(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Main drainage works of the city of Boston (Massachusetts, U.S.A.)"

Plate XVI. 




K 


K''~\ y 


IJh 


^f: 


■•■X . 


(D 


^' 


• 


M 


( 


* V - 


5! 


•i\ 


"r-^.v/ 


a 


■ V 


•■f ,.> ' 


? 


1 


■.'•*■■*»■>• 


Q 


? 


» .*. . ,<^ • 1. 


C 


'.',« 


'N''V ,' ' ' 


■p-< 

53 



MAIN DMINAGE WORKS 



OP THE 



CITY OF BOSTON 



(3fASSA CIIUSETTS, U. S.A. ) 



ELIOT C. CLARKE 

Principal Assistant Engineer, in charge 
THIRD EDITION" 




BOSTON 
ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL, CITY PRINTERS 

No. 39 ARCH STREET 
18 8 8 



CITY OF BOSTON. 



In Boabd of Aldermen, ilay 11, 1885. 
Ordered, That the Committee ou Improved Sewerage prepare and have printed a history of 
the works under their charge, at an expense not exceeding $1,500, to be charged to the appropria- 
tion for Improved Sewerage. 

Passed in Common Council. Came up for concurrence. Concurred. Approved by the 
Mayor, May 13, 1885. 
A true copy. 

Attest: JOHN T. PRIEST, 

Ass't City Clerk. 



In Board op Aldermen, Sept. 14, 1885. 
Ordered, That the Clerk of Committees be authorized to prepare and print one thousand addi- 
tional copies of the " Report on Main Drainage," with an appendix giving a digest of the action 
of the City Council in originating and prosecuting the work upon the sj'stem of Improved 
Sewerage; the expense thus incurred to be charged to the appropriation for Improved 
Sewerage. 

Passed. Sent down for concurrence. September 18, came up concurred. Approved by the 
Mayor, September 22, 1885. 
A true copy. 

Attest: JOHN T. PRIEST, 

Ats't City Clerk. 



In Board of Aldermen, Oct. 12, 1885. 
Ordered, That the tHerk of Committees be authorized to have two hundred copies of tlie 
"Report on Main Drainage " printed, in addition to the number he is already authorized to 
print, by an order passed September 22,1885; and the City Messenger is hereb5' authorized 
to place said copies on sale in his office at the price of one dollar and twenty-five cents each, the 
proceeds of such sale to be credited to the appropriation for Improved Sewerage. 

Passed. Sent down for concurrence. October 15, came up concurred. Approved by the 
Mayor, October 19, 1885. 
A true copy. *:i.^:_^- — 

Attest: JOHN T. PRIEST, 

^ssV City Clerk. 



In Board of Aldermen, Dec. 27, 1887. 
Ordered, That the Clerk of Committees be authorized to have an additional fifteen hundred 
copies of the " Report on Main Drainage Works " printed; the expense thus incurred to be 
charged to the appropriation for Improved Sewerage, and that ten copies be given to each 
member of this government. 

Passed. Sent down for concurrence. 



In Common Council, Dec. 29, 1877. 
Concurred. 

Approved by the Mayor, December 31, 1887. 
A true copy. 

Attest: . JOHN T. PRIEST, 

AssH City Clerk. 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/maindrainagework00clar2 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 



The desirability of reprinting tlie " History of the Main 
Drainage Works " became manifest on account of the unabated 
demand for the booli amono- enofineers and scientific men both 
in this country and abroad. The City Engineer, in his request 
to the City Council for another edition of the book, says : — 

"There is a constant demand for copies of this book, both 
from citizens and from others, the work having, in addition to 
its interest as a description of an important local improvement, 
a great value to the engineering profession and to municipali- 
ties contemplating similar improvements." 

The only changes to be found in the new reprint are in the 
Appendices ; the financial statement being continued to the 
present date, and additions being made in the list of officials 
and committees of the City Council connected with the work. 

J. L. H. 

City Hall, Boston, 1887. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



The second edition of this work was ordered by the City 
Council to meet the pressing calls for copies which were con- 
tinually being received. This edition is an exact reprint of the 
first, with the addition, in Appendix B, of a review of the action 
of the City Council in regard to the origin and progress of the 
work. The disconnected character of the review will be ac- 
counted for, when it is understood that the Committee on 
Improved Sewerage, appointed each year, had practically the 
entire charge of the work, and exercised full executive powers in 
regard to contracts, general construction, and the employment 
of labor ; while the City Council was merely called upon to act 
in regard to matters that required legislation, the settlement of 
claims, the taking of lands, and general questions in regard to 
the methods of carrying on the work. The extensive powers 
of the Committee were set aside by the law amending the City 
Charter, Acts of 1885, Chap. 266, which went into effect June 
26, 1885. 

J. L. H. 

City Hall, Boston, 1885. 



PEEPACE TO EIEST EDITION. 



This brief description of the Main Drainage' Works, of Bos- 
ton, aims to record, for the benefit of engineers, an account of 
the engineering problems involved and the methods of construc- 
tion adopted. It also aims to give to the tax-payers and gen- 
eral public a descriptive account of why the large appropriation 
for "An Improved System of Sewerage" was needed, and how 
it has been spent. By attempting to accomplish both of these 
purposes it fulfils neither of them adequately ; since one class 
of readers will find it too technical, and the other too deficient 
in detail. It has been prepared amid pressing engagements, 
and to save time the writer has not hesitated to borrow freely 
from previous reports, by himself and others. Traces of such 
compilation will, doubtless, be noticed by the discerning. It is 
hoped that a fair idea of the works can be obtained from the 
illustrations ; and that the description, even by its defects, may 
encourage other engineers to publish, as they too seldom do, 
accounts of works with which they have been connected. 

E. C. C. 

City Hall, Boston, April, 1885. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Early History of Sewerage at Boston 13 



CHAPTER II. 
Character and Defects of the old Sewerage System ... 18 

CHAPTER III. 
Movements for Reform-commission of 1875 23 

CHAPTER IV. 
Preliminary Investigations ......... 28 

CHAPTER V. 
Main Sewer ............ 37 

CHAPTER VI. 
Intercepting Sewers ......... 43 

CHAPTER VII. 

PUMPING-STATION ........... 59 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Outfall Sewer 68 

CHAPTER IX. 

Reservoir and Outlet .......... 82 

CHAPTER X. 

Details of Engineering and Construction ..... 89 



12 CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XI. 

PAGE 

Working op the New System ........ 99 



APPENDIX A. 

Record of Tests of Cement made for Boston Main Drainage 

Works 119 

APPENDIX B. 

Review op Action of the City Council in Regard to the Origin 

AND Progress of the Work 146 

APPENDIX C. 
Pumping-Engine Tests 199 

APPENDIX D. 

List op Officers connected with Boston Main Drainage Works . 214 



MAIN DRAINAGE WOEKS. 



CHAPTER I. 

EAELY HISTORY OF SEWERAGE AT BOSTON. 

The conditions which necessitated a change in the system of 
sewage disposal at Boston, and the problems to be solved in 
making that change, can be better understood after a brief con- 
sideration of the early history of sewerage at that city and the 
manner in which the sewers were originally built. 

Boston was first settled in 1630. When the first sewer was 
built cannot now be determined, but it was earlier than the 
year 1700, for already, in 1701, the population being about 
8,000, a nuisance had been created by frequent digging up of 
streets to lay new sewers and to repair those previously built : 
and in town meeting, September 22, 1701, it was ordered, 
" That no person shall henceforth dig up the Ground in any of 
the Streets, Lanes or High-ways in this Town, for the laying or 
repairing any Drain, without the leave or approbation of two 
or more of the Selectmen." 

The way in which sewers were built at this time was, appar- 
ently, this. When some energetic householder on any street 
decided that a sewer was needed there, he persuaded such of 
his neighbors as he could to join him in building a street drain. 
Having obtained permission to open the street, or perhaps 
neglected this preliminary, they built such a structure as they 
thought necessary, on the shortest line to tide-water. The ex- 
pense was divided between them, and they owned the drain 
absolutely. Should any new-comer, or any neighbor, who had 
at first declined to assist in the undertaking, subsequently desire 
to make use of the drain, he was made to pay for the privilege 



14 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

what the proprietors saw fit to charge. When a drain needed 
repairing all persons using it were expected to pay their share 
of the cost. 

As might have been expected, under such a system, great 
difficulty was experienced in distributing fairly the expenses 
and in collecting the sums due ; so that it became of suflScient 
importance to engage the attention of the Legislature, and in 
1709 an act was passed regulating these matters. It is entitled, 
" An Act — Passed by the Great and General Court or Assem- 
bly of her Majesty's ^ Province of the Massachusetts-Bay. For 
reffulatino- of Drains and Common Shores.^ For preventin<)' of 
Inconveniences and Dammages by frequent breaking up of 
High-Wayes .... and of Differences arising among 
Partners in such Drains or common Shores about their Propor- 
tion of the Charge for making and repairing the same." 

The act recites that no person may presume to break up the 
ground in any highway within any town for laying, repairing, 
or amending any common shore, without the approbation of the 
selectmen, on pain of forfeiting 20 shillings to the use of the 
poor of said town ; that all such structures, for the draining of 
cellars, shall be "substantially done with brick or stock :"^ 
that it shall be lawful for any inhabitant of any town to lay a 
common shore or main drain, for the benefit of themselves and 
others who shall think fit to join therein, and every person who 
shall afterwards enter his or her particular drain into such main 
drain, or by any more remote means receives benefits thereby, 
for the drainage of their cellars or lands, shall be obliged to 
pay unto the owner or owners a proportionate part of the charge 
of making or repairing the same, or of that part of it below 
where their particular drain enters. In case of dispute the 
selectmen decided how much each person should pay, and there 
was an appeal from their decision to the courts. 

For one hundred and fifteen years the sewers in Boston were 
built, repaired, and owned by private individuals under author- 
ity of this act. 

It may be doubted if most of them were " substantially done 
with brick or stock," and there certainly was much difficulty 

1 Anne. ^ Sewers. ^ Stone. 



PLATE 1. 




SCALE. 



Seliotype Printing Co. Boston. 



EARLY HISTORY OF SEWERAGE AT BOSTON. 15 

about payments ; so that in 1763 the act of 1709 was amended, 
the amendment reciting that " Whereas it frequently happens 
that the main drains and common shores decay or till up 

and no particular provision is made by said act to com- 
pell such persons as dwell below that part where said common 
shores are repaired, and have not sustained damage, to pay 
their proportionable share thereof, as shall be adjudged by the 
selectmen, which has already occasioned many disputes and 
controversies," therefore it was decreed that in future all per- 
sons benefited should pay for repairs. 

No further change was made till 1796, and then only to 
provide that persons who did not pay within ten days of notifi- 
cation should })ay double, and that the sewers, besides being of 
brick or stone, might be built of such other material (probably 
wood) as should be approved by the selectmen. 

Under this act the greater part of Boston was sewered by 
private enterprise. The object for which the sewers were built 
was, as indicated, "for the draining of cellars and lands." The 
contents of privy-vaults, of which every house had one, and 
even the leakage from them, were excluded ; but they received 
the waste from pumps and kitchen-sinks, and also rain-water 
from roofs and yards. 

That much refuse got into them is proved by their frequently 
being filled up, and as they had a very insufficient supply of 
water they were evidently sewers of deposit. That they 
served their purpose at all is due to the fact that the old town 
drained by them, as shown in Plate I., consisted of hills with 
good slopes on all sides to the water. Of this early method of 
building sewers Josiah Quincy, then Mayor, said, in 1824 : 
"■ No system could be more inconvenient to the public, or embar- 
rassing to private persons. The streets were opened with little 
care, the drains built according to the opinion of private in- 
terest or economy, and constant and interminable vexatious 
occasions of dispute occurred between the owners of the drain 
and those who entered it, as to the degree of benefit and pro- 
portion of contribution." 

In 1823 Boston obtained a city charter, and one of the first 
acts of the city government was to assume control of all exist- 



16 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

inff sewers and of the buildino- and care of new ones. The 
new sewers were built under the old legislative acts, and 
the whole expense, as before, was charged to the estates bene- 
fited, being divided with reference to their assessed valuation. 
A small, variable portion of the cost was, however, generally 
assumed by the city, in consideration of the use of the sewers 
for removing surplus rain-water from the public streets. 

The city ordinances regulating sewers required that, when 
practicable, they should be of sufiicient size to be entered for 
cleaning. Some supervision was exercised over connecting 
house-drains, and, if thought necessary, a strainer could be placed 
on each. Fecal matters were rigidly excluded until 1833, when 
it was ordered that, while there must be no such connection 
between privy-vaults and drains as would pass solids, the 
Mayor and Aldermen, at their discretion, might permit such 
a passage or connection as would admit fluids to the drain. 
This action was perhaps due to an advent of cholera during the 
previous year. To assist in flushing out deposits, it was pro- 
vided, in 1834, that any person might discharge rain-water from 
his roof into the sewers, without any charge for a permit. The 
same year control of the sewers and sewer-assessments was 
given to the Cit}" Marshal. He was especially to devote him- 
self to the collection of assessments, new and old, which w^ere 
largely unpaid. The other duties of the marshal probably pre- 
vented him from devoting sufiicient energy to the accomplish- 
ment of this task ; for it appears that, while there had been 
expended by the city, for building sewers, from 1823 to 1837, 
the sum of $121,109.52, there had been collected of this sum 
but $26,431.31. 

That there might be some one to give his whole time to the 
financial and administrative duties connected with the sewer- 
age system, a "Superintendent of Sewers and Drains" was 
appointed in July, 1837. He was empowered to assess the 
Avhole cost of any new sewer upon the real estate, including 
buildings benefited by it. In 1838 the city decided to assume 
one-quarter of the gross cost, and in 1840, in obedience to a 
decision by the Supreme Court, it was ordered that the three- 
quarters of the cost of sewers which was to be paid by the 



EARLY HISTORY OF SEWERAGE AT BOSTON. 17 

abutters should be assessed with reference to the value of the 
land only, without taking into consideration the value of build- 
ings or other improvements, and such has been the practice up 
to the present tinie. 

It is estimated that there are at the present time (1885) 
about 226 miles of sewers in Boston. In 1873 there were 
about 125 miles, and in 1869 about 100 miles. There are at 
present supposed to be more than 100,000 water-closets in use 
in the city ; in 1857 there were 6,500. 



18 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



CHAPTER II. 

CHARACTER AND DEFECTS OF THE OLD SEWERAGE SYSTEM. 

Such changes have taken place in the contours of the city, 
through operations for reclaiming and filling tidal areas border- 
ing the old limits, that from being a site easy to sewer, Boston 
became one presenting many obstacles to the construction of an 
efiicient sewerage system. 

This will be understood from an examination of the plan of 
the city proper, Plate V. On this plan the shaded portion rep- 
resents the original area of the city, and very nearly its limits 
in 1823. The unshaded portion of the plan, indicating present 
limits, consists entirely of reclaimed land filled to level 
planes little above mean high water, the streets traversing such 
districts being seldom more than seven feet above that eleva- 
tion. A large proportion of the house basements and cellars 
in these regions are lower than high water, and many of them 
are but from five to seven feet above low-water mark, the mean 
rise and fall of the tide being ten feet. This lowness of land 
surface and of house cellars necessitates the placing of house- 
drains and sewers at still lower elevations. Most house-drains 
are under the cellar floors, and fall in reaching the street sew- 
ers ; the latter must be still lower, and in their turn fall 
towards their outlets, which were rarely much, if at all, above 
low water. 

Moreover, as filling progressed on the borders of the city, it 
became necessary to extend the old sewers whose outlets would 
have been cut off". The old outlets being generally at a low 
elevation, even where the sewers themselves were sufiiciently 
high, the extensions had to be built still lower, and when of 
considerable length could have but little fall towards the new 
mouths. 

As a consequence, the contents of the sewers were dammed 
back by the tide during the greater part of each twelve hours. 



CHARACTER AND DEFECTS OF THE OLD SEWERAGE SYSTEM. 19 

To prevent the salt water flowing into them many of them 
were provided with tide-gates, which closed as the sea rose, and 
excluded it. These tide-gates also shut in the sewage, which 
accumulated behind them along the whole length of the sewer, 
as in a cesspool ; and, there being no current, deposits occurred. 
The sewers were, in general, inadequately ventilated, and 
the rise of sewage in them compressed the foul air which 
they contained, and tended to force it mto the house connec- 
tions. To afibrd storage room for the accumulated sewage 
many of the sewers were built very much larger than would 
otherwise have been necessary, or than was conducive to a 
proper flow of the sewage ; and, as there would have been little 
advantage in curved inverts where there was to be no cur- 
rent, flat-bottomed and rectangular shapes were frequently 
adopted. 

Although at about the time of low water the tide-gates 
opened and the sewage escaped, the latter almost immediately 
met the incoming tide, and was brought back by it to form 
deposits upon the flats and shores about the cit}^ Of the hirge 
amount of sewage which flowed into Stony Brook and the Back 
Bay, and especially that which went into South Bay, between 
Boston proper and South Boston, hardly any was carried 
away from the vicinity of a dense population. 

The position of the principal sewer outlets, and of the areas 
on which the sewage which caused most often(^e used to accu- 
mulate, is indicated on Plate V. From these places foul- 
smelling gases and vapors emanated, which were diff'used to a 
greater or less distance, according to the state of the tempera- 
ture or of the atmosphere. Under certain conditions of the 
atmosphere, especially on summer evenings, a well-defined 
sewage odor would extend over the whole South and West 
Ends of the city proper. 

This evil was thus described by the City Board of Health in 
one of their annual reports : — 

Complaints of bad odors have been made more frequently during tlie 
past year than ever before. 

They have come from nearly all parts of the city, but especially and 
seriously from the South and West Ends. 



20 MAIN DRAINAGE WOEKS. 

Large territories have been at once, and frequently, enveloped in an 
atmosphere of stench so strong as to arouse the sleeping, terrify the weak, 
and nauseate and exasperate everybody. 

It has been noticed more in the evening and by night than during the 
day ; although tliere is no time in the whole day when it may not come. 

It visits the rich and the poor alike. It fills the sick-chamber and the 
office. Distance seems to lend but little protection. It ti'avels in a belt 
half-way across the city, and at that distance seems to have lost none of its 
potency, and, although its source is miles away, you feel sure it is directly 
at your feet 

The sewers and sewage fiats in and about the city furnish nine-tenths of 
all the stenches complained of. 

They are much worse each succeeding year ; they will be much worse 
next year than this. 

The accummulation of sewage upon the flats and about the city has been, 
and is, rapidly increasing, until there is not probably a foot of mud in the 
river, in the basins, in the docks, or elsewhere in close proximity to the city, 
that is not fouled with sewage. 



Various palliative measures were adopted. The Back Bay, 
into which the waters of Stony Brook, and with them most of 
the sewage of Roxbury and Jamaica Plain, used to empty, was 
lately partly filled with gravel, forming the present Back-Bay 
Park. The brook was carried in a covered channel to Charles 
River, which somewhat lessened the nuisance caused by it, or at 
least transferred it to another locality. Owing to comphiints 
from the physicians of the City Hospital and other residents in 
that neighborhood, the city purchased and filled the upper por- 
tion of Old Roxbury Canal at the head of South Bay. The 
sewers emptying into it were extended, and the position of the 
nuisance caused by them was thus altered by a few hundred 
feet. In general terms, it may be said that none of the old 
sewer outlets were in unobjectionable lot-ations. 

There are no plans in detail of the sew^ers of Boston. Many 
of the older ones have no man-holes. In some streets several 
sewers exist side by side. Occasionally a sewer is found built 
directly above an older one. Probably one-half of the larger 
main sewers are wholly or partly built of wood, and have flat 
bottoms. An unwise provision was inserted in the charters of 
some of the private corporations organized for the purpose of 
reclaiming and filling areas of flats, by which it was stipulated 



PLATE 




Fig. 






Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 




Fig. 9 





Fig. 10 




Fig. 15 



Fig. il 
COM 

BOSTC 



HOI 




Fig. 17 



ng.23 24- 25 




Fig.l8 




Fi^.21 



PLATE II 





'^■^■'--'-'■---V!-'! 




Fig. I 




Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fi^.6 






Fig. II Fig. 12 

COMMON TYPES 

OF 

BOSTON CITY SEWERS. 



FigJ3 



Fig. 15 



SCALE, 

iiiii i M r I r I n r" 



HOUSE DRAINS. 





Fig.7 Fig. 8 




Fig. 14- 




Fig.16 




Fi^.2l 



n^- 22 



Melioi^e Frintii^ Co Bost&n. 



CHARACTER AND DEFECTS OF THE OLD SEWERAGE SYSTEM. 21 

that the corporations should themselves extend all sewers whose 
discharge would be obstructed by the filling. Such extensions 
were made without system, b}^ building fltit-bottomed wooden 
scow sewers, which were laid upon the soft surface of the flats 
before the filling was done. Cross-sections of various common 
forms of existmg city sewers are shown on Plate 11., Figs. 
1 to 22. Fig. 22 shows Stony-Brook culvert, which consti- 
tutes the lower mile of Stony Brook and is that part of it which 
is covered and used as a sewer. 

One fact which increased the danger arising from the dam- 
ming up of the sewers, and the consequent compression of their 
gaseous contents, was that the house-drains connecting with 
these sewers were ill adapted to resisting this pressure. Most 
of them were built of brick or of wood, before the rise of mod- 
ern ideas in regard to sanitary drainage; and, as they were 
usually leaky, the gases forced into them found ready egress 
into the houses. Fio-s. 23 to 29 on Plate II. show common 
forms of these house-drains. 

The drains difier greatly in size. Of 113 which were ob- 
served while building the intercepting sewers in 1878, — 

11 were about 4 inches in diameter. 



4 




5 


21 




6 


5 




7 


27 




8 


8 




9 


11 




10 


26 




12 



" " or more. 

113 

Of these 113 drains, 9 were level and 14 pitched the wrong 
way ; 45 had flat bottoms and 68 curved ones ; 38 were 
wholly or partly choked with sludge, and 75 were reasonably 
clean. At about the same time examinations made with pep- 
permint, by the City Board of Health, of 351 house-drains in 
various sections of the city, showed that 193 of them, or 55 per 
cent., were defective in regard to tightness. 



22 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



CHAPTER III. 

MOVEMENTS FOR REFORM-COMMISSION OF 1875. 

For the ten years preceding 1875 the average annual death- 
rate of Boston was about 25 in 1,000. On April 14, 1870, the 
Consulting Physicians of the city addressed to the authorities a 
remonstrance as to the then existing sanitary condition of the 
city, in which they declared the urgent necessity of a better 
system of sewerage, stating that it would be a work of time, of 
great cost, and requiring the highest engineering skill. 

At about the same time, and in each of their annual reports 
thereafter, the State Board of Health referred to the matter, 
saying that the question of drainage for Boston and its im- 
mediate surroundings was of an importance which there was no 
danger of overstating. 

Of such great importance was the matter considered by the 
State Legislature that, in the special session of 1872, an act was 
passed authorizing the appointment of a commission, to be paid 
by the City of Boston, to investigate and report upon a compre- 
hensive plan for a thorough system of drainage for the metro- 
politan district. This was not accepted b}^ Boston, on the 
ground that the expense should be shared b}^ the neighboring 
cities and towns, and no commission was appointed. 

In a communication to the City Council (Dec. 28, 1874), 
upon the necessity of improved sewerage, the City Board of 
Health pointed out clearly the evils of the existing system, and 
strongly urged that a radical change should be made. March 
1, 1875, an order passed the City Council authorizing the Mayor 
to ai)point a commission, "consisting of two civil engineers of 
experience and one competent person skilled in the subject of 
sanitary science, to rc[)ort upon the present sewerage of the 
city .... and to present a plan for outlets and main 
lines of sewers, for the future wants of the city." The Mayor 
thereupon appointed as members of the commission Messrs. E. 



MOVEMENTS FOR REFORM-COMMISSION OF 1875. 23 

S. Chesbrough, C.E., Moses Lane, C.E., and Charles F. Fol- 
som, M.D., and in December of the same year their report was 
submitted. 

As was to be expected from the professional attainments and 
reputation of these gentlemen, the report contained a compre- 
hensive and exhaustive statement of the defects in the existing 
system of sewerage, and of the causes which had produced such 
a condition of affairs, and finally recommended for adoption a 
well-considered plan for remedying present defects and for pro- 
viding for future needs. 

The commission stated, as essential conditions of efficient 
sewerage : first, that the sewage should start from the houses, 
and flow in a continuous current until it reached its destination, 
either in deep water or upon the land ; and, second, that the 
sewers should be ventilated so that the atmosphere in them 
should attain the highest possible degree of purity. To quote 
from the report : — 

The point wliicli must be attended to, if we would get increased com- 
forts and luxuries in our houses, without doing so at cost of health and life, 
is to get our refuse out of the way, far beyond any possibility of harm 
before it becomes dangerous from putrefaction. In the heat of summer 
this time should not exceed twelve hours. We fail to do this now in three 
ways : — 

First. We cannot get our refuse always from our house-drains to our 
sewers, because the latter may not only be full themselves at liigh tide, but 
they may even force the sewage up our drains into our houses. 

Second. We do not empty our sewers promptly, because the tide or tide- 
gates prevent it. In such case the sewage being stagnant, a precipitate 
falls to the bottom, which the slow and gradual emptying of the sewers, as 
the tide falls, does not produce scour enough to remove. This deposit re- 
mains with little change in some places for many months.' 

Third. With our refuse, which is of an esj^ecially foul character, once 
at the outlets of the sewers, it is again delayed, there to decompose and 
contaminate the air. 

As a result of this failure to carry out the cai'dinal rule of sewerage, 
we are obliged to neglect the second rule, which is nearly as important, 
namely, ventilation of the sewers; for the gases are often so foul that we 
cannot allow them to escape without cavising a nuisance ; and we compro- 
mise the matter by closing all the vents that we can, with the certainty of 
poisoning the air of our houses. 

1 The catcli-basins, too, in the course of the sewers, serve only to aggravate this evil, 
and should be filled as early as is practicable. 



24 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

In the opinion of the commission there are only two ways open to us. 
The first, raising more than one-half of the superficial area of the city 
proper (excluding suburbs), is entirely out of the question, from the enor- 
mous outlay of money which would be required, — more than four times as 
much as would be needed for the plan which we propose, and which con- 
sists in intercepting sewers and pura|)ing. 

There are in use now in various parts of the Avorld three methods of 
disposing of the sewage of large cities, where the water-carriage system 
is in use : — 

First. Precipitation of the solid parts, with a view to utilizing them as 
manure, and to purifying the streams. 

Second. Irrigation. 

Neither of these jarocesses has proved remunerative, and the former only 
clarifies the sewage without lourifying it; but if the time comes, when, by 
the advance in our knowledge of agricultural chemistry, sewage can be^ 
profitably used as a fertilizer, or if it should now be deemed best to util- 
ize it, in spite of a pecuniary loss, it is thought that the point to which we 
propose carrying it will be as suitable as any which can be found near 
enough to the city, and at the same time far enough away from it. 

The third way is that adopted the world over by large cities near dee]) 
water, and consists in carrying the sewage out so far that its point of 
discharge will be remote from dwellings, and beyond the possibility of 
doing harm. It is the plan which your commission recommend for 
Boston. 

On Plate III. is reproduced a portion of the plan accompany- 
ing the report of the commission. The plan shows the routes 
of the main, intercepting, and outfall sewers recommended, and 
the proposed locations of the pumping-stations, reservoirs, and 
outlets. It will be seen that tvvo main drainage systems were 
proposed, one for each side of the Charles River ; that on the 
south side having its outlet at Moon Island, and that on the 
north side discharging at Shirley Gut. 

The former system was designed to collect and carry oif the 
sewage from all of Boston south of Charles River and from 
Brookline ; the latter was to drain the Charlestown and East 
Boston districts, and also the neighboring cities of Cambridge, 
Somerville, and Chelsea. The two systems were identical in 
their general features. These were : intercepting sewers along 
the margins of the city to receive the flow from the already 
existing sewers ; main sewers into which the former were to 
empty and by which the sewage was to be conducted to pump- 
ing-stations ; pumping machinery to raise the sewage about 35 



PLATE III. 




MOVEMENTS FOR REFORM-COMMISSION OF 1875. 25 

feet ; outfall sewers leading from the pumping-stations to reser- 
voirs near the points of discharge at the sea-coast, from which 
reservoirs the sewage, accumulated during the latter part of 
ebb and the whole of flood tide, ^vas to be let out into the 
harbor during the first two hours of el)b-tide. 

The cost of the proposed main drainage works, as estimated 
by the commission in its report, was : — 

For the territory south of Charles Eiver . . . $3,746,500 
north " ... 2,804,584 



Total $6,551,064 

The commissioners' recommendation met with very general 
acceptance. But, as was to be expected, a certain amount of 
opposition to it was encountered. 

One remonstrance against the adoption of the proposed plan, 
which was presented to the City Council by a number of esti- 
mable citizens, may be of sufiicient interest to cite, because it is 
a type of the kind of objections which are often urged against 
plans for municipal improvement, however carefully considered 
by the most competent experts : — 

The undersigned respectfully remonstrate against tlie adoption of the 
system of sewerage proposed in Report No. 3 of this year. We believe if 
carried into execution it will jorove not only ineflfeetual, but destructive to 

the health and prosperity of the city Of late years the cost 

of many, if not most, of the public works has greatly exceeded the esti- 
mates ; in some instances, it is said, two or three hundred per cent. 

Should this new system exceed the estimates to a like extent,- the amount 
would be augmented to between fifteen and twenty millions of dollars. . . 

But we do not believe it (flushing) will, or even can, be made to pei'- 
form that end in an effective or satisfactory manner ; because we undei'- 
stand, by the rejDort, that the inclinations of the sewers will afford a flow at 
a minimum rate of only two miles an hour, so that it will be almost impos- 
sible to prevent the glutinous slime and putrefactions from constantly gath- 
ering and adhering more or less to the sides and bottoms of the sewers 
and drains, and as constantly exhaling the deadly gases on every side. 
. . . . It will likewise be borne in mind that the thick mass of liquid 
corruiJtion within the sewers and drains must be drawn along to their up- 
hill or final ascent of thirty feet and over, and kept in motion and delivei'ed 
at the distant outlets on the bay, by means of enormous pumps and ma- 
chinery worked by steam-engines, .... for a stoppage in the oper- 



26 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

ations of sucli an extensive system for only a day or two, along the low 
lands and other parts of the city, would almost inevitably result in serious 

maladies and other evil consequences Will not the exhalation 

and odor (from the storage reservoirs) IdIowu by every changing wind here 
and there along the wharves, upon the shipping and back upon the land, 
create a nuisance so offensive and unhealthful as to become intolerable ? No 
provision seems to be devised to prevent such emanations or their baleful 
consequences. In these noisome reservoirs the contents must ever be ex- 
posed to the sun, the storms, and the inclemency of the weather. 

In the severity of winter they must become as frozen as the water in 
the bay or along the shores ; and as often as they are converted into ice 
there must be an entire stoppage of the works. . . . Such reservoirs 
and outlets miglit be reduced to ruins in any future day of hostilities — 
either foreign or domestic — should such hostilities ever occur, the effect of 
which ruins would be the fatalities of the plague 

There is now but a single system before the authorities, although there 
are not less than five diffei^ent s^'Stems in Euro^^e alone. ... It is 
hereby requested that the same be postponed, and that a reward be offered 
for the best plan for sewerage relief .... and that such plans be re- 
ferred to a commission of citizens .... with power to give the reward 
for the best plan. 

Other remonstrants thought that city sewage had a great 
iTianurial value, and should be so utilized as to be a source of 
revenue ; still others considered the proposed scheme extrava- 
gant, and advised temporary' palliative measures. 

What prevented these remonstrances from having much 
weight was that, while criticising the proposed scheme, they 
either suggested no alternative plan, or else failed to show that 
the method which they themselves recommended would remedy 
the existing evils. 

As a compromise the City Council inclined to adopt the 
recommendations of the commission in so far as they referred 
to the territory south of Charles River, which included those 
portions of the city which suffered most from ineffective sewer- 
age. Application was made to the Legislature for authority to 
construct works in o-eneral accordance with the recommendations 
of the commissioners, and an act, approved April 11, 1876, 
entitled " An Act to empower the City of Boston to lay and 
maintain a main sewer discharo-ino- at Moon Island in Boston 
Harbor, and for other purposes," was passed. 

The subject had been referred by the City Council to a Joint 



MOVEMEXTS FOE REFORM-COilMISSIOX OF 1875. 27 

Special Committee on Improved Sewerage, and in June. 187^, 
this committee reported, recommending the adoption of the 
system devised bv the commission, and that surveys and esti- 
mates be made for the work, and also that the feasibility of an 
outlet at Castle Island be considered. 

By an order approved July 17. 1876, the sum of $40,000 was 
appro[)rialed for the purpose of making surveys and of procur- 
ing estimates for an improved system of sewerage for the City 
of Boston, on a line from Tremont Street to Moon Island, and 
also on a line from said street to deep water east of Castle 
Island. 

A few days later the City Engineer. Mr. Joseph P. Davis, 
appointed the writer principal assistant, in immediate charge 
of the survev and investia'ations, which were at once beo-un. 



28 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS. 

By a liberal interpretation of the order in compliance with 
which the survey was carried on, it was assumed that any 
information was desired which might be of use in designing 
main drainage works, in general accordance with the plan 
recommended by the commission. 

As the location of the outlet would affect materially the 
whole scheme its consideration received the earliest attention. 
It was necessary that the discharge should be into favorable 
currents, and also near a practicable site for a reservoir which 
could be reached by the outfall sewer from the city. A party 
for hydrographic work was organized, consisting of one assist- 
ant engineer, one additional observer, two sailing-masters, 
and two boatmen. Their outfit included a small yacht and two 
tenders. 

A projection of the harbor was first made, and the triangu- 
Jation points given by U.S. Coast Survey were plotted upon it, 
together with others obtained b_y ourselves from these, by 
means of the plane table ; the shore line being taken from a 
chart belonging to the Harbor Commissioners. A sufficient num- 
ber of prominent points having been determined in this way, it 
was easy at any time to locate the position of a float by the sex- 
tant. At night, when other objects could not be seen, the har- 
bor lights furnished points for observation. 

Some difficulty was experienced in deciding upon the best 
form of float. That first adopted consisted of four radiating 
arms, with canvas wings projecting downward from them (Plate 
IV., Fig. 4). Upon calm days this form indicated very fairly 
the surface velocity ; but was too easily influenced by winds 
and waves to be used in windy weather, as it then invariably 
grounded on a lee shore. 

A " surface and sub-surface " can-float (Plate IV., Fig. 5) was 



PLATE IV. 




jri<ifi./ii/iiiiiiii|iiiwiiniii>lliwlliuiij|l<ii ynm0mmmJ '■'/|iMV«iiiiiiMi'iih>; (iiii|iuiniiM\iiiim\iii!mmrti^nii"i™iiiiiiiiimiii,{| 



"31 



^■>wmwvv.>wiihm,i»ihi.ii.i liWin.iii ...in ffiiinTlWlllVIWillwNiTOTO'^^ 



U|lllliiTniIil|iiiilliiiliniiiliiiiiiiliiililliiiliiii|iiiiiiiiiiiii<iivii\iwi|iniv /^t, yMmwii!inimi'..iiiiiinii\i»iMiiiiiiiMiiiMiiiiiiiiiJ)'iii!iiiiiiii™ 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS. 29 

used somewhat, and gave better results ; but an ordinary pole- 
float (Plate IV., Fig. 6), about 14 feet long and 4 inches in 
diameter, was finally found to be the most satisfactory, indicat- 
ing the mean current, which often ditfered both in direction and 
velocity from the surface current. This float supported a flag, 
or lantern, and, when there was dans^er of its o-roundino;, a 
shorter one was substituted for it. 

In all, about 50 " free-float " experiments were made upon 
the currents in the vicinity of Moon, Castle, Thompson's, and 
Spectacle Islands. The trips varied in duration from 6 hours, 
or one ebb-tide, to 52 hours. Angles to determine the posi- 
tion of the float were taken each half-hour, and were recorded 
together with the direction and force of the wind and other 
data. During observations a man was stationed at a tide-ffau^e, 
and all velocities were reduced to a mean rise and fall of ten 
feet. The results obtained from the float experiments, stated 
briefly, were as follows : — 

Favorable ebb currents were found to pass both Moon and 
Castle Islands. That passing Spectacle Island was sufficient in 
strength, but unsuitable, owing to its direction and some other 
characteristics ; while that skirting Thompson's Island was alto- 
gether unfavorable. Floats leaving the vicinity of Moon Island 
with the early ebb would travel seawards with an average 
velocity of .74 miles an hour, passing between Rainsford and 
Long Islands, through Black Rock Channel, and at the turn of 
tide would reach a position between the Brewsters and George's 
Island about four miles from the point of starting. This course 
is, for its whole extent, outside of the inner harbor. Floats from 
Castle Island followed Main Ship Channel and Broad Sound, 
and travelled about as far as those from Moon Island. Return- 
ing with the flood-tide the floats would travel about two miles 
towards the city, and with the succeeding ebb would once more 
move seaward, not again to enter the harbor. 

Sewage, being fresh water, remains for a while at least upon 
the top of the denser sea-water, and is more aff'ected by surface 
currents than by deeper ones. An attempt, more interesting 
than practically instructive, was made to ascertain to what ex- 
tent sewage put into Boston Harbor would be difl'used within 



30 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

a few days. Fifty bottles were put into the water at Moon 
Island, each containing a postal card, which the finder was re- 
quested to mail, stating when and where it was found. Ten of 
these bottles were picked up within the next three weeks. One 
of them was found at Marshfield, about 25 miles south of its 
starting-point ; another at Salem, about the same distance 
north; a third, 30 miles south-east of Cape Ann, and the re- 
maining seven outside of Cape Cod, near Provincetown, Well- 
fleet, and Chatham, from 50 to 80 miles distant. 

Castle Island would have been much more easily accessible 
from the city than Moon Island, but its selection involved sev- 
eral serious disadvantages. It belongs to the United States, 
and is the site of Fort Independence. Although this old fort 
is of little practical value, there were no reasonable grounds 
for hope that the government would permit a storage reservoir 
to be located on the island. It would have been necessary to 
place that structure on the main land in South Boston. The 
area available for the purpose would have been restricted on 
account of its great cost. Even if the works could have been 
so constructed as to be wholly inoffensive, the natural prejudice 
in the community against tiie proximity of sewage would have 
caused great opposition to the building of a reservoir so near 
to a densely populated district. Moon Island, on the contrary, 
afforded an excellent site for a reservoir. The neighboring 
country is sparsely settled, and there is no dwelling within a 
mile of the works. The outlet, therefore, was finally located at 
this point. 

The next problems considered were the selection of a route 
for the outfall sewer between the city and Moon Island and the 
location of the pumping-station. As any route would neces- 
sarily cross a portion of the harbor near the mouth of Neponset 
River, it was thought best to explore the nature of the ground 
underlying the harbor in that vicinity. To this end a number 
of artesian borings were made from a scow fitted for the pur- 
pose. Five-inch or smaller gas-pipe was driven to the required 
depth, varying from 20 to 100 feet, and the earth excavated 
from within them. In all, 139 such borings were made. 
Those on the line selected by the commissioners, between Fox 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS. 31 

Point and Squantum Beach, showed deep beds of mud under- 
laid by sand and gravel ; so that any method of crossing at that 
point would have been difficult and expensive. Moreover, Fox 
Point was thought to be too near to the valuable residence 
property of Savin Hill to make it a suitable place for a pump- 
ing-station. Borings at the mouth of the river opposite Com- 
mercial Point also found deep beds of mud, but, the crossing 
being much shorter, it would have been comparatively easy to 
have constructed a stable siphon on that line. Commercial 
Point itself was a fairly good site for a pumping-station, but 
would have been somewhat difficult of access from the city. 
Ground suitable for tunnelling was discovered between Old 
Harbor Point and Squantum Neck. This was the most direct 
line from the city to Moon Island, and comparative estimates 
showed it to be also the cheapest line. Its chief merit, however, 
which caused it to be selected, was that it permitted the use of 
Old Harbor Point as a site for the pum[)ing-station. This 
point comprises over 100 acres of marsh land, valued by 
the city assessors at only $200 an acre. It is itself destitute 
of habitations, and sufficiently remote from any to afford assur- 
ance that operations carried on there will not l)e a source of 
offence. 

Before adopting the tunnel line a plan was considered by 
which the sewage, instead of being raised at Old Harbor Point, 
was to flow thence by gravitation to a pumping-station at Moon 
Island, on a nearly direct line between the two points. The 
sewer was to be built above ground and sunk into a trench dusc 
to an even grade in the bottom of the harbor. To determine 
the feasibility of this plan borings were made to test the 
nature of the ground on the proposed line. The character of 
the ground developed by these borings was not considered very 
favorable, and a decision of the Harbor Commissioners requir- 
ing the sewer to be placed lower than was considered practi- 
cable caused the proposed plan to be abandoned. 

Having decided to locate the pumping-station at Old Harbor 
Point the routes of the main and intercepting sewers were 
next selected. The peculiar geological formation of the region 
about Boston, causing frequent elevation of the bed-rock, not 



32 MAIN DEAINAGE WORKS. 

always shown by surface indications, and the sometimes un- 
suspected presence of deep beds of marsh mud, rendered it 
necessary to test carefully the nature of the ground through 
which it was proposed to build the sewers, since its character 
would form such an important element in their cost and sta- 
bility. The slowness and expense of artesian methods of 
boring precluded their use. Light auger-rods were therefore 
constructed, and ifc was found that by them the character of the 
ground could be ascertained with approximate accuracy and 
with little expense or delay. These tools, and the manner of 
using them, are shown on Plate TV., Figs. 1 to 3. Including 
work done before and after the beginning of construction, more 
than 30,000 lineal feet of borings were thus made, at an average 
cost of about 25 cents per foot. 

There was no trustworthy information extant concerning the 
position and condition of the city sewers which were to be inter- 
cepted. Careful surveys were, therefore, made of about 50 
miles in extent, of such sewers as were in the vicinity of the 
proposed intercepting sewers. Plans and profiles of these 
were made, with cross-sections and such details of construction 
as could be ascertained. 

Nearly all buildings in the Back-Bay and South-End districts 
of the city are supported on piles. By city ordinance the tops 
of the piles are not to be higher than Grade 5, or mid-tide 
level ; in fact many of them are a foot or two higher. Fears 
were expressed that the intercepting system (by doing away 
with the semi-daily damming up by the tide of the contents 
of the sewers) might lower considerably the soil-water in such 
regions, and, by reducing it below the tops of the piles, cause 
them to decay and endanger the stability of the buildings sup- 
ported by them. 

To see if such danger was to be apprehended, it was decided 
to produce in one of the Back-Bay sewers the precise condition 
which would exist if the new system was constructed, and to 
notice the efiect upon the soil-water. To this end a steam 
pump was put into the Berkeley-Street sewer near the outlet, 
and by continual pumping (except at low tide) the sewage 
was kept but a few inches deep, as it would be if discharging 



PEELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS. ' 33 

into an intercepting sewer. Previously 20 pipes had been 
driven below the surface of soil-water : some within a few feet 
of the sewers, others a few hundred feet away, and still others 
several blocks distant. The height of the soil-water standing 
in each pipe was measured twice each day during the continu- 
ance of the pumping. 

The method of making these measurements was ingenious, 
and perhaps novel. The elevation of the top of each pipe was 
known, and the distance from the top to the surface of water 
was taken with a steel tape. To the bottom of the tape was 
attached a lead weight, with a needle fixed in its top so adjusted 
that the point of the needle was just opposite to the end of the 
tape. A small bit of metallic potassium was put on the point 
of the needle. The instant this touched the water it io-nited 
explosively, and the flash and sound could be easily distin- 
guished from above. A sketch of the apparatus is shown by 
Fig. 7, Plate lY. 

It was found that the surface of the soil-water was nearly 
level over the whole Back-Bay district, averaging 7.7 feet 
above mean low w^ater, and its height, while slightly afiected 
by local contours of the surface, was independent of the sewers 
in its vicinity. For instance, the water in the vicinity of the 
Dartmouth-Street sewer was at the same level as that near the 
Berkeley-Street sewer, although the latter sewer is two feet 
lower than the former. Also it was found that the soil-water 
rose and fell, responding quickly to any rain or melting of 
snow (the extreme rise due to four inches of surface-water 
being one foot) , and that the variation was nearly uniform over 
the entire district. 

Finally it appeared that the pumping, which continued 53 
days, afiected but slightly, and that only within 100 feet of the 
sewer, the soil-water in the vicinity of Berkeley Street. At 
the close of the experiment, the sewer resuming its former 
conditions, the soil-water in its immediate vicinity rose from 
an inch to an inch and one-half, and thereafter fiuctuated in 
unison with the water in other localities. 

The experiment was thought to show that no dangerous low- 



34 MAIN DEAINAGE WORKS. 

ering of the ground-water need be apprehended in consequence 
of the adoption of an intercepting system. 

The following was the general basis of calculations for 
amounts of sewage and sizes of sewers. It was necessary to 
assume some limit to the territory which should be tributary 
to the intercepting system. A natural limit in this case seemed 
to be aiforded by the Charles and Neponset Rivers, which, with 
Mother Brook connecting them, include an area of about 58 square 
miles. Of this area about 46 square miles is high land, 40 or 
more feet above low water, and, as suggested by the com- 
missioners, drainage from districts above Grade 40 could, if 
necessary, be intercepted by a "high-level " intercepting sewer 
and could flow by gravitation to the reservoir at Moon Island. 
There remain 12 square miles below Grade 40 which must 
forever drain into the " low-level " system. As, however, it will 
be long before the high-level sewer is built, and in the mean 
time sewers from areas above Grade 40 must connect with the 
low-level system, for purposes of calculation, it was assumed 
that 20 square miles would be tributary to the proposed sys- 
tem. 

The prospective population was estimated at an average of 
621- persons to each acre, or 800,000 in all. This estimate of 
62^ persons to the acre was used in calculations affecting the 
main sewer ; but in proportioning branch intercepting sewers 
greater densities of population were assumed, to provide for 
possible movements of population. The amount of sewage per 
individual was estimated at 75 gallons, or 10 cubic feet, in each 
24 hours. The maximum flow of sewage per second was esti- 
mated at one and one-half times the average flow due to 10 
cubic feet per day. 

On this basis the maximum flow of sewage-proper to be 

.^ . _ ... 800,000 X 10 ^ . , ' .. QQ ^■ f ^ 

provided for would be ^, wt^ ttt, X 1.5 = 138.88 cubic teet 

^ 24 X 60 X 60 

per second. 

This amount was nearly doubled by adding to it 100 cubic 
feet per second as a provision for rain-water. This would rep- 
resent a little less than one-fourth inch of rainfall in 24 hours, 
per acre of tributary area ; but it was intended, in practice, to 



PEELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS. 35 

admit little, if any, rain from regions where the cellars were 
not subject to flooding, and reserve the full capacity of the 
sewers and pumps to relieve certain low districts where the 
cellars are generally much below high tide, and were often 
partly filled with water in time of rain. 

For purposes of calculation, therefore, the prospective maxi- 
mum flow per second in the main sewer was assumed to be 
138.88 + 100 = 238.88 cubic feet per second. The inclination 
of the sewer was 1 in 2,500, and it was designed (as were all 
of the sewers) to flow about half full with its calculated maxi- 
mum amount of sewage. Although this rule required that the 
sewers should be larger than they would be if designed to flow 
full, it was adopted, because it gave about three feet less depth 
of excavation for the whole sewer system, saved three feet lift in 
pumping, provided storage-room for large additional amounts 
of sewage due to intermission of pumping or to rain, and 
afibrded more head-room to workmen enterins; the sewers. 

In designing the smaller intercepting sewers the method em- 
ployed was somewhat as follows: the districts drained by the 
several city sewers were ascertained, and their respective areas 
in acres were calculated. The largest population which by any 
chance might live on these areas in the future was estimated, 
i.e., guessed. The future average amount of sewage-proper 
due to such population was doubled for safety, and an addi- 
tional amount added for rain, usually equalling that from .25- 
inch rainfall in 24 hours. If an intercepting sewer large enough 
to carry this total amount when flowing half full would have 
been too small to be entered conveniently, its size, or sometimes 
only its height, was increased sufiiciently to afibrd convenient 
head-room. 

Velocities of flow were calculated by the formula Y = C V^RI, 
with Mr. Kutter's coefficients, obtained by using .013 as the 
coefficient for roughness. 

During the early stages of the work, the City Engineer, Mr. 
Davis, made a trip to Europe to examine the foreign sewerage 
works of best repute. Information was thus gained which was 
used in designing the Boston works. 

In July, 1877, the City Engineer reported the results of his 



36 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

preliminary survey, and on August 9 of the same year orders 
of the City Council were approved, authorizing, and making an 
appropriation for, the construction of an improved system of 
sewerage, in general accordance with the proposed plan, under 
authority of the Act of Legislature. 

The City Council committed the charge of building the Main 
Drainage Works to a Joint Special Committee on Improved 
Sewerage, consisting of three Aldermen, and five members of 
the Common Council. This committee changed its member- 
ship every year except when one or more of its members were 
reelected and were again appointed on it. By city ordinance 
all engineering works are built by the City Engineer. The Main 
Drainage Works, therefore, were constructed under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Joseph P. Davis, C.E., City Engineer, until his 
resignation in 1880, and since that date by his successor in 
office, Mr. Henry M. Wightman, C.E.^ 

^ Since the above was written the city has sustained a great loss in the death of Mr. 
Wightman. Mr. William Jackson has been elected City Engineer. 



MAIN SEWER. 37 



CHAPTER V. 



MAIN SEWER. 



The main sewer is about 3^ miles long, and extends from the 
pumping-station at Old Harbor Point to the junction of Hunt- 
ington Avenue and Camden Street. Its inclination throughput 
its whole extent is 1 foot vertical in 2,500 horizontal. At 
the pumping-station the water-line of the invert, i.e., its bot- 
tom, is about 14 feet below the elevation of mean low tide. From 
this point, in its course towards the city, the sewer passes for 
about a mile across the Calf Pasture Marsh, so called. The 
surface of this marsh is about six inches above mean high water, 
and, the mere rise and fall of the tide being ten feet, the aver- 
age depth of excavation required for this section of work was 24 
feet. Up to the junction of the South Boston intercepting 
sewer the main sewer is ten feet six inches in diameter. It was 
founded sometimes upon clay, and sometimes upon sand. 
Figs. 1 and 2, Plate VI., show the usual methods of construc- 
tion. Rubble side walls were built for the greater portion of the 
distance. Fig. 3 shows the bond used in the spandrels. 

On this section occurred the only case during the construction 
of the entire Main Drainage Works in which a sewer was 
broken so that a poition of it had to be taken down and rebuilt. 
At one point, for a distance of 150 feet, the marsh mud, which 
usually was from five to ten feet deep below the surface of the 
ground, came down below the spring-line of the sewer. Owing 
to carelessness, on the part of the contractor, in back-filling 
around the haunches, or in withdrawing the sheet planks, the 
sewer spread six inches, and sank correspondingly at the crown. 
Fig. 4 shows the shape assumed at the point of maximum dis- 
tortion. Although even this portion was probably stable, it was 
not considered wise to establish a precedent of accepting any im.- 
perfect work. Accordingly the trench was reopened, the sewer 
uncovered, and its arch broken down with sleds^e hammers. 



38 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

It was found that the 12-mch Akron drain-pipe built under 
the seAver, to facilitate drainage of the trench during construc- 
tion, was broken at this point, and the water from it, accumu- 
lated from 4,000 feet of trench, found an outlet, and poured 
over the side walls into the invert. This water was controlled 
by pumps, but was found to have washed out a quantity of 
sand, causing a considerable cavity under the sewer platform. 
The limits of the cavity having been determined, five holes, 
ten feet apart on centres, were made through the bottom of the 
sewer, and 3-inch wrought-iron gas-pipes were inserted into 
them. Two of these pipes were about 30 feet long, and three 
others, for vents, were five feet long. Constant streams of 
grout, made from 47 casks of neat, quick-setting Portland 
cement, were forced under a 25-foot head, through the loiio- 
pipes into the cavity until it was filled, as proved by the 
cement rising in the short pipes. The grout hardened and 
furnished a secure foundation. Special ribs were cut to fit the 
invert, which was again arched over and the trench refilled. 

Figs. 5 and 6, Plate VI., show methods of connecting man- 
holes with the main sewer. These structures are about 400 
feet apart, and are placed alternately on one side of and over 
the centre of the sewer. At man-holes the arch is supported 
by cut-granite skew back stones. At the top of the man-holes 
are cast-iron frames supporting circular iron covers. The 
covers are perforated for purposes of ventilation. The holes 
are quite large, so that they are not liable to become stopped 
up. They also taper considerably, being larger below than 
they are on top. To prevent road detritus and miscellaneous 
ru])bish from falling into the sewers, catch-pails are suspended 
below the covers to receive whatever may fall through the 
holes. The pails are of galvanized iron, well coated with tar. 
They can be lifted up, emptied, and replaced, as occasion 
demands. Wrought-iron steps were built into the man-holes 
during construction. These details are shown on Plate VI., 
Figs. 7 and 8. 

Above the point where the South Boston intercepting sewers 
join the main sewer the latter is nine feet in diameter. For 
al)()ut half a mile tlie ground is higli, l)ut a location through 




SIDE ENTRANCE AND BOAT CHAMBER 



FiA- 16 



qOVER 



Riliotypi FuRting Co. Svi 



MAIN SEWER. 39 

it could not be avoided without making a considerable detour. 
For 1,900 feet, in Mount Vernon Street, the sewer was built by 
tunnelling through conglomerate rock and coarse sand. The 
rock, where it surrounded the tunnel, presented no serious ob- 
stacle ; but the sand tended to run into the excavation, and re- 
quired close sheeting and heavy bracing to support it. Fig. 
9, Plate VI., shows the sewer in tunnel on this section. For 
several hundred feet the sewer grade was near the surface of 
the ledge and, the latter being very irregular and covered with 
boulders, tunnelling operations were attended with much diffi- 
culty, and several caves occurred. For a length of 160 feet 
the ground was opened from the top and the sewer was built in 
an open trench about 45 feet deep. 

The sewer in the tunnel was well built, but after completion, 
on removing the pumps so that the water table in the vicinity 
was permitted to rise above the sewer, the latter was found to 
leak a good deal. The leaks, however, could be successfully 
calked. The process consisted in raking out a joint, where a 
leak occurred, to the full depth of the brick and driving in 
sheet lead for half the depth, the remainder being filled with 
cement. 

Excepting a section in East Chester Park, from Clapp Street 
to Magazine Street, the main sewer was built by contract. The 
laying out as a street of East Chester Park, east of Albany 
Street, had been contemplated by the authorities for some time, 
and action to that end was taken in time to permit the sewer 
being located there. The borings on this line showed that there 
were beds of marsh mud between Clapp and Magazine Streets 
which were from 20 to 86 feet deep below the marsh surface. 
As it would have been difficult to build a stable sewer in such 
ground, and impossible to prevent one, if built, being destroyed 
when the street should be filled over and around it, it was 
decided to fill the street to full lines and grades before attempt- 
ing to build the sewer. 

A contract was accordingly concluded by which the street 
was filled with gravel brought by the N.Y. and N.E. Eailroad. 
So great was the settlement of this filling into the mud that 
over 106,000 cubic yards of gravel were required. The marsh 



40 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

level for 100, or more, feet on either side of the filled 
street was pushed up by the filling from 8 to 14 feet high. A 
surcharge, 20 feet wide on top and 8 feet high, was put upon 
the street west of the N.Y. & N.E. Railroad, where the mud 
was deepest, to insure prompt settlement. 

Building a stable sewer in a street so recently filled being a 
difficult operation, requiring methods of treatment which can- 
not be determined upon beforehand, it was thought best to 
build this section by day's labor. 

As a masonry structure would have been broken when the 
trench was refilled, a wooden sewer was adopted (Fig. 10, 
Plate VI.) . This consisted of an external wooden shell, formed 
of 4-inch spruce plank, ten inches wide, every fourth plank 
being wedge-shaped ; the whole securely spiked and treenailed 
together and finally lined with four inches of brick or concrete 
masonry. 

The depth of excavation for this sewer was from 32 to 36 
feet, and the pressures were so great as to require ver}^ heavy 
bracing. As many as 60 braces of 8 inch x 8 inch, or heavier 
timber, were sometimes used for a length of 18 lineal feet of 
trench; and these, when taken out, were all found to be either 
broken or so crippled as to be unfit to use again. Frequently 
the earth on one side of the trench was found to be difierent 
from that on the other, which caused very unequal pressures, so 
that internal bracing was necessary to maintain the sewer in its 
proper shape until the trench had been back-filled. It was 
found necessary to build the shell with a vertical diameter 
four inches greater than was required for the masonry lining, 
to allow for settlement, change of shape, and compression of 
the timber. The vertical diameter inside of the lining was also 
increased, so that, if in places the sewer should settle as a whole, 
the bottom could be brought to the true grade, and still leave 
the established sectional area. 

The length of this section was 1,894 feet. Ground was first 
broken in August, 1879, and the work was completed in Octo- 
ber, 1880. For excavating; and back-fillino; the trench, machin- 
ery designed by the Superintendent, Mr. H. A. Carson, was 
used. The average cost per lineal foot of the completed sewer 



MAIN SEWER. 41 

was $50. For several hundred feet, where the mud had been 
deepest, a continual slight shrinkage and settlement of the 
gravel filling under the sewer occurred for a year or more. 
The sewer itself, also, settled in a long curve, whose greatest 
depth below the original grade line was about 18 inches. A 
masonry sewer would have been broken by such movement, 
but the wooden one, having considerable flexibility, was appar- 
ently uninjured. At present (1885) the street seems to have 
assumed a condition of permanent stability. 

In East Chester Park, from Magazine Street to Albany 
Street, clay was chiefly encountered, and the sewer generally 
consisted of a simple ring of brick-work without side walls, and 
its construction presented few features of special interest. As 
a precaution in passing within 35 feet of a large gas-holder, 
tongued and grooved 4-inch sheet planks were driven, and 
the trench was back-filled with concrete to the crown of the 
sewer arch (Fig. 11). In passing across the old Roxbury 
Canal, which had been recently filled by the city, an influx of 
tide-water along the loose walls of the canal and through the 
filling occasioned some delay and expense. The water was 
finally kept out by double rows of tongued and grooved sheet- 
piling. A side entrance and boat-chamber (Fig. 12) were built 
on this section, at the corner of Swett Street. The latter 
structure resembled a very large man-hole, with a rectangular 
opening from the street, 11x4 feet in dimensions. This was 
built to allow the lowering of boats into the sewer. 

At Albany Street the East Side intercepting sewer joins the 
main, and above this point the latter is again reduced in size, to 
eight feet three inches wide by eight feet five inches high. The 
extra horizontal course was put in at the spring line because it 
was supposed to facilitate dropping and moving the centres. 
In East Chester Park, and Washington Street from Albany to 
Camden Street, the sewer was built chiefly in clay, and con- 
sisted of a ring of brick-work. For about 300 feet, however, 
near Albany Street, mud was found, and a foundation, consisting 
of a timber platform supported on piles, became necessary 
(Fig. 13, Plate VI.). 

In Camden Street, from Washington Street to Tremont 



42 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

Street, a distance of 1,391 feet, the depth of trench required 
would have been 26 feet. Camden Street is rather narrow, and 
contains sewer, gas, and water pipes. As good clay was found 
at a depth five or more feet above the top of the sewer, it was 
thought that it would be as cheap to the city, and decidedly 
less annoying to residents on the street, to build the sewer by 
tunnelling beneath the surface (Fig. 14). Working shafts were 
sunk about 250 feet apart, and headings in each direction driven 
from them. At one or two points the miners permitted the 
roof of the tunnel to settle slightly, by which the common 
sewer above was cracked, and some trouble caused by the 
sewage leaking into the tunnel. The main sewer was back- 
filled above the arch with clay, packed in under the lagging as 
firmly as possible. On the whole the method of construction 
was successful, and a well-built sewer was obtained. Its cost 
was $22.52 per lineal foot. 

At Tremont Street, the Stony-Brook intercepting sewer is 
taken in. At this point, as at all other places where intercept- 
ing sewers join the main sewer, the grade of the latter rises 
abruptly somewhat less than a foot, or enough to maintain the 
established inclination on the surface of the sewage at the time 
of maximum flow. From Tremont Street to the present end of 
the main sewer, at Huntington Avenue, the sewer was built in 
open cut (Fig. 15), and for a large part of the distance needed 
side walls and piling for its support. Just west of the B. & P. 
R.R. another boat-chamber and side entrance (Fig. 16) were 
built, and a third side entrance, reached by a stone stairway 
leading from the sidewalk, was constructed at Huntington 
Avenue. 

The total cost of the 3.2 miles of main sewer was $606,031, 
being an average of $36.09 per lineal foot. 



INTEECEPTING SEWERS. 43 



CHAPTER VI. 

INTERCEPTING SEWERS. 

As before stated, and as shown by the plan (Plate V.), the 
South Boston intercepting sewer is the first to join the main 
sewer in the latter's course from the pumping-station towards 
the city proper. This intercepting sewer, by its two branches, 
is intended finally to encircle the peninsula on which South 
Boston is situated, and intercept the sewage flowing in the com- 
mon sewers, which have heretofore discharged their contents at 
nineteen outlets, in the immediate vicinity of a dense popula- 
tion. 

At the point of junction the grade of the intercepting sewer 
is 1.5 feet higher than that of the main sewer, so that the sew- 
age in the former shall not be dammed back, and the established 
rate of inclination shall be maintained on the surface of the sew- 
age in both sewers at the time of maximum discharge. In all 
cases where a main drainage sewer joins another the junction 
is made at a " bell-mouth " connection chamber, in which the 
axes of the sewers meet b\^ lines or curves tangent to each other, 
so that the two currents may unite with the least disturbance to 
either. Sections of the " bell-mouth " junction of the two 
branches of the South Boston sewer, at Hyde Street, are shown 
by Fig. 14, Plate VII. On each intercepting sewer, just before 
it reaches the main sewer, is built a penstock chamber, con- 
taining a cast-iron penstock gate, by which the flow can be cut 
off, so that the main sewer can be entirely emptied, should it 
ever be desirable to do so. At such times the city sewage 
would be discharged at the old outlets, which are all retained 
and protected by tide-gates. A sketch of the penstock on the 
South Boston sewer is given by Fig. 6. 

Up to where it divides this sewer is circular, six feet in 
diameter. The average depth of excavation was 20 feet. Clay 
or sand was usually found, and the sewer consists of a simple 



44 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

ring of briek-work, 12 inches thick, though for about 350 feet, 
where the sand was wet and inclined to run, abutment walls 
of rubble masonry Avere used. Figs. 12 and 13 show cross- 
sections of this sewer. The brick invert was laid with Port- 
land cement mortar, one part cement to two parts sand, and the 
arch was laid with American (Rosendale) cement mortar, one 
part cement to 1.5 parts sand. This was the common practice 
in building the main drainage sewers, Portland cement being 
used in the inverts, on account of its greater resistance to abra- 
sion. When Rosendale cement was used for building inverts, 
the proportion required was equal parts of cement and sand. 

The inclination of this sewer throughout the greater portion 
of its extent is 1 in 2,000, which affords a velocity of flow 
sufficient to prevent deposit of sludge, but not sufficient to 
keep in suspension sand and road detritus. A sharper inclina- 
tion would have been desirable had it been practicable to ob- 
tain one. Few of the main drainage sewers have a greater 
inclination than 1 in 2,000, and it was expected from the first 
that flushing would occasionally be required to prevent the 
accumulation of deposits. To provide for this, iron flushing- 
gates are built into the sewers at intervals of about half a mile. 
The first flushing-gate on the South Boston sewer is just below 
the fork at Hyde Street. A sketch of this gate is given by 
Fig. 15. Usually the gate stands above the sewer, in the 
man-hole. It is kept vertical by two small stop-l)olts at its top. 
To flush the sewer the gate -is lowered against its seat, built 
into the bottom of the sewer, and the sewage accumulates be- 
hind it as deep as the gate is high. The stops are then "with- 
drawn and the gate raised until it clears its lower seat, when it 
tilts over into a horizontal position and opens a free passage 
for the dammed-up sewage. 

The greater part of South Boston is high land, and there are 
but few low cellars there which are subject during rain-storms 
to flooding at high tide. In order that the full capacity of the 
sewers and pumps might he available to relieve other parts of 
the city, less favored in this respect, it was necessary to ar- 
range that no more than a fixed quantity of sewage should 
(•V(;r be r(;ccive(l ))y the main sewer from the South Boston 





Fi^.2 



Fi^.3 




Fi^. 5 

ISECTIONAL ELEVATION 



i 




LARGE REGULATOR 




SECTIONAL PLAN 






CONNECTION WITH V# VALE ST. SEWER 
Fig.O 7 



^fe^ 



PENSTOCK GATE 

Fi^.6 





BACK, VIEW. 



Fig. 10 

SECTION AB. 




TIDE GATES. 






Fig. 12 



Fig,. 13 



BELL- MOUTH 

Fi 



PLAN 

BOSTON MAIN DRAINAGE 
INTERCEPTING SEWERS. 





5CA11& OF FEET 



FLUSHING GATE 

Fig. 15 



jish'oijpf ?nr.tii\£ Ca Jostpn, 



INTERCEPTING SEWERS. 45 

intercepting sewer. To accomplish this a " regulator " was 
built into the intercepting sewer just below its last connection 
with a common sewer, at Kemp Street. 

A sectional plan and elevation of this machine, and of the 
chamber containing it, is given by Fig. 9, Plate VII. As will 
be seen, the apparatus is very simple, and consists of stop- 
planks, closing the sewer from its top down to about the 
ordinary dry-weather flow line, the sewer below the 'planks 
being lined with a cast-iron gate frame, or seat, curved to fit 
the invert, and also vertically to correspond with the curve of 
motion of a cast-iron valve, which plays up and down in front 
of it. The valve is held by two cast-iron levers, pivoted by a 
3-inch wrought-iron shaft in two bearings, the other ends of the 
lever being connected by vertical arms to a 3-inch square bar. 
To the ends of this bar are fastened two boiler-plate floats, 
placed in wells on either side of the sewer. To avoid dis- 
turbance to the motion of the floats, by waves caused by the 
rush of sewage under the valve, water is brought to the wells 
through a 5-inch pipe, as shown, from a point 50 feet below 
the regulator. 

The connection between the valves and the floats can be so 
adjusted that the former will begin to close when the surface of 
sewage in the sewer has reached any desired height. As the 
floats rise the valve descends until the opening below it is just 
sufficient to let enough sewage pass to maintain the allowed 
depth of flow in the sewer. Should the amount of rain-water 
from low districts, reachins: the main sewer throush other 
intercepting sewers, exceed the capacity of the pumps to con- 
trol it, the main sewer fills, and its sewage backs up into the 
South Boston sewer, and still further raises the floats. The 
opening under the stop-planks is thus entirely closed, and all 
of the common sewers above discharge at their old outlets, and 
continue to do so until the amount of water reaching the pumps 
can be controlled by them. 

Above where this sewer divides, at Hyde Street, the branch 
which turns to the right, and skirts the southerly margin of 
South Boston, is egg-shaped, four feet six inches high by three 
feet wide (Fig. 11, Plate VII.). After passing under the 



46 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

Old Colony Railroad the shape is changed somewhat (Fig. 3). 
At Vinton, Vale, and other streets common sewers are inter- 
cepted. Fig. 7, Plate VII., shows the connection with the 
Vale-Street sewer, and may stand as a type of such connections 
between common and intercepting sewers, whenever no regula- 
tion of the amount to be received from the former is required. 
Nearly every individual case presented special conditions, which 
necessitated some modification of the method of construction ; 
but the general plan was the same in most cases, and its features 
are shown in this case. 

A sump hole, two feet deep, into which the sewage falls, is 
first built in the common sewer. Into the bottom of this sump 
is built a short section of iron pipe (Fig. 5), from 12 to 24 
inches in diameter, protected by a cast-iron flap-valve. Ordi- 
narily this valve stands open, but can be closed if it is desired 
to break the connection between the two sewers. The bottom 
of the sump, around the pipe, is rounded off with strong Port- 
land cement concrete, so that there shall be no corners in which 
deposits can lodge. The sewage passes to the intercepting 
sewer through a short branch connecting with the lower end of 
the iron pipe. 

Beyond the sump the common sewer is provided with a 
chamber containing a double set of tide-gates. These gates 
give a clear opening of from two to four feet diameter. Each 
set of gates is hinged to a cast-iron ring, or gate seat (Fig. 8), 
which is built into the brick-work. The two wooden gates close 
against each other. To make tight joints the bearing surfaces 
of the gates are covered with strips of rubber about three- 
eighths of an inch thick. The gates are inclined somewhat, so 
that they are self-closing. 

From the main sewer to the Old Colony Railroad this inter- 
cepting sewer was built by contract, at an average cost of $12.68 
per lineal foot. From the railroad to H Street it was built by 
day's labor, and cost $13.25 per lineal foot. On Ninth Street, 
between Old Harbor Street and G Street, for a distance of 
about 800 feet, the sewxr location crossed a beach which was 
several feet below high-tide level. No coffer dam or other 
protection was used in this place, but construction was carried 



INTEECEPTING SEWERS. 47 

on only when the tide was down. When the sea rose it over- 
flowed and filled the trench. When it again fell the water in 
the trench was let off, through the sewer already built, to pumps 
at the pumping-station, and work was resumed. From H 
Street to N Street, on Ninth Street, the sewer was built by 
contract. For about 1,000 feet, near K and L Streets, the 
average depth of the trench was about 27 feet. The sewer was 
nearly circular, three feet wide and three feet two inches high 
(Fig. 1, Plate VII.) . This section was among the earliest built, 
and its design is not in accord with later practice. It mighthave 
been made much more convenient for workmen to enter, at slight 
additional expense, by giving it a greater vertical diameter. Its 
fall is 1 in 1,666|. 

From the point of division on Hyde Street the sewer which 
turns to the left, and follows the westerly shore of South Boston, 
is egg-shaped, five feet six inches by four feet nine inches, up to 
the Old Colony Railroad crossing, on Dorchester Avenue. A 
timber platform and rubble masonry side walls were required for 
the entire distance, and the usual cross-section of this sewer is 
shown by Fig. 10, Plate YII. This section was built by con- 
tract. Its length is 3,350 feet ; the average depth of excavation 
was about 24 feet, and the average cost per lineal foot was 
$16.85. 

After taking in the B-Street sewer the intercepting sewer 
changes its shape (Fig. 3), and continues in Dorchester 
Avenue, passing under the N.Y. & N.E. Railroad, and turns 
into Foundry Street, which it follows to its end, at the corner 
of Dorchester Avenue and First Street. Considerable difficulty 
was encountered in passing under the abutments of the bridge 
on Dorchester Avenue, over the N.Y. and N.E. Railroad. 
These were underlaid by running sand, and the northerly abut- 
ment over the sewer, which had been built without mortar, had 
to be taken down. Under the tracks of the same railroad, 
head-room being limited, the shape of the sewer was altered 
(Fig, 2), so that there should be no danger of its interfering 
with, or being injured by, repairs to the road-bed. This section 
of sewer is 2,820 feet long, and its average cost per foot was 
.25. 



48 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

The second large intercepting sewer which enters the main 
sewer had its point of connection at the intersection of East 
Chester Park and Albany Street. It is called the East Side 
intercepting sewer, and is located in streets following the east- 
erly margin of the city proper for a distance of about 2i miles. 
In Albany Street, from East Chester Park to Dover Street, a 
distance of 4,524 feet, the sewer is nearly circular, with a 
vertical diameter of five feet eight inches, and a horizontal one 
of five feet six inches. The inclination is 1 in 2,000. The 
average depth of excavation for this section of work was 24 
feet, and, as marsh mud and peat extended from near the sur- 
face of the ground to a depth always considerably below the 
bottom of the sewer, piles were required to furnish a secure 
foundation. A timber platform was fiistened to the tops of the 
piles, and on the platform the sewer, with its rubble masonry 
abutment walls, was built. The bottom of the excavation was 
about 6.5 feet below the elevation of low tide, and considerable 
trouble was experienced from sea-water making its way into 
the trench, especially in places where old sea-walls and other 
such obstructions were encountered. The mud on the sides of 
the trench exerted much lateral pressure, and close sheet-piling 
and heavy bracing were necessary. Opening so deep a trench 
in such material drained the water out of the adjacent soil, ren- 
dering it spongy and somewhat compressible, so that the whole 
street settled and had to be resurfaced and repaved. This sec- 
tion was built by contract. One firm of contractors gave up the 
job, and the Avork was re-let under provisions of the contract. The 
average cost per lineal foot of the completed sewer was $26.16. 
The first common sewer taken in by the intercepter is that 
on Concord Street. This sewer drains a district in which the 
cellars are not subject to flooding from rain-water during high 
tides. It was not necessary, therefore, to let this sew^er dis- 
charge into the intercepter an amount of sewage in excess of 
its ordinary maximum dry-weather flow, and temporarily, during 
rain-storms, the whole dilute contents of the sewer could, with- 
out injury, be permitted to discharge into the bay at the old 
outlet. An arrangement to eff'ect this was desirable, because, 
during very heavy rain-storms, the whole capacity of the inter- 



INTERCEPTING SEWERS. 49 

cepting sewer might be needed to afford relief to sewers drain- 
ing low districts beyond Concord Street. 

AccordiDglj^ the connection between this sewer and the 
intercepting sewer was made through a chamber containing a 
small regulating apparatus, designed to control or cut off the 
flow automatically. Figs. 1 and 2, Plate VIII., show sec- 
tions of this apparatus and its arrangement. Eight similar 
appliances, with slight modifications in the methods of arrange- 
ment, were used in connection with the same number of common 
sewers. 

The operation of the apparatus will be understood from an 
examination of the figures. Under ordinary circumstances the 
sewerage falls into a sump, and thence passes to the regulating 
chamber, which it enters through a cast-iron nozzle. This nozzle 
is circular, 12 inches in diameter at its upper end, and rec- 
tangular 20 X 6 inches at its orifice. In front of the orifice 
plays a cast-iron valve, moved by a float in a tank set in the floor 
of the chamber. The water in the tank stands at the same 
elevation as that in the intercepting server, a 4-inch iron pipe 
connecting one with the other. The apparatus can be adjusted 
so that the valve will begin to close and cut off the flow of 
sewage when the water in the intercepting sewer reaches any 
desired depth. When not cut off, the sewage flows around the 
tank and passes on through an opening at its further end. 

The second common sewer taken in is that in Dedham Street. 
This sewer drains a district which used to suffer greatly from 
flooding during rain-storms. In order to afford relief this sewer 
was connected directly with the interceptor by a branch two feet 
in diameter, the inlet to which is never closed. 

The third sewer taken in is that in Union Park Street. The 
district drained by it has suffered but slightly from wet cellars, 
and that only during severe storms and very high tides. The 
flow from this sewer was regulated in the same manner as that 
from the Concord-Street sewer, but the apparatus was so 
adjusted that it cuts off the flow later than in the case of most 
other sewers, and only when the intercepting sewer is nearly 
full. 

The fourth common sewer met with is that in Dover Street. 



50 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

This drains a low district, and a free connection, two feet in 
diameter, was made with it. According to the usual practice 
in such cases this sewer would have been connected with the 
intercepter at or near the point in Albany Street where their 
two locations intersect. But it was found in examining the 
citj^ sewers, with reference to connections with them, that the 
Dover-Street sewer was not in condition to be intercepted at 
any point east of Harrison Avenue. Between that street and 
its outlet it is a rectangular wooden structure, 5X6 feet in 
dimensions, placed close to an old stone retaining- wall and 
surrounded by loose stone ballast. It is considerably broken, 
so that the tide-water from the bay which ebbs and flows about 
the wall and in the ballast has free access to the sewer, and 
would have flowed into the intercepting sewer, and so 
reached the pumps. From Harrison Avenue westerly, the 
Dover-Street sewer was built of brick, and was tight so that sea- 
water could be excluded from it by tide-gates. Accordingly 
the connection was made west of Harrison Avenue, and a 2 X 3 
feet oval branch sewer (Fig. 3), 588 feet long, was built from 
that point to convey the sewage to the intercepting sewer at 
Albany Street. 

Above Dover Street are few districts which sufier from flood- 
ing. Accordingly a large regulating apparatus, to control the 
flow from above, was built into the intercepting sewer at this 
point. It resem1)led that on the South Boston sewer, before 
described, and shown on Plate VH. by Fig. 9. 

From Dover Street to its upper end on Atlantic Avenue the 
East Side sewer was liuilt by day's labor, under a superintend- 
ent appointed by the city. This was done because above 
Dover Street the sewer location was confined to crowded 
thoroughfares, in which peculiar management was required to 
prevent serious obstruction to travel and to the business of 
ii])utlers ; and also because, operations being principally car- 
ried on in filled land, l)C(ls of dock mud, old walls, wharves, 
and other ol)structions were continually encountered, requiring 
frecjuent changes in methods of construction which could not be 
foreseen and provided for in the specifications of a contract. 
From Dover Street the sewer location extends in Albany 



PLATE VIII. 




GENERAL PLAN OF 
CONCORD ST. CONNECTION 



Fig. 14- Fig. 15 

BOSTON MAIN DRAINAGE, 
INTERCEPTING SENVERS. 



10 15 20 FEET 



h?^^u4jn-tnW^^^ ^lJ 



SECTIONAL PLAN. 



FALMOUTH ST. SEWER. 



INTERCEPTING SEWERS. 51 

Street to Lehigh Street, at which point it enters private land, and 
crosses the freight and switch yards of the Boston and Albany, 
and Old Colony Eailroads, to Federal Street, near the bridge, 
a total distance of 2,331.5 feet. In Albany and Lehigh Streets 
are the tracks of a Freight Kailway Company, and in the rail- 
road yards are about 40 lines of rails in constant use, which 
it was very important should not be disturbed. The whole 
section of work is in filled land, underlaid by beds of mud, from 
5 to 20 feet deep, below the bottom of the sewer, which is 
itself several feet below the level of low tide. At different 
points obstruction in the shape of old walls and wharves were 
encountered, which admitted sea-water freely to the trench, so 
that, as a rule, work could only progress during low stages of 
the tide. 

The sewer is oval, five feet high (Fig. 4), and generally 
required piling for its support. It is built partly of wood, lined 
with two inches of concrete, and partly of brick- work resting on 
a solid cradle of wood, six inches thick. Travel upon the streets 
was not interrupted, and with considerable difiiculty the freight- 
railway tracks were supported and maintained. As it would 
have been impossible to have had an open trench through the 
Albany and Old Colony Railroad yards without interfering with 
their traffic, operations at that point were carried on entirely 
below the surface. The tracks were supported by stringers, 
and the spaces between them floored over. By the use of 
special machinery all the earth excavated or refilled, as well as 
materials for constructions, was conveyed by tracks suspended 
below the floor. The trench was well braced, and its sides pro- 
tected by lag-sheeting, which, together Avith the piles driven to 
support the sevi'er, were all put in place without encroaching 
upon the surface. It is believed that not a single train was 
delayed, nor any inconvenience caused, by these operations. 
The average cost of this section of sewer was about $3L26 per 
lineal foot. 

In Federal Street, and Atlantic Avenue to its end at Central 
Street, the intercepting sewer is oval, four feet six inches high by 
two feet eight inches wide. Fig. 5, Plate VIII. , shows the usual 
mode of construction. Federal Street contained double horse- 



52 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

railroad and single freight-railway tracks, and beneath its sur- 
face were one sewer, two water-pipes, and two gas-pipes. 
Beds of dock mud extended from 5 to 20 feet below the bottom 
of the new sewer, and old dock walls and timber structures 
were frequently encountered. A location on the east side of 
the street was found to be most practicable, and the sewer was 
built by methods which left the roadway open for travel. By 
flooring over the trench at intervals, passages were maintained 
through the excavating machine (shown on Plate XXV.) to the 
yards and wharves bordering Fort Point Channel. 

The freight-railway tracks were shifted towards the centre 
of the street, and were used during the day for the passage of 
horse-cars in one direction. Bricks, cement, and other material 
were piled on the outer edges of both sidewalks where they 
would cause least inconvenience, and always so as to leave a 
clear passage-way four feet wide. Endeavors were made to 
cause the least possible annoyance to corporations and individu- 
als ; and in general these eflbrts seemed to be appreciated and 
reciprocated by the public, so that complaints were rare. 
This section of work was 5,159 feet long. The average depth 
of excavation was about 21 feet, and the average cost of com- 
pleted sewer was $15.06 per lineal foot. The Stony-Brook in- 
tercepting sewer joins the main sewer at the intersection of 
Camden and Tremont Streets. This sewer intercepts the sew- 
age which formerly emptied at seven outlets, into Stony Brook, 
and thence found its way into the Back Bay. In Tremont and 
Cabot Streets, from Camden to Ruggles Street (Plate V.), a 
distance of 2,135 feet, the sewer was built by contract. The 
rate of inclination is 1 in 700, and the average depth of exca- 
vation required was 21 feet. The sewer is nearly circular, four 
feet six inches wide by four feet eight inches high, and is chiefly 
founded on clay, so that side walls w^ere only needed for about 
300 feet, and the average cost per lineal foot, including inspec- 
tioi^, was $11.97. The customary iron penstock gate was built 
into the sewer just above the bell-mouth connection chamber by 
which it joins the main. 

As the territory drained by the sewers which empty into 
Stony Brook is high land, a large automatic regulating appara- 



INTERCEPTING SEWERS. 53 

tus, similar to the one shown on Plate VII., was built into the 
intercepting sewer at Euggles Street, by means of which the 
flow is partly or wholly cut off* during severe and continuous 
rain-storms. Above the regulator is a three-way bell-mouth 
chamber (Fig. 10, Plate VIII.), from which radiate three 
principal branch sewers. The centre or main branch, about 41- 
feet in diameter, is 1,700 feet long, and intercepts the sewage 
formerly discharging into the brook by outlets at Elmvvood and 
Hampshire Streets. This sewer passes twice under the brook, 
at so low an elevation that it preserves its regular grade and 
shape. The other two branches are built just large enough to 
enter, being 2X3 feet, egg-shaped, with the smaller end 
down. These also cross twice under the brook, at Tremont 
Street and at Ruggles Street. Including the regulating cham- 
ber, and all sewers above it, this section of work was built by 
the day, under the City Superintendent, Mr. H. A. Carson. 
There were built in all 4,229 lineal feet of sewers, including 415 
feet of 15-inch pipe. The average cost per foot of the whole 
was $14.30. A considerable .portion of the 2x3 feet sewers 
was built during the winter of 1880-81. The sewers were 
from 14 to 19 feet below the street surface, and the excavation 
was done by tunnelling from pits about 10 feet apart. The 
outlets of the city sewers being below the level of high tide, in 
order to prevent back-water reaching the intercepting sewer, it 
was necessary to build gate-chambers just beyond the points 
of interception, each chamber containing a double set of tide- 
gates. 

The last of the large intercepting sewers joins the main sewer 
at its present end at the intersection of Camden Street with 
Huntington Avenue (Plate V.)- -^^ ^^ commonly called the 
West Side intercepting sevver, and is located in streets border- 
ing the westerly margin of the city proper, and intercepts the 
sewage which formerly discharged into Charles River. This 
sewer is about 3^ miles long, and its inclination from end to 
end is 1 in 2,000.^ 

From the main sewer to Beacon Street, and in that street to 
Charles Street, a distance of 9,325 feet, the West Side sewer 
was built by day's labor, at an average cost of $13.35 per lineal 



54 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

foot. This section of work includes, besides the customary 
man-holes, six common-sewer connections, five small regulators, 
one side entrance, one penstock, and three flushing-gates. The 
usual form of this sewer is shown by Fig. 8, Plate VIII. It is 
egg-shaped, five feet six inches high by four feet nine inches wide. 
It will be noticed that the usual position given to an egg-shaped 
sewer is reversed in this case, the larger end of the egg forming 
the invert. This position was adopted because, while affording 
convenient head-room, it kept the flow line as low down as was 
practicable. As the flow in this sewer is always a foot or 
more deep, the hydraulic mean depth, and consequently the 
velocity of flow, is greater than it would have been had the 
smaller end of the sewer been below. 

A case of slight injury to this sewer may be worth noticing. 
When the sewer was built on the line of Falmouth Street that 
street had not yet been filled and graded, and the mud and peat, 
which underlay the marsh surface in that locality, sometimes ex- 
tended down below the top of the sewer. About a year after- 
wards the street was graded with gravel about seven feet high 
above the orio-inal surface of the marsh over the sewer. One 
side of the street was filled before the other, and the unequal 
pressure which resulted was transmitted to the sewer, and 
caused its arch to bulge, as sbown by Fig. 12. Fortunately the 
amount of distortion was not sufficient to endanger the sewer's 
stability, and the crack was pointed with Portland cement. 

In Hereford Street, for a distance of 282 feet, the sewer lo- 
cation passed under a freight-yard of the Boston & Albany 
Eailroad, in which were about 20 lines of track. Piles were 
driven and stringers placed to support these tracks, and nearly 
all of the sewer building operations were carried on beneath 
the surface of the srround, so that the traffic of the railroad was 
not interfered with. At this point, and beyond the railroad 
location for a total length of about 800 feet in Hereford Street, 
a common sewer was built in the same trench, directly above 
the intercepting sewer. This was done by an arrangement with 
the City Sewer Department, which designed and paid for the 
upper sewer. A cross-section of the two sewers, showing their 
arrangement, is showm by Fig. 9. 



INTEECEPTING SEWERS. 55 

In Beacon Street, for a distance of 590 feet in the vicinity of 
Exeter Street, 22 old stone walls, from five to twelve feet thick, 
were encountered and had to be cut through. These walls con- 
stituted the sluice-way of the old mill-dam, and their removal 
caused considerable delay. The cost of excavation per lineal 
foot of trench, 20 feet deep in this street, varied from $3.94 to 
$14.49. The section from Camden to Charles Street was 
built in 1878. During a portion of the season work was car- 
ried on day and night at two different points. The largest 
number of men and boys employed at any one time was 369. 
The rate of progress varied greatly ; where no special obstacles 
were met, 108 feet of completed sewer was built each 24 
hours. 

On Beacon Street the large common sewers in Hereford, 
Fairfield, Dartmouth, and Berkeley Streets are intercepted. 
The sewage from each of these sewers passes to the intercept- 
ino; sewer throuo-h a chamber in which is a small automatic 
regulating apparatus, similar to the one shown on Plate VIII., 
so adjusted as to cut off the flow whenever the water in the 
intercepting sewer exceeds an established depth. The sewers 
just mentioned are too low to pass over the intercepting sewer, 
and a somewhat different method of construction was necessary 
in connecting them. The arrangement at Berkeley Street is 
shown by Fig. 13, Plate VIII. 

A secondary intercepting sewer was built in Brimmer Street, 
which collects all of the sewage flowing westward from Beacon 
Hiil, and conveys it to the principal intercepting sewer in Bea- 
con Street. For the sake of economy and simplicity the old 
outlets of the common sewers in Revere, Pinckney, Mt. Ver- 
non, Chestnut, and Beacon Streets were abandoned, and the 
total flow from these sewers, including rain, is taken b}'^ the new 
Brimmer-Street sewer, a single storm overflow being provided 
at Back Street. The construction of the Brimmer-Street sys- 
tem involved the building of 1,456.5 feet of oval brick sewers, 
varying from 2X3 feet to 3 X 4 feet 6 inches in diameter; 
also the rebuilding of about 556 feet of common sewers, which 
werei found to be too low or otherwise defective. .The flow 
from the Brimmer-Street sewer into the intercepting sewer in 



56 MAIX DEAIXAGE WOEKS. 

Beacon Street is regulated in the same manner as that from the 
ordinary city sewers. 

A little beyond Brimmer Street a large common sewer, which 
comes from the south across the Public Garden, is intercepted. 
This drains what is called the Church-Street district, compris- 
ing low territory, in which are many cellars which used often 
to be inundated. Sewage from this sewer, therefore, is taken 
directly into the intercepting sewer without the intervention 
of any regulating apparatus. 

On Charles Street, from Beacon to Cambridge Street, a dis- 
tance of 1,832 feet, the sewer was built by contract. It is ess- 
shaped, 4 X 4,5 feet in diameter (Figs. 6 and 7), and cost 
$10.10 per lineal foot. This was the only section of the West 
Side sewer which was built by contract. In excavating the 
trench many of the hollow-log water-pipes of the old Jamaica 
Pond xA.queduct Company were found in a perfect state of pres- 
ervation. A house-drain Avas found which the drain-layer had 
connected with one of these water-pipes, although the street 
sewer was but a few feet distant. The log had but three inches' 
bore, and, of course, led to no outlet. 

At the intersection of Cambridge and Charles Streets a large 
automatic regulating apparatus, similar to the one shown on 
Plate Vn. , was built into the sewer, to control the flow from 
above. The excavation in which the chamber for this appa- 
ratus was built was 30 feet square ; but, by flooring over the 
top of the excavation, and supporting the various lines of street- 
railway tracks at that place, travel was not impeded, all build- 
ing operations being carried on below the surface of the street. 

From Cambridge to Leverett Street, a distance of 2,150 feet, 
the intercepting sewer is oval, four feet six inches by three feet 
in diameter. It is of brick-work, eight inches thick, and usu- 
ally required a timber cradle-support. The work on this section 
presented the usual difficulties met with in excavating through 
filled land, in the way of old obstructions and the free access of 
tide-water. By a rather curious coincidence, for a distance of 
about 500 feet, the remains of an old wharf or bulkhead were 
found, with longitudinal rows of piles within the trench in such 
positions that, by cutting them off at the proper elevation, they 



INTEECEPTIXG SEWERS. 57 

served as a support for the sewer, in the place of new piles which 
would otherwise have been necessary. Seven hundred and one 
feet, in all of the Fruit-Street and Li\'ingston-Street sewers, 
which were too low to be intercepted, were replaced by 2x3 
feet oval brick sewers. The private sewer from the Massachusetts 
General Hospital was also too low to be intercepted. This was 
found to be a rectangular wooden scow, 2.5 X 2.5 feet in diam- 
eter, with its bottom at low-tide level. The Trustees of the 
hospital themselves replaced it with a 10-inch drain-pipe at a 
higher elevation. 

From Charles Street to its upper end at Prince Street, a dis- 
tance of 3,571 feet, the TTest Side sewer maintained, with rare 
exceptions, an even size, of three feet wide and four feet six 
inches high. The arch consisted of eight inches of brick, and 
the invert was generally made with four inches of brick, resting 
on a timber cradle, also four inches thick. The common sewer 
in Lowell Street, which was a large, flat-bottomed wooden scow, 
was too low to be intercepted. It was accordingly abandoned, 
and all branch sewers and house-drains were connected directly 
with the intercepting sewer. To facilitate making these connec- 
tions the intercepting sewer was located exactly on the line of 
the old sewer. The top planks of the latter were removed, but 
its side planks were retained, and the new sewer, with its width 
reduced to two feet eight inches, was built between them. The 
flow of sewage was maintained during the construction through 
channels above the floor of the old sewer and below the bottom 
of the new one, which was supported on timber saddles (Fig. 
14, Plate YIIL). 

Causewav Street is one of the most crowded thorouo-hfares of 
the city. It contains two lines of track for horse-cars and one 
for freight-cars. On its north-westerly side are the depots of 
three railroads, with no outlet for their passengers and freight 
except into this street. The tracks of another railroad cross 
the street. The territory traversed by the street is all made 
land, consisting of loose materials filled upon a mud bottom. 

It was with some apprehension of trouble that work was 
begun on this section. The most diflicult feature of the work 
was so to conduct it that travel should not be seriously impeded. 



58 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

Owing to the skill and care of the superintendent and his subor- 
dinates, and to the appliances used for handling the earth and 
other material, the sewer in this street was built within four 
months, without closing any portion of the street to travel, and 
with the minimum of inconvenience to the public. At street- 
crossings and entrances to railroad-yards work was carried on 
below timber platforms, or bridges, without encroaching upon 
the street surface. In crossing the Boston and Maine Railroad 
tracks, the excavating apparatus, with its steam-engine, was so 
elevated as to leave head-room for the passage of trains. 
Plate IX. is from a photograph taken at this point. 

As a precaution, where the foundation seemed insecure, the 
vertical diameter of the sewer was increased by six inches, so 
that, should slight unequal settlements occur, the invert may be 
brought to its true grade without lessening the desired size of 
the sewer. For about 76 feet, to avoid interfering with the 
street surface, the intercepting sewer was built entirely within 
an abandoned common sewer (Fig. 15, Plate VIII.). At the 
upper end of the intercepting sewer, at Prince street, the grade 
of the invert is about four feet above mean low water, which is 
the highest elevation of any portion of the Main Drainage Sys- 
tem. At this point a direct connection with the harbor has 
been made, which is closed under ordinary circumstances by a 
three feet square penstock gate. By opening this gate at the 
time of high tide the sewer can be thoroughly flushed. 



Plate IX. 




-A 



li*^-- 



K\ 







m 





1 


y| 






^S 




■U^^LJH 




^^^^H w ^^Mi^^^^Hr^^^^T^^HaHliH 


^^^^HWf .JUK'' Ikw^-y 




-■^^-:v 


'^■H ^^KlMWk ■■■A if\ ^H 



PUMPING-STATION. 59 



CHAPTER VII. 

PUMPING-STATION . 

As before stated, and as shown by the plan (Plate V.), the 
Main Drainage Pumping-Station is situated at Old Harbor 
Point, on the sea-coast in Dorchester, about a mile from any 
dwelling. In flowing by gravitation to this point the sewage 
has descended, so that it is from 11 to 14 feet below the eleva- 
tion of low tide. To reach its final destination it must flow 
about 2^ miles further, to Moon Island, and be high enough, 
after arriving at the storage reservoir on the island, to be let 
out into the harbor at the time of high water. That it may do 
this it must first be raised by an average lift of 35 feet. 

The essential parts of the pumping-station are : a filth- 
hoist (so called), where the sewage passes through screens to 
remove solid matters which might clog the pumps ; pump- 
wells, into one or more of which the sewage can be turned ; 
pumping-engines to raise the sewage ; an engine-house to pro- 
tect the engines ; a boiler-house, containing boilers to furnish 
steam-power ; a coal-house to store a supply of coal ; and a 
dock and wharf, where vessels bringing coal can be unloaded. 
The position and arrangement of these principal] structures and 
apparatus are shown on Plate X. 

The filth-hoist is a solid masonry structure, extending from 
the surface of the ground down to below the main sewer. Its 
inside dimensions are 25 x 32 feet, and its exterior walls are from 
4 to 5 feet thick, founded upon two courses of 10-inch timber. 
In excavating for building the filth-hoist, the ground, which 
consisted of wet sand, was held by round wooden curbs. The 
total depth of excavation was 35 feet, and the upper 12 feet 
were dug without bracing to natural slopes. Below this three 
tiers of 4-inch sheet planks, each 10 feet long, were driven, and 
were braced by circular ribs. The three curbs were 71.61 
and 57 feet in diameter, respectively, and by this method of 



60 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

bracing an unobstructed space was secured for building the 
masonry. 

As will be seen by referring to Plates X. and XI., the main 
sewer passes through the westerly foundation wall of the filth- 
hoist. At this point the sewer has granite voussoirs cut to 
form a bell-shaped opening. Facing the sewer opening are two 
gate openings, protected by iron penstock gates, 7 x 6.5 feet 
each, through one or both of which the sewage flows. These 
gates are counterbalanced and are moved by hydraulic pressure 
derived from a city water-pipe. The pressure is sufficient to 
move them freely ; but to start them when down, with a head of 
water against them, a hydraulic force-pump is added, by means 
of which the initial pressure can be increased to any extent re- 
quired. Beyond the gates the structure is divided longitudinally 
by a brick partition wall into two parts, in each of which are 
chambers containing two independent cages, or screens, one 
before the other. The cages are rectangular in shape, 7 feet 8 
inches high, 7 feet 3^ inches wide, and 3 feet 4| inches deep. 
They are shown in detail by Fig. 4, on Plate XIV. Their 
backs, sides, and tops are formed of |-inch round iron rods, 
with 1-inch spaces between them. The cages are counterbal- 
anced, and are raised and lowered by four small steam-engines. 
The steam for these engines, as well as for heating purposes, 
is brought underground from the boiler-house. The super- 
structure of the filth-hoist is 30 x 37 feet outside dimensions, 
and is built of quarry-faced granite dimension-stones, lined 
inside with brick. A view of the outside of this building is 
shown at the left side of Plate XVII. Plate XII. is from a 
photograph taken inside of the filth-hoist when one pair of cages 
was raised. It gives a general idea of the arrangement of the 
hoisting machinery. 

After passing through the cages the sewage is conveyed by 
one or both of two sewers, nine feet in diameter each, to galleries 
on either side of the engine-house substructure, from which 
galleries it can be admitted through gate openings to one or 
more pump- wells, situated between the galleries. The bottom 
of the pump-wells is 19.5 feet below low-tide level and 36.5 



FUMPING-STATION. 61 

feet below the surface of the ground. From the wells the sew- 
age is raised by the pumps to its required elevation. 

The complete design of the pumping-station, as indicated on 
Plate X., consists of an engine-house, two boiler-houses, and a 
coal-house, so arranged as to include a court-yard. The build- 
ings are to be of dimensions suitable for containing eight pump- 
ing-engines with their boilers and other appurtenances. Only 
the portions of these buildings shown on the plan by full lines 
are at present constructed or needed. 

The foundation walls of the enoine-house ago-regate about 
350 feet in length. They are 37.5 feet in height and nine feet 
thick at the bottom, where they rest on a timber platform, 24 
inches thick, which also extends under the whole building, and 
furnishes a foundation course for the piers which support the 
engines. To build the exterior walls trenches 16 feet wide 
were lirst excavated. A core of earth was left inside these 
trenches until the walls had been erected, when it was removed 
to make place for the pump-wells and engine foundations. The 
exterior retaining and foundation walls were built of granite, 
and, although called rubble masonry, yet, owing to the sizes 
and shapes of stones used and the care taken in selecting and 
laying them, the work more nearly resembles a fair quality of 
roughly coursed block-stone work. 

The pump-wells and engine foundations are built chiefly of 
brick, but contain in addition about 300 dressed granite stones. 
These stones are used for copings, as bearings for holding-down 
bolts, for lining gate and other openings, etc., etc. There are 
nine iron gates, with suitable attachments and shafting, operated 
by two small steam-engines. Eight of these gates, 4 feet 91- 
inches by 6 feet 3^ inches each, control the flow of sewage from 
the side galleries into the four pump-wells. Another gate, 4 X 
4 feet square, controls the admission of salt water from the salt- 
water conduit. 

This last-mentioned structure, as shown by the plan (Plate 
X.), is a solid masonry conduit, with its bottom six feet below 
the elevation of low tide, and connects tide-w^ater at the dock 
with one of the engine-house galleries. Its otEce is to conduct 
salt water to the engine-house for use in the condensers, and 



62 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

also to furnish an additional supply of water to the pumps for 
flushing or other purposes, whenever the amount of sewage re- 
ceived from the main sewer is insufficient for such purposes. 

As has been stated, the sewage is elevated to heights (de- 
pending at any time upon the depth of sewage in the reservoir) 
which average about 35 feet. 

As the city sewers receive rain-water, and as it is desired to 
take as much of this as possible, especially from certain districts, 
it follows that during short periods of time, when it rains, very 
much greater pumping capacity is needed than is usually suffi- 
cient. There must, therefore, be a pump, or pumps, to run 
continuously, and others to run only when it rains or thaws. 

The chief item of expense in pumping is the cost of fuel. 
For the sake of economy the pumping- engines for continuous 
service must do their work with as little consumption of fuel as 
possible, and to accomplish this an expensive machine can be 
afibrded. For the engines which run only occasionally cheaper 
machines are more economical, the saving in interest on the first 
cost more than compensating for the extra fuel consumed by 
them. The pumping plant of the Boston Main Drainage Works 
includes two expensive high-duty engines and two cheaper lower- 
duty engines. 

The high-duty engines were designed by Mr. E. D. Leavitt, 
Jr., on general specifications prepared by the City Engineer, 
Mr, Davis. They were built by the Quintard Iron Works, of 
New York, and cost about $115,000 each. A plan and elevation 
of one of them is given on Plate XIII. 

As will be seen, it is a compound beam and fly-wheel engine, 
working two single-acting plunger-pumps. The steam cylin- 
ders are vertical and inverted, their axes coinciding with those 
of the pumps below them, the pistons of the engines and 
plungers of the pumps being connected in the same line with 
the ends of the beam. 

In designing these engines particular attention was given to 
the following conditions : — 

First. The distribution of the weight of the engine so as 
not to produce concentrated pressure on any part of the foun- 
dations. 



Plate XII. 





LEAVLTT PUMPING ENGINES. 



PUMPING-STATION. 63 

Second. Great strength in the details and combinations of 
the parts, to render the liability of breakage a minimum. 

Third. A proportion of the wearing surfaces such as will 
allow of an uninterrupted running for extended periods, with 
the least wear. 

Fourth. Easy accessibility of all the parts for examination, 
repairs, and renewals. 

Fifth. An adaptation of the pumps and their valves to the 
peculiar duty required of them, i.e., to allow the passage of 
rags, sticks, and such other small bodies as will not be detained 
by the filth-hoist ; and, in addition, a construction which will 
admit of the easy removal of an entire pump or any of its 
parts, without disturbing any important part of an engine. 

Sixth, A high degree of economy in the consumption of 
coal. 

The following are a few of the leading dimensions : — 

Diameter of high-pressure cylinder, 25| inches. 

Diameter of low-pressure cylinder, 52 inches. 

Diameter of plunger, 48 inches. 

Stroke, 9 feet. 

Distance between centres of cylinders, 15 feet 2 inches. 

Radius of beam to end centres, 8 feet 3 inches. 

Radius of crank, 4 feet. 

Diameter of fly-wheel, 36 feet. 

Weight of fly-wheel, 36 tons. 

Nominal capacity, 25,000,000 gallons a day. 

Speed for capacity, 11 strokes per minute. 

Steam at a pressure of about 100 pounds is admitted from 
the supply-pipe, A (see Plate XIII.), through the side-pipe, B, 
to the steam-chests of the high-pressure cylinder, C. The dis- 
tribution of steam is eflfected by gridiron slide-valves, having a 
short, horizontal movement imparted by revolving cams, D, 
fixed on a horizontal shaft, E, running along the bases of the 
cylinders, and driven by the crank-shaft through suitable gear- 
ing, F, The steam is cut off by the further revolution of the 
cam. The cut-otf is adjustable, and controlled by the gov- 
ernor, G. 

After expanding to the end of the stroke the steam passes 



64 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

through the exhaust steara-chests to reheaters, H. These are 
cast-iron boxes, each containing about 750 |-inch brass tubes, 
two feet nine inches long. These tubes are filled with high- 
pressure steam, and in circulating about them the working 
steam is thoroughly dried. 

From the reheaters the steam is admitted to the low-pressure 
cylinder, I, where further expansion takes place. Thence it 
passes to the condenser, J, where it is condensed by salt water 
from a rose jet. K is the air-pump, and L the outboard 
delivery-pipe. 

The pumps, M, are hung to heavy girders supporting the 
engines by cast-iron hangers, N. A part or the whole of the 
weight of the pumps can also be supported by the wheels, O, 
resting on very strong cast-iron beams, P, built into the ma- 
sonry on either side of the pump- wells. By disconnecting 
their hangers, the pumps, supported entirely by these wheels, 
can be run back on the beams (which then serve as tracks), 
and can be hoisted out of the pump-wells without interfering 
with the fixed parts of the engine. 

At Q are side galleries, through either of which the sewage 
reaches the gateways, E, leading into the pump-wells. In front 
of these gateways are iron gates, not shown on the plate, which 
admit or exclude the sewage. S S are the plungers. UU are 
man-holes. T is the force-main. The discharge from one 
pump passes through the delivery-chamber of the other. 

The interior construction of the pump is shown by Fig. 1 
on Plate XIV., which is a vertical section through the pump 
under the high-pressure cylinder. The plunger is represented 
as just completing its down stroke. The suction-valves (of 
which there are 36 to each pump) are closed, and the delivery- 
valves (27 in number) are wide open, to permit the discharge 
of the sewage displaced by the plunger. In the other pump, 
at the same moment, the plunger would be completing its up- 
ward stroke, and the action of the valves would be reversed. 

The valves are of somewhat novel construction, and are 
shown by a section of a portion of one of the valve-plates, and 
the whole of one valve (Plate XIV., Fig. 2). As will be seen, 
they are simply rubber flaps, |-inch thick, with wrought-iron 



|^.-4..0- 

7/v \i \ ^ 



LEAVITT PUMP 



WORTHINGTON PUMP 

Fig. 3 




.TOP BOTTOM 

FILTH CAGES 

Fi^.4 



CITY OF BOSTON, 
MAIN DRAINAGE. 

PUMPS AND FILTH CAGEIS. 



PUMPING-STATION. 65 

backs and washer plates, the rubber faces bearing on cast-iron 
seats inclined at an angle of 45°. The valves form their own 
hinges, and open against guards or stops faced with leather. 
The clear opening is 4i- x 13^ inches. Pieces of board 10 
inches wide and 24 inches long have passed through these valves. 

The ordinary working duty of these engines is neai'ly or 
quite 100,000,000 foot-pounds to each 100 pounds of coal.^ 

The two pumping-engines for storm service were built at the 
Hydraulic Works, Brooklyn, L.I., by the firm of Henry R. 
Worthington, of New York, from their own designs, and cost 
145,000 each. 

They are of the Worthington duplex, compound, condensing 
type. Each machine consists in reality of two distinct com- 
pound engines coupled together, each engine working a double- 
acting plunger-pump. The capacity of each double engine is 
25,000,000 gallons of sewage a day raised against a total head 
of 43 feet. This requires about twelve double strokes a minute 
and a piston speed of about 115 feet per minute. 

Steam at from 40 to 50 pounds is carried full pressure 
through the stroke of each high-pressure cylinder. Thence it 
passes through reheaters to the adjoining low-pressure or ex- 
pansion cylinders, and is expanded during the reverse stroke. It 
is then admitted to the condenser and condensed by a jet of salt 
water. The steam cylinders are 21 and 3() inches in diameter 
respectively. They are steam-jacketed all over and suitably 
€oated and lagged. The stroke is four feet. 

The steam-valves are moved by a novel and ingenious con- 
trivance, called by the makers "the hydraulic link." Each 
engine has two small vertical cylinders, in which are plungers 
worked from the air-pump bell-crank. These plungers force 
water forward and backward through pipes leading to a 
cylinder in front of the high-pressure steimi-chest. In this 

1 Two duty trials, of 24 houi-s' duration each, have been made recently of ouc of the 
Leavitt pumpin^i;- engines. These tests were very carefully conducted, and all fuel burned 
under the boiler was charged, no deductions being made for ashes and clinkers. In the 
first trial steam required for the feed-pump was supplied from a separate boiler. Making 
no deduction for this, the duty developed v/as a little over 125,000,000 foot-pounds i'or 
each 100 pounds of coal. In the second trial tlie same boiler supplied steam lor the 
pumping-engiue and the feed-pnmp, and the duty developed was about 122,000,000 foot- 
pounds. 



66 MAIN DEAINAGE WORKS. 

cylinder is a piston connected with the main valve-stem of the 
engine, and the pressure imparted by the water alternately to 
opposite sides of the piston moves the valve-stem and effects 
the steam distribution. 

There are two pumps to each machine. Fig. 3, Plate XIV., 
is a section through the pumps of one engine. Each pump is 
double-acting, being divided transversely in the middle by a 
ring which packs the plunger. The plunger is hollow, 45 
inches in diameter, and has a 4-foot stroke. It displaces its 
bulk of sewage at each stroke in either direction. The positions 
of the valves, suction, and delivery chambers are indicated by the 
section. The valves are similar to those of the Leavitt engines. 

The engines and pumps are compact, and very conven- 
iently arranged for inspection of all their parts. A fair idea of 
their appearance can be obtained from Plate XV., which is a 
photograph taken inside the engine-house. The guaranteed 
duty of these engines is 60,000,000 pounds of sewage raised 1 
foot high by the consumption of 100 pounds of coal. 

To supply steam for the four engines there are four boilers, 
of a nominal capacity of 250 horse-power each. They were 
built by Kendall & Roberts, of Cambridge, Mass., and cost 
about $9,500 each. 

The boilers are of the horizontal fire-box, tubular form, and 
are made of homoo-eneous steel having a tensile strength of not 
less than 60,000 pounds per square inch, an elastic limit of 
37,000 pounds, and an elongation of 30 per cent. The shell is 
y^g inch, and the tube-sheets are i inch thick. The length over 
all is 39 feet 10 inches. There are 132 tubes, 3-inch internal 
diameter, 15 feet long. 

Each boiler has two fire-boxes, 3^ feet wide, 5 feet high, and 
11 feet long. At the ends of the fire-boxes is a combustion 
chamber four feet long. 

The smoke-flues return into chambers containing flue-heaters, 
composed of 80 seamless brass tubes, 2| inches in diameter and 
15 feet long. The heaters are on a level with the boiler-house 
floor, and can be run out from their chambers for cleaning or 
repairs. From the heaters the smoke passes by brick flues 
under the floor to the chimney. 



Plate XV. 




Plate XVII. 




PUMPING-STATION. 67 

The chimney has a circular flue, 6Q inches internal diameter 
and 140 feet high. 

Among the minor engines and pumps appertaining to the 
pumping-station are four engines for raising and lowering the 
filth-cages ; two engines for moving the gates in the engine- 
house galleries ; two pair of double-acting steam-pumps for 
feeding the boilers ; two double-acting steam-pumps for supply- 
ing salt water to the condensers ; one large steam-pump for 
emptying the pump-wells and galleries in the engine-house. 

The buildings are warmed by a system of steam-pipes and 
radiators, and are lighted by gas made on the premises from 
gasoline. 

The coal-house is 129 x 59.5 feet in internal dimensions. 
It contains six coal-bins, or pockets, with a combined capacity of 
about 2,500 tons of coal. These bins are 23 feet high, and are 
built with solid walls formed of 2 X 6 inch spruce lumber, 
planed to an even thickness, and spiked flatwise on each other, 
— a method of construction similar to that used in buildins: grain 
elevators. The coal-house floor is made of Portland cement 
concrete. Iron cars are used for brino;ino- coal from the bins 
to the boilers, and suitable tracks, turn-tables, and scales are 
provided. 

To furnish access to the pumping-station for colliers and 
other vessels, a channel one-half of a mile lono- was dredo:ed out 
to the ship-channel in Dorchester Bay ; 380 feet of dock-wall 
and a wharf 280 feet long were constructed. To facilitate the 
unloading of coal a coal-run, supported on a trestle 27 feet high, 
connects the wharf with the coal-house, and extends over the 
tops of the bins within the house. 

Above their foundations all buildings at the pumping-station 
were designed and built by the City Architect's Department. 
A front view of the main building is given by Plate XVI. 
(frontispiece), and a side view by Plate XVII. This building 
cost about 1300,000. 



68 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OUTFALL SEWER. 

The sewage is pumped through 4(S-inch iron force mains 
(Plates X. and XI.) into what is called the pipe-chamber. At 
this point the sewage reaches its greatest elevation, and is high 
enough to flow into the reservoir at Moon Island. The pipe- 
chamber is a granite masonry structure, 51 feet long inside, 
resting on a foundation bed of concrete, 24 inches thick. 
The walls are 21 feet high, from 4 to 7.5 feet thick, and contain 
more than 100 dressed stones. The force mains from the four 
pumps already provided pass through the westerly wall of the 
pipe-chamber, and four more short sections of 48-inch pipes 
are also built into that wall, to connect finally with the four 
additional pumps, which it is expected may be needed in the 
future. 

From the pipe-chamber the sewage passes into what are 
called the deposit sewers, and through them flows nearly a 
quarter of a mile to the west shaft of the tunnel under Dor- 
chester Bay. These sewers are supported and protected by a 
gravel pier or embankment, built from the original shore line 
at the engine-house out to, and including, the tunnel shaft.^ 
Plate XVIII. gives a general view of this pier from its outer 
€nd. The picture is a reproduction of a photograph taken 
during the winter when the bay was frozen over. A cross- 
section of this pier is shown by Fig. 5, Plate XIX. It is 
built of gravel, which was mostly dredged from the harbor. 
On its northerly or most exposed side the pier is protected by 
a riprap embankment, ballasted with broken stones and oyster- 
shells. The southerly slope is ballasted and paved with stone, 
and the easterly end of the pier is protected by a retaining- 
wail (Fig. 4) of cut-stone masonry, laid in mortar and 
backed with concrete, the whole resting on a pile foundation. 
In all there were used in building this pier about 41,000 tons 



PLATE xvni. 




OUTFALL SEWER. 69 

of riprap, 16,000 yards of ballast, 120,000 yards of gravel, 
600 yards of dimension stone, and 650 piles. The pier was 
built by contract, and its total cost, excluding that of the sewer, 
was $142,064.97. 

The general character of the deposit sewers is shown by 
Fig. 7. As will be seen, they consist of a monolithic struct- 
ure of concrete, forming two conduits, each 16 feet high and 8 
feet wide. This height is necessary to accommodate the daily 
variations in the elevations of the surface of the sewage due to fill- 
ing and emptying of the reservoir at Moon Island. The sewers 
are dammed at their lower ends to maintain a depth of from 8 
to 10 feet, in order that the velocity of flow through them may be 
very sluggish, so that any suspended matters may be deposited 
here before reaching the tunnel. They are provided with gates 
and grooves for stop-planks, so that the sewage can be turned 
through either or both sewers, and either can be entirely emp- 
tied if necessary. 

The whole structure contains about 10 cubic yards of con- 
crete to the lineal foot, or over 12,000 yards in all. The 
bottom portion up to the straight walls is formed of Rosendale 
cement, sand, and stone, in the proportion of each, respect- 
ively, of 1, 2, and 5. Above this elevation, for the outer side 
walls, the same proportion is maintained ; but the cement used 
was a mixture of 1 part Portland and 2 parts Eosendale. 
For the concrete forming the centre wall and top arches only 
Portland cement was used. The best Rosendale and very fine 
ground Portland cement were procured for the work. The 
sand was screened on the spot from the gravel forming the pier, 
and a portion of the stone was obtained in a like manner. A 
still larger proiDortion of the stone came from the tunnel exca- 
vation, being brought in lighters from the middle shaft and 
passed through a stone-crusher. Machine concrete mixers 
were used, into which the cement, sand, and stones, in proper 
proportions, were continuously shovelled. 

The concrete was rammed thoroughly in 6-inch courses. 
Long sticks of timber were embedded in each layer of concrete 
while it was being rammed into place, and were removed after 
it had set, and before the next layer was added. The spaces 



70 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

occupied by the sticks formed grooves, into which the succeeding 
layers bonded. In cutting through one side of this structure six 
months after its completion the whole mass was found to be 
perfectly homogeneous, and lines of demarcation between the 
different layers could not be detected. 

The bottoms of the sewers are lined with one layer of hard- 
burned bricks to resist erosion when the sewers are cleaned. 
The sides are plastered with a ^-inch coat of Portland cement 
mortar. The arches are of long radius and but 13 inches thick. 
As they were to be loaded at once, they were tied, as shown, by 
l^-inch wrought-iron rods, spaced five feet apart. Brick man- 
holes were built at intervals of 300 feet. 

Comparatively heavy matters, such as gravel and sand, settle 
almost at once at the west end of the deposit sewer. Lighter 
matters travel a little further ; but only a very light semi-fluid 
precipitate is ever found at the easterly ends of the sewers, near 
the shaft. 

The best way to clean out this deposit was long considered, 
and the following plan was finally adopted : A large wooden 
tank was built near the end of the pier, just outside of its 
southerly slqpe, about 120 feet distant from the sewers (Figs. 
3, 5, and 6, Plate XIX.) It is supported on piles, its fioor 
beino; three feet above hio:h water and one foot low^er than the bot- 
toms of the sewers. One end of this tank is connected with the 
deposit sewers by two 6-inch iron pipes, the other end is con- 
nected with the chamber about the tunnel-shaft by a 12-inch 
pipe. T3y means of stock-planks the surface of water is made to 
stand about three feet higher in the deposit sewers than it does 
in the shaft-chamber. Circulation is thus established from the 
deposit sewers through the 6-inch pipes into the tank, and 
thence through the 12-inch pipe to the shaft, and a part of the 
sewage goes to the tunnel through this by-pass. 

The 6-inch pipes leave the deposit sewers near their bot- 
toms, and the sewage which enters the pipes draws sludge along 
with it and again deposits it in the still water of the tank. The 
tank is 10 feet wide, 15 feet high, and 50 feet long, and will 
hold about 150 yards of sludge. It has on its seaward side 
three gate-openings, terminating in cast-iron nozzles, 12 inches 




CITY or BOSTON 
MAIN DRAINAGE 
OUTFALL SEWER 



CHAMBER CONNECTING DEPOSIT SEWERS 
WITH WEST SHArT Of TUNNEL 







END WALL OF PIER. 







i ■' 3 "^ ■^^■='>J^ tiA.SS^'SBaC^tS^'' ^.CA J-Jij - ft y^ ^ ^^^gf ^^^i^S^^^^ggf^ 




TRANSVERSE SECTION OF DEPOSIT SEWERS 

UNO END VIEW OF SCRAPER. 

FIS.7 



LONG SECTION OF DEPOSIT SEWER 

SHOWING SCRAFER . 

FIG. 8 



OUTFALL SEWER. 7L 

in diameter. When the tank is full of sludge a scow is laid 
alonsfside it, and the nozzles are connected with the interior of 
the scow by means of canvas tubes. The gates are then opened, 
and the sludge flows from the tank into the scow. 

In order to draw down to the 6-inch pipes the sludge which 
has been deposited at the upper ends of the deposit sewers 
scrapers are used. These consist of floating rafts (Figs. 7 and 
S, Plate XIX.), made of 12-inch hollow iron tubes, to the bot- 
toms of which are hung wooden aprons, a little less wdde than 
the sewers. The aprons are weighted so that their lower edges, 
which are provided with broad iron teeth, sink somewhat into 
the sludge. The current in the sewers carries the whole 
apparatus down stream, and the sludge is scraped and flushed 
before it. 

The deposit sewers connect with the tunnel shaft at a masonry 
chamber built about the latter (Figs. 1 and 2, Plate XIX.). 
At the ends of the sewers are placed gates 7x8 feet in size. 
These gates maintain a depth of eight or more feet in the sewers. 
They are so arranged that on tripping a latch they can swing 
open and empty suddenly the liquid contents of the sewers into 
the tunnel, producing temporarily a strong flushing velocity. 
Immediately about the shaft is a wrought-iron cage, to prevent 
any bulky object which may fall into the sewers from reaching 
the tunnel. 

The shaft chamber is encircled by tw^o 61-feet "waste sewers," 
into which the deposit sewers can overflow above waste weirs, 
or with which they can directly connect instead of discharging 
into the tunnel. The waste sewers unite just east of the shaft- 
chamber and pass to an outlet built through the sea-wall at the 
€nd of the pier. Should the tunnel ever be emptied for inspec- 
tion sewage can temporarily be pumped into Dorchester Bay 
throuo;h this outlet. Above the shaft chamber is a brick g-ate- 
house of ornamental design, built by the City Architect. 

The second section of outfall sewer comprises the tunnel 
under Dorchester Bay. Exploratory borings made on the 
tunnel line during the preliminary survey showed that the sur- 
face of bed rock was but little below the bottom of the harbor, 
from Squantum to about the middle of the bay. From that 



72 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

point westwardly towards Old Harbor Point the rock dipped 
rapidly, so that under the pumping-station its surface is 214 
feet below the surface of the ground. The surface of the rock 
is somewhat shaken, and immediately above it is a water-bearing 
stratum of sand, gravel, and boulders. Above this, clay extends 
nearly to the harbor bottom, which is composed of a bed of mud 
of varying thickness. 

The clay is of uniform character, and contains occasional 
veins and pockets of sand. Using reasonable precautions a 
tunnel could be safely and expeditiously built in it. The per- 
vious stratum over the rock and the demoralized upper portion 
of the rock itself were not at all favorable for tunnelling opera- 
tions, and could only have been penetrated with extreme pre- 
caution and a considerable chance of failure. The rock itself 
was well adapted for tunnelling. It consists of a succession of 
clay-slates and conglomerates, and belongs to the series known 
as the Roxbury " pudding-stone " beds. 

When the trough in which these beds lie was formed they 
were subjected to great pressures, which crumpled and tilted 
them, and produced many faults, fissures, and joint planes. 

The fissures were filled solidly from below, and few shrinkage 
seams were found sufficiently open for the passage of water 
from above. The existence of the joint planes, especially in 
the clay-slates, greatly facilitated the breaking and removal of 
the rock. 

As at first designed the tunnel was to start from a shaft 100 
feet deep at Old Harbor Point and be built in the clay for about 
2,100 feet, when it would enter the rock and continue in it to 
its end, at Squantum. Further consideration of the difficulty 
and possible danger of passing gradually from soft ground into 
rock, and of tunnelling for several hundred feet wholly or 
partly through very wet and loose material, led to locating the 
west shaft at such a distance from the shore that rock could be 
reached at a practicable depth and the tunnel could be safely 
built wholly within it. 

The average elevation of the tunnel is 142 feet below low 
water (Plate XX., Fig. 1). The total length through which 
the sewage flows is 7,160 feet. Of this distance 149 feet is in 



OUTFALL SEWEE. 73 

the west shaft, 6,088 feet is nearly horizontal between the west 
and east shafts, and 923 feet is in the inclined portion leading 
from the bottom of the east shaft to the end of the tunnel, on 
Squantuni Neck. 

To facilitate constiuction there were three workino; shafts 
about 3,000 feet apart. 

The tunnel was built under a contract which was drawn with 
great care. The contractor was first to build, in accordance 
Avith plans furnished, three timber bulkheads, or piers, to pro- 
tect the shafts. Inside of these bulkheads he was to sink iron 
cylinders, constituting the upper portions of the shafts. These 
cylinders were paid for by the lineal foot, and the contractor 
was permitted and required to build as much of the shafts as 
possible in this way, loading and forcing the iron to the greatest 
attainable depth. Below the cylinders the shafts could be ex- 
cavated of any desired size and shape. The tunnel, also, could 
be excavated of any size, provided that both it and the shafts 
were finally lined with a 7|^ feet diameter circular shell of brick 
work, 12 inches thick, backed with brick or concrete masonry 
to the sides of the excavation. Bricks and cement were to be 
purchased from the city at stipulated prices. The completed 
tunnel was to be paid for at the proposed price per lineal 
foot. 

Great stress was laid upon the precautions to be adopted to 
prevent delay and damage arising from an influx of water into 
the shafts. Appliances to control any such influx were to be 
kept in readiness, and, should these prove insuflicient, the 
plenum process, or use of compressed air within the shafts, 
was to be resorted to. 

The work was let Oct. 29, 1879, and the contractor at once 
proceeded with the building of the bulkheads. These were 
alike, and consisted (Fig. 2, Plate XX.) of wooden boxes 20 
feet square inside, formed of large oak piles, driven two feet 
on centres, capped and braced with hard-pine sticks, and tied 
diagonally at the corners with 2-inch iron bolts. The boxes 
were lined inside with 4-inch tongued and grooved sheet-piling, 
and the spaces between the sheet planks and cylinders were 
filled with puddled clay. The tops of the bulkheads were eight 



74 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

feet above mean high water, and the contract price for them 
was about $2,500 apiece. 

Having completed the bulkheads the cylinders were sunk 
inside of them. Each cylinder (Plate XX., Fig. 3) consisted 
of a circular shell of cast-iron, 9.5 feet inside diameter, with 1| 
inches thickness of metal. They were cast in sections, five 
feet long, and united by li-inch bolts passing through inside 
flanges. The abutting ends of the sections were faced, and the 
bolt-holes, of which there were 30 in each flange, were drilled 
to a templet, so that the sections were interchangeable. The 
bottom section of each cylinder had its lower 10 inches cham- 
fered ofl" to a cutting edge. The contract price for furnishing 
the cylinders, which weighed a ton to the foot, was $88 per 
lineal foot. 

At the east and middle shafts the cylinders were easily 
forced down to the rock, at depths below the surface of the 
ground of 21 and 38 feet respectively. It was known that it 
would be impossible to drive the cylinder at the west shaft down 
to the rock. By weighting it with about 180 tons of iron dross 
it was finally forced into the clay to the depth of about 60 feet 
below the harbor bottom. Below this point a square shaft, 10 
feet across, was excavated with great ease in plastic clay, pene- 
trated with occasional veins of fine sand, but yielding little 
water (Plate XXI., Fig. 1). 

The timbering of this shaft was hastily and, as it seemed to 
the engineers, carelessly done, the timbers being insecurely 
braced, and cavities being continually left outside of them. 
The engineer in charge consulted the City Engineer as to the 
possibility of requiring greater caution in doing this work. It 
was decided, however, that the spirit of the contract would not 
permit interference with the contractor's method of building this 
portion of the shaft. 

IS'o difliculty was encountered until the rock was neared, when 
water, to the amount of 10,000 gallons an hour, broke in from 
below, and, no provision having been made for its removal, filled 
the shaft. Pumps were obtained and the shaft emptied, when 
it was found that the water, following the cavities behind the 
lining, had softened the clay and loosened the timbering, so that 



CITY OF BOSTON - MAIN DRAINAGE. 
OUTFALL SEWER. DORCHESTER BAY TUNNEL. 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF TUNNEL 
FIG. I. 






SIDE ELEVATION 



HALF SECTION HALF PLAN 



BULKHEADS ABOUT SHAFTS 
FIG. 2, 



IRON CYLINDERS 
FIG. 3. 



OUFTALL SEWER. 75 

it was in very bad shape. About 40 feet in length of the shaft 
had to be retirabered, the old sticks being cut out with chisels. 

The work was not accomplished without great difficulty. 
Although the quantity of water to be dealt with was not great, 
the cramped dimensions of the shaft afforded little room for 
the pumps, or opportunity for supporting them. When these 
gave out, as they occasionally did, the shaft filled with water, 
causing considerable delay and damage. To counteract a 
downward pressure exerted by the clay upon the timber lining, 
a portion of it was suspended by heavy wire cables from the 
cylinder above. During all these operations the whole shaft, 
including timbered portion and cylinder, also the surrounding 
clay and the bulkhead above, were in motion, settling slowly. 
By the time the shaft had been firmly founded on the rock the 
pile bulkhead had settled nearly five feet. 

After the shafts had been sunk and secured the excavation 
for the tunnel proper encountered no serious obstacles. The 
work was carried on at six different headings. From the mid- 
dle and east shafts work progressed in both directions, and 
from the west shaft and the upper end of the incline at Squan- 
tum single headings were driven. 

The incline descends one foot vertical in six feet horizontal. 
At this point a heading was driven downwards for about 400 
feet and then stopped, owing to the difficulty and expense of 
removino- the water which accumulated at its face. At the 
middle shaft power-drills driven by compressed air were used, 
and at other points hand drilling was employed. 

There was not much difference as to either expense or rapid- 
ity in the two methods. By either an advance of four feet was 
considered a fair day's work. The chief merit of the air-drills 
seemed to be that they were not demoralized by pay-days, and 
never struck for hio^her wao-es. 

Various forms of nitro-glycerine were employed as explo- 
sives, and no casualty occurred through its use. The average 
diameter of the excavation (Plate XXL, Fig. 2) was about 10.2 
feet, approximating very well to the 9.5 feet required to receive . 
the final brick lining. The excavated material, amounting to 
about 25,000 yards in all, was deposited around the shafts. 



76 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

forming small islands. The maximum amount of water leaking 
into the tunnel at any time was 64,000 gallons an hour. 

The headings between the east and middle shafts met Jan. 
24, 1882, and those between the middle and west shafts met 
June 22, 1882. Lining the excavation with brick-work began 
March 10 of the same year. Projecting portions of rock were 
first trimmed off, so that room for a solid brick lining, 12 inches 
thick, laid in courses, could always be obtained. Rosendale 
cement mortar was used, composed of equal parts of cement and 
sand. All spaces between the coursed lining and the sides of 
the rock excavation were solidly filled with masonry, principally 
brick-work. The amount of backing thus required to make solid 
work averaged about three-fourths of a yard per lineal foot. Fig. 
5, Plate XXI., is a section of the tunnel at the point of maximum 
size where the larg-est amount of backing was needed. In all, 
7,416,000 bricks and 23,377 barrels of cement were used in 
building the tunnel. About 12 lineal feet of tunnel could be 
completely lined in 24 hours, at any one point. 

In putting in the lining, iron pipes were built into the brick- 
work (Plate XXL, Fig. 3) wherever necessary to furnish out- 
lets for the water, which would otherwise have washed out the 
mortar. Some of these pipes were afterwards plugged, but 
most of them were left open. The pressure of the water when 
kept from entering the tfunnel was about 64 pounds per square 
inch, and it was not practicable to build brick masonry which 
should be water-tight under such a pressure. When the tunnel 
is in use the pressure of the sewage within it is somewhat 
jrreater than that of the water outside the lininof so that leak- 
age would be outwards, except that the particles in the sewage 
will quickly clog any fine holes in the masonry. 

Some experiments were made to determine to what extent 
the porosity of the brick lining could be destroyed by silting 
from without. An iron pipe extending up the east shaft was 
connected at its lower end with the pipes built through the 
brick-work, and water containing clay, cement, and fine sawdust 
was forced outside the lining. 

The finer portions of these materials came through holes and 
cracks in the joints of the masonry. Fine holes were thus filled 



PLATE X XI 







BOSTON MAIN DRAINAGE. 
DORCHESTER BAY TUNNEL 





AVERAGE SECTION OF TUNNEL 



OUTFALL SEWER. 77 

and leakage through them prevented. Holes of apparent size 
were calked with lead. By these means the leakage into the 
inclined portion of the tunnel was reduced from 2,200 to 500 
gallons an hour. It was not, however, considered practicable, 
■except at considerable expense, thus materially to reduce the 
leakage ; and, in view of its slight importance in respect to the 
use of the tunnel, the attempt was given up. 

The west shaft was lined with brick-work. The middle shaft 
was abandoned, its onlj^ purpose having been to facilitate con- 
struction. The arch of the tunnel where it passes under this 
shaft was made three feet thick, and a counter arch, two feet 
thick, was built over it to resist upper pressure, in case the 
tunnel should ever be filled suddenly after having been pumped 
out for any purpose. The shaft itself was not filled up, but 
near its top an arch was built to prevent any heavy substance 
ever falling down it (Plate XXI., Fig. 4). 

The east shaft was lined throughout. A large Cornish min- 
ing pump has been purchased, and is to be set up at this shaft 
as soon as certain legal complications afiecting the city's right 
to the location shall have been settled. This pump will have 
sufficient capacity to empty the tunnel, including the leakage 
into it, within 48 hours. It is to be set up as a precaution, as 
it did not seem wise to leave any portion of the work entirely 
inaccessible. Should the tunnel ever be pumped out at this 
point it would first be filled with salt water, so that no possible 
nuisance could be created by the operation. 

A sump, or well-hole, seven feet deep, from which to pump, was 
built under the east shaft (Plate XXI., Figs. G and 7). Pairs 
of cast-iron beams were built into the lining from the bottom of 
the shaft to its top. To these are bolted two sets of upright 
iron guides. One set of these will hold in place the rising col- 
umn of the pump, and the other set will serve for an elevator, 
to be used in visiting the pump and tunnel. 

It was thought that, should deposits occur in the tunnel, they 
might be removed by passing a ball, somewhat smaller in diame- 
ter than the tunnel, through it. To guide this bail past the east 
shaft, four wooden guides, suitably shaped, were built in place 



78 MAIN DRAINAGE WOEKS. 

at that point. Appliances for handling such a ball were pro- 
vided at the two ends of the tunnel. 

The tunnel was practically finished July 25, 1883. Its com- 
pletion required the removal of all elevators, pumps, pipes, etc., 
used in constructing it and the closing up with masonry of all 
pump- wells, except the one before referred to, at the east shaft. 
This work was attended with considerable anxiety, as the pump- 
ing capacity of the three shafts was but little more than was 
necessary to control the leakage of water. 

The finishing and removals were successfully accomplished 
by systematic and careful management. The last shaft to be 
cleared was the east shaft, and it was necessary to isolate it from 
the rest of the tunnel by a timber bulkhead, behind which the 
water entering the tunnel accumulated while the pumps and 
their appurtenances were being removed. By the time the shaft 
was clear the tunnel was two-thirds full of water. The bulk- 
head was so made and fastened in place that on tripping a catch 
it fell apart into three pieces, which were hauled out by ropes 
attached to them. 

The contract price for the shafts, exclusive of iron, was $86, 
and for- the tunnel $48, per lineal foot. The contractor lost 
money, and after about two 3^ears abandoned his contract, 
alleging his inability to complete it for the prices therein stipu- 
lated. He offered to complete the tunnel for prices about one- 
half greater than those before agreed upon. Considering that 
he had the requisite plant on hand, and had acquired valuable 
experience concerning the character of the work and the best 
methods of conducting it ; and also considering that the bad 
reputation which the tunnel would have, if abandoned, would 
probably deter other bidders from making reasonable ofiers, — 
it was thought for the best interests of the city to make a second 
ao-reement with the same contractor, which was accordingly 
done. The final total cost of this section of work, including 
inspection and all incidental expenses, was $658,489.97, amount- 
ing to about $92 per lineal foot of tunnel. 

The methods of alignment employed by the engineers in 
immediate charge of the tunnel, while not entirely novel, may 
be of suflacient interest to be mentioned. The west shaft was 



OUTFALL SEWER. 79 

out of plumb, so that by dropping plumb-linos a base only 5.7 
feet long could be obtained. This by itself would have made accu- 
rate alignments tedious. Moreover, each shaft contained about 
six lines of steam, water, and exhaust pipes, besides guides for 
its cage. As the shafts were 160 feet deep, were dripping with 
water, and had currents of air produced by hot-pipes and leak- 
ages of steam, it would have been necessary to protect plumb- 
lines by tubes for the whole depth of the shafts. At the west 
shaft it would have been impracticable to use such tubes, as 
they would have been directly in the way of the cage. 

On account of the difficulty attending the use of plumb-bobs 
the line was transferred below by means of a large transit 
instrument set up at the top of the shaft. The telescope, 
having been set on line, was directed down the shaft, and a tine 
striuo;, extendino- about 100 feet into the tunnel, was rano:ed in 
line. The string was illuminated by light reflected from a 
mirror placed beneath it. Communication between the engi- 
neers at the top and at the bottom of the shaft was maintained 
by the use of hand telephones. 

At first the line within the tunnel was produced by means of 
instruments ; but, as the headings advanced, the ventilation be- 
came so bad that at times a light distant only 75 feet could not 
be seen. The line Avas then produced by stretching a stout 
linen thread, about 600 feet long, and taking offsets to it. The 
success attending these methods of alignment' was very gratify- 
ing, as the headings met without appreciable error. 

Should a " high-level " intercepting sewer ever be built to 
conduct a part of the city's sewage, by gravitation, to Moon 
Island, it is expected that it will join the present system, on 
Squantum Neck, at the further end of the tunnel. To provide 
for such a contingency the present outfall sewer is much 
increased in size beyond this point, being 11 X 12 feet in 
dimensions. 

The connection between the tunnel and the outfall sewer 
beyond is made in an underground chamber (Fig. 1, Plate 
XXII.). From this chamber, also, branches a short section of 
sewer with which to connect the future "high-level" system, 
should it ever be built. The chamber is covered by a substan- 



80 ' MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

tial brick building, and a flight of stone steps leads to a land- 
ing in the sewer below. The floor of the building is supported 
on iron beams, and can be taken up so that boats can be low- 
ered into the sewer, and a flushing-ball can be taken out. To 
facilitate these operations the roof was made exceptionally 
strong, and from it was hung an iron track supporting a traveller 
and blocks capable of lifting five tons. 

As far as the easterly shore of Squantum Neck the outfall 
sewer (Figs. 4, 6, and 7, Plate XXII.) was built partly in rock 
excavation and pai'tly in embankment. In the latter case the 
sewer is tied through its arch by l|-inch iron rods, 8 feet apart. 
These are designed to prevent the possibility of distortion, due 
to movements of the bank below the sewer, or on the side of it. 
The ties will, doubtless, rust out in time, but not before the 
need of them is over. 

From Squantum to Moon Island an embankment (Plate 
XXIL, Fig. 5) was built. It is a mile long, from 20 to 30 
feet high, 20 feet wide on top, and about 120 feet at its base. 
Up to the established sewer grade the embankment was chiefly 
built of dredged gravel, and, above that height, of material ob- 
tained in excavating for the reservoir on Moon Island. Up to 
six feet above high water the slopes are protected by ballast and 
riprap. In all, about 141,000 yards of dredged gravel, 260,000 
yards of other earth, 20,000 yards of ballast, and 54,000 tons 
of riprap were used in building the embankment. 

About 4,100 feet in length of the site of the embankment 
consisted of beds of mud, from 10 to 40 feet deep. It was 
hoped that the filling would displace this mud and reach hard 
bottom. It did so at a few points, but not as a rule. As an 
experiment an attempt was made to assist this action by explod- 
ing dynamite cartridges under the embankment. No results of 
importance were thus ol)tained ; but the experiment demon- 
strated the resistance of the mud to displacement and the prob- 
able future stability of the embankment. 

Broad plates, with vertical iron rods fastened to them, were 
placed near the bottom of the bank on its centre line, and the 
amount of settlement as filling progressed was noticed. After 
the hank was (;onipleted slight settlements still continued. It 



PLATE XXII. 



CONNECTION CHAMBER. 





EMBANKMENT BETWEEN SQUANTUM AND MOON ISLAND 




Fig. 6 
SECTION IN EMBANKMENT. 



BOSTON MAIN DRAINAGE 
OUTFALL SEWER 




OUTFALL SEWER. 81 

was, therefore, thought more prudent to postpone building a 
masonry structure for some years, or until there wa« assurance 
that the bank had assumed a condition of permanent stability. 

For temporary use, therefore, a wooden flume (Fig. 2, Plate 
XXII.) was substituted for the masonry sewer at this point. 
The flume is located outside of the embankment, and 200 feet 
south of it. It is supported on piles, in bents ten feet apart, 
generally with three piles to the bent. In all, about 1,300 piles 
were driven, some of them to a depth of 40 feet. 

The flume proper consists of a wooden box, six feet square. 
Its sides, top, and bottom are formed of Canadian white pine, 
three inches thick, planed all over. The planks, except a 
single filling in course on each side, are all of even width, so 
as to allow breaking joint. They are grooved on each edge, 
and also on their ends (Fig. 3), for 11^ x |-inch tongues. 
The box is surrounded, at intervals of three feet four inches, by 
square frames of spruce timber, mortised together and tightened 
with bolts and wedges. 

The pine and spruce were fitted at the mills, so as to go to- 
gether with the least possible further fitting. As much as 250 
feet in length was assembled and spiked in a single day. After 
completion the whole was given two coats of cheap paint. The 
total cost of the flume was a little under $10 per lineal foot. 

From the further end of the flume the outfall sewer (Fig. 
6) extends up to and in front of the storage reservoir. 



82 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



CHAPTER IX. 

RESERVOIR AND OUTLET. 

Moon Island is distant about a mile from the main land. It 
comprises about 36 acres of upland, surrounded by about 145 
acres of beaches and flats. The easterly end of the island rises 
to an elevation about 100 feet above tide-water. On the west- 
ern or landward side is another smaller area of rising ground, 
about 45 feet high. Between these two portions of high land 
was a valley, crossing the island from north to south, whose 
central portion was but a few feet above the level of high water. 
In this comparatively low land the reservoir is situated. 

Plates XXIII. and XXIV. give views of the reservoir and 
its surroundings, reproduced from photographs. The former 
was taken from the high part of the island just east of the res- 
ervoir. It shows the embankment between Moon Island and 
Squantum, and also the flume, parallel to and south of the 
embankment. Xear the centre of the plate the pumping-station 
can be dimly discerned, although partly hidden by a clump of 
trees on Thompson's Island. Plate XXIV. gives a nearer 
view of the reservoir, looking eastward. It shows one basin 
partly filled with sewage. 

The reservoir, as at present built, covers an area of about 
five acres. It is expected that in the future, when the amount of 
sewage to be stored shall have increased, it will be necessary to 
extend and enlarge the reservoir to about double its present 
capacity. The portion already built is so located and arranged 
that the contemplated extension can readily be made on the 
south side of the present structure. 

The site for the I'eservoir was prepared wholly by excavating. 
On the centre line of the valley this excavation was about ten 
feet deep, while on the east and west sides the cutting in places 
was forty feet deep. A drive-way surrounds the reservoir, and 
the banks are sloped back from it. The excavated material 



PLATE XXIII. 




Plate XXIV. 




RESERVOIR AND OUTLET. 83 

wns chiefly hard clay ; but a bed of gravel and sand was found 
near the centre of the valley, which, in places, went 20 feet 
below the reservoir bottom. Part of the reservoir, therefore, 
is founded on clay, and another smaller part on sand and gravel. 

The earth was dug by steam-excavators, and was carried 
awav in cars by locomotives. It was used for buildinsf the 
upper portion of the embankment between the island and main 
land. As more earth was needed for this purpose than could 
be supplied from the reservoir excavation a further quantity 
was borrowed from the island in such places and to such lines 
and grades as partly to prepare the site for the proposed future 
extension of the reservoir. In all, about 283,000 cubic yards 
of material Avere taken Irom the island, and the contractor's 
price for digging and disposing of it averaged about 59 cents 
per yard. 

The retaining-walls of the reservoir (Fig. 2, PL XXVI.) are 
17.5 feet high, and from 6 feet 10 inches to 7 feet 10 inches 
thick at the base. They are classed as rubble-stone masonry 
laid in mortar, and are built of split and quarry stone mostly 
brought from granite quarries in Maine. On top of the walls 
are large coping-stones with pointed surfaces. The rubble 
stones were laid in somewhat uneven courses. The reservoir is 
divided into four basins, of nearly equal area by three division 
walls (Fig. 3), built of the same class of masonry as that 
forming the retaining-walls. Rosendale cement mortar, made 
with one part of cement to two of sand, was used in building 
rubble-stone masonry. The contractor's price for this class of 
masonry was $7.47 per cubic yard. 

The floor of the reservoir consists of a bed of concrete, nine 
inches thick (Fig. 6, Plate XXV.). The lower five inches was 
made with Rosendale cement, sand, and pebbles, in the propor- 
tion of one, two, and five parts of each respectively. In the 
upper four inches of concrete Portland cement was substituted 
for Rosendale. The floor of each basin was shaped into alter- 
nate ridges and gutters. The gutters are paved with bricks 
set on edge. 

Considering the distance of Moon Island from habitations, 
it did not seem that any just cause for complaint would be 



84 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

occasioned if the reservoir were left uncovered, and, therefore, 
no roof was built over it. But, to provide for any future contin- 
gency which might require it to be covered, foundation blocks 
were built into the floor, on which piers to support a roof can 
hereafter be built, if needed. These foundation blocks are 
spaced 20 feet apart in one direction, and 30 feet in the other, 
and consist of granite stones 3 feet square and 18 inches thick. 
They are rough pointed on top and are bedded in concrete. 
They cost, laid, $7.25 each. 

The reservoir was divided into four distinct basins, in order 
that one or more of them might be kept empty for cleaning, or 
some similar purpose, while the others were in use. Under 
such conditions, however, there might be danger that water 
from a full basin would find its way down through the thin 
sheet of concrete under it, and, passing below the division wall, 
would blow up the floor of an adjacent empty basin. This 
would be especially apt to occur where the basins and walls are 
underlaid by the previous bed of gravel before referred to. 

To diminish the liability to such a catastrophe, beneath all 
Avails, not founded on clay, was driven a solid wall of tongued 
and grooved 4-inch sheet-piling. This protection penetrated 
the gravel stratum and entered the clay below it. As an addi- 
tional precaution at such places a line of 10-inch drain-pipe 
was laid just below the floor on each side of the division wall. 
These drains were connected with others surrounding the 
reservoir outside of the retaining-walls. The drains within 
the reservoir also have 10-inch safetj^-valves opening into the 
basins. The drain-pipes were laid with open joints, and were 
surrounded, below the concrete, with dry-laid ballast and peb- 
bles. Water accumulating beneath the floor of any basin has 
free access to the drain under that basin. Should any water 
find its way under a division wall it is immediately intercepted 
l)y the line of pipe just beyond the wall. Should a drain under 
an empty basin become gorged for any reason, the water is 
discharged into the basin, through the safety-valve, before suffi- 
cient head has accumulated to endanger the concrete. 

The northerly 100 feet of each division wall, being the end 
nearest to the discharge sewers, is made hollow, and 1.75 feet 



PLATE XXV 



BOSTON MAIN DRAINAGE 
SEWERS ABOUT RESERVOIR. 



g > ^ ^ 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ t ^ ^ t ^ ^ ^ ^ t ^ 

GATE HOUSE. 




SECTION ACROSS FLOOR OF RESERVOIR 



SCALE OF FEET FOR FIG. S. 



RESERVOIR AND OUTLET. 85 

lower than the rest of the reservoir walls (Plate XXY., Fig. 
4). Long chambers are thus formed, open on top, but other- 
wise enclosed within the walls. These chambers counect di- 
rectly with the discharge sewers, and through them with the 
harbor. These portions of the division walls serve as waste 
wiers, by which the sewage in the basins can overflow, if, owing 
to negligence on the part of the employes, the gates which 
empty any basin should not be opened before the basin be- 
comes too full. 

The arrangements by which the sewage is turned from the 
outfall sewer into the reservoir and is again permitted to empty, 
throuoh the discharae sewers, into the harbor, will be under- 
stood from an examination of Fig. 1, Plate XXV., which is a 
transverse section of said sewers. The upper sewer in the fig- 
ure is a continuation of the outfall sewer, and extends along the 
whole front of the reservoir. Immediately below it are the dis- 
charge sewers, which also extend along the front of the reser- 
voir, and, also, about 600 feet beyond it out into the sea. 

In the side of the outfall sewer are 20 3 X 4 feet, cut-stone 
gate openings. Only eight of these are at present provided with 
gates, the others being bricked up until an increased amount of 
sewage and an extension of the reservoir shall require their use. 
In the side of the discharge sewer nearest the reservoir are also 
20 gate openings, of which 12 are provided with gates. The 
two discharge sewers are connected directl}^ by 11 large trans- 
verse passages. The amount of masonry contained in and 
surrounding the sewers equals that contained in all of the res- 
ervoir walls. 

Between the sewers and the reservoirs is what is called the 
six-foot gallery. This serves as a protection for the gates 
against frost and as a foundation for a gate-house above. The 
hollow division-walls between the basins extend across the gal- 
lery and div'ide it into four sections, corresponding with the 
four basins of the reservoir. Brick brace-walls, about 10.5 
feet apart, are thrown across from the sewers to the reservoir 
wall. 

The 20 gates, with their frames and seats, are made of cast- 
iron. . The frames were cast in one piece and closely fitted to 



86 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

the openings prepared in the masonry. They are secured to the 
stone by |-inch anchor-bolts, let in 4^- inches and fastened with 
brimstone. The seat of each gate is a separate piece of cast- 
iron, planed | inch thick, fastened to its frame with screw 
rivets, and scraped true and straight. Fastened to each side of 
the frame is a guide, which holds the valve in its proper posi- 
tion while moving. The face of the valve is planed and scraped 
to fit the facing of the frames, so that there shall be no leak- 
age. The valve is pressed tight to its seat by means of adjust- 
able gibs, which bear against inclined planes, cast on the 
guides. 

The gates are made by lifting-rods and screws, connected 
W'ith suitable brackets, gearing, and clutches, above the floor 
of the gate-house (Plate XXV., Fig. 2). A main line of shaft- 
ing, from 2^ to 3|- inches in diameter, extends the whole length 
of the gate-house, or about 575 feet. The clutches for each 
gate are thrown in and out by a hand lever, and also by the 
gate itself when it reaches either end of its course. The 20 
gates, with all their appurtenances and the geariiig and shafting 
for operating them, cost, in place, about $12,000. 

To furnish power both a steam-engine and a turbine wheel 
are provided. The latter, which is most commonly used, is 
21 inches in diameter, and is placed in a well near the north- 
easterly corner of the reservoir. It takes water either from 
the reservoir or from the outfall sewer, and drains into the dis- 
charge sewers. Under ordinary circumstances it furnishes 
without expense ample power for moving the gates, running 
pumps, aiid other necessary operations, and requires no atten- 
tion beyond opening and shutting the gates leading to it. 

The engine, which is seldom used, is of 30 horse-power. To 
furnish steam for it and also for heating in winter there are two 
upright tubular l)oilers. The machinery and gates are pro- 
tected by suitable brick buildings, designed and ])uilt by the 
engineers. The principal one of these, called ihe Long Gate- 
House, extends for 575 feet along the front of the reservoir. 
Connecting with it, at the north-easterly corner of the reservoir, 
is another larger building, containing engine, boiler, and coal 
rooms. A chimney, 40 feet high, is also built. 



PLATE X. XVI. 



c/rr or boston 



MA/N DRA/NAG£. 

D/SCHARGC 3£IV£/fS BEYOND 8£S£RV0/8 

SHOW/NG 

P/CR AND COFFER DAM. 




RETAINING WALL OF RESERVOIR 
GENERAL SECTION. 



DIVISION WALL 
ON PER Via US MA TERIAL . 



HOLLOW DIVISION WALL 
SECTION M. N. PL . XX V. 



EESERVOIR AND OUTLET. 87 

The sewage flows throug-h the gates in the outfall sewer 
into the six-feet gallery, whence it passes through openings in 
the reservoir wall into the reservoir. There it accumulates 
during the latter part of ebb-tide and the whole of the flood- 
tide. Shortly after the turn of the tide the lower gates are 
opened, and the sewage flows from the reservoir, through the 
gallery, into the discharge sewers, which conduct it to the out- 
let. 

That portion of the discharge sewers beyond the reservoir 
was called the Outlet-Sewer Section, and was built under a 
separate contract. There are two sewers of brick and concrete 
masonry (Fig. 1, Plate XXVL), each 10 feet 10 inches high, 
by 12 feet wide inside. They extend from the reservoir about 
600 feet out into the sea, where there is five feet depth of water 
at low tide. The bottoms of the sewers are 1.5 feet above the 
elevation of low water. The arches, 12 inches thick, were laid 
Avith Rosendale cement mortar, and the inverts and sides with 
Portland cement mortar. In the top of each sewer are built 
three large vent holes, to relieve the arch from any pressure of 
air due to a succession of waves enterins^ the sewers. 

The immediate outlet consists of a cut granite pier-head laid 
in mortar. In this are chambers containing grooves for gates 
and stop-planks. The stones forming the pier-head are quite 
large, in order to withstand waves and ice. Several of them 
weighed about eight tons each. Most of the horizontal joints 
are dowelled, and the vertical joints of the coping-stones are 
secured by gun-metal cramps. 

The sewers are covered by an earth embankment, with its 
side slopes protected by ballast and riprap. This embankment 
constitutes a pier extending into the harbor, and its top is 
ballasted and surfaced for a roadway. Near the end of the pier 
is a strong wharf, about 40 feet square, supported by oak piles. 
This is used for landing coal and other supplies. 

To facilitate construction on this section the site of the work 
was enclosed by building about 1,100 feet of cofier-clam around 
it. The dam consisted of two rows of spruce piles, ten feet apart, 
the piles in each row being spaced six feet on centres. Inside 
the piles were rows of 4-inch tongued and grooved sheet piling. 



88 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

The dam was tied across with iron bolts and was filled with 
earth. When pumped out it proved to be very tight, and en- 
abled the work inside it to proceed without interruption. After 
the sewers were built and covered, the dam was cut down below 
the surface of the embankment slopes. The total cost of this 
outlet section wa,^ $96,250. 

The top of the reservoir floor is about one foot below the eleva- 
tion of high water. The paved gutters are a little lower, and in- 
<;line nearly a foot from the back of the reservoir to its front. This 
insures there being a good current in them when the reservoirs 
are nearly emptied, so that the light deposit of sludge which has 
been precipitated upon the bottom of the reservoir is mostly 
washed into the discharge sewers. 

To assist in cleansing the basins a system of pipes and hy- 
drants furnishing salt water under pressure is provided. The 
water is drawn from the sea to a pump in the engine-house, 
which forces it about the reservoir. A 4-inch pipe, with 
double hydrants, about 75 feet apart, is laid through the 
middle of each basin. A line of hose can be connected with 
any hydrant, and a tire-stream directed against any part of the 
floor or side walls. The pump can also be used to pumj) sewage 
with which to irrigate the banks and grounds surroundins; the 

o o o 

reservoir. 

To obtain fresh water for domestic purposes, and for the 
boilers, the high portion of the island has been encircled with 
ditches which collect rain-water and conduct it to a cistern 
holding 75,000 gallons. 

Within the gate-house is provided an automatic recording 
gauge, moved by clock-work, and connected with floats in the 
sewers. The records traced by this machine furnish a perfect 
check on the vigilance of the employes. Each day's record 
shows, by inspection, the hours at which the gates were opened 
and closed, and the height of tide. 

The total expenditure by the city on account of Main Drain- 
age Works, from the beginning of the preliminary survey, 1876, 
to the present time, is about $5,213,000. 



DETAILS OF ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION. 89 



CHAPTER X. 

DETAILS OF ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION. 

About one-half of the work required to complete the Main 
Drainage System was done by contract, and the rest by day's 
labor, under superintendents appointed by the city. The general 
rule by which it was decided whether any given section of work 
should be built by contract, or not, was this : if the work was of 
such a nature that its extent and character could be determined 
in advance, so that full and explicit specifications for it could be 
drawn, it was let out by contract to the lowest responsible bid- 
der. If, on the other hand, all of the conditions liable to affect 
the work could not be ascertained, so that it was anticipated 
that modifications in the proposed methods of construction might 
prove necessary or desirable, the work was done by day's labor. 

Thus, wherever in suburban or thinly populated districts the 
character of the earth to be excavated was supposed to be of 
uniform quality, most of the sewers there located were built 
by contract. Those located in crowded thoroughfares, where it 
was necessary to interfere as little as possible with the use of 
the street, and those in places where there was liability of en- 
countering deep beds of mud, old walls, wharves, and other 
obstacles, were built by day's labor. 

There was little difference in the quality of the work obtained 
by these different methods of construction. The contract work 
was built under more favorable conditions, and as a whole is 
somewhat superior to the other. It also, as a rule, cost much 
less. Several reasons can be given for this fiict. The physical 
conditions were generally more favorable. Low prices were 
obtained through competitive bids. Most of the contractors 
made no profit ; some even lost money. The contract work 
was largely done during the first few years of construction, 
when all prices were lower ; while the bulk of the work 
done by day's labor was built later, when prices for labor and 



90 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

materials had risen. The wages paid city laborers were fixed 
by the City Council, and were always higher than the market 
rates. At times the city superintendents were not untrammelled 
in respect to hiring and discharging their employes. 

Sixteen sections of sewer were let by contract. In two 
cases the contractors failed, and the sections were relet. In 
four other cases the contractors abandoned their work, which 
was completed by the city, by day's labor. In connection with 
the Main Drainage system about 50 more contracts were made 
for materials and machinery, and for construction and work 
other than sewer building. These contracts were drawn by the 
engineers. 

In preparing a contract for building a sewer the object kept 
in view was to describe only the general character of the work, 
and to leave for further decisions, as construction progressed, 
the exact shape, methods of construction, and amounts and 
kinds of materials to be used. That this might be done with- 
out unfairness to the contractor the precise character (but not 
the amount) of every kind of work and material, which might 
be called for, w^as specified, and a price was agreed on for each. 
Should anything not specified be called for, the contractor 
agreed to furnish it at its actual cost to him, plus 15 per cent, 
of said cost. 

This is a convenient form of contract, because it permits the 
engineer to modify his methods of construction whenever ex- 
perience shows that a change is desirable. One kind of mate- 
rial can be substituted for another; cradles, side-walls, and 
piling can be added or discarded. Rather more opportunities 
for contention are afforded by this form of contract than by a 
simpler one ; but, on the whole, it was considered the best for 
our purposes. 

Contract w^ork was carefully watched, an inspector being' 
continually on the ground. Great care was taken to select 
suitable men for such positions. They were all experienced 
masons, and were paid $4.00 or more a day. 

A daily force account was always kept, both of work done 
by the city and that built by contract. This recorded the number 
of hours' labor of every class and the amount of material which 



DETAILS OF ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION. 91 

entered into each part of the work, so that its cost could be 
ascertained. On contract work this record proved very useful, 
because it furnished conclusive evidence in any case of disa- 
greement as to quantities or cost. 

All materials were carefully inspected for quality. Especial 
care was exercised in inspecting bricks and cement. About 
50,000,000 of the former and 180,000 casks of the latter 
material were used in building the works. It was required that 
the bricks should be uniform in size, regular in shape, tough, 
and burned very hard entirely through. Bricks with black 
ends were not excluded if otherwise suitable. No machine- 
made bricks were accepted, as they were usually found to have 
a laminated structure. A moderate proportion of bats was 
allowed, but only in the outer ring of the covering arch. From 
the accepted bricks the most regular were culled out for inside 
work. Bricks from different localities varied considerably in 
size, and this fact, so often disregarded, was taken into account 
in making purchases for the city. For instance, 1,175 Bangor 
bricks were required to build as much masonry as could be 
built with 1,000 Somerville bricks. 

A requirement that no bricks should be used which would 
absorb more than 16 per cent., in volume, of water, although 
not always enforced, was occasionally found useful, because it 
permitted the rejection of bricks made of light, sandy stock, 
which were, however, perfectly hard and shapely. The fol- 
lowing was the method employed in testing for porosity : The 
brick to be tested was first dried thoroughly by artificial heat, 
and then weighed. Next it was put in a pan containing one-half 
inch of water and allowed to soak for 24 hours, the pan being 
gradually filled, by adding water from time to time until the 
brick was covered. When thoroughly soaked it was again 
weighed, both in water and in air. The difference between the 
weights dry and soaked, in air, was the weight of water ab- 
sorbed, and the difference between the weights of the soaked 
brick, in air and in water, was the loss of weight in water, i.e., 
the weight of a bulk of water equal to that of the brick ; 
then The weight of water absorbed ^^^g ^^^ proportlon, lu volumc, of 

The loss oi weight in water ir ir ' 5 "'• 

water absorbed by the brick. 



92 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

Natural "Rosendale" cement was chiefly used on the work, 
but about 26,000 barrels of Portland cement and a little Roman 
cement were also used. Portland cement mortar was often used 
in building the inverts of sewers and, in general, where there 
was liability to abrasion or w^here especial strength was needed. 
It was often mixed with Rosendale cement, in order to make 
a somewhat stronger mortar. Very quick-setting Roman 
cement was used for stopping leaks, and was also mixed with 
other cements for wet work, because it would set at once and 
keep the mortar from being washed down before the stronger 
cements had hardened. 

In Appendix A are given a full account of the methods em- 
ployed for testing cement, and also the results derived from 
the tests made for experimental purposes. One advantage 
resulting from the careful and systematic testing was that manu- 
facturers and dealers were themselves careful to ofier or send 
no cement but that which they felt confident would be accepted. 
During the first year or two much of the cement ofi'ered was 
rejected, but later verj' little of it proved unacceptable. In 
making contracts for cement a standard of strenoth and fineness 
was seldom given. It was simply stipulated that the cement 
should be, in every respect, satisfactory to the engineer, and, 
if not satisfactory, should be rejected. 

In one contract, however, for 5,000 barrels of Portland ce- 
ment, a certain fineness and strength were required. As some 
of the specifications of this contract are believed to be novel and 
practically useful, they are here cited : — 

Fineness. The cement to be very fine ground, so that not over fifteen 
(15) per cent, of it will be retained by a certain sieve deposited in the office 
of the City Engineer of Boston, said sieve having 14,400 meshes to the 
square incli. 

Strength. The cement when gauged with three parts by measure of 
sand, to one i3avt of cement; formed into briquettes having a breaking area 
of 2\ square inches ; kept 28 days in water and broken from the water, to 
have a tensile strength of 150 lbs. per square inch. 

Price. We agree to receive as full payment for the satisfactory delivery 
of said cement, subject to its fulfilment of the foregoing requirements, as 
determined by the City Engineer of Boston, the sum of three dollars ($3.00) 
per cask delivered and accepted. 

We further agree, that, shall the cement, or any portion thereof, fail to 



DETAILS OF ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION. 93 

fulfil the above-mentioned requirement as to fineness, but shall nevertheless 
be accepted by the city, we will receive as full payment for said cement, or 
said portion thereof, a sum to be determined by the City Engineer, by 
deducting from the full price, of three dollars ($3.00) per cask, the sum 
of two cents ($0.2) per cask for each per cent, greater than 15 per cent, 
that is retained by the sieve before mentioned. 

Contractors were required to use only clean, sharp, coarse 
sand for making mortar. On city work, if clean sand was not 
conveniently accessible, a moderately dusty or dirty sand was 
considered almost as good, and quite good enough. So, also, 
in making concrete, contractors were obliged to use screened 
sand and stone ; but a city superintendent might mix his cement 
directly with the gravel dug from the bank, if it was more con- 
venient and cheaper to do so. Comparative tests of concrete 
made by these ditferent methods failed to distinguish any supe- 
riority in one over the other. 

The city sewers were so low that the intercepting sewers, 
which had to be lower still, required unusually deep trenches. 
The average depth of cut for the whole system was more than 
21 feet. The bottom of these trenches was generally several 
feet below the elevation of low tide. As the new sewers fol- 
lowed the margins of the city near the sea, tide-water frequently 
found a(;cess to the trenches, so that construction could only 
proceed during a few hours at about the time of low tide, when 
the leakage of water could be controlled. Sometimes the trench 
could not be kept entirely free from w^ater. Many of the streets 
traversed by the sewers were underlaid by beds of mud. Gen- 
erally the mud was not so deep but that an unyielding founda- 
tion could be secured by driving piles through the mud down 
into the hard ground beneath. Sometimes, however, the mud 
was so deep that hard bottom could not be reached by piling. 

It was mider such conditions that the use of wood to form 
the whole, or the lower part, of the sewer was resorted to. 
Wood was no cheaper in itself than masonry ; but a wooden 
sewer could be built very much more rapidly than a brick one, 
and could be built by unskilled laborers. Also, a wooden 
invert could be fastened in place, if necessary, under a foot or 
two of water. Moreover, a wooden sewer, fastened by spikes 



94 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

and oak treenails, possessed considerable elasticity, and could 
settle slightly in places, or assume an undulating form, without 
breaking. 

Therefore, under conditions such as those just mentioned, 
the use of wood to form the shell of a sewer was often resorted 
to. There were disadvantages attending this mode of con- 
struction. The elasticity which permitted the sewer to bend 
longitudinally without breaking, also made it tend to yield trans- 
versely, sinking at the crown and bulging at the sides, when- 
ever the earth outside was at all compressible. It was not easy 
to prevent the wooden shell from leaking badly, especially at 
the end joints. All wooden sewers had to be lined with brick- 
work, or concrete, to make them smooth and tight ; but putting 
sudi lining inside of a leaky sewer is a somewhat tedious and 
difficult operation. 

The tops of most of the intercepting sewers are several feet 
below the level at which ground water stands in the earth about 
them. Great pains were taken to insure every joint being 
thoroughly filled with mortar, and the arches were always plas- 
tered outside with a half-inch coating of cement mortar. By 
such means the greater part of the system was made perfectly 
tight and dry. In places, however, especially where there were 
slioht settlements and cracks, a considerable amount of leakao-e 
occurred. All leaky joints were calked as well as possible. 
Various materials were used for this purpose. Among them 
were neat cement ; cement mixed with grease or with clay ; 
oakum ; dry pine wedges, and sheet lead. By one or several of 
hese methods the leakage could either be entirely stopped or 
reduced to an insignificant amount. 

A considerable item in the total cost of building the inter- 
cepting system was the expense incurred in repairs to street 
surfaces and paving, over the sewers. The trenches were so 
large and deep that the backfilling, often of a peaty consist- 
ency, could not be sufficiently compacted by ramming or pud- 
dling, but continued to settle for a year or more after the 
sewer was built. As it was necessary to keep the surface in a 
safe and reasonably smooth condition the portion over the 
trench was sometimes repaved three, or even more, times before 



DETAILS OF ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION. 95 

it would remain permanently in place. Where the earth un- 
derlying the street was of a peat}^ nature it would be rendered 
spongy and compressible by its water draining out into the open 
trench during construction. Then the whole street surface, 
including sidewalks and sometimes even adjacent yards, would 
settle out of shape and need repairing. 

Another source of expense and trouble was the breaking of 
house-drains where they passed across the sewer trench, due to 
the settlement of the backfilling. The intercepting sewers 
were frequently, indeed generally, built in streets which 
already contained a common sewer. The house-drains from 
one side of the street crossed the trench of the intercepting 
sewer. These drains were maintained, or replaced, as securely 
as possible, but many of them were afterwards broken. These 
were generally found to be sheared ofi' on the line of the sides 
of the excavation, and the portion within the trench sunk bodily, 
half a foot or so, below the rest. 

As a rule the streets in which sewers were built were kept 
open for traffic. When the trench was in the middle of the 
street, passage-ways for vehicles were maintained on both sides 
of it, even when the width between sidewalk curbs was only 26 
feet. This was accomplished by the use of an apparatus for ex- 
cavating and backfilling, invented by the superintendent, Mr. 
H. A. Carson, and afterwards patented by him. Various merits 
are claimed for it, but the chief advantage in its use at Boston 
was, that by it servers could be built with very little encroach- 
ment on the surface of the street. Views of the apparatus are 
given on Plate XXVII. Although a patented article, a brief 
description of it seems proper, since it was used in building 
more than one-half of the intercepting sewers. 

In its general features the apparatus consisted of a light 
frame structure, extending longitudinally over the sewer trench 
from a point in advance of where excavation had begun to 
another behind where the trench was completely backfilled. 
All operations, therefore, were carried on beneath the machine. 
Excavation proceeded under the forward portion of the frame, 
the sewer was built under the central portion, and backfilling 
progressed near the rear. A double-drum hoisting-engine was 



96 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

carried on a platform at the front end of the frame. From 
the top of the frame were suspended iron tracks, on which were 
travellers, moved backwards and forwards by wire ropes lead- 
ing to the engine. A number of tubs, loaded by the diggers in 
front, were hoisted simultaneously by the engine, and run back 
to be dumped over the completed sewer. They were then 
returned and lowered to the points whence they had been 
taken, by which time a second set of tubs had been filled ready 
for hoisting. 

Any surplus earth was dumped through a hopper into carts 
which were backed under the machine. When it was neces- 
sary to furnish a passage across the work the trench was bridged, 
and the frame trussed. When one section of excavation was 
completed the whole apparatus, which rested on wheels, was 
pulled forward 30 or more feet by its own engine. The aver- 
age total length of one apparatus was 200 feet, and its total 
weight about 10 tons. 

Sewer-building; done by the city, was frequently carried on 
through the winter months. Contractors, on the other hand, 
were not allowed to lay masonry between November 15 and 
April 15. The temperature at the bottom of a deep trench was 
always considerably higher than that at the surface of the ground ; 
so that it was only when the mercury was at ten or more de- 
grees (F.) below the freezing-point that work was suspended. 
Much extra precautionary work was needed. Bricks were 
steamed in a close box before using ; sand and water were 
warmed, and completed work was protected by coverings of 
straw or sea-weed. Winter work was not economical, and was 
resorted to chiefly for the purpose of employing laborers, who 
otherwise might have been idle. 

Experience is probably a better guide to designing stable 
sewers than are theories concerning lines of pressures and geo- 
static arches. The physical conditions which determine the 
direction and amount of the earth pressures are seldom the same 
in the case of any two sewers. They differ at different points 
about the same sewer, and often are not alike on both sides of 
one sewer. The best that can be done is to judge as well as 
possible of the character of the ground to be penetrated, and 



PL4TE XX VII 



TRENCH MACHINE 




MT. VERNON ST. 1883. 




Fig. I 

CITY OF BOSTON 

MAIN DRAINAGE 



DIAGRAM MACHINE 



STOP PLANKS 

Fig. 3 



^ <gp ^ 




Fig. 2 



Fig.A 



DETAILS OF ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION. 97 

begin to build such a sewer as has proved stable under similar 
conditions. The sewer should then be examined carefully, 
during and after loading, for signs of weakness. 

In the case of the main drainage sewers such examinations 
were made graphically, by taking diagrams of their inside 
shape. These diagrams were taken by the aid of a machine 
shown on Plate XXVII. It consisted of a light frame, which 
could be so tixed against the masonry that its centre should be 
in the axis of the sewer. A movable arm was then rotated 
radially from the centre, with its outer end bearing lightly 
against the inside perimeter of the sewer. At the centre of the 
machine was a disk, on which was placed a sheet of paper. A 
pencil point, attached to the rotating arm, traced upon the 
paper a diagram, showing the shape of the sewer and its varia- 
tion, if any, from the established form. 

The shape and amount of any distortion suggested the cause 
which produced it, and the remedy to be applied. The most 
common causes were too early removal of centres ; too rapid 
or unequal loading ; the use of improper material for backtilling 
about the sewer ; insufficient ramming of backfilling against the 
haunches ; with drawing sheetplanks after backfilling ; inherent 
weakness in the design of the sewer. Such errors could be 
corrected and the design of the structure could be modified 
until the diao-rams taken from the sewer were found to corre- 
spond with its proper shape. 

The Main Drainage System is so arranged that any principal 
portion of it can be isolated and emptied for inspection and re- 
pair. Any intercepting sewer can be thus isolated by closing 
the penstock gate at its lower end, and also the inlet-valves 
connecting it with the common sewers, the latter then discharg- 
ing at their old outlets. By closing the gates at the ends of all 
intercepting sewers the main sewer can be emptied. Wher- 
ever an opportunity for isolating a small portion of the works 
might prove desirable, but the use of iron gates for such pur- 
pose would have entailed unwarranted expense, as a cheaper 
substitute, grooves of iron or stone were built into the masonry 
for stop-planks. Such grooves for stop-planks were always 
built above any iron gates, to afford a means of access in case 



98 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

of needed repairs. Where slight leakage could be afforded, a 
single pair of grooves was considered sufficient. Where a 
tight dam was desirable, a double set of grooves was provided, 
so that a double set of stop-planks, with an inside packing of 
clay, could be used. Some hundreds of stop-planks, of differ- 
ent lengths, are kept in readiness. Their form is shown on 
Plate XX VII. They are made of hard-pine planks, from three 
to five inches thick, planed and oiled. 

The connections between the common sewers and the inter- 
cepting sewers were usually made during the construction of 
the latter. The valves of the inlet-pipes, built into the common 
sewers, were closed and made tight by a little cement around 
their edges. By raising these valves the connection between 
the old and new system could at any time be established. 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 99 



CHAPTER Xr. 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 



January 1, 1884, the connections between the common and 
intercepting sewers were first opened. Pumping began at the 
same time, and the sewage was sent to the reservoir at Moon 
Island, and thence discharged into the Outer Harbor. Connec- 
tion with about one-half of the common sewers was made on 
that day, and most of the others were connected within a month 
thereafter ; so that by February, 1884, nearly all of the city 
sewage was diverted from the old outlets. The upper portion 
of the West Side intercepting sewer, in Lowell and Causeway 
Streets, was built in 1884. The common sewers, tributary to 
it, were intercepted as construction progressed. A common 
sewer draining a portion of Dorchester, intercepted by the main 
sewer at East Chester Park just east of the N.Y. & N.E. 
Railroad, was not connected until early in 1885. 

Although the whole intercepting system, therefore, was not 
entirely completed until the present year, yet the greater part 
of it has been in operation for fifteen months, — a long enough 
period to afford a fair indication of its practical working, and of 
the results which will be derived from it. 

As elsewhere stated the Main Drainao;e Works were desis^ned 
and built to correct two principal evils inherent in the old system 
of sewerage. These were : — 

First. The damming up of the common sewers by the tide, 
by which, for much of the time, they were converted into stag- 
nant cesspools, and the air in them was compressed, and to find 
outlets was driven into house-drains and other openings. 

Second. The discharge of the sewage on the shores of the 
city in the immediate vicinity of population, thereb}^ causing 
nuisances at many points. 

The first of these evils has been entirely corrected by the new 
system. The old sewers now have a continual flow in them, 



100 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

independent of the stage of the tide, as has been ascertained by 
frequent observations, and also from the testimony of drain-lay- 
ers, who formerly were only able to enter house-pipes into the 
sewers when the latter were empty at low tide, but now can 
make such connections at any time. 

The new system has also substantially remedied the second 
evil. From the moment that any of the city sewers was con- 
nected with an intercepting sewer, the sew^age which had before 
discharged on the shore of the city was diverted, and has since 
been conveyed to Moon Island and emptied into the Outer Har- 
bor at that point. 

It is true that about twenty-four times during the past year, 
or an average of twice a month, during rain-storms and freshets, 
the amount of water flowing in the sewers has exceeded the 
capacity of the pumps. At such times the excess has been dis- 
charged at the old sewer outlets. But this occasional and tem- 
porary discharge of very dilute sewage does not seem to have 
occasioned any nuisance. Examinations and inquiries concern- 
ing' the condition of the shores and docks at the sewer outlets 
have showm that water, once continually foul, has become pure, 
bad odors have ceased, and fish have returned to places where 
none had been seen for years. The stenches, referred to by the 
City Board of Health (p. 13), which formerly, at times, were 
prevalent over the city, were not noticed during the past year. 

The attempt to relieve certain low districts, subject to flooding 
of cellars during rain-storms at high tide, by discriminating in 
favor of such districts in respect to the interception of storm- 
water, has met with marked success. No case of flooding in such 
districts has been reported since the sewers draining them have 
been connected with the intercepters ; and many cellars, which 
used often to be filled several feet deep with water, are known 
to have been perfectly dry during the past year. 

Building the intercepting sewers has also dried cellars in other 
parts of the city in a way which was not at first anticipated. 
When land on the shores of the city was reclaimed for building 
purposes, most of the old walls and wharves were covered up by 
the new filling. Tide-water followed along any such structures 
through the ground, and entered cellars lower than high-tide 



WORKING or THE NEW SYSTEM. 101 

level. The new sewers were generally built along the present 
margins of the city, and in digging deej) trenches for them the 
old structures found were cut off and removed. The backfilled 
earth in the trenches forms an impervious dam surrounding the 
city, beyond which tide-water cannot pass. 

The sewers have been examined frequently since they went 
into operation. The average depth of dry-weather flow in the 
intercepting sewers is from ten to twenty inches, so that they 
can be entered on foot. So, also, can the main sewer above 
Tremont Street, and, sometimes, above Albany Street. Below 
that point the dry-weather flow is from two to three feet deep, 
necessitating the use of a boat. 

The velocity of flow in the sewers varies from about two feet a 
second upwards. An attempt was made to measure the velocity 
at several points with a current meter. While integrating, the 
meter could be rarely kept under water longer than ten seconds 
at a time without danger of its being clogged by paper, hair, 
and sin)ilar substances. By the use of a stop-watch the instru- 
ment could be removed for cleaning and again immersed without 
interfering with the experiment. The inclination of the surface 
of the sewage, though approximately the same as that of the 
sewer, was seldom precisely the same, and the observations 
were not sufficiently exact, in any case, to determine just what 
inclination then existed. The mean velocity at the points of 
measurement were, however, accurately ascertained, and the 
results may be of sufficient interest to cite. 

In the case of a 4 x 4.5 feet sewer (Fig. 7, Plate VIII.), with 
an inclination of 1 in 2,000, flowing 1.23 feet deep, the mean 
velocity was 1.9 feet per second. This sewer had some gravel 
on its bottom. In the case of a 4.75 x 5.5 feet sewer (Fig. 8, 
Plate VIII.), with an inclination of 1 in 2,000, the depth was 
1.45 feet, and the mean velocity was 2.45 feet per second. In 
a 4.5 feet circular sewer, with an inclination of 1 in 700, and 
a depth of 1.15 feet, the mean velocity of flow was 2.56 feet per 
second. In the case of an 8.25 feet circular sewer (Fig. 14, 
Plate VI.), the inclination being 1 in 2,500 and the depth 1.76 
feet, the mean velocity was 2.59 feet per second, sufficient to 
keep in suspension and carry along all sewage sludge. Most of 



102 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

the city sewers, when first intercepted, were found to contain 
deposits of sludge varying from a few inches to several feet in 
depth. All these deposits were carried into the intercepting 
sewers, and the sludge reached the pumping-station and was 
pumped up into the deposit sewers. Gravel, stones, and brick- 
bats also were swept along and taken out at the filth-hoist. 
Fine sand, however, did not move so freely, but settled in 
ridges here and there, and had to be removed by hand. 

The bottoms of the sewers are, as a rule, perfectly clean. No 
slime accumulates there, or, if it ever begins to grow, it is at 
once scoured off by the attrition of moving particles. The sides 
of the invert below the surface of the water have a thin coating 
of slime, making them very slippery. The arch and the portion 
of the invert above the water exposed to the air are clean, and 
often quite dry. In some portions of the sewers earthy accre- 
tions form on the arch. Where the sewer is surrounded by 
marsh mud these are turned black by sulphuretted hydrogen, 
sometimes they are colored yellow by iron, often they appear 
as white stalactites. In clayey soil the arch seems to be about 
as clean as when laid. 

The atmosphere in the sewers is not ofiensive, although a 
faint sewao;e smell can be detected on first enterins^ them. For 
the first eight months after the sewers went into operation they 
were not ventilated at the man-holes. This was because it was 
known that much sludge would be turned into them from the 
common sewers, and it was feared the smell from it might be 
noticed. Finally the ventilating covers, shown on Plate VI., 
were put in place. No smell has ever been noticed from them, 
and they considerably improved the condition of the atmosphere 
in the sewers, which is now quite fresh and hardly at all dis- 
agreeable ; not so much so, for instance, as is that in most rail- 
way carriages after an hour's use. The temperature of the sew- 
age varies from 50° to 65° F., and that of the air in the sewers 
from 40° to 60° F., depending upon the outside temperature. 

A small force of men has been constantly employed, during 
the past year, in caring for the main and intercepting sewers. 
This force has consisted of a foreman, one carpenter, and four 
laborers. They have also done minor items of work and repairs 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 103 

which might properly be charged to construction. After every 
rain, whenever there was any liliehood that water might have 
overflowed at the old outlets, all of the tide-gates have been 
visited. As a rule they are found to be quite tight. Occa- 
sionally one pair of a set (but never both pairs) are found to be 
leaking somewhat at high tide. This is caused by rags, corks, 
pieces of wood, or other such matters, catching near the hinges. 
At such visits the gates are washed clean, the hinges greased, 
and the iron-work examined for traces of incipient rust. 

Some of the tide-gates were made of white-pine and some of 
spruce. A few of the latter, which have been in place for three 
years, already show signs of decay. These are inside gates 
situated above the elevation of mean tide, so that they are com- 
paratively seldom wet. To replace them creosoted lumber 
will probably be used. The rubber gaskets, fastened to the 
gates, are in perfectly good condition after about three 
years' use. They were made of what was called by the manu- 
facturer " pure rubber ; " but, as they cost 75 cents a pound, 
when crude rubber was selling at more than a $1.00 a pound, 
they probably merely contained a larger percentage of that 
material than is usual in rubber goods. They were made with 
special reference to resisting the effects of sewage and grease. 

The penstocks, flushing gates, and regulators are also in- 
spected periodically. Moving parts are cleaned, slushed, and 
moved, so as to insure their being in good working condition. 
The iron, when carefully painted, does not appear to suffer 
from rust. About once in eight months it receives a coat of 
asphaltum paint. Duplicates are provided of all pins and other 
small parts, so that these can be taken to the yard to be warmed 
and recoated. The chains attached to the inlet-valves, by which 
they are lifted, are most subject to rust. These are frequently 
changed and taken to the yard, where, after being cleaned and 
scraped, they are warmed in a furnace and coated with hot pitch. 

The catch-pails under the ventilating man-hole covers are 
emptied as occasion demands. In some localities, and at some 
seasons, pails will be filled in less than a month. Others w^ll 
not require attention for three months. Men drive along the 
sewer line with a cart, remove a man-hole cover, lift out the 



104 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

pail, empty its contents into the cart, and again replace the pail 
and cover. A few extra pails are carried in the cart, so that 
if any one of those in use shows signs of rust it can be replaced 
by another, and be taken to the yard for cleaning and recoating. 

The filth-hoist at the pumping-station seems satisfactorily to 
answer the purpose for which it was designed. In dry weather 
the cages are raised three times a day, and the average daily 
yield from them is about 1 6 cubic feet. The matters inter- 
cepted are rags, paper, corks, half lemons, lumps of fat, dead 
animals, pieces of wood, bottles, children's toys, pocket-books, 
and such-like miscellaneous articles, which by accident or design 
are thrown into house-pipes. Comparatively little solid fecal mat- 
ter is caught, as most of it dissolves before reaching this point. 

When it rains, and deposits are scoured out of the old sewers, 
very much more filth is caught in the cages. The amount some- 
times equals three or four cubic yards in 24 hours. At such 
times it is necessary to raise and clean the cages every half-hour 
during the night as well as in the day, in order to prevent their 
becoming clogged and backing up the sewage in front of them. 

At first what was removed from the cages was buried in pits 
near the pumping-station. This not being considered a satis- 
factory method of disposal, an attempt was made to burn the 
filth in the furnaces under the boilers. It was found that the 
filth, as taken from the cages, contained so much water that 
the fires ^vere injured. Accordingly a simple press, like a cider- 
press, was procured, by which most of the water was pressed 
out. The comparatively dry cakes remaining after pressing 
are now burned without injuriously affecting the furnace fires. 

The two high-duty " Leavitt " pum ping-engines and the two 
storm-duty " Worthington " pumping-engines have all been run 
more or less during the past year. Any one of them is able to 
pump the ordinary dry-weather flow of sewage. As a rule one 
of the Leavitt engines is kept running ; should it rain, and addi- 
tional pumping capacity be needed, the second Leavitt engine 
is, by preference, started; if still more capacity is needed, the 
Worthington engines are started. When the amount of water 
^-rriving by the sewer decreases, the Worthington engines are 
first stopped. 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 



105 



The average dail}'^ quantity of sewage pumped in dry weather 
is about 24,000,000 gallons, and the average number of tons of 
coal consumed in doing the work is a])out 3^. This, with 
some steam used for other purposes, gives a working duty in 
the case of the Leavitt engine of about 95,000,000 pounds 
raised 1 foot high by the consumption of 100 pounds of coal. 
The Worthinoton enoines, under similar conditions, show a 
working duty of somewhat more than 50,000,000 foot-pounds. 

The following table gives the results of the first year's pump- 
ing, beginning with February, 1884, when the works had got 
fairly into operation : — 



Month. 


Dailt 

AVEEAGE 


Daily 
Ate B AGE 


Pee 

Cent. 


Gallons 
Pumped 


Rainfall. 








1884. 


Gallons 
Pumped. 


POITNDS 

OF Coal. 


OF 

Ashes. 


pee Pound 
of Coal. 


Inches. 


Number 
of Days 
it Rained. 


February 




25,777,360 


14,028 


15.8 


1,836 


5.74 


20 


March 




32,437,379 


18,880 


14.8 


1,709 


4.86 


19 


April . 




29,949,356 


15,671 


16.2 


1,913 


4.76 


17 


May . . 




25,121,056 


13,127 


15.6 


1,915 


3.31 


11 


June . . 




26,712,298 


13,265 


16.5 


2,015 


4.01 


7 


July . . 




25,900,400 


13,529 


19.2 


1,912 


4.25 


17 


August . 




31,674,621 


14,704 


16.0 


2,174 


5.01 


14 


September 




28,412,431 


11,099 


12.1 


2,568 


.31 


8 


October . 




27,601,557 


10,206 


13.3 


2,698 


3.17 


13 


November 




27,501,283 


8,985 


8.0 


3,073 


3.03 


9 


December 




30,883,501 


10,181 


7.2 


2,885 


4.46 


15 


1885. 
















January . 




38,498,668 


11,448 


7.2 


3,265 


5.33 


9 



It will be seen that the daily average, as given, is larger than 
the dry-weather flow, because it includes the extra quantities 
pumped during rains. The largest day's work thus far has 
been 81,280,883 gallons, but for a few hours this rate has 
been much exceeded. Until August, 1884, the pumping was 
not done economically. At that time a change was made in 



106 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

the management of the station, with a considerable increase in 
economy. A further gain was made in November, 1884, by 
substituting bituminous coal for anthracite, which had pre- 
viously been used. The former coal makes more steam, and 
costs about $1 less a ton. The comparatively low duty shown 
by the table for December is due to the fact that the Worth- 
ington engines Avere hirgely used during that month, while a 
temporary building over the Leavitt engines was being taken 
down. 

There are no means for determining accurately the actual 
amount of the city water-supply in the district whose sewers 
are tributary to the Main Drainage System. But it is evident 
that even in dry weather the amount of sewage reaching the 
pumping-station by the main sewer is greater than the water- 
supply of the districts drained by it. The excess is not con- 
stant; sometimes it is estimated to be 10 per cent, of the 
whole, and at other times it is probably 25 per cent., or 
even more. This excess comes from several sources. Many 
dwellings and factories in sewered districts have private water 
supplies. Breweries, and other similar large establishments, 
contribute largely in this way. A single sugar-refinery was found 
to pump and use, daily, about 1,000,000 gallons of salt water, 
all of which properly might have gone back into the harbor, 
but was, instead, turned into the sewers. In the spring, when 
the ground is full of water, much of it leaks into the common 
sewers, and is by them carried to the intercepters. Sea-water 
also, at high tide, finds its way along some of the old box-sew- 
ers, and leaks into them back of the tide-gates. It Avill prob- 
ably prove to be true economy to rebuild many of the old 
sewers, in whole or in part. 

The permanent working force employed at the pumping- 
station at present is as follows : — 

1 Chief Engineer, 

3 Assistant Engineers, 

9 Oilers, 

3 Firemen, 

3 Coal-passers, 

1 Clerk. 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 107 

The men employed in the filth-hoist, included in the above, 
rank as oilers. The administration at this point is, of course, 
not as economical as it would be if there were a uniform 
constant amount of work to be done. 

The deposit-sewers have perfectly answered their purposes 
in arresting all heavy matters contained in the sewage. The 
cross-sectional area of these sewers is so large and the resulting 
velocity of flow is so sluggish, even when four pumps are run- 
ning, that all suspended matters subside before reaching the 
tunnel. Sand and gravel are deposited at once, as soon as they 
enter the sewers ; lighter substances are carried a little farther ; 
but only floating matters or those having about the same specific 
gravity as water, remain in suspension long enough to reach the 
farther end of the sewers. 

As elsewhere stated, the sludge, contained by the common 
sewers at the time connection was made between them and 
the intercepting sewer, passed to the pumping-station and was 
pumped into the deposit sewers. The amount of this was 
12,000 cubic yards or more. The best way of removing it was 
long considered, and it was only in the autumn of 1884 that 
the appliances described in Chapter YIII. were adopted and 
constructed. When the six-inch pipe connecting one deposit 
sewer with the sludge-tanU was first opened, the deposits near 
where the pipe entered the sewer were drawn into the tank, 
which in the space of two days was filled with about 100 yards 
of sludge. 

The floating scrapers (Plate XIX.) were not completed un- 
til the winter. They work v,ery well, with a combined scrap- 
ing and flushing action, and by their use the sand and gravel 
deposits can be moved from one end of the sewer to the other. 
The sludge-tank was filled a second time, principally with clear 
sand, when operations were stopped by the harbor's freezing 
over. The bay remained closed by ice until early in March, 
when the removal of the deposits was again resumed. It seems 
probable that this method of removal will prove as satisfactory 
as any which could be adopted. 

As the tunnel is 142 feet below the harbor, and has been con- 
stantly full of sewage since pumping began, there has been no 



108 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

opportunity for inspecting it. For the first few months of 1884, 
before all of the city sewers had been intercepted, a compara- 
tively small amount of sewage was pumped, especially at night. 
At such times the velocity of flow through the tunnel was very 
slight, often less than one-half of a foot a second. Occasionally 
pumping would be stopped for a few hours at night, to allow the 
sewage to accumulate. At present the ordinary flow in the tun- 
nel is seldom faster than one foot a second. As the sewage takes 
from two to four hours to pass through the tunnel, at these slow 
velocities, it was to be expected that deposits would occur there. 

To ascertain the extent of such deposits, and whether they 
were likely to become permanent, some experiments were made. 
These were based upon the following laws : — 

That the flow through the tunnel is produced by the difierence 
in elevation of the water at its two ends ; 

That the amount of this difl'erence is a measure of the fric- 
tional resistance which the tunnel opposes to the flow of the 
sewage ; 

That, in proportion as the water-way of the tunnel is ob- 
structed by deposits, the resistance, and therefore the difference 
in elevation of the water at its two ends, will be greater than 
they would be if the tunnel was clean. 

The method of making the experiment was as follows : — 

The quantity of water passing through the tunnel was ascer- 
tained by pump measurement, with allowance for slip. The 
difference in elevation at the two ends of the tunnel was deter- 
mined by means of sliding gauges, with knife-edges where they 
came in contact with the surface of the water. 

The coefficient was then calculated for the formula 

V = C 1/ Ei or C = ,r^ 



in which 



V = Velocity in feet per second 



area 



R =1 Hydraulic mean radius = — i . — -r- 

•^ wet perimeter 

I =z Sine of inclination = .j -j- 

length 

C = A coefficient ascertained by experiment. 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 109 

As the tunnel is circular, 7.5 feet in internal diameter, the 
value of R, corresponding to the full cross-sectional area, is 1.875 
feet. Experiments on the flow of water in the Sudbury-river 
Conduit,^ which was a brick structure like the tunnel, gave a 
coefficient corresponding to R = 1.875, of about 137. It was 
not anticipated that the coefficient found for the tunnel, even 
when it was clean, would be quite so large as that of the con- 
duit ; since the surface of the former is somewhat rougher, and 
some loss of head would be occasioned by changes in direction 
at bends and by obstructions at the east shaft. 

It was also expected that the coefficient would vary somewhat 
with the velocity and with the dilution of the sewage. Under 
the most favorable circumstances, with the tunnel free from 
deposits, the coefficient would approximate 137, being that 
found b}^ the experiments above mentioned. 

The full area of the tunnel was used in determining the values 
of V and R. This assumed that the tunnel was clean. Should 
the coefficient be found to be much lower than that anticipated 
it would show tliat the aforesaid assumption was incorrect, and 
that the area of the tunnel was partly obstructed. 

Whatever was the true value of the coefficient, its increase or 
decrease, as determined by successive experiments under the 
same conditions, would show whether the amount of deposit in 
the tunnel was becoming less or greater. 

Arrangements are provided for flashing the tunnel by running 
four pumps simultaneously, salt water being admitted to the 
pump-wells to suppl}^ any deficiency of sewage. The vohime 
pumped is generally at the rate of about 114,000,000 gallons 
per day, which give a velocity of about four feet per second 
through the tunnel. 

The first flushing with four pumps was done June 12, 1884. 
Just previous to this time, by two measurements on different 
days, the loss of head through the tunnel was ascertained to be 
about .54 of a foot, and the values of C were found to be 80 and 
82. On June 13, the day after flushing, an experiment, with 
the same conditions as those previously made, gave a loss of 
head of .30 of a foot, and a value of C = 110. 

^ Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. XII., No. CCLIII. 



110 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

This value was still too low to indicate an entirely clean tun- 
nel, but showed that the water-way had been increased by a 
removal of a portion of the deposit by the flushing. This was 
known to be a fact, since the sludge scoured out by the flushing 
had been observed in the reservoir. Inspection showed that 
the deposit carried into the reservoir was of a very light nature, 
containing soft mud, horse-manure, water-logged match-ends, 
bits of lemon-peel, paper, and similar substances. 

Beginning in June, 1884, flushing with four pumps has been 
done regularly about once a fortnight. At four difierent times 
measurements to determine the value of C have been made 
during the flushing. At such times the velocity of flow is high, 
and from 75 to 80 per cent, of the volume pumped is clean salt 
water, afibrding conditions favorable for obtaining a high co- 
efficient. The values of C, derived from these several experi- 
ments, were as follows : — 

June 12, 1884. C = 129. 

Oct. 20, 1884. C = 120.7. 

Jan. 15, 1885. C = 146.3. 

Feb. 16, 1885. C= 146.6. 
The last two experiments were made on days following periods 
when the quantity of sevi^age pumped had been unusually large, 
on account of rain and melting snow, w^hich may account for the 
largeness of the coefficients. There may, also, have been some 
unusual slip in the valves. There can be little doubt, however, 
that at this time the water-way of the tunnel was not appreci- 
ably obstructed. 

Since these were experiments on the flow through a large pipe 
they may have some general interest for engineers, and their 
details are given in the following table : — 

Note. — Two experiments made since the first edition was printed give the following 

results : — 

Ang. 28, 1885. C = 117.8. 

Sept 2.5, 1885. C = 121.5. 
In these two experiments the quantity of water flowing was measured in the resei'voir, 
the height of the sewage in the sewers being kept constant. In previous experiments the 
values of C were based upon pump measurement, with a small allowance for slip. Dur- 
ing the week preceding the experiment of Oct. 20, trials wei-e made to ascertain the 
slip of each pump, and the results obtained on that day are probably trustworthy. The 
I'esults of the experiments of Jan. 15 and Feb. 16 are now known to be too large, the 
rubber valves of the pumps having begun to wear out at this time, causing a large slip. 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 



Ill 











i^i 


















Oi -*-» 




OJ ■" 














o o cs 




CJ c 2 








02 






^. *" = 




^ -^ &: 


;; 


:j 






bSi 

02 


- 


to 25 pe 

ge ; 75 
ent. salt 


be 
re 
£: 
0) 
CO 


to 25 pe 
ge; 75 
ent. salt 








Ph 






20 
sewa 
per c 




20 
sewa 
perc 








:raAo=A 


lO 


o 


lO 


CO 


b- 


CO 


CO 


, 


o 


o 


o 


CO 


CO 


t- 


^ 





•i!|nai.io.j 


en 


c<i 


d 


d 


d 


t-^ 


^-. 


H 


m JO 9"1TA 


i^ 


CO 


<^^ 


o 


<M 


^ 


ox 






^ 


CO 


00 


in 


C~. 


00 


a 






i?i 


o 


00 


CO 


(M 


o 


CO 


, 


•(A) 


o 


o 


Ci 


C5 


C5 


b- 


t- 


9 


AlooPA UK-spi 


d 


d 


C<5 


d 


CO 


CO 


c6 






CO 


CO 


^ 


^ 


CO 


00 


^ 




•puooag 


o 


o 


!>» 


CO 


»o 


t-- 


o 


QC 


.lad ^39^ oiq 


,— t 


'^ 


CO 


c<i 


CO 


t-^ 


CO 


-no ni 9aiu[0A. 


^ 


■* 


t^ 


-* 


t~ 


CO 


CO 
























CD 














, 


•(■a) snip^a 


=2 


^ 


^ 


V. 


„ 


^ 


„ 


r» 


UBaui o!|niijpi^ij 


lO 

00 

1-H 


















O 


^ 
















lO 


05 


-H 


■* 


IN 


l>. 


in 






<M 


CO 


c; 


r— ( 


Y— 1 


-* 


CO 


«9 


•(t) IOOJ 


O 


o 


o 


o 


00 


lO 


lO 


j8dpBSHJ0 9S07 


o 
o 


o 
o 


o 
o 


o 
o 


o 
o 


o 
o 


o 
o 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 
























^ 




































V 














IS 


•puanx 
ni peajj jo sscj 


o 


CO 

CO 


00 




lO 

CO 


to 


o 

00 






lO 


lO 


o 


iM 


f-^ 


Oi 


CO 






d 


d 


CO 


d 


•^ 


CO 


CO 






+3 


















<D 














• 


•]3n 


^ 


^ 


« 


., 


„ 


u 


„ 


* 


-nnxjo.i8}auii3Ta 




















^ 


















0) 














« 


•jan 


=s 


„ 


^ 


^ 


.^ 


^ 


^ 


-nnx JO q^Suai 


CO 
CO 


'* 


" 


" 


" 


** 


" 
























t- 




































■^ 










»o 








CO 


CJ 


^ 


CI 


^ 


00 


^ 






00 










oo 


















^~< 




. 


•?naca 


, 


^ 


^ 


„ 


„ 


" 


in 


« 


-usdxa JO a}tj(j 


CO 


05 


c^ 


CO 


o 


00 
(M 


Cvl 






01 

a 










bb 


c. 






f3 








o 


p 


<D 






*-5 








o 


<1 


m 


H 


•jnaaiuad 


















-xg; JO aaquinii 


""^ 


*^ 


CO 


rji 


o 


CO 


t^ 



aj 




O 














c 






- 


s 


c3 






















■^ 


s 




-•^ 




^a 


rr 


^ 


'« 


G1 


0) 




i* 


rt 






a 


^ 


ni 






C 


't 




C 




,a 


:3 


i^ 














CC 


piq 


A4 








ii 


o 


a) 



C5 


(-. 


0) 




is 


a> 


% 




0> 




^ 




rs; 


■^i; 


-H 












o 


is 
o 






p 


CJ 


0/ 


is 




,Q 


*■ 


o 


- 




SL'^ 












f^ 




,£; 










c 


'S 


cc 


w 










w 


^ 














J-: 


tp 


o 


y 


'm 


J4 


&I,SH 


5n 


e 


c 


A 


'O 


■a 


o 


A 


Ir 


.i5 


o 


IS 


"I 


CD 


■a 


3 


















o 


R 


p 


n 


t^ 


^ 




M 






■^•Sog 
— S 3 « 

S c S « 

m <u 

^ OJ o ^ 

S « " 

J' tn !.< 

» ai a, T^ 

'. §S^" 
wr =^ 2 

f- o ■' « 
O oj c-^ 
^ C o I, 



112 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

The wooden flume between Squantum and Moon Island has 
been watched carefully during the past year. It was at first 
tight, but the effect of the summer's sun lying on one side of it 
tended to make the planks shrink and warp somewhat, so that 
leakage occurred in some places. These were stopped by 
tightening the bolts and wedges, and by fastening the corner 
bottom planks to the sides with lag screws. To guard against 
the sun the flume was oiven a second coat of paint. Putting a 
cheap roof over it would, doubtless, prolong the duration of its 
effective service. 

When the sewao-e in the reservoir is low the flume runs about 
half-full. As the basins fill, the depth of flow increases until 
finally it runs entirely full, acting as a pipe. The ordinary 
velocity of flow is about three feet a second, or less as the 
depth increases. Twice a day, when the reservoir is flushed, as 
described later on, the current through the lower end of the 
flume attains the remarkable velocity of about seven feet a sec- 
ond. This velocity is sufiicient to remove stones and brickbats. 

Nevertheless the flume is not clean. From its bottom up to 
the ordinary flow line the sides are covered with a slimy deposit 
from one-eighth to one quarter of an inch in thickness. Above 
the middle and on the top there is also some slime, but not so 
much as below. The condition of this sewer is commended to 
the attention of those sanitarians who are accustomed to repre- 
sent flushing as a certain remedy for the accumulation of slime 
in pipes. 

Some experiments we made to determine the value of C in 
the formula V = C VRI as applied to the flume. In one trial, 
the flume flowing about half-full with sewage, the value of R 
was 1.45 feet, the velocity was 2.94 feet a second, and the value 
of C was found to be 116.9. In a second trial, under similar 
conditions, the following values were obtained : 11= 1.41 ; V = 
2.87; C~116.6. In a third trial, when four pumps were running 
and the flume was flowing full, 75 to 80 per cent, of the water 
pumped being clean salt water, the values of R, V, andC, respect- 
ively, were 1.5, 4.80, and 134.8. It will be noticed that the 
value of R was about the same in the last trial as in the first two, 
but that the value of C was very much greater. It is thought that 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 113 

this may be due to the fact that the first trials were made with 
clear sewage, whereas, in the case of the last trial, the water 
was comparatively clean. It seems reasonable to suppose that 
some head would be expended in maintaining in suspension the 
solid particles contained by the sewage. The subject is worthy 
of further investigation, it because concerns the applicability to 
the flow of sewage of hydraulic formulse derived from experi- 
ments on the flow of clean water. 

The reservoir has a capacity of 25,000,000 gallons. As sew- 
age is stored in it for about ten hours at a time, between the 
end of one period of discharge and the beginning of another, the 
basins, as a rule, have been filled only about half-full during 
the past year. The process of discharging is begun about one 
hour after the beginning of ebb tide. By this time the surface 
of the sea is as low as the bottom of the reservoir, and a good 
harbor current is setting outwards past the outlet. Water is 
admitted to the turbine, and by the power transmitted from it 
the upper gates in the outfall sewer are first closed. The sew- 
age then arriving is thus stored in the sewer, and its surface 
rises several feet. Meantime the lower gates in the discharge 
sewer are opened, and the sewage in the reservoir flows through 
them to the outlet. Under ordinary circumstances the basins 
are emptied in about thirty minutes. 

There is left in the basins a thin deposit of semi-fluid mud, 
generally about one-quarter of an inch thick, but in greater quan- 
tity after storms. To remove this, flushing is first resorted to. 
During the past year four brick partition- walls were built across 
the gallery between the sewers and the reservoir. One of these 
was built opposite the middle of each basin. As soon as a basin 
is empty an upper gate is opened on one side of the dividing 
wall just mentioned, and the lower gates on the other side of 
it. The sewage, which has by this time accumulated to a 
considerable depth in the outfall sewer, passes through the 
openings into one side of the basin, and flows with moderate 
force up the gutters to the back retaining-wall. As the gutters 
fill the sewage overflows across the ridges and down the gutters 
on the other side of the basin. Much of the sludge is in this 
way washed ofi" into the gutters and carried into the discharge 



114 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

sewers. The flushing is done alternately from one and the 
other side of the basin. 

If a basin cannot thus be entirely cleaned men descend into 
it with broad wooden scrapers, convex on one side, to fit the 
gutters, and flat on the other. With these the mud is scraped 
into the gutters and pushed down into the gallery, whence it 
is washed out into the sea at the next time of discharge. Such 
cleansing operations occupy about one-half hour for each basin, 
and are not especially disagreeable for the men.^ 

When the sides of a basin need cleaning the pump in the 
eno;ine-house is started, and one or more lines of hose are 
coupled to the hydrants on the 4-inch pipe fastened to the floor 
in the middle of each basin. The pump will give two strong 
fire streams with sufficient force to wash oif any crust which has 
hardened on the walls. The streams can also be used in con- 
nection with scraping and washing the floors of the basin. 

The first sewage which discharges at the outlet contains a 
considerable amount of sludge which has settled in the 
gallery and discharge sewers, and gives to the efiluent a dark, 
muddy appearance. After a few minutes the color is somewhat 
lost, and the effluent looks like moderately dirty water. 

Its eflect in discoloring the salt water, and its course as it 
joins the current out of the harbor, can be plainly noticed. 
Beinof fresh water it rises to the surface, and when a half-mile 
from the outlet seems to lie on top of the salt water in a 
stratum but a few inches thick. The greasy nature of the sew- 
age tends to quiet the ripples commonly seen on the surface of 
the harbor, so that the area affected by the discharge is plainly 
determined. From experiments with floats it is known that 
the sewage travels nearly five miles, following the Western Way 
and Black-Rock Channel out to the vicinity of the Brewster 
Islands. By the time it has travelled a mile from the outlet 
most of the color is lost, and by the time it has gone two miles 
(before passing Rainsford Island) not the slightest trace of it 
can be distinguished. 

1 Since this was written slight clianges have been made in the method of flushing the 
floors and gutters, which render the operation so effective that it is no longer necessaiy 
to send men into the basins to clean them. 



WORKING OF THE NEW SYSTEM. 115 

When the works went into operation, and for the first nine 
months thereafter, there were no gates near the outlet at the 
end of the discharge sewers. As a consequence the last por- 
tion of sewage from the reservoir, filling the discharge sewers, 
flowed out into the harbor slowly as the tide fell. This was 
the dirtiest part of the sewage, because it contained scourings 
from the basins. By referring to the plan (Plate V.) it will be 
seen that a cove was formed between the island and the pier 
containing the discharge sewers. In this cove a foot or more 
of sludge accumulated. A thin layer of sludge also formed on 
the beach between the outlet and the extreme point of the 
island. This last-named deposit was only found between the 
levels of the mid-tide and low water. 

In winter no smell comes from these deposits, and in sum- 
mer none is noticed except during low tide. On three occa- 
sions last summer, when the wind was from the east, the 
smell was so strong as to be noticed at Squantum, a mile 
away. 

In hopes of preventing, or at least lessening, the formation 
of such deposits, a set of gates have been placed in the cham- 
ber at the outlet. By these the sewage filling the discharge 
sewers is held back until the beginning of the succeeding dis- 
charge, when it is forced out into a good current. These gates 
have not been in place long enough to show how much they 
will accomplish ; but, should objectionable deposits still continue 
to form on the island, it is thought that an effectual remedy 
can be provided. This will consist in building a solid bulk- 
head wall near the line of low water, from the outlet to the 
extreme easterly point of the island. Such a structure could 
be built for $30,000. 

No trace of the sludge has been found on the shores in any 
other part of the harbor. Yery little smell emanates from the 
reservoir in cool weather ; not enough to be perceptible at a 
contractor's boarding-house, about 200 feet distant. In sum- 
mer the smell is more noticeable ; but not nearly so much so as 
is that arising from the deposits of sludge on the beach. 

As a whole the Main Drainage System works well, and no 
radical defect has been detected in any portion of it. It is not 



116 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

claimed that, by itself it furnishes a perfect system of sewerage 
for the city. Many defective house-drains and common sewers 
still exist, and must in time be replaced ; but the new system 
provides an outlet for the rest, without which other reforms 
would be comparatively useless. 

By building the Main Drainage "Works Boston has taken 
the first, most essential step in the direction of efficient sew- 
erao^e. 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX A. 



RECORD OF TESTS OF CEMENT MADE FOR BOSTON 
MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1878-1884.' 

The Main Drainage Works chiefl}^ consist of brick, stone, and con- 
crete masonry. Abut 180,000 barrels of cement were required to 
build this masonry ; and to insure its stability and durability it was 
necessary that the cement should be of good quality. From tlie start, 
therefore, means for determining the qualities of all cements used or 
offered for use were provided. A room was set apart for these opera- 
tions and an inspector appointed to conduct them. 

The tests were devised, principally, in order to determine three 
points, namely : — 

1. The relative strength and value of any cement as compared 
with the average strength and value of the best quality of similar 
kinds of cements. 

2. The absolute and comparative strength and value of mortars of 
different kinds made from the same cement. 

3. The effect produced upon the strength of any cement-mortar 
by different conditions and methods of treatment. 

This knowledge was chiefly sought by observations of the tensile 
strength of the cements and mortars tested. Reasons for adopting 
the tensile test vrere, that it required comparatively light strains to 
produce rupture ; that, as it was universally used, it afforded results 
which could be compared with those of other observers ; and, finally, 
because the tensile stress is precisely that by which the mortar of 
masonry, in most cases of failure, actually is broken. 

All the particles of any cement are of appreciable size, and its 
strengtli as a mortar depends on the extent to which the particles ad- 
here, at their points of contact, to each other or to some inertsubstance. 
This adherence may be overcome and the mortar broken, either by 
pulling the particles apart by tension, or by pushing them past each 

1 A paper presented to the American Society of Civil Engineers. 



120 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

other by compression. The effect upon the adhering quality of the 
particles is not very different in the two operations ; but in the latter 
the friction of the particles against each other must also be overcome, 
which requires the application of very much more force. Transverse 
tests are only tensile tests differently applied, and shearing produces 
a stress intermediate to tension and compression. When masonry is 
strained one part of it is in tension, another in compression, and, as 
mortar yields more readily to tensile stress, failure generally occurs 
by rupture of the joints in tension. 

Briquettes for testing, with a breaking section of one square inch, 
were first used ; but it was thought that these, from their small size, 
were liable to be strained and injured by handling in taking them 
from the moulds and transferring them to the water. A larger pat- 
tern, with a breaking section one and one-half inches square, or two 
and one-quarter square inches, was finally adopted. Comparative 
tests with briquettes of one inch and two and one-quarter inches sec- 
tion respectively indicated that there was little, if any, difference in 
their strength per square inch. 

The shape of thebriquette adopted is shown by Fig. 2, Plate XXVIII. 
Fig. 1 of the same plate shows the brass moulds in which the mortar 
was packed to form the briquettes. These moulds proved very sat- 
isfactorv. They were strong, and easily clamped and opened. The 
clamp consisted of a piece of brass wire riveted loose in the project- 
ing lug of one branch of the mould, and binding by friction when 
turned against the wedged- shaped lug on the other branch. If a fast- 
ening worked loose a single tap of the hammer would tighten it. All 
breaking loads were reduced to pounds per square inch of breaking 
section by multiplying by four and dividing by nine. 

Before testing a cement its color was first observed. The absolute 
color of a natural cement indicates little', since it varies so much in 
this particular. But, for any given kind, variations in shade may indi- 
cate differences in the character of the rock or in the degree of burn- 
ing. With Rosendale cements a light color generally indicated an 
inferior or underburned rock. An undue proportion of underburned 
material was indicated in the case of Portland cement by a yellowish 
shade, and a marked difference between the color of the hard-burned, 
unground particles retained by a fine sieve and the finer cement which 
passed through the sieve. 

The weight per cubic foot was also sometimes ascertained. As this 
wouhl vary with the density of packing, a standard for comparison 
was adopted, which was the density with which the cement would 
pack itself by an average free fall of three feet. The apparatus used 



PLATE XXVIII. 



S /=? A S S MOULD. 

F/G. /. 




TUBE AND BOX 
FOR WEIGHING CEMENT. 




Fig-. 3. 




BRIQUETTE . 



PAT OF CEMENT 
TES TED TOR CHECK CM CFS. 




F/G.2. 




Fig. 4. 



W^, PAN FOP KEEPING BRIQUETTES. 

SL'ii "'H 





LIGHT & HEA VY WIPES. 
Fia.5. 



Fig. e. 




SCOOP 



FOP TAKING SAMPLES FROM BARRELS . 



BARREL OF CEMENT 
60 PER CENT FINE 




Wl 40PSfl CENT 



60P£R CENT 



BARREL OFCEMENT 
90PER CENT FINE 




aOPCRCENT 



Fig. 3. 



Fig. 10. 



APPENDIX A. 



121 



is shown by Fig. 3, Plate XXVIII. The cement was placed in a 
coarse sieve on the top of a galvanized iron'tube, and, the sieve being 
shaken, the cement sifted through the tube into the box below. This 
box held exactly one-tenth of a cubic foot when struck level with its 
top. 

The weights per cubic foot as determined by this method varied 
considerably with different kinds and brands of cement, and some- 
what with different samples of the same brand. The averages were 
as follows : — 

Table No. 1. 

Eosendale 49 to 56 pounds. 

Lime of Teil 50 

Roman 54 

A fine-ground French Portland 60 

English and German Portlands 77.5 to 87 

An American Portland 95 

The following table shows the effect of fine grinding upon the 
weight of cement. It gives the weight per cubic foot of the same 
German Portland cement, containing different percentages of coarse 
particles, as determined by sifting through the No. 120 sieve : — 





Table No. 2. 






per cent. 


retained by No. 120 sieve — W't per 


cubic foot 


. 75 pounds 


10 " 


11 u (t a 


" 


. 79 


20 


(1 (I 11 a 


li 


. 82 " 


30 
40 


i( (( (( i( 


K 


. 86 " 
. 90 " 



It was soon discovered that there was no direct ratio between 
weight and strength. As a general rule, subject to exceptions, 
heavy cement, if thoroughly burned and fine-ground, was preferred 
to light cement. Fine-ground cements were lighter than coarse- 
ground and underburned rock lighter than well-burned. While color 
and weight by themselves indicated little, yet, considered together 
and also in connection with fineness, they enabled the inspector to 
guess at the character of a cement, and suggested reasons for high 
or low breaking. A cement which was light in color and weight, 
and also coarse-ground, would be viewed with suspicion. 

The test of fineness, which followed, was considered of great 
importance, as showing the quantity of actual cement contained in a 
barrel, and its consequent value. Small scales were used, made 



122 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

for this purpose by Fairbanks & Co. One-quarter of a pound of 
the sample was weighed out and passed through the sieve. The 
coarse particles retained b}' the sieve were returned to the scales, 
whose balance-beam carried a movable weight, and was graduated 
in percentages of one-quarter pound. The percentage of coarse 
particles retained bj' the sieve could thus be read directly from the 
beam. 

Standard sieves, varying from No. 50 to No. 120, were used. The 
number of meshes to the lineal inch in any sieve is commonly sup- 
posed to correspond with its trade number. As sold, however, they 
vary somewhat, and the number of wires is generally less, by about 
ten per cent., than the number of the sieve. A No. 50 sieve com- 
monh' has about 45 meshes to the inch, and a No. 120 about 100, or 
a few more. In important contracts, where a certain degree of fine- 
ness was called for, it was customary carefully to compare two sieves 
and retain one, which was specified as the standard, while the other 
was delivered to the manufacturer for his guidance. 

In accordance with common practice the No. 50 sieve was first 
used. It was soon discovered, however, that so coarse a sieve did 
not always give a correct indication of the fineness of the cement. 
This was especially true of Portland cements. Some brands, chiefly 
German, were evidently bolted by the manufacturers with special 
reference to tests by this sieve, in which they would leave no re- 
siduum. Yet the bulk of such cements, while containing no very 
coarse particles, might prove quite coarse when tested by the No. 
120 sieve. 

It is obvious that pieces of burned cement slag one-fourth of an 
inch in diameter would have no cementing quality, and the same is 
true of particles one one-hundredth of an inch in diameter. At pre- 
cisely what smaller size the particles begin to act as cement it was 
impossible to determine. Those retained by a No. 120 sieve, in which 
the open meshes are approximately one two-hundredth of an inch 
square, were found to have some slight coherence, even after washing 
to remove the finer floury cement which was sticking to them. It was 
also found that the No. 120 sieve was about as fine a one as it was 
practicable to use, on account of the time required to sift the cement 
through it. It was, therefore, adopted as a standard. 

Assuming (what was onl\^ approximately verified by experiments 
on tensile strength) that only what passed through this sieve had real 
value as cement, and that the rest was not very different from good, 
sharp sand, the difference in the quantity of actual cement obtained 
in purchasing barrels 60 and 90 per cent, fine, respectively, is shown 



PLATE XXIX 



500 



40O 



300 



200 



SOO 






4O0 



500 



200 



100 



poRTiAm ce:me:nt 




14 SO 

AGE /N DAYS WHEN BROKEN. 

na.L 



F/G.2, 

KiND or SAND USED. 




APPENDIX A. 123 

by Figs. 9 and 10, Plate XXVIII. This has an important bearing 
on tlie proportion of sand to be added in practical use ; for when 
mortar is mixed for use in the proportion of one barrel of cement 
to two of sand, if there be nine parts of cement and one of sand in 
the barrel of cement itself, the actual proportion in the mortar will 
be .9 to 2.1 or 1 to 2.33. If there be only six parts of cement and 
four of sand in the barrel of cement the resulting proportion in the 
mixture will be .6 to 2.4 or 1 to 4. 

Fine cement can be produced by the manufacturers in three ways : 
by supplying the mill-stones with comparatively soft, underburnt 
rock, which is easily reduced to powder ; by running the stones more 
slowly, so that the rock remains longer between them ; or by bolting 
through a sieve and returning the unground particles to the stones. 
The first process produces an inferior quality of cement, while the 
second and third add to the cost of manufacturing. 

The extra cost, as estimated by a firm of English manufacturers, 
of reducing a Portland cement from an average of 70 per cent, fine, 
tested by No. 120 sieve, to 90 per cent, fine, was 18 cents per barrel. 
The price at which 5,000 barrels of their ordinary make, 70 per cent.. 
fine, were offered, delivered on our work, was $2.82 per barrel. The 
same cement, ground 88 per cent, fine, was delivered for $3 a barrel. 
On the foregoing assumption of the value of fine and coarse particles 
the city, by accepting the first offer, would have obtained in bulk 
3,500 barrels of actual cement and 1,500 barrels of sand for $14,100. 
By accepting the second offer it obtained in bulk 4,400 barrels of 
cement and 600 of sand for $15,000 ; that is, the 900 additional 
barrels of cement cost $1 a barrel. Experiments illustrating the value 
of fine grinding, and further comments, will be given later. 

Tests were made both of neat cement and of cement mixed with 
sand in different proportions. The latter were preferred, because they 
showed the strength and value of the mortars used in actual work. It 
was found also that the strength of briquettes made of neat cements 
did not always indicate the capacity of these cements to bind sand,, 
or the strength of the mortars made with them. This is illustratedl 
by experiment No. 10, on page 127. 

The greater the proportion of sand in the mortar tested the more 
accurately was the actual cementing quality of the cement indicated. 
As, however, ver}' weak mixtures took a long time to harden, and were 
liable to injury from handling, one part cement to three parts sand 
was adopted as the usual mixture for testing Portland cements, and 
one to one and one-half or two for American cements. Occasionally 
when testing large quantities of some well-known brand, the object 



124 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

being to see that a uniform strength was maintained, it was found 
sufficient, and simpler, to omit the sand and make the briquettes 
of cement only. 

In making mortars for testing, rather coarse, clean, sea-beach sand 
was used. 

The subsequent strength of the briquettes depended largely upon 
the amount of water with which they were gauged. The highest re- 
sults were obtained by using just enough water thoroughly to dampen 
the cement, giving the mass the cousistenc}' of fresh loam, which be- 
came pasty by working with a trowel. For ordinal}' testing sufficient 
water was added to make a plastic mortar, somewhat stiffer than 
is commonly used by masons. Different cements varied in the 
amounts of water needed to produce this result. As a rule American 
cements needed more water than Portland, fine ground more than 
coarse, and quick-setting more than more slow-setting cements. 
Experiment No. 9, page 127, shows the comparative strength of mor- 
tars gauged with different percentages (in weight of the cement) of 
water. The standard adopted was 25 per cent, for Portland cement 
and 33 per cent, for Rosendale ; but these amounts were increased or 
diminished by the operator to suit the circumstances, his aim being to 
obtain mortars of unvarying consistency. 

The way in which the test briquettes were made was as follows : 
the moulds, having been slightl}' greased inside to prevent the mor- 
tar sticking to them, were placed on a polished marble slab. This 
support for them was used because it was easily cleaned and the mor- 
tar did not stick to it. Experiment No. 6, page 124, shows that the 
use of porous or of non-porous beds to support the moulds does not 
materially affect the strength of the mortars. The requisite amounts of 
-cement and sand for one briquette were weighed out and incorporated 
dry in a mixing-pan. The proper amount of water was also weighed 
•out and added, and the mass worked briskly with a small trowel until 
of uniform consistency. A brass mould was half filled with the mor- 
tar, which was rammed into place by the operator with a small wooden 
rammer, in order to displace any bubbles of air which might be con- 
fined in it. The mould was then filled to its top with the remaining 
mortar, which was in turn rammed down. Finally the mortar was 
struck even with the top of the mould and given a smooth surface 
by the trowel. 

The amount of mortar packed in the mould, and the consequent 
density of the briquette, would vary with any variation in the degree 
of force exerted by the operator in ramming. This variation was re- 
duced to a minimum by always mixing a fixed amount of mortar, 



APPENDIX A. 125 

which was barely more than sufficient to fill one mould. Irregularities 
in ramming would thus be detected by variations in the amount of 
surplus mortar, and could be checked. An attempt was made to 
do away wholly with this element of uncertainty by pressing the 
mortar into the moulds with certain fixed pressures. Apparatus was 
devised and used for this purpose, but was finally abandoned on ac- 
count of the length of time required for its use. 

The initial energy of the cement — that is, the length of time after 
mixing before it "set" — was determined by noting the length of 
time before it would bear "the light wire" of -^^ inch in diameter 
loaded with i-pound weight, and also " the heavy wire" -^ inch in 
diameter loaded with 1-pound weight. At the former time the cement 
was said to have begun to set, and at the latter it was entirely set. 
Different kinds and brands of cement varied greatly in the time after 
mixing when they would bear the wires. Some brands of English 
Roman cement would set in two minutes, and some of Portland re- 
quired over 12 hours. Cold retarded the setting, and fresh-ground 
cements set quicker than older ones. No direct relation was estab- 
lished between initial energy and subsequent strength. By judicious 
mixing of quick and slow setting cements a mixture could be ob- 
tained which would set within any desired period. 

As soon as the briquettes were hard enough to handle without injury, 
which, with different cements and mixtures, varied from five minutes 
to twelve or more hours, they were removed from the moulds and 
placed in numbered pans filled with water. Before removal each 
briquette had marked upon it, with steel stamps, the name of the 
cement, date of mixing, and a number by whicli it could be further 
identified. The inscription might read thus : — 

" Alsen 1-3. May 17, 1880. 47." 

Records were also kept in books and on blanks provided for the 
purpose. The briquettes were kept in the pans, covered with water, 
until they were broken. Their age when broken varied from 24 hours 
to five years. 

In testing a well-known American cement, of generally uniform 
quality, if it were an object to save time, the comparative excellence 
of the samples could be sufficiently determined by a 24 hours' test of 
briquettes made of neat cement. Under similar conditions neat Port- 
land cement could be tested in seven days. To test mortar of either 
kind of cement took a week, or, better, a month ; especially if there 
was a liberal proportion of sand. 

The probable value of an untried brand of cement could hardl}^ 



126 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

be ascertaiaed with certainty in less tlian a mouth, and not always 
then. To illustrate the occasional need of long-time tests, a case may 
be cited. 

A new brand of cement, made by some patent process, was offered 
for use on the work. When tested it set up well, and at the end 
of a week the neat cement had a tensile strength of 184 pounds per 
square inch. In a month this had increased to 267 pounds, indicating 
a strength equal to that of a low-grade Portland cement. At this 
time there was nothing in the appearance of the briquettes to indicate 
any weakness. Yet, after about six months, they fell to pieces, and 
had entireh' lost their cohesive quality. 

The briquettes were broken by a machine made for the Department 
by Fairbanks & Co. It worked with levers, acting on a spring bal- 
ance, which was tested from time to time, and found to maintain its 
accuracy. 

During the progress of the work the following brands of cement 
were submitted for approval, and were tested with more or less thor- 
oughness : — 

Old Newark, Newark and Rosendale, Norton, Hoffman, Old Rosen- 
dale, New York and Rosendale, Lawrenceville, Rosendale, Arrow, 
Keator, Howe's Cave, Rock Lock, Buffalo, Cumberland, Round Top, 
Selenitic, Vorwholer, Star, Dyckerhoff, Alsen, Hemmor, Bonnar, 
Onward, Burham, J. B. White, Knight, Bevan & Sturge, Brooks, 
Shoobridge & Co., Leavitt, Grand Float, Diamond, Spanish, Red 
Cross, La Farge, Lime of Teil, Saylor, Coolidge, Walkill, Cobb, 
Abbott. 

The following is a record of the more instructive tests made for 
experimental purposes. Nearly all of them were made with special 
reference to the work then in hand to elucidate some practical ques- 
tions affecting the purchase, testing, or use of the cements needed for 
building purposes. The names of the brands of cement tested in the 
several experiments are generally omitted. This is in order to avoid 
any unwarranted use of the results as recorded. 

The figures given in the tables alwa3's represent average breaking 
loads in pounds per square inch of breaking section. 

Experiment No. 1. 

Of natural American cements the Rosendale brands (so called) are 
the only ones which find a sale in the Boston market, and they were 
chiefly used on the work. Imported Portland cements were also 
largely used. It was important, therefore, to ascertain the actual and 



APPENDIX A. 



127 



comparative strengths of these cements. The following table gives 
results compiled from about 25,000 breakings, of 20 different brands, 
and fairly represents the average strength of ordinary good cements 
of the two kinds. Some caution, however, is necessary in using the 
table as a standard in which to compare other cements. Quick- 
setting cements might be stronger in a day or week, and show less 
increase in strength with time. Fine-ground cements would probably 
give lower results tested neat, and higher ones with liberal propor- 
tions of sand. 

Table No. 3. 

EOSENDALB CEMENT. 




POBTLAND CEMENT. 





Cement, 1; 


Cement, 1; 


Cement, 1; 


Cement, 1; 


Cement, 1; 




Sand, 1. 


Sand, 1.5. 


Sand, 2. 


Sand, 3. 


Sand, 5. 


1 


M 
^ 


d 


o 


o 

2 




d 


o 


o 
1^ 




d 


O 


o 

:3 




d 


o 


O 




d 


o 


o 


J4 


d 


o 
1^ 


o 


rH 


'-' 


IH 


to 




rH 


1-1 


CO 


rH 


rH 


iH 


CO 




rH 


rH 


CO 


r-( 


'-' 


'-' 


CO 




iH 


1-1 


CO 




in"^ 


ans 


4T^ 


468 


4P4 


160 


905 


S-IT 


387 










T'6 


IfiS 


97Q 


r^''S 


P5 


140 


IPS 


■^SY 


f)5 


S8 


136 


155 





















































The table is instructive in several ways. It shows that Portland 
cement acquires its strength more quickly than Rosendale ; that both 
cements (but especially Rosendale) harden more and more slowly as 
the proportion of sand mixed with them is increased ; that, whereas 
neat cements and rich mortars attain nearly their ultimate strength in 
six months or less, weak mortars continue to harden for a year or more. 
The table shows the advantage of waiting as long as possible before 
loading masonry structures, and the possibility of saving cost by using 
less cement when it can have ample time to harden. It also shows 
that Portland cement is especially useful when heavy strains must be 
withstood within a week. 



128 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



Experiment No. 2. 
These series of tests are like the preceding ones, except that a 
single brand of cement was used in making each. The average 
breaking loads per square inch were obtained from a less number of 
briquettes (about 500 in all) ; mortars with larger proportions of sand 
were included in the series, and the tests were extended for two years. 

Table No. 4. 

POETLAND CEMENT MOBTAK. 



Age when 
Broken. 


Neat 
Cement. 


Cement, 1 ; 
Sand, 2. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 4. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 6. 


Cement, 1 ; 
Sand, 8. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 10. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 12. 


One week . 


295 


166 


89 


50 


33 


23 


17 


One month . 


341 


243 


132 


88 


67 


50 


41 


Six months . 


374 


343 


213 


149 


98 


76 


51 


Two years . 


472 


389 


226 


159 


98 


49 


31 



EOSENDAIE CEMENT MOETAR. 



Age when 
Broken. 


Neat 
Cement. 


Cement, 1 ; 
Sand, 2. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 4. 


Cement, 1 ; 
Sand, 6. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 8. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 10. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 12. 


One week . 




24 


7 


5 


. 






One month. 


. 


83 


33 


17 


8 


5 




Six months . 




172 


93 


62 


50 


33 


21 


Two years . 


• • • 


211 


90 


56 


33 


22 


20 



The tables show that considerable strength is acquired in time, even 
when a very large proportion of sand is used ; also, that most mortars 
increase very little, if any, in tensile strength after six months or a 
year. They become harder with time, but also become more brittle 
and probably less tough. Specimens of mortar two years old, or 
more, break very irregularly. 

Experiment No. 3. 

The rate at which Rosendale and Portland cements, respectively, 
increase in strength during the first two months after mixing is very 
different, and has some bearing on their use, and more on the inter- 
pretation of tests of them made within that period. The curves (Fig. 



APPENDIX A. 129 

1, Plate XXIX.), which indicates this rale of increase, were compiled 
from tests with neat cement. It is probable that tests with mortar 
would give somewhat similar results. By comparing the two curves it 
appears that after 24 hours Rosendale cement has about three-fourths 
of the strength of Portland. While the latter increases greatly in 
hardness during the next fewiclays, the energy of the former becomes 
dormant, so that at the end of a week the Portland cement is more 
than three times as strong as the Rosendale. During the second 
week the Portland cement increases more slowly, and the Rosen- 
dale continues nearly quiescent. At about this period, and for the 
next six weeks, the Rosendale cement gains strength, not only rela- 
tively, but actually faster than the Portland, so that when two months 
old the former has one-half the strength of the latter. After two 
months the relative rate of increase and the comparative strength 
of the two cements remain nearly unchanged. A series of tests with 
a Buffalo cement, and one with a Cumberland cement, gave results 
similar to those with Rosendale cement. 

IF 

Experiment No. 4. 

For making tests it is not always convenient to obtain sand of uni- 
form size, and still less so to obtain such sand in sufficient quantities 
for use in work. The curves (Fig. 2, Plate XXIX.) record some tests 
made to determine the effect of fineness and of uniformity of size 
in sand upon the strength of mortars made with it. 

The curves show that for comparative tests it is advisable to have 
sifted sand of nearh' uniform size ; that mortars made with coarse 
sand are the strongest, and that the finer the sand the less the 
strength. It also appears that mixed sand, i.e., unsifted sand con- 
taining a mixture of particles from coarse to fine, makes nearly as 
strong a mortar as coarse or medium coarse sand. For use in work, 
therefore, it is well to avoid fine sands ; but it is not necessary to 
have sand of uniform size, or to sift out a moderate proportion of 
fine particles. 

Experiment No. 5. 

As some experimenters on cement use a test briquette with a break- 
ing section of 1 square inch, and others one with a section of 2^ 
square inches, the following experiment was made to determine the 
difference, if any, in the strength acquired by the same mortars 
moulded into briquettes of these different sizes. Two series of tests 
were made, in the same way, with the same mortars. In one series 
the briquettes had a breaking section of 1 square inch, and in the 



130 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



other the section was 2^ square inches. The results are given in the 
following table, in which the figures represent breaking loads in 
pounds per square inch, and are averages from five breakings : — 

Table No. 5. 





• 






ROSBNDALE CbMBNT. 


Portland Cement. 






Cement, 1 ; 


Neat 


Cement, 1; 






Sand, 1.5. 


Cement. 


Sand, 1.5. 






M 


4 


-3 


M 


.d 


J 


M 


4 


■^ 


M 


5 


5 






$ 


a 






a 


a 




a 


a 


0) 


a 


n 




^ 


^ 


O 


o 


^ 


a 


O 


^ 


o 


S 


^ 




o 




49 


83 


1-1 
166 


CO 

286 


27 


53 


236 


i-i 

309 


460 


657 


60 


96 


CD 


1-inch Section 


175 


2i-inch Section .... 


49 


78 


173 


258 


27 


62 


311 


347 


391 


578 


67 


108 


230 



As is usual, the breaking loads are somewhat irregular, the inch 
section excelling at some points and the larger section at others. 
The experiment, however, seems to indicate that neither size will, as 
a rule, give higher results than the other. 

Experiment No. 6. 
Some experimenters have thought it important to place the moulds 
in which the mortar is packed for testing upon a porous bed, such as 
blotting-paper or plaster. Others use a non-porous bed of glass, 
slate, or marble. The following series of tests were made to dis- 
cover the effect of these different modes of treatment. The figures 
in the tables represent breaking loads, in pounds, per square inch, 
and are averages of about ten breakings : — 

Table No. 6. 

KOSBNDALB CEMENT. 



Mixture. 


Kind of Bed. 


One Week. 


One Month. 


Six Months. 


One Tear. 


Neat . . . j 


Marble . . 
Plaster . . 


95 
106 


151 

178 


228 
303 


325 
316 


Cement, 1 . . 
Sand, 1.5 .' . 


Marble . . 
Plaster . . 


44 
62 


107 
120 


210 
219 


251 
265 



APPENDIX A. 



131 



A CUMBERLAND CEMENT. 



Mixture. 


Kind of Bed. 


One 
Day. 


One 
Week. 


One 
Month. 


Six 
Months. 


One 
Tear. 


Neat ... -1 


Marble . . . 
Plaster . . . 


128 
147 


133 
165 


142 

176 

r 


231 
244 


241 
257 


Cement, 1 


Marble . 




107 
128 


161 
166 


275 
299 


339 


Sand, 1.5 . . 


Plaster . 




345 










Cement, 1 


Marble . 




85 
111 


134 

148 


201 
241 


292 


Sand, 2 . . . 


Plaster . 




294 










Cement, 1 


Marble . 




40 
46 


94 
91 


162 
164 


168 


Sand, 4 . . . 


Plaster . 




170 











GERMAN PORTLAND CEMENT. 



Mixture. 


Kind of Bed. 


One "Week. 


One Month. 


Six Months. 


One Tear. 


Cement, 1 . . 
Sand, 1 . . . 


Marble . 
Plaster . . 


259 
213 


367 
376 


390 
411 




Cement, 1 . 
Sand, 2 . . . 


Marble . . 
Plaster . . 


176 
196 


256 

258 


346 
326 


345 
357 


Cement, 1 . 


Marble . . 
Plaster . . 


141 


225 


250 

258 


313 


Sand, 3. . . 


147 


220 


312 


Cement, 1 . . 
Sand, 4 . . . 


Marble . . 
Plaster . . 


103 
120 


157 
150 


240 
233 


274 
264 


Cement, 1 . . 
Sand, 5 . . . 


Marble . . 
Plaster . . 


82 
103 


108 
140 


182 
193 


213 
197 



Making allowance for a few irregularities, it appears from the fore- 
going tables that the use of a porous bed gives slightly higher 
results for the iirst one or two months, but that tlie difference disap- 
pears or becomes insignificant \^th age. 



132 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



Experiment No. 7. 

It is a well-i'ecognized fact that in experimenting with cements, even 
when great care is exercised, individual specimens break very irregu- 
larly, and that results even approximately conforming to theory can 
only be obtained from averages from a large number of breakings. 
The personal equation of the operator, and the degree of force with 
which he presses the mortar into the moulds, is one factor in pro- 
ducing irregular results. To do away with this a machine for packing 
the moulds was devised and used for a time. By this the mortar was 
pressed into the moulds by a metallic plunger, acting with definite 
pressures, varying from 50 to 400 pounds. 

The machine-made briquettes broke with somewhat greater uni- 
formity than hand-made ones. So much more time was required to 
make briquettes with this machine that it was found to be impracti- 
cable to employ it for general use. 

Experiment No. 8. 

By the sea it is frequently convenient to mix mortar with salt-water. 
Brine is also used in winter as a precaution against frost. This 
experiment was made to obtain the comparative effect of mixing 
with, and immersing in, fresh and sea water respectively. The tests 
were made upon a Rosendale mortar, mixed one part cement to one 
part sand, and an English Portland mortar, one part cement to two 
parts sand. The figures are averages of about ten breakings, and 
give the tensile sti'ength in pounds per square inch with the different 
methods of treatment and at different ages. 

Except for some irregularity in the breakings for one year (which 
may have been due to the manipulation), the table indicates that salt, 
either in the water used for mixing or that of immersion, has uo impor- 
tant effect upon the strength of cement. Salt-water retards the first 
set of cement somewhat. 

Table No. 7. 



ROSENDALE CeMENT MoBTAK, 
1 TOl. 




POETLAND Cement Mortab, 

1 TO 2. 


Freshwater. 


Fresh. 


Salt. 


Salt. 


Mixed with. 


Fresh. 


Fresh. 


Salt. 


Salt. 


Fresh Water. 


Salt. 


Fresh. 


Salt. 


Immersed in. 


Fresh. 


Salt. 


Fresh. 


Salt. 


40 
126 
247 
310 


48 
135 
250 
263 


50 
114 

243 
224 


61 
126 
224 
217 


One week 
One month . 
Six months . 
One year 


151 
213 
314 
342 


122 
191 
245 
231 


152 
203 
277 
346 


149 
200 
264 
295 



PLATE XXX 




15 .20 25 '^O 35 40 45 50 

PER CENT or WATER OF MfXTURE /N WEIGHT OE CEMENT. 



APPENDIX A. 



133 



Experiment No. 9. 

This was an experiment to determine the relation existing between 
the stiffness of cement mortar when first mixed and its subsequent 
strength. The stiffness depends on the proportion of water used in 
mixing, and varies somewhat with different cements. Natural Ameri- 
can cements take up more water than Portland cements, and fine- 
ground more than coarse cements. Man}' series of tests bearing on 
this point were made. The results obtained from two of the more 
complete series are shown by the curves on Plate XXX. The cements 
used in these tests were a rather coarse English Portland and a fair 
Rosendale. Each of the points in the curves represents an average 
from about ten briquettes. The cements were tested neat, and the 
amounts of water used were different percentages, by weight, of the 
amounts of cement. The resulting stiffness of mortar is indicated on 
the curves. This varied from the consistency of fresh loam to a fluid 
grout. The time of settling is greatly retarded by the addition of water. 

The curves show that from 20 to 25 per cent, of water gives the 
best results with Portland cement, and from 30 to 35 per cent, with 
Rosendale ; that the differences in strength due to the amount of water 
are considerable at first, but diminish greatly with age ; that the soft 
mortars, even when semifluid, like grout, attain considerable strength 
in time. 

Experiment No. 10. 

From the first it was observed that fine-ground cements were less 
strong when tested neat, and stronger 'when mixed with sand, than 
were coarse cements. A few examples of this are given below. In 
the first table a coarse English Portland cement is compared with a 
fine-ground French Portland. The per cent, of each retained by the 
fine No. 120 sieve is given, and the tensile strength, in pounds, per 
square inch at the end of seven days. 



Table No. 8. 



Kind of Cement. 


Per Cent. 

retained by 

No. 120 Sieve. 


Parts of Sand to 1 part of 
Cement. 





2 


3 


4 
59 


5 


English Portland .... 


37 


319 


125 


89 


43 


French Portland 


13 


318 


205 


130 


114 


86 



134 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



Such examples could be multiplied. German Portland cements 
were commonl}^ finer ground than English, and, as a rule, were no 
stronger or less strong, tested neat, but were much stronger with 
liberal proportions of sand. In the following table two lots of the 
same brand of English Portland cement are compared. The coarse 
cement was the ordinary make of the manufacturers ; the fine cement 
differed in no particular from the other except that it was ground 
more slowly and finer to meet the requirements of a special agree- 
ment. The age of the samples when broken was 28 days : — 

Table No. 9. 



Kind of Cement. 


Per Cent. 

retained by 

No. 120 Sieve. 


Parts of Sand to 1 part of 
Cement. 





3 


5 


Ordinary Cement .... 


35 


403 


105 


68 


Fine-ground Cement . . . 


12 


304 


180 


96 



Different brands of Eosendale cement varied considerably in their 
fineness. Those of the best reputation would leave from 4 to 10 per 
cent, residuum in the No. 50 sieve ; other brands would leave in the 
same sieve from 10 to 23 per cent. In the following table is com- 
pared the average tensile strength obtained from experiments with 
three of the finer-ground brands, and also with three other brands of 
good reputation, but more coarsely ground. The age of the speci- 
mens was one week : — 

Table No. 10. 



Kind of Cement. 


Per Cent. 

retained by 

No. 50 Sieve. 


Parts of Sand to 1 part of 
Cement. 





].5 


2 


Fine Rosendale .... 


6 


92 


41 


25 


Coarse Rosendale .... 


17 


98 


29 


16 



The foregoing experiments show that it is impossible, by tests on 
the tensile strength of neat cements alone, to judge of their value 



APPENDIX A. 



135 



in making mortars, for practical use ; also, that fine-ground cements 
make stronger mortars than do coarser ones. 

A number of series of tests were made of cements which had been 
sifted through sieves of different degrees of fineness, and had thereby 
had diflferent percentages of coarse particles removed from them. 
The results from these experiments were quite uniform, and showed 
that, in proportion as its coarse particles were removed, a cement 
became more efficient for making mortars with sand. The following 
table gives the results obtained from one such series of tests made 
with an English Portland cement. In the experiment comparison is 
made between the strength of mortars made with the ordinary cement, 
unsifted, as it came from the barrel, and those made with the same 
cement after having been sifted through Nos. 50, 70, 100, and 120 
sieves, which, respectively, eliminated more and more of the coarse 
particles. The per cent, of particles which would still be retained by 
the fine No. 100 sieve, after sifting through the coarser sieves, is 
given in the second column of the table. There is included in the 
table an extra coarse cement, which was made so by adding to unsifted 
cement a certain amount of the coarse particles taken from the sifted 
cements. The tensile strength is given in pounds per square inch. 



Table No. 11. 



Kind of Cement 
used tn making 

MOBTARS. 



Cement with coarse par- 
tides added 

Ordinary Cement un- 
sifted 

Cement which passed No . 
50 Sieve 

Cement which passed No. 
70 Sieve 

Cement which passed No. 
100 Sieve 

Cement which passed No. 
120 Sieve 



;«1 fi . 






One Week. 



One Month. 



Six Months. 



One Year. 



Parts of Sand to 1 part of Cement. 



2345 2345 2345 2345 



239 182 
238 196 



92 
165 
170 
193 
215 
218 



136 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



In a similar series of tests with Rosendale cement mortars the 
increase in strength obtained by substituting fine for coarse particles 
in the cement was much less marked. The coarse particles were 
softer than those from Portland cement, and had, in themselves, some 
power of cohesion. As previous tests had shown that fine-ground 
Rosendale cements were stronger, with sand, than coarse-ground, it 
was assumed that the superiorit}^ was due not so much to the absence 
of palpably coarse particles, as to the fact that the bulk of the cement 
was more floury, and thus better adapted to coating and binding the 
particles of sand. Probably natural American cement is as much 
improved as is Portland cement by fine grinding ; but in the case of 
the former there would not be the same relative advantage in bolting- 
out the coarse particles after grinding. 

The following series of tests may be of interest on account of the 
age of the specimens. The mortars were made with an English 
Portland cement, both unsifted as taken from the cask, and also 
after it had been sifted through the No. 120 sieve, by which process 
about 35 per cent, of coarse particles was eliminated : — 

Table No. 12. 



Kind of Cement. 


Neat Cements. 


Cement, 1; Sand, 2. 


Cement,!; Sand, 5. 


2 Years. 


4 Tears. 


2 Tears. 


4 Tears. 


2 Tears. 


4 Tears. 


Ordinary Cement, un- 
sifted 

Cement which passed 
No. 120 Sieve . . 


603 
374 


387 
211 


339 

478 


493 
580 


182 
250 


202 

284 



This table also shows that fine cements do not give as high re- 
sults, tested neat, as do cements containing coarse particles, even 
coarse particles of sand. It also shows (what is often noticed) that 
neat cements become brittle with age, and are apt to fly into pieces 
under comparatively light loads. 

The series of tests which follows was made for the purpose of as- 
certaining what value, if any, for cementing purposes, was possessed 
by the hard, coarse particles of Portland cement. Mortars were 
made with an ordinary English Portland cement, and compared with 
similar mortars made with the same cement, after sifting through the 
No. 120 sieve, which retained 33 per cent, of coarse particles. 



PLATE X X XI 




4t 4 3t 3 2t 2 It e 

PARTS or SAND TO ONE PA/?T OF C£M£NT, 



APPENDIX A. 

Table No. 13. 



137 





One Week. 


One Month. 


Six Months. 


One Year. 


Kind of Cement. 


Parts of Sand to one part of Cement. 





353 
311 


2 
139 

187 


3 

86 
132 



279 
243 


2 
201 
275 


3 

142 
201 



438 
268 


2 
323 

367 


3 
253 
310 



444 
306 


2 
343 
434 


3 


Ordinary Cement unsifted 

Cement whioii passed No. 120 
Sieve 


271 
333 



As usual, the coarse cement was stronger neat, and weaker with 
sand. Assuming that the 33 per cent, of coarse particles retained 
by the sieve had no value as cement, acting merely as so much sand, 
and assuming also that all which passed through the sieve was good 
cement, it follows that the ordinary unsifted cement with two parts of 
sand, made a mortar in which the proportion of real cement to sand 
was .76 to 2.33, or about 1 to 3.5. Hence the mortar made with 
fine cement and three parts of sand should be as strong, or a little 
stronger, than that made with the coarse cement and two parts of 
sand. It will be seen that the results in the table sustain the assump- 
tion very well. 

If, then, the coarse particles are assumed to act merely as so much 
sand, it will not lessen the efficiency of the cement to remove its 
coarse particles, and to substitute actual sand in their place. This 
was done in making the following series of tests. One set of bri- 
quettes was made with ordinary cement, and another set with the 
same cement, from which 33 per cent, of coarse particles had been 
removed and replaced with fine sand. 

Table No. 14. 





One Week. 


One Month. 


Six Months. 


One Year. 


Kind of Cement. 


Parts of Sand to oi 


le part of Cement. 


• 


2 
139 

101 


3 


2 

201 

160 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Ordinary Cement, unsifted 

Cement with 33 per cent, 
coarse particles removed 
and fine sand substituted. 


86 
67 


142 
100 


324 

253 


253 

206 


343 

305 


271 
240 



138 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



These briquettes refused to break in accordance with the theory, 
and the assumed hypothesis was not verified. It is evident that, for 
making mortar, the coarse particles of Portland cement are superior 
to ordinary sand, but much inferior to fine cement. In the mortars 
made with the cement in which the coarse particles had been replaced 
with fine sand, the real proportions of cement to sand were 1 to 3.5 
and 1 to 5. It will be noticed that the tensile strength was not re- 
duced in like proportion. 

Experiment No. 11. 

. While building masonry laid in American cement mortar it is some- 
times desirable to increase the strength of the mortar temporarily or 
in places. Rich Portland cement mortars are expensive, and those 
with large proportions of sand are too porous for many purposes. 
The desired strength can be gained by using, instead of the simple 
American cement, the same cement mixed with a percentage of strong- 
Portland cement. 

The following series of tests was designed to ascertain the compara- 
tive strength of mortars made with a Rosendale cement, an English 
Portland cement, and also a mixture composed of equal parts of 
each : — 

Table No. 15. 



Kind of Mortar. 


1 Week. 


1 Month. 


6 Months. 


1 Tear. 


Rosendale Cement, 1 ; Sand, 2 . . 

Rosendale Cement, 0.5, ? c j 9 
Portland Cement, 0.5, 5 ^^"°' ^ • 

Portland Cement, 1 ; Sand, 2 . . . 


26 

79 

126 


60 
138 
163 


125 
268 
279 


180 
273 
323 



In the foregoing tests the mortar made with mixed cement had an 
unexpected strength, approximating to that of mortar made with pure 
Portland cement. In the following series of tests of mortars made 
with lime of Teil, a fine-ground French Portland cement, and the 
lime and cement mixed, the strength of the mortar made with the 
mixture is almost exactly a mean between tliose of the other two mor- 
tars, as also the cost of the mixed cement is a mean between the costs 
of the other two. 



appendix a. 

Table No. 3 6. 



139 



Kind of Mortar. 


1 Week. 


1 Month. 


6 Months. 


1 Tear. 


Lime of Teil, 1; Sand, 2. . . . 

Lime of Teil, 0.5, 1 o . r, 
Portland Cement, 0.5, / *^"^' " ' 

Portland Cement, 1 ; Sand, 2 . . 


40 
100 
170 


65 
135 
265 


150 
255 
350 


195 
290 
365 



The best Portland cements sometimes do not set within an hour, 
which precludes their use for wet-work. In such cases quick-setting 
cement should be added to them. Roman cements can be procured 
which will set in from one to five minutes. Mixtures of Roman and 
Portland cements were often used on the Main Drainage Works. Such 
mortars would set about as quickly as if made with Roman cement 
alone, and would acquire great subsequent strength, due to the Port- 
land cement contained in them. This was proved by many experi- 
mental tests. 

It is probable that mixtures of any good cements can be used with- 
out risk ; but before adopting any novel combination it would be wise 
to test it experimentally. 

Experiment No. 12. 
Engineers are accustomed to require that only clean sand and water 
shall be used in making mortar. Occasionally these requirements 
cause delay and extra expense. This experiment was designed to 
ascertain how much injury would be caused by the use of sand con- 
taining moderate proportions of loam. In mixing the mortar for 
these briquettes, sand containing 10 per cent, of loam was used in the 
place of clean sand. Each figure in the table is an average (in pounds 
per square inch) of ten breakings. 

Table No. 17. 

KCfSENDALE CEMENT, 1; SAND, 1.5; LOAM, .15. 



One Week. 


One Month. 


Six Months. 


One Tear. 


21 


46 


200 


221 



The tests do not give very decisive results. For one week and one 
month the breaking; loads are not much more than one-half what 



140 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



would have been expected with clean sand, 
year they are fully equal to ordinary mortar. 



For six months and a 



Experiment No. 13. 

This experiment was similar to the foregoing one, except that clay, 
instead of loam, was added to the mortar. Clay, when dissolved or 
pulverized, consists of an almost impalpable powder, with particles 
fine enough to fill the interstitial spaces among the coarser particles 
of cement. By adding clay to cement mortar a much more dense, 
plastic, and water-tight paste is produced, which was occasionally 
found convenient for plastering surfaces or stopping leaky joints. 
Each figure in the Portland cement series of tests is an average from 
about fifteen briquettes ; those in the Rosendale cement series are 
averages from ten' briquettes. 



Table No. 18. 



KOSENDALE CEMENT. 





Cement, 2; 
Clay, 1. 


Cement, 1; 
Clay, 1. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 1.5. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 1.5; 
Clay, 0.15. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 1.5; 
Clay, 0.3. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 1.5; 
Clay, 0.45. 


1 week . . 


32 


23 


50 


52 


34 


33 


1 month . 


108 


52 


123 


116 


101 


100 


6 months . . 


303 


206 


217 


248 


247 


236 


1 year . . . 


208 


209 


262 


290 


265 


261 



PORTLAND CEMENT. 





Cement, 2; 
Clay, 1. 


Cement, 1; 
Clay, 1. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 2. 


Cement, 1 ; 
Sand, 2; 
Clay, 0.2. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 2; 
Clay, 0.4. 


Cement, 1; 
Sand, 2; 
Clay, 0.6. 


1 week 


185 


192 


150 


197 


185 


145 


1 month . . 


263 


271 


186 


253 


245 


203 


6 months . 


348 


322 


320 


361 


368 


317 


1 year . . . 


303 


301 


340 


367 


401 


384 



The tests seem to show that the presence of clay in moderate 
amounts does not weaken cement mortars. 



APPENDIX A. 141 

It was feared that the presence of clay in mortars exposed to the 
weather might tend to make them absorb moisture and become disin- 
tegrated. To ascertain whether this would be so, sets of briquettes 
were made, one set of Portland cement and sand only, the other con- 
taining also different amounts of clay. They were allowed to harden 
in water for a week, and were then exposed on the roof of the office 
building for two and one-half years, when they were broken. All of 
the briquettes appeared to be in perfectly good condition, with sharp, 
hard edges. Their average tensile strengths in pounds per square 
inch are shown in the following table : — 

Table No. 19. 

Portland Cement, 1 ; Sand, 2 402 

" " " Clay, 0.5 262 

" " " "1.0 256 

" " " "1.5 182 

"2.0 178 

The mortars with clay show a very fair degree of strength, and the 
tests confirm the belief that the presence of clay works little, if any, 
harm. Tests of mortars made with lime and cUiy also gave favorable 
results. Such mortars would stand up in water. The subject is 
worthy of further investigation. 

Experiment No. 14. 

Occasionally, for stopping leaks through joints in the sewers, it 
was found convenient to use cement mixed with melted tallow. The 
tallow congealed at once and held the water while the joint was being 
calked. Briquettes made of melted tallow mixed with Portland ce- 
ment and sand, equal parts, acquired in 1 week, a tensile strength 
of about 40 pounds to the inch. After a month, six months, and a 
year, they were little, if au}^, stronger. It was thought that possibly 
the ammonia in the sewage might gradually saponify and dissolve out 
the grease, leaving the mortar to harden by itself. Briquettes of 
cement and tallow were kept in water, to which a little ammonia was 
added from time to time. After a year or two the briquettes had 
swelled to about double their former size, but the cement had acquired 
no strength. 

Experiment No. 15. 

Having occasion to build with concrete a large monolithic structure, 
in which a flat wall would be subjected to transverse stress, it was 
considered necessary toTmake experiments,. to find the comparative 



142 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



resistance to such stress of concrete made with different cements and 
with different proportions of sand and stone. 

The cements used in the tests were an English Portland and a 
Rosendale, both good of their respective kinds. Medium coarse pit 
sand was used, and screened pebbles about an inch or less in diameter. 
The beams were ten inches square and six feet or less long. They 
were made in plank moulds resting on the bottom of a gravel- pit 
about four feet deep. After the concrete had hardened sufficiently 
the moulds were removed, and the undisturbed beams buried in the 
pit and left for six months exposed to the weather. They were then 
dug out and broken, with the results given in the table. The total 
breaking loads are given, including one-half of the weights of the 
beams, which averaged about 150 pounds per cubic foot. The con- 
stant, c, is obtaindd for the formula : — 

C w = centre breaking load in pounds. 
I d = depth of beam in inches. 

-! ' 



w = — Xc, in which 



I 



h ^breadth of beam in inches. 
I I = distance between supports in feet. 



I c = a constant. 
Since c has an average value, and there were generally more beams 
of one length than the other, the value of c as given does not exactly 
correspond with either load in the table. 

Table No. 20. 



Proportion of 


Materials. 


Average Centre Breaking 
Weight in Pounds. 


Average 
Modulus of 


Average 




















Dist. between 


Dist. between 


Rupture in 


Value of c 


Cement. 


Sand. 


Stone. 


Supports. 
2' 4K". 


Supports. 
5'. 


Pounds. 


in Pounds. 


Rosendale, 1 . 


2 


5 


1,782 


690 


67 


3.7 


1 . 


3 


7 


Beams broke 


in handling. 






Portland, 1 . . 


3 


7 


3,926 


1,995 


176 


9.8 


1 . . 


4 


9 


3,648 




146 


8.1 


1 . . 


6 


11 


2,822 


1,190 


112 


6.2 



The table shows that concrete has a rather low modulus, especially 
when made of Rosendale cement. When transverse stress is to be 
opposed it is very impoitant to give ample time for the concrete to 
harden. 



APPENDIX A. 143 



Experiment No. 16. 



Many of the main drainage sewers were either built or lined with 
concrete, which was always smoothly plastered with a coat of mortar. 
It was important that this surface coat should be especially adapted 
to resist abrasion. This experiment was made to ascertain the best 
mixture for the purpose. Different mortars were formed into blocks 
1|- inches square, and, after hardening under water for 8 months, 
were ground down upon a grindstone. The blocks were pressed upon 
the stone with a fixed pressure of about 20 pounds. A counter was 
attached to the machine, and the number of revolutions required to 
grind off 0.1 inch of each block was noted. The cements used in the 
test blocks were a rather coarse English Portland and a fair Rosendale. 

The curves (Plate XXXI.) show the results obtained. In making 
these curves the resistance to abrasion opposed by the Portland cement 
mortar in the proportion of one part cement and two parts sand is 
assumed to be 100, and the resistance of other mortars is compared 
with it. The effect of the grinding upon the test blocks is noted on 
the curves, and explains the somewhat striking results. 

It appears that cements oppose the greatest resistance to abrasion 
when combined with the largest amount of sand which they can just 
bind so firmly that it will grind off and not be pulled out. A little 
less or a little more of sand may greatly lessen the resistance. For 
any given cement the proper amount of sand would, probably, have 
to be ascertained by experiment. 

Experiment No. 17. 

It is a prevalent belief among masons that cement, even when it 
contains no free lime, and does not check, expands considerably after 
setting. It is stated that brick fronts laid with cement mortar (espe- 
cially of Portland cement) have been known to bulge, and even rise, 
owing to expansion in the mortar. Experiments were made to ascer- 
tain what truth there was in this belief. Several dozens of glass lamp- 
chimneys were filled with mortars made of various brands of American 
and Portland cements, both neat and with different admixtures of 
sand. The chimneys were immersed in water, and, without exception, 
began to crack within three days. New cracks appeared during the 
following ten days, after which time hardly a square inch of glass 
remained which did not show signs of fracture. This showed that 
the cement certainly expanded, though very slowly, and that the ex- 
pansion continued for about two weeks. None of the cracks opened 



144 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

appreciably, however, so that the amount of expansion, which was 
evidently slight, could not thus be even approximately determined. 

A number of 10-inch cubes were then made of similar mortars, with 
small copper tacks inserted in the centres of all the sides. Some of 
these cubes were kept in the air, and others immersed in water, and 
the sizes of all of them were measured frequently by callipers during 
six months. The increase in size did not in any case exceed .01 inch, 
and may have been less. This indicated that, while cement mortars 
do expand, the increase in bulk in any dimension does not exceed .001 
part of that dimension, and is too slight to be of consequence. In 
the case of the walls before referred to, supposing them to have been 
80 feet high, with five ^J-inch joints to each foot, the total height of 
mortar would have been 100 inches, and the extreme expansion of the 
whole could only have been .1 inch. It is probable that the appar- 
ent rise was merely a difference in elevation caused b}' settlements of 
partition or side walls laid with weaker and compressible mortar. 

Experiment No. 18. 

It having been reported that cement mortars in contact with wood 
had sometimes been found to be disintegrated, as if they might have 
been affected by the wood acids, this experiment was made to see if 
any such effect could be detected. About a dozen boxes were made, 
each formed of five diff"erent kinds of wood, viz., oak, hard-pine, white- 
pine, spruce, and ash. The boxes were filled with different cement 
mortars, and were some of them submerged in fresh and others in salt 
water. Briquettes were also made of cements mixed with different 
kinds of sawdust. At the end of a year no effect] upon the cements 
could anywhere be detected. 

Experiment No. 19. 

Engineers are accustomed to insist on cement mortars being used 
before they have begun to set, and on their being undisturbed after 
that process has begun. With cements that set quickly workmen are 
tempted to re temper the mortar after it has begun to stiffen. Some 
experiments were made on mortars which were undisturbed after 
first setting, and others which were retempered from time to time. 
Unfortunately all of the conditions of these tests were not accurately 
recorded, and the results are not considered trustworthy. The fol- 
lowing series of tests, which represent an extreme case not met with 
in actual practice, may be of interest. 



APPENDIX A. 



145 



'' A mortar, made of one part of Portland cement and two parts of 
sand, was allowed to harden for a week. It was then pulverized, re- 
tempered, and made into briquettes. These subsequently acquired 
the following tensile strength in pounds per square inch : — 

1 week 7 

1 month 13 

6 months 49 

2 years 93 

Under the circumstances it is somewhat surprising that the mortar 
developed as much strength as it did. Good tests to elucidate this 
subject are much needed. 

Experiment No. 20. 
A brand of " Selenitic " cement was offered for use on the work, 
and was said to possess great merits. It was made by treating an 
ordinary American cement b}' a patented process. It was tested by 
comparing it with an untreated sample of the same cement of which 
it was made. The following are the results of the tests : — 

Table No. 21. 



Mixture. 


Kind of Cement. 


1 Day. 


1 Week. 


1 Month. 


6 Months. 


1 Tear. 


Neat . . . 
Cement . . 


Untreated . 
Selenitic . 


124 
149 


135 

168 


140 
171 


164 

282 


186 
273 


Cement, 1 . 
Sand, 1,5. 


Untreated . 
Selenitic . 




- 122 
120 


176 
158 


296 
276 


316 

356 


Cement, 1 . 
Sand, 2 . . 


Untreated . 
Selenitic . 




92 
103 


154 
133 


259 

226 


305 
276- 


Cement, 1 . 
Sand, 4 . . 


Untreated . 
Selenitic . 




38 
49 


87 
97 


158 
167 


168 
164 



The breakings are somewhat irregular, but seem to show that this 
cement was made somewhat stronger by the selenitic process of 
treatment when tested neat, but was little, if at all, improved for use 
as a mortar ; not enough, certainly, to compensate, for the higher cost. 



APPENDIX B. 



REVIEW OF ACTION OF THE CITY COUNCIL IN 
REOARD TO THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF THE 
MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

The defects of the sewerage system of Boston and the necessity 
for a radical change were brought to the attention of the City 
Council in various ways, for a number of years preceding the year 
1875. The State Board of Health referred to the subject in their an- 
nual reports as seriousl}^ affecting the sanitary interests of 
1873. the city, and requiring immediate attention. In 1873 the 
following order was passed (July 14) by the City Council : — 

Ordered, That the Committee on Sewers be requested to examine into the 
present system of sewerage in this city, and report to the City Council whether 
any improvement of the present sewerage facilities is necessary for the protection 
of the public health. 

In pursuance of this order the Committee on Sewers reported 
September 1, following (City Doc. 94) ; but, judging from their 
report, they did not consider that any improvement in the ex- 
isting sewerage system was required, as they endeavor to show that 
it was sufficient and served its purpose as well as almost any 
other in existence. To quote from the report, the committee 
state that " Our system of drainage is as perfect, though not so 
complicated, as that of any other cit}^ We are favored by location 
with generally good grades and outlets to deep water, and though 
we have no long lines composed of huge sewers with their many 
branches, with pumping-works and flushing apparatus, yet the re- 
moval of the sewage from the house to the ebbing tide in the harbor 
is rapid and complete ; and that is a perfect system." 

After comparing the system of Boston with that of other cities in 
the country, the committee conclude their report by stating that 
" Every tiling which appears necessary to the public health or conven- 
ience will be carried out by the Department as soon as it is possible 



APPENDIX B. 147 

or expedient." The report is signed by Aldermen James 1873. 
Power, Alanson Bigelow, and Thomas Gaffleld, 

Notwithstanding the reassuring tone of the report of the Committee 
on Sewers, complaints continued, and the defects and dangers of the 
drainage system of our city were still commented upon in various 
ways. The Boston Board of Health, in their annual report, 
presented to the Citj' Council in August, 1874 (City Doc. 1874, 
63), in discussing the subject, state : — 

The whole system of sewerage is clearly wrong. Our beautiful city is almost 
encircled by the mouths of sewers discharging their contents into shoal water or 
upon flats, the sewer gases rendering the atmosphere for some distance about the 
wharves absolutely dangerous to breathe. About these wharves are large num- 
bers of laborers, whose duties are always there; and within range of these gases 
are thousands of dwellings. Should not all the sewers be turned south-easterly, 
into deep water? Or would it be more feasible to construct a large marginal 
sewer, into which all others should discharge their contents, and this one carried 
away into deep water from a point nearest the bay? These are important ques- 
tions, and deserve to be carefully considered, requiring, as it seems to us, the 
immediate investigation of experienced engineers. 

Tliere are large neighborhoods in the city entirely destitute of sewers, or any 
proper means of getting rid of their vault, sink, or cesspool drainage, and much 
sickness exists in these places in consequence. 

There are also, in various parts of the city, low marsh lands, which are un- 
healthy ; in the Charlestown District there are 200 acres ; in Brighton, 400 ; in 
West Roxbury, 127. There are more than 200 acres of land east of Hampden 
Street, in Ward 13, that ought to be raised ; a large portion of the territory east 
of Harrison Avenue, between Dedham and Northampton Streets, is too low. So 
is the Berlin-street territory, and it has caused us a great deal of trouble. The 
territory bounded by Swett, Hampden, Foundry, and Gerard Streets should be 
raised. And we respectfully submit that no marsh land should be allowed to be 
inhabited, nor a building be allowed to be placed on it, until proper and sufficient 
drainage is provided. We mean drainage independent of sewerage. If we stop 
to reflect how greatly health and comfort are afi'ected by undrained land we shall 
easily see that such spots should not be inhabited. There are a great many 
vacant lots of land in the city without any drainage, and the city should neither 
cause nor allow water from the streets to flow upon these lots. 

We are satisfied that all sewers should discharge their contents into deep 
water, and as far out into the harbor as possible, and in no instance should the 
mouth of a sewer be exposed, even at the lowest tide. 

In December of the same year the Board of Health presented a 
special communication on the subject to the City Council (City 
Doc. 112), and as the communication, without doubt, occupies an 
important place in this review, affecting the initiatory steps taken by 
the City Council for improving the sewerage system, it is reprinted 
here entire : — 



148 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1874. Office of the Board of Health, 

Boston, Dec. 17, 1874. 
To the Honorable City Council: — 

Gentlemen, — Although in our annual report of 1873, and again in 1874, we 
called the attention of your honorable body to the great importance of a change 
in our system of sewerage, we deem it of such vital importance to the health and 
comfort of the city at large, but more especially to certain portions of it, that 
we venture again to urge the subject in a special communication. 

There are several places in which the evil is already so great that we mention 
them in particular. 

First. The old Roxbury Canal, crossing under Albany Street, near Chester 
Park, 

Second. The Stony-brook Sewer, discharging upon the Back-bay flats. 

Third. The Muddy-brook Sewer, between Brookline Avenue and Downer 
Street, in Ward 15. 

Roxbury Canal, so called, leads in from the South Bay, is about 50 feet wide 
and 2,000 feet long, reaching nearly to Harrison Avenue. The tide flows in and 
out, but sluggishly. Into these three or four large sewers pour their contents, 
and when the tide recedes there is left but very shoal, filthy water, through which 
the foul gases from the putrid bottom can be seen bubbling into the atmosphere. 
At low tide a considerable portion of this filthy bottom is left bare, giving off the 
most sickening and even dangerous effluvia into a thickly populated neighbor- 
hood. In Northampton Street, Chester Park, Springfield Street, Harrison 
Avenue, Albany Street, and especially at the City Hospital, where there is a daily 
average of 230 patients who require pure air, the stench from the Roxbury Canal 
is often observed and exceedingly annoying. 

The Stony-brook Sewer, which conveys the sewage of more than half of the 
former city of Roxbury, or now about 30,000 inhabitants, terminates at the 
west side of Parker Street, where, at low tide, this immense sewage is left to 
trickle over the muddy flats, about 100 acres in extent, to the Charles River 
beyond. Before this sewage has reached a point where it can diverge from 
the wharves of the city, it will have travelled more than one-half of the circum- 
ference of the city proper, catching at the bridges, wharves, and upon the flats 
in its cotirse. 

An order has recently been passed by the City Council to extend the channel 
of the Stony Brook, so as to prevent the discharge of the sewage upon the flats 
next Parker Street. 

In addition to the Stony-brook Sewer there are eight others opening into 
Charles River above Cambridge Bridge, which, with their open mouths at low 
tide, discharging their gases into the atmosphere, and their contents into shoal 
water or upon flats, are doing a great share in making the atmosphere of that 
part of the city skirting the river and Back Bay at times absolutely unfit to 
breathe. 

The Muddy-brook Sewer, coming from Brookline, is very large, opens under 
Brookline Avenue, near Tremont Street, and is then an open sewer in the 
immediate rear of dwelhng-houses between Brookline Avenue and Downer 
Street for a distance of 600 feet, and then crosses the avenue again into the 
town of Brookline. The water in this brook gets very low in summer, leaving 
but little besides the sewage-matter to flow through it. The stench from this is 
very bad, and the people who live near it justly complain. This sewer ought to 



APPENDIX B. 149 

be covered at once, for a distance of about 600 feet, to prevent evil 1874. 
results which must inevitably come from its present condition. 

The places mentioned, although the worst, are not all to which we invite 
attention. The city proper, being nearly surrounded by tide-water and flats, is 
to the same extent literally fringed with the open mouths of sewers, discharg- 
ing their gases into the atmosphere, and their other contents upon the shoals, 
which are left bare next the sea-wall and under the wharves by the receding tide. 

The result is, that at low tide, and especially in summer, about the wharves 
and skirts of the city, where thousands of the laboring classes must work during 
the day, and many more will resort for a cool breeze in the evening, the air, 
instead of being pure and cool from the water, as it should be, is polluted and 
made dangerous by the foul breath of the sewers. 

That our prevalent summer diseases are largely influenced by this poisoned 
atmosphere there can be no sort of doubt. The best remedy for the evil com- 
plained of may not be so apparent as the evil itself. We beg to suggest, how- 
ever, that whatever disposition is ultimately made of the sewage, whether carried 
inland and utilized, or seaward and lost, it would not be discharged at all points 
in the circumference of our city. If it is to be discharged into the sea — and 
this for Boston seems the most practicable — there should be the least possible 
number of outlets, and those well out into the channel of the harbor. We 
believe the time has come when large main sewers, which can be relied on for 
the next century, to collect and convey the sewage of all others to a proper place 
for disposal, or to the sea, should be laid. We believe that the very best 
interests of the city, public economy, and the public health, would be well served 
by beginning this work with the least necessary delay. 

The discharge of sewage into the Charles River and the South Bay is a con- 
stantly growing evil, which already annoys and discomforts many, and, if per- 
mitted to go on, must soon exert a very serious influence upon the health of the 
entire city. This danger can be averted by carrying the sewage of the city 
proper, of East Boston and Charlestown District, by one large main from each, 
fully into the channel of the harbor, where, in deep water and strong currents, 
the material will be so dissipated and acted upon by the salt-water as to become 
harmless and unobjectionable to the senses before it can be lodged about the city 
by flood tide. That of South Boston and of the Highland and Dorchester districts 
should be carried well into deep water in Dorchester Bay. 

To carry out these suggestions would require surveying and advice of com 
petent engineers, who would carefall}' consider and report not only the best 
course and plan for these mains, but what they would need to be, without alter- 
ation, for the next flfty or one> hundred years. 

There are many places within the limits of the city, especially in the newly 
annexed territory, where, although a supply of water has been furnished, there 
are no means of getting rid of it after it has done its service, and the result is a 
perfect saturation of the soil about the dwellings, etc., by the vast overflow of cess- 
pools and vaults. Typhoid fever and other preventable diseases are frequent in 
these places, and we fear must continue to be until proper sewerage is instituted. 

While it is to be regretted that water-pipes have anywhere preceded the laying 
of sewers, it is but fair to say that the supply of pure water from the pipes, in 
some of the sections referred to, had become a necessity, and the people would 
have suffered, but in a little different way, without it. 



150 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1874. In many instances the well-water gets vitiated in quality, or defi- 
cient in quantity, and the supply from the pipes becomes a great 

blessing. 

We would respectfully recommend all possible hastening of the sewers, and a 
halting of the water-pipes in those sections where the two are not now associated. 

The Board of Health, 

By A. W. BOARDMAN, 

Chairman. 

The communication was referred to tiie Committee on Sewers ; but 

as the municipal year was just at its close the matter went over, 

without any definite action thereon, to the committee of the 

1875. succeeding year. The committee of 1875, — Aldermen 
Thomas B. Harris, James Power, and Clinton Viles, — in- 
stigated by the communication coming to them as unfinished business 
from their predecessors, presented an order in the Board of Alder- 
men, Feb. 23, 1875, which was amended somewhat and adopted 
March 1 , in the following form : — 

Ordered, That His Honor the Mayor be hereby authorized to appoint a com- 
mission, to consist of two civil engineers and one competent person skilled in the 
subject of sanitary science, to report upon the present sewerage of the city; the 
discharge of sewers into Charles River, Stony Brook, South Bay, or Dorchester 
Bay ; the necessity of any high-water basin on the site of the present full basin, 
for flushing purposes ; the expediency of relieving the sewers at the South End by 
pumping ; and to present a plan for the outlets and main lines of sewers for the 
future wants of the city; and report, if it is expedient, in connection with the 
proposed works, to provide for any water-basins or marginal drive-ways, as orna- 
mental and sanitary features of the city ; and also an approximate estimate of 
the expense of any place, or places, for a system of sewerage submitted by 
them; the expenses to be paid from the appropriation for sewers. 

In pursuance of this order His Honor Mayor Samuel C. Cobb ap- 
pointed E. S. Chesbrougb, of Chicago ; Moses Lane, of Milwaukee ; 
and Charles F. Folsom, M.D., of Boston, to serve as members of 
the commission. Their report was submitted (City Doc. 3, 

1876. of 1876), and in it they recommended the construction of 
two intercepting sewers, one for the north side of Charles 

River, and the other for the south side, discharging at Shirley Gut 
and Moon Island, respectively ; the total estimated cost of the 
combined system being $6,551,064. 

This report was referred, January 13, to a joint special committee, 
consisting of Aldermen Alvah A. Buriage, Solomon B. Stebbins, and 
Thomas .J. Whidden, and Councilmen Eugene H. Sampson, J. Homer 
Pierce, Warren K. Blodgett, Marcellus Day, and Albert H. 



APPENDIX B. 151 

Taylor. A remonstrance from George B. Emerson and 1876. 
others was received May 4, 1876 (City Doc. No. 59) 
against the adoption of the plan of the commissioners, and requesting 
that additional investigations be had upon the subject. Petitions in 
favor of the plan proposed were received, June 12, from Edward 
H. Clarke and others, members of the Suffollv District Medical 
Societ}^, and Jesse L. Nason and others, citizens and property- 
holders in Boston, representing that a new system of sewerage was 
of paramount importance, and praying that action be taken at the 
earliest possible day to secure to the city the benefits of the same. 
The special committee presented a preliminary report, February 
14, 1876, advising immediate application by the Cit}^ Council tO/the 
General Court for authority to take land required for the construc- 
tion and maintenance of the proposed new sewer, and the following 
orders, submitted b}^ the committee, were passed, namely : — 

Ordered, That His Honor the Mayor be requested to petition the General 
Court, at its present session, for the passage of an act authorizing the city of 
Boston to take such land as may be needed for the construction and maintenance 
of a main sewer, across or under tide-water, to that part of the town of Quincy 
known as Squantum, nnd from thence to Moon Island, in said town of Quincy; 
also for authority to take land for the purpose of establishing pumping-works 
and reservoirs in the city of Boston and said town of Quincy. 

Ordered, That His Honor the Mayor be requested to petition the General 
Court, at its present session, for the passage of an act regulating the construction 
and maintenance of sewers by the combined action of adjoining municipalities. 

Acting under authority of the orders, the Mayor made application 
in due form to the Legislature, and in compliance with his petition 
the desired authority was obtained in the following act : — 

[Chapter 136.] 
An Act to empower the City op Boston to lay and maintain a Main 
Sewer, discharging at Moon Island in Boston Harror, and for other 
purposes. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : — 

Section 1. The city of Boston shall have authority, in addition to the 
powers now possessed by it, for the purpose of laying and maintaining a main 
sewer running south-easterly from direction of Chaules River, to build and 
maintain wharves, pumping-works, and reservoirs for said sewer, on the main 
land at or near the mouth of Neponset Eiver, thence to conduct said sewer, by 
means of a siphon or tunnel under the bottom of the harbor, at or near the 
mouth of said river, to that part of the town of Quincy called Squantum ; thence 
along or across said Squantum and the flats adjacent thereto to Moon Island. 
Said city shall also have authority to build and maintain a reservoir or reser- 



152 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

187G. voirs at Moon Island, and other works essential to a proper and con- 
venient discharge of the contents of said sewer. In any construction 
over tide-water said city shall be subject to the direction of the harbor commis- 
sioners in the manner pointed out in chapter four hundred and thirty-two of the 
acts of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine. 

Sect. 2. The city of Boston shall have authority to take such lands, build- 
ings, wharves, and structures, as may be necessary to accomplish the objects 
of the preceding section; and all damages to private property, or for lands, 
buildings, wharves, or structures taken under this act, shall be ascertained as 
prescribed in chapter forty-three of the General Statutes, and paid by the city 
of Boston. 

Sect. 3. The city of Boston and the town of Brookline may contract with 
each other for the use and support in common of the city sewer now con- 
structed in Beacon Street in Boston, and leading into Charles River, and for 
the building by said town at its sole expense within the limits of said city of a 
sewer about nine hundred feet in length from the town line to connect the 
town drains with such city sewer, and for the support, at the joint and equal 
expense of each, of the outlet of the sewer and the carrying the same out farther 
into Charles River if necessary ; they may also contract with each other for the 
building and support in common of a new covered channel for Muddy River, 
such new channel to run from Tremont Street along the line of division between 
said city and town, and to empty into the channel of Muddy River east of Aspin- 
wall Avenue. If it shall be necessary to take land for the purpose of carrying out 
the provisions of this section, said city and said town, each within its own ter- 
ritory, may take such land as may be necessary, and persons aggrieved by such 
taking shall have their damages ascertained and paid, and all the proceedings 
shall be conducted in conformity to the laws applicable to the laying out town- 
ways in said town, and highways in said city. 
Approved April 11, 1876. 

Subsequently, June 12, 1876, the committee submitted their report 
(City Doc. No. 66) upon the subject-matter that had been referred 
to them. 

In it they recommended the adoption of the commissioners' plan 
so far as it applied to the territory soutli of Charles River, stating that 
" Present necessities would be met by the construction of a main 

intercepting sewer from Tremont Street to Moon Island 

The application of the system to the district north of Charles River 
will require the cooperation of adjoining municipalities, and, as the 
necessities are not so pressing in that Iccality, it may be deferred for 
the present." 

The estimated cost of the main intercepting sewer recommended by 
the committee was $3,550,070. Thej^also suggested that an immedi- 
ate appropriation be made for preliminary survej^s, and their sugges- 
tions were embodied in the following orders, which accompanied their 
report : — 



APPENDIX B. 153 

Ordered, That the Auditor of Accounts be, and he hereby is, au- 1876. 
thorized to transfer from the Keserve Fund the sum of $40,000, to con- 
stitute a special appropriation for the purpose of making surveys and plans, and 
of procuring estimates for an improved system of sewerage for the city of Boston. 

Ordered, That a joint special committee, consisting of three members of the 
Board of Aldermen, with such as the Common Council may join, be appointed 
to take charge of the construction of a main intercepting sewer from Tremont 
Street to Moon Island, together with a main outfall sewer, and the necessary 
reservoir and pumping-works connected therewith, substantially according to 
the plan recommended by the Commissioners on the Sewerage of Boston, in 
City Document No. 3, 1876 ; and said committee shall have authority to employ 
such assistants as may be needed to enable the City Engineer to perform the 
preliminary work required to carry out said plan ; the expense therefor to be 
charged to the special appropriation for that purpose. 

Messrs. Blodgett and Taylor dissented from the recommendations 
of their associates on the committee. The report and orders were 
referred to the Committee on Finance. 

The latter committee reported, July 3, recommending the passage 
of the following as a substitute for the foregoing orders : — 

Ordered, That the Auditor of Accounts be, and he hereby is, authorized to 
transfer from the Reserve Fund the sum of $40,000, to constitute a special ap- 
propriation for the purpose of making surveys and plans, and of procuring 
estimates for an improved system of sewerage for the city of Boston, and that 
said appropriation be expended under the supervision and direction of the Joint 
Special Committee on Improved Sewerage. 

This order provoked considerable discussion in the two branches of 
the City Council, upon the general subject of sewerage (See City 
Council Proceedings, 1876, pp. 406-409, 421-425, 436-439), but was 
finally' adopted July 17, 1876, after being amended by inserting after 
the words "city of Boston," the words "on a line from Tremont 
Street to Moon Island, and also on a line from said street to deep 
water, east of Castle Island." 

The City Engineer, under the committee's direction, assumed 
charge of the work contemplated in the order, and a few days later 
he appointed Mr. Eliot C. Clarke as principal assistant in immediate 
charge of the preliminary surveys, etc., and work was commenced 
thereon without delay. 

Mayor Frederick O. Prince, in his inaugural address to 1877. 
the City Council of 1877, in referring to the subject of 
sewerage, said : — 

No subject at this time claims so large a share of your serious consideration 
as that of sewerage. The health, prosperity, every interest, in fact, of our 
people depend upon it. 



154 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1877. Do you expect Boston to maintain its present position among the 

other cities of the country? Do you wish her to increase in wealth, 
in commercial importance, in political influence, to be what we claim she is, the 
model metropolis? See to it, then, that she shall have pure, as well as free, air 
for the lungs of her people. 

The importance of perfect sewerage and good drainage, cleanliness, and ven- 
tilation cannot be ovferstated. 

The instructive letter of our fellow-citizen, the eminent Dr. Edward H. 
Clarke, upon this subject, addressed to the meeting of citizens held at Faneuil 
Hall in June last, assures us that "defective sewerage and imperfect drainage 
are sapping the health of the city." 

In July last an appropriation of $40,000 was made to obtain accurate 
surveys, and procure true estimates of tbe cost of constructing works 
substantially upon the plan recommended by the commissioners. If this plan 
should be adopted it would, without doubt, give us a perfect system of sewerage 
for an indefinite time, however large our population may be. The cost of the 
works, or of any works which would secure the desired result, would be great; 
but I am sure that any additional taxation which they might require would be 
cheerfully submitted to by our tax-payers, because the adequate sewerage is a 
necessity ; and whatever necessity demands it vindicates. 

With the advent of the year 1877 and the new City Council a 
special committee ^ was appointed to resume charge of the work, 
deriving their authority from the following order, passed February 
10, viz. : — 

Ordered, That the Joint Special Committee on Improved Sewerage take 
charge of all matters relating to an improved system of sewerage, with authority 
to employ such assistants as may be needed to enable the Citj Engineer to per- 
form the preliminary work now in progress ; the expense therefor to be charged 
to the special appropriation for that purpose. 

The work of making surveys and examinations was accordingly 
carried forward without interruption, and on July 9 the City Engineer 
reported to the committee that he was in a position to recommend a 
definite scheme, with estimates of its cost.^ As this report is of 
special value, from its relation to the original scheme as adopted by 
the City Council, extracts are presented herewith covering the leading 
points. 

The Engineer states : — 

The investigations have now been carried so far that I am in position to rec- 
ommend a definite scheme, and to give a preliminary estimate of its cost; and, 
understanding that it is the wish of your committee that a report should be 
made at once, I respectfully submit the following : — 

A few days after the above order was approved Mr. Eliot C. Clarke was 
appointed principal assistant, to take charge of the surveys ; and his report, 
which accompanies this, will show what work has been done in the ofiice and 

1 See Appendix C for list of committees. ^ gee Appendix, City Doc. No. 70, 1877. 



APPENDIX B. 155 

in the field. There remains for me, therefore, little else than to state 1877. 
what conclusions have been arrived at, and to give the estimates of 
cost of the various schemes that have been considered. 

All the schemes are alike in their main features, and correspond with that 
proposed and recommended by the commission appointed in 1875 to report upon 
the present sewerage of the city, and to present a plan for its improvement. 

These features are : a system of intercepting sewers along the margin of the 
city, to receive the flow of the existing sewers ; a main sewer, into which the 
former empty, and which, crossing the city, leads to a pumping-station ; pump- 
ing-machinery to raise the sewage matter some thirty feet; an outfall sewer 
leading from the pumps to a reservoir situated at some favorable point for dis- 
charge ; and a reservoir from which the sewage, accumulated during the latter 
part of ebb and the whole of flood tide, is to be let out into the harbor during 
the first two or three hours of the ebb. 

In all the schemes it is assumed that at some future day a system oi high-level 
intercepting sewers will be added, which will conduct to the outfall all sewage 
that can be delivered at the reservoir without pumping. 

The Commissioners (Mr. E. S. Chesbrough, City Engineer of Chicago; Mr. 
Moses Lane, City Engineer of Milwaukee ; and Dr. C. F. Folsom, Secretary of 
Massachusetts State Board of Health) state in their report (City Document No. 
3, 1876) what the evils are in the existing sewerage system that require remedy, 
and give the reasons why a plan of the above description is recommended. While 
it will be needless to go over the whole ground here, it may be well to call atten- 
tion to one or two of the more striking points. 

In the existing system the sewage is discharged through some seventy differ- 
ent outlets along the shore lines of the city, and a number of these outlets may 
be said to be in the very heart of the city, — such as those which empty into the 
Eoxbury Canal, South Bay, and Eort Point Channel. 

As the borders of the sewered portions of Boston consists largely of broad 
strips of made land, filled to level planes only six or eight feet above mean high 
tide, the sewers are necessarily built with slight grades, and are so situated as to 
be tide-locked a large portion of the time. They discharge during the latter part 
of the ebb and the first part of the flood tides, so that the sewage, instead of being 
swept out into the harbor and there diffused, is carried inland, and such portion 
as will deposit in still-water is thrown down at the turn of the tide upon the 
broad areas of flats that exist within and around the city. This intermittent 
discharge produces other serious evils. During the time the sewage is accumu- 
lating in the sewers there is very little current in them, and, in consequence, 
deposits are formed which are not readily removed, and, when putrefaction be- 
gins, are the source of dangerous gases. Again, as the sewage accumulates and 
rises in the sewers the gases are compressed, and, since adequate ventilation is 
not provided, are liable to be forced through the house-drains into the houses. 

The more important objects to be attained by an improved system of sewerage 
are, then, an uninterrupted removal of all sewage-matter from the vicinity of 
inhabited districts, and a discharge of this matter at such a point and under such 
conditions that it shall not be brought back to be thrown down on our shores. 

The order of the City Council refers to two points of outlet only ; but after its 
passage other points were urged as possessing merit, and the committee thought 
it would be best to give them some attention, since so doing did not seem to be 
at variance with the spirit of the order. 



156 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1877. Four points of discharge have therefore been considered, viz. : — 

Spectacle Island. 
Thompson's Island. 
Castle Island. 
Moon Island. 

From these four points experiments with floats were made, to determine the 
direction and the force of the tidal currents, and to furnish a means of judging 
if the suspended matter of the sewage would be deposited where it would injure 
the ship channels or cause a nuisance. 

Passing the Engineer's discussion of the first three points jve come 
to the fourth as being specially favored by him, and quote the fol- 
lowing : — 

MOON ISLAND. 

The float experiments show a good current setting by the head of Moon 
Island and passing out to the sound through Black Rock Channel. 

The pole floats (which were usually about fourteen feet long and were used 
to obtain the mean velocity of the current) passed to the north, and the surface 
floats to the south, of Rainsford Island. 

The northerly channel is the deeper one, and the one the strongest currents 
follow. 

It would seem that for the first two or three hours of ebb tide the waters of 
Dorchester Bay discharge chiefly through the opening between Thompson's 
Island and Squantum Head, thus producing a strong current close in land on the 
north shore of Moon Island, at just the time it is proposed to discharge the 
sewage. This current, passing around Moon Head, meets another from Quincy 
Bay, and the two uniting pass out through Black Rock Channel, as before de- 
scribed. This union of the two currents is a very favorable condition, since the 
inner edge of the more northerly one becomes the thread of the combined cur- 
rents; and, therefore, any matter discharged off" the north point of the island will 
follow the deepest part of the channel and meet with the highest velocities ; at 
least, whatever the cause, floats which were started comparatively near the shore 
at the point where it is proposed to discharge the sewage followed the thread of 
the current after leaving Moon Head. 

A large number of experiments were made at this place, and for a detailed 
statement of the conclusions drawn from them I would refer you to Mr. Clarke's 
report. It will be sufficient to remark here that they clearly demonstrate that 
Moon Island is a favorable point for discharge. 

Two plans, with this island for their outlet, have been studied; one known as 
the Old Harbor Point scheme, the otheras the Commercial Point scheme. They 
differ chiefly in the location of the pumping-stations and of portions of the main 
and outfall sewers, these diff'erences in location causing, however, a difference 
in some of the details, more particularly in the method of crossing the navigable 
waters lying between Boston and Quincy. 

The main sewer in both schemes begins on'Camden Street, near Huntington Ave- 
nue, and follows Camden and Northampton Streets to Albany Street, from whence 
it will take one of two courses, to be determined hereafter, one through Swett 
Street and the proposed East Chester Park extension, to a point about 700 feet 



APPENDIX B. 



157 



east of the New York & New England Railroad; thence through pri- 1877. 
vate property to the corner of Boston and Mt. Verdon Streets ; the 
other, through Hampden Street, Norfolk Avenue, Clapp Street, and private 
property to the same point; thence it follows Mt. Vernon Street to a point ahout 
600 feet beyond Dorchester Avenue, there turning to the right and running to a 
point near Crescent Avenue and the Old Colony Railroad. At this place the lines 
in the two schemes separate. In the Old Harbor Point scheme, the sewer, pass- 
ing under the Old Colony Railroad, traverses the long stretch of marsh land 
known as Cow Pasture to Old Harbor Point, where is located the pumping-station. 

A good foundation in clay is found for the sewer and pumping machinery at a 
convenient deptli under the Cow-pasture marsh, and no piling will be required. 

The outfall sewer leaves the point in a tunnel and passes under the navigable 
waters of Dorchester Bay, a distance of 7,920 feet, to Squantum Head. Here 
it rises to the surface, crosses Squantum Neck, and passes over the body of 
water between the Neck and Moon Island, to the reservoir on the island. A 
portion of the distance after leaving the Neck, where there is mud bottom, it is 
carried on a pile foundation, the remainder of the way on an embankment. For 
the whole of this distance beyond the Neck it is to be covered with a heavy 
embankment, heavily paved and riprapped where necessary. 

The reservoirs will discharge through capacious outlet sewers carried well out 
into the tidal current. 

The estimated cost of the Old Harbor Point scheme is as follows : — 



Intercepting sewers ...... 

Main sewer ....... 

Pumping-station, filth-hoist, and force-mains . 
Sea-walls, filling, shaft-chamber, flushing-tank, etc 
Outfall sewer, including tunnel ... 

Reservoir and connections .... 

Outlet sewer ....... 

Pier, box sewers, and connections . 

Dwellings for reservoir men, and other buildings 

Extra, for relaying existing sewers, etc. . 



Add 10 per cent, for superintendence and contingencies 



Land damages 



$706,000 00 

565,000 00 

390,000 00 

155,000 00 

848,000 00 

421,000 00 

28,000 00 

64,000 00 

20,000 00 

100,000 00 

!3, 307,000 00 
330,700 00 

;3, 637,700 00 
75,000 00 

13,712,700 00 



This estimate does not include the cost of land along East Chester Park ex- 
tension, but does include the cost of filling 675 feet in length of that street to the 
full width and grade. 

The more important advantages of this scheme are : — 

First. A favorable point for the location of a reservoir and the discharge of 
sewage. 

Moon Island is remote from any considerable population, present or prospec- 
tive ; therefore neitlier the presence of the reservoir nor the discharge of sewage 
there can have any effect upon the value of real estate. 



158 MAIN DRAESrAGE WORKS. 

1877. The sewage will enter favorable currents, which follow channels 

entirely outside inner harbor. 

Second. The location of the pumping-station is also remote from any lands 
that would be liable to be depreciated by its presence, and is such that ample 
room can be had at moderate cost. 

Third. The lines which the main sewer follows are such as to occasion com- 
paratively little inconvenience during construction. After leaving Albany Street, 
if East Chester Park extension is followed, but one important line of travel will 
be interfered with, namely, Dorchester Avenue. 

The chief objection to it is the siphon in the tunnel under Dorchester Bay. 
This feature is objectionable on account of difficulty of construction, and of the 
special appliances to keep it from silting up. A great deal of thought has been 
given to the latter point, and various methods for preventing deposit, and for 
flushing-out deposits, when they do occur, have been considered. Tlie method 
finally adopted for purposes of the estimate is a large, covered flushing-tank at 
the west shaft, into which the sewage will be pumped, and afterwards let 
through the siphon with a velocity sufficient to prevent deposit, or to remove any 
that may exist. At the east end a sump is provided, into which heavy matter, if 
any should find entrance to the tunnel, will be swept thence to be dredged up 
through the east shaft. European experience in the use of siphons for sewerage 
purposes may show that so much in the way of precaution is unnecessary ; if so 
the plans can be modified. 

The Commercial Point scheme, having also its proposed outlet at 
Moon Island, is described b}^ the Engineer ; the estimated cost 
being $4,372,300. 

Comparing the two schemes, i.e., the Commercial Point and Old 
Harbor Point, he states in conclusion, that 

The difficulties to be met in the construction of the Commercial Point scheme, 
taken in connection with the excess of cost and other matters of less importance, 
render it inferior to the Old Harbor Point scheme ; I would therefore recom- 
mend this latter as the best of the three, all things considered. 

The report of the Assistant Engineer, Mr. Eliot C. Clarke, in 
charge of the surveys, and also "A Report on the Geology of the 
District traversed by the Surveys for the Tunnel from Boston to Moon 
Island," prepared by Prof . N. S, Shaler, accompanied the Engineer's 
report. (See Appendix, City Doc. No. 70, 1877.) 

Acting upon the recommendations made by the Engineer the com- 
mittee presented their report to the City Council July 12, and, after 
reviewing the origin and progress of the work thus far, they state : — 

At the beginning of the present year the undersigned were appointed to take 
charge of the work of making the preliminary examinations for an improved 
system of sewerage, and it has been performed under their direction until the 
present time. The results are clearly set forth in the reports of the City Engi- 
neer and the principal assistants in charge, which are hereto appended, together 



APPENDIX B. 159 

with a report from Professor N. S. Shaler, who was consulted with 1877. 
regard to the geological questions which arose during the progress of 
the survey. 

Your committee believe that it is unnecessary to present any argument to 
prove the necessity of adopting a comprehensive system of sewerage for this city. 
The ground has been fully covered by former reports upon the subject. In such 
matters great reliance must be placed upon the opinions of persons who have 
made sanitary science a study; and, if the mass of testimony which has been 
presented from time to time be reviewed, it will be seen that the evils arising 
from defective sewerage are discernible in this city to an alarming extent. 

While it is not assumed that an improvement in the system of sewerage will 
secure to us complete immunity from disease, it is believed that it will remove 
a powerful agency for evil. Aside from questions of health, it is well known 
that great discomfort is occasioned to the residents of many parts of the city, 
who are compelled to inhale the odors occasioned by the present method of dis- 
charging our sewerage. It is believed that tlie Necessity of the improvement will 
be admitted, whatever differences of opinion there may be as to the proper 
method of relief. 

The plan for an improved system of sewerage which is now presented has the 
indorsement of the best engineering talent in the country. It is the result of a 
careful study of the different systems of sewerage now in practical operation, 
and an application erf the best features of such systems to meet the present and 
future wants of Boston. It is unnecessary for your committee to attempt to 
explain the details of the proposed plan ; for that they refer to the reports and 
plans of the engineers. It will be seen that the plan agrees in all its essential 
features with the one originally recommended by the Commissioners. 

Your committee have made a careful study of the scheme, and are convinced 
that it presents tlie only practicable method of effectually removing the evils 
which are inseparable from our present system. It appears to be the only 
feasible method of securing the conditions demanded of a complete system of 
sewerage, viz. : th6 immediate and uninterrupted removal of sewage from the 
vicinity of our dwellings to a point from whence it will not return. 

The report was signed by all the members except Councilman 
Blodgett, who dissented from the recommendations of the others. 

The committee recommended the passage of the following 
orders : — 

Ordered, That the City Treasurer be, and he hereby is, authorized to borrow, 
under the direction of the Committee on Finance, the sum of three million seven 
hundred and twelve thousand seven hundred dollars ; the same to constitute a 
special appropriation for the construction of an improved system of sewerage. 

Ordered, That the Joint Special Committee on Improved Sewerage be author- 
ized to contract on behalf of the City of Boston for the construction of an im- 
proved system of sewerage, having its puniping-station located at Old Harbor 
Point and its outlet at Moon Head, with all the reservoirs, pumping-works, and 
other appliances essential to the proper operation of said system, substantially 
in accordance- with the plans made by Joseph P. Davis, City Engineer, and as 
authorized by an Act of the Legislature entitled "An Act to empower the City 



160 MAIN DEAINAGE WORKS. 

1877. of Boston to lay and maintain a main sewer discharging at Moon 
Island in Boston Harbor, and for other purposes," being Chapter 136 
of the Acts of the year 1876; the expense thereof to be charged to the appropria- 
tion for Improved Sewerage. 

The orders were referred to the Committee on Finance, and that 
committee reported July 19 recommending the negotiation of a loan 
to the amount of $3,712,000. Interesting discussions of the subject 
took place in the two branches while under consideration (see City 
Council Proceedings, 1877, pp. 544, 559-567, 569-577) , and in August 
the orders were finally passed. 

This action of the City Council marks another important stage in 
our review of the work, as the city was thereby fuU}^ committed 
to the task of improving the sewerage system, and a definite plan 
was adopted. 

By an order passed October 8, the City Engineer was allowed four 
months' leave of absence, for the purpose of visiting Europe, and 
examining the sewerage systems in use there ; and the sum of 
$5,000 was allowed from the appropriation to defray his ex- 
penses, and Assistant Engineer Henry M. Wightman was empowered 
to perform the Engineer's duties during his absence. 

December 27 a memorial from the Boston Society of Architects 
was received, and referred to the committee, wherein it was repre- 
sented that the proposed new sewerage system would cause serious 
injui-y to the foundations of buildings on the Back-Bay territory by 
reducing the grade of the ground-water in that section to a point 
below the heads of the piling on which the buildings stood. The 
memorial was accompanied by a communication from E. S. Ches- 
brough stating that the apprehended evils could be averted by 
making the proposed sewer water-tight, aud thus avoiding drainage 
from the surrounding soil. 

During this year rooms were procured at No. 74 Tremont Street 
for the Improved Sewerage Department, and land was also purchased 
at Old Harbor Point as a location for the proposed pumping-station 
in connection with the work. Considerable portions of the con- 
struction-work were let out by the committee to different contractors, 
and good progress was made before the year closed. 

Mayor Henry L. Pierce, in his inaugural address to the 
1878. City Council in 1878, referred to the subject, and said : — 

The intercepting sewerage system, for which an appropriation was made last 
summer, and on which work has already begun, originated in the conviction of 



APPENDIX B. 161 

our citizens that some better metliod was needed than already existed 1878. 
for the removal of the city's sewage. 

While it is not claimed that the completion of this work will furnish a perfect 
system of sewerage, since the ordinary drains and sewers are to some extent de- 
fective in construction and arrangement, yet it seems to be the first and most 
important step in that direction, affording, as it will, an outlet into which the 
existing sewers can at all times freely discharge, and without which it would be 
almost useless to attempt to improve them. 

By an order passed January 16 the conamittee were appointed 
to take charge of the Improved System of Sewerage, and they 
were clothed with the same powers as were exercised by their 
predecessors. 

The committee having assumed charge of the worii:, under the 
authority conferred upon them, very little action relating to the 
subject appeared on the part of the City Council for that year. 
Questions of expediency as to the best method of carrying the work 
forward, whether by contract or day-labor, were discussed, and an 
order was passed in April allowing the committee to exercise their 
own judgment in particular cases. 

By an order passed March 8 the committee were authorized to 
expend the sum of $14,775, as their proportion of the cost of extend- 
ing Hereford Street from Commonwealth Avernue to Boylston Street, 
owing to the fact that the intercepting sewer was to be built in that 
street. 

Orders were passed to take land for purposes of constructing the 
new sewer as follows : — 

Old Harbor Point, February 9. 

Boston & Albany Railroad, June 21. 

Boston & Providence Railroad, June 21. 

Calf Pasture, July 16. 

Clapp Street, September 27. 

Hyde and Wendell Streets, December 13. 

The committee were authorized to modify contracts entered into by 
them in behalf of the city, under the following order, passed August 
31, namely : — 

Ordered, That, whenever in the opinion of the Joint Special Committee on 
Improved Sewerage it may be for the interest of the citj' that any contract 
entered into by said committee should be modified or abrogated, the said com- 
mittee be, and they are hereby, authorized to modify or abrogate such contract, 
and enter into new contracts as they may deem expedient. 



162 MAIN DRAINAGE WOEKS. 

1879. The committee were appointed, as usual, in 1879, and the 
same powers were conferred upon them as were exercised by 
their predecessors in regard to carrying the work forward, employing 
labor, and also in regard to making and modifying contracts. 

An order was presented in the Common Council February 27 
requesting the committee to commence work as soon as possible, and 
providing that all the work, except such as was under contract, be 
done by day-labor. This order was referred to the committee for 
their consideration, and April 24 two reports were received on the 
subject. (See City Doc. 58.) The majority were in favor of con- 
structing the sewerage-work by day-labor, so far as it was found 
expedient to do so, in the belief that the work could be done as 
cheap, if not cheaper, by that method than by contract, and with 
more satisfactory results. They state in their report that, — 



The contract system is left open to many grave objections. The competition 
is so great that contracts are taken at extremely low prices, and the contractor 
is forced, as a measure of self-protection, to cheapen his work in every possible 
way. In the matter of materials it requires constant watchfulness to prevent 
the use of such as are improper, and the city is put to the expense of employing 
inspectors, in order to prevent imposition. 

But it is in regard to the employment of labor that the greatest grievance 
exists. No control can be exercised over contractors in this respect. They 
employ whomsoever they please and at any price they see fit. It makes no dif- 
ference whether the laborer is a citizen of Boston or a non-resident, so long as he 
can be hired for the lowest possible sum. Hence the constant complaints that 
come to the city authorities of the employment of the men from other places upon 
what is regarded as city work, and the cutting down of the prices of labor with 
what is thought to be the connivance of the city. 

Your committee submit that if the work were to be done by the city many of 
these difficulties would be removed. In the first place, the work of superin- 
tendence could be performed at no greater expense than is now incurred for the 
employment of inspectors of contract-work. The materials can be purchased by 
the city as low, if not lower, than by contractors. The employment of labor 
will be under the direct control of the City Council, who can see to it that none 
but citizens of Boston are employed. 



They recommended the passage of the following order : — 

Ordered, That the Joint Special Committee on Improved Sewerage be au- 
thorized to construct Section 4, Main Intercepting Sewer, by day-labor, and to 
purchase such materials and supplies, and to employ such agents, as may be 
necessary therefor ; the expense to be charged to the appropriation for Improved 
Sewerage. 



APPENDIX B. 163 

The minority of the committee, Messrs. Stebbins and 1879. 
Mowry, dissented from the views of their associates, and 
opposed the system recommended by them, as being the most ex- 
pensive generally. In their report they claim, — 

That in the construction of any extensive public work the same can generally 
be effected at much less expense, as also more expeditiously, under the contract 
system than by the adoption of any other method, and it is claimed that ex- 
perience has proved this proposition to be correct. Especially has this been the 
case in connection with the construction of the intercepting sewer, now being 
laid in connection with our System of Improved Sewerage, as the cost of con- 
structing said sewer under the contract system has been less by from twenty- 
five to thirty per cent, than it would have been provided said coristrnction had 
been accomplished by day-labor. We therefore claim that if said intercepting 
sewer can be constructed at less expense to the city by the adoption of the con- 
tract system (provided such construction is effected in a workmanlike and satis- 
factory manner), it would be an unpardonable breach of trust to recommend the 
adoption of a more expensive method of construction, unless certain contingencies 
or emergencies necessitated the adoption of the latter method. 

The matter provoked a great deal of discussion in the two branches 
of the City Council, and the order accompanying the majority report 
was finally rejected, June 3, by the Board of Aldermen. A similar 
order, however, was in the meantime introduced in the Common 
Council covering work upon the main intercepting sewer, and, after 
being amended, was passed, June 4,yin the following form, viz. : — 

Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage be empowered to 
construct a portion of the main intercepting sewer by day-labor, if they shall 
deem it expedient and for the best interest of the city to do so ; and that in case 
they decide to build any portion of said sewer by day-labor, said committee be 
instructed to allow the superintendent in charge thereof to employ men of his 
own selection, who shall be citizens of Boston, without interference or dictation 
from the committee. 

A report was submitted by the committee May 29, in compliance 
with an order passed May 13, giving a statement in detail of the 
expenditures on account of the work to that time. (See City Doc. 
69, 1879.)^ 

An order was introduced in the Common Council August 26 fixing 
the minimum price for laborers on the work at $1.50 per day, and, 
after being discussed at some length and amended, it was passed in 

1 A general Btatement of expenditures follows the review, see p. 190. 



164 MAIN DRAINAGE AVORKS. 

1879. the branch where it originated, but it was finally rejected 
by the Aldermen. 
Under authority of an order passed March 24 the Mayor petitioned 
the General Court for authority, on. the part of the city, " to conduct 
the main sewer in a nearly direct line from Old Harbor to Moon 
Island, instead of by way of Neponset River and Squantum," as 
provided in the Acts of 1876, Chap, 136. In compliance with the 
Mayor's petition the following Act was passed : — 

[Chapter 230-7 
An Act in Addition to " An Act to empower the City of Boston to lay 

AND MAINTAIN A MaIN SbWER, DISCHARGING AT MoON ISLAND, IN BoSTON 

Harbor, and for other purposes." 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : — 

Section 1. The city of Boston shall have authority, in addition to the 
powers now possessed by it, for the purpose of laying and maintaining a main 
sewer running south-easterly from the direction of Charles Eiver, to build and 
maintain wharves, pumping-works, reservoirs, and other structures on the main 
land, at or near the shore of the Calf Pasture, so called, in Dorchester Bay; 
thence to conduct said sewer, by means of embankments and of a tunnel or 
siphon, not less than six thousand five hundred feet long, under the bottom of 
the harbor to the part of the town of Quincy called Squantum; thence along or 
across said Squantum, and the flats and waters adjacent thereto, to Moon Island; 
or said city may build the sewer or siphon under the bottom of the harbor, on a 
nearly direct line from said Calf Pasture, to Moon Island. Said city, shall have 
authority to build and maintain a reservoir or reservoirs, a pumping-station, 
wharves, and dwelling-houses, and such other works as are essential to a proper 
and a convenient discharge of the sewage at Moon Island. Said city shall have 
further authority to connect Moon Island with Squantum by means of a bridge 
or embankment to be used as a road-way. In any construction over tide-water 
said city shall be subject to the direction of the harbor commissioners in the 
manner pointed out in chapter four hundred and thirty-two of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and sixty-nine. 

Sect. 2. The citj^ of Boston shall have authority to take such lands, build- 
ings, wharves, and structures as may be necessary to accomplish the objects 
of the preceding section; and all damages to private property, and for lands, 
buildings, wharves, or structures taken under this act, shall be ascertained as 
prescribed in chapter forty-three of the General Statutes, and paid by the city 
of Boston. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved April 
16, 1879.] 

Orders to take land for the purposes of the sewer were passed as 
follows : Old Colon}' Railroad Company-, April 18 ; Squantum and 
<RIoon Island, September 19. (See Doc. 91, 1879.) 



APPENDIX B. 165 

Mayor Prince, in his inaugural address to the Cit}^ 1880. 
Council, in 1880, referred to the work in the following 
manner : — 

The work has been well and economically constructed. 

In view of the apprehensions which have been from time to time expressed 
touching the efficiency of this sewer in accomplishing its objects, it must be 
gratifying for you and your constituents to know that the able and experienced 
civil engineer, who is charged with this important work reports that after due 
consideration of the objections occasionally urged against the system, "Nothing 
has yet arisen to cause a doubt that the plan proposed is the proper solution of 
the sewerage problem at Boston and will afford the required relief." 

The committee was appointed at the beginning of the year, and by 
an order passed February 20 were given the same powers as their 
predecessors, and the work progressed under their direction with 
but very little interference on the part of the City Council. 

An order veas passed February 20 allowing the sum of $3,000 to 
Hoblitzel & Co., from the amount retained by the city on their 
contract for building Section 5, main intercepting sewer. 

The following order was passed May 5 : — 

Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage, acting under the 
advice of the City Solicitor, be authorized to purchase of Howard A. Carson 
and George H. Norman the right to use, in such departments of the city as may 
be necessary, the excavating machinery patented by said Carson ; the expense, not 
exceeding $2,500, to be charged to the appropriation for Improved Sewerage. 

An order was passed November 13 to take certain land in Quincy 
for sewer purposes. (See City Doc. 128.) 

By an order passed December 29 the committee were authorized 
to alter or modify the existing contract with R. A. Malone for build- 
ing the Dorchester-Bay tunnel to such extent as they might deem 
expedient. 

Mayor Prince made reference to the work in his inaugural 1881. 
address in 1881, and said : — 

No unforeseen difficulties in the construction have been encountered, and 
there is every reason to expect the successful accomplishment of this part of the 
sewer scheme. 

All the work has been well done, and it is gratifying to know that it has cost 
less than the present prices for labor and materials. 

The Engineer does not doubt that this system of sewers will " ultimately 
accomplish all that has been claimed for it." 



166 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1881. The usual order for the appointment of the committee was 

passed January 3, and the committee were subsequently au- 
thorized to resume the work by an order passed Januarj' 28. 

The matters coming before the City Council this year were chiefly 
in regard to modifications of contracts entered into in behalf of the 
city by the Committee on Improved Sewerage. The contracts 
modified by the City Council's consent were that of R. A. Malone, for 
building the Dorchester-Bay tunnel, and the contract with William 
C. Poland & Son, for building Section 3, outfall sewer, and Moon- 
island reservoir. 

The committee were directed to report on these matters, and also 
in regard to the work under H. A. Carson's superintendence, and the 
following reports were accordingly submitted October 31. (See Doc. 
135.) 

DOJRCHESTER-BAY TUNNEL. 

The Committee on Improved Sewerage, who were directed to report what 
progress has been made in the construction of the Dorchester-Bay tunnel, and 
whether the contractor for building said tunnel surrendered his original contract, 
and was given a new contract for completing the work, without bonds being 
required for the performance of the same, beg leave to report as follows : — 

The three tunnel shafts, with their surrounding bulkheads and iron cylinders, 
are completed, with the exception of some brick lining. Of the total length of 
tunnel, amounting to 7,004 lineal feet, 5,329 feet are excavated, and the excavation 
of the remainder is at present progressing at the rate of about 200 feet per 
month. 

Mr. Malone, the contractor for building the tunnel, in a communication to 
your committee, dated June 16, 1881, abandoned his contract, alleging his 
inability to complete it for the prices therein stipulated. Pending the action of 
the committee, to prevent damage to the work already accomplished, Mr. Malone 
continued to prosecute it. By the terms of the contract, as construed by the 
Corporation Counsel, two courses were open to the committee, — either to finish 
the work by day-labor, or to enter into a new contract for its completion, either 
with Mr. Malone or other parties. Mr. Malone offered to complete the work for 
prices about one-half greater than those of his previous contract. Considering 
the fact that Mr. Malone had the requisite plant on hand, and had acquired 
valuable experience concerning the character and best methods of conducting 
the work, and also that the bad reputation which the tunnel would have if 
abandoned, would probably deter other bidders from making reasonable offers, 
it was thought for the best interests of the city to allow Mr. Malone to continue 
to carry it on, — especially as his prices seemed reasonable to the committee and 
the Engineer, and were not in excess of figures of cost derived from the force- 
account kept by the city. 

A new contract was therefore made with Mr. Malone for completing the 
tunnel. This contract was not accompanied by a bond — Mr. Malone not being 



APPENDIX B. 167 

in a position to furnish one. It should be understood, however, that 1881. 
the bond upon the original contract has been in no way vitiated or 
impaired, the sureties having agreed that their liability should not be affected 
by these proceedings ; and the amount of this bond, together with the reserve 
held back under the first contract, is still applicable to making good the loss in- 
curred by the city through the abandonment of the original contract. 

For the Committee, 

LUCIUS SLADE, 

Chairman. 



THE POLAND CONTRACT. 

The Committee on Improved Sewerage, who were directed to report what 
progress has been made in the construction of the works at Moon Island, under 
the contract with William C. Poland & Son, and also whether said contractors 
have surrendered their contract, beg leave to report as follows : — 

The following tabulated statement will show the approximate total quantities 
of different classes of work required by Mr. Poland's contract, and the amounts 
now done as per Engineer's estimate, dated October 21, 1881 : — 

Class of Work. Total Amount. Amount Done. 

Earth-work •. . . 369,100 cubic yds. 201,827 cubic yds. 

Masonry . . . . 59,520 " " 4,461 " " 

Ballast .... 23,000 " " 10,865 " " 

Riprap .... 55,000 tons. 15,470 tons. 

Lumber .... 336 M. 170 M. 

Drain-pipe .... 2,000 feet. feet. 

Brick gate-houses . . 2. 0. 

By the terms of the contract the masonry of the reservoir, and the easterly 
two thousand feet of sewer, should be completed November 15, 1881. About 
one-twentieth part of the masonry is in place, and no part of the sewer is yet 
built. A large part of the cut-stone, for the reservoir and its adjuncts, is on the 
ground. The reservoir proper is about one-half excavated. The total value of 
the contract, as estimated from the contractor's bid, is $620,943.50. The value 
of work now done, according to the Engineer's approximate estimate of October 
21, 1881, is $133,268.19. 

The contract has not been surrendered ; but the work is not now, nor has it 
been for some time past, progressing in a satisfactory manner. In view, how- 
ever, of the fact that the Dorchester-Bay tunnel could not be completed in the 
time originally intended, your committee have not until now thought it neces- 
sary to take vigorous measures to forward the completion of the Poland con- 
tract. Arrangements are now in progress which, it is intended, shall result in 
an energetic prosecution of the work in the future. 

For the Committee, 

LUCIUS SLADE, 

Chairman. 



168 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



1881. THE CARSON CONTRACT. 

The Committee on ImproA'ed Sewerage, -who were directed to report what 
part of the work under their charge is being constructed by day-labor, in differ- 
ent sections of the city, under the superintendence of H. A. Carson, beg leave 
to report that Mr. Carson is superintending the construction of two sections of 
sewer, both in Albany Street. One is an extension of the south-side intercepting 
sewer in Albany Street, from its present terminus at Dover Street, through 
Albany and Lehigh Streets to Federal Street; the other is a sewer which takes 
the drainage of the Hampden and Northampton Street districts, and conveys it 
to the intercepting sewer. 

Tor the Committee, 

LUCIUS SLADE, 

Chairman. 



An order was introduced in the Board of Aldermen at their meet- 
ing April 11 (see City Council Proceedings, p. 214) requesting 
the Committee on Improved Sewerage " to submit in print a full 
and explicit account of all the circumstances attending the negotia- 
tions for pumpiug-engines, particularly with reference to the rejec- 
tion of the engines made by Mr. George H. Corliss, and alleged 
to have been built under the implied contract with said commit- 
tee." This order, after considerable discussion, was rejected by the 
Aldermen, but was afterwards reconsidered and passed. (See 
Proceedings, pp. 295, 316, 322.) The report of the committee not 
appearing, a second order calling for the report was presented at 
the meeting of the Aldermen October 10, and passed, but was indefi- 
nite I3' postponed in the Common Council November 10 ; and the 
same action was taken by the Council regarding orders adopted by 
the Aldermen for the appointment of a special committee to prose- 
cute the investigation called for in the previous order. (See Proceed- 
ings, pp. 662, 663, 724, and 681, 690.) 

An order was introduced at the Aldermen's meeting November 7 
proposing the appointment of a commission, consisting of three per- 
sons, who, in conjunction with the Superintendent of Sewers and the 
City Engineer, should constitute " a board to be known as Sewer 
Commissioners, who shall take charge of all matters pertaining to 
the Sewer Department of the city, including the construction of the im- 
proved system of sewerage." (See Proceedings, p. 722.) This order 
was referred to the Special Committee on Commissions and Boards, 
who reported, November 28, in favor of the establishment of a Board 
of Commissioners, consisting of three persons, one to be appointed 



APPENDIX B. 169 

by the Mayor and one to be elected by the City Council 1881. 
from each of the two branches, " said Board to have charge 
of all matters connected with the construction of the improved sys- 
tem of sewerage." But the municipal year being then so near its 
close the whole subject went over by reference to the next City 
Council. 

The committee were appointed in 1882 and resumed work 1882. 
under authority conferred upon them by the usual orders. 

An order was passed March 25 requesting the Board of Health 
"to consider and report whether the proposed discharge of sewage 
into Dorchester Bay will be prejudicial to the health or comfort of 
the inhabitants of South Boston." In pursuance of this order the 
Board of Health submitted their report upon the subject April 27. 
After referring to the surroundings of Old Harbor Point, the pro- 
posed point of discharge of sewage into the Dorchester Bay, and the 
various attendant circumstances that should be taken into consider- 
ation in discussing the question, the Board state that — 



There will, in this case, he some deposit of sewage sludge about the outfall of 
the sewer and for a short distance from it; and, in time, it will undoubtedly be 
the cause of a local nuisance. But that this sewage will make its way across 
the channel and find lodgment on South Boston flats, or that the result of collec- 
tion at the sewer outfall, in two or three years, will be sufficient to reach and 
harm or discomfort the inhabitants of South Boston, is improbable. If, on the 
other hand, discharge is made into the channel at the end of the pier, for two or 
three years, and only on the ebbing of the tide, there is no reason to expect any 
effect, local or diffused, which will be prejudicial to the health or comfort of the 
inhabitants of any section of the city or adjoining territory. On the contrary, 
we have every reason to say that the immediate use of this intercepting sewer is 
not only necessary to relieve the wretched unsanitary condition of other parts of 
the city, but tliat its use will materially improve the sanitary condition of South 
Boston itself. (See Proceedings, 1882, p. 222.) 



The report was referred to the Committee on Improved Sewerage, 
with instructions to give a public hearing on the subject. Opposition 
was immediately developed to the proposed scheme of discharging 
the sewage into Dorchester Bay. A remonstrance from the Boston 
Asylum and Farm School at Thompson's Island was received May 
1, and referred to the committee. 

While the matter was under consideration by the committee, some 
of the citizens who were opposed to the scheme applied to the 
Legislature for relief, and procured the passage of the following 
act forbidding the discharge of sewage into Dorchester Bay : — 



170 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



1882. [Chapter 256.] 

An Act for the Preservation of Boston Harbor, and of the Public 
Health in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : — 

Section 1. No part of the contents of the main sewer, now or hereafter to be 
constructed, running south-easterly from the direction of Charles River in the 
city of Boston, shall be discharged at or near the shore of the Calf Pasture, so 
called, in Dorchester Bay, or at any place in Boston Harbor or vicinity except 
at Moon Island. The Supreme Judicial Court, or any justice thereof, upon the 
petition of not less than ten taxable inhabitants of the city of Boston, may 
restrain by injunction, or otherwise, any violation of the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. ^Approved May 26, 
1885.-] 



By the passage of this Act the action of the committee was antici- 
pated, and they were relieved from further consideration of the 
subject. 

At the meeting of the Aldermen April 17 the committee made are- 
quest for an additional appropriation of $1 ,500,000, A statement from 
the City Engineer accompanied the committee's request, and as it 
describes the condition of the work at that period, and sets forth in 
detail the various causes that had operated to occasion the necessity 
for an additional appropriation, it is herewith presented : — 



In Board of Aldermen, Api'il 17, 1882. 

The Joint Special Committee on Improved Sewerage respectfully represent 
that an additional appropriation will be needed to complete the work under their 
charge. 

The following is a summary of the state of the appropriation at the present 
time : — 

Appropriations. 

Preliminary surveys $40,000 00 

Construction 3,713,000 00 



3,753,000 GO 



Expenditures. 

Preliminary surveys .... $25,214 22 

Construction 2,553,902 37 



Amounts carried forward, $2,579,116 59 $3,753,000 00 



APPENDIX B. 



171 



Amounts brought forward^ 
Less stock on hand 



,579,116 59 
23,012 12 



Balance ...... 

Amount called for by existing contracts . 

Balance on hand . . . . 



1882. 

^3,753,000 00 

2,556,104 47 

$1,196,895 53 
812,982 53 

$283,913 00 



The estimated amount required to complete the work, in 

addition to what is now under contract, is . , . $1,613,134 20 
Less balance on hand . ...... 283,913 00 



Deficit $1,329,221 20 



The following is a schedule of expenditures to March 1, 1882, inclusive : 



Intercepting sewers 

Main sewer ..... 

Pumping-station .... 

Sea-walls, Old Harbor pier, etc. 

Dorchester-Bay tunnel . 

Section 3, outfall sewer and reservoir 

Connecting with old sewers . 

Land damages .... 

Superintendence and contingencies 

Gross expenditures . 
Less stock on hand 

Net expenditures .... 



$552,850 53 

590,529 56 

581,854 16 

143,216 87 

333,408 87 

122,263 35 

22,047 77 

68,848 28 

138,882 98 

12,553,902 37 
23,012 12 

;2,530,890 25 



There will also be required for settlement of land damages and unsettled 
claims, connecting sewers at North End, running pumping-engines for temporary 
discharge of sewage into Dorchester Bay, and other items of expense not directly 
connected with the work of construction, a sum sufficient, in the opinion of the 
committee, to call for an additional appropriation of $1,500,000. 

The accompanying communication from the City Engineer states at length 
the reasons for the increased cost of the work above the original estimates. It 
will be seen to be chiefly due to the rise in materials and labor, changes in plans 
of construction, rendered necessary to make the system conform to the best 
practice of modern sanitary engineering, and the expense of overcoming unfore- 
seen difficulties in the work of construction. Although there is an apparent 
balance of $283,918, yet the greater part of this amount is required to complete 



172 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1882. work now in progress, and the committee do not feel authorized to 
enter upon the new work necessary to utilize that already completed 

or commenced until further provision has been made therefor by the City 

Council. 

EespectfuUy submitted, 

LUCIUS SLADE, 
WILLIAM WOOLLEY, 
CHARLES H. HERSEY, 
MALCOLM S. GREENOUGH, 
THOMAS J. DENNBY, 
FRANK F. FARWELL, 
NATHAN G. SMITH, 
PRENTISS CUMMINGS. 



APPENDIX. 

Office of City Engineer, City Hall, 

Boston, April 14, 1882. 
To the Joint Special Committee on Improved Sewerage : — 

Gentlemen, — As I am now able to estimate with approximate accuracy the 
final cost of the new sewerage system, I herewith submit for your consideration 
a statement of the present condition of the improved sewerage appropriation, the 
amount already expended, balance remaining, estimated expenditure in the 
future, and the further appropriation which will be necessary to complete the 
system as proposed. 

By an order, approved June 17, 1876, there was appropriated the sum of 
$40,000 for a preliminary survey, to determine the practicability and approximate 
cost of a system of intercepting sewers for Boston. There was spent for this 
survey $25,214.22, leaving a balance unexpended of $14,785.78. By an order 
approved August 9, 1877, there was appropriated for the construction of an im- 
proved system of sewerage the sum of $3,713,000. The City Auditor, in his 
accounts, united the two appropriations under one head, entitled "Improved 
Sewerage," making the total appropriation on that account $3,753,000, As, how- 
ever, the balance in cash to be transferred from the appropriation for a prelimi- 
nary survey was only $14,785.78, the net appropriation available for Improved 
Sewerage construction was $3,727,785.78 

March 1, 1882, there had been expended, chargeable to Improved Sewerage, 
the sum of $2,530,890.25, leaving a balance of $1,196,895.53. At the same time 
there existed contracts calling for pajmients in the sum of $912,982.53. This 
sum deducted from the balance of appropriation remaining leaves a second 
balance of $283,918, which is the amount available for construction not covered 
by existing contracts. 

The estimated cost of such construction, necessary to complete the system, is 
$1,613,184.20. Deducting from this sum the available balance of $283,918, 
there is left .$1,329,221.20 to be provided for otherwise than from the present 
appropriation. 



APPENDIX B. 



173 



That the committee may understand why the work has cost so much 1882, 
more than was at first estimated I present lierewith a comparison of 
the estimate of July, 1877, with the present estimate, showing the increased 
expenditure for eacli item, and also offer some explanation of the reasons for 
such increase : — 



Comparison of Estimates of July, 1877, and March, 1882. 



Items. 


Estimates 
July, 1887. 


Estimates 
March, 1882. 


Increase. 


Intercepting sewers 


$706,000 00 
565,000 00 
390,000 00 

155,000 00 
848,000 00 
431,000 00 
92,000 00 
20,000 00 
100,000 00 


$801,250 53 
595,389 47 
999,857 25 

360,681 93 
1,130,415 97 
505,045 72 
100,000 00 
20,000 00 
120,000 00 


$95,250 53 

30,389 47 

609,857 25 

205,681 93 

282,415 97 

74,045 72 

8,000 00 

20,000 00 


Pumping-station, filth-hoiBt and force-mainB . 
Sea-walls, filling, shaft-chamber, flush-tank, 


Outfall sewer, including tunnel 


Outlet sewers, pier, box sewers, etc 

Dwellings at Moon Island 






Superintendence and contingencies 


$3,307,000 00 
330,700 00 


$4,632,640 87 
368,529 95 


$1,325,640 87 
37,829 95 


Land damages 


$3,637,700 00 
75,000 00 


$5,001,170 82 
78,843 28 


$1,363,470 82 
3,848 28 


Total 


$3,712,700 00 


$5,080,019 10 
23,012 12 


$1,367,319 10 
23 012 12 














$5,057,000 98 


$1,344,306 98 
15 085 78 


Deduct excess of net appropriation over esti- 
mates of July, 1887 


















$1,329,221 20 









Intercepting Sewers. ^ 

The increase in this item amounts to about 13^ per cent., and is wholly due to 
the increase in cost of labor and materials. The cost of a sewer depends almost 
entirely upon the prices paid for common labor and for bricks and cement. At 



Present Price. 


Increase per cent, 


$1 75 


.40 


11 00 


.52 


1 35 


' .50 


15 90 


.21 



174 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1882. the time the original estimate was made these prices were low, and 
there seemed no reason to anticipate an early advance. In fact, how- 
ever, the whole work of construction has been carried on during a rising market, 
and on that account the contractors, almost without exception, have lost money. 
One-half in number of those having sewer contracts have been unable to fulfil 
their contracts, and several have gone into bankruptcy. On p. 6 is given a table 
of the principal items of cost entering into sewer-building, comparing the prices 
paid during the first years of construction with present prices : — 

Item. Former Price. 

Labor, per day f 1 25 

Bricks, per M 7 26 

Cement, per bbl 90 

Lumber, per M 13 10 

Main Sewer. 

The increase in this item amounts to but 5 per cent., and is more than covered 
by extra work not contemplated by the original estimate. As stated when the 
first estimate was made, it was intended to cover the cost of filling 675 feet of 
East Chester Park extension to its full width and grade. In fact, 1,700 feet in 
length of this street was so filled, and in addition the extension of Mt. Vernon 
Street across the Calf Pasture was graded for a length of 4,100 feet. The actual 
cost of sewer-construction was below the first estimate. This was due to the 
fact that the contracts for this work were among the earliest let, and nearly the 
whole sewer was completed before the extreme rise in prices. The contractors 
for three sections of main sewer were unable to complete their contracts, and 
one went into bankruptcy. 

Pumping-Station, Etc. 

Nearly one-half of the increase in cost of the whole system occurs in this 
item, and is due, in part, to the higher rates paid for labor and materials, but 
chiefly to the fact that the original estimate for this portion of the work was 
much too small. The principal items of expense at this point are as follows : — 

2 pumping-engines $215,000 00 

2 " " 90,000 00 

4 boilers 38,800 00 

Eorce-mains 17,142 29 

Foundations, wells, and filth-hoist 314,300 00 

Buildings (Architect's estimate) 175,000 00 

Chimney 6,250 00 

Gates, and other machinery ...... 35,000 00 

■^ Total $894,492 29 

In addition to the above are the salt-water conduit, the connection-chamber, 
and many other minor appurtenances. It would have been impossible to-procure 



APPENDIX B. 175 

these necessary items for any approximation to the $390,000 pro- 1882. 
vided by the first estimate. 

The work at this point has been done by day's labor under a superintendent 
appointed by tlie committee. Work done by the day is usually more expensive 
than contract-work; but it is also, usually, more sure, safe, and thorough. It 
may be doubted whether excavations of such magnitude, depth, and difficulty 
could have been made by contract without a single accident or mishap, or whether 
such thorough workmanship could have been obtained except by the method 
employed. 

Sea-Walls, Flushing-Tank, Etc. 

The increase in this item is very large, and is due to a radical change of plan 
adopted shortly after the first estimate was made. That estimate contemplated 
a tunnel-shaft on or near the main land. It was decided, however, in order that 
the tunnel might be wholly in rock, and also that the sewage, before entering it, 
might deposit any heavy matters held in suspension, to build the shaft 1,200 feet 
or more from the shore. At this point it was practicable to reach bed-rock. To 
convey the sewage to the shaft it was necessary to build elevated sewers, sup- 
ported by a pier extending from the shore out to and around the shaft. The 
increase in this item represents very nearly the cost of this pier. 

Outfall Sewer, Including Tunnel. 

The work covered by this item was originally let for a sum within the first 
estimate ; but the rise in prices obliged the contractors to abandon their contracts, 
and the work had to be relet for prices much greater than the previous ones. 

Keservoir. 

This work also was let for a sum within the original estimates, and has been 
relet at greatly advanced prices. The cost of the reservoir proper has been 
somewhat lessened by leaving off its roof, which was at first thought necessary. 

On the remaining items the increase is slight, and is due to the general causes 
mentioned before. In the original estimate the item " Superintendence and 
contingencies" was made equal to 10 per cent, of the estimated cost of the 
work. For the work already done the amounts chargeable to this account are 
less than 6 per cent, of the expenditure. Should a similar rate be maintained 
there will be a gain in this item instead of a loss, but for a conservative estimate 
it has been assumed to be 10 per cent, on future work. 

It is believed that the present estimate is ample to complete the system as 
proposed. 

This estimate is based on the present rate of wages and price of materials. 
Should, therefore, any considerable advance in these occur, the expenditure for 
work not already contracted for will be correspondingly increased. This 
estimate does not include the cost of running the pumping-engines longer than 
will be necessary to thoroughly test them, nor does it include any extraordinary 
contingencies, such as expensive lawsuits, heavy payments for land damages, etc. 

KespectfuUy submitted, 

HENKY M. WIGHTMAN, 

City Engineer. 



176 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1882. The matter was referred to the Committee on Finance, 
who reported favorably thereon in a report presented to 
the Board of Aldermen April 24. They recommended that the 
required amount of $1,500,000 be raised by loan, and the orders 
for the purpose, accompanying their report, were adopted May 13. 

An order was passed September 19 authorizing a modification of 
the contract with N. F. Palmer & Co., for furnishing pumping-engines 
at Old Harbor Point. 

The following order was passed November 17, but the com- 
mittee failed to present any report in response thereto : — 



Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage be requested to consider 
and report upon the expediency and cost of constructing a temporary wooden 
conduit, or otherwise connecting tlie Dorcliester-Bay tunnel with Squantum 
Point, for the discharge of sewage in that locality, until the reservoir at Moon 
Island is completed; also, if expedient, to report the time required to construct 
and put in operation such temporary conduit or connection. 



In 1883 the work of the Improved Sewerage was referred 
1883. to by Mayor Palmer, in his inaugural address, as fol- 
laws : — 



The city is to be congratulated on the approaching completion of the New 
and Improved System of Sewerage. Speaking generally, it may be said that 
the whole system will be sufficiently advanced during the coming year to be 
made available for removing the most noticeable causes of nuisance in our 
present sewerage system. There will then remain to be built extensions of the 
intercepting sewers, to take the sewage from the north end of the city proper 
and the easterly portions of South Boston. The work thus far has cost some- 
what more than \vas at first estimated, owing to the greatly enhanced prices of 
labor and materials since the preliminary estimates were made. 

The total expenditures chargeable to this account, including the draft for 
January, 1883, is $3,388,045.89. 



The committee were appointed at the commencement of the year 
1883, and resumed work under authority of the orders passed by the 
City Council in the customary form. 

A petition was received in the Board of Aldermen March 26 from 
Charles Linehan for relief under his contract for building Section 4, 
and claiming compensation for extra work. The petition was referred 
to the committee. 

An order was passed June 30 to cancel the bond of R. A. 



APPENDIX B. 177 

Malone, the contractor for buildiug the Dorchester-Bay tun- 1883. 
nel, upon his releasing all claims against the citj^ on account 
of his contract. 

Also an order to pay C. W, Parker & Co. the sum of $25,000, 
from the amount retained on their contract for building Section 3, 
outfall sewer, and Moon-island reservoir; and, by an order passed 
December 15, a farther allowance of $30,000 was made to said 
Parker & Co. 

The following order was introduced in the Common Council 
March 8, and, after provoking considerable discussion, was passed 
March 14 : — 

Ordered, That in the employment of laborers by the Committee on Improved 
Sewerage there shall be no discrimination made against any residents of 
Boston. 

No other matters of importance were acted upon by the City 
Council this year. 

At the meeting of the Board of Aldermen December 31 Alderman 
Lucius Slade, the chairman of the committee, addressed the Board on 
the subject of the practical completion of the works and their going 
into operation the following day. He gave the following historj^ of 
the work : — 



Mr. Chair>man. — To-morrow, the first day of January, 1884, the improved 
system of sewerage will go into operation, and, as I have been connected with 
the v^ork, as a member of the committee, ever since the construction was com- 
menced, I ma^' be permitted to make a statement in regard to this great under- 
taking. In the first place let me say that the committee felt that it was desirable 
to put the system into operation at the earliest possible moment. And, there- 
fore, although much remains to be done before the original plan will be com- 
pleted, they decided to start the works at this time. 

This scheme of improving the sewerage of the city was the outgrowth of a 
feeling of general dissatisfaction with the practice of discharging sewage into the 
docks and upon the flats surrounding our water-front, thereby creating a great 
and constantly increasing nuisance, which threatened soon to become intolerable, 
and also from the fact that it had become the conviction of scientific men that 
the practice of retaining refuse-matter in tide-locked sewers, from wliich noxious 
gases were generated that penetrated into our houses, was rapidly increasing the 
death-rate of the city, this increase being due to the prevalence of what are 
known as "filth diseases," which are directly traceable to emanations from de- 
fective sewers. 

The first step toward the improved system was taken in 1873, when the 
Committee on Sewers were requested to examine the existing system and report 
what measures were necessary for the public health. The committee reported 



178 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1883. that everything which appeared to them necessary to the public health 
and convenience would be carried out by the Sewer Department as 
soon as it was possible and expedient. 

Here the matter rested until 1875, when the Mayor was authorized to appoint 
a commission to present a plan for an improved system of sewerage, and Messrs. 
E. S. Chesbrough, Moses Lane, and Dr. C. F. Folsom were appointed commis- 
sioners. Messrs. Chesbrough and Lane were engineers, eminent in the pro- 
fession, and Dr. Folsom was a scientific expert on the subject of sanitary 
matters, being recognized as one of the highest authorities on that subject. In 
1876 the commissioners made their report. They pointed out the evils which, 
existed in consequence of the way in which our sewers had been built, without 
a definite comprehensive system. They set forth the necessity of carrying the 
sewage away from the city before it had an opportunity to become dangerous to 
health by putrefaction. They showed that there were three ways in which we 
fariled to accomplish this. First, the refuse did not always pass from the house- 
drains into the sewers, because the latter may be filled at high tide; the sewage 
may even be forced up the drains into the houses. Secondly, the sewers are not 
emptied promptly, because the tide or the tide-gates prevent it. In such case, 
the sewage being stagnant, a precipitate falls to the bottom of the sewer, and the 
slow and gradual emptying of the sewer as the tide falls does not produce scour 
enough to remove it. This deposit remains with little change, in some places, 
for many months. Third, when- the sewage once reaches the outlets of the 
sewers it is again delayed there, to decompose and contaminate the air. They 
enunciated, as the cardinal principle of good sewerage, that the sewage should 
start from the houses and go in a continuous current, without stopping until it 
reaches its destination, eitiier in deep water or upon the land. 

To accomplish this result, after an exhaustive consideration of the subject, 
the commissioners recommended the present intercepting system, or, as it is 
better known, the improved system of sewerage. The opinions of these eminent 
gentlemen, expressed after a thorough study of the situation, attracted universal 
attention, and called for prompt action on the part of the City Council. Their 
report was referred to a Joint Special Committee, who in due time reported the 
orders necessary to carry the recommendations into effect. 

Application was made to the General Court for the required legislation, and an 
act was passed authorizing the city to lay and maintain a main sewer discharging^ 
into Boston Harbor. An appropriation of $40,000 was made for the purpose of 
making preliminary surveys and preparing plans, etc., and an engineering force 
was Immediately organized to make the surveys. In 1877 the City Engineer 
reported the result of the surveys. He indorsed the recommendation of the 
commissioners in regard to locating the works at Old Harbor Point and Moon 
Island. 

The committee reported to the City Council in favor of constructing the 
works in accordance with the recommendations of the Engineer, and a loan of 
$3,713,000 was authorized. The committee soon after advertised for proposals 
for constructing certain portions of the work, and the first contracts were 
awarded on October 9, 1877. 

In order to combine the results of the best engineering practice of this 
country and Europe the City Engineer was granted leave of absence, for the 
purpose of visiting Europe and studying the different foreign systems. This 



APPENDIX B. 179 

visit led to radical changes in some portions of the plans, all of which 1883. 
tended greatly to increase the efficiency of the Avorks ; and it is be- 
lieved that the system now about to go into operation is the most perfect of its 
kind in existence. 

A statement of the difficulties encountered and overcome in the construction 
of this great work would occupy too much of your time. It is sufficient to say 
that in the course of the work problems were presented which were new to engi- 
neering science, and which required the greatest talent and skill to solve 
successfully. That this was done is ample proof of the ability of those who had 
charge of the work. Let me briefly, and without going into technicalities, 
endeavor to give a description of the system which is now about to go into 
operation, and which is designed to carry out the recommendation of the 
commissioners, as expressed in the report I have already alluded to, — the 
immediate removal of sewage from the vicinity of our habitations. 

The Improved System of Sewerage may be divided into four principal parts : — 

1. The main and intercepting sewers, which convey the sewage to the pump- 
ing-station. 

2. The pumping-station, where the sewage is raised. 

3. The outfall sewer, by which the sewage is conveyed from the pumping- 
station to Moon Island. 

4. The reservoir at Moon Island, in which the sewage is to be stored, and 
from which it is emptied during the early ebb tide. 

The intercepting sewers follow the marginal streets of the city as far as prac- 
ticable, and, intercepting the existing street sewers near their outlets, convey 
the sewage to the main sewer, which extends from the junction of Camden 
Street and Huntington Avenue to the pumping-station. The existing street 
sewers are joined to the intercepting sewers by small branches provided with 
gates to regulate the flow. The old outlets of existing sewers are, for the most 
part, kept open for use as storm overflows, those below tide level being provided 
with gates to prevent the tide from flowing in. The intercepting sewers are 
provided with flushing-gates for cleansing purposes, and with manholes and 
ventilating shafts at frequent intervals. Regulating-gates are also placed at 
their junction with the main sewer, to control the flow of sewage. 

The main and intercepting sewers are about 15 miles in length. The 
sewage flowing into the intercepting sewers from the street sewers is conveyed 
in a continuous stream to the pumping-station at Old Harbor Point. At the 
pumping-station the sewage when it leaves the main sewer first passes through 
the filth-hoist, where all floating objects which would be liable to injure the 
pumps are intercepted. It then passes into the pump-wells, and from them is; 
raised by the pumping-engines to a height of about 40 feet, and discharged 
through iron pipes into the connection-chamber, which forms the beginning of the 
tank sewer. The tank sewer is the commencement of the outfall sewer. It 
receives and conducts the sewage to the west shaft of the Dorchester-Bay tunnel. 
Here the sewage descends the west shaft a distance of about 160 feet, and 
pursues its course under Dorchester Bay until it reaches Squantum, where it 
rises to about its former level into another section of the outfall sewer. This 
tunnel was practically the key to the whole scheme. Here is where the greatest 



180 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1883. diflBculties met with in the course of the work were encountered and 
successfully overcome, in spite of the prophecies of those doubters 

who believed that the construction of such a work was impossible. 

These difficulties will never be fully appreciated except by those who watched 
the progress of the work from day to day, as I, in the capacity of chairman of 
the committee, was compelled to do. It may well be imagined that the drifting 
of a tunnel for a distance of about one mile and a quarter through solid rock, at 
a depth of 150 feet below the surface of Dorchester Bay, was a work which 
demanded indomitable energy and perseverance to carry it to a successful con- 
clusion. When it leaves the tunnel the sewage passes tiirough another section 
of the outfall sewer which conducts it to Moon Island. 

On account of the difficulty of getting a suitable foundation this part of the 
sewer is not yet completed, so for the present the sewage will be conveyed to 
Moon Island in a temporary wooden flume constructed for the purpose. On 
arriving at Moon Island the sewage reaches the Reservoir Division. During 
the three hours of ebb tide it flows continuously through the outfall and dis- 
charge sewers into the tidal currents, which convey it beyond the limits of the 
harbor. If received at any other time it is stored in a massive masonry reservoir, 
covering 4^ acres of ground, and having a capacity of 25,000,000 gallons, where 
it is retained until the ebb tide, and then, together with sewage flowing in the 
outfall sewer, is discharged into the channel. 

Next to the water-works, the system of sewerage which we put into operation 
to-morrow is the most important public work ever undertaken in this city, both 
as regards its magnitude and the purpose it is intended to accomplish. It is the 
only work of the kind on this continent, and if it succeed, as I believe it will, 
in removing the evils from which we have so long suffered, it cannot fail to 
prove a great benefit to the community. I am also glad to be able to say that 
no additional appropriation will be required to complete the work. 

I have watched the progress of the work from day to day, and can testify to 
the faithful manner in which it has been done, and I also wish to express my 
appreciation and admiration of the talent and courage displayed by Mr. J. P. 
Davis, our former City Engineer, and his successor, Mr. H. M. Wightman, in 
overcoming all difficulties and carrying the work forward to a successful termi- 
nation. Nor should I forget to bear witness to the ability and faithfulness of Mr. 
E. C. Clarke, the principal Assistant Engineer, and Messrs. S. H. Tarbell and 
H. A. Carson, the Superintendents, who have contributed so much to th^ satisfac- 
tory performance of the work. I can conceive of no more valuable or useful 
New-Year's gift that could be made to the public than this great work, a work 
which cannot fail to be a great blessing to the community. 

Mayor Martin referred to the Improved Sewerage Works, 

1884. ill his inaugural address before the City Council of 1884, 

as follows : — 



The main drainage work, or improved system of sewerage, which has been 
in process of construction for several years, went into successful operation on 
the first instant. A full description of this important work having been lately 
given to the public it is unnecessary for me to enter into details here. The 



APPENDIX B. 181 

practical working of the system will be observed with great interest, 1884. 
and if it meet the expectations of its projectors, and relieve the city 
from the great evil of defective sewerage, the work will be a monument to the 
ability of those who designed and those who constructed it. 



The usual order was passed at the beginning of the year for the 
appointment of the committee, and authorizing them to resume the 
work. 

An order was passed March 8 providing " that the expenses 
incurred by the committee in maintaining and operating the works 
under their charge be paid from the appropriation for Improved 
Sewerage." 

Also, on March 8, an order was passed to allow the payment of 
a further advance of $10,000 to C. W. Parker & Co., in addition to 
the amount previously allowed them from the sum reserved on their 
contract for building Section 3, outfall sewer, and Moou-island 
reservoir. 

The following order was introduced in the Common Council, 
September 11, and also in the Board of Aldermen September 28, 
namely : — 



Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage be authorized to pur- 
chase a parcel of land in Calf Pasture, near the pumping-station, at Old Harbor 
Point, containing 45,709 square feet, as shown on a plan thereof in the oifice of 
the City Engineer, at the rate of five cents per square foot ; the expense to be 
charged to the appropriation for Improved Sewerage. 



The order was passed by the Aldermen November 10. Upon 
reaching the Common Council it was pretty carefully considered, and 
recommitted December 11 to the Committee on Improved Sewerage 
to ascertain and report whether the laud in question could be taken 
by right of eminent domain. The committee reported December 18, 
and presented an opinion of the Corporation Counsel to the effect 
that the city had no authority to take the land for the purposes pro- 
posed. The order then went over by assignment to the last meeting 
of the Common Council, January 1, 1885, and a motion made at that 
meeting to take it up for consideration was lost. 

An order was introduced in the Common Council June 12, 1884, 
by the committee authorizing them to purchase of Paul Butler and 
Henry W. Hunt the tract of laud known as Squantum Head for the 
sum of $47,000. The committee were divided, however, regarding 



182 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1884. the expediency of making the purchase, and the order, 
after being pretty thoroughly discussed, was finall}^ re- 
jected June 19. 

A communication was received from Henry Guild, by the Board of 
Aldermen, September 29, calling attention to an alleged nuisance, by 
reason of the very offensive odor from the sewage at Moon Island 
and Squantum. The communication was referred to the Committee 
on Improved Sewerage, and they submitted a report on the subject, 
October 13, stating that the odor complained of undoubtedly came 
from a small cove adjacent to the mouth of the discharge sewer, and 
extending to Moon Island ; that the sewage-matter was carried into 
this cove by the water currents, and when the flats were exposed at 
low tide the offensive odor arose. They recommended as a remedy 
for the evil complained of that a dike be built across the entrance to 
the cove, at an estimated cost of S25,000. There being no provision 
in the Improved Sewerage appropriation for the extraordinary ex- 
penditure of such an amount, the report was referred to the Commit- 
tee on Finance to provide the required sum ; but that committee 
failed to report upon the subject. 

An order was passed October 25 to pay to the Builders' Iron Foun- 
dry of Providence, R.I., an instalment of $3,300 from the amount 
reserved on their contract for furnishing machinery for the east shaft. 
An order was passed December 29 requesting the Mayor "to 
petition the General Court for authorit}' to take from time to time 
such additional lands as the City Council may deem necessary for 
the purposes of extending and carrying out the system of improved 
sewerage," and also December 29 an order authorizing the commit- 
tee to arrange for a visit of the City Council to the works, Tuesday, 
the 30th of December. Other matters presented to the City Council 
were simply claims of laborers and others. 

President John H. Lee, of the Common Council of 1884, in his 
valedictory address to that body, thus refers to the Improved Sew- 
erage works : — 



The new intercepting sewer system was put in operation January 1, 1884, and 
has so continued during the year. Certain of the higher level sewers of the 
system, which were not built when the works were started, have been completed 
the past season. The permanent buildings at the pumping-station, and much 
other work at that place and at Moon Island, have also been finished during the 
same time. With the exception of the erection of the east shaft puraping- 
machinery, removal of old buildings, finishing of roadways and grounds, and 



APPENDIX B. 183 

some other minor details, tlie whole work may be said to be substan- 1884. 
tially completed. 

The year's operation of the system has demonstrated its efficiency in relieving 
the docks and bays from the nuisances formerly caused by the discharge of 
sewage into them, and in preventing the damming up by the tide of the city 
sewers, by wliich, during the greater part of the day, they were converted into 
stagnant cesspools. The system, although not designed to prevent wet cellars 
in the low sections of the city, has, nevertheless, relieved to a greaf extent the 
districts which formerly suffered the most from this cause. 

Careful examinations made from time to time, during the year, have shown no 
evidence of deposits in the channels of the harbor through which the sewage 
discharged at Moon Island is conveyed to the sea by the tidal currents, nor is 
there any evidence of its fouling the shores of the islands or main lands in its 
passage. 

The tunnel under Dorchester Bay, which it was thought might be impaired in 
its efficiency by deposits of sludge, is apparently free from such accumulations, 
or, if they exist, they do not furnish any appreciable obstacle to the flow of the 
sewage tiirough it. 

It would not, however, be safe to run this important section of the system 
without provisions for its periodical examination ; and for this purpose the pump- 
ing-machinery for emptying it, which is to be erected at the east shaft, has been 
purchased, and is in readiness for setting up as soon as the rights to take the land 
necessary for the purpose can be procured. 

Notwithstanding the complicated nature of the machinery and constructions 
connected with this new system of works, every portion of them has worked, 
from the start, on January 1, in the most efficient manner. No accident has 
occurred of any importance, nor any of any kind which has delayed or pre- 
vented the working of the system for a day. Of course this is largely due to the 
careful and intelligent management of the works, for which the Engineer's 
Department is responsible, under the direction of the Joint Special Committee 
on Improved Sewerage. 



Mayor Hugh O'Brien referred to the subject in his inau- 
gural address to the City Council, January 4, as follows : — 1885. 



The Improved System of Sewerage, or, as it should be more properly called, 
the Main Drainage System or Works, which has been in process of construction 
since October, 1887, is practically completed. Although certain portions of the 
works were unfinished at the commencement of the year it was decided to put 
in operation tlie completed portions on January 1, 1884. The pumps were, 
therefore, started for continuous duty on that date, and have run without inter- 
ruption since. The results of the year's operations have been very satisfactory. 
Tiie sewage of the city has been removed from places where it formerly created 
nuisances, and has all been discharged into the outer harbor at Moon Island. 
The water in the bays and docks around the city has again become pure, as 
evidenced by its being frequented by fish, which for years have been unable to 
live in it on account of the sewage contamination. The offensive odors formerly 



184 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1885. prevalent over the city during the summer were not noticed during the 
past season. In many portions of the city the cellars have been relieved 
from the periodical flooding caused by the surcharging of the sewers during storms 
and by the leakage into them of the tide-water ; and, although the system was not 
built as a remedy for this evil, it furnishes a means by which it can be remedied 
in the future. Although the operation of the new system has been satisfactory, 
even more so than could have been anticipated, in view of the magnitude of the 
works, the complication of the machinery for operating them, and the difficulties 
inherent in every new work, yet the benefit to be derived from it is not so com- 
plete as it should be. The old system — if such a combination of sewers, many 
of which are badly designed and defectively constructed, can be called a system 
— is in such a condition that the sewage, before it reaches the intercepting 
sewers of the new system, is full of noxious gases. These gases are given off" by 
the sewage in its passage to the intercepter and during its flow through it, and find 
their way into the houses and streets, carrying with them the germs of disease. 

No remedy short of entire reconstruction of the defective sewers will prove 
effective. Some of them discharge at points too low to be intercepted, or even 
to empty at ordinary low tide ; some of them have too slight a gradient to prevent 
deposits; and some of them have settled in such a manner as to make pockets 
into which the sludge settles and decomposes. That a system of sewerage shall 
be ' so constructed as to convey the contaminated fluids emptied into it to the 
point of discharge before decomposition has rendered them dangerous is an 
axiom of sanitary engineering. 

In the Main Drainage Works the city has the basis for the best system of 
sewerage that modern science has yet been able to devise for similarly situated 
communities, and it should complete the work by adapting the old system to the 
new, so as to form one harmonious whole. To eff'ect this a complete survey of 
the old sewers should be made, and, after a thorough study of the subject, plans 
should be devised for remedying the defects mentioned. The reconstruction of 
the defective portions of the system must necessarily be gradual. In the mean- 
time the question arises, " Under whose direction should this work be undertaken, 
and in whose charge shall the new work be placed?" It seems proper that the 
new system should remain as at present, under the immediate supervision of 
the Engineer's Department, as its successful operation depends upon intelligent 
engineering care, which can best be given by those who have constructed it. 
It would also appear that the Engineer's Department is the proper department, 
under the city ordinances, to make the surveys and plans for adapting the old 
system to the new, and to have charge of such constructions as may be required. 
Admitting these views of the subjects, why should the sewerage system of the 
city be under two independent heads? It is not to be expected that they will 
work in harmony, and by their inharmonious working the city is subjected to 
unnecessary expense in the construction of sewers which may have to be 
rebuilt to conform to a proper system. 

Under whatever Board, or commission, or committee, the sewerage system 
maybe put, the entire work should be in the immediate charge of the Engineer's 
Department, as it was previous to 18fi9; and that department should be held 
responsible for all constructions connected with it. It should also be remem- 
bered that the new Main Drainage Works contemplate, and were designed and 



APPENDIX B. 185 

built for, a high-level sewer, which should intercept the sewage of the 1885. 
high portions of Dorchester, Roxbury, etc., and convey it to Squantum, 
where a connection-chamber has been built, and beyond which point the system 
is large enough for both the low-level and high-level sewage, except as to reser- 
voir capacity, which is to be made larger. In order that the sewerage system of 
tliese high-level districts should be properly designed and executed, this pro- 
vision in the new Main Drainage Works should be borne in mind, and, that a 
great deal of unnecessary expense in this direction may be avoided, a careful 
survey and study of the whole of these districts should be made, and any sewers 
built should be so constructed as to be, ultimately, the most economical for con- 
nection with the high-level sewers of the Main Drainage Works. 



The special committee was appointed, as usual, to take charge of 
the work, and by an order passed February 12 they were authorized 
to operate the Main Drainage Works^ during the year. 

The portion of the Mayor's message above quoted was referi'ed, on 
recommendation of the Committee on Mayor's Address, to a special 
committee, consisting of Aldermen Allen and Mullane, and Council- 
men Brown, Denney, and Keliher, to consider and report upon the 
expediency' of consolidating the Improved Sewerage and Sewer depart- 
ments. Their report was presented to the Aldermen at the meeting 
June 8, and in it they state that — 



They have given the subject careful consideration, and have listened to the 
views of the oiBcials and committees in charge of the two departments. The 

1 Henry U. Wightman, the City Engineer, died April 3, at 8.30 P.M. He had held the 
position since 1880; being elected to fill the vacancy in the office occasioned by the resignation 
of Joseph P. Davis. Prior to 1880 Mr. Wightman occupied the position of Assistant Engineer 
for a number of years, and had served the city in humbler positions, connected with the Engi- 
neer's Department, since his boyhood. He was closely identified with the Main Drainage Works, 
and the most difficult and important portions of the work were carried forward under his direc- 
tion. He was a man of marked abilitj', and thoroughly devoted to his duties, and by his death 
the city sustained the loss of a valuable and efficient public official. 

The following resolutions of respect were unanimously adopted by the City Council, 
namely : — 

Resolved, That the City Council of Boston has learned with sorrow and regret of the death 
of Henry M. Wightman, City Engineer. 

Resolved, That the City Council hereby expresses its appreciation of the long-continued and 
valuable services rendered by Mr. Wightman to his native city. His ability and fidelity have 
been conspicuous throughout his official career, and his public service has been characterized by 
the strictest integrity. The important engineering works which he has successfully completed 
will endure as public memorials of his professional skill, while the recollection of the sterling 
and admirable traits of character which he possessed in such an eminent degree will be cher- 
ished in the memories of all who have been connected with him in the public service. 

Resolved, That the City Clerk be instructed to transmit a copy of these resolutions to the 
family of the deceased. 

((See Proceedings, pp. 243, 259.) 

William Jackson was elected City Engineer, to fill the vacancy occasioned by Mr. Wightman's 
death. 



186 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1885. general sentiment, as expressed by the gentlemen who appeared be- 
fore the committee, was in favor of consolidating the two departments, 
although they did not state exactly the time or the manner in which the con- 
solidation should be effected. Your committee, on their own part, concur sub- 
stantially in the opinion voiced by the representatives of the two departments, 
and they would accordingly report that, in their opinion, the consolidation should 
take place at the earliest possible time. 



The report was accepted by the City Council, and, at the meeting 
of the Aldermen June 15, the following order was introduced by 
Alderman Welch: — 



Ordered, That the care and maintenance of all sewers now in charge of the 
Committee on Improved Sewerage be placed in charge of the Sewer Depart- 
ment. 

This order was laid on the table, but taken up at the meeting on 
July 6 and passed. In the Common Council it was laid over from 
time to time, and, at the meeting December 3, was referred to the 
next City Council, and the reference was concurred in by the Alder- 
men at their meeting December 7. 

The following order was passed March 4 : — 



Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage be authorized to sell, 
either by public or private sale, as^aid committee may deem best for the interests 
of the city, all the old machinery, tools, and materials that are no longer required 
for the use of the department; the proceeds of said sale to be credited to the 
appropriation for Improved Sewerage. 



The following order was presented in the Board of Aldermen by the 
committee March 23 relating to a matter that failed of adoption by 
the City Council of the previous year, namely : — 



Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage be authorized to pur- 
chase a parcel of land in the Calf Pasture, so called, near the pumping-station 
at Old Harbor Point, containing 45,709 square feet, as shown on a plan tliereof 
in the office of the City Engineer, at the rate of five cents per square foot; the 
expense to be charged to the appropriation for Improved Sewerage. 



The order was passed by the Aldermen March 30, and was made 
the subject of discussion in the Common Council (see Proceedings, 
p. 291) ; but after a visit by that body to the locality, April 30, they 



APPENDIX B. 187 

concuiTed with the Aldermen at a meethig on the same 1885. 
date, and the order received the Mayor's approval May 5. 

At the meeting of the Aldermen March 30 the following order to 
print the history of the works was presented bj' Alderman Donovan, 
as recommended by the Committee on Improved Sewerage, viz. : — 

Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage be authorized to pre- 
pare and print a history of the Improved System of Sewerage, and that 1,500 
copies be printed ; the expense, not exceeding the sum of $1,500, to be charged to 
the appropriation for Improved Sewerage. 

The order passed in the Board of Aldermen, but, being amended in 
the Common Council, it was indefinitely postponed upon the return to 
the Aldermen. A new order of the same tenor was introduced at the 
meeting of the Common Council April 30, and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Improved Sewerage. The committee reported back favor- 
ably thereon May 7, and the order was passed by the Council 
on that date, concurred in by the Board May 11, and approved May 
13. A subsequent order was passed Sept. 22 authorizing the Clerk 
of Committees to prepare and print 1,000 additional copies of the 
report, with this review as an appendix, and the number was in- 
creased to 1,200 by an order passed October 19. 

A request was received May 11 in the Board of Aldermen, from 
the Committee on Improved Sewerage, for an additional appropriation 
of $250,000, setting forth that such sum would be required to com- 
plete the work. (See Doc. 62.) 

The matter was referred to the Committee on Finance, who reported 
back May 25 recommending the negotiation of a loan to the amount 
of S200,000, and the required order was passed June 9. 

The Titus claim, which has become somewhat celebrated, was in- 
troduced at the meeting of the Aldermen April 20, in the form of a 
petition of Lillie B. Titus and another, asking that the sewernge works 
at Moon Island be properly fenced, and this petition was referred to 
the Committee on Improved Sewerage. The committee made a re- 
port June 22, in the form of the following order : — 

Ordered, That there be allowed and paid to Lillie B. Titus the sum of 015,000, 
upon her giving to the city a release and discharge, satisfactory to the Corpora- 
tion Counsel, of all claims on account of the taking of a certain parcel of land, 
taken as belonging to Barnabas Davis, trustee under the will of James Huckins, 
consisting of land upon the main land at Squantum, so called, and of Moon 
Island, and the Little Moon Island, with the beach and fiats around and adjoining 
the same, and more particularly described in paragraph 3 of City Document 92 



188 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1885. of 1879; and also a conveyance of all her right, title, and interest in 
said real estate ; and that His Honor the Mayor be authorized to re- 
lease to said Lillie B. Titus, in a manner satisfactory to the Corporation Counsel, 
all the interest which the city may have acquired by said taking, in Little Moon 
Island, and the bars and flats adjacent thereto; the real estate, island, bars, and 
flats referred to being shown on a plan made by William Jackson, City En- 
gineer, dated June 15, 1885, and deposited in the office of the City Engineer; 
said sum to be charged to the appiopriation for Improved Sewerage. 



The order was tabled and the opinion of the Corporation Counsel 
was called for in relation to the rights of the cit}^ of Moon Island, 
under the order of taking, and the following opinion was received 
August 17, viz. (see Doc. 117) : — 

Corporation Counsel's Office, 
2 Pemberton Square, Boston, Aug. 1, 1885. 
To the Honorable the Board of Aldermen : — 

The order relating to Moon Island and other lands, referred to me by the 
Board, proposes to pay L. B. Titus $15,000, and to release to her " all the interest 
which the city may have acquired by said taking (of Sept. 19, 1879, City Doc. 29 
of 1879) in Little Moon Island, and the bars and flats adjacent thereto," upon 
her giving to the city (Item 1) "a release and discharge satisfactory to the 
Corporation Counsel, of all claims on account of the taking of a certain parcel 
of land" described in the order; and (Item 2) "conveyance of all her 
right, title, and interest in said real estate." 

Referring to Item 1, I have to report that Mrs. Titus has no legal claim 
against the city on account of the taking therein mentioned, and that the pro- 
posed release and discharge of all claims on account of that taking Avould be of 
no value, and should not be regarded as any consideration for the proposed 
payment. 

That taking was made in 1879. A remedy, and the sole remedy, for damages 
therefor, in case the parties could not agree, was provided by the statute, and 
even if the city had paid no damages, all claims under that statute were long since 
barred. But the fact is, though not material in law, that the parties did agree, 
and the city did pay $25,000 to the owners, who (Mrs. Titus being one of them) 
executed a release to the city in which they acknowledged the receipt of said 
sum " in full compensation for the lands and rights aforesaid, and for all claims 
for damages for said taking thereof, and for building said sewer and said Im- 
proved System of Sewerage." 

In regard to the second item, namely, "a conveyance of all her right, title, 
and interest in said real estate," I observe that the " said real estate " includes 
Little Moon Island; and the effect of the order, if carried out, would be to give 
to tiie city the fee of that island, and to Mrs. Titus the rights acquired therein by 
the city, — an exchange of interests which would be of no benefit to either 
party. 

With reference to Moon Island, I find that Mrs. Titus derives her title from 
the will of James Huckins, through a deed from Barnabas Davis, trustee, which 



APPENDIX B. 189 

recites that the estate conveyed is " subject to the easement and 1885. 
rights of the City of Boston, taken in the same for the purpose of 
maintaining a system of improved sewerage, by virtue of the Act of the Legisla- 
ture of J876, Chapter 186." Tliis leads to the question. What are the rights of 
the city to vrhich Mr. Titus' estate is thus subject? 

The claim that the city has only a right of way on Moon Island has no legal 
foundation. A great public work was to be undertaken, and the Legislature gave 
to the city the right to take such lands as might be necessary to accomplish that 
work. The statute made the city the sole judge of the necessity. In the ex- 
ercise of its powers it has taken Moon Island, and has acquired an absolute right 
to make all uses of it, directly or incidentally conducive to the advancement of the 
public benefit contemplated by the statute. The powers of the city in this direc- 
tion have not been exhausted. If the city should find it necessary to build other 
reservoirs, or to make other uses of the land taken, for purposes incident to the 
maintenance of the sewer and the discharge of the sewage, it may do so. Tech- 
nically, this right is called an easement, but for all purposes for which the land 
was taken the easement is as good as the fee. To illustrate : It is just as large 
an interest as the city acquired when it took lands for the water-supply and works 
on the Sudbury River. The question of damages done by the taking is rarely, if 
€ver, affected by the fact that the fee of the land is not taken. The easement is 
regarded as perpetual and practically exclusive. In tiie case of a taking of land 
for supplying a city with water, the Supreme Court, through Chief-Justice 
Chapman, has said: "In thus taking the land the company (city) may reserve 
to the owner such rights of way, or other riglits, as they may think proper, and the 
record will show that they are reserved. Such reservations may diminish his 
claim for damages, but no rights which are not thus reserved will exist. A parol 
assent that he may have a right of way, or pasturage, or tillage, may be revoked 
by the city ; and a present intent of the city to use a part of the land merely for 
a cart-way, expressed by mere parol, may be changed at their pleasure. If they 
lay their pipes upon the land they may decide how far below the surface they 
shall be laid, and may vary the deptli as they shall think proper ; and, when they 
have dug tiieir ditch for the purpose, they may decide whether or not to fill it, 
and make the surface smooth, so that it can be used as a way. And, as they can- 
not now foresee what their future necessities or interests may be, it is important 
for them to limit their rights as little as possible. Probably it is with this view 
that they have omitted to make anj' reservation." (Ham v. Salem, 100 Mass., 
350.) 

I think that the city acquired similar rights by the taking of Moon Island, 
and that Mrs. Titus holds the bare fee subject to these rights. 

It should be remembered that the city holds this land as the agent of the pub- 
lic for the public use for which it was taken, and that land so used is not liable 
to taxation. If the city should purchase the fee, it would not thereby acquire 
the right to use any part of the island for other purposes without rendering the 
part so used liable to taxation by the assessors of Quin'-y, like other real estate 
not exempted. When the city took Moon Island it was assessed for .$4,500, 
In 1883 the valuation was reduced to $4,000. In 1884 the quantity of land was 
put down by the assessors at 20 acres, and, upon the petition of Mrs. Titus, the 
valuation was again reduced to $3,000. 



190 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1885. With reference to the communication from Mrs. Titus, dated July 

16, 1885, I am of opinion that no action is necessary, as the city has 
the right to remove earth, sand, and gravel from one part of the land taken to 
another, for the construction of works essential to a proper and convenient dis- 
charge of the contents of the sewer. 

Very respectfully, 

E. P. NETTLETON, 

Corporation Counsel. 



In the mean time His Honor the Mayor transmitted the following 
notice which he had received from tlie petitioner, viz. : — 



To the City of Boston, Hon. Hugh O'Brien, Mayor of said Boston: — 

You are hereby notified that said city of Boston will be held strictly respon- 
sible by me for any and all acts of trespass and injury done by said city's ser- 
vants and agents to the real estate belonging to me, and known as Moon Island, 
situated in the town of Quincy, County of Norfolk, and Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts ; that I refuse to permit said Boston to use or take any earth, 
gravel, or soil from said Moon Island, or change the present position and loca- 
tion of the same, or to dig up or wash away the realty for any purpose what- 
ever, either to fill any place or to abate any nuisance at or near said Moon 
Island, or at anyplace. 

The said Boston's easement in said Moon Island does not warrant any such 
use of the soil. You will please take notice that I shall hold said Boston re- 
sponsible for all illegal or wrongful acts of its servants and agents, and shall 
take such legal steps to prevent the same as I am advised are proper in the 
premises. 

I respectfully ask and notify you to stop the trespassing upon and misusing 
of said property immediately, and not to use the same for purposes and in a 
manner not justified or warranted by said Boston's easement. 

Very respectfully yours, 

L. B. TITUS. 

Boston, July 16, 1S85. 



The whole matter was discussed at length by the Aldei'men at the 
meetings September 14 and 21 (see Proceedings, pp. 552, 556, 
576, 577), and the original order was passed by the Aldermen, 
after being amended by inserting after the word "■her," in the 
second line, the words "vacating and abandoning all suits already 
coiTimenced." 

Upon reaching the Common Council the matter was referred to the 
Committee on Judiciary, on certain legal questions that arose regard- 
ing the authority of the Common Council in the matter. That com- 



APPENDIX B. 191 

mittee reported the following opinion of the Corporation 1885. 
Counsel, October 22, viz, : — 



Corporation Counsel's Office, 

2 Pemberton Square, 

Boston, Oct. 1, 1885. 
W. H. H. Emmons, Esq., Chairman of the Judiciary Committee: — 

Dear Sir, — You inquire whether, in my opinion, the order to pay Lillie B. 
Titus $15,000 requires for its passage the concurrence of the Common Council. 

I answer Yes ; first, because it contemplates a settlement of claims against the 
city for past action of the City Couacil, to wit, the taking of land in 1879 for the 
Improved Sewerage System; and, second, because it proposes torelease the city's 
interest in a part of the land so taken. These are questions which are clearly 
not within the exclusive jurisdiction of one branch of the City Council. The 
Statute of 1885, Chapter 249, to which reference has been made, has no bearing 
upon this order. That statute authorizes the Board to take land; this order 
looks to a settlement of claims already taken. 

In last week's proceedings of tlie Council I am reported to have said to Mr. 
Fisk that I thought it would not be necessary to have the concurrence of the 
Council upon this order. Tiiis was either a slip of Mr. Eisk's tongue or of the 
reporter's pen. I have not seen Mr. Fisk in this connection, nor have I ever for 
a moment hesitated to say that the order would require the concurrence of the 
Common Council. 

Very respectfully, 

E. P. NETTLETON, 

Cor'poration Counsel. 

Consideration of the subject was resumed at the meeting of the 
Common Council November 12, and, after extended discussion, the 
order was passed in concurrence. (See Proceedings, pp. 718-723.) 
The order failed of approval by His Honor the Mayor, and the fol- 
lowing veto message, stating the reasons for disapproval, was received 
b}' the Aldermen at their meeting November 16 : — 

Executive Department, November 16, 1885. 
To the Honorable Board of Aldermen : — 

Gentlemen, — I return to tlie branch in which it originated the order to pay 
Lillie B. Titus the sum of .$15,000, and submit the following reasons for with- 
holding my signature from the same : — 

1. The taking of Moon Island by the city in 1879, under the authority of the 
Legislature, gave to the city the right to use it for all purposes incident to the 
construction and maintenance of the system of sewerage contemplated by the 
Statute of 1876. For all damages incident to that taking, the city, in December, 
1881, paid the owners |25,000. They have made no further claim on account of 



192 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1885. that taking, and the Corporation Counsel informs me that it is not 
possible to maintain any further claim on that account. 
The release of all claims for such taking, as provided in the order, would 
therefore be of no benefit to the city, and cannot be regarded as any consideration 
for the proposed additional payment of $15,000. 

2. Tiie " vacating and abandoning of all suits already commenced " is named 
in the order as another consideration for the payment of $15,000. There is, in 
fact, but one suit pending, an action in which damages are claimed for the 
removal of gravel and loam from Moon Island, and used in the construction on 
the works at Old Harbor Point and Calf Pastures. This claim appears to be 
grossly exaggerated. The City Engineer informs me that the material removed 
was measured, and that instead of there being "tens of thousands of squares," 
as stated in the course of the discussion in the Common Council, there were in 
fact but 623 cubic yards of gravel and 5,779 cubic yards of loam so removed; 
that is less than 80 squares of gravel, and less than 725 squares of loam. 

The Corporation Counsel informs me that the city had the right to use this 
material, and that the action cannot be maintained. 

But, supposing it can be maintained, the damages provable cannot exceed 
$1,000. When the city paid the owners $25,000, they gave a receipt for that 
sum and acknowledgment "in full compensation for the lands and rights afore- 
said, and for all claims for damages for said takings thereof, and for building 
said sewer, and for said Improved System of Sewerage," and it was fully intended 
and understood that the city should be thereby released from every liability to 
suit by the owners, for any use it might make of the island in connection with 
its system of sewerage, at least so long as no nuisance was created. If more 
money is to be paid on this account the order should contain some proviso that 
shall protect the city from future as well as pending suits. 

3. There remains, then, as the principal, if not the only consideration which 
the city is to receive for its payment of $15,000, " a conveyance of all her right, 
title, and interest in said real estate." I am unable to see how the ownership of 
the fee in this island can be of any value to the city. The only use the city has 
for the island is in connection with its Improved Sewerage System. For that use 
the rights which it has already acquired are ample. The Corporation Counsel 
says in his opinion : "In the exercise of its power it (the City) has taken Moon 
Island, and has acquired an absolute right to make all uses of it, directly or indi- 
rectly conducive to the advancement of the public benefit contemplated by the 
statute." 

Moreover, if the city should purchase the fee, it would not thereby acquire 
the right to use any part of the island for other purposes, without rendering the 
part so used liable to taxation by the assessors of Quincy. And, though the valua- 
tion was put down by the assessors last year to $3,000, upon the petition of Mrs. 
Titus for a reduction of valuation, I do not see how the city could hereafter 
object to a valuation at such larger sum as it may volunteer to pay for it. I do 
not think it advisable to thus expose the city to an annual tax forever upon a 
mere title which will be of no benefit. 

4. Irrespective of other considerations, as the city is under no present neces- 
sity of acquiring the fee of the island, it seems to me a sufficient objection to the 
payment of so large a sum of money, that the valuation put upon it by the owner 
herself before the Assessors was less than $4,000. 



APPENDIX B. 193 

5. There is a legal objection to the order in its present form, which 1885. 
has been before pointed out by the Corporation Counsel. The convey- 
ance, which by the terms of the order Mrs. Titus is to give to the city, includes 
the fee of Little Moon Island. This, if carried out, would impose upon the city 
an additional liability to taxation, while, at the same time, by the release which 
the Mayor is authorized to make, it would be deprived of the right to use the 
island for any purpose whatever. If the order should pass in its present form, I 
could not with due regard to the interests of the city, exercise the authority 
which it proposes to confer upon the Mayor. 

Respectfully submitted, 

HUGH O'BRIEN, 

Mayor. 

The Aldermen, however, passed the order by a unanimous vote, 
notwithstanding the Mayor's veto. On reaching the Common Council, 
November 19, the Aldermen's action was reversed, and the Mayor's 
veto sustained, and the order rejected. (See Proceedings, pp. 755- 
758.) A new order was, however, introduced at the same meeting 
similar in form to that which the Council had rejected, as follows : — 

Ordered, That there be allowed and paid to Lillie B. Titus the sum of 
$15,000, upon her giving to the city a release and discharge, satisfactory to the 
Corporation Counsel, of all claims against said city, and a deed of certain parcels 
of land, taken as belonging to Barnabas Davis, trustee under the will of James 
Huckins, consisting of land upon the main land at Squantum, so called, and of 
Moon Island, with the beach and flats around and adjoining the same, and more 
particularly described in paragraph 3 of City Document 92 of 1879 (excepting 
Little Moon Island, with the flats and bars adjacent thereto), and that his Honor 
the Mayor be authorized to release to said Lillie B. Titus, in a manner satisfac- 
tory to the Corporation Counsel, all the interest which the city may have acquired 
by said taking in Little Moon Island, and the bars and flats adjacent thereto; the 
real estate, islands, bars, and flats referred to being shown on a plan made by 
William Jackson, City Engineer, dated July 15, 1885, and deposited in the office 
of the City Engineer ; said sum to be charged to the appropriation for Improved 
Sewerage. 

This order passed the Common Council December 10, reached the 
Aldermen at their meeting December 14, and was specially assigned 
to the next meeting, December 21, and then referred to the Commit- 
tee on Finance. That committee reported, December 28, that the 
order ought not to pass, and the same date the following notice was 
received from the claimant. The report was accepted, and, together 
with the notice, was sent to the Common Council, viz. : — 



194 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

1885. Boston, Dec. 28, 1885, 

To the Honorable Board of Aldermen, City of Boston : — 

Some months ago a proposition was made to me by the Committee on Im- 
proved Sewerage looking towards a settlement of my claim for payment for 
material taken by the city from Moon Island, and for the conveyance by me to 
the city of the fee in Moon Island and in other land adjacent thereto. The offer 
of .$15,000 for an immediate settlement was made to me last May, and I signified 
my readiness to accept such sum. The measure was subsequently passed by 
both branches of the City Council, but was vetoed by the Mayor. I therefore 
now desire to inform you that I am no longer prepared to accept such sum in 
settlement of said claim and for the fee in said lands, and I hereby withdraw my 
oflFer. 

LILLIE B. TITUS. 



The report of the Committee on Finance was accepted by the Com- 
mon Council in concurrence at the meeting December 30, and the 
above communication placed on file. 

The following order for exchange of land in the Calf Pasture was 
passed June 8 : — 



Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage be authorized to enter 
into an agreement with the Bay State Gas Company for an exchange of certain 
small parcels of land in Calf Pasture, shown on a plan of said lands in the office 
of the City Engineer, for the purpose of straightening and improving the boun- 
daries of the city's land ; and that the Mayor be authorized to execute such deeds 
or other instruments as may be necessary to eflfect such exchange. 



The committee were authorized, by an order passed June 8, to 

purchase the fuel required for the Main Drainage Works during the 

year. 

An order was passed September 14 requesting the committee to 

report whether the tug-boat " William Woolley," purchased by the 

city, was properly equipped for the service of extinguishing fires 

along the water-front, and also whether said tug-boat can be available 

when required as an auxiliary of the Fire Department. No report 

was received on the subject from the committee. 

By an order passed October 19 the City Architect was granted the 
use of the steam-tug " Nettie," during the construction of proposed 
new buildings on Long Island. 

The following order was passed October 19, viz. : — 



Ordered, That the Committee on Improved Sewerage be authorized to invite 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to visit tlie Main Drainage 



APPENDIX B. 195 

Works, November 11, 1885; the expense incurred thereby to be 1885. 
charged to the Contingent Fund of Joint Committees. 

An order was presented at the meeting of the Aldermen December 
14 requesting the Committee on Improved Sewerage to consider and 
report on the expediency of the city's taking a tract of land for the 
Main Drainage Works at Squantum, near the east shaft of the Dor- 
chester-Bay tnnnel. The order was referred to the committee, but 
was not reported on by them. 

An order was passed January 4, 1886, to pay the Builders' Iron 
Foundry of Providence, R.I., the sum of $192.26, in settlement of 
their contract for furnishing pumping-machinery for the east shaft. 

No other matters of importance relating to the Improved Sewerage 
were acted upon by the City Council, and the review ends with the 
close of the municipal year 1885. 



APPENDIX B. 



1888. 



SCHEDULE OF EXPENDITURES, MAIN DRAINAGE 
WORKS, JAN. 1, 1888. 



$39,327 79 
38,778 54 
43,037 73 
55,051 12 

113,082 63 
. 98,854 82 

154,357 99 

121,897 55 
76,419 70 
43,392 15 
38,781 20 
17,017 98 

135,100 40 
22,042 72 
32,579 73 
42,230 59 
36,389 31 
37,333 91 
42,832 29 
47,367 98 

•50,992 49 
60,037 95 
57,748 18 
16,229 65 
40,942 65 
64,039 97 
1,336 00 
1,699,333 45 

691,753 87 

825,659 18 

103,760 39 
61,200 46 

223,016 61 



Section 


1, 


Main Intercepting 


Sewer 




2 


( ( a 


a 




3 


a a 


" 




4 


1.1 a 


u 




H 


ii. a 


it 




5 


a c( 


a 




6 


a a 


1 1 




1, 


East side " 


'' 




2 


U ii i(. 


ii. 




3 


U 4( ii 


ii, 




4 


ii ■ (I U 


ii 




5 


ii U ii 


i^ 




1 and 2, West side 


i ( 




3 


u u 


u 






Brimmer street 


a 




4, 


West side 


a 




5 


(( i( 


a 




6 


(( a 


a 




1, 


South Boston 


'' 




2 




u 




3 




a 




4 




a 




5 




a 




6 


t; U 


a 



'.' 1, stony Brook . 

" 2 '' "... 

" Roxbury Canal Dredging 

" 1 Outfall Sewer, Pumpiug-station, etc 

" 2 " " Dorchester Bay Tunnel 

" 3 " " • and Moon Island Reservoir, 

Outlet Sewer Section ...... 

Maintenance . . . . . 

Land damages ....... 



Amount carried forvjard, 



i, 123,504 14 



APPENDIX B. 197 

1888. 

Amount brought forward, $5,123,504 14 

Engiueeriog, superintendence, preliminary survey, 

contingencies, and miscellaneous work . . 268,903 14 



Total amount for construction . *. . $5,392,407 28 

Amount transferred from appropriation . . . 67,500 00 



Total expenditures to January 1, 1888 . . $5,459,907 28 



198 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



1888. 

LAND TAKEN BY OR RELEASED TO THE CITY ON 
ACCOUNT OF CONSTRUCTION OF IMPROVED SEWER- 
AGE SYSTEM. 

A strip 20 feet wide, between Clapp and Boston Streets, reserving 
use of surface to previous owners, area, 10,512 feet. 

Hyde Street, Dorchester Avenue to O. C. R.R., reserving rights of 
way to previous owners, area, 44,060 feet. 

Washington Avenue, Hyde Street to Locust Street, reserving rights 
of way to previous owners, area, 92,600 feet. 

Locust Street, Washington Avenue to Von Hillern Street, reserv- 
ing rights of way to previous owners, area, 6,600 feet. 

Von Hillern Street, Locust Street to Mount Vernon Street, reserv- 
ing rights of way to previous owners, area, 24,000 feet. 

Mount Vernon Street, across O. C. R.R., area, 2,952 feet. 

Extension of Mount Vernon Street, across Calf Pasture, reserving 
rigiits of way to previous owners, area, 203,050 feet. 

Pumping-station lot at Old Harbor Point, area, 22^ acres. 

A strip 20 feet wide, from low water in Dorchester Bay to and 
across a roadway on Squantum Neck, reserving use of surface to 
previous owners, area, 12,155. 

Upland at Squantum, area, 2^ acres. 

Upland at Moon and Little Moon Islands, area, 37^^ acres. 

Flats about Moon Island and Squantum, area, 152 acres. 

Right to use, conjointly with other users, a portion of roadway at 
Squantum, 2,045 feet long X 32 feet wide = 15 acres. 

Extension of Lowland Street, South Boston, from Jenkins Street to 
O. C. R.R., reserving rights of way to previous owners, 475 X 40 
feet =19,000 feet. 

Land for sheds and storage on E. Chester Park, east of Albany 
Street, 7,704 sq. feet. Set off for use of Improved Sewerage, by 
Committee on Lands. 

45,709 sq. feet of land adjoining Pumping-station lot at Old Har- 
bor Point. 

2,950 sq. feet of land added to Pumping-station lot, by exchange 
with Bay State Gas Co. 



APPENDIX C. 



PUMPING ENGINE TESTS. 

(Compiled from City Engineer's Annual Report for 1884-1885-1886-18S7.) 

On March 24, 25, and May 1, 2, 1885, tests were made to ascertain 
the dutN' of Engine No. 3, and the efficiency of the boiler used in 
connection with it. The tests were made, under the direction of the 
City Engineer, by members of liis staff. 

The engine tested is one of the high-duty engines designed by Mr. 
E. D. Leavitt, Jr., on general specifications prepared by Mr. J. P. 
Davis, when City Engineer. It was built by the Quintard Iron 
Works, of New York. A description of the engine and boilers has 
already been printed in previous reports, in the history of the Main 
Drainage Works, and in the Journal of the Association of Engineer- 
ing Societies, and will not be repeated here. Steam was furnished 
by Boiler No. 2. 

The intended duration of each test was twenty-four hours. 

The method of making the tests was as follows : Steam was raised 
in the boiler until the pressure was sufficient to run the engine. The 
fires were then drawn, the ash-pits carefulh' cleaned, and new fires were 
started. It was desired to determine the quantity of water pumped, by 
actual measurement, in the reservoir at Moon Island ; and since stop- 
ping the engine would have caused large fluctuations of level in the con- 
necting sewers, and so prevented accuracy of measurement, it was 
decided to keep the engine running at a constant rate. This was done 
by furnishing the engine with steam from Boiler No. 3 until a few 
minutes after the new fires were started, when, by operating the valves 
rapidly and simultaneously. Boiler No. 3 was shut off, and the engine 
took steam from No. 2, thus beginning the engine test. The engine 
counter was read at the instant the test began, and the other neces- 
sary observations were taken. The steam pressure was increased 
from about 70 pounds at the start, until it reached 100 pounds, at 
which it was kept constant until near the end of trial, when the 
fires were burned as low as possible, the steam pressure dropping in 
consequence. When the pressure and height of water in the boiler 



200 MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 

wei'e the same as at the beginning of the experiment, the final obser- 
vations were taken, and the fires were drawn. The refuse was then 
spread upon the floor to cool. Theunburnt coal was picked from the 
ashes and weighed. This weight (averaging less than one per cent, 
of the total coal) was deducted from the gross amount of coal 
charged. The valve between Boilers No. 2 and No. 3 is supposed to 
have been tight ; but, to avoid increasing the dut}^ by any leakage, 
the pressure in the latter was kept lower than in the former. 

The height of the sewage in the pump-well was determined by a 
float-gauge, tested before each trial ; the load on the pump by a mer- 
curial gauge, attached to the force-main of another engine. This 
gauge represented the height in the pipe-chamber at this end of the 
force-mains, and, to get the actual pressure pumped against, it was 
necessary to add the friction in the force-main used. During the 
second test the actual pressure against which the pumps were work- 
ing was measured by the elevation of the sui'face of water in a box 
at the top of a pipe connected with the force-main a few feet from 
the pump. A comparison of this gauge with the mecurial one gave 
a correction for friction in the force-main to use with the first test. 

Dry Cumberland coal from the Pocahontas mine was used during 
the trial. It was fed to the boiler from a car holding arbout 1 ,200 
pounds. During the first test the car and contents were reweighed 
at the end of each half-hour, and during the second test after each 
firing. 

The steam pressures at the boiler and the pressures and vacuum at 
the engine were determined by Bourdon's gauges, which had been 
previously tested. 

The temperature of the steam was taken by a thermometer in- 
serted in the main steam-pipe within a few feet of the boiler. This 
thermometer was broken, so that readings could not be taken during 
the second test. 

The barometer was an aneroid placed in the engine-room. 

The quantity of water fed to the boiler was measured in the fol- 
lowing manner : A barrel, holding about 150 gallons, was placed upon 
a tested platform-scale, and supplied with cold water from the Co- 
chituate main, and also with condensed water from the reheaters and 
steam-cylinder jackets. During the second test the exhaust steam 
from the boiler feed-pump was condensed in a small barrel placed 
above the weighing-barrel, into which it was drawn from time to time. 

After having been weighed the water was run into a large tub, from 
which the feed-pump drew its supply. The measurement of the feed- 



APPENDIX C. 201 

water was checked by a Worthington water-meter placed between the 
feed-pump and the feed-water heater. 

To ascertain approximately the amount of water returned from the 
cylinder-] ackets and reheaters, the amount of cold water used was 
measured during the second test by a meter placed on the Cochituate 
supply. 

About seven hours after the beginning of the first test a small leak 
was discovered from a safety-valve on the boiler feed-pipe between 
the pump and the hot-water meter. After being discovered, the water 
leaking was caught and returned to the feed-pump tub. For a period, 
of about fourteen hours the leakage was weighed, and the rate so 
determined was used to make a correction for the time before the leak 
was discovered. The total amount of this correction was 650 pounds. 

On the second test all pipe-connections with feed-pipes, boilers, 
and engine, except those in use, were disconnected, to avoid all chance 
of error from leakage. 

Temperatures of the feed-water were taken before and after passing 
through the feed-water heater by means of thermometers inserted in 
the feed-pipe. 

A thermometer in a tube partially filled with oil was inserted in 
the flue to ascertain the temperature of the gases beyoud the feed- 
water heater, and on the second test a similar thermometer was placed 
in the flue between the boiler and heater. 

Throughout the trials half-hourh^ observations were made of the 
engine counter, pressure of steam at engine and boilers, vacuum in 
condenser in inches of mercury, height of water in boiler, height of 
water in tub holding feed-pump supply, water-meters on boiler feed- 
pipe and cold-water pipe, barometer, temperature of steam, tempera- 
ture of gases in flue, and temperature of engine-room. Fifteen- 
minute readings were taken of the force-main and pump-well gauges, 
and readings of the feed-water thermometers every ten minutes. 

Temperatures of the external air and indicator diagrams from the 
steam-cylinders were taken hourly. 

A large number of observers were empWed, and care was taken to 
secure accuracy in all of the observations. The more important 
records were also taken independently by assistants of Mr. Leavitt. 

No calorimeter tests were made to ascertain the quality of the 
steam. For the purposes of calculation it has been, assumed that all 
of the water was evaporated into dry steam. 



202 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



RECORD OF TWO DUTY TESTS OF ENGINE NO. 3 (LEAVITT) AT 
THE BOSTON MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 





First Test. 


Second Test. 


1. 


Date of trials 


Mar. 24,25,1885. 


May 1, 2, 1885. 


2. 


Time of beginning trial 


10.06 A.M. 


10.31 A.M. 


■S 




24h. 43m. 
19,526. 


24h. 3hm. 


4. 


Total revolutions 


19,372. 


5. 


Revolutions per minute 


13.17. 


13.42 


6. 


Displacement of pumps per revolution, . 


226.19 eu. ft. 


226.19 cu. ft. 


7. 


Distance from of gauge down to sew- 
age in pump-well 


11.68 ft. 


15.48 ft. 


8. 


Heiglit of sewage in pipe-chamber, as 
given by mercurial gauge, graduated 
to give equivalent height of column 
of fresh water 


25.76 ft. 


26.00 ft. 


9. 


Pressure in force-main near the pump, 
as indicated by column of fresh water 


26.95 ft. 


10. 


Correction of mercurial gauge for fric- 
tion in force-main, from data furnished 
bj' comjiarison of No. 8 and No .9 . . . . 


0.36 ft. 




1 1 


37.80 ft. 
62.42 lbs. 


42.43 ft. 


12. 


Weight of fresh water per cubic foot .... 


62.40 lbs. 


13. 


Total Aveight of dry coal consumed 


8,307 lbs. 


9,478 lbs. 


U. 


Duty of engine as developed by the 
trials : — 








1952G X 226.19 X 37.80 X62. 42 
1st trial - y3_(^_ 


125,450,0001 






19372 X 226.19 X 42.43 X 62.40 




122,400,000 




2d Uial 94.78 - 


15. 


Mean pressure of steam in boilers . . . , 


99.4 lbs. 


98.6 lbs. 



1 To reduce this duty on the first trial to the usual standard, it is necessary to make a correction 
for the coal used to supply steam to the feed pumps. Assuming the duty of the feed-pump to be 
10,000,000, the corrected duty of the pumping-engine is 122,500,000. 



APPENDIX C. 



203 



Second Test. 



16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 



23. 

24. 



25. 



26. 



Mean pressure of steam in main steam- 
pipe near engine 



Mean vacuum in condenser 28.1 ins. 

Mean atmospheric pressure by barometer, 30.18 ins. 

" temperature of air in engine-room. 67.5 deg. 

I 
" "of external air 31.7 deg.' 

I 
Total volume of sewage pumped by 
plunger displacement : 33,038,000 gals. 

Total volume of sewage pumped, as 

actualh' measured i 30,224,000 gals. 



Average slip of pumps . 



Indicated horse-power, as determined 
by the measurement of two sets of 
cards for each trial 

Horse-power in sewage lifted, pump 
measurement, no allowance for slip. . 



8.5 per cent.^ 

251.5 H.P. 
212.9 HP. 



Work done by pump in per cent, of 

indicated horse-power 84.66 per cent. 



Coal burned per hour per indicated i 



horse-power . 



1.33 lbs. 



96.1 lbs. 
28.0 ins. 

29.81 ins. 

75.2 deg. 
40.6 deg. 

32,778,000 gals. 

31,256,000 gals. 
4.6 per cent. 

290.2 H.P. 

243.5 H.P. 

83.90 per cent. 

1.35 lbs. 



1 At the end of the first test it was found that two of the rubber discharge-valveg had been 
torn off, which accounts for the large slip. A study of the question indicated that this would 
not materially affect the duty, a view which is corroborated by the uniform relation between the 
indicated and the actual horse-power in the two tests. The loss of action in the pumps, when 
the valves were less worn, was about 2.5 per cent. 

RECORD OF TWO TESTS OF BOILER NO. 2, AT THE BOSTON 
MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS, MADE IN CONNECTION WITH EN- 
GINE TESTS. 

Reported in the form recommended by the Committee of the American Society of Mechanical 

En^neers. 



First Test. 



Second Test. 



1. Date of trial Mar. 24, 25, 1885.; May 1, 2, 1885. 



la. Time of beginning trial. 
2. Duration of trial 



9.58 a.m. 
34h. 51m. 



10.25 a.m. 
24h. 94m. 



204 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



Dimensions and Proportions. 

3. Grate surface 

3a. Area of least draught 

4. Water-heating surface 

5. Super-heating surface 

5a. Heating-surface in feed-water heater 



6. Ratio of water-heating surface to grate 
surface 



Average Pressures. 

7. Steam pressure in boiler by gauge . 

8. Absolute steam pressure 

9. Atmospheric pressure by barometer 

Average Temperatures. 

11. Of external air 

13. Of steam 



First Test. 



Second Test. 



14. Of escaping gases before passing feed- 
water heater 



14a. Of escaping gases after passing feed- 
water heater 



15. Of feed-water before passing heater. . . , 

15a. Of feed-water after passing heater 

156. Of Cochituate water , 



Fuel. ■ 

18. Dry coal consumed 

,„ ^ , , ^ i r 1st test, 432 lbs. 

19. Total refuse dry < ^^ ^^ ' ^g^ ,^ 

20. Total combustible (weight of coal, 

item 18, less refuse, item 19) ....... 



45.5 sq. ft. 

5.50 " " 

1,826. " " 

6. " " 

934. " " 

40-1 



99.4 lbs. 
114.2 lbs. 
30.18 ins. 



31.7 deg. 
339.0 deg. 



183.5 deg. 

96.5 deg. 

145.1 deg. 

38 deg. 

8,307 lbs. 
5.2 per cent. 

7,875 lbs. 



45.5 sq. ft. 

5.50 " " 

1,826. " " 

6. " " 

934. " " 

40-1 



98.6 lbs. 
113.2 lbs. 
29.81 ins. 

40.6 deg. 



4.*59 deg. 

194.2 deg. 

120.7 deg. 

164.1 deg. 

46 deg. 

9,478 lbs. 



5.2 per cent. 
8,981 lbs. 



APPENDIX C. 



205 





First Test. 


Second Test. 


21. 


Dry coal consumed per hour 


334.3 lbs. 


392.3 lbs. 


22. 


Combustible consumed per hour 

Water. 


316.9 lbs. 


371.8 lbs. 


26. 


Total weight of water pumped into 
boiler and apparently evaporated. ... 


86,783 lbs. 


98,780 lbs. 


26a 


Check on above measurement by meter 
measurement 


85,640 lbs. 


96,629 lbs. 


26S. 


Per cent, less by meter 


1.3 per cent. 


2.2 per cent. 


26c. 


Feed-water taken from Cochituate main, 
meter measurement 




78,836 lbs. 


28. 


Equivalent water evaporated into dry 
steam from and at 212° F. 

f Including feed-water heater 

\ Excluding " " 


100,668 lbs. 
96,329 lbs. 


112,113 lbs. 
107,571 lbs. 


29. 


Equivalent total heat derived from fuel 
in British thermal units. 

J Including feed- water heater 

t Excluding " " 


89,993,971 

85,828,387 


100,064,140 
95,816,600 


30. 


Equivalent water evaporated into dry 
steam from and at 212° F. per hour. 

r Including feed-water heater 

(.Excluding " " 

Economic Evaporation. 


4,051 lbs. 
3,876 lbs. 


4,641 lbs. 
4,453 lbs. 


31. 


Water actually evaporated per pound of 
dry coal, from actual pressure and 


10.45 lbs. 


10.42 lbs. 


32. 


Equivalent water evaporated per pound 
of dry coal from and at 212^ F. 

f Including feed-water heater. . , 

\ Excluding " " 


12.12 lbs. 
11.60 lbs. 


11.83 lbs. 
11.35 lbs. 


33. 


Equivalent water evaporated per pound 
of combustible from and at 212° F. 

j Including feed- water heater 

\ Excluding " " 


12.78 lbs. 
12.23 lbs. 


12.48 lbs. 
11.98 lbs. 



206 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



Commercial Evaporation. 

34. Equivalent water evaporated per pound 
of dry coal, with one-sixth refuse, at 
70 pounds gauge-pressure, from tem- 
perature of 100° F. = item 33 multi- 
plied by 0.7249. 

/ Including feed-water heater 

\ Excluding " " 



Ratb ov Combustion. 

35. Dry coal actually burned per square 
foot of grate surface per hour 



36. 
37. 

38. 



40. 



41. 



42. 



43. 



f Consumption ~ 
I of dry coal 
! per hour. 
I Coal assum- 
I ed with one 
[ sixth refuse.^ 



Per sq. ft. of grade 
surface .... . .... 

Per sq. ft.of water- 
heating surface .... 

Per sq. ft. of least 
area for draught. . . 



Kate of Evaporation. 



39. Water evaporated from and at 212" F. ; 
per sq. ft. of heating-surface per hour, 
excluding feed-water heater 



First Test. 



' Water evapo- ] Per sq. ft. of grate 



per 
from 



rated 
hour, 
temperature 
of 100° E., in- 
to steam of 
70 lbs. gauge- | 
pressure, ex- | 
eluding feed- | 
[water heater. J 



surface . 



Per sq. ft. of water- 
heating surface .... 



Per sq. ft. of least 
area for draught .... 



Commercial Horse-power. 

On the basis of 30 lbs. of water 
per hour evaporated from tempera- 
ture of 100° F. into steam of 70 
lbs. gauge-pressure (= 34^ lbs. from 
and at 212°). 

f Including feed-water heater 

\ Excluding " " 



9.26 lbs, 

8.87 lbs, 



7.35 lbs, 

8.36 lbs. 
0.208 lbs. 

69. libs. 



Second Test. 



2.12 lbs. 
74.1 lbs. 

1.84 lbs. 

613.0 lbs. 



117 H.P. 
112 H.P. 



9.05 lbs. 
8.68 lbs. 



8.62 lbs. 

9.80 lbs. 

0.244 lbs. 

81.1 lbs. 



2.44 lbs. 
85.1 lbs. 

2.12 lbs. 

704.2 lbs. 



134 H.P 
129 H.P. 



APPENDIX C. 



207 






iC C<J CM t- 



■^ CO CO CO 00 



CO CO (M CD 



•{"BOO \Te'\0']. 
JO -sqi 001 ^^^ 



Oi C5 CO C5 



I— ( CO »o 
CO (M CO 

en ^ i-H 



O Oi Oi Oi 



Gi a a Oi 



'%ji[ as'BjaAy 



CO CO CO CO 



CO CO CO CO CO CO 



'XBOO JO "qi aad 
padtund j^^iaa^n^ 



*8J95i;nTp pu-G 
saqsB JO '^090 jaj 



•p9sn J-BOO JO 



OJ CO CO CO 



03 CO I— I CO 



K^ r-j CO O 



■padmnd ^tmora'B 
9SBJ9AB ^U^Q 



CO lO CO CO 



1-1 Ci Oi 



CO C-l CO • CO CO Oi 



CD )— ( <M CO 
O CO -* Ol 
CO 0:1 CD Oi 



01 CO rH 



<M CO <M CN 



^ CO CO CO 



■p9dnind 



•padcund 
■^unomy 



SuTdniTi^j 



'padumd 
^ntiotay 



•9rai^ 
smdmti^j 



COOOCOOOOrH-^ 
OCOCNClOOiOO 



C-1 CO (M Oi ■* CO 



Oi CO 1— I 



t- CO CD CO 01 r-i 
(M O CO 01 CO Ci 



-# CO CI CD 



lO CO ?-H 



CO CO CO CD 



1-1 (M (M 



C31 CO C<1^ CO^ 
cT r-T (>r CI* 



d 00 lO CO 



CO UO -^ CO Oi 

C'l as a> CO c^ 

CO CO lO CO lO 



CO 00 CD CO 



i-( CO CO 



'til CD c^ 10 



c^ urs 1— I 



CO C: rH 



■padrand 
'junoiuy 



Smdcunj 



•p9dinnd 
^^anoray 



-1 CO 





02 


1 




3 





1 





§ 


05 
CO 


1 




to 
i CO 


^ 


CO 





■* 


s 


i 


CO 








rH 


00 


= 01 




01 


s 


S5 




^ 


<£> 


§5 







<M 



Cfl lO 10 lO 
Cq iO iH -^ 



^ s 



CO O C<1 »o 



»0 lO CO 00 



IN i-H r^ 



i-H i-H ■* 



O lO 03 00 



rH O 01 



1-1 r-( CO "C 



1-H l- Ol 






< S 



<4 oQ o 12; P 






,£3 


*j 


^• 











." 




m 


C3 


^ 














1 


<!> 


U) 




,0 


bn 


;h 




CI 








fl 


^ 








■<^ 





,a 


*i 


,0 


^^ 


td 








TS 





a 


<u 




tS 


a 


ai)^ 


n 


*=■ 


„ 


,a 





UJ 


"3 


fl 


« 




OJ 


-a 











H 


,0 



2-° 


.9 






11 


^ 




.o 








... 


p 













,3 


T3- 




hi 




3 


01 


T) 


s 


3 








s 









;a. 






— 00 

-d-d 3 

p, • « 

>*■« d 
I "55 



>7 >^S 



208 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



-adid •A^.-AVa) 



rH t— CO lO O O 

CD CO -+ rH i-( t- 



c-i CO CO o:) 



05 CD C^ CO 



JO -sqi 001 -lad 
•sqi--lj ni X:)na: 



»0 Til d 05 »fS »0 



"Ijn aS'eiSAY 



cocococococococo 



•X^OO JO •q\ J9d 



(^C0C0C0(MCOC0C0C0COC0C0 



•Bjai[ni[o pnB 
saifSB JO -luao jaj 



CD CD 00 05 



•pasn 
XBOo JO ^nnotuB 



•pednind anuoniB 



•padrand 
^nnoniB ib^ox 



•padrand 
^unoraY 



•arai^ 
Smdranj; 



^ s 









5! 


05 

o 


o 


^ 


o 


CO 


•^ 
■* 


i 


■5 




CO 


cq 


Oi 


00 


OJ 


02 


en 


Ol 


Ol 


r-T 

i-l 


S 



OS CO C^ CO 



GO CO CO c^ 



Oi CD C^ CO 



CO CO O »0 CD 00 CO 

l-H^ CN^ t-^ CD i-H^ C^- C^ 

oo" CO* --^ CO csT cT "^ 



CO 1—1 CO CO 



GO CO (N 



(M CD -<:tl lO 



CO CO la CO 

OS ■<* in 1-- 

CD CO CD CO 



CO CO CO CO 



CO (M CN CO u:> CO 



■73 fl 



>*s 






5? &o 



ft o 






^ s 



CD -M CO -^ 



•padrand 
';niioraY 



(i CO 



d Oi CO lO 



CS lO CSI o 



•erai^ 
Smdiunj; 



CO CO lO in 



N CO OO 



CO T-i CO OS 



■paduind 



Oi Oi 00 CO 



'padrand 
:iniiora"y 



•araii 
Snidran^j 



tH CO rH 

lO I— i CO. CO 00 

CO Oi CO 05 t— ( 



CO CO CO CO 



CO Cq CD CO 



c^ 1— I in o o o 



f^ ^ <i ^ 



O Izi ft 







^ 


o 


in 


o 


o 


lO 


O 


>n 


t_ 


lO 


lO 


^ 






^ 


■araij 








'-' 










^ 


-* 


^ 






M 


gnTdran<j 


bj 


lO 


CD 

CO 


■■^ 


CD 


05 


CO 


eq 


s 


•^ 


cq 


CO 


cq 


CO 



^ 






PI 



H5 



H t>5 

O 53 



APPENDIX C. 



209 



i >* 

O 



2 ^ 









^ 


CO 


Oi 


00 


Tl< 


CO 


CO 


00 


^ 


00 


Ttl 


cq 







• 


o 


-* 


CO 


-* 




q 




CO 


IM. 






q 


^ 


•lI^jnwH 


1^ 


CO 


-!iH 


^ 


CO 


<^i 


<M 


-* 


CO 


■^ 


i-i 


<M 


CO 


CO 








CO 


■^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 




o 




CD 


'^ 


CO 


•* 






CD 


































•^ 


CM 




CD 


^__ 


co_^ 




CO 


(M_ 




s 
































•IBOO -sqi 001 -isd 


S 


Ci 


CO 


o 


rH 


co__ 


00 


co" 


t 


1 


d* 

CO 


IM 
C-1 


IM 
IM 




^ 


n 


I-T 


o 


ira 




d* 




uro* 


d* 


T-H 




id 


d* 




OS 


o 


o 


o 




o 


C3 


OJ 






















iH 




'"' 


'"' 


'"' 






^ 


*"* 


rH 










o 






o 




o 




C5 



















^ 


C-l 


m 


CD 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 




-* 


CO 


ira 


lO 


•Un 8§BI JAV" 


^ 


'^i^ 


■* 


CO 


-*' 


^ 


■* 


•* 


^ 


Tji 


-* 


•S 


^ 


^ 


M 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 








00 


CO 


00 






CO 


<M 


^ 


O 


r^l 


CO 


o 


-ct^ 


IM 





CO 


in 


^ 


I --[BOO JO -qi jad 


■S 


c-i^ 


iO_ 


'^ 


CO 
CO 




^__ 


C0_ 


O 


"*. 


CM 


^_ 


CO 
IM_ 


^ 


paduitid 8UonB£) 


e 
^ 


co" 


co" 


co" 


co" 


CO 


co" 


co" 


CO 


co" 


co" 


00" 


co" 


CO 


•8.i85[nip pnt! 


;^ O 


o 


d 


CD 




^ 


•* 


CO 
(M 


~^ 


r~t 


^. 


*■: 


.00 

d 


tA 


saqsB JO -jnao J8<j 






"-I 




■-I 


■-I 




"-I 


r~i 


'-' 


"-1 




r^ 


•p^sn 




o 


CO 


CO 


^ 


o 


t- 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


■* 


rH 


!>. 






Ci 












CO 










CD 




]Boo JO innoare 


•§ 


o_ 




°i 


00_ 


^ 


^., 


co_ 




CO 




'^- 




CO_ 


SgBjaAB i^IIBQ 


S 


oo" 


o" 


-* 


co" 


o" 

T-i 


»-H 


rH 


^ 


d" 


d* 





CO 


(m" 






co~ 


o 


t-_ 


PH 


CO 


a 


rH 


rH 


j^ 


CD 


00 





t- 






CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


o 




CO 


CD 


IM 





CO 











^ 


cc 




UO 




O, 


00 


oo_ 










CO 


•psdinndiunomB 
agE.iaAB iCiiBQ 


^ 

1 




g> 


s 


CO 


53 


r-T 


?^ 


rH 


»; 


d 

?3 


■1-1 


CD* 
CD 
CD 


i 




cc 


co" 


Ol" 


d* 


ccT 


d 


00* 


00* 


d* 


jt^ 


^ 


CO 


oo* 








o 


lO 


CO 


-* 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


•<11 


■* 






o 


^ 


-^ 


cc 


^ 


CD 


O) 


oo 


in 


00 


CD 


^ 


l^ 






(M 


CO 


o 




o: 


CO 


CO 









-* 










'*-. 




-^ 


°i. 






cq 




CO 


IM 






(M 




































rn" 










o 


(N 


<N 




CO 






CD 


•padcnnd 


■2 


o 


J^ 


s 


en 


'=2 


CO 


^ 


IM 

CO 


00^ 


c? 


° 


•5 


^ 


innorjiB lujox 


^ 


oT 


^ 


OD 


ci 


!M 




CO 


»o* 


00" 


ic 


^ 


00 


d* 








o 


CO 




(M 






o 


t- 













^ 


CO 






lO 




(M 


f-H 




CO 


l-H^ 


»— < 


CO 








^ 


r-T 


'^" 


■-^ 


'-'" 


'-' 


^ 


r-T 


r-T 


•-^ 


'-''" 


l-H* 


s 








o 


IM 


CO 


•* 


(N 


o 


CO 


"~oT~ 


OD 


CO 


CO 


^ 


CO 










UO 




<M 




■^ 




00 


CD 


CO 


ira 





-00 






. 


o 




I—) 


r~i 


ai 


OJ^ 


c^ 








uo 


CO 


IM 


■* 


•padamd 




irT 


oT 


oo* 


00 


oo 


c/T 


PH* 


r^ 


d* 


IM 


^ 


00 


j^ 






CO 






CO 






o 












a> 


d 






•^ 


^J< 




a 


CO 


o 






'cjl 




d 


^ 


jnnoray 




(n" 


oT 




^■■ 


CO 


d* 


lO 


00 


uO* 




t_r 




im" 




^ 




o 






CO 






o 


•!t< 






OJ 




E4 




X 




CO 


t- 




C<1 


I>- 


CO 




10 


Tti 


^ 


IM 


g 






























t-^ 




R^ 


<M 


~<o~ 


^ 


o 


CO 


iO 


-* 


r-i 


«0 


r-( 





UO 





O 




^ 










IM 




CO 





(M 





IM 


CO 




•araii 
§niduin<j 


•^ 




1 


o 


-* 

CO 


o 

CO 


CO 
<M 


as 


i 


CO 
uo 




t— 


CO 
00 


CO 



d' 






(M 


^ 


CO 


(M 


o 


o 


CO 


o 


1 


00 





OD 


IM 












CO 


CO 








o 





IM 


0-1 










■*_ 


t-;^ 


<M_ 




co_ 




o^ 




CO 








































cc 


■psdtund 






gT 


CO* 


(M 




o 


d* 


UO 


CO* 


d* 






■* 




o 




i^ 


CO 


o 








oo 


t— 


■* 





^- 


OJ 


d 


janouiy 




(N 


"* 


CO 


°l 


QO 


!■— 


>* 


<M 


CD 




ffi 




]^ 


3 


co" 


rH* 


00 


tS 


rH* 


lO" 


t~r 


IM 


0-f 


d" 


j-^ 


d* 


d* 




Cb 


CO 




•* 


•^ 


^ 


o 




(M 


IM 


05 




-ri^ 


'^ 


g 




CO 


■^ 


00 


CO 


CO 


CI 


-cf 




■* 


■JO 


CD 


00 


^ 




fa5 


c^ 


O 


c^ 


OD 


CO 


CO 


t^ 


IM 





j^ 


Oi 





00 


3 




-* 


O 


CO 


lO 




o 


>o 


o 







-* 


IM 


00 


!5 


•araii 
Snidmn<j 


o 

CO 


CO 


i 


CO 
CO- 


oo 


CO 

o 


i 


^ 
^ 


CO 


S 


CO 


CO 


rH 

co" 








rH 


IM 


Oi 


IN 


CO 


CM 


IM 


lO 


00 


tH 





in 


IM 








CO 




o 


O 






00 


CD 





■* 


OJ 







<N 






o_ 


CO 






^ 


^ 


CD 


00 




q_ 


IM_ 


0; 




6 


•padnind 


■§ 




co" 


6^ 


co" 

rH 




1 


CR 


o 


CD 


CD 


10" 

CS 


00" 





Iz; 


ninoray 


-^ 


r-^ 


o^ 






CO^ 




^__ 


CO__ 


in 


^ 




I-j^ 




w 




^ 


co" 


<M 


t 




oT 






d" 




d" 




CO 


d* 








-!(< 




(N 


C^ 


-* 






IM 


■^ 


22 


ia 
o 






IH 
























^ 






lO 


(N 


to 


lO 


o 


O 


CO 


ira 


~~d~ 


CO 


rH 





,01 


•acun 


'^ 


o 




o 


CO 


0^ 


CO 




IM 


CO 




lO 


CO 





Snidonnj; 


^ 


0-. 


f:! 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 
(M 


IM 


OO 




CO 


s 


00 











t^ 


CO 


rH 


oo 


CD 


■* 


~00 


CD 





CO 





r-l 


in 










'^ 




CD 


O 


t^ 




CO 


00 


01 


00 


UO 


IM 








oi 


CO 


cq 


00 




co 


03 


CO 


^ 


■^ 






-* 


d 


•padamd 


-§ 


e<i 


!N 


c5 


CO 


co" 


tf 


i 


i 


CO 


ira 


IM* 


d* 


g 


innotnv" 


■^ 


CO 


r-^ 


oi 


°i 


o 


c^ 






(M 




T-H^ 


CO 


CO 






^ 


co' 


■^ 


CO 




t-T 


lO 


co" 


d' 


-* 




d* 


d* 




s 




CO 


5< 


Gi 


■* 






IM 


IM 




IM 






s 


3 






























'il 




^ 


ir^ 


1^ 


CO 


o 


liO 


o 


o 


~n~ 











10 


^ 


•atuii 


o 


-* 


Ttl 


(M 


^ 


CO 




CM 








CO 


H 


Snidcun<T 


fc- 


^ 


CO 


s 


CO 


CO 


^ 


bi 


IM 


CO 


rH 


s 


a> 


(M 




•^ 


























-* 










• 




















"* s 


(C 






>i 


















^ 


i-t 


§1 

c-" 




90 




C3 
3 

B 


3 




<1 


1 





»-5 


+3 

45 


JO 

a 

ft 

02 


4) 




/2 

s 

> 




,0 

s 

a> 



210 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



The average daily amount of sewage pumped since the works were in operation 
is shown as follows : — 



January . 
February . 
March .. . 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June . . . 
July . . . 
August . . 
September 
October . 
November 
December 



Date. 



Average , 



Daily average of sewage pumped, in gallons. 



1884. 



25,777,360 
32,437,379 
29,949,356 
25,121,056 
26,712,298 
25,900,400 
31,674,621 
28,412,431 
27,601,557 
27,501,283 
30,883,501 



28,379,040 



1S85. 



39,016,276 
45,£93,905 
35,095,506 
28,700,863 
30,306,228 
29,931,484 
29,642,964 
36,996,434 
28,761,290 
31,476,179 
38,917,253 
32,894,281 



33,874,575 



1886. 



41,063,812 
60,612,617 
39,774,669 
36,725,288 
32,157,392 
26,625,076 
31,743,685 
32,326,434 
32,903,724 
33,395,604 
34,170,833 
40,894,411 



36,866,129 



1887. 



68,648,343 
53,827,805 
52,857,787 
50,431,531 
36,214,703 
40,631,019 
38,172,331 
38,881,361 
35,777,621 
37,330,106 
37,134,588 
43,660,600 



43,630,657 



APPENDIX O. 



211 



^ > 



^i'% 








■3^^ 










s 0^ 




- 0) » a 




1-^'5-S 












Hobl 
Ho 

Clint 
Qu 


3 



a ° 

=3^ 



O H O O 



ij b < bo 



>o 22 



02 01 cq CO 



IM 1-1 iH rH 



>0 CO i—t 

■* ffq cq 



00 CO OS 05 




03 «3 «= ^05 ^ 



X /N CO X "^ '-^ "^ X ?N '^ 



!- a 



a ^ 



a s 



5 o lS S 

^ a 2 



a 




P5 


C3 
60 


J3 



« 


a. 


H 







a 











a 



'zi O .u 



a 


a 





r 


H 


£ 


C5 


a 






a 
1 




5 

3 


a 


a 


C3 


g 










a^ 

C3 C 
























p< 


S 

T3 





-tJ 




























a 


OJ 


^,^ 


a 




rn 




jg 


P< 


> 


T3 c 














C3 


3 ■^ 




s 


fl 








c8 a 


QJ 


-a 


^ 


W 


W 





>y 


> 


n 


u 






a ^ 



J 



o a 



■ 2 



« 


C3 




« 


.a 







M 




d 


=£! 




"2 


P^ 




C3 


tf 




■£ 


d 









w 


jg 




s^ 


a; 






^ 




y 


■g 


J 


"£. 



<1 pq ^ 
















a a a a 



a ;^ S S ^ S 



m Ti w. a ai 



^ ^ 



'^ rji m m 



;? ^ H H M 



212 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 













;; 






•c 
































c 






a 




























OQ 






03 




























». 






A 


i 


























>f 







■5 


o; 




















5? 








3 







a 

C3 


►2 




















a 




c 




a 




















■3 






.2 




C 


>) 


3 


^ 


a> 


ii 


















r-i 




c 





GO 


^ 


;a 


" 


































^ 
























.a-d . 
























>. .^ 


>> 


p<a >^ 


5 


,Q 


^ 


>s 


•^ •>,>.>, >. 








l>a 




1 


=« -s 


A 





3 


4-3 










^-"^ 






'C 


a 





02 





ffi 





Ph 


5 


c 


3 





5 





.9 a . 


































_, 03 GO 


tc 
































■B^^ 


.^ 


cr 


»o 


Oi 


b- 


■ri 


Oi 


(v- 





-ti 


d 


-t 









CO 


M -w 






CO 


S> 






CO 


iC 








0* 






^ 






cr 






t- 


CO 












t- 









lO 


S aS - 




- Si 




-* 


<M 


CO 


CO 


K 


0-1 


IM 












<N 




5 
































m 






. ^ 


zx 


, 






-, 














■ — 


_-, 


0) 




c 


• 








•a 


a 






















u 






































a 




«: 










* CO 


a: 






















■a 






• c 


.9 




a 
























C3 

.9 




^ coco 


.9 '^ 


X 


;x 

• a 


^ X ^ 

- a >« 

•" w 

0^ A 


«4H 

CO 

X 






.= 


'4H 

CO 

X 


«: 




a" S 
X 










































q-tM- 


i 




«M ^H**-* -t- 






3 ^ cc 






o*^ 




2 






<M ^ ^ (^ 


4H 


«0 ^Tl< '^ 


S-H 


CI 


=M ^- 




r-i C: »0 _ 


in 




c^ 


■*c_ 






CO 




_- ^ 


m 


— 





, -* (M 
























^ 






a 








>3 








^ 












a 














^ 



























p 








3 








c3 












,0 






«4-< 








^ 








03 












03 














« 








T3 












1 




■g 






















a 










-1-J 


^ 




w 


T3 




^ 




■1^ 








"3 










1 


a 


a 







>5 




■g 




a 








^ 










"Si) 








13 

















i 










bn 


s 




to 






P^ 




■^ 


^ 






a 








5- 

a 


3 


a 
1 


a 




a 

p 


3 

a 

s 




2 

a 





a 


a 




a 
c 




•S) 

a 

ca 


a 
a 
H 

P5 


si 




• C 


be 
3 




r 


a 


fC 


^ 


1 





c 






'0 


^ 






c 


a 




S 


]s 


c 


- 


^ 


i; 


J. 






M 


«? 


1 









s 







^ 

a 




■s 


>» 


a 




t 


c 




^ 


^ 


H? 




• t- 
a 

£ 


p 




a 




T3 


: c 


> 

ff 








i 


*" 


■i 


3 


a 





i 


c7 


1 


9 


ti 


g" 
,a 


3 !^ 
. c 


£ 
1 


fa 

■73 

a 

C3 


,f 


0) 


E 
c 


1 < 




S 




<i 


5 J 




-a 

fl 

cj 




c 


s 

3 


a " 


i- 


6 
> 


b 


1 


t 






■3'E 
%1 


bi 

c 






a 




^ 


■a" 


a> 




+j 


P' 


■s 


+ 






bijc 


'£ 






3> '-S 


n 


i 


►, 


■^ X 


a 




0) 


'^ 




i 
C 


i \ 




aC 


3 

3 Ph 








u 


■s - 










E 











C 






^ a 
p 




K 


5 < 


i H 


^1 


: ^ 


>i 


P 


fi 


Iz 


^£ 


^ 


\ P 




f 








a 


a 




a 


a 


r 


a 


E 


a 


c 


: E 




fi 












*" 










^ 


'"' 


*" 


H H 


























1 


^ 




i 












• M 


,M 


c 





a 



c 


a 



c 


P 


s 


m 





> 










, 






c 








c 





c 


6 


5 


< 


>, 


1 


a) 
02 


• 1 




T 


3 « 


c2 


P 


i m 


« 


p 


M 


p: 


&" 


"t 


a 


."S 


OD 








cr 


5 >> 


>5 


f 


^ 


g 


J 


Jl 




5 


j: 


5 a 


^iz 


M 


S 






, a 
° 


a 


c 


3 3 







c 


3 



c 




1 P 


>^| 


a 


3 






f-: 


\ m 


m 


Cf 


2 CQ 


« 


n 


GO 


i/ 


<A 


fi 


%' 
I 


a 


t^ 






.^ 


iH 


'^' 


r. 


< ^, 


CO 


■^ 


^ 


1$ 










P4 


r^ 



APPENDIX C. 



213 





■a 


















a 








a . 








o o 








OQy 








^.^^ 
















: •= q 






1 II 


c 


5 


c 
c 

c 

p: 




R. A. Mai 

W. C. Po 
C. W. P 


5 
5 








>n 


O 1- 


|, 


t^ 


to CO 


r- 








CO 


t- t- 












o> 




. .'O . 










a . 










■ ■ '^iS 


*t 








• "^^ <>i 


(> 








t-'rH 










^ .X . 


> 








S43 . d 


c 






_c 


x^-"'^ 


c 






t£ 


.X«5^ 


''^ 










=+- 






<+• 


^4^4h =^ 


c 






t- 


W CO cc 








^ 










-*^ CO 










C to o 










CO °"-l-H 










CO ""1 - 










Oi -^ m 




















^ o ^ 






























£5 1' 

OJ — OQ 










&pl^ 










CO g s 


















^■S-^J 










o ° o 










.« O oo 










«^p 










T! 








% 


a 
' 1 








PC 










;- 










i 


o 
o 


j 






a 












s 


C 






t- 


o 


c 






c 


4^ 








P 


-g 


j: 








o 











^ 


> 






c 


s 


a 


5 


— 


^ 


« 


$. 




7^ 


£ 
o 


^ 




c 


^ 




e 


m 


fe 




tH 








« 


S 


^ 




^ 


p: 


1 




a) 


OJ 




CO 


cc 


0) 








02 




"s 


"3 


-^ 




e+T 


«4-l 














3 


a 


a 




O 


O 


O 







APPENDIX D. 



LIST OF OFFICERS CONNECTED WITH BOSTON MAIN 
DRAINAGE WORKS. 

Commission of 1875. 
E. S. Chesbrough, C.E. 
Moses Lane, C.E. 
C. F. FoLSOM, M.D. 



Engineers. 
City Engineers. 
Joseph P. Davis ...... 

Henry M. Wightman ..... 

William Jackson ...... 

Principal Assistants to City Engineer. 
Henry M. Wightman 
Alphonse Fteley .... 
John E. Cheney .... 



Consulting Engineer 



Eliot C. Clarke 



1876-1880 
1880-1885 
1885-1888 

1876-1880 

1880-1884 
1885-1888 

1886-1887 



Principal Assistants in charge of Main Drainage Works. 



P^LiOT C. Clarke 
Fred P. Stearns 
Seth Perkins . 
George S. Rice 
Henry W. Sanborn 

William Jackson 
P'red p. Stearns 
Clem ens H ersch el 
George S. Rice 
John E. Cheney 
George H. Crafts 
Seth Perkins . 
Charles S. Go wen 

E. K. Howe 

F. a. May 
F. W. Ring 
R. Tappan 
E. O. Kimball 



Assistant Engi 



1876-1885 

July, 1885-Aug., 1886 

Aug., 1886- April, 1887 

April, 1887-July, 1887 

July, 1887-Jan., 1888 



1876- 
1880- 
1878- 
1877- 
1879- 
1877- 
1877- 
1880- 
1877- 
1876- 
1876- 
1876- 
1885- 



-1885 
-1885 
-1880 
-1880 
-1885 
-1881 
-1885 
-1881 
-1880 
-1880 
-1877 
-1877 
-1888 



APPENDIX D. 



215 



Principal Superintendents of Construction. 

Sewer Construction. 

H. A. Carson. 

Pumping- Station. 
S. H. Tarbell. 



Joint Special Committee on Improved Sewerage. 

1876. 



Aldermen. 

Alvah a. Burrage, Chairman. 
Solomon B. Stebbins. 
Thomas J. Whidden. 



Councilmen. 
Eugene H. Sampson. 
J. Homer Pierce. 
Warren K. Blodgett. 
Marcellus Day. 
Albert H. Taylor. 



1877. 



Aldermen. 
Choate Burnham, Chairmau. 
Charles W. Wilder. • 
Lucius Slade. 



Councilmen. 
Eugene H. Sampson. 
J. Homer Pierce. 
Warren R. Blodgett. 
Martin L. Ham. 
George L. Thorndike. 



1878. 
Aldermen. 
Thomas J. Whidden, Chairman. 
Solomon B. Stebbins. 
Lucius Slade. 



Councilmen. 
Eugene H. Sampson. 
George L. Thorndike. 
J. Homer Pierce. 
Frederick B. Day. 
James B. Richardson. 



1879. 



Aldermen. 
Lucius Slade, Chairman. 
Solomon B. Stebbins. 
Daniel D. Kelly. 



Councilmen. 
Isaac Rosnosky. 
Thomas J. Denney. 
John P. Brawley. 
Daniel J. Sweeney. 
Oscar B. Mowry. 



216 



MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS. 



1880. 



Aldermen. 
Lucius Slade, Chairman. 
Asa H. Caton. 
George L. Thorndike. 



Councilmen. 
Daniel J. Sweeney. 
Charles H. Plimpton. 
Howard Clapp. 
Malcolm S. Greenough. 
Benjamin S. Brintnall. 



1881. 



Aldermen. 
Lucius Slade, Chairman. 
William Woolley. 
Charles H, Hersey. 



Councilmen. 
Howard Clapp. 
Thomas J. Denney. 
Malcolm S. Greenough. 
Frank E, Fakwell. 
John E. Bowker. 



1882. 



Aldevmen. 
Lucius Slade, Chairman. 
William Woolley. 
Charles H. Hersey. 



Coi(ncilm,en. 
Malcolm S. Greenough. 
Thomas J. Denney. 
Frank E. Farwell. 
Prentiss Cummings. 
Nathan G. Smith. 



1883. 



Aldermen. 
Lucius Slade, Chairman. 
William Woolley. 
Thomas H. Devlin. 



Councilmen. 
Malcolm S. Greenough. 
Thomas J. Denney. 
Frank E. Farwell. 
John B. Fitzpatrick. 
Patrick J. Donovan. 



1884, 



Aldermen. 

Lucius Slade, Chairman. 
Charles H. Hersey. 
Malcolm S. Greenough. 



Councilmen. 
Thomas J. Denney. 
Patrick J. Donovan. 
Isaac Rosnosky. 
J. Edward Lappen. 
James B. Graham. 



APPENDIX D. 



217 



1885. 
Aldermen. 
Patrick J. Donovan. Chairman. 
George Curtis. 
William J. Welch. 



Councilmen. 
Edward P. Fisk, 
J. Edward Lappen. 
John Gallagher. 
William H. Murphy. 
Benjamin B. Jenks. 



1886. 

Aldermen. 
Patrick J. Donovan, Chairman 
Nathan G. Smith. 
Samuel J. Capen. 



Councilm,en. 
D. Foster Farrar. 
William A. Foss. 
John Gallagher. 
George N. Fisher, Jr. 
Thomas J. Denney. 



1887 

Aldermen. 
Patrick J. Donovan, Chairman 
Nathan G. Smith. 
Samuel J. Capen. 



Councilmen. 
William A. Foss. 
Henry S. Dewey. 
John Gallagher. 
S. Edward Shaw. 
William J. Mahoney. 



W-t:' 



i