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Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 



Legislative Library 

Reproduced by courtesy of William King Richardson, Boston, Mass. 


From the original painting by Gilbert Stuart 




Librarian of 
Maine State Library 

Augusta, Maine 





To twine her memory with something that may live 

I write it here, and consecrate this page 

To all her love has. given or could give. 


The geography and history of Maine are distinctive. The location and 
topography of Maine give her a place of great advantage. Her history, 
dating back to the early part of the seventeenth century, is full of stirring 
romance, matchless heroism and marvelous achievements. 

Histories of the state have been written by Williamson, Sullivan, 
Sewall, Abbott, Burrage, Holmes and Hatch. Others have written of 
her great events and great men. School histories have been written by 
Varney, Stetson and MacDonald. Distinguished scholars like Baxter have 
selected and published the documentary history of the state. The State 
Library has 250 town histories. On account of the policy of the state in 
giving financial aid, every year sees one or more town histories added to 
the list. The newspapers of the state have always given space to historical 
matter and their files are an invaluable source of facts. 

Sprague's Journal of Maine History, published and edited by Hon. J. 
Francis Sprague of Dover, is of great value on account of its special 

In 1907 the state appointed Dr. Henry S. Burrage State Historian. 
He has more than justified the wisdom of his office by giving to the state 
his "Maine at Valley Forge," "Beginnings of Colonial Maine," "Maine at 
Louisburg," "Maine in the Northeastern Boundary Controversy." These 
books are everywhere accepted as authority on the subjects treated. They 
are written with accuracy, a fine sense of proportion and high literary 

In preparing this book as a part of the centennial program of Maine 
the object has been to furnish the busy man and those who do not have 
original sources at hand, a reference book to important historical and 
industrial matter. 

This book is in no sense a history of Maine, nor is it intended to be 
substituted for any period of Maine history. The author's purpose is to 
answer the questions that continually come to the State Library from 
every town in Maine and from every state in the country. Thousands of 
these questions are received every year from teachers, public officials, 
business, professional and college men. High School students, boys and 
girls of the grades are every year asking for information not easily acces- 
sible in the usual history or text book. 

The subjects have been selected with these questions in mind. The 



treatment on account of the number of subjects is necessarily brief and 
limited for the most part to a statement of facts rather than an interpre- 
tation of the facts. 

There is included in this study the history of each state department 
connected with the industrial and social life of the state, also an outline 
of what the state government is doing for the improvement of the state. 

It is time the people of Maine should know and appreciate the work 
of the state. They should realize that the state is more than a political 
unit, that in fact it is a great business organization devoted to developing 
her natural resources, building up her industries and promoting the moral, 
educational and social welfare of all the people. 

A partial bibliography has been added so that the student may know 
where to find more detailed information on any subject presented. These 
books may be found in the State Library and may be borrowed by any 
person in the state. A card addressed State Library, Augusta, Maine, 
will bring you the book you need. 

So many persons have assisted in gathering the information and 
granting permission to use materials, that it is impossible to list them 
all and to express the author's appreciation for their generous help. The 
library staff have co-operated in every way to make the book accurate and 
worth while to those interested in the State of Maine, in fact without 
their assistance it would have been impossible to prepare the book. 

H. E. D. 





I. Maine and the Nation's Wars 

II. The World War 9 

III. Maine Enters the War 14 

IV. Chronology of the World War 21 

V. History of 103d Maine Infantry 27 

VI. Our War Governors 28 

VII. Geography '.' 37 

VIII. Colonial Maine . , 42 

IX. Indian Forts 46 

X. First Naval Battle of the Revolution 47 

XL Arnold's Expedition to Quebec 52 

XII. Separation from Massachusetts 58 

XIII. Ratification of the Federal Constitution 62 

XIV. Colonial Government 64 

XV. State Government in Outline 68 

XVI. Local Government ". 70 

XVII. Development of the Judiciary 77 

XVIII. Chronological Record of Events. 80 

XIX. State Flag 85 

XX. Seal and Arms 88 

XXL Floral Emblem 91 

XXII. Returned Maine Battle Flags 94 

XXIII. State House 98 

XXIV. Executive Mansion 101 

XXV. Governors of Maine 107 

XXVI. Maine Indians 110 

XXVII. Maine in Poetry 115 

XXVIII. The First Poet 135 

XXIX. The First Novelist 140 

XXX. Books, Newspapers, Printers, Editors 147 

XXXI. Maine's Contribution to Literature 157 


XXXII. Governor and Council 178 

XXXIII. Education 182 

XXXIV. Libraries 190 

XXXV. Religious Societies , 194 



Chapter Page 

XXXVI. Agriculture 199 

XXXVII. Cotton Industry 207 

XXXVIII. Woolen Industry 210 

XXXIX. Fishing Industry 214 

XL. Canning Industry 217 

XLI. Ice Business 218 

XLII. Forests and Lumber 220 

XLIII. Leather and Shoe Industry 225 

XLIV. Mineral Resources 227 

XLV. Shipbuilding 233 

XLVI. Summer Homes 240 

XLVII. Highways 245 

XLVIII. Labor and Industry 248 

XLIX. Public Utilities 251 

L. Animals, Fish and Birds 256 

LI. State Printing 262 

LII. Banks 264 

LIII. Social Service 266 

LIV. State Hospitals 271 

LV. School for Feeble-minded 280 

LVI. State School for Boys 283 

LVII. State School for Girls 286 

LVIII. Bath Military and Naval Orphan Asylum 289 

LIX. Maine School for the Deaf 291 

LX. Tuberculosis Sanatoriums 293 

LXI. State Reformatory for Men. . .'. 296 

LXII. State Reformatory for Women 297 

LXIII. Maine State Prison 298 

LXIV. Maine Institution for the Blind 300 

LXV. Health 301 

LXVI. Insurance 303 

LXVII. Workmen's Insurance 305 

LXVIII. The Work of the Secretary of State 308 

LXIX. Valuation of Maine 310 

LXX. State Finances 313 

LXXI. The Military 315 

LXXII. Department of the Attorney General 320 

LXXIII. Author Bibliography 322 

LXXIV. Bibliography 324 




William King Frontispiece 

Old Glory xiv 

Dyce's Head 5 

Road to France 8 

Colonel Hume Presenting Flags of 103 Inf. to Governor Milliken 26 

Maine War Governors 29, 32 

Winter Wood Scene 36 

Pemaquid in 1607 41 

Fort Western, 1754 . . 45 

Benedict Arnold 51 

The Flag facing 84 

Seal and Arms 88 

Pine Cone and Tassel 90 

Returned Maine Battle Flags 93 

Moses Owen 96 

State House 97 

Original State House 100 

Executive Mansion 103 

Red Paint Grave : Ill 

Murmurous Pines 121 

Katahdin 124 

Popham Colony in 1607 132 

Tomb of Governor Lincoln 134 

Madam Wood 139 

Governor Enoch Lincoln 156 

Governor Carl E. Milliken 177 

Early Maine Churches 193, 197 

A Potato Harvest 200 

Five- Year-Old Apple Tree 206 

A Morning Catch from Lake Winnecook, Unity, Maine 213 

Maine Cornfield 217 

Logging on the Kennebec 219 

Lumber Camp ' 223 

Hauling Logs in the Maine Woods 226 

The "Ranger" 235 

"William P. Frye" 237 

Moose 239 

Dinner in the Open 241 

Lafayette National Park 243 

Section of State Museum 257 

Woodcock Group in State Museum 259 

State School for Boys. Administration Building 282 

Scene at Fairfield Sanatorium 292 

Reformatory for Men 295 



This publication is a statement of leading facts in the development 
of our great state. They are collected with care and well authenticated. 
Henry E. Dunnack, State Librarian, is well fitted for the task, and has 
made herein a worthy contribution to the historic archives of the state. 
In the collection, selection and arrangement of materials he has at his 
command the books and records of a well filled library which coupled with 
his grasp of the relative importance of historic facts assures the value 
of the work. 

Part I deals with the historical and literary incidents covering the 
wars in which Maine has engaged from the early troubles with the Indians 
to participation in the great war; a brief summary of geographical con- 
ditions, the separation from Massachusetts and formation of an inde- 
pendent state with a government of its own. 

Part II covers the social and industrial development including the 
organization, extension, development and services of the various state 
departments, executive and administrative. 

It is fitting in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred 
twenty and in the one hundredth anniversary of our statehood that these 
facts should be collected and placed in form for the use not only of the 
general reader and student of history but for our schools also. The out- 
lines of state history contained herein will form the basis of intelligent 
research among the sources of history themselves. The students in our 
schools during the centennial year should seek in their own localities the 
early landmarks of history, old buildings, places where interesting and 
important events occurred, the families of first settlers, original docu- 
ments, records, etc. In such a project this publication will be of inestimable 

The picturesqueness, the scenic grandeur of the State of Maine can- 
not be appreciated fully without a setting of human activity. Among 
these rivers, lakes, woodlands, hills, mountains and shores the drama of 
civilization has taken place, and this it is which lends charm to what 
nature has done. The achievements of men on the foundations of nature 
are the miracles of the ages. A stage may be set, its scenic beauty unri- 
valled, but the charm is in the living characters who play upon it and 
the human interest they portray. 

Along our shores sailed the daring seamen seeking "new things"; up 
our rivers came the intrepid pioneers lured by attractive intervales which 



lie along our rivers; into our boundless forests pushed the hardy and 
courageous woodsmen all seeking to awaken the land of fertility and 
riches from its sleep of ages and rescue it from its "buried talent" pos- 
sessors until civilization gathered her forces together for the transforma- 
tion of the wilderness into the comfortable abode of prosperous generations. 
The story of the centuries intervening between those who were first 
to behold our shores and those who now enjoy the comforts of industry 
accumulated through many generations is more thrilling than fable, more 
fascinating than fiction. The struggle to subdue the wild, to uproot the 
forest and plant the farm, to harness the rivers and make them giants of 
industry, the story of war and the courage displayed by the men of Maine 
and the women also from the skirmish with the Indian to participation 
in the world war should be known, understood and appreciated by every 


State Superintendent of Schools. 

Howard Chandler Christy 

By permission 

And seeing you fly, and the boys marching by, 
There's a shout in the throat and a blur in the eye 
And an aching to live for you always or die, 
If, dying, we still keep you waving on high. 

Name of Old Glory, Riley. 


Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori 

,-, For almost a century the northern American colonies 

French and , ,, , , . . , 

, ,. w experienced all the horrors of savage warfare incident to 

the desperate struggle for supremacy between France and 
England. "The brunt fell upon Maine, the vast frontier and flying-buttress 
of New England, her soil the battle ground and her sons the vanguard." 
Within her boundaries at the conclusion of King Philip's war were only 
five settlements and such was the drain upon her during the succeeding 
wars that there was not left at home one man to a family. 

The fleet which took Port Royal was chiefly manned in Maine and 
commanded by her distinguished son, Sir William Phips. The famous 
siege of Louisburg was commanded by William Pepperell of Kittery, after- 
wards knighted for his success in this expedition, and at least a third of 
the entire besieging force was recruited from the Province of Maine. 
Many of the men who served at Louisburg served also in the armies that 
a few years later at Lake George drove the advancing French forces back 
to their strongholds on the St. Lawrence, to be finally overcome by Wolfe 
on the Plains of Abraham. 

TIT- f 4.u Maine gave to the struggle for independence six thousand 

War or tne . , , ., ,. /. 

R , ,. men. And when it was over, one thousand of her sons 

had sacrificed their lives and the burden of debt that fell 
upon her was greater in proportion to her wealth and population than 
her share in the cost of the Civil War. 

The news of the battle of Lexington reached York on the evening of 
the same day. The next morning a company of sixty men, fully equipped 
with arms, ammunition and food, were marching to Boston. The first 
company was followed in a few days by men from the entire province, 
even as far east as Machias. Falmouth, now Portland, was bombarded 
and utterly destroyed by a British fleet, October 18, 1775, and the terri- 
tory from the Kennebec to the eastern boundary was frequently invaded 
and suffered numerous attacks at different points. 

A Maine regiment was present at the battle of Bunker Hill. On June 
12, 1775, the patriots of Machias fought "the Lexington of the seas," in 
which the Margaretta was captured and "the British flag was struck for 


the first time on the ocean to Americans." Eleven hundred men from 
Maine were with Washington at Valley Forge, a tenth of the entire force. 
At the siege of Boston practically every able-bodied man in western Maine 
was present. An old letter in the Massachusetts archives states that 
during the siege, when an urgent call was made for additional volunteers, 
they got the reply from Falmouth, "Every man who can leave home is 
gone or going to Cambridge. They must draw upon this part of the 
province for women instead of men, and for knives and forks instead of 
arms." Maine men were at Quebec with Arnold, also at Ticonderoga, 
Long Island, Stillwater, Saratoga, the surrender of Burgoyne, at Mon- 
mouth and at Yorktown. The daring fishermen of our coast served in 
the Continental Navy and were with John Paul Jones. It is pleasant to 
remember that when Washington rode down the lines one day to thank 
the troops whose valor had turned the tide of a desperate battle, and 
exclaimed with uncovered head "God bless the Massachusetts line!" he 
spoke to the Third Division men from the counties of York and Cum- 

war ^ 1^12, although it was unpopular with her 

w f 1812 

people, Maine shirked no responsibility. It is said that 

more soldiers were enlisted in the District of Maine, in proportion to its 
population, than in any of the states. The whole number of militia, ever 
ready to march, amounted to twenty-one thousand one hundred and twenty- 
one men. 

During the first two years of* the war Maine was not actually invaded 
by the enemy, though often menaced. During the summer of 1814, how- 
ever, the towns of Eastport, Castine, Belfast, Bangor and Hampden were 
captured and plundered by a strong British force. The region between 
Passamaquoddy Bay and the Penobscot River passed under the control 
of the British. Castine was made the port of entry and a custom-house 
was opened at Hampden. 

A naval engagement off the coast near Portland on September 5, 
1814, in which the American brig "The Enterprise" captured the British 
brig "The Boxer" is probably the most noteworthy battle in which Maine 
men participated. 
"A . , A serious disagreement existed between the United States 

and Great Britain from the treaty of peace (1783) to the 

Webster-Ashburton treaty (1842) respecting the boundary 
line known in history as the "Northeast Frontier." The disputed terri- 
tory became the scene of various encounters between the officials of New 
Brunswick and the settlers, who believed they were citizens of Maine. 
By order of the Governor of Maine, the militia was called upon to hold 
itself in readiness for active service. Two expeditions were made to the 
Aroostook and Madawaska country. The first was by the Maine Land 


en PJ 

g W 


Agent, accompanied by the sheriff of Penobscot County and a posse of 
men, for the purpose of driving off trespassers upon Maine soil. The 
second expedition was a military one to repel an invasion ol the state, 
which the Lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick had threatened to make. 
Through the mediation of General Scott of the United States Army, terms 
of settlement were agreed upon and the troops were recalled from the 
Aroostook. The "war" was a bloodless one. 

. The record won by Maine troops in defense of the Union 

has become the glory of the state. No town was so ob- 
scure, no community so destitute, that it could not contribute its 
share of men and money. In many towns, in less than twenty- 
four hours after tidings of the firing upon Fort Sumter were received, 
full companies of volunteers were formed, ready to march. The first com- 
pany which filled its ranks, and was accepted by the governor, was the 
Lewiston Light Infantry. During the four years Maine sent seventy-two 
thousand nine hundred and forty-five men to the battlefield and over 
nine thousand never returned. She furnished thirty-two infantry regi- 
ments, three regiments of cavalry, one regiment of heavy artillery, seven 
batteries of mounted artillery, seven companies of sharpshooters, thirty 
companies of unassigned infantry, seven companies of coast-guards, and 
six companies for coast fortifications; six thousand seven hundred and 
fifty men were also contributed to the navy and marine corps. 

It was a Maine regiment that* returned with the largest number of 
battles recorded on its flag of any regiment in the service, and another 
of its regiments sustained the greatest loss of any regimental organiza- 
tion in any arm of the service. 

Spanish- Exclusive of soldiers, seamen and marines who enlisted 

American War in the regular arm y and nay y> Maine furnished for the 
war with Spain one volunteer regiment of infantry, four 
batteries of heavy artillery, and a signal corps, a total of 1,717 officers 
and men. This was more than her full quota. 

Neither the artillery nor the infantry saw active service, but over fifty 
men died from fever contracted in the southern camps, and many more 
were permanently invalided. 

The Signal Corps was ordered to the front and did excellent service 
in the several battles on the island of Cuba near Santiago, which led to 
the surrender of that city and the Spanish forces occupying it. General 
Greeley, chief signal officer of the United States Army, at the close of 
the war addressed the Maine Signal Corps in these words, "You of the 
volunteers that came into the field from your shops and desks, cannot be 
expected to stand the hardships of this campaign like the regulars who 
are trained soldiers, neither are you expected to perform the many duties 


which devolve upon you with the same intelligence as the regulars who 
have had years of constant practice and study, but the comparison is very 
flattering to you. You were the first to report for duty in Washington, you 
were the best equipped of any detachment that has reported here during 
the war. The State of Maine ought to be proud of you and should be 
proud of the manner in which she prepared you for the field." 



The Opportunity. In 1914 the German army was at the pink of 
perfection. It could hardly be increased or improved. The Russian army 
was disorganized after the Japanese war and many strategic railroads 
were still unbuilt. The French army sadly lacked heavy artillery and 
other equipment; besides France seemed rent by great political scandals. 
Great Britain appeared to be controlled by pacifist ministers and was 
threatened by civil war in Ireland. Now or never was the German chance 
for a great increase of power. The precepts of Frederick the Great and 
of Bismarck forbade that such an opportunity should be let slip. 

The Plot. Serbia was a weak country with a standing quarrel (over 
Bosnia) with Austria, Germany's supply ally. Russia was the protector 
of Serbia, but if an attack were made on Serbia either (1) Russia would 
desert Serbia and let the Teutons make a great increase of power in the 
Balkans at little risk or cost, or (2) Russia would help Serbia with arms, 
which would bring on the great war that the Teutons were sure they could 
win. Either outcome seemed desirable. 

The Pretext. On June 28, 1914, the Archduke of Austria, heir to 
the throne, Franz Joseph, was murdered at Sarajevo, Bosnia, by assassins 
who seemed to have been instigated from Serbia. There was no proof of 
official sanction by Serbia for the deed, but there was an excellent pretext 
for an ultimatum. 

The Austrian Ultimatum. On July 23, 1914, at a time when Europe 
seemed remarkably quiet and when many diplomats were on vacation, 
Austria sent Serbia a "note demanding," not merely the complete punish- 
ment of all her anti-Austrian agitators, but the allowing of Austrian offi- 
cials to enter Serbia to take charge of the prosecution. No independent 
government could have admitted such a sweeping claim. The Austrians 
must have imagined the Serbians to be rabbits instead of men to have 
proposed this and expected peace to continue. Serbia was given forty-eight 
hours wherein to decide between signing away her national independence 
and war. 

"Russia Becomes Involved. Russia as Serbia's "great brother" begged 
the Vienna government at least to extend the time limit to their demands. 


This was brusquely refused. Serbia, however, consented to nearly all 
the Austrian demands, and offered to submit the remainder to the Hague. 
Not the least attention was paid to the suggestion. Less than one hour 
after the Serbian reply was presented, the Austrian minister quit Belgrade. 
On July 28th, 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia, although practically 
all her demands had been conceded. 

The Kaiser Intrudes. Russia now appealed to Germany to mediate 
between herself and Austria, making it plain she could not, in self-respect, 
allow Serbia to be overwhelmed without aid. Kaiser Wilhelm affected 
to "mediate," but warned the Czar this was an affair -between Austria 
and Serbia, and if Russia did not abandon Serbia a great war would follow. 
When the Czar began to mobilize (following mobilization already begun 
by Austria) the Kaiser took the attitude that Russia was really threaten- 
ing Germany, not Austria, and began counter preparations. 

The Kaiser Forces War. England and France (friendly to Russia 
but anxious for peace) frantically offered moderating counsels. At Vienna 
the dangers of the situation at length dawned, and friendly discussions 
with Russia, for a compromise, seemed about to recommence. Then as 
if panic-stricken lest their plot be spoiled the war-lords in Berlin caused 
an ultimatum to be sent to the Czar giving him twelve hours to demobilize 
or Germany would strike. A similar demand was sent to France (Russia's 
ally). The tones of these mandates were utterly insulting. No great 
nation could have cringed to them. 'August 1st, 1914, Germany declared 
war on Russia, although the latter was still at pea.ce with Austria, in whose 
behalf the Kaiser claimed to be acting. 

The Road to Paris. Prussian military plans required the first attack 
should be on innocent France, whose only crime was that she would not 
betray her Russian ally. The best road to Paris lay across Belgium, and 
whether Germany would forego martial advantage out of respect for 
the neutral rights of a small neighboring state and for her plighted honor 
had long been a mooted question in European military circles. The Ger- 
man choice between advantage and honesty was soon manifest. On August 
4, 1914, the Germans entered Belgium, an unoffending, happy country, 
whose 7,000,000 peaceful people had not one iota of interest in the miser- 
able Balkan quarrel, nor in the affairs of Austria, Germany, Russia or 

The Scrap of Paper. England had been very friendly to France and 
Russia, but there was no formal alliance. A strong peace party existed, 
and England might well have kept out of the war at least for the first 
few months when (as events turned out) Germany, without English inter- 
vention, might have won a complete victory. But England's honor was 
deeply concerned in defending her treaty, which guaranteed Belgium. 


The violation of this- solemn compact silenced the British peace advocates. 
When the British ambassador went to Bethmann-Hollweg to give Germany 
the choice between keeping honor as to Belgium or fighting England, the 
Chancellor cynically demanded whether England would go to war "just 
for a scrap of paper". 

German statesmen evidently misunderstood the way in which French- 
men, Englishmen and Americans take solemn treaties and promises. 

England declared war on August 4, 1914. 

The Austrian note to Serbia had been presented, out of an almost 
clear sky, on July 23rd. Only twelve days had sufficed to change the world 
from Eden to Gehenna. What will seem the responsibility of the Teutonic 
arch-plotters when they stand at the bar of universal history? 

W. S. D., in Facts About the War, University of Minnesota. 


The more important stages whereby American patience was ex- 
hausted : 

1. Dec. 24th, 1914 (Christmas Eve fit day!) Admiral von Tirpitz 
throws out a newspaper suggestion on an "unlimited submarine policy," 
and directly asks "What will America say?" 

2. Feb. 4th, 1915. Germany declares a "war zone" around the Brit- 
ish Isles, without protection to crew or ship passengers. 

3. Feb. 10th, 1915. America warns Germany that harm thus done 
to American citizens will involve "strict accountability." 

4. March 28th, 1915. "Falaba" sunk, one American perishes. 

5. May 1st, 1915. American steamer "Gulflight" torpedoed. 

6. May 1st, 1915. German embassy publishes warning in New York 
and other American papers against Americans sailing on "Lusitania," 
although United States government had decided such action proper and 

7. May 7th, 1915. "Lusitania" sunk; 114 Americans (many women 
and children) drowned. 

8. May 15th, 1915. Mr. Wilson's "First Note" of protest at subma- 
rine policy. 

9. May 28th, 1915. German rejoinder defending "Lusitania" sinking. 

10. June 9th, 1915. Mr. Wilson's "Second Note" of protest; just sub- 
sequent to Mr. Bryan's resignation. 

11. July 8th, 1915. Germany promises Mr. Gerard at least to protect 
American and neutral ships. 

12. July 21st, 1915. Mr. Wilson's "Third Note" of protest. 

13. Aug. 19th, 1915. "Arabic" sunk unwarned; two Americans perish. 

14. Sept. 1st, 1915. Ambassador Bernstorff gives solemn promise 
at Washington that "liners" will not be sunk without warning. 


15. Dec. 30th, 1915. "Persia" sunk unwarned in Mediterranean; an 
American consul going to his post of duty perishes. 

16. Jan. 7th, 1916. Germany promises still again that in the Mediter- 
ranean, at least, no ships should be sunk unwarned. 

17. Feb. 16th, 1916. Germany, seeking a money compromise about 
the "Lusitania," says that she has now "limited her submarine warfare, 
because of her long standing friendship with the United States." 

18. March 24th, 1916. "Sussex" (British Channel passenger steamer) 
torpedoed. Several Americans injured. 

19. April 18th, 1916. (Following clear proof in the Sussex affair 
of the breach of German promises) Mr. Wilson threatens to break friendly 
relations unless outrages cease. 

20. May 4th, 1916. Germany formally promises to respect interna- 
tional law and not sink ships unwarned. ("Promise No. 5.") 

21. Oct. 9th, 1916. A German submarine sinks five merchant vessels 
(one Dutch neutral) off American coast. Heavy loss of life inevitable if 
American destroyers had not rescued passengers and crews. 

22. Jan. 31st, 1917. Germany (having now built sufficient U-boats) 
tears up her "pieces of paper" to us and proclaims "unlimited submarine 
warfare", ("running amuck," says Mr. Wilson). 

23. Feb. 3rd, 1917. Mr. Wilson gives von Bernstorff his passports. 

24. Feb. 4 to April 2, 1917. Seven American ships sunk; at least 13 
American citizens on them perish," as well as several on non- American 

25. April 2, 1917. Mr. Wilson asks for war. 

These are only part of the outrages, protests and promises: a record 
of patience on our part unparalleled in history! 

TV. .V. D., in Facts About the War, University of Minnesota. 


1. Some two hundred and fifty American citizens, exercising rights 
unquestioned under the law of nations, and traveling under the presumed 
protection of their government, have been killed by agents of the Imperial 
German Government. 

2. The German Government was solemnly warned by the Govern- 
ment of the United States on February 10, 1915, that such acts were "an 
indefensible violation of neutral rights," and that our Government "would 
take any steps it might be necessary to take, to safeguard American 
lives, and to secure to American citizens full enjoyment of their acknowl- 
edged rights on the high seas." 

3. In spite of this protest and warning, more than once repeated, 
such unlawful killing of Americans continued at intervals during two 


4. In addition to the submarine attacks, the German Government, 
through its diplomatic representatives and other agents, carried on 
throughout 1915 and 1916 a secret campaign against our domestic security 
and order, by fomenting strikes, hiring criminals to destroy munition 
plants and other property, subsidizing a propaganda of disloyalty among 
citizens of German birth, placing spies in our offices of government, and 
organizing upon American soil unlawful conspiracies and military expedi- 
tions against countries with which we were at peace. 

5. On January 31, 1917, the German Government proclaimed that 
it would destroy without warning, and without safeguarding the lives of 
passengers and seamen, ships of any nationality (regardless of the char- 
acter of their cargoes and their destinations) which might be found by 
German submarines in certain vast areas of the high seas. 

6. This renewed and enlarged threat, and defiance of the warnings 
of our Government, was speedily carried out, several American ships, 
some of them bound for American ports, being destroyed, with loss of 
American lives, during February and March, 1917. 

7. These acts constituted acts of war by Germany against the United 
States, and were formally recognized as such by the two houses of Con- 
gress on April 4th and 6th, 1917. We are at war, then, because Germany 
made war upon us. We had no alternative, except abject submission to 
lawless coercion. 

National Security League's Handbook. 



It will always be a matter of pride among the people of Maine that 
while the Congress of the United States declared war on April 6, on Feb- 
ruary 6, 1917, Governor Milliken of Maine, by order of the Legislature 
then in session, sent the following message and resolve to President 
Wilson : 

Augusta, Maine, 

February 6, 1917. 
Woodrow Wilson, 

President of the United States, 

White House, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. President : 

With keen personal satisfaction, I herewith transmit by order of the 
Maine Legislature a copy of the resolution unanimously adopted immedi- 
ately at the opening of the first session subsequent to your action severing 
diplomatic relations with Germany. .This unanimous expression of the 
Legislature reflects accurately the unswerving and loyal support which 
you may count upon from our entire state. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

Carl E. Milliken, 


"Resolved that the State of Maine, by its Legislature, send 
to Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, an expres- 
sion of its sincere and hearty approval of his recent act in sever- 
ing diplomatic relations with Germany; and in this crisis and 
all the difficulties which may follow in consequence thereof, it 
pledges its unswerving allegiance to the administration at Wash- 
ington, and, as a token thereof, it offers the support of its moral 
and material resources, in whatever way they may be deemed 
best calculated to serve. 

"Be it further resolved, that a copy of this resolution be 
sent to the President of the United States by the Governor of 
the State of Maine by telegram." 
February 6, 1917. 



. Weeks before the eventful day of April sixth, Governor 

, ,, Milliken, personally, and through his Adjutant General, 

had all possible information and material available for 
instant use. The legislature, which was in regular session 
from January third to April seventh, 1917, in addition to passing reso- 
lutions supporting the President, advocating universal military training 
and deploring labor strikes, enacted laws providing for the registration 
of aliens, appointment of special deputy sheriffs, support of dependent 
families of soldiers and sailors, supplementing pay of soldiers and sailors, 
organization of a Maine Home Guard, increasing authority of the Execu- 
tive, regulation of keeping and sale of explosives, enrollment of citizens 
of military age, taking of land for military purposes, continuance of suits 
in court in which persons in military service were either plaintiff or defend- 
ant, and, two hours after the opening of the legislative session on the 
morning following the President's war message, passed a million dollar 
appropriation bill for war purposes. 

To coordinate and centralize the patriotic impulses of the 
Committee on ,. , , ., , ,. . . , , . , ... 

P hi* <3 f t nation and to provide for their organized and intelligent 

development, President Wilson appointed a National Council 
of Defense. To carry out the plans of the National Council and to take 
care of any local problems that might arise, each governor was asked to 
appoint a State Council of Defense, to be made up of representative men 
from the chief industries and professions of the state. As soon as the 
state councils had organized, each county in every state was asked to 
organize a County Council of Defense. On March 22, 1917, more than 
two weeks in advance of the request for such an organization, Governor 
Milliken appointed a Committee of One Hundred on Public Safety. Maine 
was the second state in the Union to take this action, Massachusetts being 
the first. Later the sixteen counties organized committees of public safety, 
the chairman of each organization being the first member of the Com- 
mittee of One Hundred from each county. The response to the Governor's 
summons was prompt, full and patriotic. On March 31, all members 
named who were within the limits of the state, and not detained by sick- 
ness or imperative necessity, met in Portland, to the number of ninety- 
five. In calling the committee to order the Chairman pointed out the 
limitations under which it was to act; that it had no legal status; that 
it was to supplement, and not in any way to displace, existing authority; 
that its duties were necessarily undefined, and it was generally to do 
what by common consent should be agreed on to be done, in the emergency 
which confronted the state. 

After being addressed by the Governor and by the Vice-Chairman of 
the Massachusetts Committee on Public Safety, the following communica- 
tion was ordered to be sent to the President of the United States : 


"The Committee on Public Safety of Maine, appointed by 
the Governor, and representing every section of the state, meet- 
ing for the first time in Portland, desires to assure you of the 
loyal support of the State of Maine in every effort made to 
defend the honor and safety of our country. We believe that 
the hour has come when the United States must unsheathe the 
sword and strike for the right. As free men dwelling by the sea, 
we hold that American ships are American soil, and that Ameri- 
can sailors have the same right to the protection of the govern- 
ment as have citizens in any portion of our land. We believe 
that the sentiment of this country will no longer allow to con- 
tinue a situation under which other nations are defending our 
coasts and fighting our battles. If we are to have the influence 
that we all hope for when the war is over, we must bear a part 
of the burden now. To these ends, as citizens of Maine, sharing 
the glorious traditions of New England and of the country at large, 
in the words of our forefathers, 'we pledge our lives, our fortunes 
and our sacred honor.' ' 
p f Each Council of Defense or Committee on Public Safety, 

whether national, state or county, had these aims and pur- 
Committee on 

P hi" ^ f t P ses m view: 

To keep the fires of patriotism burning pure and undefiled. 

To strengthen and uphold the morale of the civilian forces of our land. 

To agitate unceasingly the need of united effort at home as well as 
"over there." 

To discourage and stamp out unjust criticism, gossip and other enemy 

To spread broadcast the "lend-a-hand" gospel. 

To further the activities of the Red Cross and all other authorized 
agencies working for the good of our cause. 

To encourage increased production of food and fuel supplies and the 
elimination of waste. 

To care for the dependents of soldiers and sailors. 

To secure proper living and working conditions for the ranks of labor. 

To allow no person voluntarily living in this country to place another 
country first in his allegiance. 

To preach the religion of service. 

To keep the faith of our fathers. 




Harold M. Sewall, General Chairman 
Halbert P. Gardner, Executive Secretary 


Harold M. Sewall, Bath 

John E. Bunker, Bar Harbor 

William T. Cobb, Rockland 

Rex W. Dodge, Portland 
Halbert P. Gardner, Portland 
Ernest M. Goodall, Sanford 
Charles F. Johnson, Waterville 


Royce D. Purinton, Lewiston 
Walter H. Sawyer, Auburn 
John S. P. H. Wilson, Auburn 
Charles O. Beale, Auburn 
Frederick A. Powers, Houlton 
A. W. Spaulding, Caribou 
Patrick H. Therriault, Lille 
Herbert W. Trafton, Fort Fairfield 
Robert Braun, Portland 
Silas B. Adams, Portland 
James F. Albion, Portland 
Arthur S. Bosworth, Portland 
Bernard A. Bove, Portland 
Philip Dana, Westbrook 
Charles L. Donahue, Portland 
Elmer A. Doten, Portland 
Fred E. Eastman, Portland 
Henry P. Frank, Portland 
D. W. Hoegg, Jr., Portland 
T. H. Houlihan, Portland 
Adam P. Leighton, Jr., Portland 
Alexander T. Laughlin, Portland 
Morris McDonald, Portland 
J. Bennett Pike, Bridgton 
George P. Plaisted, Gorham 
Samuel Rosenberg, Portland 
Frank D. True, Portland 
Charles E. West, South Portland 
Guy L. Cronkite, Portland 
Elmer E. Richards, Farmington 
John R. Bass, Wilton 
Bion Wing, Phillips 
Lucre B. Deasy, Bar Harbor 
Andrew P. Havey, West Sullivan 
C. K. Foster, Sargentville 
Charles McCluskey, Castine 
Fred A. Torrey, Stonington 
Charles F. Johnson, Waterville 
R. P. Hazzard, Gardiner 
Reuel J. Noyes, Augusta 
George F. Parmenter, Waterville 
W. J. Thompson, South China 
Elaine S. Viles, Augusta 
Nat. H. Barrows, Waterville 
Tyler M. Coombs, Vinalhaven 
Obadiah Gardner. Rockland 
Reuel Robinson, Camden 

B. C. Redonnett, Wiscasset 

Phineas H. Ga>, Newcastle 

G. A. Gregory, Boothbay Harbor 

K. Montgomery, East Boothbay 

Albert J. Stearns, Norway 

Theodore Hawley, Rumford 

Leslie E. Mclntyre, East Waterford 

Alton C. Wheeler, South Paris 

F. H. Parkhurst, Bangor 

Nathan C. Bucknam, Dexter 

Charles P. Connors, Bangor 

Charles J. Dunn, Orono 

Hugh Gallagher, Bangor 

Edward M. Graham, Bangor 

George W. Stearns, Millinocket 

F. H. Strickland, Bangor 

Frank E. Guernsey, Dover 

John Houston, Guilford 

H. A. Sanders, Jr., Greenville 

Edward W. Hyde, Bath 

Arthur K. Purinton, Bath 

Fred H. Thompson, Bath 

M. P. Haraden, Bath 

Carleton P. Merrill, Skowhegan 

Samuel W. Gould, Skowhegan 

Stanley R. Oldham, Pittsfield 

Walter P. Ordway, Skowhegan 

Orlando E. Frost, Belfast 

B. F. Colcord, Searsport 

Harry Kilgore, Belfast 

E. L. Sprague, Islesboro 

John R. Trimble, Calais 

H. H. Gray, Milbridge 

S. W. Hill, Machias 

Harold H. Murchie, Calais 

Bion M. Pike, Lubec 

John R. Roche, Eastport 

Rufus B. Stevens. Jonesport 

Ernest M. Goodall, Sanford 

Cecil F. Clark, Hollis Center 

John Dennett, York 

Edward M. Dealing, Biddeford 

Horace Mitchell, Kittery 

Elmer E. Page, Saco 

Lament A. Stevens, Wells 

Frank Parsons, Kennebunk 

George G. Emery, Sanford 


April 7, 1917 

Gentlemen of the Legislature: 

Since you first assembled three months ago world events have moved 
swiftly to a fateful climax. I have summoned you in joint convention 
at the very opening of your session this morning because the moment 
has come for the State of Maine, acting through her chosen representa- 
tives, to begin playing her proper part in world affairs. 

For more than thirty months Americans have watched with growing 
horror and amazement the appalling world catastrophe across the sea. We 
are a peaceful people committed by ancient tradition to a policy of aloof- 
ness from European alliances. This policy we have struggled to main- 
tain. Through all these weary months we have taken no part except 
that of messenger of succor and relief to the distressed. 

But continued isolation from the struggle has become increasingly 
impossible. Neither the broad expanse of the Atlantic, nor the faith of 
treaties, nor the instincts common to humanity, have sufficed to protect 
our peaceful and law abiding citizens from the assassin. With unbeliev- 
able patience and self-restraint we have seen our flag insulted, our rights 
insolently invaded, our citizens, even women and children, foully murdered 
upon the high seas. Our self-respect and honor as a nation forbid further 
endurance of these intolerable aggressions. 

But we are to enter the war at last not only because of the threat 
against the integrity of our own nation and this hemisphere for which 
we have some measure of responsibility. This is to be no mere defensive 
war on our part. We are to strike and strike with all the energy and 
power at our command, because we are at last convinced that the very 
fate of civilization is at stake. 

A ruthless military frenzy is running amuck in the world, armed, not 
with the bludgeon and spear suited to such a survival of savagery, but 
with the most frightful engines of destruction that modern science can 
devise. Our warfare is not against the German people, but against the 
brutal despotism which assumes to govern them; a belated survival of 
mankind's age-old enemy, the cruel and arrogant spirit of autocracy, which 
soon, please God, is utterly to vanish from the earth. 

More is concerned in this titanic struggle than the honor or the life 
of any nation. It has become a world conflict for that freedom of self- 
governing democracies of which our flag is the supreme token among 
mankind. The Allies are fighting for civilization against despotism. With 
the battle finally joined upon this issue our flag would droop in the breeze 
if withheld ingloriously from the conflict. 


Last night before a joint convention of Congress, the President asked 
that a state of war be declared to exist and that our government at once 
enter upon the conflict upon the side of the Allies with all the energy 
and power at our command. You have read his calm and patriotic utter- 

Congress will meet again this noon to put into full effect his recom- 
mendations. Before that time, let us, by appropriate action, assure the 
President and Congress of our full and loyal support in this solemn hour 
of national crisis. No words need be added to his noble statement of the 
case. The eloquence of deeds can best be ours. 

I urge that you provide immediate authority for the issuance of 
bonds to the amount of one million dollars and give the Governor and 
Council full authority to spend such portion of this amount as may be 
necessary for military purposes. 

You will also enact such defense measures as may seem to you fitting, 
giving the constituted authorities powers appropriate for them to use 
in time of war. 

You should also make suitable provision for adequate care of the 
families and dependents of soldiers. This can best be done in my judg- 
ment by granting some discretion to the Governor and Council without 
attempting to make a fixed rule applicable to all cases. 

So much of our duty we may now foresee. Whatever more our country 
asks of us will be given with cheerful and unswerving loyalty. You will 
remain in session for the next few days, even into next week if necessary, 
in order to be ready to take instant action upon matters within the juris- 
diction of the state as fast as events shall point the way. 

Our little state has a role in the coming conflict far out of proportion 
to her size. Our rocky shores look out upon the broad Atlantic, once 
the highway of peaceful commerce, now the possible path of the ruthless 
invader. When to-day the leaders of our nation meet in solemn confer- 
ence, let it be known that Maine is true to her glorious traditions of other 
days, that now, as always in the past, her sons are willing to offer freely 
the last full measure of devotion when their country calls. 

The record of Maine's contributions to the sinews of war 
\\ ar 

p v reads as follows: American Red Cross, $1,892,328.78; Lib- 

erty Loans, $104,094,150; Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, $332,994.67; Young Women's Christian Association, $58,381.08; 
Knights of Columbus, $59,288.76 ; Salvation Army, $19,982.74 ; War Libra- 
ries, $3,421.29; War Savings and Thrift Stamps, $8,362,585.92; United War 
Work, $1,163,238. 

T . Eager to share in the battle for the world's freedom seven 

v , , hundred boys from sixteen to twenty-one enlisted in the 

United States Boys Working Reserve. Uniformed, disci- 
plined and exercised just as soldiers are, they were sent out early in the 


summer under competent leaders to the neighborhood of the farms that 
needed them. The boys made good. Only six of them went home, four 
under discipline, and two at the urgent request of their parents. The 
farmers were so well pleased with the spirit of the boys and the work done 
by them that additional wages were gladly paid to those who showed 
unusual capacity and energy. No complaint from the boys was registered 
at headquarters. On the contrary they were proud of their work and glad 
to be doing it for Uncle Sam. 

. r Under the direction of the Agricultural Extension Service 

of the University of Maine, cooperating with the State De- 
partment of Education, practically every nook and corner 
of the state was visited during the summer of 1917 in the interests of 
the conservation movement. Demonstrations were given of the best 
methods in canning and preserving. The housekeepers of the state 
responded gladly to the call for signers to the food pledge card and 145,000 
of them were enrolled as members of the United States Food Conservation 

The Food Administration early in its history called upon the libra- 
ries of the country for help in its publicity work and Maine libraries 
responded generously by devoting much time and space to the display and 
distribution of the Administration publications. 

_, ,. The record of Maine's contribution in men reads as follows: 

Enlistments , . , T ,. . 

, ^ ,, Regular Army, 2369; Reserve Corps and National Army, 

1129; National Guard,' 4289; Draft induction, 16,465; Regu- 
lar Navy, 2331 males and 13 females; Naval Reserve Force, 2823 males 
and 72 females; Marine Corps, 24; Young Men's Christian Association, 
166 males and 33 females; Young Women's Christian Association, 14; 
Knights of Columbus, 11 ; Red Cross and Army Nurses, 118. 



June 28 Austrian Archduke slain at Sarajevo. 

July 5 Potsdam council decides for war. 

July 10 Propagandists leave for America. 

July 29 Austria attacks Serbia. 

Aug. 3 Germans invade Belgium. 

Aug. 6 City of Liege falls. 

Aug. 25 Louvain destroyed. 

Aug. 28 British naval victory off Heligoland. 

Sept. 6 French stop Germans at Marne. 

Oct. 10 Antwerp falls. 

Nov. 7 Japanese take Kiao Chau. 

Dec. 9 British win Falklands battle. 

Dec. 14 Serbians recapture Belgrade. 


Jan. 24 British win Dogger bank battle. 

Feb. 12 Russian disaster at Mausurian lakes. 

Mar. 4 British land at Gallipoli. 

Mar. 10 Battle of Neuve Chapelle. 

Mar. 22 Russians take Przemysl. 

April 23 Germans first use poison gas. 

May 7 Lusitania torpedoed; 1,134 lost. 

May 24 Italy enters war. 

June 3 Germans recapture Przemysl. 

July 13 Germans repulsed in Argonne. 

Aug. 4 Germans take Warsaw. 

Sept. 9 First air raid on London. 

Sept. 25-30 Battle of Champagne. 

Oct. 10 Conquest of Serbia begins. 

Oct. 12 Edith Cavell executed. 

Oct. 13 Bulgaria enters war. 

Dec. 1 British retreat from Bagdad. 




Jan. 9 British evacuate Gallipoli. 
Feb. 22 German drive for Verdun begins. 
Mar. 24 Steamer Sussex torpedoed. 
April 29 Turks take 15,000 British. 
May 31 British win Jutland battle. 
July 1 Allies begin Somme offensive. 
Aug. 9 Italians cross Isonzo. 
Aug. 27 Roumania enters war. 
Sept. 3 Germans and Bulgars invade Roumania. 
Sept. 14 British first use "tanks." 
Oct. 8 U boats raid off Nantucket. 
Oct. 24 French stop Verdun drive. 
Nov. 13 British renew Somme offensive. 
Dec. 6 Germans take Bukharest. 
Dec. 7 Lloyd George becomes premier and 
Dec. 19 Rejects German "negotiated peace." 


Jan. 31 Germany announces "unrestricted submarine war." 
Feb. 3 United States expels German ambassador. 
Mar. 11 British take Bagdad. 
Mar. 12-15 Russian revolution ; Czar deposed. 
Mar. 27 British defeat Turks at Gaza. 
April 6 United States enters war; fleet sails for Europe. 
May 18 Selective service act in force. 
June 5 10,000,000 Americans register for army. 
June 12 Greeks depose King Constantine. 
June 15 First Liberty loan over-subscribed. 
June 26 First U. S. division lands in France. 
July 9 Food and fuel control begins in United States. 
July 28 Kerensky heads new Russian republic. 
Aug. 28 United States rejects Pope's peace note. 
Sept. 20 Germans defeated by British at Ypres. 
Oct. 23 Yankees enter trenches. 

C Bat. 6th Art. fires first shot. 
Oct. 25 Yankees take first German prisoner. 
Oct. 26 Italians routed at Caporetto. 

Second Liberty Loan over-subscribed. 
Nov. 2 First Yankees killed. 
Nov. 28 Bolsheviki overthrow Kerensky. 
Dec. 7 United States declares war on Austria-Hungary. 
Dec. 8 British capture Jerusalem. 
Dec. 31 204 : 965 U. S. troops in France. 



Jan. 5 President Wilson announces fourteen peace points. 

Jan. 28 Italians defeat Germans at Adagio. 

Feb. 2 Yankees take over Toul sector. 

Feb. 5 United States troop ship Tuscania torpedoed. 

Feb. 9 Ukraine surrenders to Germans. 

Mar. 1 Yankees beat off German attack at Toul. 

Mar. 3 Bolsheviki sign abject peace with Central Powers. 

Mar. 11 First All- American raid on Germans in Toul sector. 

Mar. 21 German drive on Amiens starts. 

Mar. 23 Paris bombarded by long range gun 76 miles. 

Mar. 25 Germans reach Somme. U. S. engineers stop gap in line. 

Mar. 28 General Foch named by Allied War Council as generalissimo of 

Entente forces. 

April 4 Germans start channel port drive. 
April 16 Germans take Messines ridge. 
April 17 First U. S. division in battle line at Montdidier. 
April 21 26th Division beats off German attack at Seicheprey. 
April 23 British navy bottles Zeebrugge. 
April 26 Germans take Mount Kemmel. 
May 5 Third Liberty Loan over-subscribed. 
May 5 Austrians start drive on Italy. 
May 27 Germans start drive on Marne. 

May 28 First Yankee offensive (1st Division) takes Cantigny. 
June 1- Germans cross Marne; 46 miles from Paris. 
June 3 U boats raid American shipping off New Jersey coast. 
June 4 French and United States troops compel Germans to recross 


June 6 American marines capture part of Belleau wood. 
June 7 Massacre of 10,000 Armenians in the Caucasus reported. 

United States troops advance northwest of Chateau Thierry. 
June 13 French and Americans definitely check German offensive. 
June 15 Austrian offensive along the Piave. 
June 23 Italians throw Austrians back across the Piave. 
June 25 U. S. marines clear Belleau Wood. 
July 1 British and American marines land in Kola, Russia. 

American advance in Chateau Thierry region. 
July 4 Australians and Americans capture Hamel and repulse three 

counter attacks. 

July 12 Eleven U. S. divisions on battle front. 
July 15 Last German offensive, up Marne toward Epernay. 
July 15 Yankee troops cooperate with British at Murman, northern 



July 17 German troops checked by Franco-American defense. 

July 18 French and Americans counter attack between Aisne and Marne. 
German flank smashed. 

. July 19-22 Yankees take Berzy-le-Sec, Tigny, Epieds, Jaulgonne, Bu- 

July 22 Franco-Americans penetrate deeper into German line. Crown 
Prince summons help from the North. 

July 29 Yankee troops defeat Prussian Guards on Soissons-Chateau 
Thierry front. 

July 31 Onondaga Indians of New York declare war on Germany. 

Aug. 2 Germans begin general retreat in Aisne-Ourcq region. 
United States troops land at Archangel. 

Aug. 8 British and French launch offensive between Amiens and Mon- 
didier, penetrate German lines seven miles. 

Aug. 10 Allies capture Montdidier. 

Aug. 15 United States troops landing at Vladisvostok. 

Aug. 23 British new offensive between Somme and Arras. 

Aug. 28 Allies repel Bolshevik forces in big battle on Ussuri front. 

Aug. 31 Germans begin retreat in Flanders, giving up Mt. Kemmel. 

Sept. 3 United States formally recognizes Czecho-Slovaks as a co-bellig- 
erent nation. 

Sept. 5 German retreat extends 'from Rheims to the sea 150 mile front. 

Sept. 12 First All-American offensive at St. Mihiel. 

13,000,000 American men register under new draft. 

Sept. 13 St. Mihiel salient eliminated. 

Sept. 19 British rout Turkish army in Palestine, breaking through on 
a nineteen mile front. 

Sept. 22 Nazareth captured by British. 

Sept. 26 Yankees begin Argonne offensive. 

Sept. 27 Bulgaria asks for armistice following defeat in Macedonia. 

Sept. 30 Bulgaria surrenders to Allies. 

Oct. 6 Germans ask United States for armistice. Austria sends similar 

Oct. 8 United States refuses armistice terms of Germans. 

Oct. 14 Allies in great offensive from Lys River northward in Flanders. 

Oct. 19 Austria's proposal for armistice rejected by United States. 

Oct. 29 Italians break Austrian defence; enemy retreats. 

Oct. 31 Austria asks for armistice. 

Turkey unconditionally surrenders. 

Nov. 4 Austria agrees to armistice terms. 

German defence in Verdun region broken. 


Nov. 7 Revolution in Germany. 

Yankees capture Sedan. 

Germans send to Foch for armistice terms. 
Nov. 9 Emperor of Germany abdicates. 

General allied advance on entire front. 
Nov. 11 Armistice signed. 



MAINE (103d Inf. 26th Div. A. E. F.) IN THE WORLD WAR 

April 13, 1917 National Guard companies ordered to report at armories. 

July 5 Mobilized at Augusta, Maine. 

Aug. 5 Drafted into federal service. 

Aug. 19 Entrained for Westfield, Mass. 

Aug. 22 Created as new regiment, 103d Infantry, with addition of men 

from 1st ,N. H. 6th and 8th Mass., 1st Vt. and R. I. Cavalry. 
Sept. 25 Sailed from New York. 
Oct. 10 Landed in Liverpool, England. 
Oct. 16 Left Southampton for France. 
Oct. 17 Landed at La Havre. 

Oct. 19-Feb. 5, 1918 Intensive training at Liffol-le-grand. 
Feb. 6-Mar. 19 Brigaded with French north of Soissons (Chemin-des- 

Dames sector) . 

Feb. 23 Raid on enemy .lines Grand Pont. 
Mar. 24 Arrived at rest area Liffol-le-grand. 
April 10- June 28 Occupation of Toul sector. 
June 16 German raid at Xivray-Marvoisin. (Commended by General 

Pershing and General Passaga for this action) . 
July 8 Chateau Thierry front. 

July 18-24 Aisne-Marne offensive (Torcy, Belleau, Givry, Bouresches). 
Aug. 1-Aug. 27 In rest areas. 
Aug. 4 Memorial service at Ussy. 
Sept. 6-Oct. 8 St. Mihiel salient. 
Sept. 12-13 St. Mihiel offensive. 
Sept. 26 Marcheville-Riaville engagement. 
Oct. 6 Heavily bombarded with gas at Saulx. 
Oct. 6-9 In support of St. Remy. 

Oct. 15-Nov. 14 Neptune sector (Verdun or Meuse-Argonne). 
Jan. 21, 1919 Ordered to embarkation centre. Headquarters established 

at Economy (Sarthe) . 

Mar. 14 Ordered to move to embarkation port. 

April 5-7 Landed in Boston and reported at Camp Devens, Ayer, Mass. 
April 25 In divisional parade, Boston. 
April 26-28 Mustered out. 




William King, first Governor of Maine, was born in Scarborough, 
Maine, February 9, 1768. His early life was spent in working in a lum- 
ber mill at Saco. On reaching manhood he obtained work in a sawmill at 
Topsham and afterward became proprietor of a mill and store of his own. 
In 1800 he moved to Bath, as the Kennebec river offered superior advan- 
tages for lumbering and shipbuilding. There he resided for over fifty 
years. Of good natural powers, strong-willed, self-reliant and ambitious, 
he became a wealthy merchant and one of the largest ship owners in the 
United States. He organized the first bank opened at Bath, and was its 
president. He owned much real estate in Bath and other parts of the 
state, including the whole town of Kingfield, which was named for him. 
He was one of the incorporators and principal owners of the first cotton 
mill in Maine, erected at Brunswick in 1809. 

Mr. King began his political career by representing the town of Tops- 
ham at the general court in Boston in 1795 and 1796. In 1800 he was 
elected representative to the Massachusetts legislature from Bath, for 
three years, and in 1807 and 1808 was elected senator to represent the 
Lincoln district. His public record shows a desire to legislate for the 
people. His most important service, however, was the prominent part 
he took for seven years in the struggle for the separation of the district 
of Maine from Massachusetts. He presided over the convention that 
framed the constitution for the new state. In 1820 he was elected the 
first governor of Maine by an overwhelming majority; the duties of his 
position he discharged with marked ability. In 1821 he resigned to accept 
the appointment of U. S. Commissioner for the adjustment of Spanish 
claims in Florida. In 1828 he was appointed commissioner of public 
buildings for Maine, and was empowered to procure plans and estimates 
for the construction of a State Capitol at Augusta. This work he brought 
to a successful conclusion. From 1831 to 1834 he was collector of cus- 
toms at Bath. He was married in 1802 to Ann Frazier of Scarborough, and 
died in Bath, Maine, June 17, 1852. 

Governor King was conspicuous as a military man. He was major- 
general of militia, and held the commission of colonel of the United States 




Army, as recruiting officer of United States volunteers, in the District 
of Maine, upon the declaration of war in 1812. In 1814 he recruited a 
regiment in Bath, and was busy recruiting another when the war closed. 


Israel Washburn was born at Livermore, Maine, June 6, 1813, the 
eldest of seven sons, most of whom became eminent and three of whom 
were in Congress at the same time. He was not a college graduate, but 
under private instructors he became a fine classical scholar, and from his 
youth was a great student. At the age of eighteen he commenced the 
study of law, and three years later, 1834, was admitted to the bar. He 
commenced practice as a lawyer the same year at Orono. The lumbering 
interest in that part of the state was then of great importance and Mr. 
Washburn very soon entered on an extensive and lucrative practice, which 
continued until he was elected to Congress in 1850. He had served one 
term in the legislature in 1842. 

First a Whig, he became the leader of the new Republican Party and 
it was as a Republican that he was elected to the office of Governor in 
1860 and 1861. When the Civil War broke out Maine was utterly unpre- 
pared. The old militia system had fallen into disuse and neglect and 
there were neither drilled soldiers nor officers. Governor Washburn was 
justly called the War Governor, for within the two years while he was 
chief magistrate nearly 50,000 troops were marshalled and sent to the 
front, and it was acknowledged by the Department at Washington that 
no soldiers were better organized or did better fighting than the sons of 
the Pine Tree State. Governor Washburn was deeply impressed with 
the necessity of providing a defense for the extended coast line of Maine 
and appointed a committee to confer with the Federal Government in 
the matter. After much activity on his part work was commenced on 
the coast, particular attention being given to the strengthening of Port- 

At the close of his second term, Governor Washburn declined to stand 
for re-election, but did serve as Collector of Portland from 1863-77. He 
refused in 1877 the presidency of Tufts College, of which he was long 
president of the board of trustees. 

Governor Washburn was a busy contributor to magazines and reviews 
and prepared many addresses on political and literary subjects. Among 
his contributions may be mentioned papers on Charles Lamb ; Walter Sav- 
age Landor ; Gamaliel Bailey, Modern Civilization ; The Logic and the End 
of the Rebellion ; The Powers and Duty of Congress in Respect to Suffrage ; 
Secular and Compulsory Education. He also published biographical notices 
and recollections of Chief Justice Ethan Shepley, George Evans and 


Edward Kent and a book entitled "Notes, Historical, Descriptive and Per- 
sonal of Livermore, Maine." 

He died in Philadelphia, May 12, 1883. 


Abner Coburn, Maine's twenty-fourth governor, was- born March 22, 
1803, in the part of Canaan which is now Skowhegan. He was the second 
of the fourteen children of Eleazer and Mary Weston Coburn. His educa- 
tion was obtained in the district schools with a few terms at Bloomfield 
Academy. For a time he worked on the farm summers and taught winters 
for ten dollars a month and board. He learned surveying of his father. 
In 1830 he with his father and brother, Philander, formed the firm of E. 
Coburn and Sons. Their business was surveying, buying land and cutting 
timber. In 1845 after the death of his father the firm name was changed 
to A. & P. Coburn. By 1870 they owned in Maine alone, 450,000 acres, 
about 700 square miles, besides extensive tracts of land in the West. 
Abner Coburn was also interested in the railroad, development of the state. 
He owned largely in the Somerset and Kennebec road, later in the Kenne- 
bec and Portland road and was a president of the Maine Central. Keen 
and shrewd business man that he was, he was also interested and active 
in politics. He was first a Federalist, then a Whig, and finally a Republi- 
can. In 1838 he was a member of the Maine House of Representatives 
and was returned to that body again in 1840 and 1844. In 1855 and 1857 
he served on the Governor's council. In 1860 he cast his vote as an elector 
for Lincoln. When Governor Washburn in 1862 wished to retire, the great 
business ability and absolute integrity of Abner Coburn made him the log- 
ical successor. He was elected Governor in 1863 in perhaps the most try- 
ing year of the war. People were tired, and there was a strong "peace 
at any price" party in the state. His courage, loyalty and deep devotion 
to the Union gave the state a most efficient administration. He governed 
it on business principles and made it successful. His last public service 
was in 1884 when he acted as chairman of the Republican presidential 
electors. He died January 4, 1885. 

He was deeply interested in education and gave largely to its exten- 
sion. Colby College, the University of Maine and Coburn Classical In- 
stitute are some of his beneficiaries. He did not forget the town in which 
he lived his long and useful life. The fine court house and the public 
library are his gifts. 

In a letter written shortly after his death, Elaine wrote of him : "He 
was, if humanity can ever attain perfection, an absolutely just man in all 
his dealings. And beyond the severe demands of justice, he was always 
kind and even generous to his fellow-men. ***** The large fortune which 





his sagacity had enabled him to accumulate was in his own view a 'trust 
fund' which he held for the benefit of mankind, and the disposition of 
which was with him a matter of conscience." 


Samuel Cony, the fourth of that name, was born in Augusta Feb- 
ruary 27, 1811. He was educated by private tutors and in China Acad- 
emy. He first attended Wakefield College, but later went to Brown Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated in 1829. He studied law with Hiram 
Belcher of Farmington and with his uncle, Reuel Williams of Augusta. 
In 1832 he was admitted to the bar, and began to practice in Old Town. At 
the age of twenty-two he was a representative to the legislature and at 
twenty-eight he was a member of the council of Governor Fairfield. He was 
appointed Judge of Probate for Penobscot County in 1840. In 1847 he 
was Land Agent. He was elected State Treasurer in 1850. He held this 
office for five years, which was the constitutional limit. He was elected 
mayor of Augusta in 1854. Up to 1861 he was a Democrat, but he disagreed 
with the party on the slavery question and vigorously supported the gov- 
ernment. In 1862 he represented the Republicans in the state legislature. 
The next year he was nominated as Governor. He is said to have been 
selected by Elaine, who hoped in this way to unite the "war Democrats" 
with the Republicans, and his plan was a success for Judge Cony carried 
the state by a majority of 18,000. He was a worthy successor to Wash- 
burn and Coburn. He responded promptly to every call of the govern- 
ment for troops and supplies. He even advanced money out of his own 
private fortune to pay the soldiers. No one was more loyal to the cause 
of the Union than he. He served for three terms and refused to accept 
another nomination. At his last inaugural address, delivered in 1866, he 
was able to announce that the purpose which he had had before him from 
the beginning had been fulfilled, that the national flag should be seen 
"floating in unchallenged supremacy over its ancient and rightful bounda- 
ries." Upon his retirement to private life he resumed his law practice. He 
died in Augusta, October 5, 1870. 


Llewellyn Powers was born in Pittsfield, Somerset County, Maine, 
in 1836, and was the eldest of ten children. His parents, Arbra and Naomi 
(Mathews) Powers were of sturdy New England stock, several ancestors 
being in the Revolutionary war. He grew up in his native town, attended 
its common schools, spent two years at Colby College and then entered 
Albany Law School, where he graduated in 1860. In 1861 he began the 
practice of law at Houlton, Maine. 


Recognizing his legal ability, the people of Aroostook County in 1865 
elected him prosecuting attorney, which office he held for three terms. He 
was United States collector of customs during 1868-72, a member of the 
state legislature during 1874-76, and a Republican representative in Con- 
gress during 1877-79. He was again elected to the state legislature in 1895, 
becoming speaker of the house, and two years later he was elected gov- 
ernor. He was chosen a second time as governor. After retiring from 
the executive chair in 1901 he was chosen to succeed Charles A. Boutelle, 
resigned, as representative from the fourth Maine district to the fifty- 
seventh Congress, and was returned to Congress with each succeeding 
election, but was obliged to withdraw from the renomination to the sixty- 
first Congress, which had been tendered him by acclamation by the Repub- 
lican party in his district, on account of his continued ill health. He died 
July 28, 1908. 

"Llewellyn Powers' administration as governor was one of the best 
that has ever been given the State of Maine. He gave to the office the 
same careful oversight that marked his private business, and on one occa- 
sion during the early part of the Spanish-American war, when there was 
strong pressure from all over the state to call an extra session of the leg- 
islature to appropriate money for the equipment of men and purchase of 
supplies for the expected volunteer regiment, he was opposed to it on 
account of the large and needless expense to the state, and, acting in accord 
with the judgment of other conservative business men of his party, refused 
to call the extra session, but when funds were necessary he advanced the 
large sum of money required, and his patriotic and public-spirited action 
was approved by the next legislature, which refunded the money he had 
advanced from his private purse." 


Carl E. Milliken of Island Falls will be known as The War Gov- 
ernor of Maine. Other chief executives there have been who have occu- 
pied the gubernatorial chair in belligerent days, but Governor Milliken, 
holding office during the progress of the greatest armed conflict the world 
has known, will always be known as The War Governor of the Pine Tree 

Born in Pittsfield on July 13, 1877, Governor Milliken moved with his 
family to Augusta when he was eight years old. He graduated from the 
Cony High School in Augusta in 1893 and from Bates College at Lewiston 
in 1897. Following his graduation from Bates, he took a post-graduate 
course at Harvard and intended to become a teacher. But, while still in 
his early twenties, he became identified with the lumber industry and 
moved to Island Falls. 


In 1904, Governor Milliken was elected to his first state office when 
he was chosen to represent the town of Island Falls in the Maine House 
of Representatives. He served as a member of the House in 1905 and 
again in 1907. He was then elected for three successive terms as a mem- 
ber of the Maine Senate from Aroostook County. During his third term, 
in 1913, when he was but 35 years old, he was president of the upper 
chamber. In the primary election of 1916, Governor Milliken was given 
handsome support and received the Republican nomination for Governor 
over three opponents. He was elected governor in September, 1916, by, 
a plurality of 13,500. 

Ten years of service as a member of the legislature, coupled with 
naturally studious habits, fitted Governor Milliken admirably for the duties 
of his office. Soon after his inauguration, he showed a grasp of detail 
regarding the affairs in all departments of the state that was a surprise 
even to those who thought they knew him most intimately. His inaugural 
address was pronounced one of the finest ever delivered in the Maine Cap- 
itol, not only because of its intimacy with departmental and legal details 
but also because of the ease of diction and the eloquence with which it 
was delivered. A short war address, calling for an issue of a million 
dollars in bonds following the breaking off of diplomatic relations with 
Germany, was given the same high degree of praise by the citizens of 

In addition to his identification with the affairs of Maine, Governor 
Milliken has many business interests, is prominent in church and social 
welfare work, is president of the Maine Central Institute at Pittsfield and 
a trustee of Bates College and in 1917 was given the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Laws from the latter institution. 

Governor Milliken married Miss Emma Chase, a daughter of Presi- 
dent George C. Chase of Bates College, and they have seven children. 








, . The State of Maine forms the northeastern part of the 

United States. It is about 300 miles long and 285 miles 
wide. Maine lies between 43 6' and 4727'33" N. latitude; between 66 56' 
48" and 716'41" W. longitude. The 45th parallel crosses the state within 
thirty miles of its geographical center. The boundaries are as follows : 
The southern boundary, the Atlantic ocean, is 226 miles, 3640 feet long; 
the eastern boundary follows the St. Croix river to its source, thence due 
north to the St. John river, a distance of 195 miles ; the northern boundary 
extends from the St. John Grand Falls along the river to Crown Monu- 
ment a distance of 360 miles, 3950 feet; the western boundary extends 
from Crown Monument to the sea at the mouth of Piscataqua River near 
Kittery Point, a distance of 163 miles, 3760 feet. 
. The tenth census places the area at 33,845 square miles, 

a total land surface of 29,895 square miles. Maine is as 
large as New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Dela- 
ware combined. The state has had three surveys. In 1836 Dr. Charles 
T. Jackson was authorized by the legislature to make a survey. The result 
of his work is found in three reports published in 1837, 1838 and 1839 
respectively. At the same time he explored the public lands and two 
reports were published in 1837 and 1838. Holmes made a survey of the 
Aroostook river section and published a report of his work in 1839 in 
one volume "Geology of Maine." In 1861 the legislature ordered a sur- 
vey by Hitchcock and Holmes; two reports were made, 1861-1862, both 
published in one volume. 
A .remarkable feature of the surface is a system of kames, 

or horse-backs, sometimes called hog-backs. Prof. Stone 
describes thirty-one different systems of these kames, varying in length 
from 1 to 150 miles, seventeen of which are 40 miles or over in length. 
M . The area of the mountains of Maine is about 6,600 square 

miles. Our highest mountain, Katahdin, is 5,248 feet in 
height. The mountains consist of peaks more or less conical in form. The 
chief are Mount Abraham, Saddleback, Bigelow, Russell and Haystack in 
Somerset and Franklin counties, Katahdin in Piscataquis county. 
-,,. , The average temperature is 41.65 degrees. The summer 

heat is less than in Massachusetts, New York, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and Dakota by about 32 per cent. The winter of Maine is not so 



severe as is experienced in the corresponding latitudes in the interior. 
This is the result of the geographical position of the state. (See bound- 

In regard to the rainfall, it may be mentioned that records 
Rainfall kept & ^ twenty-one different points in the state, extending 

over a series of years, give the mean depth in inches as 43.24. Compar- 
ing these results with the results obtained from records kept at fifteen 
different points in six states west of Maine, in the same latitude, the 
rainfall of Maine is about 35 per cent, in excess of these sections. 

The actual summer extends from May 31 to September 
Summer and ^ thg period of g ene ral exemption from frost. Records 
Winter Rainfall kept at twenty _ one different points show the mean rainfall 
for this period of summer to be 11.13 inches. The mean winter rainfall of 
the state at the above twenty-one points is 10.13 inches. The mean depth 
of snow at seven different points is 83.02 inches, corresponding to 6.91 
inches of water. The total downfall for the four and a half months during 
which the snow falls is about 15.62 inches, 6.91 of which, as just shown, 
come in snow. Therefore, about 44 per cent, of the total downfall during 
the four and a half months of actual winter is snow. The per cent, during 
the three months of nominal winter, is of course, greater. 

Rain is distributed with remarkable uniformity at differ- 
f 1S R U * ' en ^ seasons f the year. Thus, the summer fall at twenty- 
one stations has been 'shown to be 11.13 inches; the winter 
fall at twenty-six stations, 10.13 inches. The receipts for spring and 
autumn are nearly equal, and are each about 10.50 inches. Of the aver- 
age 42 inches of rain received yearly, 25.20 are reabsorbed by the atmos- 
phere, and 16.20 pass off by the rivers to the sea. 

It will be readily understood that the evenness of distribution of our 
rainfall is a very important condition of productiveness. On the one hand 
we are saved from frequent and protracted droughts, such as afflict the 
treeless sections of the West, and on the other we are spared from the 
excessive and sudden rainfalls where everything is endangered by inunda- 
tion. This equable rainfall is one of the great blessings we receive from 
our forests. Water-spouts, cyclones, whirlwinds, and "blizzards," which 
in their violence are so severe in many of the western states that neither 
man nor beast can face them for any time and yet live, are unknown in 
Maine. Our trees and wooded hills are sentinels of safety, and our quiet 
valleys are the abodes of peace and security. 
.,.. The humidity of the climate is remarkable. The air, on an 

f rr * average, is more than three-fourths saturated with mois- 
01 Climate _, . , . ., 

ture. Even in the summer months the air generally con- 
tains 75 per cent, of the amount of moisture it is capable of holding at 
that temperature. In other words, it is devoid of dry, burning heat, in 


striking contrast with the scorching air of the treeless sections of our 
country and of our densely populated cities. This is why Maine is so 
much enjoyed as a vacation land by the large numbers who seek our hills, 
lakesides and forests during the hot months from the large cities of Bos- 
ton, New York, Philadelphia and Washington. During the months of July 
and August there is much fog along the coast, but in the interior, and 
throughout by far the larger portion of the state, the sky is usually bright 
and clear. In fact, brightness and sunshine characterize our climate, and 
the air contains an abundance of ozone. 

R . Q The river system forms the grandest natural feature of 

the state. No other state in the Union has so many rivers 

and streams. Maine has 5,151 rivers and streams of a size sufficient to 

be marked upon the state map. The rivers are divided into two systems : 

First. The interior river system : commencing at the western bound- 
ary, the Saco, 45 miles long, fed by 75 lakes represents 17,493 horse-power. 
The Androscoggin, 157 miles long, fed by 148 lakes and ponds represents 
85,200 horse-power. The Kennebec, 155 miles long, fed by 311 lakes and 
ponds represents 101,000 horse-power. The Penobscot, 300 miles long, 
fed by 467 lakes and ponds represents at Bangor 55,600 horse-power. The 
St. Croix, partly in New Brunswick, is 97 miles long and is fed by 61 lakes. 
The St. John, in Maine 211 miles long, has a total length of 450 miles. It 
is fed by 206 lakes in Maine. 

Second. The seaboard river system: there are eight rivers in this 
system; Dennys, 25 miles long, fed by 22 lakes; Machias, 48 miles long, 
fed by 56 lakes ; Narraguagus, 50 miles long, fed by 38 lakes ; Union, 52 
miles long, fed by 43 lakes; St. George, 35 miles long, fed by 72 lakes; 
Presumpscot, 22 miles long, fed by 45 lakes ; Mousam, 25 miles long, fed 
by 14 lakes ; Piscataqua, 40 miles long, fed by 22 lakes ; Royal River, fed 
by 6 lakes. 

The lakes of Maine are famous for their extent and beauty. 

I o IT* AQ 

They form immense reservoirs for water which are the 
source of the state's water power. The total number of these lakes is 
1620. This does not include a multitude of ponds scattered over the state. 
The lakes have a combined water surface of 3200 square miles. This gives 
Maine one lake to every twenty square miles of territory. 
, . The long extent of the Maine coast with its bays, coves and 

harbors, is filled with islands. There are more than four 
hundred ranging from 1100 to 16,000 acres. 
The State of Maine has a name which antedates the names 

of all other states except Virginia and Massachusetts. The 
manner in which the name was given has been a subject of much contro- 
versy. Many historians assert that the name first appeared in the charter 
granted in 1639 by Charles I to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and that it was 


bestowed in compliment to the queen of England, a daughter of Henry IV 
of France, who was connected by title or estate with the province of Meyne 
in France. Others have claimed that French colonists gave the name in 
memory of this same province. It is now, however, a matter of authori- 
tative record that the title "Province of Maine" was first used in the grant 
made by the Council of New England to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Cap- 
tain John Mason in 1622. Long before the appearance of the title in this 
grant, the word "main" in the sense of mainland had been in common use 
among the early explorers along the New England coast, and it is from 
this use that the name is derived. Residents of the islands along the coast 
to this day speak of "the main." 



The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth in 1620. The history of Maine 
antedates that memorable event. Martin Pring, an English explorer, was 
on the coast of Maine in 1603. De Monts, a Frenchman, landed with colo- 
nists on the island of St. Croix, below Calais, in 1604. Waymouth, with a 
band of English explorers, was at St. George's Island Harbor and ascended 
the St. George's river in 1605. Pring was here again in 1606. The Pop- 
ham colonists established themselves at the mouth of the Kennebec in 
1607. There were Jesuit colonists on the Penobscot in 1611 and at Mount 
Desert in 1613. English fishermen and traders were then on the coast 
from year to year. Capt. John Smith was at Monhegan in 1614. Long 
after the landing of the Pilgrims, Maine held an independent position. 
The grant of the Province of Maine to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain 
John Mason, by the Great Council of New England, was made in 1622. 
Christopher Levett secured from the same source in 1623 a grant of six 
thousand acres in Casco Bay. In 1629, the Pilgrims at Plymouth secured 
a grant of land on both sides of the JCennebec, which enabled them to con- 
trol the Indian trade of the river, and which later, having been sold by 
them, was known as the "Kennebec Purchase." A grant of land on the 
north side of the Saco river, including the site of the present city of Saco, 
was made by the Great Council in 1630 to Thomas Lewis and Richard 
Bonighton. Also, in the same year, land on the south side of the Saco, 
including the site of the present city of Biddeford, was granted to John 
Oldham and Richard Vines. That also was the date of the Muscongus 
Patent, granting lands at Muscongus to John Beauchamp and Thomas 
Leverett, a grant later known as the Waldo Patent. The Lygonia Patent, 
covering a tract of land forty miles square, extending from Cape Por- 
poise to the Androscoggin River, bears the same date. The Black Point 
Grant to Thomas Cammock, a nephew of the Earl of Warwick, was made 
in 1631. So also in the same year a grant of land on the Pejepscot river 
was made to Richard Bradshaw; another of land on Cape Elizabeth to 
Robert Trelawny and Moses Goodyear; another on the east side of the 
Agamenticus river to Ferdinando Gorges, a grandson of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, Walter Norton and others; also two thousand acres at Cape Por- 
poise to John Stratton; also land at Pemaquid to Robert Aldworth and 
Gyles Elbridge. In 1632, grants of land on the Pejepscot river were made 



to George Way and Thomas Purchase. In 1634, in the final division of 
the Patent for New England by the great Council, number seven, includ- 
ing the territory between the Piscataqua and the Kennebec, was assigned 
to Sir Ferdinando Gorges. In 1636, Gorges leased to George Cleeve and 
Kichard Tucker "a neck of land called Machegonne," now Portland. The 
royal charter of the Province of Maine to Sir Ferdinando Gorges by 
Charles II, designed to confirm the allotment made to Gorges in the divi- 
sion of the Patent for New England, was granted in 1639. During the 
decade and more that followed, affairs were in a disturbed state in the 
province because of the conflict between the King and Parliament. As 
the power of the royalist party in England weakened, George Cleeve in 
1643, in opposition to the Gorges interest, enlisted the aid of Colonel Alex- 
ander Rigby in resuscitating the Lygonia Patent of 1630, and received a 
commission as Deputy President of the Province of Lygonia. Other inter- 
ests were pressing. In this unsettled state of affairs civil government of 
necessity languished, and in 1651 the General Court of the Province of 
Maine appealed to Parliament for protection. 

Thus far, in these beginnings of colonization, Maine had maintained 
an independent position. But at this juncture of affairs the colonists of 
Massachusetts Bay saw an opportunity to extend their dominion in this 
direction. The charter of the Bay colony established its northern bound- 
ary three miles north of the Merrimac river. This was now interpreted 
to mean three miles north of the source of the river, and a line drawn 
east from this point to the sea brought the land covered by the Gorges 
and Cleeve interests within the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. In 1652, 
the General Court appointed Commissioners to determine the line, but not 
without protest and opposition on the part of the colonists of Maine who 
were in sympathy with the above interests. Gradually the Government 
of Massachusetts was extended northward. Kittery and Gorgeana yielded 
submission in 1652; Wells, Cape Porpoise and Saco in 1653; and Black 
Point, Blue Point, Spurwink and Casco in 1658. 

The materials of the history of Maine during this period of inde- 
pendence are to be found largely in England. Something in gathering 
these materials, has already been done by the Maine Historical Society. 
Much has been done by the Hon. James P. Baxter. Added researches 
will doubtless have their reward. All possible sources of information 
should be carefully examined, and the materials for the history of this 
early period in Maine life and achievement should be made accessible 
to those" who are interested in it. 

To this newly acquired territory, Massachusetts gave the name York- 
shire, or County of York. Subsequently, after the overthrow of the Pro- 
tectorate and the restoration of Charles II, the colonists in the former 
Province of Maine requested to be placed again under the authority of 


the King, or of the heir of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. But the General Coutt 
of Massachusetts also sent a petition to the King, and matters were allowed 
to rest until 1664, when the grandson of Gorges obtained an order from 
the King requiring Massachusetts to restore the Province of Maine to 
Gorges or his Commissioners. After various efforts on both sides, the 
territory meanwhile being brought under the jurisdiction of a provincial 
government independent of Massachusetts and the Gorges interests, the 
General Court of Massachusetts, March 15, 1678, purchased of Ferdinando 
Gorges, grandson of Sir Ferdinando, all his interest in the Province of 
Maine for twelve hundred and fifty pounds sterling. This purchase 
strengthened the hold of Massachusetts upon its former eastward posses- 
sions, and in 1680 the General Court proceeded to. reorganize civil admin- 
istration in Maine with Thomas Danforth as President of the Province. 
But the charter of Massachusetts was annulled in 1684, and the govern- 
ment of the colony reverted to the crown. Charles II died in 1685, and 
James II appointed Andros Governor of New England. His career was 
cut short by a revolution in England, which drove- James from the throne ; 
and William and Mary, who succeeded James, issued October 7, 1691, a 
charter, which incorporated, under the title of the "Province of Mass'a- 
chusetts Bay," the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, the Colony of Plymouth, 
the Province of Maine and the territory of Nova Scotia. In this way the 
title of Massachusetts to the territory east of the Piscataqua was con- 
firmed, though on account of its remoteness and the distracted state of 
the country, Nova Scotia was separated from the Province of Massachu- 
setts Bay by the Lords of Trade in 1696, and it was made a royal province 
in 1713. Maine remained a part of Massachusetts until the separation 
in 1820. 

This period in the history of Maine covers upwards of one hundred 
and fifty years. The historical sources of the period are to be found largely 
in the State House in Boston and in the various depositories of public 
records in London. Considerable work in gleaning information at these 
sources has already been done as in the earlier period; but much awaits 
our hands. Certainly no others can have so deep an interest in the his- 
tory of Maine as the people of Maine, and postponement only makes the 
task pressing upon us more difficult. 



When the Indian Wars broke out it was found necessary to guard 
against sudden and unexpected attacks. A system of forts was designed 
for this emergency. Following is a list of these forts, also the place and 
date of their erection. 

Fort Charles. Erected 1667. Bristol. 

Frankfort. Erected 1754 by Plymouth Company in Dresden, after- 
ward named Fort Shirley. 

Frederick. Erected 1729. Pemaquid. 

George. Erected 1715. Brunswick. 

George. Erected 1779. Castine. 

Halifax. Erected 1754. Three-quarters of a mile below Ticonet Falls, 

Hammonds. Northeast part of Arrowsick Island, next to Cross River, 
opposite Monseag Bay. 

La Tour and Alexander. Erected 1630. Located on River St. John. 

Loyal. Erected 1680. Portland.. 

Pemaquid. Erected 1667. 

Penobscot or Pentagoet. Erected 16 . Built by La Tour. 

Pownall. Erected 1769. 

Preble. House Island. Built at the same time as Fort Scammell, 

Richmond. Erected 1719-29. Ancient establishment on Western side 
of the Kennebec, 1^ miles below Fort Frankfort, nearly opposite upper end 
of Swan Island. 

Saco. Erected 1693. Western side of Saco river near the Falls. 

St. George. Erected 1707. Popham colony. 

St. George. Erected 1719-20. Thomaston. 

Scammell. House Island. Erected 1807-8. So named in honor of a 
brave colonel in the American Revolution. 

Shirley. Erected 1754. See Frankfort. 

Western. Erected 1754. Augusta, by proprietors of the Plymouth 
patent or Kennebec purchase, anciently called by the Indians, Cushnoc. 

William Henry. Erected 1692. 




On the nineteenth day of April, 1775, the intrepid farmers of Lexing- 
ton fired the "shot heard around the world," and- on the twelfth day of 
June, five days before the Ba.ttle of Bunker Hill, a sturdy Irishman on 
the easterly shore of the Province of Maine, with a handful of brave lum- 
bermen, river-drivers, farmers, and sailors, their hearts burning with the 
same flame of patriotism, successfully fought the first naval battle of 
the American Revolution, captured the first British war vessel, was the 
first to haul down the British flag in that great conflict for human rights. 

One, whose name will be forever interwoven with the story of that 
stirring event, was Captain Ichabod Jones. In 1765 he was a shipmaster 
and a person of some means, living in Boston. During that summer, he 
made a trip in a schooner eastward, for both pleasure and profit, stopping 
at Mount Desert. While in that port, he learned for the first time of the 
Machias settlement and went immediately there, where he disposed of his 
cargo of goods to good advantage, loaded his vessel with lumber, and 
returned to Boston. 

He continued to do an increasing and thrifty business along these 
lines until 1774, when the English Parliament passed what is known in 
history as the "Boston Port Bill," which was an enactment that no more 
merchandise of any kind should be landed at or shipped from the wharves 
of Boston. 

This condition at the port of Boston necessarily interrupted Captain 
Jones' trade. 

The spring of 1775 found him at Machias engaged in loading his 
two sloops, the Unity and the Polly, with lumber, but giving Captain Hor- 
ton of the Polly orders to touch at Cape Ann and Salem for a market, and 
failing there, to proceed to some port in Connecticut. 

But, on arriving at Salem, Captain Horton found the whole coast in 
an uproar, and the inhabitants generally, especially in the large towns, in 
dire distress, and ready for almost anything except trade in lumber. 

Captain Horton put into the port of Boston, where he met Captain 
Jones. These two then concluded to return at once to Machias with their 
families, their own household goods, and also a quantity of merchandise 
for the people there, who had become in a great measure destitute, by 
reason of the unsettled state of business during the past year. 



At this juncture, Captain Jones was in rather a troublesome quandary. 
He realized the necessity of carrying supplies to Machias, and he had a 
great desire to take his family there as well. 

He also feared the ire of the Machias patriots when they should dis- 
cover him in their port under the protection of the English flag, for, in 
order to leave the harbor, he was obliged to have a permit from Admiral 

This permit would be granted only upon condition that he return from 
Machias to Boston with lumber which the British desired to purchase for 
barracks for troops, and he must also submit to making the trip under the 
protection of an armed schooner, the Margaretta. She was a cutter of 
about one hundred tons, carrying forty men, commanded by Midshipman 
Moore, and also equipped with four four-pounders, in the holds, several 
swivels mounted, and a "sufficient number of hand grenades," besides 
muskets, pistols, etc. The object of this supervision of the cruise of the 
Margaretta was not only to see to it that Captain Jones carried out his 
agreement to return to Boston with the sloops laden with lumber, but 
also to protect him from trouble with the Machias people, if any should 

The two sloops convoyed by the armed Margaretta, flying the British 
flag, sailed into Machias Harbor June 2, 1775. 

It was a bright and tranquil June day when the fragrance of broad 
meadows and pine woods filled the air, and the birds sang sweet and joy- 
ous notes, and waters of river and sea were still, and all nature rejoiced, 
as nature always does on glorious June days. 

Entering the harbor of Machias on this June day, the captain of 
the Margaretta unnecessarily provoked a quarrel with the inhabitants in 
ordering them to take down their "liberty pole." A town meeting was 
called to see if the town would vote to remove the offensive pole and the 
town voted unanimously in the negative. It was evident that the deter- 
mination to rebel against the innumerable acts of the Crown designed to 
destroy Colonial liberty permeated every colony of the Province of Maine. 
Under the leadership of Benjamin Foster and Morris O'Brien it was decided 
to capture the English officers while they were in church on Sunday, June 
11, 1775. A carefully laid plan was marked out and without doubt would 
have been successful had not a colored man, the body-servant of Parson 
Lyon, seeing some armed men crossing a foot-bridge near the church, 
made an outcry, and wild with excitement, leaped from the window. This 
broke up the meeting, and the officers, believing that an attempt was being 
made to entrap them, made their escape. 

They hastened to their vessel, weighed anchor, and sailed away toward 


The people of Machias then resolved to seize Jones' sloops and pursue 
the cutter. One of these, the Polly, was not in available condition, but 
they took possession of the Unity, Jones' other sloop, and during the 
remainder of Sunday and that night made preparations for the attack. 
They sent scouts to the East River village and neighboring plantations for 
volunteers, arms, and ammunition. 

A messenger was dispatched to Chandler's River to procure powder 
and ball, and, as the men of that settlement were all absent at Machias, 
two girls, Hannah and Rebecca Weston, nineteen and seventeen years old, 
procured forty pounds of powder and balls and brought them to Machias, 
a distance of twenty miles through the woods, following a line of blazed 
or "spotted" trees. 

In the early dawn of the following morning (June 12), the expedition 
started down the river in pursuit of the Margaretta. The crew of the 
Unity, so far as known, numbered about forty, and one-half of these had 
muskets, with only about three rounds of ammunition. The rest armed 
themselves with pitchforks, narrow and broad axes, heavy wooden clubs, 
mauls, etc. For provisions they had "a small bag of bread, a few pieces 
of pork and a barrel of water." 

So sudden and impulsive had this undertaking been, that at first it 
was only an unorganized mob, but, while sailing down the river with a 
favoring wind, they were more contemplative, and completed their plans 
by choosing Jeremiah O'Brien as captain, and Edmund Stevens, lieutenant ; 
and, understanding that they had no powder to waste, they decided to 
bear down on the enemy's ship, board her, and decide the contest at once. 

The Unity was well into the Bay when the Margaretta was first sighted 
off Round Island, and she, being the more rapid sailer, was soon along 
her side. The helmsman of the Margaretta, who was Captain Robert 
Avery, had fallen from a shot fired by an old moose hunter on board the 
Unity, by the name of Knight, and an immediate volley of musketry from 
her deck astonished and demoralized the enemy. The bowsprit of the 
Unity plunged into her mainsail, holding the two vessels together for a 
short time. While they were in this position, one of the O'Brien brothers, 
John, sprang upon the Margaretta's deck, but the vessels suddenly parted, 
carrying the audacious John alone on board the British vessel. It is said 
that seven of her crew instantly aimed and fired muskets at him, but 
he remained unscratched ; they then charged upon him with their bayonets 
and again he escaped by plunging overboard, and, amidst a storm of bullets 
from the enemy, regained his own vessel. 

Captain O'Brien then ordered his sloop alongside of the Margaretta. 
Twenty of his crew were selected to board her, armed with pitchforks, 
and a hand-to-hand conflict on her deck resulted in the surrender of the 


Margaretta to the Americans, and Jeremiah O'Brien hauled down the Brit- 
ish ensign flying at *her mast-head. 

In all the history of war, on land or sea, it is doubtful if there is a 
record of any adventure which exceeds this one for dauntless courage and 
a bold defiance of death. 




When Benedict Arnold was leading the forces of the King against 
his former compatriots in Virginia, it is reported that among his prison- 
ers was a certain plucky and witty officer, who, in answer to Arnold's 
question, "What will the Americans do with me if they catch me?" replied, 
"They will cut off the leg which was wounded when you were fighting so 
gloriously for the cause of liberty, and bury it with the honors of war, 
and hang the rest of your body on a gibbet !" 

The answer gave fit expression to the detestation with which all stead- 
fast patriots regarded the man who had done his best to betray their 
cause, but it also hints at the earlier fame which Arnold once deserved 
and enjoyed. The Arnold of Ticonderoga and Quebec, whose name was 
a synonym for bravery, determination and patriotic fervor, is not often 
remembered now. His good deeds are forever obscured by the shadow 
of his great crime. But it will help us to do full justice to that strange 
and unfortunate man, if we follow again the story of the gallant but ill- 
fated expedition which he led through the wilderness of Maine and Canada, 
and against the icy ramparts of impregnable Quebec. And while we do 
so let us not forget that had he fallen as did Montgomery before the citadel, 
his whole body, and not his shattered leg only, would have been entitled 
to burial with the most glorious honors of war. He would have been 
counted one of the noblest martyrs of the cause of liberty, not its despised 
and execrated Judas. 

The invasion of Canada was one of the very earliest strategic moves 
in the war of the Revolution. From the inception of the struggle with 
the mother country, the colonists appreciated to the full the military and 
political advantages to be gained by enlisting the Canadians in its support. 

General Washington, who had recently taken command of the colonial 
troops besieging Boston, had communicated to Congress, with his approval, 
another expedition, to be sent against Canada. This army was to attempt 
by rapid marches to surprise and capture Quebec. The expedition thus 
resolved upon, Washington chose Benedict Arnold as its commander, and 
Congress promptly voted him a colonel's commission in the Continental 

The young officer entrusted with this responsible command was born 
at Norwich, Connecticut, January 14, 1741. He came of good stock, being 
a great-grandson of Benedict Arnold, the second governor of the colony of 
Rhode Island. 



As a youngster, Arnold ran away to serve in the French War of 1756, 
but was promptly returned at the request of his parents. Arnold's mother's 
name was Hannah Waterman, and her family was worthy and influential. 
It was her interest, no doubt, which secured her son's apprenticeship to 
the trade of apothecary with her relatives, Drs. Daniel and Joshua Lothrop, 
both graduates of Yale College, and the leading importers of drugs in 
New England. Having served his apprenticeship, he made several voyages 
to the West Indies as super-cargo of a vessel in which he was interested, 
and then upon returning from a journey to London, he hung out his sign 
at New Haven, "B. Arnold, druggist, bookseller, etc. From London." 

He had married, in New Haven, Miss Margaret Mansfield, the accom- 
plished daughter of Samuel Mansfield, high-sheriff of the county, by whom 
he had three children. He was rather short in stature, thickset and very 
muscular, and of good figure. He had dark hair, light eyes, a florid com- 
plexion and features which might fairly be called handsome. He was an 
excellent horseman, no mean sailor, and a splendid shot with either rifle 
or pistol. His skill with the latter had stood him in good stead on the 
dueling-ground, and was destined to save his life once, at least, in close 
quarters on the battlefield. 

The plan of campaign had nothing novel in it, beyond the route of 
the inland waters of Maine and Canada and the element of surprise. 

"From the mouth of the Kennebec River to Quebec, on a straight 
line," he wrote to Congress, "is two hundred and ten miles. The river is 
navigable for sloops about thirty-eight miles, and for flat-bottomed boats 
about twenty-two miles; then you meet Ticonic Falls, and from Ticonic 
Falls to Norridgewock, as the river runs, is thirty-one miles, from thence 
to the first carrying place, about thirty miles; carrying place four miles, 
then a pond to cross and another carrying place about two miles to another 
pond; then a carrying place about three or four miles to another pond, 
then a carrying place to the western branch of the Kennebec River, called 
the Dead River, then up that river as it runs thirty miles, some small 
falls and short carrying places intervening; then you come to the Height 
of Land and about six miles carrying places, into a branch which leads 
into Ammeguntick pond,- the head of Chaudiere River, which falls into the 
St. Lawrence about four miles above Quebec." 

The greatest difficulty before the expedition from a military point 
of view lay in the inadequacy of the Kennebec settlements as a base of 
supplies in case of unforeseen emergencies. The hamlets, towns only in 
name, were hardly more than clearings in the forests which still covered 
the banks of this noble river. The settlement of the region had indeed 
begun as early as 1639, when John Parker established his trading post 
and fishing station at the mouth of the river, but other pioneers had been 


slow to follow him, and whenever any considerable number had made 
homes for themselves in the wilderness, they and their families had met 
a tragic end in one of the Indian forays which for a century and a half 
wasted the borders of New England. 

By 1775 some progress in the settlement and civilization of the Ken- 
nebec valley had indeed been made, since the danger from the savages 
was now greatly diminished by the final expulsion of the French power 
from Canada. A fairly good road had been opened as far as Fort Western, 
and there was a wood road at least to Fort Halifax. Georgetown at the 
mouth of the river, Woolwich, Pownalborough, Pittston, Vassalborough, 
and Winslow on the eastern bank, Broad Bay and Gardinerstown on the 
opposite shore, had made places for themselves in the wilderness and 
achieved names. But between Georgetown and the Falls of Norridgewock, 
a hundred miles above, there were probably not over five hundred white 
people, if so many. Pownalborough, the most pretentious village (the 
present town of Dresden), numbered fully half of these, and was the 
shire town of the county of Lincoln. It needs no technical military knowl- 
edge to understand that a country so thinly peopled was poorly adapted 
to furnish a base of supplies even for an armament no larger than Arnold's. 

The army gathered under Washington's command at the siege of 
Boston numbered about eighteen thousand men, and was principally com- 
posed of New England volunteers. t From this army it was determined 
to detach something more than a thousand troops for the Quebec expedi- 
tion not a large force, yet outnumbering all the British regulars then 
in Canadian garrisons. 

September 6, 1775, order was given to draft the men for Quebec 
from their regiments, while a company of carpenters was sent forward 
to Colburn's shipyard, at Agry's Point, near Pittston, about two miles 
below Gardiner, on the eastern bank of the Kennebec, where the two 
hundred bateaux which the expedition would require were to be built. 

The whole force, all volunteers, was composed of three companies of 
riflemen and two battalions of musketeers, and numbered about eleven 
hundred men. Camp attendants, officers' servants, guides, and a few 
men enlisted on the Kennebec must have later ' swelled this number to 
nearly twelve hundred. 

The rivalry among the many rifle companies in camp at Cambridge 
was so great that to avoid jealousy and ill-feeling, the captains were 
allowed to draw lots. Chance decided in favor of the companies of William 
Hendricks, Matthew Smith and Daniel Morgan. 

Their marksmanship was the wonder of the camp at Cambridge. 
Loading and firing on the run, they would often pierce a target only seven 
inches in diameter at a distance of two hundred and fifty yards. 


It was wisely a body of young men. Arnold himself was but thirty- 
four. Enos, the oldest of the officers, and, as the event was to prove, 
the least reliable, was forty-five. The other officers were all below forty. 
Morgan was thirty-eight, a splendid man, standing over six feet in his 
moccasins and weighing two hundred pounds. His aspect was command- 
ing, his voice stentorian, his strength and endurance invincible. Smith, 
the hero or devil of the massacres at Conestoga and Lancaster jail, of 
which Parkman tells us in "The Conspiracy of Pontiac," was somewhat 
younger; Meigs a trifle older; Greene, Hendricks, Bigelow and the others 
were younger still. 

His army consisted of ten companies of musketry, from Maine and 
Massachusetts, and three companies of riflemen, from Pennsylvania and 
Virginia. Several persons connected with this expedition afterward 
became noted as war leaders and public men; among whom were Daniel 
Morgan, commander of the riflemen ; Aaron Burr, subsequently Vice Pres- 
ident, then a youth of twenty; and Henry Dearborn, of Pittston on the 
Kennebec, who afterwards became Secretary of War. The plan was to 
ascend Kennebec River and its chief western tributary to the range of 
hills which forms the boundary of Maine on the northwest, whence they 
would soon strike the head waters of the Chaudiere, a river emptying into 
the St. Lawrence. The expedition sailed from Newburyport on the 16th 
of September; and, entering the Kennebec, ascended to Pittston, where 
two hundred bateaux were in readiness. Dismissing the vessels, the troops 
entered the bateaux and continued on to Fort Western, in Augusta, where 
they spent several days in procuring guides and provisions. 

The halt was enlivened by festivities of a generous sort, for the 
citizens of the vicinity were for the most part ardent Whigs, and rejoiced 
in the opportunity of honoring a band of patriots embarked in so glorious 
an undertaking. There is mention of one feast in particular a monstrous 
barbecue of which three bears, roasted whole in true frontier style, were 
the most conspicuous victims. . 'Squire Howard and his neighbors con- 
tributed corn, potatoes, and melons from their gardens, quintals of smoked 
salmon from their storehouses, and great golden pumpkin pies from their 
kitchens. As if this were not sufficient, venison was plenty, and beef, pork 
and bread were added from the commissary's supplies. 

After these festivities they continued their journey. First of all 
went a small exploring party; after this followed Morgan with the rifle- 
men, then Green, Bigelow and Meigs with the main body of the troops, 
while Colonel Enos brought up the rear. Arnold staid to see the last boat 
load depart; then, entering an Indian canoe, he passed one company after 
another, overtaking the riflemen on the third day at Bombazee Rips in 
Norridgewock. Here the boats had all to be drawn ashore and carried 


a mile and a quarter to reach the navigable water above. It was found 
that the boats were leaky, and that a great part of the provision was 
spoiled or damaged ; and seven days elapsed before repairs were completed 
and they again embarked on the river. 

After passing Carratunk Falls the stream grew so rapid that the men 
were obliged to wade and push the boats more than half the way to the 
Great Carrying Place, twelve miles below the Forks. The carry was four- 
teen miles long; but three little ponds on the way afforded them as many 
rests, and a plenty of delicious trout. Then they met Dead River flowing 
calmly through grand old forests resplendent with all the brilliant hues 
of autumn. Passing falls and rapids, they at length beheld rising above 
the woods a lofty mountain already white with snow. Here Arnold 
encamped for three days, displaying from a tall staff over his tent the 
Continental flag; while Major Bigelow ascended the mountain in the vain 
hope of seeing the spires of Quebec. The township in which the camps 
were pitched is now called Flagstaff Plantation, and the mountain bears 
the name of Bigelow, in commemoration of these events. 

Soon after leaving this point a heavy rain storm set in. The water 
rushed in torrents down the hills, the river channel filled with drift wood, 
and the water burst into the valley where the soldiers were encamped with 
such suddenness that they had scarcely time to retreat to the bateaux 
before the whole plain was covered with water. Worse than all, seven 
boats were upset, and the stores *lost ; leaving them only twelve days' 
provisions, with thirty miles more of hills, woods and marshes between 
them and the head waters of the Chaudiere. Many had become sick from 
toil and exposure, and were sent back to the division of Colonel Enos, 
who was now ordered to send the invalids to the settlements, and come 
on as fast as possible with his best men and provisions for fifteen days. 
He had only three days' provisions; and, at a council of his officers, it 
was decided that the whole division must return or perish. 

The rain had changed to snow, and the ponds, marshes and streams 
became covered with ice; yet the men were often obliged to wade and 
push the bateaux. Many of the boats were abandoned, for the oxen had 
been killed for food; and everything had to be carried by the men. On 
the 27th of October the boats were lifted for the last time from the waters 
of Maine, and a portage of four miles brought them to a small stream 
down which they urged the remaining bateaux to Lake Megantic, the chief 
source of the Chaudiere. 

The next morning a party of fifty-five men were sent forward through 
the woods to the French settlements, still seventy miles further, for pro- 
visions, while Arnold with thirteen men set off in five bateaux and a canoe. 
They were without a guide; and no sooner had they left the lake and 
entered the river than they were obliged to lash their freight to the boats 


lest it should be thrown overboard by the turbulent current. The roar of 
the stream increased. Three boats were dashed in pieces upon the rocks, 
their contents lost, and their crews left struggling in the water. 

The main body of the troops followed on as rapidly as they could. In 
a few days nothing was left except a little flour, which was eaten with 
water without salt. Old moose hide breeches were boiled and then broiled 
on the coals, and eaten. Many men died with hunger and fatigue, fre- 
quently four or five minutes after making their last effort and sitting 

Friday, November 3d, was a memorable day to the little army. Weary, 
despairing, starving, few could have kept on much longer, when they 
were met by some cattle sent back by the advanced party with Arnold. 
They were saved from starvation; but most of them lived for a bloodier 
death. After many unnecessary delays Arnold led them against the strong 
city of Quebec, but the golden moment had passed. The garrison had 
been reinforced, and hundreds of these brave men, who, for the sake of 
gaining this important post, had endured the toil and famine of the wilder- 
ness, lay down before the fatal hail of the artillery, making the blood- 
stained snow their winding sheet. The brave Montgomery and his victori- 
ous little army, fresh from the capture of Montreal, shared their fate. 
More than four hundred Americans fell in this attack, while four hundred 
more were taken captive, and suffered many months of severe imprison- 



There are three epochs in the history of organized government within 
the territory now belonging to the State of Maine: (1) the period of pro- 
prietary jurisdictions claimed and in part exercised over sporadic settle- 
ments; (2) the period of control by Massachusetts, begun in 1652 and 
continued, with only temporary interruptions, to 1820; (3) the period of 
statehood. The only records of the early proprietary governments, so 
far as is known, are contained in the fragmentary and intermittent records 
of local courts and towns. For the history of the jurisdiction of Massa- 
chusetts over the province recourse must be had to records outside the 
present state. The records of the State of Maine are in the archives at 
Augusta. The story of the transition from the second to the third periods 
is an interesting one. 

mi. m-j-i As early as 1652 the government of Massachusetts claimed, 

The Title of , ., . . ,. , . ,, . 

__ , ,, under its charter, jurisdiction over Maine and although 

this claim was resisted for a time by the inhabitants of 
Maine they submitted to it in 1658. ^ In 1676, under proceedings instituted 
by the enemies of Massachusetts in England, the jurisdiction of Massa- 
chusetts over Maine and New Hampshire was annulled, and these provinces 
were restored to the heirs of Gorges and Mason. In 1678 Massachusetts 
acquired from Ferdinando Gorges, grandson and rightful heir of Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges, title to the whole province, from the Piscataqua to Saga- 
dahoc, for twelve hundred and fifty pounds. But the right of Massachu- 
setts was not finally settled until the charter of 1691, which not only 
included the Province of Maine, but the more distant Provinces of Saga- 
dahoc and Nova Scotia. 

The first move for the formation of an independent state 
First Attempt , . ,, Ir70r _,, ,. , ,. 

,. occurred in the year 1785. The separation was much dis- 
cussed during the year 1784-85 and this discussion led to 
the publication of a notification, in the Falmouth Gazette of September 
17 and October 1, 1785, to the inhabitants of the counties of York, Cum- 
berland and Lincoln of a conference to be held on the fifth day of October 
"on the proposal of having the said counties erected into a separate gov- 
ernment." In response to the notification thirty-seven persons met at 
Falmouth and appointed a committee to prepare and send a circular letter 
to the several towns and plantations within the three counties requesting 



them to send delegates to a convention to be held on the first Wednesday 
of January, 1786. At the convention little more was done than to choose 
and hear the report of a "committee of nine to make out a statement of 
the grievances the three counties labor under, and also an estimate of 
the expense of a separate government, and compare the same with the 
expense of the government we are now under." After accepting the report 
and ordering it transmitted to the several towns and plantations the con- 
vention adjourned to the first Wednesday of September, 1786. 

The convention in September published an address to the people trans- 
mitting a form of petition to the General Court, but upon the question 
whether the petition for separation "shall now be presented to the Legis- 
lature" the convention at first voted to postpone petitioning, and then, 
after reconsidering by a vote of fifteen to thirteen, voted to leave the 
petition in the hands of a committee with discretionary powers to retain, 
or present as they saw fit. The convention adjourned from time to time 
with ever diminishing numbers and at the last adjournment three of the 
Portland members were the only delegates present. Thus ended the first 
attempt at separation. 

, No further public discussion of the question of separation 

seems to have occurred until 1791, when an "address to the 

| V Q /*f I CGI Oft 

inhabitants of Maine upon the subject of separation from 
the present government, by one of their fellow-citizens" was published. 
This address apparently turned public attention again to the subject, for 
the Massachusetts Legislature on March 6, 1792, empowered the officers 
of the counties of York, Cumberland, Lincoln, Hancock and Washington 
to call meetings of the inhabitants of the towns within these counties for 
the purpose of giving their votes on the proposed separation. The decision 
of the people was adverse the vote being, yeas 2074, nays 2525. Four 
conventions were held during the years 1793-95, but very little interest 
was manifested in them and no decisive action was taken. 

No further movement towards separation took place until 1797 when 
a number of petitions were presented to the legislature praying that the 
question might be again submitted to popular vote. The legislature author- 
ized the holding of meetings for the purpose of acting upon the question 
"shall application be made to the legislature for its assent that the Dis- 
trict of Maine be erected into a new state?" The vote showed that a 
majority of the voters were still opposed to separation. 

In 1806 there was a renewal of the discussion and in April, 
1807, the people again voted upon the question of separa- 
tion. From one hundred and fifty towns from which returns were received, 
the vote stood, in favor of separation 3370, against it 9404. This decisive 
expression put the question at rest until after the close of the War of 
1812. During the war the want of a local state government was severely 


felt. Petitions were again presented to the legislature and a resolve was 
passed submitting the following question: "Shall the legislature be 
requested to give its consent to the separation of the District of Maine 
from Massachusetts Proper, and to the erection of said District into a 
separate state?" The whole number of votes returned was 16,894, of 
which 10,393 were in the affirmative and 6,501 in the negative. The whole 
number of voters in the District at that time was 37,858. 

. June 20, 1816, the legislature passed an act providing for 

the separation and establishment of Maine as an independent 
state. Section second of the act provided for the election 
of delegates to a constitutional convention to meet at Brunswick on the 
last Monday of September, 1816, and that at the same meeting held for 
the election of delegates the voters should be requested to give in their 
votes upon the following question, "Is it expedient that the District of 
Maine shall be separated from Massachusetts, and become an independent 
state?" and that if a majority of five to four of the votes returned were 
in favor the convention should proceed to form a constitution. The whole 
number of votes admitted was 22,316; of these, 11,969 were in favor of 
separation, and 10,347 opposed. This, of course, did not give the requisite 
majority of five to four, but the committee in charge ascertained that 
the aggregate majority of yeas in towns voting for separation was 6,031 
the aggregate majority of nays in towns voting against separation was 
4,409 and "thus there is a majority .of five to four, at least." The doings 
of this convention came up for confirmation at the session of the General 
Court in December, 1816, and the committee to whom the subject was 
referred, after careful and thorough discussion reported that the work 
of the Brunswick convention was unauthorized and invalid and that, owing 
to the public feeling in the matter, further action at that session was 
* * f Discussion was again renewed in 1818, but nothing was 

,. done until January, 1819. Of the representatives from 

Separation _, . , . 

Maine at that session, one hundred and twenty-five were 

in favor of separation and only twenty-five opposed to it. About one hun- 
dred petitions were presented to the legislature and after due consideration 
the act of June 20, 1819, was passed by a large majority. If the popular 
majority in favor of separation upon the conditions named in the act was 
found to be not less than fifteen hundred a constitutional convention was to 
be called. The number of votes cast was 24,233; in favor of separation, 
17,091 ; against it, 7,132. 

rn , o4 . ., , , . i The convention to frame the constitution for the new state 
Constitutional , _ .. , _ . . 

Convention m Portland, October 11, 1819. There was a contest 

over the name of the new state. "Columbus" was sug- 
gested, and also "Ligonia," but "Maine" was the preference of a great 


majority of the delegates. By a majority of six "State" was preferred 
to "Commonwealth" and on a reconsideration the majority was nearly 
forty. There were earnest debates upon certain provisions in the consti- 
tution but there was little or no acrimony in the discussion. The session 
lasted a little over a fortnight. The popular vote on the adoption of the 
constitution, as officially reported to the convention at its adjourned ses- 
sion, January 6, 1820, was 9,050 in favor and 796 against. As a result of 
the Missouri compromise President Monroe signed the Maine bill on March 
3, and on March 15, 1820, the separation from Massachusetts became 
T , The joint commission, prescribed by the Act of Separation, 

. . was filled thus: Massachusetts appointed Timothy Bige- 
Commissioners, , , . T . . ,, . _..._. * 

low and Levi Lincoln; Maine, Benjamin Porter and James 

Bridge; and these four chose Silas Holman and Lathrop Lewis to com- 
plete the board. From October 30, 1820, to November 27, 1827, the Com- 
missioners held twelve formal meetings, eight in Boston, three in Port- 
land and one in Bangor and Augusta. They made exhaustive surveys of 
the public lands and divided the same, in accordance with the terms of 
the act, one-half to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and one-half to 
the State of Maine. They also adjusted all personal property owned in 
common, giving two-thirds to Massachusetts and one-third to Maine, and 
made new treaties with the Indians. 

p , . _ , Massachusetts held title to her one-half of the public lands 
until 1853 when the Maine legislature passed the fol- 
lowing resolve : 

"Resolved: That the land agent proceed without delay to Bos- 
ton, for the purpose of ascertaining from the authorities of Massa- 
chusetts, the terms on which that state will sell or surrender 
to Maine, all her interests in the lands in this state. Also upon 
what terms Massachusetts will sell to Maine her interest in the 
lands known and denominated as settling lands, independently 
of the timber lands, and report to the legislature as soon as may 

By a further resolve the Legislature was directed to choose by ballot 
three commissioners to make negotiations with Massachusetts for the 
purchase of these lands. The commissioners for Maine were Reiiel Williams, 
William P. Fessenden and Elijah L. Hamlin, and on the part of the Com- 
monwealth were E. M. Wright, Jacob H. Loud and David Wilder. 

An extra session of the Legislature was held September 20, 1853, at 
which time the report of the joint commission was received and accepted 
and their acts ratified and confirmed by a resolve approved September 28, 



A convention was called in Massachusetts in 1788 to consider the 
ratification of the proposed constitution of the United States. It was 
generally conceded that upon the result in Massachusetts depended the 
ratification by the other colonies. Washington was extremely anxious, and 
was kept informed of the proceedings. Knox writes him the 10th of 
February, 1788, "It is now no secret that on the opening of the Conven- 
tion a majority were prejudiced against it." The convention opened on 
January 9th. The debates were acrimonious, particularly on the part 
of those opposing ratification, and of the five leaders of this opposition, 
three were from the District of Maine. On the 2d of February a Com- 
mittee of Compromise was appointed by the President, John Hancock. 
Had it not been for the adoption of the report of this committee Massa- 
chusetts would have probably failed to ratify the constitution, and through 
this failure the colonies also. Of the twenty-five members of the com- 
mittee, six were from the District of Maine. They were Rev. Dr. Moses 
Hemenway, Wells; Nathaniel Barrell, Esq., York; John Fox, Portland; 
Stephen Longfellow, Jr., Portland ; Dummer Sewall, Bath ; David Sylvester, 
Pownalborough. The following extract from a letter of Lucilius A. Emery, 
formerly chief justice of the supreme Judicial Court of Maine, has some 
interesting facts relative to Maine's part in the convention. 

"Several towns were not represented and out of a total of 355 dele- 
gates in the convention only 46 appeared from what is now Mahje. I do 
not find that any Maine delegate advocated in debate the ratification of 
the proposed federal constitution, but some few did strongly oppose ratifi- 
cation. On the vote being finally taken the Maine delegates voted as 
follows : 

In Favor of Ratification Nathaniel Barrell, York ; Rev. Moses Hemen- 
way, Wells; Nathaniel Wells, Wells; Jacob Bradbury, Buxton; Thomas 
Cutts, Pe-pperellboro ; John Low, Coxhall; John K. Smith, Falmouth; John 
Fox, Portland; Joseph McLellan, Portland; David Mitchell, North Yar- 
mouth; Samuel Merrill, Yarmouth; William Thompson, Scarboro; John 
Dunlap, Brunswick; Isaac Snow, Harpswell; John Dyer, Cape Elizabeth; 
Samuel Perley, Gray ; Thomas Rice, David Sylvester, Pownalboro ; Nathan- 
iel Wyman, Georgetown; David Gilmore, Woolwich; William McCobb. 
Boothbay; Samuel Grant, Vassalboro; Moses Davis, Edgecomb; David 
Fales, Thomaston ; Dummer Sewall, Bath 25. 



Opposed to Ratification Elias Preble, York; Moses Adams, James 
Neal, Kittery; Elijah Thayer, Nathaniel Low, Richard Fox Cutts, Ber- 
wick; Thomas M. Wentworth, Lebanon; Samuel Nasson, Sanford; Moses 
Ames, Fryeburg; Jeremiah Emery, Shapleigh; Rev. Pelatiah Tingley, 
Waterboro; Daniel Ilsley, Portland; Stephen Longfellow, Jr., Gorham; 
William Widgery, New Gloucester; David Murray, Newcastle; Samuel 
Thompson, Topsham; Jonah Crosby, Winslow; Zaccheus Beal, Bowdoin- 
ham; William Jones, Bristol; James Carr, Hallowell; Joshua Bran, Win- 
throp 21. 

The total vote in the whole convention was 187 yeas, 168 nays. To 
this slender majority of 19 in favor of accepting the constitution, Maine 
contributed 4. The Maine vote by counties was as follows, there being 
at that time only three counties in that part of the commonwealth : York, 
yeas 7, nays 10 ; Cumberland, yeas 10, nays 3 ; Lincoln, yeas 8, nays 8. 

Nathaniel Barrell of York expressed in debate his dislike of the con- 
stitution and intimated that a majority of his constituents were opposed 
to it, but he was satisfied it was the best that could be had and so voted 
for it. Samuel Nasson of Sanford made a fiery speech against giving Con- 
gress the power to raise armies and levy taxes directly on the people and 
voted against the constitution, but after the vote was taken he declared 
his acquiescence and that he would strive to induce his constituents to 
accept the result cheerfully. William Widgery of New Gloucester, who 
had spoken and voted against acceptance, also declared his cheerful 
acquiescence and sincere resolution to support the action of the con- 

Samuel Thompson of Topsham, who seemed to have the title of Gen- 
eral, was apparently incorrigible. He attacked nearly every section of 
the constitution in debate, often vehemently, and does not seem to have 
expressed any acquiescence in the result. During the debate on the final 
question he insisted that it was unconstitutional to adopt the proposed 
constitution; that the delegates to the Philadelphia convention of 1787 
were not authorized to propose a constitution but only to propose amend- 
ments to the articles of confederation; that it was a 'wicked' usurpation 
for them to do anything more. He predicted that the ratification of this 
work would eventually destroy the liberties of the people." 



Whenever men have developed from the lowest stage of savagery and 
have attempted to live together in any sort of harmony, some form of 
government has been evolved. Whatever form it takes, it is forever 
changing, autocratic, democratic, and back to autocratic again ; the pendu- 
lum is always swinging. Each age and each race develops its own particu- 
lar genius in government, and the world gains by the experiment. 

The four periods into which the government of Maine may be divided 
are : first, that of the Indians ; second, the proprietary ; third, that of con- 
trol by Massachusetts; fourth, our present state government. 

When the first settlers came to the state, they found the Indians 
in possession. The usual government of the Indians was simple. There 
was a chief or sagamore, whose office was usually hereditary, for each 
tribe. Sometimes a head chief presided over several tribes with the tribal 
chief subordinate to him. There were no written laws, but justice was 
administered and penalties were exacted by the chief and his council, 
which was composed of the warriors of the tribe. One tribe living near 
the New Brunswick border developed a very democratic government. The 
sachem or chief was elected for life by the men of the tribe. At his death 
another was chosen. The choice did not always fall on the dead chief's 
son, though it often did so. The sachem's power was nominal. He had 
six councillors whom he named, but his selection had to be confirmed by 
the warriors. He was commander-in-chief of the war forces, but the 
immediate command was given to another. Such was the government 
that prevailed among these tribes of savages. 

The second period, that of the Proprietary Government, extended from 
1606 to 1652. 

ififtfi James I gave the charter of Virginia to Gorges and Pop- 
ham. It created two companies, the London Company (the 
first colony of Virginia) and the Plymouth Company. A general council 
in England of thirteen members with one representative for each com- 
pany in the colony constituted the government. A simple code of laws 
was formed. Some of these follow: 

1. Each colony could elect a president and councillors for one year. 

2. Land was to descend to heirs as in England. 

3. Trial by jury was established. 

4. All offenders were to be tried in the colony. 



George Popham was made president with a council of five assistants. 
1620 James I gave to the Council of New England which suc- 
ceeded the Plymouth Company a charter which confirmed 
and included nearly all the rights of the charter of 1606. This charter 
held for fourteen years. From 1623 to 1631 a number of patents were 
granted in Maine: the 1st Patent of Agamenticus (York), to Ferdinando 
Gorges, the 1st Kennebec Patent, the 2d Kennebec Patent, the Patent to 
the planters at Saco, the Lygonia Patent, the Muscongus or Waldo Patent 
and the Pemaquid or Sagadahoc Patent. Civil control was granted along 
with the title to the land and the government varied with the proprietor, 
who was usually the governor. If he did not govern in person, he appointed 
a deputy governor who ruled as he pleased, administering justice and mak- 
ing what laws seemed desirable. 

The Council of New England dissolved, and control was 
taken over by the king. The Commissioners of American 
Plantations were appointed to take charge of colonial affairs. New Eng- 
land was divided into royal provinces. Ferdinando Gorges was granted 
the region between the Piscataqua and the Kennebec, which was given 
the name of New Somersetshire. Capt. William Gorges was sent over as 
the first deputy governor. He with six commissioners held court at Saco 
in 1636; this was the first provincial court in the present State of Maine. 
In 1637 Gorges went back to England and this governmental experiment 
was at an end. 

lfi qn Ferdinando Gorges received his long desired charter of 
the Province of Maine, which included one-sixth the present 
area of Maine, all the land between the Piscataqua and the Sagadahoc, 
one hundred and twenty miles inland. Gorges ruled as Lord Palatine after 
the manner of Lord Baltimore in Maryland. The country was divided 
into eight bailiwicks or counties and sixteen several hundreds and then 
into parishes and tithings. The legislative body, consisting of eight mem- 
bers elected by the people, and the council, levied taxes and made laws. 
The deputy governor, chancellor, treasurer, marshal!, judge marshall, 
admiral, judge of maritime cases, master of ordnance and secretary were 
the standing councillors who met each month as a court of justice. The 
religion was Episcopalian and no provision was made for schools. 

The Lygonia Patent was purchased by Sir Alexander Rigby. 
It had a deputy president and a general assembly consist- 
ing of assistant magistrates and deputies, the latter chosen by popular 
vote. The deputy president acted under the advice of a commission 
appointed by parliament. 

After the death of Gorges, the inhabitants formed a com- 
pact, "to see these parts of the country and province regu- 
lated according to such laws as have -formerly been exercised, and such 


others as shall be thought meet, but not repugnant to the fundamental 
laws of our native country." Edward Godfrey was chosen governor. This 
government lasted until 1652. 

Gorges' heirs did nothing for a time in regard to their prop- 
erty. Massachusetts had long viewed with disfavor the 
growth of an independent government in Maine, and even the inhabitants 
felt the need of some co-ordinate government. Massachusetts, therefore, 
took over Maine as a county under the name of Yorkshire. Two delegates 
were sent to the General Court at Boston. The inhabitants were allowed 
to vote without becoming members of the Puritan church, but entire free- 
dom of worship was not allowed them. This date marks the beginning of 
the third period in Maine's government. 

fifi The grandson of Gorges claimed Maine. His commissioners 

visited the country and set up a form of government, but 
Massachusetts refused to yield and they were soon recalled. 
1668 Massachusetts resumed control. 

1fi7fi 78 ^ ne c ^ a ^ m ^ Gorges was revived, but Massachusetts quietly 
purchased the Gorges claim for 1250 and held Maine as a 

Massachusetts reorganized the administration of Maine. A 
provincial president and deputy president were chosen 
annually. The legislature was composed of a standing council of eight 
members and a lower house of deputies chosen from the towns. Thomas 
Danforth was the first president. 

The charter of Massachusetts was annulled and for seven 
years Maine, as well as Massachusetts, was governed directly 
by the crown. Dudley was made president of Massachusetts, New Hamp- 
shire, Maine and Rhode Island. He had fifteen councillors appointed by 
the crown to assist him. His administration was very unpopular and 
lasted only five months. In 1688 Sir Edmond Andros was appointed cap- 
tain general and vice admiral of New England, New York and the Jerseys. 
He formed a council of twenty-five members, five of whom constituted a 
quorum. All legislative, judicial and executive functions were vested in 
this department. It was a despotic government without constitutional 

1fi . Andros was deposed and a provisional government was set 
up. "A council for the safety of the people and the con- 
servation of the peace" was chosen. Delegates from the towns were chosen 
and a meeting of the General Court was advised. This was held in Bos- 
ton in May of this year and it was decided "to resume the government 
according to charter rights". Danforth was restored to his office as presi- 
dent of the Province of Maine. 


1691 William and Mary granted Massachusetts her second char- 
ter, which gave her control of Maine as far as the St. Croix 
River. Massachusetts' government at this time resembled the English. 
The governor, lieutenant governor and secretary of state were appointed 
and commissioned by the crown to hold office during the pleasure of the 
sovereign. The governor had supreme executive authority. The legisla- 
ture consisted of two branches, an upper, called council or board of assist- 
ants, and the lower, the house of representatives. The council was chosen 
by the old council and the new house of representatives. By charter, three 
of the council were always from the Province of Maine, and one from 
Sagadahoc. The representatives were elected by towns. Eight were from 
Maine. All laws had to be approved by the king. 

-__. General Gage dissolved the General Court. From 1775 
Massachusetts was governed by the provincial congress 
composed of delegates from the principal towns of Maine and Massachu- 
setts. They managed the political affairs but made no laws. 

Massachusetts was divided by the Continental Congress 
into three districts. The northern, composed of York 
County, Cumberland County and Lincoln County, was called the District 
of Maine. 

The constitution of Massachusetts which was adopted in 
1780 changed the government greatly. The executive power 
was vested in the governor, lieutenant governor and an advisory council 
of nine members. The General Court of two branches, the Senate and 
the House of Representatives, met annually. The voters had to have an 
income of $10 or an estate worth $200. The senators were chosen from 
counties or districts and the number was in proportion to the property. 
Maine had eight senators. The representatives were chosen by corporate 
towns, one to every one hundred and fifty taxable polls, and one more for 
every additional number of three hundred and seventy-five polls. 

17R _ When the United States Constitution was adopted, Maine 

was made a representative district. 

1 S2fl Maine separated from Massachusetts and was admitted into 
the Union as a sovereign state, entering upon the fourth 
period of her government, with which we are all familiar. 



1. Senate thirty-one members elected from senatorial dis- 
Legislative A. , 

, tncts for two years. 

2. House of Representatives one hundred fifty-one mem- 
bers elected from representative districts for two years. .Each house elects 
its own officers (secretary, messengers, doorkeepers, etc.). 

I. Executive Officers 

1. Governor elected by popular vote for two years. 
Ex< 2. Council seven members elected by the legislature 

from the councillor districts for two years. 

3. Secretary of State elected by the legislature for two years. 

4. Treasurer elected by the legislature, but not eligible for more 
than six years in succession. 

5. Attorney General elected by the legislature for two years. 

6. Auditor elected by popular vote for two years, but not eligible 
for more than three successive terms. 

7. Commissioner of Agriculture elected by legislature for four 

II. Administrative Officers* 

1. Adjutant General holds office at pleasure of Governor. 

2. State Superintendent of Schools term three years. 

3. Land Agent and Forest Commissioner term three years. 

4. State Librarian term three years. 

5. Insurance Commissioner term three years. 

6. Bank Commissioner term three years. 

7. Commissioner of Health term six years. 

8. Commissioner of Labor and Industry term three years. 

9. Commissioner of Inland Fisheries and Game term three years. 

10. Agent of Penobscot Indians holds office at pleasure of governor 
and council. 

11. Agent of Passamaquoddy Indians holds office at pleasure of 
governor and council. 

12. Superintendent of Public Printing holds office at pleasure of gov- 
ernor and council. 

13. State Historian term four years. 



III. Boards and Commissions * 

1. Public Utilities Commission three members, seven years. 

2. State Highway Commission three members, three years. 

3. State Assessors three members, six years. 

4. Commission of Sea and Shore Fisheries three members, three 

5. Maine Library Commission five members, four years. 

6. Industrial Accident Commission three members, term of chair- 
man three years, other two members ex-officio. 

7. Commissioners of Harbor and Tidal Waters three members, three 

8. Commissioners of Pharmacy three members, three years. 

9. Board of Prison Commissioners three members, three years. 

10. Board of Legal Examiners five members, five years. 

11. Maine Board of Accountancy three members, three years. 

12. Board of Registration of Medicine six members, six years. 

13. Board of Registration and Examiners in Optometry five mem- 
bers, three years. 

14. Board of Veterinary Examiners three members, three years. 

15. Board of Dental Examiners five members, five years. 

16. Board of Embalming Examiners four members, three years. 

17. Board of Charities and Corrections five members, five years. 

18. Board of Arbitration and Conciliation three members, three 

19. Board of Examination and Registration of Nurses five members, 
three years. 

20. Inspectors of Steamboats two members, five years. 

21. Board of Osteopathic Examination and Registration five mem- 
bers, five years. 

22. Board of Vocational Education three members, chairman ex- 
officio, other two members three years. 

23. State Park Commission three members, four years. 

24. Commissioners for Promotion of Uniformity of Legislation in 
the United States three members, four years. 

,. . . Supreme Judicial Court. A Chief Justice and seven asso- 

ciate justices appointed by governor with advice and con- 
Department . ., \ 

sent of council, for seven years. 

* Administrative officers, boards and commissions have been provided for at various times to meet the 
demands of particular classes of public business. Appointments are made by the governor with the 
advice and consent of the council. 



In a democratic country like ours, the ability of the people to govern 
themselves is best displayed in the smaller divisions of government, the 
state, the county, the city or town. Maine has these divisions and in addi- 
tion the plantation. 
p , The county is the intermediate organization between the 

state government and the cities and towns. The bound- 
aries of a county are determined by law, and every portion of the state 
is in some county. A town or city is chosen as the shire town or county 
seat, and here are erected the buildings necessary for the conduct of county 
business, the court house and the jail. The administrative functions of 
the county are exercised by the county commissioners, three in number, 
who are elected for a term of six years. These commissioners make assess- 
ments, levy taxes, have charge of county roads, and supervise the receipts 
and expenditures of county money. The clerk of courts is also the clerk 
of this body. The sheriff, who is elected for two years, is charged with 
the enforcement of the laws, has charge of the jail and appoints deputies 
in the larger towns. The county treasurer has charge of the money which 
comes, not from individuals, but from towns and from the fees and fines 
received by the sheriff and the clerk of courts. The office of register of 
deeds is an important one. Here are kept the records of deeds, mortgages 
and attachments. 
p.. In Maine the law does not require a minimum population 

before a town can be incorporated as a city, and, conse- 
quently, the fact that a place is a city does not indicate its size. Cities 
are incorporated under special charters with usually a mayor as chief 
executive, with a board of aldermen and common council, together form- 
ing a city council, performing the legislative functions. Some cities, how- 
ever, have no common council. Cities are divided into districts called 
wards and each citizen must vote in his own ward. The government is 
representative and minor officials are chosen by the city council. One 
city in Maine has the commission plan of government. Each member of 
the commission is in charge of one of the departments, such as police, 
public works, and so on. Together they form a board which makes ordi- 
nances and carries on the business of the city. Another city is under 



the commission manager plan. The government is in the hands of one 
man, who is an expert, selected for his abilities in this line. 

The towns are all incorporated under uniform state laws 
for the town form of organization. The town meeting, at 
which all citizens with a voting residence have a voice, is the legislative 
body and is an example of the purest form of democratic government. At 
the town meeting are chosen the officers of the town, money is raised 
and appropriated for town business. The chief officials are the selectmen, 
whose number may be three, five or seven, the town clerk, treasurer, col- 
lector of taxes, the road commissioner, school committee, superintendent 
of schools, who serves for several towns, and the board of health. 

The plantation is a rudimentary town and has all the essen- 
Plantation ,. . ,, , , . ..,, . , 

tial machinery that towns possess, but in a simplified form. 

Plantations may be organized for school purposes alone. The officials are 
the same as for towns except that three assessors take the place of select- 

. . IThere is in Maine in addition to cities, towns, and planta- 
s ' 'tions another local unit called an unorganized township, 
which is sometimes confused in the popular mind with the 
plantation. It is, however, entirely distinct and as the name suggests is 
without a local form of government and consequently with no local officials 
and no local taxation. Many of these townships have a population of 
considerable size and have schools and roads. The schools come under the 
direct supervision of the State Department of Education while the roads are 
under the direction of the county commissioners. The unorganized town- 
ships occupy about one-half of the area of the state, or to be more exact, 
forty-seven per cent. 

There are in Maine twenty cities, four hundred and thirty-four towns, 
sixty-five plantations, and three hundred and seventy-six unorganized 
townships, fourteen other smaller unorganized divisions and one hundred 
and forty-three islands not a part of any municipality. 

The initiative is the power the people reserve to themselves 
to propose ordinances and laws and amendments to their 
charters and constitutions, and to enact or reject the same at the polls. 
In Maine initiative bills may propose any measure, including bills 
to amend or repeal emergency legislation, but not to amend the state 
constitution. The petition must set forth the full text of the measure 
proposed and be signed by not less than 12,000 electors, and be filed with 
the secretary of state or presented to either branch of the legislature at 
least 30 days before the close of its session. Proposed measures must be 
submitted to the legislature, and unless they are enacted without change, 
they must be submitted to the electors together with any amended form, 
substitute or recommendation of the legislature, in such a manner that 


the people can choose between the competing measures, or reject both. 
When there are competing bills and neither receives a majority of the 
votes given for and against both, the one receiving the greater number 
of votes is to be resubmitted by itself at the next general election, to be 
held not less than sixty days after the first vote thereon ; but no measure 
is to be resubmitted unless it has received more than one-third of the 
votes given for and against both. An initiative measure enacted by the 
legislature without change is not to be referred unless a popular vote is 
demanded by a referendum petition. The veto power of the governor 
does not extend to any measure approved by vote of the people, and if 
he vetoes any measure initiated by the people and passed by the legisla- 
ture without change, and his veto is sustained by the legislature, the meas- 
ure is referred to the people at the next general election. 

The referendum is the power the people reserve to them- 
Reierendum , ,, n ,. 

selves to approve or reject at the polls any ordinances or 

act passed by their legislative assemblies. 

In Maine the legislature may enact measures expressly conditioned 
upon the people's ratification by referendum vote. Petitions for a refer- 
ence of any act or any part or parts thereof, passed by the legislature 
must be signed by not less than 10,000 electors, and be filed within ninety 
days after the recess of the legislature. The governor is required to give 
notice of the suspension of acts through referendum petitions and make 
proclamation of the time when the referred measure is to be voted upon. 
Referred measures do not take effect until thirty days after the governor 
has announced their ratification by a majority of the electors voting 
thereon. The governor may order a special election upon an initiative 
or referendum measure, or if so requested in the petition shall order a 
special election held upon the act to be referred or the act initiated but 
not enacted without change by the legislature. 

p . . The direct primary law governs the nomination of all 

county, state and national officers. Each party holds a 
state convention, first to formulate and, adopt a platform, and second to 
elect state, district and county committees by whom the primary elec- 
tion campaign for the nomination of candidates and subsequently the reg- 
ular election campaign are conducted. These state conventions are held 
at such places and on such dates between sixty and ninety days prior to 
the third Monday in June as the state committees shall determine and 
announce. They are made up of delegates elected at caucuses of the dif- 
ferent parties, regularly called by the city, town and plantation commit- 
tees throughout the state. The primary election takes place on the third 
Monday in June, between the hours of 12 o'clock, noon, and 9 o'clock at 
night, except in towns and plantations of 3,000 inhabitants or less, where 
the polls will be open from 9 A. M. to 6 P. M. It is held at the regular 


voting places throughout the state and all the political parties unite in 
one primary election at the same time. Each political party has a separ- 
ate ballot and each party ballot differs in color from the other. The pri- 
mary ballot of the party casting the largest number of votes for governor 
in the last state election is white ; that of the next largest party is yellow ; 
that of the third, blue ; the fourth, green ; and the sample ballot is brown. 

Each candidate for office must file with the secretary of state, before 
the third Monday in April preceding an election, a nomination paper signed 
by qualified voters, of his party, in number not less than one per cent 
nor more than two per cent of the entire vote cast for governor in the 
last preceding election in the state, district, or county wherein such can- 
didate is to be voted for. No nomination papers can be signed before the 
first day of January preceding the election. All nomination papers must 
be completed and filed in the office of the secretary of state before the 
third Monday in April. The candidate's written agreement to accept the 
nomination must be filed with his nomination paper. Whoever expends 
money or contracts liability to aid in an effort to secure the nomination 
of any candidate without his knowledge or consent forfeits $500 to be 
recovered by indictment. 

At the primary election only voters who have properly registered 
before the primary election occurs are qualified to vote. In addition to 
registration each voter must be enrolled as a member of some political 
party. Any registered voter, however, who has not been so enrolled may 
be enrolled on primary election day by the ballot clerk. In towns and 
plantations having less than 2,000 inhabitants this is not required. 

The returns announcing the result in each city, town and plantation 
are made by the clerks to the secretary of state within seven days from 
the date of the election. The governor and council on or before the 
first Tuesday in July, must tabulate the returns in the office of the secre- 
tary of state and determine what persons, for each office, have been nom- 
inated, by each party, as candidates to be voted for at the September 

The successful candidates are notified at once, by the secretary of 
state, by registered letter; and such candidates must notify the secre- 
tary of state of their acceptance, by registered letter, within seven days 
after being notified, and send therewith a statement of expenditures, in 
securing the nomination, properly subscribed and sworn to. 

In case of nomination for any office to be voted for by the whole 
state, as governor or United States senator, the amount expended must 
not exceed $1500 ; for members of Congress, $500 ; for state senators and 
county officers, $150 for each 10,000 votes cast for governor within the 
county at the last preceding election; for members of the legislature in 


districts having three or more representatives, $100 ; in all other districts, 
$50. To exceed these limits forfeits the nomination. 

No person other than a "political agent" may legally pay any of the 
expenses connected with the candidacy of any person in the primary elec- 
tion except that a candidate may pay his actual personal expenses. Can- 
didates may act as their own political agents or they may appoint another 
person to serve in that capacity. In either case no money may be legally 
spent or liabilities incurred unless the candidate shall first have notified 
the secretary of state of his intention to serve as his own political agent 
or shall have filed a notification of the appointment of another person to 
act as such. 

. The following co.urts have the power to naturalize aliens: 
United States District Courts in the states and territories; 
also all courts of record in any state or territory having a seal, a clerk and 
jurisdiction in actions at law or equity, or law and equity, in which the 
amount in controversy is unlimited. The power to naturalize is limited 
to persons residing within the geographical limits of the respective courts. 

An alien, white, or of African nativity or descent, is required, if he 
desires to become naturalized, to file a declaration of intention in the 
clerk's office of a court having jurisdiction, and such declaration may 
not be filed until the alien has reached the age of 18. This declaration 
must contain information as to the name, age, occupation, time and place 
of arrival in the United States and must further show it is the declarant's 
bona fide intention to become a citizen of the United States and to renounce 
forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state or 
sovereignty and particularly to the one of which he may be at the time a 
citizen or subject. 

The widow and children who are under age at the time that an alien 
who has made his declaration of intention has died without having secured 
a certificate of naturalization, are exempted from the necessity of filing a 
declaration of intention. 

Not less than two years after an alien has filed his declaration of 
intention, and after not less than five years' continuous residence in the 
United States, he may file a petition for citizenship in any of the courts 
which has jurisdiction over the place in which he resides, provided he has 
lived at least one year continuously, immediately prior to the filing of such 
petition, in the state or territory in which such place is located. This 
petition must be signed by the petitioner in his own handwriting and shall 
give his full name, place of residence, occupation, place of birth and date 
thereof, the place from which he emigrated, and the date and place of his 
arrival in the United States. If such arrival occurred subsequent to the 
passage of the act of June. 29, 1906, he must secure a certificate from the 
Department of Labor showing the fact of such arrival and date and place 


thereof, for filing with the clerk of the court to be attached to his petition. 
If he is married he must state the name of his wife and, if possible, the 
country of her nativity and her place of residence at the time of filing of 
his petition, and if he has children, the name, date and place of birth and 
present place of residence of each living child. The petition must set forth 
that he is not a disbeliever in or opposed to organized government, or a 
member of or affiliated with any organization or body of persons teaching 
disbelief in or opposition to organized government, that he is not a polyg- 
amist or a believer in the practice of polygamy, and that he absolutely 
and forever renounces all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign country 
of which he may, at the time of filing such petition, be a citizen or sub- 
ject. This petition must be verified at the time it is filed by the affidavit 
of two credible witnesses, who are citizens of the United States and who 
shall state that they have known the petitioner during his entire residence 
(not exceeding five years) in the state in which the petition is filed, which 
must be not less than one year, and that they have known him to be a resi- 
dent of the United States continuously during the five years immediately 
preceding the filing of the petition; that during such time he acted as a 
man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution 
of the United States and well disposed to the good order and happiness of 
the same. If a portion of the five years has been passed by the petitioner 
in some other state than that in which he resides at the time of filing his 
petition the affidavit of the witnesses may verify so much of the peti- 
tioner's residence as has been passed in the state (not less than one year) , 
and the portion of said five years' residence out of the state may be shown 
by depositions at the time of hearing on the petition. 

No petition may be heard until the expiration of at least ninety days 
after it is filed nor within thirty days preceding a general election. At 
the hearing upon a petition, which shall be at a date fixed by order of 
the court, the witnesses are required to again attend and testify in open 
court so that the judge or judges thereof may be satisfied that the peti- 
tioner is qualified and that he has complied with all the requirements of 
the law. 

Every person whose name has not been entered upon the 
voting list in any municipality, must, if he desires to vote, 
appear in person at a place provided for registration and prove that he 
possesses all the qualifications of a voter. In cities having three thou- 
sand or more inhabitants a board of registration is appointed to make 
up, correct and revise the list of voters in each of said cities. In all cities 
having less than three thousand inhabitants the municipal officers make 
such list, exercising the same powers and being governed by the same 
laws as municipal officers of towns having five hundred or more registered 
voters. The assessors transmit to this board, on or before the first day 


of July in each year, lists containing the name, age, occupation and resi- 
dence on the first day of April in the current year, and his occupation and 
residence on the first day of April in the preceding year, or of his becom- 
ing an inhabitant after said last named day, of every male person twenty- 
one years of age and upwards who resides therein and is liable to be 
assessed for a poll-tax. Copies of these names, arranged by wards or 
voting precincts, and by streets, are filed by the assessors with the board 
or registration on or before the fifteenth day of July in each year. The 
board of registration then enters on the voting lists the name of every 
person assessed a poll-tax for the current year. The board prepares ward 
lists of voters of such persons as appear to them to be legally qualified 
voters, at least thirty days before any election, and places upon these 
lists all the names which appear upon the voting lists for the last preced- 
ing year, except the names of such persons as have died or ceased to reside 
therein since that time. The city clerks post certified copies of these lists 
at or near the several voting places at least twenty-seven days prior to an 
election. The board of registration is in session for twelve secular days 
prior to an election in cities of not less than nineteen thousand inhabitants ; 
in cities of not less than thirty-five thousand inhabitants, for sixty secular 
days; in all other cities, five secular days. If the board of registration 
is in session twelve days, registration can be made during the first nine 
days; if sixty days, the first twenty days; if five days, the first four. In 
every town having more than three thousand inhabitants, the selectmen 
perform the duties of a board of registration and are in session for a 
reasonable time, on not more than two days between the eleventh and 
eighteenth days of August in every year. In all towns having five hun- 
dred or more registered voters, and in all cities having less than three 
thousand inhabitants the municipal officers are in session on the three 
secular days next preceding the day of election. The person wishing to 
register for the first time must appear before the board of registration 
or its equivalent and prove he is legally entitled to vote. He must give 
the full Christian name and surname, or the full name or initial or initials 
of any other name or names he may have, date of registration, residence 
on the first day of April of the year of registration or on the day of his 
becoming an inhabitant after said first day of April, age, place of birth, 
date of birth, occupation, place of occupation, how long resident of the city, 
place of casting his last vote, married or single, residence of wife or 
family, where naturalized, when naturalized, in what court. An applicant 
under examination for registration will be required, unless prevented by 
physical disability, to read in the English language from an official edition 
of the Constitution and to write his name in a book kept for the purpose. 
A naturalized citizen is required to produce for inspection his papers of 
naturalization or certificate of the same from the court where he was 



The Plymouth Company was provided with a code of laws 
by King James. By the code a president and councillors 
were elected annually. They had the power to make all needful laws. 
They sat as a court for civil cases. For all criminal cases of importance 
a jury of twelve men was required. All cases had to be tried within the 
colony. Sir George Popham was the first president and with him were 
five councillors. 

Ifinfi There is no record of any organized government, except 
ex i s ^ ence ^ a magistrate, between 1606-1632. In 1632, 

under the New England charter of 1620, Aldsworth and 
Elbridge were granted a patent for the Pemaquid region. It was known 
as the Plymouth Company and was granted the power to appoint all gov- 
ernors and make laws (eight patents were granted under this charter) . A 
representative form of government was established. The chief officers 
were elected by the people. The Plymouth Company surrendered this 
charter in 1635 and the king appointed commissioners to govern the 

^ r Ferdinando Gorges sent his nephew, William Gorges, 

to govern his colony called New Somersetshire. He estab- 
lished a court in Saco. Associated with him were six commissioners. This 
was the first legal tribunal in Maine. 

ICQQ Charles I granted to Ferdinando Gorges a charter, creat- 

ing him Lord Palatine of all the territory between the 
Piscataqua and the Sagadahoc. He was then made absolute lord and 
proprietor of the Province of Maine. He established a legislative assem- 
bly of fifteen members, seven of whom constituted a court. All matters 
criminal and civil came before this court. Inferior courts were established 
in each county. There were also commissioners, or trial justices, for each 

Alexander Rigby purchased the Lygonia patent and insti- 
tuted a government and courts. This created a division 
which was settled in 1646, making the Kennebunk the dividing line between 
Gorges and Rigby. 

cen Massachusetts took over the two provinces and named 

them Yorkshire in 1653. The civil and judicial regulation 

of Massachusetts became the order in Maine and continued until 1668. 



The judicial power was vested in their tribunals, the court of magistrates, 
consisting of the governor, deputy governor and assistants. It met semi- 
annually in Boston. The county court was held by the resident magis- 
trate in each county, assisted by four freemen. These were elected by 
the voters at the annual meeting, approved and commissioned by the leg- 
islature. This court held sessions in Maine twice a year. The third court 
had jurisdiction in all cases within the county where not more than forty 
shillings involved. This court was held by a single magistrate without a 
jury. A special commission was established for the Kennebec patent in 
1654 and with a slight difference, the courts were like those of the rest 
of Maine. 

IfifiO Charles II was restored to the throne. He appointed a 

commission which established new courts in the Gorges 
colony and also in the colony which had been created for the Duke of York. 
Massachusetts re-established her courts in Maine and con- 
tinued to exercise power under the charter of Massachu- 
setts. In 1678 Massachusetts purchased the Gorges patent and changed the 
government to harmonize with the charter granted to Ferdinando Gorges. 
Therefore they created a provincial president and two legislative houses, 
the lower to be elected by the towns, the upper branch of seven members 
constituted the supreme court. Former laws and precedents were to con- 
tinue in force. 

The colonial charter of Massachusetts was revoked, James 
II having succeeded to the throne. He commissioned Joseph 
Dudley president of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine and Rhode 
Island. The president appointed fifteen commissioners to assist him. A 
majority of the council constituted the superior court ; it was to sit three 
times a year for the whole country. County courts were held by a num- 
ber of the council assisted by an associate. 

The people revolted and took affairs into their own hands 
and formed a provisional government and resumed the 
administration of affairs under the colonial charter. 

1 fiQI William and Mary granted a new charter uniting Plymouth, 

Massachusetts, Maine and Sagadahoc under one civil gov- 
ernment. The governor, lieutenant-governor and secretary of state 
were appointed by the crown, the legislative power was vested in two 
branches, a council of twenty-eight members and the house of represen- 
tatives. The judiciary consisted of a superior court, consisting of a chief 
justice and four assistants, court of common pleas, quarter sessions and 
justices court, and later chancery, probate and admiralty courts were 

1 _~~ Massachusetts having adopted a state constitution, changes 
were made in the judiciary, the superior court becoming 
the supreme judicial court. 


The number of supreme judicial judges was increased to 

The number of supreme judicial courts was reduced to 

A complete nisi prius system was established with five 
judges, one or more of whom held the trial terms and 
three the law terms. 

1820 Maine having become a state, created a supreme judicial 
court of three members, any two of whom could hold court. 

1823 The court was re( l uired to hld sessions in each of the 
twelve counties. In addition a term for jury trials was 
to be held by one of the justices in each county except four, Franklin, 
Piscataquis, Washington, Hancock. 

. The number of justices was increased to four and in 1852 

to seven. Since then it has been increased to eight, which 
is the present number. 

1920 ^ e supreme Judicial court now has a chief justice and 
seven associate justices which are appointed by the gov- 
ernor for a term of seven years. Forty-four nisi prius terms with a jury 
are held by the justices in the various counties of the state. The supreme 
court when sitting as a law court is by statute composed of five or more 
justices, but in practice it is composed of the chief justice and five asso- 
ciate justices. The annual sessions of the law court are held in Bangor 
on the first Tuesday of June; in Portland on the fourth Tuesday of June; 
and in Augusta on the second Tuesday of December. 

On account of increasing business, four superior courts have been 
established, one at Portland for the County of Cumberland ; one at Augusta 
for the County of Kennebec ; one at Auburn for the County of Androscog- 
gin ; and one at Bangor for the County of Penobscot. 

A court of common pleas was established in 1822. This court was 
superseded by the district court in 1839, and this court was abolished by 
the legislature in 1852 and its work transferred to the supreme judicial 

The probate court established under the Massachusetts law was con- 
tinued under the constitution of Maine. In 1853 the office of judge and 
register was made elective with a term of four years. 

The office of justice of the peace was continued as it had existed under 
the laws of Massachusetts. In 1860 their jurisdiction of trial of cases was 
taken away and the office of trial justice established for small cases, both 
civil and criminal. 

Municipal courts are established by special charters, having jurisdic- 
tion ranging from $20 to $500 and the same criminal power as the trial 



986 Biorn (or Bjarn), a Norseman, first European to visit America, 

lands at Cape Cod. 
1000 Lief and Norsemen, investigating Biorn's story, spend the winter 

near present site of Fall River and name the place Vinland. 
1002 Lief's brother, Thorvald (Thorwald) visits Vinland and remains 

three winters. 
1008 Thorfinn and his wife, Gudrida (Gudrid) also spend three years 

in Vinland. (Their son, Snorri Thorfinnson, was the first white 

person born on the American continent) . 

1121 Bishop Eirik (Erik, Erick) visits Vinland as a missionary. 
1492 Christopher Columbus discovers America. 

1497 John Cabot, first English explorer to New England coast. 

1498 Sebastian Cabot explores entire New England coast. (On this 
voyage England based her claim of the New World from Atlantic 
to Pacific). 

1500 Gasper Cortereal, for Portugal, searching for Northwest Pass- 
age, sails along Maine coast. 

1524 Giovanni da Verrazano (Verrazini), for Francis I of France, 
makes extended examination of Maine shores. 

1525 Estevan Gomez, for Charles V of Spain, seeking Northwest Pass- 
age enters many New England harbors.' 

1527 John Rut, for England, explores interior of Maine. 

1556 Andre Thevet, for France, visits Maine and explores Penobscot. 

1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert, for England, explores Maine coast. 

1602 Coast of Maine visited by Bartholomew Gosnold. 

1603 Martin Pring makes survey of coast and larger rivers. 
1604-5 Expedition of De Monts. 

1605 Captain Weymouth kidnaps natives. 

1606 First Virginia charter. Southern part of Maine included in grant 
to the Plymouth Company. 

1607 Unsuccessful Popham colony at mouth of Kennebec. Building of 
first ship on American soil. 

1613 Jesuit mission established on Mount Desert Island. 

1614 Coast visited by Captain John Smith. 

1615-18 Destructive war and pestilence among the eastern Indians. 



1616-17 Richard Vines winters at mouth of Saco River. 
1620 Patent of the Council for New England. The whole of Maine 

1622 Grant to Gorges and Mason of the region between the Merrimac 
and Sagadahoc, under the name of Laconia. 

1623 Permanent settlement made at Saco. Other settlements by this 
time at Sheepscot, Damariscotta, Pemaquid, Monhegan and a few 
other points. 

1625 Trading post established on the Kennebec by Plymouth colonists. 

1627 First Kennebec patent. 

1628 First charter of Massachusetts. 

1629 Comnock's patent (Scarboro and vicinity). 
Second Kennebec, or Plymouth, patent. 

1630 Two Saco patents : 

Lygonia patent (region of Casco Bay), 

Muscongus patent (east of Penobscot), later known as 

Waldo patent. 

1631 Peniaquid patent. 

1635 Division of the territory of the Council for New England. 
Encroachments of the French, under d'Aulney, on the Penobscot. 

1636 First organized government in Maine set up at Saco by William 
Gorges, nephew of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. 

1639 Sir Ferdinando Gorges' charter of "The Province of Maine." 

1639 Pejepscot tract (Brunswick and vicinity) ceded to Massachusetts. 

1641 First chartered city in America Gorgeana. 

1651 Massachusetts asserts its claim to Maine under the charter of 

1652-53 Settlements in western Maine submitted to Massachusetts. Coun- 
ty of Yorkshire established. Gradual absorption of other settle- 

1653 First representation of Maine, then county of Yorkshire, in the 
Massachusetts General Court. 

1661 Plymouth, or Kennebec, patent sold to John Winslow and others. 

1664 Royal order directing Massachusetts to restore Maine to Ferdi- 
nando Gorges (grandson of original proprietor). 

Eastern Maine included in grant to Duke of York, and known as 
"Newcastle," or the "County of Cornwall." 

1665 Royal commissioners set up independent government in Maine. 
1668 Massachusetts government resumes control. 

1674 County of Devonshire (east of Kennebec) established. 
1675-77 King Philip's war. 

1677 Purchase of Maine by Massachusetts from Gorges for 1250 


1678 Andros becomes governor, under the Duke of York, of New York 

and Sagadahoc. 

1680 Government of Maine reorganized by the General Court. 
1684 Massachusetts charter vacated. 
1687 Andros governor of New England, 
1688-99 King William's War. Settlements in Maine ravaged. 
1689 Andros deposed and provisional government set up. 
1691 Second charter of Massachusetts, including whole of Maine. 
1697 Treaty of Ryswick. France and England both claim Sagadahoc 

(territory between Kennebec and St. Croix). 

1703-11 Queen Anne's, or Third Indian War. Settlements again ravaged. 
1722-25 Lovewell's, or the Fourth Indian War. 

1739 Line between Maine and New Hampshire fixed, after long dis- 
pute, by the king in council. 

George Whitfield visits Maine. A second visit in 1744-45. 

Capture of Louisburg by New England troops commanded by 

William Pepperell. 
1745-56 Renewed Indian war. 

1754-63 Seven Years' War, the last of the French and Indian Wars. 
1760 Cumberland and Lincoln counties established. 
1775 Capture of British schooner Margranetto at Machias. Falmouth 

burned by British. ArnoM's expedition to Quebec. 

1778 Maine constituted a district by the Continental Congress, and a 
maritime court established. 

1779 Unsuccessful attempt to drive the British from the Penobscot. 

1780 Constitution of Massachusetts. 

1784 Establishment of the province of New Brunswick, and beginning 
of the long boundary dispute between the province and Maine. 

1785 Falmouth Gazette, first newspaper in Maine, established to aid 
the agitation in favor of separation from Massachusetts. Con- 
vention at Falmouth to consider separation. 

1786 Second convention for separation. 

1789 Hancock and Washington counties established. 

1794 Bowdoin College founded. 

1799 Kennebec County established. 

1801 First free public library established (at Castine). 

1805 Oxford County established. 

1809 Somerset County established. 

1813 September 5, capture of the British brig Boxer by the American 
brig Enterprise off Portland. 

1814 British control established on the Penobscot and elsewhere in 
' eastern Maine, continuing until end of war. 


1816 Penobscot County established. 

Revival of agitation for separation. 
First separation law: not accepted. 
Great western emigration, or "Ohio fever." 
"Cold year." 

1819 Second separation act: accepted. State constitution formed. 

1820 Maine admitted to the Union. 
1827 Waldo County established. 

1832 Removal of seat of government from Portland to Augusta. 

1838 Franklin and Piscataquis counties established. 
1838-39 "Aroostook War." 

1839 Aroostook County established. 

1842 Ashburton treaty, settling the disputed northeastern boundary. 

1846 First prohibitory law : ineffective. 

1851 Prohibitory law, or "Maine Law." 

1854 Androscoggin and Sagadahoc counties established. 

1855 Mob outbreak in Portland over liquor agency. 
1860 Knox County established. 

1863-64 Twice invaded by Confederates. 

1870 Summer visitors "discover" Maine. 

1872 New Sweden colony established. 

1875 Compulsory education bill passed. 

1876 Death penalty abolished. 

1879 "State Steal," disputed gubernatorial election. 

1880 Adoption of constitutional amendment providing for biennial elec- 
tions and biennial sessions of legislature. 

1884 Prohibitory constitutional amendment adopted. 

1891 Australian ballot system introduced. 

1892 Adoption of constitutional amendment providing educational qual- 
ification of voters. 

1907 Unsuccessful attempt to remove State Capitol to Portland. 
Celebration of ter-centennial of American shipbuilding (at Bath) . 

1908 Direct initiative of legislation and optional referendum adopted. 

1910 Final settlement of northeastern boundary controversy with Great 

1911 Augusta declared seat of government by constitutional amend- 

Attempt to repeal prohibitory law defeated. 

1912 Constitutional amendment adopted authorizing issue of highway 

1913 Taxation of intangible personal property authorized. 

1914 Public Utilities Commission created. 

1915 Workmen's Compensation law adopted. 


1916 Sieur de Monts National Monument established on Mount Desert. 
[Name changed by Congress in 1919 to Lafayette National Park.] 
Largest vote ever cast in State election. 

1917 Committee of One Hundred on Public Safety appointed by Gov- 

Million dollar appropriation for war purposes. 
National Guard mobilized at Augusta on July 5. 

1919 103d Infantry demobilized at Camp Devens, April 26-28. 

1920 Centennial celebration at Portland, June 28-July 5. 





For many years the State of Maine had no flag established under 
the authority of law. At one time the "Stars and Stripes" with the seal 
and arms of the state in the center of the union was most in use. During 
the Civil War a blue silk flag, conforming in size and trimmings to the 
United States regulation colors, blazoned with the arms of the State in 
the center of its field, was carried by the Maine troops. 

The present flag was established by the Maine Legislature of 1909, 
Public Laws, Chapter 19, which reads as follows : 

"Section 1. The flag to be known as the official flag of the State of 
Maine shall be of blue, same color as the blue field in the flag of the United 
States, and of the following dimensions and designs; to wit, the length, 
or height, of the staff to be nine feet, including brass spear-head and ferule ; 
the fly of said flag to be five feet six inches, and to be four feet four inches 
on the staff; in the center of the flag there shall be embroidered in silk the 
same on both sides of the flag the coat of arms of the State of Maine, in 
proportionate size ; the edges to be trimmed with knotted fringe of yellow 
silk, two and one-half inches wide, a cord, with tassels, to be attached to 
the staff at the spear-head, to be eight feet six inches long and composed 
of white and blue silk strands. 

"Section 2. The flag of the State of Maine to be carried by the regi- 
ments of the National Guard of Maine shall be the same as the flag de- 
scribed in the first section of this act, with the addition of two scrolls in 
red, one above and one below the coat of arms of the State ; in the upper 
scroll the inscription Regiment Infantry, and in the lower scroll 

the inscription National Guard State of Maine." 

1T ., "Sec. 1. The words flag, standard, color, ensign or shield, 

, as used in this act, shall include any flag, standard, color, 

ensign or shield, or copy, picture or representation thereof, 
made of any substance or represented or produced thereon, 
and of any size, evidently purporting to be such flag, standard, color, ensign 
or shield of the United States or of this state, or a copy, picture or repre- 
sentation thereof. 

"Sec. 2. No person shall, in any manner, for exhibition or display: 

(a) place or cause to be placed any word, figure, mark, picture, design, 
drawing or advertisement of any nature upon any flag, standard, color, 



ensign or shield of the United States or of this state, or authorized by any 
law of the United States or of this state; or 

(b) expose to public view any such flag, standard, color, ensign or 
shield upon which shall have been printed, painted or otherwise produced, 
or to which shall have been attached, appended, affixed or annexed any 
such word, figure, mark, picture, design, drawing or advertisement; or 

(c) expose to public view for sale, manufacture, or otherwise, or 
to sell, give or have in possession for sale, for gift or for use for any pur- 
pose any substance, being an article of merchandise or receptacle, or thing 
for holding or carrying merchandise, upon or to which shall have been 
produced or attached any such flag, standard, color, ensign or shield, in 
order to advertise, call attention to, decorate, mark or distinguish .such 
article or substance. 

"Sec. 3. No person shall publicly mutilate, deface, defile, defy, trample 
upon, or by word or act cast contempt upon any such flag, standard, color, 
ensign or shield. 

"Sec. 4. This statute shall not apply to any act permitted by the stat- 
utes of the United States or of this state) , or by the United States Army 
and Navy regulations, nor shall it apply to any printed or written docu- 
ment or production, stationery, ornament, picture or jewelry whereon shall 
be depicted said flag, standard, color, ensign or shield with no design or 
words thereon and disconnected with any advertisement. 

"Sec. 5. Any violation of section two of this act shall be a misde- 
meanor and punishable by a fine of not more than fifty dollars. Any vio- 
lation of section three of this act shall be punishable by a fine of not more 
than five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than six 
months, or by both fine and imprison ment, in the discretion of the court. 

"Sec. 6. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby 

"Sec. 7. This act shall be construed as to effectuate its general pur- 
pose and to make uniform the laws of the states which enact it. 

"Sec. 8. This act may be cited as the Uniform Flag Law." 

(P. L. 1919, c. 158) 

~ , , "Superintendents of schools shall see that the flag is dis- 

p. played from the public school buildings on appropriate 

occasions. They shall report annually to the towns the 
amount necessary to furnish the public schools with suitable flags and 
flagstaffs and towns shall annually appropriate a sufficient amount to 
defray the necessary cost of the display of the flag. The appropriation 
for this purpose shall be separate from and additional to all other appro- 
priations for schools. It shall be the duty of instructors to impress upon 
the youth by suitable references and observances the significance of the 
flag, to teach them the cost, the object and principles of our government, 


the great sacrifices of our forefathers, the important part taken by the 
Union Army in the war of eighteen hundred sixty-one to eighteen hun- 
dred sixty-five, and to teach them to love, honor and respect the flag of 
our country that cost so much and is so dear to every true American 

(R. S. c. 16, s. 52) 

Flag at "That the flag of our country shall be displayed in each 

Polling polling place at every election ; there to serve as a symbol 

Places of that responsible liberty which finds expression in the 

suffrage of a free people, and as an inspiring challenge 
to the youth of America and foreign born citizen alike, who, in its pres- 
ence execute the serious duties of citizenship. The secretary of state is 
hereby directed to furnish a copy of this resolution to the municipal offi- 
cers of every city, town or plantation in the state." 

(Res. 1919, c. 117) 


The following resolve providing for the seal and arms of the state 
of Maine was adopted June 9, 1820, by the first Maine Legislature: 

"A shield, argent charged with a Pine Tree ; a Moose Deer, at the foot 
of it, recumbent. Supporters; on the dexter side, an Husbandman, rest- 
ing on a scythe ; on sinister side, a Seaman, resting on an anchor. In the 
foreground, representing sea and land, and under the shield, the name of 
the State in large Roman Capitals, to wit: 


The whole surmounted by a Crest, the North Star. The Motto, in 
small Roman Capitals, in a label interposed between the Shield and the 
Crest, viz: DIRIGO." 

F 1 . "The Moose Deer (cervus alces) is a native of the forests 
of Maine. When full grown, it is scarcely inferior to a 
horse in size. It has a neck, short and thick, a large head, horns dilating 
almost immediately from the base into a broad, palmated form, a thick, 
heavy upper lip, hanging much over the lower, very high shoulders and 
long legs. The color is a dark greyish brown, much paler on the legs and 
under part of the body. The hair is coarse and strong and is much longer 
on the top of the shoulders, and ridge of the neck, than other parts. The 
eyes and ears are large, the hoofs broad and the tail extremely short. 
The greatest height of the Moose Deer is about seventeen hands, and the 
weight of such an animal about twelve hundred and twenty pounds. In 
deep snows they collect in numbers in pine forests. 

"The Mast Pine (Americana, quinis ex uno folliculo setis) leaves five 
together, cones cylindrical, imbricated, smooth, longer than the leaves, 



crest of the anthers of two minute, awl-shaped bristles. It is as well the 
staple of the commerce of Maine, as the pride of her forests. It is an 
evergreen of towering height, and enormous size. It is the largest and 
most useful of American Pines and the best timber for masts. 

XT "The territory, embraced by the limits of the State, bears 

Name , , . 

the name Maine. 

r "As "in the Arms of the United States, a cluster of stars 

represents the States, composing the Nation, the NORTH 
STAR may be considered particularly applicable to the most northern 
member of the confederacy, or as indicating the local situation of the most 
northern State in the Union. 

__ " 'Dirigo' " : I Direct or I Guide. As the polar star has been 

considered the mariner's guide and director in conducting 
the ship over the pathless ocean to the desired haven, and the center of 
magnetic attraction; as it has been figuratively used to denote the point, 
to which all affections turn, and as it is here intended to represent the 
State, it may be considered the citizen's guide, and the object to which 
the patriot's best exertions should be directed." 


, p . "The stately Pine, with its straight body, erect head, and 

T evergreen foliage, and whose beauty is exceeded only by 

its usefulness, while it represents the State, will excite 
the constant prayer of its citizens, semper viridis. 

T , M "A native animal of the State, which retires before the 

~ approaching steps of human habitancy, in his recumbent 

posture and undisturbed situation, denotes the extent of 
unsettled lands, which future years may see the abodes of successive 
generations of men, whose spirit of independence shall be untamed as 
this emblem, and whose liberty shall be unrestricted as the range of the 
Moose Deer. 

rn , An Husbandman with a scythe represents Agriculture 

The Supporters , . . , , , . . 

f th ^h' 1H generally, and more particularly that of a grazing coun- 
try; while a Seaman resting on an anchor, represents 
Commerce and Fisheries; and both indicate that the State is supported 
by these primary vocations of its inhabitants." 



(Pinus strobus L.) 

The idea of a national garland of flowers instead of a single national 
flower originated at the Women's Congress at the World's Fair in Chicago : 
one country but it is made up of many different and individual states; 
one language but in it are vestiges of all the languages of the world; one 
flag, but that flag has thirteen stripes and forty-eight stars, so one floral 
emblem, a garland composed of the state flowers. 

It was decided that each state should choose its own flower and that 
the legislature should be asked to make the choice legal. In our state 
the Maine Floral Emblem Society was immediately formed. Under its 
direction the Maine flower was chosen. Ballots were published in the 
newspapers during the months of November and December, 1894, and 
everyone was urged to register his choice. High school pupils, women's 
clubs, granges, and Maine people scattered all over the United States 
responded. The three flowers with the largest number of votes were 
the pine cone, the goldenrod, and the appleblossom, but the pine cone led 
by many thousand votes. In 1895 the pine cone and tassel were legally 
adopted by the sixty-seventh legislature as the floral emblem of the State 
of Maine. 

It was particularly fitting that the flower of the "Pine Tree State," 
whose seal wears a pine tree in its heart, should be the pine cone and 
tassel. The pine of the seal is called in the old records the "mast pine, 
pinus, americana, quinis ex uno folliculo setis." We know it best as the 
white pine, but in England it is called the Weymouth pine because it is 
found in great quantity on the estate of Lord Weymouth of Kent. It is 
by far the most attractive of the six hundred varieties of pine, nearly 
forty of which are native to North America. It often reaches the height 
of one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet, with sometimes eighty or 
ninety feet without branches. The white pine is most adaptable. Some- 
one has said that it was frugal by nature and that it could stand poverty 
better than surfeit. You will find it growing everywhere in Maine, scat- 
tered among the other trees in the depths of the forest, clinging to the 
rocky soil of pasture land or coast and clustered in lovely groves on the 
hillsides. It once formed extensive, primeval forests, but these have long 
since disappeared under the axe of the settler and lumberman. 



Always beneath the pine is a brown carpet of pine needles, overhead 
the whorled branches of evergreen, through which the wind soughs and 
murmurs its soft lullabies. The pine lives to a hale and hearty old age, 
growing from within outward. It has grace, elegance and dignity. Maine 
people do not have to be told of its manifold uses. 

Although the pine lacks the legendary background of many trees, 
yet some pretty stories cling to it. The Japanese call it the New Year 
tree, and to them it typifies longevity, constancy and health. In other 
lands it is considered a sacred tree. It is the fir tree of the Norsemen. The 
scientific name, pinus strobus, is itself suggestive. Pinus comes from an 
old Celtic word meaning a rock, a mountain, and strobus is the name that 
Pliny gave in his Natural History, that storehouse of misinformation, to 
a tree of Persia that "yielded odiferous gum." 

The tassel is the cluster of delicate, slender needle-like leaves which 
are in whorls of five. The flowers of the pine appear in the spring, first 
tiny stiff catkins, green and viscid. They grow slowly through the sum- 
mer and in the fall they are an inch or two long. It takes two seasons for 
the cones to ripen. They are then four to six inches in length, cylindrical 
in shape, and about an inch in diameter. They droop and curve inwards 
slightly. The scales are without prickles and have a whitish gum-like 
deposit on their tips. The mature cones begin to open early in September 
when the seeds blow out and are carried by the wind far and wide. There 
are two little winged seeds on each scale, and there may be eighty or 
even more seeds in a cone. Next year the seedling pines appear, the prom- 
ise of future forests. These far-blown seeds are like Maine's children 
who have left her fostering care to find new homes among the oaks and 
maples of other states and other countries, but still they keep their sturdy 
virtues and Claim the Pine Tree State as their home. 

The pine cone is no hothouse flower grown only under the most favor- 
able circumstances and available only in certain seasons. It is not a deli- 
cate, fragile thing which fades and withers quickly. Its dull brown is 
the brown of the stubble in the autumn fields, or the earth turned up by 
the farmer's plough in long furrows. The pine cone lacks, of course, the 
lovely color of California's golden poppies, the sheer beauty of Connecti- 
cut's mountain laurel, and the exquisite fragrance of Florida's orange 
blossoms. Yet is it not typical of Maine and her people? Like Maine's 
hardy pioneers it is not without beauty of a useful sort. It suggests our 
stern climate, our rugged soil, our sober, sensible people. 

But nothing is lovelier than a pine cone fire with its spicy penetrating 
odor, in the keen air of the early autumn twilight as it gleams and glows 
like a living thing. So Maine's sons touched by the spark of patriotism, 
caught in the conflagration of war, went singing to their death and left 
behind them a fragrance and a memory that will linger long. 













Born at Bath, Maine, July 21, 1838. Graduated at Bow- 
doin, Class of 1861. Read law in the office of W. L. Put- 
nam, Portland. Died at Augusta, Maine, November 11, 1878. 

The following letter of explanation from Major Augustus 
L. Smith is in reply to a request from the State Librarian 
for information concerning the circumstances which caused Mr. Owen to 
write "The Returned Maine Battle Flags". 

"It was .during the winter of 1865-66 that Moses Owen and 
myself were employed as clerks in the Secretary of State's office 
at the Maine Capitol. We boarded at the same place, having 
adjoining rooms. 

"The flags of the Maine regiments that had returned from 
the War of the Rebellion had been turned over to the Adjutant 
General and had been grouped around the pillars in the rotunda of 
the State House. 

"While returning from dinner, in passing through the rotunda 
to the Secretary's office, Mr. Owen chanced to overhear this con- 
versation between two young lady visitors who had just come 
into the rotunda ahead of him : One said, 'What are these', point- 
ing to the flags. The other remarked, 'Oh! they're nothing but 
flags, come on and let's look around'. This casual remark about 
those flags gave to Mr. Owen the theme and inspiration that pro- 
duced the beautiful poem: 'The Returned Maine Battle Flags'. 

"A short time after this incident, perhaps the next morning, 
after we had entered the Secretary's office together, and had 
taken our seats at the large, double, flat top desk, which we occu- 
pied together, Mr. Owen commenced to write verses on a sheet of 
wrapping paper, such as we used for a desk pad. He, being a 
very rapid penman, soon had written four verses of poetry in 
pencil. Observing this, I became anxious to read it, but he was 
not inclined at first to show it to me, saying it was of no conse- 
quence and he would destroy it. I, however, prevailed upon him 
and read it and, against his protest, I immediately took it to Col. 
James H. Cochrane, then deputy secretary of state, to read, who 



pronounced it 'fine'. The result was, after making a copy, the 

poem appeared in the Kennebec Journal the next morning. This 

is. the story. 

"Please understand that I am giving you the foregoing solely 

from my memory, after a lapse of half a century. If it will serve 

you in any manner, I shall be glad." 

T , .p,, "No Maine regiment lost its colors in dishonor, or brought 

them back with any other stain upon them than the life 
blood of their defenders. The State has no more precious possession than 
those returned Maine battleflags which are treasured at the State House 
at Augusta." Arranged in appropriate glass cases are the colors of all 
the Maine regiments and the colors of all the batteries forty-three 
national colors, forty-one regimental colors and twenty-eight guidons. They 
are memorials of the glory and horrors of war and the energy, sacrifices 
and victory of a free people. The representatives of the people pass to 
their halls of deliberation beneath these tattered ensigns, which have 
been borne on many a bloody field and which will be a perpetual reminder 
of the cost and value of free institutions. 




Nothing- but flags but simple flags, 

Tattered and torn and hanging in rags; 

And we walk beneath them with careless tread, 

Nor think of the hosts of the mighty dead 

That have marched beneath them in days gone by, 

With a burning cheek and a kindling eye, 

And have bathed their folds with their young life's tide, 

And, dying, blessed them, and, blessing, died. 

Nothing but flags yet, methinks, at night 
They tell each other their tales of fright; 
And dim spectres come, and their thin arms twine 
'Round each standard torn &s they stand in line, 
As the word is given, they charge! they form! 
And the dim hall rings with the battle's storm! 
And once again, through the smoke and strife, 
Those colors lead to a nation's life. 

Nothing but flags yet they're bathed with tears, 
They tell of triumphs, of hopes, of fears; 
Of a mother's prayers, of a boy away, 
Of a serpent crushed, of the coming day! 
Silent, they speak, and the tear will start 
As we stand beneath them with throbbing heart, 
And think of those who are ne'er forgot; 
Their flags come home why come they not ? 

Nothing but flags yet we hold our breath 
And gaze with awe at those types of death! 
Nothing but flags, yet the thought will come, 
The heart must pray though the lips be dumb! 
They are sacred, pure, and we see no stain 
On those dear loved flags at home again; 
Baptized in blood, our purest, best, 
Tattered and torn, they're now at rest. 









HK , 



When Maine, by separation from Massachusetts, became a state. in 
1820, a number of cities and towns were very desirous of the honor of 
being the capital and having the new State House. The principal aspirants 
were Portland, Brunswick, Hallowell, Waterville, Belfast, Wiscasset and 
Augusta. The legislature, however, finally chose Augusta, the bill mak- 
ing Augusta the capital being signed by Governor Enoch Lincoln, Febru- 
ary 24, 1827. The lot now occupied by the State House and State Grounds, 
which contained thirty-four acres and extended from the old Hallowell 
Road to the Kennebec River, was conveyed to the state, the lot having 
been selected by the Governor and the Commissioners after a careful con- 
sideration of various sites on both sides of the river. 

On the 4th of July, 1829, the corner stone was laid with impressive 
masonic ceremonies, but it was three years before the work of the con- 
struction of the new building was finally finished. The granite used was 
from Hallowell quarries. The building was designed by Charles Bulfinch of 

In the "Life and Letters of Charles Bulfinch" by his granddaughter, 
Ellen S. Bulfinch, there is an interesting reference to the original State 
House at Augusta, as follows : . 

"Maine did not become a state until 1820, and Portland had been 
at first the seat of government. Augusta having been fixed upon in 1827 
as the future capital, a commissioner was appointed the following year to 
obtain plans and estimates for a building, and he made application to Mr. 
Bulfinch. The council adopte'd the plan by a resolution dated February 
2, 1829, stating the dimensions, referring to it as the work of Bulfinch, 
and as representing the Boston State House reduced to the dimensions 
aforesaid.' Mr. Willard speaks of it as 'like the Boston State House 
and yet different'; enough like it to show that Bulfinch was still willing 
to abide by that design in the main, sufficiently different to show that 
his own taste had changed with the general change of taste which grad- 
ually took place during his professional career. There is the same high 
basement, pierced by entrance arches, without high fronting steps. There 
is the same placing of the portico, but its treatment in detail is more reg- 
ular. The columns are single, and the pediment is the full width of the 
portico and rests directly upon it. It is in the dome and its support that 



the departure from the earlier design is more striking." The lines which 
he adopted in the General Hospital at Boston are those reproduced here. 

It was estimated that the cost of the building would be $80,000, but 
when it was finished, the expense, including furniture and expenditures 
upon the grounds, amounted to about $139,000, of which about $11,500 
was furnished by Augusta itself. The legislature first met in the State 
House in Augusta, January 4, 1832. Previous to this date the legislature 
met in Portland. The original building was about one hundred and fifty 
feet in length, including the central part with the columns and cupola, two 
wings extending north and south. 

The interior of the State House was remodeled in 1852 and again in 
1860 to give some of the departments additional room. A large three- 
story wing was added in 1890-1 on the rear side of the building which 
provided new accommodations for the library and some of the offices of 
the state departments which had been over-crowded. 

In 1909-10 the State House was remodeled, although the noble Bui- 
finch front was preserved. The granite used was from the quarry in Hallo- 
well, near the place from which the stone for the original building was 
taken. The length of the building was doubled, making it three hun- 
dred feet in all, the north and south wings being extended. A dome which 
was built to take the place of the old cupola, arises to a height of one 
hundred and eighty-five feet, being surmounted by the figure of Wisdom 
made of copper covered with gold, which was designed by Mr. W. Clark 
Noble, the sculptor. In the interior of the remodeled State House the 
old rotunda was transformed so as to become a room of great dignity with 
eight Doric columns. Here are displayed the battle flags in plate glass 
cases. On the walls throughout the corridors and halls are hung portraits 
of Maine's distinguished sons. The House of Representatives occupies 
the third and fourth stories of the north wing and the Senate and the 
Executive Chambers are in the south wing. The library occupies the 
second floor and part of the first in the north wing, which is on the right 
of the picture. 



The Legislature of 1915 passed the following resolve: 

"The Governor shall have his official residence at Augusta, during 
his term of office, and shall keep his office at the State House open, either 
personally or by his private secretary, for the transaction of the business 
of the State during four business days of each week." 

This resolve gave rise to the question of purchasing or building a 
residence for the governor at the Capital. At the session of the 1919 
legislature the whole problem was settled by the gift of the old home of 
James G. Elaine, which stands at the corner of State and Capitol Streets, 
Augusta. This gift was presented by Mrs. Harriet Elaine Beale, the daugh- 
ter of Mr. Elaine, as a memorial to her son. 

A tablet has been placed in the front hall near the main door and it 
bears this inscription: 

"This house and the land on which it stands was the home of James 
G. Blaine and was given to the State of Maine in the name of his grand- 
son, Walker Blaine Beale, First Lieutenant, 310th Infantry, 78th Division, 
who was born here March 22, 1896, and who fell in France in the St. Mihiel 
Drive, September 18, 1918." 

The Legislature in accepting this generous gift passed the following 
resolve : 

"That the state accepts in trust the deed from Harriet Blaine Beale 
of the home of her father, Honorable James G. Blaine, in memory of and 
in the name of her son, Lieutenant Walker Blaine Beale, who fell fight- 
ing in France on the eighteenth day of September, nineteen hundred and 
eighteen, and pledges its honor faithfully to fulfill the trust and to carry 
out with scrupulous care the directions and desires set forth in the deed 
and in the letter which accompanied it. 

"That the state hereby records its deep appreciation and its endur- 
ing gratitude for this gift which, in the complete satisfaction of a present 
need of the state, has a large and readily measured value, and also has 
even a greater value in those unseen and eternal things which make it 
priceless. For it will always speak to us of the heart of woman with its 
generosity, pure and tender sentiment and love of home; of the ever 
widenin'g and abiding influence of a man of winning personality, persuasive 
speech, profound thought, broad grasp and prophetic vision ; of the burn- 



ing zeal of youth, its quick response to noble family tradition and the 
flaming patriotism which offers and gives the 'last full measure of devo- 
tion.' And be it further 

"RESOLVED : That being confident that the people of Maine desire 
that the last resting place of him, whose home it was and whose career 
brought such distinguished honor to the state, should be in the capital, 
where that career began, and as an expression of our gratitude for his 
services to us and of our deep respect for his memory, the state hereby 
requests of his family the privilege of bringing from Washington the 
remains of himself and his beloved wife and of placing them in the fam- 
ily lot, near Forest Grove cemetery in Augusta, and of erecting thereon, 
with the approval of the family, an appropriate memorial. 

"That the Governor and Council be authorized and directed to take 
such action as may be necessary to carry into effect the purpose of this 
resolve and to pay the expenses thereof out of any money in the treasury 
not otherwise appropriated." 

The lot is part of Number 5 of the so-called "front lots" 


Bl inHoJ n the plan made June 17 ' 1761 ' by Nathan Winslow, Sur- 
veyor, for the Proprietors of the Kennebec Purchase. 

These lots were fifty rods wide and ran back from the river one mile. 
Between Lot Number 5 and the lot next south (Number 4) was a so-called 
"Rangeway" which is now Capitol Street. William Vassal, for whom the 
town of Vassalboro was named, was one of the proprietors. Certain lots, 
called "Proprietors' Lots," were allotted by vote and William Vassal became 
the owner of this Lot Number 5. 

On March 2, 1770, when Kennebec County was a part of Lincoln 
County and the registry was at Wiscasset, William Vassal conveyed the 
lot for the consideration of "love and affection" to his niece, Mary Pres- 
cott, spinster, of Chester, Nova Scotia. On December 22, 1770, she con- 
veyed it for "100 pounds sterling" to Abraham Page, of Hallowell, Maine, 
who on July 3, 1780, for "600 Spanish Mill Dollars" conveyed to Mathew 
Haywood of Easton, Massachusetts. 

On April 22, 1800, Mathew Haywood conveyed to James Child of 
Augusta that part of the south half of the lot between the river and the 
"county road". This was the road that ran from Augusta to Hallowell 
and is now Grove Street. The deed recalls the days when fish ran plenti- 
fully in the Kennebec river for there was a reservation of "one-half of 
the privilege of fishing at the bank of said river". 

August 24, 1830, James Child conveyed to Captain James Hall of 
Bath a lot nine rods north and south and twelve rods east and west "on 
the west side of the new road leading from Augusta across Capitol Hill, 
so-called, to Hallowell". This road is now State Street and became the 
established road replacing Grove Street, the lower part of which was dis- 



p i 












Captain Hall built the house, which in the deed given after his death 
by his sons to their mother on February 14, 1843, is described as his 
"mansion house." This consisted of the front part of the present house 
and an ell. James Child conveyed to his son, James L. Child, the lot next 
north, which later became the homestead of the late Joseph A. Homan, 
and has been purchased this year by the state. 

There is in the State Library a picture of the Capitol and its sur- 
roundings painted in 1836 by Charles Codman. Just north of the Capitol 
are two houses, obviously the Hall house and the Child house. The shape 
of both houses, the roofs and windows are the same and close inspection 
shows the porch on the front of the Hall Mansion. 

November 16, 1833, Captain Hall and James L. Child by agreement 
located the boundary line between them. As has been said after Captain 
Hall's death his sons conveyed to their mother, Frances Ann Hall, by deed 
dated February 14, 1843, and on February 22, 1850, she conveyed to 
Greenwood C. Child, another son of James. 

November 20, 1862, the heirs of Greenwood C. Child conveyed to Har- 
riet Stanwood Elaine. Mr. Elaine made important addition to and changes 
in the house. He built on the west end of the ell practically a duplicate 
of the front part. 

When the .Codman picture was painted, there was no cupola on the 
original house. A lady now living iij Augusta, whose memory goes back 
many a year, states that there was a cupola on it when Mr. Greenwood 
Child lived there and that flowers used to be placed at the windows in the 

Mr. Elaine's son, James G., Jr., his daughter, Mrs. Margaret Elaine 
Damrosch, and granddaughter, Margaret Elaine Damrosch II, were born 
in the "Ash Room"; his granddaughter, Anita Elaine Damrosch, in Mrs. 
Elaine's room ; his daughter, Harriet Beale, and her son, Walker, in whose 
memory Mrs. Beale gave the house to the state, were born in the "Blue 

In carrying out the resolve of the legislature and making the old 
home of James G. Elaine into a residence for the governor all the land 
between State and Grove Streets was purchased and the Elaine house 
remodeled. J. Calvin Stevens of Portland was selected as architect. The 
famous old house was carefully remodeled, retaining so far as possible 
the original design. The architect bore in mind, first of all, that it was 
to serve as a memorial and that this was the primary purpose of its accept- 
ance and use by the state. The fact that it is to be the official residence 
of the chief executive of Maine was considered secondary to the memorial 
feature of the building. Further than that, in arranging the rooms and 
making the alterations, the interests of the public were considered before 
those of whoever might be governor and occupy the house. 


The public is naturally interested in the whole building, for it is state 
property, but the attention of visitors and people of the state is especially 
centered upon the front and lower story of the structure, for it is this 
that is given over to the use of the public and is open at all reasonable 
hours, just as is the State House. 

In looking at the Elaine house, and especially when stand- 

- , ing at the corner of State and Capitol Streets, the visitor 

p, notices two things first of all, the raising of the middle 

section of the building to the height of the front and 
rear portions and the changing of the color from the old battleship gray 
to a colonial white. 

One other notable change has been made, but this is not noticed in 
looking at the house from this position. A wing has been added to the 
northwest corner of the house for the accommodation of the servants, 
laundry and other necessary rooms for carrying on the work and care of 
the memorial structure. From the outside the house has the appearance 
of an old colonial mansion, pure white with green blinds and shaded by 
the great trees in the neighborhood. 

. . . In view of the careful work involved in remodeling the 

Elaine house and yet observing the injunction that the 
, . , original lines of the structure be altered as little as pos- 

sible, it is interesting to note just how the house has been 
furnished inside and to observe how little the original decorative struc- 
tural scheme has been altered, for the main idea has been to keep the 
appearance of the building in every particular in harmony with the Colo- 
nial character of the original house that occupied the lot. 

The Elaine house has not lost its individuality by being used for this 
purpose. The main house, the original home of Mr. Elaine, is left as nearly 
as possible as before. The right angle in the general line of the whole 
house is made to keep the line of the old house as before. 

"Same as before" in every detail is the study of Mr. Elaine. The 
same steel engraving of Abraham Lincoln hangs over the fireplace. The 
same books, the pages of which have been turned countless times by the 
beloved Mr. Elaine, are there in the cases. The same old-fashioned sofa 
stands in one corner of the room. The gas fixtures are the same and 
the dark stone fireplace can send out the same sort of blaze as it did years 
ago. The twist and turn of the stair railing and the antique turned bal- 
ustrades have not been changed. At the curve of the stairs, the old recess 
is left in the wall, and in this niche is the same statue, which has stood 
there smiling down upon the arriving and the departing guests. 

The wood finish of the entire front part of the house is of plain oak, 
in conformity with the previous trimmings. 


The first room on the left of the hall is the public reception room. 
The fireplaces are left intact. The old centers, two in number, plaster 
designs of many years ago, are left in the ceilings. This room was orig- 
inally two rooms. The wood laths have been removed and in their stead 
are metal laths, but the old style plaster effect is the same. 

The state dining room is in the northeast corner of the main house, 
directly opposite the reception room. 

Artistic attention is shown in the detail work of the cornice scheme 
in the state dining room. The original hall is retained through the front 
of the house. Then from the beginning of the new part on to the lounge 
room, which is on the south side of the house, a separate lobby is main- 

Thus visitors have access to the lounge room and the public reception 
room, the entire south side of which is glass. The floor is of tile and in 
this room is a beam ceiling. Three sets of sash doors and two stationary 
doors form the outside wall of this room. 

Between each two sets of doors and adding much to the attractive- 
ness of the room are fluted columns, the cornices of which are in exact 
harmony with the general plan of the interior decorations. 

Stone steps, thirty-six feet in width, lead from the glass doors of the 
lounge room out of doors, and thus make a separate entrance to this room. 
The fireplaces in this room are of white stone. The method of heating the 
lounge room is by indirect means through brass grills at either end of 
the room. The front hall is heated in a similar manner. 

Separate entrance to the old study of the late Mr. Elaine 
and the billiard room, which are left intact, is maintained 
as it was before the house was changed. The stone steps 
which lead up to this door have been finished to match 
the steps before the lounge room. These two rooms, replete with memo- 
ries of state and home, are like ancient jewels in a modern setting, so 
distinct do they seem from the rest of the house. 

William King 
W. D. Williamson* 
Benjamin Ames * 
Daniel Rose* 
Albion K. Parris 
Enoch Lincoln 
Nathan Cutler* 
Joshua Hall * 
Jonathan G. Hunton 
Samuel E. Smith 
Robert P. Dunlap 
Edward Kent 
John Fail-field 
Richard H. Vose* 
Edward Kent 
John Fair-field 
John Fairfield 
Edward Kavanagh * 
David Dunn* 
Hugh J. Anderson 
John W. Dana 
John Hubbard 
William G. Crosby 
Anson P. Morrill 
Samuel Wells 
Hannibal Hamlin 
Joseph H. Williams * 
Lot M. Morrill 
Israel Washburn, Jr. 
Abner Coburn 
Samuel Cony 
Joshua Chamberlain 
Sidney Perham 
Nelson Dingley, Jr. 
Selden Connor 
Alonzo Garcelon 
Daniel F. Davis 
Harris M. Plaisted 
Frederick Robie 
Joseph R. Bodwell 
S. S. Marble * 

* Acting Governor. 



Year of 

Born. as 

Feb. 9, 1768, Scarboro. 
July 31, 1779, Canterbury, Conn. 


Jan. 19, 1788, Hebron. 

Dec. 28, 1788, Worcester, Mass. 

May 29, 1775. 

March 14, 1781. 

March 12, 1788. 

Aug. 17, 1794, Brunswick. 

Jan. 2, 1802. 

Jan. 30, 1797, Saco. 

Jan. 2, 1802. 

Jan. 30, 1797, Saco. 

Jan. 30, 1797, Saco. 

Apr. 27, 1795, Damariscotta. 

May 10, 1801, Wiscasset. 
January 21, 1808, Fryeburg. 
March 22, 1794, Readfield. 
Sept. 10, 1805, Belfast. 
June 10, 1803, Belgrade. 
Aug. 15, 1801. 
Aug. 27, 1809, Paris Hill. 
Feb. 15, 1814, Augusta. 
May 3, 1813, Belgrade. 
June 6, 1813, Livermore. 
Mar. 22, 1803, Canaan. 
Feb. 27, 1811, Augusta. 
Sept. 8, 1828, Brewer. 
Mar. 31, 1819, Woodstock. 
Feb. 15, 1832, Durham. 
Jan. 25, 1839, Fairfield. 
May 6, 1813, Lewiston. 
Sept. 12, 1843, Freedom. 
Nov. 2, 1828, Jefferson, N. H. 
Aug. 12, 1822, Gorham. 
June 18, 1818, Methuen, Mass. 
, 1817, Dixfield. 

ling office 




















































































Edwin C. Burleigh 
Henry B. Cleaves 
Llewellyn Powers 
John Fremont Hill 
William T. Cobb 
Bert M. Fernald 
Frederick W. Plaisted 
William T. Haines 
Oakley C. Curtis 
Carl E. Milliken 


Nov. 27, 1843, Linneus. 
Feb. 6, 1840, Bridgton. 
Oct. 14, 1838, Pittsfield. 
Oct. 29, 1855, Eliot. 
July 23, 1857, Rockland. 
Apr. 3, 1858, West Poland. 
July 26, 1865, Bangor. 
Aug. 7, 1854, Levant. 
Mar. 29, 1865, Portland. 
July 13, 1877, Pittsfield. 

Year of 
assuming office 






















The following was prepared by Kendall M. Dunbar of Damariscotta. 

Until and including the year 1880 our state elections were annual, 
i. e., the election in September, 1880, was the last annual election, but the 
biennial period began with 1881, Governor Davis having served the last 
annual term, the year 1880, and Governor Harris M. Plaisted serving the 
first biennial term, the years 1881 and 1882, the constitution having been 
amended by vote of the people in September, 1880. 

The list arranged according to length of service is as follows : 

Elected for 5 years: 

Governor Parris, 1822-23-24-25-26. 
Elected for 4 years: 

Governor Dunlap, 1834-35-36-37. 

Fair-field, 1839-40-42-43, (a). 

Chamberlain, 1867-68-69-70. 

Robie, 1883-84-85-86. 

Burleigh, 1889-90-91-92. 

Cleaves, 1893-94-95-96. 

Powers, 1897-98-99-1900. 

Hill, 1901-02-03-04. 

Cobb, 1905-06-07-08. 

Milliken, 1917-18-19-20. 
Elected for 3 years, 4 months: 

Governor Anderson, 1844-45-46, (b). 
Elected for 3 years: 

Governor Lincoln, 1827-28-29, (c). 

Smith, 1831-32-33. 

Dana, 1847-48-49, (d). 

Lot M. Merrill, 1858-59-60. 

Cony, 1864-65-66. 

Perham, 1871-72-73. 

Connor, 1876-77-78. 

.Elected for 2 years, 8 months: 

Governor Hubbard, 1850-51-52, 
Elected for 2 years: 

Governor Kent, 1838-1841. 

Crosby, 1853-54. 

Washburn, 1861-62. 

Dingley, 1874-75. 

Harris M. Plaisted, 1881-82, (f). 

Bodwell, 1887-88, (g). 

Fernald, 1909-10. 

Frederick W. Plaisted, 1911-12. 

Haines, 1913-14. 

Curtis, 1915-16. 
Elected for 1 year, 8 months: 

Governor King, 1820-21, (h). 
Elected for 1 year: 

Governor Hunton, 1830. 

Anson P. Morrill, 1855. 

Wells, 1856. 

Hamlin, 1857, (i). 

Coburn, 1863. 

Garcelon, 1879. 

Davis, 1880, (j). 



Gov. Fairfield resigned March 7, 1843, having been elected to the United States 


(b) Gov. Anderson began his first term on the first Wednesday of January, 
1844, and at the state election in the following September the constitution was amended 
changing the political year to commence on the second Wednesday in May instead of 
the first Wednesday in January, as theretofore, and providing that the state officials 
installed on the first Wednesday in January, 1845, should hold office until the second 
Wednesday in May, 1846; Gov. Anderson was twice re-elected and served until the 
second Wednesday in May, 1847, about 3 years and 4 months. 

(c). Gov. Lincoln 'died in office October 8, 1829. 

(d) Political years under amended constitution from second Wednesday in May, 
1847, to second Wednesday in May, 1850. 

(e) Gov. Hubbard began his first term on the second Wednesday in May, 1850, 
and at the state election in the following September, the constitution was again 
amended, restoring the political year to the original date, the first Wednesday in Jan- 
uary, and it was provided that the officials installed on the second Wednesday in May, 
1851, should hold office until the first Wednesday in January, 1853; Gov. Hubbard was 
re-elected for this term and therefore served about 2 years and 8 months. There was 
no election held in the year 1851. 

(f ) The first biennial term. 

(g) Gov. Bodwell died in office December 15, 1887. 

(h) Our constitution as first adopted by the people provided that "the elections 
on the second Monday in September annually shall not commence until the year 1821, and 
in the meantime the elections for Governors, Senators and Representatives shall be 
on the first Monday in April, in the year of our Lord 1820". This, of course, operated 
to continue the first governor, King, in office from the date of his inauguration, which 
was in May, 1820, until the first Wednesday in January, 1822, or about one year and 
eight months; Governor King, however, resigned on May 28, 1821, having been appointed 
to a position under the United States government. 

(i) Gov. Hamlin resigned February 25, 1857, having been elected to the United 
States Senate. 

(j) The last annual term. 

A list of acting governors, i. e., those who succeeded to the office in consequence 
of the death or resignation of the elected governor, is as follows: 
William D. Williamson, May 29 to December 25, 1821. 
Benjamin Ames, December 25, 1821, to January 2, 1822. 
Daniel Rose, January 2 to January 4, 1822. 
Nathan Cutler, October 12, 1829, to February 5, 1830. 
Joshua Hall, February 5 to February 10, 1830. 
Richard H. Vose, January 12 to January 13, 1841. 
Edward Kavanagh, March 7, 1843, to January 1, 1844. 
David Dunn, January 2 to January 3, 1844. 
John W. Dana, January 3 to January 5, 1844. 
Joseph H. Williams, February 26, 1857 to January 8, 1858. 
Sebastian S. Marble, December 16, 1887 to January 2, 1889. 



Red P ' t ^^ e s ^ ory f tne early peoples has not been written. The 

p , early voyageurs found various divisions of Algonquin In- 

dian tribes on the coast. More than five hundred shell- 
heaps have been located and a great number of camp sites. However, 
it is clear that these tribes were not the first Indians of Maine. Dr. Augus- 
tus C. Hamlin nearly thirty years ago discovered implements imbedded in 
red ochre and was led to think he had found evidence of an earlier tribe 
of Indians. Between 1890 and 1892 Mr. Willoughby of the Peabody 
Museum excavated three sites of the so-called Red Paint culture, one near 
Bucksport, one on Lake Alamoosook, and a third at Ellsworth. Since 
Mr. Willoughby's work many other cemeteries have been investigated, 
nine of them under the direction of Warren K. Moorehead of Andover 
Museum. The conclusions reached by the investigators is that through- 
out the state there extends a prehistoric Algonquin culture, older and 
apparently different from the Algonquin group. The State of Maine has 
appointed a commission to act with* the Andover Museum under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Moorehead to make a thorough investigation of the Red Paint 
culture. It is possible that further investigation will furnish facts upon 
which to base more definite opinions as to the origin of these people. The 
remainder of this article was written by Fannie H. Eckstorm, who is an 
authority on Maine Indians. 

/)] "Originally the Maine Indians were of three natural groups 

T ., s speaking somewhat different dialects. In southwestern 

Maine and New Hampshire were the Saco Indians, called 
also Sokokis and Sokwakiaks by the French and Indians respectively. On 
the three central rivers of Maine were the true Abenakis, whose -name for 
themselves is not known. In southeastern Maine were the seafaring 
Indians, who called themselves Etechemins. The so-called 'tribes' into 
which these have been subdivided were more properly 'bands' under dif- 
ferent chiefs and merit no special distinctions, being correctly enough 
designated by the locality they most frequented. 

., , . "The Maine Indians were Abenakis, belonging to the great 

Algonquin stock. At the beginning of the seventeenth 

century they were numerous and powerful and federated under a single 

chief, the great Bashabes. They occupied all the most desirable loca- 


Opened by Professor Moorehead of Andover Museum 


tions along the coast and up the lower sections of all the Maine rivers. 
The interior of the state was their hunting ground. 

''Disease, revolutions, wars with the Micmacs and the 
\ niisc or 

Mohawks, the encroachments of the English settlers and 

their allegiance to the French, diminished their numbers, 
disintegrated their tribes and drove most of them eastward or to Canada. 
Before the Revolution, Maine was cleared of all recognizable tribes except 
the Penobscots and the Passamaquoddies. 

"Bummer's war from 1722 tc 1725 marked the climax in 
" Indian warfare in Maine. Before this, aggressors upon 

defenceless and weak hamlets, now the Indians themselves 
were hunted. The old town at Old Town and the new town at Eddington 
Bend were burned, Norridgewock was taken by surprise with great 
slaughter and its priest, Father Rale, was killed. A little band of English 
soldiers, in Lovewell's fight at Fryeburg, May, 1725, surrounded and out- 
numbered, with everything against them, held out in an all-day fight and 
not only held the ground against a large fighting band, but practically 
broke it up. After this Indian warfare in Maine was sporadic and after 
the French were defeated at Quebec, it ceased altogether. When the 
French joined the colonists in the Revolution, the Maine Indians became 
entirely friendly and never since have they disturbed the peace of their 
white neighbors. 

"Of the original tribes the Saco Indians have been extinct 

fully a century and a half and their language is dead. The 

Abenakis proper are now represented only by the Penob- 
scot Indians of Old Town and the islands above it, who speak a modernized 
form of their ancient tongue. The Passamaquoddies of Point Pleasant 
(near Eastport) and Princeton, who, with the St. John River Indians, 
speak the Maliseet dialect, are the descendants of the ancient Etechemins. 
Together the Maine Indians number about one thousand, living in two prin- 
cipal towns, after the manner of the whites. They have their own churches, 
schools, convents for the resident Sisters of Mercy, who teach and care 
for them, the ministrations of priests and their own local government. 
Though not citizens they are loyal and law-abiding residents of the state 
and many of them are now serving in the army and navy, as their pred- 
ecessors served in the Revolution and in the Civil War." 

, Information about the Maine Indians may be found in the 
Bibliography /. . , , 
M f following books : 

T ,. Williamson's History of Maine; much authentic informa- 

tion about history, dress, habits and political customs. 

Sylvester's Indian Wars of New England. Three volumes. 

Varney's Brief History of Maine ; good account of customs, dress, etc., 
of aborigines. 


John Josselyn, Two Voyages of New England, and New England's 
Rarities Discovered; contemporary writer, gives considerable information 
about Indians of southwestern Maine. 

Leland's Algonquin Legends of New England; gives much Passama- 
quoddy, Micmac and a little Penobscot Indian folk-lore. 

Miss Abby Alger's "In Indian Tents"; continues Leland's work, prin- 
cipally Penobscot. 

Necolar's The Red Man (printed not published, Bangor, 1893), an 
Indian's own account of his traditions and beliefs. 

Hubbard's Woods and Lakes of Maine; appendix, gives many place 
names with meanings. 

William F. Ganong, the greatest authority on Indian place names, has 
published many pamphlets in Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada ; 
Maine place names are included among others. 

Reports of Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Journal of American Folk Lore. 

Publications of Maine Historical Society. 

Chamberlain's Maliseet Vocabulary and Joseph Laurent's New Famil- 
iar Abenakis and English Dialogues, with Rale's Indian Dictionary. 

Rale's Indian Dictionary. 




l'fiffA'. ll . ; J. 11 r ' . . V ' '., V ' .''!", v ";/!'! 

HOME son or far son, 

Mountain, sea, or plain, 

From coast to coast let "s have the toast, 

" Our Motherland of Maine ! " 

Far son, oh, fond son, 

Is other land as dear ? 

There 's fame and gold to coax and hold, 

But it 's home it 's home, up here. 

By permission Small, Maynard dc Company. 



You're just a rugged, homespun state 

Perched on the nation's edge, 
A stretch of woods, of fields and lakes, 

Of ocean pounded ledge. 
But rugged deeds and rugged men 

You've nurtured for your own: 
Much good the woi'ld has harvested 

From broadcast seeds you've sown. 
And so, we love you, rugged state, 

We love your smiling skies, 
We love you for your deep-piled snows, 

Your jagged coast we prize. 
We love you for the lofty seat 

You've reared 'neath Heaven's dome: 
But best of all, \v love you, Maine, 

Because vou're Maine and Home! 

Lester Melcher Hart, 


My father's state to thee, 
First state of all to me, 

My love I bring. 
In thy sweet woods I'll roam, 
Thy name to me is home, 
Pine trees and ocean foam, 

Thy praise I sing. 

June Wheeler Bainbridgt 



State of the Eastern Frontier, 
Guarding the paths of the sea, 
Guarding the homes of the free, 
Guardian of all that is dear! 

Restful thy lakes in calm, 
Fearful thy shores in storm; 
Winter, thy firesides warm, 
Summer, thy breezes and balm! 

Deep are thy forests, and still, 
Swift are thy rivers, and clear; 
Large are the gifts of the year, 
Orchard and meadow and mill. 

Brave are thy sons, and strong, 
Fair are thy daughters, and true, 
Pure as thy skies are blue, 
Sweet-voiced as birds in their song. 

Noble thy story of old, 
Glorious the years that await! 
Honored the names of thy great, 
Welcome the tasks that unfold! 

E. E. Harris. 


O State beloved of the Pine Tree, 

We pledge thee our troth again! 
'Tis the struggle with thy stem nature 

That makes us women and men. 

The olden paradox brightens, 

Thy barrenness is our health; 
Thy granite heart is our glory; 

Thy poverty is our wealth. 

Dip low the old-time well-sweep, 

Hallowed with sun and with rain. 
Let us drink, with lips that are loyal, 

One toast: To the homes of Maine! 

Emma Huntington Nason. 



It's not her deep green pine trees against her cool blue sky, 

It's not her ragged, rocky coast where ships at anchor lie, 

It's not her slow, sweet springtime which tears youi heart in twain, 

It's not her mad, glad autumn with its windy, wild refrain, 

It's not her lakes and forests or her quaint deserted farms, 

It's not the scenery summer seekers count among her charms, 

And all her lonesome loveliness of woodland, field, and shore 

Is not what calls her children home and home again once more. 

It's just the being born there; without her proud domain, 

No matter what the radiancy of mountain, sea, or plain, 

But let her name be whispered, with a passion almost pain, 

Her sons, wet-eyed, rise up to cheer the sturdy State o' Maine. 

Barnard Monroe. 


Like Eden planted eastward in the soul 

Filled with bright memories of youthful days 
O headland state thy orient influence sways 

All after years with its benign control, 
Sending, like thee, upon the mighty roll 

Of foreign seas and to the blinding maze 
Of worldly conflict twixt man's blame and praise, 

Of manful thought and song its generous dole. 

How turns like Tyrus' prince thy exile's mind 
From fortunes glitter and the art of knaves, 

Envy's sharp pangs and proud ambition's shocks, 
Yearning in thy pine-perfumed woods to find 

The balm of morning's peace and see the waves 
Of sapphire breaking on thy garnet rocks! 

Frank Sewall. 



Tonight across my senses steals, 
The perfume of the pine, 

sweeter far to homesick hearts, 
Than draughts of fragrant wine; 

Again uplift the sea-girt isles, 

Where sylvan beauties reign, 
And dreams of thee come back to me, 

O motherland of Maine. 

Thy glories gleam before my eyes, 
As in the olden days, 

1 see again the labyrinths 
Of Casco's lovely bays; 

The sea-gull's cry rings in my ears, 

As o'er the foam he flies, 
And Memory sets her signal lights 

Along the darkened skies. 

There's laughter in the swaying pines, 

There's music in the gale. 
Each ship upon the sea tonight 

Is some remembered sail; 
And peering through the flying mist 

That folds me in its spell, 
I cry, "What, ho! O, Mariners!" 

The answer is, "Farewell!" 

Like phantom ships before the wind 

They to their havens flee, 
While I, the Wanderer, must drift 

Upon a shoreless sea; 
But while the lights of being burn 

Within the conscious brain, 
My eyes will seek thy far-off coast, 

O motherland of Maine. 

Robert Rexdal 




From north to south, from sea to sea, 

State of Maine, my State of Maine, 
Thy name shall ever honored be, 

State of Maine, my State of Maine, 
So guard it from all wrong decree, 
Let there be none from blot more free 
In this sweet land of liberty, 

State of Maine, my State of Maine! 

Thy sons are known from east to west, 

State of Maine, my State of Maine, 
We hail thee and we call thee blest, 

State of Maine, my .State of Maine, 
Land of the Pine Tree and of rest, 
To thee we give our very best, 
Extending welcome to each guest, 

State of Maine, my State of Maine! 

Thy name is great, thy fame is long, 

State of Maine, my State of Maine, 
Thy name stands high among the throng, 

State of Maine, my State of Maine, 
Thou'st given us men both brave and strong 
To fight for right, or right a wrong; 
So let us sound thy praise in song, 

State of Maine, my State of Maine! 

(Copyright 1913, by George Thornton Edwards.) 

Permission of Abington Press 





Let others have the maple trees, 

With all their garnered sweets. 
Let others choose the mysteries 

Of leafy oak retreats. 
I'll give to other men the fruit 

Of cherry and the vine. 
Their claims to all I'll not dispute 

If I can have the pine. 

I love it for its tapering grace, 

Its uplift strong and true. 
I love it for its fairy lace 

It throws against the blue. 
I love it for its quiet strength, 

Its hints of dreamy rest 
As, stretching forth my weary length, 

I lie here as its guest. 

No Persian rug for priceless fee 

Was e'er so richly made 
As that the pine has spread for me 

To woo me to its shade. 
No kindly friend hath ever kept 

More faithful vigil by 
A tired comrade as he slept- 

Beneath his watchful eye. 

But best of all I love it for 

Its soft, eternal green; 
Through all the winter winds that roar 

It ever blooms serene, 
And strengthens souls oppressed by fears, 

By troubles multiform, 
To turn, amid the stress of tears, 

A smiling face to storm. 

John Eendrick Bangs. 




Far in the sunset's mellow glory, 
Far in the daybreak's pearly bloom, 
Fringed by ocean's foamy surges, 
Belted in by woods of gloom, 
Stretch thy soft, luxuriant borders, 
Smile thy shores, in hill and plain, 
Flower-enamelled, ocean-girdled, 
Green bright shores of Maine. 

Rivers of surpassing beauty 
From thy hemlock woodlands flow, 
Androscoggin and Penobscot, 
Saco, chilled by northern snow; 
These from many a lowly valley 
Thick by pine-trees shadowed o'er, 
Sparkling from their ice-cold tributes 
To the surges of thy shore. 

Bays resplendent as the heaven, 
Starred and gemmed by thousand isles, 
Gird thee, Casco with its islets, 
Quoddy with its dimpled smiles; 
O'er them swift the fisher's shallop 
And tall ships their wings expand, 
While the smoke-flag of the steamer 
Flaunteth out its cloudy streamer, 
Bound unto a foreign strand. 

Bright from many a rocky headland, 
Fringed by sands that shine like gold, 
Gleams the lighthouse white and lonely, 
Grim as some baronial hold. 
Bright by many an oeean valley 
Shaded hut and village shine; 
Roof and steeple, weather-beaten, 

Stained by ocean's breath of brine. 

Isaac McLellan. 





A song to Maine we sing who stand 

On the sunrise outpost of the land, 

For we love our state with a love as great 

As her forests wide and grand. 
Earliest flees the night in Maine; 
Earliest dawns the light in Maine; 
At the gate of the East, as morning's priest, 

Vigil forever keeps Maine. 

The pines of Katahdin call to the sea, 
And the waves make answer faithfully; 
Freedom and rest they promise our guest, 

And the healing of turf and tree. 
Fair are the rivers and rills of Maine; 
Kind are the woods and the hills of Maine, 
And the crystal lakes and the surge that breaks 

On the rock-bound shores of Maine. 

Woodsmen and farmers and fishers are we, 
We follow the trail and the plow and the sea; 
But we turn from all at our country's call 

To follow the flag of the free. 
Loyal and brave and true is Maine; 
Ready to dare and to do is Maine; 
In the van of the fight for the cause that is right 

Are ever the sons of Maine. 

We have drained our homes at the world's demand, 
Our youth have poured to the farthest strand; 
We have given our best to the thirsty West, 

Our life to the life of the land. 
Builders of states are the men from Maine; 
Makers of cities the men from Maine; 
On the frontier's walls, -in the nation's halls, 

First are the men from Maine. 

The Pine Tree State may she lead the way 
Through twilight shades to a brighter day! 
With God as guide, whate'er betide, 

Maine leads may she lead alway! 
Fair are the rivers and rills of Maine, 
Kind are the woods and the hills of Maine, 
So we'll sing as long as we breathe our song 

To the dear old State of Maine. 

Louise Helen Cobwrn. 




Maine, proud-set with walls of granite 

Maine, broad-breasted as the sky, 
Greeted by the eyes of sunrise 

Where (dark-browed) the pines loom high. 
Verdure-bordered thy deep rivers 

Where men come and where men go. 
Bright thy face with dreams that stir thee, 

Warm thy heart with hopes that glow. 

Maine, beloved by all thy children, 
Greater days for thee shall be. 

Grand old Maine, rock-ribbed, crag-crested, 
Where the singing winds go free. 

Other souls once sought thy welfare, 

Peered beyond their present ken; 
Now the vastness'of thy shadow 

Falls across a world of men. 
Mother Maine, creator, moulder, 

Of new men who know no fear 
Of men wise, strong-brained, advancing, 

Men that mighty projects steer. 

Maine, beloved by all thy children, 
Greater days for thee shall be. 

Grand old Maine, rock-ribbed, crag-crested, 
Where the singing winds go free. 

To thy sons, Maine, now and ever, 

Honor, power born of thee. 
In thy life the blood of statesmen, 

Dreamers, prophets that shall be. 
In thy halls, and on all high hearts, 

Falls the ageless call to-day 
Call to deeds that are eternal 

Lead on, Maine, God lights thy way. 

Elizabeth Powers Merrill. 



Greece, in her day of power, saw 

Amid her matchless forms of stone, 
A race, by nature's happiest law, 

More perfect. On her sea-swept throne 
She mourned the grace of which they died, 

And wept for sterner clay again. 
Be mine the nobler Spartan pride; 

Behold my sons, the sons of Maine! 

Rome strewed the streets with garlands when 

Her legions came with captive bands. 
Those were the days of mighty men; 

But those, the days of wasted lands; 
Behold my v/arriors come! No sound 

Of wailing breaks the martial strain, 
No blood of slaves is on the crowned. 

These are my sons, the sons of Maine! 

These are my sons! No mystic sage 

Hath reverence like those who read 
The prophecy on war's dark page, 

And bade the land be comforted. 
For some with counsel, some with sword, 

Went down, an awful cup to drain, 
And knew the fiat of the Lord. 

These are my sons, the sons of Maine! 

The nation knows my children, they 

Who carry in their souls and wills 
Some mood that must command and sway 

A birthright of their frost-hewn hills. 
And those who knew no vaunted part, 

Still toiled in silence for my gain, 
Afl share the bounties of my heart. 

These are my sons, the sons of Maine! 

O voices, winter-clear, awake 

In all the wild familiar shrines; 
In thunder on the great shores break, 

Call ffom the deathless mountain pines. 
The chant that lulled their cradle rest 

Is sweet to homesick heart and brain; 
Cry "Welcome!" down each cliff and crest 

For these, my sons, the sons of Maine! 

Ellen Hamlin Butler. 




Your ragged hills are white with snow. 
Your sons and daughters love them so, 

My Maine! 

The sternness of your rocky coast 
In winter, battles Ocean's host, 

My Maine! 

The ice along your meadows low 
Is Gospel writ, for those who know; 
We would not soften winds that blow 
Across your fields of drifting snow, 

My Maine! 

Your sons of hardy stuff are made; 
They wield the pen, nor shirk the spade, 

My Maine! 

Are quick with patriot arms to rise, 
Yet dwell beneath your peaceful skies, 

My Maine! 

The mothers of your sons are pure 
The best of Heaven's gifts you lure, 

My Maine! 

Your people stand for virtue first, 
And next for wisdom's ceaseless thirst; 
Your little ones on honor nursed 
Can ne'er forget their native hurst, 

My Maine! 

You lead the nation with a thong; 
Your sense of honor still is strong; 
You still can hear the temple gong 
That calls for prayers to right the wrong, 

My Maine! 

Thy generations of the good, 
Make character their holy rood, 

My Maine! 

Still fling your starry motto forth, 
East rampart of the mighty north 

My Maine! 

The schoolhouse and the church uphold 
Upon your headlands bleak and cold, 
Nor bow your proud head to the gold 
They moulded to a calf, of old. 

My Maine! 

/. Otis Swift. 




Far to the east where the winds blow keenest, 
Here is where the grass grows greenest; 
Our beautiful land with its rock-bound coast, 
Guarded by islands, a sentinel host. 
That's where Maine comes in. 

Far to the east where the north winds roar, 
And the surf resounds on her rocky shores, 
Where the tall cliffs rise in majesty, 
Keeping watch o'er the looming sea, 
That's where Maine comes in. 

Far to the east where the pine grows strongest, 
Where the reign of winter is sometimes longest, 
Where the men are noble and strong and true, 
Where women are brave and loving, too. 
That's where Maine comes in. . 

Where the handclasp is a little warmer, 
Where the heart beats are a little stronger, 
Where heaven seems a little nearer, 
And God's promise shineth clearer. 
That's where Maine comes in. 

Where the wild bird's wing is fleetest, 
Where the robin's song is sweetest, 
Where lakes and rivers are pure and clear, 
And nature sings to the listening ear. 
That's where Maine comes in. 

Tho far thru the world our feet go roaming, 

Our hearts will turn homeward when comes the gloaming, 

And we'll long to rest where the pines are sighing, 

Under the star-lit heavens lying. 

In life, in death, our hearts within. 

That is the place where Maine comes in. 

Lydia Lord Shedd. 




She washes her sides in the cross-ripped tides 

At the mouth of the Kennebec; 
She's solid rock, V if ever ye knock 

On her ye are safe for a wreck. 
She's picked 'n' jagged, 'n' wicked 'n' ragged, 

'N' blacker 'n' original sin 
But it a'most come to bein' to hum 

Wen the Maine man sights Seguin. 

Fur she is the mark we hunt in the dark, 

To show us the straight-up path; 
'N' the beacon by day that pints the way 

We wan' to travel to Bath. 
There's reefs to stabbard 'n' reefs to labbard, 

Where the offshore currents spin, 
But we don't care, ef we see up there, 

The light'ouse thet's on Seguin. 

A feller that ain't case-hardened haint 

No business hereaway; 
'N' ye will find thet tyat Yankee kin' 

Is the kin' to stick 'n' stay. 
Ye don' feel nice, a-kivered 'ith ice, 

'N' col' 'ithout 'n' 'ithin 
It takes a man to stan' his han' 

On a schooner off Seguin. 

It blows 'n' blows, 'n' it snows 'n' snows, 

'N' you're blinded 'n' choked 'n' friz, 
Then all the coas' looms up like a ghos' 

Jerusalem! there she is! 
Though ha'f your face is a raw red place, 

Thet prickles ye like a pin, 
Ye soon thaw out w'en ye hear the shout, 

"Hoy, fellows, we've made Seguin!" 

We may be rough, 'n' we hev to be tough, 

Ez it's nateral to be, 
But we do our bes' 'n' we leave the res' 

To the Lord who made the sea. 
He's a port aloft we have read it oft, 

'N' w'en we're sailin' in, 
We hope we'll sight his harbor light, 

Ez we ust to sight Seguin. 

Mariley H. Pike in Youth's Companion. 



O! Wanderers from the land of Maine! the perfume of the pine 
Is mingled with your memory Her violet vales entwine 
Memorial wreaths She calls for you O, must she call in vain? 
Come back, your mother longs for you, O, Wanderers of Maine! 

From mountain heights your feet have climbed, from Abraham and Blue, 

She looks across the continent and strains her eyes for you. 

Above the prairies of the West, she calls and calls again: 

"Come back, my children! Come to me, O, Wanderers of Maine! 

Come back! The peaks will welcome you; the valleys laugh with joy, 
The snow-flakes leap to touch your hands as when you were a boy, 
The cow-bells' music, faint and sweet, is tinkling down the lane, 
To meet your footsteps coming back, 0, Wanderer of Maine! 

Come back! There's room enough! O, hear the voice of Kennebec! 
The ocean calls. She looks for you on every home-bound deck, 
The Androscoggin murmurs, "Come." -Aroostook's fertile plain 
Is beckoning her Wanderers to the motherland of Maine. 

"Come back!" she cries. Alas! to-night, along the west-winds' swell 

A bell's deep tone is echoing "0, mother Maine, farewell!" 

The weary wanderer lieth low. He cannot come again 

To rest among the apple-blooms beneath the skies of Maine. 

The west winds whisper many a name to home-folks strangely sweet, 
"0! Casco-cradled Longfellow!" the surf -bound billows beat. 
"O! doers of heroic deeds! O, land-lamented Elaine! 
0! humbler souls of holy life, lost Wanderers of Maine!" 

Dear Wanderers, who wander yet! if we no more may meet 
Until the Land of the Beyond shall press your weary feet; 
We still will lift our banner high, and sing the old refrain, 
For ye are ours for evermore! O! Wanderers of Maine! 

Julia H. May. 



Before the Mayflower's lonely sail 

Our northern billows spann'd, 
And left on Plymouth's ice-bound rock 

A sad-eyed pilgrim band, 

Ere scarce Virginia's forests proud 

The earliest woodman hew'd, 
Or grey Powhatan's wondering eyes 

The pale-brow'd strangers view'd, 

The noble Popham's fearless prow 

Essay'd adventurous deed 
He cast upon New England's coast 

The first colonial seed, 

And bade the holy dews of prayer 

Baptize a heathen sod, 
And 'mid its groves a church arise 

Unto the Christian's God. 

And here, on green Sabino's marge, 

He closed his mortal trust, 
And gave this savage-peopled world 

Its first rich Saxon dust. 

So, where beneath the drifted snows 

He took his latest sleep, 
A faithful sentinel of stone 

Due watch and ward shall keep, 

A lofty fort, to men unborn, 

In thunder speak his name, 
And Maine, amid her thousand hills, 

New England's founder claim. 

L. H. Sigowney. 


The first Maine poet was also one of the early governors of the state, 
Enoch Lincoln, born in Worcester, Mass., Dec. 28, 1788. 

The first three governors of Maine were distinguished men. William 
King, who resigned in May, 1821, to become a member of the Spanish 
Treaty Commission, was an active man of affairs, and a member of the 
Massachusetts legislature. William Durkee Williamson of Bangor, first 
President of the Maine Senate, had been a senator in the Massachusetts 
legislature. He was a distinguished lawyer and the author of Williamson's 
History of Maine. He resigned the office of governor to accept an election 
to Congress. Albion K. Parris was a jurist and administrator of rare 
ability. He was only 33 years old when elected governor, and served five 

Enoch Lincoln was the sixth governor of Maine. Mr. Lincoln dif- 
fered from his predecessors in office in that, while not falling behind them 
in the management of practical affairs, and in devotion to public interests, 
he was a man of more scholarly attainments, of wider reading, of finer 
sensibilities and more comprehensive views of society, possessing in short 
some sparks of the divine fire of genius. 

Enoch Lincoln came of distinguished lineage. He was one of a fam- 
ily of governors. His father, Levi Lincoln, served in Jefferson's cabinet 
as attorney general of the United States, was lieutenant governor of 
Massachusetts in 1807 and 1808, and on the decease of Governor Sullivan, 
in December of the latter year, he discharged the duties of chief magis- 
trate from that time till the following May. Enoch's elder brother, Levi 
Lincoln, Jr., six years his senior an eminent lawyer and statesman, 
was in 1825 selected by both the political parties in Massachusetts as 
their candidate for governor of the state, and was elected with great 
unanimity by the people. In 1834, he was elected representative in Con- 
gress, serving three terms. 

Enoch Lincoln entered the Sophomore class of Harvard College in 
1806. He subsequently received the degree of Master of Arts from Bow- 
doin College, studied law with his brother Levi, at Worcester, and was 
there admitted to the bar in 1811. He began practice in Salem, but soon 
returned to his native town, where he practiced with considerable reputa- 
tion, but in 1812 he removed to Fryeburg in Maine. 



Fryeburg has had the distinction of numbering Daniel Webster among 
the preceptors of her famous academy ; she has given the state many emi- 
nent men, among whom may be mentioned the Fessendens and John W. 
Dana, governor of the state from 1847 to 1850; but it may be accounted 
not the least among her claims to consideration that it was amid her beau- 
tiful scenery that our poet-governor conceived and executed his poem of 
"The Village". It is her scenery that is described in this poem, and its 
pictures of rural life are drawn from the pursuits and occupations of her 

As a young practitioner, just entering upon his career at the bar, Mr. 
Lincoln, then in his twenty-fifth year, had much leisure upon his 
hands. With his studious habits these hours could not be idly spent, 
and he made the Indians still remaining in the neighborhood, the subject 
of his researches. It was his custom to spend some weeks or months in 
each year rambling in the woods, and holqling converse with nature and 
her simple children. His hatred of oppression led him to sympathize with 
the Indian in his fallen condition, and he spent much time in collecting all 
those objects and documents, which might throw light upon the manners, 
customs, habits and dispositions of the ancient lords of the soil. 

He removed to Paris in 1817, and March 16, 1818, was elected to Con- 
gress to fill out the unexpired term of the Hon. Albion K. Parris, who had 
been appointed judge of the United States District Court for the District 
of Maine. 

Mr. Lincoln served eight years in Congress, viz., 1818 and 18.19. the 
unexpired term of Mr. Parris; then three full terms, 1819 to 1825, and 
also 1825 and 1826, when he resigned because of his election as Governor 
of Maine. 

As governor of the state, he was distinguished by a zealous devotion 
to its interests, and the scholarly character of his state papers. His mes- 
sages were noted for their suggestiveness, pointed brevity and good taste. 
One of his Thanksgiving proclamations was so brief and comprehensive, and 
was so popular, that it was printed by his admirers on satin for preserva- 

During Mr. Lincoln's administration as governor, the question of 
the northeastern boundary of our state acquired serious and alarming 
dimensions. He vindicated the rights of the state to the territory in ques- 
tion with great energy and earnestness. He took strong state sovereignty 
ground, boldly and decidedly denying the right of the national govern- 
ment to cede any portion of the territory of the state without its consent. 

It was during Governor Lincoln's administration also, at a session of 
the governor and council held at Augusta in June, 1827, that Capitol 
Hill in Augusta was determined on as the future site of the capitol. 


In the month of July of that year, 1829, he delivered an oration at 
the ceremony of laying the cornerstone of the capitol. In the following 
October he was again called to Augusta to deliver an address at the estab- 
lishment of the Cony Female Academy. 

On the day when he delivered the address, he had been quite unwell 
before he made the attempt ; during the delivery he grew so ill that he was 
obliged to sit down, and after he had finished, he went straightway to bed 
the bed of death. 

Governor Lincoln died October 8, 1829, having nearly completed his 
forty-first year. He was never married. He was buried with public honors 
on the grounds fronting the Capitol at Augusta, where his remains still 

A marked characteristic of Mr. Lincoln's character was his enthusi- 
astic love of rural nature. This led him, while residing at Fryeburg, to 
visit the retired haunts of the aborigines, and. make acquaintance with 
the lingering remnants of the large and powerful tribe that once occupied 
that beautiful region. 

It was the charm of this varied scenery that inspired him to the 
composition of the poem entitled "The Village", which was published in 
1816, in Portland, by Edward Little & Co. It is a descriptive and didactic 
poem of more than two thousand lines, written in the heroic measure, and 
marked by smoothness of versification and elevation of sentiment. One 
detects at times an echo of Pope in the structure of the lines, and the influ- 
ence of the author's classical studies is evident throughout. Though pro- 
fessedly descriptive of rural scenes, the local coloring is not strong, much 
the larger portion of the poem being devoted to general views of society 
and mankind at large. It would appear that the poet set out with the pur- 
pose of sketching the scenery and the conditions of society around him, 
but not finding the task congenial, gladly launched out into general dis- 
course on human nature and the various classes of society. He apologizes 
in his preface for this divergence from his theme, and the diff useness 
with which it is pursued, alleging that the vocations of business had pre- 
vented his filling out the poem in those proportions which were necessary 
to complete its plan. His mind naturally expanded to wide views of human 
nature, as seen in the light of history, rather than confining itself to minute 
observation of the conditions of life around him. With all his love of 
nature he depended rather on books than on personal observation and 
experience for the materials of his verse. This is seen in the copious 
appendix which takes rather the form of essays than of notes. It con- 
sists of three parts, the first of which is devoted to a history of slavery, 
the second to a learned review of lawyers, the principles of criminal law, 
and the modes of punishment in different countries, and the third to a 
dissertation on religious persecution. These essays show the result of 


wide reading, and the influence of classical studies, the experience of Greece 
and Rome being constantly cited. 

What is most remarkable about the poem is its advanced sentiments 
on all humane subjects. As regards slavery, the treatment of the Indians, 
the education of women, and the ill-treatment of brutes, the poem is far 
in advance of the views generally held when it was published, ninety- 
four years ago, and anticipates many of the reformatory and humane 
movements of our day. It is something of a surprise withal to find this 
young man, notwithstanding his inexperience of the ways of life, dealing 
so caustically with the faults of the learned professions, and betraying 
no little knowledge of the crooked courses pursued by many of their mem- 
bers. He has considerable power of satire, and a noble scorn of all that 
is low, mean, or oppressive of the rights of the poor and the humble. He 
holds up a high standard throughout, and is ever true to the highest con- 
victions of truth and duty. 

His poem deals with the following subjects: View of the Mountains; 
Account of Their Formation; Description of the Aboriginal Natives; The 
Rattlesnake; The Saco; Lumbering and Clearing; The Maple; Slavery; 
Freedom in This Country ; 111 Treatment of Brutes ; Hunting ; Reflections 
on Women; The Lawyer; Criminal Law; The Clergyman, and Reflections 
on Superstition ; The Physician ; Education ; Intemperance ; Scandal ; 
Party Spirit. 

We must bear in mind that wnen this poem appeared in 1816, very 
little poetry had been written in America. Longfellow, Whittier, Holmes, 
the illustrious trio who have given American poetry a place in the world's 
literature, were boys at school. No poem of so wide scope and sustained 
length as "The Village", dealing with nature and with man in so many 
of their aspects, had then appeared in our land. As the production of a 
young man with no wide experience of the world, it must be considered 
remarkable, not only for its high standard of right, and its advanced 
moral sentiment, anticipating many of the reforms of our day, but also for 
its erudition and its evenly-sustained poetical merit. 

Governor Lincoln's name has no place in the cyclopedias of Ameri- 
can literature. Undoubtedly the fact that the poem was published anon- 
ymously in a small provincial town, such as Portland then was, had much 
to do with its falling into obscurity. Its great length would also deter 
many from reading it. This is due to the diffuseness with which the 
author treats his topics. Not content with making his point, he, with a 
lawyer-like habit, restates it and wanders wide over all collateral themes. 
With greater conciseness, not so much in expression as in treatment, this 
would have been a very readable poem. As it is, it justifies the poet's 
aspiration in his closing lines, and one sympathizes with his regret in 
throwing aside the harp, which he seems never again to have taken up. 




Among the priceless treasures of the Maine State Library, none is 
valued more highly than the four volumes written by the first writer of 
fiction in Maine, Madam Wood. Her family was one of the most distin- 
guished in York County, which in her day comprised the entire District of 

Madam Wood was the daughter of Capt. Nathaniel Barrell, whose 
father was a Boston merchant. Capt. Barrell won his commission at the 
siege and capture of Quebec, where he was promoted for hie gallantry. 
He married Sally Sayward, daughter of Judge Sayward of York, at whose 
home their child, Sally Sayward Barrell, was born October 1, 1759. 

The story of the Sayward family is one of thrilling romance. The 
original Sayward came from England and settled in York. In the year 
1692, while he was away from home, the Indians attacked the town. 
Twenty-six of the inhabitants were murdered and eight-five were carried 
away into captivity. It was at this time that the wife and children of 
Rev. Shubael Dummer were massacred. Sayward's wife and all his chil- 
dren with the exception of one daughter were killed. This daughter, who 
was captured by the Indians, was afterwards ransomed by a French lady 
of Quebec, who educated her in a convent of which she became the Lady 

The father of Hannah Sayward, the Lady Abbess of the Quebec con- 
vent, married again and had two sons, Jeremiah and Jonathan. This 
Jonathan was the father of Judge Sayward, who was the grandfather of 
Sally Sayward Barrell. She lived with her grandfather until her marriage 
with Richard Keating, November 23, 1778. Two daughters and a son 
were born to them. Her husband died in 1783. 

Judge Jonathan Sayward at one time before the war of the Revolu- 
tion was, next to Sir William Pepperell, the richest man in Maine. He 
was an active merchant and man of all business. He had the confidence 
of his townsmen and for seventeen years was elected to the office of rep- 
resentative to the General Court. He was judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas and judge of probate for York County. These offices he held at 
the beginning of the revolutionary troubles. 

The home of the judge is still standing unaltered with the same fur- 
nishings, and owned and occupied by one of his descendants. It would 



give one a better opinion of the sturdy old Loyalist to visit that house 
and see the expression of his countenance in his full length portrait, which 
hangs on the wall. There are also portraits of his wife and daughter by 
Blackburn, painted between 1750 and 1765, as Blackburn left Boston for 
England in the latter year. 

Mrs. Keating continued to live for twenty-one years in the house pre- 
sented to her by her father as a wedding gift. It was during these years 
that she developed her gifts as a writer. The tragic history of her family, 
the incidents of the war and the experiences of her own life furnished the 
motives of authorship. 

Her first book was "Julia." The writer has not been able to learn the 
date of this book or the name of the publisher. Her second book was 
"Dorval, or the Speculator, a novel, founded on recent facts, By a Lady, 
author of Julia," published by Nutting and Whitelock, Portsmouth, N. H., 
for the author in 1801. The preface of this book is worth reading for the 
information it furnishes about the ideals and customs of that far away day. 

"While every library is filled with romances and novels, some apology 
is perhaps necessary for adding to the number, and introducing a similar 
work to the public. Wishing to avoid the imputation of arrogance, I will 
only say, that while society is so fond of literary amusements, some, and 
I believe, a large number, will be tempted to devote a part of their time to 
the perusal of the works of fancy and imagination; and while reading is 
so much in fashion, romantic tales will be read with avidity, and the works 
of the novelist will claim their station in almost every library. Hitherto 
we have been indebted to France, Germany and Great Britain, for the 
majority of our literary pleasures. Why we should not aim at independ- 
ence, with respect to our mental enjoyments, as well as for our more sub- 
stantial gratifications, I know not. Why must the amusements of our 
leisure hours cross the Atlantic? and introduce foreign fashions and for- 
eign manners, to a people, certainly capable of fabricating their own. 
Surely we ought to make a return in the same way. I should indeed be 
vain, if I indulged for a moment an idea that any of my productions were 
worth transporting to another climate, or that they could be read with 
any satisfaction, where the works of a Moore, a Burney, a Kotzebue, or 
a Rowland had originated. But the attempt will be forgiven where the 
design is good ; and it may possibly call forth the pens of some of my coun- 
try women, better qualified to instruct and amuse. I hope no one will 
suppose that I entertain ideas so fallacious as to imagine it necessary for 
a female to be a writer : far from it. I am sure 

'That woman's noblest station is retreat ;' 

and that a female is never half so lovely, half so engaging or amiable, 
as when performing her domestic duties, and cheering, with smiles of 
unaffected good humor, those about her. But there are some, who, forgetful 


of those sacred duties, or viewing them all in a circle very circumscribed, 
devote a large portion of time to dissipation, and such fashionable occupa- 
tions, as waste many hours that might be devoted to better purposes. If 
a small share of that time were attached to the pen, I am certain no future 
author would agree with the Abbe Rayal, 'That America had produced 
but few persons of genius:' Envy would be banished from society; and 
while a woman was drawing a picture of virtue and amiableness from 
imagination, she would imperceptibly follow the example and copy the 

"A small, a very small portion of praise, will, I am sure, be awarded 
to the novelist. The philosopher will turn with disgust from the pages 
of romance; and the prudent will think that time lost that is spent in 
perusing fictitious sorrow and fictitious joys; the gay and the giddy will 
prefer the ball room or the card table; and the idle cannot find time or 
inclination to read. But there are some, who, retiring from domestic occu- 
pations, and whose time is not wholly spent in the city, will open, with 
pleasure, a volume which is meant to convey a little instruction, while it 
amuses an idle or a leisure hour; who can enjoy the well meant fiction, 
and, 'shed a tear on sorrows not their own'. 

"The following pages are wholly American; the characters are those 
of our own country. The author has endeavored to catch the manners 
of her native land; and it is hoped no one will find, upon perusal, a lesson, 
or even a sentence, that authorize vice or sanction immorality. It has 
been her wish to show by example the evils that have arisen from specu- 
lation, and which have fallen upon the virtuous and the good, as well as 
the wicked. She cannot help saying, in her own vindication, that the 
most vicious character is not the creature of imagination, 'the vagrant 
fancy of a woman's brain.' With regard to the other characters, it is 
left to the world to determine whether they are visionary beings, or copied 
from real life. It is hoped, however, while they acknowledge the possibility 
of the existence of such a being as DORVAL, they will believe it more 
than probable that an Aurelia, a Burlington, and many others, are still 
inhabitants of the world. 

When the following pages were written, it was the warmest wish of 
the author's heart to dedicate them to a lady, whose goodness and virtues 
had deeply impressed her heart. But that lady's modesty has forbidden 
that public tribute. To admire in silence those qualities, which must cre- 
ate and rivet the esteem of all that know her, is all that is permitted. 

"The volume will of consequence appear without a patron to protect 
or acknowledge it. The author has only to beg that candor instead of 
criticism may be extended towards it. Not expecting that it will meet 
with applause, she only hopes it will not be too severely condemned." 


Her third novel, "Amelia: or the Influence of Virtue, an Old Man's 
Story, by a Lady of Massachusetts", was printed at the Oracle Press, by 
William Treadwell & Co. The volume bears no date, but her next book 
printed in 1804 states that it was written by the author of "Julia", "The 
Speculator" and "Amelia", therefore making the date of "Amelia" some- 
where between 1801 and 1804. 

In the list of books credited to Madam Wood by Williamson in his 
bibliography of Maine is "The Old Man's Story". This is undoubtedly an 
error. Williamson probably did not have a copy of "Amelia" before him, 
or he would have known that this was the old man's story. "Amelia" 
is a story told by a great traveler, who having seen all the world except 
America, decides to visit that country. He visits Washington at Mount 
Vernon, Adams in Massachusetts, and while he is the guest of a family in 
Boston, the conversation turns on the question of the influence of virtue. 
The traveler then tells the story of "Amelia". 

Mrs. Keating was married in 1804 to General Abiel Wood, a gentle- 
man of wealth and a prominent citizen of Wiscasset. Here Mrs. Wood 
enjoyed every comfort that wealth and the best society could give; and, 
in the companionship of friends of refined manners and tastes similar to 
her own, continued her literary work. 

The year of her marriage to General Wood she published her fourth 
novel, "Ferdinand and Elmira: a Russian story, by a Lady of Massachu- 
setts; author of Julia, the Speculator and "Amelia", printed for Samuel 
Butler, by John West Butler, Baltimore, 1804. This volume is intro- 
duced by the following advertisement, evidently written by Samuel Butler : 

"The writer of this instructive and amusing Work, has heretofore 
published the effusions of her Pen in New-England ; and there, where the 
flights of Fancy, (as if chilled by the frigid blast of the north) are not 
received with that friendly welcome which they experience in the more 
genial climate of the south and middle States, commanded that applause, 
which Genius and Fancy never fail of producing on those liberal and candid 
Minds who will take the trouble to discriminate between the ordinary day- 
labor of the common English Novelist, who works for a living similar to 
a Mechanic, and has no other end in view than to bring forth a fashion- 
able piece of Goods, that will suit the taste of the moment, and remunerate 
himself, and the Lady of refined sentiments and correct taste, who writes 
for the amusement of herself, her Friends and the Public. 

"The work has been carefully corrected and revised; and the Pub- 
lishers trust that its general execution, and its own intrinsic merit, are 
such as will insure an ample and speedy sale to this its FIRST edition." 

The following brief outline indicates the character of the story : 

Empress Elizabeth of Russia fell in love with Count Peletre, the 
Polish Ambassador. He, however, had secretly married Emma, the daugh- 


ter of the Russian Count Laprochin. When the Empress revealed her 
love to him which he could not return, he fled with his wife and her father 
to Poland. The Empress vented her spite on the elder daughter of Count 
Laprochin, who was at her court, by punishment and banishment. Countess 
Laprochin, as she was called, was married to an Englishman named Old- 
ham, who had returned to England, taking their little son Ferdinand with 
him. When Count Peletre arrived in Poland, he found that the Empress 
had anticipated him there and he was banished from Poland as well, and 
had to remain in hiding. Here the old Count died and Elmira, the daugh- 
ter of Count Peletre and Emma, was born. Hearing nothing of Oldham 
and his unfortunate wife, the Countess, Count Peletre went to England. 
He found Oldham gone, but he brought back little Ferdinand to live with 
them. After some years Countess Laprochin found them and was united 
to her family. When Ferdinand was eighteen, a chance visitor revealed 
to him and Elmira who they really were, for they had never been told. 
Both of them were made to promise that they would never reveal the hid- 
ing place of their family. Ferdinand joined the Prussian army, with 
which he fought against Russia. Ferdinand and Elmira were to be mar- 
ried within a year. Just before the time of their waiting was over, Elmira 
was kidnapped and taken to a residence some distance from her home. 
There it was found that she had been mistaken for the eloping daughter 
of the house. Since she could not tell where she lived, there was trouble 
about her return, but a "man in the gown" offered to take her nearly 
there and promised never to reveal where he went. On the way to her 
home they met Ferdinand, who was under sentence of death, having got 
into trouble with his colonel. He had gone home for a last visit to his 
family, only to find them gone. The "man in the gown" and Elmira accom- 
panied him back to camp. He was just about to be shot when the general 
of the regiment arrived and saved him. The "man in the gown" turned out 
to be Oldham. Meanwhile the Empress had died and her son Peter ruled 
in her stead. He had immediately pardoned Count Peletre and the Countess 
Laprochin and sent for them to appear at court. The whole family was 
now reunited and went to England to live. Ferdinand and Elmira were 
married there and lived happy ever after. 

In 1811 General Wood died, and a few years later Madam Wood 
removed to Portland, probably on account of her son, who had become 
a ship captain and was sailing out of this port. He married a Miss Emer- 
son of York, a sister to the first mayor of Portland. William T. Vaughan, 
the first clerk of the courts of Cumberland, after the separation from 
Massachusetts, married Madam Wood's second daughter, Miss Keating. 
She died leaving two children. 

Madam Wood's last printed book was "Tales of the Night, by a Lady 
of Maine, author of 'Julia,' The Speculator,' "The Old Man's Story/ etc., 


etc., Portland," printed and published by Thomas Todd, 1827. The above 
list omits "Ferdinand and Elmira," and one etc. probably stands for 
this book, the other possibly for the "Illuminated Baron". "Tales of the 
Night" was written when Madam Wood lived in Portland. The Tales are 
a part of a series, which the author intended to publish in two volumes. 
However, only one volume was printed. This book contains two stories, 
"Storms and Sunshine", or the "House on the Hill", and "The Hermitage". 

The first of these is the story of Henry Arnold, who, because of a seri- 
ous controversy over a large estate which he had inherited, was obliged in 
1790 to return to his native state of Massachusetts after long residence in 
England. His wife, two daughters and one man servant accompanied him. 

Misfortune camped on their trail. A tempestuous voyage, a dis- 
agreeable journey by land, a Maine blizzard, the serious illness of Mrs. 
Arnold, scarcity of food, the death of Mrs. Arnold's sister, news of the 
loss of the ship bringing their household goods, failure of the father's 
banking house, brought the family to the lowest depths of despondency. 
The situation is relieved by a rapid succession of happy events Mrs. 
Arnold recovers, the deed to the valuable estate is found and the title 
cleared, the will of Mrs. Arnold's sister bequeaths them a fortune, the 
ship with the household goods arrives after being driven from its course 
instead of lost, and the older daughter is thus enabled to take the man 
of her choice whom she had first refused because of her penniless condi- 
tion. The younger daughter marries a "good man" and even the man 
servant gets the fever and takes unto himself a wife. 

"The Hermitage" is the story of Marcia Vernon, who, at the age of 
thirteen, entered the employ of Governor and Mrs. Wellington. Her 
beauty and deportment made her a favorite with everyone in the family, 
the members of which vied with each other in completing her training 
and education. Two years after the death of Mrs. Wellington, Marcia was 
married to the Governor. Her consent to this union was given only 
because she believed her lover to be dead and because she had promised to 
care for the Governor as long as he should live. Ten years after her 
marriage Colonel Mortimer (Marcia's lover) reappeared with a satisfac- 
tory, although startling, explanation of his long absence. Marcia con- 
tinued a dutiful and constant wife and the Governor accommodatingly 
died within a short time, leaving a letter to Marcia and the Colonel request- 
ing them "to form the engagement which would secure them happiness 
for life, and embalm his memory with their continued affection". 

While living in Portland, Madam Wood and her family occupied the 
western half of what is known as the Anderson house on the south side 
of Free Street. She was always spoken of here as "Madam Wood" and 
was accorded the place of honor in all gatherings of the best society. She 
was, owing to her peculiar type of dress, a conspicuous figure in public 


places. She was accustomed to wear the high turban or cap, and when 
she went out she wore a plain black bonnet so far forward as nearly to 
hide her features. Although Madam Wood was a communicant of the 
First Parish church under Doctor Nichols, she often attended the old 
brick church of St. Paul's, sitting in the Vaughan pew with her grand- 

Madam Wood left some manuscript works which were never printed, 
though it is said that when the Waverly novels appeared, and she had read 
some of them, she was so dissatisfied with her own works that she gathered 
what she could of them and destroyed them. 

Captain Keating, her son, was sailing a ship from the port of New 
York, and to be near his family his mother concluded to go there with 
all her family. This was in 1829 or 1830. 

In January, 1833, Captain Keating arrived in New York Harbor and 
anchored in the stream, remaining aboard. In the night, the current set 
the running ice against the ship with such force as to cut her through, 
and she sank at her anchor at once, carrying down all on board, includ- 
ing the captain ; not one escaped. Madam Wood was now seventy-five years 
old. Although hers had been a life of vicissitudes, the loss of her last 
remaining child, an enterprising son, the stay and support of her declin- 
ing years, was a severe shock to her. The following summer she returned 
to Maine with a widowed granddaughter and a great grandson. 

In her last years Madam Wood continued to write, at the request of her 
friends, papers of reminiscences, which from her great age and wonderful 
memory, were very valuable. 

She died January 6, 1854, at the uncommon age of ninety-five years 
and three months. 



F . In the year 1784 printing- was introduced into the Dis- 

^_ trict of Maine by Benjamin Titcomb, Jr., of Falmouth. 

Soon after the establishment of his office he received as 
a partner Thomas Wait of Boston. It is probable that some pamphlets 
were printed by this firm but book publishing began with the issue of a 
volume published under the name of the junior partner, bearing on its 
title page the quaint inscription: "Universal Spelling Book, or a New 
and Easy Guide to the English Language. Containing Tables, etc., etc., 
28th Edition with additions. By Daniel Penning, Late School-master of 
Bures Suffolk. Falmouth, Casco (Bay), Printed and Sold by Thomas Wait 
at his Office in Middle St., MDCCLXXXVI". Four years later, under 
date of August 14, 1790, the first copyright issued to a District of Maine 
publisher was granted to Samuel Freeman, the author of the "Columbian 
Primer, or the Schoolmistresses' Guide to Children in their First Steps 
to Learning". Other books by the same author were "The Town Officer; 

or the Power and Duty of Selectmen and other Town Officers" and 

"The Probate Auxiliary: or, a Director and Assistant to Probate Courts, 
Executors, Administrators and Guardians," which informs us that the 
author was Register of Probate for Cumberland County and bears, what 
appears to the modern reader, the curious information that it was published 
in Portland, Massachusetts. Both of these volumes were printed by Ben- 
jamin Titcomb, the former in 1791 and the latter in 1793. 

Hallowell soon became a publishing center. The first book which 
came from the press in this town was a work of fiction entitled "Female 
Friendship, or the Innocent Sufferer: a Moral Novel". It was published 
anonymously and printed by Howard Robinson in 1797. 

Eliza S. True was the author of the earliest volume of Maine poems, 
which was published in 1811 under the title of "The Amaranth", being, 
it was said, "A Collection of Original Pieces in Prose and Verse, Calculated 
to Amuse the Minds of Youth without Corrupting their Morals". This 
publication was issued from the press of M. McKown. 

In 1816 appeared "The Village," the first book written wholly in verse 
by a Maine author, who was none other than Enoch Lincoln, afterward 
governor of the state. 




On the first day of January, 1785, there appeared in the 
town of Falmouth the first issue of the pioneer newspaper 
of the District of Maine, under the name of The Falmouth 
Gazette and Weekly Advertiser. This paper, except for a suspension 
from 1866 to 1868, has, under various names, been published continuously 
to the present time. It came from the press of Titccmb and Wait of 
Falmouth and was printed on four pages, about the size of a sheet of 
foolscap, with three columns to a page. In 1786, the year of Portland's 
incorporation, the name was changed to Cumberland Gazette. It was 
again changed in 1792 to avoid confusion with a rival paper, the Gazette 
of Maine, which had been established in 1790 by Benjamin Titcomb after 
his withdrawal from the partnership with Wait. Under its new name 
of Eastern Herald it appeared in a larger form. No more changes were 
made until September, 1796, when Mr. Wait disposed of his interests to 
John B. Baker, who consolidated it with the Gazette of Maine under the 
title of Eastern Herald and Gazette of Maine. After the retirement of 
Mr, Baker the paper passed into the hands of Daniel George, "a man of 
genius." Following his death it was purchased by Isaac Adams, who 
merged with it the Portland Gazette, a sheet issued in 1798 by E. A. 
Jenks. Subsequent to this change it was known as the Portland Gazette 
and Maine Advertiser. In 1808 Mr. Adams took into partnership Arthur 
Shirley, whose connection with the paper lasted until 1822, when he left 
to become publisher of the Christian Mirror. During Mr. Shirley's long 
career as printer and publisher several important publications came from 
his press, among which were the Daily Courier, Family Reader, Portland 
Magazine and the Maine Washingtonian Journal. He published the first 
directory of Portland and the first book of sacred music printed in the 
state. In the year 1819 William Willis, later an eminent lawyer and his- 
torian, was engaged by Shirley to write editorials for his paper. This is 
the first instance in which the office of editor was separated from the 
business of the publisher. When the daily edition was established in 
1831 it was called the Portland Advertiser, while the title of Gazette of 
Maine was revived for the weekly edition. Among its many distinguished 
editors we find the names of James Brooks, Erastus Brooks, Phineas 
Barnes, Henry Carter and James G. Elaine. From a subscription list of 
1700 in the year 1796, the circulation has now increased to 26,267, the 
largest of any daily in the state. 

The first daily newspaper in Maine was established in Portland in 
1829 by Seba Smith. It was known as the Courier. 

The oldest paper maintaining an unbroken existence and unchanging 
name is the Eastern Argus, established in 1803 in Portland. Its first pub- 
lishers were Calvin Day and Nathaniel Willis. 


In these days of almost hourly mail service it is hard to realize the 
eagerness with which the weekly delivery of papers was anticipated in 
the smaller towns in the early days. Local happenings were reported 
without delay by the busy newsmongers but the only connection with 
the outside world was found in the papers. In 1785 the mail was carried 
from Falmouth to Portsmouth and from thence to Boston on horseback 
and inhabitants of settlements not on the direct mail route were obliged 
to send messengers on foot to the nearest place selected to send letters 
and receive mail. In case of severe storms or unusually bad condition of 
the roads the postman was often delaved for two weeks and sometimes for 
more than a month. In Parson Smith's diary, written in 1785, we find 
this entry: "The post at last got here, having been hindered near five 

As comparatively few people in the smaller settlements could afford 
individual subscriptions, it was the custom for whole neighborhoods to 
unite in subscribing for a sine-le paper, which was read in turn by the 
several families and then carefully preserved for future readino-. Con- 
gressional news, sometimes not more than sixteen days old, and foreign 
news, two or three months late, made up the greater part of the naner. 
A few items of local interest were given in the form of death notices 
long and eulogistic and advertisements. These varied from descriptions 
of proprietarv medicines, sure to cure all ailments, to notices of marital 
difficulties. No paper was complete without its advertisements of W. I. 
Rum, gin, wines and other cordials. Masters of runaway apprentices aired 
their troubles and offered munificent rewards, varying from two cents to 
ten dollars, for the return of their ungrateful servants. 

The first paper on the Kennebec was the Eastern Star, published at 
Hallowell, then known as Bombahook, or "The Hook", in 1794 by Howard 
Robinson. The price was nine shillings a year. It was printed on four 
pages, 18 by 11 inches in size. After struggling vainly for about a year, 
during which time it passed into the hands of Nathaniel Perley, it came 
to an early death and was succeeded by The Tocsin. This paper was 
established in 1795 by Thomas Wait, Howard Robinson and John K. Baker, 
a former apprentice of Wait's. It was purchased the following year by 
Benjamin Poor and continued until 1797 when it, too, succumbed to starva- 

Soon after the establishment of the Eastern Star at "The Hook", a 
rival paper was started at Fort Western, a part of Hallowell, now known 
as Augusta.. Its publisher was Peter Edes, who came to Maine from Bos- 
ton. The first issue of the Kennebeck Intelligencer, a sheet of four pages, 
18 by 11| inches in size, was dated November 21, 1795. "For want of due 
encouragement and punctuality of payments" Mr. Edes discontinued the 


paper in June, 1800, but it was revived in November of the same year as 
The Kehnebec Gazette. In February, 1810, the character of the paper 
changed and it became a party organ. Its name was changed with its 
character and it was known as the Herald of Liberty. For some time it 
flourished but in 1815 Edes became discouraged by unfavorable condi- 
tions and removed to Bangor, where he brought out the Bangor Weekly 
Register on November 25 and "could make out to live if nothing more". 

Lincoln County's pioneer was the Wiscasset Telegraph, issued in 
December, 1796, by Russell & Hoskins. It was made up of four pages, 21 
by 18 inches. Nearly a year after its establishment a slight change was 
made in the title to The Wiscasset Telegraph, which was at that time pub- 
lished by Hoskins and Scott. It was discontinued on the death of Hoskins 
in 1804. 

During the same month in which the tick of The Telegraph became 
audible, there were heard the blatant tones of the Oriental Trumpet in 
Portland. After nearly four years of existence its voice was silenced. 

In December, 1797, the Wiscasset Argus made its appearance, under 
the direction of Lauo-hton & Rhoades. It did not enjoy a long life. 

Russel's Echo; or, the North Star, was Oxford County's first news- 
paper. It was published at Fryeburg by Elijah Russel in February, 1798. 
It evidently was not successful in spite of the publisher's offer to allow 
his subscribers to "pay in anything or cash", as its last number appeared 
in January, 1799. 

The Castine Journal and Universal Advertiser came into being at 
Castine in January, 1799. It was a four-page paper about 18 by 11 inches, 
published by David Waters. In May of the same year its title was changed 
to Castine Journal and the Eastern Advertiser. It is thought to have 
ceased circulation about December 26, 1800. It was the first newspaper 
printed in Hancock County. 

In 1803 the Annals of the Times began its short life in Kennebunk. 
In the year of its death, 1805, the Kennebunk Gazette was started by 
James L. Remick, who published it until 1842. For a few years after 
his retirement the paper was continued by his son. The Annals was 
York County's first experiment in journalism. 

The first paper published in Penobscot County was the Bangor Weekly 
Register, established by Peter Edes in 1815, after his removal from Au- 
gusta. In December, 1817, it was purchased by James Burton, Jr., who 
changed its name to Bangor Register. It lived until August, 1831, and 
was succeeded- by the Penobscot Journal. 

Eastport was the home of the first Washington County paper, which 
appeared in August, 1818, under the name of Eastport Sentinel. It was 
Federal or Whig in politics and was published by Benjamin Folsom until 
his death in 1833. It has lived to a ripe old age and is still thriving. 


No newspaper was established in Waldo County until July, 1820, 
when the Hancock Gazette made its appearance. Its first publishers were 
Fellows & Simpson, with William Biglow as editor. After a few numbers 
had been issued Penobscot Patriot was added to its title. In June, 1826, 
it was again changed to Belfast Gazette. Only eight volumes were pub- 

Sagadahoc County also produced a "Gazette" the Maine Gazette 
issued by Torrey and Simpson at Bath in December, 1820. In 1832 the 
paper was consolidated with the Maine Inquirer, established in 1824, thus 
becoming the Gazette and Inquirer. Though many later consolidations 
and consequent changes of name have occurred, the paper is still in exist- 

George V. Edes, a nephew of Peter, was associated with Thomas J. 
Copeland in the publication of Somerset County's first news sheet, the 
Somerset Journal. It was issued at Norridgewock on May 15, 1823. Under 
various names it continued until about 1826, when it was removed to Ban- 
gor and published under a new title. 

The promoter of the Thomaston Register, the earliest publication in 
Knox County, was Jonathan Ruggles, later Justice of the Supreme Court 
in Maine and United States Senator. It made its appearance in May, 
1825, under the direction of Edwin Moody, who sold the establishment 
in 1831. The new owner substituted for the old title the name of Independ- 
ent Journal. The following spring the business was discontinued. 

The first attempt to establish a printing press in Franklin County 
was made by W. A. Dunn in 1832. The Sandy River Yeoman was the 
result of the effort. Its difficulties were many and after a year's struggle 
it gave up in despair. 

The ancestor of the Piscataquis Observer, now published in Dover, 
was the Piscataquis Herald, born in Dover, June 1, 1838. Only one change 
in the name, that from Herald to Observer, has been made. George V. 
Edes, who previously published the Somerset Journal, was responsible for 
its early success, aided by the Whigs of Piscataquis County, whose organ 
.it was. 

The first paper presented by Androscoggin County was the Lewis- 
ton Journal, whose initial number was issued at Lewiston May 21, 1847. 
The size of the first sheet was 33 by 23 inches. William Waldron and 
Dr. Alonzo Garcelon were the publishers, with Dr. F. Lane as editor. The 
press and printing materials for the Journal were brought to Lewiston 
from Portland with a team by Col. William Garcelon. In 1850 Dr. Garce- 
lon's connection with the paper ceased and Waldron conducted it alone 
until 1856, when Nelson Dingley purchased a half interest. A year later 
he assumed entire control. Under his management the paper became more 
decidedly political and has since been recognized as one of the leading 
Republican papers. 


The Aroostook Pioneer has the distinction of being not only the first 
newspaper published in the county but a paper "started in the wilder- 
ness". In 1858 Joseph B. Hall, senior member of the firm of Hall and 
Gilman, purchased the old outfit of the Bangor Gazette and carried it by 
team from Bangor to Presque Isle. When Mr. Hall severed his connec- 
tion with the paper in 1860, Mr. Gilman assumed sole charge. Eight years 
later Mr. Gilman removed the paper to Houlton, where business prospects 
seemed brighter. It is still published in Houlton under the original name. 
... ( Among the many religious publications appearing in 

Maine, a few of the early ones are worthy of especial men- 
tion. The Christian Intelligencer, the first Universalist 
organ in the state, was printed in 1821. The Christian Mirror, published 
in 1822, was one of the pioneers of the religious press and attained a cir- 
culation which was remarkable at the time. Previous to the Civil War 
it was sent to every state in the Union, to parts of Europe and to Asia. 
Its first editor was Dr. Asa Rand. During its long history it took a prom- 
inent part in many important discussions. In the year 1830 appeared the 
Sabbath School Instructor, a juvenile paper published by D. C. Colesworthy, 
and the Maine Wesleyan Journal, a Methodist publication edited by Ger- 
shom H. Cox. The Journal was later conducted by Horatio King. It was 
finally transferred to Boston and united with Zion's Herald. Two of the 
organs of the Baptist denomination were the Maine Baptist Herald the 
first paper fully coinciding with the faith of the primitive Baptists pub- 
lished in 1824, and Zion's Advocate, edited by Rev. Adam Wilson in 1837. 
The Freewill Baptists issued the Family Instructor in 1841. Other Uni- 
versalist publications appeared in the Christian Pilot, about 1832, and 
the Universalist Palladium, about 1839. Both of these papers were later 
merged in the Gospel Banner, a weekly religious newspaper which had 
been established in 1835 under the editorship of Rev. William A. Drew. 
This in turn, after several years of prosperity in Maine was merged into 
the Universalist Leader, now published in Boston. The Universalist Ban- 
ner, a monthly paper, was first published in 1904. It is printed in Au- 
gusta. In 1856 the Evangelist, a Congregational paper, started at Port- 
land some months previously, was removed to Lewiston and published 
from the Journal office until 1861-2, when it was discontinued. 

Two early papers devoted to the cause of negro emancipation were 
the Advocate of Freedom, edited by Professor Smyth, in Brunswick in 
1838, and the Liberty Standard, published in the same town four years 
later. The second publication was edited first by Rev. Elijah P. Love- 
joy, Maine's martyr to the cause of antislavery, and later by Rev. Aus- 
tin Willey, an ardent supporter of the same cause. Enthusiastic workers 
for temperance published papers that exerted a strong influence in bring- 
ing about state prohibition of the liquor traffic. 


From a small beginning of only eight papers published in the Dis- 
trict in 1810, there are now about one hundred sixteen in the state with 
a total circulation of between three and four million. Augusta ranks first, 
Portland comes next and then follow Bangor and Lewiston. It is said that 
the quantity of work done in Augusta exceeds any other town of its size 
in the Union and surpasses many of several times its population. 
p. Benjamin Titcomb, Jr., who established the first printing 

p . , office in Maine, was a native of Portland. In his later 

years it was a source of great pride to him that he "struck 
off with his own hands the first sheet ever printed in Maine". His part- 
ner, Thomas B. Wait, came to Falmouth from Boston in 1784. For a 
short time previous to his 'connection with Titcomb he ran a stationer's 
shop but was with Titcomb in 1785 when the Falmouth Gazette appeared. 
In later times he ran the paper alone for several years. He published in 
1807 an edition of Blackstone's Commentaries in four volumes. In con- 
nection with John P. Sawin, "an ingenious mechanic" he invented a circu- 
lar power printing press, patented in February, 1810. It was of suffi- 
cient importance to receive a lengthy description in Thomas's History of 
Printing, issued the same year. Titcomb withdrew from the firm in 1790 
and issued a rival publication, The Gazette of Maine. Eight years later 
he left the printing business entirely to devote his time to preaching. In 
1804 he became pastor of the Baptist church at Brunswick, retaining that 
position for forty years. In 1819 he was a delegate to the Constitutional 
Convention and made the opening prayer. He was one of the original 
trustees of Waterville College, now Colby College, and was always greatly 
interested in its progress. 

To Ezekiel Goodale is ascribed the honor of establishing the first 
permanent printing house in Hallowell and the first book store east of 
Portland. He settled in Hallowell in 1802. For a time he conducted a 
book shop only but in 1813 his printing establishment, "At the Sign of 
the Bible" was opened. Several important volumes issued from his press, 
among which were reprints of valuable books published in the old country. 
One of his early publications was "McFingal : a modern epic", written by 
John Trumbull, Esq., and inspired by the events of the Revolution. The 
Maine Farmer's Almanac, considered next to the Bible in importance 
in many homes, first came from his press. For over sixty years it was 
published in Hallowell but in 1880 was purchased by Charles E. Nash of 
Augusta, where it is now published. Goodale's firm also published the 
first Maine Reports. Williamson's History of Maine was printed at the 
same establishment, as were early volumes of the Revised Statutes of 
Maine. Goodale imported from England the best books of the time, in- 
cluding the latest novels. Some of his advertisements call attention to 
the Rambler, the Spectator, works of Shakespeare, Milton, Scott, Byron, 


Moore and Fielding, also to "Guy Mannering: a new novel by the author 
of Waverley" and "Childe Harold: a poem by Lord Byron". 

The pioneer printer at Augusta, then a jr<u't of Hallowell, was Peter 
Edes, who came to the Fort Western settlement in 1795 and immediately 
commenced publishing the Kennebeck Intelligencer. He had contemplated 
a partnership with Wait in Portland in 1785 but had remained in Boston. 
After a few years spent in Newport, R. I., he again determined to estab- 
lish a business in Maine. His position as the most important figure in 
the early history of printing in this state is due in part to his connection 
with his father's establishment in Boston. This had given him a knowl- 
edge of the business which few others possessed and a certain amount of 
prestige as the son of the famous journalist o*f the American Revolution. 
It is thought probable that political motives prompted him to start a 
paper in the vicinity where two news sheets had already been established. 
Although one had died an early death, the other was still in existence. 
During the publication of his newspaper at Augusta Mr. Edes changed 
its name three times. In 1800 it became the Kennebec Gazette, later, at 
the request of his patrons, it was changed to Herald of Liberty. In 1815 
Mr. Edes decided that a change of location was necessary if he desired to 
make a living and he accordingly transferred his business to Bangor. 
His types and press were moved by Ephraim Ballard with a team of six 
oxen. Because of the weakness of the Kennebec Bridge it was considered 
wise to take the four-ton load across in sections. Three weeks were 
required to accomplish the journey to Bangor and return and the expense 
was one hundred forty-three dollars, which Edes considered "quite mod- 
erate". His venture in Bangor also proved unsuccessful and he retired 
after about two years' struggle. 

Nathaniel Willis, one of the first publishers of the Eastern Argus, 
deserves more than a passing notice. His dauntless courage in support of 
his convictions, causing his imprisonment, has been mentioned in connec- 
tion with that paper. After leaving Portland Mr. Willis was for a time 
engaged in literary work in Boston. His next move was to New York, 
where he later became co-editor, with Morris, of the New York Mirror. 
Mr. Willis was distinguished for his graceful style and for his rare skill 
in the use of words. 

,., Of the prominent men who have attained eminence in 

the field of journalism the list is almost endless Coles- 
P hi* h worthy, from whose press came many popular publica- 

tions; Seba Smith, editor and author of the famous Jack 
Downing sketches; Samuel Freeman, judge, editor and author; E. H. 
Elwell, editor, author and historian; Melville W. Fuller, Chief Justice of 
the United States, also a successful journalist; Ilsley; Kingsbury; Foster; 
Berry; Holden; Lapham, editor and historian; Elaine; Manley; Burleigh; 


Willis; Fessenden; Barnes; Dingley; Haskell; Noyes; Clark; Putnam and 
even the children in the most remote districts know the names of Heath, 
Holden, and Ginn. To many of our journalists their native state has 
seemed too small a field and they have sought recognition in the larger 

cities. Among those who have found a prominent place in 
Metropolitan metropolitan journalism are the names of Russell Eaton, 
Journalists Nathaniel Willis, Erastus and James Brooks, Arlo Bates, 

Seba Smith, John Neal, Elijah Lovejoy, Isaac McLellan, 
Came, Waters, Haskell, Niles, Gammon, Haines, Lincoln, Sawyer, Cole, 
Macomber, Herrick, Wheeler and Minot. Special mention should be made 
of Edward Stanwood, author, historian, sociologist and for many years 
connected editorially with the Boston Daily Advertiser and the Youth's 
Companion; Edward P. Mitchell, one of the most distinguished Maine 
journalists, now with the New York Sun; L. S. Metcalf, editor of the 
North American Review and founder of the Forum ; Frederick M. Somers, 
publisher of Current Literature and the Forum ; and Frank A. Munsey, one 
of the most spectacular figures in American journalism. 

GOVERNOR ENOCH LINCOLN, Author of The Village 


By John Clair Minot 

Literature in a restricted sense, as a fine art, is one thing. Literature 
in its broader sense, as including in general the published works of the 
writers of a given region over a given period, is quite another thing. In 
this broader understanding of what literature is let us consider what 
Maine has contributed to it. It follows, then, that our discussion which, 
in any case, must be incomplete and inadequate will be in the main an 
appreciative summary of what jMaine-born writers and Maine influences 
have contributed to American literature, rather than a work of analysis 
and of critical estimate of values. 

Perhaps it is permissible to name 1604 as the year when the literary 
history of Maine began. That was sixteen years before the shores of 
Massachusetts gave their wintery welcome to the storm-tossed Mayflower, 
and three years before the first English settlements were made at James- 
town and Popham. Nevertheless that year, 1604, saw the De Monts expedi- 
tion occupying this region in the name of France and establishing itself 
on a little island in the St. Croix River. About eighty members of that 
expedition ventured to pass the winter there, the first Europeans to pass 
a winter on our shores- since the days of the legendary Norsemen. Half 
of them died before the spring came. There were no other Europeans 
in America north of the Spaniards in Florida. 

To while away the lonely weeks of that long and cruel winter the 
bright spirits of the company prepared and passed around of course in 
written form a little paper that they called the Master William. Samuel 
de Champlain, the historian of the expedition, later the founder of Que- 
bec and the father of New France, refers to it briefly. What a pity that 
he did not embody a copy of it in his vivid narrative of that winter for 
the Master William was undeniably the first American periodical, and 
Samuel de Champlain's journal, which, happily, has survived, was the 
first history, or written work of any sort, penned within the present limits 
of New England. 

Three years later the English under George Popham came to the 
mouth of the Kennebec. Their attempt to colonize, like that of the French 
on the St. Croix, proved but a broken beginning. Like Moses, they only 
looked, as it were, into the promised land. Yet their ill-fated colony had 



its faithful chroniclers and the narrative has come down to us. Of that 
narrative I have always loved especially well the story that James Davis 
tells of a trip of twenty of the Popham colonists, he being one of the num- 
ber, up the Kennebec in October, 1607. How delightful it is, that nrst 
picture we get of what is now the capital of Maine the green island in 
the rapids of the river; the great store of wild grapes "exceedmge good 
and sweett, of to sorts both red, but one of them a mervellous deepe red" ; 
the abundance of vegetation and wild fruits on the shores, and the general 
goodness of the land which the English visitors confessed was beyond 
iheir power of expression. 

A mile or two above the island in the rapids, which disappeared when 
the Augusta dam was built more than two centuries later, the party camped 
on the shore two nights, parleyed with the friendly Indians and set up 
the cross of Christianity in the heart of a land that had never known it 

aihnn iltfli^y 

Those early narratives have no end of fascinating allurements, but 
we must not linger with them. Most of the other early explorers of our 
coast Gosnold, Pring, Weymouth, John Smith and the rest either kept 
elaborate journals of their voyages and discoveries, or suffered narratives 
to be written by members of their expeditions, and all that body of price- 
less historical material may properly be called the first contribution of 
Maine to literature. 

Nor was it many years after that era of exploration before the native- 
born of Maine began to write and publish. Probably the first on that long 
list is John Crowne, poet and dramatist, who was born on our coast about 
1640 though Nova Scotia has put forward a claim that he was born 
there. He has been called the rival of Dryden. His dramatic works and 
translations in verse are in the Boston Public Library and there I took 
them from the shelves the other day, only to find small temptation to scan 
the musty pages. 

To skip a full century probably the most accomplished scholar in 
America during the last half of the 18th century was Stephen Sewall, who 
was born in York in 1734. He served long on the Harvard faculty. His 
work included Hebrew, Syrian, Chaldee, and Greek grammars and dic- 
tionaries, Latin orations and even the translation of Young's "Night 
Thoughts" into Latin verse. 

We are told that the first book given to the world from a Maine press 
was "Female Friendship", a thin little volume published at Hallowell in 
1797. The first book of Maine poems was published in Portland in 1811, 
the work of Eliza S. True, who had been born in that city sixty years 
earlier. The book bore this title: "The Amaranth, Being a Collection 
of Original Pieces in Prose and Verse, Calculated to Amuse the Minds of 
Youth -Without Corrupting Their Morals". It were well if the writers of 


our generation always felt the spur of an ambition so worthy as that! 
That volume, as we see, contained prose as well as verse. It is said that 
the first Maine book wholly in verse was "The Village", brought out in 
1816 by Enoch Lincoln, who became the sixth governor of our state. 

While "The Amaranth" and "The Village" were enjoying their first 
popularity which, we must confess, was neither large nor long a little 
lad was roaming the pleasant streets 

"of the beautiful town 
That is seated by the sea." 

From the black wharves he watched the tossing tides and felt 
"the beauty and mystery of the ships 
And the magic of the sea." 
In the shadows of Deering's woods and beside the shore where he caught 

"in sudden gleams 

The sheen of the far-surrounding seas 
And islands that were the Hesperides," 
he thought the long, long, thoughts of youth, and thrilled to 
"The song and the silence in the heart 
That in part are prophecies and in part 

Are longings wild and vain." 

That little lad bore a name that became long ago, and remains after 
a century has passed, the best known and the best loved in American 
literature. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow may, or may not, be the great- 
est of our American poets it can hardly be expected that all the critics 
will agree on a thing of that sort but we of Maine are little disposed to 
concede that the matter is open to argument. And when we stand in 
Westminster Abbey and see there in Poet's Corner the bust of Longfellow, 
the only American so honored by our Motherland, or when we stand 
before the replica of that bust in Bowdoin's Memorial Hall, or at Harvard, 
which took the young poet-professor after Bowdoin had trained him we 
get a sense of the strength and the universality of the appeal that Long- 
fellow has made to the hearts of men. 

More than a generation has passed since Longfellow laid down his pen 
after writing his last lines 

"Out of the shadows. of night 
The world rolls into light, 

It is daybreak everywhere, " 

but in spite of all the changing fashions of the hurrying years no poet 
has supplanted him, or seems likely to supplant him, in the homes and 
schools of our land. I am confident that nine out of ten of you who are 
here tonight are familiar with more poems by Longfellow in a way that 
you can quote from them or count them as favorite poems than by any 


other author. And the same would be true in a thousand other gather- 
ings, like this and unlike this, if that number were held tonight between 
coast and coast. 

Perhaps that test alone suffices. But even disregarding the half hun- 
dred or hundred of Longfellow's briefer poems that remain familiar and 
popular from generation to generation, who of our poets has given us so 
many longer works works of sustained, beauty and strength that keep 
their hold on readers of all classes? The Song of Hiawatha, unique in 
literature, an Indian epic; The Courtship of Myles Standish, with its 
beautiful pictures of old Plymouth ways and woods; Evangeline, with 
the haunting pathos of its unforgettable tragedy ; The Tales of a Wayside 
Inn, as undying as the Canterbury tales that inspired them ; the masterly 
trilogy of The Divine Tragedy, The Golden Legend and the New England 
Tragedies, and the great translation of Dante, faithfully rendering the 
original line by line, yet always musical and beautiful what would Ameri- 
can literature be without them? 

What can we say was Maine's part in all the sum total of what Long- 
fellow gave the world? Here, of Maine ancestry, he was born; here he 
was educated; here he passed the golden years of youth and early man- 
hood. Immeasurably great upon all the work of his later years must 
have been those influences. And all through his life from his under- 
graduate days in Brunswick, when the whisr>eriner pines and the sunrise 
on the hills gave him the inspiration for his earliest poems, until he came 
back to the old Church on the Hill, fifty years later, to read to his surviv- 
ing classmates his Morituri Salutamus, the finest tribute to Alma Mater 
and to old age that poet has ever penned all through those years, Maine 
gave him themes for the expression of his poetic genius. What city has 
a more beautiful poem that is all its own than Portland has in My. Lost 
Youth ? Fryeburg has its special claim on Longfellow .in the verses on 
Lovell's Fight, written for the centenary of the fight in 1825, and the first 
verses that the young poet gave to the world with his name attached. 
The beautiful Songo River does not forget that Longfellow sang of its 
devious windings. Among all of Longfellow's sonnets and he stands pre- 
eminent as a writer of sonnets there is none more perfect in form or 
finer in substance than his tribute to Professor Parker Cleveland, which 
begins, ^l^ 

"Among the many lives that I have known, 
None I remember more serene and sweet, 
More rounded in itself and more complete, 
Than his." 

The Baron of St. Castine, one of the very few poems in The Tales of a 
Wayside Inn that is not wholly on an Old World theme, is, however, more 
a story of the Pyrenees than of the Maine coast. 


By a coincidence that the world has never ceased to wonder at, Amer- 
ica's greatest novelist, the master wizard of romance, was a college class- 
mate of our best known and best loved poet. Although Hawthorne was 
not a native of our state, his name must have a place in any summary of 
Maine's contribution to literature. It is not simply that he passed much 
of his boyhood in Raymond and was educated at Bowdoin in the most fam- 
ous class that any college, large or small, ever graduated, but that his first 
novel, Fanshawe, was a story of Bowdoin and Brunswick, very thinly dis- 

I wonder how many of you ever read Fanshawe ? Not many, I am 
sure. Hawthorne himself regarded the novel as a youthful effort natur- 
ally enough, since it was published the year after his graduation and 
not until after his death was it commonly included in his collected works. 
I remember when Professor Chapman, for forty years the beloved and 
brilliant head of Bowdoin's department of English, confessed that he was 
reading the story for the first time the story of the little college town 
of nearly a century ago, of a hero who was soulful and studious, too good 
to live long ; of a villain, a former pirate, who tried to kidnap the fair ward 
of the collegre president ; of a student revel in the old village tavern, rudely 
interrupted by "prexy". The style is amusingly heavy a veritable prodi- 
gality of polysyllabic phraseology but no student of the marvelous genius 
that gave the world The Scarlet Letter and The Marble Faun can afford 
to neglect Fanshawe. 

Contemporaries of Longfellow, and, like him, natives of Portland, 
were Isaac McLellan and Nathaniel Parker Willis honored and widely 
popular during their lives, but producers of little that seems destined to 
endure. Both became metropolitan journalists and both travelled widely. 
Willis was far the more artistic workman, and there is much of beauty 
and literary charm in his poems, his essays and his works of travel. Espe- 
cially worthy of surviving are his scriptural poems in blank verse. Many 
of us must recall the Absolom in the school readers of a generation ago. 
Willis has been called a dilettante in literature perhaps because, unlike 
many authors, he never had to struggle with want, but he was neverthe- 
less a most industrious worker for the forty years that followed the pub- 
lication of his first poems while he was a student at Yale. 

Nathaniel P. Willis came of a talented family. His sister, Sarah Pay- 
son Willis, who became the wife of James Parton, the historian, won fame 
under the pen name of "Fanny Fern". His father, Nathaniel Willis, while 
editor of the Eastern Argus, was the first editor ever imprisoned in Maine 
in punishment for the freedom with which he uttered his sentiments 
through the press. Earlier than that he had founded the Boston Recorder, 
the first religious newspaper ever published, and later, in 1827, he founded 
The Youth's Companion. 


And perhaps I may be permitted to add that The Youth's Companion, 
which a United States commissioner of education not long ago character- 
ized as the most important single educational agency in America, has 
been largely, and in other ways than its origin, a contribution of Maine 
to literature. In its editorial management and among its contributors 
Maine names have always been conspicuous. For a full generation its 
editorial head was Edward Stanwood of Augusta, eminent writer of his- 
tory and biography and an authority on political and economic subjects: 
and for an even longer period its best loved story writer has been C. A. 
Stephens of Norway Lake. A score of other well known Maine names are 
high on its roll of editors and contributors. Its first subscriber was a 
Maine girl ; and only last year a Maine man died who had been continuously 
a subscriber for ninety years probably a record without a parallel on 
the subscription lists of any other periodical. And through all the years 
since Nathaniel Willis founded The Companion in 1827 it has been printed 
on paner made by the same Maine mill. 

I wonder how many of you, or how .many persons in Maine, ever 
heard of MacDonald Clarke, "the mad poet" of the early nineteenth cen- 
tury? He was born in Bath in 1798 a few years before Loncrfellbw, 
Willis and McLellan were born in Portland and died in New York in 
1842. Eccentric from his youth, the buffetings of fate "the slinks and 
arrows of outraeeous fortune" tuVned his eccentricities into the delirium 
of madness in which his broken life came to its tragic end. MacDonald 
Clarke was undeniably a brilliant man. He had the endowment of e-em'us. 
and the half dozen books of verse that he brought out have manv nassae-es 
of true poetic beauty. They likewise have many passages that show his 
unbalanced mind. He was a familiar figure in New York, where his 
startling mannerisms and his peculiar dress made him conspicuous in 
public. He was a close associate of Willis, Fitz-Green Halleck and the 
other New York literary lights of that era, who helped him when the 
poverty and bitter disappointment of his life had broken his proud spirit. 
He sleeps in Greenwood Cemetery in a spot that he selected himself. It 
is a little knoll, since named Poet's Mound, facing the lake. On the shaft 
that his friends erected are these lines that he wrote : 

"But what are human plaudits now, 
He never deemed them worth his care; 

Yet Death has twined around his brow 
The wreath he was too proud to wear." 

MacDonald Clarke is forgotten alike in the state of his birth and the city 
of his unhappy career, but worth remembering, perhaps, is something 
he said in a lucid interval shortly before his death: "Four things I am 
sure there will be in heaven music, little children, flowers and fresh air". 


There are two groups of Maine writers whose work warrants special 
emphasis in any study, however brief and inadequate, of the contribution 
of our state to literature. They are the writers of juvenile works Elijah 
Kellogg, Jacob Abbott and their successors and the humorists of an earlier 
generation Seba Smith, Edgar Wilson Nye and Charles F. Browne. 

Elijah Kellogg undeniably stands in the front rank of all those who 
have written books for. boys. I would call him king of them all, but 
somehow "king" and "kingly" ill become the shy little man who passed 
sixty years as pastor of a parish of farmers and fisher folk on the Harps- 
well shore. I hold in vivid recollection a scene of almost a quarter of a 
century ago, a scene that well tells the story of Elijah Kellogg. It was at 
the centennial celebration of Bowdoin College in 1894. More than twelve 
hundred sons of the college were at the dinner in a big tent on the campus, 
and among the speakers were the chief justices of the United States 
and of Maine, the governor and former governors and others high in the 
public service and in law and letters. For each of them the great gather- 
ing had a greeting that was enthusiastic and even tumultuous. But when 
Elijah Kellogg came to the front of the platform, a frail little old man, 
blushing under his bronzed skin like a boy at the eulogistic presentation, 
then the graduates of Bowdoin, old and young, literally climbed to the 
table tops to shout the welcome that the love in their hearts prompted. 
And what a speech he gave them! It was the speech of the afternoon, 
and the demonstration that followed its final period was even greater 
than that which preceded his first words. And before the tumult of cheers 
and applause, renewed again and again, had died away, Elijah Kellogg 
slipped out under the tent, untied the horse that he had hitched to a 
fence near the campus, and drove off alone through the pine woods to 
his home and his work on the Harpswell shore. 

That was Elijah Kellogg, thrilling and lifting the hearts of men, 
inspiring the reverence of all who knew him, using his divine gift of elo- 
quence in the causes that he loved, avoiding the applause of the world, fol- 
lowing his quiet pathway where he could breathe the balsam of the pines 
and the salt of the sea. And those men, old and young, who climbed to 
the tables and cheered him to the echo they had often declaimed "Sparta- 
cus to the Gladiators", "Regulus to the Carthagenians", and "Pericles to 
the People"; they had read Good Old Times and the Whispering Pine 
series, and the stories of adventure on Elm Island and along Pleasant Cove 
and in Forest Glen, all of them wholesome, virile tales that smack of 
the sea and the forest and the soil. 

Elijah Kellogg was more than fifty years old before he began to write 
the thirty juvenile books that have made his name a household word to 
millions. If they are written in a style far above the level of most juvenile 
books or of other books for that matter let it be remembered that after 



his death his biographer, Professor Mitchell, found on the shelves of his 
little library 236 volumes of the classics of Greece and Rome, every one of 
them worn by the loving use of many years. Does it seem that I am dwell- 
ing overlong on the sailor-farmer-preacher of Harpswell ? Oh, but no man 
can measure the influence of such books as he wrote for the live boys of 
the land; and it will be a sad day for America when a generation arises 
that knows not Elijah Kellogg! 

Of other Maine authors who have made notable contributions to 
juvenile literature Jacob Abbott has a place of special prominence. His 
Hollo books, among the more than 200 volumes that came from his busy 
pen, gained wide popularity. They served well the purpose of the gen- 
eration for which they were written, but they have no such worth and no 
such elements of permanence as characterize the stories of Elijah Kel- 
logg. Noah Brooks, a son of Castine, perhaps more deserving of fame 
as a journalist and historian, was also a writer of good books for boys. 
And of our later day writers of this class there must be special mention 
of James Otis Kaler, writing, under the name of "James Otis", more than 
seventy books of the sane and stirring sort that boys are the better for 
reading; of Clarence B. Burleigh, who took time from the demands of 
journalism and public affairs to write wholesome stories of school days 
and of the lumber camp and the river drive, and of Will 0. Stevens, 
whose stories of the navy and the l^aval Academy are in a class by them- 

Nor can we forget the Maine-born who have written books for girls. 
Among them Rebecca Sophie Clark, the "Sophie May" of a million grate- 
ful hearts, is pre-eminent. In her Norridgewock home on the shore of 
the Kennebec, she wrote the half hundred little volumes, one series of 
six after another, that have delighted succeeding generations of girl 

Among the Maine humorists the name of Seba Smith comes first 
both in point of time and in brilliance and versatility of accomplishments. 
If most of us are little familiar with his work today, let it be remembered 
that the writings on which his reputation mainly rests were political 
satires that reached their mark in the first third of the last century, and 
that his death occurred a full half century ago. Seba Smith was born 
in Buckfield the same town that gave the world John D. Long, a schol- 
arly writer as well as a statesman of the first rank. After his graduation 
from Bowdoin, a hundred years ago this summer, Seba Smith entered 
on the journalistic career, first in Portland and then in New York, that 
led to his Major Jack Downing letters on the politics of the times, the best 
known of his numerous works. He wrote much in verse, but probably 
felt that his masterpiece was a mathematical work on which he spent 
the last years of his life. The wife of Seba Smith was Elizabeth Oakes 


Smith, a Portland woman, and herself a writer of charm and brilliancy. 
An earlier generation often referred to this talented couple as "the Howitts 
of America". 

The great national laughmakers of the generation immediately pre- 
ceding our own were Henry Wheeler Shaw, known as "Josh Billings", 
Edgar Wilson Nye, or "Bill Nye", and Charles Farrar Brown or "Artemus 
Ward". Henry Wheeler Shaw, the centenary of whose birth fell last 
month, was a son of western Massachusetts; but both the others were 
natives of Maine. Brown, whose brilliant career as a humorous lecturer 
was cut short by death when he was only 33, was born in Waterford, "in 
Waterford, up near Rumford", as he was wont to say. Nye was a native 
of Shirley, in the Piscataquis region that gave the world the Maxim broth- 
ers. Of the laughmakers of the present generation unhappily all too 
few, or, at least, lacking the capacity to hold the attention of the public 
in these stressful times Maine has a very substantial claim on John 
Kendrick Bangs, who has made his home on our coast for many years. He 
himself claims that he is "a-son-of-Ogunquit" and "a naturalized Mainiac". 

Then there is that great body of literature that is the fruit of pure 
scholarship and of spiritual and humanitarian purpose the works of the- 
ology, philosophy, ethics and sociology. Maine has contributed many 
shining names to the list of those who have written books of real dis- 
tinction in that field. We do not forget Calvin E. Stowe, Egbert Coffin 
Smyth, Ezra Abbot, George Barrell Cheever, Newman Smyth, Samuel Har- 
ris, Cyrus A. Bartol, Cyrus Hamlin, Charles Carroll Everett, Henry Boyn- 
ton Smith, Henry M. King, Minot J. Savage, Albion W. Small, Shailer Mat- 
thews, Edwin Pond Parker and Herbert E. Cushman. And on all that 
shining roll there is no name brighter than that of William DeWitt Hyde, 
the teacher beloved and the leader inspired, who laid aside his pen a year 

It would be pleasant and profitable to linger on some of those names, 
but I can do no more here than barely to mention them. The same pass- 
ing reference must suffice for other men, in varying fields of literature, 
whose names are high on Maine's honor roll of authors David Barker, 
the Robert Burns of the Penobscot region; Joseph Williamson of Belfast, 
the historian of Maine ; Arlo Bates, the flower of culture, writer of polished 
verse and pleasing novels, and long a guide to those seeking the best in 
literature ; Moses Owen of Bath, a genius who came to an early and tragic 
end, but whose memory will not fade while Maine honors the battleflags 
that her sons brought back from the fields that saved the Union; Isaac 
Bassett Choate, he of the singing heart, who gave the world but did the 
giving with such absence of ostentation that the gift has been all too 
little noted half a dozen volumes of marvelous lyrical sweetness ; Nathan 
Haskell Dole, clever and versatile son of a talented mother, Caroline 


Fletcher Dole of Norridgewock, whom the weight of a full century could 
not keep from writing graceful verses; Frank A. Munsey, who began 
here in his native state the publishing career that has revolutionized the 
magazine world; Edward P. Mitchell of the New York Sun, probably the 
most distinguished of the many brilliant men whom Maine has contributed 
to metropolitan journalism; Harry L. Koopman, a librarian who has 
adorned his own shelves and those of others with scholarly works in both 
prose and verse ; James Phinney Baxter, who has found time in a success- 
ful business career to write many poems and much historical matter of 
great worth, and who, when well past eighty, has added an exhaustive 
work to the literature of the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy; Henry S. 
Burrage, journalist and theologian, but pre-eminently a Maine historian; 
De Alva S. Alexander, political historian of New York, which he long 
represented in Congress; Everett S. Stackpole, a religious writer, geneal- 
ogist and local historian, with a monumental historical work on New Hamp- 
shire recently to his credit; Louis Clinton Hatch, scholarly historian of 
the Revolutionary Army, of the pension system and of our own state; 
Professor Henry Johnson, who crowned forty years of fruitful work as 
teacher and poet with the masterly translation of Dante that won him 
the grateful recognition of universities and learned societies of two con- 

And the women writers of Maine! Thirty years ago George Ban- 
croft Griffith compiled a book of 850 pages, "The Poets of Maine." It was 
on lines similar to those followed in "The Bowdoin Poets", published in 
1840, and the "Native Poets of Maine", published in 1854. Griffith found 
nearly 450 Maine writers worthy of places in his compilation though 
it will readily be admitted that only by a very liberal and charitable con- 
struction can many of them be enrolled as poets and of that number 167 
were women. A present day compilation, if made equally comprehensive, 
would probably mean half a dozen volumes as large as Griffith's. 

The women writers of Maine not to mention again those already 
referred to include many authors widely known and loved Harriet 
Prescott Spofford, with more than a score of novels and books of verse 
to her credit, who declines at 83 to lay aside the pen she has wielded so 
happily ; Sarah Orne Jewett, whose charming stories of The Country of the 
Pointed Firs won her the degree of Doctor of Letters from Bowdoin in 
1901, the first woman to receive a degree from that college; Martha Baker 
Dunn, poet and essayist whom the country came to know better through 
the generous praise that President Roosevelt gave one of her articles in 
the Atlantic Monthly; Emma Huntington Nason, poet and historian of 
old Hallowell, the mother of Professor Arthur Huntington Nason of New 
York University himself the author of several very scholarly works; 


Caroline Dana Howe, of whose books of poems and 30 hymns nothing 
is better known than her song "Leaf by Leaf the Roses Fall" ; Elizabeth 
Akers Allen, writer of much exquisite verse but of nothing more certain 
to endure than her 

"Backward, turn backward, O Time in your flight, 
Make me a child again just for tonight!" 

Ella Maude Smith Moore, of Thomaston, whose poem beginning 

" 'Rock of Ages, cleft for me' 

Thoughtlessly the maiden sung, 
Fell the words unconsciously 

From her girlish, gleeful tongue" 

has been going the rounds for more than forty years, and carries in its 
lines the same undying appeal that vibrates through Mrs. Allen's "Rock 
Me to Sleep;" Clara Marcelle Greene, many of whose poems have dra- 
matic strength and fire ; Frances Laughton Mace, a prolific writer of grace- 
ful poems among which "Only Waiting" is perhaps the most familiar; 
Ellen Hamlin Butler of Bangor, who has written many good poems in the 
past forty years, but nothing better than her recent "By Wireless," 
expressing, first, the call that goes forth from the hearts of the Homeland 
to our sailors and soldiers, 

"Be strong, be strong, Beloved, pure-hearted and high of will! 
Knights are ye and crusaders our plighted vows to fulfill. 
The God who girded your fathers shall arm you with His might, 
And the soul of the great Republic goes with you into the night." 

And then the answering call that comes back to us from those on the 
battle front: 

"Stand fast, stand fast, Beloved ! In the glory of sacrifice 

Give as we give our life-blood and scorn to reckon the price. 

Pour forth your treasure and spare not ! Bend to your toil nor stay ! 

In the name of the God of our fathers keep faith as we fight today." 

Would that we could linger longer with those women writers of 
Maine. There are others Kate Vannah, Julia May Williamson, Anna 
Boynton Averill, Olive E. Dana, Julia Harris May, Annie Hamilton Don- 
nell, Kate Putnam Osgood, Elizabeth Payson Prentiss, to name a few, as 
well as some of our own time on whose work it would be fitting and 
pleasant to dwell if time permitted. Let it be granted that those whom 
I have named will never be counted among the great makers of literature, 


still we may claim for them that they have brought to many lives that 
which the master poet sought when at evening time, he begged one whom 
he loved: 

"Come, read to me some poem 
Some simple and heartfelt lay 
That shall sooth this restless feeling 

And banish the thoughts of day. 

Read from some humbler poet 
Whose songs gushed from his heart, 
As showers from the clouds of summer 
Or tears from the eyelids start. 

Who, through long days of labor 
And nights devoid of ease, 
Still heard in his soul the music 
Of wonderful melodies. 

Such songs have power to quiet 
The restless pulse of care, 
And come like the benediction 
That follows after prayer." 

Virtually all the names that I 'have mentioned thus far have been 
those of writers born and educated in Maine, for their work constitutes, 
in the first sense, the contribution of Maine to literature. But no sum- 
mary of Maine's contribution to literature, however hurried and inade- 
quate it may be, can properly ignore the work of writers who have become 
the adopted sons or daughters of our state, or the influence of Maine on 
the writings of those who have found inspiration within its borders. Thus, 
for example, did Maine contribute to the fame of Thoreau, who found 
inspiration in the depths of our great forests and on the slopes of Katah- 
din ; and to that of Whittier, who sang of the ghost-ship of the Harpswell 
shore, of those who sailed up the Penobscot in search of the fabled Norum- 
bega, of the Indian tragedy of Norridgewock and of the legends of Sebago's 
lonely lake. 

Surely it is an item in the total of Maine's contribution to literature 
that Harriet Beecher Stowe here wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin," the book 
that has had a wider circulation than any other book except the Bible 
ever published. She herself has told us how the inspiration came to her 
while she sat with her husband, a Bowdoin professor, at worship in Bruns- 
wick's Church on the Hill the church where Longfellow read his "Mori- 
turi Salutamus" some twenty years later and how she wrote the book, 
chapter by chapter, in the time that she snatched from the care of her 
children and her other household duties. The house where the book was 


written still stands on elm-shaded Federal Street, and it is yearly the 
shrine of hundreds of visitors to the old college town. And no visitor to 
the beautiful Harpswell shore fails to renew acquaintance with "The Pearl 
of Orr's Island." 

And surely Massachusetts and Pennsylvania have no better claim 
on Laura E. Richards and Mrs. Riggs, better known as Kate Douglas Wig- 
gin, than Maine can offer Maine, their home for many years, the scene 
of their work and the inspiration for the stories that have given them 
places in the first rank of American authors. Both Mrs. Richards in Gar- 
diner and Mrs. Riggs in Hollis have made unique places for . themselves 
in the lives of their communities and in the hearts of their neighbors 
places won by rare capacity for leadership and by charm of personality. 
Those places, no less than the numerous books that both have written with 
Maine scenes and Maine people in their pages, give our state a peculiar 
right to claim them as its own. 

Similarly, to dip two generations into the past, Augusta has con- 
tributed Rev. Sylvester Judd to American literature. While pastor of 
the Unitarian church there, from 1840 to his death in 1853, he wrote 
several novels Margaret, Philo and Richard Edney that were rich in 
Augusta scenes and characters of that day as well as numerous histori- 
cal and theological works. Nor does Waterville forget that Rev. Samuel 
F. Smith, the author of "My Country 'Tis of Thee," was a graduate of 
Colby and for years a pastor in that city. 

Then there are the numerous authors of distinction, literally colonies 
of them in some instances, notably at York Harbor and Kennebunkport, 
who have established vacation homes in Maine and who come here sum- 
mer after summer. If we can count them neither as native writers nor 
as adopted sons and daughters of Maine we can at least point in almost 
every case to the direct influence of Maine on their writings. 

And now, in closing this hurried survey of Maine's contribution to 
literature, let me touch briefly on the work of three of the leaders among 
our present day American writers Edwin Arlington Robinson, Lincoln 
Colcord and Holman Day. 

Edwin Arlington Robinson has been called the pioneer and the prophet 
of the new order in poetry. Not that he is to be held responsible for 
that grotesque and nightmarish distortion commonly called "free verse," 
from its utter lack of rhyme, rhythm and reason, style, sense and sub- 
stance, but that he began to write twenty years ago with a stark sincerity 
and simplicity that startled a reading world accustomed only to the con- 
ventional in poetic thought and expression. One of the most intellectual 
poets of his generation, highly developed and highly sensitized, Mr. Rob- 
inson has thrown off the shackles of inheritance and environment and 
with deep-probing psychology, coupled with a marvelous technique of 


workmanship, has given us noble poems of much spiritual worth. They 
are for the most part somber poems. There is little in them that is light 
and sparkling. There is much of tragedy and pain. But there is always 
hope and courage, and the success that is built on failure. 

Edwin Arlington Robinson was born at Head Tide on the Sheepscot 
River in 1869. When he was a little child the family moved to Gardiner 
and there he passed the years of boyhood and early manhood. Gardiner 
is the Tilbury Town of his poems and many of the scenes and characters 
in his earlier poems are obviously of that city and vicinity. His first 
book of poems came outnn 1896, shortly after the waning of the family 
fortunes forced him to abandon his studies at Harvard. It was a little 
volume, privately printed. A year later, "The Children of the Night" 
appeared, a collection of poems that won a larger audience and much 
attention worth having. Many of its poems are character sketches, unfor- 
gettable little vignettes, though perhaps too cynical in tone. The title 
poem, in its closing stanzas, gives us a glimpse of Mr. Robinson's point of 

There is one creed, and only one, 
That glorifies God's excellence; 

So cherish, that His will be done, 
The common creed of common sense. 

It is the crimson, npt the gray, 

That charms the twilight of all time ; 

It is the promise of the day 

That makes the starry sky sublime. 

It is the faith within the fear 

That holds us to the life we curse; 

So let us in ourselves revere 

The Self which is the Universe! 

Let us, the Children of the Night, 

Put off the cloak that hides the scar! 

Let us be Children of the Light, 
And tell the ages what we are ! 

About that time Mr. Robinson went to New York where he faced for years, 
and faced very bravely, a long road with many rough places. In 1902 
"Capt. Craig," his next volume of poems, appeared. The title poem is very 
long 84 pages but perhaps the strongest poem in the collection is "Isaac 
and Archibald," apparently an autobiographical sketch of his early days 
in Gardiner. The book bears a dedication to a Gardiner friend of that early 
period. His next book, "The Town Down the River," appeared in 1910 
after there was a happier change in his personal affairs. That came with 


the more general recognition of his worth as a poet when President Roose- 
velt, with characteristic enthusiasm and generosity, had praised some of 
his work. His later volumes of poems "The Man Against the Sky" in 
1916 and "Merlin" in 1917 showed the development of his powers and 
contain some of the noblest poetry of recent years. 

"Merlin" is a tale of 1300 lines in blank verse, a re-telling of the 
Arthurian legend that is magnificent in some passages and tiresome in 
others. "The Man Against the Sky" in its title poem and in "Ben John- 
son Entertains a Man from Stratford" and "Flammonde," as well as in 
some of its shorter poems, has the work of Mr. Robinson at his best 
high seriousness, extraordinary powers of condensation and epithet, a 
rhythm with a haunting lilt, a tenderness of understanding, vivid descrip- 
tion, brilliant analysis, and here and there rare lyrical outbursts as : 

"As upward through her dream he fares 
Half clouded with a crimson fall 
Of roses thrown on marble stairs." 

Two plays, "Van Zorn" in 1915, and "The Porcupine," in 1916, are rated 
by the critics below the high level of his other work. 

To Lincoln Colcord of Maine it has been given to write the most sus- 
tained poetic work that the great war has yet inspired. When the awful 
storm of war burst over the world in 1914 the unspeakable horror of it 
all silenced for a time the voice of poetry. Then came a few notable short 
poems and then more and of late many, until we can see the beginnings of 
a great literature of poetry born of the war some of the finest of the 
early notes sounded by soldier-poets who have gone bravely singing to their 
rendezvous with death. 

When Lincoln Colcord's "Vision of War" appeared in 1916 it was 
hailed as the most important, the most significant, contribution of the 
year to poetry, and it gave a new standing to the young author who had 
earlier won recognition as a writer of remarkable sea stories. "The Vision 
of War" is a poem of 150 pages, written in blank verse and in lines uneven 
and irregular. It begins : 

"I went out into the night of quiet stars ; 
I looked up at the wheeling heavens, at the mysterious firmament; 

I thought of the awful distances out there, of the incredible magni- 
tudes, of space and silence and eternity, 

I thought of man, his life, his love, his dream; 

I thought of his body, how it is born and grows, and 
of his spirit that cannot be explained." 


That indicates the style of the poem and sounds its note of meditation 
and speculation. The theme of the poet is the spiritual glory of war. 
He does not minimize the physical suffering, but argues that the great 
result of war is the purification of the nations, a purification much needed. 
The treatment is vigorous and incisive. There are keen discussions of 
the reforms that human society is struggling toward, all leading to a vision 
of the brotherhood of man wherein the poet sounds his faith in the ideals 
that shall ultimately inspire men to rise above all things that are base 
and mean and selfish. 

Perhaps the "Vision of War" has not had so many readers as the 
stirring sea tales that gave Mr. Colcord his reputation as an author, but 
it is no less assured of a permanent place in American literature. It was 
the inevitable thing that Mr. Colcord began by writing sea tales. He came 
of five generations of the best sea-faring stock of our Maine coast and 
was born off Cape Horn, while his parents were on a voyage to China. 
His early life was divided between voyages to the Pacific with his father 
and periods at his Searsport home. He went to school and entered on a 
course at the University of Maine and then the lure of the sea and of 
distant lands called him again. His early stories, mainly of adventures 
in Pacific waters and in the Orient, found ready acceptance by the best 
magazines. A dozen of the strongest among them were collected in 1914 
in a volume called "The Game of Life and Death." A longer work, "The 
Drifting Diamond," had appeared in 1912. That is a gripping romance 
of China and the South Sea Islands, a tale with a salty flavor through all 
its pages. Lincoln Colcord has travelled far for a young writer, and the 
road to the summit lies straight and fair before him. 

Holman Day, as a writer of Maine, in Maine and for Maine, is in a 
class by himself among all those whose names I have mentioned tonight. 
There are not a few among them with literary genius transcending his, 
not a few who excel him in literary craftsmanship, but as an interpreter 
of Maine life and character he stands unique. Other Maine-born and 
Maine-trained writers have often wandered elsewhere to do their work, 
as Edwin Arlington Robinson has. gone to New York, or elsewhere for 
their scenes and plots, as Lincoln Colcord has gone to the Far East, but 
Holman Day has always found his native state not only good enough to 
live in and work in, but also inexhaustible in its material for his busy pen. 
His three volumes of verse, his two plays and his half a score of novels 
are Maine, and nothing but Maine, from cover to cover. They smack of 
the rocky hillsides where "the gnarled old dads with corded arms" "have 

"To coax from sullen Earth the price that keeps their boys in school" ; 
they echo with the axes that ring in the wild domain of old King Spruce 


and with the roaring of the frothing, tumbling torrents when the Allegash 
drive goes through ; they 'are salty with the spume that lashes the deck of 
the fisherman off Isle au Haut or the tall cliffs of Grand Manan ; and they 
are always vibrant with the loves and the longings, the dreams and the 
memories, of the old home. 

Holman Day, born in Vassalboro beside the Kennebec in 1865, and 
graduated at Colby in 1887, had the experience of a dozen years in Maine 
newspaper work before he became a maker of books. That opportunity 
he improved to the utmost. He came to know Maine and its people as no 
newspaper writer ever did before, and everybody came to know and to 
like him. Thus there was a cordial welcome awaiting his first collection 
of poems, "Up in Maine", when it appeared in 1900. The book achieved 
an instantaneous success that exceeded the fondest hopes of both author 
and publishers. It went from edition to edition in a sale unparalleled by 
any volume of verse in many years. All over the land former Maine peo- 
ple, and the sons and daughters of Maine emigrants, hailed it as an inti- 
mate message from the homeland. Professional and amateur readers on 
every platform extended the popularity of selections from its pages. The 
merest mention of Maine the country over came to suggest the name and 
the verses of Holman Day. 

Two years later "Pine Tree Ballads" appeared with seventy poems 
of the same sort that had carried "Up In Maine" straight to the heart of 
Maine folks everywhere. As a whole, the work was stronger than in the 
first collection. The theme was the same, but the treatment showed more 
confidence and often the writer struck a deeper chord. There was more 
seriousness, and still no lack of whimsicalities and of grotesque exaggera- 
tion and prevarication. Another two years passed and then "Kin 
O'Ktaadn" appeared varying from its predecessors only in that there 
were chatty interludes of proses between the sixty or more poems. 

Those three volumes alone gave Holman Day a well established place 
in American literature. I think it is true that no state has a poet who has 
done for it what Holman Day has done for Maine in those books putting 
in homely, characteristic verse its life and its types, its traditions and 
i*ts aspirations, with a touch always sympathetic and satisfying. No 
reader of those books of verse can fail to wish that the series had con- 
tinued, and yet we can well understand that there was a limit even to 
what the genius of Holman Day could produce in that line of effort. 

It was inevitable that the poet should turn novelist, and happily Hol- 
man Day the novelist works in the same realm and in the same spirit 
that Holman Day the poet did. Both as a poet and as a novelist Holman 
Day is essentially a straightforward story teller and a delineator of quaint 
and wholesome types of character. If he lacks something of the art that 


develops plots most effectively, he more than makes up for it by the skill 
of his character sketching, his unfailing humor ahd the charm of his direct 

"Squire Phin", his first novel, was published in 1905. In the dozen 
years since then he has given us "King Spruce", "The Eagle Badge", 
"Mayor of the Woods", "The Rainy Day Railroad War", "The Ramrodders", 
"The Red Lane", "On Misery Gore", "The Skipper and the Skipped", "The 
Landloper" and "Blow the Man Down", as well as two highly successful 
plays, "The Circus Man", which is a dramatized version of "Squire Phin", 
and "Along Came Ruth." I wish that time permitted a summary and com- 
ment of each work in some detail, for each is dear to the lover of Maine. 
The intrigues of Maine political life, the quest of the border outlaws, the 
ways of the great woods, the droll adventures of the old sea captain who 
turns farmer and sheriff, the grim battle of business competition off the 
shore and in the cities these are some of the themes; and through all 
the stories run the bright threads of love and sacrifice and the fight of 
brave and loyal souls for their ideals. 

With the mention of Holman Day let us close our discussion of what 
Maine has contributed to literature a discussion inadequate and incom- 
plete, as I warned you in the beginning. Each Maine heart has among 
its treasures much to supplement what I have written here. 

"O, thine the glory, Mother Maine, 

That shineth far and bright, 
The golden story, Mother Maine, 

That thrills the heart tonight. 
Yet not the things of pride and fame, 
The great work done, the honored name, 
Not they that bind our hearts to thee 
Through all the changing years that be, 
But that forever, Mother Maine, 

We bless and hold thee dear, \ 

Thou gift and giver, Mother Maine, 

Because it's home up here!" 





The work of the Executive Department constitutes a very important 
and extensive part of the business of the state. If we think of the Gov- 
ernor and Council as the president and board of directors of a corpora- 
tion, we will have on the whole a clear idea of their relation to the vari- 
ous activities of the state. There is annually raised by the state about 
eight million dollars, and all this vast sum is expended under the direction 
of the Governor and Council. It is impossible in a brief statement to give 
anything like a complete statement of the work of this department. 
Therefore, the following is only a brief outline of the important features 
of the work. 

The constitution and statutes set forth certain specific 

I "rOVO 1*1101* S 

.. duties for the Executive Department. By the constitution, 

the governor is constituted the supreme executive power 
and he is given a council of seven members to. advise with him in the 
conduct of the affairs of state. These councillors act in much the same 
manner as does the Cabinet of the United States, but individually the 
councillors do not head a department, and they have, in addition, certain 
legislative functions. While the governor is elected by popular vote, 
the councillors are chosen biennially on joint ballot by the legislature. 
The state is divided into seven districts with a councillor for each district. 
. . , Four department heads: the treasurer of state, the sec- 

f ~ , , retary of state, the commissioner of agriculture and the 

~ ffi . , attorney general, are elected by joint ballot of the legis- 

lature. The state auditor is elected by popular vote. The 
governor nominates, and with the advice and consent of the council 
appoints, all judicial officers and all civil and military officers whose appoint- 
ment is not provided for otherwise by the constitution and statutes. The 
live stock sanitary commissioner and the chairman of the industrial acci- 
dent commission are appointed by the governor and do not require con- 
firmation by the council. The constitution also provides that the tenure 
of all offices not otherwise provided for shall be during the pleasure of 
the governor and council. 

Pardons ^ e g vernor has power with the advice and consent of 

the council to remit after conviction all forfeitures and 

penalties, and to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons except in 



case of impeachment, with such restrictions and limitations as may be 

deemed proper and subject to such regulations as may be provided by 


, The governor is commander-in-chief of the army and 

navy of the state and of the militia, except when called 
' into the actual service of the United States, and he has 

authority on extraordinary occasions to convene the legis- 
lature in special assembly. 

The governor and council are required to tabulate the 
. returns and elections of votes cast at primary, state and 

special elections, and elections for the choice of presidential 
and vice-presidential electors. 
r The statutory powers and duties of the governor and 

council cannot be enumerated without reference to many 

Till TIPS 

of the chapters of the Revised Statutes and Session Laws. 
Some of the more important are the power given to the governor to 
appoint agents to demand and receive of the executive authority of any 
other state fugitives from justice charged with crimes in this state, to 
issue his warrant to surrender fugitives found in this state charged with 
crimes in other states, and he may offer rewards for the apprehension of 
fugitives from justice. 

He is required to issue his proclamation for an election to fill any 
vacancy in the representation of the state in the Senate of the United 
States or the National House of Representatives, or any other office 
required to be filled by vote of the people, as well as his proclamation for 
a primary election to select candidates. 

Of all the duties of the Executive Department* there is none greater 
than the constitutional provision which says that no money shall be drawn 
from the treasury except by warrant from the governor and council, and 
in consequence of appropriations made by law. In addition to this the 
governor and council have general supervision of the w r ork of all state 
departments, institutions and commissions, the great majority of which 
are required to make detailed reports at regular intervals. The governor 
and council are also constituted a board of trustees of the State Library. 
p Because of these provisions, the Executive Department has 

, .,, intimate control over the functions of all departments 

and institutions. Since no money can be paid out without 
warrant from the governor and council, it follows, that every expendi- 
ture of money by any sub-division of the state government is authorized 
first by the governor and council. Further than that, no bill is paid by 
the state except by check of the treasurer of state. In other words, 
no indebtedness of the State of Maine whether it be a million dollars or 
one cent, is paid except by check from the treasurer. 



Under the provisions of Chapter 102 of the Public Laws 

of 1919, the governor becomes the head of the budget 

committee. He with the state auditor, state treasurer, 

chairman of the committee on appropriations and financial affairs on the 

part of the Senate and chairman on the part of the House of the Maine 

Legislature make up this budget committee. 

An informal budget was inaugurated in 1917. It was continued in 
1919 and the Legislature of 1921 will see the first legal budget. 

The law provides that the committee shall transmit to the legislature, 
not later than the fifth day of the first session thereof the budget, and 
upon request of any committee of the legislature the secretary of the com- 
mittee on budget shall transmit to such committee of the legislature all 
statements, estimates and requests which were filed with the said secretary 
by officers, boards and commissions as required by sections two and three 
of the act, or copies thereof. 

In making up the estimates constituting the budget, the commit- 
tee shall, in connection therewith and as a part thereof submit an estimate 
in detail, or a general estimate in any instance where it is impracticable 
to give specific items, subdivided under appropriate headings, of such 
sums as may be deemed necessary to defray the several charges and 
expenses of the public service for the ensuing biennial fiscal period. This 
estimate shall also include such sums as may be deemed necessary for 
charitable and benevolent institutions, and for such other purposes for 
which public money may be properly appropriated. It shall be accom- 
panied by a statement showing the total valuation of taxable property 
in the state as compiled by the board of state assessors and the rate of 
taxation necessary to produce approximately the revenue required to meet 
such appropriations. It shall also show the estimated income of the state 
for said biennial fiscal period from sources other than direct taxation. 

The governor and council have the execution of the state 
* ensions 

pension law, under which approximately $150,000 per year 

Is distributed to veterans of the Civil War and the Spanish War, and their 
dependents ; also the law providing for pensions for the needy blind, which 
was enacted a few years ago, under which several hundred blind persons 
are now receiving very substantial aid, the yearly appropriation having 
been increased from $15,000 in 1915 to $50,000 in 1920. They are author- 
ized to provide for the training and other expenses of blind children in 
institutions outside of the state. 

They also examine claims for reimbursement of cities, towns, and 
plantations, for aid to dependents of soldiers, sailors and marines, who 
served in the war with Germany, and have ordered the payment of such 
claims to the amount of more than $750,000 between the time of our entry 
into the war and the close of the year 1919. 


Various other claims of cities, towns and plantations are examined 
and allowed under their direction, such as claims for support of dependent 
persons having no settlement within the state, for which purpose alone 
the funds now amount to $150,000 per year. 

In addition to all these specific duties, there are hundreds of matters 
coming up that would naturally appear in the administration of a big busi- 
ness for which no specific legal provision could be made. Under the present 
day system, the Executive Department has such a multitude of activities, 
that no longer can a governor be a part-time official. The state has come 
to that opinion and has provided him with a home at the capital. 



In education Maine is one of the most progressive states in the union. 
Its advanced legislative enactments for education include the formation 
of all towns of the state into unions for the promotion of effective super- 
vision; a workable compulsory educational child labor act; a requirement 
of at least thirty weeks' schooling in all towns; the elimination of all 
school districts and the substitution of the town as a unit of school man- 
agement; the abandonment of the small, weak school of less than eight 
pupils in regular attendance and the centralization of schools by means 
of transportation; the encouragement of industrial forms of education, 
and a retirement fund for teachers. 

F 11 * Maine has 228,489 children between the ages of 5 and 21 
years ; of these 131,313 were enrolled in elementary schools 
. , , during 1919 with an average attendance of 97,638, mak- 

ing 75 per cent of attendance to enrollment, which greatly 
exceeds the average in the United States. In 1919, 7,962 children com- 
pleted the elementary schools. The 'enrollment for the same year in the 
secondary schools, high schools and academies was 23,291. 
,. The schools of each town are under the management of 

a superintending school committee of three members who 
are elected, one each year, at the annual town meeting in March. For 
the purpose of supervision, the towns are grouped into unions. A joint 
committee for the union is composed of the superintending school com- 
mittees of the several towns forming the union. This joint committee 
selects a superintendent for the union, apportions his time among the 
towns and fixes his financial consideration, apportioning the same to the 
towns concerned. 

No teacher who has not completed a four years' high 
Certification , , , , . . . , . , ... , , 

f rp , school education or its equivalent is entitled to enter the 

examinations for teachers' certificates. Students of the 
state normal schools receive elementary school certificates upon the com- 
pletion of the course. Persons who complete the course of study in the 
state normal schools or two years of college work are eligible to examina- 
tion for certificates of superintendence grade. Teachers who wish to con- 
tinue in the service and who take training have the privilege of certificate 
renewal from time to time until certificates become permanent. Gradu- 



ates of college and universities who have .completed the educational 
requirements are granted certificates enabling them to teach in secondary 

p. . , The public schools of the state are supported by funds 

, derived, (1) from a tax levied on the property of the town 

by the legal voters at the annual town meeting in March, 
(2) the income from the permanent school fund which represents the pro- 
ceeds of the sale of lands apportioned for the support of schools, and other 
moneys appropriated for the same purpose to which is added one-half of 
the sum received by the state from taxes on the franchises of savings 
banks, and one-half the sum assessed upon the deposits of trust and 
banking companies, (3) the school mill fund which is the proceeds of a 
tax of one and one-half mills on the dollar annually assessed upon all the 
property of the state according to the value thereof, (4) the common 
school fund which is a tax of one and one-half mills on the dollar annually 
assessed upon all the property of the state according to the value thereof. 
In addition to these funds are moneys raised by direct appropriation 
through legislative enactment. 

B , Equal opportunities for all the children of all the people 

, . is our motto, and in this spirit school facilities are being 

carried into the unorganized townships where the great 
forests abound, to the islands along our shores; and an attempt is now 
being made to make the rural schools of Maine the foremost in the Union 
through centralization which will bring good buildings and equipment, 
afford a division of labor for teachers and provide at least two years of 
high school within reach of all. Such schools will form the basis of social 

~ ., Maine is taking advanced grounds in regard to health 

r Tf an( ^ san itation in her schools. Buildings are being stand- 

ardized in regard to light, heat and sanitation; grounds 
and outbuildings are receiving attention, and our laws provide for medical 
examination. Many old buildings are now being remodeled and all new 
buildings must conform to proper standards. Extensive repairs cannot 
be made or new buildings built without the approval of the State Super- 
intendent of Schools. 

~ , Maine schools rank among the best in the land in secondary 

, ,. education. As in other eastern states secondary educa- 

tion began in academies supported by private benefactors 
and by tuition. In 1873 the state authorized free public high schools and 
from that time there has been a steady progress until today her publicly 
supported secondary schools, with their fine buildings, adequate equip- 
ment and well prepared teachers are a source of just pride to the citizens 
of the state. 


Side by side with our high schools are found forty-eight academies 
well founded and strongly intrenched in the hearts of the people. These 
schools have become semi-public through state support. Out of these 
schools have come men and women whose influence has been great in state 
and nation and whose lives have immortalized the institution which gave 
them beginning. 

Early in the development of the idea of industrial educa- 
( tion Maine took advanced standing among the states by 

making liberal appropriations for the support of indus- 
trial courses in public schools and academies, and also for industrial edu- 
cation in night schools. This ground work well laid formed the basis for 
vocational education under the Smith-Hughes Act recently passed by Con- 
gress. Under this act Maine was among the first to secure approval of 
her plans and specifications for placing the provisions of this law in opera- 
tion and began at once to establish strong courses in agriculture, home 
economics and the trades and industries in all-day, part-time and evening 
schools and classes throughout the state. Through this means the schools 
of the state are connected with life, re-enforce the activities of the com- 
munity and bring the youth into contact with work he desires later to 
pursue, thus increasing both individual and national efficiency. 

Bowdoin College 

. Bowdoin College was incorporated by the General Court 

of Massachusetts upon the joint petition of the Associa- 
tion of Ministers and the Court of Sessions of Cumberland County. The 
Act of Incorporation was signed by Governor Samuel Adams, June 24, 
1794. The college was named in honor of James Bowdoin, a distinguished 
Governor of Massachusetts, of Huguenot descent. 

_,. Circumstances delayed the opening of the college till 1802, 

p, ' when the first class of eight young men was admitted. 

Since then more than nine thousand students have been 
admitted, and more than six thousand of these have received degrees. 

But eight presidents have guided the affairs of the col- 
Presidents 4.1. 4-V * '4. 4. -n 

lege in the more than a century of its existence: Rev. 
Joseph McKeen, D.D. ; Rev. Jesse Appleton, D.D. ; Rev. William Allen, 
D.D. ; Rev. Leonard Woods, D.D., LL.D. ; and Rev. Samuel Harris, D.D., 
LL.D. ; Gen. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, LL.D. ; Rev William DeWitt 
Hyde, D.D., LL.D.; and Kenneth C. M. Sills, LL.D. 

^ , , Among the graduates may be mentioned Longfellow and 

^ , . Hawthorne; Franklin Pierce, Melville W. Fuller, Thomas 

B. Reed, William Pitt Fessenden, John A. Andrew, and 
William P. Frye; Generals Howard and Chamberlain; Charles Carroll 
Everett, Calvin E. Stowe, Egbert Coffin Smyth, and Cyrus Hamlin. 


,. From the first the college has been essentially a college 

of liberal arts, but science has not been neglected and 
. courses are offered leading to the degrees of Bachelor of 

Arts and Bachelor of Science. From 1820 the Medical 
Department of the college has given courses leading to the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine. 
_ . The material equipment consists of sixteen buildings, 

grouped on a campus of about forty acres : including sci- 
entific laboratories, a library of 116,000 volumes, extensive art collections; 
and an endowment of more than $2,500,000. The academical faculty con- 
tains thirty names and the medical faculty sixty. In 1919-20 there were 
456 students in the academical department and 43 in the medical school. 
T The tuition charge is $100 a year in the college, and other 

annual expenses are from three to six hundred dollars. 
These figures are reduced considerably for needy and deserving students 
by the application of scholarship and other assistance granted by the col- 
lege each year at present more than $15,000 is annually distributed 
among such students. 

Colby College 

. Colby College originated with the Baptist churches of 

the District of Maine. Upon the petition of the Bowdoin- 
ham Association, the Cumberland Association and the Lincoln Associa- 
tion for the incorporation of a college, the General Court of Massachusetts 
passed an act to establish a literary institution in the District of Maine, 
under the name of the Maine Literary and Theological Institution, but 
refused the power to confer degrees. The act was signed February 27, 

. The institution opened in 1818, the trustees having selected 

| r ' Waterville as the site of the school. Upon the petition of 

the trustees to the first legislature of the State of Maine, 

the power to confer degrees was granted on June 18, 1820. The first class 

graduated in 1822. 

In 1821 the name of the institution was changed to Water- 
ville College. In 1867 it was again changed to Colby Uni- 
or JNcime 

versity in honor of Mr. Gardner Colby, a generous bene- 
factor. In 1899 it was once more changed to Colby College in recognition 
of the real character of the institution. 

w In 1871 young women were admitted to the college on 

the same terms as young men. In 1890, upon the sugges- 
tion of President Albion Small, the trustees organized 
within the college a division for young men and a co-ordinate division 


for young women. In class organization, rank, prize contests, appoint- 
ments, honors, and so far as possible in the work of the class room, the two 
divisions are treated as independently as though they were distinct insti- 

Among the graduates may be mentioned, Elijah Parish 

Lovejoy. General Benjamin Butler, William Mathews, 

Martin Brewer Anderson, Josiah Hayden Drummond, 
Albion Woodbury Small, Shailer Mathews, Nathaniel Butler, Asher Hinds, 
Holman Day, George Otis Smith, Harrington Putnam, Leslie C. Cornish. 

Courses are offered leading to the degrees of Bachelor of 

i"u 1 1*0 oc "i n r I 

Arts and Bachelor of Science. The material equipment 
consists of an extensive campus on the western bank of 
the Kennebec River and thirteen buildings, including well equipped scien- 
tific laboratories, a library of about 60,000 volumes, and an endowment of 
more than $500,000. The faculty consists of 25 members and the student 
enrollment in 1918-19 was 360. 

. The charge for tuition in the Men's Division is $90 per 

year. The charge for room rent varies from $45 to $55 
per year. In the Women's Division the total charges for tuition, room and 
board vary from $280 to $290 per year. A large number of scholarships 
are available for needy and deserving students, and abundant opportuni- 
ties for self-help are available. 

University of Maine 

The University of Maine is the direct outcome of the 

Morrill Act approved by President Lincoln, July 2, 1862. 
The legislature of the State of Maine accepted the conditions of this Act 
in 1863 and in 1865 created a corporation to administer the affairs of the 

. The institution opened in September, 1868, with a class 

, ' of 12 members and a faculty of 2 teachers. The first 

class was graduated in 1872. 

, The original name of the institution was "The State Col- 

lege of Agriculture and the Mechanical Arts." In 1897 

by act of the legislature of the state the name was 
changed to "The University of Maine." 

From the opening women students have been received on 
Women , 

~, , , the same terms as men. The attendance of women until 

recently has not been large. The institution is in every 
respect co-educational. Women have precisely the same opportunities as 
men and compete with them in the classes and in various contests. At 
this time the women constitute one-fifth of the student -body. 


William T. Haines, ex-Governor of Maine; E. F. Ladd, 
Noted President of North Dakota Agricultural College; Hon. S. 

W. Gould, Skowhegan, Maine; Frank L. Scribner, Special 
Agent and Agrostologist, United States Department Agriculture; William 
R. Pattangall, Lawyer, Augusta, Maine; Dr. Whitman H. Jordan, Director 
New York Agricultural Experiment Station; Allen Rogers, in charge of 
Industrial Chemical and Tanning Courses, Pratt Institute; Dr. Jeremiah 
S. Ferguson, Physician Cornell Medical College; Arthur M. Farrington, 
Assistant Chief, Animal Industry, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, are some of the prominent graduates. 

The University maintains four colleges : Agriculture, Arts 

and Sciences, Engineering and Law. In addition to this 

the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station is an integral 
Equipment *.*.* - j i j- 

part of the institution. Courses are offered leading to 

the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in the College of Arts and Sciences, to 
the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, Home Economics, and 
Forestry, to the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering, and to the 
Degree of Bachelor of Laws in the College of Law. 

The material equipment includes campus and farm of nearly 400 
acres on the Stillwater river in Orono, a farm of 100 acres a mile north of 
the campus, and the experimental farms of about 250 acres each in Mon- 
mouth and Presque Isle. The college buildings are numerous and well 
equipped. The Carnegie Library building houses about 66,958 volumes. 
The faculty consists of 176 members. 1214 students are now enrolled. 
T ... The charge for tuition for students from within the state 

is $30 per year, for students from without the state $100 
per year. By legislative enactment, students in agricultural and home 
economics curricula are exempted from the payment of tuition charges. 
This applies only to students from within the state. The room rent in 
a dormitory is $36 per year and board is $180 per year. In addition to 
this, each student pays a registration fee of $10, an incidental fee of $30 
and laboratory fees varying from $10 to $25 according to the course taken. 
Text books are anywhere from $10 to $30. 

Bates College 

. Bates College admitted its first class in 1863 and received 

its charter in January, 1864. Bates was named for one 
of its largest benefactors, the late Benjamin E. Bates, of Boston. 

Forty-three per cent of Bates graduates have entered the 

Professions /. ,. . , ,, . . , -, 

teaching profession, eleven per cent the ministry, and 

many of its alumni have been prominent in law, medicine, journalism, leg- 
islation and social service. Bates is famous for its success in intercollegi- 


ate debating, having won in thirty-one out of forty-one contests, seventeen 
of them with universities. The college has no secret societies, its policy 
being to foster the open literary societies, musical clubs, and other organ- 
izations that encourage and inspire the democratic, simple life. 

A Department of Forestry has just been established, with 
f p , resources that assure to it high rank in a field now recog- 

nized as of great importance to our country. The courses 
in Education entitle graduates who have completed them to teachers' cer- 
tificates of the first class from state boards of education. 

, Bates has an endowment of $960,000. Its total resources 

amount to $1,500,000. It has sixteen buildings and a 
campus of fifty-five acres. In the fall of 1919 Chase Hall, the men's social 
building, one of the finest buildings of its type in the country, was dedi- 
cated. It was so named in honor of the late President George Colby Chase 
who served the college for fifty years. This building affords accommoda- 
tions for the Y. M. C. A., the social, literary, scientific, and musical organiza- 
tions of the young men, and assures opportunities for extending hospitality 
to guests and returning graduates. 

Expenses are very moderate the total expense for one 
year for board, room rent, tuition, books and general cost 
of living being between $266 and $307. There are one hundred and eleven 
scholarships, most of them paying $50 of the annual tuition fee of $75. 
Enrollment The faculty numbers 40, the student body 494. 

Bangor Theological Seminary 

Bangor Theological Seminary was incorporated February 
25, 1814, under the name "Maine Charity School." This 
legal title was changed to the one by which it has generally been known, 
by an act of the Maine Legislature in 1887. The institution grew out of 
the work of an association of Congregational ministers and laymen in 
southwestern Maine, called "The Society for Theological Education", one of 
the earliest, perhaps the earliest, educational society in the United States, 
incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts, February 27, 1812. The 
seminary was opened in October, 1816, at Hampden, in connection with 
Hampden Academy, and under the care of Rev. Jehudi Ashmun, later 
prominent in the American Colonization Society. In 1819 the institution 
was removed to Bangor, its present site being the gift of Isaac Daven- 
port, Esquire, of Milton, Massachusetts, "an old-fashioned Orthodox Uni- 
tarian", who also gave the site for the present Unitarian Church of Bangor. 
p , The seminary property consists of this site, of seven and 

a half acres, most beautifully situated in the heart of the 
city ; a dormitory with a capacity of fifty students ; a boarding house which 


serves also as a residence for the matron and the superintendent of 
grounds ; a chapel containing not only the assembly room for services but 
four recitation rooms and the library ; a modern gymnasium ; and six resi- 
dences for members of the faculty. The library contains over 31,000 vol- 
umes. The endowment is but $325,000, about one-third the average 
endowment of the other theological schools of New England. 

The faculty consists of five active professors and a libra- 

rian ; there are three supplementary teachers, besides occa- 

sional lecturers. "Convocation Week", consisting of four groups of lec- 

tures given by eminent men in various walks of life, was begun at Bangor 

in 1904, and has achieved a nation-wide reputation. - 

n The seminary was granted the right to confer degrees 

in divinity by the Maine legislature in 1905, but the 
institution has never exercised the right except to give the degree of B. D. 
to graduates holding its diploma, having the degree of A. B., and having 
pursued a prescribed course of study additional to the diploma course. 

Among its graduates may be mentioned Cyrus Hamlin, 
Henry T. Cheever, Daniel Dole, Rufus King Sewall, Egbert 
C. Smyth, Joshua L. Chamberlain, Francis N. Peloubet, 
Edwin P. Parker, Lewis 0. Braston, Minot J. Savage, Henry L. Chapman, 
George A. Gordon, Clarence A. Beckwith. 
^ . The seminary is now in its 104th year. During its exist- 

Render d ence ** ^ as Eroduated 93 ^ men ' an( * given instruction to 

327 others for one or more years. Its students have come 
from every continent on the globe, and from not a few islands of the sea ; 
as ministers, missionaries and teachers they have worked as widely. The 
total number of years service of its graduates and non-graduates to 
churches of not less than a score of denominations is about 25,000. 



The growth of the public library idea in our state parallels 
that of the public school. Associations, formed at first 
for the exclusive benefit of the few, were gradually enlarged 
to include in their scope the good of all. 

The first Maine legislature enacted both school and library laws mod- 
eled after those of Massachusetts. From 1798 to 1815 Massachusetts had 
provided by legislation for the incorporation of law, militia and proprietary 
and social libraries. Our inheritance, however, was more than mere legal 
machinery, for, although statistics on that point are few and unreliable, 
the fact is well established that free libraries maintained by the people 
were as early as the middle of the eighteenth century considered a neces- 
sary part of our educational system. 

A portion of "The Revolving Library", established in 1751 for three 
adjoining parishes in Kittery and York, is still in existence in the Com- 
munity House at Kittery Point. The "Library Society" of Falmouth Neck, 
founded by twenty-six gentlemen ill 1765, and succeeded in 1826 by the 
Portland Athenaeum, was the forerunner of the present Portland Public 
Library, and the oldest library now in active existence, that of Bowdoin 
College, was established in 1794. During the years 1798-1820 were founded 
the libraries of Waterville (now Colby) College, Gorham and North Yar- 
mouth Academies, and proprietary or social libraries in Bangor, Belfast, 
Bucksport, Camden, Castine, Gorham, Machias, Portland, Saco, Union, 
Warren, Westbrook, Winthrop, Wiscasset and probably other places. 

The lyceum and debating clubs of this period played an important 
part in both school and community life and the libraries gradually accu- 
mulated by these clubs grew to be of such value that it became necessary 
to place them under the control and management of responsible bodies. The 
societies or associations formed for this purpose became the proprietary 
or social libraries authorized by the first library laws. The free public 
library of the present day is the direct consequence of the need expressed 
by the organization of these earlier associations and in many instances is 
their lineal descendant. 

The first free public library law was passed in 1854, Maine being the 
third state to enact such legislation. Towns were authorized under this 
law to establish and maintain public libraries, to receive bequests and gifts 



and to appropriate for organization one dollar for each rateable poll and 
for annual maintenance twenty-five cents for each such poll. This law 
remained unchanged for more than thirty years and, with one exception, 
there is no evidence that any municipality acted under its provisions. The 
town of Castine established a public library in 1855, and at that time 
received the books and property belonging to a social library founded by 
William Mason and others in 1801 and subsequently incorporated under 
the laws of 1821. 

In 1893 the passage of a new public library law not only permitted 
but encouraged public libraries. They were made legal recipients and 
custodians of state documents, were granted a stipend of ten per cent of 
the amount appropriated by the municipality (changed in 1895 to ten 
per cent of appropriation for the library and in 1917 to not less than seven 
nor more than ten per cent, the stipend in no case to exceed $500) and, 
in the case of new libraries in towns having less than 1500 population 
(restriction as to population removed in 1901) were given new books to 
1 he value of half the appropriation for starting the library but not exceed- 
ing $100. The older association libraries were given the benefits of the 
act when made entirely free as a result of municipal appropriation. Libra- 
rians and others were allowed to apply to the State Library for advice 
and instruction in library matters. As illustrative of the extension of 
public libraries under this act the State Library report of 1894 enumerated 
thirty-four free public libraries and forty-four not free, whereas the report 
of the United States Bureau of Education for 1876 listed seventeen social 
and eight public libraries, only three of which were free. 

Since 1893 the number of libraries has steadily increased, and the 
opening of the centennial year finds Maine with two hundred and twelve 
public libraries, one hundred and thirteen of which are entirely free and 
ninety-nine require a small fee. The total number of books in these libra- 
ries is 1,120,230. 

The Maine Library Association, organized in 1891, has, since its reor- 
ganization in 1901, been an active agency in energizing the library spirit of 
the state. Two meetings are held each year one in the spring, and one 
in the fall at the same place and time as the Maine Teachers' Convention. 

The entire library 'situation is now more promising than at any other 
time in the history of the state. Trustees are asking for trained and effi- 
cient workers, municipalities are requiring adequate service and librarians 
are consistently and constantly striving to raise themselves and their 
libraries to the highest standards demanded by our modern professional 
and industrial life. 

The two central library agencies authorized by the state are the Maine 
State Library and the Maine Library Commission. 


Through the efforts of the Maine Federation of Women's 

fyl o inp 

Clubs a traveling library system was established by law 
1 in 1899. To carry out its provisions and to encourage free 

public libraries, the act created a Library Commission of 
five members, including the State Librarian. The first year forty-two 
carefully selected traveling libraries were prepared and circulated. From 
year to year old libraries were broken up and new ones added, the report 
for 1919 showing a total circulation of 500 an increase of about twenty- 
four libraries a year. The libraries contain fifty books each and are sent 
for six months to any part of the state on payment of five cents a volume 
to cover cost of transportation. Communities which would otherwise have 
no access to books are through the traveling libraries brought into direct 
and constant association with the world's best literature. The Commis- 
sion has held summer schools and institutes for librarians and assisted 
by advice and personal visitation in the establishment and growth of new 
libraries. A library organizer is now employed by the Commission and 
her services in organizing new libraries, in converting private into public 
libraries, in cataloging, classifying, buying and general administration are 
at the call of any library in the state. 

,, . The State Library had its beginning in a resolve of the 

~, , legislature of 1836, which required the Secretary of State 

T ., to purchase a library, under the direction of the governor, 

for the use of the legislature and to expend five hundred 
dollars for that purpose. By a legislative act of 1839 the books belonging 
to the state by purchase or donation were collected and deposited in the 
south wing of the State House, and constituted the State Library under 
the charge of the Secretary of State. In 1861 the Library was made a 
separate department under the direct control of the Governor and Coun- 
cil, as a board of trustees, and they were authorized to appoint a State 
Librarian. The Library was located on the top floor of the south wing 
of the State House until 1891, when new rooms were provided for it in 
the west wing of the enlarged building. In the year 1910 when the State 
House was still further enlarged, the main portion of the Library was 
removed to the second floor of the north wing. 

Originally established for the members of the legislature and the 
various departments of state government it now serves all the people of 
the state. On its shelves will be found 125,000 books and pamphlets and 
170 current periodicals, containing a full and equal representation of the 
various branches of history, law, science, religion, political economy, indus- 
trial and fine arts, language and literature. Technical and elementary 
books in every trade, profession and industry are continually being added 
in order that every worker may find there the information he most desires 
or needs. Any resident of Maine may borrow books and magazines or 
obtain information from the Maine State Library. 


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The Indian believed in the existence of an unseen world 
and of unseen beings by whom it was peopled, and with 
whom his priests could commune. These priests or medi- 
cine men performed the three-fold function of priest, 
prophet and physician. They held themselves to be kin to the mysterious 
powers to whose service they were devoted, and to be acceptable mediums 
of communication between them and the common people. 

In common with other tribes of the Algonquin family, the Abenakis 
held that the world was under the influence of dual powers, beneficent and 
maleficent, and that there was one Great Spirit who held supreme rule, 
but at the same time did not interfere with these ever-conflicting powers. 
Upon this conception of deity their entire system of religious belief neces- 
sarily hinged; hence their belief in guardian spirits, which they denom- 
inated manitos. 

They believed in a future existence, "they believed in the immortal 
soul and that it shall pass to the South-west Elysium, holding it to be a 
kind of Paradise. For their enemies, who they account unworthy of this 
imaginary happiness, they say that they pass to the infernal dwellings of 
Abamocho, to be tortured according to the fictions of the ancient Heathen." 
They believed in the duality of the soul, which is said to have been 
the reason for their custom of burying domestic utensils and other articles 
with the dead, and of placing food upon the graves. In common with many 
other races of mankind, they regarded the serpent as being the embodi- 
ment of the supernatural power, superior in wisdom and cunning in 
fact, a manito which demanded their reverence. 

p,. f , The first Christian religious service conducted in Maine 

was in 1604 when the French under DeMonts visited 


Mount Desert. The first mass said in Maine was by Father 
Beard in October, 1611, on an island at the mouth of the Kennebec river. 
In 1607 the first Protestant religious service in New England was conducted 
by Rev. Richard Seymour at Popham, where a church was built. In 1646 
Father Druillettes became a missionary to the Indians at Norridgewock. 
In 1688 Father Bigot erected a church at this place, which was improved 
by the distinguished priest, Father Rale. 



The Puritans did little to Christianize the Indians of Maine. Their one 
effort was confined to a mission at Arrowsic which lasted from 1717 to 1721. 

For a brief period the English church was the state church 

in Maine under the charter given to Gorges in 1622. 

William Morrell, Richard Gibson and Robert Jordan, clergy- 
men of the Church of England, tried to establish their church in Maine, 
but it failed and nothing further was attempted for eighty years. In 
1770 the Episcopal church asked to be relieved from taxes of the Standing 
Order. Their petition was granted in 1772. A church was established 
in Gardiner in 1771. In 1880 there were two churches in Maine. The 
Episcopalians have grown constantly in influence and membership until 
today there are thirty-nine clergymen and 5656 communicants. 

, Thomas Farmer and John Wheelwright, Puritan minis- 

. ters, preached at Saco and Wells for a brief time prior 

to 1647. In 1652 Massachusetts secured control of Maine 

and taxed the people for public worship. The minister was a town official. 

The first Puritan church was built at York in 1673. 

The Congregational church became the successor of the Pilgrims in 
religious work in Maine and founded Bowdoin College. Their mission- 
ary society was founded in 1807, and Bangor Theological Seminary in 1814. 
They have continued from the first leaders in educational work, establish- 
ing many academies in the state. From this church have come many 
missionary, educational and civic leaders of great distinction. 
. , The first Friends to visit Maine were Ann Coleman, Mary 

Tompkins and Alice Ambrose, who came to Berwick in 
1662. A Friends Meeting House was established in Kittery in 1730, at 
Falmouth in 1743. Their work continued to prosper until by 1800 they 
had meeting places in all important towns. They have at the present 
time 23 meeting houses and about 1800 members. 

. William Screven was ordained to the ministry in Boston 

in 1682 and attempted to establish a church in Kittery, 
but the established church caused his arrest, and he was fined and forbid- 
den to preach. A century later Hezikiah Smith founded the first Baptist 
Church in Maine and organized churches in Gorham (1768) and Berwick. 
The work prospered and an association of churches was formed in Bow- 
doinham in 1787. A college was organized in Waterville in 1820. There 
are four Baptist preparatory schools, Hebron, Coburn, Higgins and Ricker. 
In 1867 the Baptist Convention was organized. The Baptist and Free 
Baptist churches became one church in 1915 under the presidency of Gov. 
Carl E. Milliken, a member of the Free Baptist church. They have 33,647 
members and 400 churches. 
Presbyterian In 1734 William McClanethan, a Presbyterian minister, 

preached at Boothbay ; McLane at Bristol at a later period, 
and in 1784 Whitaker was at Canaan and Williams at Winslow. The Pres- 


byterian church continued to grow in membership and influence until 1800 
when they were established in at least ten towns. After this period they 
declined and finally became Congregational churches. At the close of 
the seventeenth century there were 42 churches and 2186 members in 
Maine. At a later period there were three churches with 503 members. 
In 1793 Jesse Lee was sent by the New England Confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal Church to organize this 
church in Maine. He held the first services in Saco, Portland, Hallowell 
and Readfield in 1793. The Readfield circuit was organized, which included 
all the state. A church was dedicated at Readfield in 1708 by Bishop 
Asbury; 1500 people were at the service. Maine has the distinction of 
giving to the Methodist Church Bishop Soule, who drafted the plan of 
the delegated General Conlerence, and also founded the Methodist Review. 
When Maine became a state in 1820, there were three districts, 27 cir- 
cuits, 32 preachers and 6017 members. Academies have been established 
at Rents Hill and Bucksport. This church has through all the years 
contributed to the educational, social and political development of the 
state. She has continued to grow in influence and in membership. The 
total membership in 1919, including probationers, was 23,791. 
_ T . .. In 1802 Thomas Barnes preached in Norway, New Glouces- 

ter, Falmouth, Gray and several other towns. Sylvanus 
Cobb of Norway organized the firsf church in Waterville in 1826. The 
Gospel Banner was established and published at Augusta and exerted a 
large influence. The first State Convention met in 1826. They have a fine 
academy at Westbrook. There are about 17,000 members. 
F R . Benjamin Randall of Berwick was the founder of the Free 
Baptist Church. He preached in New Hampshire and 
Maine, forming many churches, which were organized into a State Mission 
in 1834. The denomination continued to grow until it became one of the 
most influential in the state, having churches in all the cities. Its work for 
the rural districts has been among the greatest agencies for the uplift 
of the people. This church established Bates College in Lewiston and the 
Maine Central Institute in Pittsfield. In 1915 the Free Baptist and Bap- 
tist Churches united in one denomination, under the name United Bap- 
tist Convention of Maine. 

1T ., . The Unitarian church was organized in Portland in 1791. 

Colonel Vaughn of Hallowell was for years the most dis- 
tinguished Unitarian in America. Churches were founded in Bath and 
Waterville by Dr. Sheldon, at one time president of Colby College. The 
Unitarian churches in Maine were formed into an association at Saco in 
1878. It has now 27 churches. The membership could not be ascertained. 
C th lie T ^ is c ^ urch began its work with the coming of the first 

p* u discoverers and had missions at Mount Desert and Nor- 

ridgewock. When Maine became a state in 1820 there 


were few churches, the growth had been slow, but with the growth of lum- 
bering and manufacturing the tide turned to this church. Soon large and 
prosperous churches were located in all the large centers. 

In 1853 the See of Maine and New Hampshire was instituted with 
8 priests. In the early days they shared in the persecution that practically 
all churches faced in turn. Their priests were turned out of town, and 
their churches burned. In 1874 the Catholic population was 80,000 and 
they had 23 schools. St. Mary's College was established at Van Buren. In 
1884 New Hampshire was withdrawn from the See of Maine. Under the 
brilliant leadership of Bishop Walsh, the efficiency of the church has been 
greatly increased. Remarkable advances have been made in church build- 
ing, education and hospital work. There are today 131,638 Catholics in 
Maine, 143 priests, 47 parochial schools, 11 schools for girls, 1 college for 
boys, 7 orphan asylums and many other institutions. 

There are many other religious bodies in Maine that the 
student of progress must study if he would understand 
the development of the religious history of the state. They 
are the Adventist, Seventh Day Advents, Disciples, Christian, New Jeru- 
salem, Lutheran, Church of God, Christian Science and Seventh Day 

The Maine Bible Society organized in 1809, distributes 
~ about 11,000 copies annually in fifty languages. The Maine 

Sunday School Society was organized in 1869. It represents 
1,200 schools with a membership of 100,000. The Christian Civic League 
was organized in March, 1897, at Waterville. The Christian Endeavor 
Society was founded by Rev. Francis E. Clark at Portland, February 2, 
1881. The Y. M. C. A. was organized at Portland, Nov. 9, 1853. 
~ . . The Maine~Register for 1919 is the authority for the fol- 

lowing statistics for religious societies in Maine : 
Advent Christian 44 churches, 64 ministers, 2,338 members. 
United Baptist 419 churches, 247 ministers, 33,016 members. 
Protestant Episcopal 79 parishes and missions, 39 clergymen, 5,656 com- 

Congregational 265 churches, 186 clergymen, 21,968 members. 
Methodist Episcopal 309 churches, 231 ministers, 23,031 members, 1,195 


Universalist 77 churches, 43 ministers, 17,000 members. 
Friends 23 meeting houses, about 1,800 members. 
Unitarian 21 churches, membership not given. 
New Jerusalem 3 churches, 131 members. 

Seventh Day Adventist 20 churches, 8 ministers, 811 members. 
Christian 35 ministers, 3,600 members. 
Disciples 7 churches, about 500 members. 


Evangelical Lutheran 7 churches, 6 ministers, 1,445 members. 
Presbyterian 3 churches, 3 ministers, about 503 members. 
Church of God- 12 churches, 16 ministers, about 250 members. 
Salvation Army 25 corps, 3 industrial institutions, 70 officers. 
Roman Catholic 152 churches, 32 chapels, 160 priests, Catholic population 
is about 134,371. 







The State -Board of Agriculture was established by a law which 
became operative April 1, 1856. The Board was made up of one member 
from each county, who was elected by the agricultural societies of that 
county. The Governor and Secretary of State were ex-officio members 
of the Board. Some years later these two officials ceased to have any 
connection with the Board, and were replaced by the President of the 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, and by the Director of the 
Maine Agricultural Experiment Station at Orono. The Board held a meet- 
ing annually, elected a secretary who became its executive officer and 
mapped out the year's work. 

The Legislature of 1901 passed an act which brought to an end the 
existence of the State Board of Agriculture. At the beginning of the 
year 1902, a new law went into effect, and the work which was formerly 
done by the Board passed into the hands of a single commissioner, called 
the Commissioner of Agriculture, who is elected by the legislature. 

The Department as at present organized, is composed of five Divi- 
sions, each Division including one or more bureaus as follows: 

1. Division of Plant Industry; (a) Gypsy Moth Work, (b) Horticul- 
ture, (c) Seed Improvement, (d) Exhibits. 

2. Animal Industry; (a) Livestock, (b) Sheep Specialist, (c) Dairy 

3. Division of Markets; (a) Marketing, (b) Statistics, (c) Grading 
and Packing, (d) Labor. 

4. Division of Inspection ; (a) Food, Fertilizers, etc., (b) Apple Pack- 
ing, (c) Weights and Measures. 

5. Commissioner, Administration Division; Institutes, 'Fairs, Bulle- 
tins, Miscellaneous Work, General Supervision. 

I. Division of Plant Industry 

The brown tail and gypsy moths are found in southern 
W k Maine, from the New Hampshire line to the Penobscot 

river. The man in charge of their extermination is known 
as the field agent, and he employs from fifty to sixty men the larger part 
of the year. 



One line of work is the growing and developing of parasites and fungus 
diseases to prey upon, weaken and eventually destroy these exceedingly 
destructive pests. 

Already the brown tail has nearly disappeared. The gypsy moth is 
a more difficult enemy to fight, and at the present time is exceedingly 
plentiful in the counties of the southern part of the state, threatening 
the destruction of the fruit and timber trees of that section. A large force 
is kept busy creosoting, burlaping and spraying. 

, . ,, This bureau inspects all nurseries in the state, there being 

65 at the present time, about 129 acres in extent. It 
licenses all persons selling nursery stock in the state. Last season there 
were 88 licensed agents. It enforces the ajpple packing law. 

Maine was one of the earliest states to provide for better grading 
and packing of apples. The inspection service employs six or eight men 
during the shipping season. They visit as often as possible the shipping 
stations, of which there are about 200. 

The State Horticulturist also collaborates with the Federal Horticul- 
tural Board at Washington. It is his duty to see that each and every 
package coming into the state from foreign countries m is inspected, and 
report made on same. The stock must bear an inspection tag from the 
country from which it is shipped, and it is also inspected at the port of 

The bureau is constantly on the lookout for insect pests and fungous 
diseases. Trees are sprayed for San Jose, Scurvy and Oyster Shell Scale. 
p . Carleton Orchards are annually visited and instructions 

r\ u j given regarding spraying, pruning, cultivation, fertiliza- 

tion and general care of same. These are orchards of 
one acre each, planted to compete for a prize, the contest to cover a period 
of five years. The next planting will be in the spring of 1920. There are 
many of these orchards in the state and the owners are paying marked 
attention to them as well as caring for th^ir older orchards at the same 

~ , The Bureau of Seed Improvement works in conjunction 

, with the Maine Seed Improvement Association. It is 

engaged in developing a system of state certification of 
seed for use in the state and for sale outside the state. The purpose is 
to bring about the use of better seeds by our own farmers, and to produce 
seed of a higher grade that will bring more money to the producer. 

II. Division of Animal Industry. 

, The Division of Animal Industry has charge of promot- 

Animal ,, . , . . ,, .. . . , 

T , . ing the increase and improvement of the livestock indus- 

try. This division works in conjunction with the various 
agricultural organizations of the state. 


. The Bureau of Dairy Inspection has charge of the sani- 

^ . tary conditions surrounding the production, shipment and 

distribution of milk and cream. Inspection is made 
throughout the state. Samples are taken and analyzed. Those who adulter- 
ate the milk are brought before the court. If milk shows dirt, visits are 
made at the point of production or distribution, and instruction given in 

III. Division of Markets 

This Division works in conjunction with the Farmers' 

fyl o i* IT AT Q 

Union and the Fruit Growers' Association, whose purpose 
is the promotion of better grading, packing and more careful marketing 
of fruit. 

The New England Milk Producers' Association has a larger field of 
operation in Maine than in any other state. This Division was largely 
instrumental in its organization and growth in the state. 

There are 130 local organizations with a membership of many thou- 
sands. The Sweet Corn Growers of the state have been organized into 
about 70 local associations, several county and one state association. The 
object is to improve the crop, save in the purchase of supplies and secure 
a uniform price for corn. 

The Division is also trying to develop home markets for Maine farm 
products, and to keep farmers posted on crop production and market prices 
throughout the country. 

A Bureau of Statistics is being organized for collection of information 
bearing upon crops, livestock and agricultural resources. 

IV. Division of Inspection 

In 1914 the inspection of foods, drugs, fertilizers and vari- 
Food and ,, , , . ' * , ^ 

_, ... ous other articles was placed in this department. The serv- 

_ . ice employs a chief clerk, stenographer, from three to ten 

inspectors and a number of chemists. It inspects the sani- 
tary condition in bakeries, ice-cream and candy establishments, meat 
shops, slaughter houses and other food producing or handling places. It 
looks after all kinds of food to see that they are up to the standard require- 
ments. It registers, samples and analyzes about 500 brands of fertilizers. 
It does the same with all the large number of feeding stuffs, insecticides 
and fungicides, brought into the state for sale, and has charge of the 
inspection of seeds brought into the state. 

. , Standard weights and measures approved by the Bureau 

of Standards at Washington, are maintained at the State 

and Measures TT ~ , , ., . , ,. , , , , f 

House. Each town and city is obliged to have a set ot 

standards with which the scales, weights and measures used in the town 


and city, are compared by the local sealers. All local sealers are under the 

jurisdiction of the State Sealer. All local standards have to be shipped 

to the State House once in five years, to be compared with the national 


Grading In this bureau from two to five inspectors look after the 

and Packing quality of apples packed and sold in the state. 

of Apples 

There are three state fairs and about 50 county and local 
fairs receiving a stipend from the state, and it is the duty 
of the department to visit each of these and make a record of its work. 

Much educational work is done by the Department. In 

T 1 ^IT 1 T 1 1 1 f*C 

1917 about 300 addresses were given by members and 
representatives of the Department, to which there were over 15,000 lis- 

The Department of Agriculture publishes four quarterly 

bulletins each year. Each bulletin is on the topic that is 
of greatest interest at the time it is published. They average about 75 
pages and are usually well illustrated, Those published in 1919 had for 
subjects, "Seed and Plant Improvement," "Sheep Raising on Maine Farms," 
"Papers and Addresses Delivered Before the Various Farm Organizations 
of the State," "Orchard Operations and Packing of Fruit." These bulle- 
tins are distributed throughout the state, going into nearly every town 
and reaching the families of over ten thousand farmers. The Department 
is now securing copy for a bulletin to be published in 1920, outlining the 
agricultural resources of the state and their development. 

The results of the analysis of foods, feeds, poisons and fertilizers 
were published in pamphlet form and distributed among interested par- 
ties. Th*e annual reports of the Department, the transactions of the 
State Pomological Society, Maine Dairymen's Association, Maine Seed 
Improvement Association and the Maine Livestock Breeders' Association 
have been published and distributed to the number of 5,000. Various 
other pamphlets have been published and disrtibuted. 
p , The Department is under the direction of the Commissioner 

of Agriculture. Each of the ten Bureaus has a Director, 
while ten to thirty men are employed in the field. In addition to this staff 
there are two clerks and five stenographers employed in the office. 
p. . , This Department had an appropriation of $316,127.28 given 

~.. . it by the Legislature of 1919 to use in the interests and 

for the development of agriculture in Maine. Salary and 
clerk hire only amounts to $23,230.00. 



Crop Statistics 






Dec. 1 


per Acrt 

Corn (Grain) 



45 bu. 


$ 1.67 

$ 1,728,000 

$ 75.1E 

Spring Wheat 



55 bu. 
22 bu. 








19 bu. 
40 bu. 








34 bu. 
25 bu. 








28 bu. 
20 bu. 








24 bu. 
200 bu. 





Hay Tame 



240 bu. 
1.15 T. 





Hay Wild 



1.30 T. 
.90 T. 








1.00 T. 













(Agricultural) .... 





Sweet Corn 







14 bu. 




17 bu. 












Other cattle 









Yearlings (exempt from 

taxation) 57,737 





Poultry produced 


Eggs produced . 


Five year old apple tree (Stark). Finest tree of 
its age inspected by Department of Agriculture 
in 1919. Height, 15 feet; diameter of head, 16x16 
feet; diameter one foot above ground, 4% inches. 



. , Cotton is found in Asia, Africa and America. The Chinese 

are known to have manufactured cloth from cotton as early 
as 500 B. C. and in India there are old books, in which cotton is mentioned, 
that were written eight hundred years before the birth of Christ. 

, In the United States -between 12,000,000 and 14,000,00 

v . bales are raised annually. This is about three-fourths of 

the crop of the entire world. Of this about one-third is 
manufactured in our own country. Such a crop represents, in value of 
fibre, seed and other by-products, in excess of two thousand millions of 
dollars, or double the world's production of gold in any one year since the 
discovery of the yellow metal. In twenty years the production in the 
United States has increased from 6,650,000 bales to 14,000,000 of 500 
pounds each. Its farm value has increased from eight to thirty cents a 
pound, and the acreage from 27,000,000 to 35,000,000. 

. Exports of the fibre have grown from 5,000,000 to 10,500,- 

oreign Q()0 baleg &nd Qf the manu f actured C i ths from $30,000,000 

to $52,000,000 in value. Twenty years ago cotton by- 
products were practically worthless. Last year exports of cotton-seed oil 
alone were worth $21,694,345. Today, the by-products alone would make 
cotton a profitable crop. The world's production has kept pace with that 
of this country in average increase, but the United States continues to 
grow somewhat more than two-thirds of the whole. 
p , , The manufacture of cotton goods in Maine was begun 

p , about one hundred years ago. One of the pioneer mills 

was established in Brunswick in 1809, another at Wilton 
in 1810, and a third in Gardiner in 1811. In 1820 returns made to the 
legislature show that there were nine cotton and woolen factories in 
Maine, but it is probable that a majority of them were woolen mills. It 
has been stated by apparently good authority that there were then six 
small woolen mills in the state. The capital invested was small, only 
$11,000 for the nine mills. 

The manufacture of cotton goods has for a long time been one of the 
most important industries of the state, for several decades taking first 
rank, and is still increasing: yet, in 1905, on the basis of capital invested, 
it took second rank, pulp and paper being first, and on the basis of value 
of product it was exceeded only by pulp and paper and lumber and timber 

207 . 


At the present time there are in the state sixteen mills 
devoted to the manufacture of cotton goods. Fourteen of 
these mills are producing cotton goods, exclusively. Two are combined 
with the woolen industry. According to the Official Textile Directory of 
1917, these factories represent a total valuation of $19,388,000 and employ 
13,827 people, of whom 7,606 are females and 6,221 male workers. Fifteen 
of these sixteen mills allow helpers between the ages of fourteen and six- 
teen to be employed. The assessed valuation on these mills, given by the 
State Board of Assessors, is $12,336,460. 

Water power only is used to run six of the sixteen mills, three are 

run by a combination of water power and electricity, five use water and 

steam, while one employs all three forms of power. There are 944,274 

spindles and 28,119 looms contained in these factories. 

T ... In 1820, of the nine mills representing both cotton and 

f 1VT11 woolen establishments, two were located in Cumberland 

County, one in Hancock, two in Kennebec, two in Lincoln 

and two in York. In 1917, half of the sixteen mills were located in Andros- 

coggin County, three in Cumberland, three in Kennebec and two in York. 



Cotton Industry 

Number of 

of Product 

Total Am't 
of Pay Roll 


Average Number Employed 1918 



14 and 16 

Females ' 
14 and 16 



$ 82,143 83 





4,477,984 83 

1,172,920 91 

1,120 ' 





2,050,007 83 


1 392 


. q 

4 213,607 51 

37,793 45 



5 62,400 00 

9,153 31 



6 ' . . . 

18,000 00 



7 234,000 00 

19,375 1*5 



8 80,000 00 

8,776 40 


' 24 


9 49,070 33 

21,090 85 




10 2,639,381 66 

512,121 30 





11 100,000 00 10,610 17 



12 2,250,232 49 

390,957 05 





13 17,000 00 

3,000 00 



14 1,945,480 00 

540,868 31 





15 41,845 70 

6,871 50 



16 1,984,357 45 

345,714 67 





17 165,629 49 

25,474 53 



18 1,266,143 14 

153,991 19 





19 75,856 00 

11,384 00 



20 22,368 00 

7,800 00 




21 50,534 36 

20,305 09 




1 930 00 


23 60,000 00 

20,000 00 



24 280,800 00 



25 852,703 79 

160,530 05 





26 1,783,156 39 

410,951 60 





27 1,905,993 54 

504,934 34 





28 413,409 74 

137,620 85 




29 3,919,793 64 1,178,680 23 




30 2,605,715 00 6.69,584 62 




1,045,625 17 

367,523 66 





696,079 52 

129,329 65 

90 . 





$29,239,167 75 

$ 9,029,444 77 


7,229 232 




The great clothing-wool-producing countries of the world are Austra- 
lia, South America, the United States and South Africa. The world's 
wool production for 1910 was estimated at 2,952,782,985 pounds, of which 
the United States was supposed to have raised about 321,362,750 pounds, 
over one-tenth of the total. The largest producer of the best wool, that 
is, of the finest fibre, is Australia. 

It is estimated that about two-thirds of the clothing-wool used by 
the American manufacturers is raised in the United States. There are 
eight hundred thousand farmers and stockmen in this country who own 
sheep and are interested in the growth of wool. 

The change from hand-made woolens to the factory product in the 
state of Maine, was not rapid, as in 1820 there were reported only six fac- 
tories and they were very small affairs compared with the mills of more 
recent date. In fact, as late as 1850, and in the newer settled parts of the 
state much later, the weaving by the hand loom of woolen goods for men's 
wear was continued in many homes, the warp being generally of cotton 
and the filling of homespun woolen. 

TTT i T-ii I* 1 I860, the number of woolen mills reported in Maine 
Woolen Mills . , , .,, ., , , 9nAr . , AA ,, 

was twenty-eight with a capital value of $940,400. The 

average number of hands employed was 1,064, of which number 565 were 
men and 499 women. In 1900 the industry gave employment to 4,594 men, 
2,361 women, and 200 children under sixteen years of age. At this time 
the number of mills had increased to seventy-nine with a capital of $14,- 

The census figures for 1905 show but seventy-two mills, some of the 
smaller ones having dropped out of business while some others were 
enlarged. During the five years the capital invested increased to $17,- 
552,404 and the number of operatives to 8,743. 

According to the Official Textile Directory of 1917 the number of mills 
reported in operation is fifty-eight with a capital value of $7,562,000 
exclusive of the American Woolen Company mills. The assessed value on 
these mills, given by the Board of State Assessors, is $4,116,656. There 
are employed in these factories 8,440 of whom 5,458 are male and 2,982 
female workers. Of this number 122 are children under sixteen years of 
age, employed in nineteen of the fifty-eight concerns. 



These mills contain 487 sets, 167,952 spindles and 4,463 looms. Six- 
teen mills are run by water power alone, four by electricity, and ten use 
a combination of the three powers, water, electricity and steam. The 
remaining twenty-eight use some two of these powers combined. 
w , . Maine is well up among the states in the manufacture of 
woolen goods. In 1900 only Massachusetts and Pennsyl- 
vania exceeded it in the product of carded woolens, while it took sixth 
rank in the combined woolen industry, which includes carpets and rugs, 
felt goods and wool hats, in addition to carded woolens and worsted goods. 

While the cotton mills occupy the large powers on our main rivers, 
the woolen mills, for the most part, are located on the smaller streams, 
so that the woolen industry is scattered over a much larger area of the 
state and where we find cotton mills in only four of our sixteen counties, 
there are but three counties which do not contain some established woolen 


Woolen Industry 


Average Number Employed 1918 

H g 

Total Value 

Total Am't 


S- M 

of Product 

of Pay Roll 








between between 
14 and 16 14 and 16 

3 1 




$ 517,805 69 

$ 38,634 66 




22,583 47 





300,000 00' 

60,000 00 






5,793,706 18 

1,147,257 54 






4,086,221 93 

I 942,988 14 






11,873 64 




403,197 72 

60,606 26 





521,275 00 

75,076 15 




65,000 00 

14,000 00 




3,500 00 

500 00 




1,797,642 58 

179,250 46 



5 ! 



1,043,519 37 

191,358 66 




577,038 92 

128,826 43 




1,115,711 47 

174,078 72 




2,554,804 88 

331,900 97 





989,765 38 

162,439 36 





1,317,303 82 

170,124 16 




1,494,321 80 

241,251 23 




1,099,435 06 

178,573 83 





448,607 23 

27,194 90 




18 000 00 





117,459 68 

18,543 68 




33,470 42 



._ - 



120,242 77 

36,107 53 





545,000 00 

92,209 74 




642,206 99 

87,785 63 




1,186,583 60 

| 203,239 47 





922,487 42 

142,564 82 




1,009,822 25 

i 164,076 64 




752,937 47 

123,095 08 




1,535,261 55 

185,253 70 





326,915 25 

74,397 19 





604,854 84 

59,433 15 





880,564 90 

132,455 55 





718,564 58 

72,575 31 




140,000 00 

42,932 00 





413,364 39 

64,753 14 




838,610 49 

158,798 46 




1,872,267 60 

292,944 40 






955,676 22 

140,799 03 





251,878 78 

86,737 57 




570,000 00 

78,080 99 





207,939 32 

33,278 97 


23 : 


375,000 00 

75,000 00 




34,508 03 

16,258 84 




2,125,648 46 

477,837 53 





104,000 00 

25,032 00 



485,554 74 

97,467 82 





430,350 00 

68,575 49 






442,110 00 

78,220 28 




25,402 24 

4,564 94 





527,982 73 

107,531 67 




3,900 00 




1,004,099 53 

159,144 00 





619,167 03 

90,339 42 




. 467,500 00 

116,111 99 




93,776 19 

33,138 26 




11,272 64 

5,834 23 




90,706 14 

16,868 36 




862,187 74 

120,192 99 





1,839,303 26 

314,338 68 






419,986 79 

85,608 71 






609,016 68 

84,558 34 




500,000 00 

110,000 00 





494,763 00 

116,514 00 






479,852 86 

76,489 09 




$50,783,687 19 

$ 8,783,570 69 








The fisheries along the coast of Maine were very attractive to the 
discoverers and early visitors to our shores. These early navigators spoke 
enthusiastically of the abundance and immense size of the cod and other 
fish they found in these waters. In 1614, Captain John Smith while cruis- 
ing along the coast, took possession of Monhegan Island and established 
a headquarters there, from which more or less extensive fishing operations 
were conducted. 

In 1622, when the -Pilgrims at Plymouth became reduced to a state 

of almost starvation, it was to Monhegan that Winslow came in his shallop 

for relief. It was from this English settlement that his immediate wants 

were supplied, the generous hearted fishermen refusing 

\\ i n ^ I o \v 

. pay for what they furnished. Of this incident Winslow 

wrote : "We not only got a present supply, but also learned 
the way to those parts for our future benefit." On this visit Winslow 
found thirty ships at Monhegan and Damariscove, ships of different nation- 
alities, some seeking a way to the 'Indies, some hunting for gold, while 
others were there for fish and furs. 

The fisheries have entered into nearly all the international negotia- 
tions in which Maine has been at all interested. It is only within the last 
few years that some of the questions which have been pending since the 
close of the Revolutionary War have been brought to a final adjustment. 

One author has said: "The fisheries of New England furnished our 
first articles of export and laid the foundations of our navigation and 
commerce. We have seen through all the changes and chances of our 
Colonial submission from its commencement to its termination; through 
the war of the Revolution and in the negotiations for peace ; in the conven- 
tion that framed and in the state convention that considered the constitu- 
tion of the United States; in the first Congress, and in the negotiations 
at the close of the war of 1812, that the fisheries occupied a prominent 
place, and were often the hinge on which turned questions of vast impor- 
p ,, From 1765 to 1775, Maine employed in cod fishery 60 

. ^. . vessels annually, amounting to 1,000 tons, and manned by 

of Fisheries , , ,, ^ j tl 

230 seamen; and exported annually to Europe and the 

West Indies, about 12,000 quintals, of a value of $48,000. During the Revo- 



lution this branch of trade was nearly cut off, but from 1786 to 1790 
about 30 ' vessels were annually employed, amounting to 300 tons and 
manned by 120 seamen. The exports were to Europe 1,000 quintals valued 
at $3.00 per quintal ; and to the West Indies 3,500 quintals at $2.00, a total 
value of $10,000. 

From 1820 to 1826 inclusive, the total fishing tonnage of the United 
States averaged 63,987 tons per annum, while that of Maine averaged 
12,326 tons, being 19 per cent, or nearly one-fifth of the whole. 
Three million dollars are invested in this industry, includ- 

_ ^ . ing vessels and their apparatus. Approximately 12,000 

persons, exclusive of the sardine industry, get their living 
direct from our fisheries. The annual value of the lobster catch is two 
million dollars; of herring, two and a half million; clams, four hundred 
thousand ; mackerel, one hundred thousand ; smelts, one hundred thousand ; 
other salt water fish, one million. These include only those sold as taken 
from the water, not reckoning salted and dried fish, such as cod, haddock, 
hake and cusk. 

r H Pi h '^^ ie nerrm fishery is one of the most important indus- 
tries. Canning of sardines gives greater employment than 
any other branch. About two million cases are annually packed, sold at 
$10,000,000. Other branches of the great canning industry, establish- 
ments of which are scattered here and there along the sea-board, are 
clams, in value $500,000 ; lobsters, $2,000,000 ; smelts, $96,000 ; alewives, 
$30,000 ; mackerel, $100,000 ; shad, $20,000 ; salmon, $22,000 ; and other 
fish, $5,000. In fish canning and preserving are employed nearly six 
thousand persons who receive wages of $900,000. The total annual product 
is five million dollars. 

o c h Prior to 1867 there was no official head to this depart- 

, . ment but the governor of the state appointed wardens 

T) * * to enforce the laws. In 1867 a resolve entitled "Resolve 
Relating to Restoration of Sea Fish Through the Rivers 
and Inland Waters of Maine" was passed by the legislature. Authority 
over game was given this Commission on March 9, 1880. In 1885 the 
law was amended so that in addition to the two persons appointed Com- 
missioners of Fisheries & Game, the governor should appoint one other 
commissioner to have general supervision of the Sea & Shore Fisheries. 
In 1895 by legislative act the two departments were entirely separated. 

The legislature of 1917 abolished the office of Commissioner of Sea 
& Shore Fisheries and created in place thereof, a Sea & Shore Fisheries 
Commission ; the Commission to appoint a Director of Sea and Shore Fish- 
eries with all the powers and duties of the former commissioner. 

For the year 1918 Maine appropriated $30,200 for the protection and 


development of this great industry. The state employs twenty-five per- 
sons in this work. 

In 1917 the Fish and Game Commission was abolished and 
the work of the Department is now handled by one official 

t^ Idll PT*1 f>C 

designated as Commissioner of Inland Fisheries and Game. 
His duties, in general, are the propagation and protection of fish and the 
protection of game and birds. 

The state department maintains eleven fish hatcheries, 
situated at Caribou, Enfield, Tunk Pond, Moosehead Lake, 
(near Greenville Junction), Lake Moxie, North Belgrade, 
Monmouth, East Auburn, Oquossoc, Raymond and Camden, in which hatch- 
eries are annually raised from four to five millions of landlocked salmon, 
trout and togue for stocking the inland waters of this state. 

A force of wardens, varying from seventy-five to one hun- 
dred, is on duty throughout the year engaged in the 
enforcement of the inland fish and game laws. 

Since July, 1917, the Department has had placed at its 

iri/ disposal the fees collected for non-resident fishermen's 

licenses ($2 each), which are set apart as a fund and 

expended solely for the propagation and protection of inland fish. In 1917 

these fees amounted to $15,000. 

The Department annually collects in license fees, fines, 

and from miscellaneous sources from forty to fifty thousand 
and r ees 

dollars, which money is paid to the State Treasurer and 

credited to the general state fund, the Department receiving no benefit 
from it. 

Some years ago a census was taken, although incomplete, 

of the number of non-residents who visited the inland ter- 
from Visitors ., ,, ,, . . , ,, , , 

ritory of the state m a single season, to fish, hunt or 

spend a vacation. These incomplete returns showed that at least 133,000 
non-residents came to Maine that season; in 1909 the Labor Bureau also 
made a canvass, with a view of securing information as to the extent of 
this industry, and from information secured placed the annual number 
of visitors to all parts of Maine at approximately 400,000 in number. 
Authorities best qualified to judge estimate that these visitors spend 
from $50 to $100 each, on an average, within our borders, for railroad 
and steamboat fares, hotel bills, guides' wages, team hire, camp supplies, 
etc., thus largely in consequence of the presence of inland fish and wild 
game in our state, an industry has developed which brings to the state 
annually at least $30,000,000. 



Maine has a leading place in the canning industry. Almost 
all kinds of fruits and vegetables are used by the packers, 

but blueberries and corn are the chief of them. 

In 1860 Isaac Winslow of Portland began the work of 
canning corn. Since then it has become a leading industry 

and Maine corn has become famous. It is estimated that nearly $2,000,- 

000 are invested in the business, having an annual value of nearly two 

million and a half dollars. 

The value of the blueberry canning industry, which is con- 
fined largely to Washington County, is about $125.000. 








In 1826 Rufus Page of Richmond built the first ice house 
with a capacity of fifteen hundred tons, but it was not a 
success. In 1860 the business for the first time became profitable. 
,, Large companies entered the ice fields. In 1880 1,426,800 

tons were cut, in 1890 it was 3,000,000 tons. The organ- 
izing of the ice trust, transfering much of its harvesting to the Hudson 
River, and the manufacturing of artificial ice has taken from Maine this 
once profitable business. Even the figure of the Ice Man has disappeared 

from the State House window, and it is doubtful if the 
Decline , . ,, . ' 

ice business or the ice man will ever return. 






I I 









The land office was organized in 1828 under an act to pro- 
mote the sale and settlement of public lands. Enoch Lin- 
coln, the governor of that time, appointed Daniel Ross the first land agent. 

We find that in 1824 under an act to promote sale and settlement of 
public lands, the governor and council were empowered to appoint and 
commission an agent to superintend and arrange the sale and settlement 
of public lands. James Irish received the appointment. 

In 1875 a resolve was passed amending the constitution of the state 
by striking out the words "Land Agent" from Section 10 of Article 9 of the 

In 1876 an act was passed empowering the governor and council to 
appoint a land agent. 

In 1890 the land agent was made forest commissioner under an act 
to create a Forest Commission for the protection of forests. 

In 1909 at the suggestion of the wild land owners, an act 

... was passed creating a Maine Forestry District, and pro- 

viding for protection against forest fires therein. 
The acreage of the Maine Forestry District is about 9,500,000 acres. 
The forests outside of the district contain about 4,500,000 acres. 

An annual tax is assessed upon all property in said district which 
now gives a revenue of about $112,000.00, which enables the state to obtain 
from the Federal Government an allotment of about $7,000.00 per year. 

,. The standing timber in the State of Maine is estimated as 

Standing , ,. 

m . , follows : 

Spruce 11,630,000,000 ft. board measure 

Spruce Pulp 9,610,000,000 ft. board measure 

Fir 2,288,500,000 ft. board measure 

Fir Pulp 1,943,000,000 ft. board measure 

Pine 5,060,000,000 ft. board measure 

Cedar 2,781,000,000 ft. board measure 

Hemlock 880,000,000 ft. board measure 

Poplar 1,123,000 cords 

White Birch 1,109,980 cords 

Yellow Birch 2,033,500,000 ft. board measure 

Maple 1,403,500,000 ft. board measure 

Beech 12,000,000,000 ft. board measure 



There are in farms 9,000 square miles. It is estimated 

that 2,400 square miles included in the farm lands consist 

of woods, add that to the part remaining as a wilderness, 
and there are 22,000 square miles of forest lands, a territory equal in 
extent to the combined areas of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Con- 
necticut. By these figures it will be perceived that notwithstanding the 
fearful inroads made upon forests by fires and the lumberman's axe, Maine 
is still a well wooded state. It must not be considered, however, that the 
whole wooded area consists of timber lands. It is doubtful whether one- 
half of it may be so considered. The wooded area includes everything 
covered with trees, no matter if those trees, however ornamental, are 
utterly worthless for commercial purposes. 
~ . f Fifty years ago the state owned a large portion of the wild 

lands. It is useless to recall here the short-sighted policy 

Wild Lands , . ,. .,, ,, , , ,. ,r , ,, 

pursued in parting with the land, most of which was sold 

for twelve cents an acre, notwithstanding the fact that it was covered with 
valuable timber. Today the state owns only the lands reserved for school 
purposes in unorganized townships. Practically it owns no wild lands at 

_ , . ^From the earliest days Maine has been a lumbering state. 

The spruce and pine along the banks of the Saco, the 

Androscoggin, the Kennebec and St. Croix, and the tribu- 

taries to these waters, were easily accessible, and the logs were borne 

cheaply and swiftly to the lumber mills, located at those convenient inter- 

vals where nature had kindly and thoughtfully placed waterfalls, so that 

man could harness the flowing force and make it turn the wheel of industry 

as it sped on its way to the great ocean. 

Y . The lumber business of Maine has been from the earliest 

T ^ p times and is now one of its most important industries. For 

illustration, the average yearly cut on the Penobscot alone 

was more than 150,000,000 feet, board measure, or 7,500,000,000 board 
feet during the fifty years that closed the nineteenth century. It may be 
safely estimated that the cut in the entire state for the same period was 
25,000,000,000 feet. These are enormous figures that stagger fancy but 
they are facts. 

p ,, Most valuable timber trees are of slow growth. Careful 

, _, observation and study by expert foresters prove con- 

clusively that it requires from one hundred fifty to two 

hundred years for a spruce tree to grow from the small plant to fifteen 

inches diameter, breast high. The white birch is a faster growing tree, 

requiring from fifty to one hundred years to reach maturity. It is esti- 

mated that 40,000,000 board feet of white birch are cut annually in Maine, 

and hitherto not much care has been taken to preserve the small trees, 

but a change for the better has taken place. 


Two great industries came to Maine by reason of its pos- 
^ session of fine white birch, namely spool making and the 

M ^ f wood novelty business. It is hardly necessary to refer 
to the Willimantic and the Maverick Spool Manufactories, 
or the wood novelty concerns of the Russell Brothers of Farmington, as 
examples of these industries. If the birch timber cut had gone solely to 
supply our own manufactories the yield would probably have supplied 
home demands without impairing the birch timber; but fully one-half 
has been shipped in the shape of spool bars to supply the spool manufac- 
tories of Great Britain. 

When pulp and paper first began to be manufactured from 
P wood, poplar only was used. It is a fast growing wood 

and there is a fairly good supply of it in Maine today. But 
spruce is now the favorite pulp wood and the demand for it to supply the 
great pulp and paper plants of the country is something enormous. Maine 
today stands second only to New York in the manufacture of pulp and 
paper, and was first in the year 1916. This state has thirty pulp mills and 
twenty-eight paper mills, and in addition thereto the monster pulp and 
paper plants at Rumford Falls and Millinocket employing 10,696; capital 
invested $80,422,988, annual value $40,179,744. 
TJ f j But a greater marvel, illustrating the growth in wood- 

pulp paper and allied products, is afforded by the great 

International Company at Rumford Falls, which shows to 
what wonderful extent industrial developments may be effected in a few 
years when far seeing sagacity seizes the resources nature has lavishly 
bestowed and proceeds to utilize them. In no other place and at no other 
time has ten years produced such a transformation in the State of Maine. 
Where a decade ago was an almost unbroken wilderness, two thousand 
workmen now go to daily labor. Their wages reach over a hundred thou- 
sand a month; and a community numbering more than six thousand 
people, larger than some incorporated cities, is enabled thereby to enjoy all 
the comforts and many of the luxuries of civilization. The new town has 
banks and hotels, water works, and electric lights, deep-laid sewers, fine 
streets and parks, and a class of residences for workingmen that is the 
admiration and envy of all the surrounding country for hundreds of miles. 

Millinocket is one of our new towns, yesterday only a 
Millinocket .,, . ' . 

p f r H wilderness ; today it is among the most progressive of 

Maine industrial centers. Millinocket is the work of a 
few enterprising men, who by thrift and sagacity and daring enterprises 
have built up settlements unsurpassed and scarcely equalled in the new 
and rapidly growing West. The paper company has a daily output of two 
hundred tons of manila and newspaper sheets not to count pasteboard 


boxes, brown bags, and United States Government postal cards, of which 
it well-nigh has a monopoly. 

ri u io A Tne Cumberland Mills at Westbrook have long furnished 
Cumberland . ~ 

,jjjj s the finest quality of printing paper to the great book pub- 

lishing houses, and magazines like Harpers, the Atlantic, 
the Century (with its numerous dictionary and encyclopedic publications), 
McClures, Munseys, Ladies Home Journal, Ainslies, and many other 
notable ones, as well as to those firms in New York, Boston and Philadel- 
phia, which make a specialty of editions de luxe, and fine books sold by 
subscription only. 

_ . There are nine hundred establishments engaged in the 

p . manufacture of lumber and timber products, with seven 

thousand wage-earners, and products valued at fifteen 
million dollars annually. Lumbering was begun at an early period in 
Maine, and has continued to be a leading industry. Owing to the growing 
scarcity of the tall pine, originally the most important timber cut, spruce 
has now taken the leading place. Maine's wealth of hardwoods, between 
seven and twelve billion feet, already receiving attention, is destined to be 
much more appreciated. Birch is in great demand for spool wood, both for 
local manufacture and for shipment to Scotland, while beech is called for 
to be converted into orange shocks for Florida and the Mediterranean ports. 
General wood-working plants have been built in many parts of the state, 
especially at points accessible to the raw material. 



T . In the early days tanning and shoe making were entirely 

home industries. In 1809 Maine had 200 tanneries, each 
tanning on an average about 275 skins. In 1869 it was among the first five 
industries, having a valuation of $1,864,949. In 1879 the business reached 
its highest mark, being valued at more than $2,500,000. From this time 
the business has declined because of the decrease in the hemlock bark 
supply and the new methods of tanning. 

. It was about seventy-five years ago that the first shoe 

, _ factory of which we have any record in this state com- 

menced operations. Up to that time most of the footwear 
had been made by local shoemakers and it was several years before our 
people generally purchased the factory product instead of having their 
feet measured for their boots and shoes. Although Auburn has been the 
leading town in the manufacture of boots and shoes and now gives employ- 
ment to three-eighths of the shoe workers in the state, the industry did 
not originate there. The first factory of which we have a record was 
started in New Gloucester in 1844 by A. P. White, who at first employed 
17 hands. He moved to Auburn in 1856. In 1848 John F. Cobb started a 
factory at North Auburn, at which time the two factories gave employment 
to 38 hands. Mr. Cobb moved to Auburn in 1856, shortly before Mr. White. 
In 1854, Ara Cushman began the manufacture of shoes at West Minot. 
This third shop increased the number of factory workers in the state to 
60, and by 1860 the number employed had reached 110. Mr. Cushman 
moved to Auburn in 1862. Thus a nucleus of the industry was formed in 
Auburn, about which other shops have been built until now the city is the 
center of the shoe industry in Maine. Since these early 

1917 iqlfs days {i has had a steady ^ rowth until todav {i is one of our 
four leading industries. There are 40 establishments with 

an annual product valued at $39,660,000, an annual payroll of $7,312,000, 
employing in 1918, 6,653 men and 4,536 women. 










, Maine is rich in rocks, from her quarries to the great 

boulders. Aroostook County, the garden of the state, is 
Information , , . ., , , ... . 

underlain with calcareous slate, which makes its soil won- 
derfully fertile. Northwest of Katahdin begins a belt of sandstone, which 
sweeps southwest, forming the northern shores of Moosehead Lake. 
Between the Kennebec river and the New Hampshire line, to the Piscata- 
qua, the rock is chiefly syenite, gneiss, mica and talcose schists which 
alternate with each other to a confusing degree. Sweeping across the 
state rearward from the eastern border of the banks of the Kennebec 
is a belt of slate many townships in width. It is from this that our roof- 
ing slate comes. The middle .section is metaliferous, abounding in iron 
and lead, with traces here and there of the precious metals, gold and silver. 
Sandstone, fit for building purposes, is found south of the Penobscot down 
to the sea. Copper, once mined extensively in Blue Hill, is once more being 
produced there by the largest mining concern in America. Iron ores in 
Piscataquis County have been worked with profit and are probably about 
to be extensively operated. Lead ores are found in Lubec, where it has 
been mined, and zinc and copper are present in appreciable quantities. 
. Granite and gneiss are found in every region of the state, 

and are famed all over the Union. Great cargoes of it go 
and Gneiss , , ,, . , . 

everywhere, and Maine granite can be seen in the most 

stately and luxurious buildings in great cities of the country. Some of 
the limestones of the Thomaston belt are fine enough to be termed marbles ; 
but use of this stone for making lime is found to yield a surer return than 
marble quarrying. The dolomites of Warren are extensive and valuable 
in paper-pulp manufacture. Boulders of fine statuary marble line the 
east branch of the Penobscot. C. Vey Holman, former state geologist, 
is responsible for the statement that nickel and platinum both occur in 
several localities. 

Serpentine, the handsome green stone, steatite (soap stone) are found 
in considerable quantities and only the depression in the price of silver 
has prevented its production, as this metal occurs in minable quantities. 
If it goes permanently, as now seems likely, to one dollar an ounce, Maine 
would become a producer of silver. 




. In her magnificent granite quarries Maine has inexhaust- 

I r ' i n 1 1 f* 

ible sources of wealth. It is no exaggeration to say that 


the state has granite enough within her borders to supply 
all the cities in the world with building and paving stone for many cen- 
turies to come. The work of fifty years in its 152 quarries has left hardly 
an impression, while there are countless sites for quarries that have never 
yet been operated. Like marble or slate, granite is of better quality the 
farther it is removed from the surface ; hence, the longer a granite quarry 
is worked the more valuable it becomes. 

Granite is well distributed over the state, being found in every county. 
In some sections the distribution is far more liberal than in others, for 
sometimes the underlying rock of a whole town, or even a larger extent of 
territory is granite, while in other cases only here and there the outcrop- 
pings of this rock are seen. The Hallowell granite is famous everywhere; 
the Frankfort, Hurricane Isle and Vinalhaven and North Jay scarcely 
less so. These are all of the purest white. But at Red Beach within the 
limits of Calais, there are other shades, all beautiful and capable of taking 
a fine polish. The prevailing shade is red. At Addison are unlimited quan- 
tities of black granite, susceptible of a striking polish, and in great demand 
for monumental purposes and for interior finish for buildings. 

The white granite of Maine has been used in such notable 

. structures as the Capitol at Albany, N. Y., the monument 

at Yorktown, Va. ; {he U. 'S. Government Building at Chi- 
cago; the tomb of Grant at Riverside Park; Arnheim Mausoleum, N. Y. ; 
Wayne County Court House, Detroit; State, War and Navy Buildings, 
Washington ; Masonic Temple, Philadelphia ; Custom House and Post Office, 
Buffalo; General Wood monument, Troy; Pilgrims' monument, Plymouth; 
Gen. Thomas monument, Washington ; and Bureau of Printing and Engrav- 
ing at the National Capitol. The red granite is conspicuous in the Museum 
of Natural History in New York Central Park. 

r . The greater portion of her granite quarries are located 

r p ,,. so near tide-water that the produce can be easily trans- 

_ ., ,. ported to all the large cities on the Atlantic Coast. Not- 

withstanding this fact it is also true that the large interior 
cities like St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati, Albany, Milwaukee, Pittsburg. 
Buffalo, and many others, have drawn largely on Maine granite for the 
construction of their more costly and beautiful public buildings and fine 
business blocks. The demand for granite for state buildings, bank and 
insurance structures, and private residences, is likely to be greater in the 
future than in the past. Our granite resources are inexhaustible, and will 
remain a source of perpetual revenue. 

p , , While mining of feldspar, mica, and tourmalines cannot be 

classed among the leading industries of Maine, yet for 

many years mines have been worked in a commerical way, and there are 


probabilities of expansion in all of them. The feldspar quarry and mill in 
Topsham is operated with increased demand for the product year by year. 
At Hedgehog Mountain, in the town of Peru, feldspar in large quantities 
and of excellent quality is found. 

There are also quarries of feldspar in South Paris of much worth. 
There are at present two mills for its grinding in the state, one in Port- 
land and one in Topsham. The grinding is a slow process, being done by 
attrition, and flint pebbles are used for the purpose. At the Portland mill 
it is ground finer than flour. Ground feldspar is used extensively in the 
manufacture of stone ware, and that of Maine is said to be the finest in the 
country. A great deal goes to Trenton, some to East Liverpool, Ohio, 
where there are extensive stone ware works. 

Quartz is also ground, some going to glass works and some to sand 
paper works. The demand is greater than the supply, so there is no diffi- 
culty in finding a market. 

Maine is usually either first or second in the annual output of pottery 
feldspar, alternating with New York. 
. Mica seems generally to be associated with feldspar as do 

also the tourmaline, and beryl gems. There are several 

mica mines in Maine, only two of which have been con- 
tinuously operated. They are nearly all situated in Oxford county. So far 
as records show the first mica for commercial purposes was furnished by 
the town of Paris in 1871. For several years mica mining was carried 
on there but the mine was considered more valuable for tourmalines and 
other gems, and therefore mica mining was discontinued. In 1891 a new 
mica mine of great promise was discovered 0n Hedgehog Mountain in 
Peru. Mica is somewhat scarce in this country, and a large part of that 
used comes from far-off India. It is said by those competent to judge that 
the mica found at Hedgehog Mountain is superior to the Indian mineral. 
It is certainly remarkably clear and transparent. Mica that will square 
six inches by twelve is very valuable, being worth several times as much 
a pound as small pieces. Scrap mica, that is, pieces too small to cut, is 
worth about eight dollars a ton. This scrap mica is used in powdered form 
in fire proof paints, in the inlaid work on book covers, and for many other 

Maine possesses that rare and precious stone, the tourma- 
.. line, prized all over the world. At Mount Mica, in the 

town of Paris, is a deposit of tourmaline, green and red, 
famous in mineralogy, and unequalled elsewhere. They are apparently 
inexhaustible in quantity, as they are unrivalled in quality. Cut into gems 
they adorn many a brooch and ring and necklace, and are stored in museums 
for their beauty. No such wealth in tourmalines is elsewhere known at 
least this side of the Mississippi. 


Practically the entire supply (a very small quantity) of the rare metal, 
calsium, now in existence in America, was taken from a lepidolite mica 
deposit in Oxford County, Maine. 

Knox County, Maine, stands ready to supply all the lime 
the world demands for centuries to come, and within the 
limit of profitable transportation the Maine product fears 
no competition. For over a hundred years the lime business has been 
growing, small at first and worked in the simplest manner. Yet from 
the first it has been profitable, and has given employment to an ever increas- 
ing number of men. 

Like other lines of industry the men directly employed in the min- 
ing and burning of lime are not the only classes supported by the business. 
Lime production has a direct effect on shipping. The lime that Knox 
County furnishes the rest of the state is a mere bagatelle. The great 
bulk of the product goes to Boston, and New York, even as far as Galves- 
ton, Texas ; and goes by water. It takes a sizeable fleet of vessels to carry 
all this lime and to bring the coal and wood used in the burning. When 
the lime business is good, coastwise shipping from the Knox district is 
profitable, and all along the rocky bays of Maine the touch of prosperity 
is felt. This is one of the allied industries. Back in the country districts 
we find another. This is where they are making the barrels in which the 
lime is shipped to market. Even beyopd the cooperage region, still further 
inland we come to the hoop-pole belt, where one of the important occupa- 
tions is the cutting and splitting of young growth to make the hoops 
that bind the staves of the limecask. The average annual value of the 
lime itself is more than a million dollars. Perhaps in no other way can 
the magnitude of the interest be brought out than by the statement that 
there is a standard gauge railroad, eleven miles in length, located in Rock- 
land, which does nothing but carry limerock from the quarries to the 
kilns, and carry back such coal as is needed for the quarries. Last year 
it hauled 113,209 tons of rock. Its transportation earnings were sixty-two 
thousand dollars. 

M 1 hH Molybdenum is found in large quantities in Maine, in fact 

Maine has probably the largest deposits of this mineral 
in the world. It is found in Cooper, near Machias, and at Catherine Hill 
in Hancock County. Molybdenum is a mineral valuable as an alloy with 
steel to which it imparts self hardening and other wonderful qualities, 
intensifying greatly its ductility, toughness, malleability, capacity for 
elongation and for withstanding tensile and other stresses. There is no 
material known superior to molybdenum steel as a lining for modern 
"built up" ordnance ; and for this and kindred purposes metallurgists have 
demonstrated that it possesses double the efficiency per unit of that other 
wonderful metal, its only rival as a beneficiator of steel, the element tungs- 


ten*. It is by increasing the fineness of the grain that molybdenum accom- 
plishes its function of doubling the tensile strength. 

Reports of engineers who have examined all the molybdenum deposits 
of the world agree that the ore body exposed at Catherine Hill exceeds 
in tonnage and in uniformity of its dissemination of the mineral any other 
known on earth. The mineralized, molybdenum bearing ore as shown by 
present exposures is more than half a mile in length, over five hundred 
feet in width and of a proven depth exceeding seven hundred feet. 
. . Maine has eighty-one mineral springs, while several others 

have already been discovered whose virtues are less fully 
known, and probably others will yet be found. The sales 
from all springs would place the gross amount received for Maine mineral 
water between $300,000 and $400,000. 

There are employed in the bottling houses and in driving teams to 
convey the water to stations, from 150 to 200 men at good wages. The 
sale of Maine mineral and medicinal waters is increasing rapidly and can 
even now be classed among our important industries. The sales will con- 
tinue to increase as the purity and the curative properties of the water 
from our springs become better known by means of advertising, the best 
advertisement being the testimony of persons who have been benefited 
by the use of the water. 

Other states may have as good mineral water as the State of Maine, 
but they have none better, purer, clearer, or more conducive to good health 
and long life. Our mineral waters, like our granite, slate and lime, are 
inexhaustible. We have enough to supply the world. 


Maine is fortunate in possessing an abundant supply of 
Bric k clay for brick making. In the early days the most fam- 

Making oug yards were i oca ted at Sheepscot, Portland, Bowdoin- 

ham, Hallowell, Bangor and Brewer. In 1880 there were 35 yards with 
an output of 4,500,000 bricks. In 1885 machinery was introduced; this 
led to a great increase in the business. In 1855 about 50,000,000 bricks 
were manufactured. This increased until in 1880, 80,000,000 bricks were 
made, and by 1889 there were 95 yards making 93,000,000 bricks, valued 
at half a million dollars. Since 1900 the industry has been decreasing, so 
that today not more than 45 yards are operated. 



Maine rocks of present, or possible future, commercial value: 

Rock Uses Distribution 

Granite.... Building, foundation, curbs, roads, Every county, coast from Kittery 

monuments. to Calais, all mountain regions. 

Limestone. Building and agricultural lime, ce- Every county, particularly Knox. 

ment, buildings, monuments, sulphite 

pulp, foundries. 

Sandstone.. Building : Washington county. 

Slate Roofing slabs, etc Piscataquis and Somerset counties. 

Trap Roads, etc General, needs investigation. 

Serpentine. Ornamental stone Deer Isle. 

Clay Bricks, tile, pottery General, needs investigation. 

Sand Building, molding, glass, blast, etc. General, needs investigation. 

Peat Fuel, fertilizer, litter General. 


Maine minerals of present, or possible future, commercial value. 

a) Metallic Ores 

Containing Uses Distribution 

Gold Swift and Sandy Rivers, etc. 

Silver Lubec, Concord, Cherryfield. 

Copper Sullivan, Bluehill, Brookville. 

Lead Lubec, Dexter, Concord, Cherryfield. 

Zinc Lubec, Cherryfield, Concord. 

I ron Katahdin Iron Works, etc. 

Manganese . . Alloy with iron, etc Bluehill, Winslow, etc. 

Molybdenum . Alloy with iron, etc Tunk Pond, Cooper, Augusta, etc. 

Tungsten .... Alloy with iron, etc Bluehill. 

Boron Alloy with iron, etc Tourmaline localities. 

Arsenic Poisons, etc ..,.. Greenwood, Winslow, Verona, South 


Antimony. . . Babbitt, Britannia, etc Carmel. 

Tin Plating iron, etc Winslow, Paris. 

Rare metals, (lithium, caesium, beryllium, uranium? radium?). 

b) Commercial non-metals 

Uses Distribution 

Graphite. . . Pencils, lubricants, etc Canton, Bethel, Dixfield, Paris. 

Sulphur. . . . Sulphuric acid, etc General, in varying quantities. 

(from Pyrites) 

c) Gems Distribution 

Tourmaline Paris, Auburn, Buckfield, Hebron, etc. 

Beryl Buckfield, Albany, Auburn, Paris, etc. 

Quartz General. 

Topaz Stoneham. 

Garnet Rumford, Paris, Georgetown, etc. 

Spodumene Auburn, Paris, Peru. 

Amazon Stone Southwest Harbor. 

Apatite Auburn. 

d) Miscellaneous minerals 

Uses Distribution 

Feldspar. . .Pottery Topsham, Auburn, etc. 

Quartz. . . . Iron alloy, abrasive Auburn, Brunswick, etc. 

Corundum. Abrasive , Greenwood. 

Mica Electrical purposes Hebron, Peru, Waterford, etc. 

Calcite .... Optical purposes Rockland, Thomaston, etc. 

Barite Paper glaze, etc Deer Isle, Sullivan, etc. 

Talc Toilet powder, etc Vassalboro, Auburn. 

Fluorite. . . Smelting flux Bluehill, Winslow. 



"The building of a ship is both a symbol and instrument of man's 
social nature and need. It stands for outreaching interests beyond the 
narrow limits of the solitary self ; it implies the recognition of relationship 
in human affairs, of reciprocal benefit in the ready interchange of all 
goods of heart or hand the best product of each being given in return 
for the best of others, so all availing for the common good. This provision 
for intercourse is the most marked among the manifestations and means 
of that associated human effort out of which all civilization grows, and 
by which the whole world is made kin." 

built by European hands on the American 

F* t mr 

continent was "The Virginia of Sagadahock", launched 
Built in Maine , , , . . ,, ^ ' 

from the banks of the Sagadahoc, now the Kennebec, River 

by the Popham colonists. 

In the year 1631 John Winter established a shipyard on Richmond 
Island off Cape Elizabeth, Maine. Some time in December, Winter began 
to build there a ship for merchants in Plymouth, England. She was prob- 
ably the first regular packet between England and America. She carried 
to the old country lumber, fish, oil and other colonial products, and brought 
back guns, ammunition and liquor. Other ships had been built in America 
by Europeans for European use, but Winter's work may be called the begin- 
ning of the American business of building ships for export. 
~. . One of the earliest ship or boat builders was a man named 

R ... John Bray, who came from Plymouth, England, about 

1660, bringing with him his family, among whom was his 
daughter Margery, afterwards wife of William Pepperell. He settled at 
Kittery Point where he engaged in a profitable and flourishing business 
of building and repairing boats for the fishermen. The Pepperells, father 
and son, were large ship owners and builders. Master William Badger 
was a noted shipbuilder. He launched from a small island at Kittery, 
which now bears his name. He built a hundred ships during his life. Sir 
William Phips, born in Woolwich in 1651, farmer, blacksmith, shipbuilder 
and shipmaster, knighted by the English king and first governor of Massa- 
chusetts under the Provincial Charter, was one of a long line of mighty 
men who laid the foundations of Maine's prosperity. 



The building and use of ships were employments which the founders 
of the American colonies and their descendants may be said to have adopted 
naturally, and from the middle of the seventeenth to the middle of the 
nineteenth century, shipping and ship building were two industries whose 
competition England especially dreaded. In fact, in 1650, the English 
Parliament felt it necessary to enact a statute for the purpose of protecting 
English shipping against her colonies of America and no less than twenty- 
nine other similar statutes were passed during the following one hundred 
and twenty years. 

It was in the "Ranger" a Kittery built ship on the 
^ S a ^ fourteenth of February, 1778, that John Paul Jones 

, received the first formal recognition ever given by a for- 
American Flag . TT . , ... 

eign fleet to the United States of America in a salute 

to the American flag, and it was just seven months before, on July 4, 1777, 
that Captain Jones had hoisted on the "Ranger" the first Stars and Stripes 
that ever flew from the peak of an American man-of-war. 

The "America", built under the direction of and placed under the 
command of John Paul Jones at Kittery in 1782, was at that time the 
largest vessel constructed in the colonies. She was later presented to 
the French government in payment for a French vessel which had been 
destroyed in Boston Harbor. 

An encounter between the British brig "Boxer" and the 
The Boxer American brig "Enterprise" took place September 5, 1813, 

in the vicinity of Portland. The action lasted only thirty- 
five minutes when the "Boxer" struck her colors, having lost forty-six 
men, killed and wounded, while the American ship lost fourteen. The 
"Boxer" had been a source of great annoyance to the coasting trade and 
the "Enterprise" was hailed with great joy when she arrived in Portland 
Harbor with her prize. 

On the night of June 29, 1863, the officers and crew of 

a Confederate privateer entered the harbor of Portland, 

captured the revenue-cutter, "Caleb Gushing" and fled to 

sea with her, sharply pursued by two steamers manned by armed volun- 
teers. Finding they could not escape with the cutter, they blew her up, 
and, taking to their boats, were soon made prisoners. 

On June 19, 1864, in the only sea fight of importance dur- 

ing the Civil War, the "Kearsarge" built at Kittery, 
Built in Maine , , . , , , ~ , _. ,/ 

Maine, sunk the Confederate privateer Alabama off the 

harbor of Cherbourg, France. 

Three of the twenty-one ships of the United States Navy, built in 
Maine from 1797-1913, were in service and under fire during the Spanish- 
American War, in 1898: the "Vicksburg" at Havana, May 7; the 


"Machias" under fire off Cardenas, Cuba, May 11; and the "Castine" at 
Mariel, Cuba, July 5. 

. .. And Maine offered the first American sacrifice to Prussian 

I** 1 militarism on the high seas the good ship "William P. 

www J Frye", built and owned by Arthur Sewall & Company, sunk 

by the German cruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich" January 28, 

When the world war came to America it was found that coast patrol 
boats were needed at once, much more quickly than they could be secured 
through the usual department channels in Washington. In this emergency 
the State of Maine purchased a fleet of patrol boats of its own, turned 
them over to the government together with the boats used ordinarily by 
the state sea and shore fisheries department, and then secured, largely 
from wealthy summer residents of Maine, the offer to the government 
free of charge for the period of the war of about twice the number pur- 
chased. Thus an adequate fleet was promptly at the government's dis- 
posal and an efficient patrol of Maine's coast line was immediately installed. 
The extent of this service on the part of the state is unequalled in the 
country in proportion to resources and population. 

In 1802 Maine built 14,248 tons of shipping. In ten years 
er it had increased to over 40,000 tons, valued at more than 

$1,000,000. This wag equal to a third of all the tonnage 
of the United States. The next twenty-five years saw a great develop- 
ment in ship building. In the fifty coast towns of Maine this was the 
chief industry and supported 200,000 people. The panic of 1857 and the" 

Civil War, lack of materials and steam ships of steel struck 
eason a ^ & ^ ^ Qw a ^ gj^p building in Maine from which it has 

never recovered. However, American shipping has never 
forsaken its birthplace. Up to 1900 more than half the ocean vessels of 
the nation were built in Maine, but, whereas in 1826 American ships car- 
ried 92.5 per cent of our foreign commerce, in 1900 they carried but 9.3 
per cent. In 1916 only about 10,000 tons of merchant shipping was launched 
in Maine. 

, . .. ,. The World War of 1914 created an immediate demand for 
ip ui ing mcrease( i s hip building. Maine ship builders were the 

first to respond to this call. At once many of the old yards 
were opened. The master builders and expert workmen, long since retired 
from the work of building, seeing the nation's need, returned to the yards. 
The result was that 1917 saw 40,000 tons completed and double that 
amount in 1918. The principal places of business under the present revival 
are Stockton, Belfast, Rockland, Camden, Thomaston, Wiscasset, Bath, 
South Portland, Biddeford, Freeport and Calais. The demand for new 
ships will undoubtedly continue for some time. The destruction of so 

First American Ship Sunk by the Germans 


many ships by the submarines during the war and the outlook for a large 
foreign trade will probably lead to ship building in Maine. It also is evi- 
dent that in the end this industry will not be very considerable in Maine, 
owing to the change to steel bottoms and the distance of Maine from raw 
materials used in their construction. 



, ,"*' Hundreds of miles of indented seacoast, swept by the 
Vacationland * ^ j + u f u u 

fresh and invigorating breezes of old ocean; hundreds of 

square miles of peaceful and odorous forests ; hundreds of laughing lakes 
and wimpling streams ; innumerable prosperous farms where the rest seeker 
can enjoy the "simple life" and the most ideal of all vacations for a most 
moderate outlay. This is Maine. 

You may sleep under blankets at night, lulled by the surge of the 
North Atlantic, and be pleasantly sun-baked in the day time, taking your 
pleasure without being enervated. There is tonic in the air that sweeps 
in from the ocean; there is scent of pine needles in the breezes that blow 
down from the mountains. The atmosphere makes you sleep, and you 
grow plump and brown, and become contented, forgetting all the worries 
of city life. 

Maine is plentifully supplied with bathing beaches, ranging from the 
magnificent stretch of sand as hard as asphalt at Old Orchard to the small 
resorts like Crescent Beach in Knox County and Bowery Beach on Cape 
Elizabeth. Old Orchard has been big resort for lovers of surf bathing 
and cool ocean breezes for many years and has lost none of its charm 
since swept by fire. In fact the new Old Orchard is much more attractive 
in many respects than was the old. 

At the mouth of the Kennebec is Popham Beach, one of the best on 
the coast. Its development has not been as extensive as that of Old 
Orchard, but doubtless in the near future its beauties will be better appre- 
ciated. All along the coast there are smaller beaches which offer as fine, 
though more limited, bathing facilities, as do Old Orchard and Popham, 
while nearly every mile of coast line contains a sandy cove or little beach 
among the rocks. 

Maine property used wholly for recreation, that is, sum- 
mer cottages, hotels, club houses and camps, with their 
" ^ contents, has a cash value of approximately $50,000,000. 

This great investment, which demands little in the way 
of municipal improvement, pays taxes on a valuation of about $16,000,000. 
Compensation for the valuation lies in the fact that whatever taxes are 
paid, are very largely a net profit to the townspeople. 

Leading officials of transportation companies estimate that the aver- 
age yearly income from summer visitors and tourists is $30,000,000. This 





great sum is brought into Maine and spent freely, in many instances lav- 
ishly, in order that the spenders may be well housed, fed and entertained ; 
and the sum is constantly growing larger. 

Every foot of shore front from Kittery to Eastport can be sold today 
for a price that would have astounded our grandfathers. Every island, 
regardless of its isolation and exposure to storm and gale, is looked upon 
as the site of a summer home. There is hardly a lake or stream among 
our inland hills and valleys that is not laying claim to distinction as a 
summer resort. As one approaches the centers of population the cottages 
on the nearby lakes increase in number, but in attractiveness and ability 
to satisfy the craving for peace and health-giving rest, they are not supe- 
rior to these found on the shores of the remote lakes and streams of the 
great northern wilderness. 

Automobile traffic has repeated history to the extent that 
Automobiles ., ... , ., , , ... ,, 

its meteoric rise in popularity has been similar to that 

r i\ R A ^ ^ e bicycle, and with the automobile has come the 

garage, which offers employment to hundreds of skilled 
mechanics. Every large town has at least one public garage and in cities 
there are more garasres than livery stables. The automobile, therefore, has 
done much to stimulate good road building and increase summer travel 
in Maine. 

Motor boats have made thousands of new converts to 
, Maine vacation life, for her 2,000 miles of coast line, 1,500 

lakes and 5.000 streams constitute a paradise for aquatic 
sport of any sort. In other years the owner of a power driven yacht capable 
of negotiating port to port voyaees along the Atlantic coast was at least 
a millionaire. Now any mechanic can own and drive a boat capable of run- 
ning from Boston to Portland in perfect safety. The number of vacation- 
ists who pass their period of rest cruising along the Maine coast and up 
its navigable rivers is increasing by leaps and bounds. 
. , As a hunter's paradise, Maine is pre-eminent on this con- 

p ,. tinent. The moose, deer, bear and other large game animal? 

are numerous, but yet not so easily captured that the taner 
of the sport is lost. It is possible for the business men of New York to 
be in as good hunting ground as can be found anywhere, within 48 hours 
travel from his office. The Raneeley, Kineo and Aroostook lines carry 
the hunter into the heart of the big game country, in Pullman cars, if he 
cares to travel that way. 

Maine fishing lures the great anglers of the country to 
The Anglers ., , , T17 . , , . , 

its lakes and streams every year. Wise protective laws 

prevent the fish from being exterminated or their num- 
ber from being appreciably reduced, so that the sport does not suffer as 
the number of anglers increases. Some of the finest cottages and camps 



in the state are occupied only during the best of the fishing season. Hatch- 
eries at strategic points keep the ponds well stocked with young fish, so 
that some of the lakes fished the most persistently continue to offer the 
best sport. 

The fish and game resources of the state are among the greatest 
assets, from the standpoint of the business man who caters to tourist 
guests. The visitors bent on sport are the first to come in spring, when 
the ice "goes out" of the lakes and the last to go in the fall, when the law 
closes the big game season. 

Within a few years experiments have been made in keep- 

ing "open house" throughout the winter at one or two of 

the hotels in order that Maine's beautiful winter season 
may be enjoyed also. Snow shoeing, skiing, skating, sleighing, winter 
photography, etc., offer a continuous round of pleasure for those who tarry 
with us throughout the year. 

The Lafayette National Park on the island of Mount 
IP if Desert, about a mile south of Bar Harbor, is the first 

National Monument created east of the Mississippi River 
and is the only one of the parks bordering on the sea. 

In 1916, through the generosity and patriotism of the owners, lands 
to the extent of five thousand acres, were donated to the government. On 
July the eighth of that year, by proclamation of President Wilson, the 
tract was created the Sieur de Monts National Monument. This area 
included four lakes and ten mountains. Since that time the gift has been 
increased and now comprises about ten thousand acres. In February, 1919, 
the name was changed by act of Congress to Lafayette National Park. 

The region is peculiarly adapted to the purpose for which it is used 
by reason of its remarkable diversity of scenery, including forests, lakes, 
seashore and rugged granite mountains. It is the highest eminence on 
the Atlantic Coast, south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Within its borders 
may be found two or three hundred varieties of plants, an accumulation 
that cannot be duplicated in a similar area. It is also unique as the first 
national bird reserve east of the Mississippi and the first upon the Atlantic 
seaboard north of Florida. Its geographical location and climatic charac- 
teristics make it an ideal bird sanctuary. 

The establishment of the Monument commemorated the founding of 
the first European settlement in America north of the Gulf of Mexico, by 
Sieur de Monts, the French explorer. This settlement was included in 
the territory then known as Acadia. The name of L'Isle des Monts Deserts, 
the Island of the Lonely Mountains, was given by De Monts' companion, 
Champlain. The change of name to Lafayette Park was determined by 
the desire to honor the memory of the French general of Revolutionary 
fame and to perpetuate the kindly feeling toward France, our ally in two 
great wars. 



. . Maine first undertook road improvement through state 

aid in 1901 by providing for the payment of half the cost 
of permanently improving a section of the main thoroughfare in any town 
which should be designated by the county commissioners as the state aid 
road. The amount to be paid in any town in any year was limited to one 
hundred dollars. This limit was raised to two hundred dollars in 1903 and 
to three hundred dollars in 1905. The supervision of work under this 
arrangement was left with the county commissioners of each county. 

In 1905 the legislature created the office of State Commissioner of 
Highways, and imposed the duty of investigating the whole highway prob- 
lem and making recommendations. 

In 1907 the legislature on recommendation of the Commissioner of 
Highways, created a State Highway Department under a State Highway 
Commissioner and established the principle of paying state aid more lib- 
erally to towns of small valuation than to the wealthier towns. At this 
time all state aid work was put under the supervision of the State High- 
way department. The appropriation for the payment of state aid was 
fixed at this time as one-third of a mill on the valuation of the state. In 
1909 this appropriation was increased to three-fourths of one mill. In 1911 
the principle of the mill tax was abolished and the appropriation of $250,- 
000 per year was made to carry on the work. This appropriation was con- 
tinued until 1913 and since that time the appropriation has been $300,000 

The legislature of 1913 passed a new state highway law reorganizing 
the state highway department under a commission of three members. 
This law directed the highway commission to lay out a system of state 
highways which should be the principal thoroughfares of the state and 
a system of state aid highways which should be feeders to the state high- 
way system. The law also placed in the hands of the commission the main- 
tenance of all state and state aid highways as fast as constructed and 
directed the commission to take for maintenance certain portions of state 
aid highways already constructed. 

This law provided for the issue of $2,000,000 bonds to be applied to 
the construction of state highways and made an appropriation of $300,000 
annually for state aid construction and provided that automobile license 



and registration fees should be used for the payment of interest on all 
state highway bonds issued, to retire state highway bonds, and for the 
maintenance of state and state aid highways. 

The legislature of 1915 supplemented the maintenance provision of 
the state highway law by providing that towns should place under the 
direction of the commission for maintenance a certain mileage of un- 
improved sections of state and state aid highways and made possible the 
carrying on of maintenance work by the employment of patrolmen. 

In order to provide funds to meet the Federal aid offered by the 
government, the legislature in 1919 proposed an $8,000,000 bond issue for 
state highway construction. This was approved by the voters at a special 
election in September by a five to one vote, and in November the legisla- 
ture in special session authorized the issue of $2,000,000 of these bonds 
for state highway construction work in 1920. This will be supplemented 
by an equal amount of Federal aid. A large construction program is 
expected for each of the next few years. 

T The following types of construction have been used : Port- 

land cement concrete, bituminous macadam, water-bound 

macadam, gravel. The higher types have been used where 
traffic is the heaviest and most severe. About eighty per cent, of the 
entire mileage has been constructed of gravel. Each year substantially 
150 miles of state aid road is constructed at a cost of approximately $1,000,- 
000, said cost being borne in round numbers, one-half by the state and 
one-half by the cities and towns. 

Maine Maine's state highway system is laid out to serve the 

Road System largest number of people with the smallest mileage. 

Mileage of all roads in state 25,530 

Mileage of all state highways 1,400 

State highways constitute of total road mileage 5^/2% 

Number of cities and towns in state having roads 578 

Number on state highways 238 

Population of state (1910 census) 742,371 

Population in cities and towns on state highway system 547,111 

Per cent, of total population on state highways 73.7% 

Total valuation of state $577,442,529.00 

Valuation of cities and towns on state highway system $411,533,046.00 

Per cent, of total valuation of state in these cities and towns 73% 

Miles of state highways built 1914-1919 397 

Cost of same $3,520,167.87 

Miles of state aid road in state, approximately 3,000 

Miles of state aid road built 1908-1919, approximately 1,543.33 

Cost of same to towns and state, approximately $7,063,123.04 


1914 688 miles maintained 

Road Work 1915 971 miles maintained 

Maintenance 1916 3466 miles under patrol maintenance 

373 patrolmen 

1917 3705 miles under patrol maintenance 

437 patrolmen 
72 miles maintained, but not under patrol 

1918 4235 miles under patrolmen 

480 patrolmen 
88 miles maintained, but not under patrol 

1919 4284^2 miles under patrol maintenance 

478 patrolmen 

74.3 miles maintained, but not under patrol 
R . , In accordance with the provisions of the law passed in 

1916 a bridge division was organized by the State High- 
way Commission in 1917. When the cost of constructing a bridge on a 
main thoroughfare, added to the highway taxes, makes a tax rate in 
excess, of five mills the municipal officers of the city or town in which the 
bridge is located may petition the highway commission and the county 
commissioners for state and county aid. If it is decided to build the bridge 
after a hearing by the highway commission, county commissioners and 
municipal officers, the highway commission makes plans, specifications, 
lets contracts and supervises the construction work. The town furnishes 
fifty per cent, of the cost of the bridge, the county thirty per cent, and 
the state twenty per cent. The state's appropriation for this work is 
$100,000 a year. During 1917, 1918 and 1919 approximately fifty-six 
bridges have been built. In 1919 the state appropriation was not sufficient 
to build half the bridges petitioned for. At the special session in 1919 
the legislature made available from bond funds $500,000 for 1920. The 
law was amended in 1919 so that as the cost of a bridge increases, the pro- 
portion of its cost to the town decreases, and a corresponding increase of 
cost falls upon the state. 

The annual expenditures supervised by the State Highway 
Highway Commission average about $1,500,000.00. The cost of 

Expense maintaining the commission's office, including all office and 

field engineering and supervisory work and expenses of 
all kinds averages about seven per cent, of the annual expenditure. 



The Bureau of Industrial and Labor Statistics was cre- 
ated by the legislature of 1887. The duties of the bureau 
were to collect statistical details relating to the commercial, industrial, 
social and educational conditions of the laboring people. The law further 
provided that the bureau should inquire into any violation of the labor 
laws. In 1911 the old bureau was discontinued and the State Depart- 
ment of Labor and Industry took its place. The executive in this depart- 
ment is known as the Commissioner of Labor and Industry and State Fac- 
tory Inspector. 

The work of the department as it exists under the present 
law is as follows : collecting, assorting and arranging sta- 
tistical details relating to all departments of labor and 
industrial pursuits in the state; trade unions and other labor organiza- 
tions and their effect upon labor and capital; the number and char- 
acter of industrial accidents and their effect upon the injured, their depend- 
ent relatives and upon the general public; other matters relating to 
the commercial, industrial, social, educational, moral and sanitary condi- 
tions prevailing within the state, including the names of firms, companies 
or corporations, where located, the kind of goods produced or manufac- 
tured, the time operated each year, the number of employees classified 
according to age and sex, and the daily and average wages paid each 
employee; and the exploitation of such other subjects as will tend to pro- 
mote the permanent prosperity of the industries of the state. 
p f The Commissioner of Labor and Industry shall cause to 

be enforced all laws regulating the employment of minors 
and women; all laws established for the protection of 
health, lives and limbs of operators in workshops and factories, on rail- 
roads and in other places ; all laws regulating the payment of wages, and 
all laws enacted for the protection of the working classes. The workmen's 
compensation act assigns to the Labor Commissioner the duty of approving 
all agreements for compensation made between employers and injured 
employees. Such agreements are not valid until they receive the approval 
of the Commissioner of Labor. 





in Maine 








The state employs seven persons in this department, and 
annually expends about $10,400. 

Number of minors between the ages of 14 and 16 years 
employed in the state during the year ending December 
1, 1918, classified by towns 

45 Saco 84 
60 Sanford 113 

131 Skowhegan 17 

42 Waterville 100 

46 Westbrook 65 
10 Miscellaneous 312 

Total 1,123 

Employees in Manufacturing Industries 

Boot and Shoe Industry , 







Cotton Industry 







Woolen Industry , 







Pulp and Paper Industry 

, . . 10,336 






Ship-building Industry 




Other Industries . 







Total 73,368 26,297 99,665 83,233 30,177 113,410 

Total Number 
of Employees 
in Maine 

in Maine 

The Commissioner of Labor estimates that there are 
about 410,820 persons employed in the State of Maine 
distributed as follows: manufacturing 113,410, mercan- 
tile 112,410, agricultural 125,000, lumbering 60,000. 
There are about 4,600 firms in Maine engaged in about 
T j ___.L_.. __ 200 different industries as follows: bakery; boilers 

(steam) ; boxes ; bricks ; brooms ; brushes and mops ; 
canned corn; carriages; cigars, confectionery; cotton 
shirtings, tubings, etc. ; creamery ; feldspar (powdered) ; fishing rods ; 
grist mill ; harnesses ; machinery castings (iron and brass) ; monu- 
mental work (granite and marble) ; potato chips ; printing and publish- 
ing; proprietary medicines; sausage, lard, etc.; shoe lasts; shoe patterns; 
shoe shanks; shoes; sleds (express pungs) ; soda and mineral water; tanks 
and towers ; teeth (false) ; gloves (fabric) ; pulp (ground wood) ; wood 
novelties; barrels (apples) ; belting, etc., (leather) ; book binding; cement 
linings (fire) ; cotton goods ; cotton yarn ; fur goods ; hair goods ; house 
finish ; lumber ; moccasins ; motor cars ; printing ; reeds (loom) and combs ; 
shirts ; shovel handles ; sleds (truck and logging) ; woolen goods ; rolls 
(narrow paper for all purposes); canned vegetables; leather and fiber 
board ; spool stock, etc. ; boats ; starch ; electricity (light and power) ; 


kindling wood ; shingles ; baskets ; clothes pins ; cooperage ; fertilizer ; potato 
carriers; yarns and sweater coats; axes; last blocks; tannery (sole 
leather) ; maple syrup ; veneer (birch) ; concrete blocks and bricks ; dowels ; 
ferrules and light tubes ; stockings ; boats (power) ; agricultural imple- 
ments; artificial stone; asphalt (rock) floors; awnings, tents, etc.; boilers 
and smoke stacks; books, blank and loose leaf; cabinet work and wood 
mantles ; canes ; caskets ; chemicals ; clothing ; cornices and gutters ; dental 
supplies; drawer slides; engraving; extracts, essences; fish; fountains; 
furniture; gas; tar; ammonia; glass; grates, grease and tallow; hair 
goods ; hats (felt) ; ink ; jewelry ; ladders ; machinery (engines) ; matches ; 
metal can and bottle covers ; oil ; paint (colors, varnishes) ; pickles and 
vinegar; picture frames; plated ware; rugs; screens; sheet metal work; 
shirt waists; slate work; soap; stencils and stamps; stove polish; taxi- 
dermist; tinware; toilet goods; toys and novelties; trunks, bags, etc.; 
vaults (burial) ; window shades ; clam chowder ; japans, varnishes and 
dryers; bean pots; foundry; hammocks; plumbing and steam heating; 
shovel handles and picker sticks; silk dress goods and satins; trusses; 
cotton bags (seamless) ; cotton gloves ; trap hen's nests ; wood turning ; 
fishing rods (bamboo) ; sideboards ; spools ; skewers ; cant dogs and pick 
poles; snowshoes; knapsacks; tinware and smelt stoves; fish lines (deep 
sea) ; sails ; snow plows ; lobster traps ; wheel barrows ; coffins ; canned 
blueberries ; hammers and tools ; optical goods ; paper ; electrophones, etc. ; 
sand paper scythes ; woolen goods (men's fancy cassimeres) ; log haulers ; 
staves, heading and lumber (long) ; porous plasters (Ordway's) ; lime ; 
couplings, fire hose nozzles, etc. ; gasolene engines ; carding (wool rolls) ; 
violins; piano backs; lapidary; toys and children's furniture; gum (chew- 
ing) ; boot calks ; picture frames ; excelsior ; pegwood, shanks and paper 
plugs; dyes; pianos; galvanizing; ship building; fly killer; pie plates and 
butter dishes (wood pulp) ; decorating (tin plate) . 



The Maine Public Utilities Commission was created in 1913 by the 
77th Legislature. This act was referred to the people in 1914 and 
accepted by a large majority. The law became effective November 1, 1914. 
Its official existence began December 1, 1914. 

The Commission, in addition to the ordinary duties of such a com- 
mission, took over the work of the former Railroad Commission and the 
Maine Water Storage Commission. 

. The Railroad Commission was first organized and began 

its duties in 1857, and continued as such to November 1, 
1914. The Board of Railroad Commissioners consisted of three members, 
appointed by the governor. They had jurisdiction over steam and electric 
railroads in Maine. All new railroads incorporated under the general law 
came to this board for a certificate of necessity and convenience before 
construction could be commenced. All railroads reported annually to this 
board with relation to their finances. This board also approved all new 
construction and issued certificates of safety before such construction 
could be used. The maintenance and safety of operation of the roads and 
the investigation of all serious accidents formed a part of their duties. 
This Commission also had limited jurisdiction over rates although the right 
was seldom exercised. 

~ The Maine Water Storage Commission was created by act 

of legislature in 1909, being specially charged with the 
duty of investigating the water power resources of Maine and in making 
a topographical map of the state. A large amount of preliminary work 
had been previously done along these lines. In fact forty years before 
the Federal Geological Survey was established, the State of Maine had 
made such a survey. The legislature of 1836 authorized a geological 
survey by Doctor Charles T. Jackson. Three years were spent on this 
work. In 1861 and 1862 Ezekiel Holmes, naturalist, and C. H. Hitchcock, 
geologist, made interesting and valuable reports on the zoological, botanical 
and geological resources of Maine. The geological part of this report was 
especially valuable. 

In 1867 a hydrographic survey, dealing almost entirely with Maine's 
water power resources, was made by Walter Wells. This report was of 



exceptional value, being broad in its scope, and is considered an authority 
at the present day. 

The State Survey Commission was created March 16, 1899, and 
charged with the duty of making a topographic map of this state, which 
work has been continued to the present time. The results of this Com- 
mission's labors were especially valuable. Their work was done in co-opera- 
tion with the United States Geological Survey, and it was at approximately 
this time that the State of Maine, in cooperation with the Federal Govern- 
ment, commenced to gather data on the flow of water in the various rivers 
of Maine. The work of this Commission was broadly conceived and well 
carried out. 

In 1905 the legislature extended the scope of this Commission's 
work to the extent of making hydrographical and geological surveys of 
the state. It was under this Commission that much of the river map- 
ping in the State of Maine was carried out, and the foundation laid for 
a comprehensive study of the water power resources of the state. The 
work of this Commission was turned over in 1909 to the Maine Water 
Storage Commission, which continued in office to November 1, 1914, when 
the Maine Public Utilities Commission, in accordance with the act creat- 
ing it, took over its duties and has since carried them out. 

The Public Utilities Commission consists of three corn- 
Organization . . . , , ,, ,. mi _. 
p missioners appointed for a term of seven years. This 

Commission has regulatory powers over all steam railroads, 
electric railroads, gas, water, electric, telephone, telegraph, steamboat, 
and express companies, also warehousemen and wharfingers operating in 
the State of Maine and totaling 483 companies. 
R , , The Commission has the power to fix the rates charged 

, , , for the different classes of service rendered by the dif- 
rowers or the 

ferent utilities. It is its duty to see that no discrimina- 
Commission * . i * 4.1. j 

tion in the sale of the product occurs among consumers 

in the same class and to prevent the enjoyment of special privileges among 
the consumers and see that no rebates are given except as provided by 
law and as ordered by them. The law requires that all changes in rates 
shall be filed 30 days before they go into effect. The Commission has power 
to suspend rates pending an investigation. 

o, , It has jurisdiction over all issues of stocks, bonds 

L , and notes. This requires public hearings and careful 

^r f scrutiny of the purposes and legality of the issues. Many 

cases require the auditing of accounts and, in some of 
them, appraisals in addition to the testimony presented at the hearings. 

,, 7 . No public utility corporation is permitted to issue a share 

Watered . ., , , .,, ,. . . ,. 

~. . of common capital stock without satisfactory proof that 

it brought to the treasury of the utility its full face value 


in property. This entirely prevents the issue of "watered" stock. The 
Commission also insists that new public utility corporations shall actually 
finance their operations in part through money or property furnished by 
the stockholders, so that there will be a substantial equity behind the bonds 
before they are sold to the public. 

The Commission requires full and complete financial state- 
ments from each company; authorizes all sales, leases, or 

mergers, the necessity and cost of which must be approved ; 
orders physical connections and joint use of equipment when public neces- 
sity demands it; inspects all equipment used in rendering service; can 
determine the quality of that service ; recommends standards for the same ; 
approves all new construction on the railroads before use, etc. In general, 
the work of this commission is closely connected with the expenditures 
and safety of every person in the state who directly or indirectly makes 
use of the service rendered by the public utility corporations in this state. 
p , There are two ways whereby a person may have his com- 

plaint heard and judged, by formal complaint and by 
informal complaint. If the party wishes to make a formal complaint, he 
must specify his charges, obtain ten signatures and forward the same to 
the office of the Commission, which will assign a time for hearing. If he 
cannot obtain ten signatures, he can make a complaint over his own signa- 
ture, and the Commission may, on its own motion, assign the matter for 

By informal complaint is meant individual complaints which are not 
considered of sufficient importance for a formal hearing, in which case 
the matter is investigated and adjusted without that formality. On 
a formal complaint twenty days must elapse after complaint is filed before 
it can be heard. 

The utility may also complain against its own service in order to 
!remedy matters that are unsatisfactory to all parties concerned. 

The rules of procedure in formal hearings follow the rules used by 
the state courts in civil actions. 

E . erin The engineering department is in charge of a chief engi- 
D rtment neer who has direct charge of all its work, which includes 
the making of valuations for rate-making purposes or issu- 
ance of securities; drawing up of rules of service; the investigation of 
bridges used by the steam and electric railroads; the inspection of utility 
equipment from the standpoint of adequate service and safety of the gen- 
eral public ; the investigation of the hydrographic resources of Maine ; and 
any other problems of an engineering nature that may arise through the 
exercise of the Commission's regulatory power. 


The accounting department is in charge of a chief account- 
Accounting antj who hag direct charge of the gathering of all statistics 
Department and auditing the financial statements of all the public util- 
ity corporations which by law report to the Commission. The public utility 
corporations under the jurisdiction of the Commission are required to 
keep financial and other pertinent data in accordance with certain classifi- 
cations of accounts which were drawn up by this department and recom- 
mended to the Commission for adoption. All necessary financial data 
involved in the determination of decisions relating to rates or issuance of 
securities are passed on by this department. It also gives expert advice 
and assistance gratuitously to the individual corporations with a view 
to establishing their accounting methods on a proper and standard basis. 
The head of this department is the Chief of Rates and 
-^TH i Schedules. All rates and schedules of the various utilities 

operating in Maine are required by law to be filed with 
this department. The Chief of Rates and Schedules sees that all legal 
requirements are satisfied, and reports any changes that are made. Expert 
advice is also given to the Commission when the same is needed. 

The inspections department is in charge of a chief inspect- 
or, who makes annual inspection of the steam and electric 
railroads in this state, investigates the safety of grade crossings, and 
makes special investigation of all accidents of a serious nature occurring 
in connection with the operation of public utility corporations. 

The Commission through a special agent also inspects the plants and 
recommends improvements looking toward the betterment of the water 
supply furnished the public by the various water companies. 
P hi* TTtTt There are 479 public service companies operating in the 
r .. state as follows: electric lighting companies, 94; express 

companies, 7; steam railroads, 15; electric railroads, 15; 
gas companies, 16; steamboat companies, 26; telephone companies, 108; 
telegraph companies, 4 ; water companies, 172 ; warehousemen, 5 ; wharfing- 
ers, 17. The total estimated assets of all these companies are $250,000,000. 
These companies issued under the Commission's direction during the four 
years preceding 1919 the following securities: stocks, $11,209,920; bonds, 
$30,634,343.75 ; a total of $41,844,263.75. 

w , For making a topographic map of Maine, it has been cus- 

ternary for the state to appropriate annually $5,000 and 

the Federal Government a like amount. About 33 per 
cent, of the state has been mapped to date. These topographic sheets 
cost ten cents each, and a complete set of those sheets available, when 
properly assembled, constitutes an admirable map of Maine for that part 
of the state which they cover. On them are shown the natural topography 


of the land, the lakes and rivers, the shore line ; roads, dwellings and many 
other important works of man. Records of flow of Maine rivers are 
obtained at 26 points, the flow being determined at these points every day 
in the year. Rainfall records are obtained at 40 different points in the 
state. Evaporation from water surface is determined at one point. In its 
investigation of the water resources of the state, the Commission esti- 
mates that the total primary horse power in Maine is approximately one 
million. This investigation covers certain important rivers of the state, 
and shows that there is 547,350 primary horsepower on the rivers studied. 
The horsepower as submitted by small power owners, the individual 
amounts of which were not determined by the Commission, total 88,000, 
showing power resources covered by this investigation of 635,350, or 
about 64 per cent of the total primary power resources of Maine. 

The regular force of the Commission including the commissioners, 
numbers 20 persons. The Commission expends from $45,000 to $55,000 


The Museum connected with the Fish and Game Depart- 
ment has mounted specimens of practically all wild birds 
and animals found in the state. Specimens of the lead- 
ing varieties of inland fish are also on exhibition. 

Among the interesting exhibits is a large moose group, enclosed in 
gl ass> the background, painted by the Curator, depicting a winter scene 
which is very realistic; another case shows the loon family, and another 
geese and ducks, both with appropriate backgrounds, also painted by the 
Curator, all of which attract much attention. Another case contains vari- 
ous species of our shore birds, mounted and grouped to display their natural 
characteristics and habitats. The background of this case is a finely exe- 
cuted marine view, also the work of the Curator; upon either side cliffs 
rise from a sandy beach, their bases covered with seaweed, and on these 
cliffs are shown the nests and eggs of gulls and also young tern. Another 
case has ruffed grouse and woodcock groups. 

There is also on exhibition a valuable loan collection of birds' skins, 
nests and eggs. 

An aquarium of eight tanks, installed in 1916, contains several varie- 
ties of fresh-water fish, and has proved to be one of the most interesting 
features of the Museum. Jars have been installed in connection with it 
in which are shown the process of hatching trout and salmon, and by means 
of which the development of these fish from the egg to the age of three 
years is shown by living specimens. 

The educational value of the Museum is now recognized by a host of 
intelligent visitors from all sections of the country. 

Game Deer are abundant in a11 northern counties and quite plenty 

Animals in some of the southern counties. Moose are also found in 

all northern counties. Caribou were formerly numerous in 
Maine but have been exceedingly scarce in recent years though occasionally 
seen along the Canadian boundary. 

Fur-Bearing Bear ' Beaver > Bob Cat - Fisher, Marten or Black Cat, Fox, 
Animals Lynx ' Mink ' Muskrat > O tter > Rabbit, Raccoon, Skunk, Sable, 

Squirrel, Red, Gray, Weasel or Ermine, Woodchuck. 
Game Fish Landlocked Salmon, Trout, Togue (Lake Trout), Black 

Bass, White Perch. 



i < 







Pickerel, Yellow Perch, Whitefish, Cusk, Chub, Sucker, 
several varieties of Smelt, numerous small fish, commonly 
called bait fish, (Minnows, Shiners, etc.) 
In view of the fact that trappers of fur-bearing animals 
in organized townships are not required to take out a 
"license, there are no means of ascertaining the annual 
catch of these animals in organized places ; furthermore, as there is noth- 
ing in the law to prohibit the transportation out of the state of the skins 
of fur-bearing animals legally taken, without doubt at least thirty per 
cent of the annual catch in Maine is sold in other states, consequently the 
skins purchased by licensed fur buyers represent only about seventy per 
cent of the furs secured each season. 

Basing an estimate upon the average value of the best 
quality skins, the furs reported handled by licensed fur 
dealers in this state last season represented a value of 
approximately $500,000. 


of Fur 

Holboelt's Grebe 

Horned Grebe 

Pied-billed Grebe 

Loon, Great Northern Diver 

Loon, Black-throated 

Loon, Red-throated 

Puffin, Sea Parrot (rare) 

Guilbernot, Black 

Murre (rare) 

Murre, Brunnich's 

Razor-billed Auk (quite rare) 

Dovekie, Sea Dove 

Pomarine Jaeger 

Parasitic Jaeger 

Long-tailed Jaeger (not common) 

Kittiwake Gull 

Glaucous Gull (rare) 

Iceland Gull 

Great Black-backed Gull 

American Herring Gull 

Ring-billed Gull 

Laughing Gull (not common) 

Bonaparte's Gull (not common) 

Sabine's (rare) 

Common Tern 

Arctic Tern 

Roseate Tern (rare) 

Least Tern (rare) 

Sooty Tern (rare) 

Black Tern (rare) 

Black Skimmer (quite rare) 

Wilson's Petrel (quite rare) 

Gannet (rare) 


Cormorant, Double-crested 

American White Pelican (rare) 

American Merganser 

Red-breasted Merganser 

Hooded Merganser 

Mallard Duck 

Black Duck 


Widgeon, Baldpate 

Green-winged Teal 

Blue-winged Teal 

Shoveller (rare) 


Wood Duck 

Redhead Duck (quite rare) 


Lesser Scaup Duck (rare) 

Greater Scaup Duck 

Ring-necked Duck (rare) 

American Golden-Eye 

Barrow's Golden-Eye 


Old Squaw 

Harlequin Duck 

Northern Eider (rare) 

American Eider 

King Eider (rare) 

American Scoter 

Leach's Petrel (Mother Carey's Chicken) White-winged Scoter 





Surf Scoter 

Ruddy Duck 

Lesser Snow Goose (rare) 

Canada Goose 

Hutchins Goose (rare) 

Brant (not common) 

Whistling Swan (rare) 

American Bittern 

Least Bittern (rare) 

Great Blue Heron 

Little Blue Heron (rare) 

Green Heron 

Black-crowned Night Heron 

Yellow-crowned Night Heron (rare) 

King Rail (rare) 

Clapper Rail (rare) 

Virginia Rail (rare) 

Sora Rail 

Yellow Rail 

Purple Gallinule (rare) 

Florida Gallinule (rare) 

American Coot Mud-hen 

Red Phalarope (rare) 

Northern Phalarope (not common) 

Wilson's Phalarope (rare) 

American Woodcock 

Wilson's Snipe 

Dowitcher (Red-breasted Snipe) 

Purple Sandpiper 

Pectoral Sandpiper 

White-rumped Sandpiper 

Baird's Sandpiper .(rare) 

Least Sandpiper 

Red-backed Sandpiper 

Semipal mated Sandpiper 


Marbled Godwit (rare) 

Greater Yellow-legs 

Lesser Yellow-legs 

Willet (quite rare) 

Bartramian Sandpiper 

Buff-breasted Sandpiper (occasional) 

Spotted Sandpiper 

Long-billed Curlew (rare) 

Hudsonian Curlew (rare) 

Eskimo Curlew (rare) 

Black-bellied Plover 

American Golden Plover 


Ring Plover 

Piping Plover (rare) 

Belted Piping Plover (rare) 


Canada Grouse (Spruce Partridge) 

Ruffed Grouse (Partridge) 

Mourning Dove (rare) 

Turkey Vulture (occasional) 

Black Vulture (occasional) 

Marsh Hawk 

Sharp-shinned Hawk 

Cooper's Hawk 

American Goshawk 

Red-tailed Hawk 

Red-shouldered Hawk 

Broad-winged Hawk 

American Rough-legged Hawk, (not com- 


Bald Eagle 
Duck Hawk (rare) 
Pigeon Hawk 
American Sparrow Hawk 
American Osprey 
American Long-eared Owl 
American Short-eared Owl (rare) 
Barred Owl 
Great Gray Owl (rare) 
Richardson Owl 
Saw-whet Owl 
Screech Owl 
Great Horned Owl 
Snowy Owl 

American Hawk Owl (not common) 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 
Black-billed Cuckoo 
Belted Kingfisher 
Hairy Woodpecker 
Downy Woodpecker 
Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker 
American Three-toed Woodpecker 
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 
Pileated Woodpecker 
Red-headed Woodpecker (rare) 

Night Hawk 
Chimney Swift 
Ruby-throated Humming-bird 
King bird 

Crested Fly-catcher (rare) 

Olive-sided Fly-catcher 
Wood Pewee 

Yellow-bellied Fly-catcher 
Alder Fly-catcher 



Least Fly-catcher 

Horned Lark 

Prairie Horned Lark 

Blue Jay 

Canada Jay 

Northern Raven (not common) 

American Crow 

Starling (not common) 



Red-winged Blackbird 

Meadow Lark 

Orchard Oriole 

Baltimore Oriole 

Rusty Blackbird 

Bronzed Crackle (crow Blackbird) 

Evening Grosbeak 

Pine Grosbeak 

Purple Finch 

American Crossbill 

White-winged Crossbill 


Greater Redpoll (rare} 
American Goldfinch 

Pine Siskin 

Snow Flake (Snow Bunting) 

Vesper Sparrow 

Ipswich Sparrow (quite rare) 

Savanna Sparrow 

Grasshopper Sparrow (rare) 

Sharp-tailed Sparrow 

Seaside Sparrow 

White-crowned Sparrow 

White-throated Sparrow 

Tree Sparrow 

Chipping Sparrow 

Field Sparrow 

Slate Colored Junco 

Song Sparrow 

Lincoln's Sparrow 

Swamp Sparrow 

Fox Sparrow 


Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

Indigo Bunting 

Scarlet Tanager 

Purple Martin 

Cliff Swallow 

Barn Swallow 

Bank Swallow 

Tree Swallow 

Bohemian Waxwing (rare) 

Cedar Waxwing 

Northern Shrike 

Red-eyed Vireo 

Philadelphia Vireo (rare) 

Warbling Vireo 

Yellow-throated Vireo (rare) 

Blue-headed Vireo 

Black and White Warbler 

Nashville Warbler 

Tennessee Warbler 

Parula Warbler 

Yellow Warbler 

Cape May Warbler (rare) 

Black-throated Blue Warbler 

Myrtle Warbler 

Magnolia Warbler 

Chestnut-sided Warbler 

Bay-breasted Warbler 

Black Poll Warbler 

Blackburnian Warbler 

Black-throated green Warbler 

Pine Warbler 

Yellow Palm Warbler 


Water Thrush 

Connecticut Warbler 

Mourning Warbler 

Maryland Yellow-throat . 

Wilson's Warbler 

Canadian Warbler 

American Redstart 

Mocking-bird (rare) 


Brown Thrasher 

Carolina Wren (rare) 

House Wren 

Winter Wren 

Short-billed Marsh Wren (rare) 

Brown Creeper 

White-breasted Nuthatch 

Red-breasted Nuthatch 


Hudsonian Chickadee (not common) 

Golden-crowned Kinglet 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

Wood Thrust (rare) 

Wilson's Thrush 

Gray-cheeked Thrush 

Olive-backed Thrush 

Hermit Thrush 

American Robin 


English Sparrow (introduced) 

Ring-necked Pheasant (introduced) 



The first appropriation for state printing was $1000, made in 1834. 
This sum was increased from year to year until 1870, when it reached 
$3000. It continued at this figure until 1907. It was the custom for each 
legislature to elect a committee on printing and all bills for the previous 
year were submitted to this committee for approval. In 1895 an act was 
passed creating the office of auditor of state printing, but no appointment 
with salary was made until 1905. The office was abolished by the legisla- 
ture of 1911, but the work was done by a practical printer appointed by 
the state auditor without special authorization by law. In 1915 the office 
of Superintendent of Public Printing was created with the power of 
appointment lodged in the state auditor. By virtue of an amendment, 
passed in 1919, the governor now appoints the Superintendent of Public 
Printing and the office is a part of the executive department. 

T Through the office of Superintendent of Public Printing 

Improvements . ii v j j j.-, ^ 

improvements are constantly being made and the business 

of printing and binding for the state is being placed on a sound business 
basis. Cooperation by the several departments makes this a healthy ven- 
ture, saving money for the state, gradually eliminating waste, over-pro- 
duction, and unnecessary detail, which heretofore have gone unnoticed. 
The office has been provided with a complete modern letter manifold- 
ing equipment and addressing department, giving excellent service in 
efficiency and quality of work. Many of the departments have taken 
advantage of these facilities and find them a tremendous help in saving 
time and energy. 

Competitive The printin for the state is divided into classes and com- 
gj^ g petitive bids are solicited and proposals accepted for doing 

the work under contract, the contract usually running for 
a period of two years. 

Four Classes There are four classes of printing. Class A, book print- 
of Printing ing ' includes annual <> r biennial reports of state officials, 

departments, institutions, boards or commissions, and sim- 
ilar books, pamphlets, catalogues, etc., consisting of eight pages or more, 
also abstracts of same printed from same type. 

Class B, miscellaneous job printing, including blank forms, (index 
and filing cards, tab cards, loose leaves, and ruled blanks excepted), circu- 
lars of less than eight pages, stationery printed with the ordinary letter 



press, and general office supplies. Circulars issued in series, where uni- 
formity of style is important, though occasionally comprising eight pages 
or more may be kept wholly within Class B if deemed most feasible. 

Class C, legislative printing, including both book and job printing 
concurrent with and contingent upon sessions of the legislature, required 
by the order or for the use of the legislature. 

Class D, election ballots for state, Congressional and presidential 
elections and accessories necessary for the packing and distribution of 
same, also election notices and blanks for returns. 

Cost of The cost of printing by classes for the year 1917, which is 

Printing a fair average, is as follows : 

Printing Binding- 
Class A $12,645.39 Class A $ 3,750.14 

Class B 17,707.96 Class B 3,638.07 

Class C & D 32,922.52 Class C & D 7,130.17 

Class 3,169.83 Class E 745.79 

Die-stamping 2,661.54 Total Printing, Binding, Die- 
Plate printing: Etchings and stamping, Etchings and 

Halftones 612.11 Halftones 84,983.52 

This combined printing means nearly seven million impressions and 
nearly seven and one-quarter million pieces of paper. 

Office There are three persons employed in the office of the 

Expenses Superintendent of Printing and the annual expense of 

running it is $5,700. 



Bank Commissioners were first appointed in Maine under 
a legislative act of 1840. Their duties were limited to 
banks of discount until they were given supervision of Savings Banks 
in 1855. In 1868 the two bank commissioners were superseded by a single 
officer, known as an Examiner of Banks and Insurance Companies, with 
powers concerning these institutions similar to those previously exercised 
by the bank commissioners. In 1870 the duties were divided between an 
examiner of banks and an insurance commissioner. The 1909 legislature 
changed the title to Bank Commissioner. The department now consists of 
a Bank Commissioner, Deputy Bank Commissioner, three Examiners and 
two clerks. 

K . The number, classes and assets of the institutions under 

' . the supervision of this department as compiled from the 

annual returns of September 29, 1917, are as follows : 

45 Savings Banks $105,872,386.86 

49 Trust Companies 1 

19 Trust Company Branches L 104,900,140.15 

2 Trust Company Agencies J 

38 Loan and Building Associations 6,671,238.79 

3 Loan Companies 882,456.58 

156 Total $218,326,222.38 

j. j . The banking department also has supervision of dealers 

cj ' ... in securities. There are at present 188 dealers in securi- 

Secunties ,. , 000 

ties and 223 salesmen or agents licensed under the provi- 
sions of the "Blue Sky Law." 

L oan The 1917 legislature placed under the supervision of the 

\ cies Banking Department all persons, copartnerships and cor- 

porations engaged in the business of making loans of $300 
or less, at a greater rate of interest than twelve per centum per annum. 
The act applies to pawn brokers as well as loan agencies. There are 
now eighteen loan agencies operating under the supervision of the depart- 


BANKS 265 

. . The establishment of "Industrial Banks" under the super- 

vision of the Banking Department was authorized by the 
1917 legislature. These banks are intended to accommodate 
the small but worthy borrower who has no banking credit or whose needs 
are not sufficiently large to interest the average banker. 

The state employs 7 persons in its Banking Department, and appro- 
priates for expenses $16,000. The state receives from all banking insti- 
tutions, $574,573.44. 




The amount of money expended from the public treasury 
in the State of Maine, annually, for the support of the 
'dependent and delinquent classes of its population, not including new 
buildings built from time to time, is $2,238,000.00 and the number of 
persons receiving the benefit of this expenditure of public moneys is 

The number of persons in the various classes and the cost of caring 
for each class is shown by the following tabulation: 

No. persons cared 

for or assisted 

State Board of Charities and Corrections, Mother's Aid 
and Children's Guardians, including childrens institu- 

tion and child-helping societies 

Insane Hospitals 

School for Feeble-Minded 

School for Boys and for Girls 

Military and Naval Orphan Asylum 

Tuberculosis Sanatoriums 

Reformatories and Prisons 

Pensions and Institutions for the Blind 

Indigent patients in general and special hospitals paid for 

bv the state 











Annual Net 










The Cost 

Total state expenditure ........................... 8,545 $1,488,400.00 

The county jails cost annually ....... 75,000.00 

County Jails The number of persons committed to 

jails is ............................. 1,650 

but the daily average number in custody is only ........ 150 

Cities and towns expend annually for the care of the poor 
$610,000.00, assisting some 10,000 persons. They also 
expend for special relief for mothers and children, $65,000. 
Twenty-seven per cent of the state's population fails to be fully self sup- 
porting and it costs $3.00 per capita of the state population from the 
public treasury, either state, county or municipal, to care for them. 

. The State Board of Charities and Corrections established 

by the legislature of 1913 is composed of five members 
, , . ,. f , , . . , , ,, 

(unsalaned) , one of them a woman, appointed by the gov- 

ernor and with the consent of the council. The board appoints a salaried 

of Charities 



secretary and other agents. The board is required to investigate and inspect 
the whole system of public charities and correctional institutions in the 
state, examine into the condition and management of all prisons, jails, 
reform schools, industrial schools of a charitable or correctional nature, 
children's homes, hospitals, sanatoriums, almshouses, orphanages, hospitals 
for the insane, schools or homes for feeble-minded, and other similar insti- 
tutions, supported wholly or in part by state, county or municipal appro- 
priations, except purely educational or industrial institutions ; and any pri- 
vate charitable or correctional institutions which may desire to be placed on 
the list of such institutions. The officers of all institutions subject to such 
supervision are required to furnish all information desired by the board, 
which may prescribe forms for statement, and upon the basis of such inves- 
tigation the board may present recommendations to the governor and legis- 
lature as to the management of the institution, notice thereof being given 
to the institutions affected. 

The board is required to give its opinion as to the organization of 
charitable, eleemosynary or reformatory institutions which are or may 
be under its supervision, and passes upon all plans for new institutions 
under its supervision. It receives full reports from overseers of the poor 
in regard to paupers supported or relieved. 

It acts ex-officio as a board of mother's aid, supervising the adminis- 
tration of special aid to mothers with children under sixteen years of age 
dependent upon them, and also ex-officio as a board of children's guardians, 
caring for neglected children committed to it by the courts, and for depend- 
ent children without relatives able to care for them. 

The board makes a biennial report to the legislature and publishes a 
quarterly bulletin. 
p . . There are a number of associations, hospitals, and other 

institutions which receive appropriations from the state, 
Institutions , . . . , , , , , ,, , ,, ~, 

and are subject to supervision by the State Board of Char- 
ities and Corrections so long as they receive such aid. 
n Overseers of the poor, not to exceed seven in number, are 

. chosen by each town. These have general care of destitute 

persons found in the town, superintend the almshouse, 
workhouse, and house of correction, provide for immigrants in distress, 
and remove paupers to their place of settlement. They act ex-officio as 
municipal boards of mother's aid and municipal boards of children's guar- 
dians. In some cases the selectmen act as overseers of the poor, and in 
cities this duty devolves on different officers, according to the charter. In 
plantations of more than 200 population and $100,000 valuation, the assess- 
ors act as overseers, and in unincorporated places the overseers in adjoin- 
:ing or nearby towns have care of the poor. 


Persons who, on account of poverty, need relief, are to 
be cared for by the overseers of the poor of the town in 
i? i' 6 f which they have settlement. In the case of unincorpor- 

ated places, and of immigrants who fall into distress, the 
overseers are to furnish relief, the expense being met by the state, and 
the paupers do not become paupers of such town by reason of such resi- 
dence. The governor and council may in case of necessity transfer a state 
pauper to any town or place him in a state institution without formal 
commitment, but not without the knowledge and consent of the overseers 
of the town to which the pauper is to be removed. In case of poor per- 
sons having legal settlement elsewhere, they are to be relieved, and the 
expense recovered from the place where they have settlement. Whoever 
brings an indigent person into a town with intent to charge his support 
upon the town is liable to fine and the cost of such person's maintenance, 
and anyone who aids in bringing or leaving such a person is similarly liable. 
, Legal settlement in a town is acquired by an adult by five 

f ', , years' residence without receiving pauper supplies. Resi- 
dence in a public institution does not result in legal settle- 
ment. A married woman has the settlement of her husband, if he has 
any in the state; if not, her own settlement is not affected by the mar- 
riage. Legitimate children have the settlement of their father, if he has 
any in the state; if not, they have. the settlement of their mother; but if 
of age they acquire one. Illegitimate children have the settlement of 
their mother at the time of their birth. 

The father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, children, 
Responsibility , ' , , ' * '. ., .. . ' ... . 

f R 1 f a grandchildren, by consanguinity, living within the 

state and of sufficient ability, are required to support per- 
.sons chargeable to them, in proportion to their respective ability. 

Everv town, either by itself or in conjunction with one or 
Methods of . -JIT. 

T j.' ' i more towns, is authorized to provide an almshouse and 
Institutional ,, ,. , , ... , 

,. . poor farm for the care of poor and destitute persons need- 

Relief V ^ 1 11. T_- 1_ 

mg relief; also a workhouse to which poor persons, espe- 
cially those who are able-bodied, may be sent and required to work; also 
a house of correction for criminals. But until the workhouse and house 
of correction are provided, the almshouse may be used for all three pur- 
poses. All are under the supervision of the overseers of the poor. 

. Overseers have the care of persons chargeable to their 

,. , town and cause them to be relieved and employed at the 

expense of the town, but there is no requirement as to 
relief within an institution. It is provided that supplies and medical care 
may be furnished on the application of a poor person or of that of some 
person acting for him. Towns at their annual meetings, under a war- 
rant for the purpose, may contract for the support of their poor for a 


term not exceeding five years. Overseers may set to work, or bind to 
service for a time not exceeding one year, persons with or without settle- 
ment, able-bodied, married or unmarried, over 21 years of age, having no 
apparent means of support and living idly. 

f Mothers with children under sixteen years dependent upon 

them, and who are fit and capable, physically, mentally 

and morally to bring up their children, may receive special 
financial aid if they need it, the state and town sharing equally in the cost. 
A child who is, on investigation by any municipal or probate court, found 
to be cruelly treated or wilfully neglected, or without means of support, 
may be ordered into the care and custody of such person as the judge may 
deem suitable, providing that such person consents to support and edu- 
cate the child, and gives bond so to do. Or the child may be committed 
to the custody of the State. Board of Children's Guardians, or to a children's 
institution or child welfare organization approved by the state board. 

Children may be adopted and guardians appointed for minors on 
approval by the judge of probate, and on written consent by the child, 
if of the age of 14 years, and by the parents, guardian, next of kin, or 
some person, appointed by the judge. 

A child in the custody of a public or charitable institution, or the 
State Board of Children's Guardians, may be restored to the parent by 
the supreme judicial court if after examination it appears that the parent 
or parents can suitably provide for it, and that justice requires its restora- 

The Military and Naval Orphan Asylum is authorized at the discre- 
tion of the trustees to admit to the home children or grand-children of 
veterans of the Civil War; also orphans or half orphans of veterans of 
other wars. 

Delinquent boys, and girls in moral danger, may be committed to 
the State School for Boys or for Girls as the case may be. 
c f There are numerous private charitable institutions for the 

ih S* k s * c k ^ or wn i cn the state makes appropriations, and towns 

are authorized to provide for the indigent sick. When such 
appropriations are made by the state, the institutions then come under 
the supervision of the State Board of Charities. Local boards of health 
are required to look after persons having diseases dangerous to the pub- 
lic health, and may remove them to separate houses, provide nurses and 
necessaries free, if the patient is unable to pay for the same. They are 
also required to furnish antitoxin free to all indigent persons suffering 
from diphtheria and other contagious diseases. 

Care of Needy blind persons over twenty-one years of age may 

the Blind receive a state pension of not to exceed $200 per annum 

per person. Blind or partially blind persons over 18 years 


of age, residents of the state, may receive in the Maine Institution for the 
Blind, for a period not to exceed three years, practical instruction in some 
useful occupation conducive to self-support; and in aid of this work the 
state makes an annual appropriation to the institution. 

An indigent insane person committed by the court or a 
The Insane . . , , -, * u 

municipal board of examiners as insane is to be main- 
tained by the state, the town where he resides paying the expense of 
examination and commitment. If the person has no legal settlement in 
the state all expenses are paid by the state. 

, . Idiotic and feeble-minded persons, 6 years of age and 

. . . upward, are cared for and educated in the Maine School 

for Feeble-Minded. Indigent persons are supported by the 
state; others are charged a limited sum. 
_ , . . Persons who are affected with tuberculosis may be cared 

for in state sanatoriums at cost, or if indigent, at the 
expense of the state. 

Misdemeanants may be committed to the county jails, of 

which there is one in each county save two (Lincoln and 
Sagadahoc. These counties pay for the care of their prisoners in other 
counties). They may be also committed to municipal workhouses, but 
only a few cities maintain such an institution. They may also be com- 
mitted to either the Reformatory fqr Men or the Reformatory for Women. 
Persons who commit more serious offenses may be committed not 
only to the reformatories but also to the state prison. 

The semi-intermediate sentence law is applicable to all state correc- 
tional institutions, for each of which the governing board acts also as a 
parole board. 

~ , ,. A soldier or sailor who served by enlistment in the Army 

, .. or Navy of the United States in the Civil War or in the 

War with Spain, who was honorably discharged and has 
become dependent upon any town, is not to be considered a pauper and 
is not to be supported by the overseers of the poor in the poorhouse, but, 
with his family, including wife and unmarried minor children living with 
liim and dependent upon him for support, is to be supported by the town 
of his settlement at his own home or in such suitable place other than 
the poorhouse, as the overseers of the town may deem proper. A dependent 
sailor or soldier and his family may be removed to the town of his settle- 



The State of Maine provides for the care and treatment of persons 
suffering from mental and nervous disorders, two large, modern and well- 
equipped institutions. 

This institution, formerly known as the Maine Insane Hos- 
A II ffimtfl. 

* pital, is located in the city of Augusta on the eastern bank 

of the Kennebec River, nearly opposite the State House, 
one and a half miles from the railroad station. 

. . , Provision for the hospital was made by the legislature 
Ory March 8, 1834, by the appropriation of $20,000 upon con- 
dition that a like sum be raised by individual subscription within one year. 
Before the expiration of the time limit, Hon. Reuel Williams of Augusta 
and Hon. Benjamin Brown of Vassalboro contributed $10,000 each for 
the purpose. Subsequently Mr. Brown offered as a site 200 acres of land 
on the Kennebec in the town of Vassalboro which the legislature accepted, 
but which was not considered a suitable location, and the land with Mr. 
Brown's consent was sold by the state for $4,000, and the more suitable 
site in Augusta was purchased with $3,000 of this money. 

Mr. Williams who was appointed commissioner to erect the hospital 
sent John B. Lord of Hallowell to examine similar institutions, and the 
general plan of the state hospital at Worcester, Mass., was adopted. Dur- 
ing the year 1836 contracts were made and materials collected, but in 
March, 1837, Mr. Williams resigned as commissioner and John H. Hart- 
well was appointed, under whose supervision the work was carried on for 
another year. In March, 1838, a further appropriation of $29,500 was 
made to complete the exterior, and Charles Keene was appointed in place 
of Mr. Hartwell. In 1840 a further appropriation of $28,000 was made 
to complete the wings, and on the 14th of October the first patient was 
admitted. Since that time the institution has grown gradually to its 
present proportions. The original plant consisted of a central office build- 
ing with three wings on either side joined together after the Kirkbride 
plan. Two pavilions, one for men, the other for women, were added in 
1884. Two more pavilions were completed* in 1890. On March 3, 1905, 
President Roosevelt signed an act authorizing the secretary of war to con- 
vey the Kennebec arsenal property situated in Augusta to the State of 
Maine for public purposes. The property comprised about 40 acres on 



which were several large stone buildings that were ultimately renovated 
and converted for the use of patients. The state acquired in the same year 
from the United States the gift of Widows' Island in Penobscot Bay near 
North Haven. This property, now known as the Chase Island Convalescent 
Hospital, is used during the summer months for the entertainment and 
recreation of patients from both hospitals. 

. On March 6, 1907, the legislature appropriated money for 

the construction of a suitable building for the criminal 

insane. This building was completed in 1908 and pro- 
vides suitable accommodations for the criminal insane who were up to that 
time inadequately provided for in the state prison and in the wards of 
both hospitals. 

. Since the opening of the hospital in 1840, 15,438 patients 

have been admitted. The normal rated capacity is 942 
patients. The number in the hospital Jan. 21, 1920, was 1,121 ; 573 men 
and 548 women. 
v , ,. The value of the hospital property, viz., real estate and 

buildings, is inventoried at 1,894,740; personal property, 
viz., furnishings and equipment $202,133.66, making the total valuation 
of the entire plant $2,096,836.66. 
p The total area of the hospital property including the farm 

and grounds is approximately 600 acres, of which 450 
acres are under cultivation. 

Cost of For the year ending June 30, 1919 : 


Augusta Bangor 

Average gross weekly per capita cost * $5.924 $6.92 

Less income (sources other than appropriation) .876 .76 

Average weekly per capita cost to the state 5.048 6.16 

This institution, formerly known as the Eastern Maine 

Insane Hospital, is located in the city of Bangor and occu- 
State Hospital . . , , , , . , , , , 

pies a prominent site on the northern bank of the Penob- 
scot River, east of the city, two miles from the railroad station. 
_ , . , In 1889 the legislature passed a resolution which was 

presented by Hon. E. C. Ryder of Bangor, authorizing 
Governor Edwin C. Burleigh to appoint a commission to select an eligible 
site at or near the city of Bangor for a state hospital. Twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars was appropriated for the purpose, and Governor Burleigh 
appointed as commissioners Col. Joseph W. Porter, chairman ; Col. Joseph 
Hutchins and Col. Daniel A. Robinson, M. D. This commission after a long 
and careful investigation of various sites, finally selected a site in the city 
of Bangor adjacent to the water works, which was approved by Dr. Bigelow 
T. Sanborn, superintendent of the hospital at Augusta. 


The commissioners, accompanied by George M. Coombs of Lewiston, 
architect, who had been engaged to assist in the preparation of plans, vis- 
ited many hospitals in other states in order to familiarize themselves with 
the latest ideas in modern hospital construction. The plans were submitted 
to the legislature, and a joint special committee was selected to consider 
a resolve for an appropriation to start construction, and adopted a resolu- 
tion that a new commission of three be appointed by the governor to take 
immediate steps to erect a building on the site selected and that the sum 
of $200,000 be appropriated. This resolve failed to pass owing to strong 
opposition in both branches of the legislature. 

In 1893 another attempt was made to obtain from the legislature 
an appropriation which was successful, and Governor Cleaves appointed 
Albion E. Little of Portland, chairman, Samuel Campbell and Sidney M. 
Bird members of the commission, with Dr. Bigelow T. Sanborn, superin- 
tendent of the Augusta State Hospital, as an advisory member. They were 
directed to take immediate steps to erect not later than January 1, 1897, 
upon the site at Bangor already purchased by the previous commission fire 
proof buildings, after plans to be selected by them, for which purpose the 
sum of $75,000 was appropriated. 

The commission after careful study, rejected the site selected by the 
previous commission and decided to erect the hospital on the top of the 
hill which made necessary a great amount of grading and blasting of 
ledge to obtain a level place large enough to accommodate the buildings. 
The plans were drawn by John Calvin Stevens, architect, of Portland who 
followed closely what is known as "The pavilion plan". The plant con- 
sists of a central administration building, kitchen, laundry and power house 
on a central axis which runs from north to south. On the east and west 
and connected to the central building by corridors are the wings contain- 
ing the wards. The buildings were completed and opened for the recep- 
tion of patients July 1, 1901. The first patient was admitted June 26, 1901. 
Two others had been admitted when on the first day of July a detail of 
70 women patients was received from the hospital at Augusta, followed 
upon the sixth by 75 men from the same institution. 

In 1907 an additional wing for women was added that provided accom- 
modations for 150 patients and 19 nurses. The tuberculosis pavilion was 
added in 1910 which provides open-air treatment for 48 patients. In 1909 
an appropriation of $175,000 was obtained for a new wing to accommodate 
150 men and a bathing pavilion equipped with shower baths and dressing 
room. In 1913 a new cold storage plant and a new store room were con- 
structed over which was constructed in 1916 and 1917 a congregate dining 
room to accommodate 500 persons. 

p ., The hospital has capacity for 600 patients. The number 

in the hospital on January 21, 1920, was 355 men, 329 



women, a total of 684 patients ; 3,614 patients have been admitted to the 
hospital since it was opened, in 1901. 

The value of the hospital property, viz., real estate, includ- 
ing buildings, is estimated at $956,882.48 ; personal prop- 
erty, viz., furnishings and equipment, $140,168.24, making the total value 
of the entire plant, $1,097,050.72. 

The original hospital site consisted of 120 acres. The farm 
was enlarged by the purchase of 50 acres additional in 1905, 
and a second purchase of 50 acres in 1909. The farm now contains approxi- 
mately 250 acres, of which about 100 acres are under cultivation. 

Both institutions are managed by a single board of trus- 
tees, consisting of seven members, the present personnel 
of which is Howard L. Keyser, president, Greene ; Charles E. Smith, secre- 
tary, Newport ; Albert J. Stearns, Norway ; James W. Beck, Augusta ; John 
B. Hutchinson, Eastport; Frank E. Nichols, Bath; Mrs. Arthur F. Parrott r 
Augusta. The board meets monthly at each institution. The superin- 
tendent of the Augusta State Hospital is Dr. Forrest C. Tyson; steward 
and treasurer, Mr. Samuel N. Tobey. Dr. Carl J. Hedin and William Thomp- 
son occupy similar positions in the Bangor State Hospital. 
... . The Bangor State Hospital receives patients who are resi- 

f P f t dents of the five eastern counties as follows : Penobscot, 

Hancock, Washington, Aroostook and Piscataquis. Resi- 
dents of all other counties are received at Augusta. Patients received in 
either hospital that have a residence in the district other than that assigned 
to the hospital may be transferred by order of the trustees. Patients are 
admitted to either hospital only on properly executed forms prescribed by 
statute. The blanks may be obtained on application from the superin- 

, The rate for board established by the trustees January 1, 

f p j 1920, is $6.00 per week. Economically, patients are divided 

into two classes: first, reimbursing patients who pay all 
or part of the cost; second, state patients in which the state assumes 
the entire cost of maintenance. The expense of commitment and trans- 
ference to and from the hospitals is borne by the town making the com- 
mitment. The private wards with special privileges for a certain class of 
patients have been abolished. A statement of facts relative to the financial 
ability of the patient or relatives for his support is required in each case. 
Commitm t ^ insane who are legal residents of a town are entitled 
to admission to the state hospitals. All persons should 
be committed in the regular manner by the municipal officers on the evi- 
dence of at least two reputable physicians given by them under oath. The 
complaint must be made in writing by any blood relative, husband or 


wife, or by any justice of the peace. At least 24 hours' notice must be 
given to the person alleged to be insane prior to the date of hearing. The 
commitment paper and the signed medical certificate must accompany the 
patient to the hospital. If the patient has no means or relatives liable for 
his support a certificate of inability should be filed at the same time. If a 
woman is committed she should be accompanied by a father, husband, 
brother or son. In the absence of these relatives by a woman attendant. 
All cases whenever possible should be accompanied to the hospital by rela- 
tives or friends. Officers of the law if obliged to accompany the patient 
in order to render assistance should dress in civilian clothes. 
_, In cases of emergency when immediate restraint and deten- 

-ft ti n * s necessar y for the comfort and safety of the patient, 
the right of hearing may be waived and the patient may 
be received on the presentation of a copy of the complaint and physicians' 
certificate, which certificate shall set forth the reasons for the emergency. 
The municipal officers should proceed with the hearing, complete the com- 
mitment, and forward the certificate to the hospital within 10 days. 

~, In addition to cases sent to either hospital for observation 

Observation , ,, . . . , - ,. 

by the supreme court provision is made for other cases 

as follows : "If a person is found by two physicians qualified as examiners 
in insanity, to be in such mental condition that his commitment to an 
institution for the insane is necessary for his proper care or observation, 
he may be committed by any judge or any other officer authorized to com- 
mit insane persons to either of the state hospitals for the insane, under 
such limitations as the judge may direct, pending a determination of his 

,, . The superintendent in charge of either of the state hos- 

Voluntary ., , , , . , , ., , , 

., pitals to which an insane person may be committed may 

Commitment , , , . ,, . , , ,. 

receive and detain therein, as a boarder and patient, any 

person who is desirous of submitting himself to treatment and who makes 
written application therefor, and whose mental condition in the opinion 
of the superintendent or physician in charge is such as to render him com- 
petent to make the application. Such superintendent shall give immedi- 
ate notice of the reception of such voluntary patient to the board of state 
hospital trustees. Such patient shall not be detained for more than ten 
days after having given notice in writing of his intention or desire of leav- 
ing the institution. The charges for support of such a voluntary patient 
shall be governed by the laws or rules applicable to the support of an insane 
person in such institution. 

_, Provision is made for the temporary care of patients who 

fu by reason of sudden mental disorder need care pending 

other arrangements for the disposition of the case. It 

is applicable to transients and non-residents particularly, and in those 



instances when officials authorized to make commitments cannot be assem- 
bled immediately. The act is as follows : "The superintendent of either 
of the state hospitals, to which an insane person may be legally com- 
mitted, may, when requested by a physician, a member of the board of 
health, a health officer, a police officer of a city or town, receive and care 
for as a patient in such institution for a period not exceeding fifteen days, 
any person who needs care and treatment because of his mental condition. 
Such request for admission of a patient shall be in writing and filed at the 
institution at the time of the reception of the patient, together with a 
statement in a form prescribed or approved by the board of state hospital 
trustees, together with a statement giving such information as said board 
may deem appropriate. Such a patient who is deemed by the superin- 
tendent not suitable for such care, shall upon the request of the superin- 
tendent be removed forthwith from the institution by the person requesting 
his reception, and if he is not so removed, such person shall be liable for 
all reasonable expenses incurred under the provisions of this act, on account 
of the patient, which may be recovered by the institution in an action of 
contract. Such superintendent shall cause every patient to be duly com- 
mitted according to law r , provided he shall not sign a request to remain 
as a voluntary patient or to be removed therefrom before the expiration 
of such period of fifteen days. All reasonable expenses incurred for the 
examination of the patient, for his transportation to the institution and 
for his support therein, shall be allowed, certified and paid according to 
the laws providing for similar expenses in the commitment and support 
of the insane." 

Parents and guardians of insane minors if of sufficient 

ability to support them in the hospital must within 30 

days after an attack of insanity, without legal examination send them to 
one of the hospitals and give to the treasurer the bond required within 
this period. 

The medical service in both hospitals is under the direc- 
tion of the superintendent who is assisted by a staff of 
trained physicians. The chief feature of the medical serv- 
ice is the daily staff conference at which all new cases are presented in 
turn by the assistant physicians for diagnosis and suggestions for treat- 
ment. Cases for parole or discharge are also considered. 

All new cases are received by the assistant physicians in 
New Cases rotation. The record of examination contains the anamne- 
sis obtained at the time or later, a general physical and neurological exam- 
ination with urinalysis, vaccination, and an examination of the blood for 
the Wassermann reaction. Special tests are performed when indicated. 
The mental status is ascertained by a carefully recorded examination. 


The patient is now presented at staff conference for classification. The 
subsequent clinical course of the case is noted from time to time on the 

m Special features in treatment consist of rest in bed, regu- 

Treatment , ,. . ,. , , ... ... . . ' 

lation of diet and bodily habits, judicious application of 

various hydrotherapeutic measures such as wet packs, douches, and con- 
tinuous warm baths, selected occupation under a trained industrial worker. 
The physically ill are cared for in sick wards where the principles of gen- 
eral medical practice are used. 

. Patients are entertained by weekly dances, moving pic- 

tures, concerts, lectures, athletics and various other out- 
door activities. 

. . Each hospital maintains a training school for nurses under 

, . the direction of a superintendent who is a registered grad- 

uate nurse. The course is of three years' duration. Appli- 
cants must be over 19 years of age and present satisfactory references as 
to good moral character and physical health. Preference will be given 
to those candidates for the training school who are high school graduates 
or who have acquired more than a common school education. Pupil nurses 
are assigned to positions offering the best opportunities for experience 
in nursing all forms of nervous and mental diseases, as well as acute medi- 
cal and surgical cases. The reception wards have adequate modern equip- 
ment for giving prolonged baths, packs, and other hydrotherapeutic treat- 
ment. While the hospitals are mainly for nervous and mental diseases 
they are large enough to give ample opportunities for experience in gen- 
eral medical and surgical nursing. The training school opens in October 
and closes in June. Lectures are given by the physicians. Practical 
instruction and demonstrations are given daily on the wards by the super- 
intendent of nurses, supervisors, and charge nurses. In addition to the 
theoretical instruction the physicians also give practical demonstrations 
in the ward clinics, laboratory, dispensary, and autopsy room. The Augusta 
training school affiliates with that of the Maine General Hospital in Port- 
land, the Bangor training school with Bellevue hospital in New York city. 
The affiliated course is of not less than six months' duration after which 
the graduate is eligible for registration in Maine. 
P , No patient can ,be received at either hospital until cor- 

T , rect commitment papers are presented. 

Information ^ ,.,,,.,. * , j i 

Patients relatives are requested to furnish a good supply 

of plain, suitable clothing. 

Money, jewelry and other valuables should not be brought with 
patients, and the hospital will not be responsible for anything left later 
in possession of patients. Things necessary or suitable for patients can 
be left with hospital officers. 


Visiting daily from 9 to 11.30 a. m. ; from 1 to 5 p. m. Definite times 
for visiting are required to avoid serious interference with hospital work. 
Visiting on Sundays not allowed except in cases of critical illness, or by 

Visitors are requested to ask for any desired information concerning 
patients of the physicians at the office. 

Inquiries by telephone, concerning patients should be made, if possible, 
between the hours of 1 and 2 p. m. The persons making call should always 
give the name of patient for whom inquiry is to be made, and not call for 
the physicians. This will insure prompt reply and the proper person will be 
notified to answer call. 

Written inquiries should always contain name of patient, name and 
address of writer, with relationship, if any, to patient. Reply stamp should 
be enclosed. 

Letters and express packages sent to patients should be directed to 
them in care of the hospital. 

The name and address of sender should be given on outside of package 
in order that acknowledgment of same may be made. To insure delivery, 
all charges must be prepaid. 

All letters concerning patients should be addressed to the superin- 

All letters concerning the financial condition of the patient should be 
referred to the treasurer. 

., The public is entitled to the benefits of the knowledge and 

~ resources of the state hospital organization which should 

be extended to the community through the services of 
mental clinics and after care agents. Both hospitals conduct mental clinics 
in Portland, Lewiston and Bangor. Social service workers are employed 
to visit the homes, obtain and impart information, and help in restoring 
paroled and discharged patients to economic independence. The require- 
ments of such extra institutional activities in general are as follows : 

First : The supervision of patients who have left the institution with 
a view to their safe care at home, suitable employment and self-support 
under good working and living conditions, and prevention of their relapse 
and return to public dependency. 

Second: Provision for informing and advising any indigent person, 
his relatives or friends and the representatives of any charitable agency 
as to the mental condition of any indigent person, as to the prevention and 
treatment of such condition, as to the available institutions or other means 
of caring for the person so afflicted, and as to any other matter relative to 
the welfare of such person. 

Third: Whenever it is deemed, advisable the superintendent of the 
institution may cooperate with other state departments such as health, 


education, charities, penal, probation, etc., to examine upon request and 
recommend suitable treatment and supervision for 

(a) Persons thought to be afflicted with mental or nervous disorder. 

(b) School children who are nervous, psychopathic, retarded, defect- 
ive or incorrigible. 

(c) Children referred to the department of juvenile courts. 
Fourth: The acquisition and dissemination of knowledge of mental 

disease, feeble-mindedness, epilepsy and allied conditions, with a view to 
promoting a better understanding and the most enlightened public senti- 
ment and policy in such matters. In this work the department may coop- 
erate with local authorities, schools and social agencies. 



The Maine School for Feeble-Minded was established by 
an act of the legislature of 1907. In accordance with this 
provision, the state purchased about 1200 acres of land in the towns of 
New Gloucester, Gray, North Yarmouth and Pownal, in Cumberland 
County. The institution is located one mile from Maine Central Railroad 
and one mile from Grand Trunk Railroad, Gray and Pownal being respec- 
tively their nearest stations. The school is twenty miles distant from 
Portland, and sixteen miles from Lewiston. 

rou P ca U e d feeble-minded, we include all those 

A th 

, , individuals who are mentally deficient from birth, or early 

Feeble-Mmded? u .i j -, , -, - , j ,, , , 

childhood ; and whose defect is due rather to an arrest of 

development, than to a disease process in later life. These individuals are 

incapable of managing their affairs with ordinary prudence under ordinary 


v u f R the basis of one feeble-minded person in three hundred 

. of the population, which is a conservative estimate, there 
Feeble-Mmded ,. ,, * -mm o no/. ^ j 

are, according to the census of 1910, 2,226 feeble-minded 

persons in Maine, and 275,844 in the United States. 

, . . The act establishing the School for Feeble-Minded provided 

for the care and education of the idiotic and feeble-minded 
six years of age upward. The law has since been amended, so that at 
present only males between the ages of six and forty, and females between 
the ages of six and forty-five are eligible for admission to the School for 
p ., , Feeble-minded persons are committed to the school by 

judges of the probate court, after they have first been 
examined by two physicians who certify that they are fit subjects for the 
School for Feeble-Minded. 
__ % , Maine School for Feeble-Minded was opened for inmates 

in 1908, and is under the general management and super- 
vision of the hospital trustees, who also have charge of the two insane 
hospitals. One or more of the trustees must visit the institution as often 
as once in each month. The board of trustees must have an annual meet- 
ing, and present a yearly report to the governor and his council, contain- 
ing the history of the school for the year, and a detailed report of all 
accounts and disbursements. 



r , The School for Feeble-Minded accommodates 282, and has 

a waiting list of 180 applicants. Applicants for admission 
must first apply to the board of trustees, and are accepted for admission 
from the various counties in the state in proportion to their population. 
The approximate total expenditure for permanent construction and build- 
ings up to date is $275,000. The average per capita cost for maintenance, 
including board, clothing, care and medical treatment, and training is $4.00 
per week. 

M ,, , On admission, the inmates are given a physical and mental 

examination, and classified according to their physical and 
mental condition. All teachable and trainable boys and girls are grouped 
in classes according to their mental age and given instruction and training 
adapted to their mentality. The higher grades are taught to read, write 
and do simple number work. In the manual training and industrial rooms 
they are taught to work at various simple occupations. The many house- 
hold duties and the large farm furnish many of the boys and girls with 
useful occupations. 
p f , , Every feeble-minded child should have an opportunity to 

ui ** j j learn whatever he is capable of learning and thereby be 
Feeble-Minded , , ,,. , , , , , , , , , . ,. , . 

able to think better, do better, and be able to live a happier 

and more useful life. 

All feeble-minded cases who show criminal tendencies, sex offenders, 
and those who distribute venereal infection, live in filth and tend to degrade 
the neighborhood, should be provided for in an institution. 

Every feeble-minded woman between the ages of fifteen years and 
forty-five years of age, who cannot look out for her own moral welfare, 
should be segregated in an institution. There are probably more than 
five hundred of these child-bearing mentally defective women in Maine, 
who are rapidly multiplying the feeble-minded variety of the human race. 









t i 




> i 


> i 



Location The State School for Boys is located in South Portland, 

about four miles from Portland City Hall. The nearest 
trolley line is at Stroudwater, one and one-half miles from the school build- 
ing. The post office address is 264 Westbrook Street, South Portland, 

Histor The sch o1 was established by act of the state legisla- 

ture of 1853, and after a careful investigation by a legis- 
lative committee appointed to select a site the present location was most 
happily chosen, and by the liberality of the City of Portland a farm of 
160 acres was purchased at a cost of $9,000 and presented to the state 
to be used for purposes connected with the institution, which was then 
known as the State Reform School. 

p The purposes for which this institution was established 

were to provide a place of detention and education for 
boys between the ages of eight and sixteen years who had become unruly 
and delinquent in the communities of the state in which they lived and 
were deemed to be in need of restraint and correction during those earlier 
years when it is to be presumed that character is being formed, and who 
were believed to be capable of receiving instruction and training that would 
enable them to become good men and desirable citizens. Boys who are 
mentally defective to the extent of being feeble-minded or insane, and 
those who are deaf, dumb or blind, are not considered subjects for commit- 
ment to this school. Nor is the school to be deemed a place of punishment 
for crimes or misdemeanors committed, but rather for the education and 
upbuilding of youthful offenders who have by their conduct subjected them- 
selves to the penalties of the statutes. 

Many years after its foundation the name of the institution was 
changed by legislative act from the State Reform School to the State 
School for Boys, and with this change in name came also the adoption of 
a change in discipline and even broader and more liberal administration 
of the affairs of the school. Up to that time the system of living had 
been only partially what is known as the cottage, or colony, system of 
school families. A large number of the boys still lived in what is known 
as the congregate system which prevailed at the opening of the school 
and which confined the inmates to one large building with adjoining yards 



for exercise and play. With the adoption of this new legislation, the cot- 
tage system was completely inaugurated by the erection of two additional 
large cottage buildings, and from that time on the boys of the state school 
have lived in colonies or families of about forty boys under the direction 
and care of a cottage master, a matron and a school teacher, representing 
the family idea of father, mother, elder sister and brothers. 

By way of recreation, all sorts of out-door games particu- 
larly base ball are encouraged, and in the hall provided 
and Health , , . - . . ' 

for this purpose there is a moving picture machine, and 

frequent entertainments of interesting character are presented. 

The health of the boys is under the care of a regularly appointed 
physician who is not a resident of the institution but whose visits are 
made promptly upon call. A comfortable building on the grounds has 
been made over for use as a hospital with hot and cold water, electric 
lights, baths, operating room, and has accommodations for twenty patients. 

Cottages are most conveniently arranged with school rooms, play 
rooms, kitchens and dining rooms, and the dormitory system of sleeping. 
Sanitation and bathing are adequately provided for, and apartments are 
provided in each cottage for the private life of the master and matron 
and teacher. Details of heating, lighting and the admission of sunlight 
in all the apartments have been carefully considered. The school of let- 
ters is graded according to the plan in use in the public schools of the 
state, and teachers are required to have normal school experience and 
state certificates. 

The religious preferences of the boys are about equally 

Religious divided between the Catholic and Protestant faiths. There 

^ct* vices 

is a regular Catholic pastor who visits the school on the 

first and third Sundays of each month celebrating the mass on the first 
Sunday and giving religious instruction and catechism on the third Sunday. 
All the boys assemble for religious service every Sunday afternoon, and 
the preachers are volunteer clergymen who take a very keen interest in 
their service here. 

F The operation of the school farm and the raising of live 

stock and poultry give interesting occupation constantly 
to a certain number of boys, and other industrial activities are provided 
for in a wood-working shop where general repairs are made and in the 
school bakery, laundry, kitchens and dairy. 

The government of the school is vested in a board of six 
Government , , , ,. . , . , 

trustees, each holding a term of six years and one appoint- 
ment made each year by the governor of the state. The trustees select 
a superintendent to act for them and under their direction in the daily 
administration of the affairs of the school. The regular meetings of the 
board of trustees are held on the fourth Fridays of January, March, May, 


July, September and November, and a visiting member is appointed at 
each meeting to make a personal inspection of the school as often as once 
a month at least. Further supervision of the institution is made by a 
committee of the governor's council to which is added a lady visitor whose 
duty it is to make frequent calls at the institution and inquire carefully 
into the welfare of its inmates. 

, Commitment of boys between the ages of eight and six- 

teen to the school is made by magistrates of competent 
Conditions . . ,. ,. ,. ,, ,, T , . ., , 

jurisdiction for the term of the boys minority, unless 

otherwise disposed of by the trustees and superintendent. This form of 
commitment amounts virtually to an indeterminate sentence, and leaves 
to the discretion of the governing officers the time when the boy through 
the merit of his own good conduct and by reason of the opportunity which 
may be presented shall leave the institution, the average period of deten- 
tion being about two years. 



This institution bore the name of the Maine Industrial 
School for Girls from the time it was established till March 
22, 1915, when by act of the legislature it was changed to The State School 
for Girls. 

The history of the school goes back to 1867. In the latter part of 
January, 1867, a girl, fifteen or sixteen years of age, was convicted in 
the police court of Augusta of petty larceny, fined, and in default of pay- 
ment, was committed to the county jail. This incident suggested the 
necessity of a reform school for girls in the State of Maine. The next 
morning in the legislature, then in session, Hon. John L. Stevens of 
Augusta introduced a resolution providing for the appointment of a com- 
mission to investigate the subject of reform institutions for girls and 
their success where already in operation, and report to the next legisla- 
ture. Hon. George B. Barrows of Fryeburg, was appointed commissioner, 
and made a report in 1868. This report was referred to the legislature of 
1869 ; and the subject at two subsequent sessions was referred to "the next 

At the session of 1871 nearly a thousand ladies of Portland petitioned 
the legislature "to make like provisions for the reform of girls as had 
been made for boys." As a result of this petition a commission was 
appointed consisting of Hon. Benj. Kingsbury, Jr., of Portland, Hon. E. R. 
French of Chesterville, and Hon. Samuel Garnsey of Bangor, which reported 
in 1872 a bill for the incorporation of a private association for the estab- 
lishment and administration of the proposed institution. This bill was 
passed and such an association was incorporated. 

Meantime, unaware of what was already in progress, Mrs. Mary H. 
Flagg of Hallowell was moved to provide for vagrant and outcast girls, 
and first made her intentions known to some friends in April, 1872. She 
interested also Mrs. Almira C. Dummer of Hallowell; and in December 
of that year the two offered to the governor, the former $10,000 in money 
and the latter a building site in the city of Hallowell valued at $2,000. 
These proposals were made known by the governor in his annual message 
to the legislature of 1873. The private corporation accepted these pro- 



The first building erected, Flagg : Dummer Hall, was dedicated January 
20, 1875. Erskine Hall was opened January, 1886; and Baker Hall in 
December, 1898. 

While the institution received a good deal from private charity the 
state also made substantial appropriations annually. 

The legislature of 1899 enacted a law to put the school 
wholly under state control. The conditions of this act 
were accepted by the corporation, and its whole property valued, for its 
purposes, at $40,000 was conveyed by deed to the state. 
p . The State School for Girls is not a house of correction, 

but is designed as a home for girls between the ages of 
six and twenty-one years, who, by force of circumstances or associations, 
are in manifest danger of becoming outcasts of society. It is not a place 
of punishment, to which its inmates are sent as criminals but a home for 
the friendless, neglected and vagrant children of the state, where, under 
the genial influence of kind treatment, physical, mental and moral training, 
they may be won back to ways of virtue and respectability, and fitted for 
positions of honorable self-support and lives of usefulness. 

Girls committed to the school become wards of the state. By the act 
of commitment fathers and mothers lose their parental rights and responsi- 
bilities and the board of trustees, with the superintendent, officers and 
teachers, in behalf of the state, become as parents to the children. 
~ ., Girls are admitted to the school between the ages of 6 and 

16. This age limit will doubtless be changed at the next 
legislature to 9 to 17 years. When once admitted, they are under the con- 
trol of the trustees until 21 years of age, unless sooner discharged by vote 
of the trustees. Girls may be committed through court procedure for 
truancy, for "leading an idle or vicious life", or for "being found in mani- 
fest danger of falling into habits of vice or immorality", by the munici- 
pal officers, or any three respectable inhabitants of any city or town where 
she may be found. 

. The government of the State School for Girls is vested 
in a board of trustees, six in number, known as "Trustees 
of Juvenile Institutions". They have charge also of the State School for 
Boys at South Portland. One trustees must visit each institution every 
month, the board meetings being held once a month alternating at each 

, PI t The Pl aR t consists of four cottages, one central school 

6 building with a dormitory, an administration building, 

and In\ ory twQ farm cottageg) a barn? and a p ump i ng station. The 

present inventory value of buildings and equipment, 
together with trust funds valued at $10,819.15, is now $222,945.22. 


The present enrolment is 212 girls, 129 resident and 83 

non-resident (or parole) . 

A graded system of schools is maintained, including the 

Population , , v 

non-resident (or parole) . 

T , , first three years of high school work. 

Several girls are always in outside high and grade schools : 
those in the former working their board in families, and the latter having 
their board paid by the institution. 



__. The asylum was founded near the close of the Civil War 

in 1864 by Mrs. Sara A. Sampson of Bath, a returned army 
nurse, widow of Col. Charles A. L. Sampson of the Third Maine Volun- 
teers. It was started .as a local institution, Mrs. Sampson gathering 
together a few of the more needy soldiers' orphans and establishing them 
in a small comfortable house with a competent housekeeper. She inter- 
ested citizens generally in the enterprise, and an organization was formed 
with Ex-Mayor John Patten as its president. Besides looking after its 
immediate maintenance, a fund was started to provide for its permanent 
support as a local institution. 

So many applications for admission were received from orphans in 
other towns, that in order to widen the scope of its usefulness, the home 
was incorporated as a state institution on February 23, 1866, "for the 
purpose of rearing and educating, gratuitously, in the common branches 
of learning and ordinary industrial pursuits, the orphans and half orphans 
of officers, soldiers, seamen and marines who have entered the service of 
the government from Maine during the war for the suppression of the 
rebellion and have died while in said service, or subsequently, from wounds 
received or injuries or disease contracted while in said service." 

Under provisions of the several acts amendatory of the original the 
asylum at the present time is open to the following classes : 

. First: Descendants of veterans of the Civil War who 

resided in the state and served on the quota of Maine. 
of Admittance _ , , ,,. , .,. 

Second: Orphans or half orphans of veterans residing 

in the state, although not serving on the quota of Maine. 

Third : Children or grandchildren of veterans of the Civil War, when 
they have been deserted by either of their parents. 

Fourth: Orphans of any citizens of Maine, should the capacity of 
the home at any time be more than sufficient to care for orphans and 
others eligible for admittance under the several preceding provisions of 
the act. 

Children of both sexes are received between the ages of four and 
fourteen. Good homes are provided for them or they are returned to rela- 
tives by the time they have reached sixteen years of age. They have 
careful diet, plain food, wholesome and in plenty. Frequent bathing, a 
large amount of outdoor exercise and strict sanitary regulations are 



The home physician makes regular visits and responds promptly to 
any calls for treatment. 

The children attend the public schools of Bath on equal 
footing in every respect with citizens' children, without 
distinguishing marks or dress. Free textbooks are fur- 
nished by the city. Those of suitable age and school rank attend the 
Manual Training School and Bailey School of Industries, and are grad- 
uated from the junior high school if remaining long enough in the home. 
Some enter the senior high school and several have been graduated with 

Quite a number have settled in Bath, are good mechanics, and have 
good homes and families. Others are filling various stations in life, both 
business and professional and are making good records. One of the 
earlier inmates, resident in the state but having his business interests 
in Boston, was recently a member of the board of trustees, appointed by 
the governor. 

,. While necessarily under somewhat restrictive rules and 

regulations, the children are allowed quite general free- 
dom of action, being put upon their honor as to deportment and seldom 
is the confidence abused. The object is to give them family home life so 
far as it can reasonably be done. 

. . Children follow the religious preferences of the parents 

if they have any. All are required to attend church once 
on Sunday as well as Sabbath School. Daily services are 
held in the home under the direction of the matron or her assistant. 
M The management of the asylum is vested in a board of 

seven trustees four of whom are appointed by the gov- 
ernor and three annually elected by the local association. Seven lady visi- 
tors from various parts of the state are also annually elected by the local 
association, whose duty it is to visit the asylum and report to the trustees 
the result of their investigations, together with any suggestions for their 

For many years it has been the custom of the several governors to 
appoint as one of its trustees, the Department Commander of the G. A. R. 
whosoever he may be, feeling that the old soldiers may thereby be kept in 
closer touch with the needy descendants of their former comrades in arms. 
Offi ' 1 <?t ff There are in all ten care-takers: matron, housekeeper, 
two seamstresses, two laundresses, two cooks, housemaid 
and janitor. The present site of the home was purchased by the state 
in 1870. Additions to the building and lot have since been made. 

_, , The total number cared for in the home since its incor- 

^N umber 

. poration to January 1, 1918, has been 982. In the last 

twenty-five years the state has appropriated for main- 
tenance of children and upkeep of property a total of $227,756.64, averag- 
ing about $162.68 per child. 



. c u | The Maine School for the Deaf was established in 1876 

as part of the public school system of the city of Port- 
tor the Deaf , , , . - Oftr7 . , , , , 

land, and in 1897 it was taken over by the state and 

became a state institution. It is a public school for the instruction of 
children who, because of deafness, cannot be educated in the schools of 
the towns in which they live. Tuition and board are furnished free to 
children whose parents or guardians are residents of the State of Maine. 
The plant consists of an up to date school building of ten well-furnished 
school rooms, with a fully equipped gymnasium on the third floor and play- 
rooms in the basement. In the industrial building the older pupils are 
taught printing, carpentry, glazing, cabinet-making, basketry, chair-can- 
ing, sewing, dressmaking, weaving, cooking, ironing, etc. Three other 
buildings provide a dormitory for boys, a dormitory for large girls and 
dormitory for small girls and a hospital. There are usually in attendance 
about 100 pupils, representing every part of the state. Thirty persons 
employed. Appropriation for maintenance for 1918 was $31,862.30. 




In round numbers one thousand people in Maine die every year of 
tuberculosis, a curable disease. Much has been done for the help of those 
afflicted with this disease, through private agencies, such as the Maine 
Anti-Tuberculosis Association, but more needs to be done. In 1915 the 
legislature provided for the care and treatment of tubercular persons 
by an act authorizing the establishment of one or more sanatoriums at 
which patients were to be treated at a charge based on their financial con- 
dition. An appropriation of seventy-five thousand dollars was made to 
accomplish this. The Board of Trustees for Tuberculosis Sanatoriums 
was organized the same year and immediately went to work. 
w , The appropriation was, of course, inadequate to equip and 

furnish such institutions as were needed. Through the 
~ , . liberality of the directors of the Maine State Sanatorium 

at Hebron this plant was offered to the state for $15,000, 
though the net worth of the land, buildings and equipment was over two 
hundred thousand dollars. There were also vested funds of about eighty 
thousand dollars which were turned over to the state. There are about 
480 acres of land connected with this institution. The buildings consist 
of the Chamberlain Building for administration purposes, the reception 
cottage, the women's cottage, the men's cottage, central heating plant, 
creamery, etc. The capacity is one hundred. In 1919 the legislature pro- 
vided that new buildings should be erected for tubercular soldiers, sailors 
and marines, and it was decided to locate them at Hebron. 
p , - Under the conditions named in the deed to the Hebron 

,, . property only the so-called curable cases can be treated at 

Sa to ' Hebron. It was, therefore, necessary to acquire a second 

sanatorium for the treatment of advanced cases of tubercu- 
losis. The Chase Memorial Sanatorium at Fairfield was offered to the 
state for $15,000, and as this property was already equipped it seemed 
best to purchase it. The Central Maine Sanatorium at Fairfield is the 
receiving station, and patients are transferred as their condition seems 
to warrant. The capacity has been increased to one hundred and twenty- 
five. Cottage A is considered one of the most satisfactory buildings in 
New England for its purpose. The Chase Memorial Building has been 
remodeled to provide for the increased needs. A building for the accom- 
modation of children is at present under way. 



In 1917 the legislature made an appropriation for the 
erection and maintenance of a sanatorium in Aroostook 

\ I *i 1 ft A 

County, and a site was given to the state just outside 
Sanatorium ^ T , m,. . ... , . . , , ,. 

Presque Isle. This institution will be ready for occupancy 

in April of 1920. 

In addition to these state sanatoriums there are three private or semi- 
private sanatoriums at Parsonfield, Bangor and Andover. Lewiston has 
a local or county sanatorium. Many hospitals have tuberculosis wards, 
but even with these accommodations the state institutions have long wait- 
ing lists, and patients are sometimes obliged to wait two or three months 
for admittance. 


The State Reformatory for Men was established by an 

act of the legislature approved April 4, 1919. At the 

same time an appropriation of forty-five thousand dollars was made to 

purchase land and buildings. The Inebriates' Home, located in Windham, 

has been secured and a superintendent elected. 

It is expected that this reformatory will provide a suitable 
place to send minors, where they may be under influences 
and receive instruction that will tend to make them law-abiding and useful 

"The state shall establish and maintain a reformatory in which all 
males over the age of sixteen years who have been convicted of or have 
pleaded guilty to crime in the courts of this state or of the United States, 
and who have been duly sentenced and removed thereto, shall be impris- 
oned and detained in accordance with the sentences or orders of said courts 
and the rules and regulations of said reformatory. 

'When a male over the age of sixteen years is convicted before any 
court or trial justice having jurisdiction of the offense, of an offense pun- 
ishable by imprisonment in the state prison, or in any county jail, or in 
any house of correction, such court or trial justice may order his com- 
mitment to the reformatory for men, or sentence him to the punishment 
provided by law for the same offense. When a male is sentenced to the 
reformatory for men, the court or trial justice imposing the sentence shall 
not prescribe the limit thereof, unless it be for a term of more than five 
years, but no man committed to the reformatory upon a sentence within 
the prescribed limit, as aforesaid, shall be held for more than five years if 
sentenced for a felony; nor for more than three years if sentenced for a 
misdemeanor after a prior conviction of crime otherwise for not more 
than six months. If the sentence imposed on any man be for more than 
five years, he shall be so held for such longer term. 

"If, through oversight, or otherwise, any person be sentenced to 
imprisonment in the said reformatory for men for a definite period of 
time, said sentence for that reason shall not be void; but the person so 
sentenced shall be entitled to the benefit, and subject to the provisions of 
this act, in the same manner and to the same extent as if the sentence 
had been in the terms required by this act. In such case said trustees 
shall deliver to such offender a copy of this act." 




. The Reformatory for Women was created by an act of 

the legislature of 1915. At that time $50,000 was appro- 
priated to purchase a farm and construct buildings. The law provided that 
the institution should be built on the cottage system. The Reformatory 
was opened for the reception of inmates November 15, 1916. 

This institution is located in Skowhegan, a town of about 
6,000 inhabitants. The farm comprises 200 acres, half 
of which is under cultivation, the remainder in pasture and woodland. 
The water supply is from a never-failing spring on the property. 
p The purpose of this institution is to provide a place for all 

women from the age of sixteen years who have been con- 
victed of or have pleaded guilty to a crime in the courts of the state or 
of the United States. 

,. The institution is under the direction of five persons, 

Management . . .,, ,. ,. , . ,. * 

appointed by the governor, with the direction of the coun- 
cil. Two of these persons shall be women. 

~ The state employs at this institution a superintendent, a 

Expenses . ,. 

farm manager and five assistants. An appropriation of 

$33,579 has been made by the state to cover the running expenses for 




When Maine separated from Massachusetts in 1820, pro- 
vision had to be made for a state prison. Previous to this 
time the convicts from this section had been sent to Charlestown. In 
1823 the legislature provided for the establishment of such an institution at 
Thomaston.* Thomaston was chosen as a site because at that time before 
there were railroads it was easily accessible by water, and as most of 
the population was along the coast, it had a central location half way 
between Kittery and Eastport. Ten acres of land, including a lime quarry, 
were purchased from the Hon. William King at a cost of $3,000. The 
prison building itself was constructed for less than $2,000. In June, 1824, 
it was ready for occupancy and was considered to be very satisfactory. 
Daniel Rose, who had superintended the construction of the prison, was 
its first warden. The prison had two wings joined to the main building 
in which was the hospital. The length of the building was something 
over one hundred and eighty-six feet. The floor was of granite and the 
walls of split stone three feet thick. There were fifty cells. They had 
an aperture of eight by two inches in the wall to afford air, and on top 
there was an opening twenty -two inches by twenty-four inches to permit 
the prisoners to be lowered nightly into these cold, damp cells which 
were entirely without heat. The fence around the prison yard was built 
of cedar posts about ten feet high. In 1828 twenty cells were added in 
the west wing. In 1843 the building was remodeled and the old cells were 
abandoned. Three tiers of cells, thirty-six in each story and two abreast, 
seven feet high and four feet wide, were constructed in the east wing. 
In his report of 1844 Benjamin Carr, the warden, says, "We now have as 
good a prison as there is in the Union". In 1850 a large part of the build- 
ing was burned, but repairs were immediately made and the new main 
building was ready for occupancy in 1851. In 1854 the stone wall around 
the prison yard commenced some years before was completed. From 
time to time various repairs and additions have been made, houses for 
the prison officers added, the old wings enlarged and repaired, new wings 
and new shops built. 

Employment Jt was intended originally to use the convicts largely in 

mining the limestone in the quarry on the property of the 

prison but that proved unprofitable. A shoe shop was maintained for a 



time. At present there is a broom department, a harness department, 
and a carriage department. Two farms in Warren have been bought and 
are extensively operated. 

( The prison has never been self-supporting. The cost of 

feeding the prisoners has varied from six and a half cents 

to the present amount of twenty-seven cents a day. Naturally a building 

nearly one hundred years old is far from conforming to modern prison 


,, There seems to be no record of the cruel and abusive treat- 

Management fl a- J T- 1 1 -LT- * 

ment often inflicted on helpless prisoners in the prisons of 
other states. The parole system is in use and seems to work well. The 
prison has a physician, a resident chaplain who is preacher, teacher and 
librarian. Church services are held every Sunday and convicts who desire 
to read are furnished with two books and a magazine. Over fifty news- 
papers are received daily by men who have subscribed for them. The 
governing board is a prison commission, appointed by the governor, with 
the advice and consent of the council, for six year terms. They are 
required to make an annual inspection. 


The Maine Institution for the Blind is located in Portland. 

The legislature of 1907 appropriated the sum of $20,000 
for the year 1907 and a like sum for the year 1908 for its support. The 
board of trustees organized during the year 1908 and began the erection 
of buildings. The institution has been in active operation since 1909. 

The purpose of the institution is, in the language of the 

resolves of 1907, to give "to every blind or partially blind 
person over eighteen years of age, who is a resident of the state, practical 
instruction for a period not exceeding three years, in some useful occu- 
pation conducive to his or her self-support. The officers of said institu- 
tion in furtherance of the purposes of this resolve, may provide or pay 
for temporary lodgings and temporary support for workmen or pupils 
received at any industrial school or workshop established by them, and 
may ameliorate the condition of the blind by devising means to facilitate 
the circulation of books, by promoting visits among the aged or helpless 
blind in their homes, and by such other methods as they may deem expe- 
dient; provided, that they shall not undertake the permanent support or 
maintenance of any blind person at the expense of the state". 

,-, . There are three brick buildings, one of which serves as a 

Equipment . ,_ 

school and workshop, one as the home of the superin- 
tendent, and the third as a dormitory for the women. The men pupils 
are boarded near the institution at a building rented for the purpose. 

Finances The le ^ islatures of 1909 > 1913 1915 and 1917 appropriated 

fifteen thousand dollars annually for the institution. The 
legislature of 1911 appropriated ten thousand dollars per year for the 
years 1911 and 1912. The legislature of 1919 appropriated the sum of 
sixteen thousand dollars per year for the two years 1919 and 1920, the 
expenditures of the institution not to exceed the sum of seven dollars 
per week per pupil. It is expected that the industries taught at the school 
will furnish a source of income. The industries now being taught are 
mattress making, chair reseating, broom making, basketry and rug making. 



The State Department of Health was created by the Seventy-eighth 
Legislature. Its official existence dates from July 7, 1917. This depart- 
ment takes the place of the former State Board of Health which was cre- 
ated in 1885. 

The board consisted of six members appointed by the governor. For 
thirty-two years, during the entire existence of the former board, Dr. 
. A. G. Young served as the secretary. The reorganization 

of the public health work of the State of Maine was 
.brought about in 1917 because of a feeling on the part of the medical pro- 
fession and the people at large that the work should be considerably wid- 
ened in scope and should be more up-to-date in organization and equipment. 
. . In the newly organized department, the Commissioner of 
Health is the administrative head, and also Chairman of 
the Public Health Council which consists of five members. The state is 
divided into three health districts, each under the supervision of a full- 
time officer who represents the Health Commissioner. The three health 
districts are as follows: the northern district, comprising the country 
north of the Canadian Pacific Railroad; the southeastern district, includ- 
ing territory south of the Canadian Pacific and east of the Kennebec; the 
southwestern district, comprising the country south of the Canadian Pacific 
and west of the Kennebec. The State Department of Health has established 
six central divisions, all of which are viewed as co-operating agencies for 
the use of local health officials and the general public. These six divisions 
are as follows: Administration, Communicable Diseases, Sanitary Engi- 
neering, Diagnostic Laboratories, Vital Statistics and Public Health Edu- 

The chief work of the Division of Administration is to administer 
the public health laws of the state, and the rules of the department; to 
prepare regulations for the consideration of the Public Health Council and 
to organize and have a supervisory interest over the work of the other 
divisions of the department. 

The Division of Communicable Diseases has as its first duty the study 

, , of epidemics and individual cases of the so-called infectious 
Communicable ,. ., . ... _ 

,y and contagious diseases; it also co-operates with local 

boards of health in the diagnosis and control of such dis- 



The Division of Sanitary Engineering at the present time has as its 
chief duties the chemical and bacteriological examination of water and 
_ ., sewage from public and private sources. In addition to 

this the division co-operates with cities, towns or individ- 

uals in the field investigation of problems relating to water 
supplies and sewage disposal. 

The Division of Diagnostic Laboratories takes over and enlarges the 
work formerly done in the so-called Laboratory of Hygiene. Free exam- 
inations are made for tuberculosis, diphtheria, typhoid 
Division of . , ... . ... . .., i . 

~. ,. fever, syphilis, gonorrhea, meningitis, infantile paralysis, 

rabies, cancer, etc. Special examinations of milk, urine, 
Laboratories . ' , , . . , 

f eces, stomach contents, etc., are made for special fees. 

Typhoid prophylactic or "vaccine" is made and distributed, and the Pasteur 
"treatment" or prophylactic is administered without charge to citizens of 
the state. So-called autogenous vaccines are also made on special request 
for small fees. Such biologic products as diphtheria antitoxin, tetanus 
antitoxin, smallpox vaccine virus, gonococcus vaccine, etc., are distributed 
under the direction of the State Department of Health at cost. Arsphena- 
mine (Salvarsan or 606) for the treatment of syphilis is also furnished at 
a very low price. 

The Division of Vital Statistics, or human bookkeeping, has to do 
with the recording of births, deaths, diseases, marriages and divorces. 

TV f The State of Mame is at present in the United States 
Division of . , ,. , . ,. , , , . i . i . -,. 

17-4.01 a+o*- 4-- registration areas for births and deaths, which indicates 
Vital Statistics ,, ,, TT ., , _, _ , 

that the United States Census Bureau has found that over 

90% of births and deaths in Maine are being properly reported. 

One of the most important divisions of the department is that of 
Public Public Health Education. Through the agency of the press, 

Health special bulletins, lecturers, lantern demonstrations, exhib- 

Education its ' P ersonal correspondence, etc., the people of the state 

are told how disease may be prevented and health con- 

The state employs seventeen persons in the work of caring for the 
TJ, health of her people and expends about seventeen thousand 

dollars annually for the work. 


The legislature of 1868 authorized the appointment of a Commissioner 
of Insurance and Banking whose duty it was to investigate the condition 
pertaining to these branches of industry and report to the next legisla- 
ture whether or not legislation governing the conditions prevailing in 
these respective fields was. desirable. As a result of the report two depart- 
ments were created, known as the Banking and the Insur- 
ance Departments. Since 1870 the Insurance Department 
has operated as an independent office and from that date has been charged 
with the supervision of insurance companies and agents. 

Only safe and reliable companies are permitted to do business. The 
department is further charged with duties performed in other states by a 
fire marshal. 

p These duties include the investigation of questionable fires, 

inspection of property within the state and supervision of 
local fire inspectors and fire departments. This part of the work was 
added to the duties of the commissioner of insurance in 1895. 

Under the provisions of the Workmen's Compensation Act the Insur- 
ance Commissioner is a member of the Industrial Accident Commission 
and is charged with the duty of approving policy forms for compensation 
before they are filed with the Industrial Accident Commission and with 
the approval of adequate rates for compensation. The Insurance Com- 
missioner has supervision of all insurance companies including fire, marine, 
life, casualty, liability, plate glass, surety, bonding companies and various 
other lines, also fraternal beneficiary associations, and, under the pro- 
visions of the law passed by the legislature of 1915, he is charged with 
supervision of lightning rod manufacturers and the installation of light- 
ning rods within the state. 

Total insurance in force December 31, 1918 $150,943,546.57 

Total insurance written in 1918 21,713,344.47 

Lite Insurance Total premiums paid to companies 5,289,918.88 

Total losses paid by companies 2,944,930.12 

Total insurance in force December 31, 1918 $31,775,723.00 

Industrial Total insuranc e written in 1918 6,629,571.00 

Insurance Total prem i um s paid to companies 1,102,314.01 

Total losses paid by companies 429,489.58 



_, Total insurance in force December 31, 1918 $44,810,365.00 

Total insurance written in 1918 4,365,650.00 

Insurance Total premiums paid to companies 712,846.16 

Total losses paid by companies 551,598.19 

Total insurance written in 1918 $448,370,086.40 

Fire Total premiums paid to companies 6,377,873.00 

Insurance Total losses paid by companies 2,520,240.38 

Fires in 19182,040; damage 3,068,923.00 

The Insurance Department of the state employs in its office and field 
work eight persons, at a total cost to the state of $14,945.57. The state 
received in 1916 from the insurance companies as fees and taxes $202,- 


. The Workmen's Compensation Act of Maine was passed 

by the legislature of 1915, and became operative for organ- 
ization purposes upon the first day of October, 1915. For administration 
purposes, the act took effect on January 1, 1916, prescribing the compensa- 
tion to be paid when workmen sustained injury or death in the course of 
their employment. Administration of the law is supervised by a com- 
mission consisting of four members; a chairman and associate legal 
member who are appointed by the governor, the commissioner of labor 
and industry and the commissioner of insurance. 

~ The system provided for is elective, except as to state, 

_~j counties, cities, water districts and other quasi municipal 

corporations. All other employers have the right to elect 
whether or not to adopt the compensation features of the act, such elec- 
tion being evidenced by a signed written acceptance filed in the office of 
the Commission, together with copy of compensation policy. Every 
employee and employer who has elected to become subject to the act 
is presumed to be also subject to its provisions in the absence of written 
notice to the employer of a contrary intention at the time of his contract 
of hire, and within ten days thereafter having filed a copy thereof with 
the Commission. 

An employer who elects not to come under the provisions 
Employers . ,, ,. , , . ,. 

, . :, of the act remains liable in an action at common law for 

damages for personal injuries sustained by an employee 
in the course of his employment, and in such action unless by an employee 
of an employer, exempt under sections 3 and 4, of the act, he is deprived 
of his customary common law defences of contributory negligence, that 
the injury was caused by the negligence of a fellow employee, that the 
employee assumed the risk of the injury. 

Compensation is payable for every injury arising out of 
Compensation , ; , , *T J J , . 

"R * pH h a m course of employment, and is payable on a three- 

_ fifths basis of the average weekly wage, as provided in 

paragraph IX of section 1 of the act, with a fixed maximum 

amount of $15.00 per week and a minimum of $6.00 per week and for 

varying periods of time, depending upon the nature of the disability but 



in no case to exceed a period of five hundred weeks or more than $4,200 
in amount. In certain cases, as loss 'of an eye, hand, etc., a special com- 
pensation is paid. 

If death arises from the injury the employer pays the 
01 , ' dependent of the employee weekly payments of three-fifths 

of his average weekly wages, but not more than $15.00 nor 

less than $6.00 a week for a period of three hundred weeks 
from the date of the injury, and in no case exceeding $3,500. 

Reasonable medical, surgical and hospital services, nursing, 

\if"*fll{*M I \ Iff *" 

medicines and mechanical surgical aids shall be furnished 
by the employer when needed during the first thirty days after the acci- 
dent to the extent of $100, unless a longer period or a greater sum is 
allowed by the Commission. 

Every employer electing to pay compensation under the 
e act has the right to specify, subject to the approval of 

the Industrial Accident Commission, which of the follow- 
ing methods of payment of such compensation he desires to adopt: (1) 
Upon furnishing satisfactory proof of solvency and financial ability to 
pay the compensation provided, to make such payment directly to 
employees; or (2) to insure liability in any approved liability company; 
or (3) subject to the approval of the Commission, any employer might 
continue the system of compensation, benefit or insurance which was in 
use by such employer on the first day of January, A. D. 1915. No such 
substitute system shall be approved unless it confers benefits upon employ- 
ers at least equivalent to those given under the act. 

_, The statute requires evidence of the acceptance of the 

,. w , act by each employer. A written acceptance together with 

a copy of the insurance policy is filed with the Commission 
and properly indexed. All industrial accident policies filed must bear the 
approval of the Insurance Commissioner. He requires that each com- 
pany shall file with him a copy of the form of its policy and its classifica- 
tion of risks and premiums. 

All assenting employers are required to make prompt 
Reporting ,, * . . . ,, ... 

. , report to the Commission of all accidents to their employees 

Accidents . . . , . ,. _ , ;. 

arising out of and in the course of employment. Such first 

reports are duly indexed and filed. Reports of the attending physician 
and supplemental reports of the employer when the injured employee 
resumes work are later received and filed. 

Re rt Such accidents as from their nature or duration of dis- 

\ffreements a ^ility entitle the employee or his dependents to receive 
compensation, are as far as possible adjusted by agree- 
ment between the employer and employee. A memorandum of every such 
agreement must be filed with the Commission and to be effective must be 


approved by the Commissioner of Labor. Such agreement provides for 
weekly payments to the employee or his dependents, and to insure a proper 
execution of the same the Commission requires that receipts for such 
weekly payments shall be filed with it, and upon final settlement a copy 
of the final receipt stating total amount of money paid to the employee 
shall be so filed. 

If the employer and employee fail to reach an agreement, or an agree- 
ment filed is not approved, upon petition, notice to the parties and answer, 
the chairman or associate legal member, fixes a time for the hearing and 
upon evidence, in a summary manner, decides the merits of the controversy. 

The decision of the chairman upon all questions of fact in the absence 
of fraud is final. Appeal lies to the supreme judicial court on questions 
of law. 

p , Future payments may be commuted to a lump sum by 

the commission upon petition, notice and hearing, in those 
cases where weekly payments have continued for not less than six months, 
and it is shown that such commutation will be for the best interest of the 
person receiving same, or that the continuance of weekly payments entail 
undue expense or hardship upon the employer, or that the person entitled 
to compensation has removed or is about to remove from the United States. 

Statistics 1916 1917 1918 

101 A 171 Number of accidents reported 12,560 14,800 16,632 

Fatal accidents 56 63 83 

Number of agreements approved 2,759 4,170 3,850 

Number of claims on which hearings were held 72 99 95 

Total amount of compensation paid 1916 $78,154.30 

Medical bills and hospital services 1916 $61,655.58 

Total amount of compensation paid by insurance companies for the year 

1918 (approximate) $221,769.83 

Medical bills and hospital services paid by insurance companies for 1918 

(approximate) $93,180.20 

Number of industrial policies filed from January 1st, 1918, to January 

1st, 1919 3,788 

Number of self-insurers for year 1918 19 

p. The department employs seventeen persons. It has an 

appropriation of $28,200 per year for all expenses. 


The Secretary of State's office was designed by the framers 
of the constitution primarily as an office of record in 
which were to be "preserved the records of all the official acts of the Gov- 
ernor and Council, the Senate and the House of Representatives". So 
rapid has been the advance of the state's business, however, and so various 
the changes in its government that this department has become a great 
business office. 

The revenue received by the Secretary of State in 1917 
was $557,607.04. In addition to this sum the deposits pro- 
duced in interest alone nearly fifteen hundred dollars. This money was 
derived from the following sources: 

1917 1918 

Registration of automobiles and licensing of drivers $488,075.76 $570,171.00 

Corporation changes i 23,160.00 9,025.00 

New Corporations 39,285.00 18,005.00 

Fees of office 6,892.46 4,997.13 

Itinerant Vendors 193.82 300.00 

, . The duties of the Secretary of State and his force are as 

follows: Attending as secretary the meetings of the gov- 
ernor and council and preserving records of all their official 
acts; preparing, recording and delivering commissions to all persons 
appointed by the governor; engrossing all acts and resolves of the legis- 
lature including the preservation and filing of the original papers and 
signed copies of all laws; publication of the official copies of the acts and 
resolves of each succeeding legislature including the annotation and index- 
ing of these volumes; recording of the acts of incorporation of Maine 
formed corporations together with the annual return, sending out notices 
of the annual franchise tax, recording changes, etc. ; registration of auto- 
mobiles and the licensing of drivers of the same; preparation and distri- 
bution of all ballots used in state, county and national elections and pri- 
maries and the filing of the returns of votes of such elections. 



, The first Secretary of State was Ashur Ware of Portland, 

elected June 3rd, 1820. There have been in all, including 
the present incumbent, thirty-one different secretaries. The secretary 
appoints his deputies, who serve during the pleasure of the secretary. 
During the late summer and fall months the office force averages about 
ten in number, this being increased to twenty or twenty-five during the 
busy season. The total expense of this office is $33,281.57. 


The Board of State Assessors was created by the legislature of 1891. 
The act provided that the members of this board should be elected by 
the legislature. 

In 1909 the law was so amended that the Board was thereafter to be 
appointed by the governor, not more than two of whom can be taken 
from the same political party, the governor to designate the member who 
shall serve as chairman. 

. The Board of State Assessors constitute a board of equal- 

*" ization, whose duty it is to equalize state and county taxes 

among the several towns and unorganized townships. For 
Assessors ,,. ,, , f ,, 

this purpose they may summon before them and examine 

under oath any town assessor or other officer, or any officer of any cor- 
poration, and shall also have access to books, records and documents relat- 
ing to any matter which the board has authority to investigate. 

They are required by law to vjsit officially every county in the state 
at least once each year, for the purpose of conferring with local assessors, 
and inquiring into the methods of assessment and taxation in the several 
cities and towns. Public notice of these meetings must be given. 

They must annually, before the first day of December, make a report 
to the governor and council of their proceedings and include therein a 
tabular statement derived from the returns from local assessors, and such 
statistics concerning revenue and taxation as may be deemed of public 

w . , Local assessors are required to return to the State Assess- 

, . ors annually, on or before the first day of August, such 

information as said Board of State Assessors may require 

to enable them to equalize property values between towns, 
and they may add to or deduct from the amounts so furnished. 

They must file with the secretary of state, biennially, the assessed 
valuation for each town and township in the state. The aggregate amount 
for each county and for the entire state shall be certified by said board. 
This valuation shall be the basis for the computation and apportionment 
of the state and county taxes, until the next biennial assessment and 





The state valuation for the years 1919 and 1920 is $577,- 



$ 20,962,778 









State Tax 

( 50,000.00 









Eate of Taxation 

Eeal estate of cities, towns and plantations $389,987,250 

Personal estate of cities, towns and plantations 125,531,712 

Real estate in unorganized townships 59,953,719 

Growth on public lots 1,969,848 


This represents an increase above the state valuation of 1916 amounting to $56,- 
039,596 as follows: 

Real estate of cities, towns and plantations $25,193,497 

Personal estate of cities, towns and plantations 22,571,594 

Real estate in unorganized townships 8,002,442 

Growth on public lots 272,063 


Value of taxable live stock, 1918 $20,624,468 

Value of exempt live stock, 1918 2314,241 


Number of cows, 1918 149,905 

Number of oxen, 1918 7,351 

Number of three-year-olds, 1918 27,195 

Number of two-year-olds, 1918 41,394 

Number of year-olds, 1918 57,737 

Total number of cattle of all kinds 283,582 

Number of taxable sheep, 1918 12,208 

Number of exempt sheep, 1918 94,567 

Total number of sheep, 1918 106,775 

Number of horses, 1918 110,447 

Number of colts, 1918 9,688 


Value of automobiles, 1918 ' $10,806,980 

Value of real estate, 1918 383,104,462 

Value of personal estate, 1918 120,332,581 

Division of Real Estate Between Land and Buildings 

Value of land, 1918 $154,948,492 

Value of buildings, 1918 228,155,970 

Number of polls taxed, 1918 203,680 

Number of polls not taxed, 1918 13,803 



. The first money that was received in the treasurer's 

department was in the year 1820, June 15th, from Daniel 
Sargent, Treasurer of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, conformatory 
to a resolve that was passed by the legislature of Massachusetts amounting 
to $8,000. This amount was paid over to Joseph C. Boyd of Portland, the 
first Treasurer of the State of Maine. The total resources received in that 
year from June 15th to December 31st amounted to $34,386.96. The dis- 
bursements for that period amounted to $23,253.69. 

The number of treasurers of state dating from 1820 up to the present 
time is thirty-six. In 1915, an act was passed creating a deputy treasurer 
of state, appointment being made by the Treasurer of State. 
T Prior to 1913 the interest on daily balances was at the 

p -J c* * rate of 2%. After that date an increase was granted of 

one-half of one per cent. Also in the year 1915 a sum of 
money was placed in different banks on time deposit at the rate of four 
per cent. In the last year the income from the interest on deposits in the 
different trust companies and national banks, numbering 100, has amounted 
to $46,002.04. We have at this time, on time deposit $410,000, for which 
we are receiving 4%. The receipts paid over to this department for the 
year 1918 amounted to $8,323,521.99; disbursements, $8,199,235.11. 
~ ffi p, The office force consists of the treasurer, deputy treas- 

, urer and four clerks, whose combined salaries amount to 

and Expenses a, ftA/lft ni mu . xe -j * AT. i 

$9,049.01. The office expenses outside of the salaries 

amount to $4,495.04. The number of checks issued, 1917, was 68,500. 
State Debt Outstanding Bonds: 

State Highway Loan $1,860,500 

State of Maine War Loan Bonds 500,000 

Civil War Bonds 500 

The war loan bonds of $500,000 and the highway bonds of $200,000 
were issued in 1917. 

Bonds held in trust for the Augusta State Hospital and University 
of Maine amount to $268,300. 

State I com ^ e amoun * rece i ve d in this office from corporation and 
franchise taxes in the year 1917 amounted to $200,740. 

The amount of taxes on wild lands for the same period amounted to 



$317,370.98. The state taxes on cities and towns for the year 1917 
amounted to $2,808,591.70. 

Beginning April 1, 1917, this department by order of gov- 
How the State .1 , 1 *. i j . n 

ernor and council established a new custom of paying all 

1 avs Its JDills 

the State House employees weekly instead of monthly as 

was the former custom. On January 1, 1918, the same custom was estab- 
lished in all state institutions. 

In former years the state institutions were given a stated 

amount in one payment and their treasurers made the dis- 

bursements. Also the income from the different institu- 

tions and departments was deposited in the several banks in the name of 

the institution or department and paid over to the Treasurer of State 

monthly. This custom has been done away with and the different insti- 

tutions and departments now pay over daily to the Treasurer of State 

their income. This will mean a much larger office force in the future. 

The office of State Auditor was established in 1907. It 
State Auditor .,.-,, . -, -,., -, , 

is his duty to examine and audit all accounts and demands 

against the state. The weekly payrolls for the state departments and 
their field forces as well as the payrolls, of the thirteen state institutions 
are also audited and the warrants prepared in this office. The Auditor 
is also Secretary of the Farm Lands Loan Commission of Maine, created 
in 1917, which is charged with the duty of lending state money on farm 
land security, the rate being five per' cent with twenty years as the period 
of the loan. The State Auditor is called upon to aid in the preparation 
of the state budget, which is presented to the legislature at its biennial 
sessions. There are employed in the department the following: a special 
auditor, in charge of the accounts of the state institutions, a chief clerk, 
a department auditor, statistician, index clerk and three clerks and 
stenographers. The annual appropriation for the department in 1920 is 


. , As in the nature of things no regular military force accom- 

panied the first settlers of Maine, they were obliged as 
they increased in number to form voluntary military associations for 
defence which were usually called train bands. These voluntary associa- 
tions constituted the military before it assumed somewhat of a regular 
organization about 1650. The first record of a military company in old 
Falmouth appears to be in 1662 when Lieutenant George Ingersoll was 
presented at the court in Saco for neglecting his duty "in not exercising 
the military soldiers for one year and a half time". George Cleeve, one 
of the first settlers of Portland, and Joseph Phippen were witnesses against 

At the time of the outbreak of King Philip's War in 1675, the militia 
in Maine numbered about 700 of whom 80 were in Casco Bay, 80 in Saga- 
dahoc, 100 at Black Point, 100 in Saco and Winter Harbor, 80 in Wells 
and Cape Porpoise, 80 in York and 180 in Kittery. The daily pay of the 
militia who served in that war was for a general, six shillings; captain, 
five shillings; commissary general, four shillings; surgeon general, four 
shillings; lieutenant, four shillings; ensign, four shillings; sergeant, two 
shillings six pence ; corporal, two shillings ; private, one shilling six pence. 
Indian corn then was worth from two shillings six pence to three shillings 
a bushel and a cow could be bought for 45 shillings. At that time, it will 
be remembered, Maine was under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts and 
had been since 1652 and so continued until the separation in 1819, the 
year preceding its admission to the Union as the twenty-third state. 

In 1690 when the Indians aided frequently by French soldiers again 
began their depredations, about 26 families were living in what is now 
Portland. Their chief means of defence was Fort Loyal garrisoned by 
a company of soldiers. In May of that year after a siege of nearly a week 
the fort was captured and settlers and soldiers, fully 200 in all, were killed 
and their bodies left on the ground. That was perhaps the bloodiest massa- 
cre that was ever perpetrated by the savages in New England. 

The military early became an important department in the govern- 
ment. All able-bodied freemen and others who had taken the oath of 
residence belonged to the train bands. Those in a town formed a com- 
pany and if their number was 64, they were entitled to a captain, sub- 



alterns and non-commissioned officers; otherwise they were exercised by 
sergeants or subalterns. The soldiers of each county formed a regiment 
which was commanded by a sergeant major, chosen by the freemen of 
the same county in town meetings. Each regiment was mustered once 
in three years. At the head of all the militia in the colony was a major 
general elected by the freemen at large. At a later period ensigns and 
superior officers were commissioned by the governor. The militia were 
required to train by companies, six times in a year and at least two-thirds 
of the soldiers were required to have muskets and be furnished with 
bandoleers, the rest could serve with pikes provided they had corselets 
and headpieces. A bandoleer was a broad leather belt worn by soldiers 
over the right shoulder and across the breast under the left arm, used 
for supporting the musket and cases for charges. 

On July 18, 1775, the Continental Congress recommended that the 
able-bodied men between 16 and 50 form themselves into companies of 
one captain, two lieutenants, one ensign, four sergeants, four corporals, 
one clerk, one drummer, one fifer and about 68 privates. Each soldier 
was to have a good musket that would carry an ounce ball, bayonet, steel 
ramrod, worm, priming wire and brush, a cutting sword or tomahawk, a 
cartridge box that would contain 23 rounds of cartridges, 12 flints and 
a knapsack. Each soldier was to be provided with one pound of good 
powder and four pounds of balls fitted to the muskets. One-fourth' of the 
militia were required to be minute men. To this equipment the Conti- 
nental Congress added by act of January 22, 1776, a blanket and a canteen 
or wooden bottle sufficient to hold one quart. All unable men were equipped 
by the town. The selectmen were required to have ready one spade or iron 
shovel for every 16 polls, one-half as many narrow axes and an equal 
number of pickaxes, one drum and one fife for each company. 

About 1794 a third militia division was formed in Maine, of which 
Alexander Campbell of Harrington was chosen major general. It embraced 
the militia of Hancock and Washington counties and Henry Dearborn suc- 
ceeded Gen. William Lithgow as Major General of the Lincoln or 8th Divi- 
sion, after the new one was taken from it. By act of Congress May 8, 
1792, and another act of the general court, June 22, 1793, the militia depart- 
ment received additional improvements in system and discipline. In 1796 
there were in Maine 18 regiments of infantry and 10 companies of artillery 
and cavalry. 

For many years subsequent to the Revolution the militia law com- 
pelled every able-bodied man between 18 and 45 to be enrolled in the 
militia and they were obliged to train twice a year, one-half day in May 
and one or more days in September which was the fall muster. In Port- 
land there was a company in each ward with its respective officers. Each 


man had to provide his own arms, and equipments. As a result, when 
these companies assembled for inspection in May and September, so great 
was the variety of arms and equipments that someone nicknamed them 
String Bean companies and the name stuck. 

The first uniformed military company in Maine was the First Artillery 
Company of Portland, whose organization dates back to June 17, 1791, 
just 29 years before Maine became an independent state. 

The office of Adjutant General was created as a state department by 
the first laws of 1820. Samuel Cony of Augusta served as the first Adju- 
tant General. It is interesting to note the completeness of those first 
military laws by comparison with those governing the present. From 
the beginning provisions were made to organize the militia of the state 
conformably to laws of the United States and to make such alterations 
therein as might be deemed necessary. The Adjutant General is appointed 
by the governor with the advice of the council. Each and every free, 
able-bodied, white, male citizen between the ages of 18 and 45 constitute 
the state militia. Under the laws of 1820 every such enrolled citizen was 
required to provide himself equipment. Those between 40 and 45 were 
exempt except when detached or called forth to execute the laws of United 
States or state. 

n The Adjutant General rank Brigadier General, Ex-officio 

Chief of Staff, Quartermaster General and Paymaster Gen- 
eral. Duties of the Adjutant General See Section 17, the Military Law. 
The work of improving armory conditions throughout the state is under 
a special armory commission of which the adjutant general is a member. 

1 Major, Adjutant General, Me., N. G. Chief Clerk, Property and 
Disbursing Office for the U. S. Duties See Section 18, the Military Law. 

1 Stenographer to the Adjutant General and Chief Clerk. 

1 Bookkeeper State and U. S. accounts. 

4 Record Clerks Records of National Guard personnel ; Orders ; Cer- 
tificates of Service, Civil War, Spanish War and World War. During the 
mobilization of troops for Federal service in 1917, 3 to 5 additional clerks 
were employed. 

The Adjutant General is ex-officio Quartermaster General. 

r 1 Captain, G. M. Corps, Me. N. G. Military Storekeeper 

in charge of all military property issued for use of the National Guard. 

3 Assistants. 

During the mobilization of troops for Federal service in 1916 and 

1917 from ten to fifty additional men were employed. 

W Id W ^ e Second Maine Infantry, National Guard, was called 

into Federal service on April 13, 1917. The Maine Coast 

Artillery and the First Regiment Maine Heavy Field Artillery, and the 


Keservists of the National Guard were called into service July 25, 1917, 
the number reporting being about 5,500. 

On August 5, 1917, the entire National Guard of Maine was drafted 
into Federal service under the President's proclamation of July 3, 1917. 

On April 6, 1917, the Maine Naval Militia 12 officers and 170 men were 
called into Federal Service. 

The Adjutant General-Provost Marshal. 

1 Captain, Infantry, U. S. R., detailed by War Department. 
Department g Assistantg 

3 Stenographers. 

2 Clerks. 

(During the movement of drafted troops 11 were employed.) 

2 District boards. 
24 Local Registration and exemption boards, 3 members each. 

1 Appeal agent for each local board jurisdiction. 
24 Legal advisory boards, 3 members each, with 25 to 150 associate 


24 Medical advisory boards, 3 to 10 members each. 

Th- f t d M 60,000 men of draft age registered on June 5, 1917, and 
1017 1Q1Q about 500 reported for registration after that date; of 

this number 1,821 men were drafted into the military serv- 
ice of the United States on the first .call, reporting at Camp Devens, Ayer, 
Massachusetts, during September, October and November, 1917, and the 
balance reporting at Fort Williams, Maine, in December, 1917, January 
and February, 1918. 

. . . Annual appropriation before the enactment of the laws 

Appropriations of 1893 was $20,000.00 

1893-1894 1-12 of a mill on the state valuation. 26,185.87 

1895-1896 1-10 of a mill on the state valuation 32,477.83 

This increased until for the year 1911 it amounted to 45,178.01 

The legislature of 1911 fixed the amount of appropriation allowing for the 

year 1912 40,000.00 

and for each of the following years that amount with $5000 additional for 

the Naval Militia 45,000.00 

Armory appropriation Until 1917 there was appropriated each year 10,000.00 

The legislature fixed the appropriation for the year 1917 12,500.00 

For the following years the appropriation was fixed at 15,000.00 

An itemized and classified account of expenditures will be found in the annual 
report of the Adjutant General. 

IT *f H <St f June 30> 1897 ' U< S> allotment for a11 Purposes $5,175.67 

United States 1917.1918 for arming, equipping and training National 
Allotment Guard 20,801.19 

1917-1918 for arms, uniforms, equipment field service 24,177.60 


In the report of the Adjutant General is shown the numeri- 
cal strength of the National Guard. The registers of offi- 
cers show the entire military service of each active officer 
and his relative rank, and list the retired officers. Commissions issued 
and terminated during the current year are recorded in tables. In the 
record of the National Guard are shown new enlistments, appointments 
of non-commissioned officers, discharges, and all other changes in the 
personnel of each organization. 
__..., The reports of the department officers account for the 

military property and funds in the custody of the state, 
Property . ,, , , u *. j 

give a summary of the work done by the troops in drills 

and rifle practice, encampment or cruise, and in Federal service, noting 
the condition of property and men from the standpoint of inspecting and 
sanitary officers. There are special reports covering special duty and 


The office of the Attorney General has existed in the State of Maine 
since the birth of the state in 1820, but during the early history of the 
state, its powers and duties were much more restricted in scope than in 
more recent years. Until 1855, the incumbent of the office was appointed 
by the governor and council. In that year, by constitutional amendment, 
the present method of election by the two houses of the legislature was 

Until comparatively recent times, the Attorney General's activities 
were more closely related to the enforcement of criminal laws throughout 
the state, county attorneys acting generally under his direction. Quite 
radical changes in this respect were effected in 1905, since which time, 
although he is still required to consult with and advise county attorneys 
in matters relating to their duties, he is required to participate only in 
the trial of indictments for treason and murder. In the same year he 
was also invested with broad powers as the legal representative of the 
state government, being required t6 appear for the state and advise state 
officials, boards and commissions in all suits and other civil proceedings 
in which the state is a party or interested or in which the official acts 
and doings of such officers are in question in all courts of the state; and 
in such suits and proceedings before any other tribunal when requested 
by the governor or by the legislature or either branch thereof. He was 
also required to render legal services required by state officers, boards 
and commissions in connection with their legal duties and they were 
forbidden to engage other counsel. He was also authorized to bring civil 
actions to recover money for the state and to appear before departments 
and tribunals of the United States and committees of Congress and prose- 
cute claims of the state against the United States. He was also required 
whenever public interest might require to prevent public nuisances and 
enforce public charities. 

In 1870, the first duties with reference to corporations was imposed 
upon this office, the Attorney General being required to approve certifi- 
cates or organization. In 1881, he was required to enforce penalties 
against corporations for failure to make returns to the secretary of state 
and in 1883 was authorized to excuse corporations which had ceased to 
transact business from filing such returns. 



In 1909, he was required to represent the interests of the state in 
the assessment and collection of inheritance taxes, a line of activity which 
has expanded so rapidly that an assistant attorney general is now required 
by law to devote his whole time to that work. The office of assistant 
attorney general was created under special statutory authority in 1905. 

In 1919, a general law was passed giving the Attorney General au- 
thority to employ a deputy attorney general and such assistance as the 
duties of the office might require. At the present time there is one deputy 
upon whom by statute is conferred duties relating to the organization of 
corporations and such other duties as the Attorney General may require, 
and one assistant whose time is devoted to inheritance tax work. 

The appropriations for the department for all purposes for the current 
year aggregate $27,000.00. 



Bainbridge, June Wheeler 

Bangs, John Kendrick 
Bates, Katherine Lee 

Burrage, Henry Sweetser 

Butler, Ellen Hamlin 
Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence 

Coburn, Louise Helen 
Codman, John 

Day, Holman Francis 

Eckstorm, Fannie Hardy 
Elwell, Edward H. 

Foster, William Prescott 
Goold, William 
Hale, Edward Everett 
Hamlin, Hannibal 

Harris, Elijah Edgar 
Hart, Lester Melcher 
Long, John Davis 
McLellan, Isaac, Jr. 

Wife of William Seaman Bainbridge, famous phy- 
sician and surgeon of New York 
Author; b. Yonkers, N. Y., May 27, 1862 
Writer and educator; b. Falmouth, Mass., August 
12, 1859 

Author and clergyman; State Historian of Maine; 
b. Fitchburg, Mass., January 7, 1837 
Poet; b. Auburn, Maine, October 22, 1860. 
Soldier and educator; Governor of Maine 1867-70; 
President of Bowdoin College 1871-83; b. Brewer, 
Maine, September 8, 1828; d. Portland, February 25, 

Teacher and writer; b. Skowhegan, Maine, Septem- 
ber 1, 1856 

Author and business man; b. Boston, Mass., Janu- 
ary 16, 1863; d. South Lancaster, Mass., August 
31, 1897 

Author and journalist; b. Vassalboro, Maine, Novem- 
ber. 6, 1865 

Greek orator; b. Paerania, Attica, 384 or 383 B. C.; 
d. 322 B. C. 

Author; b. Brewer, Maine, June 18, 1865 
Journalist and author; b. Portland, Maine, Decem- 
ber 14, 1825; d. Bar Harbor, Maine, July 14, 1890 
Lawyer; b. Weld, Maine, 1857; d. Boston, Mass., 

Historical writer; b. Windham, Maine, April 13, 
1809; d. Windham, May 22, 1890 
Author, editor and clergyman; b. Boston, Mass., 
April 3, 1822; d. Roxbury, Mass., June 10, 1909 
Statesman; Governor of Maine 1857; Vice-President 
of United States of America 1861-65; b. Paris, 
Maine, August 27, 1809; d. Bangor, Maine, July 4, 

Baptist clergyman; b. Presque Isle, Maine, Novem- 
ber 28, 1869. 

Journalist; Private secretary to Governor Milliken 
of Maine; b. Portland, Maine, October 2, 1881 
Statesman; b. Buckfield, Maine, October 27, 1838; 
d. August 28, 1915 

Lawyer and writer; b. Portland, Maine, April 2, 
1806; d. August 20, 1899 




May, Julia Harris 

Merrill, Elizabeth Powers 
Milliken, Carl E. 
Minot, John Clair 

Monroe, Barnard 

Nason, Emma Huntington 

Owen, Moses 
Pike, Manley Herbert 
Reed, Thomas Brackett 
Rexdale, Robert 

Rhodes, Harrison 
Riley, James Whitcomb 

Shedd, Lydia Lord 
Swift, J. Otis 

Teacher and author; b. Strong, Maine, April 27, 

1833; d. May 6, 1912 

Poet; b. Stetson, Maine, July 26, 1861 

Governor of Maine; b. Pittsfield, Maine, July 13, 1877 

Author and editor; b. Belgrade, Maine, November 

30, 1872 

Author; b. Hallowell, Maine, August 6, 1845 


Journalist; b. Bath, Maine, July 21, 1838; d. Augusta, 
Maine, November 11, 1878 

Writer; b. Augusta, Maine, November 4, 1857; d. 
Augusta, Maine, September 4, 1910 
Lawyer and statesman; b. October 18, 1839, Port- 
land, Maine; d. Washington, D. C., December 6, 1902 
Lecturer and author; b. Portland, Maine, March 26, 

Author; b. Cleveland, Ohio, June 2, 1871 
Poet; b. Greenfield, Indiana, October, 1853; d. Indian- 
apolis, July 22, 1916 

Clergyman and writer; b. Bath, Maine, September 
24, 1837; d. December 7, 1915 




The following is not intended as a complete bibliography, but as a 
list of the most important sources of general historical information. No 
local histories are included. 

Boardman, S. L. 
Bowdoin College Library 
(Folsom, G.) 

Hall, D. B. 
Williamson, Joseph 

Beedy, H. C. 

Chase, H. ed. 
Griffith, F. C. 

Kennebec Journal Co., pub. 
Little, G. T. ed. 
Mclntyre & Blanding, ed. 

New England Historical Pub. Co. 

Pope, C. H. 

U. S. Bureau of Census 


Agricultural bibliography of the State of Maine. 
Augusta. 1893. 

One hundred books on Maine. Bowdoin College Li- 
brary Bulletin. Brunswick. 1891. 
Catalogue of original documents in the English 
archives relating to the early history of the State 
of Maine. 

Reference list on Maine local history. New York 
State Library Bulletin. Albany, 1901. 
Bibliography of the State of Maine. Portland, 1896. 
2 vols, 

Biography and Genealogy 

Mothers of Maine. Portland, 1895. 
Biographical encyclopedia of Maine of the 19th cen- 
tury. Boston. 1885. 

Representative men of Maine. Portland, 1893. 
Maine's hall of fame; list of men and women born 
in Maine who have risen to distinction. 1905. 
Noted men of Maine, a volume of portraits. Augusta, 

Genealogical and family history of the State of 
Maine. New York, 1909. 4 vols. 
Men of progress: biographical sketches and por- 
traits of leaders in business and professional life 
in and of the State of Maine. Boston, 1897. 
Biographical sketches of representative citizens of 
the State of Maine. Boston, 1903. 
The pioneers of Maine and New Hampshire, 1623- 
1660. Boston, 1908. 

Heads of families at the 1st census of the United 
States taken in the year 1790: Maine. Washington, 




Boardman, S. L. 

DeCosta, B. F. 
Drake, S. A. 
Emerson, W. 

Hubbard, L. L. 
Jewett, S. O. 
Richards, R. 
Steele, T. S. 

Thoreau, H. D. 
Varney, G. J. 

Abbott, J. S. C. 
Ballard, E. 
Bartlett, W. S. 
Baxter, J. P. 
Baxter, J. P. 
Burrage, H. S. 

Burrage, H. S. 
Burrage, H. S. 

Chamberlain, J. L. 
Church, B. 
DeCosta, B. F. 
Gardiner, H. 

Giles, J. 

Hatch, Louis C. 
Holmes, H. E. 
Hubbard, W. 

Kidder, F. 
Maine Federation of Women's 

Matthews, Albert 
Penhallow, S. 

Description and Travel 

The climate, soil, physical resources and capabilities 
of the State of Maine. U. S. Dept. of Agri. Misc. 
Spec. Rept. 4. 

Scenes in the Isle of Mount Desert. N. Y. 1871. 
Pine-Tree coast. Boston, 1891. 
The latchstring to Maine woods and waters. Bos- 
ton, 1906. 

Woods and lakes of Maine. Boston, 1883. 
Country of the pointed firs. 1896. 
Northern countryside. New York. 1916. 
Paddle and portage from Moosehead Lake to Aroos- 
took River. Boston, 1882. 
The Maine woods. Boston, 1864. 
Gazetteer of Maine. Boston, 1881. 


History of Maine. Boston, 1875. rev. ed. Portland, 

Memorial volume of Popham celebration, August 29, 
1862. Portland, 1863. 

Frontier missionary: a memoir of Jacob Bailey. Bos- 
ton, 1853. 

Sir Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of Maine. 
3 vols. Prince Society, 1890. 

George Cleeve of Casco Bay; 1630-1667. Gorges So- 
ciety, 1885. 

Beginnings of colonial Maine, 1602-1658. Portland, 

Maine at Louisburg. Augusta. 1910. 
Maine in the Northeastern Boundary controversy. 
Portland. 1919. 

Maine, her place in history. Augusta, 1877. 
History of the eastern expeditions. Boston, 1865. 
Northmen in Maine. Albany, 1870. 
New England's vindication, edited by C. E. Banks. 
Gorges Society, 1884. 

Memoirs of odd adventures. Cincinnati, 1869. 
Maine: a history. New York. 1919. 
The makers of Maine. Lewiston, 1912. 
Indian wars in New England. Edited by S. G. 
Drake. Roxbury, 1865. 
Expeditions of Captain John Lovewell. Boston, 1865. 

Maine in history and romance. Lewiston, 1915. 
The trail of the Maine pioneer. Lewiston, 1916. 
Origin of the name of Maine. Cambridge, 1910. 
History of wars of New England with the eastern 
Indians; 1703-1726. Cincinnati, 1859. 



Sewall, R. K. 
Sullivan, J. 
Varney, G. J. 

Whitman and True 
Williamson, W. D. 

Hosier's relation of Waymouth's voyage to the coast 

of Maine, 1605. Edited by H. S. Burrage. Gorges 

Society, 1887. 

Ancient dominions of Maine. Bath, 1859. 

History of the District of Maine. Boston, 1795. 

Brief history of Maine. Portland, 1888. 

Young people's history of Maine. Portland, 1877. 

Maine in the war for the Union. Lewiston, 1865. 

History of Maine. 2 vols. 1602-1820. Boston, 1832. 

Collections and Periodicals 

Bangor Historical Magazine 

Maine Genealogist and Biographer 

Maine Historical and Genealogi- 
cal Recorder 

Maine Historical Magazine 

Maine Historical Society 

Maine Historical Society 

Maine Historical Society 

Maine Register, 1871-1920 

Maine Wills, 1640-1760 

Sprague's Journal of Maine His- 
tory, 1913 

York Deeds, 1630-1760 

1885-92. 7 vols. Bangor. 
1875-8. 3 vols. Augusta. 

1884-98. 9 vols. Portland. 

vols. 8 9. 1894-5. 

Collections, 1831-90. 10 vols. Portland. 

Collections, 2d ser., 24 vols. 1869-1916. Portland. 

Collections, 3d ser., 1904- Portland. 


Edited by W. M. Sargent. Portland, 1887. 

7 vols. 
18 vols. 

Portland, 1887-1910. 

Religious, Civil and Political 

Allen, S. & Pilsbury, W. H. 
Cleaveland, N. & Packard, A. S. 
Dale, T. N. 

Greenleaf, J. 

Griffin, J. 
Hitchcock, C. H. 

McDonald, W. 
Millet, J. 
Stetson, W. W. 

Stone, G. H. 

Wells, W. 
Whitehouse, R. T. 

Whitin, E. S. 
Willey, A. 

Willis, W. 

History of Methodism in Maine. Augusta, 1887. 
History of Bowdoin College, 1806-79. Boston, 1882. 
The granites of Maine. U. S. Geological Survey 
Bulletin 313. Washington, 1907. 
Sketches of ecclesiastical history of Maine. Ports- 
mouth, 1821. 

History of the press of Maine. Brunswick, 1872. 
General report on the geology of Maine. Augusta, 

The government of Maine. New York, 1902. 
History of the Baptists in Maine. Portland, 1845. 
History and civil government of Maine. Boston, 

The glacial gravels of Maine and their associated 
deposits. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin vol. 34. 
Washington, 1899. 

Water-power of Maine. Augusta, 1869. 
Constitutional, judicial and commercial histories of 
Maine. Boston. 

Factory legislation in Maine. N. Y. 1908. 
History of the anti-slavery cause in state and nation. 
Portland, 1886. 

History of the law, the courts and the lawyers of 
Maine. Portland, 1863. 


Abbott, Jacob, 163, 164 

Abenakis, no, 112 

Acadia, 244 

Adjutant General, 317-19 

Admission of Maine, 61 

Advent Christian Church, 198 

Advocate of Freedom, 152 

Agamenticus, patent of, 65 

Agriculture, 201-5, 249 

Agriculture, Commissioner of, 178, 201, 204 

Alabama, 234 

Alamoosook, lake, Indian excavations at, 


Aldworth, Robert, land grant, 42, 77 
Algonquins, no, 113 
Alexander, DeAlva S., 166 
Aliens, naturalization of, 74-75 
Allen, Elizabeth Akers, 167 
Along Came Ruth, 174 
Amaranth, first collected poems, 147, 158 
Ambrose, Alice, of early Friends society, 


Amelia, 143 
America, 234 

Andover, sanatorium, 294 
Andros, Sir Edmond, 44, 66, 82. See also 

Chronological record of events. 
Androscoggin county, 83 ; early newspapers, 

151. See also Chronological record of 


Animal Industry, Division of, 202 
Animals, 256 

Annals of the Times, 150 
Apples, inspection of, 204 
Appointment, governor's power of, 178 
Area of state, 37 
Army, 6, 20, 54, 55 
Arnold, Benedict, 4; expedition to Quebec, 

Aroostook county, established, 83; early 

newspapers, 152; minerals, 227 
Aroostook Pioneer, 152 
Aroostook War, 4 
Arrowsic, Puritan mission at, 195 
Asbury, Francis, Bishop, 196 
Ashburton treaty, see Webster-Ashburton 


Assessors, Board of State, 310 
Assessors, local, 75-76, 310 
Attorney General, 178, 320-21 
Auburn, 225 
Auditor, state, 178, 314 
Augusta, 55, 169; capital, 83 
Augusta State Hospital, 271-72, 274, 313 
Austria, in European war, 9-11 
Austria, Archduke of, assassination, 9 
Authors, 140-46, 147, 154, 158-74, 322-23 

Automobiles, registration of, 308; valua- 
tion, 312 

Averill, Anna Boynton, 167 
Avery, Robert, 49 

Badger, William, shipbuilder, 233 

Bailey School of Industries, 200 

Bainbridge, June Wheeler, 322; Maine, 116 

Balkans, 9 

Bangor, 4; early library at, 190; sanato- 
rium at, 294 

Bangor Gazetteer, 152 

Bangor State Hospital, 272-74 

Bangor Theological Seminary, 188-89, 1 95 

Bangor Weekly Register, 150 

Bangs, John Kendrick, 165, 322; The Pine, 

Bank Commissioner, 264 

Banks, 264-65 

Baptist Church, 195, 198. See also Free 
Baptist Church 

Barker, David, 165 

Barnes, Rev. Thomas, 196 

Barrell, Nathaniel, 62, 63, 140 

Bates, Arlo, 165 

Bates College, 187-88, 196 

Bath, 28; early church at, 196 

Bath Military and Naval Orphan Asylum, 
266, 269, 289-90 

Baxter, James Phinney, 43, 166 

Beale, Harriet Blaine, 101 

Beale, Walker Blaine, memorial, 101-2 

Beard, Father, first mass celebrated by, 

Beauchamp, John, land grant, 42 

Belfast, 4; early library at, 190 

Belfast Gazette, 151 

Belgium, in European war, 10 

Berwick, early churches, 195 

Bibliography, 112-13, 324-26 

Bigelow, Major Timothy, 55, 61 

Bigelow, mountain, 55 

Billings, Josh, see Shaw, Henry Wheeler 

Biography, brief bibliography, 324 

Birds, 256, 258-61 

Black Point, 42, 43; militia at, 315 

Blaine, James G., 101-2, 148 

Blaine mansion, see Executive mansion 

Blind, care of, 266, 269-70 

Blind, institution for, 300 

Blow the Man Down, 174 

Blue Hill, copper at, 227 

Blue Point, 43 

Bonighton, Richard, land grant, 42 

Books, early, 147 

Boothbay, early preaching at, 195 

Bosnia, 9 




Boston, siege of, 4; number engaged in, 54 

Boston Port Bill, 47 

Boundaries, 37; colonial, 43 

Bowdoin College, 161, 164, 184-85, 195; 

oldest library at, 190 
Bowdoin Poets, 166 
Bowdoinham, early churches, 195 
Boxer, battle with the Enterprise, 4, 234 
Boyd, Joseph C., first treasurer of state, 


Boys Working Reserve, 19-20 
Bradshaw, Richard, land grant, 42 
Bray, John, shipbuilder, 233 
Brick making, 231 
Bridge, James, 61 
Bridges, 247 

Bristol, early preaching at, 195 
Broad Bay, alluded to, 54 
Brooks, Noah, 164 
Brown, Benjamin, 271 
Browne, Charles Farrar, 163, 165 
Brunswick, 168 
Bucksport, Indian excavations, no; early 

library, 190; academy at, 196 
Budget, 1 80 
Bulfinch, Charles, architect of State House, 


Bunker Hill, battle of, alluded to, 3, 47 
Burgoyne, General John, alluded to, 4 
Burleigh, Clarence B., 164 
Burr, Aaron, 55 
Burrage, Henry S., 166, 322 
Butler, Ellen Hatnlin, 167, 322; The Voice , 

of Maine, 127 

Caleb Gushing, 234 

Camden, early library, 190 

Cammock, Thomas, land grant, 42 

Campbell, Maj.-Gen. Alexander, 316 

Canaan, early preaching at, 195 

Canada, invasion of, see Quebec 

Canning industry, 215, 217 

Cape Porpoise, 43; militia at, 315 

Capital, 98-99 

Capitol, see State House 

Captain Craig, 170 

Casco, 43 

Casco Bay, 42 ; militia at, 315 

Castine, 4, 164; early library, 190 

Castine, 236 

Castine Journal and Universal Advertiser, 


Catherine Hill, minerals at, 230 
Catholic church, 196, 198, 199 
Cattle, valuation, 311 
Central Maine Sanatorium, 293 
Champlain, Samuel de, 157 
Charities and Corrections, Board of, 266- 

67, 269 
Charles I, 77 
Charles II, 43, 44, 78 
Charters, see Patents ; Land Grants ; 

Chronological record of events 
Chase Island Convalescent Hospital, 272 

Chase Memorial Sanatorium, 293 
Chaudiere, river, Arnold's expedition, 55, 

S. 6 
Children, dependent and delinquent, 266, 

269, 270, 283-90 
Children of the Night, 170 
Choate, Isaac Bassett, 165 
Christian Church, 198 
Christian Civic League, 198 
Christian Endeavor Society, 198 
Christian Intelligencer, 152 
Christian Mirror, 148, 152 
Christian Pilot, 152 
Chronological record of events, 80-84 
Church of God, 199 
Churches, see Religious history, also names 

of particular churches 
Circus Man, 174 
Cities, 70, 71 

City government, see Government, local 
Civil war, 6; naval engagements, 234 
Clark, Rev. Francis E., 198 
Clarke, MacDonald, 162 
Clark, Rebecca Sophia, 164 
Cleeve, George, 315 ; lease of Machegonne, 


Climate, 37-39 
Coast Artillery, 317 
Coast patrol boats, 236 
Cobb, Sylvanus, 196 
Coburn, Abner, governor, 31-33 
Coburn, Louise Helen, 322 ; A Song to 

Maine, 125 

Coburn Classical Institute, 195 
Colburn's shipyard, Pittston, 54 
Colby College, 153, 169, 185-86 
Colcord, Lincoln, 169, 171-72 
Coleman, Ann, of early Friends society, 195 
Colleges, see Bates, Bowdoin, Colby, Uni- 
versity of Maine, Bangor Theological 


Colonization, 42-44, 80-81 
Columbian Primer, first copyrighted book. 


Committee on Public Safety, 15-17 
Congregational Church, 195, 198 
Constitution, Federal, ratification of, 62-63 
Constitutional Convention, 60 
Continental navy, 4 
Cony, Samuel, governor, 33; first Adjutant 

General, 317 

Cony Female Academy, 137 
Cooper, minerals at, 230 
Corporations, organization and returns, 

308, 320 

Cotton industry, 207-9, 2 49 
Council, Executive, 178-81 
Council of New England, 65 
Counties, 70. See also Chronological record 

of events 

County government, 70 
County palatine, 65, 77 
Courier, first daily newspaper, 148 
Courts, 65, 77-79 



Crop Statistics, 205 

Crowne, John, poet and dramatist, 158 

Cumberland county, 4, 59, 64, 67, 82; early 

newspapers, 148, 150 
Cumberland Gazette, 148 

Daily Courier, 148 

Dairy Inspection, Bureau of, 203 

Dana, Olive E., 167 

Danforth, Thomas, president of Province, 
44, 66 

Davis, James, 158 

Day, Holman F., 169, 172-74, 322; It's 
Home Up Here, 115 

Deaf, school for, 291 

Dearborn, Henry, 55; major-general, 316 

De Monts, Sieur Pierre de Guast, expedi- 
tion, 42, 80, 157; alluded to, 194, 244. See 
also Chronological record of events. 

Description and travel, brief bibliography, 


Dirigo, (poem), 118 

Disciples, church of, 198 

District of Maine, 67. See also Chronolog- 
ical record of events. 

Dole, Caroline Fletcher, 166 

Dole, Nathan Haskell, 165 

Donnell, Annie Hamilton, 167 

Dorval, 141-42 

"Downing, Major Jack," see Smith, Seba 

Draft, induction, in European war, 20, 318 

Drifting Diamond, 172 

Druillettes, Father, missionary, 194 

Dudley, Joseph, president of Massachu- 
setts, Maine, New Hampshire and Rhode 
Island, 78 

Dummer, Almira C, 286 

Dummer family, massacre of, 140 

Dummer's war, 112 

Dunn, Martha Baker, 166 

Eagle Badge, 174 

Eastern Argus, 148 

Eastern Herald, 148 

Eastern Star, first newspaper on Kennebec, 

Eastport, alluded to, 4 

Eastport Sentinel, 150 

Eckstorm, Fannie H., no, 322 

Eddington, destroyed, 112 

Edes, Peter, 149-50, 154 

Editors, 154-55 

Education, 182-89 

Education, State Department of, 20, 71 

Edwards, George Thornton, State of 
Maine, My State of Maine, 119 

Elbridge, Gyles, land grant, 42, 77 

Elections, 72-74, 179 

Electric light companies, number of, 254 

Ellsworth, Indian excavations, no 

Emery, Lucilius A., quoted, 62 

Employees, compensation, see Workmen's 

Employers' liability, see Workmen's com- 

England, in European war, 10, n 

Enos, Lieut.-Col. Roger, 55, 56 

Enterprise, battle with the Boxer, 4, 234 

Episcopal Church, 195, 198 

Etchemins, no, 112 

European war, 9-25; events leading to, 9- 
ii ; America enters, 11-13; chronology, 
21-25; Maine's activities in: 14-20; emer- 
gency legislation, 15; contributions, mon- 
ey, 19, men, 20; food conservation, 20; 
Second Regiment history, 27; first ship 
destroyed, 236; coast patrol, 236 

Evangelist, 152 

Executive Department, powers and duties 
of, 178-81 

Executive mansion, ioi-6 

Explorations, 42-44, 158 

Express companies, number of, 254 

Factory Inspector, see Labor and Indus- 
try, Department of 

Fairfield, sanatorium, 293 

Fairs, 204 

Falmouth, 4, 58, 148; destruction of, 3; 
early library at, 190; early preaching at, 
195. 196; massacre at, 315; military 
company, 315 

Falmouth Gazette, first newspaper, 58, 148 

Family Instructor, 152 

Family Reader, 148 

Fanshawe, 161 

Farm Lands Loan Commission, 314 

Federal Constitution, see Constitution 

Feeble-minded, school for, 266, 267, 270, 

Feldspar, 228-29 

Female Friendship, first book published in 
Hallowell, 147, 158 

Ferdinand and Elmira, 143-44 

Fern, Fanny, see Willis, Sarah Payson 

Fessenden, William Pitt, 61 

Fiction, see Literature; Novelists 

Finances, state, 179-81, 313-14 

First Artillery Company, 317 

First Regiment Maine Heavy Field Artil- 
lery, 317 

Fish, 256, 258; protection of, 216; hatch- 
eries, 216 

Fisheries, Inland, Commissioner of, 216 

Fisheries, Sea and Shore, Department of, 

Fishing, 242, 244 

Fishing industry, 214-16 

Flag, American, first naval salute to, 234 

Flag, state, 85 

Flagg, Mary H., 286 

Flags, Civil War, 94-95 

Flags, laws relating to, 85-87 

Flagstaff Plantation, Arnold at, 56 

Floral emblem, 91-92 

Flower, state, 91-92 

Food administration, 20 

Food inspection, 203 

Forestry, 220-24 

Fort Loyal, 315 



Fort Western, 55 

Forts, 46 

Foster, Benjamin, 48 

Fox, John, 62 

Frankfort, granites at, 228 

Franklin, county, 83; early newspapers, 151 

Franz Joseph, see Austria, Archduke of 

Free Baptist Church, 196 

Freeman, Samuel, holder of first copy- 
right, 147 

French and Indian wars, see Indian wars 

Friends, Society of, 195, 198 

Frye, William P., 236 

Fryeburg, 137, 160; famous men of, 136; 
Lovewell's fight, 112 

Fur industry, 258 

Game, 256 

Game of Life and Death, 172 

Gardiner, Church of England at, 195 

Gardinerstown, alluded to, 54 

Gas companies, number of, 254 

Gazette and Inquirer, 151 

Gazette of Maine, 148 

Genealogy, brief bibliography, 324 

Geography, 37-40 

Geology, survey, 251-52 

Georgetown, alluded to, 54 

Germany, in European war, 9-13 

Godfrey, Edward, 66 

Goodale, Ezekiel, printer, 153-54 

Goodyear, Moses, land grant, 42 

Gorgeana, 43, 81. See also Chronological* 
record of events. 

Gorges, Ferdinando, land grant, 42; claim 
sold to Massachusetts, 44. See also 
Chronological record of events. 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, 42, 43, 64, 65, 67, 
77, 78. See also Chronological record 
of events. 

Gorges, Captain William, 65, 77. See also 
Chronological record of events. 

Gorham, early library at, 190 

Gospel Banner, 152, 196 

Government, 58 ; colonial, 44, 64-67 ; pres- 
ent, 68-69 ; local, 70-76. See also Chrono- 
logical record of events. 

Governor, powers and duties of, 72, 73, 

Governor, residence of, see Executive man- 

Governors, 107-9; war, 28-35 

Granite, 227-28 

Gray, early preaching at, 196 

Great Britain, treaties with, 4 

Greeley, Brig.-Gen. A. W., quoted, 6 

Greene, Lieut.-Col. Christopher, 55 

Greene, Clara Marcelle, 167 

Griffith, George Bancroft, 166 

Hallowell, publishing center, 147, 149, 153; 

early preaching at, 196; granite, 228 
Hamlin, Elijah L., 61 
Hampden, alluded to, 4 

Hancock, John, alluded to, 62 

Hancock county, 60, 82 ; early newspapers, 

150; militia, 316 
Hancock Gazette, 151 
Harpswell, 164 

Harris, E. E., 322; Maine, 117 
Hart, Lester M., 322; Maine, 116 
Hatch, Louis Clinton, 166 
Health, State Department of, 301-2 
Hebron, academy, 195 ; sanatorium, 293 
Hemenway, Rev. Moses, 62 
Hendricks, William, 54, 55 
Herald of Liberty, 150 
Higgins Classical Institute, 195 
High schools, see Schools 
Highway Commission, 245, 247 
Highways, 245-47 

Historical sources, 43, 44, 58, 324-26 
History, brief bibliography, 325-26 
Hitchcock, C. H., geologist, 251 
Holman, C. Vey, state geologist, 227 
Holman, Silas, 61 
Holmes, Ezekiel, naturalist, 251 
Horses, valuation, 311 
Horticulture, Bureau of, 202 
Horton, Captain, 47 
Hospitals, insane, 266, 267, 271-79 
Howe, Caroline Dana, 167 
Hunting, 242 

Hurricane Isle, granites, 228 
Hyde, William DeWitt, 165 

Ice, 218 

Indian wars, 3, 112, 315. See also Chrono- 
logical record of events. 

Indians, 110-113; government, 64; bibli- 
ography, 112-13; religion, 194 

Industrial Accident Commission, 178, 305-7 

Industrial accidents, 248 

Industrial School for Girls, see State 
School for Girls 

Industries, 207-38, 221-24, 228-31, 235, 236, 
249-50, 258 

Inebriates' Home, Windham, 296 

Ingersoll, Lieutenant George, 315 

Inheritance taxes, 321 

Initiative law, 71-72, 83 

Insane, 266, 270, 271-79 

Inspection, Division of, 203-4 

Institutions, 266-300; finances, 314; juve- 
nile, 283-91 

Insurance, 303-4; Commissioner of, 303, 
305, 306 

Islands, 39 

It's Home Up Here, (poem), 115 

Jackson, Dr. Charles T., geologist, 251 

Jails, 266, 270 

James I, 64, 65, 77 

James II, 44, 78 

Jesuits^ 42 

Jewett, Sarah Orne, 166 

Johnson, Henry, 166 

Jones, Captain Ichabod, 47 

Jones, John Paul, 4, 234 



Judd, Rev. Sylvester, 169 

Judges, see Courts 

Judiciary, 77~79 

Julia, first novel by Madam Wood, 141 

Junior Volunteers, see Boys Working Re- 

Justices of the peace, 79 

Juvenile institutions, see Institutions, ju- 

Kaiser Wilhelm, see Wilhelm II 
Kaler, James Otis, 164 

Kames, 37 

Katahdin, mountain, minerals, 227 

Kearsarge, 234 

Keating, Sally S. B., see Wood, Madam 

Kellogg, Elijah, 163-64 

Kennebec county, 82 ; early newspapers, 


Kennebec Gazette, 150 
Kennebec patent, 65, 78, 81 
Kennebec Purchase, 42 
Kennebec river, 43, 55, 233 
Kennebec settlements, condition in 1/75, 


Kennebeck Intelligencer, 149-50, 154 
Kennebunk, river, 77 
Kennebunk Gazette, 150 
Kennebunkport, 169 
Kent's Hill, 196 
Kin O'Ktaadn, 173 
King, William, first governor, 28-30, 135; 

land purchased from, 298 
King Philip's War, 3, 8r, 112, 315 
King Spruce, 174 
Kittery, 43, 233, 234; early library, 190; 

early churches, 195; militia, 315 
Knights of Columbus, contributions to, 19, 


Knox, Henry, 62 
Knox county, 83 ; early newspapers, 151 ; 

lime quarries, 230 
Koopman, Harry L., 166 

Labor and Industry, Commissioner of, 

305, 307 

Labor and Industry, Department of, 248-50 

Lafayette National Park, 244 

Lake George, alluded to, 3 

Lakes, 39 

Land grants, 42-44, 64-65. See also Chron- 
ological record of events. 

Landloper, 174 

Lead On, Maine, (poem), 126 

Leather industry, 225 

Lee, Jesse, founder of M. E. Church, 196 

Legislature, colonial, 60, 67; present, 68, 
71-72, 73-74, 178, 180 

Legislature of 1917, war measures enacted, 
14, 15 

Leverett, Thomas, land grant, 42 

Levett, Christopher, 42 

Lewis, Lathrop, 61 

Lewis, Thomas, land grant, 42 

Lewiston, sanatorium at, 294 

Lewiston Journal, 151 

Lewiston Light Infantry, 6 

Lexington, battle of, alluded to, 47 

"Lexington of the seas," see Machias, first 
naval battle 

Liberty loans, 19 

Liberty Pole, 48 

Liberty Standard, 152 

Libraries, 190-92 

Library, see Maine State Library 

Library Commission, see Maine Library 

Lime industry, 230 

Lincoln, Enoch, governor, 98 ; first Maine 
poet, 135-38 

Lincoln, Levi, 61, 135 

Lincoln county, 60, 67, 82; early newspa- 
pers, 150; militia, 316 

Literature, 157-74 

Lithgow, Maj.-Gen. William, 316 

Live stock, statistics, 205; valuation, 311 

Live Stock Sanitary Commissioner, 178 

London Company, 64 

Long, John D., 164, 322 

Long Island, alluded to, 4 

Longfellow, Henry W., 159-60, 168 

Longfellow, Stephen, jr., 62 

Lothrop, Dr. Daniel, 53 

Lothrop, Dr. Joshua, 53 

Loud, Jacob H., 61 

Louisburg, siege of, 3, 82 

Lovejoy, Rev. Elijah P., 152 

Lovell's fight, see Lovewell's fight 

Lovewell's fight, 112, 160 

Lubec, minerals at, 227 

Lumber industry, 221, 224, 249 

Lusitania, sinking of, II 

Lutheran Church, Evangelical, 199 

Lygonia, patent, 42, 43, 65, 77 ; province, 43 

McClanethan, Rev. William, founder of 

Presbyterian Church, 195 
Mace, Frances Laughton, 167 
Machegonne, 43 
Machias, first naval battle of revolution, 

3-4, 47; early library at, 190 
Machias, 236 

McLellan, Isaac, 161, 322; Maine, 123 
Madawaska, alluded to, 4 
Maine, name of, 39-40, 60 
Maine, (poem), 116 
Maine, (poem), 116 
Maine, (poem), 117 
Maine, (poem), 118 
Maine, (poem), 123 
Maine Baptist Herald, 152 
Maine Bible Society, 198 
Maine Central Institute, 196 
Maine Farmer's Almanac, 153 
Maine Floral Emblem Society, 91 
Maine Forestry District, 220 
Maine Gazette, 151 
Maine Historical Society, 43 
Maine Inquirer, 151 
Maine Institution for the Blind, 300 
Maine Library Association, 191 



Maine Library Commission, 191-92 

Maine School for Deaf, 291 

Maine State Library, 191, 192 

Maine Sunday School Society, 198 

Maine Washingtonian Journal, 148 

Maine Wesleyan Journal, 152 

Man Against the Sky, 171 

Manufactures, 249-50 

Maps, topographic, 254 

Margaret, 170 

Margaretta, 48-50 

Margranetto, see Margaretta 

Markets, Division of, 203 

Mary, Queen of England, 44, 67, 78 

Mason, Captain John, 42 

Massachusetts, territory claimed by, 43, 
58, 81 ; title confirmed, 44, 58 ; purchases 
Gorges' claim, 44; first charter, 81 ; 
charter revoked, 44; second charter, 67, 
82 ; colonial charter revoked, 78. See 
also Chronological record of events 

Massachusetts Bay, Province of, 44 

Master William, first American periodical, 

May, Julia Harris, 167, 323; O ! Wanderers 

of Maine, 131 

May, Sophie, see Clark, Rebecca Sophia 
Mayor of the Woods, 174 
Megantic, lake, 56 
Meigs, Major Return Jonathan, 55 
Merlin, 171 
Merrill, Elizabeth Powers, 323 ; Lead On, 

Maine, 126 
Merrimac river, 43 
Metcalf, Lorettus S., 155 
Methodist Episcopal Church, 196, 198 
Mica, 229 
Military, 315-19 
Militia, 3, 4, 315-17, 318, 319 
Milliken, Carl E., governor, 14, 15, 34-35, 

323 ; war proclamation, 18-19 
Millinocket, paper industry, 222-24 
Mills, 208, 210, 222-24, 22 9 
Mineral springs, 231 
Minerals, 227-32 
Mining, 228-30 

Missouri Compromise, alluded to, 61 
Mitchell, Edward P., 155, 166 
Molybdenum, 230-31 
Monhegan, 42, 214 
Monmouth, battle of, alluded to, 4 
Monroe, Barnard, Dirigo, 118 
Monroe, James, President, 61 
Moore, Ella Maude Smith, 167 
Moore, Midshipman, commander of Mar- 
garetta, 48 

Moorehead, Warren K., archeologist, no 
Morgan, Daniel, 54, 55 
Motherland, (poem), 119 
Mother's aid, 266, 267, 269 
Motto, State, 89 
Mount Desert, 42 ; first religious service 

in Maine at, 194 ; Catholic missions at, 

Mountains, 37 

Municipal courts, 79 
Municipalities, 70-71 
Munsey, Frank A., 155, 166 
Muscongus Patent, 42, 65 
Museum, 256 
My Maine, (poem), 128 

Name of Old Glory, quotation, xiii 
Name of state, 39-40, 60 
Nason, Arthur Humington, 166 
Nason, Emma Huntington, 166, 323; 

Verses from the Old Homestead, 117 
Nasson, Samuel, 63 
National Council of Defense, 15 
National Guard, 317, 318, 319 
Native Poets of Maine, 166 
Natural resources, 39, 227-32, 251, 252, 254- 


Naturalization laws, 74-75 

Naval battles, 3, 4, 47, 48-50, 234 

Naval militia, 318 

Navy, 4, 6, 20, 179; ships built in Maine, 
234, 236 

New Brunswick, 4, 6 

New England, Great Council of, 42, 43, 
65 ; government, 44. See also Chrono- 
logical record of events 

New Gloucester, early preaching at, 196 

New Jerusalem, church of, 198 

New Somersetshire, 65, 77 

New Sweden, colony established, 83 

Newspapers, early, 148-53 

Noble, W. Clark, sculptor, 99 

Norridgewock, Arnold at, 55; massacre, 
112; Catholic mission at, 196 

North Jay, granites at, 228 

North Yarmouth Academy, early library 
at, 190 

Northeast Frontier, see Northeastern 

Northeastern Boundary, 4, 6, 83, 136 

Northern Maine Sanatorium, 294 

Norton, Walter, land grant, 42 

Norway, early preaching at, 196 

Nothing but Flags, see Returned Maine 
Battle Flags 

Nova Scotia, 58; separated from Massa- 
chusetts Bay, 44 

Novelists, 140-46 

Nurses, in European War, 20 

Nye, Bill, see Nye, Edgar Wilson 

Nye, Edgar Wilson, 163, 165 

O! Wanderers of Maine, (poem), 31 
O'Brien, Jeremiah, 49, 50 
O'Brien, John, 49 
O'Brien, Morris, 48 
Old Man's Story, 143 
Old Town, destroyed, 112 
Oldham, John, land grant, 42 
On Misery Gore, 174 

I03d Infantry, 26th Division, A. E. F., 27 
Oriental Trumpet, 150 

Orphan Asylum, see Bath Military and 
Naval Orphan Asylum 



Osgood, Kate Putnam, 167 
Otis, James, see Kaler, James Otis 
Owen, Moses, 94, 165, 323 
Oxford county, 82; early newspapers, 150; 
minerals, 229 

Paper industry, 222-24, 2 49 

Paris, mica and tourmaline deposits, 229 

Parker, John, 53 

Parris, Albion K., governor, 135, 136 

Parsonsfield, sanatorium at, 294 

Passamaquoddy Bay, 4 

Passamaquoddy Indians, 112 

Patent for New England, 43 

Patents, 65, 77, 78. See also Chronological 

record of events ; Kennebec Patent ; 

Land grants ; Lygonia Patent 
Pearl of Orr's Island, 169 
Pejepscot River, land grants, 42 
Pemaquid, 77, 81 ; land grants, 42 ; patent, 

65. Sec also Chronological record of 

Penobscot county, 83 ; early newspapers, 


Penobscot Indians, 112 
Penobscot Journal, 150 
Penobscot Patriot, 151 
Pensions, 180 

Pepperell, William, 3, 82, 140, 233 
Periodical, first American, 157. See also 


Personal estate, 311, 312 
Peru, feldspar and mica at, 229 
Philo, 170 

Phips, Sir William, 3, 233 
Pike, Manley H., 323 ; Seguin, 130 
Pilgrims, 42 
Pine, 91-92 

Pine, The, (poem), 122 
Pine Tree Ballads, 173 
Piscataqua river, 43, 44, 65 
Piscataquis county, 83; early newspapers, 

151 ; minerals, 227 
Piscataquis Herald, 151 
Piscataquis Observer, 151 
Pittston, alluded to, 54 
Plains of Abraham, alluded to, 3 
Plant Industry, Division of, 201 
Plantations, 71 
Plymouth, colony of, 44 
Plymouth company, 64, 65, 77. See also 

Chronological record of events. 
Poems, 115-133; early volumes, 147 
Poets, 135-38, 158, 162, 165 
Poets of Maine, 166 
Polly, 47 

Poor, support of,. 266, 267-69 
Popham, George, 64, 65, 77 
Popham, colony, 42, 80, 157-58, 233 
Popham, (poem), 133 
Porcupine, 171 
Port Royal, alluded to, 3 
Porter, Benjamin, 61 

Portland, 43, 234, 315; naval engagement, 
4; capital, 83; early library at, 190; 
early preaching at, 196; institution for 
blind, 300; militia at, 316; first uni- 
formed military company at, 317. See 
also Newspapers. 

Portland Advertiser, 148 

Portland Athenaeum, 190 

Portland Gazette, 148 

Portland Magazine, 148 

Powers, Llewellyn, governor, 33-34 

Pownalborough, alluded to, 54 

Prentiss, Elizabeth Payson, 167 

Presbyterian Church, 195-96, 199 

President, United States, n, 12, 14, 15 

Presidents of Province, 43, 44 

Primary election law, 72-74 

Pring, Martin, 42 

Printers, early, 153-54 

Printing, early, 147; public, 262-63 

Prison, 266, 267, 270, 298-99 

Probate Auxiliary, 147 

Probate courts, 79 

Prohibition, 83 

Proprietary government, see Government, 

Province of Maine, 77 

Public health, 302 

Public Health Council, 301 

Public lands, 6l 

Public Utilities, 251-55 

Publishers, 154-55 

Pulp industry, 222, 249 

Purchase, Thomas, land grant, 43 

Puritans, missionary activities, 195 

Quakers, see Friends, society of 
Quarries, 228-30 

Quebec, alluded to, 4; Arnold's expedition, 
52-57; number engaged in, 55 

Railroads, number of, 254. See also Pub- 
lic Utilities. 

Rainfall, 38, 255 

Rainy Day Railroad War, 174 

Rale, Sebastian, 194; massacre of, 112 

Ramrodders, 174 

Randall, Benjamin, founder Free Baptist 
Church, 196 

Ranger, 234. 

Readfield, first M. E. church at, 196 

Real estate, 311, 312 

Red Beach, granites at, 228 

Red Cross, American, contributions to, 19, 

Red Lane, 174 

Red Paint Indians, no 

Referendum law, 72, 83 

Reform School, see State School for Boys 

Reform societies, 198 

Reformatories, 266, 267, 270, 283-88, 296-97 

Registration of voters, 75-76 

Religious history, 194-99 

Religious newspapers, see Newspapers 



Returned Maine Battle Flags, 94 

Revolution, war of, 3-4, 47; number en- 
gaged in, 3-4; first naval battle, 3, 47 

Rexdale, Robert, 323; Motherland, 119 

Richard Edney, 170 

Richards, Laura E., 169 

Ricker Classical Institute, 195 

Rigby, Colonel Alexander, 43, 65, 77 

Riggs, Mrs. George C, see Wiggm, Kate 

Riley, James Whitcomb, 323; quotation, 

Rivers, 39; flow of, 255 

Roads, see Highways 

Robinson, Edwin Arlington, 169-71, 172 

Rockland, lime quarries, 230 

Rollo books, 164 

Ross, Daniel, first land agent, 220 

Rumford, paper industry, 222 

Russet's Echo, 150 

Russia, in European war, 9-10 

Sabbath School Instructor, 152 

Saco, 43, 81 ; land grant, 42 ; court estab- 
lished at, 77; early library at, 190; early 
preaching at, 195, tg6; militia at, 315. 
See also Chronological record of events. 

Saco Indians, 112 

Saco patent, 65 

Sagadahoc, militia at, 315 

Sagadahoc, county, 83; early newspapers, 
151. See also Chronological record of 

Sagadahoc, patent, 65 ; province, 58 

Sagadahoc, river, 65, 233 

Sailors, see Navy 

Sailors, dependent, 270 

St. Croix, island, 42 

St. Croix, river, 37, 39 

St. George's Island, 42 

St. George's River, 42 

St. John, river, 37 

St. Mary's College, 198 

Salvation Army, 199; contributions to. 19 

Sampson, Sara A., 289 

Sanatoriums, 266, 267, 270, 293-94 

Sandy River Yeoman, 151 

Santiago, Cuba, surrender, 6 

Saratoga, alluded to, 4 

Sayward family, 140 . 

Scarborough, 28 

Schools, public, 182-84 ; number pupils en- 
rolled, 182 ; financial support of, 183 ; ru- 
ral, 183 ; sanitary conditions, 183 ; sec- 
ondary, 183 ; Catholic, 198 ; charitable 
and correctional, 267, 269, 283-88 

Scott, General Winfield, 6 

"Scrap of paper," 10, n 

Screven, William, 195 

Sea and Shore Fisheries Commission, 215 

Seal, state, 88-89 

Second Regiment, N. G. S. M., 27, 317 

Secretary of State, 71-74, 178, 192, 201, 

Seed Improvement, Bureau of, 202 

Seguin, (poem), 130 

Separation from Massachusetts, 58-61 ; 

commissioners appointed, 61 
Serbia, in European War, 9-11 
Settlements, 42, 53-54. See also Chrono- 
logical record of events; Colonization 
Seventh Day Adventists, 198 
Sewall, Dummer, 62 
Sevrall, Frank, Maine, 118 
Sewall, Stephen, 158 
Seymour, Rev. Richard, first Protestant 

service conducted by, 194 
Shaw, Henry Wheeler, 165 
Shedd, Lydia Lord, That's Where Maine 

Comes In, 129 
Sheep, valuation, 311 
Shipbuilding, 233-38, 249 
Ships, 233-38 
Shoe industry, 225 
Sieur de Monts National Monument, see 

Lafayette National Park 
Signal Corps, 6-7 
Sigourney, L. H., Popham, 133 
Skipper and the Skipped, 174 
Skowhegan, reformatory for women, 297 
Smith, Elizabeth Oakes, 164-65 
Smith, Hezekiah, founder of first Baptist 

church, 195 
Smith, Captain John, 42, 80, 214. See also 

Chronological record of events. 
Smith, Matthew, 54, 55 
Smith, Rev. Samuel F., 169 
Smith, Seba, 148, 163, 164 
Social service, 266-70 
Sokokis, no 

Sokwakiaks, see Sokokis 
Soldiers, see Army 
Soldiers, dependent, 270 
Somers, Frederick M., 155 
Somerset county, 82; early newspapers, 151. 

See also Chronological record- of events. 
Somerset Journal, 151 
Song to Maine, A, (poem), 125 
Spanish-American War, 6 
Spofford, Harriet Prescott, 166 
Spurwink, 43 
Squire Phin, 174 
Stackpole, Everett S., 166 
Stanwood, Edward, 155, 162 
State Board of Health, see Health, State 

Department of 
State House, 98-99, 136 
State Library, see Maine State Library 
State of Maine, My State of Maine, 

(poem), 120 

State officials, 68-69, 178-81 
State School for Boys, 283-8; 
State School for Girls, 286-88 
"State Steal," 83 

Steamboat companies, number of, 254 
Stephens, Charles A., 162 
Stevens, Edmund, 49 
Stevens, John Calvin, architect, 104 



Stevens, Will O., 164 
Stillwater, alluded to, 4 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 168 
Stratton, John, land grant, 42 
Submarine warfare, n, 12 
Sullivan, James, alluded to, 135 
Summer resorts, 240-44 
Summer visitors, 216, 240, 242 
Superior courts, 79 
Supreme Judicial Court, 69, 79 
Surveys, 37, 251-52 
Swift, J. Otis, My Maine, 128 
Sylvester, David, 62 

Tales of the Night, 144-45 

Teachers, certification of, 182 

Telegraph companies, number of, 254 

Telephone companies, 254 

That's Where Maine Comes In, (poem), 


Thomaston, minerals at, 227; prison, 298 
Thomaston Register, 151 
Thompson, Samuel, 63 
Thoreau, Henry D., alluded to, 168 
Ticonderoga, alluded to, 4 
Titcomb, Benjamin, jr., 147, 148, 153 
Tocsin, 149 
Tompkins, Mary, of early Friends society, 


Topography, 37, 39, 252, 254 

Topsham, feldspar at, 229 

Tourmaline, 229 

Town Down the River, 170 

Town government, 71 

Town Officer, 147 

Towns, number, 71 

Townships, 71 

Traveling libraries, see Maine Library 


Treasurer of State, 178, 1/9, 313-14 
Treaties, 4, 82. See also Chronological 

record of events. 
Trees, 220-21 

Trelawny, Robert, land grant, 42 
Trial justices, 79 
True, Eliza S., author first volume poems, 

147, 158 

Tuberculosis sanatoriums, see Sanatoriums 
Tucker, Richard, lease of Machegonne, 43 

U-boats, see Submarine warfare 

Uncle Tom's Cabin, 168 

Union, early library at, 190 

Unitarian Church, 196, 198 

United War Work, contributions to, 19 

Unity, 47, 49 

Universal Spelling Book, first book pub- 
lished in Maine, 147 

Uniyersalist Banner, 152 

Universalist Church, 196, 198 

Uniyersalist Leader, 152 

Universalist Palladium, 152 

University of Maine, 186-87, 3 r 3 ; agricul- 
tural extension service, 20 

Up in Maine, 173 

Valley Forge, alluded to, 4 

Valuation of state, 310-12 

Van Buren, St. Mary's College at, 178 

Van Zorn, 171 

Vannah, Kate, 167 

Vassalborough, alluded to, 54; name of, 102 

Vaughan, William T., first clerk of courts 
of Cumberland, 144 

Verses From the Old Homestead, 117 

Vicksburg, 234 

Village, The, first volume poems, 136, 137- 
38, 147, 159 

Vinalhaven, granites at, 228 

Vines, Richard, 42, 81. See also Chrono- 
logical record of events. 

Virginia, colony, charter of, 64 

Virginia of Sagadahock, 233 

Vision of War, 172 

Vital statistics, 302 

Vocational education, 184 

Voice of Maine, The, (poem), 127 

Voters, qualifications of, 75-76, 83 

Wait, Thomas, 147, 148, 149, 153 

Waldo county, 83; early newspapers, 151. 
See also Chronological record of events. 

Waldo Patent, 42, 65 

War governors, 28-35 

War libraries, 19 

War of 1812, 4, 59; number engaged in, 4 

War organizations, contributions to, 19. 20 

War savings, 19 

Ward, Artemas, see Browne, Charles 

Ware, Ashur, first Secretary of State, 309 

Warehousemen, number of, 254 

W r arren, early library at, 190; dolomites at, 

Wars, see Aroostook War; Civil War; Eu- 
ropean War ; Indian Wars ; Revolution, 
War of; War of 1812 

Washburn, Israel, jr., governor, 30-31 

Washington, George, 3, 52, 54, 62 

Washington county, 60, 82 ; early news- 
papers, 150; militia, 316 

Water companies, number of, 254 

Water powers, 251, 252, 254-55 

Water storage, see Public Utilities 

Waterville, early churches, 196 

Way, George, land grant, 43 

Waymouth, George, 42, 80 

Webster-Ashburton treaty, 4, 83 

Weights and measures, 203-4 

Wells, 43 ; militia at, 315 

Westbrook, early library at, 190 

Westbrook, seminary, 196 

Western Maine Sanatorium, 293 

Weston, Hannah, 49 

Weston, Rebecca, 49 

Wharfingers, number of, 254 

Whittier, John G., alluded to, 168 

Widgery, William, 63 

Widow's Island, hospital, 272 



Wiggin, Kate Douglas, 169 
Wild lands, 221 
Wilder, David, 61 

Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany, 10 
William, King of England, 44, 67, 78 
Williams, Reuel, 33, 6r, 271 
Williamson, Joseph, 165 
Williamson, Julia May, 167 
Williamson, William D., governor, 107, 135 
Willis, Nathaniel P., 148-49, 154, 161, 162 
Willis, Sarah Payson, i6r 
Wilson, Woodrow, n, 12, 14, 15 
Windham, reformatory for men, 296 
Winslow, Edward, at Monhegan, 214 
Winslow, alluded to, 54 
Winter, John, shipbuilder, 233 
Winter Harbor, militia at, 315 
Winter resorts, 244 
Winthrop, early library at, 190 
Wiscasset, early library at, 190 
W is cosset Argus, 150 
Wiscasset Telegraph, 150 
Wolfe, James, alluded to, 3 
Women authors, 140-46, 147, 158, 161, 164, 
166-68, 169, 322-23 

Wood, General Abiel, 143 . 
Wood, Madam, 140-46 
Woolen industry, 210-12, 249 
Woolwich, alluded to, 54 
Workmen's compensation, 303, 305-7 
World war, see European War 
Wright, E. M., 61 

York, county, 4, 43, 67; early newspapers, 
150. See also Yorkshire. 

York, town, first Revolutionary volunteers 
from, 3 ; early library at, 190 ; first Puri- 
tan church at, 195; militia at, 315 

York Harbor, 169 

Yorkshire, 43, 66, 77, 81. See also Chrono- 
logical record of events. 

Yorktown, alluded to, 4 

Y. M. C. A., contributions to, 19, 20; first 
local, 198 

Y. W. C. A., contributions to, 19, 20 

Youth's Companion, 161-62 
Zion's Advocate, 152