afterwards, the King Dootoogameny, who had 
ten giants and a cadol elephant, captured 300 
batteries and fortifications of metal, and the 
strong fort of Bomaluwa, (which is the place 
where the bodinwahansa-tree stands), which was 
eighteen cubits high, and made of metal ; and after 
having destroyed the Heddy-Demallos, he sub- 
dued the Isle of Lanka, and reigned over the same. 
Now, the king had asked the teroonancies, 
" Shall I have committed sin by having killed 
these Malabars ?" the priests answered and said, 
" O king, you cannot be absolved from the sin 
of having killed four certain persons." Then the 
king asked the priests what was to be done to 
be absolved from it. The priests said, that he 
should cause to be built a cave called daggoba, 
placing in it the dawtoo of Loutoorah-Budhu. 
Thereupon the king began to clear and repair 


the cave called Ratiiamali, which was in length 
and breadth 120 cubits, the four walls of it were 
caused to be painted, mats were spread on the 
floor, and images of Sakkraia and Brahma, gods, 
&c. of gold, valued at six lacses, were placed 
in it ; at the east gate was placed a maikkadda- 
pahanna (a semi-circular step made of a pre- 
cious stone), which was worth the three worlds, 
namely, the Dewa-Loka (or heaven), Manoepe- 
Loka (or the world), and the Naga-Loka (or 
the cobra capiles' world). The image of Loutoo- 
rah-Budhu was made of pure gold ; the Sri-ma- 
ha-bodinwahansa-tree was made of gold ; a seat 
called watjrasenna was made of blue sapphire ; 
in the middle of the cave thereupon were placed 
the image of Loutoorah-Budhu, and his two 
diagasan (or the two Budhu priests) used to sit 
on the right and left-hand side of Budhu when he 
was alive ; a statue of the King Dootoogameny, 
having the golden sword, as if he was praying to 
the Budhu. A box of seven cubits having been 
made of pearl, the Budhu priest Sonattra was 
sent to Naga-Loka to bring the dawtoo or bones 
of Budhu; who went to Naga-Loka and de- 
manded from the cobra capiles the said bones 
of Budhu, but they refused. Thereupon the 
priests came away, saying, " Let our will be 
done :" upon which the belly of the great king 


of the cobra capiles, called Miitchalindah, became 
empty ; (it is said that the said cobra capile had 
the box of bones of Budhu in his belly, and 
after the demand made by the priest it came 
away by itself.) So the cobra capiles came to 
the Maluwa, the place prepared by the king, 
and claimed the bones ; then all the priests dis- 
puted against them, and, in the mean time, the 
Maluwa princes took away the box of dawtoo 
bones to Ramag-gramaya, where they deposited 
it, together with our pearl dawtoo-box, in a cave, 
and built a steeple over it, which being broken 
open on the sea-side, the box of pearl fell into 
the sea. The cobra capiles found it out ; on that 
account the pearl-box, and the measures by which 
the dawtoo are measured, were given to the co- 
bra capiles for their trouble of finding the same 
again, and the dawtoo were measured and re- 
ceived, being thirty paras : afterwards the cobra 
capiles offered as a gift the measure, and went 

The dawtoo, or bones of Budhu, having been 
put into the new box, and the same being 
shut, it was carried on the heads of the Maluwa 
princes to the King Dootoogameny, and dehvered 
to him. The king having called together the 
gods of two 15kas (or worlds), namely, Sak- 
kraia, Brahma, &c., and a number of priests. 


amounting to the number of kelle-laksa-sowahas, 
and men also, and having dressed himself in gold 
like the King Wessamooni, the king over the 
devils, or like the rocks called Suddarsanah and 
Yugandara, went into the cave in a procession, 
accompanied with the sounds of the five sorts of 
music called Pantchatoorya-nada, like the sound 
of the sea, and placed the box of dawtoo, the 
bones of Budhu, upon the seat called watjra- 
sana. When the king came out he sent for 
smiths and carpenters, and caused the cave to 
be locked and shut, and it was likewise covered 
over, and walls built round the place. In the 
middle of these walls, the covering over of the 
cave was filled up with rape-seed oil and butter; 
and after having mingled the same by elephants 
during seven days, and paddled boats on it, he 
opened the drain, and the place was made clean. 
The king having asked the chief priest how to 
build the steeple, or the tower upon it,, and tiles 
having been brought in a golden plate, and clay 
being prepared, he began to build the tower. 
Before the building of the tower was finished, 
the king foresaw his death approaching, and 
asked how or in what manner the top of the 
tower should be placed. Upon that, a top of 
cloth was made and placed on the tower, to be 
viewed by the king ; and whilst he was viewing 


it there appeared to him the heavenly coach, 
brought to him to go from this world. He 
made it known to those who were about liim, 
but they would not believe it. Upon that he 
ordered four wreaths of flowers to be brought, 
which he took into his hands and cast upon the 
coach, and they were suspended on it. Then 
the multitude cried as the king went away to 
heaven, or departed this life ; the king's ele- 
phant, called Cadol, broke the chain with which 
he was tied up, and went away to Saddanta- 
willa, a lake ; Mallalloo, went to JVIalakka ; and 
this lanka, or the island of Ceylon, was left to 
the prince Tissa. 

Afterwards, a nation called Cakamukkoroo 
came and landed at this island : their king was 
called Nalla Modeley, who possessed the land on 
the other side of Cala-oya rivulet as far as Ma- 
oya rivulet ; and he constructed different forti- 
fications : the rest remained under Prince Tissa. 
This prince being unable to fight against Nalla 
Modeley, letters were sent to the country of 
Aiotty-Pattelam, and from thence were brought 
nine sorts of Malabars, namely, 500 men of the 
class called Powittewah, 700 men of Kewat- 
tewah, 300 men of Kalingawah, 150 nien from 
Itcha-Ottah, 12,500 men of Nallandowah, 8000 
men of Pallewah, 400 men of jNlooddewallan- 


gan-padi-Tewerreya, 900 men of Weddhi-rissah, 
500 men of Marrewarrah. These men were 
landed at the isle of Kuddira-Malla, and the 
King of Ceylon ha\ing gone thither, took an 
account of the men and gi'eat guns, and ordered 
that hire should be given to them from his 
treasury. Those men asked the king, " What 
will your majesty give us if we gain the battle ?" 
The king answered and said, " I will give you 
women of this country in marriage." After the 
Malabars had landed Cara rice, and heaped it 
up together, the place was thenceforth called 
Cara-Doowa. Now the men went to battle, 
and after seven days' battle took possession of 
the fort Nallewa-Cottoowah, after which they 
went to the king's palace, and addressed them- 
selves to the king. He being much pleased by 
it, got ready food for them, and desired them to 
eat, and also asked them whether they would 
have women in man'iage. They said that they 
did not want women in marriage, but they ate ; 
after which they again asked the king what 
he would give them. The king ordered them 
to fight against NaUa Modeley, and to take the 
land which he had the possession of. There- 
upon they, having obtained orders from the 
king, prepared every thing that was necessary 
for the battle, and loaded 900 cannons on carts. 


besides bandies and horses for their journey. 
So the kincj went and met them, and gave them 
leave to go to battle. Thereupon they asked 
the king where they should erect a battery. 
He ordered them to erect a battery in the 
centre of the place called Calalgoruwa-Duvvah, 
belonging to Triparmeswarah, a hermit. Accord- 
ingly they erected the battery on that place; 
after which they went on horses to meet 
Nalla Modeley, and encountered him at Gal- 
gommuwi. When Nalla Modeley approached 
their battery, they, the Malabars, fired at once 
all the 900 cannons ; so the said Nalla Modeley 
and his men were slain. After which they went 
to the strong fort of Nalla Modeley, and de- 
stroyed the same. Thence they went and tar- 
ried at Tarragodda-gallah three months. On re- 
ceiving a message from the king, they came up 
to him, leaving the following posts, namely, — 
the post of Pottoopittiya ; the post of Soorro- 
witta ; the post of Potana, at Calluwella ; and 
met the king at the lake of NuweiTa or Candy. 
The king having received them with joy, gave 
them the possession of the lands called Anakat- 
janah-boomi and Caluratta, fixing limits for the 

After the death of the king, there prevailed 
in this island a famine called Millalapah ; then 


the Malabars, leaving this island, went away to 
their own country; and the other men and 
women of this island went into the woods or 
wilderness, eating leaves, bark of trees, white 
ants' nests, &c. 

Afterwards there proceeded a king to this 
island called Buwanaika Bahu ; and about that 
time the King Mallawah, of the country of Mal- 
lawa-Ratta, having died, leaving seven sons, 
that country was taken possession of by another 
king, who was a competitor of the late King 
Mallawah's : so the princes remained concealed 
in a vihari; and afterwards they thought to 
themselves, as they were unable either to fight 
against him or to pay him tribute, that they 
would come to Cinhala, or Ceylon, again; so 
they came away from the Budhu temple of 
Bodimandella, and went on board ship, and 
came and first landed at Madura-pura, thence 
Mailla-pura, thence at Ayotti-Pattenam. When 
they came there, they inquired the way to come 
to this island of Ceylon from seven different 
castes of Malabar chitties, and two or three 
families of them also desired to come along with 
them ; so they sent for four carpenters, and 
built dhoonies and ships; and having taken 
each of them separate presents to give to the 
King of Ceylon, accompanied by their people. 


namely, the carpenter called Kotta-waduwah, 
who built the vessel called Hambana, for the 
King Semasinha, of the country Tellenga ; the 
smith called Galwadduwah, who sawed crystal; 
the carpenter who made the spy-glass; Abar- 
rena-badalah, the goldsmith ; Cappuroe-hettia, 
Wettella - hettia, Pakku - hettia, Chunnambo- 
liettia, Handun - hettia, Wahoon - wallakarrua, 
Manternetti-lianna - pandittia, Sakkanadigurroe- 
whatalawirridou-ogan-panikkia, and Dellasawan- 
tani Chakkrewanni Sudda - halluwa, came and 
landed at Ceylon, and having given their dif- 
ferent presents to the King of Ceylon, obtained 
the following titles, viz. : one of the said per- 
sons, called Nalantadewah, presented a silk 
cloth, and obtained the title Raja-wanniah ; one 
person, Palak-koomara, a prince, presented a 
silk cloth, and obtained the title Sinha-wana; 
one person, Malleloe, presented a golden chair, 
and obtained the title Raja-gurroe-Modiansa ; 
Prince Malla presented a golden cat, and ob- 
tained the title Mallawah - Bandara ; Eriawe- 
pannikki-rata presented an elephant, and ob- 
tained the title Sinhappoe - Modiansa ; and one 
person. Prince Samasinha, presented a silk cloth, 
and obtained the title Hetti-Bandara. 

The country had been divided, and the fol- 
lowing were fixed as land-marks, viz. : — one 


viliari (a tower) ; mioya (a rivulet) ; the hollow 
place at Dekkehawunotenna ; the hollow place 
called Ellewallakadda ; Kottekumbook - kalia ; 
Palukandewewa-shallawehera (a tower so called) ; 
the stone pillar on which an axe is engraven, 
and planted on the end of Attikkulamay- 
galkanda, a rock; the rock on which is en- 
graven a peacock ; Maillawewa - Shellawehera 
(a tower so called) ; Galtenwehera, a tower at 
Tammannagodda ; Kalla-oya, a rivulet ; Panan- 
kani ; Sriwarddana - nuwara ; Dadduro-oya, a 
rivulet ; Ratmallegallai-galwettya, a rocky bank ; 
Degoddeturah-Canda, a mountain; Nana-Ella; 
Hewan-Ella ; Pottoopettiya ; Morregodda-inna ; 
Goorrugamma-vihari ; Niandewanna-vihari ; Ma- 
pakalankoottiya ; and Galmaddudekka - Vihari. 
Thus ended the land-marks of the four Wanni- 
Pattoos. The King Buwanaika Bahu viewed 
this division of the up-side land gi'anted to them 
by him, so that it might not be alienated while 
the sun and moon endure. 

Epologamma Hetti Bandara, Eriawa-panikki 
Modiansa, and Oddooweria Mallela Bandara, 
received grants, engraven on slabs, and minis- 
tered to the Prince Mallewa, and were honoured 
•with the titles of Siama-sinha, Rajegorru, Ban- 
dara Modiyansa ; and the villages Oodugampolla, 
Kurewella, Mahara, Yakedsettaiwe, Wattella, 


Banpana, Yattahaina, Calany, Madula - pittia, 
Toppou, Borrcgodda-watta, Malwana, Cattotta, 
Halpa, Ballegalla, Botella, Hettimolla, Kaham- 
bilia-])ittia, of the Hina-corle, which were marked 
out and gi'aiited free from the following duties : — 
madiungan, palimarala, binpolottoo, gatepolla, 
kaddappo, tirrappoo, tuwakkoo-aya, etaya; and 
they were appointed as desaves and adigars, and 
granted a sannas engi'aven on a copper-plate, to 
remain as long as the sun and moon endure. 

The two Budhu priests of a Budhu temple 
had conferred on them the titles of Budhu- 
Chittra teroonancy and Sairenankara teroo- 
nancy, by clothing them with the robes called 
Sangalla-patta and Siwooroe, and lived as glo- 
rious as the Sree-maha-bodinwahansa, who were 
commonly called Terre and 
Weedagamma Terra. 

Eriawa Pannikki - rata and Dippitigamma 
Liahnah-weddah were commanded by Buwa- 
naika Bahu, the King of Cottah, to come toge- 
ther with the four wannias of the four pattoes, 
and the pannikkias* thereof, to wit, the said 
Eriawa Pannikki-rata himself bringing \^dth him 
fifty men ; Galawewa Panikki-rata bringing with 
him twenty-two men ; Doopatagamma Panikki- 

* Keepers of elephants. 


rata twelve; Kaikoonawa Sinhanada Panikki- 
rata twelve ; Wilawe Gajasinha Panikki - rata 
sixteen ; Warragainmana Wanniaddi - Panikki- 
rata twenty; Golloogalla Irroogal-Newadootton 
Panikki - rata thirty-two ; Aggattigammana Wa- 
naweera Gaja Panikki-rata eighteen ; Wende- 
kaddoowa Winnakeswerra Gaja Panikki-rata 
twenty - two ; Magalla Oloopokkoona Soondra 
seven ; pingos of ropes and thongs, and doonoo- 
kayawa polhiria also ; wagapolloos or clubs for 
driving elephants, who were ordered to go with 
the elephants of the four cooroowes and their 
keepers to catch wild ones. The elephants and 
the keepers were at Coemboorupittiya ; the four 
wannias, and the panikkias of the four pattoos, 
also went to the spot where the elephants were 
kept, and declared the king's order to them, and, 
together with them, went and stopped the ele- 
phants at Magalla, being on this side of the 
rivulet called Deddooroo Oya ; thence they went 
and stopped at Atteregalla; thence at Galgom- 
moowa; thence at Madinnorowa ; thence they 
departed and went round the forest called Ma- 
hanaga-Sola Himaya, where, finding an ele- 
phant, they surrounded him by the tame ones, 
and got him tied by the panikkia named La- 
boonnoruwa. Afterwards they went and stopped 
at Kahalla, and having promised to give offer- 


ings to gods, the keeper of an elephant mounted 
upon the elephant, and began to proceed ; so 
they went and stopped at the city of Moodda- 
kondapolla, thence at Dambedenia, thence at 
Kalloogalla, thence at Sitawak, where the king 
Buwanaika Bahu, of Cottah, came out to the 
audience-hall, and ordered the elephants to be 
let loose, while people watched around beating 
tom-tom, and then that the four wannias should 
tie up the elephant, in order to make a trial of 
their dexterity. Whereupon the malleloes went 
into the midst of the elephants, tied up one of 
the fore legs of the elephant, and made their 
bow to the king, who gave presents, and the title 
of Airiawa Wanninayaka Sinhappoo Modiyansa. 
Oodduweriya Winnagoonna, without being the 
least terrified by the noise of the elephants 
round about, tied up the other leg, and bowed 
down before the king, and obtained the title of 
Ratna Mallewa Jerrugal Bandara. Pattelemek- 
krantisila Kirti-rajatoranga, without being in the 
least afriad, went amidst the elephants and tied 
another leg, and bowed down to the king, and 
obtained the title of Tree-Raja Wanniah. Pale- 
wiya-Sinhala Keerty obtained the title of Raje- 
paksa Comara Sinha Wanniah. Addiwiddinottik 
Waddatta Moddatta obtained the title of Raja- 
paksa Gonnaratna Ipologamma Irrogal Modi- 


yansa. Afterwards they were appointed elephant- 
catchers by the King Buwanaika - Bahu ; and 
the six pattoos or provinces granted to them 
by the king were divided, of which the fol- 
lowing is an account : — • 

1st. The lake of Ponparappuwa is eight cubits 
deep, it has eighteen dams ; the fields which are 
watered by it are sufficient to sow 250 ammo- 
nams of paddy. 

2d. Kalletirrella has seven ollegam lands, 
which are sufficient to sow forty ammonams of 

3d. The lake of Mahatabbowa is twelve 
cubits deep ; the land watered by this lake is 
sufficient to sow 350 ammonams of paddy ; the 
lands overflown by the lake-water are eighteen 
magam lands, which were sufficient to sow 250 
ammonams of paddy, 108 dams and ollegam 
lands, besides thirty-two ruins of Budhu temples. 
This is the land of Ayana Bandara ; it is free 
from every duty, and on the dam of this lake 
stands a jack-tree, with a beetle-creeper, a tem- 
ple, a chank- shell on the hik-tree, and two 
Budhu temples at the end of the wana, or 
water-course ; and on that side of the land 
which was overflown were seventy-two giants' 

4th. Peronkandallama is sufficient to sow 


forty ammonams of paddy ; it 1ms seven dikes, 
dams, and lakes, and, at Orrugala, a tower called 

5th. The lake of Ottookkoollama is seven 
cubits deep ; the land watered by it is sufficient 
to sow forty ammonams of paddy : there are in 
the same district a stone cave, two Budliu tem- 
ples, two giants' wells, and two ollegams, which 
were sufficient to sow nine ammonams of paddy, 
which were overflown by the lake. The said 
land is a place where cattle are kept, and it be- 
longs to two temples. 

6th. Sohonkandellama is sufficient to sow 
forty ammonams of paddy ; there are twelve 
oUegam lands, two Budhu temples, and eighteen 
towers at Toottanaruwa-agoonowel Kanda, in- 
clusive of those at Galpiti-Kanda. The land 
lying between Baiwoema-Galtaimba and Pahala- 
Aibba is a gift to a Budhu temple. 

Now follows an account of the province 
called Marrikara-pattoo. 

The lake of Ramankandellema is five cubits 
deep ; the land watered by it is sufficient to sow 
forty ammonams of paddy. In the part of it 
which was overflown by the lake were twelve 
ollegam lands, two Budhu temples, and two 
giants' wells. 


Pieremankandellcma is sufficient to sow twelve 
ammonams of paddy ; there are eighteen dams 
and two giants' wells. 

Tamarakkollama is sufficient to sow forty 
ammonams of paddy ; there are eighteen olle- 
gam lands, dams, and dikes, and five giants' 

Kattekadduwa is sufficient to sow twelve 
ammonams of paddy; there are four ollegam 

Karrewikkoollama is sufficient to sow seven 
ammonams of paddy; there are in that district 
five ollegam lands and dams. 

Maddewakkoolama is sufficient to sow twenty- 
five ammonams of paddy : there are in the same 
district five ollegam lands; the lake thereof is 
five cubits deep. 

Wattoopola is sufficient to sow thirty ammo- 
nams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits deep ; it 
has five ollegam lands, two giants' wells, one 
Budhu temple : its limit is the stone pillar on 
which is engraven an aupotta or umbrella. 

Ooppala-watta is sufficient to sow forty-five 
ammonams of paddy ; there are seven dams and 
dikes ; the lake of it is six cubits deep, and there 
is one giant's well, and one Budhu temple. 
The ground hereof, sufficient to sow five ammo- 
nams of paddy, is a gift to the temple. 



Mankollemma is sufficient to sow twenty- 
five ammonams of paddy; it has five ollegam 
lands ; the lake of it is five cubits deep ; it 
has also one giant's well, and one galmaddoe, 
a buildini^ constructed of stones. 

Koobookkadewella is sufficient to sow se- 
venty-five ammonams of paddy; its lake is eight 
cubits deep ; it has one Budhu temple, one 
giant's well, and some ollegam lands. 

KokkoomankooUama is sufficient to sow thirty 
ammonams of paddy. In that part of it which 
was overflown were ollegam lands, which were 
sufficient to sow forty-five ammonams of paddy ; 
its lake is six cubits deep, and it has one hall 
built of stones and one giant's well. 

Bamoonnaria is sufficient to sow eis^ht am- 
monams of paddy ; it has five ollegam lands, and 
one tower called Gaitta-Vihari. 

Tattawewa is sufficient to sow sixty ammo- 
nams of paddy ; it has five ollegam lands, be- 
sides five stone pillars in the jungle, and one 
giant's well. 

Paritchankoollema is sufficient to sow fifteen 
ammonams of paddy ; its lake is five cubits deep ; 
it has one Budhu temple, and one giant's well. 
In that part of it which was overflown there 
were five ollegam lands. 

Waddiggamangawa is sufficient to sow twelve 


ammonams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits deep ; 
it has one Budhu temple and one giant's well. 
In that part of it which was overflown were five 
ollegam lands. 

Karrewittawewa has seven ollegam lands. 
In that part of it which was overflown were 
twelve ollegam lands, dams, and dikes ; its lake 
is five cubits deep. The land watered by that 
lake is sufficient to sow 250 ammonams of 
paddy; there is likewise one giant's well, the 
limits of which are Wellangria and Deddoo- 

Kaddoopittia is sufficient to sow 150 ammo- 
nams of paddy. 

Madampay is sufficient to sow 650 ammo- 
nams of paddy. 

Ana-OUendawa is sufficient to sow seventy- 
five ammonams of paddy. 

Nelhkkoolamma is sufficient to sow twelve 
ammonams of paddy. 

Wendekkadoowa is suflficient to sow twenty 
ammonams of paddy; it has five ollegam lands 
and dams. This province was granted by 
Buwanaika Bahu the king to Panditapattoo 
Koomarasinha-wannia, by engraving the grant 
on a slab, and fixing as limits the following 
places, viz. Tonigalla, Wellangriya, and Deddoo- 


Galkandellama is sufficient to sow twelve 
ammonams of paddy, and it has three lakes. 

Sitta-wellia is sufficient to sow 120 ammo- 
nams of paddy ; it has seven ollawewoo lakes. 

Sellankandellama is sufficient to sow seventy- 
five annnonams of paddy ; there are in it twelve 
ollegam lands, dams, and dikes; one hall built 
of stones, one Budhu temple, and one giant's 

KaiTebawewa lake is six cubits deep; the 
land watered by it is sufficient to sow thirty 
ammonams of paddy ; and in that part of it 
which was overflown were five ollegam lands : 
the limits for the same are Midellagaha-kalia and 

Meddegamma is sufficient to sow thirty am- 
monams of paddy ; its lake is five cubits deep ; 
it has five ollawewoo lakes, three ollegam lands, 
one Budhu temple at the corner of the mount, 
and three ammonams of gi'ound. From between 
the stone pillar at the upper end, and the two 
stone pillars at the lower end, is a gift to a 
Budhu temple. 

Ollikkooly is sufficient to sow twelve ammo- 
nams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits deep ; it 
has one Budhu temple, one giant's well ; and on 
that side of it which was overflown there were 
eighteen ollegam lands, dams, and dikes. 


Parria-wellia is sufficient to sow thirty am- 
monams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits deep ; 
it has five dams, one giant's well, and one Budhu 

Pettigama is sufficient to sow twelve ammo- 
nams of paddy ; its lake is five cubits deep. In 
that side of it which was overflown were fifteen 
ollegam lands and dams, and the market-street 
of Kuweni (a she-devil so called) has five halls 
built of stones, one tiled house, five willas or 
ponds, eight pattas or tanks. The end of Kan- 

Mooriak-kollama Kirrela-maddoowa is suffi- 
cient to sow forty ammonams of paddy ; the lake 
of it is five cubits deep ; there are twelve olle- 
gam lands, dams, and dikes, six stone pillars, 
and one Budhu temple. Of this land, the 
ground sufficient to sow eight ammonams of 
paddy is a gift to a Budhu temple. 

Kottookatchiya is sufficient to sow 150 am- 
monams of paddy ; its lake is nine cubits deep ; 
it has one Budhu temple, and two giants' wells. 
On that side of it which was overflown by the 
lake were thirty -two ollegam lands. Of this, 
ten ammonams of ground is a gift to a Budhu 

Katchimaddowa is sufficient to sow thirty 
ammonams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits deep; 


and on that part of it which was overflown by 
the lake's water were twenty-two oUegam lands 
and dams. There is in this land the stone cave 
which was the store-house of Premeswerra Rajah, 
of Parma-Canda, besides one tower, two ponds, 
and two giants' wells. 

Ooriagamma is sufficient to sow 250 ammo- 
nams of paddy ; its lake is fifteen cubits deep ; 
it has two Budhu temples, three galattoos (stone 
barns), seven ollegam lands, five giants' wells, 
and three ponds ; and on that part of it which 
was overflown by the lake there were fifty-five 
ollegam lands, six magam lands, eighteen towers, 
and eighteen wells. 

The land between the following marks, viz. 
the rock called Diwooroon-galla at Tammanna- 
pittiya ; the stone pillar on which an image of a 
woman is engraven, standing at the upper end 
of Kan-embawewa (a lake) ; the stone called 
Hunnoogalla, standing at the water -course of 
the lake called Nannerra; the mountain Mad- 
doomolla ; the rivulet Kalaoya ; Dikkallewella ; 
the mountain Yaberra-Kanda ; Welparappoowe ; 
and the mountain called Rinooga-Kanda, — was 
granted to Raja Wanni, by the King Wirepa- 
rakkan-bahu, on his having presented elephants 
to the said king. 

Bogommowa is sufficient to sow sixty-five 


ammonams of paddy. This land is an offer to 
the temple of Monnassiram. 

Dettenna is sufficient to sow seventy-five 
ammonams of paddy. There are within this 
disti'ict twelve ollegam-lands, one giant's well, 
one Budhu temple. The limit of this land is a 
stone pillar, whereon an awoopota (a parasol) 
is engraven. The lake belonging to this district 
is five cubits deep ; there are likewise two halls 
built of stones. On the upper end of Timbiri- 
pokkoona lies the land of Wirepandy-tewerra ; 
the limits of this are the five stone pillars at 
Ilella-welliwembowa : this land is free from 
all duties. There is a Budhu temple in this 

Here follows an account of Magool-Corle. 

Monnas Serrama : the field of it is sufficient 
to sow seventy-five ammonams of paddy ; its lake 
is fifteen cubits deep. There are within this dis- 
trict five giants' wells, five Budhu temples, eighty- 
one ollegam lands, dams, and dikes. Twenty 
ammonams of ground hereof is a gift to the five 
Budhu temples. 

Santigammana, belonging to Saika-Raja, 
King of Pategamay, is sufficient to sow 100 am- 
monams of paddy. There are in it seventy-two 
ollegam lands, dams, and magam lands ; its lake 


is eleven cubits deep. There are likewise in it 
two Budhu temples ; and on that part of it 
which was overflown by the lake are two stone 
pillars and six giants' wells. This is the king's 

Soellogalla is sufficient to sow eighty ammo- 
nanis of paddy ; the lake of it is nine cubits 
deep; there are in it eighteen ollegam lands 
and dams. Beyond the stone called Diagilma- 
galla there are fifty-six large lakes and dams ; 
and a part of it beyond the stone called Lahal- 
lebee-galla is an offer to the Budhu temple 
called Soollogolloo-Vihari. There are likewise 
within this district five ruins of Budhu temples 
and ten giants' wells. 

Rakkoossah-wewa is sufficient to sow 150 
ammonams of paddy ; the lake of it is twelve 
cubits deep ; there is one sluice, one Budhu 
temple, one giant's well; and the hmit of it is 
the dam of the lake. On that part of it which 
is overflown by the lake were seventy -eight 
magam lands, ollegam lands, and dams. 

Elloopitia is sufficient to sow sixty-five am- 
monams of paddy ; the lake of it is six cubits 
deep. There are in this district one tower 
called Galpitta-weharra, and one giant's well. 
On that side of it which is overflown by the 
lake were eighteen ollegam lands and dams. 


Kalala-goruwa is sufficient to sow 150 am- 
monams of paddy; its lake is ten cubits deep. 
There are in this district one sluice, two Budhu 
temples, near the two wanes or water-courses, 
and two wells ; and on that part of it which is 
overflown by the lake there were thirty-two 
ollegam lands and six giants' wells. 

Maddagam-pola is sufficient to sow thirty 
ammonams of paddy ; its lake is nine cubits 
deep. There are in this district one sluice, five 
ollegam lands, one Budhu temple, one banna- 
mandoo or preaching-hall, and one well, the 
brim of which is built of brick. On that side 
of this district which is overflown by the lake 
there were eighteen ollegam lands and magam 
lands ; and at Kaddoopittia seven towers. 

Karroonjan - coollama is sufficient to sow 
twelve ammonams of paddy ; its lake is five 
cubits deep. There are in this district one ruin 
of a temple and one giant's well ; and on that 
side of this district which was overflown by the 
lake were five ollegam lands. 

WaiTawewa is sufficient to sow six ammo- 
nams of paddy; its lake is five cubits deep. 
There is one hall built upon stone pillars ; and 
on that side of this land which is overflown by 
the lake were five ollegam lands, and one well 
hewn out of a stone. 


Dewegalla is sufficient to sow twelve ammo- 
iiams of paddy ; its lake is five cubits deep. 
There are five dams, and one coral rock. 

SolaiH'ibawa is sufficient to sow 170 am- 
monams of paddy ; its lake is thirteen cubits 
deep. There are seven stones called Pahan- 

The village beyond the upper end of Ma- 
hagribawa is a gift from Magambati-Rajah to 
the tower called Bayagri ; so the same became 
the property of a Budhu temple. 

Wirepokkoona is sufficient to sow twelve 
ammonams of paddy. There is one bannaman- 
doo, or preaching-hall, constructed upon stone 
pillars. The lake of this place is five cubits 
deep : it has one sluice. 

Galkaddawalla is sufficient to sow twelve 
ammonams of paddy ; its lake is five cubits 
deep. There is in this district a stone cave. 
On that part of it which is overflown there 
were five lakes, and on the mount lies a Budhu 

Tammanapittia has a lake which is five 
cubits deep ; the field belonging to the lake is 
sufficient to sow seven ammonams of paddy ; it 
also has five ollawewoo lakes, one hall built of 
stones, and one giant's well. 

Palookanda-wawa is sufficient to sow eight 


ammonams of paddy ; there are five ollawewoo 
lakes and two ollegam lands. 

Motta-pattawa is sufficient to sow fifteen 
ammonams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits 
deep. It has one Budhu temple, and one gut- 
ter at the end of the water-course, and five 
ollegam lands on that part of it which is over- 

Molaiwa is sufficient to sow forty-five ammo- 
nams of paddy; its lake is six cubits deep. 
There are five ollegam lands, one tower on the 
stone upon the mount, and one giant's well. 

Kohombagaha - wewa is sufficient to sow 
twelve ammonams of paddy; the lake of it is 
seven cubits deep. There are on this district 
five ollawewoo lakes, one bannamandoo, or 
preaching-hall, built on stone pillars, and one 
giant's well. 

Diwoolwawa is sufficient to sow twelve am- 
monams of paddy ; its lake is five cubits deep. 
There are in this district five ollegam lands, and 
two giants' wells. 

Walinpittia is sufficient to sow thirty-eight 
ammonams of paddy. There are twelve ollegam 
lands on that part of it which was overflown by 
the lake, and two stone caves on the mount, 
one ruin of a Budhu temple, and one giant's 


Kewoonwewa is sufficient to sow seven am- 
monams of paddy ; its lake is four cubits deep : 
it has five ollawewoo lakes, one giant's well, 
one sluice, two gutters, one Budhu temple, and 
one hall built of stones, seven ollegams and 
dams, and one ruin of a temple. 

Konagribawa is sufficient to sow fifty ammo- 
nams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits deep, and 
has one gutter, eight dams and dikes, and seven 
ollegam lands. On that part which was over- 
flown there was one Budhu temple, and one 
giant's well. 

Ooddagi'ibaw^a is sufficient to sow 150 am- 
monams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits deep ; 
it has one sluice, one stone gutter, one Budhu 
temple, one tow^r, two giants' wells ; and on 
that side which is overflown by the lake's water 
seven ollegam-lands. 

Kandoowilla is sufficient to sow 250 ammo- 
nams of paddy ; its lake is seven cubits deep. 
There are in this district six sluices, five olle- 
gam lands, two Budhu temples ; and on the 
mount there is a giant's w^ell. These lands are 
a gift to the tower Bayagri. 

Halmilla - kaddewalla is sufficient to sow 
fifteen ammonams of paddy; its lake is five 
cubits deep. There are ruins of a Budhu tem- 
ple, and one giant's well ; and on that part of 


it which is overflown by the lake's water there 
were five ollegam lands, and dams. 

Konwawa is suflicient to sow twelve ammo- 
nams of paddy ; it lake is five cubits deep. 
There is one ruin of a Budhu temple ; and on 
that part of it which is overflown by the lake 
there were five ollegam lands. 

Galwawa is sufficient to sow thirty ammo- 
nams of paddy ; its lake is eight cubits deep. 
The fields watered by this lake are sufficient 
to sow twelve ammonams of paddy. 

The lake Mahagala is six cubits deep. The 
land belonging to this lake is sufficient to sow 
thirty ammonams of paddy. There is on this 
land one Budhu temple, and one giant's well; 
and on that side of this land which is overflown 
by the lake's water were five ollegam lands. 

Poddikkattoo - hawa is sufficient to sow 
seventy-five ammonams of paddy ; it has one 
sluice, two giants' wells, twelve ollegam lands, 
and one Budhu temple. 

Koobook - haddewallay is sufficient to sow 
thirty ammonams of paddy; its lake is seven 
cubits deep. There is one Budhu temple, two 
giants' wells ; and on that side of this land which 
is overflown by the lake's water were ten olle- 
gam lands. 

Patkolla-wawa is sufficient to sow thirty 


ammonams of paddy ; its lake is six cubits deep. 
There is one Budhu temple, and two giants' 
wells ; and on that side of this land which is over- 
flown by the lake, were thirteen oUegam lands. 

Hoonoogalla-wawa is sufficient to sow seven 
ammonams of paddy ; its lake is seven cubits 
deep. On that part of this land which was 
overflown there were seven ollegam lands, one 
Budhu temple, and one giant's well. 

Piddooroo-wella is sufficient to sow thirty 
ammonams of paddy ; its lake is seven cubits 
deep. On that side of it which is overflown 
were eighteen ollegam lands and dams, and 
one giant's well. 

Rallapana-wawa is sufficient to sow thirty 
ammonams of paddy; and on that part of it 
which is overflown by water were twelve olle- 
gam lands, dams, and dikes, and one giant's well. 

Kettapahoowa is sufficient to sow forty am- 
monams of paddy; its lake is eight cubits 
deep ; and on that part of it which is overflown 
by water were seven ollegam lands and dams, 
twelve stone pillars, one Budhu temple, and 
two giants' wells. 

Hytokadda-wellay is sufficient to sow fifty 
ammonams of paddy; its lake is eight cubits 
deep ; and on that part of it which is overflown 
were ten ollegam lands, dams, and two wells. 


The lands lying between the following 
limits, namely, the mountain called Ulpottas- 
trigaltemba, Nagalla, Attembooroogalla, Kum- 
bookebba, and Ammonoopotanagaltemba, had 
been offered to the tower of Runa-magam by 
the King Tissa ; so it is a gift to a Budhu 

The lake of Piella is eleven cubits deep : 
the ground watered by this lake is sufficient 
to sow thirty ammonams of paddy; the lands 
overflown by the lake's water were twenty-two 
ollegam lands and dams, five Budhu temples, 
two mandoos constructed upon rocks, and six 
wells called giants' wells. 

The lake of Nallagalla is twelve cubits deep ; 
the land watered by the lake is sufficient to sow^ 
150 ammonams of paddy. The lands overflown 
by the lake's water, ollegam lands and dams, 
were forty-eight ; Budhu temples, twelve ; one 
pillima-house (that is a house in which the 
image of Budhu was kept) ; and twelve giants' 
wells. This land also belongs to the father of 

The lake of Pepella-wewa-dippittia is five 
cubits deep; the land watered by the lake is 
sufficient to sow forty ammonams of paddy. 
The lands overflown by the lake's water were 
eighteen ollegam lands, three ruins of Budhu 


temples, and three giants' wells. The end of 

The lake of Maddegalla is eighteen cubits 
deep, and it has three water-courses. The 
ground watered by the lake is sufficient to sow 
seventy ammonams of paddy. Besides which, 
there are in this pattoo two Budhu temples, 
twelve giants' wells, two bannamandoos or 
preaching - halls, five lofts constructed upon 
marble- pillars to lay paddy in, and a mahga- 
tenna, a place whereon a palace was formerly 
built. The lands overflown by the lake's water 
were, oUegam lands, magam lands, dams, and 
dikes, seventy-eight in number ; eighteen ruins 
of towers, one tank, and ten pillimas or images 
of Budhu. The end of Maddegalloo Pattoo. 

The lake of Siyambalangommuwa is fifteen 
cubits deep ; it has two water-courses and one 
channel. The land watered by the lake is suf- 
ficient to sow 300 ammonams of paddy. There 
are in the same district two Budhu temples, 
two ruins of Budhu temples, two preaching- 
halls, two houses constructed on stone pillars 
for Budhu priests, three lofts in which to keep 
paddy, and three giants' wells. The lands over- 
flown by the lake were fifty-eight ; viz. oUegam 
lands, magam lands, and dams. 

The lake of Palookanda is ten cubits deep : 


it has one water-course. The land watered by the 
lake is sufficient to sow 150 ammonams of pad- 
dy ; and contains one Budhu temple, one house 
for Budhu priests, one preaching-hall, and one 
giant's well. The places overflown by the lake's 
water were forty-one ; viz. ollegam lands, ma- 
gam lands, and dams ; besides three caves, one 
image of Budhu made of earth, and seven ruins 
of towers. 

The lake of Atterregalla is nine cubits deep. 
The land watered by the lake is sufficient to 
sow ninety-two ammonams of paddy ; and con- 
tains one ruin of a tower, one house for Budhu 
priests, one preaching-hall, two lofts for keep- 
ing paddy, eighteen magam and ollegam lands 
and dams, and one Budhu temple, called Nakol- 

The lake of Maddinnorruwa is six cubits 
deep. The land watered by the lake is suffi- 
cient to sow fifty ammonams of paddy. There 
are one temple, one preaching-hall, one house 
for Budhu priests, one giant's well. The places 
overflown by the lake were thirteen ollegam 
lands and dams. 

The lake of Kattin-noruwa is seven cubits 
deep. The ground watered by the lake is suffi- 
cient to sow fifty ammonams of paddy. There 
are one Budhu temple, called Binpokkoona, 

VOL. III. s 


two ponds, one ola-house at the place called 
Laggunwala, and two giants' wells. The places 
overflown by the lake were twelve ollegam 
villages and dams. 

The lake of Migas-wewa, belonging to Tri- 
cinhala-tapaswarra, a Cingalese hermit, is ten 
cubits deep. The land watered by the lake is 
sufficient to sow 250 ammonams of paddy. It 
contains two water-courses, two Budhu temples, 
two houses for Budhu priests, and two wells 
called giants' wells. The places overflo^vn by 
the lake were eighteen ollegam lands and dams, 
and five towers called Gatteweheres. 

The lake of Mahakalankoottia. The land 
watered by this lake is sufficient to sow 250 am- 
monams of paddy. It contains one tower, one 
preaching-hall, one house for the Budhu priests, 
and two wells called giants' wells. The places 
overflown by the lake were eighteen ollegam 
lands and dams. 

The lake of Eriyawa is six cubits deep. 
The land watered by this lake is sufficient to 
sow thirty ammonams of paddy. There are one 
tower, and one well called giant's well. The 
places overflown by the lake were ten dams 
and ollegam lands. 

The lake of Kaddingawa is five cubits deep. 
The ground watered by the lake is sufficient to 


SOW tliirty ammonams of paddy. The places 
overflown by tlie lake were eighteen ollegam 
and magam lands, dams, and dikes, one Budhu 
temple, one tower, two giants' wells. The land 
between Ihelladryabetnawa and the two stone 
pillars is an offering to the Budhu temple. 

The lake of Likollapitia is six cubits deep. 
The land watered by this lake is sufficient to 
sow forty ammonams of paddy. The places 
overflown by the lake, ollegam lands, magam 
lands, dams, and dikes, were twelve. Between 
the two stone pillars standing on the lower side 
of the land, fi'om the two stone pillars called 
Shella-gattan, and the stone pillars on which 
are engraven the letters called Nagarra, there 
are one Budhu temple, and one giant's well ; 
and the land belonging to the same is an offering 
to the Budhu temple. 

The lake of Attangana is seven cubits deep. 
The land watered by this lake is sufficient to 
sow fifty ammonams of paddy. On the other 
side of this lake there are altogether ollegam 
lands, magam lands, and dams, twenty-seven. 
Between the two stone pillars standing at Ihel- 
labetnawa and the pillar standing at Patralabet- 
nawa there are one Budhu temple, two giants' 
wells, one mandoo-house constructed of stones, 
one tower, and one dewalaboomia (that is, a 


place on wliicli a temple has been built). A 
part of this land, sufficient to sow ten am- 
monams of paddy, is an offering to the Budhu 

The lake of Malpanawa is five cubits deep. 
The land watered by this lake is sufficient to 
sow fifty ammonams of paddy. The places 
overflown by the lake were, altogether, ollegam 
villages, dams, and dikes, seven. A portion of 
ground, sufficient to sow five ammonams of 
paddy, lying between the places called Ihella- 
dryabetnawa and Pahalagalgoddella, is a gift to 
the Budhu temple ; and on the end of the 
water-course of the lake stands a temple. 

The lake of Ooddonawa is seven cubits deep. 
The ground watered by the lake is sufficient to 
sow sixty-five ammonams of paddy. Towards 
the end of the water-course of the lake there are 
one Budhu temple, one mandoo- house con- 
structed of stones, one tower, and two giants' 
wells. The places overflown by the lake were 
twelve ollegam lands. Towards the side of the 
dam by the lake, there are, between the places 
called Ihellagallawa-galgodella and Diggalpotta, 
altogether, ollegam lands, dams, and dikes, 
1000 ; whereof twelve oUegams are an offering 
to the Budhu temple. The lower end of Kella- 
gammadiyabetnawa, and of the Monnikkoolema- 


diyabetnawa, lying beyond the marble pillar, 
forms the limit of Uddoonawa. • 

The lake of Abokkagamma is three cubits 
deep. The gromid watered by the lake is 
sufficient to sow nine ammonams of paddy. 
The place called Ihella-ella is the limit of 
the same. 

The lake Midellagaha-wewa is four cubits 
deep. The places overflown by the lake were 
seven : those were ollegam lands and dams. The 
ground watered by the lake is sufficient to sow 
twelve ammonams of paddy; besides which there 
are two giants' wells, eight ponds ; towards the 
end of the watercourse of the lake, one Budhu 
temple and one tower. The land between 
Ihelladiyabetnawa, Yodekammalgoddella, God- 
depatta, and Goddepottahella, is a gift to the 
Budhu temple. 

The lake of Muddattawa is seven cubits 
deep. The land watered by the lake is sufficient 
to sow fifteen ammonams of paddy. The lands 
overflown by the lake lying between Diyahitti- 
kanda and Pahalla-ella were seven ollegam lands 
and dams. 

The lake of Dehannagamma is four cubits 
deep. The ground watered by the lake is sifffi- 
cient to sow thirty ammonams of paddy, besides 
eighteen ollegam magam lands, dams, and dikes. 


and one Budhu temple at the end of the water- 
course of the lake. These lands are lying be- 
tween Iliellabetnawa and Ikkhy-goddella. 

The lake Karriyatty-Kollama is four cubits 
deep. The ground watered by the lake is suffi- 
cient to sow five ammonams of paddy. There 
are over the lake thirteen ollegam lands, dams, 
and dikes. The land between Ihellagal-goddella 
and Pahalagal-goddella was granted to the Prince 
Mallawa, who had obtained the title Mallawa- 
Bandara on his presenting the silk cloth called 
wannigawarrian . 

The said Mallawa-bandara, together with ano- 
ther, Hetty-bandara, formerly called Moddattawa- 
chitty — who, having presented a four-square pre- 
cious stone, had obtained the title called Mud- 
dattawa Hetty-bandara — were granted by the 
king Bowennaka-bahou the following lands ; viz., 
the land between Pahalla-ella and Diwooroon- 
galla rock; the land between Diyabetnawa of 
Kellagamma and the pillar on which is engraven 
the letters called Nagarra, which is planted in the 
lake called Hoddeliyawa belonging to Donnoo- 
kayawa at Pulhiria ; and the land between the 
four-angular pillar which is planted in Diyaba- 
"wooma of Dunnukaiyawa, Gorrookanda at 
Unnala-diyabetnawa, and Yodekammala. Be- 
sides the lands of the said Moddattawa-chitty, 


the lake belonged to Mallavva prince, which lies 
beyond the place called Diyahitty-kanda, and 
is called Mettawalliya ; this lake is six cubits 
deep. The ground watered by this lake is suffi- 
cient to sow fifty ammonams of paddy. The 
places overflown by the lake were eighteen olle- 
gam lands and dams. There is a Budhu temple 
towards the end of the water-course of the lake, 
and two giants' wells. The ground, sufficient to 
sow seven ammonams of paddy, of this district, 
is a gift to the Budhu temple, which is situated 
between Ihelladiahittiya-diyabetnawa, and Diya- 

The lake of Unnala is seven cubits deep. 
The land watered by the lake is sufficient to 
sow sixty-five ammonams of paddy. The lands 
overflown by the lake were twenty-eight oUegam 
lands, magam lands, dams, and dikes. There 
are, over the lake, one Budhu temple, one 
tower, one mandoo-house constructed of stones, 
and two giants' wells. The ground between 
Ihelladiyabetnawa and the pond at Yodekam- 
malgodda is a gift to the Budhu temple. 

The lake of Hallabehena belonged to Mood- 
diwalanganpadey-tewerreya. The ground wa- 
tered by this lake is sufficient to sow thirty 
ammonams of paddy. The lands overflown by 


the lake were thirteen ollegam lands, dams, and 
dikes, and one spot of ground on which a temple 
was constructed. The depth of the water at 
Ihelladevabetnawa is five cubits. 


The Regulation of the Pooja Days, in honour 
of the Budhu Guadma. 

The public worship of Budhu amongst the 
Cingalese is fixed upon four days in every 
month, that is to say, on the days of the four 
phases of the moon, when they go to the temple, 
where they offer any thing they like, consisting 
of flowers, provisions, money, &c., before the 
image of Budhu, and promise, some persons to 
keep five, some eight, and some ten command- 
ments, and on that day abstain fi'om their 
evening meal. The great solemn time of their 
worship is the day of full moon in the month 
called Wasak (May), being that on which 
the Budhu was born and departed this life. 
The commandments above mentioned, are as 
follow : — 1st, not kilhng ; 2d, not stealing ; 3d, 
avoiding fornication; 4th, not lying; 5th, not 
drinking of strong liquors ; 6th, not eating of 
any victuals after the sun has passed the me- 
ridian ; 7th, not looking at dancing, nor listen- 
ing to singing and beating of drum; 8th, not 
using of flowers and other sweet-smelling things. 


also of jewels and other ornaments; 9th, not 
using of high seats, and other places covered 
with valuable cloths; and 10th, the non-recep- 
tion of gold, silver, and money. 











P S. — The entire work, in the original, is in the pos- 
session of the Royal Asiatic Society, presented by Sir 
Alexander Johnston. This valuable book is the more 
important for the Illustration of the Budhu History or 
Doctrines, as it appears that comjjlete copies are ex- 
tremely rare, and not to be met with even in the most 
celebrated Viharis, although there is not a single 
Vihari which has not some portions of a work deemed 
the most distinguished compendium of the Budhist 



The Names oj the Jutakas Guadma relating 
to the Budhu. 

































































































































































*iri BUDl 


































































































































































































































S warnakarkataka 






















Attisana . 












































































































































No. 1, Apannaka Jutaka. — A certain foolish 
merchant set out on a journey with 500 carts 
loaded with merchandise, and a proportionate 
number of attendants. On arriving in the midst 
of a vast sandy desert which he had to traverse, 
he was met and accosted by some demons in 
disguise, who, by their artifices, prevailed upon 
him to throw away his whole stock of water ; 
in consequence of which imprudent act, both 
himself and his followers fell into the power of 
the demons and were devoured by them. A 
short time afterwards, a wise and experienced 
merchant travelling the same road, with an 
equal number of carts and people, was encoun- 
tered by the same demons ; but being aware of 
their designs, the nature of which his superior 
sagacity had enabled him to discover, he com- 
pletely succeeded in frustrating their sanguinary 
purpose. After which, he took possession of the 
most valuable articles belonging to the foolish 
merchant, which he found in the desert, and 
proceeded with them on his journey. 

No. 2, Wannu patha Jutaka. — A certain mer- 


chant, with a train of 500 carts, and a suitable 
number of persons in charge of them, was once 
travelhng through a sandy desert of considerable 
extent, when there happened a deficiency of 
water, in consequence of which they all suffered 
great distress, having neither water to drink 
nor to wash themselves. Upon this the mer- 
chant directed them to dig below a tuft of green 
grass which he had observed, and, on their com- 
plying with his instructions, they discovered a 
plentiful stream of water that afforded an ample 
supply to all their wants. 

No. 3, Siriwanija Jutalm. — A certain covet- 
ous merchant, who dealt in rings and bracelets 
made of a sort of glazed earth, in travelling 
about the country with his merchandise, came 
to a house where there was, unknown to the 
inhabitants, a golden plate worth 100,000 pieces 
of money. The persons to whom the house 
belonged had originally been possessed of great 
wealth, but all that remained of the family at 
this time was a poor old widow woman and her 
young daughter. The little girl went and offered 
the plate to the merchant in exchange for a 
few of the bracelets, but he told her that the 
plate was not worth a madata, and that he 
would give nothing for it : so saying, he went 


away, intending to return afterwards and to get 
the plate upon his own teiTns. By the time he 
was out of sight another merchant, who hkewise 
dealt in the same kind of bracelets, came to 
the house, and the httle girl repeated her 
former offer ; upon which this honest merchant 
informed her and her mother of its real value, 
and giving them all the money he had in his 
possession, amounting to 1000 masuras, he took 
the plate away with him. When the covetous 
merchant returned and heard that his fellow- 
merchant had got possession of the plate, his 
affliction was so immoderate that it broke his 
heart, and he died upon the spot. 

No. 4, Chilla-setti Jiitaka. — A certain opu- 
lent sita (a man of high rank) seeing a dead rat 
lying in the street, said aloud, " That any man 
who should take up that rat and expose it for 
sale would become a sita like himself." A poor 
man who happened to hear this took up the rat, 
and with the money he obtained from the sale 
of it, laid the foundation of a fortune, which he 
afterwards reahsed, of 100,000 pieces of gold. 
After having acquired this sum he married the 
daughter, and succeeded to the dignity of the 
same sita. 


No. 5, Tandudale Jutaka. — A certain foolish 
officer, whose duty it was to fix a value upon 
every thing, was tempted by a bribe to value 
the city of Baranais, and all that it contained, 
at a single measure of rice, in consequence of 
which he was discarded from his situation with 
disgrace, and in his room a wise minister was 
appointed, whose valuations were always fair 
and equitable. 

No. 6, Dewa-darma Jutaka. — In this ju- 
taka, Bodi Sat is stated to have delivered his 
two brothers from the clutches of a rakshasa, 
by solving, to the satisfaction of the latter, a 
question proposed by him relative to the nature 
of genuine piety. 

No. 7, Katt-ha-hari Jutaka. — A certain king 
had a son by a woman whose employment con- 
sisted in cutting fire-wood, but this son he re- 
fused to acknowledge ; whereupon the mother, 
coming into the king's presence, threw the child 
up into the air, saying, " If thou art not the 
king's son mayest thou fall down and perish." 
Instead, however, of falling down, the child re- 
mained buoyant in the air with his legs crossed 
under him, immediately above the city, and be- 
gan to preach to the people below ; the king 


was then satisfied, and no longer hesitated to 
own his son. 

No. 8, Gamane Jutaka. — In this jutaka is re- 
lated the manner in which a young prince, by 
taking Bodi Sat's ad\dce, obtained the succession 
to a kingdom even during the life-time of his 
elder brothers. 

No. 9, Makha-dixm Jutaka* — In this jutaka 
is related the story of a certain king who, on 
observing a gray hair in his head, renounced the 
world and became a priest, notwithstanding that 
he had still 84,000 years to live. 

No. 10, Sukka-Vihara Jutaka. — In this ju- 
taka is related the story of a certain king who, 
becoming weary of the cares of sovereignty, 
abdicated his throne, and retired to a solitary 
cell, where he passed his days in the exercise 
of religious duties, and his nights in undisturbed 

No. 11, Lakshana Jutaka. — In this jutaka is 
related the destmction of 500 deer who wilfully 

* In the Mahawanse, vol. i. p. 14, is the recital of the 
circumstance here alluded to relating to King Makka-dewa. 


neglected to follow their father's advice, and the 
preservation of an equal number who did in 
obedience to his instructions. 

No. 12, Nigroda-mraga Jutaka. — In this 
jutaka is related a noble instance of generosity 
on the part of a golden deer, the prince of a 
herd, in offering up his own life to save that 
of a female deer, big with young, who was 
upon the point of being killed for the king's 

No. 13, Khandhia Jutaka. — A stag, struck 
with admiration at the beauty of a hind, followed 
her blindly wherever she went, and was in con- 
sequence shot through with an arrow by a hunts- 
man laying in wait for him. Bodi Sat, who was 
then a tree, observing the fate of the stag, took 
this occasion to inveigh against the mischiefs 
of sensuality, and made the whole forest resound 
with his remonstrances. 

No. 14, Watha-mraga Jutaka. — In this 
jutaka is related the story of a stag who was 
attracted to the court of the king's palace, and 
caught by the lure of a small quantity of honey 
mixed with grass. The king, on observing this 
circumstance, immediately exclaimed against the 


evil consequences of a too free indulgence of the 
sensual appetites. 

No. 15, KharaJ'nja Jiitaka. — In this jutaka is 
related the untimely death of a stag who dis- 
obeyed the injunction of his father-in-law. 

No. 16, Tipallatthi-mraga Jutaka. — In this 
jutaka is related the story of a stag who, by 
following the advice of his father-in-law, fortu- 
nately escaped from the snare laid for him by a 

No. 17, Maluta Jutaka. — In this jutaka is 
related the story of a lion and tiger, of whom the 
one maintained that the cold was greatest from 
the new to the full moon; and the other, that 
it was greatest from the full to the new moon. 
Whilst they were engaged in this altercation, 
Bodi Sat came up to them and settled the dis- 
pute, by pronouncing that the cold proceeded 
fi'om wind ; with which impartial decision both 
sides were pleased. 

No. 18, Matakathatta Jutaka. — In this ju- 
taka is related the story of a goat who, though 
surrounded by a hundred persons assembled 
for the purpose of shielding it from danger, was 


killed by the splinter of a rock broken off by 
lightning. This punishment the goat was doomed 
to suffer for having committed murder in a 
former state of existence, and therefore all the 
precautions taken for preserving its life were in 
vain. Upon this occasion Bodi Sat, then a tree- 
god, addressed himself to those who had wit- 
nessed the untimely fate of the goat, cautioning 
them against the heinous sin of murder, and re- 
presenting to them the punishment by which it 
will infallibly be followed. 

No. 19, Ayachitliah-hatta Jutaka. — In this ju- 
taka is related the story of a certain person who 
put to death a number of animals in order to 
make a sacrifice of their bones to a dewatawa, or 
deity, whom he wished by that means to pro- 
pitiate. Bodi Sat, the Warksha Dewatawa, or 
tree-god, to whom this sacrifice was made, ex- 
pressed his abhorrence of this cruel practice, and 
directed, in the presence of numerous persons 
collected together upon this occasion, that so 
barbarous a custom should be wholly discon- 
tinued for the future. 

No. 20, Nalapana Jutaka. — In this jutaka is 
related an ingenious contrivance of Bodi Sat, 
then a monkey, by means of which himself, and 


his 80,000 companies of the same race, procured 
water to quench their thirst from a tank wherein 
a rakshasa or demon resided. This they effected 
by drinking the water tlu'ough reeds previously 
made completely hollow by their breath. In 
memory of the event, the reeds surrounding this 
tank grew without joints during the period of 
one entire calpa. 

No. 21, Ncmdiwisala Jutaka. — In this jutaka 
is related the story of a man who laid a wager 
of a thousand pieces of money, that his ox 
would of himself draw a hundred loaded carts. 
On the appointed day the carts were all ranged 
in a line one behind another, and the ox was 
harnessed to the foremost cart. The master, 
however, having spoken harshly to the ox, the 
latter would not stir a step, in consequence of 
which the master lost his wager. Not dis- 
couraged at his ill success, he laid another 
wager, of double the sum, that his ox would 
draw a hundred carts loaded with gravel and 
sand, and this he won by speaking kindly to the 
animal ; for he had discovered the cause of his 
former failure, and took care to avoid commit- 
tins the same error a second time. 


No. 22, Kanha Jutaka. — In this jutaka is 



related the story of an ox who, being rewarded 
by a merchant with a thousand massas for 
dragging five hundred carts out of a slough, 
carried that sum, which the merchant, at his 
request, had tied about his neck, and presented 
it to the old woman to whom he belonged, and 
by whom he had been fed and reared up. 

No. 23, Mimika Jiitaka. — In this jutaka is 
related the story of two oxen, the younger of 
whom longed for some food which he saw car- 
rying to a hog, and which was intended to 
fatten up the latter for an entertainment shortly 
to be given upon the marriage of their master's 
daughter. The elder ox cured his brother of 
this longing by representing to him the peril 
to which the hog was exposed from eating the 
rich food placed before him, and the safety 
which they enjoyed from feeding on nothing 
but plain grass. 

No. 24, Kulawaka Jutaka. — In this jutaka is 
related an instance of great humanity on the 
part of the god Sakkraia, who, in endeavouring 
to make his escape from the Assuras, after an 
engagement with them in which he had been 
defeated, struck so much terror into the Ga- 
rudas (through whose country his route lay) 


by the rattling of his chariot, as to cause some 
of them to precipitate themselves headlong into 
the sea. On observing their distress, he re- 
solved to return and give himself up to the 
Assuras, upon the principle that it was not con- 
sistent with a merciful disposition to endanger 
the lives of the Garudas merely for the purpose 
of securing his own safety. The effect of this 
measure was, however, more fortunate than 
could have been expected, for the Assuras, 
seeing the chariot, thought the Sakkraias of all 
the other worlds were about to fall upon them, 
and, under this impression, retreated as fast as 
possible to their own regions. 

No. 25, Nada Jutaka. — In this jutaka is 
related the story of the royal henza (swan), the 
king of the birds, who assembled all his sub- 
jects in an extensive plain, in order that his 
daughter might choose a husband from amongst 
them. She singled out the peacock, who, vain 
at the preference, immediately began to dance, 
and, spreading out his tail, displayed to the com- 
pany those parts which ought never to be ex- 
posed to view ; at which indecency his majesty 
was so much shocked that he instantly broke off 
the match. 

VOL. III. u 


No. 26, Sammodajiiana Jiitaka. — In this ju- 
taka is related the story of a snipe who extri- 
cated himself and his companions from the net 
in which they had been caught, by suggesting 
that each bird should apply his head to one 
of the meshes of the net, and that they should 
all lift it up at once, fly with it to a neighbour- 
ing bush, leave it there, and make their escape 
from under it. Some time afterwards, observing 
that many of his companions were quarrelling 
amongst themselves, and knowing that where 
discord prevails nothing will prosper, he with- 
drew himself from them, and, accompanied by 
those who were attached to him, went to ano- 
ther place. Ere long, the snipes whom he had 
quitted were caught again, but not being able 
to agree amongst one another as to the method 
of lifting up the net, they fell into the hands of 
the fowler, and perished. 

No. 27, Matsya Jutcika. — In this jutaka is 
related the story of a fish who, whilst pursuing 
a female, was caught in a net, and dragged to 
the shore, where, regardless of pain and death, 
he did nothing but bewail his misfortune in 
being separated from his dear mistress. Bodi 
Sat, who was then purohita to the king, hap- 
pened at this tipie to be walking by, and 


hearing the lamentations of the fish, whose 
language he understood, — " If," said he to him- 
self, " this poor fish should die in his present 
condition, he will assuredly be born again in 
hell ; a fate which a compassionate being like 
myself ought to try to avert, if possible." 
Going up, therefore, to the fisherman, he begged 
to have the fish, and after getting it, he put it 
with his own hands into the sea; thereby de- 
livering it, at one and the same time, from two 
imminent dangers, that of death, and that of a 
renewed existence in a state of misery. 

No. 28, Wattalm Jutaka. — In this jutaka is 
related the story of an unfledged snipe, who, 
one day, during the absence of his parents in 
quest of food, was hemmed in on every side by 
a fire which some persons had kindled, and 
which, like the all-consuming fire at the end of 
the calpa, threatened to destroy every thing that 
opposed its progress. In this desperate predi- 
cament, without wings to fly away, or feet 
strong enough to convey him out of the reach 
of the spreading flame, the defenceless bird had 
no resource left excepting that of an appeal to the 
Budhu. Such, however, was the sincerity with 
which this appeal was made, that, as the course 
of a mighty conflagration is suddenly arrested on 


its arrival at the borders of the wide-extended 
ocean, so the flames were not suffered to ap- 
proach within a considerable distance of the spot 
where he was lying; and, in memory of the 
event, during the space of one entire calpa from 
that period, no impression could be made by 
fire on the area which had been thus miracu- 
lously rescued from its destructive effects. 

No. 29, Lakuna Jutcika. — In this jutaka is 
related the destruction of certain birds, who, 
after having been warned by their king that the 
trees in which they had placed their nests 
W'Ould shortly take fire by the friction of the 
dry branches, foolishly neglected to adopt his 
advice, that they should remove to some other 
place previously to that disaster. In the same 
jutaka is recorded the preservation of certain 
other birds, who prudently attended to the re- 
commendation of their king, and, by removing 
in time, v/ere fortunate enough to escape the 
impending danger. 

No. 30, Tittira Jutaka. — In this jutaka is 
related the story of an elephant, a monkey, and 
a partridge, who were all living amicably toge- 
ther near to a nuga-tree, when one day it occur- 
red to them that, notwithstanding the friendly 


disposition which they bore to each other, there 
would be a greater degree of regularity in their 
society if they could ascertain which of them 
was the elder. The elephant set up his claim 
by stating, that when he was quite young there 
was room enough for the tree between his fore 
and hind legs ; the monkey declared, that he 
had eaten some of the buds of the tree when it 
was scarcely raised above the ground ; but the 
partridge obtained from both parties a ready ac- 
knowledgement of his superior pretensions to 
seniority and reverence, by telling them that the 
tree was produced from a seed which he had 
swallowed, and which he afterwards voided in 
the very spot where it then grew. 

No. 31, BakaJutaka.* — An artful cormorant, 
addressing himself to some fish who were living v 
in a very shallow tank, offered his services to 
convey them to another, in which, he assured 
them, there was abundance of water. The 
simple fish, seduced by this tempting offer, per- 
mitted the cormorant to take them out in suc- 
cession ; but, instead of conveying them to the 
promised tank, he had no sooner got them out 

* This is also related in Pilpay's Collection of Oriental 


of sight of their companions, than he fell to and 
devoured them. One day he happened to ad- 
dress himself to a crab, who resided in the 
same tank, and who readily accepted the offer, 
but proposed, as the most convenient mode of 
transporting him, that he should cling about the 
cormorant's neck. The cormorant consenting to 
this arrangement, they proceeded on their jour- 
ney. After having gone some distance, the crab, 
looking round and discovering no appearance 
of a tank, suspected the intention of the corm.o- 
rant, and, seizing him fast by the neck, threat- 
ened him with instant death unless he went 
back immediately to the tank they had quitted. 
The cormorant, not daring to refuse, returned 
accordingly with the crab, who, just as he was 
entering into the water, with his piercing claws 
nipped off the cormorant's neck, in the same 
manner as the stem of a lotus is cut in two by 
a pair of sharp scissors. Bodi Sat, then a tree- 
god, observing what had passed, proclaimed 
aloud the mischiefs of deceit, and the just 
punishment by which, in this case, it was fol- 


Six Explanations of the foregoing Jiitakas. 

No. 1. — This story was related by Budhu 
for the purpose of reclaiming 500 of his dis- 
ciples, who had quitted him, and placed them- 
selves under the guidance of the anti-Bud hist 
Dewadah, who, he tells them, was, in a former 
state of existence, the foohsh merchant herein 
spoken of, and in whose service they were then 
unfortunately placed, whilst he himself was the 
wise merchant, and his present followers were 
at that time the servants employed in conduct- 
ing the carts through the desert. 

No. 2. — This story was related by Budhu 
for the purpose of encouraging certain priests 
to persevere in the ordinances of his rehgion, 
by shewing them the benefit they had derived 
in a former state of existence from acting in 
conformity to his directions. 

No. 3. — In this story Budhu communicates 
to his priests the circumstances which gave rise 
to the enmity of Dewadah, who, in a former state 
of existence, was the covetous merchant therein 
alluded to. 


No. 4. — A certain person having derived 
much benefit from following some advice given 
to him by Budhu, the priests were one day 
discoursing on the subject in the hall of the 
temple, when Budhu entered, and learning the 
nature of the conversation in which they had 
been engaged previously to his arrival, related 
this story, in order to shew that the occasion 
of which they had been speaking was not the 
only one upon which he had been serviceable 
to the person alluded to, but that he had like- 
wise essentially befriended him in a former state 
of existence. 

No. 5. — One day there was a great uproar 
in the eating-room of the temple. Budhu having 
sent to inquire the reason of it, the priest came 
and informed him that Dabba Mulla, whose 
office it was to distribute to each person his 
portion of rice, had managed the business so 
ill as to give great dissatisfaction ; and that this 
was the cause of the disturbance. Budhu having 
ordered Dabba Mulla to be brought before him, 
dismissed him from his employment, relating, at 
at the same time, a similar disgrace which had 
befallen him, in consequence of his stupidity, in 
a former state of existence. 


No. 13. — This story was communicated by 
Budhii on account of a priest who, captivated by 
the charms of a handsome woman he had acci- 
dentally seen, began to neglect his religious 
duties. Budhu cured him of his attachment 
by relating the disaster which had befallen him 
in a former state of existence from giving way 
to a similar passion. 

Portions of the Pansya Pana Jutakas, not given 
in the List of Titles. 

No. 1. — The introduction to this story re- 
sembles that which precedes the Wittakka 

During the reign of Brachma-datta, king of 
Baranais, Budhu was an opulent sita, or banker, 
and resided in that city. When his son was 
of a proper age to go to school, he sent him 
thither, accompanied by the son of a female 
slave, who hved in the house. This lad, whose 
name was Kataha, and who had been born on 
the same day with his young master, being pos- 
sessed of a good understanding, soon attained 
a considerable proficiency in various branches 
of learning, insomuch that, on his return from 
school, the sita appointed him to the superin- 


tendence of his household. Whilst engaged in 
exercising the duties of that office, the following 
reflections one day presented themselves to his 
mind : — " The situation to which I have been 
appointed," said he to himself, " is very preca- 
rious ; if I commit any fault whatsoever, I may 
be dismissed, and reduced to great distress; I 
must therefore endeavour to hit upon some 
expedient by means of which the impending 
evil may be averted. The sita, my master, has 
a friend also a sita, who resides at some dis- 
tance in the country, I will go to his house, 
and, teUing him that I am the son of his friend, 
will sohcit the hand of his daughter." 

In pursuance of this project he forged a 
letter as from the sita his master, which ran as 
follows : — 

" I have sent my son to you : as our famihes 
are of equal rank, you will not be surprised at 
my proposing an alliance between him and your 
daughter, with whom I shall, of course, expect 
that you will give a handsome dowry. Being 
very much occupied with important affairs, it 
has been out of my power to attend on you 
at this juncture, but I will soon follow." 

Having written this letter, he packed up 
some perfumes and fine clothes to take with 
him, after which he mounted one of the sita's 


best horses, and proceeded on his journey. On 
arrivmg at the place of his destination, he went, 
without delay, to the house of his master's 
friend, whom he saluted with great respect. 
The old sita asked him from whence he came, 
whose son he was, and what was the object of 
his journey. To these questions he rephed, that 
he was the son of the Baranais sita, whom he 
named, and that the purpose of his coming 
would be best explained in the letter which he 
had brought, and which he then dehvered. 
The country sita having read the letter, imme- 
diately gave his daughter in marriage to Kataha, 
and with her a considerable portion. 

On the day of the nuptials, the newly-married 
lady displayed to the view of her husband the 
viands, perfumes, and clothes, which had been 
sent to her upon the occasion. The moment 
Kataha saw them, '' Is it possible," exclaimed 
he, " that any human being can eat such food 
as this ? or make use of such perfumes as these ? 
and who can wear clothes of this description ? 
Such good-for-nothing presents bespeak the 
mean condition of the uncouth rustics who in- 
habit this remote village." 

Whilst Kataha was thus giving vent to his 
peevish disposition, the Baranais sita was using 
his endeavours to discover the place to whicli 


liis slave had absconded ; and having at length 
ascertained that he had gone to the house of his 
country friend, determined to proceed thither 
immediately in quest of him. Kataha, as soon 
as he heard of his master's approach, communi- 
cated the intelligence to his father-in-law, re- 
commending, at the same time, that every thing 
should be prepared for his father's reception and 
entertainment, and signifpng his intention to go 
and meet his pretended parent. Accordingly, 
on being informed that the Baranais sita had 
arrived within a day's journey, he went out to 
meet him. On coming into the sita's presence, 
he saluted him very respectfully, and laid before 
him the gifts brought for that purpose, earnestly 
entreating at the same time that the sita would 
not ruin his good fortune. The sita, pleased with 
these tokens of his humility, promised not to 
betray him, and proceeded to the house of the 
country sita, who gave him a most cordial re- 
ception. A few days afterwards he sent for the 
newly-married lady, and desired her to comb his 
hair. Whilst she was employed in this office, he 
inquired how her husband behaved to her. To 
this question she replied, that she had nothing 
to complain of, except that whenever she per- 
fomied any service for him, he invariably found 
fault with her, and abused her. On hearing 


this, the sita taught her a charm, which he 
assured her would effectually bind , up her hus- 
band's mouth upon such occasions. And soon 
afterwards, taking leave of his country friend, 
he returned to Baranais. 

It was not long before an opportunity oc- 
curred of trying the efficacy of the charm, for 
the Baranais sita's back was scarcely turned, 
when Kataha began to give himself still more 
airs than formerly, and one day, when his wife 
presented him with a plate of rice, he took that 
occasion to find fault with her and abuse her ; 
upon which, advancing towards him, she, in a 
firm tone, repeated the magical words which had 
been taught her, and which were as follows : 

Bahumpujo Wikatt'heya Angyang Jana Pa- 
dang gato Anwaganatwa nadusiya bhunga Bhogi 

This sentence being in Pali, the meaning of 
it was entirely unknown to Kataha's wife, but 
he himself understood it perfectly well, and from 
that period was very careful to avoid giving her 
any offence. The following is the interpretation 
of the miraculous sentence which produced this 
happy effect : 

" Thou who art come hither from another 
country, hast thou forgotten thy mean condi- 
tion ? The sita has gone away for this time. 


but if he return he will cause thee to be severely 
punished, and take thee away with him, and so 
he hath desired me to tell thee." 

Budhu was the sita of Baranais, and the 
priest Pintu, on whose account this jutaka was 
related, was then the slave Kataha. 

No. 2. — During the period of Budhu's resi- 
dence at Jeta Wana Arama, the priests assembled 
in the temple were one day speaking of another 
priest called Kaludayi, who, when any person 
came to request that he would preach upon some 
joyful occasion, never failed to deliver a dis- 
course suited to a melancholy subject, and vice 
versa. Budhu having entered and learnt the 
purport of their conversation, related to them 
some incidents that had occurred to the same 
priest in a former state of existence, from which 
it appeared that he was just as great a blockhead 
then as now. Budhu lived at that time in the 
city of Baranais, and was master of a school, the 
terms of which were, that the sons of wealthy 
persons should pay 1000 massas, and present 
the master with two pieces of cloth, as the price 
of their education, and that the sons of indigent 
persons should receive instruction, on the con- 
dition of their performing menial services for 
their tutor. 


Kaludayi was one of the latter description 
of scholars. After a day spent in performing 
various services about his master's person, it oc- 
curred to the latter, that so long as his follower 
should be employed in servile occupations he 
would always remain an illiterate being. The 
benevolent tutor determined therefore to adopt 
a plan which he conceived might tend to Kalu- 
dayi's improvement. This plan was, to make 
Kaludayi, on his return from cutting fire-wood, 
relate what he had seen during his absence from 
home, and illustrate it by some apt comparison. 
The first day after this expedient had been 
resolved upon, Kaludayi being questioned as to 
what he had seen whilst abroad, replied, that he 
had seen a serpent, and that it was like the pole 
of a plough : as there was actually some resem- 
blance between the two objects compared, the 
master conceived some hopes of his pupil. Be- 
ing questioned again on the following day, he 
replied, that he had seen an elephant, and that 
it was like the pole of a plough. This compa- 
rison was likewise thought by the master to 
denote some symptoms of an intelligent mind, as 
it could not be denied that there was a resem- 
blance between the pole of a plough and the 
tnmk of an elephant. A similar question being 
put to him on the third day, he replied, that he 


had seen a sugar-cane, and that it was Hke tlie 
pole of a plough. Neither was the master dis- 
satisfied with this answer, as, in some respects, 
the pole of a plough and a sugar-cane were not 
unlike. On the fourth day, being on his way to 
the forest, he passed by an alms-house and par- 
took of some rice and milk which had been pre- 
pared for the poor. On his return home he men- 
tioned the circumstance to his master, who made 
the usual inquiry. To this Kaludayi replied, 
that the rice he had eaten resembled the pole of 
a plough. Hereupon the master said to himself, 
that though there was certainly some resem- 
blance between the objects seen by Kaludayi on 
the preceding days and the instrument to which 
he compared them, yet it is impossible to trace 
the smallest similitude between a dish of rice 
and the pole of a plough : to attempt the in- 
struction of such a blockhead, will, therefore, be 
a fruitless task, and 1 must even let him continue 
in his present menial capacity, for which alone 
he seems qualified. 

No. 3. — Once when there were no Budhus, 
neither his priests nor rehgion in the world, there 
was a king called Dahamsonda, in a kingdom of 
Jambu-dwipa, who, having a strange desire to 
be acquainted with Bana (what the Budhu had 


preached), sent for the ministers and the nobles 
of his court, and inquired of them whether they 
were acquainted with Bana, or knew any person 
who was acquainted with it, or in what part of 
the world they thought any of them could be 
found. They all answered with one voice, that 
they never heard any such thing, nor was it ever 
mentioned to them by their ancestors of any 
such thing ever having been in the world ; but 
advised the king to send throughout the king- 
dom a tom-tom beater to proclaim his desire, 
with an offer of a reward to any person who should 
gratify it. The king thereupon ordered one of 
his courtiers to put 1000 pieces of gold in a 
purse and place it upon an elephant, and then 
to cause the desire of the king to be proclaimed 
throughout the markets, towns, and all the public 
places, and that if he found any person who was 
acquainted with Bana, to make him a present 
of the purse, and to bring him to the king, after 
having him placed upon the elephant. But the 
courtier returned after having made fruitless 
inquiries through every part of the kingdom. 
The king's desire to become acquainted with 
Bana daily increased to such a height, that it 
made him resolve in his mind to travel in 
foreign countries till he met with a person ; 
and accordingly the king took his leave from 



the court, and, after having passed over his 
dominions, entered into a wilderness. The god 
Sakkraia having seen this through his divine 
power, appeared before the king in the form of 
a monstrous devil, and asked him who he w^as, 
and where he was going to. The king ac- 
quainted him both with his name and the cause 
of his travel. The pretended de^il then asked 
the king w^hat he w^ould give him if he should 
acquaint him with Bana. The king replied, that 
if he was in his palace he could give him any 
wealth which was in the world at present ; but 
being in the wilderness, he had nothing to give 
him but his own flesh. " Well/' said the devil, 
" I will be satisfied with it." And the king 
readily consented to it, in hope of learning Bana. 
The devil then said to the king, " Well, then, 
ascend that black rock (pointing out one which 
was in the front), and jump fi'om it into my 
mouth, which I shall keep open, and as soon as 
you have left the rock and jumped, I will begin 
to acquaint you with Bana, which you may 
learn before you shall reach my mouth." The 
king readily agreed to it, and jumped from the 
summit of the rock ; but before he reached the 
ground, the devil, changing to his natural shape 
of god, took up the king into his arms and 
carried him alive to the heaven. Afterwards, 


having taught him Bana, he replaced him on the 
throne of his native country. 

The king in after-time became Budhu, and 
the god Sakkraia became Anurahde, one of his 

4. — A wicked man travelling through a wil- 
derness met with a parrot, and the parrot ad- 
, dressed the man thus : " Friend, vv^hy do you 
go in this road ; are you not aware that there is 
a tiger near the road in which you proceed, which 
feeds upon human flesh ?" The man, without 
listening to what the parrot said, continued on 
hisjourney. The parrot thereupon called out to 
him again, and said, — " My good friend, if you 
are resolved to go through this road, take my 
last advice, and tell the tiger when he comes to 
attack you, that you are coming from his friend 
the parrot." The man thinking that the parrot 
was joking him, turned back with anger and 
killed it, and pursued the same road ; but he did 
not go far before he was met b)^ the tiger, 
with its mouth open, and running towards him 
apparently to devour him ; but the man, w4io was 
terrified at the sight of the tiger, recollecting 
what the parrot had told him, spoke out thus : 
" O, tiger ! do not kill the person that comes 
from the parrot your friend." The tiger stopped 


at once at the mention of the name of his 
friend, and asked him where and in what part 
of the wilderness his friend was, and upon what 
tree ;" and by the answers given by the man, 
the tiger, convinced in his own mind that the 
man really came fi'om his friend, introduced him 
to his father, who was an old and blind tiger, in 
order that he might be treated kindly ; and while 
the man was conversing with the father, the son 
went in search of food to entertain him, and, on 
his return with provision, his father mentioned 
to him that he had reasons to suspect, in the 
conversation with the man, that he had killed the 
parrot his friend. The son immediately went 
to the place where his friend was, to ascertain 
the truth, after having given secret instructions 
to his father to take care that the man did 
not run away. The man, in the mean time, ap- 
prehending that they suspected him of having 
killed the parrot, tried every means to fly away 
from the place before the return of the young 
tiger ; and finding at last that it was impossible 
for him to do so while the old tiger was there, 
he took up a large stone and threw it upon the 
head of the old tiger, which instantly killed him 
on the spot, and then took that opportunity to 
make his escape. The young tiger, that had 
gone to see the parrot, finding that it was killed. 


returned in rage to destroy the criminal ; but find- 
ing that his father was also killed and the man 
gone, his rage increased, and he pursued him 
with full speed. The man, in the mean time, 
not doubting that the tiger, when he saw his 
father was killed, would pursue and overtake 
him, armed himself with a club, and lay con- 
cealed near the road to destroy the young tiger 
likewise ; but no sooner did he see the tiger's fierce 
countenance, than he w^as so much tenified that 
it made him drop his club ; and as he had neither 
the courage to defend himself, nor the power to 
run away, he prostrated himself before the tiger, 
and begged of him his life. The tiger answered, 
" Thou treacherous wretch, thou hast killed my 
fi'iend and my father, without considering the 
good they have done to thee, and was concealed 
here with an intention to kill me likewise ; yet 
I shall grant thee thy life : begone directly 
out of this wilderness, and never think of re- 
turning again ;" and left him. 

5. — In former days, a hare, a monkey, a coot, 
and a fox, became hermits, and lived in a wilder- 
ness together, after having sworn not to kill any 
living thing. The god Sakkraia having seen this 
through his divine power, thought to try their 
faith, and accordingly took upon him the form 



of a brahmin, and appearing before the monkey 
begged of him ahns, who immediately brought 
to him a bmich of mangos, and presented it to 
him. The pretended brahmin, having left the 
monkey, went to the coot and made the same 
request, who presented him a row of fish which 
he had just found on the bank of a river, evi- 
dently forgotten by a fisherman. The brahmin 
then went to the fox, who immediately went in 
search of food, and soon returned with a pot of 
milk and a dried liguan, which he had found in 
a plain, where, apparently, they had been left 
by a herdsman. The brahmin at last went to 
the hare and begged alms of him : the hare 
said, " Friend, I eat nothing but grass, which 
I think is of no use to you." Then the pre- 
tended brahmin replied, " Why, friend, if you 
are a true hermit, you can give me yoiu* own 
flesh in hope of future happiness." The hare 
directly consented to it, and said to the sup- 
posed brahmin, " I have granted your request, 
and you may do whatever you please with me." 
The brahmin then rephed, " Since you are 
willing to grant my request, I will kindle a fire 
at the foot of that rock, from which you may 
jump into the fire, which will save me the 
trouble of kiUing you and dressing your flesh." 
The hare readily agreed to it, and jumped from 


the top of the rock into the fire which the sup- 
posed brahmin had kindled ; but before he reached 
the fire, it was extinguished ; and the brahmin 
appearing in his natural shape of the god Sak- 
kraia, took the hare in his arms and imme- 
diately drew its figure in the moon, in order 
that every living thing of every part of the world 
might see it. 

No. 6. — A brahmin had a field, and was in 
the habit of visiting it daily. In these visits he 
never failed to take into his hands, as soon as he 
got there, a crab of golden colour, which was in 
a tank within the limits of the field, and to 
leave it again in it after his walk in the field, 
and before he quitted it. A crow from a neigh- 
bouring tree observing the friendship between 
the brahmin and the crab, envied it, and went 
to a snake which was residing in a hole at the 
foot of the. tree, and addressed himself to the 
snake thus : " Friend, my wife, who is about to 
lay her eggs, has a strong longing for the eyes 
of the brahmin who visits this field every day, 
to eat them up, after pulling them out ; and if 
she fails in this she will undoubtedly perish, — if 
you will assist her in attaining this, she will not 
fail to reward you with her eggs. You are only 
to lie concealed to-morrow morning early, in 


one of the roads in the field in which the brah- 
min passes, and sting him as soon as he reaches 
you, and leave the rest to me." This the snake 
agi'Ced to do, and concealed himself accord- 
ing to his promise. The brahmin, who knew 
nothing about this conspiracy, came in the 
morning into the field, and after having taken 
his friend the crab from the tank into his hands, 
continued his walk in the field as customary. 
The snake, which was anxious to comply with 
his promise with the crow, stung him as soon 
as he came near ; when the brahmin fell sense- 
less to the ground. The crow, who had been 
impatiently watching for the opportunity, came 
flying immediately, and perched upon the body, 
to satiate the desire of eating up the eyes. 
The crab, which was in the hands of the mo- 
tionless brahmin, perceiving their combination, 
laid hold with one of its tongs by the neck of 
the snake, and with the other by the neck of 
the crow, and threatened to kill them if they 
did not take off the poison and cure his friend. 
The snake, being very much terrified at the 
treatment of the crab, begged him to allow its 
mouth to be apphed unto the wound; which 
being granted, it soon extracted the whole 
poison from the body of the brahmin, who, by 
the relief he had received, got up immediately. 


as if nothing had happened to him. The crab, 
which was still holding the necks of the two, 
said that it would be improper to suffer two 
such wicked creatures to live any longer; so he 
pressed the necks of them both with his two 
tongs and killed them instantly. 

The brahmin was afterwards born Budhu, 
the crab was born one of his priests, the snake 
Wasewarty,* and the crow Dewa-dattaya, his 

* This character appears throughout the jutakas, as in the 
whole history of Budhism, as the rebel Assura, whose hostile 
appearance at the birth of Guadma is constantly adverted to. 
See Mahawanse, p. 161. And for references to his unceasing 
hostility, vide " Asiatic Researches," vol. vi. p. 207 ; also 
many parts in the " Doctrines of Budhism." 


The manner of making a Samenera or 

A person who wishes to be made a ganoon- 
nancy, or a priest, is, in the first place, to obtain 
leave from his parents for that purpose, and 
then to go to a teroonancy or high-priest, and 
say to him " Bm-a (Lord), I beg you will make 
me a samenera or ganoonnancy, and give me a 
habit of a priest." And after his ha\4ng re- 
peated this three different times before the 
priest, the priest will teach him the ten principal 
commandments of Budhu, which he who is 
going to be made a priest is to repeat after him ; 
viz. : Not to kill any living thing ; not to steal ; 
not to have any carnal pleasures ; not to lie ; not 
to drink any spirits or strong drink ; not to eat 
after the appointed time, which is before the sun 
has reached the meridian ; not to see or hear 
any pleasures, as dancing, singing, and music, 
&c. ; not to wear any flowers, nor to anoint his 
body with any thing that will give any good 
smell; not to sit upon a seat which is higher 
than a cubit, or covered with any valuable 
cloths ; and not to receive nor to touch any 
gold, silver, or money : and then he will receive 
the habit of a priest, from which time he is to 



obey and observe the ten conimandnients, and 
likewise learn the religious books. 

Hozv to become a Teroonancy or High-jyiiest. 

A ganoonnancy, after having learned by 
heart the following books, viz. Pilikulbawa- 
nawa, Satara-sanwara-sileya, Satara-kamata-han, 
Dina-chariawa, Herana-sika, Sekiyawa, Dampi- 
yawa, and Piruwana-satarabanawara, is to go to 
Candy, and there he is to be examined by the 
first and second chief-priests, and a great num- 
ber of other learned priests, who will assemble 
at the large hall of the priests for that purpose ; 
and after ha^^ng examined him, by putting many 
questions, they inform the king of the same; 
after which the first and second chief-priests, and 
a number of other high-priests (this number can- 
not be less than twenty), will assemble again, and 
there, after having some holy words pronounced 
(which is a kind of blessing) by two of the priests, 
confer upon him the title of teroonancy, and 
appoint him a high-priest. This appointment 
takes place either with great pomp, or without 
it, as the opportunity affords ; and from which 
time he, the priest, is to obey and observe 


8,820,000,000,000,000,000,005,000,036 (eight 
thousand eight hundred and twenty quadriUions, 
five milhons, and thirty -six) commandments. 
A samenera or ganoonnancy who is younger 
than twenty years cannot be appointed a teroo- 
nancy or high-priest. 

LiveTiJiood of the high and subordinate Priests 
called Teroonancys and Samenera Oenancys. 

The rehgious people used to build houses 
and place the high-priests therein, from the full- 
moon day of the month of July until the full- 
moon day of the month of October, and, during 
the space of that time, pro\dde them victuals, and 
furnish them with all necessaries, such as bed- 
steads, spreading cloths, pillows, lamps, spitting- 
pots, cups, pots, &c. &c. After the expiration 
of these three months, they offer three yellow 
gowns, or attepirikere, according to the ability 
of the people. An attepirikere consists of three 
yellow gowns, one piece of cloth to sift water, 
one piece of cloth called pattia, one needle, one 
razor, and one pattra, used by the priests for eat- 
ing the victuals in ; and some people make an 
offering called kattinay, which consists of one 


yellow gown, one garden, one paddy field, one 
slave, cattle, one house, one bed, addices, axes, 
chopping knives, mammotties, chisels, saws, &c., 
to the value of more than three or four hundred 
rix-dollars. As the subordinate priests, called 
Samenera Oenancys, live with the high-priests, 
they support themselves by what the high-priests 
receive, and in the other months they are sup- 
ported by the produce of the lands belonging to 
temples. The priests who have no such temples 
or lands, support themselves by begging alms, 
which, however, they do not ask for as the 
beggars, but they are only to wait in front of 
the house, and should any thing be offered, 
they ought to receive it, and if not, they go 
away, after having waited for a short while. 

When slaves are offered, the priests emanci- 
pate them, or appoint them as priests. 


List of different Shvoores or Priests'' Garments. 

Five cubits of cloth for the under garment. 

Seven cubits of cloth for another siwoore, 
worn above ditto. 

Six cubits of cloth, of one span broad, for a 

Twenty-four cubits of cloth, of five spans 
broad, for the maha-siwoore. 

Four cubits of cloth, of one cubit broad, for 
a band. 

Twenty - four cubits of cloth for another 

Sixty cubits of cloth will be sufficient for 
making the garments of the whole of the said 

One yard of cloth for a fan, which is made 
of the following kinds of cloth, viz. embroidered 
cloth, satin, velvet, or superfine scarlet cloth. 

Query — is it lawful for the Budhist Priests to be 
sworn to their testimony ? 

Although I knew that religion does enjoin 
no oath to be exacted of priests, yet for a better 



understanding of it, I referred myself to various 
books, which prevented my sending an earHer 
reply. I could find no passage of a priest hav- 
ing been compelled to take an oath, or of having 
himself done it, as priests are forbidden to lie ; so 
that a virtuous priest would never lie, but only 
those of degenerate principles ; which morality 
and immorality in priests may be discovered 
by those who are well versed in the religion ; 
but if the priest offending in the hke manner be 
an artful one, and his immoralities are such as 
not to be easily discovered, on account of his 
cunningness, the sincere professor of the religion 
may punish the priest so lying, according as reli- 
gion enjoins, by disclosing his purity or impurity. 
Endeavouring by all means to come at the truth, 
it is expedient to proceed in the investigation. 

The following books, namely, Samantapaw- 
sadicawa, Adicaranawinishayacanda, Sarartadie- 
pania, Wimatiwindania, and in the judgments of 
the books Winayalancaraya and Winayasangra- 
haya, contain as follows on this subject : — 

The Budhu priests are always bound to 
speak the truth, which is one of the ten com- 
mandments of Budhu ; as they ought to keep 


the ten commandments. It does not appear, in 
any of the books of the Budhu law, that priests 
should take their oaths to speak the truth ; in 
case of any doubt of their statements, they 
should say what they have stated is true, for 
avoidinsf such doubts. 

According to the rules of the Budhist reli- 
gion, the priests are to avow twice a-day that 
they would conform themselves to their com- 
mandments called Apat ; and by that means 
they are bound not to speak a lie, — the Budhus 
never deny the saying of the priest : but it does 
not appear in any book of that religion that 
priests are to be sworn. 

The proper method of preventing Budhists 
from forswearino;, would be to have a buildina: 
constructed in the neighbourhood of the court- 
house, under the name of Boodalle (house of 
Budhu), and Dewalle (house of gods), a part of 
which should consist of an image of Budhu, and 
a Bana-potta (a book containing doctrines of 
Budhu), and the other part to consist of the 
images of several deities adored by them, and to 
intrust the same to the care of a religious priest 
and a capoorawla, for the celebration of the 


different ceremonies which are performed in 
other temples and pagodas, so that it may be 
more binding on the minds of the Budhists, and 
the oath of a Budhist should be taken at the 
said building. 

Amongst Budhists there are some who be- 
lieve that perjuries will be punished in the 
world to come, whilst others are of a different 
opinion, na,mely, that perjuries are punished by 
the deities in this world only; and the finding 
out of these two different sorts of believers 
being impossible, we think it proper that the 
person whose oath is required, after having 
washed himself, should be sent to the above- 
said building, and there the priest should ex- 
plain to him the Pansil, or the five command- 
ments of Budhu, and then swear him on the 
Bana-potta, and on the image of Budhu, and 
afterwards that the capua should also swear him 
in like manner on the images of gods. 

As there are some persons who have little 
reflection of the punishment which will come 
upon them in this life, or in the next, for per- 
jury, it would be proper that such a person 
(after his character and conduct are ascertained 
by inquiry) should be ordered to take his oath at 
the said building, on the head of a child of him 
or her, according to the customary way. 



Note. — The important amelioration and improvement 
eftected in the civil code of Ceylon, by Sir Alexander 
Johnston, rendered it highly important to ascertain 
a legal mode of obtaining the testimony of Budhist 
priests ; and the foregoing detail not being satisfac- 
tory, tlie following were issued, which elicited the 
desired information. 

It is ordered that each magistrate do report 
to the court what form of oath he conceives to 
be the most binding upon the Budhist priests in 
his district. What form upon the other natives 
professing the Budhist rehgion, whether that of 
swearing them upon the halampe, or in the tem- 
ples, or that upon the head of their children or 
next of kin ; adding whatever information the 
said magistrate may be able to procure from the 
best-informed people in his district, specifying at 
the same time the names and situation of the 
different people from whom he obtained informa- 
tion on the subject. 

It is also ordered, that the magistrate do 
report what number of Budhist temples, or 
dewalles, or other places of worship, there may 
be in his district, specifying also the number of 
Mohammedan temples and schools, and the num- 
ber of Christian churches and schools ; and he 
will also add whether many or few of the people 
in his district are taught to read and to write, 
specifying whether the greatest number are 


taught to read and write by the Budhist priests 
at the Budhist temples, or at the Christian 
schools by the schoolmaster. 

Ceremony of Marriage as practised in Ceylon. 

The manner of marrying, according to the 
Cingalese custom, is, when a bridegi'oom comes, 
together with his relations, to the house of the 
bride's parents, for the purpose of marrying, there 
shall be spread a white cloth upon a plank called 
Magoolporoewe, and upon that white cloth 
there shall be scattered a small quantity of fresh 
rice, whereupon the bridegroom and the bride 
shall be put or carried upon the said plank by 
the uncle of the bride, who shall be on her 
mother's side — if there are none, by any other 
nearest relation — and afterwards there shall be 
delivered by the bridegroom to the bride a gold 
chain, a cloth, and a woman's jacket, besides 
which there shall be changed two rings be- 
tween them ; at the same time, the bridegroom 
gives a white catchy cloth to the mother of the 
bride, according to his capacity ; after which 
ceremony, and while the bridegroom on the 
right and the bride on the left are standing 
upon the said plank, by the uncle of the bride, 
or by any of her nearest relations, as above 
stated, shall be tied the two thumbs, one of the 
bride and one of the bridegroom, by a thread. 


and under the knot of the said thumbs there 
shall be holden a plate, and some milk or water 
poured upon the said knot, and then shall the 
bride be delivered to the bridegroom. In some 
places, the two little fingers of the bride and 
bridegroom are tied, and the said ceremony per- 
formed; and, in some places, a chain shall be 
put by the bridegroom on the bride's neck, a 
cloth be dressed, and then rings be changed. 
In some places the marriage is performed with- 
out these last - mentioned ceremonies. This 
manner of marrying of the people who are not 
Christians was admitted in the time of the Dutch 
government, on which account the rights of inhe- 
riting property are according to the Dutch law. 

Names of the Chief Viharis, or Budhu Temples, 
existing in Ceylon. 

Nammobooddaye Sallewe 

Saggamme Arrame 

Pasgamme Maddiliye 

Arrattene Dippittiye 

Maadan-walle Bampaney 

Wilwalle Kaariyegamme 

Kadde-dorre Gal-lelle 

Morre-paaye Aloot-nowere 

Dimboole Parrane-nowere 

Poosool-pittiye Maawelle 























































































S an Gjamoo-vibari 

















Deramene -pattelemehi- 




















O wager e-vihari 


* Welligamme-aggre- 


* Those marked with a star are in the Galle districts. 







































Trajislation of a Biidhist Tract on the merits of 
performing Biidhu's precepts. 

Question. — In case the dead can inherit the 
six habitations of the blessed, each by one par- 
ticular good act, it then rests only upon six 
particular pious acts ; are the other charitable 
acts then to be accomphshed in vain ? 


Atiszcer. — No mles of that kind appear in 
the precepts of the rehgion. 

The precepts of the rehgion that treat on this 
subject are, a person having renounced the ten 
sins, and hving as becomes the ten good acts, 
preserving in every respect the five moral ob- 
jects, who also dies in full possession of the 
same, vdth a desire at his departure to be born 
in any of the said blessed habitations, he will 
accordingly inherit it. 

The departure of a person suddenly from the 
present world will cause his future situation ac- 
cordinsf to the manner of his behaviour in it, 
either in a blessed habitation or a miserable one. 
The good acts are, the preservation of three 
faiths, eight pious acts, (the five moral objects 
inclusive), and farther, ten good acts, the above 
eis^ht included. 

This life is applicable to an individual not 
in the priesthood ; and if it be a priest of the 
inferior class of the denomination of Samanera, 
or Ganoon-nancy, he must live to the same 
dignity, or becoming the above principles, with 
the additional preservation of forty diff'erent good 
rules. The priests of the superior class, who 
are denominated Oepasampata, or Teroonancy, 
are to five a pious life to its utmost extent, in- 
dependent of the above-mentioned principles. 


Tract on the Castes hi Ceylon. 

There are four high castes, namely, Royal, 
Braminy, Real Chitty, and Vellala, or, as the 
Cingalese expresses. Raja, Bammunu, Wellanda, 
and Gowy. 

There are eighteen other inferior castes, de- 
nominated, in general terms, Naggar-akkarayo. 
The word naggarra means the city within 
which, and in such other divisions inhabited by 
any of the said four castes, they cannot reside ; 
and, as they are subjects of them, they are 
known by the general appellation of Naggar- 

The denominations which are applicable to 
each of the said castes, and the duties they are 
liable to, are as follow : — 

1st, Peesakaraye, namely, Hallagama or 
Chalia, subject to the government duty of car- 
rying palanquins, as also to peel cinnamon. 

2d, Carrawoo, namely, fishers. 

3d, Darawoo, namely chandos, liable to the 
government duty of training elephants. 

4th, Nawandanna, consisting of goldsmiths, 
blacksmiths, and carpenters. 

5th, Baddahallaya, namely, potters. 

6th, Raddawu, namely, washers. 

7th, Pannikky, namely, barbers. 


8th, Sommani, being leather-workmen and 

9th, Hakkm'oo, namely, jaggariers. 

10th, Hunnoo, namely, chmiam-bm-ners. 

11th, Berrawayo, being tom-tom beaters. 

12th, Ollie, liable to the duty of procuring 

13th, Kinnaru, hable to the duty of making 
bamboo baskets, rush mats, &c. 

14th, Padduwoo, subject to the duty of 
erecting walls of houses. 

15th, Gahalagambadayoo, subject to the 
duty of disposing or removing out of the city 
which is called Nuwara the corpses, and car- 
cases of elephants and other dead animals. 

16th, Pahe, hable to perform the duty of 
washers to the lowest castes. 

17th, Hinnawoo, being the washers of the 

18th, Roddy, subject to the duty of making 
ropes of leather, for tying elephants and other 

Of these eighteen castes, the 15th and 16th 
abovesaid are not in this part of the island. 


A short Description of the different Castes on 
the Island of Ceylon. 

Question. — Into how many different castes 
are the natives of this island divided ? 

Answer. — Exclusive of the Malabars, there 
were originally only four castes ; but, in pro- 
cess of time, the fourth of these castes was sub- 
divided into twenty-four different castes, making 
altogether twenty-seven castes. 

What are the names of those castes ? 

The four original castes were the Ksha- 
tria or Rajapoot caste, the Bramin caste, the 
Wysya or merchant caste, and the Kshudra or 
low caste. 

Into what castes was the said low caste 
divided ? 

The said Kshudra, or low caste, was divided 
into the four-and-twenty following castes, viz. : — 

1. The Goigama or Vellala caste, which is 
distinguished by the following names, viz. : — 
Khetta Jiewakayo, Kassakayo, Goyankaranno, 
Goigama Etto, Goi Bamuno, Goi Kulayo, Sandu- 
ruwo or Handuruwo, or, vulgarly, Wellalas, — 
which word comes fi^om the Malabar. 

2. The Halawgama, or Chalia caste, which is 


distinguished by the following names : Paisa- 
kara, Brahmanayo, Tantavayo, Paisacawrayo, 
Paihairo or Paihaira - kulayo, Salagamayo or 
Halagamayo, Mahabaddey - Etto, or, vulgarly, 

3. The Nawandanno, or goldsmiths, which is 
distinguished by the following names ; viz. 
Cammakarayo, Suwannakarayo, Ayokarayo, 
Achariyo, Gooroowarayo, Nawankaranno, Na- 
wandanno, Lokuruwo, and Kamburo. 

4. The Waduwo, or carpenters, are distin- 
guished by the following names ; viz. Tacha- 
kayo and Waduwo. 

5. The Mananno, or tailors, are distinguish- 
ed by the following names ; viz. Tunnawayo, 
Sochikayo, Sannawliyo, and Mahanno. 

6. The Radawo, or washers, are distinguish- 
ed by the following names ; viz. Ninne Jakaya, 
Rajakayo, Radau, Paihaira Haliyo, Paidiyo, 
and Hainayo. 

7. The Panikkayo, or barbers, are distin- 
guished by the following names ; viz. Cappa- 
kayo, Nahapikayo, KaiTanawiyo, Panikkiyo, and 

8. The Sanmahanno, or shoemakers, are 
distinguished by the following names ; viz. 
Chammarakarayo, Rattakarayo, Sommarayo, 
and Samwaduwo. 


9. The Chandos are distinguished by the 
names of Soiidikayo, Maggawikayo, Suraw- 
beejayo, Maddino, Surawo, and Durawo. 

10. The Potters are called by the names of 
Coombakarayo, Culawlayo, Pandittayo, Bada- 
Sellayo, and Cumballu or Cumbalo. 

11. The Fishers are called by the names of 
Wagurikayo, Jawlikayo, Kay-wattayo, Kaywulo, 
and Carawo. 

12. Shooters, or hunters, are called by the 
names of Weddo, Wanacharakayo. 

13. The Drummers, or tom-tom beaters, are 
called by the following names ; viz. Atodya- 
wadakayo, Bhera - wadakayo, Berawayo, and 

14. The Jagerers are distinguished by the 
following names ; viz. Hangarammoo, Sakuro 
or Pakuro, and Candey Etto. 

15. The Lime-burners are distinguished by 
the following names; viz. Chunna-karayo and 
Sunno or Hunno. 

16. Grass-cutters or branch-cutters for the 
elephants are distinguished by the following 
names ; viz, Pannayo and Jana Capanno. 

17. Iron -burners, or makers of iron from 
stone, are called Yamanayo. 

18. The Scavengers are called by the follow- 


ing names ; viz. Pookkoosayo, Pooplia, Chadda- 
kayo, and Gahalayo. 

19. Basket-makers are called by the follow- 
ing names ; viz. Cooloopotto^ Sinnawo, Hadayo, 
and Welwaduwo. 

20. Palankeen-bearers are distinguished by 
the following names ; viz. Paddo, Paduwo, and 
Batgama Etto. 

21. Flower - gardeners are called Mawla- 
cawrayo and Malcaruwo. 

22. Maskers, or masked dancers, are called 
Uhuliyo and Oliyo. 

23. Mat-weavers are called Pannakarayo, 
Cattakarayo, Tinakarayo, Kinnaru, and Haina- 

24. Rodias, or barbarians, are called Roga- 
dikayo, Adarmishtayo, Wasalayo, and Rodiyo. 

Some of these castes or classes of people 
have existed for the space of 2360 years, and 
others for only the space of 2120 years. 

Explanation of the above Names of the different 


1. The Kshatria. The meaning of this word 
is landlord or landowner. 


In the early ages of the world all meri were 
€qual, in consequence of which many conten- 
tions arose among them ; and, in order to pre- 
vent or appease their strifes, they elected a 
chief to govern them. To this chief they all 
submitted, and for his support they gave the 
one-tenth of all the produce of their lands ; and 
hence came the name of Kshatria or landlord. 

As this landlord endeavoured by all means 
to satisfy the people, they gave him the name 
of rajah, which word is derived from the word 
ranjite, to satisfy, and hence came the word 
rajah, which is considered as equivalent to king ; 
and as it was one of the Kshatria caste who 
became the first king of Ceylon, his name was 
changed from Kshatria to Rajah : and the kings 
of this island are called by the Cingalese Raj- 

2. Bramin or Brachman caste. The meaning 
of the word is to put away sin ; and hence in 
the said first ages of the world, such people as 
refrained fi'om sin were called Brahmanayo, or 
Bramins ; and as some of these men found their 
way to this island, and continued to reside 
herein, their name has been, by the Cingalese, 
changed from Brahmanayo to Bamino, which 
is, however, of precisely the same meaning. 

VOL. III. z 


3. The Wysya caste. The meaning of this 
word is to give and take, buy and sell, make 
merchandise, &c. ; and hence, in the beginning, 
people who made merchandise were called 
Wysyayo, and had three different modes of 
employment. The first was dealing or mer- 
chandising, the second was that of feeding 
cattle, and the third was tilling the gromid. 
Some of this description of people having come 
and dwelt in this island, their name has been, 
by the Cingalese, changed from Wysyayo to 
Welindo (merchant). 

In those days all who did not belong to the 
above description of people were called Kshu- 
drayo, that is, low people, and were divided into 
several classes ; and especially in Ceylon were 
divided as follows: — 

1. The Vellalas, because they lived by agri- 
culture, were called Kettau Jiewakayo : the word 
signifies livers by the field. 

Because they ploughed the land, they were 
called Kassakayo-ploughers ; because they sowed 
or cultivated rice, they were called Goyanka- 
ranno, sowers or cultivators of rice. 

Because they cultivated other grains, herbs, 
and vegetables, they were called Goiyo, or 
Goigama Etto, cultivators. 


Because they were not guilty of destroying 
the creatures, but Hved by agriculture alone, 
they were called Goi Bamuno, cultivating bra- 

Because they descended from ancestors who 
were cultivators of the soil, they were called 
Goikulayo, i. e. of the cultivating caste. 

In the cultivation of their lands they were 
subject to the scoffs and abuse of their ill- 
disposed neighbours; and because they bore 
such insults ^\^th patience, and did not retort, 
they were called Sanduruwo, i. e. the Pacific, or 
Sons of Peace. 

Sanduruwo and Handuruwo are the same. 

2. The people called Chalias. 

Because they were weavers of gold and 
silver thread, and refrained from every vicious 
practice, they were called Paisakara Brahma- 
nayo, i. e, gold and silver-weaving bramins. 

Because they stretched and ordered their 
warp, and wove it with weft, they were called 
Tantavayo, that is, yarn-stretching weavers. 

Because they wove gold and silver thread 
they were called Paisacawrayo, i.e, weavers of 
gold and silver thread : the same word changed 
into Cingalese, makes Paihairo. 

Because they were descended from the weaver 


caste they were called Salagamayo, i. e. of the 
weaver caste. 

The King of Dambadenia, in the Seven 
CorleS:, called Wathimi Biiwanaika Rajah, in 
order to establish a cloth manufactory, caused 
a third colony of weavers to be sent from Jam- 
budwipa (the continent), and appropriated to 
their use the place called Chilaw, and there they 
constructed spacious apartments, or halls, for the 
use of their manufactories, and hence they were 
called by the name of Salagamayo, that is, 
people who inhabit the large hall-village ; hence 
the word Chalia caste now commonly used ; and 
from this also came the name of the place 
Salawa, but now commonly called Chilaw. 

In the time of the Portuguese, the said 
people were taken to serve as cinnamon-peelers ; 
and as the cinnamon at that time was the prin- 
cipal source of revenue, it was called the great 
rent, which, in Cingalese, signifies Mahabadde, 
and hence the name of Mahabaddey-Etto, that 
is, people of the cinnamon department, was 
given to them. 

3. The Goldsmiths. 

Because they work in copper, brass, and 
silver, they are called Cammakarayo, which 
word signifies workers in metals, and because 


they work in gold, they are called Suwanna- 
karayo, which word signifies workers in gold. 

Because they work in iron they are called 
Ayokarayo, which word signifies workers in 
iron. As these people were found useful to 
society, they were complimented with the name 
of Achariyo, which word signifies masters, and 
is expressed in Cingalese by the word Gooroo- 
warayo, masters. 

Because they are in the habit of making 
old things new, they are called Nawankaranno, 
which word signifies makers of new; and be- 
cause they know how to make things new, they 
are called Nawandanno, that is, knowers of the 
art of making new things out of old. 

Because they melt their metal and form a 
vessel, they are called Lokuruwo, that is, foun- 
ders or makers of vessels with melted metal. 
They are sometimes called Cammaro, which word 
is a corruption of Camburo, which is a term of 
reproach given to them because they take em- 
ployment from high and low. Kamburanawa 
signifies to become subject or slave. 

4. The Carpenters. 

Because they smooth and carve wood they 
are called Tachakayo, which word signifies 
smoother or planer. 


Because by their workmanship they enhance 
the vahie of timber they are called Waduwo, 
that is, enhancers of value. 

N.B. The carpenters are in some places 
considered by many as belonging to the gold- 
smith caste, but this is not authorised by any 

5. The Tailors. 

Because they sew pieces of cloth together, 
they are called Tunnawayo, which word signi- 
fies weavers, or sewers of pieces ; because they 
work with a needle, they are called Sochikayo, 
that is, workers with the needle ; because they 
make armour or covering for the body with 
cloth, they are called Sannawliyo, that is, makers 
of cloth armour; and because they sew, they are 
called Mahanno, that is, sewers. 

6. The Washers. 

Because they restore to its former state 
what has been defiled, they are called Ninney 
Jakaya, that is, restorers. 

Because they remove the dust from the 
garment they wash, they are called Rajakayo, 
that is, removers of dust, and is expressed by 
the Cingalese word Radau. 

Because they make foul clothes clean, they 


are called Paihara Haliyo, that is, cloth- 

Because they take payment for their work, 
they are called Paidiyo, that is, takers of pay- 

Because they wash the foul linen of httle 
children, and thereby are supposed to obtain 
the affection of the child for whom they wash, 
they are called Hainayo, which is a corruption 
of Snaihayo, beloved persons. 

7. The Barbers. 

Because they cut the hair of the head and 
beard, they are called Cappakayo, that is, cut- 

Because they, by cutting the hair of the 
head and beard, create comfort to the mind, 
they are called Nahapikayo, that is, com- 

Because they use a razor, they are called 
Karranawiyo, that is, razor-users, or workers 
with the razor : because they cut the foliage of 
the head and beard, they are called Pannikkiyo, 
that is, leaf or foliage-cutters. 

Because, as ministers of the cabinet, they 
approach the person of the king, they are called 
Embettayo, that is, near approachers, or livers 


8. The Shoemakers. 

Because they dress skins, they are called 
Chammakarayo, that is, skin-dressers, or workers 
in skin ; because they make harness for chariots 
(or carriages), they are called Rattakarayo, that 
is, carriage-makers, which is expressed in Cinga- 
lese by the word Sommarayo; and because 
they do to skins what carpenters do to timbers, 
they are called Samwaduwo, that is, skin-car- 

9. The Chando caste. 

Because they extract toddy from the trees, 
which makes all hearts glad; and because the 
man who first made the discovery of this art 
was called Soudamakaya, they are called Sou- 
dikayo, that is, producers of lust. 

Because they sell toddy, which intoxicates, 
they are called Maggawikayo, that is, venders 
of intoxication. 

Because they furnish toddy for the bakers, 
they are called Surawbeejayo, that is, toddy- 
makers, or producers of good taste. 

Because they prune the trees, they are called 
Madinno, that is, pruners. 

Because they furnish men with toddy, which 
inspires generous sentiments, they are called 
Surawo, that is, givers of pleasant taste. 


Because evil is often the consequence of in- 
toxication from toddy, they are called Diu'awo, 
that is, producers, or givers of the evil-producing 

10. The Potters. 

The first two potters were called the one 
Coombeya and the other Culala, and therefore 
the potters are called Coombakarayo and Cu- 
lawlayo, after the said two men. 

Because they make their wares according to 
their own fancy, without any previous form, they 
are called Pandittayo, that is, wise men. 

Because they burn their wares in places or 
halls close to their dweUing-houses, they are 
called Bada Sellayo, that is, possessors of near 

The name Cumballu, by which they are 
sometimes called, is derived from Koomba- 

11. The Fishers. 

Because they are in the habit of wading and 
working in the water, they are called Wagu- 
rikayo, that is, workers or dealers in the 

Because they make use of nets, they are 
called Jawlikayo, that is, workers with nets. 


Because in fishing they surround the water, 
they are called Kay-wattayo, that is, surrounders 
of water. 

The name Kay wulo, by which they are some- 
times called, is derived from Kaywattayo ; be- 
cause they have their dwellings along the shore, 
they are called Carawo, that is, shore-people, or 
dwellers on the shore. 

12. The Shooters. 

In order to escape from oppression, or from 
being tormented, having taken refuge in the 
jungle, where they live by kilhng the creatures, 
they are called Weddo, that is, tormentors ; and 
as they pass their time in the jungle or wilder- 
ness, they are called Wanacharakayo, that is, 
w^ild men, or men of the desert. 

13. The Berawayas, diTimmers or tom-tom- 
mers, having been first appointed to do this duty 
by the minister called Atodya, who himself made 
and played on the first timbrel or drum with one 
head, which also was called by his name, they 
are called Atodya-wadakayo, that is, tormentors 
or beaters of the Atodya, or drum with one head; 
and because they beat the baira, or tom-tom, 
they are called Berawayas, or Berawayo, that is, 
tom-tom beaters ; and because they are astro- 


logers or calculators of the motions of the pla- 
nets, they are called Ganitayo, that is, counters 
or calculators. 

14. The Jagerers. 

Because they make cakes of sugar or jagery 
as hard as stone, they are called Sakuro, or Pa- 
kuro, that is, stone-makers. 

Because they defend or take care of the gar- 
dens of the priesthood, and because they take 
their o^vn sisters as wives, they are called San- 
garammu, which word has a double meaning : it 
signifies, in the first place, defenders of the gar- 
dens of the priesthood ; and, in the second place, 
cohabitors with sisters, or with own blood. 

And because they hve on the mountains, 
they are called Candey Etto, that is, Candians 
or mountaineers. 

15. The Lime-burners. 

Because they burn and reduce to powder 
stones and trees, they are called Chunna-karayo, 
that is, reducers to powder ; and the same thing 
is expressed by Sunno or Hunno, by which 
names the said people are called. 

16. Grass or Branch-cutters. 

Because they cut down branches and leaves 



from the trees to feed the elephants, they are 
called Pannayo, that is, leaf-gatherers, leaf-cut- 
ters, or leaf-strippers ; and because they cut 
grass for horses, they are called Jana Capanno, 
that is, grass-cutters. 

17. Iron-makers. 

Because they understand how to burn iron, 
they are called Yamanayo, that is, iron-creators 
or iron-makers. 

18. The Scavengers. 

Because they gather the dirt of a city, they 
are called Pookkoosayo, that is, removers of the 
city dirt. 

Because they carry away the faded flowers 
from the altars of the gods, they are called 
Pupphachaddakayo, that is, casters away of 

Because they throw away the dirt, they are 
called Kasalayo, that is, throwers away of dirt. 

But the Cingalese, changing the k into g, 
and the permutable s into h, generally call them 

19. The Basket-makers. 
Because they make winnowers with the 
peeling of bamboo -cane and reed, they are 


called Cooloopotto, that is, peeling winnower- 

Because they weave or plait their materials, 
they are called Hadayo, that is, plaiters. 

Because they work with or make articles 
with rods, they are called Welwaduwo, that is, 

Because they cut and bring home their ma- 
terials, they are called Sinnawo, that is, cutters. 

20. The Paduwas or Palankeen-bearers. 

Because they reap the fields of grain for a 
certain proportion thereof, which proportion, 
amounting to one-fifth of the whole, is called 
Walahana, that is, hire, they are called Baddo, 
of which word the h being changed to p, makes 
it Paddo ; and hence comes Paduwo, that is, 

Because the villages which are possessed by 
the king, and which produce a great deal of 
rice, are given to be cultivated by these people, 
they are called Batgammu, or Batgamayo, or 
Batgama Etto, that is, rice-village people. 

N.B. Bat signifies boiled rice, not raw. 

21. The Flower-gardeners. 
Because they cultivate, string, and make 
garlands, or chains of flowers, they are called 


Mawlaca^vl'ayo, that is, chain-makers. The 
same word has been turned into Malcaruwo, 
which imphes chain- makers, and also flower- 

22. Maskers, or Masked Dancers. 
Because they appear with masked faces, 

make gestures, &:c., they are called Uhuliyo ; 
and, by permutation of characters, the same word 
is turned into Oliyo, that is, disguised actors or 

23. Mat-weavers. 

Because they weave a kind of leaves, they 
are called Pannakarayo, that is, leaf-workers. 

Because they beat some kinds of trees till 
they become of a woolly substance, which sub- 
stance they take and make into mats, they are 
called Cattakarayo, that is, workers in hard 
matter, or in wood. 

Because they make some kinds of grass into 
mats, they are called Tinakarayo, that is, workers 
in grass ; and by changing the ti into hi, and 
doubhng the n, and suppressing the k, and by 
changing the ra into ru, the Cingalese call them 
Kinnaru, which signifies the same thing — work- 
ers in grass. 

Because they make some mats with fringed 


selvedges, they are called Hainawalayo, that is, 

24. The Rodias. 

Because they, being lepers, were driven into 
the wilderness, where they remained separate 
from society, they were called Rogadikayo, that 
is, incurable sick men. 

Because they were addicted to bestiality, they 
were called Adarmishtayo, that is, unrighteous 

Because they are inferior, and subject to all 
people, they are called Wasalo or Wasalayo, 
that is, subject to all. 

The name Rodia is a corruption of Roga- 
dikyo. — N. B. The delivering any person to the 
Rodias is reckoned the greatest degi'adation. 
In former days, when the king happened to be 
displeased with any of his concubines, this was 
the punishment inflicted on the offender: — A 
Rodia being called, he was told to take the 
offender in charge, which he did by taking the 
betel from his own and putting it into her 
mouth; after which she was obhged to remain 
among the Rodias till death. 

That the above-mentioned difference of caste 
has obtained in the island of Ceylon, from the 


preceding dates, appears in different books. But 
with regard to the Vellalas, it is to be observed, 
that since the time of Parakrama Bahu Rajah, 
who reigned about 800 years ago, they have 
assumed the title of high caste. 

As one of the employments of the merchant 
caste was to till the ground, they claimed affinity 
with them, and, instead of three, they now enu- 
merate four noble castes ; viz. the Rajah caste, 
the Brahman caste, the Merchant caste, and the 
Vellala or Goigama caste, and all the rest they 
call Kshudra or low ; which assumption, how- 
ever, is not countenanced by any wiitten autho- 
rity whatever, but, on the contrary, is represent- 
ed in the books as inconsistent and improper. 

Time and circumstances have introduced 
some alterations with regard to rank and pre- 
cedency among the natives of Ceylon, though 
divided according to the above classification by 
the most ancient writings. 

According to the present bias which rests 
on the minds of the natives, the different castes 
rank as follows : — 

1. The vellala, or goigama. 

2. The halagama, or cinnamon-peelers. 

3. The fishers. 

4. The chandos. 

5. The shooters. 


6. The goldsmiths. 

7. The carpenters. 

8. The tailors. 

9. The potters. 

10. The washers. 

11. The barbers. 

12. The shoemakers. 

13. The lime-bm-ners. 

14. The basket-makers. 

15. The jagerers. 

16. The berawayas, or drummers. 

17. The maskers, or actors. 

18. The grass-cutters. 

19. The iron-makers. 

20. The palankeen-bearers, 

21. The flower gardeners. 

22. The scavengers. 

23. The mat-weavers. 

24. The rodias; which, added to the three 
noble castes, make in all twenty-seven castes. 

Among these castes, the Vellalas and the 
Chalias contend who are the most honourable, 
but though the first say we are high, and the 
second say we are high, it must be acknow- 
ledged, that, according to the usage which ob- 
tains in Ceylon, the Vellalas is the higher of 
the two. 



But it is not only between the Vellala and 
the Cliaha castes that there is a contest for 
honour ; the Fishers and Chandos are equally 
jealous of one another ; and from thence down 
to the Rodia, there is a constant strife among 
the Cingalese for honour. 

Some account of the world, of mankind, of the ge- 
nerations of man, of the division of castes, and 
particularly of the Pesa Cowra Brahmania, 
now called the Mahabadda, or Chalia caste, as 
taken from the books of the ancient magi, or 
wise men, and the whole histories of the Bud- 

As appears in the book called Derga Nekha, 
in the book called Angotra Nekha Jutaka 
Atuwawa, as stated by Budhu himself, and in 
the book called Sawrasangraya, it appears, as 
said by the rahatoons (deified men), that this 
world having been annihilated was again formed, 
not made ; but when the same was void, hke the 
space within the rim of a timbrel, or a dark 
house, in which state there were a kela of lacses 
of unformed worlds, while darkness so per- 
vaded all, it came to pass, that like as trees in 


their season put forth their flowers and yield 
their fruits without abortion, so in due time 
Brahma descended from the Brahma-Loka, or 
highest heaven, which decayeth not, nor is sub- 
ject to decay, and with the hght of his own body 
illumined the dark abyss which now constitutes 
this world, and walking in the heavens, joyed in 
the possession of his glory. 

In the book, called Sumangala Wilasina 
Atuwawa, and in Tikawa, or explanation of the 
said book, it is written, that in the aforesaid 
manner, one Brahma, and then another, from 
time to time descended and dwelt in the heavens, 
and from the self-inherent virtue of the said 
Brahmas, this world below became sweet as the 
honey of the honey-bee. 

It having so happened, it came then to pass, 
that one of the Brahmas, beholding the earth, 
said to himself, what thing is this ? and with one 
of his fingers having touched the earth, put it 
to the tip of his tongue, and perceived the same 
to be deliciously sweet ; from which time all the 
Brahmas ate of the sweet earth for the space of 
60,000 years. In the meantime, having coveted 
in their hearts the enjoyment of this world, they 
began to say one to another, this part is mine 
and that is thine ; and so fixing boundaries to 
their respective shares, divided the earth between 


them. On account of the Brahmas havmg been 
guilty of tliis covetousness, the earth lost its 
sweetness, and then it came to pass that the 
earth brought forth a production called Parpa- 
taka, a kind of mushroom ; and these mushrooms 
the Brahmas ate for the space of 15,000 years ; 
and ha\ing again coveted distinct shares of the 
earth so producing mushrooms, and ha^ing, as 
in the former case, appointed limits to their re- 
spective shares, the earth ceased to yield any 
more mushrooms. 

After this the earth produced a kind of 
creeping plant called Badralataw, and this plant 
the Brahmas enjoyed for the space of 35,000 
years, and then, in the same manner as before, 
the earth ceased to produce the said plant. 

The earth next produced a kind of tree 
called Calpa Warkshia, which trees the Brahmas 
enjoyed for 2,200,000 years, and then, in the 
same manner as before, the earth ceased to pro- 
duce calpa-trees. 

The earth then produced a kind of grain- 
rice which was void of all husk ; and this grain 
the Brahmas enjoyed for the space of 35,000 
years, and then, as before, the earth ceased to 
yield the said grain. 

The earth then produced another kind of 
rice-grain, also without any husk ; and this the 


Brahmas enjoyed for 60,000 years, and then, 
in consequence of the covetousness of the 
Brahmas, the earth ceased to yield the said 
grain again. It is ^vritten in the abovesaid 
books, and in the books of ancients, called Ja- 
namansa and Soottoottara, &c., that because of 
the sons of the Brahmas having greatly in- 
creased, and because of their having used sub- 
stantial food, the light which once shone in their 
bodies was extinguished, and also the different 
qualities of matter began to grow in them, and 
their lustful desires began likewise to increase, 
and then there began to appear a race of women, 
men, and hermaphrodites, and lusting the one 
after the other prevailed. 

It then came to pass, that some Brahmas 
who were more virtuously inclined, disapproved 
of the sexual depravity, and separating them- 
selves from the rest, repaired into the wilder- 
ness, and from them proceeded what is now 
called the Brahma or Bramin caste, which caste 
was, in process of time, divided again into three 
castes ; and on account of their having originally 
descended from the heaven called Brahma-Loka, 
and having preserved their purity, they are still 
called the Brahma, or Bramin cast. 

The three castes into which the said Brah- 
mas were divided are called — 


1st. Soama Brahmas. 
2d. Waida Brahmas. 
3d. Paisakawra Brahmas. 

The Soama Brahmas, are so called from 
their excellence in wisdom and knowledge, and 
on account of their virtuous lives, through which 
they meet with the favour and esteem of kings 
and great men, who choose them for their in- 

The Waida Brahmas are those who devote 
themselves to the study of the mysteries of their 
rehgion, which consist in sympathies and charms, 
and by virtue of which they perform charitable 
cm*es in the bodies of the distressed. 

The Paisakawra Brahmas are those who 
wear cloths of gold and silk, and costly gar- 
ments. These Brahmas having descended from 
heaven, ha^dng from the light of their own 
bodies ilhmiined the obscure, and having de- 
praved themselves to such a degree that from 
gods they became men, found themselves at 
last involved in darkness, and then they all, 
with one mind, began to deplore their fallen 
state, and desired light as a blessing, upon 
which the sun came into existence. 

On the same day that the sun began to 
shine, a virtuous Brahma v/as born, who was 
therefore called the Son of the Sun ; and the sun 


having shined thirty (Indian) hours, did set, 
and then it became again dark. Whereupon the 
Brahmas, with one accord, desired to have ano- 
ther hght, and then was born or came into exist- 
ence the meek and gentle moon. 

In this manner the Brahmas were once 
glorious and happy, and fell fi'om that glory ; 
and again, through their virtuous actions, ob- 
tained many blessings, and by their industry 
in cultivating the ground, &c., acquired great 
riches. But then it came to pass, that they began 
to covet and steal the goods of one another, 
in consequence of which, quarrels and discord 
took place ; on which account some of the wise 
men amongst them assembled together, and took 
counsel how they might prevent the said evils ; 
and having drawn many people together, repre- 
sented that it was because they had no ap- 
pointed chief to govern them that the said 
troubles happened to them, which they were 
obliged to suffer. 

A resolution was accordingly made to elect 
a chief, who should reign over them, and protect 
the good and punish the wicked ; and, accord- 
ingly, as the abovesaid Son of the Sun was re- 
puted virtuous above all the rest, they elected 
him to be their king, assuring him, that whoever 
would not obey his laws they themselves would 


punish and correct ; and, therefore, from that 
day he was called Malia Sammata Rajaroowo, 
that is, by the general voice of the people elected 

From the time that the Brahmas descended 
to this lower world, until the day that the Son 
of the Sun was elected king, was forty-three 
hundred and twenty thousand years. 

In the above-mentioned book (and as was 
said by the rahatoons in the book called Maha 
Puja Waha, and in the book called Choola 
Nerdese and Maha Nerdesa) we find it came 
to pass, that in process of time the royal caste of 
Rajah Wangsa was divided into five parts ; and 
it also happened, that those who maintained 
themselves by merchandising were called mer- 
chants, and they were likewise divided into two 
classes. Exclusive of those already mentioned, 
all the rest of the world were considered low, 
and called low-caste people. 

Of these four castes, namely, the Brahmas' ; 
secondly, the King's caste ; thirdly, the Mer- 
chants' caste ; and fourthly, the low caste, it 
sometimes happened that the Brahmas were 
considered the highest caste, and sometimes 
that the King's caste was considered highest. 

Accordingly, it appears in the book called 
Dampaya, as having been said by Budhu, and 


in the book called Atuwawa, as having been 
said by the Atuwachary (the authors of the said 
book), as follows : — 

That in the quarter of the world called 
Jambu-dwipa, one of the PaisakawTa, or weaver 
Brahmas, named Huma Sena, was made a 
king; and in the book called Dhirga Nicaw 
Tiecawa, it appears as having been said by the 
rahatoons, that another of the Paisakawra Brah- 
mas, named Jaishta, was also made a king ; and 
in the books called Wangsa, Dupikaya, Soottool- 
laria, and Sooroo Namakia, as having been said 
by the ancients, that the castes rank next to 
each other in the following manner; viz. first, 
the Rajah Brahmas ; secondly, the Paisakawra 
Brahmas ; thirdly, the Merchants ; fourthly, the 
Grahapatias, or husbandmen ; and so on, from 
one to another. And accordingly, in the coun- 
tries called Makanda Rata, Maha Patuna Rata, 
Cawsia Rata, Grandhawra Rata, Sooloopata 
Rata, all belonging to the aforesaid quarter 
of the world, called Jambu-dwipa, there were 
no fewer than thirty-five of the Paisakawra 
Brahmas made king; and that in the country 
called Sagala Nuwara, also belonging to the 
same quarter of the world, there was a man of 
the Merchant caste, called Melindoo, made a 
king ; and again, that in the country called 


Caoroo Rata, there was another man of the 
Merchant caste, called Maha Damila, who was 
made king, and reigned in the city called In- 
depat Nuwara ; and in many other books it 
appears, that of the aforesaid two castes, many 
were promoted to the first dignities in many 
places. With regard to the common castes, 
it appears in the book that some individuals 
have been promoted to courtly stations, but it 
nowhere appears that any one ever was made 
a king from the abovesaid two castes. 

Having thus said something which, according 
to the ancient books, took place in Jambu- 
dwipa, we turn to speak of what took place in 
Ceylon. This Ceylon, as appears in many 
books, belongs to Jambu-dwipa, which is one 
quarter of the world, and contains 100 yoduns, 
(one yodun is equal to sixteen miles), and was, 
for a great length of time, a mere wilderness, 
and an abode of devils. While in this state, 
it came to pass that a king called Sinhabau 
Rajah, of Wagoo Rata, in Jambu-dwipa, had 
a son whose name was Wijaya, who began 
to oppress and torment the people of that 
country; which behaviour came at last to the 
ears of his father, who then called to mind 
that it was written in the book called Angotra 


Sanjaya, as having been prophesied by Budhii, 
that this prince, his son, was to become king of 
Ceylon ; he thereupon called his son, and, toge- 
ther with 700 giants, which were born on the 
same day with the prince himself, put him on 
board ship, and sent him Nto Ceylon, which at 
that time bore the name of Srilaka. Whilst 
yet in the midst of the sea, the prince lifted up 
his eyes and beheld the mountain Samanta 
Coota, that is, Adam's Peak, and concluded in 
his mind that this was an island which properly 
belonged to him and his followers ; and, having 
made the shore of Ceylon, this prince and his 
giants landed at a haven called Tammene Totta 
(said to be near Manaar), and there took up 
his abode. From hence this prince sent pre- 
sents to the country called Pawndy Rata; 
whence, in return for his presents, he obtained 
a princess to wife, with 700 women, and ser- 
vants of the five sorts, in her train. This 
princess he crowned as his queen, and made her 
the first of his consorts; and the 700 women 
who came in her train he gave as wives to the 
700 giants who attended and came with him 
from Jambu-dwipa. While reigning as king in 
this country, he sent many ambassadors and 
presents to the King of Pawndy Rata, in Jambu- 
dwipa ; and having brought over many brahmas 


to this country, he conferred on them many 
honom's ; snpphed them with elephants, horses, 
chariots, miibrellas, canopies, gold, pearls, pre- 
cious stones, and other kind of precious trea- 
sure, and also abundance of lands ; besides 
which, he raised them to great power in the 
country : and thus commanding universal re- 
spect, those brahmas made their abode in this 
island. The said king, when he had reigned 
thirty-eight years, went to the other world. 

Since that time till this day the descendants 
of the said king sat on the throne of Ceylon, 
as appears in the books called Bodi-wansa, 
Maha-wansa, and Raja-waly. 

It further appears by the said books, and 
also by the books called Jana-wansa, made by 
the rahatoons and the ancient people, that the 
second king of Ceylon w^as Deweny Paetissa 
Rajah ; and that in his time the King of Jambu- 
dwipa and Darma Soka Rajah sent as a pre- 
sent to the King of Ceylon the bo-tree ; and to 
100 of the Paisa brahmas, mth a chief man 
over them, whom he sent at the same time, 
he gave presents of pearls and precious stones, 
elephants and horses, &c. And when they 
arrived at Ceylon, the said King of Ceylon 
receiving them with great joy, bestowed upon 
them twice as much as the King of Jambu- 


dvvipa had done, and many villages and fields, 
and great honours, and made them manufacture 
fine cloths. 

It appears also m the books called Sacra- 
nawata\\Ta, and Raja Ratnacari written by the 
ancients, that a king of Ceylon, called Wijaya 
Prawkrama Balm, who held his court at the 
city of Dambadeny, sent presents of precious 
stones to the country called Soly Rata, and 
caused several expert Paisa brahmas to come 
from thence to Ceylon, and conferred on them 
lands, and male and female slaves, elephants 
and horses, pearls and precious stones, and dif- 
ferent kinds of treasure, and great honours ; and 
then taking up their abode in this country, 
were treated with great respect by the hus- 
bandmen of Graha Patty Brahma, that is, the 

The second Paisa brahmas who were 
brought for the first time during the reign 
of Wijaya Rajah, and those who came for the 
second time under the reign of Deweny Paetissa 
Rajah, having in process of time lost their ex- 
pertness at weaving, betook themselves to the 
cultivation of their lands, in order to find a 
maintenance, and lived by that means. 

The Paisa brahmas who for the third time 
came with the king called Wijaya Prawkrama 


Bahu Rajah, are the people now called Chalias, 
of the Mahabadda. These Paisa brahmas, at 
their arrival on this island, obtained villages 
from the king, where they erected their working- 
shops, or mandoos, for their looms, which 
shops were called Sawlawa (signifying hall or 
salle) ; from which circmnstances it came to pass 
that the name of Paisakawra Brahma fell into 
disuse, and, instead thereof, the name of Saw- 
lawgama was usually adopted. 

It came to pass, after these Paisa brahmas 
had continued for a great length of time to 
manufactm-e their cloths, that, from the small- 
ness of the island, and the dearth of gold thread 
and silk, the said branch began to decline, and 
very few cloths were manufactured ; and at 
last, in the time of the king called Buwanaika 
Bahu Rajah, the King of Portugal established 
himself on this island, and made forts ; and 
after the said Portuguese began to govern, they 
thought proper to make the cinnamon an article 
of revenue, and then it happened that the said 
Paisa brahmas, or people of Hawlagame, were 
appointed to that service ; and accordingly the 
said branch of government service began to be 
carried on by the said people. 

Now it is to be observed, that any article 
set apart for the use of the king, or his stores. 


or fi'om which any revenue is derived, is called 
in Cingalese Badda ; and as the cinnamon of 
this island was soon found to be the chief article 
of the revenue, and more profitable than any 
other branch of revenue whatsoever, the same 
was distinguished by the name of Mahabadda, 
or chief revenue, and the people employed in 
that department are called the people of Maha- 
badda to this day. And hence it follows, that 
although the said Paisa brahmas, or Chalias, 
amongst the numerous tribes that are in Ceylon 
are but few in number, yet they are by no 
means a low people, — 

1st, Because, according to the doctrine of 
Budhu, w^hen the king of the gods, Sakkraia, 
who brings much good to the world, chooses 
to take upon himself the form of a man, it is 
in the form of a Paisakawra Brahma that he 
chooses to appear ; which Budhu himself de- 
clares in the books called Coodhaka Nikawya, 
and in the books called Jutaka. 

2ndly, Because, in many other books of the 
Budhist religion, the said people are spoken of 
as a noble and renowned caste ; and because 
that in Jambu-dwdpa many of the said caste 
have obtained the dignity of kings ; and be- 
cause also that in Jambu - dwipa many of the 
said caste were promoted to the highest and 


principal stations; and because it is written in 
the books called Soottootara Suranamaka and 
Wansa Dipicaya, that many of the said caste 
succeeded each other as kings of their respective 
countries ; and because the Budhus and the 
Chakrawarty Rajas always proceed from this 
caste, and no other. Because it is written in 
the said book called Sooranamaka, that the first 
caste is the Sastria Brahmas, the second is the 
Paisa Brahmas, and the third is the Wysya, 
and the fourth the Grahapatties, or Vellalas ; 
and because it is written in the Malabar books 
of their ancient kings and histories, that the said 
ca'ste is noble and dignified; and also because 
that, even in this country, till a short time ago, 
the said caste, or, as they are now called, 
Chalias, were privileged in such a manner that 
they were not obliged to pay any tax or duty 
whatsoever, either upon their merchandise, 
their landed property, or any thing else what- 
soever; and because they, the said Chalias or 
Paisa brahmas, were in like manner exempted 
from paying any toll or ferry-money at any 
gravetts or ferry to which they might come; 
and because the said people, however poor they 
may be, will not serve any other people than 
the government, or those who govern ; and, 
lastly, because the people of this caste in par- 



ticular will hold no intimacy with any but 
themselves, in order thereby to preserve their 
honour unsullied ; also to their ruler they are 
faithful and constant, and are continually em- 
ployed by, and are the most faithful servants 
of, government. 




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