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3 2044 097 065 643 

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By a. R. CARSON, 

Rtdor qfthe URgh School qf Edinburgh, 







LaH tUet&r tftU Grwmmuar Scimi ^Kirkmtii^ §mi Tmilktr ^ 
IdmguqgH in N«9>Tmr%, 




EdLuAT*\i8.;L8, S'iT 





JANUARY 29| 1924 

^auXktm Distrid qfJieW'York^ ts. 

BE IT REMEMBEBED, That on tbe 37th, [day of November, A. D. 
1887, in the fi%-eecoDd year of tbe Independence of the United States of 
America, Yf. E. Deaoi of the said District, hath deposited in 'this office the title 
of a Book, the right wheseof he claims as Proprietor, in the words follovring, 
to wit; 

*' Mair's Introdaction to Latin Syntax. From the Edinburgh stereotype 
edition. Revised and Corrected by A. R. Carson, Rector of tbe High School 
of Edinborgh r To which isaddedyCopioas Exercises on the Declinable Parts 
of Speech i and an Exemplification of the several Moods and Tenses. By 
Dand Patterson, A. M., late Rector of the Grammar School of Kirkwall, and 
Teacher of Languages, New-Tork.** 

)n ooDfimnity to the Act of OiNigraflMf the Unilad States, entitled ** An Act 
ibr the encooBagement of fiHaming, by securing tbe copies of Maps, Charts, 
and Books, to the authors and proprietors of sach copies, during the time 
therein mentioned.** And alsQ to an Act, entitled " An Act, supplementary 
to en Act, entitled an Act for the encouragement of Learning, by securing the 
copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such co- 
pies, durinc tne times tUarein mentioned, and extendiAg the benefits thereof to 
the arts of dengniog» engraving, and etching historical and other prints.*' 

Clerk of the Southern District of New-Tork. 

W. £. Dta%t PrhUtr, 


The ordiDAry editioos ot Mair*8 introdiietion aboniid io 
mach in errors, that this popular sdio(^ botk has been 
thereby rendered almost unfit for use. A few years age it 
wtm revised and corrected by A. R. CanoD, Rector erthe 
High School of Edtobargh, and stereotyped. From tUl 
edition, the most accurate and valuable whicb has yet af • 
peared, the -present work has been printed* 

Bat Mair's Introduction affords us merely en exeaiiplii- 
cation of the Rules of Construction. It has alwayi ap- 
peared to the editor that an Exemplification of the Mooda 
and Tenses of the Verb was no less necessary than the 
former. For certainly few tasks can< be more dry, tm- 
meaning, and Tepulsi?eto the young student than the tabnlar 
forms of notes and Terbs, as exhibit»d in our .Grammars. 
To soppily this defect, the editor hai/ compiled snitable 
ex^oises on the Declinable mrts of Speech^ and an ezea* 
pliication of the Moods and Tenses. 

This dhriaion of the work) if properly understood, will 
form an admirable introduction to translating: and wiU 
prepare the «tndent to enter on that business wMiinteiS- 
gence» , 

M'etg-'Yorky NotmhtTy l8tT. 



Mr. Stewart, Printer to the Uciversity of Edinburgh, 
having, in the year 1815, proposer) publishing a Stereotype 
edition of^ Mair's Introduction, requested me to undertake 
the correction of the proof-sheets.^ 7'he pains bestowed 
upon the work may be in some degree appreciated, when 
it is known, that almost every sentence was traced to ita 
original author, by which means severil important changes 
were introduced, and the Stereotype edition, i trust, reo-* 
dered considerably more accural e than any other late 
edition of the same book* Soon aAer this, a Company of 
Booksellers in Edinburgh alio published an edition of this 
work, in which they not only adopted the changes which 
with much labour I had been enabled to make, but had even 
the hardihood to copy such notes as I had subjoined, and 
that too with my initials (A. R. C.) ; by which I was made 
answerable for whatever errors this spurious edition might 
happen to contain. In these circumstances, it appears ne- 
cessary to declare to the public, who, from these initials 
occurring in different parts of the work, and from the still 
ampler notices exhibited in the catalogues of tiooksellers, 
and advertisements in newspapers, are generally aware of 
its having passed through my hands, that the Stereotype 
edition printed by Mr. Stewart is that alone in which I 
had any concern, and that any copy from it is a daring at- 
tempt to impose a fraud upon the Teachers of the country, 
under the sanction of a signature to which it has no claim. 
This declaration I make with the greater. con6dence, be- 
cause I neither have now, nor ever bad, any share what^ 
ever in the profits arising from the sale of the book, and 
because my sole object in snperintending the impression, 
was to furnish my own Class and Teachers in general with 
a more correct edition of a book much used in our public 
seminaries, and which, from the numberless errors with 
which it was disfigured, had been rendered almost wholly 
unfit for the purposes of education. 


inburgh^ i 
^st, 1917. 5 




The rales of syntax, here exemplified, are taken from 
the RadimeiitP} composed and pubUaiied by Mr. Thomaa 
Roddiman, being generally nUowed to be the most accnrate 
and best system of that kind. Aad as the rules are of two 
kinds, viz. primary or iundamental, to which all the rest 
are reducible ; and secondary, or elliptical, which are by 
far the most oumeroos ; these latter rules are distinguish- 
ed from the former by an asterisk on the margin. 

To make the young scholar comprehend the meaning 
and extent of the rules with greater ease, each of them is 
illustrated with one or more examples of construed Latin : 
and where it is necessary, grammatical terms are explain* 
ed, and lists, or catalogues of the words belonging to the 
rules, given. To which is subjoined, a pretty large col- 
lection of explanatory notes, exhibiting the exceptions, the 
varieties, the elegant phrases and modes of expression that 
occur in authors, and pointing out the method of supplying 
the elliptical constructions, and rftdaciog them to the pri- 
mary or fundamental rul^s. Some few of the fiotes are 
exemplified ; the proper time of teaching the rest is left to 
the discretion of the ^master. 

After the notes, follow the examples; which are of two 
sorts. The first go only the length of this mark IF ; and 
are generally short, being intended purely for the exempli- 
fication of the rule to which they are subjoined. The 
second sort, which begin at the foresaid mark, are longer ; 
wherein, not only the rule to which they are annexed, is 
exemplified, but the preceding rules are again brought upon 
the field, in order to render them more familiar to t^ 
mind, and fix them more effectually in the memory. 

Most of the examples, whether of the first or second 
sorts, are excerpted from the F^tin authors, being such «en« 
tences as would admit of a literal translation,, aad are adapt- 
ed to our purpose, with little or no variation. Some 
them, indeed, for the sake of enriching the «xemplificaf 


vi ' PREFACE. 

are patched or made up of soDtenceSy coupled together : 
but the exprestions, separately taken, are generally clas- 
sical ; and, it is hoped no great impropriety will be found 
in the manner of their junction. 

To the examples are subjoined on each role a few Eng« 
fish exercises, intended as another piece of recreation to 
the young student, as weli as a further trial of his skill. In 
the examples, the Latin words being laid to his hand, he 
needs only, in order to make good Latin, attend to the de- 
clensions, conjugations, and rules of syntax ; whereas, by 
these exercises, he will be obliged to go in search of vo- 
cables, and so, by degrees, learn to distinguish the words 
that are proper for his purpose from such as are not so* 
And here I may add, that, could boys be persuaded, by a 
careful use of their dictionary, to acquaint themselves 
thoroughly with the signi6cation, derivation, composition, 
nod proper use of the Latin words that occur in the several 
parts of their studies, they would soon find the benefit of 
it : their proficiency would, in this case, do more than re- 
ward their pains^ To a neglect on this head, is frequently 
owing the small progress boys make, and the difficulty they 
find in speaking and writing Latin ; being equally puzzled 
for want of words, and at a loss how to apply them. 

The rules in the Rudiments being ranged according to 
the order of the parts of speech; it was impossible to ex- 
emplify them in that order, without a medley of antece- 
dent and subsequent rules, which by all means was to be 
avoided. The reader, therefore, is desired to begin with 
No. 8. ; then proceed to No. 28 ; from that to No. 45. 
He next turns over to No. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. ; then to 
Ko« 76 76. ; and on each of these rules he is to read till 
be eome to this mark IT, except No. 28. ; in which he is to 
read only the first four paragraphs. After this, he is to 
return to the begiooing of the book, and go straight on to 
the end, omitting only what was read on the above men- 
tioned rules ; and, by proceeding in this manner, he will 
find no posterior rule apticipated. The English exercisesi 
too, are so chosen, that they maybe turned into good Latin, 
without recourse to any subsequent rule. 

As the governed words in the exemplification of several 
rules, viz. No. 12. 21. 29. 62. 64. and 73. may be put in 
different cases ; and, though generally speaking, the Latin 
ivill be grammatical and good in either of them ; yet, to 
prevent any doubt th^t may arise in the learner's Blind ov^ 


this head, and to enable bin to ate with certaiiitj the caie 
u?ed by the author,, the example is brought from, I hare 
given the following mark of distiactlon, viz. in No. 1?. 21« 
6?. and 64. when the governed word is pot in the ablative, 
it has the figure 6 before it ; and in No. 29. when the 
governed word is to be put in the accusative, it has the 
figure 4 before it. In like manner, in No. 73. the govern- 
ed word has the figure 1 or 4 before it, according as it is 
to be put in the nominative or accusative. But in the ex- 
emplification of each of these six rules, when the govern- 
ed word has no figure prefixed, it is then to be put in the 
other case mentioned in the rule. Nor are these distinc- 
tive figures applied thus in the exemplification of the above 
rules only, but also in all the subsequent places, wher« 
these ambiguous constructioos recur. 

The examples and English eiercises contained in this 
Introduction, being of a select kind, consisting generally of 
moral, historical, or mythological sentences, the perusal of 
them will, accordingly, be attended with peculiar advan- 
tages. The first sort have a natural tendency to form and 
dispose the ntiind to virtue, and to produce such impressions 
as will infldence the temper and behaviour of youth, not 
while at school only, but through the whole course of their 
life. By the use of the second and third-sort, beys will ac- 
quire a stock.of ancient history and mythology, and so get 
acquainted, in some measure, with the Roman writers be- 
fore they begin to read them. 

To the Introduction is subjoined an Epitome of Ancient 
History, containing a succinct account of the most memo- 
rable transactions and events that occur, from the creation 
to the birth of Christ. And, whereas, several things sus- 
pected of fiction or romance, especially with respect to the 
Assyrian and Babylonian monarchies, were, in compliance 
with the commonly received opinion, admitted into the 
first edition ; these are now either thrown out, or taken 
notice of as fabulous, and (he accounts, that by the best 
judges are esteemed genuine, introduced. These altera* 
tfons, it is hoped, will render this epitome more perfect, 
and consequently a fitter system for initiating youth in the 
useful study of history. And, as the Latin of this epitome 
is, for the most part, taken Iroman historian much admired 
for conciseness, delicacy, and parity of language it will 
serve to exercise and improve the learner, not barely in 
the knowledge of grammar, but even in the elegance ' 

viii PREFACE. 

beauties of the Latin tongne. The cbrmioli^y here used, 
is the same with that adopted by the «ftiters of the UdI- 
Tersal History. Several chronologiGal ttistakes, which 
bad escaped observation in the fitst edition are here rec- 

J. M. 




Vie 17 or scheme of the five modes of declensioD : ex- 
cept that Greek words and oeaters are omitted ; the do- 
minative singular also does not appear in its various forms. 


Gen. ae 
Dat. e 
Ace. am 
Voc. like Norn. 
Abi. §L 

Norn, ae 
Gen. arum 
Dat. Is 
Ace. at 
Toe. like Nom. 
Abl. like Dat. 






like Nom. 





like Nom. 
like Dat 




like Nom. 





like Nom. 




like Nom. 





like Nom. 


es . 
like Nom. 

hke Dat llike Dat. 



r uft 


like Nom. 

like Dat. 

Exercises upon Nouns and Adjectives, through all the 
degrees of Comparison. * 


Gravis injuria ^ a heavy in- 
Nif^ra umbra^ a black shade. 

Tristis lacryma^ a sad tear. 
Dulcis ro$a^ a sfveet rose. 
Humilis casaf an humble Ferox insula^ a fertile island. 

cottage. Junta dea^ a just goddess. 

Impiger agricola^ an active SuavisfiUa^ a sn^eet daughter, 
husbahdman. J^igra asmi, a black she-ass. 

Ferox atfUeta^ a fierce wrest- Cderismulayd^ swift she-mule. 

ler. Niger talpm^ a black mole. 

■ - 

* The Ctniparative degree it formed from the fint cate of thepoiitiTe in », Igr adding 
Um citable or for the mafcuHne and femiotne, and w for the neuter. The St^erlutivc 
is formad fron the first case of the. noaltlte In L tij adding «imiu. Exeep. If the 
poslliTe end hi rr) the superlative is formed bj addiDg riimu to the nominatire slo- 
gttlar maicaline. 

Dura pennOf a hard pen. 
Mollis pennay a soft pen. 
Formosa putllOf a beautiful 

Pauper casa^ a poor cottage. 


RuLS.— Ft7ta, ft daaghter ; JVa^o, a daughter ; Deay a god* 
dess ; Animas the soal ; Fatnula, a female servant ; Liberia^ 
a freedwomaD ; AstnOf a she-ass ; Mula^ a she-mule ; aod 
f^iia, a mare ; have more freqaeotl^ dhw^ than «s, in thei^ 
dative and ahlative plural, to distinguish them in these 
cases from masculinei in «9 of the second declension. 


Pius JEnlas^ the pious 

Foriii Achates^ the. brave 

darus comitesy a bright co- 


Floretii regnum^ a flourishing 

Casta Pentlape^ the chaste 

Tota epitome^ the whole 

Latus tiaras, a broad tur- 

Cams gener, a dear son-in- 

Sagax vtV, « sagacious man. 

Prudens socer, a prudent &- 
• ther-in-law. 

Procax puer^ a forward boy. 

Molli$ puer^ an effeminate 
boj^. — - 

UKs liheTj a useful book. 

FertUis agtr^ a fertile field. 

Longut gtadiu$f a long sword. 

CrmeUs tifrannuSf a cruel ty- 

Tristis roguSf a sad fiiaeral- 

Rapa» lupus, a,/Tapa6ious 

Mitis Zepkyrus, a mild west 

Fdigi regnum, a fortunate 


Gravtijugum, a heavy yoke. 
Breve adagium, a short pro- 
Forte vinculum, ' a stroug 

f^Hc geni»», ft propiciaus 

tutelar angel. 
Felix filius^ a fortunate son. 
CUmenB DeuSf a merciful 

Felix jS^'en, happy Albion. 
Canonu Orpheus, musical 

Velifieatus Athos, Athos sailed 

Faga Delos, wandering De- 

Georgtca, the Georgicks. 

Miser rex^ an unhappy king. 
Pulcher^ or farmosus pavo^ a 

beautiful peacock. 
Sacra lex, a sacred law." 
GeUdus Aqutld, the COld. 

north wind. 

Carus pater, a dear father. 
Dulcis odor^ a sweet smell. 
Acer mUes^ a brave soldier. 
Piger homo, a lazy fellow. 
Pius David, pio^s David. 
Bonui peeien, ajjood comb. 


Atpira rti)M«, a rugged rock. Tuium martf a safo sea. 

Fera gtns^ a savage Dation. DtUee eamMH, a sweet song* 

Asper lapiSf a rough stone. ~ Fallax iter^ a deceitAil joar« 

Tenerum caputs a tender ney 

head. Crudele animal^ a cmel ani- 

Ligneum^ sediU^ a woodeo mal. 

seat. LongiMn caleart a long spur. 

(See Adam's Grammar» page 35.) ' 

DiffidU anigmOf a difl&cult Form69a PhilUSf the fair 

riddle. Phillis. 

Pretiosum diadema^ a preci- Trojunus Parts, the Trojan 

onscrowD. Paris. 

Magnanimiu heroB^ a mag« PuUhra chlamy$^ a beaatifnl 

nanimous hero. militarj cloak. 

M'^ctuma lampas^ a night Felox Argo^ the swift Argo* 

lamp. Rex Capy»^ King Capys. 

Clara lampa$f a clear lamp. AUira metamorphomt an* 

Impia heresii^ an impious other metamorphose. . 

heresy. Vocalis Orp&eiM, the tuneful 

JUisira Troas^ a wretched Orpheus. 

Trojan won^an. titfdix Dido^ unhappy Dido. 
Audax TVos, a bold Trojan. 


pVbvtif/metiM, new fruit. Lof^um veru^ a long spit. 

[Tener /ruc^fit, tender fruit. ChravU ictuSf a heavy stroke. 

Icitfructvs^ sweet fruit. Magnua fluctuSf a large bil- 
^^'^Durum comUf a hard horn. • low. 

Minax cornu^ a threatening Fsrfts monvf, a strong hand, 

horn. Pulchra manus, a fair hand» 

Foriit exercitu$t a brave ar^ Mollis mamu^ a soft hand. 

my. Tutus portui^ a secure bar- ^ 
Capax porius^ a capacious hour. f 

harbour. Tensus areus^ a bent bow. 

Acuta OQsisf a sharp needle. -^Magna domus, a large house. 

Mitts Jesus, the meek Je- ^'Humilis dotnus^ a low house. 

8U8. Altus lacus^ a deep lake. 

RuLB.— Some nouns bai^e ubus in their dative and abla- 
tive plural ; vtar. Areus^ a bow ; Artus^ a joint ; Lac%u, a^ 
lake; Acus,9l needle. Partus ^ a port or harbour ; Part- 


a birth ; Tribus^ a tribe ; Feru, a spit ; Genu, the knee ; 
Sptcuti a den ; and Querciw, an oak ; bat poWu#, geniiy 
and verut have likewise ibu$, 


Bona re»y a good thing* Re$ aspira^ difficulties. 

Tenera res, a tender thing. Brevis dies, a short day. 

Omnis res, everj thing. Felix dies, a happy day. 

Res nova, a new thing. Fana spes, a vain hope. 

Respublica, * the common- Fallax spes, a fallacious hope. 

wealth. Levts spes, a light hope. 

Res secun doe , prosperity • Nulla fidet , n o fa ith. 

Res adverser, adversity. Spes una, hope alone. 


Pronouns, Adjectives, and Substantives, to be declined to» 


Hie bonus Jilius, this good Quid divinwn numen, what 

son. divine deity. 

HcecfelixJUia, this fortunate Qui beatus agrieola, which 

daughter. happy husbandman. 

Hoe molle pro^tiin, this soft Qimb utilis epitdme, which 

meadow. useful epitome. 

Rle clarus vtr, that famous Qvod /ongumtW, which long 

man. journey. 

nia magna urbs, that great Aliquis magnus error, some 

city. great error. 

niud ferum animal, that wild Aliqua parva pars, some 

animal. small part. 

Rle celer equus, that swifl liquid magnum nomen, 

horse. , some great name. . 

Hoc Unerum caputs this ten- QutVam elarus^r, a certain 

der head. famous man. 

JXlud durum sedile, that hard Qu(e<2am casta mulier, a 

seat. certain chaste woman. 

b m^nu» liber, that large goddam utile jugum,9LCtt^ 

book. tain useful yoke. 

£a a^^a rii/ief, that high rock. Idem parous liber, the same 

Id utile earmen, that useful small book. 

song. E&dem magna regio^ the same 

Quis benignus deus^ what great district. 

kind god. Idem utile calcar, the same 

Qtice benigrtadea,v/hdit kind useful spur. 


tsnasL- jM tajfcj»;^-»;* 




Filius amatpatrem. 
Filii amant patrea, 
' Pater amatur afilio. 
Patres amantur ajtliii» 

Pmceptot'd&cet discipulum. 
Pr<Bceft6res,docent discipulot^ 
IhscipiUus doceiur aprcBcep' 

DUcipuli docentur ckprcRcep^ 


Puer legit lihrum. 
Pueri Ugtmi lihros. 
Liber legitur a putro. 
Libri leguntur a putris. 

Homo audii sermonem. 
Homines, audiunt sermona» 
Sermo auditur etb homfnt, 
Sermdnea audiuntur ab homi' 


JV(6 tusulta miseris. Ab/t inaultaremiseris. 

JVe tnsuUes miseris. J^olis insultare miseris. 

Jre tnsultaveris miseris. Cave insulies miseris. 

Ne insultabis miseris. Cave insultare miseris. 


Dicit me scribere. 
Dixit me scribgre, 
Dicit me scrip sisse. 
Dixit me scripsisse. 
Dicit me scripturum esse. 
Dixit me scripturum esse^ 
Dicit me scripturum fuisse^ 

Dixit me scripturum fmsse^ 

— — te scripturum fuissCf 

— — • ilium scripturumfuisse^ 

nos scripturosfuisse, 

vos scriptures fuisse^ 

illos scriptures fuisset 

— homiues Hripturosfuis' 


/csmifMks scripturasfu» 
isse, &c» 

He says Chat I am writing. 
He said that I was writiog. 
He sajs that I have written. 
He said that I had written^ 
He says that I wil} write. 
He said that I would write. 
He says that I would have 

He said that I would have 

— — that thou wouldest 

have written. 

that he would have 

■ that we would have 


thi^you would have 

— — that they would 

have written. 

that men would have 


that women would 

have written, &c. 



Dicit literas $cribi^ He taya that letters are 

He said that letters were 

He says that letters are 

written, (finished). 
He said that letters were 

He says that letters have 

been written. 
He said that letters had been 

He says that letters will be 

He said that letters would 

be written. 

Ob$. 1. Scriptumy when joined with iri in the futare 
nfin. pass, is the former supine, and therefore not varied, 
whatever the accusative may be that goes before it. 

Obs. 2. When a verb wants the supine, the future infi- 
nitive must be expressed by a periphrasis or circumlocu- 
tion. This form is oflen used in verbs that have the su- 
pine ; as, 

Dixit litertu scribi^ 
Dicit literas tcriptas esse^ 
Dixit littrcts scriptas esse^ 
Dicit liuras 8cripta$fuiue^ 
Dixit literas scriptas fuissCf 

Dicit literas scriptum iriy or 

Dixit literas scriptum iriy or 


Scio forcy or futurum esseut 
scribant — ut literos scri' 

Sciofore, or futurum esse ut 
scriberent — ut Uteres scri» 

Scivi futurum fuisse ut scri- 
berent -^ut Uteres scribe^ 

I know that they will write 
— that letters will be writ- 

I knew that they would 
write — that letters would be 

1 knew that they would 
have written — that letters 
would have been written. 

Obs. 3. To prevent ambiguity in the case of two accu- 
satives, it is often necessary to change the active into the 
passive voice ; as. 

Dico me amare patrem^ 

Aiote^ JEacide, Romanos virt' 
cere posse. 

I say that I love my father, 
or thatmy fatherlo^esme. 

Descendant of i£acus, 1 say 
that you may conquer the 
Romans, or that the Ro- 
mans may conquer you. 




Mlhi petendum estpactm. 
TemptM petendi pacem. 
Cupidus petendi pacem. 
Aptus petendo pacem, 
Venit ad petendum pactm, 
Rediit a petendo pacem. 

Mihipetenda est pax, 
Tempu8 petendcR pacii. 
Cupidus petendcs pad». 
Aptus petendoe pad. 
Venit ad petendam pacem, 
Rediit a petendd pace. 

Defessus sum ambulando. 

Mihi scribendum est literaSf or Scribendoi sunt literoe. 
scribendum erat literasy or ScribendtB erant Uteres, 
scribendum fuit literacy or Scribendce fuerunt Uteres, 
scribendum fuerat Uteras^ or Scribendcsfuerant Utera. 
scribendum erit Uteras^ or Scribendce erunt Uteres. 
Dico mihi scribendum esse Uterasy or Dico mihi scribendas 

esse Uteras. 
mihi scribendum fuisse Uteras^ or ■■ ' mihi scribendO: 

fuisse Uteras. 
mihi scribendum fore UtenUf or — — mihi scribendad 

fore Uteras, 

The meaDiog of the Former Supine may be variouslj 

Jditit kgatos quipettrent paeetn, 
I paeem pettiuros. 

— — — — paeem petenies, 
_.. — depetauto paeem, 
' de petendd pace, 

• de pace, 

' — petere pacem, 

— -»— — pad petendes. 

Venit ut opem oret, or opem 

Venit ul opem oraretj or opem 

Venerunt opem oraturi^ 4*0. 

Msit legates peiitum paeem, 
' — ■ ■ ■ ad petendum paeem. 
— ~-*— — ad peiendam paeem. 
— ~ petendi paeem^ 

caus&t or gratid, 
— — — petenda pads, 

eautd, or gratid . 

ut peterent pacem. 

He comes to beg aid. 
He came to beg aid, 

They came to beg aid^ 

Also of the Latter Supine.^ 
Res digna cognttu. Res digna quas cognoscdtur. 

> cognosct. 

guam cognoscamu's 

ResfadUs ad credendum. 

lUBCISM sr» TK&H> 



^811111 I ill-Ill ,fl|i|| 

aiavb««u vi«4|«*c .ar,aj»^>' 
Jtdja' Jd J3 J J j3 .jB J ^ .a j ■ ^ S ^ ! S 

)aqM }0Q uonq j inq ]oa iqnop | »»4« |iijiquut>i| 11 

In like manner, dubUa an, ulntm audiat, &c. ttc. &c. 

I . Ad impersoaal pamive ma; be «legaotl; ased for any 
person actire of tbeiame mood and tente. 

8ZBBCI8£8 UFO» VERB8» 9 

Regno^ I reigQ* . Regnatur (a mo.) 

JRegnaverunt^ They reigned. Regnatum est (ab illit,) 
Venerunt, They have come. Fentum est (a6t7/u.) 

2. Verba, vvhich ia the active voice govern the dative 
only^ most be used impersonally in the passive, with the 
same dative. 

Afilu imperatury I am commanded, {not impe^ 

Mthi nocetur^ I am hurt, {not noceor), 

Mihi parcitur^ I am spared, not parcor)» 

Mthi sefvitur^ I am served, {not seroior). 

Obs^ — These vevhs potest , capity ineipit^ desinit^ debet , 
and soletf are used impersonally when joined with imperso- 
nal verbs. 

Mihi non potest noceri^ I cannot be hurt. 

Tibi non disbet parci. You ought not to be spared 

Four Rules for the Construction of Qu» with the S 

The Relative Qui takes the subjunctive. 

1 . When the antecedent clause is oblique, an autho 
detailing or referring to the sentiments of another. 

N. B. The Subjunctive and Infinitive only are admissible 
ia a narration, which is purely oblique or indirect. 

2. When it has the force of ut ^goy ut tu, ut tY/e, &c. or 
of quanquam is^ etsi is ; si modo^ or dummodo is^ &c. 

3. When it serves to account for what is stated, in the 
antecedent or principal clause. 

4. When it is used in a periphrasis aAer the verbs 5tfm, 
reperio, invenio^ habeo^ &c. or after an Interrogative, Ne- 
gative, Restrictive, or Indefinite clause. 

N. B. When the antecedent clause is the predicate, or 
when it refers to a definite person or thingi we must use 
the indicative after Qm. * 

All Interrogatives, when placed indefinitely, require the 
Subjunctive, t 

N. B. Qui for quis indefinite requires the subjunctive. 

RuKB 1. — Plato dicit deum esse, qui omnia videat. 

Rule 2. — Pyrrhus mint legatos qui pacetn petirenif (i. e. 
ut peterent). Puer dignus esty qui ametur^ (i. e. ut ille ame* 

* Tbe subject of a proposition la that eoncerninffiirhichaajttaii^ is affinDe44r 
denied; the frccUoaia is that wlUch i|i Affirmed of toe sulyect. 

t AnlnterrogatiTe is » word which asks a questiun, and is said to tft oieil imfefr 
hWf whfft piMedM hy idch words ai «sio, «sMur, ftusrot Mk^, 


10 £tftltCIIfB8 Vt0S ttitM. 

tur). Tu ctfMim a jMimiee poHtiUu, qm ipriui 9ittat (L e. 
etn, bt.) /fihU moles^um, qued nan diMirei (i. e» dum- 
modOf Stc.) 

ftiae Sk^frrot jwi c€Ii«mI> (i.e. fwoil censes). JIfa/e 

Periphrasis. Without Periphrasis. 

' hntmwHtnr ipt% mariboni* } 

fiaht9 qissd serilmm* Haheo scribere. 

Qiiu est qui scrihat ? Quit scrihit ? 

JNemo est qui sctibat, Nemo scribii* 

SoliiSj or unus est qui scribat» Ille solus^ or 7inus scribit, 

Ne'scio quis sit qui scribat. Nescio quis scribat, Scri- 
i^tf becaase quis is indefinite, and all interrogalivcs, when 
placed indefinitely, require the sabjanclive. 

NoteiB. — Qui nt da Tityre nobis, Nemo liber est, qui 
corpori servit. 

Notes to RuLte $. — 1. Quantus and ^wa/w, when they 
haf c (he force of m Umtus, at talis j require the subjunc- 
tive. 2. Unde Tor vt inde ; ubi for ut ibi ; quo for ui eo, re* 
quite t))f% subjunctive. 

Note to RuLft 4. — Ubi and cur are sometimes used in- 
stead of the relative ; so quin after a negative clause^ 


A present or future tense ia followed by the prese^^ %\A'' 
jfrnGtive^ a past tense by the imperfect. 
SuAdft p^o ut studeatf H« ndvites the boy to stady . 

Suasit puero ut studiret, He advised the boy to study. 

Sunt ^ diemty Some say. 

EtHkia n^dieant. Some will say. 

Fuerunt qui dicerenty_ Some said. 

3fc« Printipal Parts are matted y&ith an Asterisk. 


Active. Passive^. Active. Passive. 

* Id^ic. pres. Ain-o, Am-or, *Doc-eo, Doc-eor, 

i a po g ft Am - abam » Att-abMr, Doc^abam, Da c -» b ar» 

■ fatw rg» Affl-abo, Am-abor, Doo-«bo, l>oo-ebor, 

Sabjano. prei. Atn-euH Att^tr^ ]>oo*eBiiiy Doe-eir» 

"^ftiieip.^fiau Am-«t)s, DoQ-ens, 

nads^. Am-atidumy Doc-eiidalB) 



lafinit. pres. 

SBbjonc iinp€r£ 
Imperat. pre». 
*Indic. perf. 
Indie, plaperf. 
Sabjunc. perf. 

• ^pluperf. 


lofioit. perf. 
Former supine, 
Latter , 

Farticip.fut. act 

1^ A • • j^ 




Pattwe. Active. 

Am-are, Am-ari, ♦Doe^ra, 
Am-arem, Am-arar, Doo^ranu 


























Particip. perf. pass. Amat-ue, 


t^eg-ebam, Leg-ebar, Aud-icbam, Aud-iabar 
f-ff- *». W-ar. A«d.ia«, ' ISd-k^ 
W^,, Aud-iam' Aud-Sr - 
Leg-ens,- Aad-iens, 

Lcg-endum, Aud-icndum, 

Leg.endas, Aud-iendus, 

Leg-en #Aud^ire. Aad-iri. 
l-eg-erer, Aud-irem, Aud-irer, 
Leg-ere, Aud-i, Aud-ire, 

Lec-tn«, Aadit-us. 

* Indie, prcs. 


■—— ;fattire, 
Subjunc. press. 
Particip. pres. 
Particip. fut. pass. 
.*Infinit. pres. 
Subjunc. imperf. 
Imperat. pres. 
*Indic. perf. 
- — ^pluperf. 
Subjunc. perf. 



Infinit. perf. 
"Former supine, 
Particip. fut. act. 
•— ^parf. pass. 










Present Tense. 

1 praise thee. Thou art 
praised by me. Thou de- 
sirest wisdom. Wisdom is 
desired by thee. God go- 
verns th^ world» The world 

Ego laudare tu^ Tu lauddri 
a tgo. — Tu expetere sapi* 
entia^ Sapientia expeti a t«.— 
Dens gvbemare mundus, 
M»»*Sus gtfbemari a Deus.'- 


is governed by God* We Ego scribire litermy Literas 

irrite letters, Letters are scribi a ego. — 

written by us. \ ou get Tu pafjare diviiim^ Divitim 

riches, Riches are gotten by parart a tu. — 

you. All men blame on- Onmis culpare ingratij In- 

grateful persons, The un- grati culpari ab omni». 

grateful are blamed by allC 


I confess. Thou descrv- EgofaUri. Tu rmreri laut, 
est praise. The sun rises. ^l oriri. 

We agree to thee. Ego assentiri tu. 

You forget injuries. Tu oblimsci injuria. 

Men die. Homo mari» 

Oht, Through the whole of the Indicative mood the 
scholar should turn the examples into ^^cstions ; first in 
English, by putting the sign of the verb before the Nomi- 
native case ; and then in Latin, by putting An or J^um be- 
fore the first word, or Ae after it ; likewise putting Annon 
or ffonne first, where there is JVbrin the English. 


It refers to a certain past time, signifying a thing which 
was then doing, or pre'sent and unfinished. Or it speaks 
of a thing as present at some certain time past. 

I wrote (did write) let- Ego tunc scribere litera^ 
ters then, Letters were then Ldterm tunc $cribia ego, 
written by me. —At what Q»o tempore tu qwBrere ego, 
time thou soughtest for me, 
I was sought for by thee. — Ego gucsri a tu. 
When Noma held the king- Ubi JKuma obtinere reg' 
dom, When the kingdom wa» num, Ubi regnum obiineri a 
held by Numa. Numa, 

At that age we gave our Ego isthuc (bUUis d&re 
minds (endeavour) te learn- operm Uteres ; 
ing ; You always gave your Tu sempet^&re opera lustHr. 
minds to play. 

While the fields did flour- Dum arvumflorere, 


I was glad, so long as thou Ego Imtariy donee tu sec^ 

didst follow virtue ; and so tari virtue ; et donee ille rt* 

long as he reverenced his verlri parens suw, 



Whilst we huDted hares, Dutn tgo venari Upuif tu 
you followed) they talked sequi^UUfabulariinUrea* 
so the mean time. 


It speaks of a thing as now past, and is either Definite 
or Indefinite. 

I. The Perfect Definite respects a certain past time, and 
speaks of a thing which happened and was finished or com- 
pleted then. 

I sought (did seek) for 
thee yesterday, Thou wert 
sought for by me yesterday. 
Thou didst well, It was well 
ddne by thee. 
' God created the world. 
The world was created by 
Crod oat off nothing. 

Pompeygot great praise., 
We went away presently. 
Ton saw it. They did not 
believe these things, These 
things were not credited by 

Ego qwerire tu heri^ 
Tu qucssitus esse a ego heri, 

Benefaciref Bene/actus esse a 

Deus create mundus, Mun» 
dus creatue esse a Deus ex ni- 

Pomffiius «dgotus esse 
laus tnagnus. Ego stoUim 
ablre, Tu videre. Bit non 
credere hoc^ Hoc non creditus 
esse a6 ille, 

2. The Perfect Indefinite either speaks of a thing as but 
just now past, or at least does not refer to any particular 
time that it happened at. 

I have ofteu sought for 
thee. Thou hast oflen been 
sought for by me. Thou 
hast spoken well, and hast 
deserved praise. 

She has found her pai'ents. 
We have made trial. Trial 

Sospe qwErere iu^ Tu s<Bpe 
qwBsitus esse a ego. 
Tu locutus esse 6ene, et meri- 
tus esse laus. 

Ilia reperire parens. Fa-- 
cere periculumi Periculum 

has been made by us. You factus esse a ego. Tu sol- 
have kept your promise, vereJideSf Fides solutus esse 

a tu. 

Otnnis peccare, et meritu$ 

esse pcBUa, 

(Your) promise has been 
kept by you. All m^n have 
sinned, and have deserved 


It refers to some former time, and speiiks of a thing 
which had happened before, and was past then. 



I bad sought for thee be- 
fore. Thou hadt»t beeo sought 
for by me before. Thou 
badst promised the day be- 

The master had often for* 
bidden that. That had often 
been forbidden by the mas- 

We had dined long be- 
fore. You had asked. 

Their fathers had taken 
care of that, That had been 
taken care of by their fa- 


1. ImportiDg mXL or purpose. The first person has the 
sign voillf the rest shalL i. 

QwBrere (u anteaf 
Tu qwBtitus esse a ego antea. 
7\i promittere pridie. 

Magiiter scBpe prohibere 
id. Id 8<Bpe prohibitus esse a 

Prandere multo ante, Tu 

Pater curare id, Id CMra- 
tus esse a pater. 

I will write letters. Let- 
ters shall be witten by me. 
Thou shah hear the whole 
matter. He shall suffer 
punishment. Punishment 
shall be suffered by him 
We will do our endeavour, 
Endeavour shall be used by 

You shall know, 

The boys shall play, 


Thou shalt worship God, Ventrari Deus^ revereri 
reverence thy parents and parens, et imitari bonus. 
shalt imitate the good. 

Seribire Uteres ^ Litercs scri' 
hi a ego, 

Andire res omnis. 
llle dure pcsneSf Pcsnce dire ab 

Ego ddre opera^ 
Opera d&ri a ego. 

Tu scire, 
Pueri ludere. 

Thou shalt beware of 
passionateness, gorero thy 
tongue and follow pence, 
neither shalt thou do injury 
to any one. 

We shall use diligence. 

Cavere iracundia^ mode' 
rari linirua, et colere pax, 
neque facere injuria quis- 

Adhihere diligentia. 

2. Signifying bare future event. The first person has 
the sign shall, the rest will. 



I shall see. Thou wilt £^o videre. Faeere tile 

oblige him. He will give gratum. Agere gratia tu, 

tbaoks to thee, Thanks will Uratitz agi tu ab iUe. 
be given to thee by him. 

We shall obtain leave, hnpetrare venia. 
Leave will be obtained by impetrari a ego, 

Yoa will get (make) an 
estate. They will get friends, 
Friends will be gotten by 


Tu/acire res, 

Rle invenire amicus^ 

Amicus tnveniri ab ille. 


Learn thoa good arts, Let Discire bonus ars^ Bonus 
good arts be learned by thee, ars disci a iu. 
Shun thoa sloth. Let the Fugere segnities, Victor ha* 

victor have a horse. Beware 
you of passionateness. 
Call ye me. Let scholars 

bere equus, Cavere tu tra- 

Vocart me, Discipulus ma- 

obey weir masters. Let gister parere. Doceri sui 

them suffer themselves to be pati, 


The Present Subjunctive is often used instead of this 
mood, especially in forbidding after ne, nemo^ nullusy &c. 

Try that, which thou canst Quod posse^ id teniare. 

Love a parent if he is 
kind, ^ if otherwise, bear esse ; si aliter^ferre. 

Don't thou covet other 
men's goods. 

Do not thou injury to any 

Do not hurt any one. 

Give not up thyself to la- 

Give not yourselves whol- Nedederetu totus volup' 
ly to pleasures ; but rather tas ; quin potiu^ doctrince tu 
give yourselves to learning, dedire, 


Remember thou. See thou Tu,memimsse, Tu videre. 
to it. Don't say it. Do not Ne dicer e,Ne faeere injuria. 

Arnare parens^ si aquus 

jVe concupiscere alienum. 

Ne faeere injuria quis- 

Ne out nocere, 

Ne tradere tu socordia» 



A<m do ioJQry. Make not 
haste to f|ieak. Deride do- 
bodj. Give not ap thyself to 
idleness. Let him look to it. 

IfefesHnare lo^u 
Nemo irrtdere. 
Nt tradSre in ignavia. 
llle vidire* 


This Mood has always before it another rerbin the same 
sentence» as alto some Conjaoction, Ad?erb, Indefinite or 
Relative expressed or understood. 


1. With some Conjunction, Adverb, Indefinite, or Rela- 
tive, expressed ; eoglisbed generally as the Indicative. 

Seeidg I am in health. 
Have a care what thou 
doest ; What is done by thee. 
There is no covetous man 
who does not want^ 

Stay till we retam. You 
do not know for whom you 
get modey ; For whom mo- 
ney is gotten by you. See- 
ing covetous men. always 
want, though they abound. 

I wish I may become a 
scholar. I wish, thou may est 
recover. I wish the king 
may live long. 

2. Without any verb and conjunction expressed. The 
signs are May, Can, Let, Should, Would. 

By this means thou may Ba invenire laus ; 

Cum valere. 
Videre quid aggre. 
Qtt>cl agi a tu* . 
Nemo avarus esae^ qui non 
Elxpectare dum redirt, JVe<- 
cire^ qui par are pecunia ; 
Quipecunia parari a tu. 
Cum avaru9 semper egere, 
etiamsi abundare. 

Utinam evadere doctus, 
Utinam tu convalesdre. 
Utinam rex vivire diu. 

get praise ; Praise may be 
gotten by thee. Thou canst 
scarce find a faithful friend ; 
A faithful friend (^an scarce 
be found by thee. Somebody 
may say. Let us hve piously. 
I should refuse. She should 
pray for help. 


Should 1 tell it ? What Narrire f Quid putdre ? 
should I think? Whom Qtiem rogaref 

Laus inveniri a tu. 

Fix reperire amicuejiddis ; 

Amicus fidelie vix reperiri a 

tu. Miquis dicire, 
Fivere pie. 
Reeusdre. Ordre opis. 



Bhould I aik ? Whatshontdst 
thou do here 1 Who cao 
(coald, would) believe this ? 
Why Bbonld she ask this ? 
Why should this be asked by 

3. With ConjoQctions, lodefioites, and Relatires, and the 
signs May, Can, &c. 

Quid tu hie agSre ? 
Qtns hoc credere ? 

Cur ilia gweritare hoc ? 
Oar hoc quaritari ah ilia ? 

That I may speak the 
troth. I don't know what 
I flhoold do with myself. 
Use thy endeavour, that 
thoQ may'st be in good 
health. Love» that thou 
may'st be loved. I would 
have thee write. Bewaret 
that thou dost not believe it. 
He begs that thou wouldst 
come. Take care that he 
may know. I am afraid, 
lest he should not believe it. 
If any one should ask. We 
have nothing which we can 
(may) do. I advise that 
you would study. Though 
they should deny. Though 
it should be denied by them. 


]. With Conjunctions I nde6nites, &c. englished as the 

Ut verum dieire, 
Nesdre qutd mefaeire. 

Ddre opera ut valere. 

Ut amariy amare. 
Velle * {ut) scrihire, 
Cavere (ne) credire, 

Orare^ ut venire. 
Curare, ut scire, 
Titneref ut credere. 

Si quis rogare, J^ihil hah ere y 
quod agere. 
Mvnere, ut stud ere, 
Etsi ille negare, 
Etsi negari ah ille. 

Seeing I did not hear, u jat 
thou saidst ; What was ^aid 
by thee. If he knew hat 
we were now doing ; \ bat 
was doing now by- us. 
When you did not know, for 
whom you got money ; For 
whom money was gotten by 
you. I stay'd till they re- 

Cum non audire^ quid di' 
cere ; Quid did a tu. 
Si scire quid nunc agere ; 
Quid nunc agi a ego, 

Cufn neHlre qui pardre pe- 

cunia ; Qui petunia parari 


Expectare dum redire. 

* Note— Ut is often nnderslood «fttf wfe, imT*, fmhf eiiifM,iiikt| ipl»,<nM, ftei 
i|Mrtcf, IbC. and M afler ooM. 



UHnam vaUrt. 
Utinam tu loqui ex nmwMM» 
Utinam iapire «alts. 
Uiinam iu mffUbire M^^en» 
tia; Utintuk dUigmttia ad- 
hiberi a tu. 

torned. I wish I were io 
health. I with thoa apokeet 
from thj heart. 1 wish we 
were wise eooagh. 1 wish 
yoQ used' diligence ; 1 wish 
diligeDce was used by you. 

2. With the signs Would, Coald, Should, Might, either 
with or without CoDJimctions, Indefinites, &ۥ 

I would take care. He CuHire* Orart vt venire. 
begged that 1 would come. 

Thou woaldst thiDk thyself Putart tuf elite ^ n este divts^ 
happy, if thou wert rich. 

He might say ; It might be 
said by him. The day would 
fail me, if 1 should reckon 
every one. 

We should not suffer it. 
You would leant willingly, 
if you were wise. Men would 
follow virtue, if they were pere. 


DicSre ; Diet ah iUe, 
Diet de/icereego, si «Nicme- 
rare omnia. 

Non einire. 
Discire libenterf si sapere. 
Homo seciari virtus^ si sa^ 

What should I do ? 
Wouldat not thou think thy- 
self happy ? Might not 
(would not) he say ? What 
would he say? Should we 
not do it? Would yon suffer 
it ? Would they believe 1 

^uidfacere ? 
Nonnt putart tnjelix ? 
Nonne dicire? 
Quid dicert 1 
AnnonfacSre ? 
Num sinere ? 
An credgre ? 

1. With Conjunctions, Indefinites, &c. englished as the 


Though I sought for thee " 
yesterday ; Though thou 
wert sought for by me yes- 
terday. I do not knotv whe- 
ther you went. Who can 
doubt but Ged created the 
world ? But the \vorld was 
created by God ? You know 
how great praise we got. 
Though many did not be«* 

lActt qu€trire tu heri; 
Licet qtOBsiius esse a ego heri, 

Nescire qito profectus esse. 

Quis dubitarey quin Dens 

create mundw ? 

Qiifn mundus creatus esse a 

Deun? Scire^ gwmtus laus 

adeptus esse» 

Qtianquam mnlti non credgre 



Ueve tbcte tbiagt ; Though ikoc ; ^uantpuun hoc nom 

tbe«€ tbiogs were DOt be- crtdt^i» e$s€ a mtUius» 
lleved by many. 

I wish ( «atisied the mas* Utinam atUnfaeert prm' 

ter. 1 wish thou spokest the captor. Utinam dicgre ve- 

truth. rum. 

2. Without a Conjaoction, the sign is Might. 

Perhaps I might be in an Errareforiasse. 

error. Perhaps I might add Forsitnn addere blanditift 

more kiod ozpression*!. Per» 
haps the Sabibe (woman) 
might be unwilling. Perhapsi 
Ulysses might keep his 
wife's birth-clay. 

plurei. Fortiian Sabina nolle* 

Ulytset agereforsan dies no* 
talis conjux* 


1 . With Conjunctions, Indefinites, &c. englished as the 

Though I have made 
trial ; Though trial has been 
made by me. Tell m*^ what 
you have got. I know the 
man who has promned. ^ee- 
iag we all have sinned. I am 
glad that you have escaped. 
I desire to know, what they 
have done ; What has been 
done by them. I wish he 
bath spoken the irnth ; 
Truth hath been spoken by 
bim. I wiffh he has (may 
hare) obtained leave. 

2. With the signs may hove 
That he may not have lost, 
the gamester does not cpase 
to lose. Then I should 
have saved the Cnpitol in 
vain. Thou fearest lest I 
should not have received 
thy epistle ; Lest thy epistle 
should not have been receiv- 
ed by me. I am afraid, le»t 
be should ba?e taken it ill. 

EUamsifacgre periculum; 
Etiamst periculum /actus esse 
a ego, Dicgre tnihf . quid nac^ 
tus esse, N6sse h^mxi , qui pro* 
mittgre. (Ann*nnnis peccare. 
Gaudere, qudd evadgre* 

Avgre scire^ quid aggre ; 
Quid actus esse uh ille. 
Utinam dicgre verum ; 
Verum dicius esse ab ille, 

Utinam ille impeirare venia, 

. should have» 

jV« non perdgre^ non cetsare 

perdere lusor. 

Tunc ego nequicquam Capi' 

tf'lium servare, 

Vereriy ut accipgre tua epis^ 

tola ; 

Ut fua epistola ^acceptus e$se 

a ego. 

Fererif ne illud gravius 




I fear leat I should have ta« Metuire, n$fru$iraiu$cipere 
ken pains in vain ; Lest labor ; A< ixeedire modu$ ; 
thon shoaldst have exceed- 
ed moderation ; Lest she JVe ilia h<Bc audire» 
should have heard these 

3. This Perfect of the Subjunctive sometimes inclines 
very much to a future signification. The signs are» ihouldf 
woMf ctnddf may, can» 

I should choose rather to 
be poor. I would not do it 
without your order. Thou 
wouldst choose rather to be 
in health, than to be rich. 
Who would say that the co- 
vetous/ man is rich 1 You 
would play more willingly 
than study. 


1. With Conjunctionsy Indefinites» &c. englished as the 

39tar€ pauper e«se potius* 
'onfacere injuisu tuits» 
PrcBjerre vaUre^ ftiam dive9 

Quia dicireavarus eise dives? 
Ludire libentius quam stu- 

Because I had received 
a kindness ; Because a kind« 
ness had been received by 
me. If thou hadst restrain- 
ed thy passion ; If passion 
had been restrained by thee. 
He ivho bad offered injury ; 
By whom injury had been 
offered. If they had kept 
promise. I did not know 
whether he had thanked him 
or not. I wish I had obeyed. 
1 m%h you had made trial. 

Qttdd accipgre linefidum ; 

Qudcl htntfUium aceeptw es99 

a ego. 

Si cohibire iracundia ; 

Si iracundia cohibitu» esse a 


llle qui inferre injuria ; 

A qui injuria Hiatus esse. 

Si servare promissum, 

^fscire an agire gratia ills 


Utinam par ere. Utinam fa- 

cire periculum. 

2. With the signs, might have^ would have, could have, 
should have^ ought to have, and had for would of should have. 

If he had (should have) Sijubere^parere, 
commanded it, I would have 

obeyed. Thou shouldest Focare, 
(onghtest to) have called 

me. Cmaar would never Ccssar nunquam hoc facere^ 

have done this, nor suffered neque ptususesse. 



it. We could oot have es- Noneffugirehoc malum, 
caped this miachief. 


Wouldst thoa have obey- 
ed ? Wouldst thou not have 
obeyed ? Would Cssiar have 
done or Buffered this ? 
Would not Caesar have suf- 
fered this ? Who would have 
done this ? Could we have 

An par ere ? 
Annon, {nonne) parere ? 
An Casar hoc face re aut pat- 
au8 esse ? 

Nonne Casar hoc paisus esse? 
Quis hoc facer e ? 
An effugere. 


3. There is a peculiar use of this Pluperfect of the Sab- 
junctive, when a thing is sigoified future at a certain past 
time referred to. 

Thou prbmisedst thou PromittSre tu seripturw 

wouldst write, if 1 desired {esse) si rogare^ 

(should desire) it. Thou Dicire tu ventnrus esse^ si 

aaidst thou wouldst come, if impetrare venia. 
thou didst (sbouldst) obtain 

leave. They decreed a re- DecernSre pramium^ si quis 

ward if any one should dis- indicare, 

Examples of this kind are usual in recitals of Laws, 
Speechefi, and Predictions ; the future tense in the Law, 
Speech, or Prediction being in the recital expressed by the- 
Pluperfect, which is to the future as the imperfect is to 
the present. 

FuU If any one shall make 
bad verses against any one, 
there is law. 

Pluperf The twelve ta- 
bles made it capital, if any 
one should compose verses 
which brought infamy to an- 

FuU They promise, that 
they will do what he com- 
mands (shall command). 

Pluperf, They promised 
that they would do what he 
commanded (should com- 

Si malus condere in quis 
quis carmen^ jus esse, 

Duodecim tabula capile 
sancire^ si quis carmen con- 
dSre qui infamia ajferre aU 

Qfice imperarcj suifacturus 
(esse) polliceri, 

Qtf€B imperare suifacturus 
(esse) polliceri. 


^* .* 








1. With CoDJanctioDS, IndefiDites, &c. the sign is shall 
have ; but generally the have or the dwll^ and freqaentlj 
both, are omitted. 

When I (•hall) hare de- 
termined, I will write. 
When you (shall) have said 
all. After be has spoken 
with Caesar. When we 
(shall) have written letters ; 
When letters (shall) have 
been written by us. When 
you (shall) have perforiped 
your promises ; When pro- 
mises shall have been (are) 
performed by you. As soon 

Cum constituire, scribere. 

Cum dicere omnia^ 
Postquam convenire C^tar, 
Ubi scribire literoB ; 

Ubi litercB scriptus esse a ego, 
Cum prastare promusum ; 

Cum promissum prastitvs 

esse a tu. 

Cum primum {simul ac) av- 


as they fshall) have heard. 

If I (shall) ask. if thou shalt Si rogare^ Si impetrare. 
obtain (obtainest). If any one Si auis indieare. 
(shall) discover. If we "* ' 
Tshall) do that. If yon 
(shall) make me consnl. 
Unless they (shall) come to- 

2. Without Conjunctions, &c. the sign to the first person 
is shallf to the rest will. 

Si tdfacire. 

Si fa cere ego consul. 

JVft<t eras venire. 

1 shall see. Thou wilt 
do kindly, if thou wilt come. 
A covetous man will always 
want. We shall obtain. 
You will conquer. They 
will get friends. 

Ego vtdere. Faeere benigni, 
si venire. 

Avarus semper egere. 

Fincire. llle invanire ami- 

Note. The Participle in rus with sim and essem is often 
used instead of the Future Subjunctive or Pluperfect, viz. 
with such IndeSnites as are sometimes also Interrogatives ; 
a|id with the Conjunctions cum, ftiin, ^fidi^. quia, ^ud, ut. 





Syntax m the right ordering of words in speech» 
Its parts are two^ concord and government > 
Concord is when one word agrees with another in some 

Government is when a word governs a certain case. 


CoNcoRB is fourfold* 

1. Of an adjective with a substantive. 

2. Of a verb with a nominative. 

S. Of a relative with an antecedent. 
4. Of a substantive with a substantive. 


An adjective agrees with a substantive» in gender, num- 
ber, and case. 

Fleeting years slide awaj. Fugaces anni labuntur. 

Sluggish old age approaches. Tarda senectui suhit. 
Time past never returns. Tempus praeteritttm nvn- 

, quatn revertitur» 
We all hasten to one end. Nos omnes metam prope- 

ramvs ad unctm. 

Sote 1. The rahttantlve it foiDetiiDea understood; and llT this ewe tbe siyeetiTe 
Ukes the render of the sappreMed subatMntire •, m» per immortaki ; fc Deo». 
Laborart Cerhona ; «op. /eiri. Poicftf 1« w/o ; nempe rerWt TmU hapm tttkuli» ; 
rap. negetnan. Omnia wneMunf ; rap. ntrolia. This lust sabstnntiTe is seldom ex- 
pressed ; end its asnal sign in English is the word lAing or iiingi. 

Note % Adjective» nre often pat suhstantiTely. or used in arabstSAtive sense*» end 

' isftj then bare other adjectives agreeing with tbem ; as, Virg. FortiKMH tenex. 

Cic. Antfau onfu». And sometimes substantives seem to be used in an a^Jeedve 

sense; as, Virg. Populvm late regem, tor regnantem. Oic. Fietoreserdhu. Ovid. 

DonfamidM moire*. . - ,.— ^ ., 

JVetsS. An adjective joined with two rabstantives of dUTerent gendtra» genenilly 
agrees with that chiefly or prindpatly spoken of; as, Plin. Oppiium Piteahm, Oraeeu 
Foridonia a/meaatmm. The «(Uective, liowever, sotbetimes, neglectln|f the principal 
subsuntlveTagrees with the nearMit : as, Cic Jfenomni» crrvr «lli/ltCia ett dkandm. 
Bat if the prlncipnl snbstantive be tlie proper name of a man or wwaan, the a^ec- 
tive always agrees with it} as, Voplse. Bohmm InmroUt ttK^f^a ik^ csf i «m 
Mm. Juf t.%«t|irttiiiiiptt«r ens ertiKf a tti ; not er««lftf. 



The good boy learns, the 
naaghty boys play ; the «wift 
horse conquers, the slow hor- 
ses are overcome. 

Proud meD do fall, but hum- 
ble men shall be exalted ; high 
towers fall, whilst low cottages 

Our master comes, let us 
rend, the idle lH>ys shall be 
beaten, my books were torn, 
thy brothers were commend- 

J^oie 1. We always rush 
upon a thing forbidden, and we 
covet things denied. Let us 
despise earthly things, when 
we contemplate heavenly 

IF A small spark neglected, 
often raises a great conflagra- 
tion ; so after Sylla had settled 
the commonwealth, new wars 
broke out. 

The general triumphed most 
splendidly in u golden chariot 
with his sons ; % two princes 
were led before his chariot ; 
many kings came to this sight. 

Cmsar returning from Gaul 
began to demand another 
consulship ; but he was order- 
ed to disband his army and re- 
turn to town ; for which inju- 
ry he came from Ariminum, 
where he had his soldiers 
drawn together, against his 
country with an army. Caesar 
prevailed : he was afterwards 
■uirdered. Death devours all 

DiUraM oveKomM att «UAoiUlw. Sttm oAea rain th$ battO^liglW. Umm 
«ttcadi unlawfal plcmvct. Om bad sheep infects a wliole flock. 

Bonui puer disco ^ mains 
puer ludo ; celer equus 
vtttco, tardus equus vinco. 

Superbus homo cado^ sed 
modestus homA) proveho ; 
altus tvrrts cadoy dum hu» 
milts casa sto, 

Foster pratcepior vtnio^ 
^^go fgOt ignavus puer 
caedo, meus liber lacerOy 
tuus /rater laudo, 

J^Titor in vetiius semper, 
cupioque negatus. Con- 
temno humanus, cutn specio 

Parvus scintilla contemp- 
tus^ saepe excito magnum 
incendium; sic cum Sylla 
compono respublica, novus 
bellum exardeo, 

Imperator triumphg mag- 
nificenter in aureus currus 
cvmjilius suus ; duo prin» 
ceps duco ante currus ; 
multus rex venio ad l^c 

Caesar yrediens e Gallia^ 
coepi deposco alter consu* 
latus ; sed jubeo dimitto 
erercitus et redee ad urbs ; 
propter qui injuria venio 
ab Ariminum^ ubi habeo 
miles congregatuSy adver^ 
sumpatria cum exercitus. 
Caesar vinco : postea inter^ 
ficio. Mors devoro omnia. 



IndmUy kcf pi the mitd el«ir, «ad tto body hodtblU. VmpttHj cabM IHeadf, 
«ndBdfiiriiljtrlMthem. Wtor« no taw to, there is no tnu» yreMiOB. yenltynekes 
beeatr eootemptlble. Ood Mes «11 thlnge. 

When men neytect Ood, they nef leet their own nfety : they procure their own 
ndn t they fly from their own heppineu ) they puraiie thor own mtoefy, end nehe 
hette to be ondooe* 


A TiRB agrees with the Dominatif e before it in number 
and person. 

1 read. 

Thou writest 

He studies. 

The girl sings. 

We teach. 

Te hear. 

They learn. 

The boys are praised. 

Ego lego. 
Tu scribis, 
Itle stvdet, 
Puella canit, 
Nos docemu$. 
Vos audttis. 
nii diicuntf 
Pueri ktudantur. 

iVelrl. ^f» end Nt nre the finC penon, THi end Km the leeond, end ell otter 
neuas ere the third penon. Here"' obienre, that e nominetiTe of the met eed ieeoud 
penon le leldom expreMed,belnr ehreyi known by Iheverb. 

JVW0SI This role reipeeUoeTy the Indieative, loldenctive^ and Imneretlfe, The 
infinitWe has, Indeed, sometimet e nomlnetlve before it ) bnt then eotpk or ow f t m wf 
is nndenlood ; es, Virg. .^cneoi kmmrU oftscnubrs «MfcM ; sc. ettpu. Tcr. Oemw 
invi^kremhii sc. «Msenml. Or we may toppose, es to nsoslty done In thto cnss) that 
the inlini tire to put for the Imperfect off the udlcative, ?is. aMcMsrs for eftsdndeto 
end invidtrt for itmdebani. 

I call, thoa dost answer, he 
taught, we did study, ye have 
given, they have received. 

I had gone, thou hadst come, 
he had sent, we will touch, ye 
shaH taste, they will drink. 

Do thou go on, let him make 
haate, let us prepare, proceed 
ye, let them return. 

I am accused, thou art blam- 
ed, he was praised, we were 
condemned, ye vrill be dis- 
missed, they 9hall be punished. 

Be thou joined, let him be 
separated, let us be instructed, 
be ye exalted, let them be dis- 

The cock crows, the goose 
did cackle, the parrot spoke, 
the magpies had chattered, 
ravens will croak, let hens 

£Jf o voeo, tu responded^ 
UU doceoy ego siudeo^ tu 
do, ille aceipio. 

Ego eo, tu venio, ille 
mittOf ego tango ^ tu gu$(Oy 
ille hibo» 

Pergo <u, feetino ille^ 
parh ego^ progredior tu^ 
redeo ille. 

Ego accusoj tu culpo^ 
ille laudoj ego condemnor 
tu dimittOy ille punio. 

Jungo tUf separo ille, 
eruJio ego^ exalto tu, vi- 
tupero ille* 

Gallus canto ^ anser glo' 
ctVo, psittachuB loquor^ pica 
garrioy eorvus crocita, 
gallina pipo. 



Tbe dog barks, the sheep did 
bleat, the hog hath grunted, the 
borset had neighed, asses will 
bray, let lions roar, oxen will 
bellow, wolves will howl. 

Virtue is praised, vice was 
shunned, honour was sought, 
riches were acquired, the boys 
will learn, let hooks he bought, 
Peter affirms, who will deny ? 

The men did shout, the bat- 
tle was joined, the arrows fly, 
the swords are drawn, the sol- 
diers have fought, the horses 
are taken, the enemy will be 
routed, let victory come, peace 
will be sought. 

TT In the mean time, all 
•Greece being divided into two . 
parties, turned their arms from 
foreign wars, as it were upon 
their own bowels : wherefon^. 
two bodies are made out of one 
people, and tbe i>oldiers are 
divided into two hostile armies. 

AAer the battle, no woman la- 
mented herlo8t husband ; all la- 
mented their own hap, because 
they had not fallen for their 
country ; all received the wound- 
ed, dressed tbetr wounds, re- 
freshed the fatigued, and they all 
more lamented the public than 
their private fortune. For these 
things thej deserve praise. 

Cants latro^ Qvis bcdot 
nu grunnio^ eguus hinniOf 
minus rudo, Uo rugio^ bos 
tnugio. Input ululo, 

Firtus tatfcfo, vitium vi- 
tOf honos quaerOf divitiae 
pnro, puer disco^ emo It" 
6er, Petrus affirmo^ quis 
nego ? 

Homo elamoy praelium 
commiito.sagitta volo, gla- 
dius destringOp milet pug" 
no^ equu» capio^ hostis fu^ 

go^ vtmo 

victona, pax 

IrUerea omnU Gratcia^ 
divisui if- duo parijCon" 
verto arma. ah exttmui 
helium^ vtlut in vUeus 
SUU8 ; igitur duo carpu$ 
fio de unu9 populus^ et 
miles divido in duo hosti' 
Us eaereitus. 

Post praelium nuUu$ 
fmUier fleo amissus con-' 
jux ; omnis doUo suus w- 
ct«, quod ipne non cadopro 
patria ; omnis exdpio $au^ 
cius, euro vulnus^ reficio 
lossus^ otnnisfue matgis lu^ 
geo publicus quam priva- 
tus fortuna, Ob hie me- 
reor laus» 

GMt m9^9 Che worlfl, and all thinGrs in it ; be created tbe light, and formed dark- 
nets ; in bim we live and move ; if be look on tbe eartb, it trembles ; if he tooeh 
thehlUflfUiey smotcp; I will bless ray 6od while I live; he alooe doth wondrous 
works, praiseye the Lord. 


3. Substantive verbs, verbs of naming and gesture, have 
a nominative both before and after them belonging to tbe 
same thing. 


I am a scholar. Eto nun dUdjmhis. 

Tboo wilt become a poet. lujies poeta» 

Diogenes was called a philoso- Diogenes appellahaturphi' 

pher* losophus* 

We are esteemed wise men. Nbs existimamur iapu 


She walks as a qaeen. Ilia incedit regina. 

The soldiers sleep secure. MUitee dormitrnt tecnri, 

1. Substantive verbs are, sumyJio,foremj and extsto, 

2. Verbs of naming are these passives, appellor^ dicor, 
voeor^ nominor^ nuncupor : to which add videor^ existimor^ 
censeor, kahtor^ creor^ constituor^ salutoTj deiignoTf cognoi^ 
covy ognoscor^ inventor^ repertory &C* 

3« Verbs of gesture are, eo, incedo^ veniOf ctifto, «to» J4U 
eeOf sedeo, evado^fugio^ dormio, Mwnnio^ fnaneo^ iic, 

2f«fe 1. Tbe nomintlTe, after theie Terbs it frequtntl^ «0 a(lb*eli*«f wMch sgMcfl 
with the oominatWe before ibem m» Mt safafttentfve, In fewter, namher, «nd caw, or 
some other suhstaotWe is anderetood. 

Note S^ Any verb may have a nomlnatWe after It, wbea it beloofa to tiie lamo tlilw 
riih the nomiaaave before it } as, Oie. AMdM Am jra«r. Id. Si^tttu imMI /oott 


Ifott 3. When a verb come« bttwizi two aoaiioailroa of diflhmt Monben, It 
ntnally takes the nomber of tbe Sist } as, Ter. Dm ttt deetm (ofcnio. Orld. OfeM 
lapu fiunt. But mnetlnies it takes ifae number of the luC} as, Ter. ^ aw l ii fftim #m 
umoris iniegrut^ ut, Luc. Sm^^i» vrtmi laehrynuu» 

1. The lion is king among the Leo nun rex inter ferOf 
wild beasts, the ash is the fraxina» mm puUher ar' 
fairest tree in the woods, and hotineylva^ etahieeinaU 
the fir in the loHy mountains. ius mone. 

Patience oflen offended be- Patientia taepe laesue 

comes fury» and generals ailer fiofuror^ et dux ex vietO" 

victory are sometimes tyrants, rta interdum existo tyran-- 


2. Virtue is often called vice, Ftrtus saepe voco vi-> 
vice too is often called virtue, h'ltm, vitiutn quoque saepe 
and poverty is sometimes reck- appello virtut^ et pauper^ 
oned a disgrace. tas nonnunquam censeo 

Varro was esteemed a learn- Varro existttno doctus 

ed man, Cicero was accounted vir, Cieero kabeo disertus, 

eloquent, Aristides was called Arisiides dicojustust Fotw 

just, Pompey was named great, peius nomino magnus, 

3. The boy sits porter before Puer sedeo janitor ante 
the gate, the servants walk on fores^ famulus inceeh 
foot, the master stays alone, the pedes, herus maneo solus^ 
soldiers come up in arms. miles venio armatus* 



BMBfjr if Aftir iNrt bdhm iowar. Vtrtue Is Iti own rewird. «nd tnvy b it« own 
panlslmniit. ReHgloii to t&e grestett wiidoni, honetty to O^e best polU^, and t^n- 
peranoe it the beet pliysic. 

Quarrelsome persons are ratoehieToas oomneniiMM* A false friend will be the moet 
daHcennis enemy, f rand In ehHdhood will become fcnaTety In manhood. 

Tne spring u a pleasant time, for nature thai seems to be renewed, the trees begin 
to sprout, and the gardens bring forth liertM and flowers ; these are all sweet things. 

4. The iofinitiTe mood basaD accasative before it. 

I am glad that yoa are well. Gaudeo te valere. 
I conTess that I have sinoed^ Faieor me peccasse, 

/Vole 1. The word that bctwiit two Kpgltoh verbs to the nsual sign of thto eon. 

IfoU2. The accusative may be tnmed into the nominative with ^uod or tii- Tfaos, 
instead of goniiee te valere, we may ny, g«mieo fuod tu valuu ; and instead of omt» 
€$t U Metre, we may say, opus est tU «rfafc 

If ate 8. The accosativ«fii me, u. »f, tffam, as also the infinitive etu or /itiMe, are fre- 
quently suppressed ; as, Virg. R«ddtn pone negiAat» sc §e pom. Clc EwereUum eoe- 
nm eognevu tc/uiiu ooentm. 

I wonder that yoar brother 
does not write to me ; I cannot 
belieye that he is well. 

Silias boasted that hifl sol- 
diers had persisted in obe- 
dience, when others had lapsed 
into sedition. 

When Caesar heard that the 
Helvetii were in arms, and that 
they designed to make their 
way through his province, he 
made haste to be gone from 
Rome, and came very speedily 
to Geneva. 

The ambassadors complained 
that they were slighted, and 
took it ill that they were order- 
ed to depart from the city ; but 
the king declared that he won Id 
reckon them for enemies, unless 
they went off at the day ap- 

Historians tell, that Philip 
was slain by a young man, as he 
was going to the public games, 
and many believe that Aleian- 
der had encouraged him to so 
great a crime. The young man 
was called Pausanias. 

Miror iuus /rater nen 
scribo ad ego ; non ponum 
credo is valeo, 

Silus jacto 3UU8 miles 
duro in obsequium^ cum 
alius prolabor ad seditio. 

Cum Caesar audio HeU 

' vetii sum in arma, et is 

statuofacio iter per pro- 

vincia suus^ maturo pro- 

ficiscor a Roma^ et venio 

celeriter ad Geneva. 

Legaius queror sni neg» 
ligo^ et aegrefero^ui jubeo 
discedo ab urbs ; ei rex 
denuncio svi habeo is pro 
hostis^ nisi prqficiscor ad 
dies statutus. 

Historicus narro,' Phi- 
lippus obtrunco ab ado' 
lescens, cum eo ad ludns 
publicusj et multus credo 
Alexander impello is ad 
tantusf acinus, Adolescens 
voco Pausaiuas. 



Touttg men hope that they shall live loacf *, but they ooght to renembcr, thai thev 
were leot Into this world as into a lodclDg. not as into a homei and that they wUl 
soon be called bence. 

While Caesar was In Hither Ganl, in wlnter^inarters. Greqpent reporti were brovf ht 
to him. tlmt all the Belgae had Conspired agaiostthe Roman people. 

5. ESSE hath the same case after it that it hath hefore it 

Or more 'generally thas : 

^ The infiDitive of asubstantiTe verh, verb of namiDg orge»* 
tare, takes tb^ same case afler it that it hath before it. 

Peter desires to be a learned Peirui cupit itte vir doC' 

Thou loyest to be called father. 
He would have himself made 

We see that the oM man walks 



Tu mmas diet pater, 
Vult se creari ducem* 

Vidtmus itntm 


IfoU 1. The nonn after these InfinltiTes is frequently an edjeeiive, which agreai 
with the BiibrtantiTe Ijefore then, or bns some other substantive UDdei-stood. 

^o'<%When a verb thai go/erns the dative, such as Iket, txpeditf dalnr, coneado, 
and th6 ifte, comes before these infinitives, the case after them is commonly the da- 
tive, bat sometimes tbe accusetive; as, Non datur onmUnu tut iioMibiu eC muCeaiis ; 
Mtf iwtt onanbva utt 6onu, ti vtfint. Ter. Sxprdit vobiM estc 6enM. Cfe. Lkeeit esse 
mueros. Which may be «uppUed thus ; Exptdii vtibu «oa uu frene«. ZAetat vM$ «et 

?^u ^' ^^^ ^ ^^^ 'bai governs the aecnsative, such as, oia, vftn»^ futo^ nuBh, 
and the lilce, comes before the infinitive eutf the case after it, in prose authors, Is aN 
ways the accusative ; bat tbe Feets, someiiroes, in imitation of the Oreeks, omluing 
the pronoun me, te, or m, use the nominative -, as, Ovid. Quia retuiil J^ax esse Jeofi 
prmupos. Uor. Uxor invicti JvoiM e$$e nuds. Id» Fattens voeari Ctusaria Mltor. Aad 
Virg. Sentit nudioa dtlmpsu$ in korte$ ; i. e. SeiuU site dtlaptmsy instead of «auit m efsc 

Nou 4. This rule respects only the noroinAtive, dative, and accusative, and Is net to 
be extended to tbe genitive or ablative) fer we do not say, /ntert«< Cioerenii cms efo- 
qwruii ; but, Interut Ciceronis tu* tlo^entem. 

The old Persians believed 
that the son was God. 

The Njmph complained 
that her arms were become 
long boughs. 

If thou desirest to be a good 
man, practise charity and other 

Empedocles affected to be 
esteemed an immortal god. 

No man ought to be called 
happy before death. 

Thou art become an old wife, 
yet thou affectest to be thought 
a beauty. 

Vetus Persa credo sol 
turn Deus, 

Nympha doleo ttitf j bra* 
chium fio longus ramus, ' 

Si tu volo sum bonus 
vir^ eolo caritas aliusque 

Empedocles cupio ha- 
beo immorialis deus^ 

Nemo debeo dico beatus 
ante obitus, 

Tufio anus^ tamen volo 
video formosus. 


Ant^onvfl orders htmself to AnHgwiu$jvh§o m ap- 

be called king by the people» pello rex a populu$f Pto^ 

Plolemj alto is styled king by lemqeus quoque cognominQ 

the army. rex ah exercitus. 

Such a stapidity seized Vi- Tantus torpedo invado 

tellius, thati if others had not re- Viielliiu^ u^, n cMier no» 

membered that he was emperor, memini is sum prineq^^ 

Be bimself would haye forgot* ipseoblivtscpr. 

If yon «paid be bam, fear Ood, and Vtn neoriABe to natun. 

A wile man tamj be thought Co be a fcol, if he talk Coo mueh & and a foel may be 
eMeemed a wIm man. if lie bold his tonne. A man is known by his Calk, and •Heoee 
is often groat pmdcnce. 

RULE m. 

6. The relative qui^ quae, quod, agrees with the aatece- 
deot io gender aod Qumber* 

The man is wise who speaks Fir sapit qui pauca loqui^ 
little* iur, 


7. If no nominative comes between the relative and the 
rerb, the relative shall be the nominative to the verb. 

The covetous man» who al- Avarus^ qui semper eget, 
ways wants, cannot be non potest esse dives» 

8* Bot if a nominative comes between the relative and 
the verb, the relative shall be of that case, which the verb 
or noun following, or the preposition going before, use to 
govern» • 

God, who governs the world, Deus, qui gubemat mun^ 

and by whom all things dum^ et a quo omnia 

were created, is a spirit, creahantur^ est spiritus^ 

whom no man hath seen, quem nem,o vidii, nut 

or can see. videre potest. 

Not* 1. The ancfcedent is commonly some substanCiTe noun, either expressed ov 
undferstMd, that g*ei before the relative, end is again understood to, or sometime» re* 
plated aOoDg wUn the relative as Us substaniiTe ; as, cave vo/uj9fatem, qitae e$t puiis : 
«'. e. cmve vofttpCatem, quae volvpttu e(f pcstir. Cae». Erant mnbto «HlMf« <fue| ,9«»^ 
ifineribuM domo ttcire poaeni. And here observe, that the aateoedvat is sometfaiei 
emitted in is proper place, and only expressed elong with tlie relative ; as, Ter. Popu' • 
Io trf plaeertnt qwu jccutet /abuiat ; fur fa!b^lac^ q^vu feifvdiu, Ovid* Sub qu» im(RC 
rvMhoM arbore, virgafmt : for arbor, 4tt2r qvM af^ort, ybrg. Urbem, qnum ttatuOf res- 
tra est ; for vrht, qwtm «irbem, Sec 



If0U 2. Aniofinitivft or aMiittiiee «onetiiiMt nappilet tbe phce #f a nmalinrtfi to 
ft yertkof a ■obsUntHv to an ai^eetWa, of an anttOMloiit to a relatiTOs and In mif 
cate. tbe verb ia in cht iVHtd peiion, Um a<yeetiva and relattTe ara |mic n tka tttater 
fnder; aii 

To exeal In knowladg* b reckoned a fine /n tdaiitm •mtUtn jmblmm yn- 

Ihinff» (ctfur. 

Peter is a learned man. whidi nobody de- Peinu iH vir deohu, fiied nraie 

niei. ncf ae. 

ttuu S. Tbe peraon of the relatiw is alwaff tbe name with that of iti aniecedent ; 

, aS|.i^ f «i dooee ; lu 91a dnd» : /mMo qimu otottur. The reaioa It plain, namely, the 

ameeedent» which is «apposed to be repeated along with the rehitlve« li Aie tnio 

aominatife to the rerb) thns» Migo 9«« mcm, when sQpplied,is, j%a i^H^ do^, 


N0i» 4. Wl*n the i^laHvt odnMS betwist two substantives of dUlbrent g«Bdei% It 
someOmeiy thoof h more rarely, agrees with the Ust ; as, Oic. Jtobmal fMcm «eoaantf 


If*u <. The antecedent Is sometimes coached or lodaded In the |» mesilye vfo* 
i as Ter. Onma tmtimnfarlmnat meas, qui Ukrtm fnalnm Mi mfmie proe- 

Ihu 6. The retattive sometimes, instend of mhing the gender of the anCeotdent, 
takes the genderof «onw eynoBymoos word sappressed ; as, SaU. Jgemm rsmm, 
yMM prwna i mrt t Ua diemu t se. 'negoliia. 

l?«f»7. The InterrogaflfMar indefinites, timlik^faanliiStfwIWtfiisiMcskldbrSO^ 
times observe the oonstmetion of the relative «ni, ^imm, gtmi ; as» Orio. FooiM nen 
/imaikif iliw» nse dioersa toMn ; 4iui2mi diost slie ssronhn. 

Afitii^al, who had made trial 
of the Roman courage, deni» 
«d that tbe Romaaa could be 
Gei»|aered but io Italy. 

Ciei^T firat eobquered the 
HeWetii, who «re now calted 
the Sequani ; after that he sub- 
dued all Gaul, that it betwixt 
the Alps and the Btiti^b ocean. 

Many find fault with crimes 
which they will not forsake'; 
but let us pursue virtue, *in 
which true glory consists ; for 
gold, which is so eagerly sought 
after by men, often hitrtB. 

They are good boys whom 
glory encourages, and comraeii* 
dation delights ; they will be- 
come excellent men. 

The city which Romulus 
built was called Rome, the in- 
habitants were named Romans, 
and were deservedly esteemed 
▼enr brare men. 

Note 2. To read and not to 

manus virtus^ nego Ab- 
manui fdsmm opprimo 
mti in naliaM 

Caesar pfimo vmba Hd* 
vein, qui numc appHh A- 
quani ; deinde dotM wiMs 
Gailiat qui sum tnter jU* 
pes tt oceiMus BfitaHmkm» 

MuUus torripio crtmia 
qui nolo linquo ; sti ego 
colo virtus^ in qui venu 
decus sum positus ; nam 
aurumy qu% tarn cupide 
peto ab homo, saepe nocifo. 

Ole sum bonus putr qui 
gloria exci9o^ «f kfws dt* 
hcto ; fio egregius vir. 

Urhs quiRomtdus eondo 
voco Roma, incola noTnino 
RomanuSf el merito hahto 
forlis vir. 

Lego it nbn iiOetl'- 



understand, is to neglect; to 
BOW and not to reap, is to lose 
your labour. # 

Not to know what happened 
before thoa weH born, is to be 
alwajrs a child. 

To see is pleasant, but tb 
discover truth is more pleasant ; 
philosophy, therefore, which 
searches for truth, is a most 
noble study. 

To flee when our country is 
invaded is base ; let us there- 
fore fight valiantly ; to die for 
one's country is sweet and glo- 

Men often pursue pleasure, 
which is a pernicious thins ; 
but do thou 8eek after true 
glory» which is a commendable 

To know one's self is the 
first step toward wisdom ; 
whicby as it is a very hard 
thing» 80 it is a very useful 

Slim neglfgo ; $ero et non 
metOf sumperdo opera, 

JVescto quid accido Ufi' 
tequam nascor, sum tern' 
per sum puer» 

Video sumjucunduSy sed 
invenio Veritas sum jncun^ 
dus; philosophia, igitur^ 
qui invesUgo Veritas, sum 
honestus siudium, 

Fugio cumpatria noster 
oppugno sum turpis ; 
pugno igituf stremie ; mO' 
rior pro pairia sum duU 
cis et decorus. 

Homo saepe sector vo- 
luptas^ qui sum pernicio' 
sus ; sed tu quaero verui 
giori€L^ qui sum laudabilis, 

JSTosco sui ipse sum pri- 
mus gradus ad sapientia ; 
qui^ ut sum diffidlisj ita 
sum utilis* 

U tlgr fOul tbiFBleth for honour, if thine ear loveth pmlse, niiM thyself fi^eiii tlie 
4iMt, of which thott art made, and aspire after s»nietblng that is great and gt>od. The 
oak, whiefa oow spreadeth its brauches lowardd heaven, was : nee but an acorn. 

To ffo to school and not to learn, is to trifle } and to ffo to church and not to Jiear, Is 
to profane that sacred place: but to nwlie advances in knowledge and wisdom, is an 
cxoeileDt thing. * 

.9. Two or more substantives singular, coupled together 
with a conjunction, {et^ acy atque^ &c.) have a Verb, adjec- 
tive, or relative plural. 

Cyrus and Alexander, who sob-- Cyrus et Alexander^ qui 
daed Asia, are renowned domuerunt Mam, sunt 
among all nations. inclyti apud omnes gen- 


Nott 1. If the singular substantlres be nominatives, and of diSVrent persons, the 
flural verb will agree with the more worthy person ; that i», with the first person 
imther than the aecondi and with the second rather than the third ; as, 

If yon ud TuUia are well, I and Cicero are 8i tu et Tul!ia valetiSf ego et Cicero ««. 
well. Ismitt. 


N9tt 3. ir the singular 8ulisiuiti¥«f«r« of dUrermtgenden, and tfrnify {NnoM^tlM 
ndjective or relative plural will take the more worthy gender ; ttot tt, tht matealtao 
rather tliau the leminine or neuter. Bat If all, or any oTtbe aiDguiar mibitanUvei, df- 
nity tbiDg* wlihout life» Um adjective or relatire plural ii generally pal in the nenlir 
gender i as, 

My father and mothert who are now dead, Polsr «I me<«r, jut «ime mnt mmtm^ 

were very pious. ' trmu vatdt ptL 

Riches, honour, and glory, are set before Dimtiac, dssw, glcriUf in mmtiM tita 

youreyw* mnl. 


Itisuooertain whethe? the feminine of persons be more worthy than the neuter ; 
for Grammarians, having- no authority to determine them, are not agreed, whether we 
ought to say» Luortiia et eju» moMcipmm/uerwU ctuia» ur cmttm. 

iVatc S. A singular nominative, with an aUative governed by «mvi, sometimes takea 
a plural verb or adjective ; as, Virg. ^trimu cum/rmtrt jura dtAmtU Hirt. B. Afr. , 
JMba OKm LahUno eapti inpottMtatvm Cataaria vtmnuU. Hygin. Cadfiws cum u«ers 
in draeonu sunt eonmrsi. 

Ifou 4. The conjunction is sometimes suppressed i as, Ter. Dvm mtatf mifMS,nui- 
gi»Ur, jprokiMtuU. 

N^U 5. The verb or adjective, negiecdng this rule, often agrees with the nearest 
nominative or substantive t as, Cic. Et ego tt C'iosre ntaaJiagUahit, Plhu. Jfors r«- 
hrum et tciUB orienlis oceaimu rej'ertus t$t lyhnt. Virg. iMciis tt ngt rseejtfe. Ibad* 
OmMio futa vidM, dautm «eeiojjue t*cce|»«M. 

IfoU 6. Colleetivea, which are substantives signifying many in the singular number, 
such as. muUUudo, pan^/amiliayCwUai, genSfpojnUiu^ Ace. take sometlmrs piurRl verbs 
or adjectives ; and the adjective frequently, instead of taking the gender of the ee//ce- 
tivcy takes that which the sense directs to } as, Cxes. MtJtimd» oanmnsnua. Salt 
Magna pan vulntrati aui oodn tvMt, Id . Fomi/io, qtnarvan, lie* 

N9tt 7. The reason of this rule is, because two or more singulars are equivalent to 
a plural} thus. Ego e< tu is the same as net; (u c< «Us the same as Wf ; Forus tt Jmhi- 
wa the same as iUi^ &c. 

In the first battle Brutus and In primus pugna Bru" 

Aruns killed oue another, yet tus et Aruns occido sui 

the Romaos came off victori- invicem^ tamen Ramanns 

ous. recedo victor, 

Cato and Cicero were wise Cato et Cicero sum. «a- 

and learned ; they loved their piens et doctus ; atno pa» 

couDtry, and all those that tria^ et omnis is qui amo 

loved and defended it. etdefendo is, 

Hamilcar, Annibal, and As- Hamilcar, AnnibcUf ac 

drabaly who carried on a war Asdrubal, qui gero helium 

against the Romans, were very adversus Romanus^ mm 

skilful generals. peritus dux. 

Homer, Yirgil» and Horace, Homerus^ FirgiHus^ at- 

whom the ancients admired, que Uoratiu$^ qui vetus 

are justly esteemed most ex- admiror^ merito exisHmo 

cellent poets. bonus poeta. 

J{ote 1. 1 and you went into Ego et iu eo in hortus^ 

^he garden» where you and my uhi tu et meus fraUr lego 

d 2 


brother read Tereoce, whilst I Terentiui^ dum ego etfa- 

and the servaat were gathering mulus carpojlos, 
flowers . 

lioie 2* The man and the Fir etfoefninat qui ego 

woman whom I and yoo caw et tu mdeo heri^ sum mor' 

jesterday, are dead to-day, and tuus hodie, 0t sepelio eras. 
will be buried to-morrow. 

Henoar, praue, and glory Honos^ /aiis, et deeus 

are gained and songht after by sum cLestimatus, et quae» 

good men ; but laws, faith, and situs a bonus vir; sedjus^ 

the goda themselves are tram- fides^ et deus ipse sum cal- 

pled on by the wicked. catus ah improhus. 

After the greatest jollity aod Exsummus laetiiia at' 

wantonness, which a long quiet que lasctvia^ qui diutur- 

had produced, all on a sudden, nus quies pario^ repenle 

consternation and sorrow over- metus atque moeror invado 

spread the city : but the night civitas ; sed nox et praeda 

and the plunder retarded the remoratus sutn hosiis, 

A cODtmiied mind and a gcoA conscience will make a roan happy in all conditions, 
l«t «iMUnielion com«th upon the wicked mtn ai a whirlwind } ibame and repentrace 
datcand whli him to the frrare. 

Augosttts, writing to Tiberius, hath these words : If we shall hear that yott are sick- 
ly, I and your mother will die. 

The man-servant and maid, who do their daty carefully, are to be commended and 


10* Substantives signifying the same thing agree in case. 

Julius Caesar, the first Roman Julius Caesar^primus jRo* 
emperor, was an excellent manus imperator, fuii 
orator. eximius orator» 

lfM§ 1. This coneord is called apposition, and it is not necessary that the siihetan- 
Uvet arree in gender, number, or person. The constroctlon, strictly speaking, is el- 
llpdeal, and may be svpf lied by the obsolete participle ent, or by fui ett^ f» vtemhtr, 
or the Uke ; as, Atma seror, L e. Anna ens loror, or fvoc ett «arar. 

N»U 8. When a plural appellative is pat in apposition with two or more proper 
aaroei of dlftbrent genders, tne appellative mnst be of the more worthv gender; as. 
IiIt. Jd t^mmeum Ctciputrmnjue rega hgwU mim, not ngiimn* Here ttfm de> 
notes both r«f cm and rtginam. 

iTafc 8. TlMlatler substantive is soraetimet put in the genitive } as, Oic. In 9ffii» 
ifiicioafttae. Virg* AmnU Eridanu 

jHt$ 4.f A claQie or sentence sometimes soj^lles the place of one of the stthvtan- 
Uf«f i as,^oiact. Cogiut onuorem inififa», rem mrdutm. 


The sheep, innoceiit ere»- Ot>i$j innoxiui animalj 

tares, are often torn and de- saepe dilaeero et devoro a 

Yoared bj the farions raye- rabidw rapaxfora^ luput, 
noat wild beasts, the wolves* 

Whilst these thing? are do* DumhUlgeroapudHtU 

ing at the Hellespont, Perdic- Usj^tnUw^ Perdicea$ intsr- 

cas is slain at the river Nile by Jicio apudflumen M7uf a 

Seleacus and Antigonas. Stleucu» et Antigonus, 

They say that Marcos Tnllius Aio Marcui TuUint Ct* 

Cicero, the orator, was a veiy cero^ ^ro/or, sum magnus 

great philosopher ; he sent his philosaphus ; miito filivs 

son Marcus to the city Athens Marcus ad urbs Athenae^ 

to attend CratippoSt a very fa- ut audio Cratippus^ cele- 

mons teacher, and be educated ber doctor^ et instituo ah 

by him. is. 

In the mean time Asdrabal Interea Asdrubal et col- 

and his colleagne, who had lega^ qui remaneo in HiS' 

continued in Spain with a great pania cum magnus exer- 

army,areconqueredby the two atus, vinco a duo Scipio, 

Scipios, the Roman generals. Romanus dux. 

Our Lord Jeiiu Ohrist, the ojuly 8ati«iir, came into Ibe world, that he mteht re- 
deem sinners froiii sin, death, and destruction, and that tlwy who ihouM believviaUe 
name, might not |>erish, but have eternal life. 

Demosthenes the orator, that he anig^bt roose his fellow-citisens, the Athenlaiit, to 
war againit Alexander, brought a roan Into the assembly, wha ajffirmed, that he had 
been wounded In a battle, Ui which Philip tb^ king was slain. 


To these four concords some add a flfth, vix- that of the m^ntiv with the taferr»- 
gative in case ; as, Qui» guhtmat mundum f Deu$. Cujmm e» ? AwMkiiryoiUt. Cut 
dedisti ZAnim f Pttn. Quti mtritM$ n f Cmdem. ^o earn f Lihnt. But this, 
s^ietly spealciog, it no concord ; for the rtsfMmsive does not depend upon the interna- 

frative, but upon the rerb. or some word Joined with it, which is geocrally soppriwed 
h the answer, and may wi supplied thus : ^i» gvhtnui wmiuMin f Deus gubcnat 
mfcndum. Cujvt ts ? Sum servos AmphUrffwU, Cut dediff » iArum 7 Dedl llbmm 
Phto. fce. And if the word, on which the answer d^tandft reouire a diffippeat coo> 
strucuon,thls concord does not take place ; ai, Quanfi trnptat 7 OchwAw. Cu^m c«i 
2t6er ? Mtu», Cvya «nferesf 060 jMrsrs ? Omniicm foifiHwiii, kc 


Government is three-fold. 

1. Of nouns. 

2. Of verbs. 

3. Of words indeclinable. 


L The GoDernment of JSTouns. 
§ 1. Of SabMaotives. 


] 1 . One sobstaDtive governs another signifying a differ* 
ent thing in the genitive. 

Vijrtue removes the fear of Virtus iolUt terroremtnor- 

death. . tis. 

Nature's laws cannot be chang- Naturae leges wm possunt 

ed. mutari. 

The souls of men are immortal, Animi hominum sunt im* 

but their bodies return to mortales, sed' corpora 

dust. eorum in pulverem re- 


l^ott 1. The LiiUn noun (o be put So the genitive, is tbiil which answers to the En* 
gllsb word foifowiDS the particle of, or to the word ending in '«. 

19 oU 2. The pronouns huju», ejus, UlUis, cujui^ &c. engUsbed Ail, Aer, it$, fAetr,<&ere- 
o/*, v^reofn WMMe, have ibeir tubstantive generally suppresied } ati lAber <yiu, [sc. 
iComiut, kc*] his book, or ber booli } Libri eorum^ [sc. Aomtnitm, be] their books. 

IfUe 3. These following Adjectives. primtUy mediuf, u/Hmtu, «rfivnnu, t'n/tonu, <Mitt, 
.««iMinuf, miprtnuu^ nliquuMy caetera^ generally denote pan primal wudin, u/ttmo, <ie> of 
the substantive with whicb tbey are joined. Thas prima fiAu/a, is the same as pri' 
ma partfaMae, and does not hignity the first fable, but the nrst pert oftbe fable. And 
ntmma arboTy the same at turmna pars arborit, does not signify tbe highest tree, but 
the top or highest part of (be tree. lu like ncHnnar are to be understood, media noar, 
fUtimu platen, inut cera, tuprtmut toons, reli^jua Aegyptus, eaetera turha, &c. 


^12. If the la^ sabstantive have an adjective of praise 
or dispraise joined with it, it may be put in the genitive 
or ablative* 

Thy brother is a boy of a fine Frater tuus est puer pro- 

disposition, of the strictest haeindolisysummaevir^ 

virtue, of a graceful mien, tulis^ honesta facie ^ et 

and handsome person. ' figura venusta, 

WoU 1. Tbe first substantive U often suppressed; as, Hon tH mspusOH /inxtnaU 
smInUi nip* mmm. I^all. Fulgus est ingenio mobUi ; sup. populus. 

Jihts % The latter substantive must signify some part or property of the first, other- 
wise it does net belong to this rule. Hence from this rale are excluded, Virg. P%t' 
•ftrsi prsle sareitfem. Hor. Rtx gtltdat erue, Juv. GalUtms JUiius sdbae. Pater 
9ptmmm libsrwwn. And the lilse, where the latter substantive signifies neither anjr- 
. part, nor any property of tbe first. 

\^f^t^ '^ ecVc«ttw is aometimes Joined with the first subitanUve, and tfaet» 
iffjr^LSSS!^'^ ^JS^ ^SJ^ BblatTve j as, Oic Hartmtlia sMslUns ^ngsnie, ite. 
iffi(«ls,s«M«<iiM|{0iM. lii, VirgrmAUiHUpnatiaiarrtMimnM, SaU. ^ft&iiwipc. 


rf*iw aeter. And by tlte roe» «omeUmec in the aceaintWe } ai, Vlr|f. Ot Am am- 
ffueDwnwi/w. Hor. mc Mmtru aninnim mitior artguibus. SWt «"""-««^"^ 
tnt/rum «feiechu. Hor. JMte^/rocdw meniira Luc M w«'«»»«J?y««««.«^*7'{'Jl' 
To wblch we may undewtand the preposition »eo»iMl«mor ^mmI adj Uius Aimuuijj». 
secundum velqaod ad o$ humerosque. Mitior, aecundum vel quod ad anuKiMi. g- 
jAitiM, secundum vel quod ad vuitwn. Froefui, •ecundum *el quod ad membra, ^j^- 
M, secundum vel quod ad eomo* 

Ifotc 4. lo like manner, neuter and passive verbs are conrtrned with the «^Jfj'jJBi 
as, Hor. Et eorde et gtnibus tremit. IM. Lnevo hrachio whurtOnr. And Dj ue 
poets with the accusative ; «s H<»r. Trtmis oua pavore. Sil. Tmncatw ««tcf**^ 
hipenni. Virg. £x/}i«ri m«n(ein ne^utt ; i, e. tremi», secnndam vel qjod ad on» pa- 
vore ; f runcafur, secundum vel quod ad membra 6»pf nn», &,c. 

Note 5. When the latter suhstantive Is put in ihe ablative, some preposition, such' as 
4!um, de, ex, in, a, a6. with tns.existtns, nofiw, praedihu» a^u», or the like, » «inder- 
Stood; as. Homo antiquo virtute ; i- e ctu cum antx^a virtue. Vvr elaru nauaww , 
«. e. natus aeu ortut de vel ex. Homo inJirvKa valetHdme ; i. e. afeetut oft, fcc. 

* 13. An adjoctive in the neuter gender without a sub- 
stantive, governs the genitive 

The soldiers seem to move Miliits hue Undere videH- 

this wny 9 a great cleat of m1- itir, plurimum argenti 

ver glitters on their arms, fidg^^ *" <irw»«, quid 

what is the meaning? what causae f ifuidretest? 
is the matter ? 

Note 1 TbeMi adjectives are prenerally such as signify ^^^^^.^ .7^^*^SixS^ * 
vfurjmvm, tantMm>^uantum, mdiuta^ gumni*. w jl al««. id,.4ui^ **«♦ «•^»1 quiaq umm f 
lo which may be addnd. summum. ekremum, u/tinnan, dimidiMm, fit#<ta« ; «a, nonnwrn 
monti», txtrtmo annt^ ultimtm pericvJu dimidium animae^ medium noctu. To these may 
likewise be added a gi-eat many plural neater» j such as, Virg. AngvHmmarumt opm- 
ealocontm,UUuri$opeHa, Hor. ^mara curarum, cuncta «errorum, ««tfa i««». Liv. 
Jnoerta fortunae. ^ntiqua foedemm, exirema perioutontm. Tac. Oeculta so/fwmi, •«- 
onta/mnoev omoena ^siae. Just. ProfwKdacmmporum,praeruf(acotli»an,arduamou- 
tmrn, kc. And sometimes other siDguinr neuters ; as, Tac. Luhricwm jmentae, Virg. 
>Sub obacwrum noctis. Ex diverso eoeli^kc. • 

Ifote 3. The subsmntive underiitood to these neuter adjectives is ncgotium, («nint», 
locum [whence ^aj, spatinm, or th« like*, as, Ttintwn tellurii i sup. epatiwn. Voc 
noeti» i sup. tempore, or ad tempua, &c 

iVoleS. Pftuand fut'rl always govern the genitive } snd,on Uiat acouiit.are esteem- 
ed by many real substantives. 

Note 4. Opits and usm govern the ablative, and sometimes the genitive, of the thiog 
wantpd, together with the dative of the person, who wants, expressed or understood; 
fls, Olc. Jwtoritate tua noM» opus eat. Virg. iVunc viribuM usn» ; snp. est vohif. 
Quinct, Leelianis opw e$t. Liv. Si mo utus operae sit, Opu$ «legantly governs a 
participle In the aStative : And that either with a substantive t as, Piaut. Celeriler 
miki hoe komine anwento est opus. Or without a substantive ; as, Liv. Malurato opus 
est. Onus is likewise sometimes joined, by way of adjective, with a subst.intlve *, as, 
Cfc. Dux nobis et auctor opus est. Id. Dices nummos mshi opus esse. And in Plautus 
we find usus gnverptng a participle in the ablative, in the same manner as onus ; 
Bacch. ^iiid usus est conscriptis ad hunc witdun tabutis ? Amph. Ctf it|f, quod non 
fwAo est usus,Jiti fuam quod /ado est opus. And there is at least one example ofits 
l)eing joined by way of adjective to a substantive} Plaut. Rud. Hoc tuque isHusms 

1 1 . The power of honestjr Vis honestas sum tan- 
in 80 great» that we love it even tus, nt diligo u itiam in 
in an enemy* . hostis. 



Tour to rise now and then, 
which causes the earthquake, 
tfl old poets affirm» 

Pompey triumphed on account 
fif the Mithridatic war : no 
pomp of a triumph was ever like 
it : the boh of Mitbridates, the 
son of Tigranes, and Aristobulus 
king of the Jews, were led be- 
fore his chariot. 

The Athenians, that they 
migbl not be reduced to their 
former conclition of slavery, 
draw together an army, and 
order it to be led by Ipfaicrates. 
The conduct of this youth was 
wonderful ; nor had the Athe- 
nians ever before him, among 
so many and so great generals, 
a commander either of greater 
hopes, or of a riper genius. 

After they had pitched their 
camp,, they receive an account 
of an old story, that Cyrene, a 
lady of excellent beauty, car- 
ried awry by Apollo from Pe- 
lion, a mountain in 1 hessaly, 
had been got with child by the 
god, and had brought forth four 
boys ; and that'Aristaeus, one 
of them, Had first taught the 
use of bees and honey, and of 
milk for cards. 

Courage ^ was the .cause of 
the victory ; wherefore such 
was the slaughter of the enemy, 
thst the victorious Romans did 
not drink more water than 
blood of the barbarians out of 
the bloody river. 

'At last Corinth, the head of 
Achaia, the glory of Greece, 
being deserted by the inhabit- 

^tfi f^io terra mo* 
iuSf nt vettti poeia ojffirmo^ 

Pompeius triumpho de 
Milhriddticus helium: nul- 
lu$ pompa triumphus «n- 
quatn $um simihs : filius 
MithridateSf filius Ti- 
granesy tt Ar%$iobtdus r$x 
JudcLBUit ductui sum ante 
is currus. 

AtheniensiSf ne redigo 
in pristinus sors servitus^ 
contrdko exercitus, jvheo* 
que is ducoper Ipkicrates^ 
Firtus hie adolescens sum 
admirabilis ; nee ^thenien" 
sis hubeo unquam ante tV, 
inter tot tantusque dux, 
imperator aut magnus 
speSf aut maturm indoles. 

Cum pono castra, acct- 
pio opinio vetus fabulay 
Cyrene^ virgo eximius pul- 
chritudoy raptus ab Apollo 
a Pelion, mons lliessaliu, 
repleo a deus^ et pario 
quatuorpuer; et Arisiaeus^ 
unus ex hicj primus trado 
usus apis et m«/, et lac ad 

Virtus sum tausa vie- 
toria ; itaque is sum cae- 
des hostis^ ut victor Ro' 
mantis non bibo plus aqua 
quam sanguis barbarus de 
crutn tus fli^men. 

Tandem Corinthus^ ca- 
put Achaiat decus Urae» 
cia^ desertus ab ineoloy 




ants, was first plnndereit, and 
then destroyed ; but what ^» 
toes, what clothes, and wnat 
pictures^ were seized, bamt, 
and thrown about I 

When the old men perceived 
the approach of the enemy, 
they met them in the very en- 
trance of the gates ; and a hun- 
dred men of an age quite worn 
out fought against fifteen thou- 
sand : so much courage and 
strength does the sight of one's 
country and home inspire. 

The first inhabitants of Italy 
were the Aborigines, whose 
king, Saturn, is said to have 
been a man of so much justice, 
that neither was any one a slave 
ninder him, nor had any [thing 
of] private property, but all 
things were common and undi- 

Numantia, the glory of Spain, 
a town without walls, without 
towers, held out against an ar- 
my of forty thousand, for four- 
teen years ; nor did it hold out 
only, but often mauled them ; 
and before it could be taken, 
there was occasion for him who 
had destroyed Carthage. 

f ftifMffn sym dirtptuif 
deindt delitus ; led quid 
stgnutn, quid vesfu, ^liuU 
que taMa raptus^ ine$n* 
sua^ atque projtcius mm/ 
Cum sentx prae$tnH(k 
advenius ho$ti8^ occurro in 
{p9e angtutiae porta ; Mt 
centum vir foetus Oitai 
pugno adver$U8 qmndecim 
mule; tantum animw vi" 
resque conspectus patria 
penatesqut subministro» 

Primus cultor Italia 
eum Aborigines^ qui rtx 
Saiumus trado sum tantus 
justitia, ut neqtie quisquam 
seroio suk ille^ neque ha» 
beo qufcquam privatus reSf 
sed OTMiis sum communis 
et indivtsus, 

JViimofitta, decus HiS' 
pania^ oppidum sine mi«- 
rusj sine turris^ sustineo 
exereitus quadraginta mil» 
le, per quatuordecim an^ 
nus ; nee sustineo modo^ 
sed saepius percello ; et 
priusquam capio possum^ 
opus sum is qui everto 

There is but one God, the «utbor, tbe cremtor. the gOTercor of the world ; almiglal/ 
eternal, and anehaneeable. Wonderful he is in all Ida wavs : bU counsels are ua- 
searcbable, his coodneas is conspicuous In all bis works: he is tbe fountain of ex- 
cellence, the centre of perfection : tbe ereaturet of hli baud declure bis goodness, all 
their enjoyments speak Us praise. 

Tbafet was reckoned amongst tbe wise men, because he was believed- to be the 
first that brought geomeury into Qrcece. He first f^erred tbe motions of the sua 
and slors, the origin of winds, and the nature of thunder. Being asked what be 
thought the most difflcult thing in the world f be answered. To know one's self. 

Sir William Wallace was a man of an aindent family, but of a small fortune. Be 

E»rformed many glorious exploits in tbe war against tbe English. Many, whom Iba 
ve of their ooontiy had called twether, flocked to Wallace from, all ports. Re 
quickly took ibe castles which the fioglish possessed beyond tbe Forth. Tbe Fortii 
is a river and arm ef tbe sea, which divides Lothian from Fife. Tbe south of the 
Forth is called the Scottish sea. He led his army into England, where be found nuicN 
gold and sliver among tbe spoils of his enemlei. What need bad he of more f 


1 _ .TTl — -T— 


§ 2. Of Adjecii?es« 

* 14. Verbal adjectires, and such as signify an affection 
of the mind, require the genitive. 

This man is capable of friend- Hie vir eU capax amid' 
ship, a lover of his coontrj) tiaey amans patriae^ cu- 
fond of learning, skilled in pidu$ literarum^ piritw 
war, not ignorant oi religion, btlli^ hand ignarw re- 
and privj to all my designs. ligionis, et conscius om' 

nium meorum consiUo* 

To this rale belong, 

1. VERBALS in AX, and PARTICIPALS in NS '; as, 
capax y edaxyfugaxj ptriinaxy pervicar^ rapax^ $agax, sper- 
fiaXftenaXy vorax^ iic* amans f appetens, cupiens, experiens, 
inUUigenSy insoUnSj negligtnSy diligensy metuenSy observans, 
patient^ impatienSf retinens, reverentior, sciensy servantisBi^ 
mu^, timenSy tolerant ^fugiera^iititns^ &c« 

II. ADJECTIVES signifying an affection of the mind ; 
such as, 

X. DESIRE and DISDAIN ; a«, cuptdus, avarus^avtdus^ 
studiosusy curiosuSy aemuluSyfaslidiosuSy incuriosus, profusuSy 

2. KNOWLEDGE ; as, ptritusy gnaniSy prvdensy calli- 
dus^ providusy dociuSy docilisy praesctusy praesagusy certus, 
certior^ memor^ expertus, consultuSy assuetus^ &c. 

3. IGNORANCE ; a?, ignarus^ rudisy imperiiuSy imprU" 
densy improvidusy nesciua^ insciu$y incertus, dubius, anxtusy 
seliciiuSf immemory ambiguusy suspensusy indocius, inexpev- 
tuSyformidolosus, pavidus^ timidusy trepidus; also, imuctusy 
intolitus. iecuriis, intrepidus, interriius^ impdviduSy &c. 

4. GUiLT ; as, conscius, convictus^ manifesiWy suspecius, 
reuSy noxiusy comperius ; also, innoxiuSy innocenSy insons, 

iVofe 1. Verbals or Terbal aiijectives are adjectire novns derived from verbs ; as, 
eapax from capto, tdax fron» <d«, &c. Partlciplalt are participles tarned iota adjec- 
tive DOUDS ; sudi as, patieM, inmatiens ; doctus» indoetvt j eapertvx, ivMxptrtvMf fee. 
Here observe that the participial and ^rticiple, tbnugb tbe word be often the aame, 
dtffi»r In signification, as well as in point of consftrttctian ; Che participle signifies a 
•ingle act at a certain time ; but the participial, withnut regard to any particular 
tlmi*. denotes a habit. Thus, pntitns frigm signifies a person Jast now exposed to 
tbe coU1,bowever unfit be may he to beer ii; but j»itften«yrfgoru, denotes one wbom 
nature or custom has enabled uf fitted to bear cold with ease. Again, dottu* gramma- 
fttMRN signifies a penen wbo some time agoiias been tatight grammar} tboogb ^rbaps 


lieserer understood it. or bu now forgot it; but d»€tu grammaikat denotAooe 
who by loDff study bus attained • thorougrh koowledge in frammar, or it become n 
oonnoissettr in fu Again, participiais admit (lie degrees of comparison, which parti- 
ciples do not } thus, omans, omaaKor, amaniiitimiu ; daeluf» decttor, d«etin<mit«* 

Note 2. To this rule may be referred a great variety of other adjectives, tlie mom 
commoo of which occur in the following phrases: ' Abjectior anlmi, absteinius viol, 

* «cer miiitiae. illustrinm domuum adversa, aerer anlml, aequales aevi, aequus ab- 

* sentlum, iilarum reruin aflSnes^ alienum dignitatis, aitemos animae, amens animf, 
' anhelus Uboris, ardent» aoinii, atrez odti, aiuiaa ingenii. aversus nnimi, bibulus Fa- 

* leroi, blaadus precum^ caecus animl, captos animi, eatus leguni, cooiniune omnium, 

* canfiJeosanlml, coolfiraiatas animi, confusus animi, conterminos Jugi, contraria vir- 
' tutum, credulus adversi, degeoer virtntis, devius aeooit disertos leporuni, dispar sor- 

* tis, diisimitis (ui, diversus tnorum, divinaavis imbrluni, dorus oris, effusis&imu^ ma- 
' nificeoUae, egregius animi, euuncinttvus corporum, erectus animi, exactusuiorum, 

* exi^uus animi, ezimius animi, exosa vitae, externatns animi, facilis frugum, fallaz 
' «miciUae,falsu8 animi. feiix cerebri, ferox animi, fervidus ingenii, fessiis reniro, fe|i- 

* t'mus voti, fidens animi, fidissima tui, finitimus duvii, flavus oonMrum, floridlor aevi, 

victus laboris, lapsus animi« lassus maris, lentus coepti. levis opum, madldua roris, 

* maturus iaudum, maximus aevi. medius eoeli, mimr animi. moderatoi irae, routabile 

* mentis, mutatus animi, nobilis fandl, notos fuganim, obnoxius timoris, occultus odll, ' 

* optimas miiitiae, oriundus cvjus patriae, ornatus fidei,otiosi studiomm, pares aetatts, 

* perfida pacti, perielitabundus sui, perinfames malefiene disciplinae, piger pericli, 
' praeilarus fidei, praeceps animi, praecipuus virmUs, praestans belii, pravus tavoria, 

* primus iaendae poenae, properus occasionis, propriae Dcorum voli^itates, procax 

* otii, pmfagus regni, promptus t>elii, puicfaerrimus irae, recteatus animi, rectus Jn- 

* dicii, resides b lloram, sanus mentis, saucius famae, sdtus vadorum, secors rerumi 

* aecreta teporis, 8e|^isoccasionum, seri suidiorum,slccl sanguinis eases, signiiiciktivua 

* belli cometes. simUis tui, sinister fidel, solers lyrae, spemendus morana, spreta vi- 
^ goris. stabilis sui nrbis, strenuus miiitiae, stnpens aniait, summus severitatis, superior 
'sui, superstes beiIorum,sunlus veritatis, tantus animi, tardus fugae, teneila animi, 
' territus animi, turhatus animi, turbidus animi, vafer juris, vagus animi, validus opum, 
' vanus veri, vecors animi, venerandus sceptri, versus animi, versutus ingenii, vetus 
' rejgaandi, victus animi, vigil armenti, viridissimus irae, uuius rerum.* 

Nole S. Of the adjectives belonging to this rule, aemtc/iit, oerftu, ineerhu, dvfrws, 
ambigutu, oorueiiUi manifestuSf 'nupeceus, noanitf, eomperttUf Instead of the genitive, 
take frequently the dative, but generally in a different s(>nBe,as will be taught in Xfo. 
16. Several also of the adjectives In note 2., such as, tttherstUt aevuaUsj t^AUyolie- 
niM, blandus, conmxmia, centsrmmiM, oaafrariia, crednlutj dispary dissmiiis,fiiuSf fini- 
tifnus,par,propriu$.aimUia, mpvrstes, and. some others, take oflener the dative than 
the genitive, as will likewise be taught in No. 16. And luperiort captvu, erwndut, 
gauaensf take commonly the ablative, as taught in Vo. 19. SO. 62» 

Note 4. Ufaoy of the adjectives lielongln^ to this rule, admit of other constructions', 
_j, Gic De alieno negtieent. Id. Avums in pecuniis. Id. CtrtUtrJachu de re. Liv. 
Sseurm debelto. Cic. fftdlain re rudi». Id. Doctu» Latinis Uteris. Plin. Sunetta 

incestti. Cic Rene de vi. Reus nuupus criminibus. Colum. Innamus a& injuria. Many 
also of those enumerated in note §. either take the ablative, mr admit ofsome other 
construction } as. Ovid. Felix mortesua. Cic. Ferox natura. Id. praettans ingenu> 
etdoetrina. Tac. Devius contUOa. Ovid. Fugitivus a domino. C\c. Profun oh 
TAe6w. Tac. Degener ad perieula. And aliewui has very frequently the imiatlve, 
with a or «6; as,Ter. Homo mm; Aumontm'Aif ame aiienumputo. 

IfoteS. The genitive, according to Grammariaos, Is not governed by these adjec- 
tives, but by in re, in negotio, in eau9a, or the like, understood } except in eases 
where the adjective is used sutwtantively. 

L Blasias was a mao capable Blasius sum vir capax 

of profoand tbonght, firm io bis alius mens^ tenax proposi- 

I'esolatioDy despising death, and turn, spemax mors, etfu- 

avoiding ambittoo ; be was a gax atnhitio ; sum sagax 

qQick discerner of things, and res, et pertinax rectum * 



a Bidder for «hat was right ; 
but he was obstioate in wratb^ 
and a devoarer of much meat* 

The Emperor's freed man 
was a mao able to endure cold, 
and capable of bearing want ; 
but he was afraid of the lash, 
and 04»acquaiDted with war : be 
was skilled in music, fond of 
pleasure, and a lover of wine : 
naj, he was greedy of praise, 
covetous of applause, but equal- 
ly neglectful of friends and ene- 
mies. He was, however, most 
observant of justice, and nobo- 
dy was inore revereful of tliie 

IL 1. The man, whom I 
mentioned above, was of a fickle 
temper ; at first he was desi^ 
reus of war, greedy of military 

flory, and weary of learning ; 
ut aiter Cartha^^e, that vied 
with the city of Rome (br so 
many years, was destroyed, he 
was food of peace, addicted to 
eloquence, and much taken up 
with physic. 

2. Our general is skilled in 
many things, being expert at 
arms, well seen in the art mili- 
tary, versed in war, foreseeing 
what is to come, aware of 
things future, well assured of 
what will happen, bat nndaunt* 
ed at danger, and not afraid of 
death : bis son is^well acquaint 
with learning, but apt to learn 
vice ; he is skilled in the law, 
rersed in country affairs, and 
mindful of a good turn. 

3. This man is void of learn- 
ing, ignorant of philosophy, uo- 
aktlied at armsi unacqosdnt with 

i€d mm pervicax tra, ei 
edax fMtltus ct6«t. 

ImpBrator liber tm iwn 
homo patient algor^ tt 
tolerant penuria ; eedswn 
tnetuem fldgeltumf et tV 
so/ens helium : ewn eeicns 
mwica^ cuviene voluptas^ 
et amans vtntun : imo turn 
appetene lausj ntiens fa^ 
m»^ ted aeq%te negligens 
amicvs inimicuique. Sum 
tamen seroantinimue oe- 
quuftkfOt nemo sum rsoe- 
rettHor deus, 

Fir^ gut memoro supra, 
sum mobilis & ingenium ; 
primo sum avidu» beUum^ 
avarus miliiaris gloria ^ et 
fasHdiosu» Hterae ; sed 
poetquam Carthago^ aemu» 
lu$ urbs Roma per tot an-- 
niif , evertOf mem cufddus 
paXf studiosus eloqumtia^ 
et curiosus medicina. 

Ifoiter dux sum peritus 
multus reSf gnarus arma, 
prudent res militarise ex- 
periHS helium^ praeseius 
venturUin^ providut res 
faturus^ certut futurum, 
7>erum intrepidus pericu'^ 
lum^ et interritus letum : 
isJUius sum doetus Hterae j 
sed docihs pruvnm ; sum 
constdlu» jute call id us res 
rutticus^ et memor henep,' 

Hie homo sum mdis It* 
terae^ ignartts pbilosophia^ 
inscius orma, imperitue 



the world, not afraid of the 
gods, adhccostomed to hard- 
ship, not used to slavery, fear- 
less of death, unmindful of his 
condition, and regardless of re- 
putation. His wife, ignorant 
of her extraction, is unstaid in 
her mind, wavering in her re* 
solution, concerned and in pain 
for hei^ affairs, and perplexed 
about the theft. 

4. The orator defended two 
men accused of parridde, and 
suspected of capital crimes : 
the one had been privy to mur- 
der, and concerned in a con- 
spiracy, who, being evidently 
guilty of the villainy, and con- 
Ticted of the crime, was con- 
<lemned : the other, being 
guHtless [wakeless] of the facts, 
not concerned in the plot en- 
tered into against the king's 
life, innocent of his brother's 
blood, and found guilty of no 
crime, was acquitted. 

IF Shame and modesty are 
weak restraints amongst men 
thirsting after power, and re- 
gardless of honour : according- 
ly Domitian proceeded to huge 
excesses of lust, rage, cruelty, 
s^nd avarice, and raised so great 
a hatred against himself, that 
he quite wiped off the merits, 
of Ins father and brother» 

Catiline, a man of a very no- 
ble, extraction, but of a very 
wicked disposition, with some 
famous indeed, but daring men, 
conspired against his country ; 
his accomplices being seized 
were strangled in prison ; and, 


reSf haud timiduf deuB^ in- 
suetua labor^ iusolitU9 ser« 
vtiiumt impavidus mon^ 
immemor sors^ et $ecuru$ 
fama, I» uxotf neuim 
genuBy sum incertus ant* 
mut, duhius consiliumy so- 
licitus et trepidus ressuus, 
et anxius furtum* 

Orator defendo duo ko- 
mo reus parrtddiumf et 
suspectus capitaliscrimen; 
alter sum conscius caedes^ 
et noxius cor^juratio^ qui 
manifestus scelus^ et con* 
victusf acinus y condemno : 
alter ^ innocens factum ^ in" 
noxius consilium initus in 
rex caput, insons frater^ 
nus sanguis^ et conyftrtus 
nullusfiagitium , ahsolvo , 

Pudor et modestia sum 
infirmus vinculum apud 
homo avidus polentia^ et 
securus decus : itaque Do- 
mitianus progredior ad 
ingens vitium libido, irO" 
cundia, crudelitasy et ava» 
ritioy et concitotantus odi- 
um in suty ut penitus abo" 
ho meritum pater et fra* 

Catilmay vir nobilis 6 
genus y sed pravus 6 tnge- 
nium, cum quidam elarus 
quidem^ sed audax vir; 
conjuro adversus patria ; 
issocius deprehenswstran" 
gulo in career; et sane 



iodeed, what could be hard, 
or too severe, a^ost men coo- 
ricted of such villaioy ? 

Vespasian, the emperor, was 
apt not to remember offences 
and quarrels ; he took patient- 
ly the ill language uttered 
against him by the lawyers and 
philosophers: and Galba was 
a man not regardless of fame, 
not covetous of other men*s 
money, but greedy of the pub- 
lic money, and not lavish of his 
own ; could bear with his 
friends and freed men*; was 
capable of empire, had he not 

Cineas, who was Demos- 
thenes* scholar, and skilled in 
the Latin tongue, was sent to 
Rome by Pyrrhus, to ad- 
vise* jhe Romans to sue for 
peace ; but the Romans after- 
wards despatched generals in- 
to Greece and other quarters, 
who taught the nations, till that 
time free, and therefore unable 
to bear the yoke, to beg peace 
of them, and be subject. 

Sylla was fond of pleasure, 
but fonder of glory : he has- 
tened with his victorious army 
from Asia : and, indeed, since 
Mariua had been so cruel 
against his friends, how great 
severity was there occasion 
for, that Sylla might be reveng- 
ed of Marins ? 

qui$ po9Swn ium acerbus 
aut nimis gravis in homo 
convietus tantut facinui 7 
FespasianuSf prineeps, 
sum tmmemor qfftnsa tt 
initnicitia ; Itnittr fero 
conviciutn dieius in sui a 
causidieus tt philosopkns ; 
et Galba sum vir non tn- 
curiosusfamOf non appe^ 
tens alienus pecunioj sed 
avarus pecunia publieus^ 
et non prof usus suus ; pa' 
tietis amicus libertusque ; 
capax imperiuiny nisi tm- 

CineaSf qui sum DemoS' 
tkenes discipulus^ et doc- 
tus Ladnus lingua ^ miUo 
ad Roma a Pyrrhvs; ut 
hortor Romanus petopax ; 
sed Romanus posiea mitto 
dux tn Chraecia aliusque 
parSf qui doceo gens^ ad 
id tempus liber^ et ideo 
impatiens jugum^ peto pax 
a sui, et servio, 

Sylla sum cupidus vo- 
luptas, sed cupidus glo- 
ria : propero cum victor 
exercitus ab Jltia : et scute 
quum Marius sum tamfe- 
rus in is amicus, quantus 
saevitia opus sum, ut Syl^ 
la vindico de Marius ? 

AgetUau wu an eicellAnt geMral, usdavoted at danger, able ta endure wast, and 
accuftonied to bardibip : he waf a man of low stature, and ilender body ; lo diat 
ilfangen. when tber beheld his person, despised him ; but they who knew his «bUi- 
ties, coaU not sufficteatly admire him. 

fipamlttondas, the son of Polymnus, the ThriNm, was modest, prudent, skilled in 
war, a l«ver of truth, and of a great spirit. 

^jrctfaene is laid to ha?» committed some horrible wickedneu, for wbieh she waa 
cntafta mto aai owl, an ugly dismal bird, who, consdoos of her guMt, nerer ajvpcstra 


wben the sua tbines. bist. being «Mrea froB tbe wctetyof bifdi, Mtbi to «nkmI ber 
staame In tbe darfcaeu ofibe nigbc* 


^ 15. Partitivbs» andtvords placed partitlvely, compa* 
ratiTes, superlatives, ioterrogatives, aod some numerals^ 
govern tbe genitive plural. 

None of the wild beasts. Nulla htllnarum. 

The black amoug the vul- Nigri vulturum. 


The elder of the brothers. Senior fratrum. 

The most learned of the Rd* Doctisshnus Romanorum. 

mans. * 

Which of us ? Q«w nottrum ? 

One of the muses. Una mtisanifn. 

Th$ eighth of tbe wise men. Octavi» $apientum, 

1. Partitives sre adjective nouns, or pronouns, signify- 
ing many, or a part of many, sever^lly^ and as it were one 
by one ; as, tUlus^ nullua^ solus, uter, uterque, utercunque^ 
utervisy uterlibet^ alter^ (Uteruterf neuter^ aliuSy aliquisy qui- 
dam, quispiam, quisquiSf quisque, unusquisque, aliquot^ cae* 
^ra, re/i9tit«5 ; to .which add, omnisy cunc^tis, and the sub- 
stantive nemo. 

2. Words placed partitively are adjectives used in*a par- 
titive sense, or taken to signify a part of many ; as, lecti 
juvenum^ the choice of the young men ; nigrae lanarum, 
the black hair among wool ; degeneres canum^ sancti deo- 
rumy &c. to which may be added the substantive vtdgus ; 
as, vvlgus Atheniensiumj vulgus militum: 

3. Comparatives are adjectivet* of the comparative de- 
gree ; as, doctior. 

4. Superlatives are adjectires of the superlative degree ; 
- as, doetissimus. 

5. Jnterrogatives are adjective nouns or pronouns, by 
which we ask a question ; those belonging to this rule are, 
quis, quisnam^ quisque^ uter^ quot, quotus^ quotusquisque. 

6. Numerals are adjectives signifying number ; and to 
this rule belong both the cardincds^ such as, unus, cfiio, tres, 
&c* and tbe ordinalsy such as, prim/us^ secundus^ tertius^ 
&c. as alto the distribuiivey singuli ; io which add, nmlti, 
paueit pleriquBf medius, ^ 



Ifote 1. Tli« partitive, <^. takes tb« gender of the «abftaatWe it governs, 
there ii no other ; bat if there are two subitantivee of dUTi^ui genden. it ^tntrmuj 
agree! with the fir»t } as, Oic- Indus maxinaujivminam. Id. Zee /oreimmut am- 
maliwn. But not always ; as, Plin. Ddphinua vtloei$nmum omnium animalium. 

Note 3. Farlitiveii, ke. govern the genitive singular of «^olieclives ; as, Cie. Proc- 
timnHtrimu» nottrat ehitatU. Vlrg. ffymphamm tanguinu unm. 

Uott 3. The comparative, as also the partitives, «fer, o/Cer, netcfer, when ^ey 
govern a genitive of pRrtitieo, import a con^rison betwixt two only ; thus, speaster 
of two brothers, or two persons, we say, major ./racrum. uUr vttimm t But speaking 
of three or more, we say. maximuafratTum^ qw vettmm f be, 

Nott 4. Instead of the genitive of partition, we tften find the ablative with de, e, ex, 
or «n, and sometimes the nccusative with inter, or uMt / as, Ovid. De tot modcff- 
(n&iuttniM. Cic UmueSioici^- Id. Aeerrimus es omnibus no$tri$ wnvhus tit tentw 
videndu Senec. Croesus inter reges opulentissimus, Liv. Z^ge ante o/tos aoeepttf- 
simus mititum animis, 

Noto 5. After partidves, &c we use tlM gei^tives nostrum and vestrum» bat act 
fiottrt or vestri. 

Note 6. In this construction of partitives, lie. de, c, vel ex nnmero, is understood, or 
sometimes expressed ; as, Juv. ^aedam de nidnero Lamiarum. V. Max. UnxtMs 
nvmero Persarum. Cars. E» numero udversariurum sexcentis inl»:feelis. 

1. Augustas, after the civil 
warg, neither in his haraoguea 
nor in his edicts, called any of 
the military fellow-soldiers. 

Alexander engaged with none 
of his enemies whom he did not 
conquer, and laid siege to no 
town which he did not take. 

Spain was irftaded by the 
Romans before it knew itself, 
and alone of all the provinces 
understood its own strength 
after it was subdued. 

Who will wonder that the 
enemy gave way, wheq one of 
the consuls' ordered his own 
ton, though victorious! to be 
slain, because )\q had fought 
contrary to orders ? 

What every one of your 
friends may have written to 
the general concerning these 
two men, 1 know not ; but nei- 
ther of them is much to be 
blamed ; the rest of the sol- 
diers were also in the fault, 
and none of us is innocent. 

^ugusiuSy post civilis 
helium^ neque in concio 
neque per edictum^ ap- 
pello ullus miles commit 

Alexander congredior 
cum nullus hostis qui non 
vincoj et ohsideo nulltis 
urbs qui non expugno» 

Hispania ohsideo a Ro- 
manus antequam cognosce 
sui, et solus omnis provin^ 
da intelligo snus vires 
postqtiam vinco, 

Quis miror hostis cedOy 
quum alter consul jubeo 
suusfilius^ quamvis victor^ 
occido^ quia*pugno contra 
imperium ? 

(^uis quisque tuus neces- 
sarins scribo ad ijnperator 
de hie duo mV, nescio ; sed. 
neuter is sum valde repre- 
hendendus ; reliquus miles 
sum etiam in culpa^ etne- 
mo ego sum innocum» ,. 



This man eDtertdnfta ttraag- 
er more handiomely than ei- 
ther of yoa, or aoy of your 
friends : Corae^ saje he, here 
are eggs, hens, apples, and 
nuts ; some of the apples are 
mellow ; of the eggs, some 
are^ long, some round ; choose 
either of Ihem you please, for 
both of them are good. 
"* 2. The centurion being sur- 
rounded by the eoemy, was in 
great danger ; but the chief of 
his friends, the choice of the 
yovng men^ and the light-armed 
(^ the soldiers, came running 
up to his relief. 

3. ft 4. The younger of the 
bcfes go abroad to ti^ir worii, 
the more elderly labour within. 
Thtts the most ancient of mor- 
tals practised industry ; they 
lived wtthou-t a crime, and 
tiierefore without puoishmeot, 
nor was there need of rewards. 

5. &6, Who of mortals can 
endure regal pride ? Where- 
fore, Tarquin, the seventh and 
last of the Roman kings, was 
driven into banishment, and 
searce two or three of his well- 
wishers were led in the city. 

All Gaul 19 .divided into three 
parts, whereo(the Belgae inha- 
bit one, the Aqnitani another, 
the Gauls, the third. Of all 
these the Belgae are the brav- 
est. What numbers of men 
have flourished there ? 

IT After Sylla came over to 
Africa, and to the camp of Ma» 
rius with the horse, though raw 
before, and unacquainted with 
war, he soon became the most 

Bic vir e»eipii» k0$f4s 
eUgatUer quam utervU tUt 
aui quisquam amicu$ ix«- 
Ur : J^U^ tfiouam, hie 
sum ovwfn^ gaXlxna^ po- 
mum, et nux ; quidam pO' 
mum ma mitis; ovum ctli» 
UB sum obtbnguSi alius r<h 
iundw ; eligo uterlibel Aur, 
nam uterque is sum bonus. 

CefUurio circumventus 
ah hostiSf versor in mag- 
nus periculum ; sed prae- 
cipuus amicus^ lecius JU" 
venis^tt txpeditus iMeSy 
concurro in auxUium, 

Adolesesntior apis txso 
ad op«S| senior operor in- 
tus. ha 'Bitustissimus 
morktiis exercto diligent 
iia ; ago nn« sceius^ to- 
que sirte poena, nee hpus 

Quts mortalis possum 
tolero regalis- supsrhia ? 
Itaque Tarquimus sepit' 
mus aique ultimus Roma- 
nits rex, ago in exi7twm, 
et vix duo aut tres faut^r 
relinqwo m urhs, 

Omnis Geliia sum di' 
visus in tres pars, qui 
Belgae ineohunus, Aqui' 
tani alius, Qalli tertius. 
Hie omnis Belgae sumfoV" 
tissimus. QtLot homo ibi 
provenio ? 

Postquam Sylla venio in 
Africa, atque in castra 
Marius cum equitatus^ 
quamvis rudis antea^ et 
ignarus Mhan^ bravisfio 



accomplished of s|ll« But what 
one of a thonsaod [of] great 
gCDarals is happy ? 

The tyraDts are conquered, 
and fly back to the cit}'. Af- 
ter this, tbey begged assistance 
of the Lacedemonians. The 
war is renewed, five hundred 
of the Lacedemonians are slain 
in battle, Critias and Hippolo- 
chus, the most cruel of all the 
tyrants, tall. But who amongst 
men, or which of the gods, be- 
wailed their death ? 

Many of the soldiers were 
kissing the bands and feet of 
Otho, and calling him the only 
emperor ; whilst, in the mean 
time, Vitellius, ignorant of the 
victory, was drawing together 
the remaining strength of the 
German army ; most of the sol« 
diers were on their march, a 
few only of the veterans were 
lefl in the winter-quarters. 

Of Caesar's men, not above 
twenty wi^re missing : but in 
the castle there were none of 
the soldiers but were wound- 
ed ; four of the centurions lost 
their eyes ; thirty thousand 
arrows were shot into the cas- 
tle by the enemy ; and in the 
shield of Scaeva, the centu- 
rion, were found two hundred 
and thirty holes. 

Sicily, at the beginning, was 
the country of the Cyclops : 
after they were extirpated, Co- 
calus seized the government of 
the island : after whom each 
of the cities fell under the pow- 
er of tyrants. 

Caesar, the most penetrating, 

BoUrtisnnms omnit. Sect 
quotusquisque magnus dux 
aumfeltx ? 

Tyrannus vinco^ et in 
urbs refugio. Post hie 
peto auxilium a Laccdae^ 
f nonius, Bellum redinte- 
groy quingenti Lacedae- 
inonius inUrficio in prckC' 
Humy Critias et Hippolo- 
chus, omnis tyrannus sue» 
tissimus^ cado, Sed quiS' 
nam homo^ quisve deus, 
lugeo mors ? 

Multu» miles exosculor 
manus ac pes Otho^ unt- 
cusque imperator prae^ 
dico ; dum, interim, Ft- 
teltius^ nesdus victoria f 
traho reliquus vires Ger- 
manicus exercttus ; pleri- 
que miles sum in iter, paw 
ci tantum veteranus reHn- 
quo in kibema, 

Caesar miles non am- 
plius viginti sum deside- 
ratus : sed in castellum 
nemo miles omnino sum 
quin vulnero ; quatuor 
cent r/ no a m ii to oculm ; 
triginta mille sagitta con- 
jicio in castellum ab hoS" 
tis ; et in ^scutum Scaeva 
centurio invenio ccxxx fo- 

Sicilia a principium 
sumpatria Cyclops ; posit' 
quam ille extinguo^ Co- 
calus occupo regnum in- 
sula : post qui singuli ci» 
vitas concedo in impertum 

Caesar y sagacissimus oc 

^> — w^ 



and wiseit of generals, resolves 
to take Damnorix aloag with 
him into Britain, becaose he 
knew him to be desirous of 
change, fond of power, of a 
great spirit, and of great an- 
thority among the Gaols ; 
thongh he persisted to iotreat 
that he might be left in Gaul. 

Gordins spied a yoang lady 
of excellent beanty at the gate 
of the city, and asked her which 
of the aagars he should con- 
sult ? When she understood 
the occasion of his question, 
beiog skilled in the art, she 
told him that he should be a 
king, and promises that she 
would be the companion of his 
life and hopes. This offer 
seemed the chief happiness of. 
• a kingdom. 

sapieniistimuB dvop, com- 
stttuo duco Dtimnorix atit- 
cum in Britannia ^ quod 
cognosce is cupidut re$ 
navus, avidus imperium^ 
magnus animus^ et mag» 
nus auctoriias inter Gal- 
lus; quamvis ilU cotUendo 
p$to^ uti in Oallia relin- 

Gordius conspicor vtr- 
go eximius pulchriiudo ad 
porta urbs^ et percontor 
quis augur consulo ? Cum 
intelligo causa quaestio^ 
peritus ars^ respondeo ille 
sum rex, et polliceor sui 
fore socius mta is et spes* 
Hie conditio videor pri' 
musfelicitas regnum. 

Fylniles and Oirstes cherished a mubtal love, and no mortal knowf which of them 
was the roore faithful. 

The priestess of Apo]!n, being ashed why Jnpiter was esteemed the chief of the 
Oodt, since Mars was the best soldier, made this aaswer : Man Is Tallaot, bat Jupiter 
is wise. 

The nation of the Smvi is the most warlUke of all the Germans. The natore of 
thpir food, their daily exercise, and free manner of life, Improve their strength, anl 
inalce them men of liuge stature of tx>dy. 

When Faith, Temperance, the Graces, and oth(>r celestial powers, left the earth, 
(says one of the nncients,) Hnpe was the only gfoddess thai staid behind. 

The first of all virtues is innocence, the next is modesty* If we banish modesty 
out of the world, she carries away with her half the virtue that Is in It. 


16. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit govern the 

Kind to me« 

Agreeable to the people. 
Sentenced to punishment* 
Evident to all. 
Bordering on the sea. 

Benignris mihi, 
Acceptus plebi, 
AddictHS supplicio. 
Apertum omnibus, 
Finitimus mari. 


Fit <br«tady. Jhtiui ttaAo. 

Fnwk to petttioBeti. Faeilu roganiibus. 

Of th€ same ftge with Cicero* AeqwUis Otceront. 

Like bis Attbcr. SimUiB pairi. 

Allied to heaven. Cogruntus ceelo. 

Exposed to danger* (Xftioxius periculo» 

To this rale beloog chiefly adjectives sigQifjiDg, 

1. PROFIT or DISPROFIT ; as, bwignus, honus^ uti- 
lis, eommoduStfelixyfauUiiSf fructttostu, prosper, saluber ; 
also, ealamU^iuSf inutiliSydamnosuSf diruSf exitiosuSifimeS'- 
tUB^incammoibiSt malmt^noxius^pemicioiust ptstifer, 

2. PLEASURE or PAIN ; as» acctptus, duleis, gratua, 
gratiosui^jucundus, laetuM^ maviM ; also, actrbusy afnariw, 
insuavU^ it^ucundvs^ tngrattu, molestuSf tristis. 

3. LOVE or HATRED ; as» addictus, aequus, ctmtei», 
benevolu$9 blandus, caruSf dtdiius, Jidus^Jiddit^ltnis, miiis, 
propitius ; also, adotrms^ asper, cruddis^ eontrarius, infenr 
suSy infestWy infidus, imrnitU, inirmcw, iniquuSf invisus, «n- 
vidus, iratuM^ odiosus, suspectuSf tn*x. 

4. PERSPICUITY or OBSCURITY ; as, apertus, cer- 
tu9f compertus, conspicuus^ manifestusy notus, perspicuus ; 
also, ambiguus, dubius, ignoius^ incertus, obscurus. 

6. PROPINQUITY ; as, finititnus, propior, praximus, 
propifumus, soems, vicinui^ affinis, 

6. FITNESS or UNFITNESS ; as, aptus, appositus, ac- 
cammodatuSi habilu, tdoneus, opportunus ; also, intptus, 
inhabili», importunus, inconveniens, 

7. EASINESS or DIFFICULTY ; M.facUis, levis, ob- 
vitUfpervius; also, difficUisj arduuSy grams ^ laboriosw, pert' 
eulosuSf invius, 

8. EQUALITY or INEQUALITY ; as, aeqmlis, aequae* 
vuSf par, compar^ suppar, communis ; and, inaequalis, tm- 
par, dispar, diseors: Also LIKENESS or UNLiKENESS ; 
as, simUis, aetnulus, geminus ; and, dissimilis, absonuSy alte- 
nus, diversus, discolor, 

9. Also, many compoanded with CON ; as, cognatus, con- 
color , concors^ confinis, congrum, consanguineus, conacius^ 
consenianeuSf consonus, conveniens, conterminusy contiguuSf 
continuHS^ continens, &c. 

10. A great variety of other adjectives that cannot be re- 
duced to distinct classes ; as, obnoonus, subjectus, supplex^ 
Muperstes, proprius^ credulus, absvrduSy decorus, dejormiSy 
pratstOy stcundusy &c. 


Noti 1. With respect lo Ibe atUectives bekmf Inf to tbte mle/ckwrve, l. Tbat «<• 
nm<tt«, ocrU», focsriiu. dithhi»t onAigwu^enueiut, moni/telM, «mmcAij^ noxiiUi€»mpv- 
tu$, Slc «ftea goTem the ffeoUl?e, m wis taught No. 14. 3. That though «dversiu , 
aajualit. u^ini», olteniM. Wmuftit, CMnimmi», esntermtniif, cMKrartiu, ormn/iu, dwpflrr 
dimnilttjJiduSy^fii^imH»* pmr, proprbut afmUlM, «itpcrKct, kc. Cake comnonly the da- 
tive } yet someumes tbey govern the geoittve, as already observed in No. 14. sate 2. 
& That benigvust prospermlmttutf grooit, and some others* often take the genitive or 
ablative, as bekuigtog to No. 21. Here also observe, that adjectives belonging to dif- 
ferent mlo, and which admit of different eonstmetiens la dffl^rent senses, sometimes 
take both cases after them } as, Ter. Mhiu nU 09tuei« rtoU. 

NoU 2. Some adyeeUves signifying love, hatred, or other passlone toward or agalast 
a person ; such as, «mIeiM, •NOMrtiu, htntfiau, hmevttm, kiiyiMis,^«w,|Taf«s,nii- 
•erieon, liberalii ; ooerbiu, stwrMS. fonw^ enuiejs», inlgmu. •RjMrfoMi. tijmna, Ice 
take often the accusative with the preposition fo, ergo, or «tfserMS. 

Nate 3. Some adjectives signifying fitness, osefuhiebs. or the cMtrary } such as, ac 
eonimodatu$f aawmhu, «pfut, eoagmiu, o e m iiio< h«» i htiUu, idmmUf e apsitamtf , tUilla ; 
inepfia, UduAitU, imuUu, lie take firequentiy the accusative with ad. 

Hate 4. AdiJectives signifying motion, tendenqr, or nopendon to a thing ; such as, 
•eeZer, tardtu, veto», piger, impigw^ lenitUt pruteepty rmpubUt wtgun» ; decUaiBf inelmtAi' 
lit, pndivitt pronu$ ; preptwnu, parahUt pi««p<M, jnV^viit, Ico. take the aecosaUve 
with od or m rather than the dative. 

Note 5. Pnpior and prosimMt, in imitation of thehr primitive jn^vpf, sometimes lake 
the accusative, the preposition md tieing andersiood, but seldom or never expressed ; 
as, Sail. PtiMimprephtt virliKsni. Olc frwrfmas Fenycwm» tsitsftem 

N9U 6- Substantives sometimes govern the dative*, as, Ylrg. JSril UU «iO» ttnipcr 
ZInis. Ter. Naturd tu itli pater m, eamritH», sge. Hor. motttii praeridium r*u. 
▼Irg. Tu dceus Mine mi». Olc. iVanilMitntMa MdotrfulAas hatht» Plant. iMf 
jnw eif Aomo Aemmi. Lncr Vrbipaur ^ Ter. Nttnu ut/mOfOgfamSitu, 

Note 7. The dative, according to Grammarians, li not, properly spcidcing, governed 
either by adjectives, vertis.or any other part of speech ; but i» fitly snIUolned to any 
word, when aoiulsition, ademption, advantage, otndvantage, or destination is signi- 


17. Verbals in BILIS and DUS govern the dative. « 

Wonderfal to yoa. Mirahilis tibi. 

To be intreated by me* Exorandus nUM, 

Note 1. The participle perfect, slnlfytegpasdvely, takes sometimes the datiw, bat 
ofkener tlie ablative with a or ok. C3le» Jkm audita tOi «• 

SgooMdUaH^ptitanm. Id. Man Craui 
eti • nwlcis deJUta. Ovid. Proditm a «ocia ett- 

Note 2. Vertels in DUS also* instead of the dative, take sometimes the ablative with 
aorob. Cic ifdmeNcndamaMe. Id* /fensesocnerandosanabif. 

16* 1. Mallows are whole- Malva swn taluber car- 

some for the body, usefal to pus, utUis aeger^ et pttti" 

the flick, and hurtful to do Jer nemo ; sed quidam me- 

man ; but some medicines are dieamentum sum inutilis 

unprofitable to the physician medicus ipsey pernidosus 

himself, destructive to health, valetudoy et etUiosus as- 

and pernicious to the patient. grotus. 

The victory) which Caesar Fictoriay qui Caesar 

obtained in the plains of Phar- adipi^eor in campus Phar" 

salia, was baneful to his coun- salia^ sum calamitosus pa- 



try, destructive to the common-^ 
wealth, pernicious to the Ro- 
man name, fatal to the city, 
and dismal to human kind. 

Fortune is always kind to 
you ; my trade is profitable to 
me ; the stars are beneficial to 
mariners ; we shall loose from 
the harbour to-morrow ; may 
it be lucky» fortunate, and hap* 
py for us all. 

2. My colleague is delightful 
to his friends, agreeable to his 
companions, acceptable to all, 
and unpleasant to nobody : 
without him, and without the 
study of letters, life itself 
would be tasteless to me. 

Dew on the tender grass is 
agreeable to cattle, and sleep 
is sweet to a traveller ; a bur- 
den is irksome to a sluggish 
ass, and labour troublesome to 
a lazy person ; an unripe grape 
i^ sour to the taste ; and the 
wind is a sad thing for trees. 

3. Be just to aU, kind to all, 
intimate with few, fawning to 
none, true to your lord, faith- 
ful to your master, gentle to 
your petitioner, merciful to 
enemies, and unjust to nobody : 
thus you will be dear to all, 
and hated by none. 

Nero at first %vas friendly to 
good men, and addicted to the 
study of the mufes ; but the 
latter part of his life was con- 
trary to the former ; for now 
he was harsh to and angry with 
those that advised him, spiteful 
and enraged aga:inst mankind, 
an enemy to all, hated by the 
gods, and many things were 
cross to him. 

tria^ damnom» respvhlica^ 
exitialnlit Romanw nth 
menyfunestus urbiy et du 
rus humanm genus. 

Fortuna semper sum 
benignus tu ; meus art 
sumfructuosus ego ; steUa 
sum commodus nauta ; 
solvo e partus eras ; qui 
bonus, fttustus^ Jelixque 
sum ego omnis^ 

Meus collega sumjucun^ 
dus amicus, acceptus cO" 
me5, gratiosus omnis^ et 
injucundus nemo : sine ts, 
et sinestudium literae^ vitck 
ipseforem insuavis ego. 

Ros in iener gramen 
sutn gratus pecus^ et sotR" 
nus sum dulcis viator; 
onus sum ingratus pigtr 
asinus, et labor molestus 
ignavus ; immalurus uva 
sum acerbus gustus ; et 
ventus sum Iristis arbor. 

Sum tu aequus onints^ 
benevolus cunctus, fami-' 
liaris.paucif blandus nu/- 
lusyfidus dominus,Jidelf9 
heruSf lenis precans, milis 
hostisj et iniquus nemo : 
sic sum cams omnis, et 
odiosius nuUus. 

Nero primo sum iUfii- 
cus bonus ^ et deditus stu^ 
dium musa ; sed posterior 
pars vita sum contrarius 
prior f nam jam sum a#- 
per et iratus monitor j in- 
festus ac infensus huma^ 
n%^ genuSy inimicus om^ 
mi, in^sus deus^ et mul^ 
tus sum adversus ills. 



4. Tbe arguments concern- 
ing the former pyramids appear 
dark to some, doubtful to 
otbers, and clear to fevr ; but 
the three remaiaing pyramids, 
being situate on a hill, are visi- 
ble to sailors, and known to all. 

5. In Africa, the places that 
are next to our sea, nigh to 
Carthage, or near to Mauri- 
tania, are very fertile : but the 
plnces bordering on Numidia, 
and nearer to the scorching 
heats, are more barren. 

6. Decency is adapted to the 
nature of things ; thi^s, some 
colours are proper for mourn- 
ing, and others quite improper 
for this purpose ; the morning 
is friendly to the muses, and fit 
for study ; a town situated on 
the shore is convenient for 
trade, but without walls it will 
be exposed to enemies. 

7. Nothing is difficult or hard 
to a brave man ; to him no 
place is dant^erous, no battle 
terrible, no sea unpaasable ; 
all hardships ar« easy and light 
to such a man ; yet his mind is 
always disposed to peace, hut 
ready and prepared for war. 

8. The poet married a wife 
equal in age, and every way a 
match for him ; she was hke 
her mother, her lips rivalled 
the roses ; and, as a matron is 
diverse and different from a 
strumpet, so she was unlike 
her sister : but there is a fault 
different from this fault ; her 
spirit was uosuitabte and un- 

Jlrgumentum de prior 
pyramit video obscurus 
quidam^ dubius alius y it 
perspicuus pauci ; at ires 
reliquus pyramis^ situs in 
mons, SUM eonspicuus na- 
vigans, et notus omnis. 

Jn Africa^ locus qui ium 
proximus noster mare^ 
propinquus Carthago ^ aui 
vicxnus Mauritania i sum 
ferox : sed locus finitimus 
JYumidia, et propior ar- 
dor ^ sum magis sfrilism 

Decor sum accommo* 
datus natura res ; sic^ qui" 
dam color sum conveniens 
luctuSf et alius prorsus 
ineptus hie res; aurora 
sum amicus musa^ et aptus 
studium; urbs appositus 
littus sum idoneus commer- 
ctum, sed sine murus sum 
opportuwus hostis» 

J^ihil sum difficUi^ out 
arduusfortis vir ; is nuU 
lus locus sum periculosus^ 
nullus praelium gravis^ 
nullus mare inviua ; omnis 
. labor sum fadlis et levis 
talis vir ; tamen animus 
S7im semper pronus pax^ 
sed promptus et paxat^is 

Poeta duco uxor ae- 
guaevus, et omnimodg par 
sui ; sum similis mater, 
labrum sum aemulus rosa ; 
et, ut ma^rona mm dispar 
atque discolor meretrix^ ita 
sum dissiinilis soror : sed 
sum vitium diversus hie 
vitium ; anitnM sum alic' 
nus et impar fortuna; 



eqaal to her fortune ; some- 
times she was inconsistent with 
herself; now she is dead ; 
death is common to ererjr age. 

9. and 10. Heaven is allied 
to earth, natnre is always con- 
sistent with itself, and men's 
fortune is agreeable to their 
manners ; thns, the savage peo- 
ple bordering on Ethiopia are 
subject to sad slavery, exposed 
to man J hardships ; and jet, if 
you consider their strength, 
they are inferior to none of the 
neighbouring nations. 

Note 2. A good man is affec- 
tionate towards his parents, 
beneficent to his relations, be- 
nevolent to his friends, grate- 
ful to bis well-wishers, well af- 
fected towards good men, kind 
to all, injurious to none, harsh 
to nobod}', and not cruel or se- 
vere to an enemy* 

Note 3. This fellow is good 
for nothing, but his' brother is 
good for many things ; his 
shoes are tight and meet for 
his feet, his clothes are light 
and convenient for running, 
and the ground is proper for 
that purpose. 

Note 4. The general is slow 
to punishment» swift to rewards, 
bent on war ; his son too is 
alert for battle, and not back- 
ward to danger ; but his mind 
is prone to cruelty, inclined to 
vice, and disposed to any wick- 

nonfiiui^fiiam turn discors 
n»; nunc mortuuit sum : 
mors sum communis om- 

Caelum sum cognaius 
tellus^ natura semper sum 
concors suif et homo for' 
tuna sum consenlaneus 
mos; sic ferus natio eonfi' 
nis Aethiopia sum subject 
tus tristis servitium, oh- 
noxius multus injuria ; et 
tamen^ si specto vires^ sum 
secundus nullus finiiimus 

Bonus vir sum pius in 
parensy beneficus in pro* 
pinquusy benevolus erga 
amtcusj gratus adversus 
Jautor^ bene animatus in 
bonus, beidgnus erga otn- 
nis, injuriosus in nullus, 
acerbus in nemo^ nttpte 
crudelis aut saevus in hos-^ 

Hie homo sum utilis del 
nuUus res^ sedfrater sum 
idoneus ad muUus res ; 
calceus sum habilis et ap» 
tus ad pesy vestis sum levis 
et eommodus ad eursus, 
et locus sum opportunus 
ad is res. 

Dux sum piger ad poe- 
na ^ velox ad praemium, 
promptus ad bellum ; ^» 
lius guoque sum celer in 
pugna, et haud ignavus 
ad pericvlum ; sed ani^ 
mus sum praeceps in cm- 
delifdsj propensus ad vi' 
Hum, et paratus ad omnia 



17. Death whose path mutt 
once be trod by all, is terrible 
to the wicked, with whose life 
ail good things are extinguish- 
ed ; but desirable to good meo, 
whose praise caanot die, and 
whose minds are conscious to 
themselves of integrity. Let 
us therefore imitate the life of 
good men, who are born for 
glory, though they be often 
despised by the wicked. 

IT Liberty is equally desira- 
ble to the good and to the bad, 
to the brave and to the dastard- 
ly : wherefore Apuleius did 
not cease to maintain the laws 
of the Gracchi, so much spirit 
did Marius inspire, who had 
been always an enemy to the 
nobility. But Tiberius refused 
the title of father of bis coun- 
try, lest afterwards he should 
be found unequal to so great an 

Subrius the tribune, being 
asked by Nero, why he had not 
discovered the conspiracy, re- 
plied, Because I hated you ; 
nor was any of the soldiers» 
quoth he, roorq faithful to you 
than I, whilst yon deserved to 
be loved ; I began to hate you» 
after you became a murderer 
of your mother, and of your 
wife, a charioteer, a comedian, 
and an incendiary. 

The Romans were now so 
powerful, that they were a 
match for any of the foreign 
nations : wherefore, the consul 
provides forces, arms, and 
other things necessary for the 
war, very industriously ; nor 


Mors J qui via sum ss- 

mel ccdcanduB omnis^ sum 
terribilis malus, cum qui 
vita (mnis bonus txHnguo ; 
sed optabilis bonus^ qui 
laus rum possum emortor, 
et qui mens sum consdus 
sui rectum. Imitor igitur 
vita bonus^ qui sum natus 
gloria ^ licet sa^B sum deS' 
pectus malus. 

Libertas sum aeque op" 
tabilis bonus et malus, 
strenuus et ignavus : ita- 
que tfyuleius non desisto 
assero Oraechanus lex^ 
tantum animus Marius 
dOf qui semper sum inimi* 
cus nobilitas» At Jiberius 
recuso appellatio pater pa* 
tria, neposteainvenio tm- 
par tantus honor» 

Subrius tribtmus, inter» 
rogatus a JSTero, cur non 
patefacio eonjuratio^ reS' 
pondeOf Qma odi tu ; nee 
quisquam miles ^ inquam^ 
sum fidelis tu quam ego^ 
dum mereo ama: coepi 
odiy postquam existo par» 
ricida mater et uxer , auri- 
ga^ kistriOf et incendia* 

Romanus jam sum adeo 
validuSfUt sum par quili- 
bet extemus gens : itaque 
consul paro copiae, arma, 
et alius nec^sarius bellum 
diHgenter ; nee eventus 
helium sum aliaSf qutnr 



was the event of the war any 
otfaefi than the preparation had 
been ; wherefore, Antiochus 
was routed, and forced to flee 
into Asia. 

Nor was fortune more fa* 
▼onrable to the flying Gaols : 
bat continual showers, frost 
and snow, fatigue and famine, 
consumed the miserable re- 
mains of this unhappy war. 
The people and nations, too, 
through which they marched, 
followed the scattered Gauls, 
and slaughtered vast numbers 
of them. 

After the death of the king, 
the Alexandrians sent ambas- 
sadors to the Romans, intreat- 
ing, that tbey would undertake 
the guardianship of the child, 
and defend the kingdom of 
Egypt, which they said Philip 
and Antiochus bad dif ided be- 
twixt them. This embassy 
was ?ery acceptable to the Ro- 

Ptolemy was as ridiculous to 
the Romans, as he was cruel 
to his own subjects. His 
countenance was deformed, 
his stature shorl, his belly 
hanging out, so that he was 
more like a beast than a man. 
He sent for his son from Gy- 
rene, and slew him, lest the 
Alexandrians should make him 

AAer Alexander had dismis- 
sed his soldiers, being now near 
his death, he aeked bis friends 
standing about him, whether 
they thought that they could 
find a king like him ? They all 

apparatus mm ; quarr 
Antiochus fugo^ et e^go 
fugio in'^Asia» 

KBcfortuna sum benign 
nu8 fugiens G alius : sed 
assiduus imher^ gelu tt 
nixy lassiiudo et fames, ob- 
tero miser reliquiae hie 
infelix bellum. Gens quo- 
que et natto, per qui Aa- 
beo iter, sector palans Gal- 
lusy et occido magnus is 

Post mors rex, Alexan» 
drinus mitto lega^us ad 
Rom4inuSj orans, ut susci- 
pio tutela pupitlus, et tutor 
regnum Aegyptus^ qui di' 
CO Philippus et Aniiochus 
divido inter sui. Hie le- 
gatio sum gratus jRoma- 

Ptolemaevs sum tarn ri^ 
diculus Romanus, quan 
sum cruentus civis suus. 
Vultus sum deformiSf sta- 
tura brevis, venter promi- 
nulus, ut sum similis bel- 
lua quam homo. Arcesso 
JUius a Cyrenae, et inter- 
ficio ille, ne Alexaf^drinus 
creo rex» 

Postquam Alexander di~ 
mitto miles, jam proximux 
mors, percontor amicus 
cireumstans, num extsit* 
mo sui possum invenio rex 
similis sui ? Cunctus 



held their tongue» Then he 
said, that he knew not that, but 
that he foresaw how much blood 
Macedonia would shed in that 

Nor did the friends of Alei- 
ander without reason expect 
his kingdom ; for they were 
men of such valour and dignity, 
that you would have thought 
every one of them kings. 
Never would they have found 
any equal to themselves, if 
they had not clashed among 
themselves ; and Macedonia 
would have had many Alexan- 
anders, instead of one, had not 
fortune armed theoi for their 
mutual destruction. 

taeeo* Turn dico^ iui fu«- 
cio t$i sed sui prospicio 
quantum sanguis Mact' 
dimia fundo in is ctrta- 

Nee amicus Alexander 
frustra regnum specio ; 
namsumvir is 6 virtus ac 
6 veneratio^ ut singuli is 
rex puto. Nunquam sui 
par reperioy si non inter 
sui cancurro ; multusque 
Macedonia, pro «nvs, 
Alexander habeo^ nisifor- 
tuna is in mutuus pernio 
cies armom 

AUiciis is laid to have been complaisant to ttraneen, aereeable to bis friends, Jost 
to all* and tronblesome to nene. He so demeaned mmself, tbat he seemed on a level 
with tiie lowest, yet equal to the greatest, and was deterredly veiy dear to the Atbe- 
niant. Praise Is grateful to bunian nature. 

Tbe beart of the envious roan is gall and bitterness, hN toaeiie strftteth venom, tHe 
success of his neighboar breaketb his rest, be sitteth in bis cell repining ; hatred and 
malice prey apon] his heart, and there is no rest in him. He feeletb in his own 
breast no love of goodness, and therefore believeih bis neighbour is like unt» him' 

The band of the generous roan is like tbe doods of beav^n, which drop upon the 
earth, fruits, herbage, and Sowers ; but the heart of the nngrateful is like a desert of 
sand, which swaltowetb tbe showers that fall, burietb them in its bosom, and prodnceth 

A wise man considers that nothing is to be desired by him bat what is laudable and 
excellent. Let as imitate the wise, and always live so as to think that an aocoum must 
Ijc given by as. 


* IB. Adjectives signifying dimension govern the accu- 

sative of measure. 

The stones of SolonH>n's tem- 
ple were forty cubits long, 
twelve cubits broad, and 
eight cubits high. 

Lapides Solomonis templi 
erant qMudraginta cubt- 
t08 lengi^ duodecim ct<- 
bitos lati^ et octo cubitos 

* tn this eentenc», and In tbe bitter half Of the seromi evample following, tbe emr- 
iinta irambers seem to be infl«coral«ly pot instesd of the iUtribvtivc. The df ' 


The Adjectives of DIMRNSION are> aliusy crassus, den- 
<tK, latuSf longuSf profundus. 

The names of MEASURE are, digitus^ palmusy pet» cu- 
bitus T. «m, ulna, passusy stadiutn^ milliare, 

iV«f« 1. Vert» of DDIENBION, inch as, pitfeo, orewo, kc forera alio aa accim- 
ttve of MEASURE. 

I9«i§ 9. Tb« word of MEASURE ii loinetlin^s put la tho ablative ; a«, Lif . Fnaa 

MX euMtii tdt: Pert. VenUr tpt9 eatmt $etquipluU ; on«l soBoetimes, but rare^, in 
Ibe genitive ; as, Plin. Ifte longwrti duodenum pedum' 

IfoU S. Tbe meaiurt of caweM» or the word denoting iiow mucb one tbing eioeeda 
or eomes short of anotber, is always pat in (be ablative. 

Note 4. To tbe meomrs ofexeu» may be referred tbese ablatives, (anio^ fwotfo, jmo, 
eo. A4MS, mliqtuHao, mulio, pmdoj nikifo^ ke. whicb are fkvqaeatly joined In tbia sense 
witb the comparative degree, or sooietimes with the supeiiative, or with a verb im- 
porting comparison. 

Noie 5. These adjectives do not govern the accinative cf themselves, the prapoaition 
ad or in being undprstood. or sometimes expressed} as, Plln. LvmgafoKa ktAetJhre 
ad tres diritoM. Colnro- Su/cMm in fuatuor pedes /oagicm, ta tr»$ «ftuai. When they 
take the ablative, a, oft, ttvusyur in, may be buptilied } and when thay take the geni- 
live, ad meatwram vel $paimm may be undertlood. 

The walls of Babylon were Murus Behyian sum 

two huDdred feet high, and fifly duceni pes cdtus, et quiti' 

broad. quageni latus. 

This wall is five feet six id* Hie mactria sum quin- 

ches high, and three hundred que pes sex digitus altus^ 

cubits long ; and these trees et trecenti cubitus longus ; 

are twenty feet long, and two et hie arbor sum viginti 

feet round. pes Icngus^ et duo pes eras- 


In this climate^ aboat the In hie tracius^ circa 

day of the equinox, a gnomon dies aequinoctiumy gno- 

seven feet high casts a shadow moUf septem pes altus^red- 

not above four foet long. do umbra non ampUus 

quatuorpes longus. 

Note 1. Tell in what coun- Dieoquis in terra spa- 

try the expanse of heaven does tium eoelum nonpateo am- 

not extend above three ells, plius tres ulna, et sum 

and thou shalt be the great magnus Apollo, 

Othos and Ephialtes are said Ckhos et Ephialtes dico 

to have been of a wonderful big- sum mirus magnitude ; 

^*^*— ^ ■ ■ .1 ■ .III I ■ I ■ ■ ,i 11 ■■ ■! . 

»»»Mn^P* **• "• ^^ **>•■« classes of numbers In such sentences is illustrated and coo- 
A.TrC. "* ■***••• *'»®**"»«<*«•*K«««^■«•»^^0^• S?ereotype Edition, q. v. 



n ess ; every month they grew 
nine inches ; at length they en- 
deavoured to climb up into hea- 

Note 3. The wall is six feet 
higher than the rock, and the 
turrets are ten feet higher than 
the wall. 

i am twofeet taller than you, 
and you are a foot and a half 
taller than niy brother. 

The sun is many times big- 
ger than the- earth, and the 
earth is many times bigger than 
the moon. 

Note 4. By how much the 
greater the battle was, by so 
much more famous was the vic- 
tory of Conon ; the Lacedemo- 
nians being conquered, take to 


Tb« disease of the covetous 
man is scarcely curable ; for 
the mora ^he has, the more he 

It is much more laborious to 
conquer onc*s self than an en- 
emy ; but the more difficult any 
thing, the more honourable it 

This condition was so much 
the more grievous to tUem, by 
how much it was the later ; for 
formerly they had quelled, in 
the Deiphie war, the fury of 
the Gauls, terrible both to Asia 
and Italy. 

IT The exploits of the Athe- 
nians were great and glorious 
enough, but yet somewhat less 
than they are represented ; but 
because their writers were 
men of great parts and elo^ 

per singuli meniis eresco 
novem digitus; tandem 
Conor fucendo in coelum* 

Murus sum sex pes al- 
itor quam rupesy et turris 
sum dent pes altior quam 

Ego sum duo pes Ion-' 
gior quam tu^ et tu lum 
sesquipes longior quam 

Sol sum multus pars 
major quam terra ^ et terra 
sum multus pars major 
quam luna. 

Quantum major prae- 
Hum sumj tantum ctarior 
sum victoria Omon ; La- 
cedctemonius victus, fuga 

Morbus avarus vix sum 
m/edicahilis ; nam quod 
plus habeOj id plus cupio. 

Sum multum operosior 
supero sui ipse qtutm hos' 
its ; sed quod quid sum 
difficiliort hoc praeclarior 


Hie conditio sum tan^ 
turn amarior u, quantum 
sum serior ; nam antea 
frango^ in Delphicus bel- 
lumj violentia Gallus, ter- 
ribilis et Asia et Italia. 

Res gestus Aiheniensis 
sum satis amplus et mag- 
nificus^ verum tamen aW- 
quantum minor quamfe- 
ro ; sed quia auctor sum 
homo magnus 6 ingenitm 


qoeoce, the actioof of the el 6 faeundia^ factum 

Atheoiaos are celebrated Atheniensia celehro per to- 

through the whole world for tus orbUpro maximus. 
the greatest. 

This garden is an hundred Hie hortus ium eenium 

cubits long and sixty broad* cubitui longus et sexagin* 

Here are three beds, every one ta latus* Hie mm ires 

of which is three feet broad and arta^ qui singuli sum tres 

five feet long ; but the middle pes lotus et quinque pes 

bed, which is one foot high, longus ; sed medius area, 

is the ino«t pleasant ; upon it I qui sum unus pes altusy 

oflen sit and read the old poets sum am4>enus ; super t* 

wUh great pleasure. saepe sedeo, et lego vetu» 

ppeta magnus cum volup^ 

The ark in which Noah» his wife, his three torn, with their wlvei. and a f«w ani- 
mals of every species, were saved, is reconled by Mosn, the sacred historian, to hare 
been SOO cubiu Imng, 60 broad, and SO (cubtts) high. 

The grouu in the isiand of Antiparus is a cavern 130 yards wide, 113 long, and 
abOQt 60 yards bigb, aoil thedt'sceot to it U 480 yards deep. 

There mm about 400 lamons pyramids io Egypt» three o\ which are great ones, ttie 
rest are samller ; the iargesi ot thf three great pyramids is 5i2 feet high, and 1<X28 
feet broad at bottom } the second pyramid is ^& feet liigb, and its bruadensMe at 
the botiora 622 feec long. 

A great fortane in the handi of a fool is a great misfortune. The more riches a fool 
nu the greater foci he is^ 


* .19. The coaoparative degree governs the ablative» 
which is resolved by quam. 

Nothing is sweeter than liberty, Mhii est dukius hbertaie. 
Resolved thus : JVihil est dulcius quam libertas. 

vi!!?* i f^*** P°*'*^^* ^'**' the adverb maeif sometimes governs the ablative; as, 
virg. OiuetmagiMdUeeiatorori. Ovid. Puraque magu peUtu:idu gmma. 

2|^0te 2. The compamtive takes often tbe following or like ablativfcs •, opinicne, «w, 
»^,Jii*Ka, «o/tto, dictoj 4«. as, opinione major, fpe wnplior.JlagrtMtior aequoy IriMttar 

trUSiM^A^i^ '^U** ^^^ comparative is eleganlly put for nemo or nullui ; as, NikU 
f^trgtH» daettHM / None more learned than Vir?iL 

^?flf t^^^V^ ^^^'^ P^^> f^^V^ivs. tns'niu, is elegantly supprpssed i as, Ter. Qai» 
Sl?Sf!!!?'- . ^*®* •"'^"^''"»»»**- Vlrg. Noctemnonamplius unmn. Nep. Mmta 
^*^ftu» trigiKta tn Asiam rev€rfm. ^ I ^ 

edt^aa ^r ^ ^^ comparative the words qwm pro are sometimes elegantly sntUoin- 
» «•> vurt. Mttjorem q[uam pro^flatu tanHm rtdiUbanl tyCvae. 

^•'« 6. Oemparnttveif, besides the ablative of coBS|«riaon, talte ntlurally after^em 

n.Kv ^ ■■ iM — «i j ' -'-j ^' - ■-.» .~>.-~ 

I I *im^m — .- k: 



the ease which tbeir pmdtites cot«iii ; m, Vtaf- Tkgm* mOd Mtkr JI^Im. 8eB«e. 
iViAi/ tH dignUu magn» viro pituxAUilait. 

Note 7. The compamtive does not goyern the ablative of ilielf, the preposition 
prae \)eing understoi>d, or sometiaies expre«ed } as, Apul. Unui prae etutnrU fwlivt 


♦ 20. These adjectives, dignus, ndignw, c&ntentus, 
praediiiis, captus, ^ndfretus ; also naiuSy tatus^ ortus^ tditus^ 
and the like, require the ablative. 

Worthy of praise. Dignus laude. 

Content with little. Contentus parvo. 

£ndued with virtue. Praeditus vtrtute. 

Charmed with learning. Cap:us doctrinA. 

Trusting to his strength. Fretus viribus. 

Born of a goddess. Katua Ded, 

Descended of kings. Ortua regibus. 

Nou 1. Like adjectiTcs are saoh as, fcneraftc», erectfti«i|Mnefii«lia,pfeorefl«M, erehti, 


Not» 3. DigfM»^indifttM$y conlenAu, tako soiBetiroes the genitive } as, 8il. Trott* 
dignaDeum. Vlrg, indignu» aoonan. liv. Ntejum HbeHoHicmimtm. Bee Mrp. 
tua Md oriMndus also goveroing the genitiveyin No. 14. note 3. 

Note 3. The ablative Is not governed bj the a<^JeetivM mentioned In this rnie, bat 
hy some prvposiiion understood j rach as, a, oi, ewii, in, «, ear, ie. And the genitivet 
in note 2. are governed by some ablative ondenttood. 

19. The first epistle of Ho- 
race is sweeter than any ho« 


Nothing is sweeter to the 
mind than the light of truth. 

Id civil broils, where there is 
need of action rather than de- 
liberation, nothing is safer than 

The country of Campania is 
the finest of all : nothing is 
softer than the air, nothing 
more fruitful than the sotl^ 
nothing more hospitable than 
the sea. 

Amongst the Scythians no 
crtme is more heinous than 

Primus epistola Horaiu 
tis 9wn dulcior quivis meh 

Nihil swn dvlcior mtnz 
lux Veritas, 

Indiseordta civilisf tAi 
opus sum factum, magis 
quam constUtumy nihil sum 
tutior festinatio. 

Plaga Campania sum 
pulcher omnis : nihil, sum 
mollior coelum^ nihil if6e- 
rior solum f nihil hospita* 
lior mare. 

Apud Scytha nuUus see- 
lus sum gravior furtum ; 



theft; theyjuBl as much das* 
pise gold and tUver as other 
siortids covet them. 

Attroke foliews heavier than 
all that had happened he- 
fore, through the violence of 
fire* Rome is divided into 
fourteen quarters, whereof 
three were levelled with the 

30. The thing was worthy 
of a laurel, worthy of a cha- 
riot; hut Caesar was now so 
great, that he might despise 

Nothing is more wotthy of a 
great and brave man, than cle- 
mency, and readiness to be pa- 

To be always repining and 
complaining is unworthy of a 
man ; bat he who is endued 
with virtue, and satisfied with 
his lot, is truly rich and truly 

Sylla, trustingto the strength 
of his party, returned from 
Asia : whilst he staid at Athens» 
he kept Pomponius with him, 
heing charmed with the polite- 
fiess, and learning of the youth. 

Ascanius, sprung from the 
ancient Trojan race, was born 
of a noble family ; for hka fa- 
ther Aeneas was descended of 
Anchises and Venus, and An- 
chises was descended of king 

If 1 be descended from a hea- 
venly race, says Phaeton, give 
me a token of such a great 
descent. Your father's palace, 
replied his mother» is contigu- 
ous to our earth ; go, and in- 

perinde ospemor aurum 
€t argentum ac reliquus 
mortalis appeto. 

CUuUm sequor gravior 
omnis qui ante aectdo, per 
vioUntia tgntt. Roma dt- 
vido ih qvatuordeeim re-' 
gio^ qui tre$ iolum tenui 

Ret $um dignui laurus, 
dignu» eurrw ; sed Caesar 
jam iantus eum^ ut po»ium 
conUmno triumphtu, 

JVtAt7 sum dignior mag" 
nu8 et praeclarui vir^ cle- 
mentia et placabilitas. 

Semper murmuro etque* 
ror sum indignus homo; 
sed qui praedittts sum vir» 
ttUy et contentus suus sors, 
sum vere dives et vere 

Sylla f fretus opes pars, 
redeo ex Asia : dum apud 
Alhenae moror^ habeo 
Pomponius stdcum^ captus 
et hihnanitas et doctrina 

Ascaniusy editus OfUi- 
quus Trcjanus stirps^ na^- 
tus sum nohilis genus; 
nam pater Aeneas satus 
sum Anchises et Venus j et 
Anchises ortus sum rex 

Si sum creatus coelestis 
siirpSf inquam Phaeton^ 
edo nota tantus genus, 
Paiemus domus^ respoit- 
deo mater^ sum contermi» 
nnSf noster terra ; gra» 



quire of bimself, of what blood 
thoa art sprung. 

IT After him Aarelian under- 
took the fov^mment, born in 
Daciay a man powerful iu war, 
yet of a violent tempci*, and 
somewhat too inclinable to 
cruelty, who likewise most fa- 
liaotly beat the Goths. 

Caesar, descended of the 
most noble and most ancient 
famtly of the Julii, not content 
with very many and very for- 
tunate victories in Gaol, carried 
over bis army into Britain. 

The Gauls boast that they 
are all descended of Pluto ; 
and for that reason compute 
their reckonings of time, not 
from the number of days, but 
nights ; and they so regulate 
their birth-days, and the be- 
ginnings of their months and 
years, that the day comes after 
the night. 

There were with Caesar 
two brothers, Roscillu» and 
Ague, men of singular courage : 
these, on account of their bra- 
very, were not only in high es- 
teem with Caesar, but were 
even accounted dear by the ar-* 
ray ; but depending on Cae- 
sar's friendship, they despised 
their comrades. 

Cyrus, after this victory, 
carried the war into ILydia, 
where he routs Croesus's army ; 
Croesus himself is taken* By 
iiow much slighter this war was 
than the former, by so much 
the milder tvas the victory. 
Croeaus obtains fS^e city Bar-^ 

dier^ tt scitor ab ipze, quis 
sangutM film eretus. 

Post is Aurtlianus sus" 
cipio iinperium^ Dacia 
eriundus^ vir patens in 
bellum, tamen immodtcut 
aminvf , etaliqtuintum pro* 
per^sior ad crudBlitaSj qui* ^ 
que Urenwssime Gothi 

' Ctusar, genitus nobilts 
et -antiquut JtUii famUia^ 
haud contentus multns ac 
felix victoria in Gallia ^ 
(rajicio exercitus in Bri- 

Gfilli praedico $u£ omn%9 
prognaius Di$ ; et ob is 
causa Jinio spatiuM <em- 
pus^ non ex numerus dies^ 
sed nox ; et sie observo 
dies natalis^ et initium 
mensis et annus^ ut dies 
subsequor nox. 

Sum ajiud Caesar duo 
fraierj Roscillus et Agus, 
komo singula ris 6 virtus : 
hiCy propter virtus^ sum 
non solum in honor apud 
Caesar^ sed etiam habea 
carus apud exercitus ; sed 
fretus Caesar awicitia^ 
despieio suiis. 

O^ruSf post hie victoria^ 
iransfero bellum in Lydia^ 
ttbi/undo Croesus exerci» 
tus; Croesus ipse capio. 
Qifan/tim Itroior hie bellum 
sum prior y tantuv^ miticr 
sum victoria, Croesus, 
impetro urbs Barce i ip 



ce ; io which, though ht dU 
not lead a kiiig'« life, yet he 
led a Hie aeit to royal majesty» 
This clemency was no less 
useful to the eonqaeror than 
the conquered. 

Sandrocottos, a man born oi 
a mean family^ was the assertor 
of their liberty ; bat after his 
fluccessy he tamed the title of 
liberty into slavery. This man 
being ordered to be slain by 
Alexander, whom he had of- 
fended, made his escape ; af- 
ter which fatigue, as be lay 
fast asleep, a lion of (a) huge 
bigness came up to him as be 
slept, and wiped off the sweat 

Dailius the admiral, not sa- 
tisfied with the triumph of one 
day, ordered, during his whole 
Ufe, when he returned from 
supper, torches to be lighted 
up, and flutes to play before 
him, as if he would triumph 
every day. Thus all mortals 
know the actionffef those, who» 
endued with great ppwer^ pass 
their life in an exalted station. 

The Macedonian war was 
by so much the more famous 
than the CartbagiqiAo, by how 
much the Macedonijui^ excell- 
ed the Carthaginiaai ; where- 
fore the Romans raised mpce 
legions than usual, and sent for 
aid from Musinissa king of the 
Numidians, and ail their other 

It was indeed a sort of pro*- 
idHSy»'ibat, out of fifty children, 
notene was found, whom. either 
Internal ms^eaty« or the vene- 
dmtHHi of lan 0td m^n, or the.ia-> 
^ulgcnce of a father, could jre- 

qui^ letai fio»i^o regius 
vitay tamen dego viUi 
proximu$ regku majest^s. 
Hie dementia nan sufn mt- 
nus utilis victor qiutm vtc- 

SandrocottuSf mrnaMu 
humilis genvs^ sum audor 
libnrtcLs ; sed post victo^ 
ria^ verto tttulus libertas 
in serviius, Hicvir jms' 
sus ifUerficio ab Alexan^ 
der, qui ^endo^ aufugio ; 
€x qm fatigatio^ ctim ja- 
ceo captus somnus^ leo in" 
gens forma accedo ad dor- 
miens ^ et detergo sudor, 

Duilius imperatory non 
contentus unus dies triumr- 
phus^jubeo^ptromus vt- 
la, %dn redeo a coena^ fu-- 
nale praeluceo^ et tthia 
praecinOy quasi quoiidie 
triumpko» ita^ cunctus 
mortalis nosco factum is, 
qui, praeditus mckgnus'im" 
perium, ago aetas tn«x- 

Bellum Macedonicus 
sum tantum cUurior Puni- 
cfw, qtwLUtum Macedo an- 
tecedo Poe^i ; quare Roma- 
nus conscr^o legio plus 
sciitusj et accio au^ilifbfn 
a Masinissa rex Numida^y 
eaeterque omnis sacius. 

Sum prorsus pstentum 
gfinus^ ut^ ex q^imguagin'^ 
<a liberij nemo ifi'oemo^ qui 
Oftt pa4ermu mfl^stas^Avt 
meneroiio se^ese, a^indul^ 
gentia pater f a tantus im* 


clatoi from so great a barbari* wwiwlif repoco. Sumnt 

ty. Was a fn^her's aalne so ptUemm nomen adeo vHis 

cotitemptible among so many apud tot Jiliua ? Sed eau" 

sons ? Bat the caase of the sa parricidium sum aceU' 

parricide was more wicked. rcUior ipse parricidium» 
than the parricide itself. 

The pi«Cy of a child it sweeter tfiu liieente,more delicioiu than edooni wifled by 
tb^ gates, from a Seld of spiest. 

Wisdooi is more precious than rubies, length of days is fn her right band, and la 
Iief left band riches aud hononr. Her ways are wAys of ptoasaatiieest «nd aU ber pacta 

WbenChiroii, whose actions are worthy of honour, was handling tb« arrows of 
Hercules, one of them, tliat bad been dipped in the poisonous blood w tbe Lemaf 
Hydra, fell upon bis foot, and made a wound tliat was incurable, and pains tiiat were 
ininlerable. injomoeh that btdesindiodlet but coaidnoi, bMwnt b« WM ' ""* 
of two inuBortal parents. 


21. An adjective of plenty, want, and priration, gorerns 
the genitive or ablatiye. 

Rich in horses. Dives equorum* 

- Rich in lands. Divts agrxs. 

Void of reason. Inops rationism 

Wanting words* tnopsverbta. 

Free from faalts. humuniMdelietaruinu 

Free from vices. Immunds viHit, . 

To this rule belong, 

I. Adjectives of PLENTY; such as, abundans^ htatui, 
copiosus^ dives^ Jerax^ fertilise foecundvSf foetus^ jfrequens^ 
frugifer, gravis, gravidusj immodicus, largus^ praelargus^ 
locupks^ mactus, fitnittts, oneratus, onustus^ opulentus, pie* 
nus^ refertus, differtus^ saturj tentus^ distentus, tttmidus, tur» 
gidus, uber ; to which add, benif^nusjjirmusj instruetiHf hte* 
tuSy liberalise munificuSjparatusyprodigus, prosper ^ satiatvSf 
insatiatusj insatiabilis. 

If. Adjectives of WANT ; such as, egenus, indigusy in» 
opSf jejunus^ inanis, modicuSf pauper, sterilis, tenuis, vacuus» 

III. Adjectives of PRIVATION; such as, cassusyex* 
perSy exsors, dissors^ exsul. extorris, exhaeres, immunise tV- 
ritusymutilus, nudus^ or bus, truncus^ viduus. Of PARTI- 
CIFATION ; as, consorSfparticeps. Of POWER and IM- 
POTENCE ; as, compos, pollens, potens ; impos, impotens» 
To which add, liber ^ solutus^ imparatus, infirmuSf part^^ 


' Of tlMie some govern, 

1. The genitive only ; as, benignus, exsors, vmpos^ impo- 
tenSf irritusy liberaliSy munjficusj praelargus. 

2. The ablative only ; as, heatus, fixffertus.frugifer^ mu* 
tiluSy ientusy dittentus, tumiduSy turgidusy paratusy imparatus^ 

3. The genitive more freqaeotly ; as, compos, consors^ 
particep9^€gert,uSy dissors, exsuly exhaeres^ expers.fertiltSy in* 
digus, parcusy pauper^ prodigus^ sterilis^ prosp^ry insatiatus^ 

4. The ablative more freqaeotly ; as, abundans^ cassusy 
estorriSffoetuSyfrequenSygraviSy gravidusyjejunus, liber, lo- 
eupUs, nudus^ oneratus, owas'usy or bus ^ pollens y solutus, trun* 
cus, viduusy laetuSyfirtHUSy infirmusy sutiatus tenuis, 

5. The genitive or ablative indifferently ; as, copiosuSy 
dives yjoecundusyferaxy immunis^ inanisy inopSy largus, maC' 
ttts^modieuSyiinmodicus, nimius, opulent^s, plenusy potens, 
refertusy satury puruSy vacuus^ uber^ 

Kite 1. Neither the cenilive nor tfw ablative, ttrictlj spnkiog, depends apmi the 
«dJettivAi i f<»r the genitive Is governed by the ablative re, or «cfoCia, nndentood ; 
and tbeWi and alf otber ablatives, by tw, •, «ft, d«, or ex. 

IfaU 3. Of the above adjecUves, espiMMfc^mMu, parahu^ wtfrnratue^ v^Ph «'«utruc- 
«tts, extorrii^ erbus, pauper ^ (enuir, /»ee«nunw, modiem, parem». nnmumre, iHam*^ lAer, 
nvdui, eeUOMf vaanu, potent, «ferim, have frequpntlj the' prepiHitton expressed i «t, 
Cic Lecu» eopioiu» «jfrumenta. Id. Ah equUatu^rmut. Id. Ah omnt re pearatus. 
Id. impuratut a peeunia. Id. inop» ah eametM. Id. inttnMu» a doetrintt. Hor. 
M<9 mM ptmper in aere. Id- Tenuta i» virhit eerendit, Plln Parauin mctu^mo- 
dieu» m mliu. Vett. lAer m eotupeetu^ ^mnmnu ah arhiirie, Cic. Meuana A his 
rAut vacua aifue nadaett Id. SolutuM a cMpidkatibu», liher a deliatiM. Quinet. in 
qfietibui potentisrimut. Ovid. Herlta patene ad epem. Liv. /n res hellkas petena. 
Apttl Cmtas ah aquietterttii. 

l^ote 3. BenigruUf proeper, toefitf, frmoi», and iofne others, in a different sense, go- 
vern the dative, 1^ {lo. 16. 

Koite 4. 6(>iue irrBimnariatn refer the ai^Jeetives govemtag (he g<»nitive only, to No. 
14. And ii would not have been repugnant to metbod and good order to have framed 
No. 30, so as to comprehend those 'which govern the ablative only. 

I, This island is rich in cat- Hie insula sum dives 
tie, well stored with goats, pecusy eopiosua capra, a- 
overflowing with milk, fertile bundans lacyfertilis f ru- 
in grain, fruitful in corn, and ges, fotcnndus annonxiy «V 
abounding in herbs. , Its moun- ferai herbc. Mons is sum 
tains are ctored with brass uber aes et plumbum, ct 
and lead, and covered with frequ^ns sylva, 


This man is blessed with Hie homo sum beatus 6 

wealth, and rich in money ; his divitiae, et opulentus pe* 



hoose is foil of plate, replenkb- 
ed with precious tbiop, sod 
stuffed wilh jewels ; his pockets 
are alwa'^s loaded with siWeri 
and strutted with gold. 

This soldier formerly was 
frank of bis moaey) abounding 
in wealth, profuse of bis gold» 
la? ish of praise, proud of vie- 
tory, eitravagant in bis mirth, 
and too high-spirited ; now be 
is loaded with years, cloyed 
with age, his wife is big with 
a boy* 

These fields are rich in 
grain, fertile in com, fruitful in 
victual, gay with grain and 
flowers ; the cows and sheep 
are fat, their udders are strut* 
ted with milk. 

II. Tour brother is moderate 
in his desire, but yet he is in 
want of every thing, in need of 
help, poor in silver and gold, 
weak in strength, destitute of 
friends, but free from guilte 

No letter comes from you 
empty, or void of something 
useful, which I the rather acf 
mire and commend,because this 
age is barren in virtues, and 
fruitftii in vices. 

III. This gentleman is free 
of all vice, void of .a fault, and . 
clear of wickedness ; yet he is 
in want of help, being banish- 
ed his country» ferced from bis 
city and home, disappointed of 
his hope, deprived of bis pa- 
ternal estate, and destitute of 
all &is possessioai. 


cunia; damns is. sum fie» 
n«s vof, sdUur pret%oius 
reBf et refertus 6 gsmfna; 
erumena 9um temper o\im* 
tu» 6 argerUum^ et turgi* 
dus 6 aurum. 

Hie mUes olim $um lu 
beralts pecuniaf largus 
opesy prodigUM aurum^ mu» 
nificuM lauSf tumidui 6 me- 
cessuSf immodicus laeiiiia, 
et nindue animus ; mme 
sum grains 6 asmuSf «alui« 
tus otfotifli, uxor sumgra» 
vidus 6 puer» 

Hie ager sum loeuples 
Qf ruses ^foetus Qfrumenr 
tumffrugifer BaUmentum^ 
laetusfruges etjlos ; vac* 
ca et ems sum pinguiSf 
uher sum disterUus 6 TaCm 

Tuus f rater sum modi» 
cus votum^ attamen sum 
egenus omhis res^ indigus 
opts, pa%sper argenium ei 
aurum^ tenuis 6 vires^ 
inops amicus^ sed vacuus 6 

Julius epistola venio a 
tujejunusy aut inasds ali' 
quis 6 res utilis^ qui eo 
magis miror et iaudo^ 
quia hie seculum sum sfe« 
rilis virtus f et foeewndus 

Hie vir sum immunis 
omms & vitium^ exsors cul" 
pa^ et purus seehu ; tamen 
sum indigus apis^ extul 
patria^ extorris 6 uris do" 
musque^ irriirn spes^ ex* 
haerespatemus Inmum^ $t 
expers mmis ifmiwm. 



This youoglady, deprived of 
li^r pareotn, and waning a por- 
tion, was the sharer of my dan- 
l^ers, and shall be the partner 
of my kfltigdotn ; her life has 
not been free of troubles, nor 
is her breast Toid of love. 

The governor of the city, 
which ia destitate of a garrison, 
is a man endaed vrtih virtue, 
abonnding in wealth, bat spar- 
ing of his money ; mighty in 
war, bat nnable to restrain his 
passion ; his mind however is 
generally calm, free from fear, 
and disengaged from all cares. 

Some animaU arc destitute of 
feet ; but in Germany th^^re 
are wild bea3t<; that are called 
alces, «vhoge ebipe is like that 
of goats, which have Ifgs with- 
out jointSi and fthey] are void 
of horn?. 

IT The victorious Regnlus, 
an honest man, and of ancient 
morals, lovely \o all, though ij;- 
Dorant of the liberal arts, after 
he had widely spread the ter- 
ror of his name, and fLiin a 
great nutnber of the Carthagi- 
nian youth, sent a fleet to Rome 
loaded with «band -ince of spoil, 
and heavy with a tiiumph. 

Alexander, though full of 
dust and sweat, yet taken with 
(he pleasantness of the river 
Cydnos, threw himself into the 
cold-water ; then on a sudden 
• Dumbness seizt^d bis nerves : 
yet aftei wards he recovered 
bis health, and took Persepolts, 
the metropolis of the Persian 
empire, a famous city, filled 
with the spoilt of the world. 

Hie inVgo, orhu$ 6 pa- 
rens ^ et caisus 6 cfos, sum 
particeps meus periculutn^ 
et sum consors regnum ; 
vita non sum vacuus 6 mo- 
lestta^ nee pectus sum vt- 
duus 6 amor, 

Praefectus ttrbs^ qui 
sum nudus 6 praesidium^ 
sum vir compos virtus, 
pollens 6 opes^ sed parens 
pecunia ; poiens 6 helluTrty 
sed impotens ira ; animus 
t.imen sum fere tranguillvs, 
liber 6 terror , et solutus 
omnis f» cura. 

Quidam animal sum 
truncus pes ; sed in Ger» 
mania sum bellua qui ap- 
pello aheSy qvifigurasum 
consimilis capra^ qui ha- 
heo cms sine nodus j sum- 
que mittilus 6 cornu* 

Victor Regulus prohvs 
vir, ei vetus i/tos, amabifis 
cvnctus^ quamvis expers 
liberalis ars, quusn late 
circvmfero terror suus no- 
inen, et caedo magnus vis 
juvenfus PunicuSj ad Ro- 
ma mitio classis pnustvs 
ingens 6 praeda, et gravis 
6 triumphvs, 

Alexander^ etsi plenus 
pxdvis ac sudor, tatnen 
captus amoenitas flumen 
CydnuSj projicio sui in 
praefrigtdus aqua ; turn 
repente rigor occupo tier- 
vus : tamen postea recipio 
saniias, et erpugno Perse- 
polisy caput Persicus reg- 
num^ urbs illustrisy re^,. 
fertus 6 spolium terra or' 



Mao, ivhoii partaker of rea- 
son and speecb, is more excel- 
lent than beasts, wliich [who] 
are void of reasoD and speech ; 
but the miod of man has got 
reason in rain, unless he is 
mindful of bia duty, aad do the 
things that are agreeable to 
reason and nature. 

The Egyptians boast that 
Egypt was always so tempe- 
rate, that neither the winter's 
cold nor the heats of the sum- 
mer sun did incommode its in> • 
habitants ; that the soil is so 
fertile, that no country is more 
fruitful in food for the use of 

Alcihiades, the Athenian, 
born of a great family, in a 
very great city, wa« much the 
hand^omesf of all the men of 
his time, fit for all things, and 
abounding in sense : it is agreed 
amongst all, that nobody was 
more eminent than he, either 
in vices or in virtues. 

tlistorians say, that Cyrus 
king of Persia, who conquered 
the greatest part of Asia, waged 
war at last against the Scythi- 
ans, whose queen was named 
Tomyris ; that his army was 
routed, he himself slain ; that 
his head was cut off, and thrown 
into a vessel full of blood. 

Alt men b^te those that are 
unmindful of a kindness, and all 
men love a mind grateful, and 
mindful of a good torn. Mu- 
tual benevolence is the great 
bond of humom society ; and 
without it 1if;e itself is grievbus, 
full of fear and anxiety, and 
void of all comfort and plea- 

HomOf qui sum parti^ 
cep8 ratio et oratiOf swm 
praestans feray qui sum 
expers ratio et oratio ; sed 
animus homo sorlior ratio 
frustray nisi sum memor 
qfficium suus^ el ago is qui 
sum consentaneus ratio et 

Aegyptii praedico Ae* 
gyptus sum semper ita (cm- 
peratus, ut neque hibernus 
frigus nee ardor aestivus 
sol premo is incola ; solum 
ita foecunduSf ut nullus 
terra sumferaxalimentum 
in usus homo, 

AlcibiadeSf Atheniensis, 
nalus summus genus^ in 
amplus civitas sum mul* 
turn formosus omnis suus 
aetas, aptus ad res omnis ^ 
plenusque consilium : con- 
Stat inter omnisy nihil sum 
eicellensille, vel in vitium 
vel in virius. 

Auctor narro, Cyrus rex 
Persia, qui domo ma gnus 
pars Asia, gerc helium 
tandem contra Scytha^ qui 
regina appello Tomyris ; 
exercifus is deleo, ipse oc- 
cido ; caput is ahicindo^ 
et conjicio in vas plenus 
sanguis • 

Omnis odi is qui sum 
itnmemor heneficium^ et 
omnis am^ animus gratus, 
. et memor benefieium, Mu' 
tuus henevolentia sum ma^ 
nus vinculum kumanus so^ 
cietas ; et sine is vita ips^ 
sum gravis^ plentts timio^ 
et anxietasy et vatuus or 


sure. Let as therefore avoid nis 6 $olattum et Dolupias^ 
tiie crime of ingratitade above Fugto igitur crimen in- 
all otben. grcUus animui pra^ relt* 

If w« lift ap flnr fm to tli0 hftvent. ttie 0afy •TGod 111101111 forth : if w» CMt 
tiMin down upon the earth, It I1 ftiU of ^U goodmn : The UUt and the vallcyf re- 
joice and flttf ; fieklfi riveri, and woods reieimd his pimlse. 

HuBaii life is never free from tre«bles ; all ptecen vt full of frindi mascheiVi «■< 

The Roman toMlenr made VMeranIo emperor, who wni a good tuutf and of andent 
merali, bat void of all the liberal arts. 
No man can be eiid to be great or powerfnl, who ii not aaater of Uawlf. 

II, The goveriiment of verbs, 

§ 1. Of personal verbs. 


* 22. Sum when it signifies possession, property, part or 
duty, governs the genitive. 

This field is my father*S| but Hie ager est pmtrU^ at pO" 

the orchard belongs to my marium est avuncuiL 


It is the property of a fool to Insipieniis est perseverare 

persist in an error. in errore. 

It is the part of a poor man to Pauperis est numerare pe- 

number his flock. cus. 

It is the duty of soldiers to fight Militum est pro patvia 

for their country. pugnare, 

ifefe J. Both in this and in the foUowiag rule, ^ffieium, «wnnf, <|ra% lufncanm, re», 
^opriumf or some other word, to be gnthered from the sense, fs understood, and 
sotteUraes expresseil; as, Olc. ^rineijnan muntu eti resittert UtitatinuMtudims. 
Sometimes the preceding snbstantlve Is to be repeated } as, Hie tiber eH [Kber] /h«Hs. 
Hocptau ett [peons] MelAoei, 

NoH 3. To this rule may be referred the following and like espivssions. Tirr. 
Oratn 9er$oher9 digruu nan opU eat nottrat. Caes« lB*t hoe O^Uheae eonnutndMB. 
file. M$ii»maifui,fitU* Oic« ^mm m ensrteHdi rtip, iolaU tue* Sail. Regium 
twysr i nw, cned initio ccnservtmdae HbertatUfuerat, Id. Quae portouom gforiMa n»> 
4s, nepu ¥etU patrandi «gwevie, sap. eue. 

23. These nominatives, meunif iuum, suum, nostntm, 
vestrumf are eicepted. 

It is my duty to confess- Meum estfateri. 

It is your part to forgive- Tuum est ighoscere. 


Note I Tke mennlnff of the rale Is, that instead of the prloiiave proaoom, met, 
<u/, nd^ nottri, vMfn. in the genitive» we moat use their ponessiTe«. fueum, fwtit^ 
«tium. nostmmf veiirumy in tlie noinhiativte ease, and in the neuter gender. 

iV'afB 3. POSSESSIVE nonni, coch as, regim^ kumanu$, htUuiwiUy Romamu, kc. ad» 
mitof the like eonstraetion ; as, Oic. Sac quamregium tit, «u«mjpraeleri<? Ter. 
•tfamamnn e«f «rrare. Proverb. Bclluinunt etC vtiUri •ervir: Llv. Eiagttt ttpali 
fwtia Rmnannm tst, Ter. Hoc patrhan est. Cic. G/odictf ortum M guicicM. 


* S4. MISEREORy mUeresco and ^a^ago, gOFero the ge- 

Take pitj Od jroar country- Miserere civium tuorum. 


Take pitj od the king. . Miser esdte regis. 

He Ms enough to do with hia Saiagit rerum suarum. 

own affairs. 

Ifote 1. Several otiier veriM, signifying on affkuion ^ tie mtiul, govern sometlnei 
the genitive, but chiefly with the poets ; as, Uie. Pendeo cmtmi. Ter. DiMcrudor 
«itimi. Plant. FatiidUt mti. Hor. DeeipUw labwum. Plant Fallehar «ermonw. 
Hor. tnvidii eictrii. Vrrg. Ltutor malorum. Hur. Ahstineto irarum. Id. Detine 
qmrelaruni. Virg. Deftfters nttgnae, Hor JZe^fminil pofm/omiin- Tac. Adipu- 
centw liomiiutfioiiti. Plant. i>v(u /oborum, &c. But these and the like are much 
oftenerotherwiseconstnied. «u.'suoie lake the accusative, others the ablative» and 
}faat either with or without a prepetitionf 4fC. 

Note 2. In assigning the reason of this rule, mmmarlans dtff«r ; some take all 
such constructions to be Grfidsms, or lolilatinns^ the Greek : others consider them 
as elliptical X^tin expressions, and preli*nd to supply them by some general word } 
such as. ntgotioy re, eowro, funwine^ or ibp like *, wltn the preposition tn, de, or a. 
Others again think, tf they are to be Muppliatl. thnt some pariicnlar fiord, suited to 
the sense of the expression, must be urtd«*rRtood, thus: Miserere ctvtumiSC. mts^ria. 
/^ifcrueter animi, sc. dp/ore. Regnnvit poputorumtWC in eoetu. Levas leA^rumf k. 
oners, kci 


25. £>Sr taken for haheo \to have"] governs the dative of 
a person. 

Every one has his own way. Suns cuique mos est. 
We have many books. Sunt nobis multi I ibri» ) 

Po you not know . that kings An nescis tongas regibus 
have long hands ? esse manus ? 


Note, That^rct andfsuiipefte, as also «uppeiitof, when used in a neuter sense, are 
likewise ofieu tnken for aabeo, and admit of th^ same construction. Mart. Si mAi 
eauda/oret. Hor. Cuirsrwn tuppetUwus. Tac. PuUio nejueaiumiuinperiaffu, 
qtte oratio suppeditavU, 




26. SUM taken for qffero [to hring] goveras tw6 dative^ 
the one of a person, the other of a thing. 

The sea brings ruin upon 'ma- Mare est exitio iiautis. 


King Philip brought aid to the Philippus rex Romanis 

Romans. auxiliofuit. 

Ever/ one minds his own plea- Curae est sua cuique vo- 

®**re. luptas. 

J^TL^^^rHi^S^T**^ referred aaeli nlurwefof nuniagafthtse, Est mtki 
vS* /iiJPilSf-iJi?* dative of the THiKa, the nomiwtiTeif fDmetiniCf OMd | a» 

22. The books which yon Liber, qui video^ sum 

«ee, were my cousin's, but now emsobrinnstneus, sed nunc 

ihej are my brother's. sum/rater. 

Caesar Augustus dwelt hard Ckesar Augustus habit6 

by the forum, in a house that juxla forum, m domus 9«$ 

had belonged to Calvus the ora- sum Calvus orator. 

5^®^ ^^ there a more Nunquam sum cruentus 

bloody battle ; at last, how- praelium ; ad postremum, 

ever, the victory was the La- tam^, victona sum La* 

cedemonians\ cedaemonii. 

It IS the property of a cow. Sum timidus opioj/^rs : 

ard to wish for death ; but it is sed sum magms Mmus 

the property of a great soul to desmcio injuria. 
despise an injury. 

It is the part of a foolish boy Sum stultus puer amo 

*? M^ ^^*^'. ^^^ o^gJect his lusus, et negligo siudium ; 

tumes ; and it is the part of a et sum bonus pastor tondeo 

g90d shepherd to shear his pecus. nori deglubo. 
sheep, not to flay them. 

It is the duty of children to Sum liheri amo et rive- 

love and reverence their pa- reor parens, etsumdisci'^ 



rents, and it is the dolT c(a 
scholar to honour his master* 

23. It is my part to teadh 
and direct ; it is thy part to 
study har^, if IhQU desirest to 
be a scholar. 

It is our part to regulate 
your courage ; and it is your 
duty, not to pry into the or- 
ders of your ofi&cers^ but sub* 
«ussively to obey. 

24. Look about, says Tellus» 
take i^ity on your own hea- 
yen : the poles are smokitig, 
w^ich if the fire shall destroy, 
jour palaces will tuinbJedown. 

Pity such great hardships ; 
take pity also on me, and be 
not troublesome ; 1 am busy in 
my own affairs. 

Xantippe, Socrates' wife, by 
day and by night, was sufficient- 
ly employed in womanish quar* 
;rels and brawlings. 

96. Caesar the dictator ri- 
valled the orators, and 
Augustus had a ready and flu- 
ent eloquence. 

Thou mayest rest with us 
upon the ^reeo grass ; w^e bave 
mellow apples, soft chesnuts, 
.and plenty of curdle^ lailk. 

26. Conon, when he heard 
tb^this country was invaded, 
did not inquire where he might 
live safely, but from whence 
be might bring relief to his 

The loss, however, of t^i^e 
hum^ rape« was matter of gxief 
to all the gods ; and they ask- 
ed, wbs^t would be the appear- 

pulus h<>n$r0 nutgiiUr» 

Sum mew d0ceo etprae^ 
scribo; sum tuu$ $tud€0 
diligentpr^ n voh sum 

Sum nosier rego vester 
virtus ; et vester sum^ non 
sciscitor imperium duXp 
sed modeste pareo. 

Ciremnspieiot aio Tel- 
luSf misereor caelum ves» 
ter : p^lusfumo^ qui si ig» 
nis vitio, atrium vester 

Misereor tantus labor; 
miseresco i^uoque ego, fic 
fie sum molestus ; satago 
res meusm 

Xantippe^ Socrates UX' 
or^ per dies perque nox, 
saiago mtdiebris ira si 

Caesar dictator sum 
a^mulus summus orator , 
et Augustus promptus ac 
profluens eloquentia* 

Tu possum requiesco 
egocum super viridis 
frons : sum ego mitts po» 
mvi9, mollis castanea^ et 
pressus copia lac* 

Gmo», quvm audio pa* 
iria obsideOy non quaerOy 
uibi ipse vipo tuto^ sed un- 
de sum praesidium civis 

Jactura^ tamen^ kut^- 
nus genv^t sum dolor oot- 
ms superi ; et rf^o^ quis 
sum forma terra 6 smrta- 



aoc« of tbe etrth iieititate of 
moiivls ? 

The ?ine is an ornameDt to 
the trees, grapes are an orna- 
meiit to the vioep, boils to the 
flocks, and growing corns to the 
fertile fields. 

NoU 1. Micipsa imagined 
that Jugnrtha woahl be an ho- 
nour to his kingdom, and 
thoaght it a glory to himself, 
that he was called the friend 
and ally of the Roman people. 

The complainers charged it 
as a crime against Gallia?, that 
he had provided poison ; and 
who is it that would not have 
imputed it to him as a fault ? 

These gentlemen strut in 
state before joar noses, and 
boa^t of their. triumphs, just as 
if they reckoned th^m an ho- 
nour to them, and not rapine. 

The girl was left to this wo- 
man as a pledge for the money ; 
but it is charged upon you as 
laziness, that you write so few 
letters to your friends. 

Chabiias too was reckoned 
amongst the greatest generals, 
and performed many things 
worthy of memory ; but of 
these his invention in the bat- 
tle which he fought at Thebes, 
when he came to the relief of 
the Boeotians, \% the most fa* 

IT After this a battle is 
fought : the Macedonians rush 
upon the sword, with contempt 
of an enemy so often conquer- 
ed by them : Alexander him- 
self attempted the most dange- 

r's or6ft^. 

Viiit 8um deem arbor j 
uva sum decus vilisj tav» 
rusgreXf et seges pinguU 

Micipsa txittimojugur' 
tha forem gloria regnum 
8UU8, et duco sui gloria^ 
sui voco ' amicus et soeivs 
populus RomMnw, 

Accusaior do crimen 
GaUius, izparo venenum ; 
et qms aum^ qui non verto 
is vitium ? 

Hie vir incedo per os 
vestery et ostento suus 
triumphuSf perinde quasi 
habeo is honor sui^ ac non 

Adolescenivla relinquo 

hie mulier arrkabopro ar- 

' gentuni : sed tribuo (u ig- 

navia, quod seribo tarn ra- 

rus liiera ad amicus, 

Chabrias quoque habeo 
in summus duXf geroqne 
mulitis res dignus memo» 
ria i sed ex hie inventum 
is in praeliUm^ qui apud 
Thebae facio^ cum venio- 
subsidium Boaotii^ maxime 

. Post hie praelium com" 
mitio : Macedo ruo infer- 
rum J cum contemptus hos- 
tis toties a sui victus : A- 
lexander ipse aggredior 
quisque periculosus ; ubi 



roas things ; where he saw the 
enemy ihickestf there he al- 
waja thrust himself, and had a 
mind the dangers sfaonld be fats 
own, not his soldiers'. 

Rashness is the property of 
yotith, pmdence of old age ; 
and to lore riches is the pro- 
perty of a little and narrow 
soul, as to despise them, in 
comparison of virtue, is the 
property of a great and noble 

Virginias begged that (hey 
would pity him and his daugh- 
ter : that they would not heark- 
en to the intreaties of the 
Claudian family, but to the in- 
treaties of Virginia's relations, 
the tribunes, who being creat- 
ed for the assistance of the 
commons, did implore their 
protection and aid. 

Part advised to call in Mithri- 
dates king of Pontus, part 
Ptolemy king of Egypt ; but 
Mithridates was full of business 
of his own, and Ptolemy had 
always been an enemy to Sy- 
ria : wherefore alt agreed upon 
Tigranes king of Armenia ; 
who being sent for, held the 
kingdom of Syria for eighteen 

The nation of the Catti have 
robust bodies, compact limbs, a 
stern countenance, great vigour 
of mind, a great deal of sense 
and address ; they confide more 
in their general than in their 
army : over the blood and 
spoils of an enemy they unco- 
ver their face, and boast that 


conspicio hostis canferius, 
to sui semper ingero^ to- 
loque pertculum sum t««9, 
nan miles. 

Tem,eritas sum ftorens 
aetasj prudeniia seneetus ; 
et amo diviiiae sum par- 
vus angustusgue animus^ 
ut eoniemno tt , prae vtV- 
itUy sum magnus et subli' 
mis animus. 

Firginius oro ut mise- 
rear sui etJUia : ne audio 
precis gens Claudius^ sed 
precis Virginia cognatus, 
tribunuSy qui creatus ad 
auxilittm plehsy imploro 
isjides et auxilium. 

Pars suadeo arcesso Mi» 
thridates rex Pontus^ pars 
Ptolemjaeus rex Jlegyptus ; 
sed Mithridates satago res 
suuSy et Ptolemaeus semper 
sum hostis Syria : itaque 
omnis consentio in Ti' 
granes rex Armenia ; qui 
accitus teneo regnum Sy- 
ria per octodecim annus. 

Gens Catti sum durus 
corpus, strictus artus^ mi* 
nax vultuSf magnus vigor 
animus, multum ratio ac 
solertia ; repono plus in 
dux quam in exercitus : 
super sanguis et spolium 
hostis revelo fades y etfero 
sui sum turn dignuspatria 



tbey are then worthy of their 
cooDtry and their parents. 

Now 1 cooie to Cicero, who 
had the same contest with his 
contemporariesy that I hare 
with you ; for they admired 
the ancients, he preferred the 
eloquence of bis own times. 

The Macedonians had per- 
petual wars with the Thraciaas 
and Illyrians : the latter des-* 
pised the infancy of the Mace- 
donian king, and invaded the 
Macedonians ; who, being beat, 
brought out their king, aod 
placed him behind tbeir army 
in his cradle, and then renew- 
ed the dispute more briskly. 

As soon as Philip, king of 
Macedonia, entered upon the 
government, all people had 
great hopes of him, because of 
his parts, and because of the 
old oracles of Macedonia, which 
bad given out that the state of 
Macedonia shoald be very 
flourishing under one of the 
sons of Amyotas. 

After this Alexander orders 
himself to be adored, not salut« 
ed. Callistbenes was the most 
Tiolent amongst the recusants ; 
which thing brought ruin both 
on him, and on many great men 
of Macedonia ; for they were 
all put to death under pretence 
of a plot. 

He ordered Marcos Claudius 
the proconsul, to retain a suffi- 
cient garrison at Nola, and send 
away the rest of the soldiers, 
that they might not be a burden 
to their allies, and a charge to 
the gOYernment. 

Atinc (td Cicera venio^ 
qui idem pugna turn cum 
aequtUis auuSj qui ego mm 
tucum ; tile emm antiquut 
miror^ ipse buum tempus 
eloquentia anteponom 

Macedo sum cLssiduus 
helium cum Hiraces et II' 
lyrii : posterior cotUemno 
infarUia Macedonicus reXf 
et invado Macedo ; qui 
pulsus^ profero rex suus^ 
et pono pone acies in cu*' 
nae^ et tunc repeto certa* 
men acriter, 

Ut Philippusj rex Ma* 
cedonia^ ingredior impe^ 
rium^ omnis sum magnus 
spes de ille^ propter ipse 
ingenium, et propter vetus 
fatum Macedonia^ qui ca- 
no status Macedonia sum 
florens suh unus filius Ji- 

Deinde Alexander jubeo 
sui adofOf non salutor. 
Callisthenes sum acer inter 
recusans; qui res sum exi- 
tium et ilUy et muUus 
princeps Macedonia ; si' 
quidem omnis inlerficio 
sub species insidiae, 

Juheo Marcus Claudius 
proconsul^ retineo idoneus 
prmesidium ad Nola, et 
dimitto caeter miles ^ ne 
sum onus socius^ et sump- 
tus respublica. 



Caeaar OctamnnSi Mark 
AntOQjr, aod Lepidas divided 
the Roman empire among them- 
t^elires. Asia and Egypt were 
Mark Antony's ; he married 
Cleopatra, the most beautiful 
woman of her age, who, desi- 
rous of the empire of the world, 
{^tirred him up to make war 
against Caesar Octavianua, 
which brought destruction on 
thcin both. 

Xtiatbeputorawit» iDMitolookts Hw ead of thiift. Wlmi* Ihfnte*, the 
fatherless call upon thee ; when the widow'b heart is saofc, aod »he IniphifeUi thy ■§• 
sisunce ; it is thydoiy to pity her affliction, and ttliew» those who have no helper* 

ETei7 tbioff is oomaMNi anioog aais. An ant never works for herself, bat for the 
whole society of which she Is a member. Whereat bees, of which so wonderftil sto- 
ries ere told, have each of them a hole la thebr hives; tlieir honey istlMlr own, and 
every bee is wholly takeo «p aboat her own ceneems. 

Idleness is the parent of want and paia, bot the labour of virtae farlnfeth flMrth 
pleasare. The hand of the diligeot defeateth want, prosperity and soooess are the 
lodustiloas nmnH attendants. But the slotbAil man Is • burdn to hlianlf ; he loiter- 
eth about, and kaoweth not what he wosdd do. 

Caesar Octovtamii, 
Marcus Antanius^ et Lept- 
dus partior Romawus tm- 
perium inter suu Asia tt 
Aegyptus sum Marcus An- 
tonius ; duco Cleopatra^ 
pulcher foemina seaUum 
suusj quij eupidus impe* 
rium terra or6fa, impello 
is gero bellum contra Cbe- 
sar Oetavianusj qui sum 
permcies uterque. 


27. A VERB signifying advantage or diaadf antage goreniB 
the dative. 

I am not profitable to myself. 

Fortune favours the brave. 

Wise men command their pas- 

Caesar threatened the eagle- 

Fools trust to dreams. 

The girl married her cousin- 

It is the part of a good man to 
satisfy his conscience. 

I was present at the battle. 

The last hand is put to the 

Man, who is partaker of rea- 
son, excels the brutes. 

Mihi ndnus profido. 
Fwrtuna favet fortihus» 
Sapientns imperant cupi- 

ditaiibus suis 
Aquilifero Ck'esar cornm*' 

natus est* 
Stulti fidunt somnis. 
Qmaobrino suo nupsit 

Est boni mri eatUfaure 

eonscientiae suae» 
Aderam pugna^» 
Accessit operi manus ex* 

Homo, qui roiionis parti' 

ceps e$ty antectUit 6ei- 


A boy takes pleasare to play Puer gestit paribus coUu" 

With bifl eqaak. dere. 

The sailors ply the oars. J^Tautae incumbunt remis. 

To this rule belong a great variety of verbs, mostly aeu- 
teri viz* 

1. Verbs of variouft significations, ifnportinjsr, 

1. To PROFIT or HURT ; vayprqficio.plaeeo^commo" 
dOfprospicio^ caveo^ metuoy timeo, consulo to provide for or 
against ; also, noceo^ (>fficioy incommodOf dispUeeo^ inn- 

2. To FAVOUR, to HELP, and their contraries ; as, 
faveoygratulor^gratificor^ grator, ignoico^ indulgeo, annuo, 
parcOf studeOf adulor, plaudo^ bletndiory lenoctn&r, palpoTp 
asstntOTj mpplico^ subpartisitof ; also, auxilior^ adminicU' 
loTj iubvemoj succurro, pairoeinorf medear^ medicory opitU' 
lor ; also, derogo^ deirako^ invideOj aemulor, 


impero, prcLecipio, mando^ moderor to restrain ; also, pareo, 
ausculto^ obedio, obsequoTj obumptro^ morigeror^ obuecundo; 
d\so^famulor, servio, tntervio, mini$(ro, ancillor ; also, re- 
pugnOf obstOt reluctor, renitwr^ retisto, refragorj adversor ; 
and with the poets, pugno^ certo^ bello^ contendo^ concurrOf 

4, To THREATEN, or be ANGRY with; as, mmor, 
comminor, interminnr^ iraseorp wcunsio. 

a. To TRUST ; as,^rfo, confido\ credo ; also, dij^do, 

6. A great many other verbs that cannot be reduced to 
any distinct bead ; sacb as, nubo, excello^ kaereo^ cedo, ope* 
rory praestolor, praevaricor, recipio to promise, pepigi to 
promise f renuncio, reftpondeoy tempero, vacoy convtcior, aio, 
luceoy sapiOi sordeOy dormio, &c. 

II. Verbs compounded wiihSATIS, BENE» and MALE ; 
as, ioti^acio^ satisdo. benefacioj benedico^ benevolo, malefu-^ 
eto, maledicom 

III . All the compounds of the verb SUJM^ except/>05sum ; 
as, adsum,pro8umf o6tum, desumy insumy intersumy praemm^ 
mptrsum, &c. 

IV. A great many verbs compounded with these nine 


PREPOSITIONS, ad, ante, c<m^ tn, tfi^er, oi, pme, tyb^ 

AD ; as, accede t accruco^ a^cumbo^ acquiesco, adno, adf 
jiatOy adequitoj adhaereo, adrepoy adsto^adttipulor, adoolvor^ 
affulgeoj allabor^ allaboro, annuOf applaudo, apprapinquOt 
arrideOy aspirOf assentior, Oisideo, aisisto, assueMCo^ auurgo. 

ANTE ; as, antecelloj atUteOy antestOf anteverto. 

CON ; aSj coUudoj eo/icmo, consonOf canvivo. 

IN ; as, incumboy indormio, inhio^ ingemiscOj inkaereo, 
innascoTf innitor^insideoj instOj insi$to, ttisudo, insulto, invigu 
2o, illacrymo^ illudoi tmmtneo^tmmortor, imfnorar^impendeo. 

INTER ; as, intervenioj tn^ef mtco, intercedoy interctdo^ 

OB ; as, obrepo^ obluctoTy obtrecto, obstrepo, obmurmurOj 
oceumbOf occurroj occur so, obsto^ obsisto, obvenio, 

PRAE ; as, praecedo, praecurro^ praeeojpraeeideo, prac" 
luceo, praeniteoy praesto, praevaleo, praeverto, 

SUB ; as, succcdo, succumbo, suffUio^ suffragoTf subcrcs' 
CO, suholeOf subjaceOf subrtpoy supplico, 

SUP^R ; as, supervenio, supereurrOf supento, 

Nit 1. 8oine few of thew Tertit j neh as, Jidt, eamJUo^ mnator, cti§, vn», inileid 
of ihe datiye, lake sometimes the ablatiTe, as will be unebt No. 90. 

Note 3. The verbs Juheo^ »ffhtdo, latdo, and /wve, tbooeh reducible to some «f tbe 
adove classes, do not govern the datWe, but the aceosatWe ; as, Lac. 8il4Mtia Juuit, 
Hor. Cwr ego amionm ^«ndam in HMgi» t Clc- tfembum luaiL Ovid. JwoU/mamf 
dim eaiuoM. 

J^Afe 3. Verbs of LOOAL MOTION ; sosii as. epv Mub, «urr», prepsra, /cUfna, jmt- 
got/ufi», kc and verbs denoting tecdeocy to MOTION ; such as, eendo, verfv, ys sls » 
p%rtin€9,^' instead of the dative, take tte aecosative with the preposition «4 or t». 

Note 4. A great many of the verba belonging to this rule admit of other coiitlnie> 
tioas} as. Plant. Paresre peoMntMR. Id. Aumuutre «diquem. Cic. Dtmran rtwmA^ 
licam. Oaes. Jd kate respondit. Cic. Adeu* in pugna. Sail. Jeotden md urttm, 
Cic. Jeeodere in oppidum* VIrg. Jeotdtre domo$ infemms. Sail, ilnfstrc amiMS gh- 
ria. Id. Cotbtdert aim tUiqu», Plant. /«CHmberef/acKam. Cic /nsnmiers «IsCiultfl^ 
in studhun' Petron. Incumbere nmtr prmtdam, Plin. Inietyacet duat igrtt»* Cic. 
Oirepen in anhnu, ad Amerw. Virg. Prtutotdtrt agnun. Ball. ^Sueeedsrs mitfWNi, 
Liv. Si^ifi^tert md wvem, in jnignan. Ylrg. Sitpentan o/ijuem, &e* 

I. 1. It is the part of a wise 'Sum sapiens placeo 

man to please God, to do good Deus, prqficio homo, caveo 

to meo, to take care of himself, m, prospicio solus suus, 

to provide for his own safety, metuo amicus^ et consulo 

to becoAceraed for his friends, utilitas^ qfficio nvUiit, 0$* 

and stadjr their interest, to do pliceo ntmot nequ^ no- 

h 2 



hirtn to none, to displeara no^ 
body, neither to hart the mise- 
rable, nor to lay snares for the 

2. A good man favonrs the 
good, and rejoiceth with them 
upon any happy event ; he is 
always disposed to spare the 
yanquished, and forgive what 
is past ; he neither entertains 
resentment, nor flatters any 
one ; be knows^ that those who 
detract from good men, dero- 
gate from themselves ; he 
therefore envies nobody, but 
zealously imitates the most 

It is the property of a gene- 
rous man to assist the poor, to 
aid the needy, to succour the 
distressed, to heal their wounds, 
to patrohiise tlte orphans, to 
help hiM countrymeu, to study 
their advantage , and to pray to 
God, that he would second hia 
endeavours ; whilst the cove- 
tous man flatters and caresses 
the rich, and applauds himtelf 
when he looks at his money in 
his chest. 

3. God hath commanded us 
to rule our lusts, to govern our 
spirit, to listen to his word, to 
obey his admonitions, to be sub* 
ject to his laws, to be submis- 
sive to parents, to comply with 
their will, to serve and wait 
upon them, and obey their or- 
ders, and not to be a slave to 

A Christian ought to oppose 
ficious pleasure, to stru|^le 
against and withstand the be« 
ginnings of anger, to resiat evil, 

ceo miser f neque insidior 

Bonui faveo ,bonU9i ^^ 
gratulor is de aliquis re9 
felix ; semper paratus stun 
parco victuSf et ignosco 
praeieritus ; neque tndul' 
geo iraj neque adulor quts- 
quam; nosco iSf qui de* 
iraho bonus, derogo suij 
ideo invideo nemo^ sedia.e- 
mulor dignus. 

Sum generosus auxilior 
pauper, subvemo inops^ 
succurro miser, medeor 
yulnus, patrocinor orbus 6 
parens, opitulor civis, siu^ 
dco commodwn, etmppli" 
CO Deus, ut annuo ausum ; 
dum avarus assentor et 
blandior dives, et plaudo 
sui, cum contemplor num" 
mus in area* 

Deus praecipio ego ut 
impero cupiditas, moderor 
animus, ausculto verbum 
is, pareo monitumf obedio 
lex, obtempero parens, ob- 
secundo voluntas is^Jamu^ 
lor et ministro illif^et ob* 
sequor imperium, neijue 
servio iracundia* 

Oirisiianusdebeo repugn 
no vitiosus voluptas, reluc- 
tor et obsto principiumira,^ 
rtsisto malwn, adversor 



to oppose the eorrapt practices 
of those who despise virtoe 
and religion, and not to be a 
slave to lust, nor hamourwick- 
ed mea* . 

4. & 5. The general was an- 
gry and enraged at the soldiers, 
lie threatened the standard- 
bearers, he threatened the rnn- 
awajs { bat as he durst not de- 
pend on the courage of his men, 
he resolved to retreat, and trust 
to the night and* the darkness. 
Though at first he did not be- 
lieve the things thkX were said 
concerning the enemj, yet now 
he began to give up his affairs 
for lost, and despair of safety. 

6. 1 cannot restrain my 
tongue, says the gentleman to 
his companion ; the sun shines 
on the wicked, and* few are 
wise lor themselves* I bewait 
the misfortune of the unhappy 
young lady ; she excelled all 
the girls of the east, she was 
taken up with the liberal scien- 
ces, and was always intent up* 
pn philosophy. 

Many young men courted 
this girl, and presents sent by 
many lovers were disdained by 
her ; at length, however, she 
yielded to the gentle command 
of her parents, and married a 
Roman knight; but the event 
did t^l^auswer people's expec- 
tation ; he was a bad husband, 
and the poor creature has bid 
adieu to life ; my voice clings 
to my jaws ! 

II. An honest man endea^ 
voursto satisfy his creditors» 
and to^ act well forthe comovM^ 

pravus tno8 is qui contem* 
no virku et religio^ neque 
inservio cupidiiasj nequi 
morigeror malua homo, 

' Dux aticcenseo et irascor 
mt7eS| minor signifer^ com" 
minor fugitns ; sed cum 
non . audto confido virtus 
miles^statuo recedo, etjido 
nox et tenebrae, Quam- 
v%8 primo non credo is qui 
narro de hostisj tamen nunc 
coepi diffido res suusy ei 
despero salus. 

Non possum tempero lin* 
gua, aio vir combes; sol 
lueeo sceleratusj et pauci 
sapio sui. Doleo casus 
infdix virgo ; excello om» 
nis puella oriensj operor 
liheralis studiumj et sem* 
per vaeo philosophia. 

. Multus juvenii petohic 
puelloy et munus missus a 
multus procus sordeo ille ; 
tandem^ tamen^ cedo ienis 
imperium parens, et nubo 
Romanus eques ; sed res 
non respondeo homo opt' 
nio; sumdurus maritus, 
et miser renuncio vita; 
vox faux haereo ! 

Frobus vir conor satis^ 

facio creditor^ et bm^ado 

respublica^ qui sitm put* 



wealth, which is a fin« thing ; 
be endeavours also to speak 
well of good men, to revile no- 
body, and to do an ill turn to 
none. God often blesses such 
a man, which he does when he 
gives him prosperity» enlarges 
his fortune, and shews him fa- 

IIL Parents often outlive 
their children ; and as some 
men have a weakness of judg- 
ment, and others want pru- 
dence, an old man of this sort 
ought to be present at public 
deliberations, and have the - 
charge of the thing to be done ; 
not that he may have it in bis 
power to hurt any one, but that 
he may be able to do good to 
many ; and God sometimes fa- 
vours such an undertaking. 

IV. M. The thing pleased 
me much ; for the young man 
had resolved to rest in your 
opinion, and adhere to virtue. 
Fortune, therefore, smiled up- 
on him, and favoured his first 
attempt ; and great courage 
was added to his men, whQ rode 
up to the very gates of the city. 

The enemy threw them- 
selves into the river, and en- 
deavoured tOBwim to land. Our 
general returned victorious, 
with twelve Serjeants, who at- 
tended him, and all rose up be- 
fore him, as he came into bis 
tent, where he sat down to a 
feast. The grandees sat by him, 
and six boys watted at table. 

Ante and Con. Tirtue, which 
if always consistent with itself, 
excels all other things, and the 

cher f eonar quoque biM' 
dico bonus homo^ maledico 
nemo J et aialefacio ntdlw^ 
Deus saepe benedico talis 
homo, quifacioy cum do 
prosper, augeo 6oitum, 

Parens saepe supersum 
liberi; , et ut quidam homo 
insum imbecillitas Judi- 
ciumy et <ilius desum pru- 
dentta, senex ejusmodi de^. 
beo intersum publicus con* 
silium^ et praesum res Ja," 
ciendus ; non ut possum 
obsum quivisj fiSed ut poS' 
sum prosum multus ; et 
Deus nonnunquam adsum 
talis inceptum* 

Res arrideo ego valde ; 
nam adolescens statuo ac» 
quiesco sententia iuuSy et 
adhaereo virtus, FortU' 
na, igitur^ affulgeo ille, et 
aspiro primus lahor^ et «n- 
gens animus accedo miles ^ 
qui adequito ipse porta 

Hostis prc^icio sui in 
Jluvius, et Conor adno ter* 
ra, Foster dux redeo 
victor cum duodecim liC" 
tor, qui appareo is, et om^ 
nis assurgo isyvenietsffnta- 
bornaculumj ubi accumbo 
epulae, Primores assideo 
t7/e, et sex puer adsto men- 

Virtusy qui semper cot^ 
SOW) sui, anteeo omnis 
e^tius reSf fit dos animus 



«ndowmeiits of the miiid eseel 
streogtb of body ; bot they o^ 
ten beget pride. Tbere was a 
comedian in Greece, of a cele- 
brated cbaracter, witb whom I 
lived a long time, wbo far ex- 
celled most actors and mosi- 
cians : he used to boast and say. 
Let the boys play with their 
equals, and siog to themselves 
and the muses. 

In. This villain mocks and 
insults all good men ; be is said 
never to have groaned or wept 
at the death of a friend ; bat 
he gapes after gain, and sleeps 
on his bags of money ; he ob- 
stinately persists in, and por- 
sues bis former coarse, thoi^ 
danger seems to hang and ho* 
▼er over him : for a fiein has 
lately settled in his feet, ivbich 
obliges him to lean on a staff, 
as a iioldier leans on a spear, 
or as a boose leans on pillars. 

Inter. There was an alliance 
for a long time betwixt this 
people and their neighbours : 
a war, however, at last broke 
out between them ; they join- 
ed battle in a valley full of 
ferns, which use to^row in neg- 
lected fields : at first the sun 
was shioiug, and the gold glit- 
tered CD their bright armour ; 
many were slain on both sides, 
who w^'e all buried in pits that 
lay betwixt the hills, and more 
would have falleo, had not 
night come on during the time 
of the battle. 

Ob. The lot that has fallen 
to men is mortal : mortality 
occurs» nay often occurs to oar 

anteediovireseorpm ; ut 
waepe gigno iuper&iam Smn 
hiitrio in Qraetictj c^dber 
favMLj qui diu eonvtvo, fm 
longe antestp plerique ac- 
tor 9t eitkaroedus : 9OU0 
glorior el dtco, Pfur sol- 
ludo par J el condno iui et 

Hie gededui iUudo et 
insMo omnis bonus ; dico 
nunqvmm ingemo out ilia- 
chrymo mors amicus ; scd 
vMo lucrum^ ct tmhrndo 
saceus peeuma; pcrtina' 
dtcr tfuto, et inhaereo pri- 
or vesftgttim, etiamsi pe* 
riculum videor impcndco 
et immineo is ; nam doior 
nuper insideopes^ qui co» 
go is intntor baadum^ ut 
miics iniisto hastaj cmt ut 
tectum incumbo eolumna» 

Amicitia diu intercede 
hie populus cumjimtimuf: 
" bellumy tamen, tandem ex- 
orior inter is ; committo 
praelium in vallis plenus 
QJUix, qui soleo itmascor 
neglectus ager : primo sol 
splendeo^ et aurum inter» 
micofulgens arma ; mul- 
tus inUificio utrinque^ qui 
omnis sepelio in fovea qui 
interjaceo monsy et plus 
cadOy nisi nox intervenio 

Sors qui obvenio homo 
sum miortalis : mortalitas 
occurro^ imo oecurso ani' 



thought, and all men struggle 
agaiDflt death in vain ; bat yet 
▼ices creep in npon ns, wick- 
edness stands in the way of 
piety, one decries and depre- 
ciates the merits of another» 
ttw withstand the allurements 
of pleasure, and nobody is dis- 
posed to die for hif* country. 

Prae. Mercury is said to pre- 
side over gain ; but a fair re- 
putation is better than riches. 
Masters ought and use to lead 
the way to their scholars, and 
the boy is worthy of honour 
who outshines his ancestors, or 
outstrips hb contemporaries. 
Providence over-rules human 
devices, and certain signs 
sometimes go before certain 

Sub and Super. Wave suc- 
ceed wave, f^ief comes in the 
midst of joy, old age md pover- 
ty steal opoo you : but do .not 
sink under the burden ; (or 
your &rm, which lies under the 
hill, is far better than its rent, 
and will tiod a purchaser ; and 
as you are cont'^nt with little, 
if but a small part of the price 
shaU be left to you, you will be 
richer than a covetous man, 
whom the wealth of Croesus 
would not satisfy. 

Abto 3« All the rivers run 
into the sea. and we all hasten 
to one habitation. My brother 
inlisted in the army, >vent to a 
battle ; but being worsted, he 
hastened to the shore, fled into 
Africa, and went to the city 
Carthage. His friends, to whom 
the business chiefly belonged, 

mtt«, et omnis ohludor 
mors jruBtra ; aitamenDi' 
tium obrepo ego^ scelus ob* 
tto pietas. alter obstrepo et 
obtrecto laus alter ^ pauci 
obsisto blanditiaevoluptaSf 
et nemo sum paratus oc- 
cumbo mors pro patria, 

Mercurius dico praest- 
deo lucrum ; sed bonus ex- 
istimaiio praesto divitia^. 
Praeeeptor debeo et soleo 
praeeo discipulus^ et puer 
sum dtgnus honor qui 
praelueeo majoresj aui an* 
ieceUo aequalts. Provi' 
dentia praevaleo huuMnus 
eonstliumf et eertus sig» 
fittfi» interdum praecurr^ 
eertus res. 

Unda succedo unda^ 
luctus snpervenio laetitia^ 
senectus et paupertas sub' 
repo tu : sed ne succumho 
onus; nam ager tuus, qui 
subfacfo monsy longe 9U- 
percurro vectigal^ et «noe- 
nio emptor ; et cum sum 
contentus pnrvumy si mo^ 
do exiguus pars pretium 
supersto tu« sum ditior 
avarus, qui opes Croesus 
non sufficio, 

Omnis fluvius curro in 
mare, et ego omnis sedes 
propero ad unus. Meus 
f rater eo in militia, vado 
in praelium ; sed victus^ 
festino ad littus^ f^S*^ ^^ 
Africa^ et pergo ad urbs 
Carthago. Amicus, ad 
qui res maxime pertineo^ 



afterwards brought him back ; 
his years are now on the de- 
dine towards old age. Virtoe 
aims at high things. 

IT So great a madness had 
seized their cruel minds, that 
thejr did not spare the age, 
which even enemies would 
have spaced, and carried on a 
destructive war against their 
children, and children's mo«* 
thers, for whom wars use to be 
undertaken. So great was the 
havock, that the gods seemed 
to have agreed, together with 
men, for the destruction of the 

The chief of the fathers said, 
that his speech was worthy of 
the consular office, worthy of 
so many consulships, worthy of 
his whole life, full of honour ; 
that other consuls had, by be* 
trayiog their dignity, flattered 
the common people ; that he, 
mindful of the majesty of the fa- 
thers, had made a speech suit- 
able to the times. 

Polycletus, a man terrible to 
our own soldiers, is sent into 
Britain ; but he was an object 
of derision to the enemy, 
amongst whom the power of 
freed men was not yet known ; 
and they wondered that an ar- 
my should obey a slave. 

The Christian religion not 
only commands us to help our 
friends, but to relieve those 
that are enemies to us ; for so 
we shall make them our friends, 
and shall promote love, kind* 
ness, peace, and good will 

pQsteareduco; annus jam 
vergo in stnium. Firtus 
ad ardtma Undo, 

Tantus rahies invado 
ferus animus^ tU n<m par» 
CO actoBf qui ttiam hoaiis 
parco ; geroque itUernMci- 
vus bellum cum liberty li» 
berique fguUer^pro qui bel* 
lum Boleo suscipio* Taih' 
tu9 strages sum. ut deus 
videor cofwcnfto, pariter 
cum komOf in txitium par* 

Prim^ires pater dico^ 
concio is dignus sum im- 
perium consularis, dignus 
UU consukUuSf dignus tor- 
tus viiaj plenus 6 honor ; 
alius consul^ per proditio 
dignitas^ aduIorpUbs ; «5, 
mem/or majestas paierj ha^ 
beo oraHo accommodatus 

Polycletus f vir terribilis 
noster milesy mitto in Bri» 
tannia ; sed sum irrisus 
hosiiSf apudqui poteniia 
libertus nondum cognosco ; 
mirorque quod exerdtus 
obedio serviiium. 

Christianus religio non 
modo praecipio ego opitu- 
lor amicusy sed succurro is 
qtd sum inimicus ego ; sic 
enim reddo is amicus^ et 
promfirveo amor^ bef*igni' 
tafy pax et benevoleniia 



MBoog flieo ; whiefa thiDgv 
piMse God. 

The Parthtana «ere ibnncv- 
)y the most obecare amoog the 
pee^e of the east. When the 
empire of Afua ms» traoeferred 
fron the Medes to the PerBiaos, 
they «ere a prey to t^e cod- 
qoerora ; finally, they were 
sobfecC te the Macedoniant ; 
that it may eeem strange to any 
one, that they are arrived to 
fmck a floariehtog condition, 
that they now cpmroand those 
nations to which they formerly 
were under «abjection. 

He that resisteth his own evil 
inclinations, ob^eth God ; and 
deserves greater praise than 
the general who vanquishes 
mighty armies, and takes the 
strongest cities, bnt serves his 
passions, which he cannot go- 

Taken with Ae sweetness of 
that power, yon snffier any 
wickedness to lark neder it 
Let them say the same things, 
M^icb they bawl out here, in 
the camp, and amongst the sol- 
dittB ; and let them corrupt 
oar armies, and not suffer them 
to obey their commanders ; 
since that is at last the liberty 
of Rome, not to reverence the 
senate, the magistrates, or the 

The Lacedemonians, after 
the manner of mankind, the 
more they have, tbe more they 
desire ; for, not content with 
the accession of tbe Athenian 
powers, they began to affect the 

uUer homo ; qui plaeeo 

Parthi sum dim ohieu* 
rus inter pepulus oriens» 
Cum imperiutn A$ia 
tranrfero a Medi ad Per» 
90, snim praeda victor ; 
po8iremOj nervio Macedo ; 
ut videer mirus qwivie, is 
prvoeho adtaniusftltcitas^ 
ut nunc impero is gens qui 
olim servio. 

Qui repugno suus mains 
affeciuSj obedio Deus ; et 
mereor magnus laus quam 
dux quifundb magnus co- 
piae^ et expugno munitus 
urhsj sed servio cupiditas, 
qui non possum moderor. 

Captus dulcedo ispotes- 
taSf sino quiiibet scefut la^ 
ieo sub is. Dico idemy qui 
vociferor /lic, in castra, et 
apud miles; et corrumpo 
exercitus, nee patior %s 
pareo dux ; quoniam is de- 
mum sum libertas Roma^ 
non revtreor senatus^ ma- 
gistratuSf aut lex. 

Lacedo/emonius^ de mos 
genus hum>anusj quod plus 
habeo, id plus cupio; nam, 
non contenius accessio opes 
Atheniensis^ coepi offecio 
imperium toius Asia^ qui 



Bmptre of all Asia» the greater 
part of which was subject to 
the Persians. 

King Camenes met the Ro- 
mans with aid, and a little after 
a battle was fought with Antio- 
cbus : a Roman legion was beat 
in the right wing», and fled to 
the camp ; but M. Aemilius, a 
tribune of the soldiers, who 
bad been led for the security 
of it, commands his soldiers to 
take arms, and threaten the 

Hiero was descended of Hie- 
rocles ; his very education was 
ominous of his future gran- 
deur ; be had a remarkable 
handsomeness of person ; he 
was smooth in hi^ address, juiit 
in business, moderate in com- 
mand,' that there seemed no- 
thing at all wanting to him suit- 
able for a king, but a kins^dom. 

And that no misery might be 
wanting to the most honourable 
families, he obliges tbeir wives 
and daughters to marry their 
slaves, that he might render 
them more faithful to himself, 
and more violent against their 
masters* But such dismal 
matches were more grievous 
to the matrons than sudden 

magnu9 pars parto Per» 

Rex Eumenes occurro 
Romanvs cnm auxt'/mm, 
et patdo post praelium 
committo cum Antiochm : 
RotnanuM legio pello in 
dexterior cornuy etfugio 
ad castra ; sed M. AemU 
liu8^ tribunus miles ^ gui 
rtlinquo ad iutela is, im- 
pero miles capio armdf ef 

Hiero gigno Bierocles ; 
ipse educatio sum prae- 
nuncius futurus majestas ; 
sum is insignis pulchritU' 
do corpus ; sum blandus 
in alloquiumj Justus in ne- 
gotiwny moderatus in im* 
periumy ut nihil prorsus 
video desum is regittm, 
praeter rignum* 

Et ne quid malum de- 
sum konestus domus^ com^ 
pello uxor isjiliaque nubo 
serous suusj ut reddo isfi* 
dus suiy et infestus domi" 
nus. Sed tarn lugubris 
nuptiae sum gravis matro- 
na repentinus funus» 

We were not Imrn for ourselves onljrj We ought therefore to cousult (be interest of 
ottr frrenrls, to he beneficial to mankind, and serviceable to human society. 

Oaoute, une of the kings of Kngland, piously ocknowledged, that none truly 1:ie<- 
serres the name of King:* but he whose eternal laws, heaven, earth, and seas nbev. 

Agamemnon» king of the Argives, con)aiande<i the Grecian fleet in the expedition 
against Troy. But Diana was angry with Agamemnon, because he hnd killed one of 
her deer. Wherefore the provoked gttddess caused audi a calm, that the.Grecian 
shins became fixed and immoveable- Hereupon they consulted the soothsayers, who 
ordered to sacrifice one of Ag-amemnonV children, «od to satisfy the winds and Oia- 
IM. Accordingly bis daughter Iphigenia Is brovght; bat whilst the young lady stood 
Ht the altar, the goddess pitied her, and substituted a hind in her stead. IpbigeBia 
was sent into the Chersonese, where she presided oter the sacrifices of Pliua. 



It It DOt belter tst die by brayeo^, than by dlsgnetto lose « mlHmlileiiid iii|1jB^Qs 
life, aft«r joa have b^n the sport of other men's insolence f But surety ire mre 
«be victory in our bnmts ; oar age Is fresh, oar minds are vigoroos : On the other 
hand, nil thingfs nre decayed to inem ; there is need only of a hepinnini;. W1)0 of 
morials, tb«t has the spirit of a man, can endi^re that they should nave an excess of 
waalin, aiid that a |irivaie estate is wanting to as even for necessaries i In short, 
what hare we left except a miserable life ? 


28« A VERB signifying actively governs the accusative. 

Love God. Ama Deum. 

Hevepence your parents. Heverere parentes. 

I9ol€ 1. The infinitiTe or a sentence sometimes snpplies (he place of the accusative ; 
as, Qeil- I'otitiUre tanii Kon («Mi for potniUnliom. Tcr. Ftci e «erro iibertu» ut ts$et 
mihi ; (or Jed te iibertum. 

Nott 2. NEUTER VERBS have sometimes an accusative : 1. Of Ibeir own or the 
like siKnificacinn; as vkotre viUan^ gaudere gandium^ sa-vire se1^}itf^^efn, ire vinm Ion- 

£ttmtpvignare pracliafgarrire nugas, prandere p/ms« voenare affwtty sitire sanguinem, 
c. 5. When taken fa a metaphorical, op in ^n nctlvp sense; as, Corydon ardehat 
Atexin^ ertpnt $uico$ ei vineta^ ioltare Cydopa^ tonat vUium Metia^ olet kirrvm, spiral 
deam: Abofert niaculam^ laborare «rnt'i, duianre aUquemy norrtt mare, iflnncm pi wcAr< 
raffet», medifu /-audtM palfuit, ke. But <ome preposition, such as at/, iit, o&, circa, pe^, 
is always understood. 

^rfr 3. The accusal ives Aar, M, quUUafiquid, quicqxtid, niAtV, «Jem, illud, teintum^ 
fuantum, multtt, poHcn^ a/ta, cattera, omnia, ure oftea governed by propter^ ob^ or ctrcA. 
un<*er-i»« o<l •, a«, Ten. Num id laerumat virgo ? Plaut- Scio quid erres. liar, ^uicquid 
defirant rtget ptettwUnr Aihivi» 

Note 4. ADVERBS are often joined 'o verl>s, nounii, and other parts of speech, to 
express sqrm» circumstance, quality, or mauuer uf their signifi&ition. 

Nffte 5. The poet» fpequently u*e the neuter gender «f ailjertives atlverbially, or 
instead nf advert*» i as, Virg. Vorvuwtqve repente cfamat ; (wrtorve. Hor. Mtyisfat- 
taoir turbidum ; ♦or tu>bii1e, Virff. Et pcde Itrram crtbrajerit ; for crebro. Id. Traiis- 
versa tuentihu9 kircit ; for tranverse. 

Note 6. The accu?ative after active verb?, in some figfurative expressions, Is govern- 
ed, not by the verb, i»ut by some preposition un'ters*9orl, while tite true accusative to 
ttjf verb is sui>preksed ; iLu;-, Ptrirty ictrf, peratttrejoedut^ is put for, Fertre, &c. por- 
CMM» nd eandewlufn foednt. Pfnngere funern, damnn; (nVy Ptar^ere pectus adjunera^ 
md damna. Cmruerere p/-ac/tuiuy fur, conserert mttnum ad prueliwn faciendum, 

* 29. Recorder, meminiy reminiscor and ohlivisc'or, go- 
vern the accusative or genilive. 

I remember the baltlo. Recordor pugnam, 

1 remember the victory. Recordor victoriae, 

1 miud the ph\ce. Memini tocum, 

I mind the diy. Memini diet. 

He remembers the time. Remini^citur tempus. 

He rcmtmbers the night. Reminiscitur noctis» 



We fiwget refiro;ichea. 
We forget hardshi{». 

Obliviscimur contumdia9, 
Oblixnscimur labor'um» 

Note 1. MemMf when k ligniAes io main menthn of, tnkM tht» |*euUiv» or thr aMa- 
tlve with (.*£, but never (be accusative; ns, 0<*es. Cvjui supra msminiimu. Quinct. D* 
qwbus muUimeminerunt. 

Note 2. Tbe verbs belonging' to tbis rule are genemlly esteemed neuter, and wben 
tbey take tbe accusative, ady nr quod ad is understood } wbeo ibey take tbe grnitlve, 
quod ad nrgoCtitm. or in negotio, is suppressed. 

Note 3. Tbe pbrase, f'enit mihi in tnenfom. «eetnt someway allied to this rule, and 
admits of tbree varieties, vie. V'enit mihi in mentem hate rts^ hujturti, de kao re .* to 
tbe last two may be understood menmria^ or ncordntie ; as, Cic Si quid in meMem 
venitt Id. Miki soUt venirt in menttm iliius Umporit, qw) fuitnM xna, Plaut. /a 
mtntem venit de specnlo. 

^. I love virtue, thoa 
seekest pr'iise, be despises 
pleasure, we practise chanty, 
ye fear God, they honour the 

The boy denerves praise, the 
slave ehall suffer piiDii^hment, 
the man defames his wife, care 
attends money, pride accom- 
panies bouoors. 

God wisely governs the 
world, riches soro<*time8 pro- 
cure envy, bird^ do not every 
where build their nests, the 
dogs nimbly pursue the hare. 

Discord always produces 
strife, strife i^ennrally be^^ets 
hatred, quarrel» xoAen break up 
friendship, h«>nours commonly 
change manner^Q. 

29. A good man eai^ily for- 
gets injuries, but always re- 
members a good turn : a wick- 
ed man sees the faults of 
others, and forgets his own« but 
at length, with sorrow, tihall he 
remember his villa nies. 

Caesar settled the differences 
among the Aedtaans, and having 
exharted them to forget their 
disputes and quarrels, he re- 

j9mo virtus^ quaero laus, 
cont^mno -coluptas^ colo 
charitas^ timeo DeuSj ho» 
noro rex, 

Puer mereor laus^ ser- 
vus patior poena ^ vir cri- 
minor uxor, cura seqttor 
pecuniae superbia comitor 

Deus sapienter guberno 
tnundus^ divitiae tnterdum 
contraho inmdia, avi» non 
ubiviii stnto nidus^ cants 
strenue sector lepus. 

Dtscordia semper parte 
Zt», lis plerumque gencro 
odium ^ jurgiwn saepe dis- 
solvo amicitiai honor vul- 
go muio mos. 

Bonus vir facile oblivis' 
cor injuria^ sed semper re- 
miniscor beneficium : im» 
probus cerno vitium alius 
et obliviscor suus» sed tan- 
dem cum dolor recorder 
Jla^itium suus. 

Caesar compono lis in^ 
ter Aedui^ et coh'rtatus ut 
obliviscor controversia ac 
dissensio^ redeo ad castra» 



tamed to the camp. They re- 
membered his advice, and com- 
plied with bis admonitions. 

IT In the mean time the Ro- 
man people received a terrible 
stroke from the Parthians : nor 
can ivc complain ; for, after 
Crassaa had pitched his camp 
at Nicephorium, depnties sent 
bj king Orodes advised him to 
remember the treaties made 
with Pompey and Sylla. But 
the consul was gaping after the 
Parthian gold. 

Let not the glare of gold and 
silver dismay you, which nei- 
ther protects nor wounds. In 
the very host of the enemy we 
shall find our troops, the Bri- 
tons will espouse their own 
cause, the Gauls will reflect on 
their former liberty, and the 
Germans will abandon the Ro- 

Antiochus, though he ap- 
proved of Anoibal's advice, yet 
would not act according to his 
counsel, lest the glory of the 
victory should b^ AnnibaPe» 
and not his own. He was con- 
quered therefore, and remem- 
bered Annibal'a counsel when 
it was too late. 

Remember the counsel 
which I gave, it will pro6t 
thee very much if thou dost not 
forget it : obey the laws of al- 
mighty God ; obe> the king 
and all [otherjsubordinate ma- 
gistrates, in all things that are 
lawful ; resist the beginnings 
of anger, and yield not to 
the allurements of pleasure. 

Such was the greatness of 

pareo monitum. 

BUtrim Romanms popU' 
lus accipio gravis vulnus 
a Partki : nee possum 
queror ; nam posiqufMn 
Crassus pono castra apud 
Nicephorium, legatus mis- 
sus a rex Orodes denuncio 
ut memini foedus percus- 
sus cum PompeiuM et Syl- 
la„ Sed coiMul inhio Par- 
ihicus aurum» 

Nefulgor aurum at que 
argentum ttrreo tu^ qui 
neque tegOj neque vvinero» 
In ipse acies hosHs invenio 
noster manus^ Britanm 
agnosco suus causa^ Galli 
recordor prior 4 libertaif 
et Germ^ini desero Roma^' 

Antiochus^ tameid pro- 
ho consilium Annihah ta- 
m^n nolo ago ex sentential 
ille^ ne gloria victoria sum 
Annibal, et non suus» Vin^ 
CO igitur,, et memini con» 
silium Annibal cum sum 

Memini 4 consilium qui 
do, ^rosum tu plurimum 
$i 4 ts non ohliviscor': ohe- 
dio lex omnipotens Deus ; 
ohedio rex et omnis \alius'\ 
inferior magiUratus^ in 
omnis qui sum licitus ; re- 
pugno principium tVa, et 
necedo blandiiiae volup- 

Tantus €ummagmiudo 


A1<*xat)der'd soul, that though animus Alexander, ut 

he led a son who was called guamvis relinquofilius qui 

Hercales, a brother who was appello Hercules j /rater 

named Aridaeas, and hip wife qui nomino Aridaeus, et 

Rozane with child, he forgot uxor Roxane pra^gnans, 

his relations, and named the obliviscor necessitudo, et 

most worthy his heir, just as if nuncupo dignus haeres, 

it was unlaw t'ul for any other prorsus quasi nefas sum 

than a brave man to succeed a alms quam virfortis sue* 

brave oian. cedo virfortis* 

DUIicuUies stopify the slttsrlfard, and terrify the fearful, but animate the eouraffeoiu. 

A faithful friend is the roeJicine of life, and they that fear the Lord shall find bim. 

Thnt .man is of a liappy memory, who forgets ii^uries, and remembers tliosethiogs 
that are nroriby of bis character. 

Egeon, called also Briareus. a^as one of the giants ; Virgil says that he bad SO heads 
and lOO hands, Be tu're up solid rocks from the foundation, and burled them against 
Jupiter; yet Jupiter overcame bin, and thrust bim under mount Aetna; where^as 
oAea as he moves bis side, tlte mountain casts fbrth streams of liquid fire. 

The poeis m-ntion a river in hell called Lethe; of the water of which if any one 
drinlis, he immediately fore(>ts all tilings past v so that the «ouls of the pious, wbea 
tbey drinli of the water of this river, straightway forget the miseries which tliey suf- 
ftred in this world. 


* 30. Verbs of plenty and scarcity ; also, utor, abutor, 
friior,fungor, potior , vescor, and some others, generally go- 
vern the ablative. 

He abonnds in riches. Ahundat diviiiis. 

He is free from every fault. Caret omni culpa. 

He uses deceit. Utitur fraude. 

He abuses books. Abutitur libris* 

We depend on hope. JVitimur spe. 

You take pleasure in poems. Gawhs carminihus. 

TUe boy is sick of a fever. Puerfebri laborat. 

To this rule belong, 

1 . Verbs of PLENTY ; as, abundoy exuberoy redundo^ 
scateo^ affluo^ eircumfluo^ diffluo, superjiuo, 

2. Verbs of SCARCITY; as, eareo^ egeo, indigeoy vaco to 
want ; to which add, dejicior^ destituor. 

3. Utor^ abutor,fruor,fimgory potior, vescor, 

4. fiitor^ innitor, epulor, nascor^ creor, glorior, laeiOTy 



detector t gaudeo^ viim^ viciUo^fido^ cw^o^ txulta^ «to» cmi- 
stOy consisiOy cedo^ superaedeo^ labaro» 

Ifote 1. Egto ao'J indigco freqiaently tek* the graidve; m, Oaes. Egwe cnurtfti- 
Cor. Opit ini^ent. AXso amooff the mors aneieot writeri teateo and eartoj as. Lu- 
cret. Terrm teatet ferarum. PTaaL Tvi tartnium tral. Sometimes carta and tge^ 
take the accusative \ a», Plaut. Id can», GeU. MwUa tgto 

NMe 2. Potwr lometimes ffoverss the genitive ; a»t Sail. PoHH whit, to make him- 
Klf master of the city. Id. Totiri hoitmm, to get his raemies into his power, Cie. 
Potiri rtnanf to have the ehlef eommaod. 

Wote 8. Potior, Jkt^9rjve9e»r, and eini2or, sometimes take the accusative; as, Cic. 

Oeiu loicm nottramjnttitura. Tae. Ut nmnerm /ungenntur, Plin. Si caprinKm Jc' 

. ew vcMotif Mr. Id. PtUla$ tfndaru As also, among the more aneient writers, uto»-, 

«Attfor, andyra6r ; as, Plaut. UUrUt ut voles f optram meanu Ter. Operas» dbulitut' 

Id. Jngrnium/rui'. 

Note 4. The aliliitive is not governed bjr these verbs, bot by some preposition un- 
derstood ; such as. a, ah, de, ex, in. And wben any of these verbs takes the genitive, 
some ablative, sucD as re, ne^ofio, coasa, jiracsenCt a , ope, copta, im/rerto, or the like, witli 
a preposition, is ooderstood. 

l9ote 5. With some of these verbs the prepositton is frequently expressed ; as, Liv. 
Tfe a meftt tNicnrent. Cic. Cum cons<ennu ex cm<mo tt cor^ere. Id. Cum grcniter ex 
»n(e«ttni9 <a&or<ire«i. Id. Chjus i» vita nitehatur iolui civUaiit. Id. In virtufe rtctti 

Note 6. The verb?, fide, eonfido, innltor, esde, vaeo, instead of the ablative, take fre- 
quently the dative, as was taught No« 27. 

1. Many men abound in golil Multiis homo ahunda 

anil silver, vrbose houses are aurum atque argentuaif 

full of wickedness. qui domus scelus afflw). 

Some men flow in wealth, nay, Quidam homo circum^ 

overflow in money, and yet de- Jluo opes, imo superfluo 

sire those things most with pecunia, et iamen deside- 

which they abound. ro is maxime qui abundo. 

Neglected sores use to swarm Neglectm ulcus solco 

with vermin, and neglected scaieo vermis^ et negleciua 

fields with noxious weeds ; but ager noxius herba ; sed 

yet this garden abounds in ap-< tamen hie horlus exubero 

pies. pomum. 

This man pleads the cause Hie vir ago eausa stre- 

with great vigour ; he is all be* nue ; diffluo sudor ; re- 

dewed with stv^at ; he is over dundo eloquium ; oratia 

copious iq his language; his iamen abundo omnis orna- 

discourse, however, abounds mentum^ 
with all manner of ornament?^ 

2. Nature needs few things ; JSDjttura egeopanci ; qui 

he however (bat wants friends» autem careo amicus^ et qui 

and be that is weak in judg-* deficior ratio, aut desii^ 

v^ent,^ or is disappointed of his tuor spes^ indigeo cond^ 



expectatioDS» stonda in need of 
advice ; but to be free from a 
fault is a great comfort. 

3. We ought to Qse diligence, 
and not to abuse time ; the life 
which we enjoy is short, let us 
therefore do our duty careful- 
ly ; thus at length we shall ob- 
tain the golden fleece, we shall 
feed OD milk and honey. 

4. Men ought to depend on 
virtue rather than blood ; for 
jf any one persist in this prac- 
tice, and take pleasure in equi- 
ty, he deserves praise. But 
fools often labour under this disr 
temper, tbatthey glory in their 
faults, rejoice at other men's 
misfortunes, are delij^hted with 
Tain hope, and exult in success. 

The rich feast on dainty dish- 
es, but the poor live on barley 
bread, nay some live on husks. 
Let us lay aside prolixity of 
words ; for many poor people, 
descended of honourable pa- 
rents, have retired from the ci- 
ty, on account of the dearth of 

Some men trust to strength 
of bodj', and the stability of for- 
tune, as stags trust to their run- 
ning ; brave men, say they, de- 
scend from brave men, and a 
pretty girl cannot be born of a 
disgraceful mother. 

This field consists of vine* 
yards and woods ; I might re- 
tain it, but I will stand by my 
bargain and my promise ; thus 
good men will praise me, the 
poor will bless me* 

T In Thessaly, Caesar's ar- 
my enjoyed ver;^ ^ood health, 

Hum ; sed vaco culpa mag- 
nu8 sum solatium. 

Deheo utor diligenttaf 
et non abutor tempus ; vi- 
ta qui fruor sum brevis, 
fungor igitur qfficium u- 
dulo : sic tandem potior 
aureus vellus^ vescor lac et 

Homo debeo nitor virtus 
potius quam sanguis ; nam 
si quis innitor hie ars, et 
gaudeo a^quitas^ mereor 
laus. Sed stultus saepe is 
morbus labor o^ ut glorior 
viiium suuSy laetor alienus 
malum^ detector vanus 
spesy et exulto successus* 

Dives epulor opimus 
dapeSf sed pauper victito 
hordeaceus panis^ imo qui- 
dam vivo siliqua^ Super- 
sedeo mullitudo verbum ; 
nam multus pauper^ prog- 
natus konestus parens^ ce- 
do urbsj propter caritas 

Quidam homo confida 
firmitas corpus^ et stabili- 
tas fortunay ut cervusjido 
cursus ; fortis^ inquam, 
creor fortis, et formosus 
puella noil possum nascor 
mater pudendus. 

Hie ager consto vinea et 
sylva; possum retineoy sed 
sto pactum et promissum ; 
sic bonus ego laudoy pau^ 
per ego benedico* 

In ITiessalia, Caesar ex- 
^rciti^ utor bmus valttU" 



and rery great plenty of water, 
and aboaiided in every kind of 
profision, except corn* 

Great armies need i^reat gene- 
rals. Though Caesar's soldiers 
had long wanted corn, and had 
endured the most pinching fa- 
mine, yet no word wn» heard 
from them unworthy ot the ma- 
jesty of the Roman people, or 
of their former Tictoriea. 

He seems to me to live, and 
enjoy life, who, intent on busi- 
ness, pursues the glory of some 
famous action or useful art. But 
in the great multitude of affairs, 
nature has pointed out different 
ways. It is a glorious thing to 
act well for the republic, and 
it is no despicable thing to 
speak well. 

The victory was the The- 
bans' ; but Epaminondas, whilst 
he performed the office, not on- 
ly of a general, but al<o of a 
very gallant soldier, was grie- 
vously wounded. It is uncer- 
tain whether he was a^ better 
man or general ; he was frugal 
of the public money ; he was 
more greedy of glory than of 

After thii>, Vitellius obtained 
the government, a man of an 
honourable rather than a noble 
family ; he, as he bad a mind 
to be like Nero, was slain by 
Vespasian's generals, and, be-' 
ing throwninto the Tiber,«irant- 
ed common burial. 

The Scythians have not any 
house, or dwelling, or habita- 

do^ summusqueeopiaaiptat; 
dbundogue omnis genus 
commeatus^ praeter fru' 

Magnus exercitus tgeo 
magnus dux, Quamvis 
Caesar miles diu careo 
frumentum^ et sustenfo cx- 
trenmsfitmesj tamen nuU 
lus vox audio ah ts indig» 
nus majestas populus Ro-^ 
manus^ aut superior victo^ 

Is vidtor ego mvOy et 
fruor aninta, qui, intent us 
negotium, quaero gloria 
aliquis praeclarus f acinus 
aut bonus ars. Sed in 
mngnus copia Ves, natura 
osteniio diversus iter, Su^ 
pulcker benefacio respubli- 
ca, et non sum absurdus 
bene dico, 

Victoria sum Thebanus ; 
sed Epaminondas ^ duni^ 
fungor ojfficium, non tan-- 
turn dux, verum etiamfor^i 
iis miles, graviter vulnero» 
Sum inccrtus sumne vir 
bonus an dut ; sum par- 
cus publicus pecunia ; sum 
cupidus gloria quam divi'^ 

Dein, Vitellius potior 
imperium, vir honoratus 
magis quam nohilis GJa- 
milia ; hie, cum volo sum 
similis Kero occido a Ves- 
pasianus dux, et, deject us^ 
in Tiberis^ careo commu^ 
nis sepultura, 

Scythae non sum ullus 
domus^ aut tectum, aut 


tion ; they carry their wives seda ; veho ux6r Hherique 

and children along with them suicwn inplaustrum^ qui 

in waggons, which they use in* utor pro domus ; vtBcor 

stead of houses ; they live on lac et ferina ; usus lana 

milk and venison ; the use of sum prorsus ignotus ^5• 
wool is quite unknown to them. 

Do you think that this most Tu credo hie pulcher 

beautiful city consists of houses, urbs sto domus , tectum ^ et 

roofs, and a pile of stones ? congestus lapis ? Iste mu- 

These dumb and lifeless things tus et inanimus possum in- 

may perish, and be repaired : tercido^ ac reparo : aeter- 

the eternity of the state, and nitas res^ et pax gens^ in- 

the peace of nations, depend columitas senatus nitor. 
upon the safety of the senate. 

The land of Canaan, into which Motes conducted ihe Israelites, not only Sowed 
with milk and honey, bat with wine also } as appears frem the large buneb of grapes 
Which the spies brought to Uoses. It aboonded also in springs of water. 

The poor man wants some things, the lumrioos own many, and the eoTetoui man 
ivantt all things. 

When Babel was a building, they made use of burnt bricks Instead of stoue, and 
slime instead of mortar. Straiio affirms tlie tower to have been 6G0 feet high. It cea^ 
lAsted of eight square towers, one ab«V8 another, which gradually decreased in breadth. 
This, with the winding of the st^rt from top to bottom on the otttiide» rendered It in 
some sort like a pyramid. 

Active VERBS governing atnther case together with ihe 



* 31. VERBS of accusing, condemning, acquitting, and 
admonishing, with the accusative of the person, govern also 
the genitive of the crime or thing. 

He accuses me of theft. Arguit mefurti» 

I condemn myself of laziness. Meipsum inertiae condemn 

They acquit him of manslaugh- no. 

ter. Ilium homicidii absolvunt. 

We put the grammarians in Grammaticos officii sui 

mind of their duty. comm^mem/as. 

1. Verbs of ACCUSING are, accuso^ ago. appellor arces- 
soj anquiro^ arguo, incuso^ insimuloj interrogo^ postulOf alii- 
gOt astringOy defero^ compello, 

2. Verbs of CONDEMNING are, damno, eondemno, in^ 
famOf tioto. 



3. T^rbs of ACQ][nTTIN6 are, ahsoho, Hbero, purge. 

4. Verba of ADMONISHING are, moneo^ admoneo^ com^ 
moneo, commonefado. 

the gvolUve, take freqoeotly tbe ablative, «md that Hther with or wUhoul the prepo- 
sitkMl 4e ; as, Olc Acaaarr me dt tpistilanttn nef^ignUia Id. De repetundi» tuvii 
pulMkatit Id. De praevarieatiane cum As^here. Id. Enm de vi eendtmntmii. Id. 
Smk turn erimnibuM meeuseA». Id. itfeiuiC nc ectlert m aUiget. Lir. Coruulem «U|h- 
titime eAeohert, Gic Lihrari»» eutpu lihero» Tac AdoUteetUem erimine purgetvii 
VIrg, DamHobi* (« qitioque votie, Gie. CondtmntAo U eodem erimme. Eat. Ptertmot 
Mjiirf Ammovif* 

JfaK 2. dcnaoi Imcmm, iajtMiilOf MmetimM tak« two aceofatlvet', as, Plaut Siidme 
nan «00mmm> Ter ^S*"* "«^ inem»iKotrmi, Plant. 5m me iiuinw/ca^ falnmfaeinM. 

Note S. Vert» of ADHOMfSHINOtlmt^ul of the genitive, uke Mmetlmea the ab- 
lative with ile ; aSfCic. CTit Ttieutimmwittmeatig de testemunU. Id De fuovoepeaUo 
auU admamu. Id. Te de indtUgentia patrim eommonehtU» And sometimes they govern 
two accmatlves; as, Olc. Eos hoc iiMiieo. Ter. Id UKum te tnoiMo. Id. iHhMC nu ad- 

NHe 4. The genitive, strictly qieaklDg. is not governed by the verbs mentioned in 
this role, but by s^tme ablative understooa; sach ftf, crimiiic, aoe/er«, peecoea, evdpny pot- 

nOt (Mfitne, «nufto, nomine, re* emio, ergo, fcc ai, ifceitM tefwrli 1 1 e.ortmuie/wrfi. 
And these, or any ather ablatlva. is always governed Iw de or «a expressed or nmler- 
ftood. When verbs of admonishing take two aocMatifes, eirca or fiiecl mi may be 
naderslood to the aocnsatlve of the thing. 

1« He that accuses another Qut ;incuso alter pro- 

of a crime, ought to look well brums deben intueor sui 

to himself; for it is tbe proper* ipse ; nam 8um slultus^ aC' 

ty of a fool, to accase another cuso alter peccatum^ qui 

of a faolt, of which he himself ipse mmeonscius* 
is guilty. 

The soldiers wer6 in a tkge« Miles frem^^et coepi ar^ 

and began to charge the tri banes guo triounus majestas ; ac 

with treaiPOD and treachery, and proditio^ et insimulo cen^ 

to accuse the centarions of ara* turio avaritta. 

The depnties have accused Legaius postulo hie ho- 

this man of extortion ; be can- mo repetundae ; ipse non 

not «»overn his toni^ne, he will possum moderor lingua^ 

make himself guilty ot^ theft or alligo suifurtum aut am-- 

of bribery. bitus. 

2. Forbear to charge your Parco damno amicus 
friend with villany, or reproach tuus sceiuSf aut infamo is 
him with arroi^ance ; he con- arrogantia ; condemno sui 
demns himself of rashness, he ipse teweritas^ condemno 
condemns himself of foolish- sui ipse amentia, 


3, The senate neither freed Senatus nee libero homa 



the man of the fault, nor accus- 
ed him ; but after he had clear- 
ed himself of all the things that 
were alleged, the judges acquit- 
ted him of the trespass. 

4. Our infirmity often re- 
minds us of mortality, sickness 
warns us of death, adversity 
ought to admonish us of our du- 
ty, and put us in mind of reli- 

IT Julius Caesar was a very 
spare drinker of wine, and so 
easy ns to his diet, that he is 
said once to have made use of 
old oil, served up instead of 
fresh, that he might not seem 
to accuse his landlord of care- 
lessness or clownish ignorance. 

Not long after Coepio and 
Hispo accused Mnrcellus, pre- 
tnr of Bithynia, of high treason. 
The calamities of the times and 
the insolence of men rendered 
Hispo and his way of life after- 
wards famous : at first he was 
neetly and obscure, but turbu- 
lent ; he made his court to the 
cruelty of the prince. There 
remained even then some tra- 
ces of expiring liberty. 

Capito objected, that Thra- 
sea, though invested with the 
priesthood, had never made ob- 
lations for the safety of the 
prince, and that he had not at- 
tended the funeral of Poppea. 
Capito was an enemy to I'hra- 
sea, hecanse he had supported 
the depnties of the Cilirianf», 
when they accused him of ex- 

A certain informer long ago 

culpa^ neque arguo ; sed 
postquam purgo m om' 
nis qui (ifferOf judex ab- 
solvo is injuria. 

Imhectllitas nosier saepe 
(ulmoneo ego mortalitasy 
morbus moneo ego mors^ 
res adversus debeo coin- 
tnonefacio ego qfficium nos- 
ier ^ et commofieo ego reli- 

Julius. Caesar sum par- 
ous vinum^ et adeo indiffe- 
rens circa victuSj ut dico 
quondam appeto conditus 
oleum^ appositus pro rm- 
diSf ne videor arguo hos^ 
pes negligent ia aut rusti- 

Nee multo post^ Coepio 
et Hispo postulo Marcel' 
lus, praeter Bithynia , ma* 
jestas. Miseria tempus et 
audacia homo f ado Hispo 
et forma vita postea cele^ 
her ; primo sum egens «I 
ignotus^ at inquies ; adre- 
po saevitia princeps, Ma^^ 
neo etiam turn quidam ves* 
tigium moriens liberias, 

Capito ohjeeto^ Thrasea^ 
quamvis praeditus saeer- 
^ dotium^ nunquam immolo 
pro solus prtncfps^ et non 
intersum funus Poppea, 
Capito sum inimicus Thra- 
sca, quod juvo legaius Ci" 
lix^ dum interrogo is re* 

Delator quidam oliii\ 


accmed tUs honest man of a acciuo hie probus virfa* 

tricked action ; the jndgei how- cintu ; judex iamen non 

ever did not find him gatltj of condemnois seelus^ sedtih' 

the villanj, but absoWed him solve is crimen, ScelercL» 

from the charge. The caned iw homo conjicio in car» 

rogoe was cast into prison, cer, ubi vita gram mors 

where he leads a life worse exigo. Saepe damno 

than death. He often blames tempus infelicitas^ qui 

the times for the mishap, of ipse sum causa. 
which be himself is the canse. 

On the other side the consul Ex alter pars, consul 
bade the Romans remember juheo Romanus memini 
their former bravery ; he pat pristinus virtus ; admatuo 
them in mind of the Arentine is Aveniinus et Sactr mons^ 
and Sacred rooant, that they ut pugno pro libertas, qui 
shoold fight for their liberty, nuper recupero. 
which they had lately recover- 
ed. • 

When the army of the thirty Cum exercitus triginta 

tyrants, of which the greatest tyrannuSi (j[ai pars magnus 

part were Athenians, fled, sum Atheniensis^ J^gio^ 

Thrasybalas called oat, and pat Thrasybulus exclamo^ et 

them in mind of their relation, admoneo is eognatio, lex, 

their laws, and their old fellow- et vetustus commilitium 

ship daring so many wars, and per tot bellum^ et ora ut 

begged that they woald pity misereor exul civis, 
their banished countrymen. 

Alexander, in his passage, Alexander , in transi* 

put the Thessaliaas in mind of fut, adtnoneo Thessalus 

the kindnesses of his father ben^ium pater Philip^ 

P hilip, and his mother's alii- pus^ et matemus necessi' 

ance with them by the lamily tudo cum hie ab gens Ae- 

of the Aeacidae. The Thes- cidae. Thessalus audio- 

salians heard these things glad- hie cupide, et creo is dux 

ly, and made him captsin-gene- universus gens, 
ral of the whole nation. 

MMm reqaeited of BMcbofl, tlwt wUatever be touched m\g\ t bpcomr gold : Bac- - 
chiif coofonted. Whatever, therefore. JHidiis touched, iosUmtly becAnie gruld ; nay, 
when he touched hli meat or drink, they also became gold. Midas, now sensible of 
his miitake, «ceuaed himself of foUy, and desired Bacchus to remove thi» pemiciouii 
gilt Bacchus complied, aod bid him bathe in the rirer Pactolns. Midas did so,aiid 
lienee the send of that river became gold. 

Sesostris. king of Egypt, had his c&riot drawn by four captive kings, whom he bad 

not condemned to die. But as one of them continually fixed his eye upon th«? cltarlot- 

"ibeel, Sesostris asked him what be meant f The eaptive king i rplied, The turning 

H r**^* P"^ "^" ^^ °*^"*' "^^ ^**"* foi^iune i fflr that part which i« now liigbesi, pre* 

senuy becomes lowest} and that which hi lowestt becomes highest. 


* 32. Verbs of valatog, with the accusative, goyern sach 
genitives as these, magniy parvi^ nihilif &c. 

I value you much. ^estimo te magni. 

You little regard me. Tu meparvi pendis. 

Verbs of VALUING are, aestimo, existimo, duco^ facio^ 
habeo,pendo^puio,taxo; to these add ramand^o, which 
likewise govern the genitive of value, but do not take the 

The rest of these genitives are, ianti, quanti^pluriSy mi' 
noriSf maximi^ minimi, plurimi ; also, assis^ tMuci, Jlocci^ 
piliy teruncii, hujusypensi. 

Note I. To this rule may be referred these phrases, aequi honiqw/adQ, or tuqui 
honi/aeiof and bon» eetuu/o. 

jtfote 2. The verb atstimo, instead of the genitive, takes sometimes these ablatives, 
magnOf permagno^ parvo, nihilo, nownikUo ; as, Senec. Data magna aertimaSy aooepta 
parvo, Oic Quia tit nonnikilo acUinumdmn^ Id. Tu i$ta permagno oMttmiifc 

Note 3. The snbftantive understood to the adjectives magnif pani, ice, is preiti, 
«eri5, pond^ri», momeniij or the like; and the construction may tie thus sup|riieds Jet- 
</mo te magttt, i. e. aestimo tc esse hominem magni pretii. Jtstimat peeuniam parvif 
i. e. aestimat peeuniam esse rem parvi momenti-, or ifans, aestimo te pro homine majpai 
pretii, euelimat peeuniam pro re parvi momenti. In lilne manner, fetkuc aefui (onioiie 
faeioj i. e.fado isthuc rem oefutbontque hominis vel negotii. And someway similar 
to this is that jof Nep. Quae U/e universa ntttwali qito^m bono fecit /ueri, i. e. feat 
rem lucru 

Epicurus valued pleasure at Epicurus voluptas m^g' 

a great rate ) but a vrise man num aestimo ; sed sapiens 

values pleasure at a very low voluptas minimum facio, 

Brave men little regard big Vir fortis jactans rer- 

words, and they value threats bumparvumpendo, etmi- 
as nothing. ' nae nihilum facio. 

I do not value those men a JVbn is teruncius facio, 

farthing, I do not value the au- non nauci augur haheo, tu 

gurarush, I value you more plus quam omnis ille puto. 
than them all. 

That fellow did not vahie me Iste homo non unus as 

one penny ; he went off, nor ego aestimo; abeo, neque 

did he value a pin what 1 said, qui dicojloccus existimo. 

Cassius likewise plighted his Cassiusqtioque fides suus 

own faith, which Jugurthavalu- interponoy qui Jugurtha 

ed no less than that of the pub- non minus quampublicus 
lie. • duco. 

Most men value money very Plerique hQmo pecunia 




. much, and gold is valaed a 
great deal every where. 

£very evil is as great as we 
rate it : a wise man, however, 
▼alaes reputation more than life 

There is nobody in all this 
house who regards what he 
either says or does before the 

War makes many bishops, 
who in peace were not valued 
so much as a farthing or a pin. 

IT It is not the part of a wise 
man to say, I will live well to- 
morrow. Virtue is the most 
precious of all things. It is 
therefore the part of a fool to 
despise that «^bich all men 
ought to value more than riches 
or pleasure. 

A wise man values pleasure 
very little, because it is the 
bane of the mind, and the cause 
of all wickedness and misery ; 
but 'he values no possession 
more than virtue, because it is 
an ornament in prosperity, a 
comfort in adversity, and the 
fountain of all public and pri- 
vate happiness. 

Thebes, both before *Epami- 
nondas was born, and after his 
death, was always subject to a 
foreign power ; on the other 
hand, as long as he governed 
the commonwealth, it was the 
' head of all Greece. From 
which it may be understood, 
that one man was more worth 
than the whole city, and that an 
army is just as much worth as 
the general is. 

maximum fatio, et pasiim 
plurimumjio aurum, 

Unusquisque malum sum 
tanium qiuintum ille taxo ; 
sapiens^ tamen^ aestimofoL" 
ma plus quam vita ipse. 

Nemo sum in hie totus 
domus qui pensum kaheo 
quis coram infans aut dico 

Bellum gigno m:ultu8 
episcopus^ qui in pax ne 
quidem terundus aut pilus 
fio. ^ 

Kon sum sapiens dico, 
vivo bene eras. Virtus 
sum pretiosus omnis res. 
Sum itaque stultus sperno 
is qui omnis debeo aestimo 
plus quam divitiae aut vo- 

Sapiens facia voluptas^ 
minimum^ quia sum pestis 
animus, et origo omnis set' 
lus et miseria ; sed aestimo 
nullus possessio plus quam 
virtus, quia sum ornamen- 
tum in res secundus, sola- 
tium in adversus, et fons 
omnis publicus dl privatus 

ThebaCy et ante Epami- 
nondas natus, et post is in- 
teritus, perpetuo pareo a- 
lienus imperium ; contra 
is^ quamdiu ille praeswm 
respublica, sum caput totus 
Graeda, Ex qui possum 
intelligo, unus homo sum 
plus quam totus civitas, et 
exercitus sum tantum quan^ 
turn imperator» 


A boar had made the fountain nmddy, oat of which a bone of a proud cpirlt lued 
to drink. The horse, full of wrath, intreated h man, that he would assist him against 
the boar. The man leaped upon the bacic of the horse, and slew the boar. The bone 
was glad ; notblDg was more Joyful than the foolish borse. The man Iben spake to 
the burse thus : I value you more than the boar which I have slciin; a horse is the 
most useful of all quadrupetfs ; hitbert* you have been free from i.tbour,-you shall act 
return to your former way of life. The horse, now sad, accuseil himself of great 
madness*. Pride, said he, hath pushed roe on to revenge; my foolish pride is now a 
grief to my heart} I wish I had forgot the small injury done by the boar *, I am no 
more ray own master. 

33. VERBS of comparing, giving, declaring, and taking 
away, govern the dative with the accusative. 

I compare Virgil to Homer. Camparo Virgilium Home- 

• ro. 

Give every man his own. , Suum ciiique tribuito. 

You tell a story to a deaf man. Karras fabulam surdo. 

He rescued me from death. Eripuit me morti. 

Give not up your mind to plea- . JVe addicas aniinum volup* 
sure. taii, 

1. Verbs of COMPARING are, comparoy compono, con- 
fero, atquoy aequiparo ; also, antepono^ anttfero^ praepono, 
praefero ; ^Lnd^ postponOf posthabeo^ postfero, &c. 

2. Verb» of GIVING are, do, tribuo, largior,praebeo, mi' 
nistro^ suggero, suppedito. To «vhich add verbs of RE- 
STORING ; as, reddo, restiitio, retribuOy rependo^ remeiior: 
of ACQUIRING ; as, quaero^ acquiror paro, pario : of 
PROMISING ; as, promitto, polliceory recipio, spondeo ; sl- 
so, debeoy salvo yas^o^vindico, mitto, relinquo, and innu- 
merable others. 

3. Verbs of DECLARING are, iidrro^ dico^ rnemoro, lo- 

quor^nunciOy refero, declaro, aperio, expono^ explicOy signi- 

fico, indico , monstroy ostendo^ &c. To which add verbs of 

DENYING ; as^ nego, injidor : and CONFEbSING ; as, 

fateoTy conjiteovy &c. 

4. Verbs of I'AKING AWAY are, atifero, adimo^ eripioy 
eximo^ demoysurripioy detraho, excutio, extorqueo^ &c. 

6. To these may be added a great many active verbs, 
compounded with the "prepositions, ad, in, ob, prae, sub, 
and innumerable other veibs that cannot be reduced to dis- 
tinct classes.- In short, any active verb may govern the da- 
tive with the accusative, when together with the thing done 
is also signi&ed the person or thing to or for whom or which 
it is done. 


NaU 1. Compan, en^fero, oempoiw, Insteiui of the dative, tiin freaoently the ahla- 
live with cumf us, Gic. Ut hominem cum .komine compcretis. Sail* M^icta cum factii 
cempencre, Clc- Conferte kanc paeem eum iUo hello. 

Note 2. Verbs of TAK15Q AWAY, Instead of the datire, have often the ablative, 
wllh c, ab^ dtf c, or etc ; as Ter. Au^errt ah atiquo Iriginta minas. Cic. Eripite n^» 
ex miserlis. Plant. De magnit divitiis «t juid denua, Sec The prepasition is soiue- 
times sni^pressed -, as, Virg. Fagind eripit enum. 

Note 3. The accusative Is sometiires suppressed ; as, Supplirare idicux, sc. gtnutt. 
NvJhert eilieuif so. m vel vultum. impontre a/icut, sc. «arctnom vel riMmli fuidpiam. 
Detrahere elian, sc» laudem. Ignoture (Uieut, «c culpcan^ tic- 

Note 4. These verbs, Aorcor, «icvtCe, vooe, provoeo, antma, «liimiZe, oonformoy laeetso, 
inuigo, tneitoy nucito^ idticioy ptUicio^ and the like, instead of the dative, talie the ac- 
cusative, «rith the preposition cul, or sumetimes tn. 

]• The co?etOQ8 maDCom- AvaruB comp<momagnu9 

pares great things with small, parvus^ tt postpono onmis 

aad disregards everjr thing in nummns, Sentx comparo 

comparison of money. Old iuisenex^eiantefsro oiium 

. men compare themselves with negoiium ; at puer fere 

old men, and prefer retirement poathabeo serins Indus, 
to business ; hot boys general- 
ly postpone serioas matters to 

Fools compare themselves Stultus confer o sui mag' 

with great men, and prefer nus^ et praepono voluptas 

pleasure to virtue ; but wise virtus ; sed sapiens aeouo 

men put tfaemself es on a level sui inferior ^ et praejero 

with their inferiors, and prefer amicitiapecunia ; posfero 

friendship to money ; the}' less opes lihertas^ et antepono 

value wealth than liberty, and mors servitus, 

prefer death to slavery. ^ 

2. God hath given an erect Deus do subhtnis os ho- 

countenance to man^ bestowed mo, fribuo is multus dos 

on him many endowments of animtis,etlargior is terra 

mind, and granted him the earth in domicilium, qui suggero 

for a habitation, which yields gramen pecus, ministro 

grass for cattle, affords flowers flos apis, suppedito atitnen" 

&t bees, finds food for man, and turn homo, et praebeo ma' 

furnishes fuel for fire. ieria ignis» 

If this tyrant will not restore Si hie tyrannusy nolo 

liberty to the citizens,^ return reddo liberias civis, resti- 

things to their owners, refund tuo res dominus suusy re- 

the money to the people, or re- iribuo pecuniapopuluSf aut 

pay to every one his own, the rependo tiuisque suus.po" 

people ought to seek for them* pulus debeo quaero alius 

selves another governor, and praefectus suif atque acquis 

procure an enemy to their foe. ro hostis inimcus suus* 



This covetoaa fellow lays vp 
riches for others, bat he will 
not gain praise to himself : he 
has lately betrothed his daugh- 
ter to a geDtleman, to whom he 
has promised a large portion ; 
bat he will not perform what 
he has promised to him ; for he- 
designs to leave a very great 
estate to his son. 

The gentleman who used to 
send letters and presents to 
you, begins now to claim and 
assume high titles to himself ; 
you owe him a great sum, and 
it is net year part to pay him 
bad money instead of good ; you 
owe your life to him. 

3. This man brings good 
news to ns ; he has told the 
whole affair to his master, and 
has assigned me the reason why 
he did so. 1 give credit to his 
words, for he does not use to 
tell a falsehood to any one, but 
speaks the truth to all ; in this 
affair he has behaved well, 1 
will return him the favour. 

It is the part of a fo^l to dis- 
cover his sentiments to every 
one, to unfold his thoilghts to 
' mockers, to expose bis mistakes 
to enemies, or to open bis ears 
to flatterers ; but we may dis* 
cover any thing to a true friend, 
or signify oar roiod to him by a 
letter. ' 

It is the part of a good man 
to show the way to him (hat 
tvanders, aodi point out to him 
his road. It is also the part of 
a good man to confess his 8in« 
to God, and own his mistakes 
to vl^tK Sot be does wicked* 


Hte avatus paro divt- 
iiae alius ^ sed non pario 
laus sui : nuper spondeo 
filia vir^ qui polliceor am- 
plus dos ; sed non praesto 
qui promitto is; namsta- 
tuo relinquo permagnus 

Vir qui solto miiio litera 
et munus tUj nunc incipio 
assero . et vindieo magnus 
tiiulus sui ; debeo Hit 
grandis pecunia, et non 
sum tuus solvo is adulteri' 
nus nummus pro bonus ; 
debeo vita Hie, 

Hie homo fitincto res 
laetus ego; narro omnis 
res doniinusy et memoro 
ego causa quare Uafacio. 
Tribuo fides verbuniy non 
enirn soleo Hicofalsus qui-* 
vis^ sed loquor verum om- 
nis ; hie in res ago bene, 
refero is gratia» 

Sum stultus deelaro sen- 
ientia situs quivis^ explico 
cogitatio suus irrisor, ex^ 
potto error suus inimicus, 
aut aperio auris assenta^ 
(or ; at possum indico qui^ 
vis res verus amicusy rtwt 
significo mens is per lite^ 

Sum bo7ius vir monstro 
via errans, et ostendo is 
iter. Sum etiam bonus 
vir confiteor peccatum 
Deus^ etfaieor error homo 
At improbejaeioj 9^^'^^go 
opis fofna^ 4mt infi^or u. 



ly, who denies aid to his couo- 
try, or refases a legacy to the 
man to whom the testator hath 
left it. 

4. Pain takes away the en- 
joyment of pleasure from men, 
and often removes sleep from 
their eyes. Wine removes the 
load from an anxious spirit, and 
takes off the gloom from the 
brows. But it is the property 
of philosophy to remove error 
from the mind . 

Fortune often snatches away 
wealth from the rich, but she 
cannot filch away honesty or pro. 
bity from the virtuous. It is not 
easy, however, to extort money 
from a covetous man ; you will 
sooner wrest the club from 
Hercules. But you may easi- 
ly strike fire from a fiint. 

5. A wise man suits himself 
to nature, and adds virtue to 
virtue ; but a fool gives up his 
mind to intemperance, and 
brings misery on his country ; 
sometimes he tarns robber, and 
puts a sword to the throat of his 
countrymen ; he joins wicked 
fellows as comrades to him, and 
adds strength to the mischief. 

A brave man easily pardons 

ters many things, himself no- 
ig ; he proclaims war against 
his lusts, but never desires to 
make war upon his country, or 
engage himself in civil broils; 
Jbe rather chuses to fasten his 
darts in the backs of enemies, 
to strike a terror into them, or 
toiaflict punishment on crimi* 

We ought to oppose a stoat 

gaium homo qui legator 

Dolor aufero fructus ro- 
luptas homOf et saepe adi- 
mo 80 mnns oculus . Vinum 
eximo onus solichus ani- 
mus^ et demo nubes super- 
cilium. Sed sum proprius 
philosophia detraho error 

Fortuna saepe eripio 
opes diveSy at non possum 
surripio honest as aut pro' 
bitas bonus. Haudfacilis 
tamen sum extorqueo pecu- 
nia avarus ; cito extorqueo 
clava Hercules. Sed pos- 
sum facile excutio ignis 


Sapiens accommode sui 
natura^ et addo virtus vir» 
tus ; at stultus addico ani- 
mus intemperantiay d ad- 
fero calamitas patria ; in- 
terdum fio latro^ et adma- 
veo gladius jugulum civts ; 
adjungo pravus homo sO' 
cius suiy et adjicio vires 
malum. • 

Fortis vir facile ignosco 
alius mullus^ sui nihil ; tn- 
dico helium cupiditas suus^ 
sed nunquam cupio infero 
bellum patria, aut insero 
sui eivilis dissensio ; malo 
infgo tehtm tergum hostia, 
incutio terror tWe, aut if" 
r(^o poena peccans. 

Dtbeo oppwo forth p$ct 



heart to hard fbrtone ; but w«e 
ought not to throw ourselves in 
amoDg the darts of the enemy, 
and expose our life to danger 
without cause, especially now 
when night begins to spread 
darkness over the earth. 

The bees prepare meat for 
the winter ; and a king ought 
to imitate them, and provide 
those things that are necessary 
for war or a siege ; he ought 
to set a general and lieutenants 
over his forces, and prescribe 
to every one his duty, that he 
may be able to prevent access 
to the enemy. 

The king being frighted, puts 
spurs to his horse, and with- 
draws himself from the battle ; 
his army was routed and put to 
flight ; the cities and towns 
soon after began to submit 
themselves to the conqueror, to 
put their necks under his yoke, 
and subject themselves to his 

Gold and poverty have often 
persuaded men to bad things ; 
but 1 give thanks to God, that 
my brother has done you no 
wrong : I give credit to the 
words of the messenger more 
than to yours ; 1 will not shut 
my ears to the truth. 

Gody who has threatened 
most dreadful punishment to 
the wicked, commands us to 
set bounds to our desires, and 
give a check to lust ; ht us, 
therefore, lend a patient ear to 
his admonitions ; let us not de- 
vote ourselves to pleasure, nor 

iu8 adversus res ; sed non 
debeo objicio ego telum 
hosiis^ et qffero caput peri- 
culum sine causa ^ pratstr- 
tim nunc cum nox incipio 
offundo caligo terra. 

Apis praeparo cibuf 
hiems ; et rex debeo imiior 
isy et paro is qui sum ne- 
cessarius bellum aut , obn^ 
dio ; debeo praeficio dux et 
legatus copiae^ et praescrir 
bo unusquisque munia suuSj 
ut possum praecludo aditus 

Rex territus^ subdo cat- 
car equus^ et subtraho sui 
pugna ; exercitus is /undo 
fugoque ; urbs et oppidum 
mox coepi submiito sui vtc- 
tory suppono coUumjugum^ 
et subjicio sui imperium ts. 

Aurum et pauper tas 
saepe suadeo malum homo ; 
sed ago gratia Deus^ quod 
frater m/eus facia tu nidlus 
injuria : habeo fides ver- 
bum nuncius magis <ptam 
tuus; nolo claudo auris 

Deusy qui minor gravis 
supplicium impiusy jubeo 
ego statuo modus cupido 
noster^ et injicio fraenum 
libido ; commodOf igituf^ 
pdtiens auris monitum i$ ; 
ne dedo.egovoluptasy ne- 
que trado egomet socordia 



give up ourselves to sloth or 

Note 4. The general con- 
formed himself to the inclina- 
tion of the prince, and called 
the rogues before him ; they 
had provoked us to anger, had 
challenged us to a combat, had 
spirited np others to the same 
crime, and spurred them on to 
arms. The next day, however, 
the general invited them all to 
a least, and exhorted them to 

The love of praise rouses 
men to their doty, disposes their 
minds to industry, and incites 
them to glorious actions. But 
the love of money prompts men 
to vilfamous practices, allures 
Ihera to wickedness, and enti- 
ces maids to dishonesty. 

IT When Eomenes under- 
stood these things, he called his 
soldiers together, and first he 
gives them thanks, that none 
was found who preferred the 
hopes of a bloody reward to the 
obligation of his^ oath ; then he 
cunningly subjoins, that he had 
-foiled these letters, that he 
might try their affections. 

After this, Alexander invites 
his friends to a feast ; where, 
when mention was made of the 
things which Philip his father 
had dene, he began to prefer 
himself before his father, and 
to extol the greatness of his 
own exploits to heaven, wbtlet 
the greater part of the gtiedts 
said as he said* * 

When the ambassadors of the 
AiheBmns «ame to Alcihiades, 


Dux conformo sui ad 
voluntas rex^ et sctUstus ad 
sui voco ; lacesso ego [ad 
ira, provoco ego ad certa- 
men^ animo alius ad idem 
crimen J et stimulo is ad ar- 
ma, Pastridie^ tamerij 
dux invito omnis ad epu- 
laCf et horior is ad pax. 

Amor laus suscito homo 
ad offidum suusy inelino 
animus ad diligentia^ et in- 
cito is ad praeclarus /aci- 
nus, Sed amor nummus 
insiigo vir in mnlus ars, 
allicio is dA nequitia^ et 
pellicio Virgo ad stuprum. 

Cum Eumenes cognosco 
kicj convoco miles^ et pri- 
mo ago is gratia, quod ne- 
mo invenio qui antepono 
spes cruentus praemium 
Jides tacramentum ; turn 
callide subnecto^ sui confin- 
go kic epistola, ut experior 

Post hic^ Alexander vo- 
co amicus ad convivium ; 
ubiy curn mentio orior res 
qui Philippus pater is ge^ 
ro, coepi praefero sui pa^ 
tery et extollo magnitudo 
res suus caelum tenus^ dum 
mngmts pars conviva as^ 

Cum legatus Athemensis 
venio ad Alcibiades^ poUi^ 



he promised them the king's 
frieDdship, if the goveroment 
should be transferred from the 
people to the senate. The 
Athenians, because the danger 
of the war hung over them, had 
a greater care of their safety 
than honour ; wherefore the 
government is transferred to 
the senate. 

The coming of the Carthagi- 
nians recalled Dionysius the ty- 
rant [out of Italy] into Sicily. 
Hannotbe Carthaginian was ge- 
neral of that war, whose ene* 
my, Soniatus, the most power- 
ful of the Carthaginians,, en- 
deavoured to give notice of his 
coming to Dionysius ; but Han- 
no intercepted the letter, and 
condemned Suniatus of treach- 

Virginius weeping said never 
a word a long time ; at last he 
liRed up his hands tp heaven, 
and begged of his fellow -sol- 
diers that they would not as- 
cribe the villany of Appius 
Claudius to ^ him ; that they 
would not abhor him as the mur- 
derer of his children. He told 
them that^the life of his daugh- 
ter was dearer to him than bis 

Af^er Alexander, Arrybas' 
step-son, and brother of Olym- 
pias, was come to the age of 
twenty years, Philip, king of 
Macedonia, took the kingdom of 
Epire from Arrybas, and gave 
it to the youth ; being wicked 
towards both ; for he did not 
observe the laws of affiaity to- 
wards him from whom he took 

ceor is amicitia rex, 8% reS' 
puhlica translatus forem a 
populus ad senatut, Atht' 
niensis, quod perieulum 
betlum is immineo, sum 
magnus cura salus quam 
dignitas ; itaque imperium 
transfero ad senatus. 

^dventus Cartkaginien- 
sis in Sicilia revoco Z^t'ony- 
sius tyrannus [ex Iialia'\. 
Hanno Ckirtiiaginiensis sum 
dux is bellunif qui t'ntrm- 
cus, Suniatus, poiens Foe* 
91119, Conor praenuncio ad" 
ventus is Dionysius ; sed 
Hanno comprehendo lite» 
racy et damno Suniatus 

Firginitis Jkns miito 
nullus vox diu ; tandem 
iendo manus ad caelum ^ et 
oro commilito ne attribuo 
scelus appius Claudius sui; 
ne aversor sui ut parrici- 
da liberi. IHco is vitafi- 
Ha sum car us sui suus. 

Postquam Alexander, 
Arrybas privignus, et /ra- 
ter Olympias, pervenio ad 
aetas vigiuii annus. Phi" 
lippns, rex Macedonia^ 
eripio regnum Epirus Ar- 
rybas^ et dopuer ; sceUsius 
in uterque ; nam nan servo 
jus cognatio in is qui adi" 
mo regmtm^ etfado is qui 



the kingdom, aad be made him 
to whom he gave it adebaochee, 
before he made him a king. 

Alexander commends the loy- 
alty of the Persians, as well to 
their former kings as to him- 
self. He puts them in mind of 
his kindnesses to them, how he 
had never treated them as a 
conqnered people, but as the 
companions of his victory ; and 
now he says, that he would trust 
the guard of his person, not oit- 
ly to the Macedonians, but to 
them too. 

Almost all the east appoint- 
ed divine honours and temples 
for Jasoa ; which, after many 
years, Parmenio, a general of 
AleJ(ander the Great, ordered 
to be pulleddown, lestthe name 
of any. one should be more ve- 
nerable in the east than the 
name of Alexander. After the 
death of Jason, Medios his sour 
built the city «of Medea, in ho- 
nour of his mother. - 

The Athenians, therefore, 
against so great a storm of war, 
chuse two generals, Pericles, a 
man of tried conduct, and So- 
phocles, the «vriter of trage- 
dies ; who both laid waste the 
lands of the Spartans, and add- 
ed many cities of Achaia to 
the empire of the Athenians. 
This affair procdred to the ge- 
nerals the love of the citizens. 

Wheretore, as all the pre- 
tenders were invited to the 
, wedding, the Grecian strangers 
are desired likewise to the 
feast ; then the young lady be- 
ing introduced, was ordered by 

do impudicus^ antequam 
facio rex. 

. Alexander laudo fides 
Persae^ turn in pristinus 
rex, turn in tut, Admo- 
neo i$ beneficium suus in is, 
%U nunquam kabeo is quasi 
victus^ sed veluti socius 
victoria ; et nunc aio, sui 
credo cwtodia corpus sieits, 
non tantum, Macedo, sed is 

Toiusfere oriens consli- 
tuo divinus honor et tern- 
plum Jason; qui^postmul- 
tus annus, Parmenioy dux 
Alexander Magnus^ jvheo 
diruOf ' ne nomen quisquam 
sum venerabilis in oriens 
nomim Alexander. Post 
mors Jason, Medius is fi» 
lius condo urbs Medea ^ in 
honor muter. 

Athenienns^ igiiur^ ad» 
versus tantus tempestas bel- 
lum, deligo duo dux, Peri- 
cles, vir spectatus virtus, 
et Sophocles, scriptor tra^ 
goedia ; qui et vasto ager 
Spartanus^ et adjicio mid- 
tus civiias Achaia imperi- 
um Atheniensis, Is res 
condlio dux amor civis. 

Itaque cum omnis pro- 
cus invito ad nuptiae, 
Chraecus hospes rogo etiam 
ad convtvium ; deinde ^tr- 
gointroductus.jubeo a pa- 
ter pomgo aq^d is, qui 



her fatliter to deliver water to 
him, whom she chose for her 
husband. She taming to the 
Greeks, delivers the water to 
Protis, who afterwards huilt 
Massilia nigh the mouth of the 
river Rhone. 

Claudius Caesar made war 
upon Britain, which none of the 
Romans after Julius Caesar had 
meddled with ; he added like- 
wise some islands lying in the 
ocean beyond Britain to the 
Roman empire, which are call- 
ed the Orkneys, and gave the 
name of Britannicus to his son. 

Vespasian was a ^ince of 
the most charming goodness, as 
who did not easily punish those 
guilty of treason against him» 
beyond the pain of banishment ; 
but he was too greedy of mo- 
ney, yet so that he took it from 
nobody unjustly, and bestowed 
it very liberally on people in 
want. He added two very po- 
tent nations, twenty towns, and 
the isle of Wight near Britain, 
to the Roman empire. Under 
him too Judea was added to the 
Roman empire, and Jerusalem, 
the most famous city of Pales- 

Cyrus takes Sybaris, and re* 
turns to Persepolis ; where he 
called the people together, and 
orders them all to be ready with 
hatchets, and cut down the 
wood which hung over the 
highways ; which when they 
had readily done, he invites 
them all to a feast the day aft«r. 
Annibal's advice {leased king 

eligo vir, Ille conversua 
ad Graecus, perrigo aqxui 
Protis^ qui postea condo 
Massilia prope ostium am' 
nis Rhodanus. 

Claudius Caesar infero 
helium Britannia^ qui nul- 
lus Romanus post Julius 
Caeiar attingo ; addottiam 
quidam insula positus in 
oceanus ultra Britannia 
Romanus imperium, qui 
appello OrcadeSy impono- 
que nomen Britannicus Jl' 
lius suus. 

Vespasianus sum prin^ 
ceps placidus bonitasy ut 
qui nan facile punio reus 
majestas contra sui, ultra 
poena exilium ; sed sum 
avidus peeunia^ tamen ita 
ut aufero is nullus injuste, 
et largior is studiose indi- 
gens. Jidjicio duo validus 
gens, viginti oppidum^ et 
insula Vectae proximus 
Britannia, Romanus impe- 
rium. Sub hie quoque Ju* 
daea accedo Romanus im- 
periumy et Hierosolyma, 
clarus urbs Palestina. 

Cyrus assumo Sybaris, 
et ' regredior ad Persepo- 
lis; ubi convoco populus, 
etjubeo omnis praesto sum 
cum securisy et excido syU 
va qui immineo ma ; qui 
cum sirenue facioy invito 
omnis ad epulae postridie, 

Annibal cofmhum pla^ 



Antiochus ; wherefore one of 
Anoibars coiDpanions is sent in- 
to Africa to the CarthaginiaDS) 
to encourage them to the war. 
and tell them that Annibal woald 
come preeeDtly with aa army ; 
that nothing was wanting but 
the countenance of the Cartha- 

Whilst all were amazed at 
the cruel tyranny of Aristoti- 
mus, Hellenicus, an old man, 
who had no children, gathers 
together his friends, and ex- 
horts them to the delivery of 
their country. They conspire 
together against the tyrant's 
life, and Aristotimus is taken 

It is a commendable thing for 
a boy to apply his mind to the 
study of good letters ; they 
will be always useful to him, 
they will procure him the fa- 
vour and lore of good men, 
which those that are wise va- 
lue more than riches and plea- 

ceo rex . Antiochus ; quarc 
unus ex comes Annibal mit- 
to in Africa a4 Carthagi' 
nietisiSj tU hortor is ad bel- 
lumj et nuncio Annibal 
mox venio cum exercitus ; 
nihil desum nisi animus 

Cum omnis stupeo ad 
saevus domdnatio Aristoii' 
muSy HellenicuSy senex^ qui 
nullus liberi sum^ contraho 
amicus suus^ et hortor is ad 
vindicta patria. Conjuro 
in caput (ytannus, et Aris' 
totimus opprimo* 

Laudabilis sum puer ad- 
jungo animus ad studium 
bonus literae ; sum semper 
utilis illcy concilio illefa- 
vor et amor bonus^ qui qui 
sapio aestinw plus quam 
divitiae et voluptas. 

Godfaatbettowedupon all bficrealnres some arms or weapons for their defence. 
To the birds be has gfVen wingSt to the lions strength ; horns to the bulls ; siiflgs to 
the bees ; and to roan be huth given wisdom, which is a more excellent weapon, and 
sharper than a two-edged sword. . 

Do not, says Hanno, give yora'selves ap to «n immoderate Jof; Mago deceives you. 
It is oniv Imaginary trlumplis he pruroises you. If we are to believe him, Annibal 
has cot ibe Romnn nnmles to pieces; why, therefore, does he ask more soldiers ? Me 
has twice taken and plundered the Roman camp ; be is loaded with Ixraty '• why, 
therefore, should we send him more money and provisions f The Romans do not de- 
sire peace, and consequently are not so much bumbled as he would persuade us. Let 
Ui not ezliausi ourselves merely to satisfy AnnibaPs pride. 

When Caios, a Roman nobleman, bad beeten Pyrrbus king of Epire, and driven 
him out of Italy, be divided some lands among bis soldiers; to every man be distri* 
buled four acres, and reserved no more for himself; for none, said be, ought to be n 
general, who will not he content with the share of a common soldier; I would rather, 
quoth be, rale over rich men, than be rich myself. 

There are a great many miseries to which nothing but death can give relief. Death 
pots «a end lo the sorrows of the afflicted and <M)pressed ; it sets the prisoners at li- 
berty ; it dries op the tears of the widows and fatherless; it eases the complaints of 
the hungry and oalced; it tames the proudest tyrants, and puts an end to all oar la- 


^ 34. VERBS of asking and teachjog admit of two acca* 
satives, the first of a person, and the second of a thing. 

Beg pardon of God. Fosce Deum veniam, 

^He tanght me grammar. Docuit me grammaiicam, 

1. Verbs of ASKING arc, rogOj oro^ exoro^ obsecro^pre' 
coTf poscOf reposcOfJlagito. 

9. Verbs of TEACHING are doceo, tdoceo» dedoceo^ eru» 

Noi/t 1. The verb ce/o also governs two aeeiuatiTes; at, Ctla ktmo rem iworemi eon- 
eea£ thU effknrfrvm^ifniTv^t, Bot we alao uy, Cc/o t< ck Aoe re, and oeto f i&i AemorcM. 

N«it 2. Verbs of ASKING often ebange tbe aoeosatiTe of the penon into the ab- 
lative, with a. «b. or aftt ; a^ Pfaiut. Ah «mmm «r^ewCum rogu» Cle. ^juxd alMtAia a te 
JtagUent tu vtdibia» Virg. Feniam erennu «6 »jm0. Plaut. Kee 9«aeiiam e«f, jwan veto 
ego me «6« <e eatorare. 

NoU 3. Verbs of TEACHING freqaenily diange the accusative of the thiag into 
the aUative, with d» ; as,'Gic. ^!uid ttt torn arrogan$t quum ck rcftw divtau coUegwm 
jwirti/Seum aoeere 7 BadL Dc itinere AMtium «eiurtutn edoeet. 

J<7ole 4. We say, {nefruo, {Mtt/iM,/onN9, ni/brmo, tm&Mo aZcgtiem arttdw , gencfhilly 
without any preposition. 

Nou 5. other verbs are sometimes found construed with two accusatives; as, Ter. 

^lyenliim, quod Aa&ee. eonioncniwe fc. Gie. LAUrat «d Ce, a eoiuu/e, nanqntu le «/(- 
snta Poifij^finum o^Ceef ofw» 

WoU 6. The accusative of the tbing is not governed by the verb, but by ad^ ftod 
«d, ncundumf ctre«, or «ft, underfetood. 

1. When I ask money of jroa - Cum rogo tu nurmnus 

without a pawn, you say, I sine pignus^ non habeo^ in»- 

have none. quam* 

This one thing I beg of you. Hie unus tu oro^ ut deri' 

that yon would give over lying ; no mentior ; sino ui exoro 

gmnt that I may obtain this fa- tu kip venia, 
vottrofyou. '^ 

We all beg peace of you, the Pax tu posco omnis^ 

soldiers beseech this of you» . miles tu hie obsecro^ dux 

the general himself entreats ifs^ hie tu precor. 
this of you. 

He ordered that they should Jubfo ut adeo ad Ferres^ 

go to VerreS} and demand of tt reposeo %s simulacrum 

Aim the statue of Ceres* and . Ceres et Victoria^ 

I have a bounteous stock of Sum ego benignus vena 

Natural sense» and th^ rich ingeniumf di-^sque ego pe* 

ctfurt me though pot)r ; I im- tQ pauper ; lacesio deusni' 




portttDe (he gods for notbiDg 
more, nor do I doo my potent 
friend for greater tfainga, 

2. Poverty teaches some 
men temperance, and makes 
them reKoquish their former 
fashions ; bat those men act 
wisely, who ask life» health, 
and subsistence of God. 

Minerra taught Telemachus 
all her arts, she taaght him the 
laws and precepts of war. 

Note 4. Instruct this boy in 
the Greek and Latin languages ; 
he is a youth of extraordinary 
hopes, and of the highest vir« 
tue ; instruct him in all the arts 
which you yourself hate stu- 
died ; and this I chiefly beg of 
you, that you season his mind 
"with piety. 

IT The people conferred on 
him the sovereignty ; they did 
not take the advice of the more 
elderly, Dor asked them their 
opinion. Thus whilst they are 
angry at the senate's power, 
they deliver themselve», with 
their wives and children, into 
slavery ; wherefore the tyrant 
seizes sixty senators, lays them 
in chainsi and threatens them 
with death. 

After they all with tears had 
begged peace of the king, he re- 
plied» if they would give him 
pledges, that he might know 
they would do the things which 
(hey had promised, and if they 
would satisfy his allies and 
neighbours for the injuries 
which they had done them, 
f hat he would make peace with 

hil supra^ nee flagito po- 
iens amicui largus» 

Egestas docno aliquis 
temperantia, et dedoceo t$ 
prior mos; sed hie homo 
ago pruderUer ; qui rogo 
Deus vitttf salus, et victus, 

Minerva edoeeo Telema- 
chus omnis ars suus^ erudio 
is lex pra^eeptumque beU 

Insiituo hie puer Grae» 
cuset Latinuslitera; sum 
adoleseens eximius spesy et 
summus virtus ; instruo 
ille omjiis ars qui tu ipse 
studeo ; ethic praesertim tu 
oroy ut animus is pietas t>n- 

Plehs defero is summits 
imperium ; non consulo se- 
nior^ neque rogo is senten- 
tia suus, Ita dum irascor 
senatus potentia^ trado sui^ 
cum conjux et liberie in 
servitus ; itaque tyrannus 
comprehendo sexaginta se- 
fzator, compingq in vincu^ 
lum, ei minor ille m^rs. 

Postquam omniscum la- 
cryma posco rex pax, re- 
spondeOy si do sui obses, ut 
tntelligo isfacio is qui poU 
liceor^ et si satisfacio socim 
etfinitimus suus de injuria 
qui infero ipse, sui facii) 
pax cum is. 



Vitellias» bent oo the death 
and punishment of almost every 
one ) cut off a great many noble* 
men ; he scarcely spared , any 
one of the usurers and publi- 
cans^ who had ever demanded 
of him a debt or duty ; he put 
to death also some of the com- 
mons, because they had cursed 
the blue faction. 

After him, Marcus Antoninus 
held the govensment alone, a 
man of the most frank generosi- 
ty, whom all men admired ; he 
was trained up to philosophy 
by Apollonius ; to the know- 
ledge of the Gredi; tongue by 
Sextus, the grandson of Plu- 
tarch ; Fronto the orator taught 
him the Latin tongue. 

Pythagoras taught the ma- 
trons chastit;^, and complai- 
sance to their husbands ; he 
taught the boys modesty» and 
the study of letters ; amidst 
thes<l ihlngs he inculcatflQ upon 
all frugality, as the mother of 
virtues ; he recommended temr 
perance, and recounted every 
day the mischiefe of luxury* 
So great iVas the admiration of 
this man, that, after his death, 
they made a temple of his 
house, and worshipped him for 

Catiline taught the youth, 
whom he had seduced, many 
wicked practices ; for as every 
one's fancy, according to their 
age, was fired, he furnished 
whores to some, bought dog* 
pxA horses for others ; in short, 
be spared neither expense nor 

VitelUuSf pronus odnss 
atque suppliciumfere qui$m 
qucj occiao mulius nobilis 
vir ; vix pareo ullusfoent^ 
rator publicarmsque^ <iui 
unquamjiagito sui debitwm 
aiU portorium ; interimo 
et quidam de pleht^ quod 
maledico venetus/iHtio* 

Post 19, Marcus JIfUonu 
nus teMo r$9publica «o^f| 
vir promptus liberaHtas, 
qui omnis rniror ; instituo 
ad philosophia per ApollO' 
mu9 ; ad scientia Graeeui 
titera ptr Sextus^ n^os 
Plutarchus ; Fronto orator 
doceo is Latinus literOf 

Pythagoras doceo ma- 
trona pudicitiay et obsequi- 
tim in vir ; doceo pner mor 
destiaf et studium litera ; 
inter hie ingero omnis fm* 
galitas, velut genetrix vir* 
tus ; laudo temperantia^ et 
enumero quotidie vitium 
luxuria. Tantus sum ad' 
mii^atio hie v»r, vt, post 
mors is^ Jado tempium ex 
domns iSf coloque is pro 

Catilina edoceojuventus^ 
qui illieiOi mtUtus malus 
f acinus ; nam uti quisque 
studium t ex aetas/jlagro^ 
praebeo scortum alius^ mer^ 
cor cams aique equu» 
alius ; postremo^ pareo nt^ 
quesumptus neque meiti* 


his own modesty, provided he tia suus^ dum facto ille ob* 
coald make them subject and noxtusjidusptt m« 
trustj to him. 

Solomon aiked wMom of God ; ami Ood taid mCo him* Beeaufo tlioa halt t^ed 
ihto ttatnff, and hast not asked of me long life, nor riches, nor the life of thino ene- 
alet, behold I have done according to thy word. Loi I have given thee a wise and 
nadentandUig heart, and have also given thee, that which than Last not asked, ricbea 
tnd honour. 

Before Jove, no husbandman mannred the Selds. the earth of itself produced eve- 
ry thing. But now mwrdj steers torn up the soil, harrows break the sluggish clodSy 
«nd the swains any lo the gods for niobt sommers and serene winters. 

When Herenus killed the giants Albion and Bergion, his arrows were wafted in 
the ilgbt, so that be wanted armsj wherefore he begged aid of Jupiter, and obtained 
Ihrai nim a shower of stones. $. 

Teach thy son obedience, and be shall bless thee} teach him temperance. and he 
shall have health j teach btan nmdenoe, and fortune shall attend him \ leach him set- 
•ttce, and his life shall be uieful ; teach him religion, and his death shall bo happy. 

^35. VERBS of filHog, loading, binding, depririog, 
clothing, and some others, require the accusative with the 

He filled the bowl with wine. Implevitpateram mero. 

They load the ship with gold. Navem onerant auro. 

He bound Gaul in fetters. VinculUGalliowiastrinxitm 

He deprived his father of life. Patrem vitapvivaviu 

He clothed the wall with pic- Parietem tabults ve$tiebat^ 

tures. . , ^^^ 

He exchanges squares for Mutat quadrata rotundis. 


We present you with this pipe. Hac te donamus dcuta. 

You give me great joj. Affidzme magna laetitia, 

1 . Verbs of FILLING are, impUot campleo, expleo, repleo^ 
saturo, ob$aturo^, satioj refercio, ingurgitOy ditoy and the 

2. Verbs of LOADING are, onero^ cumtdoy premo^ oppri- 
fno, operioy obruo : to which add verbs of UNLOADING ; 
such as, levoy exonero» 

3. Verbs of BINDING are, astringo, alligo^, devincio^ 
impedio, irretio^ Ulaqueo^ &c. : to which add verbs of LOOS- 
ING ; such as, solvo^ exsolvo, libera ^ laxoy expedto. 

4. Verbs of DEPRIVING are, privo^ nudoy orbo : to 
which add verbs of SPOILING ; such as, spoliOf fraudo^ 

5.^ Verbs of CLOTHING are» vestio^ amieiOf induo^ cingOt 

70 liATIN SYNTAX. |« 

tBgo^v4ot^o9H>n^ ccJlc€a : tt wbicb add their 
€xuo, discingo. 

6. The other v^rbs belonging to this rote are, mnta, do^ 
nOy munerOf remunero^ cpmrnunieo^ pascOf beo^ imperHor^ 
dignor^ qfflciOf prostquorj spargo, tncetso^ tWector, o6/ecto, 
and the like. 

IfoU U Impleo, ooMfiZeo, and es^eo, Mmettaiet take the aceimtive nnd genltlTe ) 
as, Liv. Jdotuomltm am» fnmniafit impku Pbi«t. JVrarir ilh^ «I imnUUM mh^ 
ptAo. Virg. AninwmfM «aepU»»ejmtthit uUrktUJkmmM» Afld among tba more an<i 
clent authors, also «aturo and obsatur»; as, Flaut. Hm res vitmau lat m r a ni . And 
hence their passives someUmes retain the genitive; as. Virg. Impi/mimt «c^srbBoceAt. 
Oic. Cum eamjietuijam menatonan career tuet» tiucret SangiiM» es^^u narikuf- 
Ter. liHui obttawaiere, 

NtAt S. These passire verbs of clothing, «iiAier« omioter, vmfioT^ dngWy aeobigtr | 
also, ««nor, dueingor^ and their participles, have fw^nently the aeensatlve with thf 
poets ; as. Ovid. Jnduitur faeum cuUumpu Dianat» Vfarg. inutiie ferrvm emgiiwr. 
Id, Bxumma indutv» AMUei. Ohiod. Canas«M£if«mMS. aH Egtiia fiadanm Bat 
with prose authors they have the ablative; as. Curt' FssCe Arabica tndmitvr. Ltr. 
Bispano dngitur glodiO' Cic Pof/tum gmo cnnictw. Tae. JBbntfus omni&iaybnuitM. 

Noi€ S. Pasemr dep. iastead of the ablative, sometimes take the accusative: as,yirgl. 
Pasountur tylvas. 

Note 4. The abkitive is not governed by the verbt belonging to this rule, but by 
some preposiUott understood *, such as, a, <A, ib, e, c«, mm, pn ; and which as» son** 
timet expressed ; as, Mart. D* Jtava loamln injpur* nunuta. G ic Jroem Mrbi» ah «a- 
tendia liberam, Llv. Laxare animion o ltAer9ms> C«es. Soh»r» naves e pertn. Self. 
flUtare beilum pro pace. Piin. Menttantm mUcmjut sunt konart tfrnmopntHfui- Whea 
the passive verM of clothing talie the accusative, odlt fuod ad, or ptr, h understood. 
And when any verb belonging to this rule takes the geniUv& smn^ ablative, iuek as 
re, iMfsf i«, ooiisa, or the like, with a preposition, is uoderstooo. 

iVo(0 5. Several of theise ablatives may be referred to the ea«se, mamer» er tnstm- 
ment, of which in No. 53. 

1 , The ty raat fil 1 ed his con n- Tyrannus impleo patrid 

try frith blood and slaughter, he sanguis et caedes^ repleo 

filled the city with havock and civitas strages et interne" 

carnage, he filled every house cioy compleo omnis domus 

with mourning, which filled luctus, qui refercio homo 

men's eara with dismal stories, auris dirus rumor. 

After he had satiated himself Fostquam expleo sui ul- 

with revenge, after he had tio^postquamsatiosuicae' 

glutted himself with slaughter, des^ postquam saturo sui 

after he had satiated himself sanguis ciw^ accumbo 

with the blood of citizens, he epulae, et ingurgiio sui ci» 

satdown to afeast, and i^lutted bus poiusque» 
himself with meat and drink. 

^. After they had loaded the Postquam jcumulo altare 

ftUars with presents, they dis- donum^ exonero stii cura^ 

burden themselves of cares, et onero ndvis arma it com" 

and load the ships with arms meatus^ et egressiis e por- 



and prorition, and sailing ont of 
(be harbour they covered the 
whole sea with their fleet 

But Aeolus, who controls the 
winds with imperial sway, bad 
resolyed, when night should co- 
ver jthe earth with darkness, to 
bury them 'tinder the waves, 
whilst there should be none at 
hand that could relieve their 
minds from the distress. 

d. You will easily gain over 
good men by acts of kindness ; 
but it is necessary to tie up 
some men by laws, to bind o- 
thers with chains, that they may 
not obstruct the public good by 
their private quarrels. 

The wicked endeavour to 
ensnare others with the allure- 
ments of vice ; but they can* 
not disengage themselves from 
troubles, or extricate them- 
selves from sorrows ; for though 
fortunesometimes delivers them 
from punishment, she never 
frees them from fear. 

4. This new philosophy de- 
prives us of our rest, despoils 
us of our judgment, bereaves 
us of our senses ; it cheats the 
youDg men out of their diver- 
sioos, cozens the old men out 
of their money, nay, it robs the 
temples of ^presents. 

5. The ancients used to 
clothe their bodies with the 
skins of wild beasts, and to co- 
ver the temples of the gods with 
boughs ; but men now clothe 
themselves with garments of 
silk, even when winter has co- 
vered the earth with snow. 

The Athenians used to crown 

tfu operio ioius pelagui 

At Aeolus^ qui ventus 
imperium pretnoy itatuo^ 
cum nox obruo terra lent' 
brae^ apprinio is fluctus^ 
dum nuUus adsum qui le- 
vo animw cegritudo. 

Facile devincio bonui be- 
neficium; at necesse sum 
ligo quidam lex, astringQ 
alius vinculum^ ne impedio- 
bonum publicus' privatus 

Malus Conor irretio alius 
illecebrae vitium ; at non 
possum laxo sui molestia^ 
aut expedio sui aerumna ; 
licet enim fortuna inter- 
dum libero is suppliciumf 
nunquam tolvo is metus. 

Hie navus philosophia 
privo ego quies, spolio ego 
judicium^ orbo ego sensus ; 
fraudo adelescens oUecta^ 
mentuM^ emungo senex ar^, 
gentum, itno nudafanum 

Fetustus soleo vestio cor- 
pus spolium fera^ et velo 
delubrum deus frons ; at 
nunc homo induo sui seri*- 
cus vestimentum, etiam 
cum bruma amicio terra 


Atheniensis soUoeorem 



their conquerors with olive, or 
bedeck the jtemples of their 
beads with laurel, when they 
had forced an enemy from their 
camp, or saved a citizen by their 
arms ; they ased also to crown 
their poets with ivy or laurel ; 
they shod their comedians with 
sandals, and their tragedians 
with buskins. 

6. The man who doth not 
pursue his enemy with curses, 
nor maul him with darts, but 
exchanges resentment for 
friendship, is worthy to be lov- 
ed. ^ The poets will present 
him with immortality, they will 
reward him with encomiums, 
they will extol blm with ho- 
nour, and celebrate him with 
praises. Others will enrich 
him with gifts, and entertain him 
at their table. 

That fellow bestrews the 
ground with leaves, he feeds 
himself with herbs, and amuses 
himself with trifles ; I will not 
compliment him with a saluta- 
tion, I will not dignify him with 
such an honour. 

.IT Some men value reputation 
more than riches, or life it- 
self; wherefore the tyrant, 
whilst he thinks himself despis- 
ed, is in a rage, and resolves to 
fill the city with slaughter ; but 
it was to no purpose to be an- 
gry with those who did not va- 
lue him a rush. 

When Alcibbdes returned, 
the Athenians loaded him not 
only with all human honours, 
but divine ; they compensated 
his losses with presents : they 

victor olta^ aut cingo Jiem* 
pus lauruSf cum exuo hottis 
casirUf aut tego civis at- 
ma; $oleo etiam corona 
poeia hedera aut laurus ; 
comoedus calceo soccus^^et 
tragoedus cothurnus. 

Vir qui nan insector ini- 
•micus maledictumf autiti' 
cesso is jaculum^ sed muto 
ira amidtitty sum dignus 
amxt, Foeta dono is aetef" 
nitaSf rethuneror is elo' 
gtum, cLffixio is honors et 
prosequor ts laus. Alius 
beo is munus^ et communi' 
Co is mensa. 

Iste homo spargo humus 

foliuntf pasco sui herba^ et 

oblecto sui nugae ; ego nan 

impertior is salus^ haud 

dignor is talis honor. 

• Quidam aettimo fama 
plus quam divitiae^ etut m- 
ta ipse ; itdque tyrannusj 
dum puto sui contemnOj 
saevio, et statuo repleo ci- 
vitas caedes ; sed de nihi- 
lum sum irascor ilU qui is 
nonfloccus facto* 

Cum Aldbiaies rede^ 
Athenientis on€ro is non 
tantum omnis htmianus Ae- 
nor, sed divinus; expUo 
dttrimeniittn m^nus : ns 



haJ Dot the unfortunate battk 
of Sicily in their mouth») but 
the cooquett of Greece ; nor 
did they make meniioo of Sy* 
racusei but of looia and the 

After he had obliged the 
neighbooriog princes with acts 
of kindness and complaisance» 
he lays a plot for his sister^s 
son, whom he resolves to de* 
prive of life and of his posses- 
sions ; and he would have rob- 
bed bim of his kingdom» had 
not a mutiny of the soldiers eo- 
sued| whom he bad cheated of 
their pay. 

At Aiesta, Caesar drew two 
ditches fifteen feet broad, the 
innermost of which he filled 
with water conveyed from the 
river. This the enemy after- 
wards endeavoured to cover 
over with hurdles, and fill up 
with the rampart. 

Varro says, that he had a li- 
oness of marble, and winged 
Cupids sporting with her, some 
of which were holding her tied 
fast, others were forcing her to 
drink out of a horn, others were 
shoeing her with sandals, and 
that ell were of one stone. 

Such was the slaughter of the 
scattered soldiers, that the A- 
thenians sustained more damage 
in that battle, than they had 
caused in the former ; and so 
great was the despair among the 
Athenians,, that immediately 
they changed their general Al- 
cibiades for Conon. 

If I shall only touch upon the 
most consideirable virtues of Pe- 

iUt in OS $um advenuB fug- 
na StcUia^ ud 7)ictoria 
Gratcia; ntc SyrMtuae^ 
s^dhnia^ HelUspontutque 

Postquam devincio fini'\ 
timva rex beneficium et 06- 
sequiumy tororfilius tnsi" 
diae instruo^ qui staiuo 
privo vita et possessio ;■ et 
spolio is regnumf ni seditio 
miles insequor^ qui stipen* 

Jipud Mena^ Catsar 
perduco duo fossa quinde- 
cim pes laiusj qui interior 
compUo aqua exflumen de-^ 
rivatus. Hie fiosiis postea 
Conor tntego crates^ cUque 
expleo agger. 

Varro trado^ sui haheo 
leaena martnoreus^ aliger^ 
que Cupido ludens cum is^ 
qui alius teneo is religaius, 
alius cogo is bibo ex cornUy 
alius calceo is soctus^ et 
omnis sum ex unus lapis. 

Tantus sum caedes pa^ 
Ions miles , ut Atheniensis 
accipio pluf vulnus in is 
proeliumy quam do in stc* 
perior ; et tantus sum des- 
peratio apud Mheniensis^ 
ut statiia muto dux Aid- 
biades Conon, 

Sitaniummodo summus 
virtus Pelopifys atiingOt 

aiT :. • — ■■ . - , . . T T = _- , .-. .-i^ - — 3 l; ^ " " . =jl: 


lopidas, I fear, lest it may less vereor, ne rudti Oraeeus 

plainly appear to those ignorant Utera minus Iwtde appa^ 

of the Greek tongue how great reo, quarUus vir tUe sum ; 

a man he was : after his death, post mors, civitas fhesjaha 

the cities of Thessaly compii- liberi is multus ager dano. 
mented his children with a great 

deal of land. , , 

He was glad that his rival was Gaudeo aemului ago %n 

forced into ba^iishment, and re- exilium, et laetor casus « ; 

joiced at his misfortune ; but aed nunquam exul oculus 

never did an exile affect the visens magnus misertcor- 

eyes of beholders with greater dia affkio : inimicus qui- 

compassion: his enemies ia- dem compleo palaltum da- 

deed filled the palace with mor^ sed populus irmgo w 

shootings, but the people be- Jlos spargo. 
decked his statues with flowers. 

The Germans do not mind Germanus agncultura 

husbandry , and the greater part non studeo^ magnusque 

of their food consists in milk, pars vietus is lae^ et casm» 

and cheese, and flesh ; nor has et caro consisto ; neque 

any one a certain portion of quisquam certus modus 

land, or distinct boundaries, ag«r, aut finis proprius 

lest, taken with the pleasant- kabeo, ne, captus amoent- 

ness of fields, they should ex- tas ager^ siudium helium 

change the study of war for a- agricultura commuto^ 

to the poeti, Is a montter. which V9niitelh forth fire •, he 
• a Uon» the belly of a goat, and the tail of a a™fon- A 
Ion to this fable; for In the top of l*»« «««"^i;j*f 

Twa brothers, Ungs of Thrace, chose Philip, king of BtocedonlR, «??*»'•*>'!**' 
differences ; but Philip at first filled their minds with vain hopes j at ta»t he bouad 
both princes with efaalos, robbed them of their kingdon, and stnpped them of uu 
their possessions. 

The Ghimaera, according 
hath the head and breast of 

▼olcano in Lycia gave occasion ^ .«.- ,„«.~ , — — — -»i. . r n ^f »^,.nM^ntm 

liens, the middle of It abounded with goats, and the bottom of it «as «all J» «fj?*;* 
Belierophon rendered the mountain habitable; and hence >»«*««W*?™J* **°""° 
Ae monster with fetters, and to have killed or deprived thfe Chimaeraof "»• 

Hamilcar being chosen general, discharged that office with greai .■W>»«f«i H«»«on 
restoied to his country all the revolted cifles, and among these Uiica *»«^Hippo, the 
«longest of all Africa. Nor was he content with thlt,but «•«««»« *2*;jjf?*?? 
bounds of the empire. He subdued several great and warlike nations la Spam , ana 
enriched all Af|rica with horses, arms, men, and fuoney» 


^ 36. The passives of such active verbs, as govern two 
cases, do still retain the last of them. 



I am accuied of theft. 
Sla?e8 are rated at more. 

ViigU 18 compared to Homer. 

I am taught grammar. 
The bowl if filled with wfae. 


Manctpia pturis aeitiman- 

Ftrgilius comparatur Ho- 

Doctor grammaticam^ 
PuUera impleiur mero. 

1 . The passives of verbs of accasiog, condemniog, acquit- 
ting, aad admonishing, retain the genitive. 

2. The passives of verbs of valuing, retaia the genitives 
rmgnu parvif nikiU^ &c. 

8. The passives of verbs pf comparing, giving, declariiig, 
and taking awajr, retaia the dative. 

4. The passives of verbs of asking and teaching, retain 
the accusative of the thing. 

6. The passives of verbs of filling, loading, binding, de- 
priving, clothiog, 4'c. retain the ablative. 

1. He was accused of most 
heinous crimes, but he was 
cleared of all : and deservedlj ; 
for he was accused of faults, of 
which he was innocent. 

Aibucitta, the famous womau, 
was accused of disaffection to- 
wards the emperor ; but she 
was accused of this crime by 
her enemies. 

One was condemned fbr mur- 
der, another was condemned 
for extortion, a third was con- 
demned for bribery and the 
public money. 

If. any Roman knight was 
seen to have a horse somewhat 
lean, or not very sleek, he was 
censured forclownish careless- 

We are admonished of mai^y 
things by our friends ; do not 
therefore take it ill that yoQ 
are put in mind of your doty» 

Aecwo gravis sceluSf set 
absolvo omnu : et merito ; 
nam arguo cti^a, ^t sun% 

Albucilla^famosta mu- 
/»r, * defero impietas irtt 
princeps i sed compelh 
nic crimen ah inimicus» 

Aliui damno caedes, ai 
Uus damno repetundas^ a« 
lius condemno ambitus et 
publicus peeunia. 

Si quis Romanus equcs 
mdeor kaheo equue graci-* 
lentus, aut parum niiiduSf 
noto impolitia, 

Admoneomultus ab ami- 
cus ; nolo igitur aegrefero 
tu ^fieium tuu9 commonto^ 

'■^«^-^y^'^p—^—' ^y» ^* T^i-JirS^ 




2. Silver is valaed mucb, 
^old is ralaed more, bot virtae 
ought to be valaed most. 

The sayiDgs of wise men are 
sometimes little esteemed, bat 
the words of a fool arealwajra 
regarded less. 

3. Death is rightly compared 
to. sleep, and fortune is very 
rightly compared to the wind, 
to which it is ,very like. 

Speech is gtren to all, wis- 
dom to few ; and the way to 
tnie happiness is shown to us 
from the word of God only. 

Virtue can neither be forced 
away, nor stolen away from any 
one ; but nobody can serve plea- 
sure and virtue together. 

4. The consul, when he 
understood these things were 
designed, calls the senate; and 
Silanus was first asked his opi- 
nion, because be was consul 

Nor was the earth called up* 
on for corn and food only, but 
riches are dug up ; and now 
the iron comes out, and gold 
more hurtful than iron. 

This age is fertile in vice ; a 
young lady takes pleasure to 
foe taught the. Ionic dances, and 
thinks on love from her tender 

6. Neither are bees satisfied 
with heather, nor kids with 
leave?, nor cruel love with 

The man is amused with 
trifies, he is surfeitedwithfeast* 

. Argentum aestimo mag* 
numt aurum aestimo plus, 
sed virtus debeo aestimo 

Dictum sapiens inters 
dumparvum existimo, sed 
verbum stuttus minor tem- 
per duco. 

Mors recte comparo 
somnuSf et fortuna rede 
comparo ventus^ qui sum 

Sermo do cunetusj sa* 
pientia pauci ; et via ad 
verus feticitas ostendo ego 
ex verbum Deus solus. 

Virtus nee possum eri" 
pio, nee eurripio quis» 
quam ; at nemo possum 
servio voluptas et virtus 

Consul^ ubi eognosco ts 
parOf convoco aenatus i et 
Silanus primus rogo sen- 
tentia^ quod sum consul 
designatus, ' 

Nee humus tantum pos' 
CO seges alimentumquff sed 
opes ^odio ; jamque fer» 
rum prodeo^ et aurum nO' 

Hie seculumsumfoecun' 
dus culpa ; virgo gaudeo 
doceo motus lonieus, et me- 
ditor amor de tener i/n- 

Nee cytisus saturo apis, 
nee frons capelta^ nee la- 
eryma crudelis amor. 

Homo oblecto nugae^ 
tmero epulae ; at /return 
non satio aqua, Vailis 



Itag ; but the sea is not over- 
charged with waters. The Tal- 
lies are covered with darkness, 
though the mountains are cloth- 
ed with snow. 

IT When Paasanias, king of 
the Lacedemonians, came to the 
assistance of the Atheoians, he 
made peace betwixt Thrasybu- 
los and those who held the 
town. Thi*asybulu8 also made 
a law, that nobody should be 
called to an account for things 
past, nor punished ; and they 
called that an act of oblivion. 

He that is accused of a wick- 
ed action, or he that is called 
in question about any thing, is 
called in Latin reus : but he 
that is accused of a fault, is not 
consequently in the fault ; nor 
ought he to be accounted guilty 
ofthe crime, till it be proved ; 
for if to accuse any one of a 
crime were sufficient for con* 
demnation, who could be safe ? 

Who doubts but many inno** 
cent persons have been tried 
for life, and condemned to 
death ; and that a great many 
wicked villains have been tri- 
ed for Hfe, and absolved from 
the crimes of which they were 
guilty i But they will not 
escape in the world to come ; 
God will not absolve them 
/rom the wickedness which 
they have committed. 

Hippias ordered the,, mur- 
derer of his brother to be seiz- 
ed ; who, being forced by tor- 
ments to name those that were 
guilty ofthe murder, named all 
the tyrant's friends; who wei^ 

tenebrae tego, licet mons 
amtcio nix* 

Cum Pausamas, rex La- 
cedaemonius, venio auxili" 
wn AtticuSy facto pax m- 
ter Thrasyhulus et is qui 
teneo urbs. Tlirasybulus 
quoque fero Zex, ne quis 
accuso arUeaclus reSf ntoe 
muLto ; appeUoque is lex 

Qui cLccuso /acinus i aut 
qui posiulo de res aliquis^ 
voco LoUine reus ; sed qui 
accuso culpa f nwi sum corr- 
tikuo in culpa ; nee debeo 
existimo conscius crimen, 
donee probo ; nam si aecu- 
so ahquis crimen sum sa- 
tis ad condemnntiOf qui^ 
possum sum tutus ? 

Quis dvhito quin multus 
homo innocens accuso ca^ 
put^ et damno caput; et 
multus hornet factnorosus 
accuso caputs et absolve 
crimen qui sum conscius 9 
Sed non effugio in seculum 
futurus ; Deus non absolvo 
is scelus quiperpetro. 

Hippias jubeo interfec^ 
iorfraXer suus comprehen- 
do f quif. coactus per tot" 
mentum nomino is qui sum 
conscius caedesj nontino 
amnis tyrannus amicxtt ; 




slain. Thus the citizens were 
put in miod of their liberty, and 
Hippias was forced into banish- 

If cunning valuers of things 
esteem meadows and fields at 
a great rate, because that sort 
of possession can least be da- 
maged ; at how great a rate 
ought virtue to be esteemed, 
which can neither he forced 
away nor stolen from any one ? 

Afler some days, another let- 
ter of Darius is delivered to 
Alexander, in which the mar- 
riage of a daughter, and a part 
of his kingdom are offered him : 
hut Alexander returned an- 
swer, that his own was given 
him, and ordered Darius to 
come, and leave the disposal of 
his kingdom to the conqueror. 

When Eumenes was return- 
ed to the camp, letters were 
found scattered throughout the 
campi in which great rewards 
were promised to those that 
should bring the head of Eu- 
menes to Antigonus. But this 
project was vain ; for none of 
the soldiers would betray their 

He that only pleases himself, 
does himself no kindness, he- 
cause he displeases God his 
creator» who commands us. to 
he kind and good to all men, 
and to do to others those things 
which we incline should be 
done to ourselves. This pre- 
cept is delivered to us in the 
gospel, and comprehends al- 
most the whole duty of a Chris- 

qvi if^erficio. Sfc eivis ad' 
moneo libertaSy et Hippias 
ago in exUium, 

Si callidus aestimator 
res aestimo pratum et area 
magnum^ quod is genus pos- 
sessio possum tninime lae* 
do ; quantum deheo virtus 
aestimo, qui nee possum 
eripio nee surripio quis" 
quam ? 

Post aliquot dies, alius 
epistola Darius reddo AU 
exanderj in qui m/itrimani- 
urn Jilia et porlio regnum 
qffero is: sed Alexander 
rescribo suus do sui^ et ju' 
heo Darius venio, et per^ 
mitto arbitrium regnum 

Cum Eumenes reverto 
in castra, litera invenio ab^ 
jectus per castra, in qui 
magnus praemiumpromit- 
to is qui defero caput Eu^ 
menes ad Antigonus, Sed 
hie consilium sum irritus ; 
nam nemo miles volo prodo 

Qui tantum placeo sui, 
non prosum suiy quia dis- 
pliceo Deus creator suus, 
quijubeo ego sum benignus 
et beneficus omnis, et facio 
aUus is qui volo fio ego 
ipse» Hie praecepium tra- 
do ego in evangelium, et 
complector pene totus offi- 
cium Christianus* 



• Trajap succeeded him» de- 
scended of an ancient rather 
than an illustrious (amilj ; he 
so managed the government, 
that he is deservedly preferred 
to all the emperors. He was a 
man of unusual moderation and 
bravery : he extended far and 
wide the boundaries of the Ro- 
man empire, which had been 
defended rather, after Augus- 
tuSy than nobly enlarged. . 

When Cato was asked his 
opinion, he made a speech to 
this purpose : Do you demur, 
quoth he, what you should de- 
termine with .tespect to the 
most barbarous parricides 1 
They hav^ conspired to set 
their country iu flames ; they 
solicit to the war the nation of 
the Gaulfi, th^ most spiteful to 
the Roman 8ta\e. 

Cicero had been informed of 
every thing by the deputies ; 
wherefore he nofoldsthe whole 
siffair to the pretors, who im- 
mediately beset the Mulvian 
bridge. The Allobroges with- 
out delay surrender themselves 
to the pretor8« All things are 
instantly notified to the con- 
sul by messengers ; but a vast, 
concern and joy seized him at 
once ; for glad he was that the 
city was rescued from danger, 
but he thought the punishing of 
^he conspirators would be a 
burdensome task to himself. 

The ambassadors of the Gauls 
returning, set forth the enemy's 
wealth and negligence ; they 
said, that their camp was filled 
with gold and silver ; and that 

Trajanus iuccedo ts, na- 
tu$ antiquus magis guam 
claruMfamilia ; ita admi- 
nistro respublica, ut merito 
praefero omnis princeps. 
Sum vir inusttatus civtli' 
tas et fortitudo : diffundo 
longe lateque Jini$ RomH" 
nus imperium^ qui sum de» 
fensus inagis, post AugieS' 
tu8j qtiam n^iliter amplu 

Cum Cato rogo senteniia^ 
kabeo oratio hujuscemodi : 
Tu cunctor, inquam ille, 
quis statuo de crudelis par- 
ricida ? Conjuro incendo 
patria ; arcesso ad bellum 
gens GalluSy infesius Ro- 
manus nomen* 

Cicero edoceo cunctus 
per legatus ; itaque aperto 
res omnis praetor, qui sta* 
tim obsideo Mulvius pons, 
Allobroges sine mora dedo 
sui praetor, Omnis pro» 
pere declaro consul per 
nuncius : at ingens cura 
atque laetitia simul occupo 
ille ; nam laetor cimias eri' 
pio periculum , credo autem 
poena conjuratus forem o- 
nus sui. 

Legatus Galli reversus^ 
estendo hostis opes et negli^ 
gentia ; dico, castra repleo 
aurum et argentum ; et is 
intermitto omnis militaris 


tl^ aeglectf^d all military duty, qfficium, quasi non indigeo 

as if they did not want the help auxilium ferrum^ quia a- 

of the sword, because they a- bundo aurum. 
bounded in gold. 

This place is encompassed ^ic locus cingo undique 

on all sides with craggy rocks, praeruptus rupes^ ut egeo 

that it needs no defenders ; nullus defensor ; et tantus 

and such is the fruitfaln^fss of sumfertiliim circumjacens 

the adjacent soil, that it is filled solum, ut expleo proprius 

with its own riches ; and sucb opes; et is sum copia fons 

is the plenty of fountains and et sylva, ut abumto aqua^ 

woods, that it abounds with wa- nee careo voluptas vencUio, 
ter, and wants not the diversions 
of banting. 

Man wu accused of murder and iaeest, and obUecd to undereo a trial before twelve 
gods as judges ; but was aeqaitted of the crimes. The place or trial, which was near 
Athens, became afierwardi the seat of a court, and was called Areo|M£U8, that is, tbe 
bill of Mars. The judges were called AreopagUeSi who were men of thr «triciest In- 
tegrity, and of the most Olamelesi life. 

Heaven is the lofty thrQn<> of Ood, but to describe the glory of it is more than hti- 
■um tongue can do. The gmodeur and state we liefaold on earth cannot be coropeied 
with it It is the abode of the juiii, ibe resting-place of the weary, and tbt^ reward 
of tiM AdthAil. There are rivers of pleasures and crowns of giniy. Ash, and it shttl 
be given yon } seek, and ye thall find it; knock, and it shall be opened unto you. 

When Oicero was asked his opinion concerning the Immortality of the auoU he re- 
plied^ For many. reasons I persuade myself that the soul is immortal} and if in this I 
err, I err with pleasure s nor will I ever be forced out of an oirfnion, which yields my. 
so mueh delight. 

In Britain, says Oaesar, there is a vast nvmbor of inhabitants ; the buildings are nu- 
merous, and much liloetho<e ef Oaul} the country abounds in cattle Instead of mo- 
My, the Briu>ns nmke use of brass or pieces of iron of a certain weight. They do 
not sow much corn ; bat live on milk and flesh, and are clotbed with skios. 

§ 2. The gomernfMht of impersonal verbs. 

RULE Fill. 
37« An impersopal verb governs the dative* 

It happened to me» Accidit mihi. 

It is profitable for the state. Expedit reipublicae» 

No man is allowed to sin. Licet nemini peccare. 

The impersonal verbs belonging to this general rule, ez- 
clading those contained in the f()llowing exceptions, are 
such as, acddit, contingit^ evemt^ conducit^ expedite lubet, /t* 
bety licet^ placet^ displicety vacate restate praesteU^ Hqti^^ no^ 
eet, doletj suffioit^ apparet^ &i . Together with tbe dative, 
they have frequently an infinitive aflter them, whioh sup- 
plies the place of a nominative before them* 


«•U 1. The dative is oAea wyiiwiiiJ? ai, Oie. StstmUm IbU ijwm»iipr^fiim^ fe. 

jr«ci S. XBpanoiial verbi an lOBMiiaiea aaed peraBnaUj, eapedaUy wlib the wo- 
nous id^ Aae, tf/tul, muti^ and ibe likes as, Olc Si tOi id mimct /Aefrit. Id. Non uUm 
miktHett, ld,SihAajttodtt^i$«at. Suet. Qmw oujgve ^t&MMenc. Catol. arartto tf ea 


* 38. Refert and «nteresl require the genitive. 

It concerns my father. Refert pHtris. 

It if the interest of all. ^ Inlerest omniunu 

Ihit 1. titfnt and intentL beside dbar geniaTes, admit abo of Iheie, lonft, fnoi^- 
<i, magni,f€rmagiiit paroi,i^urtig as, Olc. Form rtfnt mbi Ujui dku Id. illi^ in- 
«rot Mca WMi not tut, 

Hole 2. The J are sometimes used persomlly, and admit not only of tlie nominatives 
««id. qvtod, id, Aoc, iUudj kxu but of olheis elso ; as, Ter. Tua «Mod nihil rtfhrt, Oic# 
lUud m«a mmgni inttruL Id. Aoa fue mtu imUrutU loei naOuru» Lucr. JUagni rtfvrt 
sludfam olfue «ef Miuai . 

JXaU 3. The adverbs tamfuai, juanlfufi, muicam, slurimttm, tii/inifiim« jMmm, ntttf» 
maatHw. «riHMic, and the like, are oAen joined wuh them \ as, Mart. Aufinua rs/ci'C* 
Jnsr. Phtrimum talsrcrit, Ice 

jr«Cs 4. The constmction Is elliptical, and may be thus supfAied : A«/«rf palri»,i«e. 
rtfcrt «« od ntg^ia patrit. InUrttt eeiMiim, i. e. Mt tnfer negvfui enmiitm. 

* 39. But fnea, ^ua, nca, nosira, vcBtra^ are put in the accu- 
sative plural. 

I am not concerned. Ab» mea refirU 

It concerns both you and me» Et tua ei mea interest 

NoU t. We mey say indifferentliy, eujot or euhu inUresif as, Cic DUna^ ei a^ «a- 
fti/Wft, IMA 9i cujm aiUi «ntsr/tul. , Id. Qais «nut eat Aedis, cujtM nUsna isf om icgsai 
msMTc > 

/ITote 2. The eoaslmetkm may be ithus s nw pUe d : Jle^ mea, L e. r^ert ss od me« 
negvtia, interut tua, I. e. tti inter iita neg «tiii. 

* 40 These five,mt>er«ty podnt^«t,/iudet, taedet^ and f»g'^^> 
govern the accusative of a person with, the genitive of a 

I pity you. Miseret me tuu 

I repent of ray sin. Poenitet me peccatu 

I am weary of my life* Taedet me vitae» 

Not» 1. The inflnltire frequently supplies the place of the genitive ; as, Fsenftet m« 
IwecoMt, for poenttet me ptceati. Ta§aet me «tvere, for tatdet me vita», 

lf9f S. The accusative of the person is often suppressed; as, Hor. Soeknm ri fund- 
tetf sc. iMf. 

Ifote S. These verbs are sometimes used personally; as* Lucr. /pee tui miieret. Plaut. 
Jtfe Aoee eonditw nan poenUet. Plant. Id quod-pmdHfmeiliiu/trtmrt fitmm id 

iV«f c 4. The genitive is governed 1^ some substantive understood, such as, nefecf. 
Hmffmatwmt ttatuiyjitrhtna, reepeehte. eogiuuiot or the like ^ and the constructfcm may 
be thus completed : Jlfteeret me tui^ 1. e. negotiwn tui wtah mistrtt me, or reqaeehM tui 
mitertt me. Ptniut aie pnoafif i. e. ai^ctum pceeal<,cr cofitotis peocott peeatfef ais. 



* 41. These four» dec0t^ deUctat, juvat^ oportetf goveni the 
accusative of the person wilh the iofioitive. 

It does not become you to scold. J^on decet te rirari» 
I delight to study. Deleciat me studere* 

Note 1. D«oef, instead of (he accusative, sometimes (aVes tlie dative j as, ter, lia 
«oWf 4Me«. Gall. Attaii €jui deetbmt, 

NoU 2. Onorttt is elegantly joined with the sat\}ttnetlve mood, «I being onderstdod} 
ai) agwrM^fiiciM, for ^porM U/aetr», 

Noit S. FaUit^fuieii^fratHrit^ /fleef,when nsed impersonally, take also the aecan- 
tive with (be Infioiure ; as, Cic. Fugu me ad it <eri6ere, lie. 

NoU 4. Atihut^ pertinett and ipeetatf when nsed impersonally, have tlie aociisativt 
itii ad ijLty Ter. Jf erea/, nihit ad me attinet. Cic. Ad remfuUieampertinet ne oom- 


tervari, Incert. Speetat ad omnts bene vivere, 

Note 5. Deeetf ddeetat, and ^uvaf, are often used personally, and oporf el sometimes} 
as. Hor. Parmm parva deoenl. Cic Me ttatiu hie reipubiieae non deheteU, J«v. 8% 
Hnem juvat atea, Ter. Uaee facta ab illo op^rtebant. 

37. It happened to the young 
man, that he was very dear to 
the senate. 

It happened ill for them, but 
very well for us, if you please 
to hear. 

It contributes to health to 
live according to nature, and it 
is proper for us so to live. 

They beg that it may be al- 
lowed them to pass their days 
in exile, and it pleases me to al- 
low them. 

Jove has not leisure to at- 
tend on small affaira ; but it is 
belter for us to be silent than to 

It appears to all that this man 
aims at sovereignty ; nay, I am 
clear to swear it. 

38. It concerns all men to 
practise virtue, and it concerns 
all men to pity the miserable. 

39. It concerns me, it con< 
cems you and the common- 
wealth, that yon do your duly. 

It concerns thee not to be- 


Contingit adoleseens^ ut 
sum carus senatus. 

Male evenit ille^ at bene 
egOy $i placet tu audio* 

Conducit salus viva e 
naturOj et expedit ego ita 



Peto ut licet ille ago ae* 
tas in exiliumf etlubet ego 

JSTon vacat Jupiter ad- 
sum exiguus res ; sed prae- 
stat ego taceo quam lo^ 

Apparet omnis htc homo 
qffecto imperium ; imo^ H» 
quet ego dejero. 

Refer t omnis colo virtus, 
et interest omnis miserepr 

Refer t meus, refert tuus 
et respub lica, ut tu fungor 

Refert tuus non credo t^- 



lieve rariily, and it concerns 
thee to know thyself. 

Caesar used to say, that it did 
not so mnch concern him as the 
state, that he should be pre- 

Caligula suffered the writings 
of Labieniis to be searched for 
and read ; since it very much 
concerned him that every ac- 
tion should be transmitted to 

It concerns you, who are fa- 
thers, to take care that your 
children be well educated, and 
it concerns children to obey 
their parents. 

40. I look for death as the 
end of my miseries ; but I pity 
you, against whom wars and 
baftles are prepared. 

If thou art sorry for, and a- 
shamed of thy faults, thou wilt 
takte care not to commit any 
such thing hereafter. 

Sulpici us, tribune of the com- 
mons, after he had acquired the 
greatest honour, made many 
destructive law?, as if he had 
heen sorry for, and weary of 
bis former virtues. 

41. It becomes all men to be 
free from hatred, love, wrath, 
and compassion, when they de- 
liberate about doubtful matters. 

There are boys that delight 
to lead an idle life» and there 
are boys who take pleasure to 
ply their studies. 

It behoves men to reckon 
that God sees all things, that 
all things Are full of God. 

^ As soon as Eumenes on* 
derstood that Perdiccai was 

mere^ et inieresi tuns noica 

Caesar soleo dko^ non 
tarn interest suns quam res- 
publica^ uti salvus sum. 

Caligula permitto scrip' 
turn Labienus require et 
leetito ; quando maxime 
interest suus ut quisque fac- 
tum trddo posteri. 

Interest vcster, qwi pater 
sum, euro ut liberi probein- 
stituOf et refert liberi obedio 

Expecio mors ut Jims 
miseria; sed miser et ego 
tu, adversus qui proelium 
et acies paro» 

Si 'poenitety ac pudet iu 
peccatum tuus^ caveo ne 
quis talis posihac commit- 

SulpiciuSy tribunusplebSf 
cum quaero magmis digni^ 
tasyfero multus pemiciosus 
leXy quasi piget, ac taedet 
is pristinv^ virtus, 

Decet mnnis homo sum 

vacuus ab odium, amicitia^ 

ira, atque misericordia, 

-cum consulto de res dubius. 

Sum puer qui delectftt 
segnis traduco vita^ et sum 
juer qui studium invigdo 

Oportet homo existimo 
Deus cerno omnis^ omnis 6 
Deus plenus^sum, 

Vt Eumenes cognosce 
Ptrdiccas occid^y m /i4- 



alasQ, himself jadged an enemy» 
and the management the war 
committed to Antigonus, he de* 
Clared those things to the sol- 
diers ; and added moreover, if 
those things were a terror to 
any, it was permitted them to 

The anger of the Almighty 
God ought to be terrible to all 
men, no less to the highest and 
haughtiest of the lords of the 
earth, than the meanest of 
mortals. He can, if he please, 
disjoint all the parts of this 
beautiful structure of the world, 
and reduce them into one con- 
fused mass, like that out of 
which they were originally 

You see, says Eumenes, the 
dress and ornaments of your 
general, which not any of my 
enemies has put upon me, for 
that would be a comfort to me ; 
you have made me of a general 
a prisoner. One thing I beg, 
that yoa would let me die a- 
mong yourseltres ; for it signl- 
^€s nothing to Antigonus, how 
or where I fall. If I obtain this, 
1 free you from your oath. 

Honesty hurts nobody ; but 
knavery, though it seems to 
profit a man, is very pernicious 
to a man's credit, which all 
wise men value more than mo- 
ney ; and very often it. is hurt* 
All to a man's estate and life, 
which fools value more than all 
things else ; it therefore con- 
cerns all men to beware of and 
avoid iii(|08tjce* 

dito hostis^ et $vmma bel- 
lum commtUo Antigonun, 
indico is miles ; et addo tn- 
sttjDer, si quis is terror 
sunty licet ills discedo. 

Ira Deus Omnipotens de- 
heo sum tsrribilis omnisy 
nonminus summustt super» 
bus dominus terra orbisy 
quam infimus mor^o/iV. 
PosBUfUy si placet is, diveU 
lo omnis pars hie pulcher 
aedi/icium munduSy et redi" 
go m untis moles indigeS" 
tuSy similis is ex qui pri- 

CernOy inquam EttmeneSy 
habitus atque ornamentum 
dux vester, qui nan quis» 
quam hostis impono egOy 
nam hie forem solatium 
ego ; tu facia ego ex im- 
perator captivus, Unus 
oroy ut volo egj> morior tn* 
ter tu ; nam neque interett 
Antigonus y quemadmodum 
aut ubi cado. Si hie tm- 
petroy solvo tu jusjuran' 

Probitas ncceo nemo ; 
sed improbitaSy etsi videor 
prosum homoy sum perni» 
eioius existimatio homoy 
qui omnis sapiens aestimo 
plus quam pecunia ; et 
saepe sum pemidosus homo 
res etvitay qui stultus facia 
plus quam aliw omnis ; re* 
fert igitur omnis eaveo et 
vitq inj^ustitia^ 



God is angrj with the wick- 
ed, and tbreateos them with 
most dreadful tormentfl ; oot be- 
cause he hates them, but that 
they may repent of their sin, 
and be happy for ever in hea- 
ven. Da not they, therefore» 
deserve the punishment of eter* 
nal death, who value eternal 
life and happiness at nothing 1 

You are weary of the patri- 
cian, and we of the plebeian 
magistrates. What do yon 
mean, I beseech you ? You de- 
sired tribunes of the commons, 
we granted them ; you deeired 
the decemvirs^ we suffered them 
to be made ; you were weary of 
the decemvir&^ we forced them 
to lay down their ^ower. 

Wicked men provoke God 
daily, but he is very merciful ; 
therefore be pities them, and 
is ready to forgive them their 
sins, if they repent of them, 
and are ashamed of their folly, 
and be willing to obey those 
precepts which are prescribed 
to ns in the gogpet 

Kmg Darius' mother, who 
till that day had not been weary 
of her life, when she heard that 
Alexander was dead, laid vio- 
lent hands upon herself; not 
that she preferred an enemy be- 
fore a son, but because she had 
experienced the duty of a son 
in him whom she had feared as 
an enemy. 

Julian was a man of great elo- 
quence, of a quick and most te- 
nacious memory, liberal tp his 
friends, as became so great a 
nrince to be ; he was greedy 

Deu$ iratcor impiuSj it 
minor ilU dirus tuppli*. 
cittm ; no» quod odi^ std 
uH poemtei is peccattim, e^ 
sumfelix in aelemum in 
cotlum. JSTonne, igitur^ 
mereor poena aeternus 
mors, qui aeshmo aeternus 
vita etfelicitas nihilum ? 

Taedtt tu patricius, ego 
plebeius mngistraius. Qw's 
volo, obsecro tu? Concupio 
tribunus plebs^ ego conce- 
do ; desidero decemvirf, ego 
potior cre6\ iaedettu de- 
cemviri , cogo is abdico ma* 

Improbus lacesso Deus 
quotidie^ sed sum clemens ;. 
tiaque miseret is itle, etpa- 
ratus sum coiidono is pee." 
catum* sipoe7hitet is illCf et 
pudet is stultitia, et volo 
obtempero lex qui condo 
ego in evangelium^ 

Rex Darius mater, qui 
in is dies non iaedet vita, 
cum audio Alexander mo-» 
rtor, infer manus sui ip' 
h; non quod pra^fero hos- 
iisfiliuSj sed quod experior , 
pietas filius in is qui timeo 
ui kostis. 

Juliamus sum vir ingen$ 

6 facundia^ promptus et 

tenax memoria, liberalis in 

siuuicuSf ut decet tantus 

princeps sum; sumwdtn 

■■■-1*. " ■■ ■ ^',j. .i^J .' • ..rcc 


afglory, and not unlike Marcos gloria^ et non abtimdis 

ADtoninuSy whom he made it his Marcus Antoninus^ qui as- 

bosiness to imitate :- he made mulor studeo : infero btl- 

war upon the Parthians, in lum Parthus^ qui expeditio 

which expeditieo 1 waa likewise ego quoque intersuM. 

We are eUewed from reuon and leriptare to eondode, that part of the pleatura 
fvhich happy minds shall eojoy in a future state^ wlU arise from an enlarg^ed coatem- 
plaUon of the dlvine wisdom In the government of the world} and from a discovery 
of the secret and amazing steps of Providen ce from the beginning to the end of tioM* 

It concerns subjects to obey the laws : and it is of great importance to the publie« 
that all should follow peace, practise justice, and discharge their duty in that station 
in civil life which they hold in society. 

Thou owest thy food, iby elothin^, thy habitation, and every comfort and plea- 
sure of life, to the labourof others; it concerns thee Uierefore to be a friend to nan- 
kind, as it is thy ioterest that men should be friendly to thee. 

Oeres was ashamed of her fault, and greatly lamented the loss of her honour, Bhe 
retired into the dark recesses of a cave, where she lay so concealed that none of the 
sods knew where she was, till Pan, the god of the woods, discovered her. 

Eofoert Bruce addressed Sir William Wallace thus : What madness hath sclud 
you 1 King Edwiird, against whom you carry on war, is a most powerful monarch ; 
and though you should uvercome him, the Scou will never deliver up the govem< 
inent to you. Wallace auswerd thus; You use me ill, when you say that I aspire to 
the kini^ora. I am not desirous of royal power ; the honours of a kingdom neither 
atgree to my fortune nor to my mind. It belongs to the nobles to defend their coun- 
try. When I saw that our nobles had neglected their duly, X pitied mv wretched oquo- 
trymen. who are def Utute of governors, and esposed to the «rnelty of barbarous eno- 
nieSf Our nobles prefer most scandfloas slavery to honourable liberty. War is a 
terror lo our nobles. Let them enjoy that fortune which they value so much. Twill 
defend my country. 

It becomes us to be kind and courteous to strangers, for we know not to what part 
of the world we ourselves may go. 

If you woDld have CK>d to hear your pnye», U behoves you to hewr the petittooi of 
the poor* 


42. PASSIVE VERBS take after them an ablative of the 
agent or doer, with the preposition a, a6, or abs. 

The world is governed bj God. Mundus gubematur a Dea, 
Virtue is praised by all. Virtus laudatur ab omni' 

I am glad that my conduct is ap- Gaudeo menm factum abs 
proved by you. teprobari, 


Hate 1. The proportion is someUmes sunmiessed; as, Ovid. Dutrtr cea^^tge. Id* 
CuUlwr ludgwa lic«a. Senec* Contra SUrtmmm fno premehatw* 

fftte 2. Passive verbs, instead of the ablative with the preposition, sofflellmes take 
the dative : as, Virg. Ifeqtu cemitur u//t. Ter. Jtf edtf ota miAt suaf inoonuaoda. Ovid** 

Ifato 3. A great nwny ptber verbs take also the ablative with a or ab ; such as, 

1. Verbs of R£CEIVINO, as, aeotpto,capio, mmOfnutiuori alsOj udipkctft c^aie* 


2. Vtfte of mSTAKOE, DIFFERENCE, i^ DlfiSEHftlOIf ; «i, dUt^^difer^, 
disteniio, disiideo, diacnpo^diacordoj as, CIc< Fide» quantum disttt a veritiUe, 

S. TertMofDESIftlNG, ENTiUEATINa^doil £ffa0|RXS;C»i M,pHo,expeto,p&s- 
00, jittToiUor* «cvter, «cisettor, roye, oro, olmc/v, preoor, pe«lu/o, J^gUot canUndttf ea%«, 
fcc. ; as, Ok. A te opemptlimMt» 

4» Vtifbt of CESSATION J ai, eettoi, tfotino, ^ujbmo, ir^uMic», tempenf as, 
ii praelUt eeutart. 

5. Varbs of EXPECTTNO ; af» «speoio, «pew ; as, Ba«hao. Ab ttno exp«cfe« ^«toll 
a multia sptrture tuqueas. 

6. Verbs of TAKING AWAY and REMOVING ; as, aufero, rapio, surripio^ furor, 
toUo f rvmoiieot areeot proAibeo, pe//o, rtpelhy propulsoj reoeeof also, contineof colubeo, 
rf/reno ; also, defc»dOf munio, <cg«, fucor ; «i^u, d^/Scio, dc«ci>co, J^vnrro, itc. To these 
add vertM compounded with aorab ; as. obtgo. abitineo. «noMo, abduco» «ftraiio, om- 
•Clo, ttoello^ aooeo, Lc; Ter. Mt»(U tr^tUa ab Ul/ abstulu 

7. Verbs of DISMISSING. OANIStIMENT,aud DISJOINING; as, dimittCyrtr 
UgOy ditjungo^ dvoetlo^ scgrego uparOf fcr. ; afe, Caes. Eum ab te dimittit. 

8. Verbs of BUYING} as.«flio,iiwrcor,/ben«ror, conrfuco; as, V. Max. A piteatorSbu» 
jaetum emtrat. 

9. Many other verbs of different signiAcations } as, .oaoeo, dtdmo^ dtfleeto ) diaeedo, 
reccdo j affero^ do, teddoyYero, reporto; incipio,ordior ; «erve. cwfodto, vindico } tineOf 
mctuo^JbrmidOf itc. ; as Cic Regem monuerunt^ a ventnout cavtrtt» 

Nail 4. Verbs of STRIVING : as, contendoy certo, beUo, pugno : and JOINING TO- 
GETHER ; as,yuN;o, cohjungo, eoncumAo, coeo, misceof take the ablative with cum ; 
WiBf Ovid. Meeum cert €usejeretur. Id- Contendite mtcum, Cic Sellare cumdii»» Id. 
Saluiem fneam cum eornmunt solute oonjungere dtcrvou Tac Con^ia ewm Ulo turn mis- 

NtU 5. The verbs nureot*,/beio,^, cri«,ykftirmn Mt, Cake the ablatWe with cto ; m, 
i^ene vtl mo/e de aliq^ mereri Cic. Indicium dtjidt ^ut/toitti^ Ter. Qutd d» me 
JUt? lie. 

ITote 6. VertM of PERCEIVING and KNOWING) as, tnCeMtjfo, «entio, coj:no«oo, 
eonjieio^diti», ptrdpio^celligo^taidio^ take the ablative with e or tx: as, Cic. Ba ge$tu 
tue iiUeUigo fttui oe/is. Id. Ex tuts /t'terw ttatunn rcrum oojiievt. Id. JSToe m iUo mir 
diviy ke. 

Jfott 7. Passive IMPERSONALS are either put absolutely ; as, Ter. Qindagitvrf 
^ahar* 01c. Ab Kara *ertia bibebahir. iudebatur^ vomebatur. Or they take aAer them 
the case of their PERSONALS { as, Cic. Ut majoribut natu tutwrgatw. uC «ujMilicum 
muereafur. Ovid. Nee mihiparealur. VIrg. Itw in sylvttw, Li v. Pethtentia itAora' 
noH ttL 

Note 8. These six verbs, potest, coepit, inewit, desiitil, ds&et, and •o2el, when jofaaed 
with impersonal verbs, become impersonal themselves-, as, Quinct. Perveniri ad mm. 
ma niri ex priiteipiis non ooteaL Just. Pigereeumfaeti cocpit. Cic. Singulis a Deo 
oonmZt tt ftoxdderh soicC id. Ntgat jueunde posts vtvi, nisi sum virtute viveUur. 

He is miserable, who neither Miser sum, qui neque 

loves any one* nor is himself diligo quisquam, nee ipse 

beloved by any one. diligo ab ullus» 

The affairs of a good man are Res bonus vir nunquam 

never neglected by God. negligo a Deus, 

Do not tru^t [to] a man by Kefido homo a qui «c- 

wbom thoa harst been once de- mel decipio* 

Carthage was destroyed by Carthago ddeo a celeber 

the famous captain Scipio Afri- dux Scipio Africanus. 
can 08. 

Learning and virtue are Doetrina et virtu» ap-^ 

sought by few, pleasure by ma- peto a pauci^ voluptas a 

ny. plurimuss 



We are lo formed by oatare, 
that we do not seem made for 
sport and jest. 

IT For these achieTement» 
Codomanous is set orer Arme- 
nia ; and, after the death of 
king Ochas, is made king by the 
people for bis former bravery. 
He waged war with Alexander 
the Great : at last, however, he 
was conquered by Alexander ; 
and being slain by his own rela- 
tions, be ended his life, together 
with the empire of the Persians. 
Whilst these things are doing, 
he is acquainted that a plot fs 
laid for him by Alexander the 
son-in-law of Antipater, who 
had been set over Macedonia ; 
for which reason, fearing lest, 
if he should be slain, some tu- 
mult should ari^e in Macedonia, 
he kept him in chains* Af- 
ter this he goes to the city Gor- 
diom, which is situated betwixt 
the greater and lesser Pbrygia. 
Whilst the Gauls plunder the 
ships, they are cut in pieces by 
the rowers and apart of the ar- 
my, which had 6ed thither with 
their wives and children ; and 
po great was the slaughter of 
the Gauls, that the fame of the 
victory procured Antigoous a 
peace not only from the Gauls, 
but from all his neighbours. 

Queen Thessatonice, the la- 
dy of Cassander, was slain by 
her son Antipater, though she 
begsied her life by bis mother's 
breasts*, the reason of which 
parricide was, that aAer the 
death of her husband, in the 
division of the kingdom betwixt 
the brothers, she seemed to 

Ita genero a natuf a, ut 
non videorf actus ad ludu9 

Ob hie decuB Cod<yman* 
nus praefido Armenia ; 
tt,po9t mors res Ochfus^ 
consiituo rex a pojp%dus 
propter pristinus virttUm 
Gero bellum cum Alexan" 
der Magnus: posiremOy 
tamen^ vinco ab Alexati" 
der ; et occisus a suut^Jimo 
vita^pariter cum trnjiert* 
um Persa, 

Dum htc ago^fio certi^ 
or insidiae paro sui ab A» 
lexander gener Antipaterf 
quipraspono Macedonia ; 
ob qui caustty timens ne, si 
interficioj quis moius ori* 
or in Macedonia, haheo is 
in vinculum* Post hie 
peto urbs Gordium, qui 
positus sum inter magmt» 
et parvus Phrygia. 

Dum GaUus diripio na- 
vis^ trucido a remex et 
pars exercituSf qui confa- 
gxo eo cum conjux et libC' 
ri ; et tantus sum caedes 
Gallus, ut opinio hie vic- 
toria praesto Antigonus 
pax non tantum a GalluSy 
sed ab omnis finitimus» 

Regina Thessalonic^y 
uxor Cassander, occido a 
filins Antipater, cum de» 
precor vita per uber ma- 
ternlis : causa quiparri" 
cidium 5«m« quod post 
mors marituSf in dimsio 
regnwn inter f rater ^ vide^ 
or propensus Alexander 



iMve been mor^ favoanible to 

Pluto desired of Jupiter, that 
Proserpine might be given to 
Mni in marriage^ bj him and her 
Mother Ceres. Jupiter denied 
that Ceres would suffer her 
daughter to live in hell ; but he 
bid^ him steal her, whilst she 
gathered flowers upon mount 
Aetna, which is in Sicily. Af- 
terwards Ceres obtained of Ju- 
piter, that she should be with 
her sometimes. 

Perdiccas pretends to desire 
the daughter of Antipater 'in 
marriage, that he might the 
more easily obtain of him re- 
cruits out of Macedonia ; but 
Antipater perceived his cun- 
Bing, and balked bis hopes. Af- 
ter this a war broke out between 
Antigonus and Perdiccas, in 
which Perdiccas -was worsted by 

Pluto pito a Jupiief, 
ut Proserpina do sui in 
matrimonium^ ah ille et 
mater Ceres, Jupiter 
nego Ceres patior filia 
suus 7)ivo in tartarus ; sed 
jubeo is rapio i5, dum lego 
Jlos in mons Aetna, qui 
sum in Sicilia, Postea 
Ceres impetro a Jupiter ^ 
ut swn suicum aliquando. 

Perdiccas slmulo peto 
filia Antipater in matrz' 
moniumj ut facile ohtineo 
ab is supplementurh. ex 
Macedonia; sed Jlntipa-^ 
ter praesentio dolus ^ et 
fallo spes is. Post hie 
bellum . orior inter Anti- 
gonus et PerdiccaSf in qui 
Perdiccas supero ab Anti- 

The poeCt say, ihtii the first woman was made by VuleBUf aAd that every god gave 
her some present, wlience she was called Pandora. Pallas gave her wisdom, ApaUo 
the art 0f music, Mercury the art of eloquence, and Venus gave her beauty* 

Aerisius, king of the Arrives, shut up his dangbter Danae in a strong tower, and 
«uffered none to enter into it ; becaase he had heard from the oracle, that he sboald be 
kilted by his grandson. Jnpiter turned himself Into a shower of gold, and entered 
into the tower through ili^ tiles. Thus Danae was got with child by the god. When 
Aerisias beard that his daughter had hrooght forth a son, he ordered her and the 
child to be put into a chest, and thrown into the sea. The chest was found by a fish' 
enuaot tuad given by him to PiiomDOS liing of the Rutilians, who married Danae. 
When PerBevs,the son of -Danae, was grown up, he slew his grandfather Acrisins, 
and so foiftiled the oracle. 

§ 3. The government of the infinitive, participles ^ gerunds, 

and supines, 

43. Ok£ verb governs another in the infinitive. 

I desire to learn. Cupio discere. 

Thou art glad to he taught. Gaudes doceri. 

Mercury is said to have invent- Mercurius dicitur in've- 
ed the harp. ^ nisse lyram. 



J?of« 1. Tlie infinitive is fireqoendy goTcraed bj aiyeetivM or pulici|^l«t mi, Dig- 
niu UgU eupkbu meW, indoeUU faupetiem ]»af>, «oiitl OMRMittere jHtfium, mo» omMa 
pfrpett i euoiens eognoutn^ mehun» PoUmy tmuiiui reUnfui, fiugu enki m mur* imIi. 
And soroeumes by •olMtantivei } m« Tmtf/UM oMre, ooean« aert6«rB, «i|fna dedi «miiM 

Note 2. The toVernIng word If fometlmes tuppretsfd } af,Ter. Omnu mt&i «mn'd«rC) 
so. eonjwrune. Vlre. Mmm tNC«/»f o dMulere t 8C «coel or par e$L Aod to theie pbrateft 
vuiere e9C, animoaverferc e«t, reperin ettt &c. we may undenUod /aaUtatj pot€tta$t 
copi'i^ortbe nke« 

JVtfCf 3. The lofinitive itself it tomelimet suppressed *f as, Oie« Soeratem ^Mnu do- 
eitU, sc eaiwtis. SmU. Ei f pooiiuiam iViKmidiBiii p&puhu juttU $ se. dart. 

Ifoi* A. The infinitive is a Icind of substantive Hoan, has adjeetlvet someUmee 
joined with It, and occurs in all cases. In the nominative, as, Pers. Scirt imh» niiUX 
tat^ for tektUia twt, Cic. AdtdUrart turpe esl, for odii/fernim. Gen. Virff. Soli cuniartpi» 
rUL for eantandi or eatOui. JkU. Qb.\\. Servire panUif tor aenituH, AccHor. X^ami- 
hifaUvftt for arttm fedltndi, Voc O vivert tiostntm, for vUa luitra. Abl. Qoinct. 
Oagc dtmonstratie anUtnhu» for Aorum demonUraH&Hitfmda. 

I desire to know, tboo art 
afraid to tell, he despises to be 
taught, we are forbiti to prate, 
ve ought to study, they are or- 
dered to write. 

i will take care to avoid in- 
temp^ance} thou oughtest to 
seek wisdom, he eudeavonrs to 
perform his promise, we have 
resolved to hear the lesson, ye 
design to make verses, (hey 
seem to have done an injury, 
learn thou to lay aside pride. 

Money cannot change nature, 
a soldier always rejoices to re- 
count his dangers, a sailor often 
uses to relate bis losses, Egna- 
tius before this had resolved to 
kill Caesar, the general order- 
ed his men carefully to keep 

IT He then recites his own 
services ; how he bad revenged 
the revolt of their allies, and 
quelled the Thessaliana ; how 
he had not only defended, but 
advanced the dignity of the 
J^acedonians ; for which if they 
were sorry, be said he laid 
down his authority, and restor- 
ed them their present ; they 

Cupio scio^ vereor dico, 
spemo doceOf veto gmrrio^ 
aebeo studeo^ jubeo scribo. 

Cktro mto intemperan" 
tittf debeo ixptto sapiens 
iiay . eanor pra$$to prO" 
mistumt statuo audio 
praelectio^ volo compono 
versus ^ video facto ir^U' 
rta, disco depono iuperci' 

Pecunia neseio muio 
natura, miles semper gau» 
deo memoro perie^umy 
nauta saepe soleo refero 
damnum, EgwUius antea 
statuo interimo Caesar^ 
dux jubeo milts sedulo 
servo ordo, 

Deinde commemoro 
suus beneficium; ut vtn-* 
dico defeciiosociuSf ei com- 
pesco Thessalus ; ut non 
iantum defendo^ verum 
augeo dignitas Macedo ; 
gui suus poemiet, dico sui 
depono imperiuMj et red" 
do ille munus suus ; ipse 
quaero rex f tit impero. 



might* seek a kHlf whom they 
could gOKero. 

There were hei ides a great 
maoy accomplices of this de- 
sigo» whom the hope of power 
encouraged, more thao want or 
any iveceflttitjr* Most of the 
youth, but especially of the no- 
bility» ^?oured the designs of 
Catiltae ; they chose war rather 
than peace, who might have 
lived in peace quietly and splen* 

Sum praeterea complU' 
res particep$ Meet eonsi' 
liunif qui spa dominatio 
hortoTf magis quam inopia 
aut alius necessitudo» Pie- 
rique juvenis^ sed pras* 
sertim nQbilis^ favep tV 
ceptum Caiilina ; malo 
helium quam paXf qui licet 
vivo in otium molliter ei 

Tlw niotttMt phine orulmal, If •ttentbely esamined,aSrards • tboamu! wondera, 
and obliges in to admire aa^ adore that omoipotent hand which created ooraelvef, 
a* well as the object we admire. 

So great was the impmdeoce of the giants, that they vurowe to turn Japiterout «f 
heavea *, aod whto they began to fight against the gods, they heaped np mountains 
upon mountains, and from thence darted trees set en fire« They burled alto massy 
stones and solid roclcs : some of which falling upon the earth again, btcame moun- 
tains } others fell into the sea, and became isbinds. 


44« The gerund in DUM of the noottoative case, with 
the verb esty governs the dative* 

I must live well; Fivendum est miki rtcie» 

All must diee Moritndum est omnibus» 

JfMt 1* Thlsf emnd always Importf neeessitv or obligatlOD, «nd the datife after it 
is the person on whom tbe neeeisliy or obllgatien lies* 

IfMt 3. The dative Is QftW wppreited } as, Sipenwudtm tUfK. mi&t, Ukh Uli, ««- 
hiti vohU^ iUis, &c 


ifau S. Tbia gerund, when it comes after a verb in tbe same clause, passes into 
the accusative, and. with the Infinitive cmc, expressed or understood, governs the da- 
tive; at, Cic. Q^otWA msdKcre rttistendum ess» iraeUndUK. Caes. ^ikus rAvs 
quam maturrUm oeewrrendum [esse] jmtabof . 

45. The gerund in DI is governed by 8ul)9tantives or ad* 

Time of reading. Tcmpus legendi, 

^'Desirous to learn. Cupidus discendi. 

The substantives are such as, afnor, causa^ grcHa^ studi- 
um, iempuss oceasWf ars^ faouUas, otium^ eupidjo^ vohiwtas^ 
conm6tudo^ &C. 

Th«i adjectives are sach, as» periiusi frnperitus^ cupidus, 
insuetus, certus, rudis^ and others belonging to No* 14. 


NtU 1. The Infinitive is •onetiineB «ed for tbeMnintt In DltOpeelftllv hf ibe 
IKiets ; Uy T^mpiu o&Sre, oaoiionarlktrgiperttu» tmtwe ; In^ead of tAeundu Sarib^ndL 

iy«efl S. The ti^ernlng tulMtrntiflte !■ sonttlmes «ippr0Med; ai, Oie. Cutn Aaftc- 
rem in oniiii» hoo^imIj, se. ^ppontum» Pluit. Hwis aMbendi tnierea nttwiwrii, to. 


46. The gerund id DO of the dative case it governed 
by adjectives sigmlyidg asefaloess or 6tness, 

Paper useful for writing. Charta utilis scribendo^ 
Iron (it for beatings Ferrufii kabiU iwukwio. 

These a^otives are such as, utilis, inutiiisy aptus^ in* 
eptus^ purfhabiHs^ id<mtuiy accommodatuSf bonus, cornmunii, 

Note I* the aiyeetire U loinetiaief mpprened ; af, Oic. Cwn 9riv%ioeivUai*§ iim 
emtii, «e. pcret vet AaStfft. Ttin. Jthtundfina» Jkm mh nmt vMeeiub»M. idanuu 

V«l MMM. 

NcU 2* This senmd Is «ometimet foverned by n Ttrl»; «i. VUm. iSfiiinm gnm' 
rtndit operam mm. Cte. Cion omnet «orAtfiMfo OMfMiiC Uv. h-etnamdoifimis/aciuM at. 

47. The gerund in DUM of the accusative case is go* 
Terned by the prepositions ad or tnter, and sometimes by 
anttf circa or oh. 

Ready to hear* Promfftus ad auditndum. 

Attentive in time of teaching» AtteMus inter dotehdum^ 
A reward for teaching* Merce$ ob doandunu 

Nou 1. This genind It sometimes governed by the TOrt» take; u, Flio. Qin«m cm'- 
itndmn htAeroHm, 

IVote 3. It trttfuenlXf sa|ppUes the place «f the aeeusaihre bete^ the loflnltive «sie 
or JUiMM,-^ was already obsenred in note 8.00 No. 4M. 

48. The gerund in DO, of the ablative case is governed 
by the prepositions a, a6, de^ e, ex, or in ; but if the cause 
or manner of a thing be sigDified» the preposition is gene* 
rally suppressed. 

Punishment firigbtens from sin* Poena a peccando abster- 

ning. ret. 

Pleasure is found in learning. Foluptaecapiturex discen^ 

I am weary with walking* Defessus sum ambulando, 

A wife by obeying governs* Uxor parendo imperat» 

Note 1. This genttMl Is sometimes, though rarely, governed by pro or citm; es, 
plant. Pro vi^oando abs U mtrcedtm pUam» Quinet. Ratio net* aorikndi JmeU 
ewm lofnundo 4$i, 

Zfeie 3. Qerands are sabstanttve boooi, and comemiently mlUeet to the itme mies 
of constriMtlon with them. 


49. GeruDdfl of vefbe governing the accoMtive, are ele- 
gantly turned into the gerundives^ or participlei in DU&, 
which agree with their iiibatantivea in gender, number , 
and case. 

rru ir • ^ t. J ( Curandum e$t rem. 

The afiair must be managed. | Cnranda est res. 

The time ofmanagiog the affair. \ ^2^, ZJ^ZTei. 

n.. p . .| jr . \ Idoneiis curando rem. 

Fa for maDaging the affair. J ^^^^ ^^^^^^ „,.^ 

rn *u -.«u--. 1 •^'^ curandum rem. 

To manage the affair. J ^^ c«r«««l«« «m. 

i^ -« • Au ir • W» curflnrfo rem. 

In managing the affair. J j^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

To these may be added the gerunds of «/or, abutorf/rU" 
or, fungor^^nd potior: as, Cic. Mvitam utendam, rliu.. 
Infruendti voluptatibus, Cic. In munert fungendo. Sail. 
Urbis potiundae cupido eum invoiiU 

Ntie 1. The meaning of tbe rule It, that the ffenmds of active verhi fovera the 
•eciuadTe, aa will be more fally taogit In No. 54. followiac ; bat the ume aenie b 
mora vsaally and more elegantly ezprened by the gerundiTe joined with the sub* 
■tantlTe, which the genmd governt. And here obierve, tnat the genindiTe* with 
ilafuhctantlTe, are always put in the caie of the genind. 

Not€ 2. In the pinral we likewbe «it, curtuidae junf ret, ubMtw eitnmdit rthuii ad 
emrmndas m, and in eurandis rehu$t rather than enranAnn est ra, idoneus emrando re^ 
md eurmndmm rt», t» eurando re$ ; bat tm^us ewrmtdmrum renun in the genitive, on ae> 
count of its Iwnn loand, b eeldom niid } Ummu evftmdi re» is more usual and more 


Kote 3. Though the gerunds of active verbs have generally an active signification ; 
yei sometimes they seem to be used in a |iasiive sense ; as, Just. Athefi^ erudiendi 
fratia miMw, L e. «f «mUrfldir. Ball. Cam ^fu nd tmBcramiicm Tiridium vocarelur. 
I.e. vt 1pri, i mper mt t¥r, VelL Ut enee mi ocnseMhim m ItaUm reiweovcnW, i. e. vc 
enuerentvirj dte. 


^ 50. The supine in UH is put after a Verb of motion. 

He hath gone to walk. Miit deambulatum. 

They come to see. Speciatum vendunL 

urate 1. This snpine is sometimes put after ■ p«rtici|de; aii Uor. 5^ eoCotvm md- 
i^dnit ritwn UnudU rnmicii, 

Vote 3. The supine in UM is a substantive noon In the aceuatlve, of the fourth de- 
clension, and governed by a4 or ta ondentood, or sometimes expressed ; as, Var. 
Ntm. omw» ttmjpeuoi aipeeidfaetwn prodirt Unginu ^^mamr» Itucr. /n O0«umifa4KM 

ifote 3. This supine with tlie verb «rt, conttUutei the future of the iDllaitixc pM^ 



slve, and the lupine being a rabitmitfte oovn sever varlef ill tenniuaUoB*, far we do 
not wg, Uln oficisM tri, but iXln eecincm vtu 

Nou 4. An expression by tbii supine niny be Taried several ways. Tboi, Imlead of 
Fcm'l oratwn opem^ we may say» 1 . f^cntt ut oret opem. 2. Venit opu orandiu eenuu, 
S. Fenit ad orandam osem. 4. Fem't OfMm arolurM. 5. Venit opcm or«niK ontto. 6. Ft- 
ni£ ad oratuiuni opem» 7. Kenie «p» «roiuiar. 8. f^aui fuitpemwitt, 9. ^mst opem on- 
re. But of these vartetfes the first four are usual and elegant ; tbe next four Ka 
ornate and more rare ; and the last seldom oicd but by poeti. 

^51. The supine in U is put after an adjective noun. 

Easy to tell, or to be told. 
Dreadful to be mentioned. 

Facile dictu. 
Horrtndum relatu. 

Note 1. It is also put after these substantives, /w, ne^ot, optu ; as, Oic. Fat dieiu» 
Id. Ne/tu dictu. I<1. Quod $citu aptu et. It is put also after verbs signifying motion 
from a place \ as, Plaut. Ntmc obaonaturedeo. Gate, Primm cuhUu nrgmt. 

Note 2. This supine is a substantive noun in the ablative of the fourth declendoB| 
and governed by «re, e, or ex, understood, or sometimes expressed ; as, Qttinct> In n^ 
cepttt diffioUi*. Virg. E ptutu Xfitulos ad teela redwcit. 

Note 3. An expression by this sui^ne may be varied several ways: Thu^ Initead of 
Utile cognitu, we may say, 1. Cognotei rttUe, 9. Ad eognotcendign utife. 3. Cognition/a 

44. I must ride, jou jnust 

We must fight stoutly with 
our vices. 

You ought to beware, lest 
you fall into a distemper. 

He must fly, but they must 
fight, that they may be safe. 

45. The lust of governing is 
more violent than all the other 

The gods have given you 
riches, and the art of enjoying 

In a new kind of war new 
methods of carrying on the war 
are necessary. 

Dionysius obliged the physi- 
cians to give his father a sleepy 
dose, lest Dion should have an 
opportunity of tampering with 

. This man is courageous in 
dhnger, prudent in bis conduct» 


Equitandum sum ego^ 
sed ambulandum sum tu. 

Pugnandvm sum ego 
fortiter cumvitium noster. 

Cavendum sum tu, n« 
incido in morbus, 

Fugiendum sum iSf at 
dimicandum sum ille^ ut 
sum salvus. 

Cupido dominandum 
sumjlagrans eunctusali* 
us affectus, 

Deus do tu divitiae^ 
arsque fruendum, 

hi novus genus helium 
novus ratio hellandum sum 

Dionysius eogo medicu^ 
pater sopor^ ne Dion 
sumpotestas agendum cum 


Hie vir sumjbrtis adpe^ 
riculum^ pruiens ad eon» 



aod tkiUedin carriiDgon a wan 

He ackDOwledges himself to 
be anskilled in pleading, but 
not unacquainted with war. 

A great many young men take 
pleasure in horses and dogs, and 
are fond of bunting, 

46« Bituminous and nitrous 
water is good to be drunk. 

Nature has given the frogs 
legs fit for swimming. 

This is common to studying 
and writing, that good health 
contributes a great deal to both. 

47. Wisdom provides things 
to us for living happily. 

The Partbians are more dis- 
posed to act than to speak. 

As we walk we will talk to- 
gether about the great workis of 

Nobody ought to receive a 
reward for accusing. 

48. Lazy boys are soon dis- 
couraged from learning. 

No question is now made 
about living well. 

Greater glory is acquired by 
defending than by accusing. 

The spirit of the Cantabrians 
was obstinate in rebelling. 

The dog by barking discover- 
ed the thieves. 

. Scipio reformed the soldiers 
by exercising rather than by 

Caesar^ by giving^ by reliev-^ 
ing^ and forgivin^^ acquired 
RKeat glory. 

n/itMi) etperitUM belligt'^ 

Faieor sui sum rudisdi- 
cendum^ at non ignartis 

Plur%mu9 adolescent 
gaudeo equxis et cants ^ et 
sum studiosus venandum, 

Bituminatus et nitrosus 
aqua sumutilis bibendum. 
Naiura do rana crus 
ajnue natandwn. 

Hie sum communis edts** 
cendum scrihendumque, 
quod bonus valetudo con^ 
jero'^plurimum uterque, 

Sapientia comparo res 
ego ad beate vivendum. 

Parthi sum promptua 
ad faciendum quam ad 

Inter ambulandum con- 
fabulor de magnus opua 

JSTemo deheo accipio 
praemium ob accusandum. 
Ignavus puer cito de^ 
terteo a discendum^ 

J^ullvs quatstio jam 
moveo de bene vivendum». 
Uber gloria comparo caj 
defendendum quam ex aC' 

Animus Cantabrus sum 
pertinax in rebellandum, 
Canis latrandum proda 

Scipio corrigo miles ex^ 
ercendum magis quam 

Caesar f dandum^ sub-^ 
levandum^ et ignoscen-^ 
dum, magwus ghrict adi^ 




40. Friends ought to be ad- 
monished and chid, and that 
ought to be taken kindly which 
is done with a good intention. 

Why do you hesitate ? says 
he ; or what place of trying 
our courage do you expect? 
This day shall determine con- 
cerning our disputes. 

Old oil is said to be good for 
clearing ivory from rottenness. 

Claudius was a modest man, 
tenacious of what was just, and 
fit for managing the common- 

The boy is fit for bearing the 
burden ; but this place is pro- 
per for spreading the nets. 

All the cities of Greece coa- 
trtboted money for equipping a 
fieeti and raising an army. 

Men use care in purchasing 
a horse, and are negligent in 
chusing friends. 

50. This man came to Cae- 
sar to entreat that he would par- 
don him. 

Maecenas went to diversion, 
I and Virgil went to bed« 

51. A true friend is a thing 
hard to be found* 

Let nothing filthy to be spok- 
en or to be seen touch those 
doors within which there is a 

IF A general must endeavour 
to accustom his soldiers to ob- 
serve the tricks, plots, andstra* 
tagems of the enemy, and what 
[it] is proper to pursue, and 
what to avoids 

Amicus sum monendus 
st objurgandus, ei is sum 
aecifnendus amice qui 6e- 
nevole fio» 

Quid dubito? inquamj 
aut quis locus probandus 
virtus expecto r Hie dies 
judico de nosier contro- 

Vetus oleum dico sum 
utilis vindicandus ebur a 

Claudius sum vir mo^ 
destuSf tenax justum^ et 
idoneus gerendus respub^ 

Puer sum parferendus 
onus ; sed hxc locus surtb 
habilis pandendus rete, 

Omnis civitas Graecia 
do pecunia ad aedifican" 
dns classiSf et comparand 
dus exercitus. 

Homo adhibeo cura in 
parandus egutis, et sum 
negligens in diligendus. 

Hie homo venio ad 
Caesar oratum ut ignosco 

Maecenas eo lusum, ego 
Virgiliusque eo dormitum^ 

Verus amicus sum res 
difficilis inventu» 

Nilfoedus dictu visuve 
tango hie limen intra qui 
puer sum, 

Laborandum sum dux 
ul consuefacio miles cog-^ 
tLOseo doluSf insidiae, et 
artificium kostis^ et quis 
convenit sequor^ quisqu» 



After a long series of ages, 
the bird phoenix came into 
Egypt, and furnished an. occa- 
sion to the most learned of the 
natifes and Greeks of making 
speculations on that prodigy. 

In that battle the general was 
wounded ; who, when he saw 
bis men slaughtered « demanded 
by a crier the bodies of the 
slain for burial ; for this among 
the Greeks is a sign of the vic- 
tory's being yielded up : with 
which con^ssion the Thebans 
being content gave the signal of 
giving quarter. 

Whilst each of the states of 
Greece are ambitious of domi- 
neering, they were all ruined ; 
for Philip king of Macedonia 
plotted against their common 
liberty ; he fomented the quar- 
rels of the states, gave assist- 
ance to the weaker, and at last 
reduced all, the conquerors and 
conquered alike, under his 

The Carthaginians attempted 
to renew the war, and excited 
the Sardinians, who by an ar- 
ticle of the peace were oblig- 
ed to be subject to the Romans, 
to rebel : an embassy, how- 
ever, of the Carthaginians came 
to Rome and obtained peace. 

How desperately the fight 
was maintained the event shew- 
ed ; none of the enemies sur- 
vived the battle. The place 
that every one had received in 
fighting, that he covered with 
his body. Catiline was found a 
great way from his men amongst 
*hfi carcases of the enemies^ 

Post longus ambitus se- 
culumj avis phoenix venio 
in AegyptuSy praeheoque 
tnateries doctus indigena 
et Graecus disserendum 
super is miraculum. 

In is praelium dux vul' 
nero ; qui, cum video suus 
catdoy posco per praeco 
corpus interfectus ad se* 
pultura ; hie enim apud 
Graecus sum signum vic- 
toria traditus : qui con» 
fessio TJiebanus contemns^ 
do signum parcendum. 

Dum singulus civitas 
Graecia sum cupidus do- 
minandum^ omnis pereo ; 
nam Philippus rex Mace- 
donia insidior communis 
libertas ; alo . contentio 
civitasjfero auxilium in-- 
ferusj et tandem redigo 
omnisy victor et victus pa^ 
riter^ sub suus potestas. 

Carthaginiensis tenia 
reparo bellumt et impella 
Sardiniensisy qui ex con- 
ditio pax debeo pareo 
RomanuSt ad rebellan" 
dum : legatiOy tamen^ 
Carthaginiensis ad Roma 
venio, et pax impetro, 

Q^uam atroeiter dimico, 
exitus doceo ; nemo hostis 
supersum helium, ^ui 
locus quis in pugnandum 
camoy is corpus tego^ Cq-^ 
titina longit a suus inter 
hosiisi eaaav9T reperio. 



Eumenefl being thos received 
by the Argyraspides, by de- 
grees assumea the connnand ; 
first by a^dmoDishing, and then 
by gently correcting, he brought 
it to pass that nothing could be 
done in the camp without him. 

Clearchus thought the disa- 
agreement of the people an op- 
portunity of seizing the govern- 
ment ; wherefore he confers 
first with Mithridates, the ene* 
my of his countrymen, and 
promises to betray tjbe city to 
him ; but Afterwards he turn- 
ed the plot which he had form- 
ed against his countrymen upon 
Mithridates himself. But faith 
ought to be kept. 

All the sons of Hanno, not on- 
ly those that appeared^fit for as- 
suming the government,^but the 
rest also, and all his relations, 
are delivered up to punishment ; 
that no one of so wicked a fami- 
ly might be left, either to imi-. 
tate his villany, or to revenge 
bis death. 

The Fhocensians fly tQ arms ; 
but there was neither leisure to 
prepare for war, nor time to 
get together auxiliaries ; they 
are slaughtered, therefore, 
-every where, and carried off. 
The miserable people had one 
comfort, that, as Philip had 
cheated his allies of their part 
of the plunder, they saw none 
of their goods in the hands of 
their enemies. 

When he came to the admi- 
nistration of the government, he 
did not think so much of go«^ 

EufMnes iia rtapiut 
ab Argyraspidaey favt^ 
latim usurpo tmperium ; 
primum monendum^ mox 
blande corrigendum^ offi- 
cio ^ ui nihil possum ago 
in castra sine ille. 

Clearchus existimo dis" 
sensio populus occasio tn- 
vadendus tyrannis ; itaque 
colloquor primo cum Mi' 
thridateSf civis suus hot" 
tiSf et promitto prodo urh9 
is ; pottea autem verto tn- 
sidiae gui civis paro in 
ipse Mithridates» Sedfidts 
sum servam2«j. 

Omni» filius Hanno, 
nan toMtutn is qui video 
hahilis capessendus> re«- 
publica^ sed catter quoq^te^ 
omnisque cognatusj trado 
Mupplicium ; ne quisi^m 
ex tarn nefarius domus 
sUpersum^ aut ad tm«ton* 
dus sceluSf aut ad ulcis- 
cendus mors» 

Phocensis ad arma con- 
fugio ; sed neque sum spa- 
tium instruendus 6 «//urn, 
neque tempus ad contra- 
hendus auxilium ; caedo, 
igitur^ passim, rapioque. 
Unus solatium miser sum^ 
quod^ cum PhilippusfraU' 
do socius portio praeda, 
video nihil res suus apud 

Cum venio ad adminis-r 
tratio regnumt non iam 
cogitQ de regendum qumjk 



verning as of increasing hU king* 
dom : wherefore be sttbdn»! 
the ScytfaianB, till that time In- 
vincible, who had cnt off Sopj« 
rion, a general of Alexander 
the Great, and had alain Cjrrnt, 
king of the Persiaos, with two 
hundred thonsand, 

Lysander, when he found by 
his scoatf, that the Athemana 
were gone ashore to plunder, 
and that the ships were left al- 
most empty, did o<^ let slip the 
opportnnity of doing his busi- 
ness, and so put an end to the 
whole war* 

Whilst these tftings are doing 
in Egypt, king Dejotarus comes 
to Domitius, to entreat that he 
would not suffer the lesser Ar- 
menia, bis kiBgdoBS, to be laid 
waste by Phamaces. 

Among the ancient Romans 
some matron of approved and 
weH known morals was made 
choice of, to whom was commit* 
ted all the children of the family, 
in whose presence it was nei^ 
ther allowable to speak what ap- 
peared shameful to be said, nor 
to do what was indecent to be 

When the enemies saw Ah 
exander alone, they flock toge- 
ther from all quarters : nor did 
he less courageously resist, and 
alone fight against so many 
thousands. It is incredible to 
be said, that not the multitude of 
the enemies, nor the vast num- 
ber of weapons, nor so great a 
shout of those that attacked him 
should fright him, that he alone 
should slaughter and put to 
flight so many thoasa^ds. 

lf« aug$ndus r^gnum : 
itaque perdomo Scythae, 
nsque ad id tempits invic- 
tUSy qm deleo S^yrio, 
dux Alexandtt Magnus^ 
et trueido Cyrus^ rex Per' 
iOf cum ducenti miUe, 

Lysanderf ctvm per spe- 
culator comperiOf Athe* 
niensis exeo praedatum, 
navisque relictus sum pene 
inaniSy tempw gerendus 
res ndn dimitto, aique itA 
totus helium 4eleo» 

Dum hie in Aegyptus 

STo, rex Dejotarus ctd 
omitius venio oraiwm^ 
ne patior Armenia minor, 
9>sgnum 9SI1M, vasto a 

Apud vetus RomanuM 
aliqins mairona probatus 
speetaitusque 6 mos eligo, 
quieommitio emnis sobo" 
k$ famiUa^ coram qui 
nequefas sum dico qui vi^ 
deo iurpis dictu^ neque 
facio tpii sum inhonestm 

Cum hostis conspicio 
Alexander solus^ unaique 
concurro : nee minus 
constanter resisto, et unus 
praelior adversus tot miU 
le. Sum incredibilis die* 
tUi ut non multitudo hos^ 
tis^ non vis magnus tehim, 
non tantus clamor laces'» 
sens terreo^ut solus ca^-v 
do acfugo tot mille. 


TtetoftaoddraiidlWilaf wyiMoativraMliiWlien weauatalliBMwbM^ 
Jaclga. WhM conslsrmAloii will tben tclte the wicked ! Thai mi«inr bwd. wKkh 
once opejMBtl the wioflows of beoven nod brok^ tq> thr fiMmtaiM of tbe grctt deep* 
will then nnlock nil tta« roagsKlnes of fire^ aoU poiar a second deluge oo tbe etrtb. 
Tbe evcriatting mbunuiUM will tbea melt libe tbe now wbidi cofCff tbelr luiBinlls, 
•od all nature will be laid in aibet. 

Oeres !• the goddess of fntitt) she first teogbt tbe art of tdoaeblng and sowing. 
Q«rore her Uiae the eerfh biy rbogb and unailUTated^ coveted wltk liners and full of 
wee^», and the people lived on acorns. 

ilow wonderful are tbe Mrds ! AjMssage tbrouBh the air, which has been denied 
to pther animals, is open to them* Tb^ we cf^bie of soarii» up to tbe ehnids : they 
suspend tbelr bodice and continne motionless in an elemeat lighter than themielvcs. 
Tbey remount, and then predpitaie themselves to tbe earth Oke a descending stone. 

Virgil describes the seasons* and gives the signs of tbe weather proper for sowings 
l^ti»Sf gvefiing, and reapfng. 

When men are freed from toe business and caret of ufe, ihejr are generally mpre 
inclined to bear and to learn ; but they raUtabe when they consider the knowledge 
of abstruse and stmoge tbiogs as necessary to living happily. 
. When Ceres was weary with travelling, and thirsty, she came to a cottage» and 
begged a Utile water of a» old woman thai lived there i Tbe ohl woman not on- 
ly gave her water, but also barl^ bratb ) which, wbeo the guddeti sinped up gree- 
dily* tbe woman's kon Stelllo^a saucy boy. mocked her. Ceres being thus provoked, 
threw some of the broth into tbe boy's face, and metamorphosed him Into «n evet* 

A good man enjoyeth tbe tranquillity of his own breast» and njolcetb In the hep- 

ftinus and prosperity of his neighbour: heopeneth not his ear unto slander : the 
aulti and failings of men give a pda to his heart- His desire is to do good } and in 
removing tbe oppcnsloB of others, he relieveth himself. 

Here It th« place whither we are come to badie •, you may walk ahmg the side of 
tbe river, I with my maid will repair to the grave» to eiUoy the cool shade. 

The pot^ts tell many stories bard to be beloved : They s^, that when Prometheus 
Ktole fire from heaven, Jupiter was incensed, and seat Pandora to Prometiietts with a 
sealed box ; but Prometheus would not receive it Jiqiiter sent her again with the 
rame box to tbe wife of Epimetbens« the brother of Prametheus t and she being ca- 
rtons, as is natural to her sex, opened It; whereupon idl sons of diseases aad evils 
with which it w«i filled, flew out amongst mankind, and have Infested them ever 


5S. Parti ciPLES) gerunds, and aapiaes, goyern the case 
of their own verbs* 

I^oviog virtue. Jlmans virtutem» 

Wanting guile. Carens fraude. 

Having got riches» Naeiu$ divitias. 

Having forgot your own afiairs. Obliius rerum iuarum. 

About to write a letter. Scripturui Hteras. 

Going to accusQ bim of theft* Accusaturua tumfurii. 

Fond of residing books. Cupidus Ugtndi hhros» 

We must improve time. Utendumest aetaifi* 

They came to complain of iq* Vtnerunt questum tfi/u- 

juries. rta«. 

1 shall go to serve the Grecian Gratis strvitutn matribus 

domes. ibo» 

Note 1. The participle in BUS gavems the dative Ity No. 17. And tbe supine in D 
l»as no case afteir it. 

yott 2. Participles, gerunds, and supines, partake liotb of the nature of a noun 
and of a verb ; nod, accordingly, admit of a two*fold construction. In the first res- 
pect, participles aro construed hs other ai)jf*rtlves, and tbe gerunds and supines, iise 
other ffiih5Uiotiv<> nouns ; but as they partatce of tbe nature of a verb, they govern the 
ease of tbe vtrhs from whence they eome. 



i?«lf 9» VERBAL nonot, u wttt sntaluiUvet m a^jcellvefiioinellnies govern tl* 
caw of tbdr TCrin ; «f, 01c. Juttkia ut ohttmptrati» «er^lii hgibut* Sail. IiisUUm 
«0»fM/i n«» mroetdebant, OrM. /jpn* «wmm jnf^cw* Just. QrmlultU^ndtts patnae> 
OelL P«|MMniniiif agroi. Llw» fltotuntku cattra koftium, 

IfHt 4. Extus, pcronu, always, and pertaesus ofteA, govern the ^o6isaUve ; ■!« 
Ovid. Ta€da$€xoMjuga/ea. LIT. F/eftt «oimi/um nomen/wrMo, Saet Per<aeMi« i;- 
iMwfam «MnH. Bqi perttunu vonetiines lAkes the genitive; as, Tac. Ltn/titHdinis eo- 
rum ptrtmuu. 

Sou 6* The gerand in DI, In imiutioli of substantive nouns, instead of the acc«- 
««tlve, sometimes governs the genlUve plaral; as, Plant. JVeminandi utonon erit 
copia, Cie. FaeuUai agrorum eon d onana i . 

Ifai* 8. The verbs <b,neddb, «o/e, ewro^faci^ hahto^ with a participle perfect In the 
acoMatlve, are often used by way of elreumlocuiion, Instead of the verb of the per- 
tielple ; as, Tter. Effketvmdaho^ 1. e. i. effieimn. Id. /ntwntiu rtddam, i. e. cm inve- 
nuMk Id. VoM orut0s vlo, i. ^. vet oro. U- Mt mitiwmfaeet i. e. me mtlle. 

Wot* 7. The verbs citfo, Aobce, maN«lo, 2om, conAieo, de. fribite, cwe^, mtCie, reltii» 
HO, and some others, instead of the infinltlTe or solgunctive are elegantly construed 
with the participle in DU8, joined with a tubstantive ; as, CIc F^tnv* ti amphm 

/Vmnuhim eurctm ; instead ot^fieri, or irt^fsrtf . Id. Datnu» no* phUosopkiao exeoiendosy 


The Asiaticif, remembering 
the dignity of BereDice's fa- 
ther, and pitying bet hard for- 
tune, sent aid. 

Perseus, forgetting his fa- 
ther's fortane, bid his soldiers 
remember the old glory of 

Julias Silanus, being asked 
his opinion concerning those 
that ivere detained in prison, 
voted that punishment ought to 
be inflicted. 

Pausanias too, the other ge- 
neral of the Lacedaemonians , be- 
ing accused of treachery, went 
into banishment* 

Good magistrates, promoting 
the public interest, observing 
the laws, and favouring virtue, 
are worthy of honour. 

Alexander, king of Egypt, 
dreading the cruelty of his mo- 
ther, and perferring a secnre 
and a safe life before a kingdom, 
led her. 

Darius went about encourag- 
ing his men, an d putting them 

Asiaticif recordans 4 
dignitSLs pater Berenice^ 
et misertus is indignus 
fortunUf mitto auxilium, 

PerseuSf oblitus pater 
fortunOf jubeo suus miles 
reminisc^r vetus gloxia 

Julius Silanusy roga^ 
tU8 sententia de hie qui 
in custodia teneo^ decerno 
supplicium sum sumendus* 

Pausanins guoque, aU 
ter dux Lacedaemonius^ 
CLccusatus prodttioy abeo 
in exilium. 

Bonus magistraius, ser^ 
'viens communis utilitas, 
parens lex^ etjavtns vir^ 
tuSf sum dignus honor. 

Alexander, rex Aegyp- 
ius^ timens crudelitas ma- 
ter y et. anteponens secU' 
rus et tutus vita regiium, 
relinquo is» 

Darius circumeo hor» 
tans Buus, et admonens is 

— T 

.lu n,J-i 

iiTT irr 1 r m 



in mind of the ancient glory of 
the Persians, and of the per- 
petual possession of empire 
giren him hy the gods. 

Having got Egypt without 
any contest, he goes into Libya, 
aesignicg to visit the temple of 
Jupiter Hammon, and consult 
him concerning the event of 
the war. 

Boys are not to. be glutted 
with meat ; for we cannot use 
our reason well, being filled 
with much meat and driok. 

Many men abounding in gold 
and flowing in wealth, cannot 
deliver their minds from cares ; 
no possession therefore is to 
be valued more than virtue. 

Tiberius seldom used the 
Greek language, and abstained 
from it chiefly in the senate ; 
insomuch that, being about to 
mention the word monopolium^ 
he asked pardon, because he 
was obliged to make use of a 
foreign word. 

Sylla for a long time so be- 
haved himself, that he seemed 
to have no thought of setting 
up for the consulship. 

There will be no other more 
seasonable time of delivering 
ourselves from the dread of 
the Carthaginians than now, 
whilst they are weak and nee- 

After this the Carthaginians 
sent generals into Sicily, to 
prosecute the remains of the 
war» with whom Agathoclea 
made a peace. 

It would be tedious to re- 

vetw gloria Pema^ et per-* 
peiuus postessio impirium 
datus sui a deus. 

Potitw Aegyptui sine 
certametiy pergo in Idbya, 
visurus templum Jupitit 
Hammon. et consultunu %$ 
de everUus'bellum» 

Putrnon sum implendm 
dbui ; non enim po$8nm 
uior men» recte, covy)letus 
multus cibui etpotio. 

Multu9 homo abundant 
aitn««ii, et eircwnfluem du 
vitiaCj non poisum libera 
animus cura ; nullus po»^ 
sessio igiiur sttm plus a^es" 
timandtis,quam virtus. 

Tiberius rat^ utor 
Graeeus serm4>fabstin€oque 
maxime in senatus; adeo 
quidemut^ nominaturusvox 
monopolium, postulo ve- 
nia^ quod sui utendum sum 
verbum peregrinus» 

SyUa diu ita sui gero^ 
ut videor habeo mUlus co- 
gitatio petendum ^onsula" 
tus. . 

Non sum alius oppor- 

tunus tempus liberandum 

egometus Carthaginiensi$ 

quam nuttc, dum sum in^ 

firmus et egenus. 

Post hie Poeni mitto dux 
in Sieiliay ad persequen^ 
dum reliquiae bellum^ cum 
qui Aga^ocles pax facto. 

Longus sum rocens&o 



coHDt what Annibal has. done 
«gaiost U8 and our armies, by 
plundering ouf cities* and kill- 
ing our fellow-soldiers. 

The fiituriges sent deputies 
to Caesar to complain of ioju- 
ries, and to beg assistance 
against the Carnutes. 

Timoleon took Mamercos 
the Italian general, a warlike 
roan, and of great power, who 
had come into Sicily to assist 
the tyrants. 

IS All the soldiers of Alex- 
ander, forgetting their wives 
and children, looked upon the 
Persian gold and the riches of 
all the East, as their plunder ; 
nor did they talk of wars and 
dangers, but the riches which 
they hoped to obtain. 

Ljslmacbus being wont to 
hear Callisthenes, and receive 
precepts of virtue from him, 
pitying so great a man suffer- 
ing the punishment, not of any 
crime, . but his freedom, gave 
him poison for a remedy of his 
misery ; which Alexander took 
so ill, that he ordered him to 
be delivered to a very fierce 

The conditions of peace of- 
fered to Antiochus, king of 
Asia, were these : That Asia 
should be the Romans' ; that 
he should, have the kingdom of 
Syriaj that he should deliver 
up alf his ships, prisoners, and 
deserters, and restore the Ro- 
mans the whole charge of the 

God, though angry with sin, 
'nvites sinners to repentance : 

qui JInnibal patro in 
ego exercitusque nosUr, 
populandum urbs, et in- 
ierficiendum cominilito, 

Biturigea mitto legatus 
ad Caesar questum de tn- 
juria^ et petitum auxilium 
contra Carnutes. 

Timoleon capio Mamer* 
cus^ Italicus duxy homo 
bdlicosus et potenSy qui 
venio in Sicilia adjutum 

Omnis miles Alexander, 
ohlitus conjux et liberiy 
duco Fer&icus aurvm, et 
opes totus Oriens,ut suus 
praeda ; nee memini beU 
lum et periculum^ sed di- 
vitiae qui spero obtineo, 

Lysimachus solitus au" 
dio Callisthenesy et accipio 
praeceptum, virtus ab is, 
misertus tantus vir pen^ 
dens poena, non culpa, sed 
libertas, do is venenum in 
remedium calamitns ; qui 
Alexander fero tarn aegre, 
utjubeo is tradoferox lea. 

Conditio pax oblaius 
Antiochus^ rex Asia^ sum 
hie: Ut Asia sum Roma" 
nus ; ut ille habeo regnum 
Syria ; ut trado universus . 
navis, captivus, et trans^ 
fuga^ et restituo totus 
sumptus bellum Romanus, 

Deus, licet iratus pec» 
catum, invito peccator ad 



he offers them eternal happi- 
ness in heaven ; but they des- 
pise his mercy, and hearken to 
the devil, who endeavours to 
tempt them to wickedness. 
They repent of their sins 
when it is too late, and their 
repentance cannot profit them, 
that is, when they suffer the 
punishment due to their folly. 
Antoninus was a man of an 
illustrious family, but not very 
ancient, and who deservedly 
may be compared with Numa ; 
he was cruel to nobody, kind 
to all, seeking out the most 
just men to manage the govern- 
ment, giving honour to the 
good, detesting the wicked, no 
less venerable than terrible to 
kings ; he was called, pious, 
on account of his clemency. . 

It was a thing worth the 
sight, to see Xerxes lurking in 
a small vessel, whom a little 
before the whole sea hardly 
contained ; wanting likewise 
the attendance of servants, 
whose armies, by reason of 
their number, were burden- 
some to the earth. 

Epaminondas was modest, 
prudent, steady, wisely using 
the times, skilled in war, of a 
great spirit, a lover of troth, 
merciful, not only bearing with 
the injuries of the people, but 
his friends too ; he was exer- 
cised very much in running 
and wrestling, and employed a 
great deal of his application in 

Philip sends deputies to 
Athoas, king of the Scythians, 

poeniientia : ^ttro tile ae- 
temus felicitas in coelum'; 
sed contemno is misericord 
dia, et pareo diabolus^ qui 
Conor pellicio is ad scdus, 
Poenitet is peccatum quan^ 
do sum sero, et poenitentia 
suus fion possum prosum 
ts, is sum, cum do poena 
dcbi'us stultStia suus, 

Antoninus sum vir cla^ 
rus 6 genus ^ sed non ad- 
modum vetus, et qui m^rito 
confero Numa ; sum acer- 
bus nullus, benignus cune- 
tus^ qimerent Justus ad ad- 
ministrandus respublica, 
habens honor bonus, detes- 
tans improbusy non minus 
venerabilis quam ierribilis 
rex ; pius propter clemen- 
iia dico. 

Sum res dignus specta- 
ctUum, video Xerxes latens 
in exiguus navigium^ qui 
paulo ante vix omnis ae- 
quor capio ; carens . etiam 
' ministerium servuSf qui 
exercitusj propter multi- 
tudo^ sum gravis terra* 

Epaminondas sum tno' 
destus, prudens, gravis^ 
sapienter utens tempus, 
peritus bellum^ magnus 6 
animus, diligens Veritas, 
clemensj non solum ferens 
injuria populus^ sed epiam 
amicus ; exerceo phirimum 
currendum et tucfandum, 
et consunso plurimum slUr 
dium in armxi, 

Fkilippus mitto legatus 
ad Atheas, rex Scytfu 



desiring a part 'of the expense petms portio impmsa sb- 
of the siege. Atheas, blaming sidio, Atheas^ causatus 
the rigour of the climate, and 
the barrenness of the land, 
which did not enrich the Scy- 
thians with wealth, replied, 
That he had no riches where- 
with he ^might satisfy so great 
a king, and that bethought it 
more scandalous to do but a 
little, than to refuse the whole. 

Alexander, fond of high ti- 
tles, ordered himself to be 
adored. The roost violent 
among the recusants Wiis Cai- 
listhenes^ which thing brought 
ruin on him, and on many of prin^eps Macedonia ; nam 
the great men of Macedonia ; omnisinterfido, sub species 
for they were all pat to death, 
uoder.pretence of a plot. Ne- 
vertheless, the custom of sa- 
luting their king was retained 
by the Macedonians. 

Many cities of Greece came 
to complain of the injuries -of venio questum de injuria 
Philip, king of Macedonia ; Fhilippus^rex Macedonia ; 
but such a dispute arose in the ted tantus disceptaiio orior 
senate betwixt Demetrius, in senatvs intp* Demetri- 
Philip's son, whom his father ««, Philippus filiusy qui 
had sent to satisfy the senate» pater fnitto ad satisfacien- 
and the deputies of the cities, . dum senatus^ ei legatus ci 
that, to 600th their minds, and 
to compose the differences, 
there was need of threats. 

They do not believe there 
are any gods, and he thinks 
they are to be saved, to avoid 
the odium of gods and men. 
But I think the gods have re* 
dttced the Carthaginians to this 

condition,that they may suffer pietas; qui, violandum 
the punishment of their im- foedus ictus egocuminSi* 
piety ; who, by breaking the ct7ta, Hispania, Italia^ et 
treaties ma^le with us in Sicily, Africa^ infero ego gram 

>ain, Italy, and Africa, have calamitas. 

inclementia coelum^ et stt- 
rilitas terra , qui non dit6 
Scythae patrimonium^ res- 
pondeoj Nullus sui' opes 
sumy qui expleo iantu» 
rex^etputo turpis defun^ 
gor parvus f quam abnuo 

Alexander^ gaudews 
magnui tilulus^ jubeo sui 
adoro, Acer inter recusans 
sum CalUfthenes, qui sum 
exidum ille^ et multus 

insidiae» Tamen^ 'mos 
salutandum rex retineo a 

MuUusdvitas Graecia 

vitas^ utj ad mitigandus 
animus, et ad componen' 
dus liSf opus sum minae, 

Non credo sum deus, et 
ille censeo is sum servan» 
dus, ad vitandus invidia 
deus homoqve» At ego 
puto deus redigo Poeni in 
hie statuSf ut luo poena im'. 



broaght upon us the heayiest 

When both the prayers and 
the threats of the deputies 
were sh'ghted, they came arm- 
ed to the city ; there they call 
gods and men to witness, that 
they came not to force, but to 
recover their country ; and 
.would shew their countrymen, 
that not their courage, but for- 
tune, had failed them in the 
former war. 

The Helvetii by this time 
had carried their forces through 
the straits iind the territories 
of the Sequani, and had come 
into the dominions of the Ae* 
dui, and were ravaging their 
country ; the Aedui, as they 
were not able to defend them- 
selves and their possessions 
against them, sent deputies to 
Caesar to beg assistance. 

Cum et precis et minae 
legatus spernOf armaius ad 
ur6f v^nio ; ibi dtu9 ko' 
moque testor^ Bui vtnio non 
exp^natumy sed recupe* 
ratum patria ; ostensur- 
mque civis suus, non vtV- 
tU8, sedfortuna desum sui 
in prior bellum. 

Helvetii jam transduco 
suus copiae per augustia 
et finis Sequanij et perot" 
nio in finis Aedui^ popu» 
lorque is ager ; Aeduif 
quum non possum defendo 
suis%usque ah hie, mitto 
legatus ad Caesar rogatum 

Demetrius compares prosperity to the induleeace of a fond mother, which ofteif 
ruins tbecbild; but be compares tbeaflTectioa of the Divine Being to that o( a wise 
fathert who would have hiii sous to labour, to feel disappointment and pain, that they 
may ^tlier strength and improve their fortitude. There is not on earth, says he, a 
spectacle more worthy the regard of a Creator Intent on his worlcs, than a brave man 
superior to his sufferings ; it must be a pleasure to JupMer himself to look dowor froai 
heaven, and see Cato, amidst the ruins of his country, weservlng his integrity. 

Bacchus is said to have tftug^t (he art of planting iflS vine, of making honey, and 
tilling the ground; but the ass of Nauplia also deserves praiit,who asea to gnawtho 
vines, and so taught men the art of pruning them. 

4, The Construction of CIRCUMSTANCES. 

1. The Cause, Manngb, and Instrument. 


* 63. Thb catise, manner, and instromeot, are put in 
the ablative» 

I am pale for fear. Palleo metu. 

He did it after his 0W9 way. Fecit sua more^ 

I write with a pen» Scribo talam. 




2r«te 1. The CAUSE b known by the qwMioQ CUR or ^UJRB? Whyf Wkert- 
f«r€7 Ibe AIA^NER, by the qontJon QUOUODO? How 9 and the INSTRUMENT 
by tbe queitlon qVOCVM fWMreaithf 

wper ^ 

tfott S. Thi* emue tometlines takes the preposltlont per, propter, or de, e, e*,prtte: 
Ml Oie. Legihut propUr mttum pmnt» Id* Ctim i via /«mfuerem. Id. Noc lomnprmf 
taoeron pottUt. 

I 3. Tbe manner rrequeaily admits the preposition Mm, anctaoiaetinMscle, e,e»» 
; at, Oie. Semper magno cum metu dicere ineipio. Vlrg. Soiito mairum de more 
ett. CIc. i^uod adeptv* est per scetut, id per humriom effhndit^ 

Ifete 4. Tlie instrumenf^eldom or nerer admits the preposition cum, bat it is ex- 
pressed sometimes with a or ab by Che poets ; ns, OtM. Hi jtiMtU piecet, Wi capixen- 
tnr a& homo But here oliserve, lliat cvm is eenerally ezpresned with tbe abiatrve of 
eenesiiw/aney, which sipniftes sooMtbinr to lie in company with another Ihinfr ; as, 
ingreetui est eumgladie, He emenKl with a sword, i. e. having a sword with him, or 
about him. In like manner, Cic. l>e5titattC eftsiilBre cam cr'od?» curiam. IA.VtFei- 
tUu inforo «urn pngione oomprehmderetur, 

Note 5. To tbe cavue may be referred the mnlter of which any thing Is made 5 as, 
Liv. CapitoUum $axe fwwvto tul^rudum. Vlrg. jiere eovo ^gpeua. Bat the pre- 
p0slllon is more frequently expressed, as, Oie. Fecula ex auro* Virg. Tems/um de 
Cars. iV«»e</«rf« •« reiere. Cic.Gamfe/o6rvmyttcf«me j«in»i«. 

Jfife 6. To the monno' may be referred (Ac means hy rekich} as,-Cit. Amioot oBter- 
nlia, rem jiarsimonia r«(uiM«<* SalL Hwio evta honat artes desunt, dolie alfnefat- 
weiit contendit: and the retpeel wherein j as,Oic. Florwt cum acumine tngenti. dim 
admirttkili fuodam tepore dteendi- Id. Scipio omnet eeAefaeUiisque iuperebat.'9 Caes. 

Fame nMIt» poientesque heUo. 

1. Caesar was esteemed 
great for his favours and gene** 
rositj, Cato for the integrity of 
his life. 

Clay hardoDS and wax softens 
by one and the same fire. 

Wrong nobody for thy ova 
interest's sake ; men were 
born for tbe sake of men. 

2. Paasanias feasted, after 
the manner of the Persians, 
more luxuriously than they that 
were with him could endare* 

Xerxes was conquered more 
by the contrivance of Themis- 
tocles,than the arms of Greece. 

Syria was desolated by an 
earth(|uake, wherein a hundred 
and seventy thousand men and 
many cities perished:. 

Mithridates was a man very 
b^isl^ ia war, extraordinary for 
courage, a general for conducfj^ 

Caesar hafieo tnagnus 
beneficium ae munificeniiay 
Cato integritas vita, 

Limus duresco et cera 
Hquesco unus idem^ ig- 

Nemo violo tuus com' 
modum gratia ; homo 
homo causa generom 

Pausanias epuloTy mo& 
Persaey luxuriose t^m 
^ui adsum possum ferpe^ 

Xerxes vifico magis 
consilium Tliemistocles, 
ftuzm arma Graecia, 

Syria vasto. terramotusy 
qui centum septttaginta 
wilU homo e^ multus urhs 

Mithridates sum vir 
0eer bellumi eximtus vir^ 
$us, dux consilium, vdlei 



a solder io actioB, a Hannibal 
for spite against the Romans. 

3. Alexander stabbed bis 
most dear friend Clitns with 
a sword. 

They cat down the wood, 
which hang over the way, with 

Nero fished with golden nets, 
which he drew with cords of 
pnrple silk. 

The Metapontini ahew, in 
the temple of Minerva, the 
iron tools with which Epeos 
made the Trojan horse. 

Antonins fills the hooBes nigh 
the walls with the bravest of 
the soldiers, who forced away 
the defenders with trees, cud- 
gelsy tiles, and torches. 

Folvias surroanded the lurk- 
ing-places of the enemy with 
fire ; Posthnraias so disarmed 
them, that he scarce left them 
iron wherewith the ground 
might be tilled. 

% The contest waa dobioua 
jiill his army broke into the 
town. In that battle, being 
wonnded ander tha breast, he 
began to faipt through loss Of. 
blood ; yet he fought upon his 
knees, till he killed htm by 
whom he had been wounded. 
The dressing of the wound was 
more painfaT than the wound 

The Lacedaemonians, as 
they observed the excellent 
conduct of Akibiadee in aU 
things, werej^aid, lest, tempt- 
ed by the love of his country y 
he should revolt from them^ 
n4 retar» to e good under- 

manu$, Hannibal odivm in 

Alexander transfoiia 
cams 8Ufi$ amicus Clkw 

Excido sylva^ q/ui tm- 
nUneo vta, «ectiris. 

Aero piscor aureus 
rete^ qui extraho Uatttus 

Metapontini osterUOj in 
templum MineriKij /erra- 
tnenium qui Eptus jaJbricf^ 
Trojanus equus, 

Antonius compleQ lee-' 
tutu propinquus . murus 
fortis mileSf qui deturiip 
propugnalor irabSffusiiSf 
tegiUa^ etfax. 

Fulvius sepio latehra 
hostis ignis; Posthumius 
itaexarmOfUt vix relinquo 
ferrum qui terra colo. 

Certamen sum anceps 
donee exercitus irrumpo in 
oppidumm In ispraelium, 
trajectus sub mamma^ coe- 
pi defidojiuxus sanguis ; 
tamen praelior genu^ do* 
nee oecido is a qui vu/ne- 
ro» Ckiratio mdnus sum 
gravis ipse vulnm. 

LoLeedaemoniiy quum 
cognosco praestaws- pru- 
dentia Aleibiades in onmis^ 
r<f , pertimescOf nt, due- 
tusamov pairia^ demsco 
ab ^«e, tt rede9 in gta^ 
tra e^ttn siivt ; ttnps i\ 



standing with his countrymen ; 
wherefore they resolved to 
seek nn opportunity of cutting 
him off. 

The shepherd, wearied by 
his wife's entreaties, returned 
into the wood, and found a 
bitch by the infant, giving her 
dugs to the little one, and de- 
fending it from the wild beasts 
and birds ; and bring moved 
with pity, with which be saw the 
bitch moved, he carried it to 
his cottage, whilst the same 
bitch followed. 

After this Alexander goes 
for India, that he might bound 
his empire with the ocean ; to 
which glory, that the ornaments 
of his army might agree, he 
covers the horses' trappings 
and his soldiers' arms with sil- 
ver, and called his army, from 
their silver shields, Argyras- 
pides. ^ 

When Alexander was come 
to the Copbites, where the 
enemy waited his coming with 
two hundred thousand horse, 
th^ whole army being wearied, 
no less with the number of 
their victories, than the fatigue 
of the war, entreats him with 
tears, that he would make an 
end of the war, remember his 
country, and regard the years 
of his soldiers. 

Annibal got MarceHus' ring, 
together with his body. Cris* 
pioQS fearing some trick wo«kl 
te played with it by the Car* 
thagtotan» sent messengers 
aiiont the neighboiiring cities, 
that UicoUeaK«e was slain, and 

stituo quaero fempus inters 
Jiciendus is. 

Pastor, fatigatus precds 
. uxor, reverter in sylva, et 
invenio cams /oeminajuX" 
ta infanSy praebens uber 
parvulus, et defendens a 
fera alesque ; ' et motus 
misericordia, qui videa 
cants motus, dtfero ad s/a- 
hulum, dum idem cams 

Post hie Alexander ad 
India pergo, utjinio twi- 
perium oceanus ; qui glo- 
ria ut ornamentum exer^ 
citus conveniOf induco 
equus phalerae et miles 
arma argentum, et voca 
exercitus suus, aJt argen^ 
tens clypeus, Argyraspides, 

Cum Alexander venio- 
ad Cuphiies, ubi hostis 
opperior is adventus cum 
ducenti mille eques, omnis 
exercitus fessus, non minus 
numerus victoria, quam 
labor bellum, deprecor is 
lacryma, ut faciojinis bel- 
lum, m^mini patria, et 
respicio annus miles. 

Anniba^l potior oinnulus^ 
Marcellus^ simul cum cot" 
pui, Crispinus metuens 
neqnid dolus necto a Poe- 
nus, mitto tmncius circ» 
proximui dvitas, eollegA 
9caiot^ei fmtisip&tiar oo^ 


the eoemy had got his ring ; mtlu* u ; ne qvis litera 

that they should not belieye credo composiitu nomen 

any letters written in the name Marcellus, 
of Marcellus. 

After Seleucas was recalled Postquam Seleueus re- 

into Asia by new commotiobs, voco in Ma novus motu$, 

Arsaces settles the kingdom of Arsaces formo rtgnvm 

the Farthians, raises soldiers, Parthicutf lego mt/e», 

fortifies castles, and strengthens munio casiellumj et firmo 

the towns ; he builds likewise civitas ; condo quoque vrb$^ 

a city, by name Dera, upon a nomen Dera^ intnon» qui 

modbtain which is called Za- appello Zapaorienon^ qui 

paortenon, of which place the locus conditio sum is ^ ut 

nature is such, that nothing can nihil possum sum munitus 

be stronger or more pleasant aut amoenus is mons, 

than that mountain. , 

He has shown above, that Osfendo superiusy ava^ 
avarice is ivorse than ambition, ritia sumdeterior ambitio^ 
because among ambitious men propterea quod inter am* 
are found some good and some bittosus tarn bonus quam^ 
bad : for almost all men are de- malus invenio : nam omnis 
sirous of praise, glory, and ferme sum cupidus Zaii«,. 
power : but seem to differ in gloria y et imperium ; la- 
this, that the good man attains men video in hie differo^ 
to honour by the true way of quod bonus accedo ad ho* 
virtue, but the bad by deceit nor verus via virim, ma- 
and fraud* lus aviem dolus et fraus. 

Philip said, that he saw a Philippusdieo^sui video 

cloud of terrible and bloody nubes trux et cruentus bel- 

war rising in Italy ; that he lum consurgens in Italia ; 

saw the -storm roaring and video procella tonans ac 

thundering from the west, fulminans ab occasusy qwiy 

which, into whatever part of in quicunque pars terra 

the earth the tempest of vie- tempestas victoria defero, 

tory should drive it, would foedaturus omnis magnus 

stain all places with a vast imbercruor, 
shower of blood. 

After Alexander had receiv- Postquafn, Alexander ac*, 
ed the cup at the feast to cipio poculum in convivi' 
which Medius Thessalus invit- um ad qui Medius TheS" 
ed him, he groaned > in th^ salus voco t5, ingemo in. 
middle of his draught, as if medius potioy velut con- 
stabbed with a dart ; and being fixus telum ; elatusque e 
carried out of the feast half conviviwn semianimii. 



W9U U Ona oC the (ubitaoUvM esprening the dUumce, toMm«t!in€fl sopprened ; 
,«f, 01«. Caitra vitrani ftiJtUi fc ipstntnt) tter, vioiii ; or tpaiio^Uinert^ via. 

iVofa 2. When ihe place where a Ihipg is done is sigoifted, the word denoting the 
distance is either expreosed in the ablative ; as, Gaes. Mif/ihus p€unncm duohu ultra 
turn eaatrafteit : Or in Ihe accusative with od ; as, Cic. Ad tertium miitiari»un oontt- 
dit. Nep> Stfulhu eH ad fmMtm lapidan* 

Iff a. The EXCESS of measure or distance Is always pilt in the ablative ; as. 
i7oe /jfitMfi exe$dit Hlwi digUo, Britanniae longitudo ejus /olthulmem fuadraginta 
mUlianbiu tuperaS. 

WH* a. The word otdistanu is goversed in the accuiatlTe by ad or per understood» 
•Bd In the ablaiive bj o or tA. 

64. My brother was born at 
London, stndied at Geneva, 
and died at Marseille?. 

55. Old age was no where 
more honoured than at Lace- 
demon, and servants were no 
where better treated than at 

X Pyrrhus was slain at Delphi, 
and Philip was slain at Agae, as 
be was going to see the pablic 

56. He led his army to Co- 
rinth, and immediately after to 
Megara, and from thence to 

Annibal sent three bushels 
of gold rings to Carthage, 
which he had taken from the 
bands of the Romans slain at 

57. Caesar setting out from 
Rome, came to Geneva ; and 
Qnintins going from Corinth, 
came to Philippi. 

Dionvsius sent for Plato 
from Athens, and at the same 
time brought back Philistus the 
historian to Syracuse. 

58. I use to be frequently in 
the country, but I was at home 
yesterday, and I will go home 
again to-morrow.. 

All whom disgrace or villany 

Mens frattr nascor 
LondinutHy studeo Geneva^ 
et morior Massilia» 

Senectus nusquam swn 
honoratus quarn Lacedae* 
motiy et servus nusquam 
bene habeo quam tUthenae, 

Pyrrhus occido Delphi, 
et Philippus interjficio 
Jigae, cum eo spectatum 
ludus publicus, 

Duco exercitus Corhu 
thus, ac protinus Megara y 
et inde Jithenae, 

Annibal mitto tres mO' 
dius aureus annulus Ckir- 
thago, qui detraho e manus 
Romanus occisus Cannak» 

Caesar prof ectus Roma, 
venio Geneva ; et Qutn- 
tius profectus CorinthuSy 
venio Philippi. 

Dionysius arcesso Plato 
Athenaey simulque reduce 
Philistus historicus Syra^ 

Soleo sum^ rus crehrOj 
sed sum domus heri^ et .re- 
vertor domus eras. 

Omnis quijlagiiium atit 



had chased from home, had 
flocked to Rome, as to a com- 
mon setver. 

The old fellow just now 
came out of the country, I will 
drive him into the country 

69. Hannibal sent one army 
into Africa, left another in 
Spain, and carried a third along 
with him into Italy. 

Caesar gave up the kingdom 
of Egypt to Cleopatra, and 
from Alexandria he passed 
over to Syria, and from thence 
to Pontus. 

Cato returning from Africa, 
brought the poet Enuius from 
Sardinia to Rome, whom we 
value very much. 

Then Pyrrhus came into 
Campania, and encamped at 
the river Allia ; but, being 
soon forced to retire from Ita- 
ly, he went into Sicily. 

The Athenians taking this 
thing ill, removed the money, 
that had been contributed by 
all Greece for the expense of 
the Persian war, from Delos to 

60. The Persian gulf is 
distant a hundred and fifteen 
miles from the Red Sea. 

Caesar was patient of fatigue 
beyond belief; he made very 
long journies with incredible 
expedition, a hundred miles 
generally every day. 

He pitched his camp six 
miles from the enemy, and he 
was at that time three days' 
journey fi^om Tarentum. 

facrnus txptllo domtUf 
Roma^ sicut in sentina^ 
Senex modo redeo riiSf 

rus abigo is deMio, 

Hannibal rniito unua 
exercitus in Africa ^ re- 
linquo alter in Hispania, 
et duco tertius suicum in 

Caesar regnum Aegyp' 
tua Cleopatra permitto^ et 
ab Alexandria transeo in 
Syria y et indein Pontua, 

Cato rediens ex Africa^ 
dediico poeta Ennius ex 
Sardinia Romay qui plu» 
ritnum aestimo. 

Turn Pyrrhus vcnio in 

Campania^ et consideo ad 

fiumen Allia ; sed^ mox 

coactus recedo ex Italia^ 

prqficiscor in Sieilia. 

Atheniensis graviter 
hie res ferena^ transfero 
pecuniay qui ,- confero ab 
universus Graecia in stt- 
pendium Persicus bellum, 
a Delos Athenae. 

Sinus Persitus disto 
centum et quindecim mille 
passus a Mare Ruber» 

Caesar sumpatiens la* 
bar ultra fides ; co^vfido 
longus via incredibilis ce- 
leritasy centeni mille pas- 
sus fere in singulus dies. 

Pono castra sex 6 mille 
passus ab hostis, et turn 
absum 6 via triduum a 



tr Caesar- di?ided his army 
into &ve parts, and left one at 
Brundusiam, another at Hj- 
drubtom, and another at Ta- 
rentam: Q^ Valerias, heing 
sent with another, seized Sar- 
dinia, yery fruitful in corn ; by 
his order Asinius Pollio went 
for Sicily, which Calo govern- 

Whilst these things are do- 
ing, it is told at Lacedemon, 
that a new war was broken out 
at Athens. King Pausanias is 
sent thither ; who, being mov- 
ed with pity of the exited peo- 
pie, restored their country to 
the miserable citizens, and or- 
dered the ten tyrants to re* 
move to Eleusis. 

It is reported that a remark- 
able thing happened at Gom- 
phi : That twenty old noble- 
men were found in a physi- 
cian's house, lying on the 
ground with cups in their 
hands, without any wound, like 
drunk men, and one as a phy- 
sician, sitting in a chair, ad- 
ministering physic to the rest. 

After that the ambassadors 
came to Marseilles, where 
they found that the affections 
of the Gauls bad been already 
gained by Annibal ; but that 
they would hardly be very 
faithful to him, their temper 
was so wild and savage, unless 
the affections of the great men 
%vere secured now and then by 
gold, of which the nation was 
very greedy 

Whilst these things are do- 
ing» ambassadors came from 

Cottar divido copiae in 
quinqtie pars, tt relinqua 
unus Brundusium, alius 
Hydruntum, alius Taren^ 
turn : Q. Valerius^ missus 
cum a^livsj occupo Sardi- 
nia, ferax frumentum ; is 
jussu Asinius Pollio peto 
Sicilia, qui Cato praesum. 

Dum hie ago, nuncia 
Lacedaemonj novus bellutn 
exardeo Athenae. Rejp 
Pausanias to mitto ; qui 
permotus misericordia ezul 
populus^ resiituo patria 
miser civis^ etjubeo decern 
Ufrannus migro Eleusis* 

Fero quidam memora- 
hilis accido Gomphi : Vi- 
ginti senex nobilis reperio 
in aedes medicus, jacens 
hwnui cum calix in ma^ 
nus, sine vulnus^ simihs 
ebritts, et unus^ ceu mec^i» 
CHs^ sedens in sella, porri" 
gens potio reliquus* 

Deinde legatus venio 
Massilt'a, ubi cognosco ani^ 
mus Gain jam praeoccupo 
ab Annibal ; sed vix fa- 
turns sum satis Jidns, in^ 
genium sum adeoferox et 
indomitus, ni animus 
princeps concilio subinde 
durum, qui gens sum 

Dum hie ago, legatus 
venio a Darius, rex Persa^ 



Darius, king of the Persians, to 
Carthage, bringing an edict, by 
which the Carthaginians were 
forbid to offer human sacrifices, 
and eat dogs' flesh ; and were 
commanded to burn the bodies 
of the dead, rather than bury 
them in the earth ; beting, at 
the same time, assistance 
against Greece, upon which 
Darius was about to make war. 

Before this engagement at 
sea, Xerxes had sent four thou- 
sand armed men to Delphi, to 
plunder the temple of Apollo, 
as if he carried on the war, 
not with the Greeks only, but 
also with the immortal gods ; 
which detachment was all de- 
stroyed with rains and thunder, 
that he might understand how 
vain the strength of men is 
against the gods. 

The Athenians, as hey had 
first revolted, so did they first 
begin to repent, turning their 
contempt of the enemy into ad- 
miration,and extolling the youth 
of Alexander above the conduct 
of old generals. Then be 
turns his army toward Thebes, 
intending to use the same kind- 
ness, if he had found the same 
repentance ; but the Thebans 
made use of arms, not prayers 
nor entreaty. 

The first field of the civil 
war was Italy, the first signals 
sounded from Ariminum ; then 
Libo was forced from Etruria, 
Thermus from Umbria, Domi- 
tiu9 from Corfinium ; and the 
war had been ended without 
bloodshed, if he could have 

Carthago^ qfftrtns ecUc- 
turn, qui Poeni prohibeo 
immolo humanus hostiay et 
vescor caninus ; jubeoque 
cremo corpus mortuus^ 
potius quam obrw> ttrra ; 
peiens simul auxilium ad- 
versus Graecia, qui Da- 
rius bellum inftro. 

Ante navalis praeliunhy 
Xerxes mitto quaiuor mille 
armatus Delphi^ ad tent" 
plum Apoilo diripiendus, 
quasi gero bellum^ non 
cum Graeci tamtim, sed et 
cum deus immortalis ; qui 
mantis toius deleo imber et 
fulmen^ut intelligo quam 
nuUus vires homo sum cd' 
versus deus» 

AtheniensiSf sicut pri' 
mus deficto, ita primus 
poeniteo coepi^ vertens ctm^ 
temptus hostis in admira- 
tion extoUensque pueritia 
Alexander supra virtus 
vetus dux* Inde converto 
exercitus Thebae^ usurus 
idetn indulgentia^ si in' 
venio par poenitentia ; sed 
Thebani utor arma^ non 
precis nee deprecation 

Primus arena civUis 
bellum hdlia s'um^ primus 
signum ArimimMi cano; 
turn Libo pello Eitruria^ 
Tlurmta Umbria, DomV' 
tius Corfinium; et bellum 
perago sin€ sanguis^ si 
possum opprimo Pompeiius 



mastered Tompey at Braodti- 
siam ; but he got off tiMroagh 
the barricade ef the besieged 
barboor: scimdftloas to be 
said ! 

Bat at Cartbage, as to many 
GommaDders were daogeroos to 
II free state, ao hundred judges 
are chosen out of the number 
of the senators, who, upon the 
return of the generals from the 
war, should demand an account 
of things transacted ; that, upon 
this awe, they might so consi- 
der their command in the war, 
as to have a regard to the ju* 
dicatures and laws at home. 

The king of Persia's com* 
manders sent messenger» (o 
Athens to complain, that Cha* 
brias made war with the Egyp* 
tians against the king. The 
Athenians fixed Chabrias a cer- 
tain day, before which, if he 
did not return home, they de-. 
dared they would condemn htm 
to die. Upon this he returned 
to Athens.. 

They brought Cornelius, 
oiir coosffi, deceived by an 
oath, to their general, as it 
were for the sake of seeing 
him, who was at that time sick, 
«ad presently after carried him 
away prisoner OHt of Sicily in- 
to Africa, with twenty ships. 
They put our general Regulos 
likewise to death. 

When these things were lold 
Slarcellus, be sent amba^adors 
imo^d lately to Syracuse, ta 
coniplaia of the vtobtioaofthe 
treajj^ I the aaabassaidof» sai4« 
ikf^i ther^ «ouM ^ver be 

Brunduiium ; sed tile 
evado per clauitrum o(- 
sessus partus : turpis die- 

Carthago a»{em, cum 
tot imperatar sum gravis 
liber eivitas^ centum judex 
deligo ex numeru$ senator ^ 
guif rei>ersu8 k helium dux^ 
exigo ratio res gestus ; «f , 
hie metus^ ita cogito im- 
perium in bellumf ut ju- 
dicium lexque domw res-* 

Praefecius rex Persia 
mifto Ugatus Mhenae 
guestum^ quod Chabrias 
gero bellum cum Jiegyptius 
adversus rex* Athenienses 
praestituo Chabrias eertus 
dies, aule qui nisi redea 
domus, denuncio sui con'- 
demno ille caput. Turn 
tile Jthenae redeo. 

Adduco Cornelius, con- 
sul noster^ deceptus jus^ 
jurandum, ad dux suus, 
quasi gratia visenduni is^^ 
qui turn aegroto, et mox 
abduco captivus i Sidlid 
in Africa, cum ingintina'^ 
vis. Inieritno quoqtte dux 
noster Regulus^ 

^uum hie nuncio Mar- 
cMuSj ndtto legaius ex" 
templo Sifraeusae^ qui ex-* 
fostuio ie violatiojoedua i 
leg^itus dicoy ntfrnq^am^ 
d^mf^ cms^ Mum^ ni» 



wanting an occasion of war» 
unless Hippocrates and Epyci- 
des were banished» not only 
from Syracase, bat far from Si- 
cily. Upon this Epycides per- 
suades the Leontini to revolt 
from the Syracusans. 

Darius, that he might redace 
Greece under his authority, 6t- 
ted out a fleet of flye hundred 
ships, and set Datis and Arta- 
pbernes orer it ; ivho came to 
Attica, and drew out their 
troops into tl^e plain of Mara- 
thon ; that is distant about ten 
miles from the city Athens. 
The Athenians, being rery 
much startled at this alarm, 
sought for assistance no ivhere 
but from the Lacedemonians ; 
but at home ten officers were 
chosen to command the army. 

After Tullus Hostilins, An- 
cus Marti us, the grandson of 
Numa by a daughter, took upon 
him the government ; be 
fought against the Latins, added 
mount Aventine and Janiculum 
to the city ; he built the city 
Qstia upon the sea, at the six- 
teenth mile from the city 

Hippocrates atque Epy^ 
ciae$ ablegOy non tnodo ab 
SyracusoBj std procul a 
Sicilia* Deinde Epycide» 
ptrsuadeo Leoniint deficio 
a Syracwani. 

DariuSy ui redigo Grat'^ 
cia in buus potestas, com^- 
paro elassis quingenti na- 
vitf praeficioque is Daiis 
et Artaphernes ; qui ad 
Mica aeeedo, ae dedueo 
SUU8 copiae in campus Jlfa- 
rathon ; is absum ab op* 
pidum Alhenae circtter de- 
cern mille pckssus, Athe- 
niensis^ permotns hie /ti- 
fnultuSfpeto a^xil^um nus* 
quam sun a Lctcedaemomi; 
domus autem decern prae- 
tor creo qui praesum ex- 

Post Tullus HostiliuSy " 
Ancus Martius, nepos 
Numa ex Jllia, suscipio 
imperium ; contra Latini 
dimicoj adjicia mons Aven- 
tinus el Janiculum civi^ 
tas; eondo eivilas Ostia 
supra mare^stxtusdecimus 
6 milliarium ab urbs Ro» 

DIatia bud a iMMt wMffnlfteent temple at Epkesoa. It wee lomrted hy 227 pUllu% 
wbi^b were buflt bv 127 kfngi. Eecb of tbe pillars ivm» 60 feet bigh. The tiaiDe of 
tbe godden wan of ebony. 

Tbe fiitbar of Foaponine wu « iarer of. levvlns, and langbt bis son eveiiF tMng 
Wad a boy eotald be taught at Rnme. Afterwerdt roin)w>nloiiweiit to Atbem. Tbe 
oiost noble ooiverdty m tbe worid was at Atbens. Young noblemen and the sons of 
biags were seat from «11 pwts to Athens. . 

Olcero. tbe greatest of tbe Romao orators» was bora at Arpinum. JCIcero removed 
firo» ArptoaBi to Uema. Tbe eioellent endowmenls of bla aniod soon made bia» f» 
BMtts at Rome> After be hod dlscbarged several other ofCres ot tbe Roman repoblte^ 
at but be was ande ceasuL Cloero dudiarged the consuUb^ «itb so great waicb* 
luloesa and ladnsf ry. (hat iie «as called father of bis country. That bonour va» ^tv- 
ca to none befoit ORtrow 


Tha nation of the Sitevi is ibe greatest and most warlike of all the Gen&ans. Tbo 
SnaW are laid to bara an bandred cantont, from wbich they brine forth many thoa- 
aaads of armed men yearly to fight. The rest slay at borne. They live upon milk 
and flesh, and exercife themselves fn hnntior. 

When Arion, the Lyric poet, was sailing from Lesbos to Italy, the sailors resolved 
to throw him ioto the sea, that they might get his money ; but Arion entreated, that 
they would snffer bim first to play a tune upon his harp ; which was granted. Upon 
this Arion tuned his harp, and pbiyed so arifuily , that, by the sweetness of bis music. 
he drew the dolphins round the ship ; who» when he was cast Into the sea, received 
hiffl on their Imck, and carried biro to Tenedos. 

They say, that tbe famous oracle of Apollo at Delphi in Boeotia became dumb, 
when Ohrist our Saviour came into the world ; and that, when Augustus, who was a 
great votary of ApollO) deaired to know tbe reason of its affenee, the oracle answered 
Rim, That in Jttda«»a a child was tiom, who was the supreme God, and had command- 
ed him to depart, and return no more answers. 

Mount Vesuvius is distant about «even miles from Naples, rising in tbe middle of a 
large plain, above four miles off the sea ; frum which it is seen gradually to increase 
in height, till it is half a mile perpendicular above the level of tlie sea; when it be- 
comes almost ciroolnr, being about five miles diameter. This is the basis of tlie 
mountain ; out of which arises a smaller mount, callefl Monte Vecchio, four hundred 
paces higb, and at top of near two miles circumference. 

3. TIME. 


* 61. Time is put in the ablatiire, when the question is 
is made by qUJlNDO ? When ? 

He died in tbe twentieth year Vigenmo anno aetatis 

of his age. obiit. 

In what period did he live ? Quo tempore vixit ? 

Many years ago. Multis ahhinc annu. 

NoU !• To this rule belong mans, ctt/ueuZo, «era, rar», nooCu, fuafannis, which are 
eommoulv esteemed adverbs ; as also, tbe old ablatives lucij temporit vtsperU used in- 
stead of hue, temparef vupert. 

Nott 2. Tbe phrases id temporU, isthm aetatis^ hoc aettuisy illud Aoroe, and the like, 
have ctrca or ad understood, and are put for eo Umpore, islhac aetate, Aoc aetate, iUd 

* 62. When the question is made by qVAMDlU? How 
long ? time is put in the accusative or ablative, but oftener 
in the accusative. 

Ennius lived seventy years. Annos septuaginta vixit 

Pluto's gate is open night and Node» atque dies pafet ja* 

day. niui Ditis. 

Caligula reigned three years, Caligula imperavit irien" 
ten montlis, and eight days. nio^ decern mensibusy 

diebus ocio. 

These two rules may be thus expressed : 

nrm WHEN, is put in the ablative ; Time HOW LONOs 



or CONTINUANCC of Time, u put aomeUmes in the abla- 
tive, but oftener in the accusative. 

Note 1. Bolb (tmc WHEN, and tinu HOW LONG, are governed by a prepoiilion 
. expressed, l. Time WHEN; as. Ter. In Umpor» ud earn vent.' Uor. Svwguut dc node 
lairotu». Sic. PrtuttQ /uU ud ktruuu Id. Tt pemiitf ritgo^ ii« t< turn lonrme hum per 
hifemem cotumittoi. Liv. Conaui intra ptMooi dia moritur, 2. Time 110 w LONG ; as» 
CtG. Stro resistinnu ti, fucm per anno» decern uluinu» c«i«tro nee Id. Btttiue tx m 
nalos amant ad ^ttoddam Uv^pm, Id. Uahebit eenatug in hutto annum quem uquaiMr, 
Oa«<. Qui inter anno» quatvmdecim teettan nan rafrieruiC. Gic ^nac inter dkeem anno» 
facta mmt. 

iVole 2. The way of supi^yiaf th« ToUowio^ and like expressions ou^flii carefujiy 
to bo biudied ; Cic Annet natna unum et vtgintL «up. ant». Ourt. Tyru» septime 
mente^ quam oppv^^ari ooepta erat, eapta «ff, i. e. poftyitam. Oic Septmgenla» jam 
anno» ampfiu» unu morilnu vivuntf sc. qnamper. N«p. Jtfinw* diebu» trigiuia in Asi- 
am reverav* ei/, sup. fnam in. 

61. Hannibal returned to 
Africa the third year after he 
bad 6ed from home. 

Tiberius died in the seventy- 
eighth year of bis age, and 
twenty-third of his reign. 

Constantius died in Britain, 
at York, in the thirteenth year 
of his reign. 

Boccbus, at the beginning of 
the war, had sent ambassadors 
to Rome to desire a league and 

Aulus called out his soldiers 
in the month of January, from 
winter-quarters, upon an ex- 

The usurer calls in all his 
money on the Ides, and seeks 
to lay it oat on the Kalends. . 

In the same year there was 
an earthquake betwixt the is- 
land of Thera and Therasia, 
and on a sudden an island rose 
out of the deep. 

In Asia too, the same day, 
the same earthquake shatter- 
ed Rhodes, and many other 

Hannibal ad Africa re- 
deo tertius annus po$tquam 
profugio domus. 

Tiberius obeo octavus 
et septuafresimut annus 
aetas^ et vigesimus tertiui 

Constantius obeo in Bri^ 
tannia^ Eborac^im, deci- 
mus tertius anniu princi- 

BocchuSj inifium bellum^ 
mitto legatus Roma peti' 
tutnfoedus et amicitta, 

Jlulus evoco miles men-^ 
sis JanuariuSf ex hybetna^ 
in expeditio. 

Foenerator relego omnis 
pecunia Idus^ et quaere 
Kalendae pono. 

Idem annus sum terra 
motus inter insula Thera 
et Therasia y et repente in* 
sula emergo ex profun^ 

In Asia quoque, idem 
dieSy idem motus terra con- 
cuiio RlioduSy multusque 
alius dvitass 



62. Homer and Hesiod lived 
about an hundred and fifty years 
before the baildiog of Rome. 

Mithridates reigned sixty 
years, lived seventy-two, and 
had a war with the Romans 
forty years* 

Pythsj^oras, after he had 
lived twenty years at Crotona, 
removed to Metapontum, and 
there died. 

Caligula lived twenty-nine 
years ; he reigned three years, 
ten months, and eight days. 

Agamemnoik with much ado 
took one city in ten years, 
Epaminondas in one day deli- 
vered all Greece. 

The laboQrs of many months 
and years may perish in a mo- 
ment of time. 

IT When this was told to the 
senate, immediately the conSul 
set out with au army, and took 
a place for his camp, three 
miles from the enemy . About 
the fourth watch he marched out 
of the camp, and the work was 
carried on so f^st, that the Vol- 
sci found themselves surround- 
ed by a strong intrenchment at 

Whilst the works go on more 
diligently in the day than they 
are guarded in the night, a great 
multitude coming out of the 
town, armed chiefly with torch- 
es, threw fire about, and in 
a minute of time the fire con- 
sumed the mole and the vtneae, 
a work of so long a time ; and 

Homerus et Heaiodu* 
vivo circiter centum et 
ouinquaginia annus ante 
Koma condttus, 

Mithridates regno sexa- 
ginta annus, vivo septua^ 
ginta duoj et habeo bellum 
contra Romanus quadra^ 
ginta annus* 

Pythagoras f cum annus 
viginti Crotona ago^ Me^ 
taponium migroy ibique 

Caligula vivo 6 annus 
viginti novem ; impero 6 
trienniumf decern 6 men- * 
sts, 6 diesque octo, 

Agamemnon vix ca^ 
pio unus urbs decem 6 an- 
nuSy Epaminondas unus 6 
dies lioero totus Graecia, 

Labor multus m^nsis et 
annus tsUereo possum 6 
punctum tempus. 

Cum hie nuncio s^naius^ 
extemplo consul proficiscor 
cum exercitusy et capio lo- 
cus castraj tres mille pas- 
sus ab hostis. - Quartus 
vigilia egredior e castra, 
et opus adeo appropero, ut 
Volsci video sui circum" 
vaUatus Jirmus munimen^ 
turn sol ortus* 

Dum opus fio diligen» 
ter dieSf quam custodio 
nox^ magnus multitudo 
egressus ex urbs^ armatus 
praecipue fax^ conjicio 
ignis, et momentum /iora, 
incendium haurio agger et 
vineae^ opus tarn longus 
tempus; et multut motv 



a great many men, bringing aid 
in vain, perished by fire and 
sword. ' 

Dataroes took Thyns alive, a 
man of a huge body, and a ter- 
rible countenance» because he 
was black, of long hair, and a 
long beard ; whom the day af^ 
ter he clothed in a fine robe, 
which the king's viceroys used 
to wear ; he dressed him up 
likewise in a collar, and brace- 
lets of gold, and other royal 
apparel, and brought him to 
the king of Persia. 

In the wings likewise two 
young men of an extraordinary 
bigness, were seen to fight, 
nor did they appear any longer 
than the battle lasted. The 
incredible swiflness of fame 
increased this admiration ; for 
the same day that the battle 
was fought in Italy , the news of 
the victory was told in Corinth, 
Athens, and Lacedemon. 

In that battle /*• sty ages is tak- 
en, from whom Cyrus took no- 
thing else but his kingdom, and 
acted the grandson towards him, 
rather than the conqueror, and 
set him over the great nation 
of the Hyrcanians. This was 
the end of the empire of the 
Medes ; they enjoyed the em« 
pire three hundred and Bfty 

About the same time there 
was an earthquake in the parts 
of the Hellespont and the 
Chersonese, by which the city 
Lysimachia, built two and 
twenty years before by Lysi- 
macfaus, was rained ; which 

taii$^ ferens opts frustra, 
absumo ignis ferrumque*, 

Datam€B capio Thytis 
vivus^ homo magnus cor^ 
puSy itrribilisqut 6facieSy 
quod sum nigerj longus 6 
capillus^ 6 barbaque prO' 
missus ; qui posterns dies 
bonus vestis tego^ qui ta- 
trapa rex gero consuesco ; 
orno etiam torquis^ et ar- 
milla aureus^ caeterque 
regius cultusy et ad rex 
Persia adducn^ 

In comu quoque duo ju- 
venisy eximius 6 magnitU' 
do^ videor pugno, nee ul- 
tra appareo quampugna- 
tur* Incredibilis velocilas 
fama augeo kic admiraiio ; 
nam idem dies qui in Italia 
pugnatury nuncio victoria 
CorinthuSj Athenae^ et La- 

In ispraehum Astyages 
capioj qui Cyrus adimo 
nihil alius quam regnum, 
et ago nepos in is, magis 
quam victor^ et praepono is 
magnus gens Hyrcani, 
Hie sum Jlnis imperium 
Medi;. potior irnperium 
irecenti quinquaginta an' 

Idem fere tempus sum 
terra motus in regio HeU 
lespontus et Chersonesus, 
qui urbs L/ysimachia, con^ 
ditus duo et viginti annus 
ante a Lysimachus everto ; 
^t po Hendo dims Lysi- 


Ukt$ «KvMi» mm hAHmn. Ter. P«« irmekmia ul Otuu^vm dtomt. And to adkc- 
tivM i M, Steee. ^mI noiiopttt cti, am coniM €$L Plaau FOe Mt o^fiiU» mm««. ri«* 
piru ^i»r0 vttuUim jwra, Tbls «blativet however, depends neither on the vert» nor 
adOecUtc, bttC it goremed by (he preMMitkNi pro nnderttood : which too ii •ometimes « 

ptfndtrii mtn» 

JMrtc 2. To the verh voice If someliBiet snl^ofaied tn accoMtive of price, the ^e- 
potUfoQ tui being nndentoodi m. Verr. Dmorii dicei, giMcl cleiiM oerfo mi/e6»tf. 

2V«I« S. Tlieie abkUvet^mtviieijMrmagaeijMDnQo, potting nuitimot plurimOf often 
occur witboiu an/ subatantlve ) a«, Senec. Farvo fatne§ ooiutat, mfljgne /attidiunu 
Cie. Pwm/agn» dttwrntu vmlidUti. 

* 64. These genlUvefl» tantiy quantif plurifj minoriSf 
are excepted. 

How much cost it ? Quanti consiitU ? 

A shilliDg and more» Ane etpluris» 

Sof 1. To these e^J^cthref odd thrir eonipoaiidi»fiuM<tettiifiie, jwnilwiiuiti* ia»- 
tidtmi MfBenec. /Ten ea/neupUcu ad Ubtrtmtem ^jriumliomgiic pcrvenire. Glc. Quan- 
tigiumti, bene cmttur fueii fue$a$t ut. Id. Ifti tmltdem frumtntum cnierei, fvoiUi <lMwi 
nmdidmct. To wbiea odd moiorw ; as, Fbaed. Mult» nutjorii alapat mecum venfitmt. 

JfoM % If the Mibilafrtive be ex|ireswd,tlMae genitivea are turned into (he ablative -, 
aa, Uic JmUkptu Ulu^ fpuun tanto prttio mereotut etc Juv. ^yumlo mtiiru prctio ? 
OelL Mtraaiur lAn$ «mierf precte; LIv. Nta majvre prttio rtdmU pouumut. 

63« bocratet told one ora« hocrates vendo unu$, 

tion for twenty talents. oraiio viginti tcUentum^ 

Nothing costs dearer than Jiullus res care contto 

that which is bought with quam qui precis emo. 

That victory cost the Car- Is victoria slo Poeni 

tbaginians much blood and fmdtus sanguis ae vulmts* 

Despise pleasure; pleasure Sp$mo voluptas ; volup^ 

hurts when bought with pain. ia$ ^mptus dolor noc«o. 

A great many posts are sold Plurimus lumor veneo 

for gold, but wise men do not attrttm, ad sapiens no9i 

buy hope at a great price. emo spes magnus pretium, 

Fish-poods are built at a Piscina^ aedifico mag* 

great expense, filled at a great num^ impleo magmimj et 

expense, and maintained at a ah magnum» 
great expense.^ 

64. Merchants use to sell Mercator 'soUo vendo 

their goods at as high a rate as res suus tanium quantum 

they can. possum, 

i hose things please more^ Magii ille juvo, qui 

which ar« bought at a dearer plus emo. 



The ^her toiay be bouf^t 
sdnf^timtfs for less th^ki his fish. 

Piscator inte¥duAi pot" 
sum etno tninua quafn pis* 

Res nultus minus consto 
paftr quamjilius ; sed De» 
inosthenes doceo nemo mi- 
nus falentum. 

Sum ego f^ir^iliusj cutn 
notavarius^ qui consto ego 
qu^nque solidus ; praeterea 
Horatius, cum Hotu in*usus 
Delphinus^ qui consto ego 
qmnque solidus et sex as ; 
habeo eiiam Cicero selectus 

NothiDg shall ccfdt a father 
less than his son ;'bat Demos- 
thenes taught nobody for less 
than a talent. 

IT I have Virgil, with notae 
variorum J which cost me five 
shillings ; besides Horace, with 
notes for the use of the Dan- 
pbin, which cost me five shil- 
lings and sixpence ; I have 
likewise Cicero's select ora- 
tions, with notes for the use of oralio, cum nota in usus 
the Danphio, which I bought JDelphinus, qui emo qua- 
for four shillings. tuor solidm. 

Whilst these things are do- Dum hic ago, unus ami- 
iDg, one of AleKander^fl friends, 
whose name was Hephaestion, 
died ; he was very dear to 
Alexander, who lamented his 
death above measure, and made 
bim a liionumeiit tbat cost 
twelve thousand talents, and 
ordered him to be tvorshipped 
as a god after his death. 

LycurgUs, the son of Euno- 
mus, who reigned at L^cede- 

mon, Was a famous lawgiver. 
He ordered every thing to be 
purchased, not with money, but 
tvith exchanges of merchan- 
dise. He abolished the use of 
gold and silver, as the occasion 
of all wickedness. He divided 
the admmistration of the com- 
monwealth among the states ; 
to the king he granted the pow* 
er of war, to the senate the 
guard of the laws. 

Whilst Alexander, the fol- 
lowing year, enters upon the 
Persian war, that had been be» 

cus Alexander, ijui nomen 
sum ffephaestiofiu decedo ; 
ium pertarus Alexq^nder^ 
qui lugeo is mors supra 
modus, et facio is wionu- 
mentum « qui consto duode^ 
cimmille tutentum, etju* 
beo is coio ut deus post 

LycurgUs, filius EunO' 
musy qui regno Laeedae- 
moin, sum inclytus iegisla- 
tor, Jubeo singulus emo^ 
non pecunia^ sed compen- 
satio merx, Tollo usus 
aurum arf^entumqufi, ve- 
lut m^tteria omnis see f us, 
Divido administratio res» 
publica per ordo ; rex po* 
testas bellum permitio^ 96- 
natus custodia lex. 

Dum Alexander^ paste» 
rus annusf aggredior Per* 
iieua bellum^ in^oatus a 



gan by his father, he it inform- 
id, that the Tbebans aad Athe- 
nians had revolted from him to 
the Persians, aod that the au- 
thor of that revolt was De- 
mosthenes the orator, having 
been bribed by the Persians 
with a great sum of gold, name- 
ly, with two hundred talents 
and more. 

The Gaols, when the coun- 
try that had produced them, 
could not contain them, sent 
out, in the beginning of sum- 
mer, three hundred thousand 
men, to seek new habitations ; 
who passed the insuperable 
summits of the Alps ; and such 
was the terror of the Gallic 
name, that kingp not attacked 
did of their own accord pur- 
chase peace with a large sum. 

Parmenio, ignorant of Alex- 
ander's illness, had written to 
him, to beware of his physi- 
cian, that he was corrupted by 
Darius with a great sum of 
money ; Alexander, however, 
thought it safer to trust the 
doubtful faith of the physician 
than perish ; he therefore took 
the cup, delivered the letter to 
the doctor, and as he drank, be 
fixed bis eyes on his counte* 
nance as he read. 

pateTf etrtior Jhf Thehant 
el AtheniMieB d^cio a sui 
ad PersaCj auctorque is 
defeetio exiato Demosthenes 
orator^ corruptus a Per" 
sae magnus pondus ct«- 
ruiii, nempe^ ducenti ta* 
lentum et plus. 

Gain, cum terra 9111 
gigno is non capio^ mitlo, 
initium aestas^ trecenti 
mille homo, ad qiuierendus 
navus sedes; qui trans- 
eendo invictus jugum Jtl- 
pes ; tantusque sum ter» 
ror Oallicus nomen^ ut rex 
non lacessilus ultro mercor 
pax ingens pecunia. 

Parmenioj ignarus A- 
lexander infirmitas^ scribo 
ad u, ut caveo a medicue^ 
ille corrumpo a Darius in- 
gens pecunia ; Alexander 
tamen reor tutus credo du- 
bi^s Jides medicus quam 
pereo ; accipio igiturpo- 
culum, trado epistola me- 
dicus^ et, inter bibendum, 
intendo oculus in vulius 

To the island of Rbodf s ApoUo bad a itatae, caltod OoJossim, 70 cubtts high ; wbich 
WAS erected at th« mouth of the harbour. One oian could scarce grasp its thumb. 
The disunee between its legs «as 15 or aScabiti at least; for a large th'tp, with tall 
masts, could easily pass betwixt its «hanks. This statue cost 300 talents and more. <• 

Sarah, Abmbam^s wife, died at Kirjatharba, in the land of Canaan, being 137 years 
old. As Abraham at this time was a stranger in that oettntrv, he applied to Epbron the 
Hittite, begging that he would allow him a piece of ground for a burial-place. Epbron 
answered Ahraoamj saying, The cave of Hnchpelab, and the field wherehi it Is, are 
mine } 1 compliment you both with the fitld a^nd the cave j bury thy dead* Abra- 
ham bowed down hlm«elf before Epbron , returned him thanks, and said, I rather 
chase to purchase the field for as much as it Is worth ; I pray thee, accept of a price. 
Ephron replied. The field is worth 400 shekels of silver, but what Is that betwixt me 
and thee i Ahrahai» paid down the money to Ephrofb and thea buried Sarah hSs wife. 

■ I I '■ li I IIL, 


Cf the Ablative Abiolute. 


* 66« A suBBTAifTiVB With a participlei whoie caie d«- 
pendft Q{Hm no ether word, are put in the ablative abso* 

The son rising [or, while the Sole oritnte fugiuni tent' 

sun riseth] dairkness flies brae. 

Oar work being finished [or, Opereperacto ludemus. 

when oor work is finished] 

we will play. 

Wte 1. inibl. «fen, afttty htning, hehur^ «r a word endins la ttif, we tbe oivaI 
aigoM of this ablative; wbicb geMrallj tales place when two parti of a •eatenea k- 
fpeet (titferent pergoas or things; as, Ovid. Me due*, earpe xfiam. Id. Et/Hgwmi^frt»- 
n» «ai» reuMTonrsi dks. Whara the penons «go and «a, and tbe tbingi «Km aad/nae- 
num are different. 

ITot» 2. The participle exiOenU to frequentlj oadentood ; a^ Flaiit. M» 
koe factum^ i. e. me exUtente nuuore. Liv. Sj^wmt vendat, nthu eoiMultbiu, sc e«it- 
Htttmu. Vlrg. Reg9 Laiino, Hor. Jtve aequo. In iilie manner, FuHit ouetorikm, 
Dto duee, eonute fortima^ invUa Mineroa, me ^«ro, 000/0 Mreaa, o^fMra i^aw,ais 
j>tter«, Satumo regty ehUate nondum HberOf coder» |»<DnbK«, &c. 

Note 3, Sometimes tbe participle only is expressed} in which case tugoUo is ob- 
derstood, or the sentence suaplief the place of the substantive; as, Hor. £«cepfa 
food non iimut e«tee, eoeCera laeCue. liv. ZVoaAcm coaiperlo ^um ngtonem hooUi ps- 

Ifote 4. Tlie participles meant in this rule are chiefly tbe participle present, and 
the participle perfect of passive verbs. Some few examples Indeed occur of tbe ra- 
tare in &US ; as, Mart. Caesare ventwrof 'Photpkore, redde ditm» But the futore in 
DUS is seldom or never thus used. 

Note 5. In using the participle perfect, the learner onebt carejCully to obscrte^ 
whether it be passive or deponent ; for we say, Jaootui hu cticite tAlit, bat we say, 
Jannkw Aaee lacafac oHtt. 

iVofa 6. This ablative mav be reMrtved isto tbe nominative, with cum, cktm, MunMb, 
poeifuam, «t, jfuoniam, or the Kite : as, Cle. PylAo^arot» Superbo rrgiumte, «» Malum 
Venn, i. e. cam, dwn, vel qvLtando Suparhws regneAat. 

Note 7. This ablative, though it be called abtolttte, is however govemed by «a&, 
«mat o. ar a&, understood; wbicb sometimes seem to be ^x|»ressM; as, Vlrg. SoU 
euh ardentu Gato. Cum diia voletUibus» Lucan. P««ilt9repelM<t« ab armu* 

Noie f . In some old authors we meet with nMg proessnfc, «Afsnfs imH^ prnsfsits 
tettibus } Instead of nehit proeeeatilM, &c. 

Whilst onr cavalry were Notitr equitatus adven^ 

comitig up, the enemy all on a tanSy hostis subito ostendo 

snddenshewed their foot, which pedestris copia^ qui coUoeo 

they had planted in ambnscade. tn insidiae. 

When these things were told His re$ nuneiatus Rotndy 

at Rottiei the senate gave tbe senatua decerno summa 

command of th6 Achalan War Achaicus hellnm consul» 
t^ the eottul. 



The enemy, ftiUr4he7 knew 
of his coming, having raised 
great forces» attacked our army 
in their march. 

Laerinus, after having reco- 
vered all Sicily, after having 
humbled Macedonia, returned 
with great glory to Rome. 

This matter being proposed 
to a council, when he found 
they all thought the same thing, 
he appoints the next day for 
the battle. 

Drawing out his forces about 
break of day, and having form- 
ed them into (wo lines, he 
waited to see what measures 
the enemy would take. 

Nero committed many par- 
ricides : after putting to death 
his brother, wife, and mother, 
be fired the city of Rome. 

In the room of Aeneas, As- 
canius[his son succeeded ; who, 
leaving Lavinium, built Longa 
Alba, which was the metropo- 
lis of the kingdom for three 
hundred years^ 

7 Alexander, when he had 
overrun India, came to a rock 
of wonderful ruggedness and 
height, into which many peo*- 
ple had fled ; and when he un- 
derstood that Hercules had 
been restrained by an earth-» 
quake from the taking of that 
rock} b^ing seized with a de- 
sire of outdoing the actions of 
Hercules, he made himself 
master of the . rock with the 
utmost fatigue and danger* 

The Roman people, after 
Caesar and Pompey wereslain^ 

aeemed to have returned to 

HaaiiSf ecgniius i$ «<?- 
veniuSf eoaetus magmu co* 
in iter, 

LatvinuSf tmnis SieiUa 
recepiuSf Mactdonia frac' 
iutt cum tngen$ gloria Ro" 
ma regredior. 

Hie res delatus ad con* 
cilium^ cum eognosco om- 
nis sentioidem^ constitvo 
proximus diespugna. 

Productus eopiaeprifnms 
luZf et duplejp acies instiiU" 
tu8y expecio quid consilium 
hostis capio. 

Nero multus parricidi' 
um commttlo : f rater ^ uxor^ 
et mater inierfeclus^ urhs 
Roma incendo. 

In locus Aeneas t Asca^^ 
nius JUius succedo ; qui, 
relictus X^avinium, condo 
Alba Longa^ (^i sum ca- 
put regnum trecenti 6 an- 

Alexander^ peragrafus 
India, pervenio ad saamm 
mirus asperitas etaltitudo^ 
in qui multus populus con^^' 
fugio : et ubi cognosce 
Hercules prohibitus terra 
motus ab expugnatio idem 
saxum, captus cupido su- 
perandum factum Her* 
culeSf potior s€ixum cum 
summus labor ac pericu* 

Populus RomanuBi Cae* 
sar et Pompeius irucida^ 
tus^ videor wkQ in f ra« 



\hm fromer state of liberty; 
aftd they would have returned, 
had not Pompey left children, 
or Caesar an heir, or, which 
was more fatal than either, 
bad not Antony, the rival of 
Caesar's power, the incendiary 
and firebrand of the following 

Hannibal being called home 
to defend bis country, was de- 
sirous to make an end of the 
war by treaty, the wealth of his 
country being now exhausted ; 
but the articles were not agreed 
to. A few days after this he 
engaged with Scipio atZama, 
and being routed, (incredible 
to be said,) in two days and two 
nights be came to Adrumetum, 
which is about three hundred 
miles distant from Zama. 

Galba having fought some 
successful skirmishes, and hav- 
ing taken several of their forts, 
deputies too being sent to him 
from all parts , and a peace con- 
cluded, resolves to quarter two 
cohorts among the Na«tuates, 
and to winter himself with the 
other cohorts of that legion, in 
« village of the Veragri, which 
is called Octodurus ; and as it 
was divided into two parts by a 
torrent, one part of the village 
he assigned to the Gauls, the 
other he allotted for the cohorts 
to winter in. 

The state of the Johones in 
alliance with us was afflicted 
with a sudden calamity ; for 
ires issuing from the earth, 
every where seized their 
towQSi hxmBf and dwellings | 

iinus 9tmtu$ l^mftas ; tt 
redeoj nin Pomptius re- 
linquo liberty <mt Caesar 
haeresy vel, qui swn per* 
nicioaus vterquey si noti 
Antonvus, aefnulus Cae- 
sariantts potential fax et 
turbo sequens seculumy t«- 

Hannibal revocatus de* 
fensum patria^ cupio com' 
pono bellumyfacidtas pa- 
tria jam exhau$ius ; sed 
conditio wm convenio, 
Pand dies post is conjligo 
cam Scipio apud Zama, et 
pulsus , {incredibilis dictu , } 
6 biduum et duo 6 nox 
Adrumetum pervenio^* qui 
absum circiter trecenti 
mille passus a Zama. 

GalbOf secundus aliquot 

praeliumfactusj expugna' 

(usque complures is cas» 

^tellum^ legatus quoque mis» 

sus ad is undique, et pax 

factusj coMtituo eolloco 

duo cokors in NaniuateSy et 

hiemo ipse cum reliquus is 

Ugio cokors f in vicus Ve^ 

ragri, qui appello Octodu» 

rus ; et quum hie in duo 

parsfiumeth divido^ alter 

pars is vicus Qalli concedo^ 

alter cohors ad hiemandum 


Civiias Juhones socius 
ego cffiigo improvisus ma-^ 
lum; nam ^is, terra 
editas, passim corripio 
villa f arvum, et vicus ; 
nequ^^ extinguo possum 



•or could thejr bcoxtittgoiihed. 
Daring the same year loo, the 
treeliamiDalis^thaU eight heo- 
dred aed forty years ago. had 
aheUered the iofaocy of Remas 
aod Romulus, was broken 
down» its braochesJI>eiog dead» 
and its trunk withered. 

Alexander died three and 
thirty years and a month old ; 
a man eadovfed with a great- 
ness of soul above human pow- 
er. Some omens of his future 
greatness appeared at his birth ; 
for the day on * which he was 
born, two eagles -sat all day 
upon the top ot bis father's 
house ; the same day too his 
father received the oew4 of 
two victories. After the time 
of his boyship was over, he 
grew up under Aristotle, the 
famous teacher of all the phi- 
losophers. Upon his coming to 
the kingdom, he ordered him- 
self to be called the king of all 
the earth and the world. When 
be was present, his soldiers 
feared the arms of no enemy, 

The Carthaginians, upon 
hearing this answer, sent for 
Hannibal home. He, as soon 
as he returned, was made prae- 
tor, in the two and twentieth 
year after he bad been king. 
For at Carthage every year two 
kings were made, as consuls 
are at Rome. The year after 
his praetorship, when M. Clau- 
dius and lU Furius were cen« 
•uls» ambassadors came from 
Rome to Carthage s andHanni- 

Uctn IfWHiftlS SUNIIt), 0^09* 

RvmifmUsj fin\ oetmgmH 
ti quadraginta annus onl*, 
teg0 infarUia Rtmus R&' 
mulutguef d&mvmo^ mo^ 
tuu$ ramahf et atesems 
trunaus, ' 

AleiMnder deeedo tr^ 
et trigirUa enhuM et unus 
mentis nmtusi vir pra^^ 
diius nu^nitudo amrifim 
supra humanns p^ieniia. 
^ontndlus prodigiwn fi$» 
turns magmtudo in ipse 
orius appareo ; nam is 
dia qfui nascor^ duo aquila 
sedeo totus 6 dies suprii 
culmen dotMis paier is ; 
idem quoque dies pater ae* 
cipio nuntius duo victoria^. 
Exacius pueritia, creseb 
sub Jtristoteles, indytus 
doctor omnis philosophus, 
Acceptus imperiumy jubeo 
sui appello rex omnis terra 
ac mundusn lile prae* 
sens^ miles timeo arma 
mMus hottis, 

Carthe^iniensesjne res- 
ponsum eognitus, revoeo 
Hannibal domus. Hie, fft 
redeo, praetor fio, annus 
seeftndus et vieesimus post" 
quam rex sum. Carthago 
enim quotannis binus rex 
creo^ ut consul Roma, 
Annus post praetura, M* 
OaudiuSf L, Fitrius con» 
sulf l^aius Roma CarthtS'* 
go v$ni0 ; €t HamMal^ hit 
evi t^Htnduigraiiaim^ 


bal, sapposiDg they were sent bus ra<«s, cofucendo iiowV, 
on accoaDt of demaoding him, atqut prrfugioin Syria ad 
goes aboard a ship, and flies into Antiochus. 

Syria to Antiochns. ^ , j ? 

The Gauls did so abound Galli adeo abundo mul- 

with humbers of people, that titudoj ut impleo omnts 

they filled all Asia as it were Asia velut examen ; tan- 

with a swarm ; at last they re- dem statuo verto arma tn 

solved to turn their arms against Antiochus ; qui cogmtui, 

Antiochus ; upon information redimo sui ab hie aurum, 

whereof, he redeems himself velut a praedo ; societatque 

from them with gold, as from cum mercenarius suus 

robbers ; and claps up an alii- jungo. 
ance with his hireliogs. 

tyri, and bent bU march towards Babylon. The sieee of Jh" jmiwr'JJf B"* ^S 
BO ea.y enterprUe. The walli were of a prodiglou» beighMhe numljjr af men» 

defend them very ereal. and the city .tored with all ««Jj* •[ P"^„\J"'SLJ?ii5i^ M« 
year». HoweveMW difficuities did not discourage Cyrui from pnMecullng^h^^^^ 

design; who,aflir spending two entire years before »h« Pf«*» ^™* !J"JS^ to 
by a stiataeem. Upen a ieitival-night, which ^^^ ^•^y^?'^^^*]^? n^^^^ 
spend in drinking and debauchery, he ordered the b*nk of the canal, above 
£ding to the great lake, that hiid been lately dug by NUocri» to te broken down 
and haviag thus^diverted the course of the river by turning \»*« ^^^Ifw^iji^ 
the lake,fc caused his troopt march in by the bedof the nverj who now p^^^ 
into the heart of the city without opposition, «urpnied the g»;'S^„\ii\ ^oire* ^ 
cut them to pieces. ThJ taking of &St\m put an end to ^^^^^'^J^i^'^^^S^, 
fulfilled the predictions which the prophets Isaiah, Jeramlab, ai^d Danlfl, had utter- 

ed against that proud metropolis. 

in. The Construction of words indeclinable, 

* 66. Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, gOTOrn 
the genitive. 

In the mean time. Interea loci. 

At that time. Tunc temporis. 

Where in the world ? Ubi terrarum 2 

To what nation \ Qmo gentium ? 

Abundance of power. Abunde potentiae. 

Enough of words. Satis verborum. 

1. The adverbs of time are, interea, postea, inde^ tund 

2. The adverbs of place are ubi and quo^ with their 
compounds, ubique^ubicunque^ ubiubi, ubinam^ ubivisj alibiy 
alicubiy quocunque, quovis, aliquo, quoquo ; also, eo, huc^ 
buccine, unde^ usquam^ nusquamt longe^ ibidem* 


8. HiftttdVtfl'bs «fqnfttitity are, nhnnde^ affatm^ largiier^ 

The words ergOyfor the sc^^ instarf and paWtm, usuallj 
added here» are real subttaotives. 

JfflM 1. PrUfg and pmrHif govern tbe genltlteor tbe 9etantlre ; itf. Cie. Prulw 
cj w «iteu CaM. Pa$iri4i€ ejuB dkL Oic Priiu ^lUMwrtrw. I^. Posfrfdie IimIoj 
ApMmmm* Tbo» prutie. pMtridic, J^o^melM, JVeiuu, /diu, leldom f Wetidanimi ^. 

IfoU 2. Tbe md verbs en, cocc, take tbe nooiipaUTe or the adboiative; a«» Oic. JBn 
«(MM, «ar diNRiawtt seroas iwcaiet. Senec. Em Paridit hertem. Clc Beee multo ma- 
J9r tfioMMto. P lavt. Eeu 

JMe 8« Tb Ibefe eowttracdoai (bis word lUfeMoaiy ret, i0oa«,tef)ip«f,or tbe like, with 
•ooie preposfiioo, Ib understood. Tbtu. inlerM loci, i.e. ttatr ea nermi» Uei, Uhi 
terrarum, 1. e. uhi in negotio ferraniia.^«o fciUtum, i. e. eui negotio vel lu» gcntii(m.| 
^taiuic MteaMoe, I. e. «kaiMls dc re pofimm. And PrtHs ejms diet, i. e, pridie ante 
tarns eju» diet. To en aad coee mbm verb Is ttnderstood ; ast En Priamwh M. odctf • 
Ecu dtuu arai,ae. vubfif. 

* 67. Some derirative adverbs goyem the case of their 

Most elegantly of all. Elegantisnme omnium. 

Agreeably to oatore. CongruenUr naturae. 

A foot hijrh. Me pedem. 

Beyond expectation» Amplit^ optmone. 

jya<«. Tbese adrrrbs require tbe same npplles, to complefe the oomtnteUoB, as tho 
adjectives rrooi arhicb they are formed. 

66« 1 . Whilst I wandering Dum ego errans patria 

about am deprived of my careo, tu interea Iocils tu 

country, you in th** mean time locupleto, 
have made yourself rich. 

After this the consul, notv Postea locus consul, 

unquestionably conqueror, haud dubie jam -victor^ 

came to the town of Cirta. perveniotn oppidumCirta, 

The strength of the Athe- Fires Athtniensis tunc 

nians at that 4ime was small, tempns sum parvus^ das- 

their fleet being sent into Egypt, sis in Aegyptus missus* 

f Dr. Orambie seems to to^e wiih much critical drtll against tbe inlrodtiction of 
fueod under this rale ; Vide Gytt)|msiam, toI. 2. p. 251 b seqq. A. B. G. 

I From the explanation nf ^m gcnttam by em negtt; sc. the atnbor seems to 
iDtimate bis belief, that jho is an obsolete d«tlve, n position which any responsive 
term readily confbcse. It seems, la such expresiiuns, to be neither a dative nor an ah* 
hitive } bat any philological history of this and simiiAr tanas is unnecessary and inad* 
«IMbie here. It Is only reqaistie to put the (lopil oo bis guard against supposlag* 
that In aaewer «o such a qaestlon as ^ao gtiUiuMA$giam f one might say. /vfiui Ho' 
^M«} 4th»nilt, CorlAagt ai) as ohr auUior*f .cai ncfotM mi^ht lead him to imagine. 



2* What yo9 was doiog, or Qiiis ag0^ <wt ubi Urra 
where io the world you was, I sum^ ne suspicor quid^m» 
cooid not 80 much as guess. 

He came to that height of Eo vecordia procedo^ «t 
madness, that what 1 should do, guis agOy aut quo gens 
or to what part of the world I jugioy neseio. 
shoald flj, I koew.not. 

Where in the world are we ? Ubinam gen* sum ? 
Are we come to this pass ? Huccine re$ venio ? Eone 
Are we come to this pitch of nii^ria venitur ? 
misery ? 

1 can find my brother no 
where ; bat io whatever pari 
of the world he may be» he 
will be beloved by good men. 

Let him go to any part of the 
world, the affair will be io the 
same condition : virtue every 
where will find friends. 

3. Caesar said that he had 
got abundance of power and 
glory, and plenty of wealth. 

Let him have plenty of old 
wine, that he may drink day 
and night. 

Too much artifice seems to 
have been used for charming piendus auris adkibeo vi- 
the ears ; he that behaves right deor ; qui rectejacio ha- 
will have plenty of applauders. 
Will he become an excellent 
poet, v^ho has no courage to 
dash the words that have little 
beauty ? By no means. 

67. The lynx is said to see 
the most clearly of all quad- 

( do not ask what he saya, 
but what he can say agreeably 
to reason. 

The Sulmonenses opened 
the gates, and all went out to 
meet Antony. 

The 8;round being covered 
with duDg a foot tl)icl(,,must be 

Frater nusquam gena 
invemo ; sed ubicttnque 
terra sum^ dUig^ a bonus 

Abeo quovis gens^ res 
ibidem locus sum : virtus 
ubique locui invenio ami' 

Caesar dico sui adipit» 
cor potentia glori&que^ et 
divitiae affatim, 

Habeo vetus vinum lar- 
giter^ ut dies noxque'poio* 

Nimis insidiae ad ca- 

beo satis laudato^» 

Fione tile egregius poe^ 
tOf qui non audeo expungo 
verbum qui parum splen' 
dor habeo ? Minima gens* 

Lynx dico cemo dare 
omnis quadrupes» 

JVbfi quaero quis dico, 
sed quis possum dico con* 
venienter ratio, 

Sulmonenses porta ape* 
rio^ et omnis obviam ^n*. 
tondus exeo. 

Terra stercoraius pes 
alte^ in pulvinus redigm» 



ftrmed into beds before yon 
begin to sow. 

The Namidiaas possess the 
other parts as (ar as Maurita- 
nia ; the Maori are next to 

The beauty of Glycera, shin- 
ing more bright than Parian 
marble, consumes me. 

Thus speaks Neptune, and 
swiAer than speech he smooths 
the swelling seas, disperses 
the collected clouds, and brings 
beck the day. 

IF Astyages, being frighted at 
this answer, gave his daughter 
in marriage neither to a fa- 
mous man, nor to one of that 
country, but to Cambyses, a 
mean man of the nation of the 
Persians, at that time obscure. 
And the fear of the dream not 
being laid aside even thus, be 
sends for his daughter big with 
child, that the ipfant might be 
slain Qoder the eye of his 

The Lacedemonians, having 
consulted the oracle at Delphos 
concerning the event of the 
war, are ordered to seek a ge- 
neral from the Athenians ; but 
the Athenians, when they un- 
derstood the answer, in con- 
tempt of the Spartans, sent 
Tyrtaeos, ' a poet, lame of a 
foot ; who being routed in 
three battles, reduced the 
Spartans to that despair, that 
they manumitted their slaves 
for the recruiting of their army. 

I know not whether it would 
not have been better for the 
Roman people to have been 

dus sum antequam Hro 

Nurrddat ieneo caeter 
locus usque ad Alauriia» 
nia ; proxime Hispama 
Mauri sum. 

Nitor Glycera^ spleu" 
dens pure Partus marmor^ 
uro ego. 

. Sic aio ^eptunusy et 
dictum cito placo tumidus 
aequor, fugo collectus 
n uheSj solque reduco. 

AsiyageSf exterriius hie 
responsum^ tradojilia in 
fnatn'monttcm neque clarus 
vir, neque dviSy sed Cam^ 
byseSf mediocris vir ex 
gens Persae, tunc tempus 
ohscurus, Ac ne sic qui' 
dem somnium metus de* 
positusj arcessofilia gra- 
vidus, ut sub avus oculus 
partus neco» 

Lacedaemonii, oracu* 
lum Delphi consultus de 
bellum eventuSfjubeo peto 
dux ab Atheniensis : porro 
Atheniensisy cum cognosce 
responsum^ in contemptus 
Spartanij mitto Tyrtaeus^ 
poetaf claudus pes ; qui 
tres praelium fusus, eo 
desperatio Spartani dd» 
cZuco, ut manumitto servus 
ad supplementum exerci* 

JSTescio an satius sumpo- 
pulus Romanus sum con- 
tentus Sicilia et Africa^ 



content with Sicify and Africa, 
or even to have wanted these, 
than to grow to that bigness as 
to be destroyed by their own 
strength : for what thing else 
prodnced intestine distractions, 
than excessive good fortune? 
and whence came that desire 
of superiority and domineer- 
ing, but from excessive wealth? 
Cyrus, the day following, 
forsook his camp ; but left 
plenty of wine, and those things 
that were necessary for a feast. 
The queen sends her son with 
a third part of her forces to 
pursue Cyrus. When they 
were come to Cyrus' camp, 
the young man, ignorant of mi- 
litary affairs, as if he was come 
to a fea^t, not to a battle, let- 
ting the enemy alone, suffers 
the barbarians to load them- 
selves with wine ; and the Scy- 
thians are conquered by drunk- 

He is an orator, who, on 
every question, can speak fine- 
ly and ornately, and in a man- 
ner fit for persuading : but in 
these times of ours, neither 
sufficient pains is bestowed in 
reading authors, nor id search- 
ing into antiquity, nor upon 
the knowledge either of things, 
or pf men, or of the times. 

Diomedoa came to Thebes 
with a vast quantity of gold, 
and drew over Micythua, a 
young man, by five talents, to 
his lure. Micythus went to Epa- 
minondas, and told him the 
occasion of Diomedon's com- 
ing ; but he, in the presence 

aut etiam hie careo^ quam 
CO magnitudo cresco, ul 
vires suus cordicio : quis 
enim re$ alius juror civilis 
parioj quam nimius felici' 
tas ? et unde venio ille CU' 
pido principatus et domi- 
nandumy nisi ex nimius 
opes ? 

Cyrus^ dies posterus, J«- 
sero castra ; at relinquo 
vinum aff'atimi et is qui 
epulae necessarius sum» 
Regina miito filius. crnn 
tertius pars copiae ad in-' 
sequendus Cyrus» Cum 
venitur ad Cyrus castra^ 
adolescens, ignarus res mi- 
litarisj veluti ad epulae^ 
nan ad praelium venio ^ 
omissus .hostiSf patior bar^ 
barus onero sui vi^tum ; et 
Scythae ebrietas vinco. 

Is sum orator, qui, de 
otnnis quaestio, possum 
dico pulchre et ornate^ et 
apteadpersuadendum: sed 
hie noster tempus nee satis 
opera insumo in cognos- 
cendus auctor, nee in evoU 
vendus antiquitasy'nec in 
notitia vel res^ vel hom^t 
vel tempus, 

Diomedon venio Thehae 
cum magnus pondus au" 
rum, et perduco Micyihus^ 
adolescentuluSf quinque (a- 
lentum, ad suus voluntas. 
Micythus Epaminondas 
conveniof et ostendo causa 
Diomedon udventus : at 



or DiomedoD, said, There is 
no need of money ; for if the 
king desire those things that 
are expedient for the Thebans, 
I am ready to do them for no« 
thing ; bat if the contrary, he 
has not gold and silver enough. 

Next day Caesar, before the 
enemy could recover them- 
selves from their consternation 
and flight, led his army into the 
country of the Sues^iones, who 
are next to the Remi ; and, 
having p«^rformed a great 
march, he came to the city No- 
▼lodtinimi. After fortifying 
his camp, haviniE reared the 
Tineae, having cast op a mount, 
and erected turrets, he began 
to storm the town. 

IVIicipsa, as Jugurtha was 
fond of military glory, resolves 
to expoae him to dangers, hop- 
ing he would fall, either in 
noaking a shew of bis bravery, 
or by the fury of the enemy. 
But that matter fell out quite 
otherwise than he imagined ; 
for Jugurtha, as he was of an 
enterprising and penetrating 
genius, after he came to know 
the genemrs temper, by much 
pains and much diligence, and 
by often exposing himself to 
dangers, came in a short time 
to so great reputation, that he 
was a very great terror to the 


Lycurgus suffered the young 

men to use no more than one 

coat 10 a whole year, nor any 

' one to go finer than another, 

nor lare more sumptuously. 

tlle^ Di&medan coramy iit' 
quaittf Nihil opus sttm pe- 
cunia / nam si rex is volo 
qui Thebani sum utilis, 
gratis facio sum paratui ; 
sin auUm conirariuSf non 
habeo aurum aiqus argen^ 
turn satis. 

Postridie is dies Caesar f 
priusquam hostis recipio 
suiex terror acfuga^ duco 
exercitus in Jinis Suessi' 
ones, qtii sum proximus 
Remi; et, magnns iter 
crmfectus, ad oppidum JVb- 
viodunum pervenio, Cas' 
tra munituSf vinece actus ^ 
agger jactuSy turrisqtie 
conslitvius^ oppidum ob» 
pvgno coepi, 

Micipsa, quod Jugurtha 
sum appetens gloria mili'- 
tariSf statuo objecto is pe^ 
riculumj sperans occasu" 
rtis, vel ostentandum vir* 
tn$y vel saevitia hostis, Sed 
is res longe aliter evenio 
ac reor ; nam Jugurtha^ 
vt sum impiger atque acris 
6 ingenium^ ubi cognosce 
natura imperator, multus 
labor muhusqve cvra, et 
saepe eundum obviam pe^ 
ricvlum, brevi pervenio in 
tantus clarituHo, ut sum 
tna^nus terror hostis. 

Lycurgus permitto ju- 
renis utor non ample unus 
vestis totus 6 annus, nee 
quisquam progredior cultt 
quam alter^ necepuloropu" 


He ordered young women to lenter, Jubeo virgo nubo 

be married without fortunes, sine dos, ut uxor eligo, 

that wives might be chosen, not non pecunia. Volo mag- 

money. He ordered the great- nus honor sum, non dives 

est respect should belong, not et potens, sed senex, pro 

to the rich and powerful, but to gradus aetas ; nee sane 

old men, according to the de- usquain terra semctus lo- 

gree of their age ; nor indeed cus honoratus habto quam 

has old age any where on earth Ijicedaemon, 
a more respectful habitation 
than at Lacedemon. 

Cotia being asked bis opinion, spoke to this purpose : It is llie part of wise men to 
do notbiagr rashly. I do not think, that »e ought to reraova from our wuUer-quar- 
ler» without the order of Cae»r. Our winier-quariers l>e»ng fortifi«»d, we sb.iil easi- 
ly withstand the forces of the GermaQk. You see, that we have bravely wuUsiood 
the first assault of our enemies. Our enemies, after bavin? many woundi, have <le. 
aisled from the siege. We have enough of corn. Caesar will not forget his faiiiiful 
soldiers. Wttkt is more foolish, what is more disgraceful ihan lo listen lo the uUv.ce 
of an enemy, in so imporiauC an affair i It becomes us to remember that wc an» uo- 
mans. * 

- The Tyrlass sent ambassadors to meet Alexander, with presents for himself, and 

govlsions for bis army. But when he desired to enter the city, under pretence of of- 
ring sacrifice to Hercules, thi'y refused him admittance ; which provoked Alexander, 
now flushed with so many victories, to uich a degree of reseoiment, that he resolved 
to storm the ci^,and eoter it by force. The city then stood on an island half a mile 
dUtant from the shore, was surrounded with a strong wall, IfiO feet high, the inhaWt- 

Ste had plenty of provisions, and were stored wiih all sorts of warlike machmes. 
exander, however, by carrying a mole or causey, 200 feet broad, from the continent 
to the island, transported his army, and after a siege of seven months, battered down 
the walls, took the city by storm, and folly executed upon that wealthy and wicked 
city the judgments long before denotioced by the prophets. 


68. The prepositions ad, apud, ante, &c. govern the 

To the father. Ad patrem, 

NoU. To the prepositionf governing the accusative some add drdter, proper ta^, 
and vtnui ; but these are real adverbs, having the preposition ad understood } which 
with the last three is sometimes expressed. 

69. The prepositions a, ab, abs, &c. govern the abla- 

From the father, Apatre. 

Jlfott 1. To the prepositions governing the al>lative somft add mrocul ; but this is an 
adverb, baidng a or a6 understodd,or sometimes expressed ; as, Vlrg. Ptoad a piUrfa 

lfot9 2. Tenus is pot after its ease, and, when the noun Is plural, usually govemf 
the genitive ; as, yirg. Cruruw Unnt a mnUo pattaria pendent, CIc. lAoikorWM l0- 
fciu. But soinetiiBes the ablative } asj Ovid* FceioriMii (eniur. 


Ifete 3. Tb«t a unI c «re put before caoMnaats, «A «nd e* befon vowels or conw- 
nentt «As before f and t ; «, « jiaUv, < re^ienc ; oft MKe, tAregttex wU, «* »arte ; 

70. The prepositions tn, sub, super ^ aDci 5u&^er, govern 
the accosative, when motion to a place is signified. 

1 go into the school. Eo in seholam» 

He shall go under the earth. lint tub terras. 

* It fell opoo the troops. hcidit super agmina. 

He brings him under the Duett aubier fastigta. 
I oof, 

71. But if motion or rest tn a place be signified, tn and 
sub govern the ablative ; super and subter either the acca^ 
Bative or ablative. 

I run or sit in the school. Discurro vel sedeo in scho- 

I walk or lie under the shade. Ambulo vtl recubo sub 

He pitched his camp beyond Posuit castra super am^ 

the river. nem. 

He 81(8 opon the grass. Sedet super fronde» 

The vein^ are dit^persed under Fenae subter cutem dis- 

♦he 8kin. perguntur. 

They continue under the tar<* Subter testudine manent. 


1. in ilgnlQrinK to, iitfd, tomtrd, agauut, tUl, imft/, over, ufitr, faryupon, hyj 
or betretett, ffoverns the Mcuwtlve } but when It signifies tn or anwng, it ^«iieraify 

r betxci 
Ukes tbc abi 

l9ote2. 5ii6 signifying oe or «ioMlsMdka time, geoenlly governs the «ccosetlve. But 
when It signifies nigh <o, or nearuptoKt it commonly talies tlie atilatlve. 

Ifote a. Suptr sijEnifying btwttd^ abwt, hafdtif upvn, at, w «n «ime of, govern» the 
scusaiire ; but «benit Mgnines about, conecrning,/or, or frccatue o/'i it takes the ab- 


i?o<« 4. Subter Ukes very rarely the ablatiTe, tod only among iwets. 


I. The word governed by the preposifion is sometimes suppKVsed; ns, ad Opis, ad 
Diannc : suppl- aeAem. A Ve9lM j supplf» aede, , 

2 The pteposition Uself is frequently suppressed', aSiCaes. C»/ri/er iwenaiem. Oic 
'rt«f w<u/o» Curt* CTt^us |/c<ie». Pl\n. Onentetn versus. Y irg. JJevenere hcos. Oic. 

sup. ex. Ter. ^id ilh/aeias i sup. 

Jav. Fallit not vUhm specU xirtvHs j sup. suh, 

72. A preposition often governs the same case in com-: 
position that it does without it^ 



Let us go to school. 

He speaks to bis brother. 

He carried the army over the 

They go oat of tbe charch. 
He departed from the city. 
They engage in battle. 
They come ap to the walls. 
He excels all. 
He is carried round the fort. 

Adeamus scholam» 
Alloquitur fratrem. 
Exf.rcitumjtuvium trans- 

Exeunt templo, •* 
Dttemt urbe. 
Ineunt pr allium • 
Suhtunt muroz^ 
Supereminet omnes. 
Circumvehitur arcem. 

Note U This rule takes place only when tbe prepMifton may be disso^ed from the 
verb, and put before the case by Itself; «s, Virg. AUoquor potrem, k e. /ojtwr ad pa- 
tnm. LW. Ciramoehitur arcem, I. e. vehitw ctrcum oroem. 

Note 2. The preposition is frequently repeated ; as, CIc. Ad nof oileunt. Cae». £«ft-e 
ejSni&tts fui». Cie. /n rempublieam invasit. 

Note S. Some verbs eomponnded with e or eap govern the abhitlve, or the accusative, 
«xtrabeinff understood; as, Virg. Exire itptia. Slat. Extre eampum,K, extra cam' 
pum. Ovid. Portvibus egredim: Plin. Egrtdi rentatem, sc. extra verttatem. Virg, 
Excedere terra, I,ucan. iBjwjedere muroe, sc. extra wuitm. Vurg. £ni«njMtn£ iwrrt». Id. 
Erumpere nubem^ sc. extra nubem. In Uke manner, Praevehi ttUut, praelabi m^enta, 
sc. praeter Kttnt, praeter moenta. 

68. After they came to a 
conference, peace was conclud- 
ed between them. 

The swallows come before 
summer, they take pleasure to 
fly through the air.. 

The boy practises pity to- 
wards God, reverence towards 

The general drew up his 
army on this side the Alps, no- 
body ever fought more stoutly 
against an enemy. 

He takes the towns about 
Capua, he rewards the soldiers 
according (o their bravery. 

The moon drives her cha- 
riot beneath the sun, the heaven 
is stretched out above the 

69. The boy is praised by 
Of, he it approved by you, he 
is blamed by others withoat 

Postquam venio ad col- 
/of nium, pax' ordino inter 

Hirundo venio ante aes' 
tas, gaudeo volitoper aura* 

Puer exerceo pietas ad' 
versus Deus^ reverentia 
erga homo» 

Dux instruo acies cis 
AlpeSj nemo un^uam pugm 

nofortiter contra hostis, 


Occupo urbs circa Cs- 
puay remuKferor miles^ se^ 
eundwn virttis. 

Luna agocurrus infra 
sol^ coelum porrigo st^ra 

Puer laudo a ego, pro^ 
h» abs tu^ culpo ah ali^ 
aispte casi9ff» 



Fmndt are cbaofl;ed with 
fortune, hatred is often repaid 
fer favoor, a tree is knonrn bj 
its frnit. 

After the battle the general 
began to treat about a p^ace 
without delay. 

Whilst be was flailing cross 
the riTer, the boat began to 
sink, he is wet op to the chin. 

70. Showers are poured 
down into the Tallies, whilst 
snow fails upon the hills. 

The shepherds came under 
the mountains with their flocks ; 
at length they were forced by 
the rain to drive them into folds 
under the ground. 

71. Whilst Peter was silting 
in the parlour, the boys were 
playing in iUe porch, the girls 
were dancing under a tree. 

The soldiers sat dotvn upon 
the grass, nigh the shore, where 
they dined in presence of their 

Phaeton for fear fell from 
heaven into the Po in Italy ; 
his sisters bewailed his d<^ath, 
till they were all changed into 
poplar trees. 

.Whilst the war is carried on 
in Numidia against Jugurtba, 
the Romans were defeated by 
the Gauls nigh the Rhone. 

Toward the evening the no- 
bility fled out of the city, passed 
over into Greece, levied war 
in Epire against Caesar. 

Caesar is sent into Germany, 
lie marches with his army be- 
yond the Rhine, lays waste the 
country, returns with glory to 

,^i€Ui muto cum for- 
tunay odium saepe reddo 
pro gratia, arbor dignos" 
CO exfructus. 

Post pugna dux coepi 
ago depax sine mora* 

Dum veko trans fluvius, 
cymba coepi sido, madefio 
metitum tenus» 

Imber /undo in vallis, 
dum nix cado super mons. 

Pastor venic sub mons 
cum grex; tandem cogo 
ab imher ago is in septum 
subter terra, 

Dum Petrus sedeo in 
coenaculum^ puer colludo 
in vestibulum, puella salto 
sub arbor. 

Mies discumho super 
gramen, subter littuSy ubi 
prandeo coram dux, 

Pkaetorrprae timor cado 
de coelum in Padvs in Ita- 
lia ; soror lugeo m>ors, do» 
nee omnis muto in popu-. 
I us, 

Dum bellum gero in 
Numidia contra Jugurtha, 
Romanus vinco a Gallus 
juxta Rhodanus. 

Sub vesperus nobiliias 
fugio ex urbSy transeo in 
Graecia, paro beilum apui 
Epirus contra Caesar. 

Caesar mitto . in Ger^ 
mania, pergo cum exer» 
citus ultra Rkenus^ vcuto 
ager^ revertor cum gloria 
in hybemci^ 



72. Theshepherd passes by 
the Tillage, goes to the city, 
where he stays a loog time ; he 
is ordered to depart ' from the 
to WD, to return to his flocks ; 
but he would not desist from his 
^ purpose. 

IT Mardonius accosts Xerxes 
"ajQfrighted at this defeat, and 
doubtful what course to take ; 
he advises him to go away ioto 
his kingdom, lest the fame of 
this unfortunate w'ar should oc- 
casion any sedition . His advice 
being approved, an army is de- 
livered to Mardonius ; the king 
himself prepares to draw back 
the rest of the troops into his 
kingdom : but the Greeks, hav- 
ing heard of the king's flight, 
enter into a design of breaking 
down the bridge which he had 
made at Abydos. 

Thus, after Atticus had ab- 
stained from food for two days, 
on a sudden his fever went ofi*, 
and the distemper began to be 
more easy ; he died, however, 
the fifth day after, the day be- 
fore the Kalends of April, when 
Cn. Domitius and C. Sosius 
were consuls. He was carried 
to his funeral upon a little 
couch, as he himself had order- 
ed, without any pomp of fu- 
neral, all good people attending 
him. Me was buried near the 
Appian way, at the fifth mile- 
stone, in the monument of Q* 
Caecilius his uncle. 

In the mean time the Ro- 
mans, sending the Scipios into 
Spain, first drove the Cartha- 
ginians out of the province ; a& 

Pastor pr4Utereo villa, 
adeo urbi^ uhi diu com^ 
moror ; jubeo decedo op^ 
pidnm^ redeo ad grex ; at 
nolo absisto inceptum. 

Mardonius aggredior 
Xerxes perculsus hie 
clades, et dubius consili' 
um ; hortor vt in regnum 
abeoj ne quid seditiofama 
adversus bellum fnoveo^ 
Probatus consilium^ exer- 
ciitts trado Mardonius ; 
rex ipse paro reduco reli' 
quus copiae in regnum : 
sed Graeciy auditus rex 
fugay ineo consilium in- 
terrumpefidus pons qui 
ille Jlbydusfacio, 

Sic, cum Micus absti» 
neo cibus biduum^ subito 
febris . decedo^ morbusque 
coepi sum Uvis ; decedo^ 
tameny qvintus exinde dieSy 
pridie Kalendae Aprilis, 
Cn. Domiiiusy C. Sosius^ 
consul, Eff'ero in lectin 
cwZff, ut ipse praescriboy 
sine uUus pompa funus, 
ornnis bonus comitans, 
Sepeliojuxta via Jippius^ 
ad quintus lapis ^ in monu- 
mentum Q. Caecilius avun" 
cuius suus. 

Interea Romasii^ missus 
in Hispania ScipiOf primo 
Poeni provineia exptlloj; 
postea cum ipse Hispuni 



terwardf th«7 carried on terri- 
ble wars with the Spaaiards 
themaelves ; nor would the 
the Spaniards receive the yoke, 
till Caesar Aagustas, aAer he 
had conquered the world, car- 
ried his victorious arms to 
them, and reduced the barba- 
reus and savaj^e people into the 
ibrm of a province* 

The Dorians consulted the 
oracle about the event of the 
contest ; answer was made them, 
Thatthej should be superior 
unless they killed the king of 
the Athenians. Codrns was 
king of the Athenians at that 
time ; who having got notice 
of the answer of the god, 
changing his royal habit, enter- 
ed the enemy's camp ; he is 
slain by a soldier, whom he 
had wounded with a cutting- 
knife. The king's body being 
known, the Dorians march off 
without fighting ; and thus the 
Athenians are delivered from 
the war, by the bravery of 
their prince offering himself to 
death for the safety o£ his 

A deeire of visiting the sa- 
cred residence of the god Se- 
rapis, whom £gypt, a nation de- 
voted to superstition, adores 
beyond all* other, seized Ves- 
pasian, that he might consult 
him about affairs of the em- 
pire ; and having entered the 
temple, and being intent upon 
the deity, behind fab own back 
lie perceived Basilides, wbom 
he toew to be «everal days' 
jouaney fr«B Atosmdria^ «e 

grmis hMMm gero ; nee 
priusfuqum Hispam oe- 
cipio volOf ^uam Cctemr 
AugusmSf perdomitu$ oT'» 
bisy victrix ad is arma 
transferor populusque 

barbarus aeferusin for' 
maprovimcia redigo. 

Dorierues de eventus 
'praelium oraeulum consu" 
lo; rtspondetur^ ii superior 
forem^ ni rex Aikeniensis 
oceido* Atkeniensis is 
tempvs rex Codrus sum ; 
quit responsum deus cog* 
nitus^ permutatus regius 
habitus, castra hostis in^ 
gredior ; interficio a miles, 
qui falx vulnero. Rex 
corpus cognituSn Dorienses 
sine praelium discedo ; at* 
que ita Athenienses, virtus 
dux, pro solus patria mors 
sui offerensj bellum libera. 

Cupido adeundum sdcer 
sedes deus Sera pis, qui Ae* 
gifptus, gens deditus super- 
stitioy eolo ante omnis ali- 
«9, capio Fespasianus, ut 
coMulo is super res tm- 
perium ; atque ingressus 
templum, intentusque nu- 
men, pone tergum sum 
respicio Basilides, qui 
nosco plus dies 6 iter od* 
sum Alexandriam Per" 
eantor ^eKerioa, ntm ilk 


examiDes the priests, whether dUs BafUide$ templum 

Basilides that day had entered ineo ? p^rcontorj nvm in 

the temple ? he askSyVvhether he urb$ video ? Deni(pief mM- 

had been seen in the city ? At 9us eques, exploro^ is Hie 

last, despatching horsemen, he tempus momentum octo* 

learns, that he ivas at that in- ginta 6 mille passus a6- 

stant eighty miles from thence* sum^ 

Neptune, Vulcan, «nd Mlaenra dil|Mted, wbich of them wai the most sklMul arti- 
ficer ; «Thereupon Nepiune made a bull, Minerva a bouse, and Vulcan a man *, and 
they chose Morausjudfre. But Mouius chid them «11 three- Ue accuHed Nepiune of 
imprudence ; iMicause be had not placed the buU'ii boms in Ills forehead betwixt bis 
eyes; for then the bull might £[ive a stronger and sur^r blow. He accused Minerva 
of folly ; becatue her bouse was immuveable, and could not be carried away, if It 
happened to be placed among ill neighbours. But be said Vulcan wa&the most im- 
prudent of ibem all } because be had not made a window tn the man*» breast, that b/c 
loigut see what his thoughts were. 

Merchants are oi great benefit to the public. They kmt mankind together in a rou- 
toal bitercourse of gvnd ofiloes; they distribute the gifts of nature, find work for tl>« 
poor, add wealth to the rich, and magnificence to the great. Our fleets of British 
mercbantmeD are so many squadrons of floating shops, thai vend our wares and ma- 
mifactttres in all the markets of the world } and, with dangerous industry, find oat 
chapmen under both tropics. Our British merchant converts the tin ot his own coun- 
try mto gold, and exchanges his wool for rubies. The lifAliometaus are elothed in 
our British manufactures, and Uu» inbatrtiantsof the frozen sone are warmed with the 
fleeces of our sheep. 

Robert Bruce, the son of that tlobert Bruce, who, In the,yeflr 1285. had oootended 
with Baliol about the succession, was crowned king of the Scots, at Scoon, in the 

?ear 1306. He was a 'man of great bravery In war, and of great moderation in peaca. 
'be strength of bis mind in adversity was wonderftil. Though his wife was taken 
prisoner; though his four brothers, all brave men, were cruelly buicbered ; and though 
be himMlf was strtpped, vot only of his paternal estete, but of his kingdom, by £d- 
-ward, king of England ^ yet bis mind wu so far from sinking under this load of af- 
Hietion, that be never lost hopes of recovering his kingdom. Few of the meientt 
mty be compared to Robert Bniee. Oato and Brutns laid violent bands on tiiem* 
selves: Marlus, thirsting after revenge, entered into wicked and cruel measures 
agaibst bis oottnti7 s Robert, afktt ivcovering his kingdom, forgot the Ul nMge of hit 


* 73. The interjections O, heu^ and proh, govern the 
nominative or vocative, and sometimes the accusative. 

JVom, O what a face ! O quatis fades ! 

Ah ignorant souls I Heu ignarae mentes ! 

Oh the pain ! Prc^ dolor I 

Voc. O my father ! O mi pater i 

Ah wretched boy \ Heu miserande puer ! 

O awful Jove I Proh sancte Jupiter ! 

Ace, O distressed old age ! O calamitosam seneciuiemi 

Ah unhappy creature Heu me infelicem / 

that I am ! - 

O the faith of gods and Proh devm kominum^ 

luen! ^eml 



Jftfit L O bcfbM Am voesttir» Is oflen fopprcssed *, at, Viifr. JUiuo, «i&f coumu iNfr- 
MM« i Mid mdMd, «sictlir ipaBkisCi ^^ vQcaUve b alwayi ainolBte, beUtf gwetaed 
b/ BO word whatever. 

NtU % Tbaw or tb« like eonslroMioM mav be ibut rapjpUed : O qymiUftuk» ut knU i 
Bm «MMf M ^faerM wmt ! Pnk qumntut ut dolor ! O qumm etUmmitotum «enectitfcm cx- 
fritr ! H9U qmam «m i^Uktm Mtntio .' Prok dnm atf im Aewitmim iUcm mjrfe/v vel 
«WMCer. The word /dm li wiuetiueti supiiredatfd. 

74. Het and vae govero the dative. 

Ah me. 
Wo to yoo ! 

Hei tniki ! 
Vae tibi I 

Ittu 1. Btui «ad «Ab lake the vocative only i as, Ter. BemSj/n I Mart. OAc fOelb. 

ifaCt 2. Ak and «ei take the «eeoiaureor vocative ; ai, Ter. Ahmt ■Mwnni .' Virg. 
Sh «vf» if^kUg t laeert. FoA inomitmif iom / Ptaut. FoA «efcu ewa / 

Ifau S. I7«m takes the dative, acemative, or vocative; as, Ter. Btm fOt/ Id. Oum 
mtmtiai! Id. Hem Dmmm Hbil Clc. Htm mta nut I 

Hot* 4. Most of the other laterjeetlons, and freqaent|y also tbeie meatlOBadi are 
thrown Into diaeoone wlthoat any cue snbjoined to thmi 

if etc ft. The dative It fitly «il||olaed to interJ«ctioM, as weU as to other parts of 
ipe s c h ; the vocative is ahsolate } and the aecutative aisy be that sapdtedt Ak lae 
«niicntm atMio ! Fmk onaai insonftaafMHa mmtm/ Htm ciCiiHw «Mete .'^fieai Donnai 

73, O maD ▼aliaot and friend- 
ly I O joyful day ! 

Ah the piety ! Ah the laith 
of ancient ti me ! Ah the vani<- 
ty of men ! 

Oh the pain ! Oh the ivick- 
edness ! Oh the manoen S We 
degenerate from our parents. 

O Davos ( am I thas despis- 
ed by yoo 1 Ah wretched boy ! 

Ah Fortune ! what god is 
more cruel than yoa ? you al« 
ways take pleasure to sport 
with the designs of men* 

O awful Jove ! what greater 
thing has been done on earth t 

O the times ! O the fashions ! 
O the wretched minds of men ! 
O blind souls ! 

Ah wretch that I am ! why 
am I forced to do this t 

O 1 virfortU aique ami» 
ctu ! Ofestus 1 dies ! 

Heu I pieiosi Heu 1 
Jides priscus ! Heu 1 va- 
niias humanus ! 

Proh I dolor ! Froh 1 
»celu$ ! Proh I mos ! Dt- 
genero a parens noster, 

O Davus f itane con- 
temnor ahs iu ? Heu mi* 
serandus puer ! 

Heu Fortuna ! quis de- 
us sum crudelis tu ? sem^ 
per gaudeo iUudo res hu- 

Proh sancius Jupiter ! 
quis res magnus gero in 
terra ? 

O 4 tempus /04 tnos t 
O miser homo 4 mens ! 
4 pectus caecus I 

Heu 4 ego miser! eujr 
cogo hie /ado ? 



By the faith of gods and men, 
the fictorj is in oar bands* 

74. Ah roe I woes me ! Iotg 
is carable by no herbs. 

f When Titus one day re- 
collectedy at supper, that he 
had done nothing for any one 
that day, he said, O friends I 
to-day I have lost a day. He 
was a prince of so much easi- 
ness and generosity, that he 
denied no man any thing ; and 
when he was blamed for it by 
his friend% he replied, that no 
man ought to go away sorrow- 
ful from an emperor. 

To you, says Alexander, O 
most faithful and most affection- 
ate of countrymen and friends ! 
I [do] give thanks, not only be* 
cause to-day you have prefer- 
red my life to your own, but 
because, since the beginning 
of the war, you have omitted 
no token or expression of kind- 
ness towards me. 

This was another occasion of 
making war agninst Jugurtba ; 
wherefore the following rc- 

Proh deu$ aique homo 4 
fides ! victoria ego in ma- 
nus sum» 

Hei ego i vae ego ! niiZ- 
lus amor sum medicabUis 

Cum T^tus guidam diei 
reeordor, in coena^ sui nt- 
^»7 quisquam praesio ille 
dietf dicoj O amicus ! hodie 
dies perdo» Sum prin* 
ceps tantus facilitas et h*- 
heralitas^ ut nullus 91119- 
qvam nego ; et cum ab 
orrdcus reprehendo^ res~ 
pondeo^ nullus iristis debeo 
ab imperator discedo. 

Tu^ inguam Alexander y 
O fidus piusque civis at*' 
que amicus ! grates ago, 
non solum quod hodie salvs 
meus vester praeponoy sed 
quod^ a prtmordium beU 
luMj nullus erga ego he» 
nevolentia pignus aul in* 
dicium omitto. 

Hie sum alter causa beU 
landum contra Jugurtha ; 
igitur sequens u/fto mando 
Albinus : sed, proh dede^ 
cus ! Kumida ita corrum- 

venge is committed to Albinus ; 

hut, O shameful ! the Numidi- 

an so corrupted his army, that po hie erercitus, ut vinco 

he prevailed by the voluntary voluntarius fuga noster, 

flight of our men, and took our 

camp ; and, a scandalous treaty 

being added for the purchase 

of their security, he dismissed 

the army which he had before 


O dreadful assurance in the 
mid^t of so much adversity ! O 
the singular courage and spirit 

castraque potior; et, tur- 
pis foedus addxtus in pre* 
tium salus, dimitto exerci^ 
tus qui prius emo. 

Ohorribilis in tot ad" 
versus 4fiducia / O singu* 
laris 4 animus ac 4 sptri- 


of th« Ronao peo(flc 1 Whilst iu$ po/ndus Ramawus ! 

Adoi^I was flytog over their Cwm AimhoX in jugulwn 

throat through Cnmpania and per Campania Apultaque 

ApaKa; at the same time they voliio ; idem tempvs et hie 

both withstood him, and sent swtineQ^ et in Sicilian &r- 

their arms into Sicily, Sardi- dinia^ Hiipaniaque arma 

oia, aod Spain. O people mitto, O 4populus dig' 

worthy of the empire of the nus orbis imperium ! dig^ 

world! worthy of the fiiTOur nus fomor et admiratio 

and admiration of gods and deus ac homo ! 

Tb« Lord it jofl and rig^bteons, ud wOl j«de« the earth wUb eqatty «nd tnitli. 
Think Doi, O bold mm» ! btfcaoie tbjr panlfhineiit fs delayed, thai the ana of the Lord 
it weakened, neither flatter thytelr with hopes that he winkeih «t tbydoingt. The 
Ugh and the low. ttie rich and the poor, the wife and the Ignorant, when the soul 
bath ahahen off the cambroat dweUet of thie mortal life, «hall eqvally receive from 
tbe teotence of God a Just and everlattinr retritwtion, aeoordine to their worka. 
Then ahjUl tbe wicked treflnUe and be afraid, bat the heart of the i^teous shall re- 
joice in his Jndgments. 

The tbooghtiest man brklleth not hb tonrae, woe be to Mm! he tpeaketbat ran- 
dom, and is entanrled in tbe fooliahnetf orbis own words. Hearken therefore, O 
young man, onto the voice of Consirieratioo ; her words are the words of wisdom, and 
her paths shall lead thee to safety and tmth. 


* 75. Th£ conjunctions, et^ ac^ atque, ntCj neque, aut, re/, 
and some others, couple like cases and moods. 

Honour your father and mo- Honora pairem et matrem. 

ther. I 

He neither writes nor reads. JVec ecrihit nee legit. 

Note 1 . To these add fumm, nUit prtuUrpum, an ; also n««|w, lissl, fiiamvif, ^uen- 
iumtai. nschim^ ic«l, vtrMm, Ice. Aad adverbs of llkaiess \ as, era, Conftuan, quasi, Ht, 

JfeCs 2. If tbe words or elaoses in a stnlenee reqaire or admit of a different construc- 
tion, this mie dees not take piece } as, Cic Afsa e« reipMiem inierut. Jnv. Smxn- 
Hi fft plwrU «mpf a. Boet. Mulitr coUr* vMdo atqu» nutkautti vigvn$. Sail. Uhi videt 
nsgas ptr «Im, ««guc «fwiiUis, opfriwd ptu Aemtnem. Pen. Teown A«i«to, et ■ norit 
fuam Ht f«U eiirea impdiex. 

76. Utf ftio, licet, ne, utinam^ and dummodoy are for the 
most part joined with the subjunctiye mood. 

I read that I may learn. Lego ut diseam. 

I wish you were wise. Utinam saperes. 



A'oU t. To tbiK aid all tnterrogatiTM. tvlMB Ukea indefinitely, wbdher they be 
lieam; ai, fuaniuit qu0^il»t V**tu»f fuotufUXf ntmr § or proneonsj aSjftti», cujutg or 
•dfertX ; a$i u6i, 9110, unde, qua^ quonufntfuandot quamdiut fuotkst cur, fuor?, quwtiw 
6nnN,.frttomodo, {ui* &c or conJoiietioiK i as, ne, an, annat annon. These, when uied 
imerrogatively, stand first in a sentence, and take the Indicative ; but when a word 

£•• before tbeia in tbe sentence, such a% »ciOf nsseio, video, tnleUtfo, rage, psio, ee- 
, die, dtAitOt or ineertM$f dubius, tgnams, and the \ikt% they generallr beceaie inde- 
finite, and take the satyanctive ; a^ Hor. Qwae virtutf et gaanto,' front, «if vioen parvOi 
dtsciee. Gic. Ut leiam qwd ago», ufri ouogiM, c« maxim» fiumdo Rom^it /utwmt sis, 
0?id. JWsett vitane/rwUWf an sit ajwa manst. 

NifU 2. He takes the Imperative or sal^iiacti?e; as, ne Nme, or «« Hmat. After 4ha 
verb eotfs It is often suj^esaed) as, Cavefaaitu. 

Note 9. I7<, after these vertM, vehy no/o, tiMdo, rofo., precer, oetuee. suadse, ^ioef , oper- 
<sl^ tieeesw sM, and the like ; also after these Imperatives, ftia,yae, or/odlo, is ele 
gently suppressed j as» Ter. I^hcos veto hodU «worem. Id* Foe te patrem esse «ciaiaC 

N^e 4, UHnmrn Is the same as «i or «K,aDd has opfe OBdentood; as, Uttnam so- 
perest i. e. opfe ut eapens* 

«Vote 5. Ut and quod are thas distinguished 1 ut denotes the final cause, and general- 
ly respiHsts what is future j or, after adeo, t<a,«wr, (am, taliSf tarUus^ tot, and the like, 
itsijgfoifitts tbe manner ; but ^ued denotes tbe motive or'eflBelent catise, and commonly 
relates to what is past. 

JVote 6. JV*e, after timeo, metuo, wraor, pooeo, is used afllnnatlvely y as, Ter. Timet 
ne se deuras. But ui after these vert»^ Is for ne non, or used negatively j as, Gic Ft' 
deris vereri ui ^pistoUu Ulas aeceperim ; i* e. as non oocspcriM. 

75. Riches breed pride and 

Scipio took and destroyed 

Drunkeoness impares wealth 
and repatatioD. 

Time consumes iron and 

The man does wickedly, be 
neither fears God nor honours 
the king. ' 

Covetous ness is never satisfi- 
ed nor satiated. 

A soldier, according to his 
bravery, is praised or disprais- 

The poets design ^ either to 
profit or to please. 

Whether I be silent or 
speak, he goes on to provoke. 

I would more ivillingly re- 
ceive than do an injury. 

When a man fears nothing 
but a witness and a judge, what 
will he not do in the dark ? 

DivUiae pario superbia 
et arrogantia. 

Scipio capfio' ac diruo 

Ebrietas minuo opes at' 
que honor, 

F^etustas coniumo fer- 
rum lapisque. 

Homo ago improbe^ nee 
ttmeo Deus nee honoro rex. 

Cupiditas nunquam ex» 
pleo neque tatio. 

Mitest pro mrtus^ laudo 
aut vitupero. 

Poeta Txolo vel prosum 
vel deleeto. 

Sive ego taceo sive lih 
quory ille pergo lacesso. 

Libenter accipio quam 
facio injuria* 
^ Cum homo timeo nihil 
nisi testis et judeXf quis 
non facio in tenebrae ? 



a5i introduction 

Nethiogctn be taken from 
HI eicept liberty or life. 

Avoid idleDeu as a plagoe ; 
glory^ attends Tirtae as a sha- 

Honour, like the rainbow, 
flies the porsuer, and parsaes 
the flier. 

76« God did not send his son 
Into the world, that he might 
condemn the world, but that 
the world might be saved 
throagh him. 

I did this that 1 might escape 
the more quickly ; but do you 
assist me that it may be done 
the more easily. 

I will discover the theft, 
though he threaten arms and 

Be not hasty to speak, take 
care you do not stammer, take 
care you do not loae your cour- 

Virtue procures ^and pre- 
serves friendship ; 1 wish you 
may do y<^nr duty carefully. 

1 will come to a conferencOi 
provided there be a wall be- 
twixt you and me. 

^ In the five hundred and 
fifty-first year from the building 
of the city, T. Quintius Flami- 
Dius is seot against Philip king 
of Macedonia ; be managed 
his affairs successfully ; a peace 
was granted to the king upon 
the^e terms, that he should not 
make war upon the cities of 
Greece, which the Romans had 
defended against him; that he 
should restore the pmsoners 
and deserters. 

JVtht/ poisiim tripio a 
ego praeterquam libertaa 
aut vita, 

Fugio desidia eeu peS" 
H$ ; gloria sequor virtus 
tanquam umbra, 

Honost ut iris, f^gio se- 
quenSf et ntquor fugitns. 

Deus non miitofilius in 
mvnduSy ut condenmo mun- 
duSf sed ut mundus servo 
per is» 

Facio hie quo evado CC' 
leriter ; sed tu adjuto ego- 
quo is Jio facile, 

Detego furtum^ licet ar* 
ma morsque minor, 

Nefestino loquor, caveo 
U^ tiiubo, caveo ne perdo 

Virtue concilio et con* 
servo amicitia ; utinam 
facio officium diligenter, 

Venio ad colloquitim, 
dummodo murus sum infer 
tu et ego. 

Quingentesimus et quin'^ 
quagesimus primus annus 
ab urbs conditus^ 7\ Qfun- 
tius Flaminius adversus 
Philippus rex Macedonia 
mitto : res prospere gero ; 
pax rex do kic lex, ne 
Graecia civitas, qui Ro- 
Tnnnns contra is defendo, 
bellum infer o ; ut captivus 
et transfuga reddo. 



Pompey restored the hos- 
tages to the Aotiochians, gave 
some land to (he Daphnensiaos, 
that the grove there might be 
made more spacious, beiog 
mlgbtilj taken with the plea- 
santness of the place, and the 
plenty of water. Going from 
thence to Judea, he took Je- 
rusalem, the metropolis of the 
nation, in three months, killing 
twelve thousand of the Jews,the 
rest being admitted to quarter. 

Titus succeeded Vespasian, 
a man admirable for all sorts of 
virtues, so that he was called 
the darling and delight of man- 
kind. He was a man of so 
much moderation in his govern* 
ment at Rome, that he puqish* 
ed nobody at all, and so dis- 
missed those convicted of con- 
spfring against- bim, that he 
kept them in the same familiari- 
ty as before. He was very 
eloquent too ; he pleaded 
causes in Latin ; he composed 
poems aniPtragedies in Greek. 

Germanicus, when his end 
approached, turning to his wife, 
besought ber, by the memory 
of himself, by their commbn 
children, that she would lay 
aside her haughty spirit, that 
she would submit her mind to 
fortune ; and not long after he 
expires. Foreign nations aud 
kings lamented him, strang^s 
bewailed Germanicus ; his fii- 
neral without images was grattd 
by the praises and memory 0f 
his virtues. 

One of the Magi warned 

Pompeius ^ntiochenset 
ohsea reddo, aliqttantum 
ager Daphnenses c/o, quo 
lucus ibi spatiosusjioy dc' 
lectatus amoenitas locus, 
et aqua abundaniia, Inde 
ad Judaea Iransgressus, 
Hierosolyma^ caput geniy 
tertius mensiSf capioy duO" 
decim mille Judaei occisuSf 
caeter in fides acceptus» 

Vespasianus Titus ««c- 
ctdo, vir omnis virtus ge^ 
nus mirabilis^ adeo utamor 
et deliciae humanus genus 
dico. Sum vir tantu§ ci^ 
vilitas in imperium Roma^ 
ut nullus omnino punio, 
atque convictus adversum 
suisui conjuratio ita di- 
mitto, %xt in idem familia^ 
ritas qui antea haoeo» Sum 
etiam facundus ; causa 
Latine ago ; poema et 
tragoedia Graece compono. 

Germanicus^ ubi finis 
adsum^ ad uxor versusf 
per memoria sui communis 
Hberi orOy ut exuoferociaf 
ut fqrtuna submtito ani' 
mus ; neque multo post ex» 
tinguo, Indoleo ^xterus 
natio rexque; \0<^manicut 
ignotus fieoi funus 4ine 
imeigo pf laus et memotia 
virtue Celebris sum. 

Alexander Batylon fss*- 



Alexander, u'he was hasteniog 
to BabyloD, not to enter the 
city, declaring tbat this place 
wonld be fatal to him ; for this 
reason, waving Babylon, he 
went to Borsippa, a citj bejrond 
the Euphrates : there he was 
engaged again by Anazarchus 
the philosopher to slight the 
predictions of the Magi, as false 
and uncertain ; wherefore he 
returned to Babylon. 

All nations in the west and 
the south being conquered, the 
Scythians and Sannatiaas sent 
ambassadors to Rome, begging 
an alliance ; the Seres, and the 
Indians,that live under the sun, 
with jewels and pearls, brought 
elephants too amongiit their 
presents : the length of tbeir 
journey was so |;reat, that they 
scarce finished it in four yei^rs. 
l*bus every where there was 
peace ; insomuch th»t Caefiar 
Augustus at last Tentured|^n 
the seven j)|asidr^th ye^r fr<^ 
the building of the city, to sbut 

the double-Steed Janu«* Augus- 
tas, for his gre^t actions, was 
called TH£ ^FjiTHSR of his 

iinanif quidamex Magus 
praecUco^ ne urbs irUroeo, 
testatus hie locus isfatalis 
forem ; ob hie causa, omts- 
sut Babylon, in Borsippa^ 
urbs trans Euphrates, 
concedo : ibi ab Anaxar^ 
chus philosophus comptllor 
rurswn Magus pratdictum 
contemnOf utfalsus tt in- 
certus ; revertor igitur 

Ornnis ad oceasus el me- 
ridies pacatus gens, Scy- 
thae et Sarmatae mitto Ro- 
ma legalus^ awxciiia pe- 
tens ; Serss, habitansqfte 
sub ipse sol Indif cufn 
^emm^et margarttsit efe* 
phas guQqt^ ifil^r vmmts 
tr^ho • longinquitas via 
fanttu su^f .III vix 6 ^a- 
jirienniuta implex, SSc 
ubijque pax sum ; adfio ut 
Omar Augustus ftude^ 
'tondeifi, sepiingenUsimus 
ab urbs condiius annus^ 
Janus geminus elaudo, 
Avgutius^ ob factum in- 
g£ttSf Pati^ i^iTRiA dico^ 

'Hf ft Tirtooas emuliUton the ipirit of .« man If «nlted wlljbin bim ; be fanteth af- 
ter bine,aod refoloetb u a raeer to run bU course. He r^xeth Uke^tbe palm-tne, in 
•pite or «i>0re8sroD }-«nd as an eagle in the Srmameiit of beaveo, be aoareth aloft, and 
feBoUk hU pj^ upon tbe eloriet or the saa* The examplei of «oilMPt men an i^ bia 
visions bv niguj «nd his delight 1» to foSow them all the day loog. 
•' A fainoU« 'critu^iuiving gaihered all Ite /anils of aa emitien| poet, niade>^reaent 
of ibeni to ApoUo >>«ho received them Terr cr«c2ously,and reiolved to make the aa»- 
Ihor a sailabie return Iv^ the trouble be had Seen at In collecting them. In order to 
ibis, he «et before him a Hck of wheat, f« it b^d been ihrfebed out of the sheaf. He 
then bid him pick out the c^r^f from among the com, and lay if aside by itself. The 
critic applied himself Co the taik with gfoat ii^ustry and fleMure*, and after having 
made the doe separation, was nreaeited by Apollo w^h the fhaff for hta paina. 

Mankind seem to be no loH iceonnfekbK far the III use of their dominion over erea- 
turea of the lower rank, than for the enacise of tyranny over thebr own speeiee. The 
5?*!^ «'IST?^ *• *'?*riorcrMaion 1« iubmlMto oorpopner.t^ivore tenderlf ought 

dogs, not only ia ezpeetatlea of ihehr labour, whHe they are Ibals and whelpe, bat 


«▼en when their old afe bu made tbem incapable of «cnrice. Tbere is a passage is 
tho^booli of Jonas, when God declares bis aversion to destroy Nineveb, where that 
compassion of the Oreator, which extends to the meanest rank of his crestures, Is ex- 
pressed with wonderful tenderness: S hould I not spare MIneyeh, that great eiff, 
wherein are more thaniSixscore thousand personSi and also much cattle f Aod ia the 
book of Deuteronomy we have a preeept to this purpose, with a blessing annexed to 
It, in these words:— —If thoa shalt find a birdN nest in the way. thou sh«tt not take 
the dam with the young : But thou shalt in any wise l«t the dam go *, that it may to 
weii with thee, and tliat thou mayit prolong thy days. 

THfi Elll> OF THE l^iTRODtUCTiON:. 




A Jhort Vtew of th« priodptl tfwmetioMaiid evcnCi Uas occur In HIST0B7, firtm 
tlwCfMlioii of Oo World to Iho Birdi of Christ; 

IHcMlMlCttiroiiol^telhryMid «itapled lo tbo method of the iMrodHdim It Lctfi» 
SpiUmf th« EogUah hdnf In obocoIouiii, ud (be Latin wonU In nniilber ; 

latendodni a pioptr «Man to Inltlato bofa in ^tke uiafiil itudy of BISTORT, 
at tiM famo time tliatii lerrea to ImproTO them lo the luowledge of the LATIN 


From du cruUion to th» detune, wkUh includa 1666 j^cort. 

Iir tba beginniog God onated tke 
heartti uid the mrth, and curiomly 
finidied them in the space of six dayi. 
To Adam, the fint <Sf the human 
race» he g;aTe oommand orer all the 
other ereaturea. Adam, by his wife 
£Te,.b«gat Cain and Abel ; the £»r- 
Mier of whom was a tiller of the 
gfotund, and the latter a shepherd. 
But wiofcedness soon breakmg^oat 
in his lamilytCain slew Abel. Cain's 
posterity invented music, the work- 
ing of iron, and other arts. The de- 
scendants of Seth, who was born to 
Adam after the murder of Abe]« prey- 
ed Tirtnous : those of Cain yicious. 
The world was created 4004 years 
before the Christian aera. 

2. Enoch, the fifth in descent from 
Seth, about a thousand years after 
the creation of the world, was taken 
up fromthe society and converse of 
men, into heaven, on account of his 
intimate familiarity with God. His 
son Methuselah died a natural death, 
after he had lived near a thousand 
years. But men, g^enerally unmind- 
ful of death, began to abuse longevi- 
ty ; for most of them lived full 900 
years. Moreover the family of Seth, 
intermarrying with that of Cain, 
gave birth to a gigantic race of men ; 
and degenerating into heathenish 
practices, broke through all the re« 
straints of modesty and duty. 

3. IVherefore, 1656 yoart after 

PEXirciFiiric ereo Deui eoc- 
Inm et terra» idemque sex dies 
«xomo spatium. Adamus,hii-. 
menus genus princfl|»s,creatar» 
caeteripraepeno. Adamus,ez 
uxor Eva, Cainns et Abel 
gigno ; qui ille a^rioola, hie 
pastor sum. Sed cito domesti- 
cua malum subortus, Abel 
Cainusinterficio. Cainuspos- 
teri, musica, ferraria, aliusque 
ars invenio. Impius Cainus, 
plus Sethus, qui post inter- 
emptus Abel Adamus nascor, 
progenies existo. Creomundus 
annus ante aera Christianus 

Enoohns, Sethus trinepos, 
annu post mundus conditus 
. prope millesimus, ob summus 
Beus familiaritas, divinitus 
sum ex homo coetus atque o- 
onlus raptus. Hie filius Me- 
thusales, cum annus fere mille 
vivo, &tum fuDgor. Vulgo 
autem mortalis, mors oblitus, 
vita longitude, plerique enim 
annus expleo noogentesimus, 
abutor coepi. Sethus porro 
gens, connubinm cum Cainus 
gens junctus, gigas progigno; 
et in externus lapsus mos, om- 
nis pudor atque officium re- 
pagulum perfringo, 

Itaque annas post mundu 



CBA». II. 

the world wu erMUd, «ad 2348 be- 
lore the birth of Christ» Ood, pro- 
voked with the wickedoeai of men, 
determines to drown the whole world 
bj a deloge. Forty days the waten 
inoreaaed ezoeedingly, and rose fif- 
teen enbits above the highest nonn- 
tains ; no living creatare any where 
remained, eioept those which Noah, 
a good man, saved by the direction 
of God in a certain large vessel or 
ark. After the flood the measure of 
man^ strength and life was lessened. 
From the three sons of Noah, Shem, 
Ham, and Japheth, all the families 
of the earth have gradually been pro- 

conditus ld56,«t.ante natoa 
Christus 2348, Dens, homo 
neqnitia iratus, totus terras- 
bis diluvium submerge statoo. 
Aqua 40 dies vehementer in» 
undo, et mens altos IScnbitns 
transcendo ; animans nihil os- 
piam reliquos iio, praeter is 
qui Noes, vir bonus, Dens 
monitns, in area, sea navis 
quidam ingens asservo. Sab 
eluvio vis et vita homo iauni* 
nno. A tresNoes filios, Semui, 
Chamus, Japhetns, gens omnia 
totus terra orbis paolatiffl sma 

CHAP. n. 

From the deluge to (fte vocation o/ Abraham^ eontainiag 4S7 yean. 

Ths posterity of Noah, about 101 
years after the flood, before their dis' 
persion, entered upon a project of 
building a city and a tower, whose 
top mi^t reach to heaven. But the 
divine power checked the insolent 
attempts of mortals. They all then 
used the same laoguage, which on a 
sadden was miracutoualy divided in- 
to a multiplicity of tongues. Accord- 
ingly the intercourse of speech be- 
in^ cut off, the building was laid 
aside. After this the earth begao to 
be peopled. The city thus begun, 
from the confusion of languages, was 
first called Babel, and afterwards 
Babylon. Nimrod having subdued 
some neighbouring people by force 
of arms, reigned in it the first after 
the flood. 

2. About the time of Nimrod, 
i^pt seems to have been divided 
into lour dynasties, or principali- 
ties ; Thebes, Thin, Memphis, and 
Tanis. From this period, also, the 
Egyptian laws and policy take 
their rise. Already they began to 
make a figare in the knowledge of 
astronomy; they first adjusted the 
year to the annual revolution of the 
Bun. The inhabitants of this coun- 
try were renowned for their wisdom 
and learning, even in the earlfest 

'Nois posteri, annus po«t 
diluvium circiter centesimus 
primus, ante digressus, ineo 
consilium ezstruo urbs et tur- 
ris, qui fastigium ad coelum 
pertingo. Caeterura superbus 
mortalis oonatus divinus obsto 
numen. Repente unus, qui 
turn utor omnis, lingua in mul- 
tifarius divinitus dispertio. 
Sublatus igitur sermo com- 
mercium, aedificatio abjido. 
Ex is terra orbis frequento 
coepi. Urbs sic iocboatus, ex 
lingua coufusio. Babel pri- 
mom, deinde Babylon appello. 
In is primus post diluvium im- 
perito Nimbrothus, vicious 
qaidam gens via et arma sub- 

Sab tempus Nimbrothus, 
quatuor in dynastia, sea prin-> 
cipatus, Aegyptus divido vi- 
deor ; Thebae, Thinus, Mem- 
phis, Tanisque. Ex is quo- 
que tempus Aegyptius lex po- 
litiaque ortus suus duco. As- 
tronomia scientia jam coepi 
eniteo ; ad cursus sol hie pri- 
mus annus describe. Hioce 
regie incola, ob sapientia lite- 
raeque, primus etiam tempus 
sum celeber» Hermes, ipsef 




times. Thenr Hermes, or Mereury 
Tri8iiieg;istii8, filled all £g;7pt with 
usefal inyentioDs. He, according^ to 
them, first taught men letters, mu- 
siCy religioDf eloqaenoe, stalaaj^, 
and other arts besides. Most histo- 
rians say, that Aeseulapius, or To- 
sorthus, Idag: of Memphisi first dis- 
eovered physic and anatomy. In 
fine# tbe-anoient Egyptians, as to arts 
nnd scieneest-and tbeiUasUiousmo- 
'OomeDts of wealth and grandeur, 
have deservedly obtained the pre- 
ference among all nations of the 
world* Every body owns, that 
Aleneis^waaibe'irst mortal who reign- 
Mover Egypt. Bat the most fa- 
mous amongst their princes was Se- 
ffostris, who with amazing rapidity 
QTerran and conquered Asia, an^ 
subduing the 'countries beyond the 
Ganges, advnnced eastward as far 
as the ooean. At last losing l^s 
light, he laid -idolenit bands 'on him- 
self. The kings of 'that part of 
Egypt, whereof Tanis was the oa- 
pitali took all the name of i*haraoh. 

3. Belus is said to have reigned 
«Kt Babylon ; whose son Kinus cans» 

-ed liis latiiar-s 'image to <1»e wor- 
lAi^pedasai^d. This ie remarked 
(to have fooMi ^le origin of idols. 
Ntnusy fired with the lust of sove- 
reignty, began to «ctetnd his em» 
pire by arms. He reduced Asia un- 
der his dominion ; made himself 
Blaster of Bactria, by vanq[uirfiHig 
Ozyartes king of the Bactrians, and 
the inventor of magic He enlarged 
the city Nineveh that had been built 
by Ashur ; and founded the empire 
of the Assy lians. I|e himself reign- 
ed 64 years. 

4. Semiramis, the wife of Ninns, 
a woman of a masouline spirit, trans- 
ferred the crown to herself in pre- 
judice of her sen, who was yet a mi- 
nor. By her was Babylon adorned 
In a most magnafieent manner ; Asia, 
Media, Persia, Egypt, overrun with 
Wighty armies : a great part of Li- 
bya aad Ethiopia conquered. At 
lilt «he Toltmtarily cesigned the 

vel Merouriits Trtsmegistnt, 
bonus ars Aegyptus totus com- 
pleo. Hie, secundum ille, li- 
terae, mnsica, religio, rheto- 
rioa,'Stataaria, eiiosque prae- 
tereaars, mortalis primus in<* 
stitno. Physiea ac anatomice 
auctor, Aesculapius, vel To- 
Bortbufl, Memphis rex^plerique 
sum volo. Vetus denique Ae- 
gyptius, quoad ars soientiaque, 
ac praeolarus opes magnifi- 
eentiaque monumentum, apvd 
eunctus terra orbisgena, palma 
merito sum potitus. Menes, 
mortalis primus, Aegyptus im- 
pero, nemo sum qui nego. In- 
clytus vero inter ille rex sum 
Sesostris, qui mirns eeleriias 
Asia victor pemgro, popu- 
Iw^ne extra Ganges pei^o- 
nntns, oriens versus ^ad ocea- 
nus usque projgredior. Tan- 
dem ^coeoitas kborans,* mors 
'sui .oonscisQO. 'Rex isle Ae- 
•gyptos 'pars, qui caput sum 
TanisvPbasao cognomen cune- 

Beloe Babylon iregnodioo} 
qui Wm$ riiaue parens ^uus 
•simulaoram colo jubeo pro 
-deuB. Is idolum origo noto, 
Hinusy Inpero studium 'iia« 
jgrans, impenum arma pro- 
'pago institue. Asia in «ekis 
xedigo ditioi Oxyartes Bac- 
triaausrex, idenqne magica 
inventor» debellatus, -Baotria 
potior. Idem I^inive urbs ab 
Ashur oonditns ampHo ; As- 
synus imperium constittio. 
Ipse regno 54 annus. 

Semiramis virago, Ninus 
coDJnx» elusus filios aetas mi- 
nor, regntim ad sui transfero. 
Ab is Babylon magnificenter 
sum exstructusi Asia, Me- 
dia, Tenia, Aegyptus, in^ns 
cum exercitus peragratus ; 
ittagttus, Libya, Aethiopiaque 
pars subaetus. Tandem im- 
perinm tponte imts deponoi 



•oeptrey after ibe had swayed it 42 
yean. But Jattin layt iha was 
aardered by her soo Ni- yas. 

0. Ninyas deganerated qaita from 
hoth his parants, and giriog up the 
manasemeat of his kiofdooi to 
liautenaata» he shat himself ap in 
his palace, entirely abandoned to his 
pleasures. He had thirty or more 
of the Assyrian monarcbs that toe- 
cessively followed his worthless ax- 
ampUy the following ones being al- 
ways worse than the former i the 
last of whom was Sardanapalos» a 
man more effeminate than a woman* 
He being defeated by Arbaces, go- 
vernor of the Medesy betook him- 
self mto hispalaeoy where, erecting 
afoneral pile, he bnmt himself, his 
wives, and all his wealth. Thos Ar- 
baces transferred the empire from 
the Assyrians to the Modes, after it 
had lasUd, as some ^say, 1300 yean. 
But this whole account of the Assy- 
rian empire is rejected by very good 
authors as false and fictitious. The 
history of this monarchy that ap- 
pears rational, and agreeable to 
scripture, is related chap. vii. 2, 

6. Abraham, the lather of the 
Hebrews, by nation a Chaldeas, 
descended from Heber, is called by 
God, in the year of the fiood 428, 
and before Christ 1920. Whilst 
he sojourned in Palestine, the seat 
promised» to his posterity,beiog pinch- 
ed by a famine, he went down into 
Egypt. Returning from thence, he 
delivered Lot, his brother*8 son, who 
had been carried off prisoner from 
Sodom. After this he paid tithes 
to the priest fVIelchisedeck. More- 
over, being now 100 years old, hav- 
ing, at the divine command, circum- 
cised himself and his family, he had 
by his wife Sarah, Isaac, the son pro- 
mised him by God. Isaac was not 
yet bom, when Abraham, by his 
prevailing intercession with God, 
rescued Lot, together with his wife 
and children, £om the burning of 
Sodom. But Lot's wife, for look- 
ing back, was turned into a pillar of 
i»It. Fnrthar, Abraham's &itb be- 

postqnam annus 42 teneo. At 
J ustinus scriboisa filios I^inyas 

Ninyas ab nterque pso^ens 
penitus degenero, regnumqae 
administratio praeiectus com- 
missus, totUB voluptas euos de- 
ditus regie sulconUneo, Nequi- 
tia suns imitator triginta ant 
plus deinceps Assyrins rex ha- 
beo, alius alius nequam; qui 
ultimus Sardanapalus sum, vir 
muUer cormptus. Is ab Ar- 
bactus, Medus praefeetus, 
praelinm victus, in regia sni 
reoipio, ubi, rogus ezstmctus, 
sui, cum conjux, divitiaeque 
suttSfOoncremo. Itaimperiam, 
ab Assyrius ad Medus, Arbac» 
tus transferor postquam, ut 
nonnnllus volo, annus 1300 
duro. Sed totus hie Assyrius 
imperinm descriptio ab opU- 
mus scriptor nt ffUsus et fictus 
rejicio. Historia hie impe- 
rinm. qui verisimilis et sacer 
literae consentaneusvideot ca- 
put vii. ft* enarro, 

Abrahamnsy Hebraeus pa- 
rens, genus Chaldaeus,a)> He- 
berus origo traho, a Dens 
evoco, annus a diluvium 428, 
et ante Christus natus 1920. 
Palestine, sedes posteri suus 
promissus, cum peragro, an- 
nona inopia coactusi descendo 
in Aegyptus. Inde reversus, 
Lotos, frater filius, Sodoma 
abducttts, libero. Deinde Mel- 
chizedecus sacerdos deoumae 
persolyo. Porro, jam oente- 
narius, cum sui ac suus, Deus 
jussu, praeputium circumcido, 
e Sara o<mjux9 divinitus pro- 
missus Isaacus filius gigno. 
Nondum nascor Isaacus^ cum 
Abrahamus Lotus, una cum is 
uxor ac llberi, Deus exoratus, 
Sodoma incendinm eximo. 
Sed Lotus uxor, quod respioio, 
in sal sum versus. Abraha- 
mus, porro, fides divinitus ten* 
tatus, loire eoitep ; »an im^ 





iDg tried by 6od« became eminently 
iltustrioos; for God commandin|f 
him (o sacrifice^ with his own hand* 
bii only son Isaac, the sole hope of 
any progeny, he scrapled not to obey. 
His readiness to comply was accept- 
ed instead of actual performance. 

7. About the same time, as Euse- 
bius supposes, lived the Titans in 
Crete; the eldest of whom was 
Saturn, who is said to be the father 
of Jupiter. Jupiter was regarded as 
a god, on account of his fatherly af- 
fection towards his people. His 
brothers were Neptune and - PlutOj 
the one admiral of the king's fleets 
the other inventor of funeral cere- 
monies in Greece. Which circum- 
stances, amongst the foolish ancients, 
procured the empire of the sea to 
the former as a divinity, and to the 
latter, the sovereignty of hell as a 

CHAP. in. 

From the vocation of Abraham to the departure qf the Israelites out of 

Egypty comprehending 430 years. 

perans Dens, nt iBaactu, uni- 
cus filius, apes stirps, sous ma- 
nus immolo, pareo non dubito. 
Conatos pro factum sum. 

Idem fere tempus, ut Eu* 
sebius videor. Titan existo in 
Creta ; qui natu mazimus 
Saturnus sum, qui pater per- 
hibeo Jupiter. Jupiter, prop- 
ter patemus in populus cari- 
tas, deus sum habitus. Is fra- 
ter sum Neptunus et Pluto, 
alter regius classis praefectus^ 
alter funus inventor in Grae- 
cia. Qui res ille mare, hie 
inferi imperium ac numen pa- 
rio, apad stultus antiquitas* 

Isaac, the son of Abraham, born 
about the year after the flood 457, 
had, by his wife Rebecca, Esau and 
Jacob. Of Leah, Rachel, and his 
other wives, Jacob begat the patri- 
archs, the heads of the 12 tribes. He 
was called Israel by God ; hence the 
Israelites derived their name. Jo- 
seph, one of the patriarchs, was sold 
by his brothers out of ^nvy, and sent 
into Egypt. Afterwards Joseph for- 
gave his brethren this ill usa^^e, 
though an opportunity of revenging 
it offered. He prevails with his fa- 
ther to come down into Egypt with 
hid family, where in a short time the 
Israelites multiply in a surprising 
manner. This removal happened in 
the year of the world 2298, and be- 
fore Christ 1706. 

2. Almost cotemporary with Isaac 
was Inachus, the first king of the Ar- 
gives; whose son Phorpneus is re- 
corded to have collected his wander- 
ing and scattered people into one bo- 
dy, and to have secured them by ci- 

FsAAcus, Abrahamus filius, 
a diluvium annus circiter 457 
natus, Esaus et Jacobus e Re« 
becca uxor gigno. Jacobus e 
Lea, Rachel, aliusque uxor, 
patriarcha gigno 12 tribus auc- 
tor.. Israel a Deus appello ; 
hinc Israelita nomen fio. Jo- 
sephns, unus e patriarcha, a 
fraterin Aegyptus, perinvidia 
amandatus ac venditus sum. 
Josephus postea frater injuria, 
ulciscor oblatus occasio^ con- 
done. Pater persuadeo, uti 
cum stirps universus demigro 
in Aegyptus, ubi brevi Israe- 
lita mirus in modus augeo. 
Hie demigratio factus sum an- 
nus ir.undus 2296, et ante 
Cbristus 1706. 

haacus fere aequalis Argi- 
vus rex primus inachus exis- 
to ; qui filius Phoroneus vagus 
homo ac dispersus in unus co- 
go locus, ac moenia lexque se- 
pio, memoro. At in patriar-' 



GHAV. Ui» 

ti«t «nd lawf. Bat ApoUo^ Mari^ 
VuIcBD, VeniM, Minerva^ cbildcea of 
JiipiUr, the prinoipal deities of 
Greece, and the great fouoden of sa* 
perstitioD, fell in with the age of the 
patriarchs ; as also Ogjrges, the fleet 
king of Attica, under whose reign 
happened that remarkable inunda- 
tioa of Attica, called the deluge of 
Ogyges. Eusebius places Spartus, 
the SOD of Phoroneas, who built 
Sparta, almost cotemporary with Jo- 
seph. Argus, the grandson of Pbo* 
roneus, who, on account of his won- 
derful sagacity, was said to have an 
hundred eyes, built Argos. Hiero* 
nymus too makes Job, so much fam- 
ed for patience» coeval with Joseph ; 
but others place him much later. 

3. About the same time lived Pro* 
metheus and Atlas, two eminent as- 
tronomers, celebrated in the fabu- 
lous poems of the Greeks. Prome- 
theus« the son of Japetos, one of the 
Titans, is represented by the poets, 
as having made a man ot clay, be- 
cause he formed men that were ig- 
norant and savage, to a civilized way 
of living; as chained to Caucasus, 
because he diligently observed the 
courses of the stars upon Caucasus, 
a mountain in Scythia ; as having- 
stolen fire from the gods, because he 
invented the method of striking fire 
from flint. And his brother Atlas, on 
aocouDt of his great skill in astrono- 
my, is reported to have sustained 
heaven on his shoulders ; and gavo 
name to Atlas, a mountam of Mau- 

4. Moses, the great grandson of 
Jacob, born about 60 years after the 
death of Joseph, and 1571 before 
Christ, was .brought up by Phara- 
oh's daughter, and well instructed 
in the Egyptian learning. At eighty 
years of age, admonisheJ of God» 
and assisted by his brother Aaron, 
he attempts to deliver the nation of 
the Isrealitesfrom the slavery of the 
Egyptians. In fioe,' having struck 
% mighty terror ioto Pharaoh, by 
many very great miracles, he brings 

cha aetesi ApoUo, Mars, Vol* 
caaus, Venus, Mieerva, Jupi- 
ter liberi, praecipuns Graeoia 
Qumen, et auperstitio patriac- 
cha, inoido : itemqne Qgygea, 
primus rez Attica, qui regnana 
memorabtlis ille Attioa inon- 
datio, Qgyges dilavinm dic- 
tus, aecido. Josephus pene 
aequalis,statao Eusebius Spar- 
tus, Phoroneus filins, qui Spar- 
ta condo. Argos, Phoroneus 
nepos, qui, ob prudentia incre- 
dibiiis oentooulufl diotus sum, 
Argos condo. Johns quoque, 
patientia oobilitatus, Josephus 
suppar» facio Hteronymos ; 
alius tamen moltum junior. 

Per idem tempns Promethe- 
us et Atlas, egregius astrono- 
mus, ezisto, fabolosusKalraecus 
carmen indytus. Promethe- 
us, Japetns, is unus e Titan 
sum, natus, quod ignarus ru- 
disque homo ad humanitas in- 
formo, homo e lutum fingo ; 
quod in Caucasus, Scythia 
mens» sidus cursus observe as- 
sidue, Caucasus affixus ; quod 
ignis elicio e silex ratio inve- 
nio, ignis deus surripio, d ictus 
sum a poeta. Atlas autem<) is 
frater, propter summus astro- 
nomia scientia, coelum hume- 
rus sustineo perhibeo ; et At- 
las Maoritama mens facto no- 

Moses, Jacobus abnepos, 60 
circiter annus post Josephus 
mors natus, et smte Christus 
1571, a Pharao Alia educatus 
sum, literaeque excultus Ae- 
gyptiu». Octogenarius,'^ auc- 
tor Deus,adjutor Aaron fra- 
ter, Israelita gens ab Aegyp- 
tiua ser Vitus vindico aggredior. 
Deoique, Pharao plurimus 
maximusque prodigium ' per- 
eulsus, annus post diluvium 
circiter 957, et ante Christus 




forth the Israelites, loaded vith the 
spoils of the Egyptians, in the year 
of the flood 857, and before Christ 

5. The Red sea beings divided, the 
Israelites pass over into the deserts 
of Arabia ; provisions were famish- 
ed to them in a miraculoos manner ; 
water gushed out of the rocks, and 
manna descended from heaven. At 
mount Sinai, the law was given to 
them by Moses, their sacrifices and 
ceremonies instituted, and Aaron 
consecrated high priest. After this, 
in the 40th year of their journey- 
ing, their number being taken at 
Jordan, the sum of those that Were 
able to bear arms, was above 600 
thousand; amon? whom there was 
not one of those who had come out 
of Egypt» except Joshua and Caleb : 
for Moses, after having ta^en a pros- 
pect of the promised settlements 
from mount Pisgah, died, Joshua be- 
ing appointed his successor. 

6. I^uch about the same time that 
Moses delivered to the Hebrews 
their religious ceremonies, Cecrops 
too, founder of Athens, introduced 
images and sacrifices into Greece, 
In the reigu^ of Cecrops, flourished 
Mercury, the grandson of Atlas, the 
son of Jupiter and Maia, and the au- 
thor of eloquence and many other 
discoveries. Deucalion, upon Thes- 
Daly's being overflowed by an inun- 
dation, saved several persons on the 
tops of Parnassus, where he reigned; 
and, by means of his wife Pyrrha, 
brought them over from a savage 
and rustic life, to an humane and 
civilized behaviour. Hence rise was 
given to a number of fables. 

7. At the same time, as if the fire 
had conspired with the water for the 
destruction of men, a mighty con- 
flagration, in the time of Phaeton's 
reign, broke out in Italy, near the 
river po; which proved no small 
matterof fiction to the luxuriant fan- 
cy of the poets. Oenotrus too, the 
sou of Lycaon, having brought over 
a colony of Arcadians into Italy, set* 
tied near the Xascan sea, and^ dis- 


1491, isrealita Aegyptius spd- 
Hum onustus eduto. 

Ruber mare divisus, in soli- 
tudo Arabia Israelite transeo; 
commeatus is divinitua suppe- 
to; manna de coelum, aqua e 
saxum, defluo. Ad Sina mons 
lex is per Moses datus, sacra 
et ceremonia institutus» Aaron 
summus sacerdos consecratus. 
Inde 40 peregrinatio annus, ad 
Jordanis census habitus, sum- 
ma is qui arma fero possum^ 
amplius 600 mille sum ; in qui 
nemo omnino ex is qui ex Ae- 
gyptus venio, praeter Josues 
Calebusque: nam Moses, ex 
Pisga mons promissus sedes 
com prospicio, intereo, Josues 
successor designatus. 

Idem fere tempus sacra et 
ceremonia Moses trado Hebra- 
eus, et Cecrops, Athenae con- 
ditor, simulacrum et sacrifi- 
crum induce in Graecia. Ce- 
crops regnans, Mercurins, At- 
las nepos, Jupiter et Maia fi- 
lius) idemque eloquentia et 
multus res inventor existo. 
Deucalion, obrutus eluvio 
Thessalia, mortalis complnres 
in Parnassus jogum, ubi im- 
perito, conserve; isque Pyr- 
rha conjux opera, a durusag- 
restisque vita, ad humanus cul- 
tus civilisque traduco. Hinc 
locus multiplex fabula datus. 

^ Idem tempestas, perinde ac 
si ad homo pernicies ignis cum 
aqua conjure. Phaeton rex, 
maximus in Italia ad Eridanus 
flumen exard'eo incendinm ; 
qui poeta licentia baud parvus 
fiogo materies existo. Oeno- 
trus porro, Lycaon prognatus, 
Areas colonia in Italia deduc- 
tns, ad mare inferus consido, 
Umbrique indigenae repulsus, 




freqaento lUlia. Hie, Abori- 
g^nei primaoD, ab incertai ori- 
go, inde, ab Italas rex, Italus 
appellatosy regio Italia oomen 

poaMMing tb« natiTe Umbrians, peo- 
plad luly. Theie, called at first 
Aborlginas, from tbeir nncertain 
extractioot aflerwards Italiant, from 
tbeir king Italas, gaTe name totbe 
ooantry of Italy. 


FrQm Me departure of the Itradiia out of Egypt^ to the dtstrwtion of 

TVoy, eontmining 307 years. 

Josh VA, haring miracoloatly dri- 
ed up the riyer Jordan, brought oyer 
the Israelites. After this he oTcr- 
turns the walls of the city Jericho, 
by the ark of the covenant carried 
sefen times round it, by the sonnd of 
trumpets, and the shouts of bis army. 
He utterly destroys the Amorites, 
the sun and moon standing still at his 
command for the space of one day, 
as spectators of the victory. At last, 
aher conquering thirty kings, and all 
the nations of Palestine, he settled 
the Israelites in the country promis- 
ed to their ancestors, in the year of 
the creation 2560, and before Christ 

2. About the same time Danaus, 
causing his fifty sons-in-law to be 
murdered by his daughters, of whom 
there was the like number, makes 
himself master of the kingdom of 
Egypt. But being deposed by Li- 
nus his son-in-law, he seizes upon Ar- 
gos. Orcus, kin|; of the Molossi, car- 
ries off Proserpma, the daughter of 
Ceres, out of Sicily. Europe, ra- 
vished by Jupiter, brought forth Mi- 
nos and Rhadamanthus, and gave 
name to the third part of the earth ; 
a large field for fables to the poets. 
Much about this time flourished the 
ccmrt of the Areopagites at Athens. 
Upon the Nile too, Bnsiris, the son 
of Neptune and Libya, violating the 
most sacred laws of hospitality, is 
said to have exercised violence up- 
on his guests. About the same time 
the Israelites were treated in a way 
not much kinder by the king of Me- 
sopotamia ; but judges, by the divine 
favour, were raised up from time to 
time for their relief. 

JosuKS, Jordanis flumen di- 
vinitus siocatus, tradnoo Israe- 
lita. Hierichus inde oppidiun 
mnrusf area foedusseptiescir- 
Gumlattts, tuba clangor, atqtie 
exercitus clamor disturbo. A- 
morrhaeus, sol ac luna, is jns- 
su per Unas dies spatium, taa- 
quam spectator victoria, sab- 
sistens, ooeidio oocido. De- 
mum, triginta rex, omnisque 
Palestina gens debellatus, 1s- 
raelita in promissus majores 
sedes coUoco, annus post mnn- 
dus conditas 2500, et ante 
Christus 1444. 

Sub idem tempus Danaus, 
quinquaginta gener per toti- 
dem filia contrucidatus, Ae* 
gyptus regnum potior. Sed a 
Linus gener pulsus, Argos oc- 
oupo. Orcus, Molossus rex, 
Proserpina, Ceres filia, e Sici- 
lia abripio. Europe, a Jupiter 
raptus, Minos ac Rhadaman- 
thus pnrio, tertiusqueorbis ter- 
ra pars nomen do ; ingens poe- 
ta materies fabula. Per idem 
fere tempus Athenae concilium 
Areopagita existo. Busiris 
quoque, Neptunus et Libya 
filius, ad Nilus, in bospes sae- 
vio dico, sanctus hospitium jus 
violatus. Haud muUum hu- 
manius sub is tempus a rex 
Mesopotamia acceptus sum Is- 
raelita ; sed ad is deinceps li- 
berandus judex divinus manos 





3. Othniel, the first of the Hebrew 
jaJges, delivers his people by slay- 
ing; the king; of Mesupotamia, in the 
year before Christ 1405. Othniers 
saccessor was Ehud, who killed 
Egloa, king of the Moabites. Ehud 
was succeeded by Deborah, a woman 
of more than masculine courag;e. 
She attended Barak« general of the 
army, to the war, and obtained a sig^- 
nal victory over the enemy. Jael, a 
woman too, had a hand in this vic- 
tory; she completed the enemy's 
overthrow by the slaug^hter of their 
general Sisera, in the year before 
Christ 1285. 

4« Whilst in Palestine even wo- 
men make a fig^ure in the achieve- 
ments of war, in other nations men 
became illustrious generally for the 
arts of peace. In ^ypt, Trismegis- 
lut, the grands OD of Mercury, excel- 
led in reputation for learning. Janus 
reigned in Latium. Cadmus, the 
brothei'of Europa brought over let- 
ters from Phoenicia into Greece, and 
built Thebes in Boeotia. Rhadaman- 
thas reignisd in Lyeia,.and Minos in 
Crete, with the highest characters 
of strict impartiality. Acrisius, king 
of the Argives, instituted or new- 
moJelled Uie Amphictyones, the most 
august council of Greece ; he erect- 
ed the temple and oracle of Apollo 
at Delphos. 

5. In the mean time Amphion, 
oontempbrary with Linus, ezpell- 
ing Cadinus, and building the cita- 
del of Thebes, occasioned abundant 
matter of fiction to the poets. Liber, 
or Bacchus^ built the city Nysa, near 
the river Indus. He conquered India 
with an army of Bacchae. Per- 
seus, the son of Jupiter and Danae, 
took off the head of Gorgon, a cour- 
tezan of exquisite beauty. Pelops 
too, the son of Tantalus, by his 
planting a colony, gave name to Pe- 
loponnesus. His sister Niobe, stu- 
pified with grief for the loss of her 
children, gave rise to the fable of the 
poets. Dardanus, the son of Jupiter, 
and son-in-law of Tencer, gjive name 
to the country of Dardaoia ; which 

Othniel, primus Hebraeas 
judex, annus ante Christus 
1405, populus, Mesopotamia 
rex caesus, in libertas vindico, 
Othniel £udus,qui Eglon Moa« 
bita rex interficio, succedo. 
Eudus Debora excipio, mo Her 
virtus plusquam virilis. Hie 
Barachus, dux exeroitus, ad 
bellum comitatus, insignis de 
hostis victoria pa rio. Jael,mu> 
lier quoque, hie victoria par- 
ticeps sum ; qui hostis clades 
Sisera dux caedes cumulo, an- 
nus ante Christus 1285. 

Dum in Palestina etiammu- 
lier bellicus laus floreo, apnd 
oaeter natio, vir pax fere ars 
vigeo. Trismegistus, Mercu* 
rius nepos) in Aegyptus, doc- 
trina gloria praesto. Janus in 
Latium imperito. Cadmu9, 
Enropa frater, litera e Phoeni- 
cia deporto in Graecia, et The- 
bae in Boeotia condo. Rha- 
damanthus in Lycia, Minos in 
Crete insula, summus cum se- 
veritas laus, regno. Acrisius, 
Argivus rex, Amphictyones, 
gravis Graecia concilium, in- 
stituo vel emendo ; Apollo 
Delphious aedes et oraculum 

Interim Amphion, Linus 
aequalis, Cadmus ejectus, 
Thebanusque arx exstructus, 
magnus poeta meutior licen- 
tia facio. Libet, seu Bacchus, 
Nysa urbs, propter Indus flu- 
men, condo. India Bacchae 
exeroitus subigo. Perseus, 
Danae et Jupiter natus, Gor- 
gon meretrix eximius species 
caput demo. Pelops quoque, 
Tantalus filius, dednctus co- 
lonia, Peloponnesus facio no- 
men. Hie soror Niobe, ob 
amissus liberi ex moeror stu- . 
pefactus, poeta mendacium lo- 
cus do. Dardanus, Jupiter 
genitos, Teucer gener, Dar- 
dania regie nomen^f^cio ; ^ai 




wa» alUrwank e«lUd Troat* fram 
Tratt his aoo mad sacoesor. 

6. In L«tiuiD, Janus was succeed- 
ed by Satarn : onder whose reig;n, 
Ihej tell yon, all things were com- 
mon, and all men free. Honce it 
was called the golden age. The fame 
Saturn taught men to till the groiiod. 
to build houses, to plant vine», aod 
gather in the fruits. Meanwhile 
the Pelasgii seizing upon the sea- 
coast of Italy, which is next to Si- 
cily, introduced learning into Italy. 
From them the couutry was named 
Great Greece. Siculus, the sod of 
Ilalus, being driven out of Italy by 
the Pelaigi, passed over into the 
nest island, which the Cyclops had 
anciently pofsessed, and the Sicani 
then inhabited ; and the island was 
called Sicily from king Siculus. Af* 
ter Saturn Pious, after Pious Fannus, 
the fourth from JanuS|held the king- 
dom. The wife of Faunus, who 
was also the mother of king Lati* 
DOS, is said to have invented the La- 
tin characters. 

7. Gideon, the fourth judge of the 
Hebrews, about the year of the 
world 3769, and before Christ 1S45, 
performed an exploit that deserves 
to be oelebrated in the annals of all 
nations. By the direction of God , 
be selected 900 men out of all his 
army. These he arms with trum- 
pets and lamps. Then he orders 
the pitchen, in which the lamps 
were concealed, to be dashed to- 
gether, aod all the trumpets to be 
blown at the same instant. This 
unusual way of fighting wrought 
ttuoh confusion in the vamp of the 
IVfidianitef, that they slaughtered 
one another with mutual havock. 
Abimelech, Gideon'8 sou, was unlike 
his father : be usurped the sovereign- 
ty, after he bad put to death his 
brothers, in number 70. But within 
three years he was slhin by a woman 
with a piece of a millstone, as he 
was setting fire to the tower of 

8. Toward the latter end of Gi- 
deon's age appeared the Grecian 

postea, ex is filiusac successor 
Tros, Troas appelio. 

Janus Salumus succedo in 
Latium : qui rez,omni8 com- 
munis, omnie liber sum, per- 
hit>eo. Inde aureus seculuai 
appellatus. Idem Saturnus 
agar colo, domus aedifico, 
vioea pooo, et frux coUigo, 
doceo. Pelasgtts interea, ma- 
ritimus Italia ora, qui Sicilia 
sum proximu», occupatus, li- 
terae in ItaUa affero, Ab hie 
regio Magnus Graecia nomi* 
natus. Siculus, Italus filiua, 
Italia pulsus a Pelaigus, in 
proximus trajicio iorula, qui 
olim Cyclops teneo, ac turn 
Sicani inoolo ; eta Siculus rex 
insula Sieilia dictns sum. Ab 
Satumos Picua, a Pious Faa-> 
nus, qoartus a Janus, regnuoi 
aceipio. Faunas uxor, ideui- 
que IfUtinus rex mater, LAti- 
BOB Utera reperio memoro. 

Gideop, jodex Hebraens 
qnartus, annus muodus cirei- 
ter 2769, et ante Christaa 
1245, feeinus edo omnis gens 
litera celebrandus. Deus mo- 
nitus, virex omnis exercitns 
trecenti deligo. Hie tuba ac 
lampas armo. Turn lag^na, 
qui inclusos lampas sum, com- 
plodo, infloqne tuba omnis im- 
pero unua tempus. losolitus 
pugna species usque eo Ma- 
dia nita castra turbo, ut mu- 
tutis sul caedes conficio. Gir 
dettn filius, dissimilis pater, 
Abimelechus sum : is, fraler 
caesus, numerus aJ 70, tyran-- 
nis occui.K>. At intra trien- 
nium, dum turris Tbebetis 
ignis subdo, molaris lapis, frag- 
menprostratussum a foemina. 

Extremus Gideon aetas 
Graectfs heros attingo, hau4 




heroes, furnishiog^ ample subject for 
fabulous stories. Hercules, Orpheus, 
Castor, Pollux, and the other Argo- 
nautsi havino^ built the ship Argo, 
sailed from Thessaly to Troas, and 
thence to Colchis, under the con- 
duct of Jason. Whilst they were at 
Troy, Hercules delivered Hesione, 
the daughter of Laomedon, the son 
of Uus, and king of Troy, from a 
sea-monster, to which she had been 
exposed. JHer father promised him 
the young lady, with some fleet 
horses, as the reward of his hazardous 
enterprise. Being arrived at Col- 
chis, they soothed the fierce and 
savage guards by means of Medea, 
the king's daughter ; brought off the 
treasures which had been carried 
thither by Phryxus out of Thessaly, 
called the golden flefioe. In their 
return they killed Laomedon, for re- 
fusing the stipulated reward» and 
gave the kingdom to his son Priam. 
This expedition happened about 
1280 years before Christ. 

9. About the same time Aegeus, 
king of the Athenians, and the father 
of Theseus, had invidiously slain 
Androgeos, the son of Minos king of 
Crete. For which reason the Athe- 
nians were ordered to send annually 
into Crete seven young men, and as 
many girls, to be devoured by the 
Minotaur. In the number of these 
went Theseus, who, by the assistance 
of Daedalus, and Ariadne, Minos' 
daughter, slew the Minotaur, and 
delivered his country. Minos with 
a fleet pursuing Daedalus in his 
flight, was killed in the bath by king 
Cocalus in Sicily. After this The- 
seus encountered the Centaurs, or 
Thessalian horsemen, with good suc- 
cess, and associated himself with 

10. The Amazons too, who were 
women, natives of Scythia, having 
lost their husbands in war, took up 
arms, assuming at the same time a 
masculine intrepidity $ possessed 
themselves of the Lesser Asia, and 
built Ephesu8« Hercules and The* 
leut made war vpoa them^ aod^oa- 


exiguiis materia fabula. Her- 
cules, Orpheus, Castor, Pol- 
lux» caeterque Argonauta, Ar- 
go Davis aediflcatus, Jason dux, 
e Thessalia ad Troas, exinde 
Colchis, navigo. Dum apud 
Troja sum, Hercules Hesione, 
Laomedon, Ilns filius, rex 
Trojemus, Alia, monstrum ma- 
rinus,qai expositussonslibero. 
Pater virgo ille, cum pernix 
equus, labor suus praemium, 
pollicitus sum. Cum ad Col- 
chis venio, Medea rex filia 
opera, custos ferus ac barbarus 
delenio ; thesaurus eo a Phry- 
xus e Thessalia deportatus, 
aureus vellus dictus, aufero* 
In reditus Laomedon, pb pac- 
tus merces negatus, obtrunco ; 
regnum Priam us, is filius, 
trade. Hio expeditio incido 
in annus circiter 1230 ante 
Christus natus. 

Sub idem tempus Aegeus, 
Atheniensis rex, et pater The- 
seus, Andi*ugeos, Minos rex 
Creta filiu;, per invidia occido. 
Ob qui causa Atheniensis 
jubeo quotannis septeni juv^^ 
nis et puella totidem in Creta 
mitto, a Minotaurus devoraa- 
dus> Hie in numerus The- 
seus profectus sum, qui, opis 
Daedalus, et Ariadne, Minos 
filia, Minotaurus occido, et 
patria libcro. Minos, Daeda* 
lus fugiens classis insecutus, 
in Sicilia a Cocalus rex neco 
i a balneum. Theseusindeoum 
Centaurus, Thessalus eques, 
bene pugno, suique Hercules 
comes adjuogo. 

Amazonea mulier quoque, e 
Scythia oriuodus, amissus in 
bellum vir, cum arma, animus 
virilis assume; Asia Minor oc- 
cupo» Ephesus condo. Hie 
Hercules ao Theseus ioferq 
bellam, isque vioco, major vio- 
tus gloria quam suut : qoippt 




ooered them, more to the glory of 
the yanqoishetl then their own : for, 
though women, they had valiantly 
coped with soch heroes, and when 
taken prisoners, mede their escape, 
by killing the guards. Hercules is 
further reported to have instituted 
the Olympic, and Tbeaeui the. Isth- 
mian games. 

U. Much about this time, Greece 
exhibited scenes of an horrible and 
tragical nature. Atreus and Thy- 
estes, the SODS of Pelops, vented their 
mutual resentment in a more hos* 
tile way than became brothers. For 
Thyestes committed a rape on his 
brother *s wife r Atreus, on his part, 
caused Thyestes' sons to be served 
up te him at a banquet. Oedipus 
having been exposed by his father 
Laius, «lew him afterwards in a 
squabble, without knowing him to be 
his father ; and restore<i the country 
about Thebes to a perfect tranquil- 
lity, by killing the Sphinx, an artful 
mischievous woman. Having thus 
procured himself his father's king- 
dom, he unwittingly married his 
mother Jocasta. However, being 
informed of the whole matter by 
Tyresias the seer, he plucked out 
his own eyes, and left the kingdom 
to hia eons, Polynices and Eteocles. 
But Polyniceq being quickly expell- 
ed the kingdom by his brother, fled 
to Adrastus king of the Argives. 
Supported by him, he made war 
upon his brother, attended by the 
prophetic Amphiaraus, who having 
been betrayed by his wife Eriphyla, 
gave orders to his son Alcmeon to 
nasassinate his mother ; in this more 
wicked than his wife, that he made 
a son the murderer of his parent. 
During that war Amphiaraus was 
«wallowed up by an earthquake, 
Polynices and his brother fell by mu- 
luai wounds. 

12, Jephtha, the seventh judge of 
the Hebrews, was somewhat later 
than Herpules. As he was about to 
join battle with the enemy, he yow- 
«dt that if he overcame, he would 
«OMe^rate to QofX wh«Um he» 

et mulier cum talis vir fortiler 
depugno» et captivus, caesus 
custoB, aufugio. Hercules 
porru Olympicus Indus, The- 
seus bthmius fero institno. 

Idem fere tempus, foedas 
ao dims spectaculum edo 
Graecia. Atreus et Thyes- 
tes, Pelops natus, plusquam 
fraternus inter sui odium ex- 
erceo, Thyestes enim frater 
uxor stuprum infero : Atreus 
Thyestes vicissim fiUus epu- 
laodus appono. Oedipus a 
Laius pater exposjtus, is de- 
inde in rixa ignarus nccido ; 
agerque Thebanus, Sphinx 
insidiosus mulier occisus, pa- 
catus reddo. Ita paternus reg- 
num adeptns, Jocasta mater 
ipse inscius duco uxor. Cae- 
terum res omnis ex Tyresias 
vates cognitus, sui ipse eruo 
oculus, et regnum Etedcles ac 
polynices fiUus relinqoo. Po- 
lynices autem cito regnum a 
frater pulsus, ad Adrastus Ar- 
givus rex confugio. Is opes 
subnixus, frater bellum infero, 
comes Amphiaraus vates, qui 
ab Eriphyla conjux proditus, 
Alcmeon filius, mater ut oeco, 
impero; hie sceleratus uxor, 
quod fill us facio parricide. Is 
bellum Amphiaraus hiatus 
terra absorptas sum. Poly* 
nices et frater mutuus vulnus 

Jephthes, septimni Hebra-. 
eus judex, Hercules paulo mi- 
nor natu sum. Is signum 
cum hostif colUturus, voveo,si 
yinco» sui ^eue cousecro^ quis^ 
^uis reverlQui primus occurrck 

CHJkP. T. 



should meet first at his retarn. He 
CDgaged the enemy, and grained the 
victorj; his daughter, the only child 
he had, met him first of all in his re- 
turn home, and converted th» glory 
of the victory mto mourning, about 
tl;^e year before Christ 1188. 

13. About the same time a much 
greater disaster befel Priam king of 
Troy, who refusing to restore Helen, 
the wife of Menelaus king of Sparta, 
that had been carried off by his son 
PariSf called also Alexander, was 
stripped of his kingdom, children, 
and life, by the Greeks, after a siege 
of ten years. Troy was destroyed 
2820 years after the creation of the 
world, 436 before the building of 
Rome, and before the birth of Christ 
1184. . 

Confiigo cum hoBtiSt Tiotoria 
refero: domus rediens, filia, 
qui unious habeo, primus om- 
Dis obnam venio, et gloria 
victoria in moeror verto, an- 
nus aote Christas natus fere 

Multum gravis sub idem 
tempus Priam us Trojan us rex 
casus evenio, qui cum Helena, 
Menelaus rex Spartan us uzor« 
a Paris filius suus, Alexander 
etiam dictus, raptus, reddo no- 
lo, post decennium obsidioy 
liberi, regnum et vita orbo a 
Graecus. Troja eversus sum 
annus a mundus cooditus 
2820, ante Roma, conditus 
436, et ante Christus natus 


From the deslruciion of Troy, to the finithing and dedication of the 
temple at Jerusalem by Solomon^ including 163 years. 

Aeneas flying from Troy, came 
iuto Italy. There he contracted an 
alliaoce and affinity with Latinus 
king of the Latins ; from his wife^s 
name, he called the town built by 
him Cavioium. He routed in battle, 
and put to flight Tornus king of the 
Rutuli. After that he greatly weak- 
ened the power of the Hetrusci; 
and Latinus dying in battle, he him- 
self reaped all the benefit of the vic- 
tory. In order to strengthen his in- 
terest, the name and laws of the La- 
tins were by him imposed on the 
Trojans : he himself was called kkg 
of the Latins. After this, Aeneas 
fell in battle, fighting against Mezen- 
lius king of the Hetrusci, four years 
after the death of his father-in-law 

2. Samson was contemporary with 
Aeneas. He killed a lion without 
aby weapon ; checked the pride of 
the Philistines, and made a dreadful 
havock of his enemies with the jaw- 
bone of an ass. Having lost his 
strength together with his hair, he 
feU into the head* of bit enemies, by 

Aeneas Troja profugus, in 
Italia venio. Ibi cum Lati- 
nus, Latinus rex, foedus affi- 
nitasque jungo ; oppidum a 
sui conditus, ab uxor nomen, 
Lavininin appello, Turnus 
Rutulus rex praelium fundo 
fugoque. Hetruscus inde opes 
(rango; Latinusque in acies 
mortuus, ipse omnis fero vic- 
toria fructus. Ad firmandai 
opes, Trojanus Latinus lex ab 
19, ac nomen impositus: La- 
tinus ipse rex dictus. Aeneas 
postea, adversus Mezentiut 
Hetruscus rex pugnans, prae- 
lium cado, annus quartus post 
mors socer Latinus. 

Samson 'Aeneas tempus sup- 
par sum. Leo inermis neco ; 
Philistaeus superbia coerceo ; 
asinus maxilla hostis trucido« 
Mulier, qui depereo, prodens, 
amissu» cum coma vires, in 
hostis potestes pervenio^ Qui, 
orbatui lament diu ludibriam 



CHA7. Vr 

tha traacfaery of a woman, whom 
ha patNOOfttel J lored. To them , af« 
ter they had pot out his eyes, he 
senred long for an object of derision. 
At Icn^, havings recovered his 
strength with his hair, he endeavour- 
ed to put an honourable period to 
hia ignominions servitude. The piU 
Ian of the house, wherein the Philis- 
tines beheld him making sport, he 
overset; the Philistines who were 
present, and Samson himself, were 
crushed to death by the fall of the 
building, in the year before Christ 

3. Ascaniusi Aeneas* son, resign- 
ing Lavinium to his step-mother, 
founded Alba Longa. After this the 
sovereignty was conferred by the 
people on Sylvius, a son of Aeneas, 
bom alter his death. The priest- 
hood was given to Jnlns, the son of 
Ascanius, whkh the Juliun family, 
originally sprung from Julus, enjoy- 
ed hereditary ever after. After Syl- 
vius, thirteen kings reigned in Alba 
Longa, for near 400 years \ of whom 
Aeneas Sylvius swayed the sceptre 
31 years, Latinus 51, Alba 39, Syl- 
vius Athys or Capetus I. 26, Capys 
28, Capetus II. 13, Tiberious 8, A- 
grippa 24, Romulus Sylvius or Alla- 
dius 19, Aventinus 37, Procas S3, 
Amnlius 42 ; whose brother Numi- 
tor was the last king of Alba. 

4. Samuel, the last judge of the 
Hebrews, by God*s direction, anoints 
3aol king, as he was in quest of his 
father*s asses, seven years before 
Aeneas Sjlvius began his reign in 
Latium. The Hebrew state was 
managed by judges.about 400 years. 

5. The Heraclidae, viz. the pos- 
terity of Hercules, who, long harass- 
ad by Enristheus king of Mycenae, 
had lived in exile with Ceyx in 
Thrace, and afterwards with These- 
us king of Athens ; at length, about 
80 years after the destruction of Troy, 
returned to Peloponnesus, and set- 
tled in it. 

a. Saul, the first king of the Is- 
raeHVes^ cama to the throng about 

anm. Damott reeeptus cum 
capillus vires, turpis sarvitna 
honesttts quaero ezitus* Do- 
mus is, undePhilistaeus ludens 
ipse specto, columoa concutio ; 
aedes ruina Philistaeus, qui 
praesto som,atque Samson ip- 
se, opprimo, annus ante Chris- 
tnsnattts 1117. 

Ascaniusi Aeneas fiUns, L*i- 
vininm noverca reliotus, Alba 
Longa condo. Sylvius inde, 
Aeneas filius posthumus, reg^- 
num a populus delatus sum. 
Julus, Ascanius filius, sacerUo- 
tium datus, qui gens J alius, ab 
Julus ortuS) postea heredila- 
rius habeo. Post Sylvius a 
tredecim rex in Alba Longa, 
400 fere annus, regnatnr ; qui 
Aeneas Sylvius imperium te- 
neo annus 31, Latinus 51, Al- 
ba 39, Sylvius Athys sen Ca- 
petus 1. 26, Capys 28, Capetus 
II. 13, Tiberinus 8, Agrippa 24, 
Romulus Sylvius seu Alladius 
19, Aventinus 37, Procas 23, 
Amulius 42; qui frater Numi- 
tor uUimus Alba rex existo. 

Samuel, judex Hebraeus 
postremus, Saul, paternua asi^ 
na quaeritans, Ueus admoni- 
tus, coDsecro rex, septennium 
antequam Aeneas Sylvius reg- 
no occipio in Latium. Admi- 
nistratus res Hebraeus sum a 
judex annus circiter 400. 

Heraclidae, viz. Hercules 
posteri, qui, ab Euristheus 
Mycenae rex diu exagitatus, 
in exilium apud Ceyx in 
Thraciai deinde apud Theseus 
Athenae rex, aetas ago ; tan- 
dem, 80 fere annus a clades 
Trojani;s,ad Peloponnesus re»< 
deo, ibique sedes sUus pono. 

Saul, Israelita rex primus^ 
ragnum accipio imnus post 




the year of the world 2909, and be- 
fore Christ 1095. At first he beliav- 
ed well, but afterwards offended hei* 
nously. Hereapoa he was rejected by 
God, and David chosen in his room. 
He having slain Goliaht a gigantic 
Philistine, was advanced to be the 
kiug^^s son-in-law. Saul fell in bat- 
tle fighting against the Philistines, in 
the twentieth year of his reign. Da- 
vid, after lamenting the death of his 
father-in-law, mounted the throne, 
in the reign of Latinus Sylvius, the 
son of Aeneas Sylvius, king of the 

7. King David, a man of singular 
piety towards God, was ever victo- 
rious over his foes. He was de- 
throned by his son Absalom ; but 
having defeated Absalom in battle, 
he recovered his kingdom. David 
reigned 40 years. 

8* Almost at the same time that 
Ahealom suffered the panishmant of 
his unnatural behaviour to his father, 
Codrus, the son • of Melanthus, and 
the last king of Athens, gained the 
character of a most extraordinary^ 
affection for his country. In the 
Dorian or Peloponnesian war, being 
informed by the oraclei that the ene- 
my would prove victorious, unless 
the king of the Athenians was killed, 
he devoted his life for the safety of 
his count ry. Having disguised him* 
self in the habit uf a peasant, he. 
wounded a common soldier of the 
Dorians in a quarrel, and being ^ 
slaiii by him, a^^e wished, saved his 
country from a blockade of the ene- 
my; in fact, rather than in name, 
the father of hi> country. Upon hit 
death the government of Athens de? 
volved on magistrates, who were 
called Archons. The first of them 
was Medon, the son of Codrus. 

9. Solomon, the third king of the 
Hebrews^ reigned also 40 years. He 
built and dedicated the temple, de- 
signed by his father David» in the 
mo3t magnificent manner, about the 
year of the world 2983, and before 
the birth of Christ 1021, in the reign 
pf ^lb^ Sylyius king of the Latins. 

mundus conditus prope2909, 
et ante Christus 1095. Initium 
bene sui gero, delude graviter 
offendo. Quocirca rejicio a 
Deua, et in fs locu^ David suf- 
ficio. Hie, Golias Philistaeua 
gigas interfectus, regius evAdo 
gener. Saul, vigesimus rejj- 
num annus, adversus Philis- 
taeus pugnans, praelium cado. 
David, socer mors deploratus, 
regnum potior, rex Latinus 
Latinus Sylvius, Aeneas Syl- 
vius filius. 

David rex, homo eximiuser^ 
ga Deus pietas^ hostis perpe- 
tuo victor existo, Regnum 
Absalon filius pulsuB sum ; at 
Absalon acies superatus, regf- 
num recipio. David 40 annus 

Idem ferme tempos Absaloa 
impietas in pater poena luo, et 
Codrus, Melanthus filius. A- 
theniensis rex postremust 
la us egregius in patria pietaa 
fero. Bellum Pelopoonesia^ 
cus sen Doriensis* cum eK ora« 
culum cognoseo jiuperior fo^ 
rem hostis, nisi Atbemensisrex 
cado, caput suus pro patria 
aalus devoveo. Rustious ves- 
tit us indutUB, gregarius miles 
Doriensis ex jorgium saucio i 
ab is, ut opto, ioteremptns, 
hostis Qbsidio patria eximo; 
pater patria, res magis^ quam 
nomeo» Is mors Athenae ad- 
ministratio ad magistratus de- 
venio, qui Archon sumappel- 
latus. b primus MedoU suffl« 
filius Qodrue. ^ 

Salomon, rex Hebraeus ter- 
tius, 40 quoque annus regno. 
Templum, a David pater des- 
tinatus, magoificenter exaedi'* 
fico dicoque. annus mundui 
prope 2983, et ante Christus 
natus 1021, Alba Sylvius rex 
Latinos, Soloipofly omx)ia 



CHAP* Tli 

SoIoBunit the wisaft of all nieii, in 
hb old B|;e was Mdoeod by hit wiyet 
into the woniiip of Heathen deities. 
EUmer was something elder than 
Solomon, if he U?ed« as Herodotos 
says, 1 68 yean after the Trojan war. 

mortalis sapiens, ab uxor se- 
nex perdactos sum ad cultaa 
deos Ethnicos. Salomon ae- 
nior aliquantam Homeras 
sum, si quldem existo, at He- 
rodotus perhibeo, annus 163 
post bellum Trojanus. 


Frwa tfu deduation e/ the tempU to ttu building of Rome^ eomprt- 

funding 273 yean, 

RoBOAS, Salomon filius, nu- 
tans patemus culpa imperium, 
anus stultitia everto. Sic duo 
ex unus reg;num factus : alter 
Juda, sen Hierosolyma ; alter 
Israel, sive Samaria, dictus 
sum. Judaens tribus ac Ben- 
jaminios Roboas, ao etirps de« 
inoepa pareo Daridiens; cae'» 
ter decem tribus, a Jeroboas, 
primus rex, traductus depra- 
yatusque, dirersus stirps rex 
habeo. Samaria rex omnis ad 
unus impius sum, cuUorque 
idolum: Hierosolyma rex non 
Item. £t hio duo regnum 
perpetaus inter sui bellum fe- 
re eontendo. Annus imperinm 
Roboas quintns, a Sesacos Ae- 
gyptus rex Hierosolyma obsi- 
deo. Hie omnis sacer tern- 
plum supellex deporto. Ro- 
boas 17 regnum annus exce- 
dens e vita, Abias filius reg- 
num lego, SylWus Athys rex 

RxHOBOAW, Solomon's son, by his 
folly completed the ruin of the em- 
pire, already tottering by his father's 
mitconduot. Thus out of one were 
two kingdoms formed : the one was 
called the kingdom of Jndah, or Je« 
rusalem ; the other that of Israel, or 
Samaria. The tribe of Jndah and 
Be^|amin were subject to Rehobo- 
am,aad the other sucoeisiTedesoen- 
dents of David ; the other ten tribes, 
being seduced and corrupted by Je- 
roboem their first king, had prin- 
oes of very diflerent familiei. The 
kings of Samaria were all impious 
to a man, and worshippers of idols: 
the kings of Jerusalem otherwise. 
And these two kingdoms contended 
with one another in almost continu- 
al wars. In the 6fth year of Reho- 
boam^ reign, Jerusalem was besieg- 
ed by Shishak king of Egypt. Hecar^ 
ried away all the sacred furniture 
of the temple. Rehoboam dying in 
the 17th year of his reign, leaves bis 
kingdom to his son Abijah, Sylvias 
Athys being then king of the Latins. 

2. In the third year ofAbijah's 
reign, Asa his son sacceeded him, a 
king of eminent piety : who swayed 
the sceptre 41 years. In his reign 
Capys ruled in Latium ; and Omri 
king of Israel built the royal city of 

3. Jehoshaphat, the son of Asa, 
proved a second David for piety. He 
held the government 25 years. In 
his reign lived Ahab king of Samaria, 
and the holy prophet Elijah the 
Tiahbite. Much about the same time 
Tiberinus too, the son of Capetus, 
»e ninth king of the Albans after 

Abias tertius regnum annus^ 
Asa filius, summus rex pietas, 
succedo ; qui imperium an- 
nas 41 teneo. Hie regnans 
Capys in Latium impero ; ct 
Amrius Israelite rex Samaria 
urbs regius condo. 

JosBphatus, Asa filius, piis- 
tas alter David sum. Annus 
25 imperium teneo. Is reg* 
nans, existo Achabns rex Sa- 
maria, et sacer vates Helias 
Tbesbites. Idem fere quoqoe 
tempos Tiberinus, Capetus fi- 
lius, rex Albanns ab Ascaniu^ 




Aflcaiiicif) beiDjT drowned in his pat- 
^MgB over Ihe Albala, gave name to 
the river. 

4. Jehoram, the son of Jeboeha- 
phat, and son-in-law of kin°: Ahab, 
followed the impioos example of his 
father-in-law. He possessed the 
throne eight years. His son, Aha- 
ziah, reigned only one year, Agrippa 
being then king of the Latins. 

5. Joash, the son of Ahaziab, the 
tenth king of the Jews after David, 
reigned 40 years. In his reign Ro- 
mnlus Sylvias, king of the Albans» 
was burnt up by lightning. After 
him Aventinns got the kingdom, who 
gave name to the hill on which he 
was buried. 

6. Amaziah, the son of Joash, go- 
verned 29 years. In his reign, as Eu- 
sebius relates, flourished Lyourgus, 
the famous lawgiver of Sparta, who 
spontaneously resigned the crown of 
l^acedemon, left him by his brother, 
to Charilaus, his brother's son, bom 
after his father's death. He divided 
the land of Laoonia to each man 
equally ; abolished the use of gold 
and silver ; and enjoined all people 
to eat in public. Then he bound 
his countrymen by an oath, that they 
should not make any alteration of his 
laws» till he should return from con- 
sulting the oracle at Delphos. He 
died at Crete, a voluntary exile, 
about the time of the death of Ama- 
ziah king of the Jews. Uzziah, who 
is also called Azariahy was the son 
and successor of Amaziah. He reign- 
ed 52 years. 

7. Elisa, who is also called Dido, 
abhorring her brother Pygmalion, 
the murderer of her husband Sichae- 
us, privately put on board all her 
husband's wealth, and sailed from 
Tyre. Landing on the coast of Li- 
bya, she built a city, which was first 
called Byrsa, and afterwards Car- 
thage. Carthage was founded about 
142 years before the building of 
Rome, and before the birth of Christ 
890. About the same time Boccho- 
ru<t, or Bocchorides, king of E^pt, 
settled the laws and institutions of 
the Egyptians. 

Bonus, in trajeetns Albnla «m- 
nis sabmenuif flamen nomen 

Joras, Joeaphatus filius A- 
chabus rez gener,impietas so- 
cer seentus sum. Goto annni 
imperium teneo. Filius is, 
Ochozias, annus regno onmino 
unus, Agrippa rex Latinus. 

Joaa, Ochocias filius, deci- 
mns a David rex Judaeus, an- 
nus 40 impero. Is regnans, 
Romulus Sylvius, Albanus 
rex, fulmen Ictus deflagro. 
Aventinus deinde obtineo reg- 
num, qui coll is, ubi sepultus 
sum, nomen do. 

Amasias, Joas filius, annus 
99 imperito. Is regnans, ut 
Eusebius perhibeo, existo Ly- 
curgus, celeber Sparti legisla- 
tor, qui Lacedaemonios reg- 
num, a frater relictus, frater fi- 
lius posthnmus Charilaus, suus 
sponte trado. Ager Laconicns 
viritim aequaliter divide ; an- 
ram argentumque usus tollo ; 
et omnis epnlor publico jubeo. 
Civisindesacramentum adigo, 
ut nihil de lex immuto, quoad 
ipse a eonsulendus Delphicus 
reverto oraculum. Exul vo- 
luntarius in Creta obeo, sub 
nex Judaeus rex Amasias. 
Ozias, qui etiam Azarias die- 
tus sum, Amasias filius ac suc- 
cessor sum* Annus 52 regno. 

Elisa, qui etiam Dido ap- 
pello, Pygmalion frater, Si- 
chaeus vir suus iaterfector, 
exosus, omnis vir gaza clam 
iroponO in navis, et Tyrus sol- 
vo. Ad Libya appulsus, urbs 
condo, qui B3rrsa primom, in- 
de Carthago dictus sum. Con- 
dituB Carthago sum annus an- 
te*Romaconditu8 circiter 142, 
et ante Christ us natus 890. 
Sub idem tempus Bocchorus, 
sen Bocchorides rex Aegyp- 
tus, lex Aegyptins et jus con- 




8. Abotit the Mine time, that is, 
409 yean after the destruction of 
Troy, and 27 before the boilding: of 
Rome, the Olympic »ames were re* 
Tived by tphitos ; for they had been 
instituted before bj Hercales, as was 
related above. The Olympic games 
were so called from Olympia, a city 
of Glis in Peloponnesn^, near which 
they were celebrated ayery fourth 
year, by a p'eat conoourse of people 
from all Greece and other nations. 
From this period the Greeks be|;an 
to use the Olympiads for the distinc- 
tion of times. Before that epoch, 
fiction prevailed. From it the true 
history of the Greeks takes its rise. 
In the beginning of the 6r8t Olym- 
piad, if we beliere Herodotus, died 
Hesiod, about 140 years later than 

9. Jotham, Uzziah*? son, and fa- 
ther of Abaz, a pious mnn, nnd be- 
loved of God, governed 16 years. In 
bis reign, Theopompus, king of the 
Lacedemonians, in order to render 
th^ sovereign authority more stable, 
by sharing the power with the peo- 

. pie, created five Ephori, 230 years 
after Lycurgu». These magistrates 
very much resembled the tribunes 
of the people among the Romans. 

10. InLatium, Amulius, having 
deposed his elder brother Numitor, 
usurped the crown. Romulus and 
Remus, the sons of Rhea Sylvia, or 
Ilia, Numitor*s daughter, having 
been exposed by A-mulius, were edu- 
cated by Faustulus, the king's shep- 
herd. When they came to age, they 
knew their grandfather Numitoc, 
and, having slain Amulius, replaced 
him on his throne. They themselves 
having got together a body of shep- 
herds, founded on mount Palatine 
the city of Rome, for which was 
destined the empire of the world. 
Rome was built in the third year of 
the seventh Olympiad, 436 years af- 
ter the destruction of Troy, in the 
year of the world 3256, of the flood 
1600, and before the birth of Christ 

Sub idem tempus, annus 
scilicet 409 post Trpja dele- 
tus, et ante Romaconditus 27, 
Indus Olympicus ab [phitui 
renovatus sum ; nam antea, 
ut supra dicOy ab Hercules in- 
stitutns sum. Ludus Olympi- 
cus sic dictus sum ab Olympia, 
urbs Elis in Peloponnesus, 
prope qui celebr&tus sum quar- 
tus quisqne annus» magnus 
homo concursos ex omnis 
Graecia gensque peregrinus. 
Ex is tempus, Graecus, ad 
tempus distinguo, Olympias 
adhibeo coepi. Ante is tempus 
fabula vigeo. Ex is Graecus 
initium duco historia. In 
auspicium primus Olympias, 
si Herodotus credo, Hesiod us 
obeo, Homerus junior annus 
circiter 140. 

Joathas, Ozias filius, et A- 
chas pater, vir pius, et Deus 
earns, annus 16 impero. Is 
regnans, Theopompus, Lace- 
daemonius rex> quo reg^um, 
communicatus cum populus 
potestas, efficio diutumus, 
Ephoros qninque, annus po$t 
Lycurgus 130, creo. Hie tri- 
bunus plehs apud Romanus 
persi mills sum. 

In Latium, Amulius, Nu- 
mitor majpr frater pulsus, 
regnum occupo. Romulus et 
Remus, Rhea Sylvia, sen Ilia, 
Numitor filia, natus, ab Amu- 
lius expositos, a Faustulus, 
pastor ^reg} us, educatns sum. 
Cum adolesco, Numitor avus 
agnosco, isque, Amulius ob- 
truncatus, restituo in regnum. 
Ipsey coactus pastor menus, in 
Palatinus mons condo nrbs 
Roma, qui destino imperium 
orbis terra. Roma conditus 
sum annus tertius septimus 
Olympias, post Troja eversus 
436, annus mundus3256, di- 
luvium 1600, et ante Cbristus 
natus 748. 



From the building of Rome to (fit liberation of the Jevstfrom the Baby- 
loni$h capiiritjf by Cyrus, in the first year of the Persian empire, con- 
taining ^\4 years, 

RoBCiTLVs is commonly reported to Romulus vnlgo fero Remus 

have killed his brother Remus, for frater trucido, quod per coji- 

having contemptuously letfped over ' tumelia murua novas trantilio. 

his new walls. Thus he became-9oIe Ita solus imperium potitus sum. 

monarch. He took numbers of his Multitudo finitimus in (Di vitas 

neig^hbours into his city. He chose reoipio. Centum senator elijj^o, 

An hundred senators, who, from their qui ab aetas Pater, PatrieiiqQe 

a^e, were called Fathers, and their is prog^enies, appellatus. Tunc, 

children Patricii* Then, as he and cum uxor ipse et populns non 

his people had no wives, he invited habeo, invito ad spectaculum 

the neighbouring nations to the sight ludus vicinus natio, atque is 

of games, and seized their young virgo rapio. Itaque finitimus 

tromen. Whereupon the adjacent populus Romanus bellum in- 

nations made war upon the Romans, fero. Romulus, Caeninenses 

Romulus having routed the Caeui- fugatus, isque^rex Acron suas 

nenses, and slain their king Acron with manus interemptus, Jupiter 

his own hand, presented the spoUa Ferelrius, qui tum aedes dico, 

opima to Jupiter Feretrius, to whom opimus spolium fero. De An* 

be then dedicated a temple. He tri- temnates, Crusturoinii, Fide- 

nmphed over the Antemnates, the nates, et Veientes, triumpho. 

Crustuminians, the Fidenates, and A Tatius, Sabinus rex, . acies 

Veientes. Upon seeing his army like sous fugO'Videns, Jupiter Stator 

to be worsted by Tatius king of the templum voveo in Forum. De- 

Sabines, he vowed a temple in the Fo- mum redintegratus praeliunif 

rum to Jupiter Stator. The action Sabinus in aoies irrumpens, 

being renewed, the Sabine women bellum precis dirimo. Percutio 

throwing themselves into the battle, inter dux foedus, et Sabinuf 

put an end to the war by their in<^ Roma commigro. Romuluf, 

treaties. An alliance is struck up be* cum cxercitus ad Caprea palus 

tween the generals, and the Sabines recenseo, subitus coortns tern 

remove to Rome. At last Romulus, pestas, nusquam.appareo. Ad 

a sadden tempest arising, as he re- deus transeo creditus sum. 

viewed his army at the lake of Caprea, Regno annus 37. 
entirely disappeared. He was sup- 
posed to have gone to the gods. He 
reigned 37 years. 

2. Nineveh, as formerly observed, Ninive, at supra dictussum.) 

was founded by Ashur, some time ab Ashurconditussum,seroali 

after Babylon had been built by Nim- quantum quam Babylon a Nim- 

rod ; but continued for many ages a brothus ezstructus sum ; sed 

private royalty. For Pnl> one of the privatus tantummodo regnum 

kings of Niniveh, and probably also per muUus seculum existo. 

king of Babylon, seems to hare Namque Pul, unus e rex Nini- 

founded the Assyrian empire. He ve, et, ut verisimilis sum, rex 

makes his first appearance in scrip- etiam Babylon» Assyrius consti- 

ture in the beginning of the reign of tuo imperium videor. Hie men* 

Menahem king of Israel, and 771 tiofioprimoinscripturasuhin- 

years before the birth of Christ. This itium regnum Menahem rex Ja- 

empire lasted about 170 years. The raeliticus, et 77] annw aate 

IT ' 


dricf of if* UMBireht W€r% 1. Pal, Batu Christas. Hie inpariain 
sappoicd to bo tbo mom with Bolot. oimas circiter 170 daro. Prae- 
lie reigned apwardf of 24700». 3. etpuas ex is prinoeps sum, 1. 
TigUthpileser, who is snppoeod to be Pol, qui et Belas sum credo. Is 
the some with Nino», end who eabda- anoos 24 et amplius imperito. 
od Domatoui, «od pot an end to the 2. Tig^hithpileser, qui et Ninus 
aocieot kingdom of Syria, reigaed sum credo, et qui» Damaecoa 
aboQt 19 yaarf . 3. Shalmanesor, who subaetus, antiquus ■ Sjrria re^- 
bieieged and aackod Sanaria, reigned oum finis impooo, annus cirei- 
]2 year». 4. Sennacherib, whose ar- ter 19 regno. 3. Sbalmaneser, 
my, whilst he attempted to besiege qui Samaria obsidio captos de- 
Jorusaleoi, was smitten by an angel, leo» annus 1^ regno. 4. Sen- 
reigned 6 years. 5. Ufarhaddno, who nacherib, qui exercitus, cum 
«arried Maaafsehtldngof Jadah, cap- Hierosolyma obsideo Conors ab 
tlYe to B«bylon4and cooqoered Egypt angelos caedo, annas 6 regno. 
and Ethiopia, reigned 42 years. 6. 5^. Esarhaddon, qui Manasses 
Saosdnchinus, in scripture called Ne- Jnda rex Babylon captions ab- 
bochadonosor, who conquered Fhra- duco, et Aegyptus atque Aethi- 
•rtes king o4 the Medes, levelled Ec- opia in suns ditio redigo, annus 
faatan with the ground, and, return- 42 regno. 6. Saoaducbinus, in 
JBgtoNinivoh,reasted 120 days, retgn- scripCura Nebachadonosor ap- 
od 9K> yean. 7. Chynalydan, soppos- pellatus, qui, Phcaortes Medns 
od to bo the same with Sardanapsius, rex derietust Eobatana solum 
roigned S2 years. This prince, the aequo, et Nini?e reversus dies 
If odes haTing made war upon him, 120 opolofi annus 20 regno. 7. 
•nd the Babylonians haying revolted Chynalydan, qui et Sardanapa- 
from him, set firo to his palace, and lus fortasse dice, annus 22 reg- 
was consumed with all his wealth in no. Hie, M edus bellum infero, 
the flames. The Assyrian empire sub- Babyloniusque deseroi regia 
sisted several years after his death ; suns incendo, et cum divitiae 
bnt was in the end orertnmed by the conoremo. Imperium Assyrins 
Modes and Babylonians, in the year aliquot annus post is ioteritus 
btforo Christ 601. Thus two empires duro ( demum vere a Medus et 
arose out of that of the Assyrians, Babylonius everto, annus ante 
namely, the Babylonian and Median. Christu? 601. Itaex imperiun 

Assyrius duo orior» Babylonius^ 
aciz. et Medus. 

3. From the time of Nimrod to that A tempus Nimbrothus ad 

of PqI, a great many petty princes Pul, multns prinoeps exignns 

reigned in Babylon. Niniveh too, Babylon imperito. Ninive quo- 

and Babylon, seem to have been often que et Babylon idem rex saepe 

governed by the same king. But, in pareo videor. Sed 24 anhus 

the 24th year of the reign of Pul, and regnum Pal, et 747 annus ante 

747 years before Christ, these beoame Christus natusf ex unus duo di- 

two distinct kingdoms. Nabonassar»' verstts regnum foetus sum. Na- 

who gives name to the famous era, bonasstf , qui inelytns aera no- 

aind who seems to have been a young- men facio, et qui filius Pul na- 

er son of Pol, gets the kingdom of tn min«>r sura video, regnum 

Babylon, whilst his elder brother Tig- Babylonicns ndipiscor, cnm in- 

latfapileser ol>t«ins the rceptre at JNi- terim Tiglatbpitoer frater na- 

niveh. During the flourishing state tu major apud Ninive res po» 

of the Assyrian monarchy, the kiiigs tier. Imperium Assyriacus vi- 

Of Babylon seem to have been only gens, rex Babylonicus, quasi 

^ceroy» or lord lieutenant? to those prorex Seu praafeotus rex As^y- 

of Kioiveh ; but afterward^) Babvlon ria subjectus sum video; postca 

voM Upon its rains, «ad became a great aatevi Bab jlon Ninive esetiUr 
empire; which, computiDg from Na- tutt aaetii8tuiQ«et m^gnut ion* 
bouassar» lasted 209 years ; viz. Na- perium evado ; qui, si tuppatA* 
bouassar, called also Belesis and Na-- tio a Nabonafsar iostituo, per 
nybrus, reigned 14 years. Nadius 2. annus 209 dure; sciz. Nabo* 
Chiozirua aud Porus jointly 6. J a- nassar, qui Belesit et Nanybroa 
gaeus 5. Mardoc Einpadus, in scrip- etiam dictui sura, annas 14 reg* 
lure called Merodacb-Baladan, who no. Nadius f!. Chinairns et 
sent an embassy to Hezekiah, ki^g of Porus simnl 5. - Jugaeus 5, 
Judah, to enquire about the sun's re- Mardoo Empadus, sacer literae 
(regression, reigned 12 years» Arki- Merodacb-Baladan dicius^qoi 
auus 5. An inter-reign of two years legatos ad Ezechias rex Judaea« 
followed. Belibus 3. Apronadios 6. at de sol retrogreasus certior 
Mesessimordacus 4. Then an inter- -fio, mitto, annus 12 impero. Ar« 
reign of eight years. Assaradinas, or kianus 5. Puo annus interreg* 
Esarhaddon, who, with his two sue- nam secutussum. Belibus 3. 
«essors, -were sdso kings of Assyria, Apronadius 6. Mesessimoida* 
reigned 13 years. Saosduehinas 20. ens 4. Deinde interregnum oo- 
Cbynalydan, called also Sarac, 22. to annas. Assaradmus, sea 
Kabopa^Uasar, who revolted from Chy- Esarhaddon, qui, cam duo soa*. 
nalydan, and transferred the seat of oessor» res etiam Assyria sum, 
the empire from Niaireh to Babylon, annas 13 regno, Saosdachinoa 
veigned 21 years. He« Joining bis 20. Chynalydan, Sarao etiam 
leroes with those of Cyaxares, kiqg f^ppellatus, 22L Nabopallasar, 
4fi the Modes, redaoed Niniveh to a qui a Gbynalydan deseisoo, et 
low cenditioa ; but did not live to see sedes imperium a Nioive ad 
its final destractionv having been di- Babylon transfero, annas 2 1 reg. 
verted iewsa. this war by an irraption no. Is, sans cam oopiae Cyax- 
ef the Seythians, who at that time ares Medas rex junctos, Ninire 
overran « great part of Asia. Nabo- ad oonditio afflietus redigo s at 
eolasiar, er Neboehadnexaar; who in mars praereptus intemeoio mm 
ft most magnificent manner -aderaed video | ab bio etenim bellogj^ 
the city Babylon, and raised the im- abstraetas sum inoorsos Scytbot 
pire to its highest pitch -of glory, and qni tune tempos magaus pan 
was himself afterwards, by the decree Asia vasto. NaboeolasMr, sen 
of hearea, driven from the society of NebuohadaeoBar, qai urbe Ba* 
men to dwell with the beasts of the bylon megnificenter exstrae, et 
field, reigned 43 years. Evilmerodach ia^periom ad suramus fiwtigiam 
reigned 2 years. Neriglissar 4. Ma- eveho,et qai pestea coelestis 
bonadias, Labynitos, or Belshazaar decretam e heme eoetus ad ha- 
17 ; in whose time the city of Baby- bitandam earn bestia agar ex- 
Ion was taken by Cyras, and the em- pulsus sam, annas 43 impero. 
pire overturned, in the year before Evilmerodach annas 2 regno. 
Cbrist53& . Neriglismr 4. Nabonadius, La- 

bynitos^seo Belshassar 17,* qui 
regnans orbs Babylon a Cyras 
captus JBum, et imperiam ever- 
«as, annas ante Christas 639. 
4. The Medes, having thrown off Medas, jagum Assyrias ex- 
the Assyrian yoke, in the reign of Sen- cassas, rex Sennacherib, aU- 
nacherib, lived some time without a qoaihdia sine rex ago; sad dis- 
king; but intestine dirorderi arising, oordiaoivilis6aborttts,Dejee«, 
Dejooes, one of their own number, eKgensMediisoriandas,qaiin 
called Arpbaxad in the book of Ja* lib^ Joditfaa Arphaxad appel- 
dith, was chosen king, in the year be» lo, rex creo, annas ant^ Chris- 
fore Christ 710, In faisliUter dajfihe ins 710. PoBtremai tempos 

fU ANCI£!7T BISTORT csap. t». 


«ad* wtr npoQ Saosdachiniu, king beUom Saoadoohiaas, Astyrios 
of th« AsBjriaiif ; bat hii army wu rex, infero ; sed exercitus ia fa- 
defeated in a battle foaght in the great gatas «am, praelium in magnos 
plain of Ragao* binMelf slaio, and his planities Rugaa commissas, ip- 
«anpilai Ecbatan destroyed, after a se interfectas, et caput regnum 
reign of 53 years. His son Phraortes £cbatana excidium Uatus, post- 
saMned a great part of the upper qaam annus 53 impero. Pbra- 
Asia, uraded Assyriai and laid siege ortes filius magnus pars superior 
to Nintreh; where he perished, with Asia domo, Assyria invado, Ni- 
the greater part of his army, alter niveque obsideo ; ubi ipse cum 
having reigned 2% years. His son, magnus pars copiae pereo, post 
Cyaxares Lby a stratagem» relieved . regnam S2 annus. Filius is, 
his country from the Scythians. He Cyaxares I. civis dolus Scytha 
engaged in war with the Lydians ; libero. BeUum contra Lydi- 
bat a total eclipse of the sun, said to us ineo ; sed cum sol inter pug- 
have been foretold by Thales the nandum defectus totalis laboro, 
Milesian, happening in the time of qui deliquium Thales Milesius 
battle, both armies retreated, and a praedico fame sum, ambo exer- 
peaoe wai coacladed. He after- citus praelium recedo, et pax 
wards, in coojunotion with Neba- factussum. Hicpostea, Nebu- 
chadnezsar, king of Babylon, invest- chadnezzar rex Babylon adja- 
ed Niniveb, and razed it to the vans, Ninive obsideo, et solum, 
grooad, in the year before Christ 001, aequo, annus ante Christas 601. 
This confederate army soon after Adunatus hie exercitus mox 
overran and conquered Kgy ptt Judea, Aegy ptus, Judaea, Syria, Armo- 
Byria, Armenia, Pont us, Cappadooia, nia, Pontus, Caj^adooia» et 
and Persia. Cykxares reigned 40 Persia peragro domoqae. An- 
years. His son Astyages, called nus 50 regno. Astyages filias, 
Ahasaeros in the book of Daniel, re- Daniel liber Ahasueras diotus» 
palled the Babylonians, who, under Babylonius, qui, Evilmerodach 
the conduct of Evilmerodach, had dux, in Media irrnmpo, repello. 
sade an irruptioa into Media. He Annus 35 impero. Filias is, 
reigned S5 years. His son, Cyaxares Cyaxares II. sacer literae Da- 
n. called in scripture Darius the rius Medus appeltatas, annas 
Made, reigned 32 years. He had a 22 regno. Bellum cruentos 
bloody war with tbe kings of Baby- cum rex Babylon, isque sociue 
Ion, and their ally Croesus king of Croesus Lydia rex, per spatium 
liydia, for the space of 21 yearA. In 21 annus gero. In hie bellan 
this war be was assisted by Cyrus his Cyrus nepos is auxilium ve- 
nephew; who at last took Babylon, nio; qui tandem Babylon po- 
and placed his ancle on the throne, titus, avunculus summus potes- 
where he reigned two years. Upon tas permitto, qui ibi duo annus 
his death, Cyrus transferred the seat regno. Cyrus, avunculus mor- 
of empire from the Babylonians and tuus, sedes imperium a Baby- 
Medes to the Persians, in the year lonius et Medus ad Persa 
before Christ 536. transfero, annus ante Christas 


5. Twenty-fire years after the baild- In Aegyptus 3o sea Sahacas9 

tng of Rome, So or S abacus, the E- Aethiops, regno coepi, annus 

thiopian, bagan to reign in E^pt ; post Roma conditus 25 ; qni 
whose successors, for about 200 years, successor, per dacenli fere an* 
were Anysis, Sethon» 12 kings joint- nus, sum Anysis, Sethon, 12 

^7* Psammitichns, Necho, Psammis, rex simul, Psammitichus, Ne- 

Apries, Amasis, and Psammlnitus. cus, Psammis, Apries, Amasis, 

A rp et Psamminitas. 

P^ Twenty-seven yea» after the Annul post Roma conditu» 



buUding of Rome, and 721 before 27, et ante Obrxstaa 721, Sa- 
Christ, Samaria was takea maria a Salmaaeser, Assyrius 
stroy^ by Salmaneser, king of the rex, captus et eFersus sum . 
Assyrians. The ten tribes, with their Tribus decern, cam Oseas rex, 
king; Hoshea, were carried away into in Assyria abd actus. Unas e 
Assyria. Tobias was one of the cap- captivus Tobias sam, qui liber- 
tives, whose piety preserved him his tas in ipse servitus pietas con- 
liberty in the midst of servitude. He- servo. Rex turn Hierosolyma 
zekiab, the son of king Ahaz, a man Kzechias, Achas rex natus, 
of eminent piety, was then king^ of homo singularis pietas. Hie 
Jerusalem. At this time too lived teinpus etiara cxbto vates E- 
the prophet Isaiah. saias. 

7. Numa Pompilius, the second Numa Pompiliui>, Romanas 
king of the Romans, was called to the rex II. propter sapientia fama^ 
throne from Cures, a town of the Sa- ad regnuni e Cures, Sabinus 
bines, on account of his renowned oppidum, vocatussum. Roma 
wisdom. He softened the martial arma ferox religio mansuefacio. 
fierceness of Rome by religion. He Sacra sacerdosque institao, 
instituted priests and sacred rites, simulatus cum dea Egeria noc- 
pretendiog intercourse with the god- turnus congressus. Janus dein 
des Egeria in the night. Then he templum exstruo, isque val- 
built the temple of Janus, and shut vae, pax beilumque index^ 
its gaites, which were the signs of daudo. Annus duo mensis ad* 
peace and war. He completed the ditus expleo. Annus initium 
year by the addition of two months ; Januarius pro Martins sum Vo- 
and, instead of March, appointed lo. Regno annus quadraginta 
January to be the beginning of the tres. 

year. He reigned 43 years. 

8. Manasseh, the son of Hezekiah, Manasses, Ezechias filius, in 
reigned then in Judea. At the same Judaea tum regno. Idem tem« 
time lived Judith, by whom Holo- pus existo Juditha, a^ui Ho- 
fcmcs, general of Saosdachinus, king lofemes, dux Saosduchinus, rex 
of the Assyrians, was slain; Gyges Assyrius, sum obtruncatus ; 
too, who is said to have been the in- Gyges qooque, qui intimus 
timate favourite of Candaules, king Candaales, Lydas rex, sum 
of the Lydians, and was forced by him asseda dico, ab isque coactus 
to view the beauty of his queen when ut nudus regina species con- 
naked. After which Gyges, at the templor. Fostea Gyges, regina 
queen's desire, murdered Candaules, jussu, Candaales obtrunco, et 
and seized upon the kingdom. regnum invado. 

9. After Numa, Tullus Hostilius, TuUus Hostilius, post Numa- 
being created king of Rome, made Roma rex creatus, bellura Al- 
war upon the Albans, The dispute banas infero. Certamen tres 
being referred to three Horatiit)n the Horatius Romanus, et totidem 
side of the Romans, and as many Cu- Curiatius Albanas, commissus, 
riatiion that of the Albans, victory victoria penes Romanas sum. 
declared for the Romans. The Albans Albanas postea rebellans, Alba 
^terwards rebelling. Tall us, after eversus, Roma demtgro TuUua 
demolishing Alba, ordered them to* jubeo. Roma Alba ruina auc- 
remove to Rome. Rome being in- tus, Coeliuii moiis urbs addita» 
breased-by the ruins of Alba, mount Cum Tullus 3! annus resoo 
Coeliui was added to the oitv. Tul- fuimen ictus, cam domus saiu 
lua was thunderstrocfc, and burnt up ardeo. Ammoa, laterea^ Ma. 
with all bis house, after he had reign- aasses filius, et Hierosolyma 
•d 31 yean. la the meantime Am- rex, a famulus ittus iaterfeoQli 
Aoni ManiMeh'ft ^09, aad king of iubk «wricg^ 



JeroMlMBf wai a«Mtimkd by bw 

to. After Tallus HoitiUai, Aacus Post Talli» Hostilios, Anont 

Martisi, the gruidsoa of Nama by a Martioi, Noma ez &lia nepw, 

daogbter, took upon hiot the govern- Muoipio imperium Latinaa bel- 

meat. He proclaimed war by bis lauperfeciali8iiidico,acviQCQ. 

heralds against the Latins, and Tan- Is plurimns postea in civitaa 

quisbed them. He took a great many adseiseo. Aveatians mons,n6c 

of them afterwards into the etty. He non, sublidus pons in flamea 

united the AreoTme mount to the factiu, Janieoliun urbs adjicio^ 

city, and likewi^? the Jaoiculumi by Romanits imperium inqoe ad 

throwioff a wooden bridge over the mare propago, et Ostia urbs 

river. He extended the Roman do- in os Tiberia condo.- Annas 

minion quite to the sea, and bailt the imperiom 34 morbus pereo. 

cily Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. Fauci ezinde annus, Joeias, 

He died of a distemper in the 24th Kaechias nepos, contra Necus, 

year of his reign. A few years after, Aegyptus rex, pugnana, prae- 

Josiah, Heaeluah's grandson, fell in lium cado. Is Jeremias vates 

battle, fighting against Necho, king of et conctus popnlus lamentatio 

Egypt. The prophet Jeremiah and prosequor. 
all the people lamented him. 

11. The fifth king of Rome was . Quintus Roma rex sum Tar- 
Tarquinius Friscus, the son of Dema* quinius Priscus, fiUus Dema- 
ratus of Corintb. He doubled the ratus Corinthius. Hie numerus 
number of the senators, built the senator duplico, Circus aedifico. 
Circus, and instituted the Circensian et ludus Circensis instituo. 
games. He subdued the twidve na- Thuscia populus duodecim su- 
tions of Tascany, and borrowed from bigo, ab isque summus potestae 
them the ensigns of supreme power, insigne aocipio. Fasces, Tra- 
the pHsces, the Trabeae, the Curule beae, Curules, Praetexta, et is. 
chairs, the Practexta, and other things genus alius. Annus imperiom 
of that kind. He was slain by the 37,perAncusfilia8 0Gcisus5um. 
sons of Ancus} in the 37th year of his 


12. Draco, who was Archoa at Draco, qui Archon Atheoae 
Athens, in the year before Christ sum, annus ante Christus 623, 
623, laid the Athenians under the atrox Atheniensis lex impono, 
most cruel laws, by which the smallest qui aeqoe parvus peccatum ac 
offences and the greatest crimes were magnus acelus capitalis sum. 
equally punished with death. For Qui ipse hie causa trade : Par* 
which he himself assigned this rea- vus peccatum ego mors dignus 
son : Small faul^ seem to be worthy video, et manifestos ac magnus 
of death» and for flagrant and great scelus magnus suppliciam ex- 
offences I can find no higher punish- -cogito noo poasnro. At hie lex 
ment. But these laws did not long Atheniensia noo diu placeo. 
please the Atheniaus. Demades was Demades dico soleo, Draco lex 
wont to say, that p race's laws were Qon atramentum, sed sanguis, 
not written with iok, but blood. icriptns sum. 

13. In Jadea,'afler the death of In Judaea, pott mort Josias, 
Josiab, his son enjoyed the crown filinstresmensis,etfraterpaQGt. 
three months, and his brother a few annus, regnom potitus sum: 
years. Josiah's brother was succaed- Frater Josias snccedo Zede- 
ed by 2edekiah, the Ust king of the ohias, rex Jiidaeos postremus, 
Jewa, who was reduced to slavery by qui al9ebaehadBa8sar,Baby1oa 
^ebnobadneazar, king of Sabyloii ; r«s, Uk «erviftut redaeios sua i 
Jerusalem al«o, and the t«npl% war« ^a^Lui» 4wm«%19^ JEU^jrOMN- 

i^HAP. t«. EPITOMIZED* «r 

|>unit, and the dtisMbi carried avaj lyota, iuMoaiis, eiTis Babylon 

ioto Babylon, in the year before the tradiictae, anniu ante Christas 

birth of Christ 588. natui 688. 

14. Whilst Palestine and Syria Dam Palaestinaet Syria bar- 
were laid waste by the arms of barba- barns arma evasto, Graecia sa- 
rians, Greece was improved by the piens institutnm cxcolo. Sep- 
institutions' of its wise men. The tern ille Graeoia sapiens nous 
seyen wise men of Greece flourished tempos existo. Ex qui nnme- 
at the same time. SoIobi one of their rns Solon, abrog;atas Draco lex, 
number» having abolished Draco's ccmmodus Atheniensis lex fero. 
laws, enacted now ones more proper 

for the Athenians. 

15. Servius Tullius, the si^ith king Servius TuUias, sextns Ro* 
of the Romans, having conquered the manas rex,Hetru8cus ao Veien» 
Hetrusci and Veienles, instituted the debellatos. Census instituo. 
Census. He divided the people into Populns in clas^ ac centuria 
classes and centuries; added to the describe ; urbs, Quirinalit, 
city the Quirinal, Viminal, and Es* Viminatis, Esquiliaos mons, ad- 
^uiline hills. He was murdered in jungo. Occisus sum 44 imperi- 
the 44th year of his reign, by the vil- urn annus, scelusgenersuus Tar- 
lany of his son-in-law X&i^^vin the quinins Superbus. 

Proud. . 

16. About this period lived a set Hie tempus immanis tyraa- 
Cf the most savage tyrants in different nus passim existd ; Periander 
parts of the world ; Periander at Co- Connthus, Pisistratus Athenae, 
rinth, Pisistratus at Athens, Thrasy- Thrasybulus Miletus, Poly- 
bulus at Miletus, Polycrates in the orates in Samos insula, et Pha- 
island Samos, and Phalaris in Sicily, laris in Sicilia. Idem aetaa 
The same age was very productive sapiens ferax sum ; Aesopus &- 
of wise men ; then flourished Aesc^ bula architectus tum vigeo, 
the famous writer of fables, and Py- necnon Pythagoras in Italia, qui 
thagoras in Italy, who first called sui primus philoeophusappello. 
himself a philosopher. In Greece, la Graecia, poeta, Alcaeus^ 
Uie poets Alcaeus, Stesichorus, Sap- Stesiohorus, Sappho, Stmonides, 
pho, Simonides, Anacreon, Pindar, Anacreon« Pindarus, illustrie 
were greatly renowned. sum. 

17. Towards the latter end of Ser- Cyrus Fersa extremus Ser- 
vius TuUius^ time flourished Cvrus vius TuUins tempus existo, 
the Persian. He was the son of Cfam- Sum natus Cambj^es, aut rex 
byses, either king of Persia, or a man Persia, ant vir primus ordo in 
df tbe first rank in that ccuntry, and is civitas, et Maodaoe, filia As* 
of Mandane, the daughter oi Asty ages, tyages, rex M edus. He rodotOB 
king of the Modes. Herodotus in- quidem, pater Cyrus mediocris 
deed says, that his lather was a mean vir sura, perhibeo ; et Cyrus 
mi^n ; and that Cyrus, oo account of iufans, jnssu avus, propter som- 
a dream, had been exposed in his in- nium expositus sum. At fides 
fancy by order of bis grandfather. But Xenophoa potius adhibendue 
greater credit is due to Xenophon* «um. Cyrus, quedragesimue 
Cyru^y in the fortieth year of his age, aetat annus agens, e Persia ar- 
wa« called from Persia to assist his ce^ituasura, utCyaBaresavun^ 
uncUCyaxares,kingef theMedes,in cuius suus in bellum contr4 
bik war against the B.abylonians, and Babylonius, isque soeius Croe- 
their ally Croesus, king. of Lydia. sus, rex Lydia, anxilium suria. 
This war lasted 21 years. Cyrus Hie bellum per aonni 21 gestus 
•Mimaiided the united army of Medet sum. Adunatns copiae Medus 
«Ml fmMn\ «ad fronn this perriod et Pena C^rus praesnm, et i 

228 AlYCfENT HIBTORt cbaK tu. 

hittortani oompuU the be^ianini^ of hie tempoi imperiam apad 

hit raiga. Cynis' condiict io this bistoricos iaitium duco. Ut 

war WM elorious, and bis suoceu won- Cyrcu rirtas in bio beUum sum 

darfttl. He vaoquisbed Croesus, and inaignis, xta miros felicitaa usas 

took tbe rojral oity of Sardis ; after sum. Croesus sapero» et re- 

tbis be -subdued all tbe continent from ^^ias urbs Sardes espug;no ; post 

tbe Aegean sea to tbe Eupbrates. He bic totas regio inter mare Ae* 

reduced tbe strong city of Babylon, gaeus et Euphrates perdomo. 

and deli veriug tbe government of tbat Babylon urbs manitissimus 

Jungdom to hu unoleCyazares, called subigo regnamqae is adminis- 

also Oarias tbe Mede, be returned tratioayanculassuusCyazares, 

into Persia. About two years after, Darius Medos etiam dictus^ 

Cyaxares dying, and also Cambysesi traditns.ipse in Persia regressns 

king of >Persia, Cyrus took upon bim sum. Post fere biennium, Cy- 

the govemmeijt of tbe whole empire; axares« necnon Camb3rses, res 

which be held for the space of seven Persia, mortuus, Cyras totus 

years. In the first of these seven imperiam administratio sasci- 

years. and before Christ 534, he issued -pio; quaper septem annus te- 

out his decree for restoring tbe Jews neo. Annas bio septeoi pri* 

to their country. In the reign of Cy- mas, et ante Christ us 534, edic- 

ros lived tbe prophet Daniel, wh6m turn snus promulgo, qui Ja- 

that monarch esteemed with an affec- daeus patria restituo. Regnana 

tiooAte regard. Cyras, vivo Daniel propheta, 

qui imperator ille complexos 

18. A few years after, as Herodo- Paaoi exinde annas, ut He- 

tus relatef, Cyrus made war upon the rodotus narro, Cyrus Scy tha 

Scythians, and cut off the son of their bellum infero, et Tomyris regi- 

qaeen Tomyrii with his army. But na filius cum exercitus caedo. ' 

the advantages of the victory proved At brevis et fallax sum fructas 

delusive and of short duration. Cy- victoria. Cyrus, recens victo- 

rus» flushed with his late victory mar- ria elatus, in iniquus locus pro- 

ches oat into a place of disadvantage, gredior, abi insidiae hostis ipse 

where fce was trepanned by the ene- cum omnis copiae concido. 

my, and cat to pieces with all bis for- Xenopbon aatem aio, Cyra» 

ces. But Xenopbon says, Cyrus died domus fatum functus sum, an- 

at home a netaral death, in the 70th nus aetas septaag<>simus, et 

year of bis age, and was baried at Pasargada in Persia sepultna 

Pasaigada in Persia, leaving his son sum, Cambyses Alius heres im- 

Cambysei heir to his empire; who, periom irelictus ; qui, Psammi- 

haviog conquered Psamminitnsi an- nitus victus, patemua regnam 

oexed Egypt to his father's realm. Aegyptos adjicio. Imperium 

The Persian empire lasted 228 years. Persicus annus 228 duro. Cy- 

Cyrus reigned 30 years, Cambyses 7, rue regno annus 30, Catiibyses 

Darius HysUspis 36, Xerxes 21, Ar- 7, Darius Hystaspis 36, Xeraes 

taxerxes Loogimanos, called Abasuc<. 21, Artaxerxes Longimanus- 

rosin the scriptures, and who had Abasueras sacer literae dictu?' 

Esther for his queen, 41, Darius No- et qui Esther regina habeo' 

thus 10, ArUxerxes Mnemon 46, 0- 41, Darius Nothus 19, Artax^*' 

ohoa 21, Arsei 2» Darius Codomaii- erxes Mnemon "^46, Ochus 21, 

^u>^- Ariea2, DariqiCodonMuinuslSi 



From the libzration of the Jews by Cj^ru$. to U^e overthrow of iht Ptnian 
etnpire by AUxandtr tke Oreat^ including 204 ytan. 

-TARaviNiusSuperbus, the seventh Tarcotinius Superbus, sep- 

and last of the Roman kings, de- timua atque ultunua Roman u«, 

rived bis surname from his behaviour, rex* ex faclum cognomen traho. 

He slighted the authority of the se- Senatus auctoritas in adminis- 

nate in the management of the govern- trandus respublica oegligo. Ju- 

meot. He finished the temple of Ju- piter templum a paler inchoa- 

piter which had been begun by his tusezstruo; Volscus arma do« 

father; he subdued theVolsci; and mo; Gabii Sextus lilius dolus 

took Gabii by the artful conduct of his capio, A Sibylla Cumanus li- 

son Sextus. He is said to have pur- ber Sibyllinus emo dico. Tan- 

ehased the Sibylline books from the dem, ob stuprum Lucretia, no- 

Cumean Sibyl. At last he was turn- bilissimus foemiua» a fiUus illa- 

ed out of the city, and his kingdom tus, et urbs, et regnum ejectus 

too, for a rape committed by his son sum, annus regnum 23, Olym- 

npon Lucretia; a woman of quality, pias 68, ante Christus natas 

in the 23d year of his reign, in the 506. Regnatur Roma a sep- 

68th Olympiad, and before Christ tern rex annua prope 242, 
606. The regal power obtained at 
Rome, under seven kings, almost 242 

2. After the expulsion of the kings. Post rex expulsus, bini quo- 
two consuls were created annually tannis consul Roma creo. Bra- 
at Rome. Brutus and CoUatinut tus et Collatinus primus consul 
were the first consuls. Brutus, upon sum. Brutus, conjuratio coo- 
tbe discovery of a conspiracy against tra libertas patefactus, conju- 
the public li(ijBrty, punished the con* ratus, in qui sum filius is duc^ 
spirators, among whom were two of mors multo« . . 
his own sons, with death, ' • 

3. About the same time a like inci- Atheniensis per idem tempos 
dent delivered the Athenians from ty- par causa tyrannis libero. Hip- 
ranny. Hipparcbus, the son of Pisis- parchus, Pisistratus natus, Har- 
tratus, had debauched Harmodius' modiussoror violo, ItaqUeHar- 
sister. Whereupon Harmodius slays modius tyrannus obtrunco. Ab 
the tyrant. Being forced with tor- Hippias, tyrannus frater, nomi- 
ture, by Hippias, the tyrant's brother, no caedes conscius tormentum 
Co name those that were accessary to coactus, tyraunue amicus nomi- 
the murder, he named the tyrant's no; qui omnisstatim a tyrannus 
friends; who were all immediately interficio. Hie virtus excitatus 
put to death by the tyrant. The citi- civis, Hippias pulsus, sui in li- 
zens, roused by his magnanimity, ba^ bertbs asbero. Harmodius sU- 
nisbing Hippias, restored themselves tua pono. 

to liberty. They erected a statue to 

4. Cambyse*", king of the Persians, Cambyses, rex Persa, frater 
caused his brother Smerdis to be as* suus Smerdis interficieudus cu- 
sassinated, because he had dreamed ro, quod per quies is regno vi- 
thal he saw him on the throne. Cam- deo. Paulo post Cambyses, 
byses died soon after of a wound by gladius a vagina delapsus, vul- 
his own sword dropping accidentally neratus intereo. Patizithes, 
out of tl^e tt^eath. Fatizithes, oue pf anus Ip Majg^us^ celfiti^s mpr 


tbi Ma(i« conoMlhig Um death of Sowrdif, frater suns Orotmstes 

Snerdii, pat up his owo brother Oro- pro ii suppono, qui, sai Smerdis 

pallet in hia room, who, pertonatin^ sam simulans, r«gnaai potior, 

flnerdif, obtained the ioverei|pAty. Sad frauB cite pale^iotafl, peea- 

Bat the impoeiure beiog sooa disco- dorex, cam fratert a Persa prin- 

▼ered, the preteaded king, with hia caps cunfodio. 

brother» was taken off by the grandees f 
of Persia. 

5. The grandees who had despatdir Pritteep9,qai Oropastes ne<- 
ed Oropastesi agreed among them- co, inter aui paciscor, ut ad re- 
lelvea to come to the paUce before gia ante aol ortus reoto, et atia, 
iOA-riae, and that he whose horse qui equas hinnittia primus edo^ 
neighed first, should be king. The rex sum. Equus Darius, Hy> 
horse of Darios, the son of Hystaspis, staspis filiua, hinnitua primus 
neighed first, and procared his owner edo, et domious regnum pario. 
the kingdom. 

6. Darius Hy^M^pis being thus ere- Darios Hystaspis rex Persa 
ated king of the Persians, granted sio creatas, Jadaeus potestas 
leare to the Jews to finish the temple templum Hierosolyma absol- 
of Jeri&alem; the prophet Haggaiat Tondus facio; adhortans stmal 
the same time eocoaragmgthem &ere- Haggai propheia. Babylon, qai 
to. Babylon, which had revolted aPersa'desciscOfZopyiras ami- 
firom the Persians, he recovered by the ens dolus recipio. Quippe it, 
artifice of bis friend Zopyrus. For nasus sui et aaris desectus, fides 
he, haying eat off his nose and ears, lacio Babylonxos, soi, a Darios 
made the Babylonians belieye he had orudeliter tractatos, «d is confis^ 
fied over to them, on having been bar- gio. Itaqae orbs, sans fides ab 
barottsly used by Darios. According- lUe ereditos, Darius prodo. 
lyhe betrayed the city« with which 

tfai^ intrusted him, to Darius. » 

7. Tarqainios Snperbua being ba- Tarqoinins Saperboa Roma 
aished from Rome, implored the as- ezaotus, Porsevoa Hetrascus 
sistanoe of Portenna, king of the He- rex audlium implore ; qui, beV* 
trosci : who, waging war with the Ro- lum Romanns illattis, Janicalam 
mans, possessed himself of the Janicu- occupo. Hostis impetus Hoca- 
lam. Huratius Codes alone sustain- this Cocles tamdia sustineo in 
•d ttie assaults of the enemy on the Sublicius pons solus, quoad 
Sublician bridge for a considerable pons a tergum rescindo. Inde 
time, till the bridge was cut down be- in Tiberis desiUo, atque inter 
hind him. Then he plnojged into the hostis telum incolumis ad Ro- 
Tiber, and swam over safe to the Ro- menus trano. Cloelia quoque, 
mans, amidst the darts of the enemy, virgo Romanus, unns ex obses, 
Cloelia too, a Roman lady, one of the elusua custoa, Tiberis inter He* 
hostages, having eluded her keepers, trusoua telum trano. Mutioa 
swam over the Tiber, atnidat the darts porro Scaevola, ut patria obsi- 
of the Hetrusci. Moreover, M utiaa dio hostis eximo, in is caatra 
Scaevola, in order to deliver his coun- sui insiuuo, per error scriba pro 
try from the enemy's blockade, con- rex obtrunco. Ad tribunal rex 
reys himself into their camp, and, in- retractua, dextra foculus injicio^ 
stead of the king, by mistake kills his atque exuro ; aimolque rex, 
secretary. Bein^ carried before the trecenti Romanus idem ratio in 
king to be exammed, he thrusts his caput is conjure, denuncio. Ita* 
right hand into the fire, and burns it ; que Poraenna, pax cum Ro- 
and at the same time declarea to the manus factUSi domu Wdeo. 
kmg, that 300 Romans had in Uke 

maimer taken an oath to morder him. 


^HAP.Tiii. EPIT0MI2CD. fan 

WbereapoD Poreemia^ roakiai^ petee 
with the Romans, returned home. 

8. Afler this the Latins made war Latinas deinde, dux Tar- 
upon the Romans, ander the eondoct qaiaios g^ener, bellnm Roma- 
of Tarqaio^a lon-in-law ; against nns infero ; contra qui, PoBthn* 
whom Posthumios being made dicta- mint dictator factna, ad lacut 
tor, vanqaisbed them in a memorable Regillos insignis praeimm vis- 
battle at the lake Regillas. It is said co. Fero dens, nempe Castet' 
the gods, particolarly Castor and Pol- et Pollux, hie praelium inter- 
lux, were present in this battle, and sum, et ex albus eqnus pugno 
were seen to fight on white horses, in visus sum, annus urbs 255. 
the year of the city 355. Gelo at Gelo turn Syracuaae regno, 
that time reigned in Syracuse. 

9. Darius also, king of the Persians, Darius quoque. Persa rex, 
«ndeavooring to reinstate Hippies in Hippias in pristinns regnunr 
his kingdom^ made war upon Athens, restituo conatus, Athenae bel- 
Miltiades, general of the Athraians, lum infero. Miltiades, Athe- 
qaickly meets him at Marathon, with niensis dux, ad Marathon cum 
a small body pf men. Ten thousand parvus manus celeriter occurro. 
Athenians encountered two hundred Cum ducenti Persa mille de- 
thousand Persians. Darius' army was cam Atheniensis mille dimtco. 
routed and put to flight, in the year Darius exercitus fusus fuga- 
before the birth of Christ 490. tusque, annus ante Christus 

natus 490. 

10. Rome, delivered from foreign Liberatus Roma extemtis 
enemies, was well nigh ruined by in- hostis, intestinus discordia pene 
testine divisions. The commons, ha- concido. Plebs» a pater ae 
rassed by the senators and usurers, foenerator vexatus, in Sacer 
withdrew to the Sacred Mount on the mons trans Anio seoedo ; sed 
other side of the Anio ; but were ap- Menenius Agrippa oratio de- 
peased by (he persuasions of Menenius lenio, et, tribunus plebs prae- 
Agrippa, and, upon obtaining the pro- sidium adversus pater accep- 
tection of tribunes of the people against tus, in urbs remigro. 

the patricians, returned into the city. 

11. Martins Coriolanos, having Martius Coriolanus, tribnnUs 
been forced from the city by the spite invidia ad urbs pulsus, ad Vbls- 
of the tribunes, went over to the Vol- cus sui recipio, et patria bellnm 
soil and made war upon his country, infero. Romanus opes adeo 
He so broke the power of the Romans, frango, ut, Veturia mater ad is 
that they were obliged to sue for ablegatus, pax peto cogo. Co- 
peace, by sending his mother Veturia riolanus matemus precis cedo, 
to him. Coriolanns yielded to his et Volscus postea a Spurius 
mother's entreaties, and the Volsci Cassius penitusdebellatussum. 
were afterwords quite reduced by At Cassius exinde^ magnussuc- 
Spurius Cassius. But Cassius, after cessus elatus, et regnum affeo- 
tbis, elated with his mighty success, tans, de rupes Tarpeius prae- 
and aiming at sovereignty, was thrown cipitatus sum, annus urbs 268. 
headlong from the Tarpeian rock in 

the year of the city 268. 

12. About the same time A ristide?,' Sub idem tempus Aristides 
surnamed the Just, was ^ iMinished ' cognomentum Justus, Athenae 
Athene. But being soon restored, he «xulo. Brevi autem restitutus, 
aFsisted Thcnustocles in the Persian Themistocles, qui opera eject us 
war, bywho^e interest be had been sum, Persicus bellam adjavo, 
expelled, sacrificing^ private wrongs privatus injuria patria condo- 
to the good of his country. natus. 


13. At Rome the FaVian faafl^, to Robr Fabios gem, at pa- 
easa their country of trouble, petition- tria molestia libero, bellQm sai 
ed for the entire management of the Veientinus ipee posco. Veieates 
Teientian war to themselves. Thejde- saepe rinco. Jam victriz ab 
feated the Veientes several times. Be- hostis per insidiae pene deletus 
ing now TictorioQii, they were almost sum ; amplios 300 Fabii anas 
Utterly destroyed by a stratao^em of the dies cado. 

enemy ; above 300 of the Fabii were 
cat off in one day* 

14. Xerxes, the son of Darius Hys* Xerxes, Darias Hystaspis fi- 
taspls, heir to his father^s crown and lius, paterous regnum atqne 
inveterate enmity to the Greeks» hav* odium in Graecus heres, joac* 
ing built a bridge of boats over the tasnavis Hellespoatus, Athos- 
Hellespont^anddiggedthronghMount que mons perfossus, Graecia 
Athos, invaded Greece with an army cum 2000 armatns millemvado. 
of two millions of men. At the straits Is Leonidas, rex Spartiates, par- 
of Thermopylae, Leonidas, king of vos manus, ad Thermopylae 
the Spartans, with a handful of men, angustiae» maximus infero 
made a dreadful slaughter of his clades, donee, caedendum defa- 
troops, till, spent with killing, he fell tigatio, super strages bostis 
Victorious above heaps of slain ene- corrno victor. Atheoiensis in-^ 
mies. The Athenians, in the mean terim, relietus urbs, classis 200 
titoe, quitting their city, equipped a navis adorno. Xerxes igitur 
fleet of 200 ships. Accordingly, Athenae vacuus naclus, mcen- 
Xerxes having found Athens deserted, do. Sed classis duo mille navis, 
burnt it. But his fleet* consisting of et amplius, Themistocles, dux 
2000 sail and upwards, being defeated Athenieosis, virtus et consiliu m 
near Salamis, and put to flight by the prope Salamis fusns ac fugatns, 
contrivance and valour of Themis- trepidus Thracia versus dis- 
tocles, the Athenian admiral, he cedo, ut Hellespontus trajicio 
marched off in grent dismay tovrards cum vera pons tempestas via so- 
Thraoe, in order to cross the Helles- lutus video, scapha piscatorius 
pont : but finding his bridge broken transmitto, fugioque continuo 
down by the violence of the storms, Sardis, annus Roma 268« et ante 
he passed oyer in a fishing-boat, and Christus 480. . 

continued his flight to Sardis, in the 
year of Rome 268, and before Christ 


15. The year following, Mardonius, Sequens annus, Mardonius, 
who had been left by Xerxes with qui cum 300 armatus mille a 
300 thousand men to prosecute the Xerxes ad persequendua bel- 
war, met with a mighty overthrow at Inm relietus sum, magnas ad 
Plataea from the Greeks, under the Plataeae calamitas accipio a 
conduct of Aristides and Pausanias. Graecus, Aristides et PaviBa- 
In the reign of Xerxes, flourished He- nias dnx. Xerxes rex, floreo 
rodotusi the father of ' historians, historia pater HerodotuS) * an- 
about 600 years later then Homer. nus prope 600 junior Homeras. 

16. Quinctius Cincinnatns, called Quinctius Cincinnatos, ab 
from the plough by the Romans to a rat rum ad dicta turn a Roma- 
the dictatorship, delivered the consul nus vocatus, Minucius consul 
Minucios, who had been btecked ad Algid nm obsessusab Aeqtius 
up by the Aequi at Algidaq^, and libero, hoattsque sub jagxun 
Caused the enemy to pass under the mitto. Cimon quoque. Mil- 
yoke. Cimon also, the son rif MiU tiades filius, Xerxes copiae ad 
tiades, having with the like good con- Cyprus par virtus devirtus., 
daot vanquished the forces of Xerxes Graeons Asia urbs in libertas 


near Cyprui, restored the GrW cities assero. Nee vero imperttor 

of Asia to liberty. Nor was Greece tarn, sed etiam philotophus, 

then illastrious for its geoerals only, Graecia floreo ; idem enim 

but philosophers also; for the same aetas Heraclitas, Demoeritasi 

age produced Heraclitus, Democritusy Anazagoras, aliasqae com- 

Aasxagoras, and several others. plures effuodo. . 

17. At Rome, aboot 300 years aiter Roma, annus post tirbs con* 
the baiding of the city» instead of two ditus circiter 300, pro duo 
consuls, decemriri were created, consul deoemTiri creatus. Hie 
Theycompiled a body of laws brought lex e Graecia, ac potissimum 
over from Greece, and particularly Athenae, petitus, conscribo. 
from Athens. These, being inscribed Hie, quoniam tabula duodecim 
on 12 tables, were called the laws of mandatus sum, lex XII. tabula 
the ^n. tables. Within a few years» appellatus. Fauci annust prop- 
by the lust of Appid^ Claudius, and ter Appius/ Claudius libido, 
the outrages of his colleagues, the go- collegaque impotentia, res a^ 
Temment reverted to the consuls. consul redeo. 

18. Artaxerxes Longiuianus grant- Artaxerxes Longimanus,Ne«» 
ed leave to Nehemiab, his cup-l^arer, hemiasy pincerna suus, potestas 
to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, in murus Hierosolyma reficien- 
the year bef9re the birth of Christ dum facio, annus ante Christus 
445. In the reign of Artaxerxes, liv- natus 445. Artaxerxes rag- 
ed the famous naturalists Empedocles nans, Empedocles et Parme- 
and Parmenides, Hippocrates the phy- nides physicus, Hippocratee 
sician, Polycletus and Phidias, sta- medicus, Polycletos et Phidias, 
tuaries, Xeuxis, Parrhasius, and Ti- statuarius, Xeoxis, Parrhasius, 
mantes, painters. et Timantes, pictor, ciarus sum. 

19. About six years after the de- Sex fere annus post sublatus 
cemviral power was abolished, military decemviri potesias, tribunns 
tribunes^withconsnlar authority began miles ^onsularis potestas Roma 
to be created at Rome. The censors creo coepi. Censor quoqaa 
too were then first made for holding tum primum ad census agendur 
the census. Cornelius Cossus, ami- creatus. Cornelius Cossus, 
litary tribune, having slain Tolom- tribunus miles, Tolumnius Vei- 
nius king of the Veientes with bis entes rex suus manus necatus, 
own hand, next after Romnlus, pre- spolta opimus Jupiter Fere- 
sen ted the tpoHa opima to Jupiter, trius, alter ab Romulus, fero. 

20. The same year that the mili- Idem annus qui tr^unua 
tary tribunes were created at Rome, miles Roma creatus sum, bel- 
the Peloponnesian war broke out in lum Peloponnesiacus exardeo 
Greece, which spteadiog itself over in Graecia, qui totus pervaga- 
all Greece, continued 27 years. Thii- tus Graecia, annus duro 27. Is 
cydides, having been forced into ba- bellum Thucydides, a Pericles, 
nisbment by Pericles, the incendiary bellum excitator, in exilium 
of the war, wrote the history of it. ejectos, Historia mando. 

21. A few years after, the seat of Fauci interjectus annus, bel- 

the war was transferred into Sicily, lam in Sicilia transeo. Athe* 

The Athenians^ importuned for aid by niensis, Catanemis opis implo. 

the Catanenses, engaged in a war rans, bellum adversys Syra- 

against the Syracusans, in the reign ef cusanus suscipio, Darius Notbus 

Darius Nolhas, king of the Persians, rex Persa. Hie bellum prae- 

The first attempts of the Athenians ciarus initinm, exitus Atheni- 

in this war were very successful, bat ensis calumitosus sum. Dux 

Ohe issue proved fatal to them. The Atheniensis sam Alcibiades, 

generals of the Athenians were Al- Nicia8,et Lamachus. 
cibiades, Nicias, and Lamachus. 

SU ANCIENT IH8T0RT cifAP. vzix. 

tt. Bnt at Atbenf the study of the Atli«nae aatem bonas an 
liberal arti wbb in high reputa. Then itudiam v]g;eo. Aristophanes, 
flearished Aristophanes, Gratinos, and Cratioas et Eupelts, comicas 
Eupolis, comic poets ; Sophocles and poeta ; Sophocles et Euripides, 
Euripides, tra^c poets ; Praxiteles trag^cus ; Praxiteles statuaritu 
the famous statoary ; Gorg;ias and insignis ; Gorg^as aliusque so- 
other sophists in great nambers; and pbista qaam plurimus ; et So- 
Sociratos, the father of philosophers, crates, philoaophus parens» turn 
But Diagoras, denying the existence floreo. Diagoras autem, deas 
of the gods, was banished from Athens, sum negans, Athenae exulo, 
a reward being offered by the go- praemium publice propositus^ 
yernment if any one would kill him. si qais is occido. 

S3. The Galli Senones, during the Gallus Seno, Tsrqpinius 
reign of Taix|uiniua Priscus, having Priscas regnans, Italia' pars, 
driven out the Tuscan», had seized qui Gallia Cisalpinus postea 
upon that part of Italy which was af- dictos sum, Tbuscns expuisus, 
terwards called Cisalpine Gaul. This oecupo. Hie, in oppugnatio 
people, incensed by Q. Fabius, the Clusium, Hetruscus oppidUoif 
ambassador of the Roman people, at a Q. Fabius legatus populus 
the siege of Clusinm, a town of the Romanns irritatus, in Aomanus 
Hetrusci, turned their arms against arma verto, is copiae ad Allia 
the Romans, and, having cut off their flumen caesus, urbs, Brennus 
forces at the river AUia, fell upon the dux, invado, .captus ferrum 
city, onder their leader Brennu?, took flammaque populor. Roma 
and destroyed it with fire and sword, incensus annus postquam Con- 
Rome was burnt in the year 365 after ditus sum 365. 
it was bailt. 

24. About those times a calamity of Consimilis per is tempus 
much the like nature befel Athens. Athenae casus excipio. Ly- 
Lysaoder, general of the Lacedemo- eander, Lacetlaemoniua dux, 
nians, assisted by the power of Persia, opes Persicus adjutus, cam, 
having vanquished Conon, and brought Conon victus, Atheniensis 
the Athenians very low, took Athens frango,ipse Alhenaecapio, mu- 
itself, demolished its walls, and ap* rus diroo, et triginta vir res- 
pointed thirty commissioners to go* publica praepono ; qui In civis 
yem the state; who, tyrannizing crudeliter gra8san8,a Thrasy- 
cruelly over the citizens, were turned bulus, quartus post urbs captus 
out by Thrasybulus, four years after annus, ejectus sum, et libertas 
the taking of the city, and Athens res- Athenae restitutus. 

tored to its liberty. 

25. About the same time flourished Sub idem tempus floreo Cte- 
Ctesias of Cnidus, who, having been sias Cnidius, qui, bellum Cyrus 
taken prisoner in the wars of Cyrus contra Artaxerxes Mnemon, 
against Artaxerxes Mnemon, king pf Persa rex, captus, propter me- 
the Persians, was very honourably dendum scffentia, magnus in 
treated by the king on account of his honor ab rex sum habitus, et 
skill in physic, and wrote the history Persa scribo historia. Idem 
of the Persians. At the same time tempestasArchytasTarentinus, 
lived Archytas of Tarentum, and like- itemque Antistbencs, Aristip- 
wise Antjsthenes, Aristippus, Xcno- pus, Xenophoo, Plato, lacerates, 
phon, Plato, Isocrates, disciples of So- Socrates dbcipulus, existo. 

26. In those times flourished seve- Clarus quoque per idem tern- 
ral famous generals ; at Athens, Iphi- pus imperator existo ; Athenae 
crates, Chabrias, Thrasybulus, and quidem, Iphicrates, Chabrias, 
Timotheus; smongst the Thebans, Thrasybulus, et Timotheus ; 
Pfelopidas, and Epaminondas, a man apud Thebanos» Pclopidas, et 
of an iUustrious character, not only Epaminondaf, vir, non solum 


for military glory, bat likewise forfais ret militaris gloria» sed etiein 

skill in philosophy, and sotegprity of philosophia laas, ct vita iote- 

life. gritas, illustris. 

27. At Rome^ Camillas, created CamiUus Roma, dictator ab- 

dictator in hu absence, hairing raised sens factus, collectaa oopiae, 

an army, advanced to the oity^ expell- orbs adyenio^ Galloaque inde 

ed the Gauls, and utterly destroyed abjicio, et universns is ezerci- 

their whole army. Rome within a tas penitus deleo. Roma intra 

year, by the generous activity of Ca- annus, Camilius beneficium, 

millas, was reared up anew. Lucius novas urbs sto. Lucius Sok- 

Sextius, who, after a long dispute, tius, post longus certameo, prt- 

was the first consul made from among mus e plebs consul factus, finii 

the plebeians, put an end to the crea- tribunus miles creandus afiero. 

tion of military tribunes. A city Praetor urbanus, et Aedills Ca- 

Praetor, and two Curule Aediles, were f uHs duo creo. 

S8. Epaminondas, having cut off Epaminondas, Lacedaemoni- 

Cleombrotus, king of the Lacedemo- us rex Cleorttbrotus cum exer- 

nians, together with his army, at he* citus ad Leuctra oaesue, ad 

uctra, fell in battle, fighting wit h great Maotinea cum Agesilaus forti- 

bravery against Agesilaus, at Mantt- ter pugnans ca*lo. CumisTbe- 

nea. With him fell the glory of the banus virtus-oceido. Lacedae- 

Thebans. The martial character of monius quoqne laus belliens 

the Lacedemonians likewise died, up- oonddo, invectus a Lysander 

on the introducing of gold, and along doZ} cam BOrom, avaritia. 
with it avarice, by their general Ly- 

^. From the Greeks the martml A Graeoas ad Cartbaginien- 

spirit passed to the Carthaginians, who sis bellicus virtus transeo, qui 

subdued Sardinia with their arms ; Sardinia arma domo ; et, Dio- 

and having vanquished Dionysius, ty» nysias, Syracosae tyrannus, sd- 

rant of Syracuse, took several towns peratus, multus Siculus oppi- 

from the Syraousans. Not long after, dnm adimo. Haud ita multo 

Dionvsius being killed by his subjaots, post, Dionysius interfectus a 

left the sovereignty to his son Diony- suus, tyrannis Dionysius filius 

mus ; who being * at last driven from relinquo ; is, ob singularis ne* 

Syracuse for his unparalleled extra- quitia, demum a Dion, Plato 

vagance, by Dion the disciple of Pla^r auditor, ejectus Syracusae, lu* 

to, set up a school at Corinth ; whilst dus aperie Corinthus ; docens 

Isocrates, Demosthenes' master, as yet etiam turn Athenae rhetorioa 

taught rhetoric at Athens. Isocrates, magister» Demos- 

30. The arts of war in the mean Roma interea ars bellietis 
time werein great loitreat Rome, T. eniteo. T. Manlius, bellom Gal- 
Manlius, upon a ohallengein the Gal- licus Gallus eximius proceritaa 
lie war, slew a Gaul of prodigious sta- in oculus uierque exercitus, ex 
tare in the face of both armies, and provocatio, occido, et ex tor- 
WAs called Torquatus, from the chain quis qui Gallus cervix detraho* 
which he took from the Gaul's neck. Torquatus dictus sum. Vale- 
Valerius too killed a Gaol of like size, rius item Gallus par magnita- 
by the assistance of a rayen, which do obtrunco, corvus praesidi* 
perching on his helmet, had annoyed urn, qui in is galea insidens, 
his antagonist with hia wings and beak^ hoitf s ala rostrumque terreo, et 
and got the surname of Corvinus. cognomen Corvinus adipiscor- 

31. Alexander the Great was bom ~ Annus post Roma condf 
at PeUa, a town of Macedonia, in the 392, Olympias 10«, et 
yter after the building of Rome 392, Christus natus 366, in opp 
la the IpSth Olympiad, end before the ^^KsedoDia PeUa, AJex 

t36 AHCHarr HUTCHIT . chap. tih. 

Urth oC Chriil 856 1 hit latlMr Phi- Bfignas Dttiis tom ; qni pater 

Kpi king of Um Maoadoniuu, sabdu- Phflippas, rex Maeedo, Illyria» 

M Um niyriam, took Mrtrml citiM aabigo, maltas de Athenieiiais 

fro» tbaAUMoians and other Graeln, atiiaqiia Gra^u iirbs capie, 

and woald bafia arado hioiialf OMttor totmqao Graecia potitus wua, 

of all Greaoa, had he not been oppot- niai DemottheDes orator adrer- 

ad by Demofthanas tha orator. Fi- laria» habeo. Deniqne, ad bel- 

aally, baiD^craated general of Graeee, loa Peraicos administrandas 

lor managing the Persian war, he was Graecia dox creatas» a Pausa- 

•lain by Paosanias, whose ill usage he niaa,q«u iojaria vindico negli- 

had neglected to revenge, in the reign go, inierfieio, Ocfaas rex Persa. 
of Ochus, king of the Persians. 

32. lo the mean time, the war with Samnitieos, interim, bellnm 
the Samnites proved vary grievous existo sane gravis ac diutornos. 
and lasting. War was declared Pro Campanus, qui sui in fides 
against the Samnites in favour of the populus Romanns tr^do, bel- 
Campani, who had pot themselves lum Samnis indictus, ac varie 
nnder the protection of the Roman gestus sum. Latinus bellum 
people* and was carried on with va- acoedo ; qui bellum, T. Man- 
nous success. To it was added the Uns Torqoatus, consul, filius, 
war with the Latins ; in which war, quod contra edictum cum hos- 
T. Manlius Torquatus, the consul, tis pugno, securis percutio. - 
beheaded his own son, for engaging Idem ^Uum Decius Mns, in- 
the enemy contrary to the orders. In clinatus acies Romanns, sui pro 
the same war Decioa Mus, upon the exercitus deveveo. Navxs An- 
Aoman troops giving ground, devot- tiates bellum oaptus, Roma sob- 
ad himself for the army. The ships ductus sum, atque is rostrum 
of the Antiates taken during the war, snggestum in Forum extructus 
were brought to Rome, and with adorno t Diogenes Cynicus, An- 
their beaks the gallery in the Forum tisthenes, Aristoteles, Xenocra- 
was adorned t whilst Diogenes theCy- tes, Speusippus, Plato auditor. 
Die, and scholar of Atttisthenes, aho^ docens in Graeoia. 
Aristotle, Jlenocrates, Spensippus, 

disciples of Plato, taught in Greece, 

33. Alexander the Great in his Alexander Magnus puer 
youth studied ander Aristotle $ while Aristotoles opera do ; adolescen- 
yet very young he conquered the tulus lUyricus Thraxque per- 
Thracians and lUyrians, deslroyed dome, Thebae everto, Atbenae 
Thebes* and received Athens upon in deditio acctpio. Inde, jonc- 
surrender. After this, supported by tus Thessalus Graecusque aa- 
Ihe confederate arms of 4he Greeks ma adjutus, ad Persicus bellum 
and Thessalians, be passes over into in Asia trajicip. Darius Co- 
Asia to the Persian war. He defeats domannns, Persa rex, priteo nd 
Darius Codomaonos, king of the Per- Granicus, iterum ad Issus so- 
iians, first at Granicus, and a second pero. 

time at Imos. 

34. Moreover, Alexander having Alexander, porro, oaptua Ty- 
taken Tyre, invaded Judes. But be- rns, Judaea invade. Sed Hie- 
ing received in a friendly manner at rosolyma ab Jaddus sommus 
Jerusalem by Jaddus the high priest, saccrdos amice acceptus, in tern- 
he offered sacrifices in the temple, plnm victima immolo. Aegyp- 
Having made himself master of tus potitos, Alexandria urbs a 
£gypt, he builds the city of Alexan« sui condttus« ex suus nomeo ap- 
dria, «ailing it by hu own name. In pello. Denique £upbrkte8 
fine, he passes the Euphrates, con- transeo, Darius tertio ad Arbe- 
quers Darius a third time at Arbela, la vineo, at, Babylon Oaptus, 
and having taken Babylon, transfers imperium a Persa ad Maoedo 
the empire from the Persiaiii to the tradaoo, an^us regnnm quar- 


Macedonians, in the fourth year of tas, Olympiai 112, annus Ho* 
his reign, in the '112th' Olmpiad, in ma 418, at ante Christus 330. 
the year of Rome 418, and before 
Christ 330. 


From the ovtrlhrow «/ the Pertian empire to the defeat of Perseus^ the 
lati,tu£ceuor of Alexander the Great in Greece, by Aemiliu» PaultUf 
when Rome became the mistress of the world ; comprehendtng \6^ years, 

Thb Macedonian empire «being Macjbdonicos imperiam ita 
^thua erected, Alexander marches into constitute», Alexander in India 
India, and, after conquering many na- pergo, et, multus natio devictui, 
tionsy returns to Babylon ; where he Babylon revertor ; - ubi, annus 
diedy in the '12th year of hit reign, 33 natusi excedo e vita, annua 
being 33 years old, in the year be- regnum 12« etante Christus oa« 
fore the birth of Christ 3'23. In his tus 323. Is regoans, Theopom- 
reign flourished the historians Theo- pus, Megasthenes, et Hecataeust 
pompus,MegaBthaiteB,andHecataen8. historicns, floreo. 

2. Upon the demise of Alexander, Alexander mortuus, multUf 
many princes started up in the room pro anus rex existo. Ptole* 
of one. Ptolemy, the son of Lagut, maeus, Lagus fill us, Ptolemaeua 
called also Ptolemy Soter, reigned in ' Soter etiam dictas, in Aegyp» 
Egypt, Eumenes in Cappadocia, tus, Eomenes in Cappadocia, 
Antigonufl in Asia, Lysimachus in Antigonusia Asia, Lysimachus 
Thrace, Seleucos at Babylon. Cas- in JThracia, Seleuous Babykm, 
Sander haying put to death Alexan- regno. Cassander, Alexan* 
der's son, and his mother Olympias, der filius ac mater Olympias ia* 
seized upon the kingdom. of Macedo- terfectus, regnum Macedonia 
nia. At the same time Menander, oocupo. Idem tempestas. Me» 
the comic poet, Craotor, the disciple nander, comicus poeta, Crantor 
of Xenocrates, and Crates of Dioge- Xenocratest et Crates Diogenea 
nes, Epiourus^ and Zeno, the father discipulus, Epicurus, et ZenOf 
.of the Stoics, as also . TheophrastUs, StoicQs parens, itemque Theo- 
werein great reputation. phraatus^ nomen habeo.^ 

3. About the time of Alexander's Roraa, sub Alexander mors, 
death, Appius Claudios, the censor, . Appius Claudius, censor, Ap- 
paved the Appian Wiiy^at Rome, pitis via sterno. Sub idem tem« 
About the same tirhe the Tarentine pus belUim Tarentious, ob le* 
war was kindled up, oeeasinned by gatus populus Romanus viola- 
their insulting the Roman ambassa- tus,excitatussum« Quibellum, 
dors. In which war the integrity and adrersus Pyrrhus, Epirns rex, 
courage of Curius and Pabricius, with qui Tarentinus auxiiium venio« 
respect to Pyrrhus king of Epire, who Cudus et Fabricius integritas 
had come to the assistance of the Ta* ao virtus eniteo. Curius Den* 
rentines, were remarkably eminent, tatus denique, Pyrrhus devic* 
Curius Dentatus having defeated him tus, Italia expello, et Tarenti* 
in battle, drove him at last out of Ita- nus ad deditio compello, annus 
ly, and forced the Tarentines to sur- ab urbs conditus circiter 483. 
render, about 483 years after the 

1»nildtng of the city. 

4. After the death of Alexander the Post mors Alexander Mag. x 
Great, the regal government continu- • nus, per spatium fere 275 annus 

•d in Egypt for the space of near 275 in Egyptus regnatur. Ptole* 

years. Ptolemy Soter, the beginning maeus Soter, qui r^num ini< 

of whose reign is to be computed from tium tb annus ante Christue 

the year before Christ 304» for the 304 suppntandus sttn^, Alexaa* 

MDccefMrt of Alexander long disclaim- der mm suocenor a nomen re 


CSAF, a. 

«d the title of kin^, rnledSOyean, 
Ptolemy Philmdelphui 38, Ptoleoiy 
Eaeif eles 25, Ptolemy; Pbilopat6r 17, 
Ptolemy EpiphanoB f4i Ptolemy Phi- 
lometor 35, Ptolemy Phyacoo 99» Pto- 
lemy Latharous or Soter 36, Alexan- 
der 15. Pioiemy Auletes 14« Queen 
Cleopatra S3. 

5. Ag;athoelet, the tyrant of Syra- 
eote, besieged by the Carthaginians, 
passes over privately with his fleet 
into Africa ; by which means he drew 
ofl'the enemy to the defence of their 
own oounlry. Having made peace 
with the Carthaginians» he makes 
himself absolute master of Sicily. Ha 
was succeeded by Hiero, who, for his 

'great moderation, was honoared with 
the title of king by the Syracurans. 
He gave occasion to the first Panic 
war with the Romans. 

6. About 495 years after the build* 
.. ing of the city, the Roman people 

having subdued almost all Italy, pass- 
ed over into Sicily, to succour the 
Mamertini their allies, against Hiero 
and the Cartbagioians. Accordingly 
the Romans, under their general Ap- 
pins Claudius, vanquished Hiero; 
and, having worsted the Carthagi- 
nians, received several towns of Sici- 
ly upon surrender. After this C. Dui- 
^ Itus first gained a naval victory over 
the Carthaginians. The seat of the 
war was immediAtely carried- into 
Africa, under the command of Attilius 
Regulus. He having taken Tui^is, 
and other towns of the Carthaginians, 
laid Bi^ge to Carthage. But being 
worsted by Xantippus, general of the 
Lacedemonians, who came to the as- 
sistance of the CarthsginiaDS, he fell 
into the bands of his eaemies. Regu* 
lus being afterwards sent to Rome, to 
negotiate a peace, advised the Romans 
to make no peace with the Carthngi- 
nians. He himself returning to Car- 
thage, in consequence of the engage- 
ments he had come o oder to the enemy, 
was pot 4o death in the most cruel 
manner imaginable. Finally, the con- 
sul Luolatius humbled the pow^ of 
%he Carthaginians in a sea-fight, and 
^nted then a peace. The first Pu« 
war being ended in the 24th year, 
temple of Janus was shut a seeimd 

dio fthstineo, annus SO imponi,^ 
Ptolemaeus Philadelphus 38, 
Ptolemaeus Eaergetes S5, Pto- 
lemaeas Philopater 17, Ptole- 
maeus Epiphanes 24, Ptole- 
maeni Pbilometor 35» Ptole- 
maeas Physcon 39, Ptolemaeus 
Lathnrnus sive Soter 36, Alex- 
ander 16, Ptolemaeus Auletes 
14, Cleopatra regina 22. 

Agathocles, Syracosaetyran- 
nusy a Poenas obsessus, oeculte 
enm olassis trajicio In Africa ;• 
ita hostis addefendendos patria 
avoco. Paz oum Carthaginen- 
sis factus, Sicilia imperiom po* 
tier. Hie Hiero succedo, qui, 
propter summUs moderatio,rex 
a Syracosanus appellatos sum. 
Hie primns helium Punlcas oc- 
casio Romanaa do. 

Popalus Romanus, annus, 
poet urbs condituSf oirciter 495, 
domitus totus paene Italia, ut 
Mamei tin us socius contra Hie- 
ro et Carthaginiensis anxilium 
fero, transmitto in Sicilia. Ro- 
manus igitur, Appius Chiudiua 
dux, ^iero vinco ; et, Poeous 
profligatus, oppidom Sicilia 
complures in deditio acctpio. 
C. Duilius iode victoria, nava- 
lis de Poenos primus repnrto. 
Mox, Atilius Regulus jmpera- 
tor, bellum in Africa transeo. 
Is, Tunetom aliusque poenos 
oppidum captusy Carthago obsi- 
deo. Verum a Xantippus, La-, 
cedaemonius dux, qui Poenua 
sobsidium venio, victos, in po* 
testas hostis venio. Roma pos- 
tea Regulus missus de pax pe- 
tendus, Romanus suadeo, ne 
pax cum Poenus fio. Ipse, oe 
datus hostis fides &Uo, Cartha- 
go reversus, omnis crueiatoa 
qeco. Loclatius denique, con. 
sul, navalis praelinm Carthagi- 
niensis opes frango, paxque do. 
Bellum primus Punxcus vege»x<«^ 
mas quartus annus confectua, 
Janus iterum climsas sum. Per 
idem tempus Marcellus coosol, 
Viridomarui, losuhree rex,auttff 
manus interfeotiie, tertins spe^ 

linm..Animna .Tfinit*i» ffira. O. 


time» About the lame time the oon- Flammiofl, einior, via FUmi- 

sul Maroellus, having killed Viride- ^ nios miinio. 
mams, kiog of the Insubres» with hit 
own hand, was the third that present- 
ed the opima spolia to Jupiter. C« ^ 
Flaminius the censor paved the Fla- 
minian way. 

7( In Greece, Aratas, Cleadthes, In Graecia, Aratns, Clean- 
and ChrysippuS) disciples of Zeno, thes, et ChrysippustZenoaudi- 
Arcesilas too* and Demetrius Phale- tor, Arcesilu quoque, et De- 
reosi the scholar of Theophrastos, left metrius Phalerius, Theophras- 
illostrious monuments of theic parts tus discipulus, praedarus inge* 
and learning, during the reign of Pto- nium ac doctrine monumentam 
lemy Philadelphns in Egypt, who fur- *relioquo, regnans in Aegyptue 
nished the famous library at Alexan- Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, qui 
dria ; and» in order to render it the celeberrimus Alexandria bib- 
more complete, procured the sacred liothecainstroo; et, utsum cu- 
books from EUeazar, the high priest of molatus, ab Eleazarus, summui 
Jerusalem, and caused them to be pontiles Hierosolyma, sacer li- 
translated into Greek, in the year be- ber impetro, dt Greece verten# 
beibre Christ 277. In the mean time dus euro, annus ante Christus 
the Parthians revolted from the do- 277. Interea Parthus a Mace- 
minion of the Macedonians. Arsaces do imperium deficio. Primus 
ivas the first king of Parthia ; from in Parthia regno Arsaces ; nnde 
him the other kings of the Parthians caeter Parthus res Arsacidaa 
were called Arsacidae. dictus. 

8. The tranquillity of Rome, after Roma, ^ost primus bellam 
the first Punic war, lasted scarce 24 Punicus, vix 24 annus requies. 
years. Saguntum, a city in Spain, in Saguntum, urbs in Hispania, 
alliance with the Roman people, bav- amicus populus Roman us, ab 
ing been destroyed by Annibal the Aonibal, Poenus dux, deletus, 
Carthaginian general, gave rise to the secundus bellum Punicus prin- 
second Punic war. Annibal leaving cipium sum. Annibal, Asdru- 
his brother Asdrobal in Spain, march- bal frater in Hispania relictU8« 
es over the Alps into Italy. Cornelias per Alpes in Italia descendo. 
Scipio meets him at Ticinum ; but U Cornelius Scipio ad Ticinum 
narrowly escaped himself, with the occurro; sed, amissus exerci- 
loss of his army. Flaminius, with a tus, ipse aegre evado. Flami'> 
«more terrible stroke, is cut off with nius deterior exitus ab Annibal 
his army by Annibal at the lake Thra- ad lacus Thrasymenus cum 
symene. Q. Fabios Maximus check- exercitus caedo. Q. Fabius 
ed the enemy^s career a little by wav- Maximus hostis cnnctandum 
ing battle; hence he was called Cunc- nonnihii reprimo; undo ipse 
tator. But a signal overthrow was Cunctator diqtus sum. Sed 
received at Cannae, a village of Apu* Terentius Varro temeritas in- 
lia, by the rashness of Terentius Var- sigois ad Cannae, Apulia vicus, 
ro. So great was the number of the clades acceptus. Caesus mul- 
slain,. that a bushel of gold rings, titudo tantus snm, ut aureus 
which had been taken from the hands anoulos, qui Romanus eques 
pf the Roman knights, was sent to manus detractus sum, modiaft 
Carthage. But the following year, Carthago mitto. At annus se- 
M. Claudius Marcellus, fighting a sue- qiiens, M. Claudius Marcellus, 
cessful battle at Nola, made it appear ad ^Nola, secundus praeliom 
that Annibal could be conquered. faetns, doceo Annibal possum 


9. Hieronymus, the son. of Hiero, Hieronymns, Hiero filip*- 
' king of Syracuse, had revolted to An« Syracasae rex, ad Annibal ''* 

aibaU lyhereupon th« consul Mjijr* ncisco* Quare MarceUus < 



tmAt. n* 

odlm mad* wtir vpon the Syraciuftiis, 
«nd Ukec tbe city of Syracuse by sor- 
prite in the night, which hed been 
foDff defended, no less by the inventions 
of Archimedes^ than the arms of the ci- 
tizeni. The moderation of the conqbe> 
ror beiehtened the g^lory of the con- 
quest He spared the city and the inha- 
bRanta. In fine, Laevinos made Sicily 
the first provinYse of the Roman people. 
10. Cornelius Scipio« yet very 
young, is sent into Spain by the Ro- 
mans. He takes New Carthage, and 
drivel Asdrabal oat of Siain. There 
too he struck up a league withMasi- 
nissa. Bat ClaaUius Neroeat off As- 
drabal at the river Metaurus, as he 
was going into Italy to join forces with 
his brother Annibal. And Scipio pass- 
ed over into Africa, on design to draw 
oif the enemy, who still kept (fast by 
Italy. He cuts off Hanno the generaF 
of the Carthaginians'With bis army, 
and having conquered Sypfaax their 
ally in battle, took him prisoner. 

11. In the 16th year of the war, 
Annibal was recalled into Africa, by 
the Carthaginians. He enceanters 
Scipio ; being defeated, makes his es- 
cape from the battle, and giviog up 
4ll for lost, flies into Asia. Carthage 
was entirely subdued in the year of 
Rome 560, just 188 years before the 
birth of Christ. 

12. From Africa, Scipio got tho 
surname of Africanus, being the first 
that was dignified with tbe name of |i 
vanquished nation. . He greatly ho- 
noured Ennius the epic poet, with 
whom the comedians Naevius, Cae- 
cilius, Plautus, are reckoned nearly, 

13. The . peace with Carthage was 
succeeded by the Macedonian war, 
which was nndertaken for the Athe- 
nians their allies, and carried on with 
various success for ten years. At last 
this wal- was ended by Quinotius Fla- 
minius, by the entire conquest of Phi- 
lip king of Macedpnia, and liberty re- 
stored to all Greece, in the year of the 
city 552. 

14. After this Antiochus, king of 
Syria and Asia, made war apon the 
Romans, at the instigation of Attnibal. 
But Antiochus being defeated both 

^ sea and landi by h- Scipio, sued for 
race; ithloh was granted him oa. 

sol Syraemaiiin b^htra infero, 
arbs Syracttsae, non minus Ar- 
chimedes ingeaium, qaam 
oivis arma, diu defensns, aoe- 
tu de improriso capio. Vic- 
. loria gloria aageo moderatio 
victor. Urbs et civis paroo. 
' Laevinos denique Sioilia pri- 
mus populus Romanas previa*, 
cia facio. 

Corn^ius Scipio, adhae ado- 
lescentoluB, a' Romanus in Hts- 
pania mitto. Is Carthago No- 
▼na oapio, et Asdrabal ex Hif^ 
panta fugo. Foedos quoque 
ibi cam Masinissa ferio. At 
Clandius Nero Asdrubal, io Ita- 
lia ad conjangendus com iratar 
Annibal copiae yeniens, ad Me- 
taaras flnanen, opprimo. Scipio 
antem, nt haerens Italia host!» 
abstraho, transmitto in Africa. 
Hanno Poenos dnx cam exerct- 
tos caedo; Sypbaz is aocios, 
acies victus, capio. 

Annibal a Carthaginiensis, 
annas helium 16, in Africare- 
Yoco. Sigoom cam Scipio eon- 
fero; vtctus, e praelitim fogio; 
res desperatod, in Asia pn^ngio. 
Carthago penitos snbaetos tfn- 
.nns post Roma conditus 560, 
ante ChristusnatinroaininolSd. 

Soipio, ez Afiripa, Africanos 
cognomen deplirti^ primus no* 
man devictos a sai gens uobili- 
tatus. Idem. Ennius poeta epi- 
cus in Konpr habeo, qui Nae- 
vifis, Caecilins, Plautus, comi- 
cos, fere aeqaalis numero. 

Pax PonicasbeHam Mtfcedo- 
nicns excipio, qui pro Athenien- 
sis amicus soeceptus, per decern 
annas varie gero.* Deoiqoe a 
Qoinctius FUminios Philippos 
Macedonia rex debellatos, hfc- 
bellum confectas dam, et Grae- 
cia universns libertas restitutos, 
anans ab orbs conditas 55S. 

Antiocfaos deinde, rex Ada 
ao Syria, AnnibaUmpalsas,b6l'> 
lata RomanoB infero« Veram 
a Laoim S^pia t^rm mareqae 
Antioehas stq;>erat«8^ pax f«t& 3 
cmi hio Boiiditiodatai 2 Ui Mm* 


theae Urmi : That he should ^vai all azcedo, et Annibal dedo ; qai, 

A8ia,aiid aorrenderupADDibal; who, no in hostis potentaB venio, 

to prereiit bis falling into the hands haintin Tenenam intereot annoa 

of his enemies, swallowed poison, and orbt 581. L. Scipio ex Asia 

died, in the year of the city 581. cognomen Asiatieos refero.- Hie 

From Asia L. Seipio receiyed the tempos Liyios tragoedia sorip- 

sarhamcf of Asiaticus. In those times tor darus habeo. 
Livy the writer of tragedies was ac- 
counted famous. 

15. About the same tiine, M. Fal- Sob idem tempos M. Fol* 
▼ins having taken Ambracia, the re- Tins, captos Ambraoia, Pyrrhus 
sidence of Pyrrhus king of the Epi- rex Epirota sedes, Aetolus do- 
rots, conquered the Aetolians ; L. mo ; L. Posthumius Albiousi Lu- 
Posthumius Albinus subdued the Lu- sitanos, Appios Polcher Ister 
sitani, Appius Pulcherthelstri; Ae- subigo; Aemilios Paulus, Per- 
milius Paulus reduced Perseus king sous Macedonia rex, oltimus in 
of Macedon, the last successor of Alex- Graecia Alexander Silagnos sue- 
ander the Great in Gre^coi and led cesser, debello, atqae in trium- 
him in triumph to Rome, in the year phus Roma duco, annus urbs 
of the city 581, and before Christ 16T. 58 1, et ante Christus 167. Ro- 
Rome now began to be accounted ma jam terra orbis domina ba- 
the mistress of the world. beo c€»epi. 

16. Much about the same time Idem fere tempus, atrox bel- 
bloody wars were carried onin Judea lniii,in Judaea, a Maccabaeus, 
by the Maccabees, against Antiochus contra Antiochus et Dezaetrius, 
and Demetrius, with Yarious success, yarie gestus sum. 


fVamthe dffeat of Peneia to the birih of ChmU or the beginning of 

theChritiianera; ineluaing 1&7 ffears. 

Turn Carthaginians, disregardinjg Carthagiitiehsis, neglec- 
treaties, and making war upon Masi- tus foedus, bellumque Masmis- 
nissa, gave occasion to the third Punic sa illatU8, tertius bellum Puni- 
war. Wherefore, by the persuasion cus occasio do. Ifaque is, sua- 
of M« Cato, a war is commenced sor .M. Cato, bellum iofero. 
against them. At last, being quite Quartus demum annus a P. Sci* 
vanquished, in the fourth year of it, pio debellatus, deditio facio. 
by P. Scipio, they surrendered them- Carthago solum aequo, cum jam 
selves at discretion. Carthage was sto annus ampHus septingeoti, 
levelled with the ground) after it had annus a Roma ^onditus 602. 
stood above 700 years, in the year Idem Scipio Panaetips philoso- 
from the building of Rome 602. The phus, Polybius liistorious, ,Te- 
same Scipio made Panaetios the phi- rentius comicus poeta, familia- 
losopher, Folybius the historian, Te- ris habeo. Hie senex succedo 
rence the comic poet, bis intimate Pacuvius et Accius, tragicus 
friends. These gentlemen in their poeta, et Aristarchus gramma- 
old age were succeeded by Pacuvius ticus. 
and Accius, tragic poets, and Aristar- 
chus the grammarian. 

2. About these times the Corinthx- Corinthius sub is tempus le- 
ans had beaten the ambassadors of the gatus populus Roman us pulso , 
Roman people, and engaged the A- et Achaeus sui bellum. socius 
chaeans to jom them as confederates adjungo. Itaque h- Mummius 
in the war. Whereupon L. Mum- consul, Achaia in deditio accep-* 
mius the consul, having received tus, Corinthus, cum jam an"' 
Achaia u|)on aai*render,destro^ed Co- 952 stoi deleot annuQ ^.oma 




• • 


riiithf aiUr it bad itood 962 yean, in 
tha yaar of Rome 602. About the 
•ame time Q. Fabius in a great mea- 
sure recovered Lasitania, which had 
been seiaed upon by Viriatas the rob- 
ber» P. Scipio too, 14 years after the 
de«traction of Carthage, razed Nu- 
mantia in Spain, with the same army 
which had before been often routed 
by the Numantians. Of soch impor- 
tance was a general and dtdcipline. 

3. A bloody «edition, in the mean 
time, broke out at Rome. Tib. Sem- 
pronius Gracchus embroiled the state, 
by preferring the agrarian law, forbid- 
ding any person to posses» above 500 
acres of laoii. Whereupon he was 
killed in the capilol by Soipio Naiica. 
And not loo^ after, his brother C. 
Gracchus» attempting the same, was 
dain by L. Opiuiius the consul, and 
together with him Fulvius Flaccus, a 
gentleman of consular dignity. About 
the same time, ^ttalus, king of Phry- 
gia, made the Roman people his heir, 
in the year of the city 615. 

4. One Eunus, a Syrian, having 
broken prison in Sicily, and drawn to« 
gather a vast multitude of slaves from 
the country, gave the Roman com- 
manders several great overthrows. At 
last, he was routed by P. Rupilius the 
oonsal, ill the year of the city 617. 
Then flourished Lacihus the satirist* 

5. After this the Jugurthine war 
broke out. Jugurtha, king of Na- 
midia, and grandson of Masinissa, 
bad dispossessed his brothers, the sons 
of Mioipsa, of their kingdom. The 
latter implored the protection of the 
Roman people. Accordingly war is 
waged with Jugurtha ; who being at 
last driven from hi«« dominions by C. 
Menus, fled to Bocchus, king of Mau- 
ritania ; by hioi he was delivered up 
bound to L. Sylla, Marius' quaestor, 
much about the same time that Cice- 
ro was bom, in the year after the 
building of the city 643. Marios, 
continuing several years in the consul- 
>hip, out off the Cimbri, Teutooes, 
and other barbarous nations, who 
"Were breaking in upon 4taly. 

fl« In the niean time, fresh distnr- 
oences broke out at Rome. Satnr- 
S!!«; J If **>"»« of the people, a tur- 
"weatfejaow, exasperated the senate 

Per idem temims Q. Fabins 
Lusilania, a Viriatus latro oo- 
cupatus, magnus ex pars reci- 
pio. P. Scipio quoque, deci- 
mus quartus annus post Cartha- 
go eversus, Numantia iu Hispa- 
nia everto, idem exercitus qui 
a Numaotinus saepius fugatus 
antea sum. Tantum valeo dux 
et diseiplina. 

Romii) interea, atrox seditio 
or(u8 sum. Tib. Sempronius 
Gracchus* agrarins lex latus^ 
ne quia ampliutf qaingenti ager 
jugerom possideo, respublica 
turbo. Itaque a Scipio Nasica 
in capitolium caedo. Nee mul- 
to post, C. Gracchus frater, idem 
conatus, a L. Opimius consul 
obtruDco, et una cum is Fnlvius 
Flaccns oonsnlaris. Per idem 
tempos Attains, rex' Pbrygia, 
moriens, populns Romanos in- 
stitoo heres, annus urbs 615. 

Eonns qnidaou Syrns, eflrac- 
tns in Sicilia ergastnlom, con- 
tractnsque agreslis seryitiumin- 
gens manns, elades imperator 
Romanos magnos et multus in- 
fero. Ad nltimom, a P. Rupi- 
lius consul profligatussnm, an- 
nus urbs 617, vigeqs satiricns 
poeta Locilins. 

Jugurthinus beUum inde ex- 
ortus sum. Jugrurtha, ^nmi- 
dia rex, Masinissa nepos, fra- 
ter, Micipsa Alius, regnnm eji- 
cio. Hie populus Romanos fi- 
des imploro. Itaque Jugurtha 
bellum infero ; qui denique reg- 
num pulsus a C. Marius, ad 
Bocchus, Maori tania rex, con- 
fugio ; ab is L. Sylla, quaestor 
Marius, vinotus trade, idem fe- 
re tempus qui natus sum Cice- 
ro, aonus post urbs conditus 
643. Marius,^ continnatus per 
complures annus consulatus, 
Cimbri, Teutooe?, aliusqne bar- 
barus natio, in Italia irrumpens, 

Novus interim turba Romt 
exortos sum. Satuminus, tri- 
bunus plebs, homo tnrbulentos, 
agrmm lex per yis Utosi senii* 


against him, by forcibly pasBing the tas in ini conoito. Itaque. con- 
agrarian law. Whereupon ha was cnrsUB in is optimates fkctuffy 
murdered in a concourse of the Pt- neco. Idem paiilo post Lirius 
tricians rushing upon him. Soonaf- Drusns magnui opei Conatus, 
ter Ltvitts Drusus, attempting the domus suus ocoisns sum. 
3a me thing with ^ greater power, was 
assassinated at his own house. 

7. After this the social war was Socialis deinde bellumardeo- 
lighted up in Italy. The Marsi, Pi- coepi Italia. Marsi, Picentes* 
centes, Peligni, Samnites, Lncani, and Peligni, Samnites, Lucani ali- 
other nations of Italy, finding- they usque populns Italia, cum civi- 
could not obtain the freedom of the tas impetro non possum, arma 
city by gentle methods, endeavoured extorqueo tento. Denique a 
to compass it by force of arms. At Cn. Pompeius aliusque impe- 
last being conquered by Cn. Pom- rator domitus, pax peto. Ci- 
pey, and other commanders, they . vitas ultro cum pax datus. In 
sued for peace. Together with the Judaea peir idem tempos Aris- 
peace, the freedom of the - city was tobulus, pontifex maximus, re- 
spontaneously conferred on them, gius insigne accipio, annus post 
About the same time, Aristobulus, ISedechias, ultimus Judaea rex» 
the high priest, received the ensigns prope 482. 

of royalty, in J udea, almost 482 years 
after Zedekiah the last king of Ju- 

8. Mithridates, king of Pontus, had Mithridates, rex Pontus, Ari- 
dispossessed Ariobarzanesi king of obarzanes Cappadocia, et Nico* 
Cappadocia, and Nicomedes king of medes^ Bithynia, rex, amicus 
Bithynia, allies of the Roman peo- populus Romanus, regnum suns 
pie, of their respective kingdoms, exturbo. Is bellum indictus. 
War was declared against him under dux L. Sylla. Ex is civilis bel- 
the conduct of L. Sylla. Upon this lum in Italia excitatus'sum : C. 
a civil war was kindled up in Italy : Marius, tantus gloria seges Syl- 
C. Marius, envying 8yUa, his old la, legatns olim sous, invidens, 
lieuten»nt, so lai^e a field of glory, ago per Sulpitius, tribunus 
brought it about by means of Sulpi- plebs, ot is bellum sui mando. 
tins, a tribune of tbe people, that the Is ob res Marius urbs pulsus a 
management of the war was commit- Sylla, secedo io Africa. Sylla 
ted to himself. Upon this head, Ma^ in Asia profectus adyersus 
rius being forced from the city by Mithridates, bene pugno. 
Sylla, withdrew into Africa. Sylla, Bithynia, Cappadocia, Asia, re- 
marching into Asia, fought with great cipio, annus urbs 663. 
success against Mithridates. He re- 
covered Bithynia, Cappadocia, and 

Asia, in the year of the city 663. 

9. Marius, in the mean time, by Interea, Marius, L. Cinna 
the assistance of L. Cinna the consul, consul adjuvans, Roma cum co- 
breaks into Rome with ai^ army, piae irrompo» Sylla victor ex- 
Sylla brings over his victorious forces ercitns ex Asia transporto, et, 
out of Asia, and having vanquished profligatus Marianus pars, urbs 
Marius' party, fills the city and Italy et Italia stra'ges compleo, pro- 
with slaughter and bloodshed, the scriptio civis tarn primom in- 
proscription of citizens being then ductus. Sylla, qnatuor exinde 
first set on foot. Sylla, about four circiter annus, pedicnlaris mor- 
years after, consnhied of tbe lousy bus coafectus, iutereo, annus 
disease, died in the year of tbe city urbs 671. 


10. Sertorius, a general of the Ma- Serlorius,Mananusparsdux, 
rian faction, had seized upon Spain, Hispania occupo, societasque 

S44 ANCIENT HI8T0BT chap.x. 

mud 'eondttdcd an allUmce with Mi* earn MithridatM eoeo. Contra 

tbridatai. Q. Metallai and Cn. Pom- Irie Q. MetaUm et Co. Pom- 

pey wa^ad war againit him with ya- paiui ▼aria» arentn» png^o. 

riooasooeeM.^ At lait Sartorius bain§^ Sartoriitt demum ainos oeci- 

anrdarad by hit own man, Spain waa fus, Hiipania reeipio, annot 

raoovorad» in tha yaar of the city 676. arbt 675. 

It. At tha nma tima davai and Sennis ao pirata idam tern* 

ptratat raiiad dutarbancai. Ona paitas torba oommoyao. Spar- 

Spartaeoi, with above 70 gladtatort, taom, eonir amplias 70 gladi- 

baving mada hia escape from a fencing ator, Capva Indus elaptut, mag- 

tehool at Capua, and drawn together nui oopiae oontractua, Roma- 

a aumerons body of forces, routed the nus azercitns nob aemel fundo. 

Roman armies several times. At last Ad eztramum a M. Crassos 

he was cut off by M. Crassos. And opprimo. Pirata quoqoe, qui 

Co. Pompey, afterwards called Pom* a Mithridatas soKcitatus mare 

pay tha Great, subdued the pirates, infesto, Cn. Pompeius» postaa 

who, at the instigation of Mithridates, Pompeius Magnus dictus, per- 

Infested tha saas, in the year of tha domo,aanu8 orbs 682. 
dty 682. 

IS. Mithridatas having been rein- Mithridatas novns copiae in- 
Ibreed with fresh sucoours, renewed structtts, helium in Asia reoovo. 
tha war in Asia. LucuUos, after ha b Lucvdlus, moUus praelium 
bad brought him vary low by several fractus, in Pontus compello. 
battles» hemmed him in within Pon- Idem tempus Metellus, Creta 
tos. At tha same tihie Matellui, hav- insula in ditio populus Romanus 
ing reduced the island of Crete ondisr radaetus, Creticus appeliatus 
the dominion of the Roman people, aum. Cn. inde Pompeius Mi- 
was named Creticus. After this Un. thridates regnum spDlio ; Ti- 
Pompey stripped Mithridatas of his rranes, bellam socius» in de- 
kingdom ; and admitted Tigranes, his ditio aocipio ; isque Syria ac 
oonfedentfe in the war, to asurrend- Phoeoice adimo. Pontus in 
er; taking from him Syria and Phoe- proviocia forma redigo, annus 
nieia. He reduced Pontus into the urbs 684. 
form of a province, in the year of the 
city 684. (^ 

13. Aristobolns and Hyrcanus, the Pompeius, Aristobulns et 
sons of Alexander, king of the Jews, Hyrcanui, Alexander, rex Jo- 
disputing about the succession to the daeus, filius, de regnum diasi- 
cromif rompey came ioto J odea in dens, in Judaea ad is contro- 
the character of an umpire, to decide versia toUendus arbiter venio: 
their differences ; but being provoked sed ab Aristobulns irritatus, 
by Aristobulos, he takes Jerusalem by Hierosolyma vis capio, murus 
storm, demofishee the walls, enters diroo, in templum aHytum in- 
the holy recesses of the temple, but gressus, sacer nihil attiogo. 
meddles with nothing sacred. He Judaea stipendiarius populus 
made Judea tributary to the Roman Romanus facio, Aristobulns sui 
people, and carried Aristobulns with cum Roma duco, annos ante 
him to Rome, in the year before Christ Chri8tos63. 


14. Whilst the Roman empire was Dum imperium Romanus 
extending itsejf over all Asia, Rome totns Asia propago, Roma ipse 
itself was wall nigh ruined by an in* intestinus bellum paene dele- 
testine war. L. Catilioe, baviog tus som. L. Catilina, exercitus 
raised an army in E'ruria, bad entered in Etruria eomparatas, com 
into e coo9pirac7 with Lentolus, the Lentulus, praetor, Cethegas, 
praetor, Cethegas, aod other senators, aliosque senator» de caedes con- 
lo massacre the consuls and the senate, snl ao senatus, deque inflam- 
ana set fire to the city. This con* maadoi orbs, conjure. Is con- 


spirscy was diecoyered and crashed Jarutio a M. TaUias Cicero, 

by Af. TuHins Cicero, the consal, and con&nl, patefactna et oppresses 

Catiline cat off with bis army by C. sam, Catilina a C. ADtonias 

Antonios, ia the year of the city 68^. com exercitas caesas, annds 

Cicero three years after was forced orbs 686, Cicero trienQiam 

into bazkisbment by P. Clodius, for post a P. Clodios, ob sappliciam 

bavingf pat to death the conspirators, eonjaratos, ejicio in eziliam. 

Bat within 16 months, he was recalled Sed mensis 16 sammas cam 

with g^eat glory. The same man was gloria redaco. Idem eloqaentia 

highly illostrioas for his eloqaence ; gloria floreo ; cam M. Varrot 

whilst M. Yarro the philologist, Sal- philologas, Sallastios, histori- 

last the historian» Lucretios and Ca- ens, Lacretias et CatoUos, 

tallas, poets, were moch esteemed at poeta, Roma in honor sam. 

Rome. Caesar Aogjxstas was like- Uic qaoqae annas Caesar An* 

wise born this year. gastas natas sam. 

16. A boat the same time C. Jalias Sub idem tempos C. Jolios 

Caesar attached Cn. Fompey to his Caesar, Cn. Pompeitis, Jolia fi« 

interest by marriage, having taken to lia in matrimoniam accejptas, 

wife his daughter Jalia. He won over affinitas soi devincio. M. Craa* 

M. Crassns to himself and to Pompey. sas, et Fompeios, et soi concx- 

A combination of three leading men Ho. Tres princeps conspiratio 

being tbos formed, the province of sic factas, Caesar Gallia, Fom- 

Gfial is decreed to Caesar, Spain to peias Hispania 4ecerno, Cras« 

Pompey, and the management of the sos bellam Farthicos mando. 
Parthian war committed to Crassos. 

16. Crassas marching into Asia, Crassns in Asia profectos, tern- 
plundered the temple of Jerusalem of plum Hierosolymitanos sacer 
its sacred treasure, fought the Parthi- pecunia spolio, adversos Par- 
ans to great disadvantage, and lost his thus male pugno, exercitus cum 
army, together with his son. At last filius amitto. Demam ipse, 
he himself being trepanned under pre- per species colloquium, ab hos- 
tence of an interview, is slain by the tis circumventus, occido. 

17. But Caesar constrained the Hel- Caesar autem Helvetius in 
vetii to return to their country; over- patria ^nns compello ; Ariovis- 
threw Ariovistus, king of the Ger- tus,Germanusrex,vexatorGal* 
mans, the disturber of Gaul ; subdued lia, profligo : Aquitanus, Gallus, 
the Aquitani, Gauls, and Belgae ; and et Belga subigo ; Germania 
conquered Germany and Britain, quoque et Britannia domo. Uz« 
Meanwhile his wife Julia dying, Cae- or Julia interim luortuus, Cae- 
sar's power appeared to Pompey and sar potentia nimios et periculo- 
the senate exorbitant, and dangerous sns respublicai Pompeius et se« 
to the state ; wherefore he is ordered natus visas sum ; itaque exer- 
to disband his army. From those be- citus demitto jubeo. Ex bicce 
ginnings broke out the civil war, about initium coortus sum bellum ci- 
689 years after the building of the city, vilis. annus post tirbs conditns 

circiter 699. 

18. Caesar marches with an hostile Caesar infestus Roma agmea 
army to Rome, enters the city that had contendo, in urbs nobilitas va- 
been abandoned by the;iobility, causes cuus ingressus, sui dictator di* 
himself to be declared dictator, and cendus euro, aerarium compile, 
pillages the treasury. After this hav- Inde Pompeius Italia pulsus 
ing forced Pompey out of Italy, he Afranius et Fetreins is legatus, 
drove his lieutenants Afranius and Pe- expello- Hispania, ac Roma de- 
treius «at ofSpain, and returned again nuo reverter. Moz Pompeius 
to Rome! He passed over immedi- bellum persequens, transmitto 

246 ANCIENT HISTORY obap. x. 

war a^aiost Pompey. Tbfi teat of the salia delatm, Pompeios, inter- 

wap being carried to Pbarsulia, Pom- clususcommeatosCaesary iamas 

pey resolves to redoce Caesar rather potins qaam fermnii vinco sta- 

by famine, intercepting his provisiona, too. Sed nobilitas tox eoactos, 

than by fighting him. Bat constrain- cam hottis confligo, amissasqae 

ed by the pressing instances of the no- exercitos victos anfogio. Pom- 

bility, he engaged the enemy, and be- peius in Aegyptas profeclas, 

ing defeated, makes his escape with Plolemaeas rex, ad qni coafu- 

the loss of his army. Pompey going gio, jusso neca« annoa aetas 

Into Egypt is slain by the order of king qainquagesimaB octaFos. 
Ptolemy, to whom he ded for protec- 
tion, in the 58th year of his agje. 

19. Cuesar arrived at Alexandria Caesar Pompeiossecntas, A- 
in parsait of Pompey ; and as he was lexandria appello ; et cum Pto- 
endeavoaring to settle the differences lemaeas atqae Cleopatra b so- 
betwixt Ptolemy and his sister Cleo- rorcontroversiacomponoconor, 
patra, had like to have been cat off by ab idem rex paene oppresses 
that king ; hot he set fire to his fleet, sam. Sed classis saosy ne venio 
to prevent its falling into the hands in hostis potestas, incendo. Qni 
of his enemies. By which flames^ incendiam, nobilissimas ille A- 
that famous library of Alexandria, lexandria bibliotheca, a Ptole- 
coUected by Ptolemy Philadelphns, maeos Philadelphas instrnctas, 
was burnt down. But at length, after confiagro. At victus tandem 
the oooqoest and death of Ptolemy, extinctusqoe Ptolemaeus, reg- 
he delivers up the kingdom to Cleo- nam Cleopatra trado. 


20. After this he yanqaished Phar- Phamaces inde Mithridates 
naces the son of Mitbridates, who had filins, qoi in populos Romanoa 
broke in upon the territories of the fiois irrampo, primus impetus 
Roman people, at one push ; so that debello ; prope at ante vinco 
he seemed to have conqaered the ene- hostis, qaam video, videor. Ja- 
my almost before he saw them. Then ba deinde, Maaritania rex, 
he subdued Juba, king of Mauritania, Scipio et Cnto auctor, civil is 
who, at the persoasion of Scipio and bellumin Africa instaurans,de- 
Cato, was renewing the civil war in vinco. Cato, ne in potestas 
Africa. Cato, that he might not fall Caesar venio, Utica mors sui 
into the hands of Caesar, despatches ipse conscisco, ex qoi Uticensia 
himself at Utica» whence he has been sam appellatos. 

called Uticensis. 

21. In the mean time war was le- Interea inHispania, aCneius 
vied in Spain, by Cneius and Sextus, at Sextos, Pompeius Magnus 
the sons of Pompey the Great. Caesar filios, bellam apparo. £o Cae- 
goes thither with his army, comes to sar cam exercitos contendo, 
a general action, overthrows the Pom- acies decerno, Pompeias ad 
peys at Munda, a city of Spain. Mnnda, Hispania orbs, vinco. 
Cneius was slain in a tower, to which Cneias in turris, qao confogio, 
he had fled. occido. 

32. The republican government Respnblioa sic oppressus, 

being thus subverted, Caesar was de- Caesar dictator perpetaus a se- 

clared perpetual dictator by the se- natas decretas sum. Annus de 

nate. He reformed the year by in- mathematicus sententia, inter- 

tercalary days, according to the judg- calatus dies, corrigo, et Quin- 

ment of asironomer!', and called the tilis mensis suas nomen Julias 

month Quintilis, from his own name, appello. Proinde insolentia 

'° ?• ;^"®/ *^*«» ^^e^'ng elated with elatus, senates contemno, ac 

?«Ii -l!!;-J:®^f-'* to slight the senate, regnum aScto, coepi. Ergo 


dictatorship* he was slam m the se- ratns, la caria 23 tuIdos con- 
nate-house by Bratoa, Cassias, and the fectas, intereo, annus urbs 706, 
other conspirators, being; despatched et ante Christns 42. 
by three and twenty wounds, in the 
year of the city 706, and before Christ 

23. M. Anthony the consol, stirring; M. Antonius consul, in funus 
up the people, at Caesar's funeral, Caesar, plebsinpatria liberator 
against the deliverers of their country, concitatns, turbo ooinis; arma 
threw ail into confusion ; he overawed senatus opprimo, Gallia CisaU 
the senate by an armed force, and pinns invado. Itaqae bellum 
seized upon Cisalpine Gaul : where- contra, is a senatus, Cicero 
upon war is resolved on against him by auctor, decerno. Hirtius et 
the senate,at the persuasion[of Cicero. Pansa consul, itemque Octa* 
The consuls Hirtius and Pansa, as like- vius, Julius Caesar soror nepos, 
wise Octavins, Julius Caesar's heir, ac heres, cum tres exercitus ad 
and his sister's grandson, advanced to Mutina proficiscor, et signum 
Mutina, at the head of three armies, com Antonius collatns, victoria 
and coming to an engagement with refero. 

Anthony, obtained the victory. 

24. That victory cost the Roman Magnum is victoria popolna 
people dear. The consuls being Romanus sto. Consul occisus, 
slain, the three armiessubjected them- exercitus tres unus Octavius 
selves to the command of Octavius pareo ; qui, copiae Roma ad- 
alone ; who, marching his forces to ductus, consulatus a senatus, 
Rome, procured himself the consulate adolescens annus 20 natus, ex- 
from the senate by main force, being a torqueo. Antonitis interim, in 
youth about 20 years of age. Anthony Gallia Transalpinus, ad M. 
mean time had l9ed into Transalpine Lepidus, magister eques, con- 
Gaul, to M. Lepidus, master of the fogio, et cum is societas ineo. 
horse, and clapped up a treaty w th Octavius, bellum contra Anto- 
him. Octavius, created commander nios et Lepidus a senatus prae- 
in chief by the senate in the war positns, fides prodqp amicitiaque 
against Anthony and Lepidus, betrays cum uterque jungo. 

hh trust, and enters into an association 
with both. 

25. Accordingly, the triumvirate Triumviratus igitur instita- 
being formed, 130 senators were pro- tus, 130 senator a triumviri 
scribed by the triumviri ; in the nam- proscriptas ; ex qui nnmerns 
ber of whom was Cicero. By these Cicero sum. Orbis terra, quasi 
three men too, the globe of the earth patrimonium, a triumviri quo- 
was divided, as if it had been their que divisus. Oriens et Graecia 
patrimonial estate. The East and Antonius, Africa Lepidus, Italia 
Greece fell to Anthony, Africa to et Occidens Octavius, ohveaio. 
Lepidus, Italy and the West to Oc- Sextus Pompcius, qui dassis 
tavius. Sicily was allotted to Sextus plurimum valeo, Sicilia assig- 
Pompey, who was master of a very natas sum ; Diodorus Sicalus 
powerful fleet ; then flourished Dio- historicus tam vigens. 

dorus Siculns the historian. 

26. Octavius having been adopted Octavius in familia Caesar 
into the family of Caesar, was called adoptatus, Caesar Oetaviamia 
Caesar Octavianus. Octavianus and dictus sum. Octavianus et An- 
Anthony now publicly declaring them- tonius sui Caesar dictator ultor 
selves the avengers of Caesar the nunc profitenii, M. Brntns et C 
dictator, began to levy war against Cassius bellum persequorco 
M. Brutus and C. Cassias. A battle Ad Philippi, Thessalia ^ 
was fought at Philippi,a cityof Thes- pugnatur. Brntnfi et Ca 


t48 ANCIENT HISTORY. chat. x. 

SBttedt Uid TioleDt hands on thMi- tm Pompeios emn Ootayianm 

Miyes. Sextos Pompey, warring; contendens, a M. Agrippa, is 

a^inst Octavianos, was vanquished dm, navmlis praeliom soj^ra» 

in a sea-6g;htbybis admiral M. Ag^rip- tos, in Asia prafog^io, ubi panio 

pa, and fled into Asia, where be died post mors obeo, Herodes rez 

soon after, in the reign of Herod, Judaea, 
king of Judea. 

27. Anthony hi^ving divorced Octa- Antonins, Octavia Caesar Oc- 
via, the sister of Caesar Octavianas, tavianos soror repQ^iatos, Cle- 
had married Cleopatra, qaeen of opatra, Aegyptns regina, in ma- 
Egypt; i^Dd, in order to make her trimoniom daooj qni^atorbis 
mistress of the world, made war upon terra domiifa constitno, Octa- 
Oetavianos : a naval engagement en- vianos bellom iniero : commis- 
Boing at Aetiom, Oetavianos gained sus apod Actiam praeliom na- 
the victory, and pm'soing the enemy, valis, Oetavianos victoria pario, 
laid siege to Alexandria. Anthony, et, hostis insecatos, Alexandria 
thinking his a&irs desperate, des- obwideo. Antonins, res despe- 
patches himself ; Cleopatra, imitating ratos, sai manas affero : is imi- 
him, died by the poison of an asp, in tatns Cleopatra, aspis venenom 
the year of the city 719. intereo, annus orbs 7 1 9. 

28. Caesar Oetavianos, in the 19th Caesar Oetavianos, annus 
year after the triomvirate was set on post triomviratos institotos 12, 
foot, being now lord of the world, had res potitos, Aogostos a senatos 
the title ^ Aagnstos bestowed on him appellatos sam. Aogostos men- 
by the senate. He gave his name to sis, qoi antea Sextilis dico, no- 
the month of Aogost, which before men do. Pax terra mareqoe 
was called Sextilis. Having procor- partus, Janus tertio daodo. 
ed peace by sea and land, he shot the Virgilias et Horatios, poeta, 
temple of Janos for the third time, complexm som; T. Livioi et 
He had an affectionate regard for the Strabo, historicos, in honor ha- 
poets Virgil and Horace; shewed a beo. Ovidias in Pontos relego. 
great esteem for the historians T. Li- Hie aeqoalis Q. Cartios, histo- 
vy and Strabo, He banished Ovid ricos, TiboUus ac Propertios, 
into Pontus.' Their contemporaries poeta, som. Caesar Augustus 
were Quintas Cartins the historian, annus regno cum triomviri 12, 
Tibulios and Propertius poets. Cae- solas 44. Mors obeo Nola, an- 
sar AOgustos reigned 12 years in con- nos aetas 76, et orbs 762 ; Ro- 
junction with the triumviri, and 44 ma, at ipse glorior, e lateritius 
alone. He died at Nola, in the 76th marmoreus relinquens. 

year of his age, and of the city 762 ; 
leaving Rome, as he himself boasted, 
reared of marble instead of bricks. 

29. In the year of the world 4004. Annas mundus 4004, annus 
in the year of Rome 748, in the 194th Roma 748, Olympias 194, et 
Olympiad, and 14 years before the annus ante excessns Angostus 
death of Augustus, JESUS CHRIST, 14. JESUS CHRISTUS, aeter- 
the eternal Son of God, was born of nus Deus Filins, e Maria Virgo 
the Virgin Mary, sent from heaven editus sum, e coelam missus 
to expiate the divine wrath ; who, piacolum coelestis ira ; qui, 3S 
at 33 years of age, being crucified by annus natus, a Judaeus in crux 
tha Jews, made an atonement for the actus, suussangois scelus huma- 
sins of men with his own blood, in the nus luo, annus imperium Tibe- 

19th year of the reign of Tiberius rius Caesar 19. 












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