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Full text of "Maize; its history, cultivation, handling, and uses, with special reference to South Africa; a text-book for farmers, students of agriculture, and teachers of nature study"

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oft 1 3 1999 



MAIZE 

ITS HISTORY, CULTIVATION, HANDLING, AND USES 




J'hulogi-aph iv /.-,,,/ Coot '•/ I'l-^lot 

Ghneral thk Right Honourablk Louis Botha, P.C. 

Prime Minister and Minister for Agriculture, Union of South Africa. 



MAIZE 



ITS HISTORY, CULTIVATION, HANDLING, 
AND USES 

fVITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SOUTH AFRICA 

A TEXT-BOOK 

FOR FARMERS, STUDENTS OF AGRICULTURE, AND 

TEACHERS OF NATURE STUDY 



BY 

JOSEPH BURTT-DAVY, F.L.S., F.R.C.S. 

GOVERNMENT AGROSTOLOGIST AND BOTANIST, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 



WITH FRONTISPIECE AND 245 ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK, BOMBAY AND CALCUTTA 

I9I4 



General the Right Hon. LOUIS BOTHA, P.C 

PRIME MINISTER AND MINISTER FOR AGRICULTURE 

OF THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

IN APPRECIATION OF HIS EFFORTS TO DEVELOP 

THE MAIZE INDUSTRY 

THIS VOLUME IS INSCRIBED 



61^ \M 



No other plant we grow will produce 3,172 lbs. of digestible food on one 
acre of land at so little expense. No other cereal crop yields the farmer so large 
a return for his labour as Indian Corn. It is the king of the cereals. 

— Director C. S. Plumb. 



PREFACE. 

The materials for this book have been collected during 
a period of three or four years, but the book itself has 
been written during a Term, and part of the Long 
Vacation of 191 3, spent at the School of Agriculture, 
Cambridge, where the author has been studying in- 
heritance of characters. He has endeavoured to adapt 
it to the needs of (i) the farmer; (2) students in the 
Schools and Colleges of Agriculture ; (3) teachers in 
the country schools who are endeavouring to interest 
their pupils in Nature Study. He hopes, also, that 
it will interest others concerned with the maize industry 
in its various branches, e.g. commerce, manufactures, 
and the supply of agricultural implements, machinery, 
and fertilizers. 

It is a difficult task to meet such diverse needs, and 
the result is necessarily open to criticism. The actual 
time available for its preparation has been too short, 
but if publication had not been completed before the 
author's return to South Africa, it would have been 
postponed indefinitely, and in the present stage of 
development of the local maize industry, there seemed 
to be a need for a book of this character. 

The author is indebted to the following, among other 
gentlemen, for valuable assistance or contributions. 
The information on milling has been supplied by 
Mr. W. H. Horsfall of Aliwal North, and the chapter 
on the construction of silos by Mr. A. Morrison Hay, 
of the Public Works Department, Pretoria. For the 



viii PREFACE 

chapter on maize and maize products as stock food, the 
author has drawn largely upon Feeds and Feeding, by 
Professor W. A. Henry, from whom he once enjoyed 
the privilege of a valuable course of lectures. Much 
of the information on insect-pests has been furnished 
by his friend, Mr. C. W. Mally, Government Entomo- 
logist, Cape Town, whose work in investigating and 
fighting the pests of the maize crop, while stationed 
at Grahamstown, is well known and highly spoken of 
by Eastern Province farmers. Much of the infor- 
mation on the use of maize-harvesting machinery in 
America, has been taken from a bulletin specially 
dealing with the subject by Mr. Zintheo, of the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture. Much valuable informa- 
tion has been obtained from the writings of Professors 
T. F. Hunt, C. G. Hopkins, Bateson, and Punnett, 
Dr. E. M. East, and Dr. G. H. Shull. To many kind 
friends and correspondents the author is indebted for 
the native names in use in different parts of South 
Africa ; and to Mr. R. T. A. Innes, Director of the 
Union Observatory, Johannesburg, for much valuable 
information on climatology. 

The author's warmest thanks are due to his sister- 
in-law. Miss Florence Bolton, A.B. (Stanford), and to 
his wife, for patient and careful revision of manuscripts 
and proofs, without which it would have been impossible 
for him to have prepared the book for publication in the 
limited time at his disposal. He is also indebted to 
Mr. H. R. Mallett of Cambridge, for the preparation 
and revision of the Index at the last moment, arid to 
Miss Pate of Cambridge and her staff, for their care 
and accuracy in copying the tables and bibliographical 
list, and typing the manuscript, and also for reading 
some of the proofs. 

The author desires to express his thanks to those 
who have supplied photographs and blocks, or who 



PREFACE IX 

have given permission for the reproduction of illustra- 
tions from other books and publications ; where the 
latter have been used credit has been given at the foot 
of the illustration. Several drawings were specially 
prepared by Mrs. Burtt-Davy, and many of the illus- 
trations have been reproduced from the Transvaal and 
Union Agricultural Journals, by the courteous permis- 
sion of the Editor, Dr. Wm. Macdonald. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made to those friends 
at Cambridge and elsewhere, especially to Professor 
R. H. Biffen, F.R.S., and Professor R. H. Punnett, 
for valuable suggestions and assistance, particularly in 
connection with the inheritance of characters ; and to 
Mr. J. D. Anderson, M.A., and Dr. Nicholson, for 
assistance and information with regard to Hindoo and 
Persian names. Thanks are also offered to the Com- 
mittees, Members and Secretaries of the Liverpool, 
Mark Lane and Baltic Corn Exchanges, for their 
courtesy in obtaining and supplying information, and 
particularly to Mr. Broomhall, Editor of George Broom- 
kail's Corn Trade News, Mr. A. Grenville Turner of 
the Liverpool Corn Exchange, and Mr. H. M. Cole- 
brook of the Baltic and Mark Lane Exchanges, for 
their valuable assistance. 

JOSEPH BURTT-DAVY. 

School of Agriculture, 
Cambridge, 28 August, 191 3. 



CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS. 



PAGE 

Preface vii 

Contents xiii 

List of Illustrations xxix 

List of Tables xxxvii 

CHAPTER 

I. Importance and History - - - i 

II. Climatic Requirements 25 

III. Geographical Distribution 46 

IV, Botanical Characters 65 

V. Inheritance of Characters and Improvement by Breeding - 126 

VI. Judging and Selection for Exhibition 235 

VII. Varieties and Breeds 274 

VIII. Soils and Manures - 346 

IX. Tillage, Planting, and Cultivation 374 

X. Diseases and Pests of the Maize Crop 405 

XI. Harvesting and Storage, and Pests of Stored Grain - - 451 

XII. The Commerce in Maize Grain 498 

XIII. The Milling, Mill-Products, and Chemical Composition of 

Maize Grain 629 

XIV. Maize Grain as Food 673 

XV. The Preservation and Use of Maize Stover, Hay and 

Silage, for Stock Food 732 

XVI. Construction of Modern Silos 770 

XVII. Uses of Maize Products in the Arts and Manufactures - 782 

Bibliography 803 

Index 821 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. 
IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY. 

Importance. 

SECTION PAGE 

1. Importance of the maize crop i 

2. What the American farmer thinks of it 4 

3. Maize is the leading product of America ...... 4 

4. Amount and value of the United States crop 5 

5. American maize is not grown for export 5 

6. Maize is a white man's crop ........ 5 

7. Maize is the staple crop of South Africa 6 

8. Future possibilities of development in South Africa .... 7 

9. Relative importance of the world's maize and wheat crops . . 9 

History. 

10. Origin of maize ........... g 

11. History 11 

12. Introduction into Europe 12 

13. Introduction into Africa 12 

14. Introduction into Asia ......... 14 

15. Meaning and history of the botanical name 16 

16. The name Maize .......... 16 

17. The word Corn 18 

18. The word Mielie 18 

19. Other vernacular names 19 



CHAPTER H. 
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS. 

20. Climate 25 

21. Factors which limit distribution 25 

22. Altitude 26 

23. Temperature 27 

24. Night temperature 30 

25. Frost 32 

26. Hail 34 

27. Soil temperature ........... 36 

28. Moisture requirements 36 

29. Rainfall 37 

30. Sunshine 42 

31. Influence of climate upon vegetative characters and time of maturity . 42 

32. Acclimatization 43 

33. Influence of climate upon varieties 44 

34. Influence of climate upon chemical composition ..... 45 

xiii 



xiv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER III. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

SECTION PAGE 

35. Geographical distribution 46 

36. Distribution in the United States ....... 48 

37. The Sub-arid Zone 49 

38. The Rocky Mountains Zone 49 

39. The Great Basin 49 

40. The Pacific Slope .......... 49 

41. The Atlantic States 49 

42. Canada 50 

43. Mexico 50 

44. Central America and the West Indies 50 

45. Tropical South America 51 

46. Argentina ............ 51 

47. Possible increase in the Argentine crop ...... 51 

48. Europe 52 

49- Asia 53 

50. Australasia ............ 55 

51. North Africa 56 

52. Tropical Africa. (See also addendum at end of chapter) ... 56 

53. South Africa 57 

54. Orange Free State 58 

55. Transvaal 58 

56. Relative yields of Transvaal Districts 59 

57. Natal 60 

58. Cape Province 64 



CHAPTER IV. 
BOTANICAL CHARACTERS. 

59. Botanical relationship 65 

60. Description 65 

61. Plant structure 67 

62. The seed 69 

63. The embryo and endosperm 70 

64. Germination ........... 71 

65. The maize seedling 72 

66. The root and its functions 74 

67. The stem and its functions 77 

68. Sucker-shoots 78 

69. The leaf and its functions. (See also addendum at end of chapter) . 80 

70. The inflorescence 85 

71. Barren plants 87 

72. Flowering period .......... 90 

73. The spikelet 95 

74. The pollen and its vitality 97 

75. The young ear ........... loi 

76. The silk 104 

77. Pollination ............ 105 

78. Fertilization 105 

79. Dichogamy 107 

80. Form lor describing the maize plant in the field 109 

81. The shank 109 

82. The husk iio 

83. The mature ear iii 

84. The cob 113 

85. Number of rows of grain 114 

86. Twisted rows 115 



CONTENTS XV 

SECTION fKOt. 

87. Number of grains per ear "6 

88. Proportion of grain to ear 116 

89. Form for describing the ear 118 

90. The grain 119 

91. The hull 122 

92. The aleurone layer 122 

93. The endosperm 123 

94. Form for describing the grain 123 

95. Tubulair glands in the embryo 124 

96. Apogamy 124 



CHAPTER V. 

INHERITANCE OF CHARACTERS AND IMPROVEMENT BY 

BREEDING. 

Necessity for Improvement. 

97. The object of breeding 126 

98. The necessity for improvement of crops 127 

99. Need for increase in the yield per acre ...... 128 

loo. The cause of poor yields 130 

loi. Importance of a perfect stand 131 

102. Importance of increasing the size of the ears ..... 135 

103. Average weight of grain per ear ........ 137 

104. Need for increase in the weight of grain per ear 137 

105. Percentage by weight of grain and cob ...... 148 

106. Effect of depth of grain on yield 149 

107. Increasing yield by increasing the number of rows at the butt and tip 151 

108. Effect of width of sulci on yield 151 

109. Effect of shape of grain on yield 151 

no. Effect of number of rows 152 

111. Effect of diameter of cobs 154 

112. Need for earlier-ripening breeds 154 

113. Drought resistance 156 

114. Disease resistance 156 

115. Loss from weak stalks, shanks, or cobs 157 

n6. Necessity for the production of pure seed 158 

117. Other desirable points 158 

118. Necessity for development of new breeds 159 

Inheritance of Characters. 

119. Fluctuations 160 

120. Characters may be inherited 160 

121. Importance of a knowledge of the laws governing the transmission of 

characters 160 

122. Inheritance of characters in maize follows Mendelian Law . . 161 

123. Reproduction and transmission of characters ..... 162 

124. Mechanism of transmission 163 

125. The zygote 163 

126. The homozygote 163 

127. The heterozygote 164 

128. Unit-characters 164 

129. AUelomorphic pairs of unit characters 170 

130. Dominant and recessive allelomorphs ...... 172 

131. Interaction of unit-characters 173 

132. Repulsion and coupling of characters 174 

133. Xenia 175 

134. Splashed purple colour of the aleurone layer 179 

135. Gametic segregation 180 



XVI CONTENTS 

SECTION ,AGE 

136. The reason for segregation in mathematical proportions . . . 180 

137. Monohybrid ratios .......... 182 

138. Dihybrid ratios 182 

139. Trihybrid ratios 184 

140. Inheritance of colour 187 

141. Yellow endosperm .......... 187 

142. White starchy endosperm 188 

143. Inheritance of characters which affect the growing plant . . .188 

144. Pericarp colour i8g 

145. Somatic variation in pericarp colour igo 

146. Silk colour igo 

147. Red cob-colour igi 

148. Glume colour ........... igi 

I4g. Development of " pods " ...;..... igi 

150. Inheritance of ligule and auricles igi 

151. Physical condition of the starch ig2 

152. Size characters ........... 192 

153. Inheritance of height of plants ig5 

154. Inheritance of abnormal dwarfness ig7 

155. Inheritance of length of ears ig7 

156. Inheritance of size and weight of grain igg 

157. Inheritance of row numbers igg 

158. Four-rowed ears 206 

159. Inheritance of fasciated and lobed ears 206 

160. Inheritance of laterally-branched ears 206 

161. Striped leaves .... 207 

162. Difficulties encountered in studying inheritance in maize . . . 207 

Methods of Plant Breeding. 

163. A few general principles 208 

164. Methods of plant breeding 2og 

165. Selection of parents 210 

166. Effect of inbreeding 211 

167. Improvement in yield by use of first-generation crosses . . . 213 

168. Fundamental points of seed selection . 213 

i6g. Correlation of characters ......... 213 

170. Desirable stalks 215 

171. Desirable leaves 215 

172. Desirable ears ........... 215 

173. Desirable cobs 216 

174. Desirable grains 216 

175. Fancy points 217 

176. Methods of selection 218 

177. Importance of care in selection 2ig 

178. Field selection of parent ears 220 

I7g. Seed-room selection of ears 222 

180. Character of the grain 224 

181. Selection by continuous performance-record 225 

182. Method of propagation 226 

183. The breeding plot 22g 

184. Devices to prevent or detect cross-pollination 229 

185. Production of new types by artificial cross-pollination . . . 230 

186. Reciprocal crosses .......... 231 

187. Method of cross-pollinating 231 

188. Collecting the pollen 231 

189. Covering the silks 233 

190. The Fj plants 233 

191. The F2 plants 234 

192. Improvement by breeding is slow at first ...... 234 



CONTENTS xvii 

CHAPTER VI. 
JUDGING AND SELECTION FOR EXHIBITION. 

SECTION PAGE 

193. The object of exhibiting at Agricultural Shows 235 

194. Rules governing maize exhibits 237 

195. The prize-list ........... 239 

196. Classification 239 

197. Sections ............ 240 

198. Classes 240 

199. Championships ........... 245 

200. Principles of judging .......... 246 

2or. Methods of judging .......... 247 

202. Judging maize for seed ......... 249 

203. Desirable characters for breeding ears 250 

204. South African score card for seed-maize ...... 250 

205. Length of ear 252 

206. Sulci or space between rows ........ 252 

207. Shape of grain 253 

208. Length of grain 254 

2og. Uniformity of grain .......... 254 

210. Yield of grain per ear 254 

211. Trueness to type and breed characteristics ...... 255 

212. Shape of ears ........... 256 

213. Straightness of rows 256 

214. Uniformity of exhibit 257 

215. Butts of ears 257 

216. Thickness of cob 258 

217. Tips of ears 258 

218. Colour of grain 259 

219. Size of embryo ........... 260 

220. Market condition 260 

221. Colour of cob ........... 261 

222. Circumference of ears . . . . . . . . . . 261 

223. Standards of perfection 262 

224. Judging shelled maize and the accompanying ears .... 263 

225. Judges' computing sheet ......... 271 

226. Useful form of judge's card 272 

CHAPTER Vn. 
VARIETIES AND BREEDS. 

227. Botanical varieties 274 

228. Pod maize, Zea Mays var. tunicata St. Hil. ..... 275 

229. Pop maize, Zea Mays var. prcecox Bonaf. ...... 276 

230. Flint maize, Zea Mays var. indurata (Sturt.) Bailey .... 277 

231. Dent maize, Zea Mays var. indentata (Sturt.) Bailey . . . 277 

232. Soft maize, Zea Mays var. erythrolepis (Bonaf.) Alef. .... 278 

233. Sugar maize, Zea Mays var. rngosa Bonaf. ..... 279 

234. The agricultural breeds ......... 279 

235. Comparative yield of dent and flint breeds 280 

236. Principal breeds of dent maize grown in America .... 281 

237. Other dent breeds grown in America ....... 281 

238. Principal breeds of dent maize grown in South Africa . . . 284 

239. Hickory King 286 

240. Hickory Horsetooth, or 12-row Hickory 2S9 

241. Salisbury White ........... 291 

242. Noodsberg Horsetooth . 291 

243. Mercer ............ 291 

244. lo-row or " Louisiana" Hickory ....... 295 

b 



xviii CONTENTS 

SECTION PAGE 

245. Iowa Silver-mine .......... 299 

246. Boone County 300 

247. Ladysmith 301 

248. Natal White Horsetooth 303 

249. Eureka . 304 

250. Chester County 304 

251. Yellow Hogan 306 

252. Golden Beauty 306 

253. Yellow Horsetooth 306 

254. Reid Yellow Dent 309 

255. Minnesota Early 309 

256. Star Learning ........... 311 

257. Golden Eagle 312 

258. Principal American breeds of flint maize 314 

259. Principal South African flint breeds ....... 314 

260. Cango, white 315 

261. Thoroughbred, Rural 316 

262. Cango, yellow 317 

263. Wills Gehu 317 

264. North Dakota 317 

265. Botman, white ........... 320 

266. Botman, yellow 320 

267. New England 8-row 320 

268. Burlington Hybrid 321 

269. Gillespie Yellow 322 

270. Indian Pearl 322 

271. Principal breeds of soft maize or flour corn 322 

272. Brazilian flour corn .......... 323 

273. Principal breeds of sugar maize grown in America .... 323 

274. Sugar breeds introduced into South Africa 323 

275. Clark Favourite . 324 

276. Arcadia sugar-maize 324 

277. Claret sugar 324 

278. Union sugar 326 

279. Golden sugar 326 

280. Pop-corn ............ 326 

281. Special-purpose sorts 326 

282. Silage breeds 327 

283. Classes best suited for cultivation in South Africa .... 328 

284. Relative length of growing season of different breeds . . . . 330 

285. Breeds suitable for the High-veld 331 

286. Breeds suitable for the Maize-belt of the Transvaal and Orange Free 

State 332 

287. Breeds suitable for the Maize-belt of the "Midlands" east of the 

Drakensberg 332 

288. Breeds suitable for the Coast-belt 332 

289. Breeds suitable for the semi-arid western region .... 333 

290. Breeds suitable for the upper Bush-veld 333 

291. Breeds grown in Rhodesia 333 

292. Relative yields of breeds in the Transvaal 333 

293. Relative yields of breeds in Natal ....... 339 

294. Third season's results, Cedara, Natal 344 

295. Relative weight of grain per bushel of diff"erent breeds . . . 344 

CHAPTER VIII. 
SOILS AND MANURES. 

296. The soil 346 

297. Chemical elements of the soil required by plants .... 347 

298. Soil moisture 347 



CONTENTS XIX 

SECTION PAGE 

299. Conservation of moisture by tillage ....... 348 

300. Dry-land farming 348 

301. Irrigation 348 

302. Available plant-food .......... 349 

303. Recuperative power of soils 349 

304. Character of South African soils ........ 349 

305. Soils suitable for maize-growing 349 

306. New V. old lands .......... 350 

307. Effect of tillage 351 

308. Effect of continuous cropping 352 

309. Maintaining the crop-producing power of the soil .... 352 

310. Summer fallowing 354 

311. Rotation of crops . . . 355 

312. Organic matter 357 

313. Use of leguminose green-manure crops 358 

314. Rotations with maize in other countries 358 

315. Some Transvaal rotations ......... 359 

316. The functions of manures 360 

317. Manurial requirements of the maize crop 360 

318. Does the use of fertilizers pay ? ........ 361 

319. Cost of fertilizers in the interior provinces . . ... . . 361 

320. Residual value of manures 362 

321. Stable and kraal manure ......... 362 

322. Artificial manures or commercial fertilizers 364 

323. Method of applying fertilizers 364 

324. Influence of season on efficacy of fertilizers ..... 364 

325. Use of lime 364 

326. Indication of need of lime ......... 365 

327. Kinds of lime ........... 365 

328. Preparation of the lime . . * 366 

329. Method of applying lime ......... 366 

330. Phosphatic manures 366 

331. Superphosphate alone 367 

332. Bone-meal alone ........... 367 

333. Superphosphate and bone-meal mixed 367 

334. Basic slag alone 368 

335. Nitrate of soda alone . . 368 

336. Superphosphate and nitrate of soda 369 

337. Manganese compounds 370 

338. Potassium ............ 372 

CHAPTER IX. 

TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION. 

339. Time of ploughing .......... 374 

340. Depth of ploughing .......... 374 

341. Different soils require different treatment 376 

342. Preparation after ploughing 377 

343. Time of planting 382 

344. Listing 385 

345. Use of planters 386 

346. Check-rowing ........... 387 

347. Distance of planting 388 

348. Distance tests in the Transvaal 389 

349. Distance tests in Natal ......... 391 

350. Distances tried in the United States 392 

351. Planting distance for silage or fodder maize 393 

352. Effect of thickness of planting on composition of the fodder . . 393 

353. Number of plants to an acre of ground at different distances . . 393 

354. Amount of seed planted per acre .... ... 395 



XX CONTENTS 

SECTION PAGE 

355. Depth of planting 395 

356. Planting behind the plough 396 

357. Planting before ploughing ......... 396 

358. After-cultivation 396 

359. Implements for weeding 400 

360. Power 402 



CHAPTER X. 

DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP. 

Plant Diseases. 

361. Brown rust of maize .......... 405 

362. Red rust of maize 408 

363. " White rust" or "blight" 409 

364. Maize smut or " brand " ......... 409 

365. Leaf scorch or maize blight 412 

366. Ear rots of maize 413 

367. Dothiorella 415 

368. Burrill's bacterial disease of dent and sugar maize .... 415 

369. Stewart's corn wilt 415 

370. Yellow foliage 415 

371. Chlorosis 415 

372. Physiological effect of drought 415 

Weeds. 

373. Weeds 416 

374. Parasitic weeds ..,.'....... 416 

375. Non-parasitic weeds 417 

376. Perennial weeds 417 

377. Annual weeds ........... 417 

378. Volunteer maize 418 

379. How weeds spread 418 

380. Plant less maize and produce more . . . . •. . . 420 

381. Cultivation ............ 420 

382. Effect of clean cultivation of the maize crop 420 

383. Harrowing 421 

384. Fallowing 421 

385. Rotation of crops 421 

386. The best time to kill weeds 422 

387. Weed seeds do not all germinate at once ...... 422 

388. Is-ona, witch-weed, or rooibloem ....... 423 

389. Remedies for is-ona * 426 

390. Early planting 426 

391. Manuring ............ 426 

392. Clear the land of is-ona seed already there 426 

393. Buy seed-maize from clean farms 427 

Animal Pests of the Maize Crop. 

394. The Chacma baboon 427 

395. Monkeys .......... . . 431 

396. Hares ............. 431 

397. The reed-rat . 433 

398. The porcupine or yster-vark ........ 433 

399. Birds 433 

Insect Pests. 

400. Insect pests of the maize crop ........ 435 



CONTENTS XXI 

SECTION PAGE 

401. Methods of combating insect pests of the maize crop . . . . 436 

402. Cutworms, Agrotis spp 437 

403. Remedies for cutworms .......*. 437 

404. The maize stalk-borer 438 

405. Life-history of the stalk-borer 440 

406. Parasites of the stalk-borer 441 

407. Burning the stalks to destroy the stalk-borer 441 

408. Ploughing-under the stalks 442 

409. Early and late planting to avoid stalk-borer ..... 443 

410. Trap-crops for stalk-borer ....... . . 443 

411. Ensiling and shredding maize as a remedy for stalk-borer . . . 443 

412. The striped beard-grub or ear-worm, Heliothis armiger Hubner . 444 

413. Remedies for the striped beard-grub 444 

414. The maize cricket 445 

415. Locusts 446 

416. The tok-tokje, Psammodes Reichei S 449 

417. Remedies for the tok-tokje 449 

418. Plant-lice 450 

419. Rose-chafers ........... 450 

CHAPTER XI. 

HARVESTING AND STORAGE, AND THE PESTS OF 
STORED MAIZE. 

420. Maize harvesting 451 

421. Best condition of the crop for harvesting 452 

422. The best stage of growth for both grain and stover .... 455 

423. The best stage of growth for fodder 456 

424. The best stage of growth for ensiling 456 

425. Frosted maize 458 

426. Composition of the maize plant at different stages of maturity . 458 

427. Composition of maize fodder at different stages of growth . . . 459 

428. Comparative digestibility of maize fodder and silage at different 

stages of maturity 459 

429. Feeding value of maize fodder at different stages of growth . . 460 

430. Pulling ............ 460 

431. Topping 461 

432. Methods of harvesting for grain 461 

433. Husking by hand from the standing stalks 461 

434. Cost of hand-picking in the United States 461 

435. Cutting maize by hand ......... 462 

436. Does it pay to use machinery for harvesting the maize crop ? . . 463 

437. Sled harvesters 464 

438. Mechanical harvesters ......... 464 

439. The cost and efficiency of harvesters 466 

440. The maize binder 466 

441. Estimated cost of using a maize binder ...... 468 

442. The maize stubble cutter 4^9 

443. Draught of maize binders 47° 

444. Shocking maize ........... 47° 

445. The maize shocker 47^ 

446. A maize shock loader 47^ 

447. Husking shocked maize by hand ....... 472 

448. Maize pickers 473 

449. Cost and efficiency of maize pickers ....... 476 

450. Hand-husking in America 47^ 

451. Combined husker and shredder ........ 477 

452. Combined husker and sheller 4^° 

453. Machines for shelling husked maize 4^° 



xxii CONTENTS 

SECTION PAGE 

454. Importance of drying-out the grain 481 

455. Loss of weight in drying ......... 481 

456. Variation in moisture-content is not identical with loss or gain in 

weight due to change of moisture-content 483 

457. Storage in the husk 484 

458. Storage of husked maize 486 

459. Storage of shelled grain 486 

460. Kaffir method of storage 488 

461. Need for public maize stores or silos in South Africa .... 490 

462. Yield of grain from a given measure of ears 492 

463. Country damage ........... 493. 

Pats of Stored Grain. 

464. Losses accruing from storage of grain 494 

465. Insects injurious to stored grain ........ 494 

466. Weevils 494 

467. Angoumois grain-moth 496 

468. Remedies for insect pests 496 

469. Rats and mice in maize stores ........ 497 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN. 

470. Time of arrival of the South African crop 498 

471. Local markets 498 

472. The mines trade 499 

473. Consumption on the Kimberley Mines 499 

474. Cape stock-farmers 501 

475. The native trade 501 

476. Local prices ........... 501 

477. Classes of maize called for in the local trade 502 

478. Comparative local prices of maize classes 504 

479. Transvaal maize imports ......... 505 

480. Rapid increase in production ........ 505 

481. Importance of the export trade 507 

482. Oversea markets 507 

483. European consumption 508 

484. Possibility of developing trade with Canada . . . . . 509 

485. Egypt as a possible market 509 

486. India .... ........ 510 

487. Australia 510 

488. Prices in European markets 511 

489. Prices on the English market, 1880 to 1908 511 

490. The high London prices of 1907-8 511 

491. Early export prices for South African maize 513 

492. Changing prices per quarter to prices per muid 5^5 

493. Changing prices per 1,000 kilos to prices per muid .... 516 

494. Market reports 516 

495. Prices affected by the world's supply and demand .... 518 

496. Some factors which control prices in the world's maize market . . 518 

497. The world's supply of maize 5^8 

498. Early attempts at an export maize trade from South Africa . . 520 

499. Natal Government enterprise 521 

500. Reduction in freight rates 523 

501. Government control of export 524 

502. Effect of good prices in stimulating trade 524 

503. Cause of abnormal prices 525 

504. Natal shipments, 1907 526 



CONTENTS xxiii 

SECTION PAGE 

505. Transvaal and Orange Free State shipments ..... 530 

506. Some difficulties encountered 531 

507. Inter-colonial conferences ......... 532 

508. Pretoria conference, 7 and 8 January, igoS 532 

509. Establishment of a clearing house at Durban ..... 537 

510. Bloemfontein conference, 18 and 19 January, 1910 .... 537 

511. Annual maize committee ......... 543 

512. Government facilities for export 544 

513. Government regulations and railage rates 545 

514. American railage rates ......... 557 

515. Amounts and sources of supply of South African maize exported, 

1Q06-12 558 

516. Details of exports, 191 1 and 1912 558 

517. Monthly exports 563 

518. Destination of maize exported ........ 563 

519. South African ports of export 565 

520. Varieties and classes of maize exported ...... 568 

521. Grading at the ports 568 

522. Effect of grading at the ports 568 

523. Description of grades .......... 570 

524. Grader's certificate 571 

525. Weevily maize ........... 572 

526. Removal of rejected maize at ports 572 

527. Re-bagging 572 

528. Marking grades on bags 572 

529. Uniformity in practice of handling and storing at wharves . . 572 

530. Bag handling of grain 573 

531. Quality of grain bags 573 

532. Bulk handling 575 

533. Time saved by bulk handling 576 

534. Saving in cost by bulk handling 576 

535. Accumulation and storage at inland centres 577 

536. Transit silos and elevators 57^ 

537. Payment to farmers 582 

538. Trucking in bags and in bulk 582 

539- Storage at ports of export 584 

540. Electric belt-conveyors for bagged grain 584 

541. Wharf-shed storage charges 586 

542. Construction and capacity of elevators 587 

543. Cost of erection of elevators 589 

544. Firms of elevator engineers 589 

545. Elevator systems 589 

546. The working of elevators 591 

547. Elevator charges 591 

548. Elevator certificates 593 

549- Qualifications for managership of local elevators .... 594 

550. Heating of grain in the elevator 594 

551. Heating caused by moisture 594 

552. Loss of weight due to heating 595 

553. Degree of dryness required for export 595 

554. Conditioning wet maize 598 

555. Ocean freight 600 

556. Shipping 601 

557. Tonnage 602 

558. Importing ports of Europe 604 

559. Bulk handling at ports of import 604 

560. British elevators 606 

561. New silo and grain-handling plant at Immingham Dock . . . 606 

562. New silo for the Manchester Ship Canal Co 609 

563. Continental elevators 610 



XXIV CONTENTS 

SECTION PAGE 

564. Canadian elevators 611 

565. United States terminal elevators 611 

566. Argentine elevators 612 

567. Silos and grain-handling plant at Puerto Galvan, Argentina . 613 

568. Private ownership of elevators ........ 614 

569. Railway ownership and control of elevators ..... 614 

570. Co-operative elevators 615 

571. The European market ......... 615 

572. Sale by sample 617 

573. Import duty 617 

574. Classes of maize required by the European market .... 618 

575. Differences in market value of maize grades ..... 619 

576. Number of South African classes 619 

577. Standards of weight and measurement 620 

578. Relative weight and bulk of South African maize .... 622 

579. International trade in maize 622 

580. United States exports 623 

581. American maize grades ......... 624 

582. Kiln-drying American maize for export ...... 627 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE MILLING, MILL-PRODUCTS, AND CHEMICAL 
COMPOSITION OF MAIZE GRAIN. 

The Milling and Mill-products of Maize. 

583} Native methods of grinding ........ 629 

584. Modern milling methods ......... 629 

585. Condition for milling .......... 630 

586. Mill-products of maize 630 

587. Hominy-mill products 631 

588. Best sorts of maize for milling ........ 633 

589. Construction of modern milling machinery ...... 634 

590. Cleaning and preparation 636 

591. Grinding 637 

592. The millstone process 637 

593. The roller-mill process . . . . . . . . . 640 

594. Loss in milling ........... 642 

595. Samp 642 

596. Flaked maize 643 

Chemical Composition. 

597. Importance of a knowledge of the chemical composition . . . 643 

598. The important chemical constituents of foodstuffs .... 645 

599. Chemical composition of the whole grain ...... 646 

600. Protein 646 

601. Protein obtainable from 100 lbs. of maize grain 647 

602. The proteids of maize grain 648 

603. Zein 649 

604. Ether extract or " fat " 650 

605. Carbohydrates 651 

606. Ash 651 

607. Water 652 

608. Physical composition of the grain 653 

609. Mechanical separation of the different parts for analysis . . 654 

610. Relative proportions of the parts of the grain . . • . . 656 

611. Chemical composition of the physical parts of the grain . . . 656 

612. The tip cap 658 



CONTENTS XXV 

SECTION PAGE 

613. The hull 658 

614. The embryo 659 

615. The endosperm ........... 660 

616. The horny gluten 660 

617. The horny starch .......... 661 

618. The white starchy parts ......... 662 

619. Chemical composition of different varieties and breeds of South 

African maize 662 

620. Chemical composition of different varieties of North American maize 664 

621. Composition of maize grain grown in different localities . . . 665 

622. Relative feeding-value of maize, wheat, and other cereals . . . 667 

623. Composition of maize by-products ....... 668 

624. Composition of maize bran compared with wheat bran . . . 66g 

625. Digestibility of maize products ........ 670 

626. Actual amounts of protein, etc., obtainable from each part of the grain 670 

CHAPTER XIV. 
MAIZE GRAIN AS FOOD. 

627. The uses of maize grain 673 

For Human Food. 

628. Maize the staple foodstuff of the American aborigines . . . 673 

629. Maize adopted as the staple food of the African races .... 675 

630. Use of maize in tropical Africa, in 1795 ...... 676 

631. An important article of diet of the American people .... 677 

632. Probable increase in demand among the white races .... 678 

633. Advantages of maize as an article of food 678 

634. Injurious effect of unsound maize 680 

635. Pellagra 680 

636. Variety of maize preparations available ...... 684 

637. Maize meal, corn meal or mielie meal 686 

638. Corn-flour, Oswego, Maizena, etc 688 

639. Maize starch 688 

640. Samp, hominy, and cerealine 688 

641. Stamped mielies 688 

642. Whole or crushed maize as a " cereal food " ..... 68g 

643. Corn-flakes, silver-flakes, corn-crisp, fanko, etc 689 

644. Tortillas and enchilladas ......... 690 

645. Maize as a " green " vegetable 690 

646. To keep maize on the cob ......... 691 

647. Dried maize for winter use ......... 691 

648. Maize as a sweetmeat 692 

649. Glucose 692 

650. Maize stalks as a source of sugar and syrup ..... 693 

651. Corn oil 6g6 

652. Maize vinegar 696 

653. Maize juice ........... 697 

654. Fermentation products of the grain 698 

655. Beer 700 

656. Whisky and gin 700 

657. Coffee substitute 700 

For Stock Food. 

658. Maize grain for stock food 701 

659. Grain and pasturage .......... 702 

660. Feeding maize on the cob 704 

661. Frequency of feeding grain . ........ 705 



xxvi CONTENTS 

SECTION PAGE 

662. Preparation of grain for feeding 705 

663. Dry V. soaked maize .......... 706 

664. Maize-and-cob meal 706 

665. Maize-cob charcoal .......... 708 

666. Maize meal ............ 709 

667. Maize meal for pigs 710 

668. Maize meal for lambs .......... 710 

669. Mill and factory by-products for feeding 711 

670. Maize bran 711 

671. Gluten feed 711 

672. Gluten meal 712 

673. Maize "germ" 713 

674. Corn-oil cake 714 

675. Germ meal or corn-oil meal 714 

676. Distillers' grains 714 

677. Distillery slop 715 

678. Brewers' grains 715 

679. "New corn product" 715 

680. Cerealine-feed 715 

681. " Hominy-chop " and " hominy-feed " 715 

682. Maize for dairy cows . 716 

683. Maize rations for dairy cows . . . . . . . . 7^7 

684. Maize for fattening cattle 719 

685. Maize for work-oxen 721 

686. Maize for horses ........... 721 

687. Maize for sheep 724 

688. Maize for pigs 726 

689. Maize for ostriches and poultry 729 

690. Manurial value of foodstuffs 730 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE PRESERVATION AND USE OF MAIZE STOVER, HAY 
AND SILAGE, FOR STOCK FOOD. 

691. Loss of stock from lack of winter food 732 

692. The remedy 733 

693. The feeding-value of an acre of maize ...... 734 

694. Yield of dry fodder 736 

695. Yield of green maize forage and silage 736 

696. Food value of weeds 737 

697. Forms in which maize can be preserved for stock food . . . 737 

698. Relative composition of maize stover, fodder, silage, and grain . . 737 

699. Relative digestibility of maize fodder, stover, and silage . . . 738 

700. Amount of digestible matter in different parts of the maize plant . 739 

701. Loss of weight and of feeding value and other changes due to curing . 739 

702. Losses in the silo 739 

703. Maize stover 740 

704. Stover for dairy cows .......... 741 

705. Stover for sheep 742 

706. Maize fodder or " shockedcorn " ....... 743 

707. Maize fodder for dairy cows ........ 744 

708. Maize fodder for bullocks 744 

709. Composition of dry maize fodder ....... 745 

710. Relative value of fodder from different varieties 745 

711. Moisture-content of maize fodder and stover 746 

712. Green maize forage 746 

713. Relative value of green maize forage from different varieties . . 746 

714. Maize silage 747 



CONTENTS xxvii 

SECTION PAGE 

715. Maize for silage may be planted late 749 

716. Uses of silage 749 

717. Silage for dairy cows .......... 749 

718. Silage for bullocks 75o 

719. Maize silage v. Timothy hay 750 

720. Maize silage v. roots .......... 75^ 

721. Comparative farm value of maize grown for silage and for grain . . 751. 

722. Cost of silage production 75^ 

723. Amount of silage required for feeding 752 

724. The feeding of silage 752 

725. Silage feeding-table 753 

726. Importance of a "balanced" ration 753 

727. " Nutritive ratios " of some foodstuffs 755 

728. Mixtures to increase the feeding-value of maize silage . . . 756 

729. Kinds of silage 757 

730. Composition of maize silage ........ 757 

731. Changes in the protein due to ensiling 75^ 

732. Moisture-content of maize silage 759 

733. Composition of maize silage compared with that of green maize forage 759 

734. Popular objections to silage 759 

735. Best breeds of maize for silage 760 

736. Planting-distance for silage or fodder-maize 761 

737. Best condition of the maize crop for harvesting 761 

738. Methods of ensiling 7^1 

739. The addition of salt 762 

740. The modern silo 7^2 

741. The stack silo 7^3 

742. The pit silo , 7^4 

742A. The American cornstalk disease 7^8 



CHAPTER XVI. 
CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN SILOS. 



743. Historical 

744. Form . 

745. Size . 

746. Capacity 

747. Position 

748. Materials 

749. Reinforced 

750. Floor . 

751. Walls . 

752. Plaster 

753. Roof . 

754. Doors . 

755. Chute . 



770 
771 
772 
773 
774 
775 
776 
778 
778 
778 
780 
780 
781 



CHAPTER XVn. 

USES OF MAIZE PRODUCTS IN THE ARTS AND 
MANUFACTURES. 

756. Importance of maize products for manufacturing purposes . . . 782 

757. Starch 7^3 

758. Dextrine 7^5 

759. Corn-oil 7^5 

760. Rubber filler 785 



xxviii CONTENTS 

SECTION PAGE 

761. Glycerine ............ 786 

762. De-natured alcohol 786 

763. Gas for illumination and heating 792 

764. Maize charcoal ........... 793 

765. Paper material 793 

766. Cellulose 798 

767. Other uses for maize husks ........ 799 

768. Other uses for maize cobs 801 

769. Maize chaff ........... 801 

770. "Zea" or maize-silk .......... 801 

771. " Maidis Ustilago " 802 

772. Maize-straw for thatching 802 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

BY CHAPTERS. 

General the Right Hon. Louis Botha, P.C. (Photograph by Fred Coop 
of Pretoria) Frontispiece 



CHAPTER I. 



PAGE 



FIG. 

1. A field of maize on the demonstration farms of Messrs. John Fowler 

& Co. (Leeds), Ltd., at Vereeniging 2 

2. In a maize field in the Transvaal Bush-veld (Tzaneen, Zoutpansberg 

District) 3 

3. Fields of maize, Government Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom, Trans- 

vaal. (Photograph by Fred Coop of Pretoria) .... 7 

4. Maize fields at Vereeniging, on the High-veld of the Transvaal . . 8 

CHAPTER II. 

5. Effect of hail on the leaves of the maize plant 34 

6. Effect of hail on the stem and leaves of the maize plant • • • 35 

7. Grains which have been fertilized but not fully filled with starch, pro- 

bably o^ving to drought 38 

8. Grains cracked from exposure to unfavoura.^'.e weather conditions . 38 

9. Grains cracked from exposure to unfavourable weather conditions . 39 

CHAPTER IV. 

10. Teosinte, Euchlcena mexicana L., a near relative of the maize plant, 

and the only species with which it is known to hybridize . . 66 

11. Maize plants in the Transvaal 67 

12. Flowering plants of maize {Zea Mays L.). (Photograph by Dr. W. 

Macdonald) 68 

13. Plant cells, as seen under a high-power microscope, showing strands 

of protoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus, etc. (From Sir F. Darwin's 
Elements of Botany) 69 

14. Transverse section through a leaf (of hellebore), showing tissues and 

cells. {¥xom^\r¥.T>3LTW\n''s Elements of Botany) . . . 6g 

15. Embryo and endosperm of maize 70 

16. Germinating maize grains ......... 7^ 

17. Maize grains planted upside down 73 

18. Maize seedlings at two stages of growth ...... 74 

19. Part of a transverse section of maize stem. (From Cavers' Practical 

Botany) 76 

20. Transverse section of vascular bundle of maize. (From do.) . . 76 

21. Part of a radial longitudinal section of maize stem. (From do.) . 77 

22. Part of a tangential longitudinal section of maize stem. (From do.) . 77 

23. Base of young maize plant ......... 79 

24. Bisexual tassels of sucker-shoots, bearing small round grains . . 80 

25. Leaf sheath and base of blade 81 

26. Leaf sheath • ■ . ■ ^^ 

27. Three stomata with surrounding epidermic cells. (From Sir F. Darwin's 

Elements of Botany) 83 

28. Tassel of Odessa maize ......••• 84 

xxix 



XXX LIST OF ILL US TRA TIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

2g. Young ear showing silks ready for pollination 85 

30. Young ears showing silks at different stages of development . . 86 

31. Young ear with fully developed silk 87 

32. Young ear with husks removed 88 

33. Bisexual tassel of a sucker-shoot ........ 88 

34. Bisexual tassel (bearing small ears) of a sucker-shoot .... 89 

35. Bisexual tassel on main stem ........ 89 

36. Bisexual ear ........... 90 

37. Bisexual ear 90 

38. Silks injured by larvae ......... 91 

39. Blind ear, on which the silks have failed to develop .... 92 

40. Tassel of sugar maize .......... 95 

41. Spikelets of the maize plant. (After De Vries) 96 

42. Pollen grains of maize ......... 96 

43. Effect of complete or partial lack of pollination ..... 97 

44. Effect of partial pollination 98 

45. Young ear showing homology of husks 99 

46. Young ear showing ovaries and styles (" silks ") 100 

47. Two-lobed ear loi 

48. Bifid ear ............ loi 

49. Branched ear of Hickory King ........ 102 

50. Branched ear of Ladysmith . 102 

51. Pod maize {Zea Mays var. tiinicata) 103 

52. The style or silk 104 

53. Diagram showing course of pollen tube through style to ovule. (After 

drawing by C. S. Ridgway, in Duggar's Southern Field Crops) . 106 

54. The embryo-sac in maize at time of fertilization. (After drawing by 

F. E. Lloyd in Duggar's Southern Field Crops, by permission of 

The Macmillan Company) ........ 107 

55. Four secondary ears developed from the nodes on the shank of a single 

ear no 

56. Secondary ear developing from a node of the shank . . . .111 

57. Maize plants developing two ears 112 

58. Left-hand twist of rows 116 

59. Right-hand twist of rows 117 

60. Enlarged section through hull of maize grain. (From Passmore and 

Webber) . . . . . . . . . .119 

6i. Variation in shape of maize grains. (From U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture Year-book) 120 

CHAPTER V. 

62. '' l^whhins," oi Hickory King ; one cause of poor yields . . . 135 

63. Desirable and undesirable types of Hickory King .... 136 

64. Increasing yield by mcreasing depth of grain ..... 149 

65. A desirable type for selection 150 

66. Increasing yield by increasing number of rows at the butt . . -151 

67. Result of breeding for reduction of sulci ...... 152 

68. Variation in shape and size of grain in the same breed . . . 153 

69. Shortening the growing season ........ 155 

70. Result of weak stalks 157 

71. A heterozygous Fj ear 164 

72. Segregation of characters after crossing Pj and Fj ears . . . 165 

73. Segregation of characters in ¥^ ears 166 

74. Segregation of characters in the F3 (seed) generation : all-black ears . 167 

75. Segregation of characters in the F3 (seed) generation : black-and-white 

ears ............ 169 

76. Segregation of characters in the Fj (seed) generation : all-white ears . 170 

77. Part starchy, part wrinkled grain 176 

78. Xenia in colour 178 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxxi 

FIG. PAGE 

79. Diagram to illustrate segregation of characters 181 

80. Somatic variation in pericarp colour ....... 190 

81. Inheritance of size characters : Pj plant generation . . . -195-6 

82. Inheritance of size characters : Fj plant generation . .... 196-7 

83. Inheritance of row numbers ........ I99 

84. Inheritance of row numbers 203 

85. Fasciated and lobed ears 206 

86. Laterally branched ear 207 

87. A, Desirable shape of grain ; B, Device for standardizing grains . . 217 

88. Selecting seed maize : the final selection 223 

89. Selecting the best ears from the bulk plot 227 

90. A new breed of maize in process of development. (Courtesy of the 

South African Railways Publicity Department) .... 232 

CHAPTER VI. 

91. Exhibit of the Division of Botany, Transvaal Department of Agri- 

culture, at the First South African Maize and Citrus Show, 

Johannesburg, 1910 236 

92. Maize Exhibits at the First South-African Maize and Citrus Show, 

Johannesburg, 1910 ......... 248 

93. American students learning to judge maize 270 

CHAPTER VII. 

94. A, Hickory King, unusually good ear, but sulci too wide ; B, Lady- 

smith 285 

95. Hjc^o^j KJH^; A, defective tip; B, a good average ear . . . 287 

96. Variation in ears of Hickory King ....... 288 

97. Ladysmith Hickory ; a promising but unfixed cross-bred grown at 

Ladysmith, Natal 290 

98. 12-row Hickory or " Hickory Horsetooth " . . . . . . 290 

99. Salisbury White 292 

100. Noodsberg Horsetooth ; a promising, unfixed cross-bred . . . 292 

loi. Mercer 293 

102. Virginia Horsetooth 294 

103. A, grains of Mercer ; B, surplus crop after filling Mr. Mercer's barn 296 

104. lo-row Hickory or " Louisiana " ....... 297 

105. Two prize ears of lo-row Hickory, at the First South African Maize 

Show. A, grown by Reynolds Bros. ; B, grown by Hutchinson 

and Shaw (Val Station, Transvaal) 298 

106. Iowa Silver-mine, a prize ear 299 

107. Two prize ears of loioa Silver-mine, at the First South African Maize 

Show. A, grown by W. A. McLaren (Vereeniging) ; B, grown by 

M. Geerdts (Boksburg, Transvaal) 300 

108. Boone County 301 

109. Variation in types of Ladysmith 302 

no. Natal White Horsetooth ; short type 303 

111. Natal White Horsetooth x Hickory King 304 

112. A, Eureka: B, Chester County .' 305 

113. h. Golden Beauty ; B, Yellow Hogan 307 

114. Yellow Horsetooth or German Yellow 308 

115. Reid Yellow Dent 310 

116. Minnesota Early Sn 

117. Star Learning 3" 

118. Golden Eagle, as grown in Rhodesia 3i3 

iig. Cango, North Dakota, and Wills Gehu 318 

120. A, New England 8-row ; B, Improwed Yellow Botman . . . 3^9 

121. A, Gillespie yellow flint (Red-cob); grown by W. Gillespie, Zand- 

spruit, Transvaal .....,...• 321 



xxxu LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

122. Brazilian flour corn; grown by F. le Roux, Volksrust, Transvaal; 

prize ear at the First South African Maize Show, igio . . 321 

123. Arcadia Sugar-tnaize ; improvement by breeding .... 325 

124. Pop-corn, Zea Mays var. prcecox ....... 326 

CHAPTER VIII. 

125. Effect of basic slag on the maize crop 368 

126. Effect of growing maize without manure (on plot adjacent to that 

shown in Fig. 127) 369 

127. Effect of superphosphate and nitrate of soda mixed .... 370 

128. Effect of manganese compounds on maize 371 

129. Effect of sulphate of potassium on maize ...... 372 

CHAPTER IX. 

130. Primitive method of preparing land for maize, in Zululand . . . 375 

131. Deep ploughing by steam ; 12 furrows at a time by direct traction . 375 

132. The " Fowler " direct traction engine (for oil or coal) .... 376 

133. Disk cultivating; double-engine system ...... 378 

134. Harrowing by steam ; double-engine system ..... 378 

135. Zigzag harrow. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co., Ltd.) . . 379 

136. Riding cultivator. (Courtesy of do.) ....... 379 

137. Riding disk cultivator. (Courtesy of do.) 380 

138. Spring-tooth harrows. (Courtesy of do.) 380 

139. Harrowing the young maize plants, Vereeniging .... 381 

140. Part of the gang of fifty-two " Champion " planters at work on Messrs. 

John Fowler & Co.'s demonstration farms at Vereeniging . . 382 

141. Fowler's steam planter 383 

142. Combined lister and planter ........ 386 

143. A, a home-made hand planter for maize. (After Myrick, The Book of 

Corn) 387 

B, home-made marker for planting maize by hand. (After Myrick, 

The Book of Corn) 387 

144. Maize planter, " Moline Champion " ....... 388 

145. Cultivating maize lands in Kaffraria ....... 397 

146. Steam-cultivating maize plants 36 inches high, with spring-tooth 

cultivators doing 6 rows at a time. (Courtesy of Messrs. John 

Fowler & Co., Ltd.) 398 

147. "New Western" cultivator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co., 

Ltd.) 399 

148. Anti-clog weeder . . . . . . . . . . 400 

149. "Captain Kidd" cultivator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co., 

Ltd.) 400 

150. " Single Dutchman " cultivator. (Courtesy of do.) .... 401 

151. Adjustable cultivator. (Courtesy of do.) ...... 401 

152. Adjustable weeders. (Courtesy of do.) . . ... 402 

153. Steam-ploughing and subsoil packing the land at Vereeniging; 

double-engine system. (Courtesy of Messrs. John Fowler & Co., 

Ltd.) 403 

154. " Lucky Jim " weeder. An implement lor cleaning the growing crop 404 

155. " Red King" cultivator. Another implement for cleaning the grow- 

ing crop ........... 404 

CHAPTER X. 

156. Brown rust of maize 407 

157. Maize smut or brand on the tassel . . . .410 

158. Maize smut or brand on the ear 411 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxxiii 

FIG. PAGE 

i5g. A and B, dry-rot of maize, Diplodia Zece — 

A. ear showing white hyphae ....... 413 

B, grains showing small black fruiting bodies of the fungus . . 413 

160. Rooibloem, Striga Intea Lour. ........ 423 

161. Rooibloem, Striga Intea Lour. (Drawn from plate by Mr. Claude 

Fuller, in first report of Government Entomologist of Natal) . 425 

162. Chacma baboon, ChcByopithecns porcarius. (From Transvaal Agricul- 

tural Jounml) . ... . . . . . . . 428 

163. Jumping hare or spring-haas, Pedetcs caffer. (Photograph from 

specimen in Cambridge University Museum of Zoology) . . 432 

164. Maize ear damaged by small birds ....... 434 

165. Maize stalk-borer, Sesamiafusca Hampson. (From coloured plate by 

McManus, Hlustrating article by C. W. Mally in Cape Agricul- 
tural Journal) .......... 439 

166. Striped beard-grub pupa in sheath at base of ear 445 

167. Locusts. (Photograph by Exton, Pietersburg, Transvaal) . • . 447 

CHAPTER XL 

168. Maize crop ready for harvest. (Courtesy of Publicity Department, 

S. African Railways) ......... 454 

169. Harvested ears of maize carried to the headland ready for shelling . 462 

170. Cane knife used for cutting maize 463 

171. A device for cutting maize in the field. (After Myrick, The Book of 

Coryi) ............ 465 

172. Another device for cutting maize in the field. (From Transvaal 

Agricultural Journal) ......... 465 

173. McCormick maize binder. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & 

Co., Ltd.) 467 

174. Maize binder at work in America ....... 468 

175. Shocking maize in America 470 

176. Maize picker at work in America ....... 474 

177. Deering combined busker and shredder. (Courtesy of Messrs. 

Malcomess & Co., Ltd.) 477 

178. Marshall & Son's, sheller. (Courtesy of Messrs. D. E. Hockly & Co.) 478 

179. Steam traction sheller .......... 479 

180. Convertible hand or power sheller, suitable for small crops . . 480 

181. Native method of storing maize in trees, Swaziland .... 483 

182. Native method of storing maize in trees, Swellendam District . . 484 

183. Maize hock, Waterberg District 485 

184. Maize hock, Bechuanaland ......... 485 

185. Method of storing maize, Governinent Experiment Farm, Potchef- 

stroom 486 

186. Re-weighing and shipping stored maize, Vereeniging, Messrs. John 

Fowler & Co.'s store ......... 487 

187. Stacks of shelled maize at Vereeniging ready for market. (Courtesy 

of Messrs. John Fowler & Co., Leeds, Ltd.) ..... 487 

188. Drying maize, Marico District, 1904 ....... 489 

189. Native method of storing maize, Zoutpansberg 490 

190. Basuto " sesco" of woven grass, for storing grain. (Courtesy of the 

Director, MacGregor Memorial Museum, Kimberley) . . . 491 

igi. Effect of angoumois grain-moth on maize ears 495 

CHAPTER XII. 

192. Grading maize for shipment, Durban 569 

193. Re-bagging maize from small dealers, Vereeniging .... 578 

194. Granary and elevator ........•• 579 

195. Spencer's improved system of granary floor spouts. (Courtesy of 

Messrs. Spencer & Co., Ltd., Melksham) 580 

c 



xxxiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PIG. PAGE 

196. Automatic weighing and bagging off, from warehouse. (Courtesy of 

Messrs. W. & T. Avery, Ltd., Birmingham) .... 581 

197. Loading trucks, Vereeniging 582 

198. Grain silos at Puerto Galvan, Argentina. (Courtesy of Messrs. Henry 

Simon, Ltd.) ........... 583 

199. Loading s.s. Diinluce Castle with maize, by cranes, at Durban. 

(Courtesy of Union-Castle S.S. Co.) 585 

200. Grain conveyor-belts .......... 586 

201. Central granary, Milwall Docks, London. (Courtesy of Messrs. 

Goldstiick, Hainze & Co.) . 588 

202. Steamer being discharged by travelling elevator, Victoria Docks, 

London. (Courtesy of Messrs. Spencer & Co., Ltd., Melksham) . 590 

203. Steamer being discharged by floating elevator, Surrey Commercial 

Dock, London. (Courtesy of Messrs. Goldstiick, Hainzd & Co.) . 592 

204. A, drying wet maize, Durban wharves, 1909 ..... 596 
B, maize dried and re-graded, ready for shipment .... 596 

205. The Hess grain-drier for conditioning grain ..... 597 

206. Vertical section through Hess grain-drier ...... 598 

207. Granary and barge elevator on the Thames. (Courtesy of Messrs. 

Spencer & Co., Ltd., Melksham) 600 

208. Diagram of floating pneumatic elevator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Henry 

Simon, Ltd., Manchester) 603 

209. Diagram showing general arrangement of barge elevator and auto- 

matic weigher. (Courtesy of do.) ...... 605 

210. Grain warehouses, London, fitted with Avery scales. (Courtesy of 

Messrs. W. & T. Avery, Ltd., Birmingham) .... 607 

211. Travelling ship elevator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Henry Simon, Ltd., 

Manchester) 608 

212. Terminal grain silos, Bahia Blanca, Argentina. (Courtesy of Messrs. 

Spencer & Co., Ltd., Melksham) 612 

213. Interior of the Baltic Exchange, London. (Courtesy of the Secretary) 616 

CHAPTER XIII. 

214. Zigzag separator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Samuelson, Banbury) . . 636 

215. Diagram of maize meal plant. (Courtesy of do.) .... 637 

216. " Dreadnought" grinder. (Courtesy of Messrs. W. S. Barron & Son, 

Gloucester) 638 

217. Diagram of " Dreadnought " grinder. (Courtesy of do.) . . . 639 

218. Centrifugal dressing machine. (Courtesy of Messrs. Samuelson, 

Banbury) ........... 639 

219. Posser. (Courtesy of do.) 640 

220. Three-pair high roller mill for grinding maize. (Courtesy of do.) . 641 

221. Improved degerminator. (Courtesy of do.) ..... 642 

222. Hominy separator. (Courtesy of do.) ...... 643 

223. Diagram of samp plant. (Courtesy ol do.) 644 

224. Diagram of flaked-maize plant. (Courtesy of do.) .... 644 

225. Physical composition of low-protein maize grain. (After Hopkins ; 

from Bulletin of Illinois State Agricultural Experiment Station) . 649 

226. Physical composition of high-protein maize grain. (After do.) . . 653 

227. Enlarged longitudinal section of maize grain. (From Hunt, The 

Cereals in America, Orange Judd Co.) ...... 655 

228. Hull, endosperm, and embryo. (From Mjrick, The Book of Corn, 

Orange judd Co.) 659 

CHAPTER XIV. 

229. Shangaan kraal, Zoutpansberg ........ 675 

230. Zulus eating maize-meal pap 676 

231. Native women grinding maize ........ 687 

232. Modjajie women stamping mielies ....... 689 

^^3. Zulu women carrying kaffir beer for a "beer-drink" .... 699 



LIS T OF ILL US TRA TIONS xxxv 

CHAPTER XV. 

FIG. • I'AGE 

234. Cattle feeding on standing maize stover, Transvaal .... 740 

235. Shredding stover in the United States 742 

236. Shredded stover on an American farm ...... 743 

237. Filling silage-pit, Vereeniging. (Courtesy of Messrs. John Fovi'ler & 

Co., Leeds, Ltd.) 761 

238. Making stack-silage, Standerton District, Transvaal .... 764 

239. Stack-silo, Springbok Flats, Transvaal 765 

240. Cutting silage and filling pit, Burttholm, Vereeniging . . . 766 

CHAPTER XVI. 

241. Fining round silo in the United States 77^ 

242. Filling twin tub-silos, Australia 773 

243. Filling square stone silo, Irene, Transvaal 775 

244. Plan of silo. (Courtesy of Mr. A. Morrison Hay) .... 779 

CHAPTER XVn. 

245. Mats, etc., made of maize husks. (Courtesy of Ladies' Home 

journal) 800 



LIST OF TABLES 

BY CHAPTERS. 

CHAPTER 11. 

TABLE PAGE 

I. Comparative table of mean monthly temperatures ... 28 
II. Mean temperatures of the cereal belt of Argentina : November, 

December, January, and February ..... 29 

III. Mean monthly temperatures, Transvaal ..... 30 

IV. Mean minimum temperatures at Government Observatory, 

Johannesburg 31 

V. Mean minimum temperatures at Vereeniging .... 32 

VI. Mean minimum temperatures at Bethal 32 

VII. Rainfall of South Africa 40-1 



CHAPTER HI. 

VIII. The world's maize crop of igo6 47 

IX. Statistics of the maize-surplus States ..... 48 

X. Acreage under maize in India for ten years (1897-1907) . . 53 

XI. Acreage and yields of maize in the Indian Provinces . . 54 

XII. Areas and yields of Transvaal Districts ..... 60 

XIII. Maize production of Natal, 1906-7 61 

XIV. Area and yield of Natal Districts 62 

XV. Maize production of Cape Colony, 1906-7 ..... 64 



CHAPTER IV. 

XVI. Variation in time of flowering 93 

XVII. Correlation of flowering and ripening period .... 94 



CHAPTER V. 

XVIII. Summary of percentage stands of maize ..... 134 

XIX. Analysis of yields of 134 ears of /fu-^o^-j /^tH^ . . . 138 

XX. Analysis of yields of 100 ears of Natal White Horsetooth . 139 

XXI. Analysis of yields of 123 ears of Larfys7«ii/j .... 139 

XXII. Analysis of yields of 150 ears of Iowa Silver-mine and 10 ears 

of Chester County ........ 140 

XXIII. Analysis of yields of iro ears of Champion White Pearl (a 

breed closely allied to Iowa Silver-mine) .... 141 

XXIV. Analysis of yields of 170 ears of y^Z/ow //oy5f<oo</i . . . 141 
XXV. Analysis of yields of 352 ears of Yellow Hogan . . . 142 

XXVI. Analysis of yields of 200 ears of Go/(f<';i A'i;;^ .... 143 

XXVII. Analysis of yields of 370 ears of iyisro«sf« .... 144 

XXVIII. Analysis of yields of 100 ears of Skinners Court 10 . . . 145 



xxxviii LIST OF TABLES 

TABLE PAGE 

XXIX. Comparative weights and yields of grain of 1,684 ears of 

Transvaal-grown maize ....... 146 

XXX. Yield per acre from a 75 per cent stand, at various average 

weights per ear ......... 147 

XXXI. Percentage of grain to ear 148 

XXXII. Variation in composition and yield of different ears selected for 

breeding .......... 159 

XXXIII. Distribution of gametes in a dihybrid ..... 183 

XXXIV. Analysis of a dihybrid cross between white wrinkled and red 

starchy maize ......... 184 

XXXV. The distribution of gametes in a trihybrid ..... 185 

XXXVI. Classified summary of Table XXXV 186 

XXXVII. Summary of Table XXXVI 186 

XXXVIII. Frequency distribution of heights of maize plants in a cross 

(after East and Hayes) ....... 194 

XXXIX. Frequency distribution of lengths of ears in corn (after East 

and Hayes) 198 

XL. Row numbers in a family of ^rearfja S?<^ar-OTaJ2f . . 201-2 

XLI. Inheritance of row numbers in cross-bred maize . . . 204 

XLII. Inheritance of rows in a maize cross ..... 205 

XLIII. Performance-record of a breeding plot 226 



CHAPTER VI. 

XLIV. For conversion of centimetres to inches, in measuring circum- 
ference of ears 262 



CHAPTER VII. 

XLV. Summary of Potchefstroom breed tests 334 

XLVI. Relative yields of maize breeds, Government Experiment Farm, 

Potchefstroom, from 1904-11 335 

XLVII. Rainfall at Government Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom, 

1906-7 to 1909-10 ........ 338 

XLVIII. Relative yields of maize breeds at Government Experiment 

Farm, Cedara, Natal, 1904-5 340 

XLIX, Results of maize breed tests, Cedara, Natal, 1905-6 . . . 342 

L. Weights per bushel of South African shelled maize . . . 345 



CHAPTER IX. 

LI. Effect of treatment of soil on yield ...... 

LII. Effect of time of planting on yield ...... 

LIII. Results of distance tests on yield of //fcAoyj KiM^ 

LIV. Results of distance tests on yield of /owa S?7i)cr-wtw<? 

LV. Results of distance tests in Natal 

LVI. Number of plants per acre when sown at certain distances, 

allowing one plant per "hill" 

LVII. Effect of depth of planting on germination . . . . 



377 
384 
390 
390 
392 

394 
395 



CHAPTER XL 



LVIII. Influence of maturity on yield 

LIX. Influence of maturity on composition 

LX. Influence of maturity on composition of fodder . 

LXI. Shrinkage in weight of maize stored on the cob 

LXII. Relative weight of sound and country damaged maize 



457 
458 
459 
482 
493 



LIST OF TABLES 
CHAPTER XII. 

TABLE 

LXIII. Maize consumed by the De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd. 

during the twelve months ending 31 Dec, 1912 . 
LXIV. Mielie meal consumed in the compounds of the De Beers Con 

solidated Mines, Ltd., rgi2 ..... 
LXV. Variation in maize prices in South African markets . 
LXVL Comparative local prices for different classes of maize 
LXVIL Natal production, import and re-export of maize and maize-pro- 
ducts, 1904-6 

LXVIIL Transvaal maize imports, 1907-8 ..... 

LXIX. Average yearly prices of American and La Plata maize 
London ......... 

LXX. Prices of South African maize in Europe 
LXXL Comparative prices of South African maize in Europe 
LXXIL To change prices per quarter to prices per muid 
LXXIIL To change prices per 1,000 kilogrammes to prices per muid 



LXXIV. Amounts and sources of supply of South African maize, 1906-12 558 



LXXV. Export of maize and maize meal, 1911-12 
LXXVL Graded maize exported ex each port, 191 1 
LXXVIL Monthly maize exports from Durban, 1907-8 
LXXVIIL Destination of maize exported, igo8 
LXXIX. Destination of maize exported, igii 
LXXX. Amounts of maize exported through the several ports in 1912 
LXXXL Varieties and classes of maize exported from South Africa, 1911 
LXXXIL Maize rejected by graders, 1911 ..... 
LXXXIIL Number and capacity of United States terminal elevators 
LXXXIV. Table for reduction of bushels to muids .... 
LXXXV. World's exports of maize in bushels .... 

LXXXVL World's imports of maize in bushels .... 
LXXXVn. Moisture-content of American grades .... 



CHAPTER XIII. 



500 
502 
503 

504 
505 

512 
514 
515 
516 
517 



560 
562 
563 
564 
565 
566 
567 
570 
611 
621 
623 
624 
627 



LXXXVIIL Composition of parts of the grain as separated by the mill and 

by hand 632 

LXXXIX. Average composition of maize grain 646 

XC. Distribution of protein in parts of the maize grain . . . 647 

XCL Protein in 100 lbs. of maize 648 

XCIL Distribution of protein in 100 lbs. of maize .... 648 

XCin. Distribution of fat in maize 650 

XCIV. Distribution of carbohydrates in maize 651 

XCV. Distribution of ash in maize ....... 652 

XCVI. Relative proportions of the parts of the maize grain . . 656 

XCVIL Chemical composition of hull, embryo and endosperm . . 657 

XCVIIL Chemical composition of the physical parts of the grain . . 657 
XCIX. Percentage distribution of the chemical components of the 

grain . 657 

C. Percentage composition of the tip cap ..... 658 

CL Percentage composition of the hull 658 

CIL Percentage composition of the embryo ..... 660 

CIIL Percentage composition of horny gluten .... 661 

CIV. Percentage composition of horny starch 661 

CV. Percentage composition of white starch ..... 662 

CVL Chemical composition of different varieties and breeds . . 663 

CVIL Protein-content of eighteen samples of Transvaal maize . 664 
CVIIL Chemical composition of different varieties of North American 

maize .......... 665 

CIX. Composition of grain grown in different localities . . . 666 

GX. Chemical composition of the different cereals of the world . 668 



1 LIST OF TABLES 

TABLE _ PAGE 

CXI. Composition of some maize by-products ..... 668 

CXII. Comparison of maize and wheat products .... 66g 

CXIII. Composition of maize bran and wheat bran .... 669 

CXIV. Digestible nutrients in maize products .... 670 

CXV. Actual weight of protein, carbohydrates, fats and ash in 100 

lbs. of grain, and its distribution m each of the several 

parts of the grain 672 

CHAPTER XIV. 

CXVI. Total digestible nutrients in 100 lbs. of several cereals . . 678 

CXVII. Comparison ot the food-value of wheat bread and maize bread 679 

CXVIII. Sugar in maize juice at ditferent stages of plant growth . . 693 

CXIX. Relative feeding-value of gluten meal and cotton-seed meal . 713 

CXX. Theoretical rations for steers of 1,000 lbs. .... 720 

CXXI. Fertilizing constituents oi 1,000 lbs. of certain maize products 731 

CHAPTER XV. 

CXXII. Yield per acre of dry maize fodder ...... 736 

CXXIIl. Yield per acre of green maize forage ..... 736 

CXXIV. Relative composition of maize silage, fodder, stover, and grain 738 

CXXV. Relative digestibility of maize fodder, stover, and silage . 738 

CXXVI. Composition of the diiferent parts of the dry maize fodder . 745 

CXXVII. Relative value of fodder from ditferent varieties . . . 745 

CXXVIII. Silage feedmg table 754 

CXXI.X. Nutritive ratios for different animals ..... 75,1 

CXXX. Nutritive ratios of different foodstuffs ..... 755 
CXXXI. Composition of maize silage compared with that of green 

maize forage ......... 760 

CHAPTER XVI. 

CXXXII. Capacity of silos 774 



CHAPTER I. 

IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY. 

Heer, of one grain of maiz, a reed doth spring 
That thrice a year five hundred grains doth bring. 

— Sylvester, translation of Du Bartas' Divine 
Weekes and Workes, i. 3. 

All around the happy village stood the maize-fields. 

— Hiawatha. 



Importance. . 

I . Importance of the Maise Crop.— MdiXZQ is one of the staple 
food crops of the world ; the quantity produced is greater than 
that of any other cereal, and climatic conditions alone limit 
its more widespread cultivation. In those countries adapted 
to its production it is more extensively grown than any other 
grain. The total world's crop reaches the extraordinary 
figure of 1,085,700,000 muids (3,875,927,000 bushels, or 108^ 
million Colonial tons). Of this more than 75 per cent is pro- 
duced in the United States, where the acreage is about double, 
and the total production about four times that of wheat. The 
whole of civilized Africa produces, at present, only about one 
per cent of the world's supply. The following figures show 
the comparative world's crop of the leading cereals for a single 
year : — 



Maize 


3.875.927,000 bushels 


Oats . 


3>532,47O'0O0 


Wheat . 


3,428,998,000 


Rice . 


3,203,782,000 


Rye . . . 


1,432,395.000 " 


Barley 


i,293,9i6,coo 




16,767,488,000 



CHAP. 
I. 



The domestic consumption of maize in the United States 
is at the rate of 7-i4^muids (25-5 bushels) per capita of popu- 

I 



MAIZE 



;hap. 
I, 



lation, which is said {Hunt, i) to be the heaviest rate of 
consumption of any cereal by any people in the world ; it is 
nearly twice as much, according to population, as the con- 
sumption in Europe of all the other cereals. 

Maize is one of the easiest crops to grow, standing more 
rough usage than perhaps any other ; a favourite Kaffir method 
of planting is to scatter the seed broadcast over the unbroken 
veld and then plough the ground ; even with this crude treat- 
ment crops of 1 1 to 2 muids ^ of grain per acre are obtained. 




Fig. I. — A field of maize on the Demonstration Farms of Messrs. John 
Fowler & Co. (Leeds), Ltd., at Vereeniging, Traansvaal. 



Davis (2), writing of maize and wheat in Argentina, points out 
that not only are they the two cereals requiring the least amount 
of capital, expense, and labour for their production, but that 
there is always an assured and immediate demand for them in 
the market. 

The farm value of maize must not be calculated .solely on 
the yield of grain, important as that is, for its total yield per acre 
of vegetable matter is larger than that of almost any other 

' I muid =- 200 lbs. avoirdupois. 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 3 

farm crop. Maize produces a large quantity of " stover" (the CHAP 
stalk and leaves after the ears have been removed), which is of ^' 
considerable use for winter-feeding stock if properly harvested ; 
this should be taken into account in estimating the relative 
value of the crop. The husks, stalks, and cobs are also used 
for a number of manufacturing purposes, which are mentioned 



1 






1 




rf 


i 




^a 



Fig. 2. — ^In a maize field in the Transvaal Bush-veld (Tzaneen, Zoutpans- 
berg District). 

in detail in a later chapter. As silage material, maize is one 
of the very best crops that can be grown, both on account of 
its heavier yield per acre and also because of the succulence 
and physical character of the plant, which render it peculiarly 
suitable to the process of ensiling. 

We still hear South African farmers say that " maize is a 
I * 



4 MAIZE 

CHAP. Kaffir crop, and that maize-growing does not pay the more 

'■ ambitious white farmer. We hope to show in the following 

pages that, except where abnormal economic or unfavourable 

climatic conditions prevail, this is not the case when the crop 

is grown properly. 

2. WJiat the American Farmer Tliinks of It. — In view of 
the fact that the United States produces 820,000,000 muids of 
maize per annum — three-quarters of the world's crop — and that 
this is not grown with cheap "native" labour, it may be well 
to look for a moment at the attitude of the American farmer 
towards the maize crop. In the United States it is a common 
saying that "Corn is King". "Corn " in America is maize. 

The American farmer has earned the reputation of being a 
shrewd business man who does not conservatively stick to a 
crop whether it continues to pay or not, because his fore- 
fathers grew it ; if anything, he is inclined to change too 
rapidly, and to "scrap" anything which he considers unprofit- 
able. If maize did not pay he would soon drop it ; but we 
find on the contrary that he has 108,750,000 acres under 
maize although, in 1906, his maize crop paid him only 5s. i id. 
per muid, and in 1896 the farm price was only 3s. i^d. per muid. 

3. Maize is the Leading Product of America. — Mr. T. N. 
Carver (i), Professor of Economics in Harvard University, 
boldly states, and then proceeds to demonstrate, that maize 
is the leading product of the United States of America 

\ and maize-growing its leading industry. Not only is it 
grown more extensively than any other cereal, but the maize 
, crop of the United States considerably exceeds in value that 
of wheat and cotton combined. No other American product 
, or group of products equals it in value. In 1899 the value 
was greater by about i^5, 000,000 (five million pounds sterling) 
than that of all the products of the great iron and steel 
industry. It is the staple grain crop in most of the States of 
the Union, and its culture maintains a larger number of 
American people than any other industry. We hear much 
about the American wheat crop, but comparison of American 
crops of wheat and maize shows that where the total value to 
the farmer of a crop of wheat is $9-07 (;^i 17s. lod.) per acre, 
the maize crop is worth $14*56 (;^3 os. 8d.) ; or, if we add 
the value of the straw, stover, or fodder, the relative values are : 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 5 

wheat, $16-26 {£1 /s. 9d.) and maize, $5072 (^^5 lis. 4d.) CHAP, 
per acre. 

4. Amount and Value of the United States Crop. — The 
total production for all the North American States (not in- 
cluding Canada and Mexico) amounts to 2,927,416,000 (two 
billion, nine hundred and twenty-seven million) bushels, and 
the farm value, at a shade above 6s. 6d. per muid, is over 
i^2 67, 000,000. About 98^ per cent of this immense crop is 
wanted for domestic consumption and only the surplus i^ per 
cent is exported ; i \ per cent of such a crop is no small quantity, 
however, for it amounts to over 12,000,000 (twelve million) 
muids. 

The acre value of the maize crop in the United States 
varied in one year from i8s. 8d, on the poorer soils of South 
Carolina, to £\ 9s. 4d. in Rhode Island, where more intensive 
agriculture is practised, and from ;^i 13s. 4d. to £2 los. in 
the Corn-belt, and that was a year when the farm price of 
maize was only 357 cents per bushel (5.S. 3d. per muid). 

5. American Maize is not Grown for Export. — By far the 
largest part of the maize corn produced in the Corn-belt 
never leaves the farm on which it is grown, except in the form 
of a second product. Nearly every maize-grower finds it 
more profitable to turn the major part of his crop into beef 
or pork before it is sold. It is customary to buy up three- 
year-old steers, or flocks of sheep, raised on the Western 
stock ranges, to fatten on maize corn and stover through the 
winter; in the spring they are " finished off" on maize corn 
and green pasturage, and are ready for sale on the stock 
markets of Chicago ,and other Western cities in June and 
July. Hogs are raised on the spare milk of the farm, and when 
older are allowed to follow the steers and pick out the un- 
digested grain from the droppings, and are finally fattened 
off on maize and sent to market. A certain amount of the corn 
is eaten green as a boiled vegetable ; some is ground - into 
"corn-meal " for domestic use ; only a small amount of grain is 
left to sell for manufacture or export. It has been well said 
that maize is and always will be the King of Crops, and the 
greatest of all cattle feeds. 

6. Maize is a White Maris Crop. — Maize is essentially 
a white man's crop, and Prof Carver (i) doubts whether it 



6 MAIZE 

CHAP. " could be grown at all, as it is grown in the Corn-belt, if 
dependence had to be placed upon negro labour". The 
labour employed in that part of the country is entirely white, 
earning about ^"^ per month and board the year round. Yet 
that maize pays under these conditions is evident on all sides ; 
it pays because it is a crop which can be handled almost en- 
tirely by machinery ; because the soil is in good tilth ; because 
the crop is kept clean ; and, last but not least, because the 
farmer uses well-bred seed. 

It is an instructive fact that in the American Maize-belt 
the enormous aggregate of the crop is made up of the pro- 
ducts of a large number of small or moderate-sized farms, 
running from 80 to 300 acres in size, and worked mainly 
by the owners themselves or by tenants who pay cash rent. 
The reason for this. Prof. Carver (i) concludes, is that maize- 
growing requires a higher class of farming than any of the 
other staple crops, and cannot be so successfully carried on with 
hired labour alone. It requires such close and conscientious 
attention that it is doubtful if large farms, where the work 
is done by hired labour, can ever compete successfully with 
the smaller farms where the owner or renter does the work 
himself, or at least has it done under his immediate care and 
attention. With increased size of farm (as in the Western 
States), there is noticeable a general decline in the intensity 
of cultivation and consequent yield per acre, for good culti- 
vation is essential to a good maize crop. 

7. Maize is the Staple Crop of South Africa. — Maize is not 
only the staple food crop of the South African Kafifir, it has 
become an important item in the diet of the white people ; 
but more than this, it has also become the staple cash crop of 
the South African farmer. In one of the writer's first Reports 
to the Director of the Transvaal Department of Agriculture, 
he stated that " Maize is a crop eminently suited to the Trans- 
vaal ; every farmer grows it to a limited extent, and a vast 
quantity could be produced if he knew how to dispose of it. 
By the application of capital and the use of proper machinery, 
the maize crop can be made extremely profitable." Further 
observation and study not only confirm this view, but show 
that perhaps no country in the world is better suited to 
maize-growing on a large scale than South Africa ; it has an 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 



ample average rainfall, at the right season of the year, and chap. 
phenomenally favourable winter weather for the natural pro- 
duction of the quality of grain most suitable for shipment. 
In fact the climatic conditions of a large part of the Orange 
Free State, Transvaal, Natal, Rhodesia, Basutoland, Swaziland, 
and the Transkei are all that could be desired for maize- 
growing. 

8. Future Possibilities of Development in South Africa. — 
European corn brokers have recently referred to South Africa 
as the future maize granary of Europe. Maize will always be 




•r-.»^s^ 



Fig. 3. — -Fields of maize, Government Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom, 
Transvaal. (Photograph by Fred Coop of Pretoria.) 

the staple cash crop of South Africa. As its value for stock 
food becomes better appreciated, the local demand will increase, 
and in this connection Earl Grey's recent prophecy^ of a 
coming shortage in the world's beef supply is suggestive. At 
the present time the country has only begun to show that it 
is possible to produce good maize. The traveller is impressed 
with the enormous areas of fertile land, suitable for growing 
maize, which are at present untouched by the plough, virgin 
sod like the American prairies. So far the average yield has 
been low ; but it has been clearly demonstrated that, by means 

' At the " South African Dinner," 1913. 



8 MAIZE 

CHAP, of good farming and good management, it can be trebled and 
even quadrupled. The present low yields are considered to just 
about cover expenses of production ; if the yield were more 
than doubled, therefore, maize-growing should pay, provided 
prices hold good and cost of export remains low. 

The exact acreage under maize in South Africa is not 
known, but it is grown on practically every occupied farm in 
the Transvaal Province. Many farmers are growing 200 to 
1,000 acres each, and at least three have 6,000 acres under 
crop to maize. A good deal is also grown by Kaffirs, for their 
own use, both on native locations and on rented farms. The 
farms average about 5,000 acres each, but the area planted to 




Fig. 4. — Five miles of maize fields at Vereeniging, on the High-veld of the 
Transvaal. 

maize is often not more than 5 to 10 acres per tarm, and 
sometimes less. There are 11,679 registered farms in the 
Transvaal, of which about one-half are occupied ; allowing an 
average of 10 acres per farm, the total area in maize (outside 
of Native Locations) would be only 60,000 acres, and an 
average yield of four muids per acre gives, roughly, but 
240,000 muids. 

Only a very limited area of the Transvaal seems unsuited 
to the production of maize, but if we take into consideration 
only the farms at present occupied, and allow 250 acres of 
maize to every 1,000 acres of land, by raising the average 
production to merely 5 muids (i7| bushels) per acre, the 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 9 

Transvaal alone ought to produce without difficulty 35,000,000 CHAP, 
muids. 

Owing to the dryness of the winter over the greater [)art 
of South Africa, the farmer is able to continue harvesting and 
shelling in the field up to the very day when he starts 
planting the new crop ; in this respect he has an enormous 
advantage over the American farmer. The percentage of 
grain which is damaged by the weather is exceedingly small. 
The moisture content of the grain exported is some 5 per cent 
lower than that of the American-grown article. South Africa 
has, and is likely to have for many years, an excellent local 
market for a large part of her crop. Because she owns her 
own railroads she can carry her surplus to the coast at cost. 
With these great advantages in her favour, South Africa has 
good reason for optimism as to the future of her maize industry. 
There is good ground for the prophecy that South Africa is 
to become the maize granary of Europe. 

9. Relative Importance of the World's Maize and Wlieat 
Crops. — There is a popular idea that wheat is a more profit- 
able crop than maize. This is due to the fact that in the 
inland provinces of South Africa the price of wheat is more 
than double that of maize, and the former yields a heavier crop 
than the latter. But if the wheat acreage were much increased 
the price would fall ; present prices are quite abnormal, the 
average farm price in the United States during the last ten years 
was only ^J cents per bushel or los. 8d. per muid ; when South 
Africa produces enough for local needs her wheat prices will 
probably fall to those prevailing in the States. The difference 
in average yield is due partly to the fact that wheat is at 
present grown on the best alluvial lands, and, in the Transvaal 
at least, practically all of it under irrigation, while much of the 
maize crop is produced on newly broken veld, and all of it as 
a dry-land crop. When the maize lands are in better " heart," 
the average yield will probably be doubled, and even now the 
best maize crops are nearly double those of wheat. 

History. 

10. Origin of Maize. — Researches into the history and 
geographical distribution of the maize plant show clearly that 
it originated in America. 



1 MAIZ^ 

CHAP. Darwin (2) considered that maize " is undoubtedly of 

American origin ". 

Humboldt (i) observes that maize was found by the Euro- 
pean discoverers of the New World from the south of Chile 
north to Pennsylvania. Prescott (i) adds that he might have 
given its known range as to the St. Lawrence as "our Puritan 
fathers found it in abundance on the New England coast 
wherever they landed " ; he cites as his authorities Morton, 
New England s Memorial, page 68 (Boston, 1826), and Gookin, 
Massachusetts Historical Collections, chapter III. 

Prescott (2) states that maize was " the great agricultural 
staple of both the northern and southern divisions of the 
American Continent ; and which, after its exportation to the 
Old World, spread so rapidly there, as to suggest the idea of 
its being indigenous to it ". . . . " The misnomer of blc de Tur- 
quie shows the popular error. Yet the rapidity of its diffusion 
through Europe and Asia, after the discovery of America, is 
of itself sufficient to show that it could not have been indi- 
genous to the Old World, and have so long remained gener- 
ally unknown there." 

Alphonse de Candolle, the famous Swiss botanist and 
historian, who made a special study of the origin and history 
of cultivated plants, came to the conclusion, as long ago as 
1855, that " maize is of American origin, and has only been 
introduced into the Old World since the discovery of the New. 
I consider these two 'assertions as positive." Twenty-seven 
years later he reiterated this view, and added : " The proofs of 
American origin have since been reinforced. Yet attempts 
have been made to prove the contrary, and as the French 
name, bU de Turquie, gives currency to an error, it is as well 
to resume the discussion with new data. . . . From all these 
facts we conclude that maize is not a native of the Old World. 
It became rapidly diffused in it after the discovery of America, 
and this very rapidity completes the proof that, had it existed 
anywhere in Asia or Africa, it would have played an important 
part in agriculture for thousands of years" {^De Candolle, l)} 
He concludes that circumstantial evidence points to New 
Granada as the original home of the plant, and suggests that 
the Chibchas, who occupied the table-land of Bogota at the 
1 Cf. Prescott (2) as quoted above. 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY ii 

time of the Spanish conquest, and considered themselves CHAP, 
aboriginal, may have been the first to possess and cultivate 
maize. Some later botanists are inclined to consider, how- 
ever, that it is of Mexican origin. 

The maize plant is not known to exist in a truly wild 
state, i.e. reproducing itself spontaneously from self-sown seed ; 
no plant has been found which can be looked upon as the true 
parent form, unchanged by cultivation. Some botanists are 
inclined to think that maize is a descendant of the Teosinte 
plant of Mexico, Euchlcena mexicana, with which it can be 
hybridized ; or that the two had a common prototype {East, 5). 

II. History. — Maize has been cultivated by the inhabi- 
tants of North, Central, and South America since prehistoric 
times. The early American explorers found the Indians 
cultivating it ; Columbus, writing to Ferdinand and Isabella 
of Spain, mentions maize fields eighteen miles in length. 
Hochelaga, which later became the city of Montreal, was 
situate in the midst of large maize fields when Cartier visited 
it in 1535 {De Candolle, i). Hakluyt (i) quaintly and 
graphically describes the new cereal as "a come called maiz, 
in bignesse of a pease, the eare whereof is much like a teasell ". 
Maize-grain has been found in the Inca cemetery at An^on, 
Peru, which is nearly contemporary with the discovery of 
America {De Candolle, i). It was, even in those days, a staple 
crop from the valley of the La Plata to that of the Mississippi. 
Investigations show that it was grown by the Chibchas of 
New Granada, the Mayas of Central America, the Nahuas, and 
their successors the Toltecs and Aztecs of Mexico, and by the 
Incas in Peru. 

De Candolle concludes that though these civilizations 
date at earliest from the beginning of the Christian Era, the 
cultivation of maize was doubtless still earlier. 

After an exhaustive survey of the philological proofs of its 
origin, Harshberger (i) concludes : (i) that maize was intro- 
duced into the region now comprised in the United States, 
from two sources — from the tribes of Northern Mexico and the 
Caribs in the West India Islands ; (2) that the Pueblos and 
Northern Mexican tribes derived maize from Central Mexico ; 
(3) that tribal connections existed between the North and South 
American continents, and that an interchange of products was 



t2 MAIZE 

CHAP, carried on by way of the Isthmus of Panama ; (4) that the wild 
tribes living along the Andean system and in the EI-Gran- 
Chaco and elsewhere used Peruvian loan-words for maize; (5) 
that South American words for maize extended throughout the 
Greater and Lesser Antilles and Florida, and that the Arawak 
word for Indian corn, adopted by Christopher Columbus, was 
used by tribes of that stock in the impenetrable and luxuriant 
Brazilian forests. 

On the shores of the island of San Lorenzo, Peru, Darwin 
(i) found "the head of a stalk of Indian corn," embedded 
among shells and sea-drifted rubbish with some bits of cotton 
thread and plaited rush similar to those obtained in ancient 
Peruvian huacas or burial mounds. The stratum in which 
this was found had been elevated to a height of 85 feet above 
sea-level, and was itself overlaid by other strata, containing 
shells, etc., and having a thickness of over 85 feet, indicating 
great antiquity. 

12. IntroiiHCtion into Europe. — De Candolle (i) finds that 
maize was unknown in Europe at the time of the Roman 
Empire. Fee (i) states that from the year A.D. 1500 maize 
had been sent from America to Seville for cultivation. From 
Spain it was introduced into France and Italy, Turkey and 
other parts of Eastern Europe. 

13. Introduction into Africa. — The wide distribution and 
extensive use and cultivation of maize on the African conti- 
nent have led many to suppose that the plant was indigenous, 
or at least in use from time immemorial among the aboriginal 
peoples. But this was not so. Burchell (i), who visited what 
is now British Bechuanaland in 181 2, makes no mention of 
maize in his account of the crops cultivated by the Bechuanas, 
though he notes its use and cultivation in Griqualand West, 
at the Mission Station at " Klaarwater " and at " Jan Bloems 
Kraal" in the Asbestos Mountains, in 181 1. It was there 
grown for poultry food, but he also notes that " the half-ripe 
heads, when boiled, made a very agreeable and wholesome 
dish ". He notes that it was planted in the first week in 
October and came into flower before the middle of December. 

Visiting Burchell's old camp at Litakoon, Bechuanaland, 
in 191 2, the writer met a native who remembered Moffat, and 
the introduction of maize into Bechuanaland by the mission- 
aries ; now it is one of their staple crops. 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 13 

In the tenth century, according to Abn Zeyd Hassan and CHAP 



" Suleiman the Merchant," the Zeng peoples, the progenitors 
of the eastern branch of the Bantu-speaking races now south 
of the Zambesi, who were then located north of that river, 
in the country round Zanzibar, grew millet, which was their 
chief food {Tooke, i). Giant millet or kaffir corn {Sorghum 
vidgare) appears to have been the former staple food-stuff 
of the natives of much of temperate South Africa. North- 
wards in the Bush-veld this was supplemented, and in places 
perhaps replaced by pearl millet or m'nyouti {Pennisetum 
spicaticm), and still farther north, within the tropics, rapoko 
{Eleusine Coracand) was largely used. 

Writing on the bearing of Bantu philology on early Bantu 
life, the Rev. Father Norton (i) states: — 

" We find a tradition that sweet-reed and millet, or kafir- 
corn, were given to the first human couple ; maize, on the 
other hand, was introduced in historic times by the Portuguese 
to the Becoana, to eke out their scanty list of cane, pumpkin, 
beans, melon. Our old centenarian told me that mealies ap- 
peared in Modderpoort district together with the missionaries." 

Mr. Allister M. Miller of Mbabane, Swaziland, who pro- 
bably knows as much, if not more, about Swaziland than any 
other man living, writes that from inquiries he made many 
years ago, he is of opinion that maize was introduced into 
Swaziland about the time the Hlamini clan, the conquerors of 
that territory, crossed from Tongaland, say the end of the 
eighteenth century. They do not call it by their word for 
"food," mabela, but by the Zulu words m'lungu, meaning 
*' white man," or m'bila, the Zulu name for maize. 

Maize would easily be carried from the north shores of the 
Mediterranean to the ports of Northern Africa, and probably 
reached the latter from Spain and Italy, with which countries 
there was much commerce in those days. In 1623 Caspar 
Bauhin referred to the occurrence of pod-maize {Zea Mays 
L. var. tunicata St. Hil.) in Ethiopia under the name of 
manigette. 

But its introduction into other parts of the African conti- 
nent is traceable to the Portuguese, who were great voyagers 
in the sixteenth century ; they had colonies in Brazil and in the 



14 MAIZE 

CHAP. East Indies and had established settlements on the x^frican 
coasts in 1450. It is instructive to note that in Angola maize 
was at one time known by the name " ble portugais " (Portu- 
guese wheat), which suggests its source of introduction. They 
may have introduced it to West Africa with the object of fur- 
nishing food on the voyage across the Atlantic for the slaves 
whom they took from Africa to work their Brazilian planta- 
tions ; one of the Brazilian names of the plant — milho de 
Gume —suggests this. Moodie (Records) mentions the follow- 
ing interesting fact under the date 1658 : "As the season for 
sowing Dutch grain is past, he recommended that each farmer 
should sow a good quantity of mily, or Turkey wheat brought 
[to South Africa] from Guinea by the Hassalt ". 

Its introduction into South Africa may have taken place 
before the establishment of the Dutch Colony in 1650. 
Portuguese vessels calling at the Cape for water on the voyage 
to and from their East African and East Indian Settlements, 
probably left maize-grain with the Cape Colonists (or even 
earlier, with the natives) in trade for water, meat, and other 
commodities. This is suggested by the Afrikaans word for 
maize, " mielie " being undoubtedly a corruption of the Portu- 
guese word milho, meaning grain. 

We know how easily new plants of economic value spread 
among the native tribes of Africa, as witness tobacco, peanuts, 
rice, jatropha, colocasia, etc. Once the culture of maize was 
established at several points on the African continent, e.g., 
the Mediterranean shore, the Guinea coast, Cape Town, and 
Mozambique, the native population would soon distribute it 
throughout the Continent. 

14. Introduction into Asia. — To the Portuguese voyagers, 
also, is probably due the early and rapid introduction of maize 
into India, China, Cochin, and other parts of the far East 
Indies, soon after the establishment of their East Indian 
settlements by Vasco de Gama at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. Mendoza mentions (1585) among the plants 
observed by him in China, " the plant called maiz, which 
constitutes the principal food of the Indians in Mexico " 
{Watt, i). Another route of introduction into Asia appears 
to have been by way of Turkey (and possibly also south 
Russia), Arabia, or Persia. The exotic character of the plant 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 15 

is indicated by the absence of characteristic Asiatic names, CHAP. 



the names now in use often combining an indication of the 
route of introduction with the vernacular for the particular 
corn of the country. 

A recent bibliographer {Lacy, i) considers that though it 
is no longer a disputed question that maize is of American 
origin, "the possibility of its having been known in the Ea.st 
before the discovery of America by Columbus is by no means 
closed ". She revives the alleged mention of rous (a name 
treated as synonymous with ble de Turquie or maize) by 
one of two Persian historians of the fifteenth century, of which 
Bonafous, in his monumental work on maize, admits that the 
translation " if it is exact, would leave no doubt that maize 
was known in the Old World before the discovery of the 
New ". Bonafous finally dismissed the reference, having failed 
to trace it back, but Miss Lacy points out that this may have 
been due to an incorrect citation to Mirkond (1433-98) in- 
stead of to Khondemir (i 475-1 534), grandson of Mirkond, who 
wrote "at almost the same time as Mirkond . . . and whose 
best known work, the ' Khelasse-al-Akhbar,' is very nearly 
identical in subject-matter with Mirkond's History of the 
World, the ' Rauzet-al-safa ' ". 

Quoting Mirkond, or perhaps Khondemir, Herbelot, to 
whom Bonafous refers as " Le celebre orientaliste d'Herbelot," 
states that Rous, from whom Russia has taken its name, the 
eighth son of Japhet, son of Noah, sowed in all the islands 
of the River Volga, which empties into the Caspian Sea, "/^ 
bled which we call de Turquie, and which the Turks still call 
to-day, in their language, by the name of rous and boulgar'\ 
In this connection, however, it is instructive to note that the 
modern Persian names for maize are ghendwn, gandunii-mak- 
kah (i.e. Mecca corn), and haldah} The mere fact (if it should 
be proven a fact) that the name blc de Turquie was used in 
one place for rous (whatever that may have been) and in an- 
other for maize is no indication that the two were one and 
the same thing ; for example, the word corn means wheat in 
England, maize in America, and the grain most commonly 

' The word haldah, according to Meninski {Lex. Arab., Pers., Turk. 1780), 
was a name for " frumentum sarracenicum," i.e. Sarracens' corn, also pointing 
to its western origin. 



1 6 MAIZE 

CHAP, used for food in several other countries, e.g. Sorghum vulgare, 
'• kaffir corn or Egyptian corn ; the " corn " which Joseph's 
brethren went down into Egypt to buy was certainly not Indian 
corn or maize. 

De Candolle (i) suggests that the rapidity of the recent 
distribution of maize in Europe, Asia, and Africa completes 
the proof, if further proof were needed, that had it previously 
existed in Asia or Africa, maize would have played an impor- 
tant part in agriculture for thousands of years, instead of being 
but a comparatively modern culture. As recently as 1832 
maize was grown in India only as an ornamental plant in 
gardens, not as a regular farm crop for grain. 

15. Meaning and History of the Botanical Name. — ^The 
botanical name of the maize plant is Zea Mays. The generic 
name Zea is derived from the Greek Zeia or Zea, a sort of 
grain mentioned by Homer (Odyssey, 4, 41, 604) as used 
for feeding horses. The Zeia of the Greeks was certainly not 
the maize plant, which was unknown to them ; but when, in 
1753) Linnaeus was renaming all the then known plants in 
accordance with his new system of binominal nomenclature, 
he used many of the classical names of the ancients, often 
taking the risk of applying an old name to a new plant, where 
the former was appropriate or pleasing. Linnaeus might, 
however, have adopted the generic name " Mays," already 
published by Tournefort in 17 19, and followed in 1729 by 
Micheli who spelt it Mayz. 

The specific name Mays was used by the earlier botanical 
writers, Matthiole (1570), Dodoens (1583), and Camerarius 
(1588) as being the name under which the plant was intro- 
duced from America. From their writings it was adopted by 
Linnaeus. According to Prescott (i), Hernandez (i) derives 
the name maize from the Haytian word ma-hiz ; this was the 
name used for it by the Haytians when Columbus visited the 
island in 1492. 

16. The Name Maize. — Maize is an Arawak word, met 
with in many forms in South America and the West Indies, 
e.g. mahiz, marisi, marichi, mariky, mazy, maysi, etc. This 
name followed the introduction of the grain throughout Europe, 
and was adopted into many of the European languages, being 
variously spelled maiz, maize, mais, mays, mayz, or mayze. 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 17 

The word maize, therefore, dating back to the introduction CHAP, 
of the crop into the Old World, having been adopted into 
many languages, as detailed below, and forming part of the 
botanical name of the plant, has the highest claim to recogni- 
tion as its universal vernacular name. 

The following are the different forms in which it is in use 
in different parts of the world : — 

Maiz (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany, Peru, Brazil, Uru- 
guay, and Argentina) ; mais (Germany and Denmark) ; mais 
(France) ; mays (Holland and Belgium) ; mase (Northern 
Africa), Maheende (Central Africa), Mahindi (Northern Africa), 
and Mihindi (Suahili), i.e. Indian corn or maize of India ; 
mahiz (Hayti) ; marichi (Guiana) ; maysi (Cuba, Jamaica, and 
the Bahamas) ; maize (British Empire and the United States). 

In English literature the word appears in the following 
forms : maith (doubtless the phonetic spelling of the Spanish 
pronunciation of mahiz), maix, maise, maiz, maize, maizium, 
mays, mayis, maijs, mayz, mayze, maes, maez, maze, mass. 

The ^ is a comparatively modern suffix, which is not found 
in some English writers of the sixteenth and early seventeenth 
centuries, soon after the introduction of the grain into Europe. 
Du Bartas (1544-90), in his Divine Weekes and Workes 
(Sylvester's translation), writes : — 

Heer, of one grain of maiz, a reed doth spring 
That thrice a year five hundred grains doth bring. 

Hakluyt {Voy., 1600) and Dampier {Voy., 1676) spell 
the word maiz, and Bacon, also, apparently throughout his 
writings, for we find it so in his Natural History, % 49 ; 
Sylva (1626); Med. Rem. Wks. (1626), and the earlier edi- 
tions of Essay '^'^^ "of Plantations," though in some modern 
editions the e has been added (perhaps in a pedantic effort to 
correct a "typographical error"). Baileys Dictionary (17th 
ed., 1757) gives only the spelling maize, as does Murray's; 
the Century Dictionary has — " maize, formerly also maiz, 
mais, mayz, mays " ; while the Standard Dictionary gives 
both maiz and -maize, the former on the authorit)' of the 
Philological Society. 

Although maize is practically the only form in which the 
word occurs in modern English literature, there are several 



i8 MAIZE 

CHAP, good reasons for dropping the e and adopting the spelling 
maiz : — 

( I ). Simplified spelling is a demand of the age, which should 
be complied with where there is good reason and authority. 

(2). The e is unnecessary from the phonetic standpoint. 

(3). The etymology of the word does not appear to provide 
for it. 

(4). The form mays may, perhaps, have better claims to 
adoption from the etymological point of view, and is part of 
the botanical name of the plant, but is not in such general use 
in continental languages, and would be less easily adopted. 

(5). Maiz is the form in use in Germany, Spain, Portugal, 
Italy, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina, as already 
noted. 

(6). The authorities already cited seem ample. It remains 
for the literary and scientific public to decide whether the 
suggested change is sound, and whether it should be generally 
adopted. 

17. The Word Corn. — Corn as used in American literature 
designates maize. The Saxon word " corn," Teutonic korn 
(whence Afrikaans " koren "), is the general term for any cereal, 
and is applied in any country to that cereal most extensively 
used there for human food ; in England the words " corn " 
and the " corn trade " as generally used, refer to wheat, while 
in America they usually mean maize. Recent American writers 
on cereals are endeavouring to introduce the word " maize " as 
a substitute for "corn," as the South African Department of 
Agriculture is endeavouring to use it in place of " mielie ". 

The term corn or grain has been applied to maize in the 
following countries : United States and Canada (corn, Indian 
corn); Great Britain (Indian corn) ; Sweden (korn); Holland 
(Turks koren) ; Belgium (Turkisch koorn) ; Germany (Turk- 
ischer korn) ; Greece (Arabosite, i.e. Arabian corn) ; Formosa 
(fanmeh, i.e. foreign corn); Russia (Tureskorichljeb, i.e. 
Turkish corn) ; Japan (nan bamthbi, i.e. foreign corn) ; Italy 
(grano Turco, grano d'India, frumentum sarracenicum, grano 
Siciliano) ; Persia (gandumi-makkah, i.e. Mecca corn) ; Shan- 
gaan of N. Transvaal (mabele, i.e. kaffir corn). 

18. The Word Mielie. — Mielie (often misspelled viealie) 
is the usual South African name, but is not known in 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 19 

any other part of the world where maize is grown. ^ It is CHAP, 
derived from the Portuguese word milho, from Latin Milium, 
the name for millet, a grain at one time much used for food by 
the inhabitants of Southern Europe. In Portuguese-speaking 
countries, milho is the term for any cereal used for human 
food. The name mielie was doubtless an early Africander- 
Dutch corruption of the word milho, as used by the Portuguese 
sailors who first left maize at the Cape on their way to the 
East Indies ; it is significant that in Angola maize should have 
been known under the name of blc povtugais. We may, 
therefore, look upon the word mielie as a colloquial form of 
the word milho, meaning any kind of grain used for food, 
rather than the name of the particular grain to which it has 
been applied locally and in modern times. It would be 
better to use the now universal word maiz or maize as the 
connection with the English word meal is remote. The 
forms in which the word milho are applied to maize are : milho 
grande (Portugal, Brazil) ; milho d'India (Portugal) ; milho da 
India, milho de Guine (Brazil) ; mielie and mealie (South 
Africa). Moodie {Records, p. 137, 1 841) spells the word 
iiiily, and Bamberger {Travels, p. 71, 1801) as melis. 

19. Other Vernacular Names. — In other countries where 
millet was a staple cereal before the introduction of maize, the 
local word for millet was often made use of in naming the new 
cereal, thus : gros millet des Indes (France) ; durah-shami 
(Arabic), dourah de Syrie (Egypt), dourah being the Arabic 
name of millet; bari-joar (Panjab), bari-jowar (Oudh), Mak- 
ka-jari (India), joar or juari being the general name in India 
for the great millet {^Sorghum vulgare) and Makkai = Mecca 
{Watt), i.e. Mecca-joar or Mecca millet, indicating the route of 
introduction ; jade sorgho (China) ; yuh-kau-liang (China), 
kao-liang being a Chinese name for Sorghum vulgare ; 
mashela bahry, i.e. millet from the sea (Abyssinia). 

On the other hand, where wheat was used more extensively, 
the local word for wheat was adopted in coining a name for 
the new cereal, thus we find : ble de Turquie or ble Turquet, 
ble de ITnde, ble des Incas, ble de Guine, ble d'Afrique, ble 
d'Astrakan (France) ; ble de Rome (Vosges), ble de Barbarie 

1 The Dutch word for millet is giersi, for maize it is mays and tnais, and for 
Indian meal or corn meal, mdis meet. 



20 MAIZE 

CHAP. (Provence) ; ble d'Espagne (Pyrenees) ; bl^ portugais (Angola) ; 

^' Turkischer vveizen (Germany) ; Turkische waitte (Groningen) ; 

Turkse tarwe (Holland) ; misr-bogdag, i.e. Egyptian wheat 

(Turkey) ; trigo de Indias, trigo de Turkina (Spain) ; Turkish 

hvede (Sweden). 

Several other names, included in the following geographical 
list, are in use in various parts of the world : — 

Abyssinia : mashela bahry. 

Africa (NortJi) : mase, mahindi. 

Africa {Tropical): bekkolo (Galla), maheende, gafuli nosri, 
simsin (Darfour), kasoli (Uganda); matawe (Chikaundi of 
Kasemba Dist., N.W. Rhodesia); tjibakwe (Mashuna) ; umum- 
bu (Matabele) ; mafluera (Kimwani, a coast dialect of Suahili ; 
mafluera applies to both plant and grain) ; in Suahili language 
the fruit and plant are known as muhindi, the grain alone as 
mahindi (dim. vihindi, i.e. hindi = mdAze, singular la-, pi. = 
ma-), and the ear as gunzi ; in the Makau language it is called 
nakiio, in all stages of growth, and in Nyasaland chinianga ; in 
Angola it is known as mazza manputa or ble portugais. 

Africa {South) : maize (English) ; mielie (Afrikaans), angli- 
cized into mealie ; poone (Basutoland) ; lefeela, plural sefeela 
(Transvaal Basutos) ; sepeela (Mapochs) ; shifake (Shangaan) ; 
shibakwe (Mashona) ; ma'ghea (phonetically ma'hea), plural, 
or le'ghea, one (Sapidi of Sekkukuniland) ; 'm-umbu (Mata- 
bele) ; semaka and monidi, plural mabidi (Bechuana) ; 'm-lungu 
(Swazi ; in Zulu 'm-lungu means " white man " ; its adoption 
by the Swazies may perhaps signify "white-man's corn". 
The Swazies now also use the word 'm-lungu for white man, 
in place of their own word 'm-lumbi) ; 'm-bila or 'm-beela 
(Zulu ; this word is also used by the Swazies, in deference to 
the practice of the white man) ; sinjembani (Zulu for the dark 
red grains of the type of maize grown by natives in the early 
days). The growing maize plant is called by the Transvaal 
Basutos le'tlaaka, while the Shangaans, according to Rev. E. 
Creux, call it mabele, which is the recognized name for kaffir 
corn among most South African tribes ; mihindi (Suahili). 
In the Transkei the following names are used, according to 
Archdeacon Woodrooffe, for many years Anglican missionar}' 
to the Transkeian natives {Mally, 5): um-bona, the common 
Xosa term for both the maize plant and the "fruit" ; utiya is 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 21 

used by some of the Kaffirs and is synonymous ; izikweba- CHAP 
sombona = green mielies, i.e. izikweba = ears, and sombona = 
of maize ; um-pa = the cob after the corn has been stripped ; 
in-tshatshoba = the flower of the maize plant ; isi-gezenge = 
maize bread made from green maize ; um-kupa = maize- 
bread made from dry maize. 

Arabia: durah-shami. 

Argentina: maiz, pinsingallo (a pod-maize). 

Australia : maize, Indian corn. 

Austria: kukurutz. 

BaJianias : maysi. 

Belgium: mays, Turkisch koorn. 

Bohemia : kukufice. 

Brazil : maiz, milho de Guine, .milho grande, milho da 
India, zabemo, avati or abati. Special breeds have particular 
names, e.g. milho dourado and milho catete are flints, milho 
pipoca and milho perola are pop-corns. 

Burmah : pyoung-boo. 

Canada : corn, maize, Indian corn. 

Ceylon : muwa. 

Chile: maiz (Spanish) ; cua (Indian). 

China: jade sorgho, yuh-kau-liang ; yii-shu-shu. 

Costa Rica : kup (Boruca) ; ep, ip (Terrabo) ; ain (Guatuso). 

Ctiba : maysi. 

Denmark : mais. 

Egypt: dourah shammy, dura shami or dourah chamy, 
dourah de Syrie. 

Ethiopia : manigette (a pod-maize). 

Fiji: sila-ni-papalegi. 

Formosa : fanmeh. 

France : mais, ble de Turquie, ble de I'lnde, ble de Guinee, 
ble de Rome (Vosges) ; ble de Barbarie (Provence) ; ble 
d'Espagne (Pyrenees); ble des Incas ; ble d'Afrique ; ble 
Turquet ; ble d'Astrakan ; gros millet des Indes ; mais 
quarantain, mais nain and mais a poulet are pop-corns ; mais 
d'ete is an early flint. 

Germany : mais, maiz, Turkischer korn, Turkischer weizen, 
gemeiner mais. 

Great Britain : maize, Indian corn ; Turkey corn (obsolete). 

Greece : arabosite. 



MAIZE 



CHAP. Guatemala: aima (Xinca Indian). 



Guiana : marichi. 

Hayti : mahiz. 

Holland: mays, Turks koren, Turksche tarvve, Turkse 
tarvve ; Turkische waitte (Groningen). 

Hungary : kukoricza (Magyar). 

India: the numerous Indian dialects produce a number of 
separate names for the various crops grown. The name for 
maize in most general use — in one or other of its forms — ap- 
pears to be makai (Hindustani ; Bihar) ; makkai (Panjab) ; 
makka ^ (Tamil) ; makka-janar (Bengal) ; makka-sholam (Ma- 
dras) ; mukka-bhuta (Hindustani) ; elsewhere makkajari, mok- 
ka jonna, maki pyaungbu ; an alternative name in Bihar is 
makaiya. 

Where the joar, Sorghum vulgare, has been the staple 
cereal, its local name has been applied to maize, often with a 
qualifying adjective, thus : makka-janar (Bengal) ; bari-jowar 
(Oudh) ; bari-joar (Panjab) ; janara (Hindustani); janera- (in 
the west) ; junora (Patna) ; and makkajari, mokka jonna, 
junri and junala elsewhere. 

Other names in use in India are : kukri (Panjab) ; goom- 
dhan ^ (Assam) ; zonalu (Telugu) ; cholam (Madras) ; djagoung, 
mungari, and chhale. 

Sir George Grierson (i) gives the following words applied 
in India to different parts of the maize plant : — 

Stalks : dhattha to the west ; thathera to the north gener- 
ally ; thathero (south Bhagalpur) ; dant or danti elsewhere. 
The stalks are used for fodder under the name makai' ke dant 
(Gaya). 

The Broken Stalk : lather (the north-west and in west 
Tirhut) ; nighas or nighesa (east Tirhut) ; no special name for 
this has been noted south of the Ganges. 

' The Madras Manual of Administration, Vol. Ill, s.v. cholam, derives 
makka from mecca, saying that mecca means the west generally. According to 
Sir George Grierson makka is generally said to be derived from Skr. markataka, 
but the derivation from Mecca may or may not be true. 

2 Sir George Grierson gives a possible derivation of janer as Skr. yavanala, 
and says that Platts derives junhar, another name for joar, from Skr. jivana-dhara. 

^ Dhan (Skr. dhanya) is the Assam word for rice. Mr. J. D. Anderson of 
Cambridge says that in Assam, where rice is a staple crop, the word dhan is used 
in the sense of corn, and that goom means hidden or secret, and so "strange" or 
"foreign," goomdhan meaning foreign corn. 



IMPORTANCE AND HISTORY 23 

Tassel : dhanbal or dhanahra. chap. 



Silk : bhua (to the west) ; ghua (south-west Shahabad) ; 
san (Champaran and Gaya) ; monchh (Patna) ; moccha (South 
Munger) ; moch or mocha (Tirhut and South Bhagalpur) ; it 
is also called kesi. 

Young Ear (when the grains begin to form but are not yet 
fit for eating) : sancha. 

Unripe Ear : duddha (to the west generally) ; dodha 
(Shahabad) ; khichcha or aju (Tirhut) ; dudhghottu (Gaya) ; 
duddha makaT (Saran and Patna) ; dudhbhoro (South Bhagal- 
pur) ; dant kamra (South Munger). 

Ripe Ear and fit for eating : bhutta ^ or bal. 

Roasted Ear: horha (generally); orha (to the east). 

Dead-ripe Ears (grain hard and unfit for eating) : pakthail. 

Blind Ear (i.e. with no grain on it) : bhorah or bhorha 
(north of the Ganges). 

Ear with few Grains : pachgotiya. 

Cob (after the grains are shelled off) : lenrha (generally) ; 
lenruri (Shahabad) ; nerha (east Tirhut) ; baluri (an optional 
name in Patna and south-east Tirhut) ; balri (an optional name 
in south-east Tirhut and south Munger); khukhuri ^ or 
khonkhri (south-west Shahabad) ; haddi (south Bhagalpur). 

Shelled Grain : gota or got. 

Husk : balkhoTya or bokla (generally) ; khoiya (to the 
west) ; khoincha (east Tirhut) ; pataura (South Munger) ; 
pocho (South Bhagalpur) ; in Champaran another name is 
kalchoi'ya, and in south-west Tirhut balko or kosa. 

Italy : maice, maiz ; grano Turco or Granturco ; grano 
d'India, grano Siciliano ; melliga or melgone (Lombardy). 
Jamaica : maysi. 

Japan : nan bamthbi, sjo-kuso, too-kibbi, tomoro-koski, 
or tomorokoshi. 

'Sir George Watt (i) says that the word bhutta (Bengal and Bihar; Hin- 
dustani but, mtikka-bhtita, elsewhere niaki pyaungbu) may possibly be derived 
from bhukta or butta, to eat. Sir George Grierson says that it may be derived 
from Skr. bhrsta, roasted, which is suggestive in view of the method of cooking 
the young ears. 

- The word kukri is used in the Panjab for some form of maize ; and in 
south-west Shahabad khukhuri or khonkhri is the word for the maize cob after 
the grains have been shelled off. This suggests a connection with the Slav 
word kukuru (Turkey) ; kukurusa (Roumania) ; kukoricza (Magyar) ; kukurutz 
(Austria) ; kukurice (Bohemia). 



24 MAIZE 

CHAP. Malaysia : djagoeng, jarung, cholam. 

Maya : ixim. 

Mexico: mais, maize (Spanish); cintli=ear, olote = grain 
(Aztec). 

Paraguay : bisingallo (Guarany Indians). 

Persia : ghendum ; gandumi-makkah ; haldah. 

Peru : maiz (Spanish) ; sara or zara (Ouichua Indian). 

Portugal : maiz, milho da Indias, milho grande. 

Rouinania : kuku-rusa. 

Russia : Tureskorichljeb. 

Siani : hacpot. 

Spain : el maiz, trigo de Turkina, trigo de Indias, zaras. 

Sweden : Turkish hvede, korn. 

Turkey : misr-bogdag, kukuru. 

United States : corn, Indian corn, maize. 

Uruguay : maiz. 

According to De Candolle (i), there is neither Sanskrit nor 
Hebrew name for maize. There is no Greek or Latin name 
because the plant was unknown to the Greeks and Romans. 






II. 



CHAPTER II. 

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS. 

The term climate, in its broadest sense, implies all the changes in the 
atmosphere which sensibly affect one's physical condition. — Humboldt. 

20. Climate. — The profits from the cultivation of the soil, CHAP, 
and in relation to these the preference given to certain crops, 
depend perhaps more on the extent of the market for such 
products than on the quality of the soil and the climatic 
condition within the geographical area of agricultural pro- 
duction {Davis, 2). 

Hann and Ward (i) define climate as meaning the sum 
total of the meteorological phenomena that characterize the 
average condition of the atmosphere at any one place on the 
earth's surface. That which we call weather \s only one phase 
in the succession of phenomena whose complete cycle, recurring 
with greater or less uniformity every year, constitutes the 
climate of any locality. 

21. Factors which Limit Distribution. — The known facts 
of distribution of maize as a crop lead us to inquire what 
factors limit that distribution. These have an important 
bearing on the question of the world's future supply, and more 
particularly on the problem of South Africa's future share in 
the world's trade. 

Maize seems peculiarly sensitive to climatic variations, 
and these furnish the principal limiting factor of distribution 
of the crop. The variations referred to include temperature, 
sunshine, amount and incidence of rainfall, and length of 
growing season. Geographic features and the character of the 
soil are also important. Only when these several factors are 
suitably combined does the culture of maize become commer- 
cially successful ; the absence of any one of them may limit 
production on a large scale. 

?5 



2 6 - MAIZE 

CHAP. It is important that we should understand the relation of 

■ . these several factors to the maize crop. Speaking broadly, 
I the most favourable conditions are long humid summers, hot 
I days and warm nights, comparatively heavy, intermittent rains, 
with abundance of clear, sunshiny weather between. Hot, 
arid climates, hot and continuously humid and .shady regions, 
and arid cool-temperate climates with short summer season, 
are, generally speaking, unfavourable to the commercial pro- 
duction of maize. Open plains or plateaus are therefore more 
suitable than forest country. 

22, Altitude. — Altitude affects the growth of crops indi- 
rectly as it influences length of season, temperature, precipita- 
tion of moisture, depth, and richness of soil, etc. 

Evidence collected by Harshberger (i) suggests that the 
maize plant came originally from tropical table-lands at a 
considerable altitude, probably above 4,500 feet. 

Increase in elevation is accompanied by decrease in tem- 
perature and a steady shortening of the summer .season, until, 
at very high altitudes, alpine conditions prevail ; long before 
this point has been reached, however, it has ceased to be 
possible to produce maize. Davis (i) finds that in x^rgentina 
the decrease in temperature due to altitude is not a constant 
factor but varies according to the season of the year and the 
dryness of the air. The shortening of the season with in- 
creasing altitude has an immediate effect upon the crop in 
that the earliest autumn frosts, not falling regularly at the 
same date, are apt to kill the plants before the grain is ripe 
for harvest. The range of altitude within which a maize 
crop can be successfully grown largely depends on latitude ; 
the nearer the Equator the higher the altitude, within certain 
limits, and the farther from the Equator the lower must be 
the altitude. 

Humboldt records vast maize fields on the Mexican 
plateau (between the 15th and 30th parallels) at 8,680 feet. 
Near Lake Titicaca, Peru, at about the i6th degree of S. 
latitude, maize is grown successfully at 10,000 feet. In the 
Indian Panjab, between the 30th and 35th parallels, it is more 
extensively grown in the hill country at 7,000 feet and over, 
than in the valleys, where it is largely replaced by rice. In 
Baluchistan it is grown as a regular crop at 5,000 to 9,000 



CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS 27 

feet altitude. In the United States the major part of the Crop CHAP, 
is produced between the 35th and 45th parallels, and 82 per "• 
cent of it at an altitude between 500 and 1,500 feet; the 
proportion grown above 1,500 feet is only 4-4 per cent. ^ 
Harshberger (i) points out, however, that this is partly 
due to the absence of large areas of tillable land at an 
elevation of 2,000 feet, for very fine maize crops are raised 
in North Carolina at 4,000 feet, between the 34th and 37th 
parallels. 

23. Tejiiperature. — Careful investigations carried out in the 
United States fail to show any direct relation between actual 
temperature and yield of the maize crop. Maize is a tropical 
plant, susceptible to frost in all stages of its growth ; but 
being an annual, it can be grown as a summer grain crop in 
warm-temperate climates, and as a fodder crop (not for grain) 
even in cool-temperate areas such as the south of England. 

Dwarf, early-maturing sorts have been known to ripen 
seed in the south of England and even in Norway as far north 
as 63° 13' {Mueller, i). Martyn (i) states^ that maize was 
cultivated in England in 1562, but that the seeds "rarely 
ripen in England. . . . Mr. Miller thinks that maize might be 
cultivated in England to advantage. But it can scarcely be 
expected to be grown here for the grain, except in favourable 
seasons and warm soils and situations. Yet as a fodder it 
might be of considerable service, if it were cut when just 
opening into ear, and given fresh to the cattle every day " 
{Martyn, I.e.). Of var. 7 Zea vulgaris, Mill. {Diet., n. 3), he 
says, " This ripens its grain perfectly well in England in as 
little time as Barley". But "Maize is seldom cultivated in 
England for use" {Martyn, I.e.). 

Eighty-eight per cent of the American crop of 1897 was 
grown between July isotherms 70° and 80° Fahr. {Brewer, i). 
The Argentine crop is grown with a mean January tempera- 
ture of 7578°, while that of the Transvaal Maize-belt is under 
70° Fahr. The actual highest yields of the United States 
have been obtained between July isotherms 75' and 80^ Fahr. 
{Harshberger, I ). 

The average temperature of the maize-belt of Argentina is 
given as : — 

' On the authority of Turner's Herbal, Part II, fol. 58 n. 



28 MAIZE 

CHAP. • 1S56-1875 62-9° 

II. 1876-1896 61-5° 

1897-1900 63-1° 

The maximum temperature is said seldom to exceed 95" Fahr., 
though it seems much higher owing to the excessive humidity. 
The maize zone lies between summer isotherms 71-6° and 
78-8° Fahr,, and annual isotherms 59° Fahr. and 68° Fahr. 

Table I. 
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURES. 



Place. 


Alt. 
Feet. 


Years. 


Novem- 
ber. 


Decem- 
ber. 


January 


Febru- 
ary. 


Mean, 4 
Months. 


Transvaal— 
















Vereeniging . 
Bethal . 


4700 
5580 


1903-10 
1903-10 


67-97 
62-83 


69-63 

64-75 


70-34 
65-96 


69-24 
65-18 


69-29 
64-68 


(Arcadia) . 
Natal— 


4500 


1903-10 


69-18 


70-78 


71-54 


69-64 


70-28 


Cedara '. { 




1903-4 
1907-8 


|68-2 


69-6 


72-0 


70-75 


70-14 


Rhodesia — 
















Bulawayo 
Bulawayo 
Salisbury 
United States 0/ 


4470 
4810 


1898-1902 

1908-9 
1898-1902 


71-8 
70-6 
69-6 


71-1 
72-4 
68-2 


71-0 
70-6 
69-4 


68-9 
68-4 
67-6 


70-70 
70-50 
68-70 


America — ' 
















Georgia . 
Iowa 

Argentina — 
Mean of 13 




13 years 
i8 years 


72-1 
59-8 


78-6 
69-3 


79-6 
73-6 


77-8 
71-6 


7702 
68-3 


stations 




2 


69-12 


73-54 


75-78 


74-59 


73-25 


BahiaBlancaj 




1897-1900 


) 65-37 


70-61 


73-81 


71-89 


70-42 


Goya . 
Paraguay- 
Mean of 2 sta- 




1876-1900 


72-85 


77-38 


78-22 


77-45 


76-47 


tions . 
S. Europe — ■^ 




1892- 1900 


76-55 


80-53 


80-60 


79-99 


79-42 


Vienna . 


636 


100 years 


59-18 


65-84 


68-90 


67-46 


65-34 



' The heaviest maize yields of the United 
July ( = January) isotherms 75° and 80"^ Fahr. 
2 Various periods from 1855 to 1900. 



States have been grown between 
^ May to August inclusive. 



In the Transvaal it is generally considered that the Lower 
Bush-veld (below 2,000 feet), though hotter, cannot compete 
with the High-veld in the production of maize ; if this is 
actually the case it is probably due largely to the character of 



CLIMA TIC REQ UIREMENTS 



29 



the soil, as there is a narrow strip of poor soil running through CHAP, 
the Lower Bush-veld from north to south, and good maize ^^" 
crops are raised on either side of this belt at the same altitude. 
It may also be due in part to deficiency or irregularity of rain- 
fall, and greater evaporation. 



Table II. 

MEAN TEMPERATURES OF THE CEREAL BELT OF ARGENTINA. 

November, December, January, and February. 



Station. 


Period. 


November. 


December. 


January. 


February. 






















C. 


Fahr. 


C. 


Fahr. 


C. 


F.H,. 


C. 


Fahr. 


Buenos Aires . 


1856-1900 


19-90 


67-82 


22-43 


72-37 


23-66 


74-59 


23-06 


73-51 


Bahia Blanca] 


1S60-83 
I 897- I 900 


h«-54 


65-37 


21-45 


70-61 


23-23 


73-81 


22-16 


71-89 


Tandil . 


1876-82 


17-37 


63-26 


19-30 


66-74 


21-20 


70-16 


21-II 


yo-oo 


Viedma . 


1876-82 


17-95 


64-31 


20-13 


69-85 


23-36 


74-05 


21-13 


70-04 


Rosario . 


1891-1900 


2078 


69-40 


23-73 


74-71 


24-70 


76-46 


24-33 


75-79 


Ceres . 


1896- 1900 


23 15 


73-67 


25-68 


78-22 


26-61 


79-91 


2683 


80-30 


Parana . . { 


1896-9 
1875-82 


}2i-9i 


71-44 


24-20 


75-56 


24-98 


76-96 


24-85 


76-73 


Concepcion del 




















Uruguay . 


1894-9 


2I'IO 


69-98 


23-94 


75-09 


24-44 


76-00 


24-28 


75-71 


Hernandarias . 


1S77-92 


22-82 


73-08 


25-11 


77-20 


26-23 


79-23 


25-33 


77-59 


Goya 


1876-1900 


22-6g 


72-85 


25-21 


77-38 


25-68 


78-22 


25-25 


77-45 


Cordbba . 


1873-igoo 


20-87 


69-56 


22-97 


73-34 


23-44 


74-19 


22-74 


72-93 


Rio Cuarto . 


1881-1900 


20-98 


6976 


23-36 


74-05 


23-96 


75-12 


23-07 


73-52 


San Luis 


1874-7 


19-96 




22-25 


72-05 


24-70 


76-46 


23-39 


74-10 


268-02 




299-76 




316-19 




307-53 




Mean of 13 




















stations 




20-62 


69-12 


23-08 


73-54 


24-32 


75-78 


23-66 


74-59 








Pa, 


agitay. 










Asun9ion 


1892-1900 


2478 




27-09 


8o-8o 


27-20 


80-96 


26-95 


80-51 


Itacurubi del 




















Rosario 


1892-9 


2472 
49-50 




26-83 


80-30 


26-80 


80-25 


26-38 


79-50 




53-92 




54-00 




53-33 








2475 


76-55 


26-96 


80-53 


27-00 


80-6 


26-66 


79-99 



In the warmer coast-region of Natal, though there is less 
maize grown, the yields per acre are heavier than on the up- 
lands ; but this is probably due to increased fertility of the 
soil, and to longer growing season, rather than to actual in- 
crease in iemperature. 



CHAP. 

II. 



30 MAIZE 

Table III. 
MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURES, TRANSVAAL. 
Bethal (5,580 feet). 



Year. 


1903.4. 


1904-5- 


1905.6. 


2906-7. 


1907-8. 


1908.9. 


1909-10. 


.\\erage. 


Nov. 


_ 


63-9 


63-3 


6i-6 


62-3 


63-3 


62-6 


62-83 


Dec. 


— 


62-4 


66-4 


64-2 


647 


65-4 


65-4 


6475 


Jan. 


— 


66-0 


69-8 


66-1 


67-0 


62*9 


64-0 


65-96 


Feb. 




64-5 


64-6 


65-8 


66-4 


64-8 


65-0 


65-18 


258-72 


















64-68 






Vereeniging (4,700 feet). 






Nov. 


68-2 


697 


68-9 


66-8 


66-4 


67-6 


68-2 


67-97 


Dec. 


73-4 


65-9 


71-1 


68-6 


68-8 


70-4 


69-2 


69-63 


Jan. 


71-6 


70-1 


74-1 


69-8 


70-0 


68-4 


68-4 


70-34 


Feb. 


70-5 


69-4 


68-6 


6g-o 


71-4 


67-6 


68-2 


69-24 


277-18 


















69-29 






Pretoria (Arcadia) (4,500 feet). 






Nov. 


68-6 


7I-I 


69-6 


67-1 


68-5 


69-8 


69-6 


69-18 


Dec. 


707 


69-0 


727 


69-6 


69-9 


73'2 


70-4 


70-78 


Jan. 


71-4 


72-2 


74-8 


71-0 


72-2 


70-6 


70-0 


71-54 


Feb. 


69-3 


707 


70-6 


70-9 


75-9 


69-0 


70-1 


69-64 


281-14 


















70-28 



The above tables show the mean monthly temperatures 
of the four growing months for maize, November to February 
inclusive. In the case of the Transvaal stations the means 
are for the seven years 1903 to 1910 inclusive (Innes, i), and 
are obtained by halving the sum of the mean daily maximum 
and the mean daily minimum. The Rhodesian figures are 
those given by Mr. Hutchins (i), and the Georgia figures are 
the means for thirteen years as furnished by Director Redding 
(i) ; the latter are for the corresponding summer months of 
May to August inclusive. The Iowa figures are from Bowman 
and Crossley (i). 

24. Night Temperature. — Some writers {Darwin, 2 ; Harsli- 
berger, i) conclude that the maize crop does not flourish where 
the nights are "cool," no matter how favourable the other 



CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS 



31 



conditions. The term " cool " is relative, and may be mis- 
leading, for in those parts of the Transvaal where the maize 
crop thrives the summer nights are invariably cool. The 
director of the Union Observatory gives the following figures 
showing the mean daily temperature at 6 a.m. (the coolest 
hour of the night) at the Government Observatory, Johannes- 
bur?. 



CHAP. 
II. 



Table IV.' 

MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT GOVERNMENT 
OBSERVATORY, JOHANNESBURG. 

September, 1904 — March, igog. 





Mean Daily Minimum Temperature, 6 


a.m. 


Mean, 5 












Seasons, 














Sept., 1904— 




1904-5. 


1905-6. 


1906-7. 


1907-8. 


1908-9. 


Dec, 1908. 


September 


45-8 


48-8 


49-8 


48-8 


53-2 


49-3 


October . 


51-9 


54-9 


5i"i 


5I-I 


517 


52-1 


November 


5y4 


54'5 


53"o 


54-2 


55-6 


54-9 


December . 


54-2 


57-5 


55-2 


55-9 


57-8 


56-1 


January . 


56-8 


59-8 


57-6 


56-4 


577 


57-6 


February . 


56-6 


56-1 


57-8 


577 


56-1 


56-8 


March . 


53-5 


53-5 


56-6 


54-1 


55-2 


54-6 


7 Months' mean 


537 


55-0 


54-4 


54 -o 


55-3 


54*5 


Annual mean . 


50-52 


51-4 


50-5 


507 


51-6 


50-9 



At Buenos Aires the mean minimum summer temperature (December to 
February) at 5 a.m. is 63-5° Fahr. 

1 Abstracted from Reports of Transvaal Department of Meteorology 
(Innes, i). 

"N.B. — The mean daily minimum is 17° lower than the mean tempera- 
ture at 6 a.m. 



The following tables, taken from the publications of the 
late Transvaal Department of Meteorology, Johannesburg 
(Innes, i) show the mean daily minimum temperature over a 
series of years at Vereeniging (4,700 feet altitude), and Bethal 
(5,580 feet altitude), two of the most important maize centres 
of the Transvaal. Comparing the two tables we find that for 
the 880 feet difference in altitude we have an average differ- 
ence in the annual mean of i-2°, and in the 7 months' mean 
of 27°. 



32 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
II. 



Tablu V. 

MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT VEREENIGING. 

September, igo^— March, 1909. 







Mean Daily Minimum Temperature. 


Mean, 5 
Seasons. 




1904-5. 


1905-6. 


1906-7. 


1907-8. 


1908-9. 


September 
October . 
November 
December 
January . 
February . 
March . 




43 '4 
507 
55-6 
53-3 
57-2 
58-3 
52-9 


45-3 
51-0 
55-8 
58-6 
6i-o 
567 
52-5 


44-2 
49-3 
53'9 
54-4 
59'o 
58-5 
54'5 


43-6 
50"o 

52-3 
567 

55-1 
59-5 
52-6 


467 

48-1 
54-3 
56-8 

54-2 


44-6 
49-8 
54*4 
55-9 
58-4 
58-2 
53-3 


7 Months' mean 
Annual mean . 


53-0 
45-2 


54-4 
45-6 


53-4 
45-2 


52-8 
44-0 


54-0 
45-8 


53-5 
45'i 



Table VI. 

MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURES AT BETHAL. 

September, 1905 — March, 1909. 



Month. 


Mean Daily Minimum Temperature. 


Mean, 4 
Seasons. 


1904-5. 


1905-6. 


1 906-7- 


1907-8. 


1908-9. 


September 
October . 
November 
December 
January . 
February . 
March . 




4I-I 

477 

57-4 
53-2 
49-2 


42-3 
47-0 
50-3 
53 -o 
567 
557 
525 

5I-I 
43-8 


42-5 
46-4 
50-2 
53-6 
54-6 
53-8 
50-5 

50-2 
43-r 


45-5 
466 
517 
54-0 
52-8 
55-6 
527 

51-3 
44-9 


42-8 
46-9 
50-9 
53-8 
55-4 
54-6 
51-2 

50-8 
43-9 


7 Months' mean 
Annual mean . 


... 


507 
43 -9 



25. Frost.— Late winter frosts have little effect on the 
South African maize crop, as they usually come at a time 
when there has not been enough rain to start the crop ; but 
when they fall as late as the middle of October they may 
cause some damage. Early winter frosts are more dangerous ; ^ 



I On the Transvaal High-veld killing frosts are sometimes experienced as 
early as 28 March. 



CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS 33 

for on the high plateau of the Transvaal, at 5,000 to 6,000 feet CHAP, 
elevation, the season is usually too short for late-maturing 
breeds of maize, and almost every year a proportion of the 
crop of medium-late sorts — such as Hickory King — is seriously 
injured. This is due to the sudden though temporary fall of 
temperature which frequently precedes the advent of the real 
winter by two or three weeks, when the frost is often suffi- 
ciently severe to injure the unripe grain. A remedy can be 
found in autumn tillage and earlier planting to bring the crop 
sufficiently forward to miss the frost ; but too early planting 
often results in loss from cut-worms. When the South 
African maize crop is once ripe, frost does not injure it, and it 
can be left standing in the field to dry out, through the winter, 
without fear of injury. As there is considerable difference in 
the time required for the maturity of different breeds, the 
earlier-maturing sorts should be used at the higher altitudes ; 
some of these yield rather less than the longer-growing sorts, 
and farmers are reluctant to drop the latter, even though they 
entail greater risk. 

At lower altitudes, as along the coast of Natal, the Ubombo 
Range in Swaziland, and the adjacent portion of the Transvaal, 
the season between frosts is so long that two successive crops 
of maize-grain can be matured in the same year. 

Temperature appears to have no direct effect upon yield 
per acre, but it does influence the maturing of the grain, and 
often in this way affects the yield of marketable grain, especi- 
ally at higher altitudes and in the southernmost of the maize- 
growing districts of South Africa. 

In Argentina frost is apt to cause a considerable loss of crop. 

Where the crop has been thrown late, from one cause or 
another, the stalks may be cut just before the time when frosts 
are expected, and " stooked " in the field. This does not 
interfere with the proper filling out and ripening of the grain 
if the crop is not cut before the grain has begun to harden. 
Not only does this method enable farmers on the High-veld 
to save their crop from injury by frost, but it results in a saving 
of some 50 per cent of the feeding value of the " stover". At 
the suggestion of the writer this method was tried by several 
High-veld farmers in the Transvaal, during the very backward 
season of 1909-10, with excellent results. 

3 



34 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
II. 



26, Hail. — No country in the world has such a perfect 
climate that the farmer is entirely free from worry, what- 
ever his crop may be. On the whole the climate of South 
Africa is probably as nearly perfect as any ; but it is not 
without drawbacks. Perhaps the chief of these is hail. The 
worst hailstorms usually fall in the months of November 
and December; on 16 November, 1909, hailstones weighing 
4^ oz. were reported from Germiston, and considerable 



damage was done to crops 



in the districts of Bethal, Er- 
melo, Standerton, Heidelberg, 
Marico, Rustenburg, Wakker- 
stroom, and the Witwatersrand. 
At this time of year the maize 
plant is still comparatively 
small ; so long as it is not 
in tassel, a new crop of leaves 
may be produced and, though 
somewhat retarded in develop- 
ment, the crop usually recovers. 
Hailstorms coming in Janu- 
ary are most likely to damage 
the maize crop. A storm of 
hail in the Glencoe District of 
Natal, on 21 January, 1908, cut 
the maize crop to the ground 
and injured it beyond recovery ; 
but it is said to have been the 
heaviest hailstorm known in that 
district for forty years. Most 
damage is done when the main 
stem of the plant is broken by 
the hail, causing the development of sucker shoots, which do 
not bear good grain. 

More frequently the injury is restricted to stripping the 
foliage into ribbons, sometimes leaving only the midrib (see 
Figs. 5 and 6) and sheath of the leaf to function in photo- 
synthesis (H 69) . If the storm occurs before the tassel appears, 
the plant may be able to throw out additional leaves, by which 
photosynthesis can be carried on ; but if it has reached the 
stage shown in the above figure, no fresh leaves can form on 




Fig. 5. — Effect of hail on the leaves 
of the maize plant. 



CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS 



35 



the stem ; there must then be some loss in weight of grain, 
inasmuch as all the starch must first be elaborated in the leaf 
before it can be deposited in the grain (IT 69). 

It is a fortunate feature of the South African hailstorm 
that it is usually confined to a comparatively narrow strip, so 
that not all of any one farm is damaged, and as a rule the 



CHAP. 

II. 




Fig. 6. — Effect of hail on the stem and leaves of the maize plant. 



same farm is rarely visited by hail two years in succession. 
There are, however, " hail-belts," in which hailstorms appear 
to recur almost yearly. 

Apparently there is no reliable preventive for hailstorms ; 
but insurance policies against damage from hail may be 
effected. 



36 MAIZE 

CHAP. 27. Soil Temperature. — The temperature of the soil has 

^ • much to do with the successful growth of maize and other 
tropical crops. In cold soils germination and subsequent 
growth are retarded. Experiments conducted at Pretoria 
show that whereas maize planted in September and early 
October usually requires eight days to appear above ground, 
that planted at the end of December or early January will 
sometimes appear in three days ; in each case the seed was 
well watered daily, so that lack of moisture was not the cause 
of retarded germination, which may therefore be attributed to 
low temperature of the soil. 

Maize lands should be well drained, for wet soils are usually 
cold soils. It is largely on this account that maize germinates 
badly, and its growth, also, is retarded in water-logged soils. 
When water stands for any time on the maize lands, the 
foliage becomes yellow and the plants remain stunted. In 
cycles of droughty weather there is a tendency to plant the 
crops in low-lying ground which retains a certain amount of 
moisture ; but when normal seasons return the crops in these 
lands suffer. It is better to apply the principles of dry-farming 
(i.e. good tillage) to the soil (see chap. IX.), in order to con- 
serve the moisture, than to use undrained land in anticipation 
of possible drought. 

28. Moisture Requirements. — Maize is, on the whole, a 
drought-resistant plant, but some breeds suffer more from 
drought than others, and these should not be chosen for regions 
where the average rainfall of the period from December to 
February inclusive is too light for the ordinary breeds. King 
(i)has found that in Wisconsin the maize plant abstracts from 
the surrounding soil 270 lbs. of water for each pound of dry 
matter grown, which is equal to a rainfall of 2*4 inches for 
each ton, or only about half the amount required (in Wisconsin) 
by oats and clover. But the maize plant requires a consider- 
able amount of water at certain stages of growth. 

In Illinois the growth of maize during one week in July 
has been found equal to 1,300 lbs. of dry matter per acre, 
which would require i'5 inches of rainfall, according to King's 
experiments. At a time of such rapid growth the plant is apt 
to suffer from drought unless the soil is in the best physical 
condition {Hunt, i). 



CLIMA TIC REQ U I RE ME NTS 3 7 

An American writer points out that the curling of the chap. 



leaves of the maize plant in July (equivalent to January in 
South Africa) is a bad omen to maize-growers in the drier 
districts. The time of the formation of the ear (January and 
February) is the critical period in the life of the plant, and 
lack of moisture at this time means curtailment of yield 
{Bowman and Crossley, i). 

29. Rainfall. — Though no direct relation exists between 
actual temperature and yield, rainfall, on the contrary, has a 
very direct bearing upon yield. 

At the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station a rainfall 
of 13 inches during the five growing months, produced 
1,792 lbs. (practically 9 muids) of dry maize-grain per acre. 
The following year, with 2 2 -5 inches during the same period, 
the yield (without fertilizer) was 5,264 lbs. (over 26 muids) 
per acre. The mean temperature was more favourable the 
first season than the second. The results indicate that the 
increase of 17 muids per acre was due to the additional 95 
inches of rain, an average of 1-9 inches per month. 

In the Corn-belt of the United States the most favourable 
condition is found to be a series of comparatively heavy rains 
during the growing season, but at considerable intervals, with 
clear sunshiny weather between, and followed by a warm, 
dry, ripening period. If the rainfall equals 11-5 to I2"0 inches 
in the three summer months corresponding to December, 
January, and February in the Southern Hemisphere, this 
should be adequate; of this, 4-5 to 5-0 inches should fall in 
January, when the ears are growing most rapidly. The aver- 
age rainfall for these three months for thirty-nine stations 
through the Maize-belt of South Africa is 1 1 -92 inches, while 
the average for January is 4-35, or 4*6 if we omit the three 
driest localities, which are really outside the Maize-belt. 
Heavy rainfalls and cloudy weather during the planting season 
(corresponding to October and November in South Africa and 
South America) are in North America found to decrease 
the yield. In South Africa a wet October and November 
prevents proper weeding and encourages early growth of weeds 
which withdraw moisture and plant-food from the young 
maize plants, thereby reducing the yield. But excess of 
moisture, as already explained (IF 27), is injurious. 



II. 



38 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
II. 



The average monthly rainfall for the four growing months 
of the maize crop, as recorded during thirteen years at the 




s::?!^ 







^^^ 





Fig. 7. — Grains which have been fer- 
tilized but not fully filled with 
starch, probably owing to drought. 



Fig. 8, — Grains cracked from ex- 
posure to unfavourable weather 
conditions. 



Georgia (U.S.A.) State Agricultural Experiment Station, was 
as follows {Redding, i): — 





South African 




Georgia. 


Equivalent. 


Rainfall 


May 


November 


2'9i in. 


June 


December 


4-37 


July 
August 


January 
February 


5-52 

1280 
6-o6 



i8'86 



CLIMA TIC REQ U I REM E NTS 



39 



The rainfall of the Argentine Maize-belt ranges from 31-5 CHAP, 
inches to 39*4 inches, but 
this is divided with fair 
uniformity between summer 
and winter. March is the 
rainiest month, and April 
is about as wet as February, 
which is unfortunate for the 
drying of the grain ; this is 
one of the greatest draw- 
backs to maize-growing in 
Argentina. The winter is 
wet and frosty, which makes 
it difficult to get the grain 
into merchantable condi- 
tion, and to store it satis- 
factorily ; the consequent 
percentage of loss in Argen- 
tine cargoes during the 
ocean voyage is heav}'. 
Even when the greatest 
care is exercised, the un- 
favourable climatic condi- 
tions are likely to handicap 
maize-growing in Argen- 
tina. 

The following table 
(VII), prepared with the 
courteous assistance of the 
director and staff of the 
Government Observatory, 
Johannesburg, shows that 
the summer rainfall con- 
ditions throughout a great 
part of South Africa are 
eminently suited to maize 
production. Certain areas 
must be excepted, however, 

such as the Cape Peninsula p^^ g._Grains cracked from exposure to 
and the adjacent areas unfavourable weather conditions. 




CHAP. 

n. 





Authority. 


Trans. Met. Dept. 

Rev. Father Goetz, 
S.J. 

Trans. Met. Dept. 

Sutton (Tr. 
S.A.P.S., XV).i 




1 


1 


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1904-7 
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1897-8 to 

1906-7 
I882-I908 

(breaks) 
1 880- 1 90 1 




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Witwatersrand, Jou- 

bert Park 
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Bloemhof (Dist.) 
Ermelo (Eastern) 
Heidelberg (Dist.) 
Lichtenburg (Dist.) . 
Potchefstroom (Dist.) 
Standerton (Dist.) 
Waterberg (Dist.) 
Zoutpansberg (Town 
of Petersburg) 

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4^ MAizn 

CHAP, which have chiefly winter rains ; the areas of very low rain- 
fall such as the Karroo ; areas where there is a deficiency in 
the spring rains, or where the intervals between rains are too 
great, as in parts of the south-western Transvaal and western 
Orange Free State ; and the higher mountain ranges where, 
though the rainfall is ample, the growing season is too short, 

30. SuTishine. — The maize plant is especially suited to 
the treeless grass-steppes of upland plateaux, and also thrives 
in open "bush" country. But it does not seem at home in 
humid, shady, tropical forests. Sagot (i) shows that maize 
does not thrive in the warm, damp climates where manioc 
{Manihot spp.) is grown, and De Candolle (i) supplements 
this observation by pointing out that forests are generally un- 
favourable to the production of any annual plants. 

The latter view seems in harmony with the general geo- 
graphical distribution of cereal crops in the tropics. Major 
Whitlock (i) observes that guinea corn {Sorghum vulgare 
var.), an annual plant, is the staple cereal of the natives on the 
plains of Nigeria, at about 1,400 feet above sea-level, from Lake 
Chad almost to the foot of the watershed plateau between the 
Benue and the Cross Rivers. South of this plateau, however, 
where the country is clothed with forest, no more guinea corn 
is seen, the natives subsisting entirely on yams and plantains. 
In parts of Uganda, also, bananas are more extensively grown 
for food than any cereal. 

This is probably due, in the case of maize, to lack of sunshine. 
It is noticeable in South Africa that in cloudy seasons, like 
that of 1909-10, when there was nearly twice as much cloud 
as usual during the months of January and February, the 
maize crop is light. In continuous wet weather, pollination 
appears to be retarded ; if the wet weather alternates with 
warm sunshine at short intervals, pollination can take place 
readily ; nature has provided that the silks shall be receptive 
for a considerable period (sometimes as much as fourteen days 
if pollen is not applied earlier), while the pollen supply may last 
for two to three weeks through a natural irregularity in time 
of flowering of different individuals ; in one plant, alone, pollen 
continues to fall for about four consecutive days. 

31. Influence of Climate upon Vegetative Characters and 
Time of Maturity. — Careful stud)' of the influence of climate 



CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS 43 

upon habit of growth is needed. The same breed appears to CHAP, 
differ in size and in time of maturity at different altitudes and ^^' 
latitudes. Hunt (i) concludes that in the United States, as a 
general rule, a breed becomes one day later for each ten miles 
south or north of a given latitude, if the altitude is the same. "^^^ 
This means that a variety which ripens two weeks before a 
killing frost in a given locality would only barely ripen if 
taken 140 miles away from the equator at the same altitude, 
the date of the first killing frost remaining the same. 

He advocates that, in introducing new seed it should prefer- 
ably be obtained from about the same latitude. Similarity of 
latitude may be a sufficient guide on a vast and nearly level 
plain like that of the Ohio valley ; but where the topography 
varies as it does in South Africa, other factors than latitude 
and altitude influence the climate, and we doubt whether (with 
the present lack of knowledge of these controlling factors) 
South African farmers can make much practical use of the 
suggestion. A breed which matures in 90 days in Australia 
may take 100 or no days in the Transvaal. It is very 
noticeable that the same breed takes a longer or shorter time 
to mature in different years, according to the " season " ; in a 
time of drought, growth is checked and flowering and fruiting 
are hastened, while in a rainy season, growth is continued much 
longer. Even" within the Transvaal, and during the same 
season, the same breed, grown from the same lot of seed, is 
reported as having varied considerably in time of maturing in 
different districts. This is due partly, no doubt, to the con- 
dition of the soil as regards moisture at time of planting ; in 
an air-dry soil such as is found over large areas during a great 
part of the spring, the seed does not germinate as quickly as 
in a moist soil. Allowance must also be made for the personal 
equation, different observers holding different views as to when 
the ear could be considered " mature " or safe from frost ; lack 
of purity in strains of the same breed may also be a factor. 

32. Accliinati::ation. — It is said that when a recognized 
breed has been grown for some time under diverse climatic 
conditions, it not only changes considerably in stature and 
time of maturity, but that these habits become more or less 
fixed so that, when taken back to the old conditions, the plant 
does not at once respond to the change. In this way different 



{j- 



44 



MAIZE 



CHAP, strains of the same breed are supposed to be dev^eloped ; they 
are said to become adapted to different conditions. The 
amount of such change, if it does occur, must be Hmited, 
however ; within these limits it could be made use of in the 
acclimatization of new breeds, but it would not enable us to 
take a very late maturing sort suddenly from a tropical climate 
to a much higher altitude and colder latitude, and acclimatize 
it successfully ; this would have to be done gradually and by 
intermediate steps, and with some breeds might not be suc- 
cessful even then. Little is known, at present, of the actual 
effect of climate upon the maize crop. If the facts are such 
as have been indicated, farmers would do well to make use of 
them, or at least to keep them in mind when purchasing 
seed-maize. 

It appears clear that seed-maize from one climate takes 
some time to become acclimatized to another, and in the 
United States it has not been found desirable to take seed- 
maize from the rich alluvial plains of the Mississippi to the 
poorer soils of Virginia. For these reasons it is not desirable 
to buy bulk seed from hot, humid regions, at low altitudes, 
for cultivation in cooler and drier conditions at high altitudes. 
Nor is it desirable to obtain seed from deep, fertile soils for 
growth on thin, poor soils ; one of the chief reasons that 
Hickory King has become such a favourite in South Africa is 
its ability to thrive on relatively poor soils and with rough 
treatment. But the converse may perhaps also be true, that it 
is not desirable to obtain bulk seed-maize from colder and drier 
climates and poorer soils for growth in hotter and more 
humid climates and on richer soils, because the quicker 
maturing habit will have been formed and the plant will not 
be able immediately to take advantage of the longer growing 
season and greater amount of plant food, and the resulting 
crop may be less than would have been the case with a breed 
already acclimatized to those conditions. 

33. Influence of Climate upon Varieties. — The origin of the 
different varieties of maize is unknown, through lack of 
historical records, but it seems probable that there is some 
relation between climate and existing varieties. It is notice- 
able that those breeds grown in the most northerly parts of 
the United States and in Canada are mainly flints, while 



CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS 45 

in the Southern States dents are grown almost exclusively. CHAP. 
Dents generally yield more heavily than flints, but take longer 
to mature; flints mature earlier, but as the yield is lighter 
they are grown only where others cannot mature owing to 
shortness of season. 

It is said that a northern flint variety, after having been 
grown for several years in Illinois, changed under the influence 
of climate into a dent ; but before concluding that this change 
was caused by change of climate it should be known whether 
any precautions had been taken against cross-pollination, for 
if crossing had taken place between the flint and a dent, the 
heterozygous grains might retain the flint appearance and 
would later produce dent grains, which, if selfed, would breed 
true. 

Sugar maize is said to be rarely grown in the Southern. 
States, but whether this is due to the climatic conditions being 
unfavourable for the production of sugar maize, or whether it 
may be due to the taste of the people, is not clear. 

34. Influence of Climate upon Chemical Composition. — As 
the result of thirty-five analyses of dent maize grown in the 
Northern States, and forty-nine from the Southern, Hunt (i) 
concludes that there is no material difference in composition 
in maize grown in different parts of the country, over a very 
wide range of soils and climates. Analyses of Transvaal 
samples made by the Division of Chemistry of the Union 
Department of Agriculture tend to confirm this view (see 
chap. XIII.). 



CHAPTER III. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 
To the wise man all the world's a soil. — Ben Jonson. 

CHAP. 35. Geographical Distribution. — In the preceding chapter we 

^'^' have seen that maize requires a hot, sunny climate ; it thrives 
best between the 40th parallels of latitude. Early ripening 
breeds are grown for grain in warm-temperate regions as far 
north as the 48th parallel in the northern hemisphere, and for 
fodder, still farther north, in the cool-temperate zone. 

The value of maize as a cereal crop for man and his 
domestic animals has led to its world-wide distribution in the 
brief space of time since the discovery of America. Although, 
as already pointed out (H 10), maize was probably first grown 
in New Granada as a cultural crop, and has only been known 
in Europe since the beginning of the sixteenth century, to-day 
three times as much is produced in Europe as on the whole 
of the South American continent. 

The countries mentioned in Table VIII are the leading 
producers of maize-grain ; the figures given are for the year 
1906, which was a record year for maize production in the 
northern hemisphere ; they are taken from the Year Books 
of the United States Department of Agriculture {U.S.D.A. 7) ^ 
and other official publications, and are stated in United States 
standard bushels of 56 lbs. In the case of Mexico and the 
African continent, the figures are only approximate, through 
lack of precise data. 

Maize is also grown, but to a lesser extent, in the Province 
of Quebec (Canada), Central America, the West Indies, Brazil, 
Paraguay, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Nyassaland, Uganda, British 

' The U.S.D.A. Year Book omits entirely the production of British India, 
which is larger than that of Mexico and Canada combined. 
46 



Table VIII. 
THE WORLD'S MAIZE CROP OF 1906. 





Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


North America — 








United States . 




2,927,416,000 




Mexico .... 




70,000,000 




Canada (Ontario) 




23,989,000 










3,021,405,000 




South America— 








Argentina .... 




194,912,000 




Uruguay .... 




3,226,000 




Chile .... 




846,000 










198,984,000 




3,220,389,000 


Europe — 








Austria- Hungary — 








Austria .... 


18,177,000 






Hungary 


162,925,000 






Croatia-SIavonia . 


20,470,000 






Bosnia-Herzegovina 


8,900,000 


210,472,000 






Roumania. 




130,546,000 




Italy 




93,007,000 




Russian Empire — 








Russia proper, including 








Bessarabia and South- 








ern Russia . 


59,320,000 






Northern Caucasia 


11,181,000 


70,501,000 






Servia .... 




27,786,000 




Bulgaria .... 




27,780,000 




Spain .... 




18,714,000 




Portugal .... 




15,000,000 




France .... 




14,581,000 


608,387,000 




Asia— 








British India 






107,318,000 


Africa — 








Egypt ... 




30,000,000 




Natal (and Zululand) 




3,845,000' 




Orange Free State . 




Not stated. 




Transvaal .... 




Not stated. 




Cape Colony . 




3,200,000- 




Rhodesia .... 




Not stated. 




Algeria .... 




544,000 




Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian) . 




300,000 


37,889,000 




Australasia— 








New South Wales . 




5,714,000 




Queensland 




2,233,000 




Victoria .... 




661,000 




New Zealand . 




653,000 




Western Australia . 




1,000 










9,262,000 
3,983,245,000 









CHAP. 
III. 



'The 1901 crop is given by Harrison (i) as 1,351,045 muids (4,825,160 
bushels). 

-In the year 1894-5 the total crop of Cape Colony was given as 920,369 
muids (3,287,032 bushels), (Wallace, i). 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
III. 



East Africa, Madagascar, Mesopotamia, Ceylon, China, Japan, 
the Malay Archipelago, and New Caledonia. 

36. Distribution in the United States. — The United States 
has 108,750,000 acres under maize and produces 75 per cent 
of the world's crop, but though maize is grown to a greater or 
less extent in most of the States of the Union, 58 per cent of 
the crop is produced in the comparatively small region com- 
prising the seven central States of Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, 
Kansas, Missouri, Indiana, and Ohio. These are known as 
the " Corn-surplus States," because they are practically the 
only States which grow more than is required for their own 
consumption. Their combined area is only about 268,000,000 
acres, or 11-^ per cent of the total area of the United States, 
and some 25,000,000 acres less than the area of the Union of 
South Africa excluding native territories. Only 1 8 per cent of 
the land of these seven corn-surplus States is planted to maize, 
but it produces 481,614,384 muids, or 58 per cent of the totaj 
crop of the country. The area of the Transvaal is approxi- 
mately 7 1 ,000,000 acres ; if only 1 8 per cent were under crop* 
to maize, and if the average yield were only 5 muids per acre 
(only half the average of the Corn-belt), the Transvaal would 
be producing the respectable crop of 64,000,000 muids of 



Table IX. 
STATISTICS OF THE MAIZE-SURPLUS STATES. 



Corn-surplus States. 


Square 
Miles. 


Average planted 
to Maize. 


Yield in 1906. 
Bushels. 


Average ! 

Yield 1 

per Acre. 

Bushels. 1 


Iowa . 

Illinois 

Nebraska . 

Missouri 

Kansas 

Indiana 

Ohio . 






56,025 
56,650 
77,510 
69,415 
82,080 
36,350 
41,060 


9,450,000 
9,616,886 
7,325,000 
7,075,000 
6,750,000 
4,643,782 
3,325.000 


373.275,000 
347,169,585 
249,782,500 
228,522,500 
195.075.000 
183,893.767 
141,645,000 


1 

39-5 
36-1 
34-1 
323 
28-9 
39-6 
42-6 




419,090 


48,185,668 


1,719,363,352 


36-15 



The maize zone of the United States may, for practical 
purposes of competition with other parts of the world, be 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 49 

considered as lying east of the looth meridian. It occupies chap. 
the rich, alluvial bottom lands of the rivers Missouri, Missis- ^^^• 
sippi, Ohio, and their tributaries. West of this there are, 
roughly speaking, four zones of vegetation, none of which is 
likely to become a maize producer of importance, owing to the 
climatic and other conditions described below. A recent 
American authority has stated that this country has now 
reached a point where increased acreage will play a minor role 
in the future in the increased production of this great cereal 
{Bowman and Crossley, i). 

37. The Sub-arid Zone. — The western portion of the States 
of South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 
lying, approximately, west of the lOOth meridian, is a sub- 
arid zone of prairie, nearly 200 miles wide, where, without 
irrigation, good crops grow only one or two years out of five. 
The eastern border of this zone roughly corresponds with the 
2,000 feet contour, where the country begins to rise from the 
river basin towards the Rocky Mountains. 

38. The Rocky Mountains Zone. — West of the sub-arid zone 
lie the Rocky Mountains, comprising pastoral and forest areas. 

39. The Great Basin. — Between the Rocky Mountains 
and the Sierra Nevada of California, lies the Great Basin, at 
one time known as the "Great American Desert". Though 
the rainfall is scanty, this region is scarcely a desert in the 
ordinary sense of the word ; it is largely covered with sage- 
brush and sparse grass furnishing grazing for stock. Crops are 
only grown where irrigation can be applied, and irrigated land 
grows lucerne more profitably than maize. 

40. The Pacific Slope. — In the northern, portion there is 
ample rain, but, as it falls principally in winter, the region 
is not well suited to maize-growing on a large scale. The 
irrigated lands can be more profitably planted to lucerne and 
fruit than to maize. A certain amount of sugar maize is 
grown for canning and eating fresh as " green corn ". 

41. The Atlantic States. — The North Atlantic States of 
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and the New England 
States, have too short a growing season to produce large crops 
of maize. Sugar maize is extensively grown, however, for 
canning purposes, even in localities too far north to permit of 
the ripening of the grain. In New Hampshire maize is grown 

4 



so MAIZE 

CHAP, in greenhouses for the very early market {Rane, i). Virginia, 
^^^' North Carolina, and Georgia are the only ones of the Atlantic 
States which produce any quantity of maize grain. The im- 
mediate coast region of the South Atlantic States is not much 
of a maize zone, partly on account of the character of the soil. 

42. Canada. — The Canadian climate, speaking broadly, is 
better suited to wheat than to maize. But a number of the 
earlier-maturing breeds are grown and ripen ^grain in the 
eastern portion of Ontario Province, and the southern part of 
the Provinces of Montreal and Quebec. Ontario has about 
332,000 acres, and Quebec 33,000 under maize. 

43. Mexico. — As is the case in most of the Latin-American 
countries, the agricultural resources of Mexico are by no means 
well developed. The topography and consequent climatic 
conditions stand in the way, but a good deal more could be 
done by the development of irrigation. The north-western 
States of Lower California, Sonora, and Chihuahua are very 
dry, the average (twenty-two years) rainfall in the case of 
Lower California being only iO"5 inches. In most parts of the 
country maize and beans (frijoles) form the staple article of 
diet. The principal maize areas are south of the States of 
Sinaloa, Durango, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas. 

In the drier States, such as Lower California, Coahuila, 
Durango, Nuevo Leon, and Yucatan, maize is mainly grown 
under irrigation, yet even in some of these, especially Sinaloa 
and Chihuahua, the maize area is considerable and is in- 
creasing. In others the crop might be doubled by irrigation. 
The strip of coast land is largely devoted to special tropical 
crops. The Maize-belt lies between this and the dry interior, 
at an altitude of 3,000 to 6,000 feet, where the climate re- 
sembles that of Southern Italy. Maize is the chief product 
of the States of Aguas Calientes and Colima. The estimated 
yields per acre range from 4^ to 14 muids (15 to 50 bushels). 
In some parts two crops a year are produced. In some States 
American capital, machinery, and enterprise are being applied 
with promising results to maize- and cattle-growing. 

44. Central America and the West Indies. — Maize is grown 
to a limited extent throughout Central America, but though 
used as an article of diet, it does not form an important article 
of commerce, other tropical products paying better. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 51 

45. Tropical South America. — Maize is grown to a greater CHAP, 
or less extent in all of the tropical South American countries, ^ * 
but statistics of production seem to be non-existent in most 
cases. Chile is reported to have had 63,100 acres under crop 

in 1908, and Uruguay 524,200 acres in 1907. Peru and 
Bolivia are also known to produce for their own consumption. 
In Brazil maize is grown in the more open parts, two crops a 
year being produced in some places. Flint breeds form prac- 
tically the only variety grown, and the yield per acre is said 
to be higher than in the United States. The dense tropical 
forests which clothe the river valleys are unsuited to the pro- 
duction of maize, and there manioc largely takes its place. 

46. Argentina. — Argentina is the most serious competitor 
with South Africa for the maize trade of the world, and the 
only country that she has to fear at the present time. In the 
season 1908-9 Argentina had 8,342,559 acres under maize, 
and her crop was 49,590,060 muids, or an average of nearly 
6 muids per acre; on some farms 14 to 17 muids (50 to 60 
bushels) are obtained. 

The planting season extends from the middle of August 
to the middle of January, but the safest time is considered to 
be from the middle of September to the middle of December. 
Early planting gives the best yield when the season is favour- 
able. The crop is drilled, not check-rowed ; it is harrowed 
when the plants are 2 or 3 inches high, and hilled up by 
machinery when 12 inches high. Ninety per cent of the 
crop consists of a small flint type, much appreciated on the 
London and Liverpool markets ; Hickory King and Queen 
have also been tried. There is a tendency to harvest before 
the crop is mature, in order to get the grain to the coast 
before the heavy rains begin (IT 29). In some seasons locusts 
play serious havoc with the crop. The Provinces of Buenos 
Aires and Santa Fe are the largest producers. 

47. Possible Increase in the Argentine Crop. — Fifty per 
cent of the total crop is exported, but it is likely that local 
consumption will increase owing to the enormous develop- 
ment of the meat-packing trade. However, with increased 
local demand, there will certainly be an increase in acreage 
under crop. During the five years 1905 to 1909 inclusive, 
the average annual increase in area planted to maize amounted 

4* 



52 MAIZE 

CHAP, to 78 per cent, the production 28 per cent and the export 33 
^^'* per cent. Only about an eighth part (say i 2 per cent) of the 
area suited to the production of the four crops, wheat, maize, 
linseed, and oats, is at present under cultivation. Of this, 
one-half is devoted to wheat and one-quarter to maize. Eight 
times the present maize acreage would be 66,000,000 acres, 
which at 6 muids per acre gives a potential crop of 396,000,000 
muids. Unless the population in the country increases, this 
means a possible surplus of 1 98,000,000 muids for export. The 
importing countries consumed, in the year 1908-9, only about 
49,689,180 muids. If the present rate of increase in Argen- 
tine maize exports is maintained, viz. 33 per cent increase in four 
years, it will take twenty-eight or perhaps thirty years for the 
export to reach the maximum indicated above. By that time 
local consumption in Argentina will probably have increased 
greatly, as it has done in the United States. Out of a crop of 
850,000,000 muids (more than double the potential crop of 
Argentina) the United States exports only about i"5 per cent 
or 8,500,000 muids. If the States continue to export i 
per cent, and the Argentine export falls to i per cent of 
her potential crop, the two countries will only export about 
12,500,000, or one-quarter of the present world's imports, 
instead of three-quarters , as at present. This will leave 
ample opportunity for South Africa to supply 25,000,000 to 
30,000,000 muids, while the Danube and South Russia can 
make up the balance. This estimate makes no allowance for 
increase in consumption by importing countries, which is 
steadily growing. Under these circumstances there seems to 
be plenty of room for the expansion of the South African 
maize trade. 

48. Europe. — In the ten years from 1880 to 1890 the pro- 
duction of maize in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is said to 
have increased by 40 per cent, but during the last few years 
the maize acreage and production have been fairly uniform, 
and no great increase in future is to be expected. 

Most of the crop is grown on the rich, alluvial plain soils 

, of . the Danube, Dnieper, and Dniester Rivers, Roumania, 

^ Hungary, and Bessarabia together furnishing over half of the 

European crop. This is largely exported from Odessa, Galatz, 

and Fiume ; grain forms three-quarters of the export trade of 

Galatz. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 



53 



In Roumania maize is the staple crop, and the staple CHAP, 
food-stuff of the people ; there are local distilleries which 
produce whisky from the maize. 

Italy is the next largest producer with about i 5 per cent 
of the European crop. The largest and richest agricultural 
area is the basin of the River Po, including the plains of 
Lombardy, Venetia, and Emilia. Part of the crop is shipped 
from Genoa and part from Venice ; at the latter port the 
grain is stored in air-tight silos to await shipment. 

49. Asia. — 'Very little information is obtainable as to the 
culture of maize among Asiatic peoples. Maize is grown in 
India, Ceylon, Persia, China, Japan, and the Malay Archi- 
pelago, but few statistics are accessible except in the case of 
India. The value of maize as a cereal crop is strikingly 
emphasized by its distribution in the latter country ; though 
doubtless first introduced into the Portuguese Settlements of 
the East Indies early in the sixteenth century, the conservatism 
of the Indian peoples naturally stood in the way of its adoption 
as a regular crop. As recently as 1832, Roxburgh observed 



ACREAGE UNDER MAIZE IN INDIA FOR THE DECADE 1897-8 TO 
1906-7, BOTH INCLUSIVE.! 





British India. 


Native States. 


Total. 




Acres. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


I897-I898. 


6,414.732 






I898-I899 








6,144,240 






I899-I900 








5.195.472 






1900-IgoI 








5,849,533 






I90I-I902 








6,198,063 






I902-I903 








6,331,816 


306,346 


6,638,162 


I903-I904 








6,135.511 


269,268 


6,404,779 


1904- I 905 








5,961,487 


250,285 


6,211,772 


I905-I906 








5.790,543 


221,687 


6,012,230 


I 906- 1907. 


6,171.751 


302,350 


6,494,101 


Average . 


6,019,514 


269,987 


6,352,209 



The distribution of the crop through the several Provinces is instructive ; 
the highest yields per acre are obtained in the North-west Frontier Provinces ; 
the lowest (as far as we have figures) in Bengal; but Bengal has b^' far the 
largest acreage. 

! Indian Government Publications, i. 



54 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
III. 



Table XI. 

ACREAGE AND YIELDS OF MAIZE IN THE INDIAN 
PROVINCES. 



Province. 


Acreage 
Planted. 


Yield per Acre. 


Estimated 
Crop.l 
Muids. 


Bengal . 

Agra 

Panjab . 

Oudh . 

N.W. Frontier 

Bombay . 
Central Provin 
Upper Burma 
Madras . 

Ajmer-Mervvar 

Lower Burma 
Eastern Benga 
Berar 
Sind 

Central India 
Assam 
Coorg . 
Native States 


:es . 
1 ] 


1,802,400 
1,454,497 

1,195,849 

710,938 

390,529 

157.079 
135,852 
106,700 
104,913 

64,003 

21,879 

21,120 

2,116 

1,394 
1,269 
1,213 

302,350 


820 lbs. 
1050 ,, 
/'1170 ,, irrigated ] 
1 850 „ dry 1. 
■j looi „ dry & irrigated j 
1.1007 ,, mean ; 

1050 ,, 
I.1841 ,, irrigated v 

745 „ dry \ 

1342 „ dry & irrigated j 

W309 ,, mean -* 

850 ,, estimated 

850 ,, „ 

850 „ 

850 „ 
.965 „ irrigated >, 
J 960 „ dry 1 
1 714 ,, dry & irrigated j 
'^ 880 „ mean -' 

850 ,, estimated 

850 „ 

850 „ „ 

850 „ 

850 „ 

850 „ 

850 „ 


7,389,840 
7,636,109 

6,021,099 

3,732,424 

2,556,012 

667,585 
577,371 
453,475 
445,880 

563,226 

92,985 
89,760 
8,993 
5,924 
5,393 
5,155 

1,284,987 




6,474,101 




31,536,218 



' Where the yield per acre varies between the irrigated and dry crops, and 
the crops fully irrigated and partly dry, the mean of these figures has been taken 
in calculating the yield. Where no yield per acre is given, the estimate has 
been made on the basis of the yield of the dry-land crop in the Panjab, which is 
probably a little on the low side. 

that maize was "cultivated in different parts of India in 
gardens, and only as an ornament, but nowhere on the con- 
tinent of India as an object of cultivation on a large scale" 
{Roxburgh, i). In course of time native prejudice gave way 
before the unanswerable demands of hunger and a rapidly 
increasing population ; Church (i) observes that in 1886 there 
were already in India 2,250,000 acres under maize. In 
another twelve years the area under crop had increased to 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 55 

6,500,000 acres. Since then it has averaged about 6,352,000 CHAP, 
acres per annum, with very little variation above or below, 
from year to year, indicating that it has probably reached 
its limit of geographical and economic distribution. Maize 
has now become a staple article of food in India, especially 
among the hill peoples. The average yield per acre ranges 
from 714 lbs. to 1,841 lbs. (i.e. from less than 4 muids to over 9 
muids, the latter yield being obtained only under irrigation) ; 
the average production for all the States and Provinces is 
slightly over 5 muids per acre. Maize is grown more exten- 
sively in the hill country than on the plains, where it is 
largely replaced by rice ; in the Panjab it is grown at about 
7,000 feet altitude. In Baluchistan a dwarf breed is grown 
successfully at between 5,000 and 9,000 feet altitude, where it 
forms a staple food of the people {Mueller, i ). 

It seems hardly probable that India, with its dense popu- 
lation and increasingly intensive agriculture, will become a . 
maize-exporting country ; it is more likely that she will be an 
importer, in exchange for some of the more costly articles of 
commerce which she produces in abundance. 

50. Australasia. — The total Australian maize area is only 
about 385,000 acres, and the crop about 3,000,000 muids, of 
which New South Wales contributes roughly one-half and 
Queensland over one-third. The coastal belt appears to be 
best suited to maize cultivation ; two crops may be grown 
each year on the low coast lands of South Queensland. The 
climatic conditions of the interior of the continent appear to 
be generally too dry for maize-growing on a large scale, and 
the irrigated lands are too valuable for lucerne and dairying, 
to be devoted to maize-grain growing. Only a small quantity 
is produced in New Zealand. In New Caledonia maize is the 
principal cereal grown ; it is used for feeding horses (replacing 
barley and oats), work-oxen, pigs, and poultry, but not for 
human food {Jeanney, i). 

From the point of view of competition in the European 
trade, Australasia is not likely to be a serious competitor 
with South Africa, owing to the much greater distance from 
market, and the limited area available for maize production. 
Development of the Australian meat trade may lead to a 
larger consumption of maize, and to a steady import, in 



yC 



56 MAIZE 



CHAP, which case South Africa would be the nearest producing 
^^'" country.^ 

51. North Africa. — Egypt is the largest producer of maize 
in North Africa, having nearly 2,000,000 acres under crop, 
and producing some 8,500,000 muids. Maize is a staple 
article of diet, and a certain amount is imported annually. 
The Egyptian Sudan produces only a small quantity, 
an average of 84,000 muids per annum for the three years 
to 1908 inclusive. In Algeria, owing to lack of summer rains, 
maize occupies but a very limited area, almost confined 
to the Province of Oran {Riviere and Lecoq, i), and the annual 
production is only about 125,000 muids. 

52, Tropical Africa. — Excellent maize is grown in parts 
of Rhodesia, and this Colony is likely to become a very large 
producer. A small export trade has been started (valued at 
about ^30,000 in 191 2), through the port of Beira. The 
development of cattle-ranching on a large scale is likely to 
lead to greater local consumption ; ^60,000 worth of maize 
was imported from the Union of South Africa in 1912. 

In Nyassaland a small quantity of maize is grown and 
there appears to be scope for development, but it is probable 
that more intensive crops such as coffee and cotton will prove 
more profitable for that Colony. On the uplands of British 
East Africa and the Uganda Protectorate maize-growing is on 
the increase, and it is possible that this region will become a 
competitor with South Africa for the export trade. The Suez 
Canal charges may, perhaps, more than offset the shorter sea- 
distance to Europe, but there seems to be a good opportunity 
for developing the trade with India, Ceylon, and China. 

Comparatively little maize is produced in the remainder of 
tropical Africa, partly owing to the general lack of agricultural 
development, partly to the fact, already alluded to, that maize 
does not thrive in tropical forest country, and partly, also, to 
the depredations of the elephant and wart-hog. In Italian 
Somaliland, German East Africa, Madagascar, the Astove 
atolls, the Cosmoledo Islands, and Portuguese East Africa, 
small quantities are produced, but the coast conditions do 
not seem favourable to maize production on a large scale, 
and other tropical crops generally pay better. 

1 Since this was written Australia has imported 242,000 muids of South 
African maize in one season. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 57 






Maize seems to be almost unknown to many of the aative CHAP. 



tribes of equatorial Africa, probably for the reasons before 
given (^ir 21 and 30). It is grown by the Baambas to the 
west of Mt. Ruwenzori, and by the Unyoros of Uganda, but 
" bolu " [Eleusine Coracana) is said to be the favourite cereal 
of the latter people. In the Acholi country, millets appear to 
take the place of maize, except at a small Nubian settlement 
near the Nyama River, where a red kind of maize is also 
grown. A small quantity of maize is grown by the Bahoru 
at Katonia in the Ankole country east of Mt. Ruwenzori 
{Daive, i). Major Bright (i) states that maize is grown in large 
quantities in the plain around Kasenyi, on the west shore of 
Lake Albert, at about 2,170 feet elevation, where they are not 
troubled by elephants and wart-hogs. 

In Nigeria maize does not appear to have yet supplanted the 
native cereal, guinea corn {Sorghum viilgare var.) {\V hillock, i). 
In Portuguese West Africa a limited quantity of maize is pro- 
duced, and in the Congo country it is used in the preparation of 
a beverage. In 1795 Mungo Park {Travels) found the natives 
at Pisania, on the Gambia, cultivating maize in considerable 
quantities. The French Sahara is too dry for maize-growing ; 
water is plentiful in the country about Lake Chad, but the 
heat is intense and the rainfall very scant ; during the rainy 
season (July to October inclusive), the mean fall is about 5-2 
inches, while in the very wet year of 1908 it only reached 
7-8 inches. In this region millet seems to be the staple 
cereal {Tilho, i). 

53. South Africa. — As a field for maize-growing, the 
Union of South Africa takes front rank, and for the farmer 
with energy and enterprise there awaits a rich reward in con- 
nection with this industry. A young, vigorous, and steadily 
(if slowly) increasing population provides an expanding local 
consumption, and the world's markets — owing to the excel- 
lent lines of communication linking South Africa with the 
older countries — lie within easy distance. 

The climate of a large part of South Africa is peculiarly 
well suited to the easy production of enormous quantities of 
maize of exceptionally good quality, especially for manufac- 
turing purposes. The rainfall is ample if the soil is cultivated 
properly. The possible planting season lasts for two months, 



III. 



58 MAIZE 

CHAP, as compared with a maximum limit of eighteen days in some 
^^^- of the maize-growing States of North America. 

The moisture contained in maize exported from South 
Africa is some 4 per cent lower than that of the American-grown 
article, which minimizes danger of damage in transport, and puts 
a premium on South African grain for manufacturing purposes. 
Farmers in Argentina find their climate unfavourable to the 
proper conditioning of the crop for export (H 29). 

Not all of South Africa is equally well suited to the pro- 
duction of maize. She has her Maize-belt just as the United 
States has her Corn-belt. The hot coastal zone and the dry 
Karroo and Kalahari regions are not well suited to maize- 
growing. The maize zone may be roughly defined as the 
country lying east of the 26th meridian, i.e., a line drawn 
between Algoa Bay, Bedford, Cathcart, Queenstown, Aliwal 
North, Wepener, Bloemfontein, and thence north to Lichten- 
burg and Zeerust. From this area the coast belt below i ,000 
feet altitude, and the rnountain region above 6,000 feet, should 
be excluded. 

54. Orange Free State. — The Orange Free State, together 
with the adjoining native territory of Basutoland, is by far the 
largest producer and exporter of maize of any of the four 
Provinces of the South African Union. But of the total area 
of the Province less than 2\ per cent is planted to this crop, 
and in the best producing Districts only 5^ per cent. The 
largest acreage and best crops are found in the north-eastern 
Districts, where the rainfall is about 1 1 inches during the three 
growing months of December, January, and February. A con- 
siderable part of the crop is grown by natives, and the average 

- yield is estimated at only 3 muids, or 1 1 bushels, per acre. 

55. Transvaal. — Maize is grown more* or less in every 
District and on practically every farm, but the principal Dis- 
tricts, in approximate order of production, are : Bethal, 
Heidelberg, Potchefstroom, Pretoria, Standerton, Frmelo, 
Middelburg, and Lichtenburg. Most of the Transvaal maize 
is produced on the High-veld, because the population is 
greater and more land is under cultivation. A good deal is 
also raised in the Upper and Lower Bush-veld, but chiefly by 
natives. The altitudinal range of the crop is from 600 feet at 
Komatie-poort, to over 6,000 feet in the Steenkampsberg and 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 59 

Drakensberg ; but the major part comes from the plateau be- CHAP, 
tween 4,000 and 5,500 feet. The south-western Districts are 
less suited to the production of the ordinary types of maize 
owing to low rainfall, short growing season, and often shallow 
soil. But it is probable that in time breeds will be developed 
especially suited to the climate and soil of that part of the 
country. 

56. Relative Yields of Transvaal Districts. — The relative 
productiveness of a District cannot be determined from the 
actual number of bags of grain produced by it, for the simple 
reason that the areas of the different Districts are so enor- 
mously disproportionate ; as an example we need only com- 
pare that of Bethal (384,000 morgen) with the Zoutpansberg, 
which is nineteen times its size (7,256,400 morgen^). The 
best method of comparison of relative productiveness is to 
reduce the yield to the average of some unit common to all, 
e.g. an acre, morgen, or square mile. 

The writer has therefore reduced the maize yields of the 
Transvaal to the average per square mile, which is the most 
convenient unit to use in the present state of agricultural de- 
velopment. In the following table (XII) the Districts are 
arranged in order of productiveness. 

If we considered only the total production of a District, 
we should have to give Lichtenburg first place with 191,405 
bags, whereas in yield per square mile of veld she comes 
only sixth on the list. 

The value of closer settlement and consequent improve- 
ment in cultivation of the soil are clearly brought out by the 
fact that the Witwatersrand goldfields produce more maize 
per square mile than any other District of the Transvaal. 
The Witwatersrand, comprising the Magisterial Districts of 
Johannesburg, Germiston, and Boksburg, is the most thickly 
populated area in the Transvaal; it covers only 556 square 
miles, a large part of which is occupied by mines, mine 
dumps, towns, and villages; yet in 1909 it produced 68,400 
muids of maize, or 122-8 per square mile, almost doubling the 
yield of Bethal, the next largest producing District. The 
soils of the Witwatersrand are not as suitable for maize culture 
as those of many other parts of the country. 
1 I morgen = 2'i 165402 acres. 



CHAP. 
III. 



60 MAIZE 

Table XII. 
AREAS AND YIELDS OF TRANSVAAL DISTRICTS. 











Average 


in Muids 










per Square Mile. 


District. 


Area.i 
Square Miles. 


Morgen.- 


Muids. 


















rgoS-g. 


igog-io.^ 


Boksburg . 


270-57 


81,814 








Germiston . 


102*03 


30,852 








Johannesburg 
Total Wit- 


184-18 


55,692 


68,399-5 


122-8 


122-8 


5567« 


168,358 


watersrand 












(excluding 












Krugersdorp) 












Bethal 


1,270-04 


384,035 


93,555-0 


73-3 


170-0 


Heidelberg 


2,351-61 


711,081 


140,496-0 


59-7 


102-9 


Standerton 


2,003-62 


605,855 


119,062-0 


59-4 


90-8 


Potschefstroom . 


4,904-15 


1,482,918 


190,653-3 


38-8 


58-7 


Lichtenburg 


4,478-81 


1,354,304 


191,405-0 


42-7 


35-0 


Wolmaransstad . 


2,061-69 


623,414 


51,929-0 


25-1 


27-1 


Middelburg 


5,028-98 


1,520,664 


106,796-5 


21-2 


37-1 


Ermelo 


3,003-43 


908,178 


56,751-0 


18-9 


36-0 


Wakkerstroom . 


2,197-76 


664,559 


39,123-5 


17-8 


20-9 


Krugersdorp 


1,174-67 


355,197 


19,800-5 


16-8 


25-5 


Piet Relief. 


1,615-93 


488,625 


25,100-0 


15-5 


31-5 


Pretoria 


6,641-54 


2,008,272 


73,486-5 


II-O 


37-6 


Carolina . 


2,095-72 


633,704 


14,231-0 


6-8 


27-6 


Bloemhof . 


3,193-53 


965,661 


19,754-0 


6-2 


7-9 


Marico 


3,636-89 


1,099,724 


18,423-75 


5-0 


8-1 


Lydenburg 


10,176-84 


3,077,276 


43,239-5 


4-2 


6-9 


Waterberg . 


15,625-77 


4,724.925 


64,242-0 


4-1 


6-9 


Zoutpansberg 


23,997-78 


7,256,455 


65,868-0 


2-7 


i6-i 


Rustenburg 


9.730-73 


2,942,381 


25,617-5 


2-6 


9-4 


Barberton . 
Total 


4,679-57 


1,415,010 


9,900-5 


2-1 


3-7 


110,425-84 


33,370,596 


i,437,834-J 


12-9 


42-0 



1 Figures of area kindly furnished by the Surveyor-general of the Transvaal ; 
statistics by the statician of the Department of Agriculture (Joubcrt, i). 

2 1 morgan = 2-1 165402 acres. 

•* Estimated only. The actual crop was only about one-half of the expected, 
owing to a remarkably unfavourable season. 



57. Natal. — Maize is produced in all parts of Natal, but 
the Midland Districts (2,000 to 3,000 feet altitude) are generally 
conceded to be the best for maize-growing. The coast-belt is 
better suited to sugar cane and citrus fruits than to maize, 
owing to the too rapid and lu.\'uriant growth of weeds and con- 
sequent cost of cleaning the land ; but the average yield per 
acre is i| muids higher on the coast than "up-country". 



Table XIII. 
MAIZE PRODUCTION, NATAL, 1906-7. 



Magisterial Divisions. 


Acreage 
under Maize. 


Total 
Produce. 
Muids. 


Yield per 
Acre. 
Muids. 


Natal. 








Coast- 








Lower Umzimkulu . 


1,012 


5,064 


5-0 


Alexandra .... 


4,180 


27,250 


6-8 


Umlazi .... 


782 


4,576 


5-9 


Inanda ) 

Indwedwe j ' ' ' 


1,631 


10,417 


6-5 


Lower Tugela \ 
Mapumulo j ' 

Totals . 


748 


4,939 


6-6 


8,353 


52,246 


Average 6-i 


Midlands — 








Impendhle .... 


i,o8g 


5,968 


5-9 


Alfred .... 


1,291 


6,142 


4'9 


Ixopo .... 


7,319 


35,670 


4-9 


Richmond .... 


9,882 


59,230 


6-0 


Umgeni and Camperdown . 


16,087 


73,488 


4-5 


New Hanover . 


8,908 


49,113 


5-6 


Lion's River 


4,983 


22,398 


47 


Umvoti .... 


10,132 


34,287 


3-4 


Krantzkop .... 
Totals . 


2,242 


8,837 


4-0 


61,933 


295,133 


Average 4*9 


uplands— 








Underberg .... 


1,098 


4,980 


4*4 


Polela 




925 


4,290 


4-6 


Bergville 




3,229 


14,758 


4-5 


Estcourt 




8,763 


48,377 


5-5 


Weenen 




1,018 


4,963 


4-9 


Klip River 




6,498 


25,317 


3-9 


Umsinga 




992 


4,670 


4-8 


Dundee 




8,372 


34,190 


4'i 


Newcastle 




9,012 


37,468 


4"i 


Vryheid ) 
N'Gotshe/ 


1,722 


6,960 


4-0 


Utrecht .... 


1,934 


7,896 


4'i 


Paulpietersburg . 


1,650 


6,218 


3 '9 


Babanango 

Totals . 


788 


2,596 


3-3 


46,001 


202,683 


Average 4-3 


ZULULAND. 








Coast— 








Eshowe .... 








Mtunzini .... 


474 


2,070 


4*4 


Lower Umfolosi 


53 


265 


5-0 


Hlabisa .... 








Ubombo .... 
Totals . 








527 


2,335 


Average 47 


Inland— 








Nqutu ~| 
Nkandhla/ 


29 


116 


4-0 


Emtonjaneni 


907 


2,919 


3-2 


Mahlabatini 








Ndwandwe 








Ingwavuma 

Totals . 








936 


3,035 


Average 3-6 


Grand Totals 


for the Province 


117,750 


555,432 


Average 47 



CHAP. 
III. 



62 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
III. 



Districts favourable for wattle-growing do not seem to be well 
suited to maize ; the rainfall and lack of sunshine are perhaps 
too great, or it may be that maize is not equally profitable 
and is therefore neglected where wattle is grown. Although 
the Uplands produce a considerable quantity (only 90,000 
muids less than the Midlands), they seem better adapted to 
stock-raising than to agriculture. 

Camperdown and Richmond Districts are considered the 



Table XIV. 



MAGISTERIAL DISTRICTS OF NATAL ARRANGED ACCORDING 
TO PRODUCTION. 









Yield per 


Division. 


Acres. 


Square Miles. 


Square Mile 
in Muids. 


Upper Umkomanzi— 








Richmond .... 


332,800 


520 


114-0 


Camperdown . 






235.520 


368I 
365/ 




Umgeni . 






233,600 


IOO'2 


New Hanover 






332,800 


520 


94-4 


Alexandra 






428,800 


670 


407 


Umvoti . 






550,400 


860 


39-9 


Ixopo . 






624,640 


976 


36-5 


Lion's River . 






403,200 


630 


35-5 


Dundee . 






605,440 


946 


35*4 


Newcastle 






698,880 


1092 


34"3 


Estcourt . 






1,164,800 


1820 


26-5 


Inanda ) 
Indwedwe / ' 






283,520 


443 


23-5 


Klip River 






920,960 


1439 


17-6 


Krantz Kop . 






366,720 


573 


15-4 


Bergville 






704,000 


1 100 


i3'4 


Alfred . 






364,800 


570 


IO-8 


Paulpietersburg 






395,520 


618 


lo-o 


Lower Umzimkulu . 






341.760 


534 


9-5 


Umlazi . 






320,000 


500 


9-1 


Impendhle 






448,000 


700 


«-5 


Weenen . 






400,000 


625 


8-0 


Polela and Underberg 






774,400 


1210 


7-6 


Umsinga 






394.240 


6i6 


7'5 


Lower Tugela 






289,920 


453) 
270 J 


6-8 


Mapumulo 






172,800 


M'Tunzini 






239,360 


374 


5 5 


Emtonjaneni . 






414,720 


648 


4'5 


Utrecht . 






1,310,720 


2048 


3-8 


Vryheid, N'Gotsche, 


and 










Babanango . 






2,729,600 


4265 


2-2 


Lower Umfolosi 






656,000 


1025 


•2 


Nqutu 






400,000 


762/ 


•08 


Nkhandla .... 


487,680 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 63 

best part of the Maize-belt of Natal ; the rainfall at Mander- CHAP. 

Ill 
ston is about 30 inches. One of the pioneer maize-growers 

of this part of Natal, famous for his large-sized Hickory King, 
has only 220 acres under maize, but has harvested as much as 
3,581 muids in one season, or an average of 16-28 muids per 
acre, while 10 acres averaged 22 muids ; it has been his am- 
bition to get a crop of 4,000 muids from his 220 acres. He 
started maize-growing twenty-five years ago, and the first sea- 
son only produced 5 muids per acre. Good farming and the 
regular use of bone-meal have brought up the producing power 
of the land from a non-paying to a profitable yield. 

In Table XIII the acreage given for the various 
Magisterial Divisions excludes the Boroughs of Ladysmith, 
Newcastle, and Dundee, and the townships of Greytown, 
Verulam, Utrecht, and Vryheid. Those divisions of Zulu- 
land for which there are no returns have a few hundred acres 
put under maize by Europeans, but altogether for local con- 
sumption {Harvey, i). 

58. Cape Province. — The Cape Province produces less 
maize in proportion to total area than any of the other 
Provinces. The lack of summer rains in the south-western 
portion, the old " Western Province," renders that part of the 
country but poorly adapted to maize culture. In the Karroo 
and North-western Districts of the Province the total rainfall 
is too low to produce good crops of maize. In some of the 
Eastern Districts, on the other hand, especially the Transkei, 
the climate is favourable to the production of excellent maize 
crops. In these Districts, however, there does not appear to 
have been the same rapid increase in production that is notice- 
able in some other parts of South Africa ; in fact, in the twelve 
years from 1895 to 1907 the production fell in the District of 
Victoria East from 28,000 muids to nearly one-third, while in 
King William's Town District it fell off i 5 per cent. In other 
Districts, however, the production increased, and in two or 
three cases it doubled and trebled. 





64 


^ 


\fAIZR 








CHAP. 


Table XV. 








III. 


MAIZE PRODUCTION, CAPE 


COLONY 


1906-7. 












Estimated Yield. Muids. 


Average 




Districts. 


Area in 
Acres. 


Square 
Miles. 






per 
Square 














1894-5. 


1906-7. 


Mile. 




Komgha 


342,400 


535 


13.651 


38,722 


72-4 




East London 


428,800 


670 


20,480 


40,556 


6o-5 




King William's Town . 


807,040 


1261 


84,706 


71,705 


56-9 




Stutterheim . 


428,800 


67, 




33,547 


50-0 




Bathurst 


373,760 


584 




23,653 


49-0 




Stockenstroom 


200,320 


313 


11,674 


13,056^ 


417 




Alexandria . 


615,040 


961 




39,329 


40-9 




Victoria East 


241,920 


378 


28,260 


10,740 


28-4 




Fort Beaufort 


545.920 


853 


13.722 


17.314 


20-3 




Cathcart 


634,240 


991 




18,276 


i8-4 




Knysna 


621,600 


815 




10,624 


13-0 




Aliwal North 


613,760 


959 




11,645 


I2-I 




Queenstown . 


1,232,000 


1925 


17.315 


22,990 


ri-9 




Humansdorp 


1,235,200 


1930 


9.817 


19.777* 


IO-22 




Albany. 


1,066,240 


1666 




14,967 


9-0 




Wodehouse . 


1,254,400 


i960 




11,009 


5-6 




Mafeking 


2,345,600 


3665 




12,870 


3-5 




Herschel 




693 


32,880 








Glen Grey . 




825 


27,860 








Bedford 




1200 


13.277 








Oudtshoorn . 




1630 


11,228 








Peddie .... 


... 


619 


9.704 








Somerset East 




2900 


8,576 




... 




Graaf Reinet 




2651 


7.859 




... 










415,780 





Addendum. — The possibilities of Rhodesia have been re- 
ferred to in IT 52. Average yields of ten (and even twenty) 
bags of maize, year after year, are reported. It is stated that 
about one-third of the whole of the Mazoe Valley country 
could be planted to maize and that in the Kafue Valley of 
N.W. Rhodesia there are vast stretches of level alluvial soils, 
suitable for maize, recalling the level plains of the North 
American Corn-belt. The total area of Rhodesia is approxi- 
mately 250,000,000 acres ; if only one-fiftieth part were planted 
to maize, and yielded on the average only 7 muids per acre, 
the country would be producing 35,000,000 muids. 



CHAPTER IV. 

BOTANICAL CHARACTERS. 

Day by day did Hiawatha 

Go to wait and watch beside it 

Till at last a small green feather 
From the earth shot slowly upwards, 
Then another and another, 
And before the summer ended, 
Stood the maize in all its beauty, 
With its shining robes about it 
And its long, soft, yellow tresses. 
And in rapture, Hiawatha 
Cried aloud, " It is Mondamin ! 
Yes, the friend of man, Mondamin ! " 

— Hiaivatha. 

'Tis s\\eet . . . to . . . scent the breathing maize at setting day. 

— Collins. 

59. Botanical Relationship. — Maize belongs to the group CHAP. 
of Monocotyledons, and the family Gramineae, or Grasses ; ^^' 
it is the type of the tribe Maydeae to which the genera 
Euchlaena, Coix, and Tripsacum also belong. Of these, 
Euchlaena (Fig. 10) is its nearest relative, and the only one 

with which it is known to hybridize. Some botanists are 
inclined to consider Euchlaena as the prototype of Zea, for the 
latter is not known in a truly wild state. Montgomery 
considers that Zea and Euchlaena may have had a common 
origin, and that in the process of evolution the pistillate spikes 
in teosinte were probably developed from the lateral branches 
of a tassel-like structure, while maize was developed from the 
central spike (cf. Fig. 40) {Bowman and Crossley, i). 

60. Description. — The maize plant (Figs. 1 1 and 1 2) is a tall, 
annual, monoecious grass, with stout, erect, solid stem, and 
broad leaves ; the staminate flowers form a terminal panicle ; 
the pistillate flowers are arranged in a densely-crowded spike, 

65 5 



66 



MAIZE 



IV. 



A— 




B — 




Fig. io.— Teosinte, Enchlcoia iiiexicann, a near relalive of the maize plant, 
and the only species with which it is l<nown to hybridize. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



67 



the "ear," terminating a short lateral branch and closely CHAP, 
enveloped in leaf-sheaths called the husk ; the long styles, ^^' 
exserted in anthesis, form the silk or beard. 

6r. Plant Structure. — All plants are living organisms, 
which feed and breathe in ot-der to grow and multiply their 
kind. Their food-material consists of water, several of the 




Fig. ii.^Maize plants in the Transvaal. 



chemical substances of which the soil is composed, and carbon 
which is obtained from the air. 

Plants are built up of a vast number of cells of different 

forms (Fig. 13); the cell is a microscopic sac usually consisting 

of a cell-wall surrounding a jelly-like mass called protoplasm 

(Fig. 13c). The cell-wall is a colourless membrane composed 

5* 



CHAP. 

IV. 



68 



MAIZE 



of cellulose ; as it surrounds each cell, cellulose forms a large 
part of the substance of the higher plants. Protoplasm is 
the living substance of the plant, and comprises various 
minute, differentiated bodies, some of which {the chloroplasts) 
contain a green colouring matter {chlorophyll), and are present 



/ 4/ 


■A 


ife^A^ 


\ 


f^^m 




5x1 


t^ 


jjbw 


*c 



Fig. 12. — Flowering plants of maize (Zca Mays). A, Tassel. B, Leaf- 
blade. C, Leaf-sheath (the stem is entirely surrounded by the sheath). D, Ear 
surrounded by husks. E, Silk exposed for some days. F, New silk just appear- 
ing (Photograph by D. W. Macdonald). 



in such enormous quantities that they cau.se the whole plant- 
surface to appear green. 

In the more highly-developed forms of plant life the cells 
are not massed together promiscuously, but are associated in 
groups forming bands, plates, or cylindrical masses called 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



69 



tissues (Fig. 14). The tissues of such plants become differ- 
entiated into groups, forming organs which have different duties 
to perform. Of these organs the most important are the root, 
stem, and leaf ^n)\\c\\. are connected with nutrition and growth, 
and the flower which contains the reproductive organs of 
the plant. The life-cycle of the maize plant begins with the 
fertilization of the egg-cell in the ovule by the male germ 
cell, as described in IF 78, by which a new plant-being is 
brought into existence. The new cell, formed by the union 



'VI 



SSfZi 



1 




u 


'-;■''/ 




B 



a 



¥/W^\. 



¥ I \ S 



CHAP. 
IV. 




Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

Fig. 13. — Plant cells, as seen under a high-power microscope, showing 
strands of protoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus, etc. A, B, young cells; C, an older 
cell, from the developing maize root; D, cell from the hair of Tradescantia ; 
E, parenchymatous cell from the cortex of Ranunculus. (From Sir F. Darwin's 
Elements of Botany, Cambridge University Press.) 

Fig. 14. — Transverse section through a leaf (of hellebore), showing tissues 
and cells. From above downwards are seen the upper epidermis, the palisade 
cells, the spongy tissue (in which a vascular bundle is seen), the lower epidermis 
(in which is shown a single stoma opening into a large intercellular space). 
Note that the chloroplasts are arranged along the cell walls, especially in the 
palisade tissue (A). (From Sir F. Darwin's Elements of Botany, Cambridge 
University Press.) 



of the two germ-cells, develops by cell-growth and repeated 
cell-division {somatic division) into a seed. 

62. The Seed. — The seed consists of an embryo plant and 
a mass of reserve food-material known as endosperm, wrapped 
in two protective seed-coats, the outer or testa and the inner 
or tegmen. In the case of maize and other grasses, the seed 
is further surrounded by the pericarp or envelope of the grain 



^o 



MAizn 



CHAP, or fruit, which in many kinds of plants encloses more than 
one seed, but in grasses and some other plants only one. We 
may therefore define the seed as a miniature living plant and 
its food-supply, wrapped in a protective envelope. The pro- 
duction of seed is a provision of nature to enable a living 
plant to remain dormant during a period when climatic con- 
ditions, as, for example, an intensely cold winter or a long, 
dry summer, are unfavourable to its existence as an active 
organism. 

(y-i^. The Embryo and Endosperm. — ^^The embryo (Fig. i 5B) 
is the vital part of a seed ; it is a living, though dormant, 
plant-in-embryo. The embryo comprises all the essential 




Fig. 15. — Kmbryoand endosperm of maize. A, Section through maize grain 
showing relative position of embryo and endosperm, a, hull; i, aleurone 
layer ; c, horny endosperm ; </, white starchy endosperm ; c, plumule ; /, radicle ; 
i,', scutellum. B, Embryo removed. C, Germinating embryo. 



organs of growth, i.e. the radicle which develops into the root 
of the plant ; the cotyledon or seed-leaf ; and the plumule or 
young shoot, which develops into stem and leaves. In maize 
and other grasses the growing embryo absorbs the endosperm 
through a special organ, the scutellum (so named from its 
shield-like shape), which in maize can readily be seen with a 
low-power microscope. The embryo of the maize-grain lies 
to one side of the endosperm (Fig. 15A) ; as the grain stands 
on the ear, the embryo is on the upper side of the grain, i.e. 
facing toward the tip of the ear, its position being indicated 
by an oval depression in the grain. 



Botanical charactP.rs p 

The endosperm (Fig. 15c) consists of a store of prepared CHAP, 
food-material which the growing embryo absorbs for use in 
the formation of new cells and tissues, in developing a root- 
system with which to absorb food-materials directly from the 
soil, and a leaf-system capable of photosynthesis (^ 65). 

The seeds of some plants (e.g. the castor-bean and the 



^1 

J 


ri 

/ 



Fig. i5. — Germinating maize grains, showing developing shoot, primary 
root, root-hairs and adventitious roots. (If 66.) 

lucerne) contain no endosperm, but store in the cotyledons a 
supply of food-material for the use of the growing seedling ; 
such seeds are sometimes spoken of as ex-albuminous, in 
contradistinction to the albuminous or endosperm-bearing 
seeds. 

64. Germination. — The commencement of growth in a 



Ti MAIZE 

CHAP, hitherto dormant seed is known as ^germination fFit^s. i 5c and 
^^" 16). A seed will not germinate until it comes under the influ- 
ence of favourable conditions, and may lie dormant for many 
years until such conditions supervene ; these conditions vary 
with different sorts of plants, but all include: (i) moisture; (2) 
heat ; and (3) sufficient air for the growing plantlet to breathe. 
The seed of the maize plant will retain its vitality for two or 
even three years ; but after the first year there is a marked 
decrease in vitality, and after two years maize is considered 
practically useless as seed ; this is independent of any question 
of injury by weevil or grain moth, and may, perhaps, be con- 
nected in some way with the presence of a considerable quan- 
tity of oil in the embryo ; this oil readily turns rancid at high 
temperatures. 

Experiments conducted at the Botanical Experiment 
Station of the Department of Agriculture, Pretoria, show that 
it requires from three and a half to eleven days after sowing 
the maize-seed for the seedling to appear above the ground. 
The difference in time of germination is largely influenced by 
the warmth of the soil ; but it is evident that temperature is 
not the sole controlling factor, and that associated with it is 
the degree of moisture of the soil. Depth of planting also 
affects germination, deep planting tending to delay it ; 
very shallow planting (i.e. less than 2 inches) has in South 
Africa a similar effect, perhaps because the surface soil is 
more rapidly affected by drought. The germinating embryo 
depends on the endosperm for its supply of food-material 
until it has developed a root- and leaf-system (^J 63). In 
germination the radicle grows downwards or earthwards, and 
is therefore said to be geotropic ; the plumule upwards or 
away from the earth, and it is therefore called apogeotropic. 

If the seed be turned upside down so that the radicle is 
forced to commence growth upwards and the plumule to grow 
downwards, they quickly bend round until they have regained 
their normal positions; this is shown in Fig, 17. 

65. The Maize Seedling. — The seedling stage (Fig. 18) of 
the maize plant is in many respects the most critical in its ex- 
istence. While it is small it is more seriously affected b)' the 
depredations of insect pests (chap. X.), and is more sensitive 
to fluctuations in the weather conditions. It is obvious that 



HOTANtCAL CHARACTERS n 

if it has only one or two leaves, and these are eaten off CHAP, 
by a caterpillar, the plant will suffer more than when it has 
six leaves, some of which will be able to function and repair 
the damage done while the others are being devoured. If the 
root-system only penetrates to a depth of 2 or 3 inches, 
the young plant is more likely to suffer from a temporary 
drought than if its roots are tapping a supply of soil moisture 
at a greater depth. It is highly desirable, therefore, that the 
seedling should be encouraged to get beyond this critical 




Fig. 17. — Maize-grains planted upside down, showing geotropism of the 
root and apogeotropism of the shoot. 

stage as quickly as possible ; this is one important reason for 
the use of artificial fertilizers in South Africa (chap. Vlll.). 

After the seedling has developed a root- and leaf-system of 
its own (Fig. 18), growth is rapid if suitable conditions prevail. 
Conditions favourable to rapid growth include warmth and 
moisture of the soil, sunshine, and a suitable tilth of soil to 
prevent water-logging. At the Geneva (New York, U.S.A.) 
Experiment Station, growth of the maize plant has been 
measured and found to range from 3 to 1 8^ inches per week ; 



74 



MAizn 



CHAP, a growth of 5 inches has been recorded on one day under 
specially favourable conditions in Iowa, and in Illinois an 
increase of growth equal to 1,300 lbs. of dry matter per acre 
was recorded in a single week. 

66. The Root and Its Functions. — The root is the part of 
the plant which grows downward into the soil for the purpose 




Fig. \i 



-Maize seedlings at two stages of growth, the youngest on the left. 



of anchorage and absorption of food materials ; it does n.ot 
bear leaves nor reproductive organs. The water held in the 
soil dissolves the carbonates, nitrates, and other salts which 
occur in the soil. Dilute solutions of these are drawn in 
through the minute 7-oot-Jiairs (Fig. 16) on the younger roots, 
and are carried up into the plant, where they are chemicall)- 



nOTANICAL CHARACTEnS 75 

changed into the various compounds on which the plant lives CHAP. 



and grows. The plant gets most of the elementary constitu- 
ents of its food in this way. 

Maize is a surface-rooting plant. The majority of its 
permanent roots usually start at about i inch below the sur- 
face of the soil, regardless of the depth of planting {Hufit, 
i). The general tendency of the roots is to spread horizon- 
tally, near the surface, for i or 2 feet all round, and then 
to turn abruptly downward. As a rule the horizontal roots 
occur within 4 inches of the surface. Hunt (i) found that 
in young plants one to six weeks old, by far the largest part 
of the root-system occurred at a depth of 2 to 4 inches 
from the surface. He concludes that the distribution of the 
roots is probably dependent more upon a proper supply of 
oxygen and water than upon temperature of the soil. 

Maize roots have been measured 8 feet in length (not 
depth). They have been traced to a depth of 4 feet and 
slightly over, but as a rule most of the root-mass occurs within 
the first 2 feet of soil. The following measurements have 
been recorded : — 

Height of plant \ inch, root S inches long. 
,, ,, 3 inches, root 13 inches long. 

,, „ 5 inches, root 11 to 24 inches long. 

The joints [nodes) at the lower portion of the stem, above 
the surface of the soil, are often provided with roots, few or 
many in number, called adventitious or " brace-roots " (Fig. 
23), some of which grow downward till they reach the soil, 
and then appear to assist in anchoring the plant. These ad- 
ventitious roots are more plentiful in some of the less improved 
Tropical American breeds (e.g. Cusco, Mexican, etc.) than in 
many of the more highly-bred North American sorts. In 
some breeds they occur at a considerable distance up the stem ; 
it seems probable that in such cases the plants are accustomed 
to grow on river banks, subject to floods which carry a deep 
depositor river mud, and into which the "brace-roots" may 
penetrate. 

From the above description of the root-system we draw the 
following conclusions : First, that the maize plant being a sur- 
face feeder requires that its food supply shall be within a short 



IV. 



76 



MAIZR 



CHAP, distance of the surface; second, that deep cultivation while the 

IV. 






Fig. 19. — Part of a transverse section of a maize stem, showing mass of pith, 
with scattered vascular bundles, more numerous near the stem-wall. (From 
Cavers' Practical Botany, W. B. Clive.) 

plants are growing is likely to prune off the surface-roots and 
thus reduce the absorptive power of the plant ; ////;v/, that 




PROTOPHLOEM 
SIEVE TUBES 
COMPANION CELLS 



LARGE PITTED 

VESSELS 

SMALL PITTED 

VESSELS 

SPIRAL AND 

ANNULAR VESSELS 



XYLEM PARENCHYMA 

LYSIGENOUS CAVITY 
SCLERENCHYMA 



Fig. 20. — Transverse section of vascular bundle of maize. (From Cavers' 
Practical Botany, W. B. Clive.) 

surface-rooting weeds interfere with the supply of moisture 
and plant-food required by the maize crop. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



77 



67. The Stem and Its Functions. — The stem grows upward CHAP, 
and bears the leaves and inflorescences (Fig. 12). It is built up ^^" 
of a series of lengths or inter-nodes connected by joints or 




Fig. 21. — Part of a radial longitudinal section of stem of maize, showing 
one of the vascular bundles. A and G, parenchyma of the ground tissue; B and 
F, sclerenchyma ; C, phloem ; D, pitted vessels of the xylem ; E, spiral and 
annular vessels. (From Cavers' Practical Botany, W. B. Clive.) 

nodes. In many grasses it is hollow, but in the maize plant 
it is filled with pit/t, which consists largely of cellulose. The 
hard outer portion or stem-wall contains numbers of fibres 
called vascular bundles (Fig. 19), through the woody part 




wmmm^ 




Fig. 22. — Part of a tangential longitudinal section of stem of maize, show- 
ing one of the vascular bundles. A and E, parenchyma (ground tissue) ; B and 
D, sclerenchyma; C, xylem — note the large pitted vessel on either side, and the 
small pitted vessels in the middle. (From Cavers' Practical Botany, W. B. 
Clive.) 



(xylem) of which the solution of water and food-material ab- 
sorbed by the roots travels upward to the leaves. As in other 
grasses the stem-wall is well supplied with silica, which aids 



78 " MAIZE 

CHAP, in maintaining it in an erect position. Because they differ 
from the stems of other families of plants, the stems of grasses 
are usually spoken of as culms. 

The stem or culm of the maize plant is extremely variable 
in height, ranging from i^ to 30 feet in different breeds and 
in different climates ; the usual range in South Africa is from 
about 5 to 14 feet. At the Botanical Experiment Station, 
Pretoria, in 1907-8, the maximum height^ was 6 feet 6 inches 
(2 plants), and the minimum 3 feet, while the average of 313 
plants was 5 feet 4 inches. The circumference of an average 
stem ranges from about 3 to \\ inches between the first and 
second nodes, in a dent or flint maize. 

The internodes are channelled on alternate sides, next 
the leaf blade, and on the side where the branch or ear may 
occur. 

The histology of the maize stem has been studied by Dr. 
Cavers (l), whose illustrations of the tissues are reproduced here 
(Figs. 19 to 22), by kind permission. Figs. 19 and 20 show 
transverse sections through one of the lower internodes, and 
21 and 22 longitudinal sections. 

The function of the stem is to carry food materials from 
the roots to the leaves, and then to other parts of the plant, 
and to raise the leaves and inflorescences into the air and light, 
to facilitate photosynthesis (H 69) and pollination (II Jl). 

68. Sucker-shoots. — The maize plant often produces sucker- 
shoots (Fig. 23), especially when planted thinly; these are 
branches which arise from the lower nodes near or below the 
surface of the soil. Some breeds have a much greater tendency 
to sucker than others ; the tendency appears to be specially 
strong in cross-bred plants. These suckers often produce 
tassels bearing both male and female flowers (Fig. 24), which 
sometimes develop small, round grains. As a rule suckers 
do not bear proper ears ; they are, therefore, undesirable in 
crops grown for grain, because they take food and moisture 
from the soil and give no return except the fodder. Some 
breeds bear several branches from nodes higher up the stem, 
but as a rule the stems are unbranched except for the suckers 
and the shanks of the ears, for the shanks are in reality only 
short branches. 

' Of a cross between Iowa Silver-mine and Wisconsin white dent. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



79 




8o 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
IV. 



69. The Leaf ami Its Functions. — The leaves are borne on 
the stem around which the sheath (Figs. 12c and 25), or lower 
portion of the leaf, is closely wrapped ; the broad upper portion 
which spreads away from the stem is called the blade (Figs. 1 2B 
and 26c). At the junction of sheath and blade there is a pro- 
jection which clasps the stem, and which is called the ligule 
(Figs. 25 and 26). To a certain extent the ligule of the maize 
plant checks the entrance of water and soil, which might start 
decay between the sheath and the stem. 




Fig. 24. — Tassels of sucker-shoots, bearing small round grains as well as 
the normal male spikelets. 

The leaf blade of the maize plant is long, broad, and 
flat, with wavy margins ; the mid-rib is broad and strong 
(Fig. 5). The surface is usually more or less rough with 
scattered, adpressed white hairs (Fig. 25), which may be short 
or longer. The cuticle is found by Wager (i) to form a thin 
layer on both surfaces, with practically no difference in thick- 
ness in the different breeds. 

In the dent variety of maize the number of leaves on a 
stem usually varies from 12 to 18, but as the lower leaves die 
off before maturity, it may happen that only about 12 function 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 8t 

at one time; 15 is usually considered a desirable number. CHAP. 
The average number for 313 plants ^ at the Botanical Experi- ^^" 
ment Station, Pretoria, in 1 907-8 was iO'3, the maximum 
being 14 (on 3 plants only) and the minimum 6 (on 2 plants 
only). Leaf measurements were made of these 313 plants, 
the sixth from the base was selected as the most fully de- 




FiG. 25. — Leaf sheath and base of blade, showing ligules, and hairs on 
blade. 

veloped ; the maximum width was 5*25 inches, the minimum 
2 "5 inches, and the average 38 inches. 

The total external leaf-surface of a single maize plant has 
been measured, at the Missouri State Experiment Station, and 
found to equal 24 square feet. An acre often carries over 

'Of a cross between Iowa Silver-mine and Wisconsin white dent. 
6 



82 MAIZE 

CHAP. 8,500 maize plants, which, with 24 feet of leaf-surface each, 
would yield a total of 204,000 square feet, or 4-68 times the 
area of the soil covered by the crop. 




The following method of measuring the leaf-surface of 
maize has been recommended by some of the Agricultural 
Experiment Stations in the United States : — 

Select an average-sized leaf. 

Take the width at 3 inches from the ligule. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 83 

Take the width at 6 inches from the tip of the leaf. CHAP. 

Take the average of these two measurements and multiply by the length of IV. 

leaf between the two points of measurement. 
Add the area of the isosceles triangle formed by the 6 inches left at the tip. 
Multiply by 2 for the two surfaces. 
Multiply by the number of leaves on the plant. 

The leaves absorb air into their tissues through microscopic 
openings called stomata (Figs. 14 and 27). At the suggestion 
of the writer, Mr. H. A. Wager (i), of the Transvaal University 
College, Pretoria, kindly undertook to determine the number 
of stomata on the maize leaf. He found that on the under 
surface they varied from 75 to 126 per square millimetre, and 
on the upper surface from 60 to 97. Carbon-dioxide (CO^) 
is one of the gases of which the air is composed, and consists 
of the two chemical elements 
carbon and oxygen. When the 
air comes in contact with the 
chloroplasts (^61) in the leaf- 
cells, in the presence of light 
and moderate warmth, the 
carbon-dioxide is decomposed, 
and some of the oxygen is 
given off into the air. The 

carbon is retained, and, com- fig. 27.-Three stomata with sur- 

bining with the water and rounding epidermic cells (E). G, G, 

chemical substances obtained ^"^'"'1. ""^ "^ ^ ^^o"™^- ^'""^ Sir F. 
^ . , Darwm s Elements of Botany (Cam- 

from the soil through the roots, bridge University Press). 

various complex organic com- 
pounds are formed. This chemical action takes place chiefly 
during the day-time, and only in the presence of light, and 
is therefore called photosynthesis. The new compounds are 
used in the building up of tissues required for the increasing 
growth of the plant. 

All of that enormous quantity of starch required to fill out 
the endosperm of the maize grain must first be chemically 
formed in the leaf before it is carried to the grain on the ear, 
where it is finally deposited. The importance of the leaf in 
the life-history of the plant is thus evident ; it is a chemical 
laboratory in which the various elements 0/ plant-food are separ- 
ated out from the compounds in which they originally occur, and 
are re-united into such forms as can be made use of by the plant. 




84 MAIZE 

CHAP. Maize plants poor in leaf-surface, through lack of food or 
water, or from insect-injury, damage by hail, or undue short- 
ness of growing season, cannot manufacture and store as much 
starch, and therefore fail to develop as much weight of grain 
as those with a proper proportion of leaf It does not neces- 
sarily follow, however, that the larger the leaf-surface the 




Fig. 28. — Tassel of Odessa maize. 

greater the amount of seed produced. Beyond a certain poi?it 
(which perhaps varies in different varieties or breeds), the 
amount of seed produced appears to decrease in inverse ratio 
to the increase in leaf-surface. 

After the food- materials are used up, the surplus water in 
which they were dissolved and carried is transpired or given 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



85 



off from the leaf-surface, and is replaced by a fresh supply CHAP 
drawn up from the roots. Frank (i) notes that a single ^^' 
maize plant can pass off into the atmosphere 3 1 lbs. weight of 
water in 147 days of growth. This is less than the amount 
lost by some other plants, e.g. : — 

The maize plant can lose 31 lbs. in 147 days. 
The hemp ,, 60 „ in 140 „ 

The sunflower ,, 147 ,, in 140 ,, 



The rate of transpiration 
ness. In the maize plant 
it has been found to vary 
in the followinj? ratio : — 



is greater in light than in dark- 



In darkness . 

In diffused light . 

In direct sunshine 



97 
114 

785 




There is thus a stream 
of water constantly pas- 
sing away from the soil 
into the air, through the 
leaves of the plant ; it 
soon drains the soil dry 
unless replaced by rain 
or irrigation. It has been 
found that 500 tons of 
water (containing salts 
in solution) is required 
to form one ton of dry 
matter {Bowman and 
Cross ley, i). 

The leaves are ar- 
ranged distichously, i.e. 
in two opposite mws, 
but there is no uni- 
formity as to the direc- 
tion in which the rows 
point. 

70. Tlie Inflorescence. 
— The maize plant is 
moncscious, i.e. it bears the reproductive organs in separate 
flowers on the same plant (Fig. 12). The staminate or male 



Fig. 29. — Young ear showing silks ready 
for first pollination ; the husks have developed 
leaf blades, showing the homology of husk and 
leaf sheath. 



86 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 

IV. 



flowers are usually borne by themselves in the terminal inflores- 
cence called the tassel (Fig. 28). The pistillate or female 
flowers are usually borne on one or more lateral inflorescences 
(Fig. 1 2D) called ears, at the ends of short branches arising 
from the nodes of the stem ; the young ear is characterized by 
its long beard-like styles called silks (Figs. 29, 30, 31, and 32). 
Monoecism is not always complete, i.e. the separation of male 
and female flowers into different inflorescences on different 




Fig. 30. — Young ears showing silks at different stages of development. 



parts of the same plant is not constant ; bisexual tassels are 
frequently met with on sucker-shoots (in the dent breeds at 
least) (Figs. 33 and 34); in some cases also, the tassel of the 
main stem bears the two kinds of flowers (Fig, 35); this is 
said to be especially the case in pod maize, a breed rarely seen 
in South Africa. Bisexual ears are occasionally, though 
rarely, met with (F'igs. 36 and 37). Where mixed inflorescences 
occur, stamens and pistils may be found in the same spikelet. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 87 

and the writer has even found hermaphrodite florets (i.e. with CHAP, 
stamens and pistils in the same floret), but in those cases one 
or other organ was abortive. 

Monoecism in maize facilitates cross-pollmation and hybri- 
dization, though the only other species with which maize can 
hybridize, as lar as we are aware, is the Mexican Teosinte, 




Fig. 31. — Young ear with fully developed silk. 

EtichlcBna mexicana (Fig. 10), of which hybrids have been ob- 
tained by Harshberger. 

71. Barren Plants. — One of the causes of low yield of 
grain is the occurrence of barren plants, i.e. plants which 
though bearing tassels produce no ears, or ears without grain. 
Cases are reported from America of 60 per cent of barren 



88 MAIZE 

CHAP, stems in a crop of maize. This subject has been much dis- 
cussed by maize breeders, but it is still a moot point whether 
the tendency to produce barren stems is an inherited char- 
acter. Some writers, e.g. Hunt (i), maintain that "if it were 
an hereditary characteristic the fact that the stalks are barren 
would tend to eliminate them". If barren stems were abso- 





FiG. 33. — Bisexual tassel of a sucker-shoot. 



Fig. 32. — Young ear with husks removed 
to show silks. Note that the silks at the tip 
of the ear are not yet fully grown. 

lutely barren, in the strict sense of the word, this would be 
true, but the fact that they produce tassels and pollen lends 
colour to the view that they ma)' tend to reproduce their 
kind. 

The percentage of barren stems on a given soil is said 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



89 




go 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
IV. 



{Hunt, i) to vary with the thickness of planting and the 
season, and barrenness does not seem to be a variety char- 
acteristic, but rather the result of environment. The subject 
needs further investigation as a possible cause of low yields 
in South Africa. 

Sometimes the maize plant bears ears which are barren 





Fig. 36. — Bisexual ear. 



Fig. 37. — Bisexual ear. 



owing either to the destruction of the silk by the larvae of 
certain moths (Fig. 38) or to failure to produce silks even 
when the ovules are developed (Fig. 39). 

72. Flowering Period. — Considerable difference is notice- 
able in the time taken by different breeds to reach the flower- 
ing stage ; it usually requires nine to twelve weeks. This is 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 91 

an important point for the farmer. A breed which ripens off CHAP, 
too quickly after flowering will not have time to form and 
store enough starch to produce a heavy crop of grain ; but if 
the shortening of the time of growth takes place between 
germination and flowering, it may, perhaps, not have such an 
effect on the yield. The shortest period between germination 
and flowering noted by the writer has been sixty-four days. 
Variation in this respect may be due in part to difference in 




Fig. 38. — Silks injured by larvae. 



amount and time of rainfall. If the grain is planted early in 
the season germination and growth are retarded because the 
temperature of the soil is not sufficiently high. In South 
Africa, drought in December and January sometimes checks 
vegetative growth and hastens flowering. But soil-moisture 
and temperature will not account for all of the differences 
noticed. 

Within the same breed the flowering period of individuals 
varies greatly ; the extremes noticed are fourteen and twenty- 



92 MAIZE 

CHAP, one days. This is partly due to variation in the character or 

^^- composition of the soil within a few feet of surface area ; 

partly, perhaps, to variation in vigour between the individual 

plants; and perhaps largely to the occurrence of different 




Fig. 39. — Blind ear, on which the silks have failed to develop. 

strains in an ordinary commercial breed ; a well-bred strain 
may be expected to show greater uniformity in time of 
flowering. Yet there seems to be a definite relation between 
the time of flowering and the time of ripening. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS^ 

Table XVI. 

VARIATION IN TIME OF FLOWERING. 



93 



Breed. 


Date Sown. 


First Flowers. 


Last Flowers. 














Appeared. 


Days. 


Appeared. 


Days Later. 


Arcadia Sugar . 


20 Aug., 1910 


9 Nov. 


8r- 


Dec. 2 1 


23 


Louisiana . 


27 Sept., igro 


8 Dec. 


73 


Dec. 25 


17 


Black Sugar 


,, 


30 Nov. 


64 






Hickory King . 


15 Oct., igio 


30 Dec. 


77 






Yellow Dent 


,, 


27 Dec. 


74 






King of the Earliest - . 


9 Dec, 1907 


II Feb. 


64 






White-cap Dent- 


,, 


,, 


64 






Yellow Hogan -' 




,, 


64 






Wealth of Nations- . 




12 Feb. 


65 






Hawkesbury Champion- 




,, 


65 






Hundred-day Bristol - 


", 


1.4 Feb. 


67 






Skinner's Court lo 


3 Oct. ,'1907 


17 Dec. 


75 







' Ears were ready for boiling on 11 December, and these were not from the 
earliest-flowering plants. 

- Grown without irrigation ; Skinner's Court 10 was irrigated. 



CHAP. 
IV. 



An investigation conducted at the Botanical Experiment 
Station, Pretoria, in which careful records were obtained from 
thirty-eight different breeds or strains of maize (see Table 
XVII), resulted as follows : — 

Aggregate time taken from appearance above ground 

to period of flowering 2,125 days. 

Aggregate time taken from date of appearance above 

ground to ripening of seed ..... 4,256 days. 

From the figures in Table XVII we conclude that the 
period of flowering occurs, roughly speaking, half-way between 
the first appearance of the plant above ground and the ripen- 
ing of the seed. Hence a farmer should be able to foretell 
approximately the date at which he may reasonably expect 
his seed to be ripe and safe from frost. It is possible, how- 
ever, that results obtained in one district may not be repeated 
in another, and it is therefore desirable to obtain records of the 
results obtained by farmers in different parts of the country. 



94 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
IV. 



Tablic XVII. 
CORRELATION OF FLOWERING AND RIPENING PERIOD. 









Corrected for Date of 




Days after Sowing. 


Appearance above the 








Ground. 


Breed. 








Flowering. 


Ripening. 


Flowering. 


Ripening. 


Brewer Yellow Dent . 


6l 


112 


53 


104 


,, ,, . . 


63 


"5 


57 


109 


Cuban Giant 


61 


no 


53 


102 


,, ... 


61 


"5 


54 


108 


Snowflake .... 


60 


no 


52 


102 




58 


109 


52 


103 


King'Philip (flint) 


67 


108 


59 


100 


,, ,, . . 


59 


"3 


5 + 


108 


Queen of the Prairie . 


61 


no 


53 


102 


,, „ . . 


59 


"3 


53 


107 


Early Mastodon . . . 


63 


122 


54 


"3 


,, ... 


62 


125 


57 


120 


Sanford .... 


60 


"3 


52 


105 


,, .... 


59 


"5 


53 


109 


Compton Early . 


59 


108 


51 


100 


,, ... 


59 


"3 


53 


107 


Improved Early Canada 


56 


105 


50 


99 


Wills Gehu (flint) 


54 


87 


49 


62 


Wills Dakota (flint) . 


54 


87 


49 


82 


Champion White Pearl 


67 


117 


59 


109 


King of the Earliest . 


66 


"5 


58 


107 




58 


"3 


52 


107 


Yellow Horsetooth 


72 


128 


63 


119 


Chester County . 


67 


128 


60 


121 


... 


58 


115 


53 


no 


Eureka .... 


65 


128 


59 


122 


New England 8-row . 


67 


128 


60 


121 


Yellow Botman . 


65 


125 


60 


120 


Hickory King 


66 


128 


60 


122 


Boone County . 


65 


128 


60 


123 


,, ... 


64 


128 


59 


123 


Pride of the North . 


58 


"3 


52 


107 


Sheepstooth 


67 


128 


61 


122 


Thoroughbred w.f. 


62 


125 


57 


120 


Wisconsin w.d. . 


62 


128 


57 


123 


Golden Dent 


65 


128 


59 


122 


Iowa Silver-mine 


65 


128 


59 


122 


White Flint 


67 


128 


61 


122 


White Cap y.d. . 


59 


115 


53 


109 


Tuscarora .... 


59 


i'3 


53 


107 


Red Cob Fodder . 


75 


131 






2,555 


4,808 


2,223 


4,420 


Deduct Wills Gehu and 










Wills Dakota . 


108 


174 


98 


164 


2,447 


4.634 


2,125 


4,256 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



95 



The only exceptions are the two earliest flint breeds, and CHAP, 
here the figures would seem to indicate that earliness is pro- 
duced by the hastening of the period between flowering and 
ripening. 

73. The Spikelet. — The tassel consists of numerous 
branches (Fig. 40) bearing more or less distichous rows of 
staminate spikelets 
(Fig. 40A) which are 
arranged in pairs, 
one pedicel late 
(stalked), the other 
sessile (without a 
stalk). Each spike- 
let consists of a 
pair of protective, 
sheath-like bracts, 
called glumes or 
" empty glumes " 
(Fig. 4 1 d\ which 
enclose two florets. 
Each floret consists 
of a pair of thin 
bracts, the lower or 
outer of which is 
called the valve 
(called also "flower- 
ing glume " by some 
botanists), and the 
upper or inner the 
palea. 

Enclosed within 
the valve and palea 
of each floret, when 

in bud, are three staviens (Figs. 40 and 41) ; there are thus 
six stamens to each spikelet. When -the flowers open, the 
stamens are exserted (pushed out). Each stamen is composed 
of a long and narrow anther hanging freely at the end of a 
fine, slender thread, \ht. filament. Each anther consists of two 
sacs, attached side by side, and having an opening, a pore., 
at the lower end, for the emission of the minute, dust-like, 




Fig. 40. — Tassel ot sugar maize, with male 
spikelet and stamens enlarged 



CHAP. 
IV. 




Fig. 41. — Spikelets of the maize plant (much enlarged). A, male spike- 
let. B, female spikelet. a, anther; b, pore; c, filament; d and e, glumes;/, 
ovule. (After De Vries, from models by Brendel, Berlin.) 




B C 

Fig. 42. — Pollen grains of maize (much enlarged). A, normal shape of living 
grains; B, shrunken, "dead" grains ; C, dead grains moistened and allowed to 
dry again. 



BOTAmCAL CHARACTERS 



97 



yellowish /^//^« (P^ig- 4^), which is the medium of sexual re- 
production. At the base of the anthers are minute organs, 
called lodicules, which at the time of flowering become turgid 
and press open the valve and palea, allowing the stamens to 
protrude and scatter their pollen. 



CHAF. 
IV. 




A B 

Fig. 43. — Effect of complete or partial lack of pollination. A, Barren ear 
due to protection from access of pollen. B, Two ovules were fertilized, probably 
by pollen which caught on the husks before the bag was placed on the ear. 

Both glumes and anthers vary in colour from pale green, 
through cream, salmon, etc., to deep magenta. Often the 
glumes are striped longitudinally with magenta or pink. 

74. The Pollen and Its Vitality. — Pollen is the fine cream- 
coloured or golden dust which may be seen flying in clouds 
from the tassels when they are shaken on a still morning. It 

7 



98 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 

IV. 



has a peculiar, heavy, sweet, lasting odour. Pollen is essential 
to the fertilization of the pistillate flowers and con.sequently to 
the development of the grain ; without it no grain can be 
formed. This may easily be demonstrated by tying a clean 
paper bag tightly over a maize ear, before the silks develop, 




B 

Fig. (4. — Elt'ect of partial pollination. A, Pollen was applied artificially 
after most of the silks had ceased to be receptive. B, Imperfect pollination, 
possibly due to temporary injury to silks by insects. 

and leaving it so covered until after the silks have dried up 
(Figs. 43 and 44). 

Pollen "dust" is composed of an enormous number of 
roundish grains (Fig. 42). Each individual grain is a separate 
cell, consisting of a cell-wall of usually two layers or coats, 
surrounding a mass' of protoplasm ; within the cell are two 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



99 



smaller bodies called nuclei, one being known as the vegetative 
nucleus and the other as the generative nucleus. 

The writer has counted 636 spikelets on a tassel of sugar 
maize, containing in all 3,816 stamens, while the more robust 
" field corns " (i.e. dent and flint varieties) may carry about 
7,200 stamens. The pollen grains produced in one anther 



CHAP. 
IV. 




Fig. 45. — Young ear showing homology of husks. 



have been counted and found to average about 2,500 each. 
At this proportion the tassel of sugar maize referred to would 
contain 9,500,000 grains of pollen. It has been estimated 
that a tassel of field niaize will produce 18,000,000 grains, 
and especially vigorous plants from 30,000,000 to 60,000,000. 
An average ear of sugar maize produces from 250 to 350 
grains of corn ; Hickory King about 400 ; some of the more 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
IV. 




Fig. 46. — A, Young ear showing ovaries and styles (" silks"). B, Ovaries and 
silks enlarged. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS tot 

productive breeds from i,ioo to 2,800. Allowing for a pro- CHAP, 
duction of 1,000 ovules (IF 75) requiring pollination, and a ^^• 
minimum of 6,000,000 grains of pollen available, we have 
6,000 grains of pollen for every grain of corn. As only one 
is actually required, there is abundance to spare for the bees 
and chafers, and for waste. The amount of waste must be 
enormous, yet we often find large numbers of ears incompletely 







• 
> 


:•5^S^•o^■&. 










7 




1 


0— v^^* ll't < 


r 






^pw 








Fig. 47.- — Two-lobed ear. 



Fig. 48.— Bifid ear. 



fertilized, probably through having been receptive at a time 
when little pollen was available in their vicinity. 

Maize pollen retains its vitality for seven or eight days in 
the Eastern United States ; in the dry climate of South Africa 
it keeps well for three days, but after five days most of it is 
no longer viable. 

75. The Young Ear. — The ear is situate at the end of a 
much shortened branch, which develops leaf sheaths forming 
the husk of the ear (Fig. 45). It is composed of a more or 



CHAP, less cylindrical or tapering core, the cob, bearing from 4 to 48 
^^- rows of immature grains or carpels (Fig. 46). 

Though the maize ear has a solid core, it is in reality made 
up of two or more connate, two-rowed spikes which have 
grown together, or failed to separate, during their early de- 




FiG. 49. — Branched ear of Hickorx 
Kin ST. 



Fig. 50. — Branched ear of 
Ladysmith. 



velopment. Each spike bears at the nodes two two-flowered 
spikelets, as on the tassel, but the lower floret of each spikelet 
is abortive, leaving only a pair of carpels to develop at each 
node ; this accounts for the uniformity in the development of 
rows of grain in pairs. Lobed and branched ears are fre- 
quently met with (Figs. 47, 48, 49, and 50). 



Botanical characters 



The carpel consists of a roundish body called the ovary, 
and a long, slender, soft thread called the style or " silk " (Fig 
46). Each ovary contains a 
minute q^^, called the ovule, 
which, on fertilization by the 
nucleus of the pollen -grain, 
de\'elops into a seed. 

The cob does not complete 
its growth lengthwise before 
the first silks are ready for pol- 
lination. If the growth of the 
plant is checked through lack 
of sufficient moisture or plant- 
food, or inclemency of the 
season, the tip of the ear fails 
to grow out, and the cob, in- 
stead of being almost cylindri- 
cal, may remain tapering in 
shape through lack of develop- 
ment. 

In "pod maize" (variety 
tunicatd) the glumes are large, 
completely enclosing the ovary 
and persisting around the ripe 
grain (Fig. 51). In the varieties 
usually under cultivation, how- 
ever, the glumes, valve, and 
palea (^73) of the female 
flower cease to function, and are 
reduced to small rudiments 
around the base of the carpel. 

The position of the ear on 
the stem varies greatly in in- 
dividual plants according to the 
particular node from which the 
shank (^81) is developed, and 
according to the length of the 
several internodes below it. 
Some positions are more desir- ,. u j • /^ ,^ 

^ riG. 51. — Pod maize \Zea Mays 

able than others (see chap. v.). var. hmicata). 



CHAP. 
IV. 




I04 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
IV. 



'j6. The Silk. — The st)'le or " silk " is a long, terete, hollow 
tube, bifid at the end (Fig. 52A) and it contains a viscous sub- 
stance. When receptive, the silk is exserted from the apex of 
the ear to receive the pollen, and may then become 6 to 12 
or more inches in length. After pollination the silk dries 
up, but persists. If pollination is prevented or is incomplete, 
the silk continues to grow to an unusual length, and remains 
green much longer than otherwise. Under a lens the silk is 
seen to be covered with short, branched hairs, on which the 
pollen grains are caught. 




Fig. 52. — The style or silk (much magnified). A, Showing bifid end, and 
pollen grains caught among the hairs. B, Hairs magnified, showing cells and 
nuclei. 



The silks do not all mature at the same time ; those at the 
base of the ear develop first (Fig. 32); then those from a 
little higher up, and finally those from the tip. It takes about 
a week for all the silks on an ear to mature (Figs. 30 and 31). 
This progressive development appears to be one of nature's 
ways of ensuring the pollination of at least some of the ovules. 
It sometimes happens that there is not sufficient pollen avail- 
able at the appearance of the earliest or latest silks, which 
results in the production of incompletely filled ears or "nub- 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 105 

bins"; but such a shortage of pollen is not likely to occur CHAP, 
throughout the whole period of development of the silks. ^^• 

If the silk be injured, the proper fertilization of the ovule 
may be prevented, with consequent reduction in yield of seed. 

']'j. Pollination. — Unless a pollen-grain reaches the style 
no seed will be formed (Fig. 43). The maize plant is 
aneniophilous , i.e. wind-pollinated. The pollen is very light 
and is carried for long distances by the wind ; there is thus 
danger of cross-pollination if two sorts of maize are planted 
near to each other — 400 yards is considered a safe distance 
though some writers recommend half a mile. Because it is so 
light, and easily carried by a breath of air, very little pollen 
usually reaches the silks of the same plant which produces 
it ; it is carried by the least puff of wind to the plants beyond. 
The writer has observed cases in which the pollen fell directly 
on to the silks below, on a very still evening ; but such cases 
appear to be rare in nature ; and as a rule the arrangement 
of the leaves is such that they partially protect the silks from 
such a contingency. 

The maize tassel is much visited by bees, which collect 
the heavy-scented pollen for food for their young larvae. But 
the bees do not visit the silks, and are not, therefore, direct 
agents in pollination, and the amount of pollen produced is so 
great that the little taken by the bees is not likely to have 
any effect on the crop of grain. In South Africa at least three 
sorts of beetle also visit the tassels, to feed on the pollen 
(see chap. X.), without affecting the yield. 

An experiment was conducted at the Botanical Experiment 
Station, Pretoria, to determine the receptivity of silks to 
pollen at different stages of development, with the following 
result : Application of pollen on the first day of appearance 
of the silk resulted in the fertilization of only 14 ovules, 
situate toward the base of the ear. Of the ear pollinated the 
second day, about half of the ovules were fertilized, the upper 
part of the ear being bare of grains. The ear pollinated on 
the third day was three-fourths covered with grain, the 
extreme butt and the tip having no grains. From this we 
conclude that if pollen is not available by the third day, the 
earliest silks to develop may not be fertilized. 

78. Fertilization. — When a pollen grain is caught among 



io6 



MAl/.E 



CHAP. 
IV. 



the stigmatic hairs of the silk or style, it begins to grow. The 
pollen grain takes up moisture from the stigma and begins 
to swell ; a tube, called the /(^//^w tube, pushes out from one 
side of the pollen grain, penetrates the silk, and grows down 
its whole length till it reaches the ovary at the base (Fig. 53). 




J 



Fig. 53. — Diagram showing course of pollen tube through style to ovule. 

A, Section near outer end of style, showing pollen grain (a) and pollen tube {g). 

B, Section through base of silk and through ovule (c). (After drawing by C. S. 
Ridgway, in Duggar's Southern Field Crops, New York, The Macmillan Co.) 



Into this tube the contents of the pollen grain, including the 
nuclei, pass. During growth the vegetative nucleus becomes 
gradually disorganized and is lost in the protoplasm. The 
generative nucleus, however, has divided and formed two 
nuclei. On reaching the ovary, the pollen-tube enters the 
embryo-sac, and discharges its two nuclei ; one of these fuses 



BOTyiNlCAL CHARACTERS 



loy 



IV. 



€7)4 



With the nucleus of the egg-cell to form the embryo (Fig. 54) ; CHAP 
fertilization is then accomplished. The other male nucleus 
fuses with the two fused female polar-nuclei ; from these the 
endosperm is developed. Cell-growth and cell-division then 
commence, and are continued until the mature seed is developed. 
The chromusomes of maize are small and difficult to study, 
and scarcely anything is known of their behaviour during the 
maturation division {East, 6). 

79. Dichogamy. — According to Kerner(i), most monci^cious 
plants, including maize, are proto- 
gynous, i.e. the female flowers are 
receptive before the pollen of the 
same plant is shed, thus necessitat- 
ing cross-pollination. If protogyny 
were complete, the very first plant 
in a field, which developed female 
flowers, would, in consequence, 
fail to propagate its kind, unless 
accidentally pollinated from a still 
earlier plant in a neighbouring 
field ; but there would always be 
one plant in a district that was 
earliest of all, and which would 
therefore fail to develop grain. 
This habit would act to some 
extent as a check to any natural 
tendency to increased earliness in 
maturity. 

If all the plants in a field 
flowered on exactly the same 
day, and all were completely 

protogynous, there would be no pollination except from other 
and earlier-planted fields, and those of the first planting would 
always fail to develop grain. But this is not the case. As 
already pointed out (IT 72), there is a great difference in time 
of flowering with individuals in the same field, due to many 
causes, e.g. individual characteristics, difference in depth of 
planting, variation in soil fertility, soil texture and soil moist- 
ure, etc. The flowering period in any one field or plot may 
thus extend over ten days or three week's. 




Fig. 54. — The embryo-sac in 
maize at the time of fertilization. 
Pt., pollen tube which has just dis- 
charged the two male nuclei, c^ ; 
^ , egg-cell which, after union with 
one of the male nuclei, forms the 
embryo; end., nucleus of the en- 
dosperm, with which the second 
male nucleus may unite. (After 
drawing by F. E. Lloyd in Dug- 
gar's Southern Field Crops, The 
Macmillan Co.) 



io8 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
IV. 



Protandry is the opposite of protogyny, i.e. the anthers 
shed all or part of their pollen before the female organs of the 
same plant are receptive. The very earliest pollen shed will, 
in such a case, be entirely wasted unless there is a protogyn- 
ous plant in the vicinity which is receptive at the same time. 

Plants of Black Siigar-viahe in Pretoria, which matured 
pollen on 14 December, 1907, did not have any receptive stig- 
mas till the 1 6th, 17th, and even later. In some instances 
' the tassels had shed all their pollen before any silk appeared. 

As far as the writer has been able to determine, from 
observation of Transvaal maize fields, protandry is the rule 
in South African maize. And Shamel (i) states that in 
America "in most varieties the pollen matures before the 
silks ". On this account well-filled butts are more frequent 
than well-filled tips. 

At the Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, no case of 
protogyny was observed among seventeen plants under obser- 
vation for time of relative maturit}' of pollen and silk. 



Relative Time of Appearance of Silk. 


Number of 
Plants. 


3 days later than the pollen 

2 ,, ,, ,, ,, . . 
I ,, ,, ,, ,, . . 
Same day as the pollen 


3 
2 

4 

8 



In another experiment, however, with another variety of 
maize (a yellow flint, JVills Gehu), every one of twenty-six 
plants under observation was protogynous. 

Plants of Arcadia Sugar-nialze which developed silks on 
9 November, 1910, had no anthers exserted until the nth, 
while others had no anthers till the 1 3th. In some cases the 
tassels appear long before the anthers ; the writer has a note of 
one vigorous plant of Louisiana Hickory on which the tassel 
first appeared on 25 November, but there were no anthers 
until 8 December, i.e. thirteen days later, the silks appearing 
on the same day. 

It seems probable that protogyny is a breed characteristic. 
It appears to be constant in Arcadia Sugar-iuaizc and in 
Wills Gehu (yellow flint), while protandry is the rule in 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 109 

Black Sugar, Hickory King, Louisiana Hickory, and many CHAP, 



other dent breeds. This matter is more fully discussed else- 
where {Burtt-Davy, 25). 

80. Form for Describing the Maize Plant in the Field. — 
The following is a convenient form for use in recording the 
vegetative characters of selected plants in the field or the 
breeding plot. It can be printed off on to record cards of 
uniform size for subsequent filing. By marking off the char- 
acter which is present, much time is saved which would other- 
wise be spent in writing out the cards. For instance in {c), 
if the plant is in silk at the time of taking the notes, put a 
mark, thus V, over the word " silking," or, if it is ripe, then 
over the word "ripe". More space must be allowed for the 
writing than is here indicated : — 

(a) Name of breed Date of record 

(h) Where grown Date of planting 

((■) Maturity of plant ; silking; roasting ear; partly dented or glazed; fully 
dented or glazed ; nearly ripe ; ripe. 

(d) Height of stem : average of ten plants feet inches. 

(e) Stem; straight; medium; zigzag. 

(/) Stem circumference at middle of internode between second and third 

node from ground inches. 

[g] Stem circumference at middle of internode below main ear inches. 

(/() Number of ears on 100 stems 

(/) Number of barren stems in 100 plants 

(/) Position of ear ; in middle of stem ; above the middle ; below the middle. 
{k) Direction of ear ; pointing upwards ; horizontal; pointing downwards. 
(/) Length of shank; distance from node to base of ear, average of ten 

plants inches. 

(w) Husks; abundant; medium; scanty. 
(«) Husks; tight; medium; loose. 

{o) Number of leaves ; average of ten plants 

(/>) Width of leaf-blades on ten plants: maximum inches; minimum 

inches; average inches. 

{q) Length of leaf-blades on ten plants: maximum inches; minimum 

inches ; average inches. 

(r) Length of tassel ; average of ten plants inches. 

(s) Number of branches of tassel; average of ten plants 

(t) Additional notes 

81. The Shank. — The shank is the stalk on which the ear 
develops. It is a much-reduced lateral branch, arising from a 
node on the main stem, and, like the stem, having nodes and 
internodes, the latter much shortened. Each node of the 
branch gives rise to a leaf, and in some cases to one or more 
distinct secondary ears (Fig. 55); this may produce silks, but 



IV. 



no MAIZE 

CHAP, appears rarely to develop grain ; occasionally, however, fully 
developed secondary ears are produced (Fig. 56). A variation 
of one to twelve inches in length of shank has been noted. 
Very long shanks are undesirable because they allow the ear 
to hang too far away from the stem, which often results in 
its breaking off prematurely. 







^;;^;^^^| 



Fig. 55.^ — Four secondary ears developed from thenodes on the shank of a 
single ear. 

The diameter of the shank also varies ; it may be " large',' 
i.e. nearly the diameter of the cob; ^^ medium" i.e. half the 
diameter of the cob ; or " small,'' i.e. one-third the diameter 
of the cob. 

82. The Husk. — The husk of the ear consists of the leaf- 
sheaths which arise from the nodes of the shank (Fig. 39) ; 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



their homology is clearly indicated by the fact that often a CHAP, 
diminutive leaf-blade, varying greatly in length, is developed 
at the end of each sheath of the husk (Fig. 45). Sometimes 
the husks are tightly wrapped around the ear ; in other cases 
they are loose and baggy, giving a deceptive appearance of 
size to what may be only a small or medium ear. 

In some cases the husks 
entirely cover the ear, and even 
extend a long way beyond it ; 
in other cases they may be so 
short that the tip of the ear 
protrudes beyond them ; the 
latter is an undesirable char- 
acter, as it allows birds and 
insects to damage a good deal 
of the grain at the tip of the 
ear (Fig. 164). 

83. The Mature Ear. — 
The number of ears which a 
maize plant can bear varies 
considerably with the variety 
and breed, and also varies 
according to the richness or 
poverty of the soil and length 
of growing season. 

The tendency to produce 
more than one fully developed 
ear on a plant (Fig. 57) may 
be seen in any maize field. 
But it is not the usual thing, 
in South Africa at least, for 
more than one good ear (on 
a dent breed) to develop fully 
and to mature grain. Some 

varieties naturally develop more ears; e.g. cases of ten 
or more ears on a flint breed have been reported, and one 
plant has been known to produce twenty-three ears ; pop- 
corn has been known to produce twelve to nineteen ears ; 
and six to fourteen have been reported for dent maize. But 
Hunt (i) points out that in the United States, dent breeds 




Fig. 56. — Secondary ear developing 
from a node of the shank. 



MATZE 



CHAP. 

IV. 



produce but one ear under ordinary conditions of culture ; 
'^ no two-eared dent breed has ever been produced which has 
become extensively grown or widely popular ". It seems reason- 
able that it should be easier for a plant to develop one large 
ear than two or more small ones, and it is better from the 
farmer's point of view, for it costs less to harvest one good 




P'lG. 57. — Maize plants developing two ears. 



ear than to pick two small ones from each plant. The mature 
ear consists of a central pithy core, called the cob (Fig. 43) on 
which the grains are borne. The ear varies in length from i 
an inch to 16 inches, but 4 to 9 inches is a usual range in early 
and medium-maturing sorts, and 9 to 14 inches in the later 
sorts, such as white Horsetooth. Occasionally we have an 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS \\% 

early maturing sort which develops a long ear, e.g. Chester CHAP, 



County. 

The circumference of a mature ear at 2 inches from the 
butt should average 3 inches in an ear 4 inches long, or 7^ 
inches in one 10 inches long. The weight at harvest may 
vary from 3 to 1 8' ounces or more, but in time it may lose in 
drying from one-half of i per cent up to 35 per cent. 

In shape the ear may be cylindrical (of uniform circum- 
ference) throughout its entire length, or more or less tapering. 

The butt or base varies in .shape and size. In a normal 
ear it should be of the same diameter, and have the same 
number of rows of grain as the main part of the ear, but this 
is often not the case. If the entire end of the cob is exposed, 
with the butt-grains at right angles to the axis of the cob, the 
butt is described as even. It may be rounded at the end and 
show the marks of the tightly-clasping husks on the grain, 
when it is called compressed. If there is a greater space be- 
tween the rows at the butt than on the rest of the ear, it is 
open. It may be expanded by additional rows of grain, or 
enlarged without having any extra rows. 

The cavity formed by a rounded butt may be shallow and 
broad, of moderate depth and diameter, or deep and of small 
diameter. 

The apex of the ear is called the tip. The tip may be en- 
tirely covered with grains ; it is then described 2lS filled. The tip 
grains may be scattered or in rows, or the tip may be bare 
through exposure, from lack of pollination or of adequate 
covering by the husks, or from ravages of ear-worm or birds, 
or through drought or lack of plant-food. If a central grain 
projects from a filled tip it is called capped. In shape the tip 
may be rounded or flattened. 

The spaces between rows are called sulci. The smaller 
the number of rows, the greater the tendency to width of sulci. 
But if the grain is well shaped, the sulci will be narrow even 
when the rows are few. 

84. The Cob. — The cob (IT 83) varies greatly in shape 
and circumference. If the latter is over 4| inches it is de- 
scribed as " large" if from 3-| to 4-^ inches as " medium,'' and 
if 3i inches or under as " smair\ The cob increases in length 
during the growing season of the plant. In colour, the chafTy 



IV. 



114 MAIZE 

CHAP, glumes on the cob may be blood-red or white. Forms inter- 
mediate in colour occur, but this may be the result of cross- 
pollination. As a rule, colour of cob is a fixed characteristic 
of a breed, e.g. in true Hickory King it is always white. 
White-grained breeds should have white cobs ; coloured chaff 
discolours the mill-products. 

85. Number of Rows of Grain. — The rows of grain on 
a cob vary in number from four to about forty-eight, but as 
a rule they range from eight to twenty in the breeds grown 
in South Africa. We have met with four-row and six-row 
ears, but these appear to be due to some abnormal condition, 
which has retarded the development of some of the rows. Odd 
numbers of rows occur very rarely ; such irregularity is prob- 
ably due to injury of one of the spikes of carpels during the 
stage of development. It often happens that a pair of rows 
fails to develop fully, both rows stopping short without reach- 
ing the apex ; this may, perhaps, occur to only one of a pair 
of rows (Fig. 83B), Sometimes one or two rows on one side 
of an ear fail to develop through lack of pollination (Fig. 62), 
probably owing to the silks having been unable to protrude 
properly. Ears are sometimes found in which the grains are 
so scattered that the number of rows cannot be traced (Fig. 
84A) ; sometimes this breaking up of the rows occurs through- 
out the whole ear ; and sometimes it is confined to one part 
of the ear, most commonly to the butt. 

Each breed has its characteristic number of rows, e.g. 
Hickory King has 8, Louisiana Hickory 10, Hickory Horse- 
tooth 12, Arcadia Sugar-maize 12, Black Mexican 8. 

In some breeds, however, the number of rows is not yet 
definitely fixed, e.g. Iowa Silver-mine, as grown in South 
Africa, has 14, 16, or 18. This is, perhaps, due to crossing 
with other breeds or with different strains of the same breed. 
In some cases the percentage of a given number of rows is 
found to be distinctly higher than in others, as shown by the 
following cases, which suggest crossing: — 





Ears, 




Rows. 


Per cent. 


Breed. 


14 


24*00 


Iowa Silver-mine. 


H 


32-58 


Ladysmith. 


16 


57-00 


Iowa Silver-mine. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 115 







Rows. 




CHAP 


Ears. 


14-row. 


i6-row. 


i8-row. 


IV. 


Examined. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 




— 


24 


57 


19 




89 


32-5 


45 


22-3 





Breed. 
Iowa Silver-mine 
Ladysmith 

Increase in number of rows is often accompanied by a cor- 
responding decrease in the breadth of the individual grains. 
But this is not always the case ; much depends on the thick- 
ness of the cob; the grains on a i6-row ear are sometimes 
broader than those on a 12-row ear of the same breed, if the 
cob of the former is thick while that of the latter is thin. 

Increase in number of rows means a larger number of 
grains, but it does not necessarily follow that it is accompanied 
by increase in amount of grain produced. In Goldai King 
(yellow dent), the best 14-row ears gave more grain than the 
best 12-row, but some of the lO-row also gave more than the 
12-row. In Yellow Horsetooth (yellow dent), the ten best 
14-row ears also gave more grain than the corresponding 
12-row ears, but the ten poorest ears of the latter gave more 
than the ten poorest 14-row ears. In Yellow Hogan (yellow 
dent), the seven best 14-row ears gave more grain than the 
seven best i6-row ears {Burtt-Davy, 18). 

The same number of rows does not give equally good 
returns in all breeds alike. Each breed seems to have an 
optimum number, which gives the best results in weight, 
shape, and size of grain, above or below which deterioration 
commences. 

In some breeds the rows occur in distinct pairs ; the rows 
are then described as distichous. 

86. Twisted Rows. — The occurrence of a twist in the rows, 
either to left or right (Figs. 58 and 59), is a common feature. 
It is often confined to the upper portion of the ear, but may 
start from near the base. It is an undesirable character, as it 
tends to the development of irregular grains. This twisting 
appears to be in some way associated with the development 
of the number of rows. Out of a number of cases examined 
the following figures were obtained {Burtt-Davy, 18): — 

Row numbers. Left twist. Right twist. Ears examined. 

14 17 =^ 59'6 per cent 12 = 4i'4 per cent 29 

18 12 = 6o*o • ,, 8 = 40*0 ,, 20 

16 Rows very straight, no twist. 

29 = 59'3 per cent 20 = 40*7 per cent 49 



ii6 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 



87. Number of Grains per Ear. — The number of grains 
per ear varies to some extent with soil, seasonal rainfall, etc., 
but apart from this, there appears to be a definite relation be- 
tween the number of grains and the breed. Hickory King 
in the Transvaal ranges from about 350 to 400; Iowa Silver- 
mine runs from 800 to 1,100. Burton (i) reports a case in 





Fig. 58. — Left-hand twist ot rows. 

Aliwal North Division, Cape Colony, S. Africa, of an ear 
bearing 2,828 grains ; this was one of eight ears from the same 
plant, but the name of the breed was not stated. 

88. Proportion of Grain to Ear} — The proportion of grain 
to ear is exceedingly variable, not alone as between breeds 
and under different conditions of growth, but also in the same 

' i.e. percentage by weight of grain and cob. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



17 



breed grown under similar conditions. In the United States CHAP, 
it is said that 86 or 87 per cent of grain per ear may be ^^• 
considered a iair proportion. In Transvaal-grown samples 
examined, the percentage has usually been much lower, aver- 
aging only 82-13 per cent. 




A B 

Fig. 59. — Right-hand twist of rows. 

There does not appear to be any connection between high 
yield of grain per ear and percentage of grain on the ear. 
The heaviest yielding breed sometimes gives the lowest per- 
centage of grain, while the one giving the highest percentage 
of grain may give a relatively low yield ; but it does not 
follow that the breed giving the highest percentage of grain 
gives actually the lowest yield. 



IV, 



ii8 MAIZE 

CHAP. American growers lay much stress on high percentage 

of grain to ear, because a great deal of maize is there sold on 
the cob, and buyers prefer strains which, when shelled, will 
bag up well. The growers admit, however, that the propor- 
tion of grain to cob is of less importance than the actual weight 
of grain per ear. In South Africa, where maize is sold, entirely, 
off the cob, the question of percentage does not appear to be 
of great importance. 

89. Form for Describing the Ear. — The following is a useful 
form for recording the characters of typical ears in order to 
determine from year to year whether any change is taking place 
or whether they are remaining true to type. Owing to the 
difficulty of keeping specimen ears for any length of time, a 
written record is desirable. For definition of terms, see 
preceding paragraphs under each head. 

This form can also be used to advantage by students in 
agriculture. In this case each student should have two or 
more ears of each of the five varieties of maize, or of five 
different breeds of the same variety. Ten ears of a given 
variety or breed are none too many for a thorough study. 
Ears of other varieties or breeds, showing the characters here 
mentioned, should be shown for the guidance of students. 

The character present may be marked by a s! across the 
word. 

Name: Variety Breed ^ 

Dateof: («) Record (/>) Sowing (t) Harvest 

(a) Colour of grain : white; yellow; golden; red; purple; blue; or black. 

(6) Colour of cob : white; light red ; deep red. 

(t-) Surface : smooth ; medium ; rough ; very rough. 

(d) Sulci; absent; apparent; narrow; distinct; very distinct. 

(t) Pairs of rows : distichous ; not distichous. 

(/) Number of rows: at :J length from butt ; from tip 

(jn-) Direction of rows : straight; right twist ; left twist ; irregular. 

(/;) Grains: very loose ; loose; firm. 

(«) Grains : regular ; mosaic-like ; uneven. 

(j) Grains: upright; sloping; imbricated. 

(^) Ear: cylindrical; cylindraceous ; slowly tapering; tap. 'ring. 

(/) Butt: even; shallow rounded; moderately rounded; deeply rounded. 

(»w) Butt: depressed; compressed; depressed-rounded; depressed-com- 
pressed ; enlarged ; expanded ; open. 

(h) Tip : sides of cob exposed ; end exposed ; end covered ; capped. 

(0) Juncture of shank with ear : large; medium ; small. 

(/>) F.xtreme length of ear; maximum inches; minimum inches; 

average of ten inches. 

((/) Circumference of ear at 2 inches from butt: maximum inches; 

minimum inches ; average of ten inches. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



19 



(r) Circumference of ear at 2 inches from tip: maximum inches; 

minimum inches ; average of ten inches. 

(s) Weight of ear: maximum oz. ; minimum oz. ; average of 

ten oz. 

(<) Weight of cob: maximum oz. ; minimum oz. ; average of 

ten oz. 

*(k) Percentage of grain: maximum ; minimum ; average of 

ten 

{v) Circumference of cob at 2 inches from butt: inches. 

(?£') Ratio of circumference of cob to that of ear : 

90. The Grain. — The grain of maize and other grasses is 
often spoken of as a seed, but it is in reality more than a seed, 
it is a whole /r«//. It is a peculiar form of fruit, for the peri- 
carp or outer covering of the fruit is completely united with 
the seed-coat. This special 
form of fruit is called a 
caryopsis. 

The caryopsis of the 
maize plant comprises the 
following parts : — the luill, 
which is the combined peri- 
carp and seed-coat ; lying 
immediately under the hull 
is a layer of cells known 
as the aleurone layer (Figs. 
15A and 60). The hull 
and aleurone layer together 
enclose the main mass of 
the grain. This consists 
of two distinct parts, the 
endosperm and the ejnbryo 
(Fig. I 5). The grains are 
arranged with the embryo 
side towards the tip of the 
ear ; when the ear hangs 
down, the embryo is then 
on the under side of the 
grain. 

The grain may be firm on the cob or movable. Movable 
grains may, sometimes, be due to the ear being not fully 
mature when gathered, or to lack of adequate moisture at the 
time of ripening off. The grain may be set on at right angles 
to the surface of the cob, or it may slant towards the tip. 



CHAP. 
IV. 




Fig. 60. — Enlarged section through hull 
of maize grain. />, pericarp ; t, testa or 
seed coat; «, perisperm ; a, aleurone 
layer ; s, endosperm. (From Passmore and 
Webber.) 



MAIZE 



CHAP 
IV. 




BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 



The shape of the grain varies greatly (Fig. 6i). In most CHAP. 



breeds it is flattened and more or less wedge-shaped, with an 
indented apex (Dent maize) ; in one variety it is spheroidal 
or conical (Flint maize) ; in Pop maize it is distinctly and 
sharply beaked ; in Sugar maize, when dry, the grain is much 
wrinkled owing to absence of starchy endosperm. 

Depth and Breadth of Grain. 

The depth (or length) of the grain varies greatly, and is said 
to be a quite constant character in different breeds. Breadth 
and thickness of grain, on the other hand, are not considered 
so constant. 

Each of the five cultural varieties of maize (Pop, Flint, 
Dent, Flour, and Sugar) contains three well-defined sub-types, 
based on the relative breadth and depth of the grain. Thus : — 

Group A — Grain broader than deep. 
Group B — Grain as broad as deep. 
Group C — Grain much deeper than broad. 

According to Sturtevant (2) these depend on climatic con- 
ditions ; the A group grows in short-season climates, the C 
group in long-season climates, while the B group is inter- 
mediate. A climate suitable for the C group will, naturally, 
also suit the other two groups, but they may not prove as 
profitable, and would therefore be less' desirable. Deep grain 
appears, therefore, to indicate a long growing season, and 
vice versa ; if this is constant, one should be careful not to 
select seed-maize having too deep a grain to suit the particular 
altitude or rainfall. 

Shape of Grain. 

(a) If broad above, tapering to a slender base with straight sides, the grain 

is described as straight cuncatc. 

(b) If the same general shape, but with rounded edges, it is curved 

cuiicate. 
((■) Broad above, narrower below, connected by straight lines, truncate 
cuncatc. 

(d) Long and uniformly narrow above, only tapering to a more or less broad 

base, slioc-pcg form. 

(e) Short, and as broad at base as at summit, rectangular. 

if) Slightly rounded at corners, both above and below, round-cornered. 



IV. 



122 MAIZE 

CHAP. A hex of Grain. 

IV. ' 

(a) Roof-shaped at one edge, i.e. convex at one and flat at the other. 

(b) Shingled, i.e. overlapping like shingles on a roof. 

(f) Flat or square, corners not rounded at summit. 
((/) Rounded, corners rounded at summit. 

(e) Rostrate or beaked, with long, sharp, tapering projection. 
(/) Mucronate ov pointed, with small, sharp point at summit from embryo side. 
{g) Dented (only in dent breeds), with an indentation of varying size and 
form. 

Indentation of Grain. 

{a) Round dimple, rounded or cup-shaped and quite smooth. 

(b) Long dimple dented, i.e. longer than broad, and quite smooth. 

(e) Creased, i.e. edges pressed towards each other, leaving a smill space 

between and the edges parallel. 
{d) Pinched, the edges pinched closely together and projecting upward and 

forward. 

(c) Rough, with any rough, jagged, or beaked projection from the summit. 
(/) Bridged, with a fold across the centre. 

(g) Crumpled, or wrinkled, as in sweet maize. 

91. T/ie Hull. — The JiuU or outer covering of the ripe 
maize grain (Figs, i 5 and 60) is hard and shiny. It comprises 
\.\\c pericarp of the fruit together with the testa or seed-coat 
(with which it is united), and the perisperm, a layer of tissue 
beneath the testa and surrounding the endosperm (Fig. 1 5). 
Of these three tissues the pericarp forms the larger part of the 
hull of the ripened grain. 

The hull can be easily removed from the aleurone layer 
for study, by soaking in hot water for about fifteen minutes. 

92. The Aleurone Layer. — Lying immediately beneath the 
hull, between the perisperm and endosperm, is a tissue com- 
posed of a single row of comparatively large cells, rather regular 
and rectangular in transverse or cross section (Fig. 60). This 
tissue is called the aleurone layer ; it comprises 8 to 14 per 
cent of the grain. 

Webber (2) has shown that the blue, purple, and black 
colour of the soft flour and sugar varieties of maize lies in the 
aleurone layer. In yellow maize, however, the yellow colour- 
ing matter is not confined to the aleurone layer, but penetrates 
the endosperm. In some of the red-grained breeds of maize, 
and in the red-striped Cusco, the red colouring matter is con- 
fined to the pericarp, which accounts for the fact that red 
maize is sometimes produced from white seed. 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 123 

93. The Endosperm. — This is the mass of tissue lying CHAP, 
below the aleurone layer, but above and partly surrounding 

the embryo. It comprises about 73 per cent of the whole 
grain. Its function is that of a reserve store of elaborated 
plant-food for the use of the young seed-plant before it is able 
to absorb food materials from the soil or to elaborate them in 
the leaf. 

As seen in section, the endosperm shows a variation from 
translucence to opaque snowy whiteness. Hopkins (3) reports 
a difference of 2 per cent more protein in the corneous than in 
the white endosperm ; Hunt (i) questions whether this may 
not be due to lack of complete separation from the aleurone 
layer in the samples analysed. The latter author points out 
that there is no material difference in structure noticeable under 
the microscope, which has led to the suggestion, not positively 
proven, that the difference between them is a difference in 
density analogous to the difference between snow and ice. 

The relative proportion and arrangement of the translucent 
or corneous and the white endosperm have been used in part 
to differentiate between the five varieties of maize. 

94. Form for Describing the Grain. — This may be used 
to advantage for the same purposes, and in the same manner, 
as the form for describing the ear. 

For the use of students in agricultural botany, twenty-five 
to thirty grains should be given of each of the five varieties, or 
of five breeds of one variety. For determining the points in 
(/) to (/)) inclusive, a number of grains should be soaked in hot 
water for thirty minutes, or in cold water for twenty- four hours. 
For measuring the grains, a sheet of cross-ruled paper can be 
used to advantage for marking off distances, which can then 
be measured accurately by a scale divided to 32nds of an inch, 
or preferably to millimetres. 

Name : Variety Breed 

Date of (rt) record ; (6) sowing ; (c) harvest f 

(a) Weight; ten average grains in duplicate (a) ; {h) 

{b) Length: ten average grains in duplicate (a) ; (b) 

(c) Width; ten average grains in duplicate (a) ; {b) 

{d) Thickness: ten average grains in duplicate (a) ; (b). ........ 

{e) Ratio of width to length: divide length of ten grains by width of ten 

grains (rt) ; (b) 

(/') Ratio of thickness to width: divide width of ten grains by thickness of 

ten grains (a) ; {b) 



i 24 MAIZE 

CHAP. Ks) Shape: flat; spheroidal; conical. 

IV. (/') Shape (side view); straight cuneate ; rounded cuneate; curved cuneate ; 

truncate cuneate ; shoepeg ; rectangular ; round cornered. 
(/) Apex : roof-shaped ; shingled ; rostrate ; mucronate ; rounded ; flat ; 

dented. 
0) Indentation: round dimple; long dimple; creased; pinched; rough; 

bridged ; wrinkled. 
[k] Colour : white ; cream ; yellow ; golden ; red ; blue ; purple ; black ; 

striped ; mottled ; mosaic. 
(/) Place of colour : endosperm; aleurone layer ; hull. 
(;«) Character of endosperm : corneous ; partly corneous ; farinaceous ; 

sugary. 
(«) Proportion of corneous endosperm (in dent variety) : large ; medium ; 

small. 
(0) Embryo size : large ; medium ; small. 
(/>) Sketch of longitudinal cross-section : show arrangement to scale, of 

embryo, and of corneous and white endosperm. 

95. Tubular Glands in the Embryo. — Dr. C. Stuart Gager 
(l) describes the occurrence of true glands of the tubular and 
sub-racemose type in the tissue of the scutellum, formed by 
invaginations of the glandular epithelium of the latter. The 
significance of these glands, as in harmony with the theory 
that the scutellar epithelium is principally an organ of secre- 
tion, is indicated by the author. 

96. Apogamy. — Collins (4) has described a case in which 
the staminate flowers were replaced by young leafy and root- 
forming maize plants. 

Addendum. — Since this chapter went to press the writer 
has seen a paper by Prof. Emerson (i) of Nebraska, in which 
he describes and illustrates a family of maize in which the 
Hgule and auricle were absent. He refers to a similar con- 
dition in oats reported by Nilsson-Ehle (i) and Hurst (i).- 
Prof. Emerson notes that in the case of non-auriculate leaves, 
the sheath and the lower part of the blade are rolled some- 
what closely about the stalk, and that the leaf as a whole 
assumes an upright position nearly parallel with the stalk, 
the tip of the leaf curving away gently if the blade is long 
and the mid-rib sufficiently flexible. " Whether the abs- 
ence of the ligule proper is disadvantageous to the plant 
is somewhat questionable. . . . My own observations on 
liguleless corn are to the effect that the inside of the sheath 
is more often discoloured, as if from incipient decay, than is 
the case when a well-developed ligule is present. In no case, 
however, have I found decay of the stalk or leaf sufficient to 



BOTANICAL CHARACTERS 125 

be of any material injury to the plant — not even during the chap 
past summer when the plants were grown near Boston, where 
they were exposed to moister conditions than is usually the 
case in Nebraska." 

He concludes that it is the absence of the auricle that 
makes the leaves stand so erect. " It is the triangular shape 
of the auricle that makes possible the immediate flattening out 
of the leaf blade at the termination of the cylindrical sheath, 
and that allows the blade to bend abruptly away from the 
stalk while the sheath still clasps it." 



V. 



CHAPTER V. 

INHERITANCE OF CHARACTERS AND IMPROVEMENT BY 
BREEDING. 

'Tis often seen adoptioji strives with nature, and choice breeds a native 
slip to us from foreign seeds. 

— Shakespeare. 

And he gave it for his opinion, that whoever could make two ears of corn 
... to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve 
better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole 
race of politicians put together. 

— Gulliver's Travels. 

Necessity for Iniprove^nent. 

CHAP. 97. The Object of ''Breeding''. — Plant breeding is the 

application to crops of the principles applied in improving 
breeds of live stock. No breed of domesticated animals or 
plants is perfect in all respects ; each one has its good and its 
weak points. There are therefore two primary objects which 
the breeder keeps in view in order to produce satisfactory 
results : {a) maintenance of quality and type, by the elimination 
of the unfit and untrue to type ; {U) improvement of the type 
by the substitution of desirable for undesirable characters. 

To allow the poor types in a herd or crop to propagate 
their kind always results in race deterioration. To allow only 
the strongest and best to mate and propagate means, on the 
other hand, race maintenance and also, within certain limits, 
race improvement. 

" In the herd of cattle to destroy the strongest bulls, the 
fairest cows, the most promising calves, is to allow those not 
strong, nor fair nor promising, to become the parents of the 
coming herd. Under this influence the herd will deteriorate, 
although the individuals of the inferior herd are no worse than 
their own actual parents. Such a process is called race- 
126 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING i 2 7 
degeneration, and it is the only race-degeneration known in CHAP. 



the history of cattle or men. The scrawny, lean, infertile herd 
is the natural offspring of the same type of parents. On the 
other hand, if we sell or destroy the rough, lean, or feeble 
calves, we shall have a herd descended from the best. . . . 

" In selective breeding with any domesticated animal or 
plant, it is possible, with a little attention, to produce wonder- 
ful changes for the better. Almost anything may be accom- 
plished with time and patience. To select for posterity those 
individuals which best meet our need or please our fancy, and 
to destroy those with unfavourable qualities, is the function of 
artificial selection. Add to this the occasional crossing of 
unlike forms to promote new and desirable variations, and we 
have the whole secret of selective breeding. This process 
Youatt calls the ' magician's wand ' by which man may sum- 
mon up and bring into existence any form of animal or plant 
useful to him or pleasing to his fancy " {Jordan, 2). 

To accomplish the best results possible from breeding, it 
is necessary {a) to understand something about the manner in 
which characters are inherited from the parent ; {b) to be well 
acquainted with the characteristics and variability of the plants 
or animals with which one is dealing ; and {c) to understand 
clearly what characters are required by the market, or are in 
other ways desirable or undesirable. 

98. The Necessity for Improvement of Crops. — South Africa 
produces good maize and has established a good name in the 
maize market, thanks to the assistance rendered by the several 
Governments. There is no difficulty in selling the maize of South 
Africa ; the difficulty is to supply the demand. There is even 
danger that, unless the output is increased, she may lose 
the market that she has gained, for Europe requires a steady 
and dependable supply ; irregularity of supply tends to dis- 
credit the crop with the merchant, and reacts unfavourably on 
the producer. 

South Africa must produce more if she is to become the 
" maize granary of Europe ", Increased production depends 
upon three things: (i) more intensive cultivation of the area 
now under crop ; (2) a larger farming population to increase 
that area ; (3) increase of the yield per acre by scientific maize- 
breeding. 



V. 



128 MAIZE 

CHAP. Intensive cultivation means greater profit; if we can pro- 

^" duce 600 niiiid bags of maize from 50 acres, the f^rofit per hag 

is much greater than if we get only 300 bags from the same 

acreage, for the rent of the land and first costs of ploughing, 

harrowing, and cultivating are the same in each case. 

Through breeding we may further increase the produc- 
tion by developing drought-resistant or early-maturing sorts 
adapted to regions now outside the Maize-belt. 

With low yields, maize-growing ceases to be profitable 
when prices also are low ; but if we double and treble the yield 
per acre, prices may fall much lower and still yield a good 
pnjfit. The remedy for low prices lies not in restrictive fiscal 
legislation, but in reducing the costs of production by increas- 
ing the yield per acre and improving the quality of the crop. 

99. Need for Increase in the Yield per Acre. — Hartley states 
that good farmers in the United States frequently grow from 
75 to 100 bushels of maize per acre. An American bushel of 
maize on the cob weighs 70 lbs. ; 75 bushels or lOO bushels 
would, therefore, be equivalent to 26 or 35 muid bags per 
acre. An American bushel of shelled maize must weigh (by 
statute) 56 lbs., which would be equivalent to 21 to 28 
muid bags per acre. Maximum yields are, of course, higher. 
A certain Pennsylvania farmer has been known to harvest 
no less than 100 bushels (23 muids) per acre during twelve 
successive years (excepting only two seasons), and in 1902 
his average yield over 90 acres was 130 bushels or 36-4 
muids. The Transvaal records are pretty good, for, at 
Tzaneen in the Zoutpansberg District, the Department of 
Agriculture has produced 354^ muids (127 bushels of shelled 
maize) per acre, of Austin Colossal yellow dent, and at the 
Government Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom, 35 muids 
(125 bushels) of a white dent. There seems reason to expect, 
therefore, that given proper treatment of the crop, and with 
heavy-yielding varieties and well-bred seed, good farmers in 
the Transvaal will raise an average of 20 muids (7 1 bushels) 
per acre ; it is an ideal worth working toward ! A few farmers ^ 
have already done this, but they are still too few to affect the 

' Messrs. Hutchinson and Shaw, and Messrs. Reynolds Brothers, of Zand- 
baken, Standerton District, have obtained averages of igj and 20 muids per acre 
over areas of 30 acres or more. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 29 

average yield, which is estimated at between 4 and 5 muids CHAP. 
(800 to 1,000 lbs., or 14-28 to 17-9 bushels). "^• 

This is astonishingly low as compared with the 22^ to 24 
muids obtained (without manure) in the United States. Even 
assuming that the soils of the South African Maize-belt are 
perhaps not as rich as those of the United States Corn-belt, 
there is still much too great a discrepancy between the average 
yields of the two areas ; it has been clearly demonstrated on 
the Government Experiment Farms, and on many private 
farms as well, that average yields of 10 and 12 muids (35^ 
to 42^ bushels) per acre over hundreds of acres can be secured 
without undue expense. 

But good as the American yields are as compared with 
those at present obtained in South Africa, American breeders 
find it is possible still greatly to improve them. Mr. C. P, 
Hartley, corn expert of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, writes {Hartley, 3) : — 

" It is possible within a few years to double the average 
production of maize per acre in the United States, and to 
accomplish it without any increase in work or expense. It is 
not to be understood from this statement that it is desirable 
to double the present maize crop, but that it is desirable to 
produce the same yield on a smaller number of acres and with 
less labour. If 60 bushels (a bushel of maize on the ear is 
calculated at 70 lbs. weight) are raised on i acre instead 
of on 2 acres, the labour of ploughing, harrowing, planting, 
cultivating, and harvesting is greatly reduced. The demand 
controls the quantity that should be grown. To meet demands 
the producers of the United States have, during the ten years 
previous to 19 14, averaged in round numbers 2,000,000,000 
bushels of maize yearly. In producing this amount a little 
more than 82,000,000 acres have yearly been devoted to maize- 
growing. The average production ... for the past ten years 
has been less than 25 bushels per acre, but from the best 
estimates that have been made the conclusion is unavoidable 
that half of those who grow maize harvest less than 25 bushels 
per acre. Twice this quantity is a fair crop, three times 25 
bushels is a good crop, and four times 25 bushels per acre are 
frequently produced. 

" The lines of improvement that will most easily and quickly 
double the present production per acre are as follows : (i) 

9 



13° MAIZE 

CHAP, improvement in the quality of seed planted ; (2) improvement 
^- in the condition of the soil ; (3) improvement in methods of 
cultivation." 

In the present chapter we shall deal with the first of these 
three points ; the others are discussed subsequently. 

100. The Cause of Poor Yields. — Poor yields are not as a 
rule traceable to any single cause, but are due to a combination 
of causes, such as poor farming, poor seed, mixed strains, etc. 

Good seed is seed bred with reference to certain definite 
requirements and possessing high germinating power. 

Well-bred seed usually has a higher germinating power 
than ordinary seed of the same age, kept with equal care. If 
the germination is poor the stand will be poor ; every ear 
should yield at least 8 ozs. of grain ; every 400 failures in 
germination therefore reduce the possible yield by at least one 
muid of grain. Since 8,800 seeds will plant i acre, 400 
poor seeds cause a loss of 4-5 per cent ; but very few average 
samples of seed-maize will show so high a germination as 95*5 
per cent. Of some seed planted only 80 per cent germinates ; 
this means, of course, that 20 per cent of the seed was unsound 
in one way or another. A 20 per cent failure in germination 
would mean a loss in some cases of 3 muids per acre, in other 
cases more. 

Poorly-bred seed, moreover, is apt to produce barren stalks 
and small ears yielding perhaps only 3 ozs. of grain apiece. A 
plant that does not produce 8 ozs. of grain is not giving an 
adequate return for the time and care bestowed upon it, nor 
for the space that it occupies. A good plant, yielding 8 ozs. 
and more of grain, takes up no more space, and requires no 
more scuffling or other attention than a poor one, and it costs 
as much to harvest the one as the other. It is plainly evident 
that it is unprofitable to grow crops from poor seed. 

The difficulty is to know beforehand which seed is going 
to produce a poor plant and which a good one. The object 
of this chapter is to help the farmer to determine these points. 

Studies of South African maize crops carried out by the 
writer have shown that, although the average yield per acre is 
exceedingly low, the average weight of grain per ear is com- 
paratively high. This is a most encouraging fact for it shows 
that the crops have inherent possibilities of improvement. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 1 3 1 
Out of 93 ears of Hickory King (grown at Vereeniging in CHAP. 



1908), which were carefully weighed, the 10 poorest (Nos. 
231-80) averaged 7 ozs. of grain apiece (Table XIX). A 
full stand of 8,712 plants averaging 7 ozs. of grain apiece would 
give 19 muids per acre. The crop at Vereeniging in 1908 
only averaged approximately 6 muids per acre, on 3,500 
acres, while on the best land it ran to about lo muids per acre. 
Allowing 10 muids in this case, for the purpose of discussion, 
how can we account for the other 9 muids, equivalent to 47 
per cent of the crop which an average yield of 7 ozs. of grain 
per ear should give ? And what has become of those ears 
which averaged as much as 8-87 ozs. of grain per ear? It seems 
incredible that 47 per cent of the stand should fail completely 
to yield any return, or that the remaining 53 per cent should 
give an average of only 7 ozs. of grain per ear when the 
average of 93 ears is 7*90 ozs. ! A yield of 10 muids would 
give the absurdly low average of 3-67 ozs. of grain per ear, 
with a full stand, while one of only 6 muids would be equal to 
only 2 -20 ozs. per ear. 

This matter needs thorough investigation, including a large 
number of careful counts and weighings, for it is a state of 
affairs which should be altered. Whether the low yield is due 
to the imperfect stand, or to the low average of grain per ear, 
or whether partly to one and partly to the other, there is cer- 
tainly great need for improvement. If the stand is so poor 
that 47 per cent of the plants fail to grow, or to bear ears, it 
should be possible to secure better stands. If a stand of 53 
per cent bears an average of only 7 ozs. of grain per ear, it is 
clearly possible to improve that average, when we consider 
that a number of ears give 878 ozs., and the average of 93 ears 
is 7-90 ozs. A stand is never perfect; some allowance must 
always be made for vacant places due to misses in planting, 
accidents in harrowing and cultivation, destruction by hail, 
cutworm, stalk-borer, and cranes, losses in harvesting, etc. 
These losses often amount to 25 per cent, but just how many 
bearing stalks constitute an average stand has yet to be 
determined. 

1 01. Importance of a Perfect Stand. — From what has 
already been said it is evident that there are two things es- 
sential to securing the heaviest possible yields of maize : {a) a 



V. 



132 MAIZE 

CHAP, perfect stand of plants; (/;) large ears, with a heavy yield of 
^- grain per ear. Deficiency in either of these two requisites will 
spoil the results obtained from the other. 

The influence of incomplete stands on total yield is one 
cause of loss which does not receive sufficient attention. The 
writer has made a careful examination of different maize 
stands, in various places, counting the number of bearing plants 
in a given area, and estimating the yield. The method adopted 
was to measure off lOO yards at various points which seemed 
to show an average stand. The plants in the row on either 
side of the measured strip were counted, omitting such as, 
through injury by stalk-borer or smut, were not likely to de- 
velop any grain. Where these fields were planted in continuous 
rows 3 feet apart, allowing 3 feet width of soil surface for each 
plant, the average number of plants in each 100 yards was 
multiplied by 48-40, which gives the approximate average per 
acre. The results obtained showed that the stands vary from 
90 per cent down to 25 per cent of the possible perfect stand. 
Following are the details of some of the examinations which 
were made on different farms : — 

No. I. Yellow Horsetooth. — Messrs. Reynolds Bros., Zand- 
baken, Val Station, Standerton District. Main crop planted 
36 X 22 inches, equalling 5-5 square feet per plant, or 7,920 
plants per acre for a full stand. Average of two rows, 1 30*5 
plants per 100 yards, or 6,216-4 per acre, equalling 79-5 per 
cent of a full stand. At an average of 8 ozs. of grain per plant 
the yield should be 3,158 lbs., or 15-79 muids per acre. 

No. 2. Yellow Horsetooth. — Messrs. Hutchinson & Shaw, 
Zandbaken, Val Station, Standerton District. Main crop 
planted 36 x 22 inches, equalling 55 square feet per plant, or 
7,920 plants per acre. Four rows averaged 132 plants per 
100 yards, or 6,375*6 per acre, or 80-5 per cent of the full 
stand. At an average of 8 ozs. of grain per plant the yield 
should be 3,194-4 lbs., or 15-97 muids per acre. 

No. 3. Golden King. — Messrs. Hutchinson & Shaw. 
Planted 36 x 22 inches, equalling 5-5 square feet per plant, or 
7,920 plants per acre. Four rows averaged 113-5 plants per 
100 yards, or 5,480-6 per acre, which is 69-2 per cent of a full 
stand. At an average of 8 ozs. of grain per plant the yield 
should be 2,746-7 lbs., or 13-73 muids per acre. 

No. 4. Hickory King. — Messrs, Hutchinson & Shaw. 



INHERITANCE^ IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 133 

Planted 26 x 22 inches, equalling 4 square feet per plant, or CHAP, 
10,890 plants per acre. V. 

An average of six rows carried 136 plants per 100 yards, 
or 6,577*5 plants per acre, equivalent to 6o"4 per cent of a per- 
fect stand. At an average of 6 ozs. of grain per plant (the ears 
produced were smaller than those of the Yellow Horsetooth), 
this should give 2,466-5 lbs., or 12-34 muids, per acre. About 
2 per cent of the crop was affected with smut of the tassel, 
Ustilago Maydis. 

No. 5. Hickory King. — Government Stud Farm, Stander- 
ton. Check-rowed, 3 feet by 2 feet 8 inches, equalling 8 
square feet per hill, two plants being planted on each hill. A 
full stand, therefore, would have 5,445 hills, or 10,890 plants. 
Six rows averaged 90 hills per 100 yards, or 8,668-4 plants if 
each hill carried two plants, but on account of the number of 
suckers it was not practicable to determine the actual number 
of individual plants ; this is equivalent to 79*6 per cent of a 
full stand. At an average of 8 ozs. of grain per hill, i.e. 4 ozs. 
of grain per plant (the ears were small), the yield should be 
2,178 lbs., or 10-88 muids. 

No. 6. Wisconsin White Dent. — Government Stud Farm, 
Standerton. Check-rowed, 3 feet by about 2 feet 8 inches, 
equalling 8 square feet per hill, two plants per hill. A full 
stand should give 5,445 hills, or 10,890 plants. Five rows 
averaged 88 hills per lob yards, or 4,259 hills per acre, equi- 
valent to 77-8 per cent of a full stand. Number of plants per 
hill not counted. At an average of 8 ozs. of grain per hill this 
stand should yield 2,118 lbs., or 10-65 muids per acre. In 
this stand 2-65 per cent of the plants in some rows were 
affected by maize-smut in the tassel, and 11 -3 per cent of the 
plants were injured by stalk-borer. 

No. 7. Early Learning. — Government Stud Farm, Stander- 
ton. Check-rowed, 3 feet by about 2 feet 8 inches, equalling 
8 square feet per hill of two plants, or 5,445 hills, or 10,890 
plants, per acre. Six rows averaged 93 hills per 100 yards, 
or 4,500 hills per acre, or 82 6 per cent of the full stand. At 
an average of 8 ozs. of grain per hill the yield should be 2,250 
lbs., or 11-25 niuids per acre. 

No. 8. Yellow Hogan. — ^Government Stud Farm, Stander- 
ton. Check-rowed, 3 feet by about 2 feet 8 inches, equalling 
5,445 hills, or 10,890 plants per acre. Six rows averaged loi 
ears per 100 yards, or 4,888 hills per acre, equivalent to 89*3 
per cent of a full stand. At an average of 8 ozs. of grain per 
hill this stand should yield 2,444 lbs., or 12-22 muids per acre. 



134 



CHAP. 
V. 



MAIZE 

Tablk XVI II. 

SUMMARY OF PERCENTAGE STANDS, 



Variety. 


Estimated Yield in Muids. 


Loss. 




As the 


On a 


I 




Stand 


Full 








Stood. 


Stand. 






Per Cent. 








I. Yellow Horsetooth 


79-5 at 8 ozs. per plant . = 


1579 


i9'8 


4-0 


2. „ ,, 


8o-5 „ 


= 


15*97 


19-8 


3-8 


3. Golden King 


69-2 


— 


1373 


TQ-8 


6-1 


4. Hickory King 


60-4 


= 


12-34 


20-4 


8-1 


5- „ „ . . 


79-6 at S 1 ozs. per hill 


= 


IO-88 


irfi 


27 


6. Wisconsin White Dent 


77-8 „ 


_ 


10-65 


13-6 


3-0 


7. Early Learning . 


82-6 


= 


11-25 


rVfi 


2-3 


8. Yellow Hogan . 


89-3 „ „ 


12*22 


13-6 


1-4 


Average 


77-37 Average 


12-85 







^ This figure may be on the low side, but we find that where the plants are 
crowded together in hills, the ears are smaller and the average yield per ear less 
than when planted in continuous rows; it is doubtful, however, whether the 
difference in results obtained by the two methods of planting is quite as great 
as the difference here allowed. 

Messrs. Hutchinson and Shaw kept count of the yield from 
these several fields and found that they averaged very close 
to the estimate which had been made of them, except in one 
ca.se of subsequent damage to the crop. 

In a number of rows tested promiscuously in different 
fields, in another part of the country, the stand percentage was 
found to average 65 T per cent, ranging from 53 per cent to 93 
per cent. Where much damage has been done by hail, the 
stands (in individual rows) ranged from 19 per cent to 54 per 
cent and averaged only 38-4 per cent. Planted 3 feet 4 inches 
between the rows and i foot 6 inches in the rows, a full stand 
would carry 8,712 maize plants, which on an average of 7 ozs. 
of grain per ear (not an excessive amount to expect) should 
produce 19 muids per acre. A stand of 65-1 per cent carries 
5,671 plants which with the same weight of grain per ear 
should yield 12-4 muids per acre, while a stand of 38*4 per 
cent would produce only 7-31 muids. 

Poor stands may thus mean a loss of eight bags, or 64s. 
per acre, even where the crop has been considered a good one. 



IN fIRRITANCE- IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING 



35 



It appears also that, on fairly well-farmed land, losses may be 
equivalent to nearly 25 per cent of the stand. 

102. Importance of Increasing the Size of the Ears. — We 
have seen that a stand of only 38*4 per cent of the possible, 
would produce 7 '31 muids per acre if the ears averaged y ozs. 
in weight.^ But as this yield is about twice the estimated 



CHAP. 

V. 




^< ^ 




Fig. 62. — ''Nubbins" of Hickory King; one cause of poor yields ; 4J incli 
nubbins weighing 2J to 3 ozs. 



average for the Transvaal, we are forced to conclude, in the 
absence of other likely reasons, that the low yields are due, 
in part at least, to small ears, the average weight of grain 
of which does not exceed 3-2- ozs. per ear. In view of the 

1 Only 7 ozs. is allowed in this case, since the yields were lighter than those 
near Standerton. 



136 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 




Fig. 63. — Desirable and undesirable types oi Hickory King ; the shorter ear 
(A), 8 inches long, has a deeper grain and gives a heavier yield than the longer 
ear (B), to inches long, which has shallow grain. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 1 3 7 

fact that 8 ozs. of grain per ear is a common return, and chap. 
that ears yielding 15 ozs. of grain are not unknown, an ^• 
average of 3^ ozs. is absurdl)^ low, and suggests great possi- 
bilities for improvement. 

"Nubbins" such as are shown in Fig. 62, must tend to 
bring down the yield enormously. 

103. Average Weight of Grain per Ear. — Such variations 
in weight o^ear indicate that the composition of the average 
lot of seed-maize is very unsatisfactory. A difference of 
12 ozs. between the extremes is much too great; no stock- 
man would breed 800 lbs. bullocks when he could produce 
2,000 lbs. animals with the same amount of care and feed. 
Although it may not be possible to bring the average up to 
the maximum, still by breeding, the average can be greatly 
improved, and the production of the 2\ to 4 ozs. nubbins (Fig. 
62) which are so plentiful in South African crops at present, 
can be minimized. The following tables (XIX to XXIX) show 
the weights and yields of grain of i ,684 ears of maize grown 
at Vereeniging, Transvaal, in 1908, and selected for seed. 
They were carefully studied and weighed, at the end of the 
dry season when the grain was as dry as possible. 

104. Need for Increase in the Weight of Grain per Ear. — 
Allowing for losses to the extent of 25 per cent from external 
causes, misses, etc., we should still have 6,534 bearing plants 
to an acre, an average of one to every 7^ square feet of soil 
surface. As is shown in the preceding tables, the average 
weight of grain from a medium-sized ear of Golden King in 
1908 was 7'397 ozs.; this was determined by weighing 250 
ears which had been picked for seed, but from which all the 
best ears had been removed for use on the breeding plot, 
leaving 150 medium-sized ears. On well-farmed land, 10 
muids of shelled grain per acre is not an uncommon average 
yield without manure. To produce lo muids would require 
only 4,326 plants yielding 7 '2,79 ozs. each, or less than two- 
thirds of the plants left on the acre. How are we to account 
for the remaining 2,208 plants? At 7*379 ozs. each they 
should produce an additional i ,020 lbs,, or 5 muids of grain, 
which would increase the yield per acre by 50 per cent. 
There are three possible explanations: (i) that the average 
yield of grain per ear is much lower than 7*379 ozs. ; (2) that 



138 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



Table XIX. 
ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF 134 EARS OF HICKORY KING. 



Hickory King, S. 2. 



Selection 
Numbers. 



Weight 
of Ear. 



Average 
Weight 
of Cob. 



41 to 50 
51 to 60 

61 to 70 



Average, 30 ears 



141 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 



Average, 11 ears 



Ozs. 
6-36 
6-85 

5'54 

1875 
6-25 



•93 
1-28 



•94 



3-15 
3-05 



Average 
Weight 
of Grain. 



Ozs. 

5*43 1 85-37 
5-57 81-31 



4-60 



15-60 

5 '20 



83-03 



Number 

of 

Rows. 



Average 
Number 

of 
Grains 
per Ear. 



8, 10 
8, 10, 
& 12 
8,10 



393 



24971 
8323 



Hickory King (Narrow Grain), V. 8. 



10-125 


I -00 


9-125 


— 


— 


— 


1 10-00 


i-io 


9-00 


— 


— 


— 


II-I2 


1-40 


XI-I2 


— 


— 


— 


10-40 


1-40 


9*00 




— 


— 


io-8o 


1-50 


9-70 


— 


— 


— 


ii-oo 


1-64 


9-36 


— 


— 


— 


14-50 


3-00 


"•75 


80-70 


— 


— 


10-65 


i-^o 


9-65 


— 


— 




11-50 


I -20 


10-25 


— 


— 


— 


10-90 


I-IO 


9-90 


— 


— 


— 


9-95 


1-30 


8-60 


86-42 


— 


— 


120-945 


15-74 


107-455 





— 


_ 


10-99 


1-43 


9-77 


88-90 


— 


— 









Hickory King 


V.7. 








144 




10-35 


1-65 


8-70 


84-05 


8 


( — 




^^l 




11-50 


1-40 


10-10 


87-82 


8 


400 




146 




10-00 


1-20 


8-80 


88-00 


8 






147 




10-10 


1-30 


8-80 


88-11 


8 


384 


No loss. 


148 




10-50 


1-75 


8-75 


83-33 


8 


336 




149 




10-60 


i-io 


9-50 


89-62 


10 


490 




151 




10-25 


1-75 


8-50 


82-92 


10 






152 




10-10 


1-25 


8-85 


87-62 


10 


— 




153 




9-50 


1-25 


8-25 


86-84 


8 


— 




154 




10-20 


1-70 


8-50 


83-33 


8 


400 




155 




10-50 


1-60 


8-90 


84-76 


8 


368 




158 




9-85 


1-60 


8-25 


83-75 


8 


— 






IO-75 


1-30 


9-45 


87-90 


10 


— 




134-20 


18-85 


"5-35 


1,111-05 





2,378 




Average of i^ 
















V. 7 ears 


10-32 


1-45 


8-87 


86-00 


— 


396 




201 to 210 


8-98 


1-225 


7-755 


86-36 


12 


_ 


Discards. 


211 to 230 . 


9-19 


I-2I 


7-98 


86-83 


10 


— 


Do. 


231 to 280 . 


8-066 


1-064 


7-002 


86-81 


8 


— 


Do. 


36-556 


4-949 


31-607 


346-00 


_ 







Average of 93 
















V. 7 ears . 


9-139 


1-237 


7-902 


86-50 


~ 


— 




Average of 24 


10-63 


1-44 


9-28 













ears (141-62 


) 














Average of all 


8-29 


I-I9 


7-12 


85-85 


— 


- 





INHERITANCE^IMPROVEMKNT BY BREEDING 



'39 



Table XX. 

ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF loo EARS OF NATAL WHITE 
HORSETOOTH. 

Natal White Horsetooth, V. 14. 



CHAP. 
V. 



Selection Numbers. 


Average 
Weight 
of Ear. 


Average 
Weight 
of Cob. 


A\erage 
Weight 
of Grain. 


Percent- 
age of 
Grain. 


Number 
of 
Rows. 


I to 10 . 
II to 20 . 
21 to 30 . 
31 to 40 . 
41 to 50 . 
51 to 60 . 

61 to 70 . 
71 to 80 . 
81 to go . 
91 to 100 . 


Ozs. 

12-68 

13-08 

14-47 

13-24 

15-18 

16-23 

13-80 
14-54 
14-00 

14-05 


Ozs. 
2-98 
3-07 
378 
2-96 
3-56 
3-84 

3-26 
3-32 
3-45 
3-45 


Ozs. 
9-70 
10-01 

10-69 
10-28 

11-62 

12-39 

10-54 
11-20 
10-55 
10-60 


76-50 
76-53 
73-88 
77-64 
76-55 
76-34 

78-37 
77-03 
75-36 
75-42 


14 

14 

14 

14 

14 
14, 16, 
18, 12 

16 

12 

12 

12 


Average 


141-27 
14-127 


33*67 
3-367 


107-58 
10-758 


763-62 
76-362 


— 



Table XXL 

ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF 123 EARS OF LADYSMITH. 

Lady smith, V. 6. 



Selection 
Numbers. 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Percent- 


Number 


Number 




Weight 


Weight 


Weight 


age of 


of 


of 


Notes. 


of Ear. 


of Cob. 


of Grain. 


Grain. 


Rows. 


Ears. 






Ozs. 


Ozs. 


Ozs. 










132 to 145 


10-55 


— 


— 


— 


16 


14 




146 to 155 


12-00 

& over 


(1-76) 


ro-24 


(88-33) 


16 


10 


10 best. 


r to 13 


9-17 


— 


— 


— 


12 


13 




156 to 169 


10-60 


— 


— 


— 


16 


14 




170 to 181 


9-01 


— 


— 


— 


16 


12 




183 to 193 


10-09 


2-11 


7-97 


78-99 


18 


II 




195 to 219 


8-69 


1-48 


7-21 


83-00 




25 


Estimate of cob 
based on ears 
183 to 193. 


183 to 197 


12-05 


2-II 


9-94 


82-49 


18 


15 




221 to 228 


9-75 





— 


— 


20 


8 




229 


12-70 





— 


— 


22 


I 




~ 


12-00 

& over 


— 




~ 


14 


~ 




— 


17-00 


7-46 


— 


332-81 


18 


— 






116-61 


7-68 


35-36 


- 


- 


123 




Average 


10-60 


1-86 


8-84 


83-20 


- 


- 





140 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



Table XXII. 

ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF 150 EARS OF IOWA SILVER-MINE AND 
10 EARS OF CHESTER COUNTY. 



Iowa Silver-mine, V. 9. 


Selection 
Numbers. 


Average 
Weight 


Average 


Average Per- 


Number 


Average 

Number 




Weight 


Weight centage 


of 


of 


Notes. 


of Ear. 


of Cob. 


of Grain, of Grain. 


Rows. 


Grains 
















per Ear. 






Ozs. 


Ozs. 


Ozs. 










I to 10 . 


9-II 


I-71 


7-400 


81-23 


16, 14, 
& 18 


— 


Much grain 
lost. 


10 to 20 , 


10-55 


1-86 


8-690 


82-37 


16, 14 


— 




21 to 30 . 


9-62 


1-86 


7-760 


80-66 


16, 14, 
& 12 


— 


Some grain 
lost. 


31 to 40 . 


9-56 


1-83 


7730 


80-85 


16, 14, 
18,20 


— 


Some loss of 
grain. 


41 to 50 . 


9 '94 


1-77 


8-170 


82-19 


16 


— 


Do. 


51 to 60 


9*36 


1-58 


7-780 


83-12 


16 


— 




61 to 70 . 


8-12 


1-41 


6-710 


82-63 


16 


— 


Do. 


71 to 80 . 


8-92 


1-56 


7-360 


82-51 


14 


— 


Do. 


81 to 90 . 


7-35 


1-46 


5-890 


80-13 


12, 18, 
&I4 


— 


Much loss of 
grain. 


91 to 100 . 


8-20 


1-39 


6-8io 


83-05 


12,14 


— 






9073 


16-43 


74-300 


818-74 


_ 


_ 




Average of 10 


9-07 


1-64 


7-430 


81-87 1 — 


— 








lou 


a Silver-mine, S. 4. 






I to 10 


5-51 


I -03 


4-48 1 81-30 


16 


664 


10 poorest. 


II to 20 


7-34 


1-46 


5-88 


8o-ii 


16 


702 




21 to 30 


8-91 


1-69 


7-22 


80-80 


16 




10 best. 


31 to 40 


6-53 


i-i6 


5-37 


82-23 


16 


640 




41 to 50 . 


8-27 


i-ii 


7-03 1 85-00 


16 


— 


Not true to 
















type. 




36-56 


6-45 


29-98 


409-44 





2,006 




Average 


7-312 


1-29 


5-996 


81-888 


16 


668 





Chester County, V. 4. 



Selection Numbers. 


Average 
Weight 
of Ear. 


Average Average 
Weight i Weight 
of Cob. , of Grain. 


Percent- 
age of 
Grain. 


Notes. 


n to 20 . 


Ozs. 
9-28 


Ozs. 1 Ozs. 
1-546 ! 7-734 


83-34 


10 best ears. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 4 1 



CHAP. 



Table XXIII. 

ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF no EARS OF CHAMPION WHITE PEARL. V 
(A breed closely allied to Iowa Silver-mine.) 
Champion White Pearl, V. 5. 



Selection 
Numbers. 


Average 
Weight 
of Ear. 


Average 
Weight 
of Cob. 


Average 
Weight 
of Grain. 


Per- 
centage 
of Grain. 


Number 

of 
Rows. 


Notes. 


I to 10 . 
II to 20 . 

21 to 30 . 

31 to 40 . 
41 to 50 . 
51 to 60 . 
61 to 70 . 

71 to 80 . 
81 to go . 
gi to 100 


Ozs. 
7-62 
7-99 
8-67 

774 
8-68 
7-50 
8-52 

8-12 

10-26 
8-39 


Ozs. 
1-47 
1-45 
1-53 
1-43 
1-54 
1-62 

1-62 

1-49 
1-74 

1-53 


Ozs. 

6-45 
7-14 
6-31 
7'i4 
5-88 
690 

6-63 
8-52 
6-86 


80-71 
81-85 
82-35 
81-52 
82-26 
78-40 
8o-gg 

81-65 
83-04 
81-76 


14 
14 
14 

14 
14 

It 

16 
16 
16 


Ears poor and broken. 
Some loss of grain. 
No loss of grain. 
Slight loss of grain. 
Ears very broken. 
Ears a good deal 

broken. 
A little grain lost. 
Very little grain lost. 
Do. 


1 83-49 


15-42 


67-98 


814-53 


- 




Average 

of 100 . 8-35 
loi to no 6-65 


1-54 
1-42 


6-80 
5-23 


81-45 
78-65 


12 





Table XXIV. 
ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF 170 EARS OF YELLOW HORSETOOTH. 



Yellow Horsetooth, 12-row, V. i. 


Selection 
Numbers. 


Average 


Average 


Average 
Weight 


Per- 


Number 




Weight 


centage 


of 


Notes. 


of Ear. 


of Cob. 


of Grain. 


of Grain. 


Rows. 






Ozs. 


Ozs. 


Ozs. 








81 to go 


10-15 


2-04 


8-II 


79-90 


12 




91 to 100 


g-go 


1-67 


8-23 


83-13 







loi to no 


10-65 


1-79 


8-86 


83-19 







III to 120 


12-06 


2-og 


9-97 


82-67 







121 to 130 


10-67 


1-81 


8-86 


83-03 







131 to 140 


10-15 


1-79 


8-36 


82-36 







141 to 150 


9-55 


1-79 


7-76 


81-26 


— 






73-13 


12-98 


60-15 


575-54 


_ 




Average 














of 7 


10-45 


1-85 


8-593 


82-22 


— 








Yellow Horsetooth, 14-rov 


V, V. 2. 




31 to 40 


i2-g6 


2-25 


10-71 


82-64 


- 


Best. 


48 to 57 


9-85 


2-27 


7-58 


76-95 


- 


Light. 



142 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



after allowing for a loss of 25 per cent of the stand from the 
various causes mentioned before, one-third of the remainder 
are barren ; (3) that each of these causes is partially account- 
able. 

liarren Stalks. — An examination of many maize crops 
shows that there is a small percentage of barren stalks, but 
that this is not likely to equal anything like 33 per cent of the 
standing crop. 



Table XXV. 

ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF 352 EARS OF YELLOW HOG AN. 

Yellow Hogan, V. 3. 



Selection 
Numbers. 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Percent- 


Number 




Weight 


Weight 


Weight 


age of 


of 


Notes. 


of Ear. 


of Cob. 


of Grain. 


Grain. 


Rows. 






Ozs. 


Ozs. 


Ozs. 








I 
2 


10-50 
10-30 


1-90 
1-90 


8-60 
8-40 


81-90) 
81-55 1 


16 


Cob white. 


3 to 14 


9-08 


1-54 


7-54 


83-04 


14 


Do. 


15 to 24 


9-45 


1-50 


7-95 


84-13 


12 


Do. 


25 to 34 


8-00 


1-38 


6-62 


82-75 


12 


Do. 


35 to 41 


7.67 


1-38 


6-29 


81-99 


12 


Do. 


42 to 151 


— 


I -60 


— 


— 







151 to 190 


— 


1-425 


— 


— 







192 to 201 


7-85 


1-31 


6-54 


83-31 


12 


Red cob. 


202 to 208 


6-o8 


I-2I 


4-87 


85-01 


14 




209 to 216 


8-44 


1-40 


7-04 


83-56 


14 




217 to 222 


8-30 


1-40 


6-88 


83-10 


14 




223 to 226 


8-90 


1-43 


7-47 


83-99 


14 




227 to 232 


9-98 


1-41 


8-50 


85-81 


14 




233 to 242 


10-80 


1-85 


8-70 


82-87 


14 


Best 10. 


243 to 252 


10-57 


1-77 


8-8o 


83-25 


14 




253 to 262 


9-82 


1-40 


8-42 


85-74 


14 




263 to 272 


9-48 


1-65 


7-83 


82-60 


14 




273 to 282 


8-44 


1-44 


7-00 


82-94 


14 




283 to 292 


7-66 


1-34 


6-32 


82-51 


14 




293 to 307 


lo-io 


173 


9-20 


83-99 


16 




308 to 314 


8-88 


1-67 


7-21 


84-63 


16 




315 to 324 


9-13 


I -60 


7-53 


82-48 


12 




325 to 334 


IO-59 


1-94 


8-65 


81-68 


12 




335 to 344 


9-46 


1-90 


7-56 


79-91 


12 




345 to 349 


6-92 


1-56 


5-36 


82-11 


12 




350 to 352 


8-90 


1-53 


7-37 


82-81 


14 & 12 






225-30 


42-165 


186-65 


2077-66 


_ 




Average of 














25 lots . 


9-OI 


1-56 


7-46 


83-10 


~ 





INHERITANCE^IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 1 43 



Nubbins. — It also shows that in most crops there is a con- 
siderable proportion of "nubbins," i.e. small ears (cf. Fig. 62) 
— often only 2 to 4 ozs. weight — which are imperfectly de- 
veloped owing to inadequate pollination, or other causes. A 
three-quarter stand of 6,534 bearing plants per acre, yielding 
10 muids of shelled grain, shows the low average of 4*89 ozs. 
of grain per ear, which is only 66 per cent of the average 
weight of the 150 medium ears mentioned above (p. 137), and 
is only 48 per cent of the average weight of lOO selected ears. 



CHAP. 
V. 



Table XXVI. 

ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF 200 EARS OF GOLDEN KING. 

Golden King, V. 13. 



Selection 
Numbers. 


Average 
Weight 
of Ear. 


Average 
Weight 
of Cob. 


Average 
Weight 
of Grain. 


Percent- 
age of 
Grain. 


Number 

of 

Rows. 


Notes. 


loi to no 
III to 120 
121 to 130 
131 to 140 
141 to 150 
151 to 160 
161 to 170 
171 to 180 
181 to 190 
191 to 200 




Ozs. 
11-64 
11-94 
11*54 

12-12 

i2-8o 

13*30 
13-09 
13*90 
12-71 

11*43 


Ozs. 
2*37 
2-21 

2-ri 
2-i8 

2-38 
2-41 

2-37 
2*33 
2-22 
2-25 


Ozs. 
9-27 
9*73 
9*43 
9*94 
10-42 
10-89 
10-72 
11-57 
10-49 
9-18 


79-64 

81-49 

81-71 

82-01 

81-40 

81-88 

81-89 ■ 

83*24 

82-59 

80-31 


12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
14 
14 
14 
14 


10 best i2-row. 
10 best 14-row. 


Total of 100 
Selected Ear 


s 


124*47 


22-83 


101-64 


8i6-i6 


- 


Selected for 
breeding plot. 


Average of 100 
Medium-sized 
Ears . . . 

50 do. . . 
50 do. . . 
100 Selected 
Ears . . . 

10 Best Ears 


874 

9-402 
9-828 

12-447 
13*90 


1*6475 

1-7000 

1-778 

2-283 
2*33 


7*0925 

7-7020 
8-050 

10-164 
11*57 


81-15 

81-92 
81-91 

83-24 


12 

14 
10 

14 


Nos. i-ioo se- 
lected for bulk 
seed. 

Nos. 201-50 do. 

Discarded. 

Nos. 101-200 se- 
lected for breed- 
ing plot. 

Nos. 171-80 se- 
lected for breed- 
ing plot. 



144 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



Table XXVII. 
ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF 370 EARS OF WISCONSIN. 



Wisconsin, S. i. 


Selection Numbers. 


Average 
Weight 
of Ear. 


Average 
Weight 
of Cob. 


Average 
Weight 
of Grain. 


Per- 
centage 
of Grain. 


Notes. 


I to 10 . 
II to 20 . 

Average . 

I to 10 . 
II to 20 . 
21 to 30 . 
31 to 40 . 
41 to 50 . 


Ozs. 
7-9 
9-375 


Ozs. 
1-33 
1-843 


Ozs.; 
6-375 

7-875 


80-79 
84-00 


10 best. 
10 best. 


17-275 
8-6375 

Wiscotis 

7-34 
8-70 
9-10 
8-00 
7-55 


3-173 
1-5865 

in X = S 

1-47 
I -60 
1-82 
1-51 
1-37 


14-250 
7-125 

kinncr^s 

5-87 
7-10 
7-28 
6-49 
6-18 


164-79 
82-395 

Court 2. 

79-97 
81-61 
8o-oo 
81-12 
81-85 


40-69 


111 


' 32-92 


404-55 


Average . 
51 to 150 
151 to 250 

251 to 350 
Average of 350 


8-140 
7-791 
6-175 

4-981 


1-550 
1-440 
1-130 

-922 


6-580 
6-351 
5-045 

4-058 


80-91 
80-23 
81-70 

81-47 


Selected ears. 

100 large ears, bulk. 

100 medium ears, 

bulk. 
100 small ears, bulk. 

Apices infertile, 
apparently from 
lack of pollen. 


27-087 
6-772 


5-042 
1-260 


22-034 
5-508 


324-31 
81-08 



It has been amply demonstrated by American maize- 
growers that the tendency to produce barren stalks can be 
reduced by careful selection, and that the average yield of 
grain per ear can be very greatly increased by breeding. The 
figures in Table XXX (p. 147) show the yield per acre for 
every ounce of average weight of grain per ear on a 75 per 
cent stand of 6,534 plants per acre. 

These figures are somewhat startling. We are not 
prepared to say that an average yield of 23 muids can be 
obtained on any one South African farm without manure, 
even with the best of seed and of good management ; but 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 145 

Table XXVI II. 
ANALYSIS OF YIELDS OF 100 EARS OF SKINNER'S COURT 10. 



Skinner's Court 10. 


Selection 
Numbers. 


Average 
Weight 
of Ear. 


Average 
Weight 
of Cob. 


Average 
Weight 
of Grain. 


Per- 
centage 
of Grain. 


Number 

of 

Rows. 


Notes. 


I to 10 . 
II to 20 . 

21 to 30 . 

31 to 40 . 
41 to 50 . 
51 to 60 . 

61 to 70 . 

71 to 80 . 
81 to 90 . 

91 to 100 . 

Average 


Ozs. 

lO'IO 

7-95 
9-20 

10-30 
9-84 

10-95 

9-85 

9-55 
9-44 
9-04 


Ozs. 
2-15 

1-85 
2-00 
2-40 

2-22 
2-31 

1-95 

2-18 
2-X3 

1-86 


Ozs. 

7-95 
6"io 

7-20 

7-90 
7-62 
8-64 

7-90 

7-37 
7-31 
7-i8 


78-71 
76-73 
78-26 
76-70 
77-43 
78-90 

80-20 

77-17 
77*43 
79-42 


14 
16 
16 

16 
16 

14 

14(8 

& 12 (2 
18 
12 
14 


Grains deep. 
10 best; grains 

deep. 
Grain deep. 


96-22 t 21-05 
9-62 2-105 


75-17 
7-517 


780-95 
78-09 


- 



CHAP. 
V. 



25 per cent appears to be an ample allowance for losses by 
pests, etc. ; we should aim to secure a 75 per cent stand and 
an average yield of at least 6 ozs. of grain per plant, which 
would give 12 muids per acre. The writer confidently 
believes that this standard will be reached, and the figures 
given in Tables XIX to XXIX seem sufficient warrant for 
the assumption. 

All the defects referred to can be largely remedied by com- 
bining breeding with good farming ; the tendency to produce 
barren stalks can be reduced by careful selection ; misses in 
planting will be reduced by greater uniformity in shape and 
size of seed ; the tendency to produce " nubbins " can be 
removed almost entirely by breeding ; and the effect of cut- 
worm and stalk-borer are minimized by careful management. 

The tendency for like to produce like is found not only 
among animals but among plants. It is well known to all 
farmers that poor, weedy sheep, cattle and horses, reproduce 
their kind ; and " nubbins " will generally reproduce the same 
sort of plant that bore them. When the poor-quality parent- 



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INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 147 
Table XXX. 

YIELD PER ACRE FROM A 75 PER CENT STAND, AT VARIOUS 
AVERAGE WEIGHTS PER EAR. 



CHAP. 

V. 



Average Weight of 

Grain per 

Ear. 


Yield from a 75 per cent 
Stand (6,534 Plants) 
in Muids per Acre, 
omitting fractions. 


Ozs. 

I 

1 

7 

77 

9 

10 

"•5 


Muids. 
2 
10 
12 
14 

:i 

20 
23 



Thus every single ounce of grain added to the average weight of car pro- 
duced makes a difference of 2 muids of grain per acre. 

plants are in the majority, as is generally the case in ordinary 
maize crops from unselected seed, they cross with the good 
ones and cause deterioration. The obvious remedy is (i) to 
save only the best ears for seed, and (2) to plant this seed 
entirely away from the rest of the crop so that the plants 
may not be cross-pollinated by inferior strains. 

It is true that large heavy-yielding ears do not always 
produce good ears in the next generation, but this is often due 
to the effect of previous cross-breeding with inferior plants, 
which continues to show in the second and even the third 
generation. 

It seems reasonable to expect that by using only the ten 
best ears of the crop for seed, we shall be able to breed up a 
strain that will eventually average a yield of 11 "57 ozs. of 
grain per ear, which on a 75 per cent stand will give 23 muids 
per acre. There may be some adverse factors to contend with, 
which are not yet fully understood, and which may delay the 
attainment of this desired end ; but South Africa can un- 
doubtedly do much better than at present. 

In tests made during 1908 the average difference in weight 
of grain per ear from the ten best ears, as compared with that 
obtained from the ten poorest ears, was 2 "68 ozs., while the 
range of difference was from -97 oz. to 4-33 ozs. Though 

lO * 



I4S 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



2 68 ozs. is not a great increase, yet on the basis of 6,534 
bearing plants it means an increase of 5-^ muids of grain 
per acre- This increase is 137 per cent of the estimated 
present average yield of 4 muids per acre. 

But there is no reason why we should be content even with 
an increase of 2-68 ozs. of grain. Some breeds show an aver- 
age increase for ten ears of 4*33 ozs. per ear; we should 
therefore aim at adding this to the average for the crop. An 
average increase of 4*33 ozs. per ear is equivalent to 1,764 
lbs. (8*82 muids) of grain per acre. 

105. Percentage by Weight of Grain and Cob. — Where 
maize is sold on the cob for feeding to stock, or for seed, as is 
often the case in the United States, the amount of grain which 
can be obtained from a bushel or muid of ears is of great im- 
portance ; as this proportion varies, the price also will fluctuate. 

The following table shows the range of variation in pro- 
portion of grain to ear in selected ears of certain breeds : — • 



Table XXXI. 
PERCENTAGE OF GRAIN TO EAR. 



Variety. 


No. of Ears 


10 Best 


10 Worst 


Average of 


Weighed. 


Ears. 


Ears. 


100 Ears. 






Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Hickory King, V. 7 . 


93 


86-83 ^ 


86-00 


86-50 


„ V. 8 . . . 


II 


86-42 


80-70 


88-90 


Ladysmith, V. 6 


120 


88-33^ 


82-49 


83-20 


Yellow Hogan, V. 3 . 


200 


85-81 


79-91 


83-10 


Chester County, V. 4 . 


10 


85-27 


79-39 


83-34 


Golden King, 14-rovv . 


90 


83-24 


80-31 


81-99 


Yellow Horsetooth, V. i, 12-row 


70 


83-19 


79-90 


82-22 


Iowa Silver-mine, V. 9 


100 


83-12 


80-13 


81-87 


Champion White Pearl, V. 5 . 


100 


83-04 


78-40 


81-45 


Yellow Horsetooth, V. 2, 14-row 


20 


82-64 


76-95 


79-79 


Skinner's Court No. 11 


350 


81-85 


79-97 


80-91 


Skinner's Court No. 10 


100 


80'20 


76-70 


78-09 


Natal White Horsetooth, V. 14 . 
Total . 
Average . 


100 


78-37 


73-88 


76-36 


1,364 


1,088-31 


1.034-73 


1,067-72 


105 


83-57 


79-59 


82-13 



^ The maximum for a single ear was 89*62. 
"' There is a possible error in this figure. 

Owing to the lateness of the season when the weights were 
taken, the dryness of the ears and the looseness of the grain, 



INHERITANCE^IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 149 

there was a certain loss of grain from a few ears. This was CHAP. 
greater in some breeds than in others. In all cases, however, 
care was taken to select the least broken ears for weighing, 
and in many cases there was no loss from those that were 
weighed ; at most it would not exceed half an ounce of 
grain, which would not alter the percentage of grain to ear by 
more than about -Gy per cent. Making due allowance for this, 
the percentages are considerably below those which American 
growers consider fair (IT 88, p. 1 17). 

106. Effect of DeptJi of Grain on Yield. — One of the prin- 
cipal factors, and perhaps the most important, in the production 




Fig. 64. — Increasing yield by increasing depth of grain (in Arcadia Sugar- 
maize). A, old type ; B, improved type. 

of heavy yields of grain, is the depth of the grain (cf. Fig, 64). 
Even an eighth of an inch added to the diameter of an ear, 
when the cob remains of the same thickness, makes a marked 
difference in the amount of grain carried on that ear. 

In seed selection, therefore, this character is of great im- 
portance. To measure the relative depth of grain of each ear, 
when handling several thousand ears, is a most tedious process, 
and if some readily detected character can be found which is 
correlated with depth of grain, it will be a useful guide. One 
of the results of the writer's recent investigations has been the 



/ 



ISO MAIZE 

CHAP, discovery that this character is often (in fact in nearly all the 
cases that have fallen under his observation) correlated with 



^^^^^^^^ft -f i^^^^^^^^^i 






fl 


^^B '• ^B ■■•* ' ' "J 










^^^^^H 






Fig, 65.— Rough-grained type of Hickory ; a desirable type for selection. 
Rough ears of this type generally have a longer grain (in South Africa) than the 
smooth type. The ear is not well bred, for the tip tapers too much, the sulci are 
too wide, the grains are uneven and the rows are irregular, but it is a useful type 
to start with. 

roughness of the indentation of the grain (cf. Fig. 65), whereas 
very smooth grains (as in Fig. 67B) are often very shallow. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 5 1 

107. Increasing Yield by Increasing the Number of Rows at chap. 
the Butt and Tz/).— Loss of grain also occurs through breeding '^• 
ears with even, instead of rounded, butts (Fig. 66) and with 
badly covered tips. It has been completely demonstrated that 
these defects can be removed by breeding. 

108. Effect of Width of Sulci on Yield. — Loss in weight of 
grain is often due also to wide sulci, as, for example, in 
the ear shown in Fig. 65, although this is not a bad case, and 
far worse specimens are often met with. The sulci should be 
as narrow as possible. The ears shown in Fig. ^J are not 




Fig. 66. — Increasing yield by increasing the number ot rows around the butt. 
A (rounded butt) has a row of grains more than B (even butt). 

quite perfect in this respect, but nearly so. Narrow sulci may 
be produced in two ways: (i) by the development of wedge- 
shaped grains so that the empty space, such as is produced by 
straight-sided grains, is filled with grain. This is the right 
type to breed. (2) By the development of shallow grains 
which are not long enough to form wide sulci. This is the 
wrong type to breed, because more weight is lost by the 
shallowness of the grain than is gained by the closing up 
of the sulci. 

109. Effect of Shape of Grain on Yield. — The shape of the 
grain has a marked effect on yield ; the grain which combines 



CHAP. 
V. 



152 



MAIZE 



depth (IF 106) with the shape which allows the least waste of 
space between rows, is obviously the one that will give the best 
yield, other things being equal. The ideal shape for this pur- 
pose is known as the wedge-shape (cf Fig. 68 and H 108). 

1 10. Effect of Number of Rows. — It does not always follow 
that increase in number of rows of grain on the ear is accom- 




A B 

Fig. 67,— Result of breeding for reduction of sulci ; Doyle Hickory. 



panied by increase in amount of grain produced. Cases illus- 
trating this point have been mentioned in chapter IV. (H 85). 

One number of rows usually predominates in a breed, thus 
in /owa Silver-mine it is the i6-row, of which there were 57 per 
cent, while of the 14-row there were only 24 per cent in 
certain cases examined. It does not follow, however, that the 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 5 3 




CHAP. 
V. 



Fiu. 68. — Variation in shape and size of grain in the same breed (Riid) ; 
No. 1271 approaches most closely to the ideal. 



154 MAIZE 

CHAP, type with the predominating number of rows is the one most 



V. 



suitable for propagation. 

The number of rows may either exceed or fall below that 
of the type ; the whole gamut (from 8 to 24 or more) may be 
found in one breed. It does not necessarily follow that an 
1 8 -row loiva Silver-mine is not an Iowa Silver-mine, nor that 
a lo-row Hickory is some other breed. But it is found 
that either below or above a certain number in any one type, 
deterioration takes place ; in Iowa Silver-mine, for example, 
the ears bearing 12, 18, and 20 rows respectively, prove un- 
desirable for propagation, entirely apart from the question of 
the number of their rows. 

111. Effect of Diameter of Cobs. — There is a popular idea 
that a thin cob is a highly desirable characteristic of a good 
type of maize, and a certain amount of simple selection on this 
basis has been carried out by South African farmers. In 
reality increase in the amount of grain is generally accom- 
panied by increase in the size of the cob on which it is borne, 
not only in length but also in diameter. The writer's investi- 
gations show that increased yield of grain, by actual weight, 
is usually accompanied by increase in average weight of cob. 
The longest ears, however, do not always carry the greatest 
amount of grain. Heavy yield does not depend entirely 
either on large ears or on thin cobs. 

Of two ears of equal circumference the one with the thin- 
nest cob is the most desirable, because it carries more grain. 
But a thick ear with deep grain on a thick cob is infinitely 
more desirable than a thin ear with shallow grain on a thin cob 
(Fig. 63). An ear of Golden King 9^ inches long produced only 
8 ozs. of grain, while an ear half an inch shorter produced 10-25 
ozs. of grain, or 2\ ozs. more than the long ear. This was due 
entirely to the depth and tveight of the individual grains. The 
cob that produced the most grain was half an inch shorter than 
the other, but it was half an inch greater in circumference, and 
weighed f oz. more. On a half-stand of only 4,200 bearing 
plants per acre this difference means an increase in yield of 3 
muids per acre in favour of the thicker cob. 

112. Need for Earlier-ripening Breeds. — An important 
point for consideration in the Transvaal and Orange Free 
State, and in the Uplands of Natal, is early maturity. On the 



INHERITANCE—IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 1 5 5 



High-veld thousands of bags of 
maize are lost each year by early 
autumn frosts. Early spring 
sowing on deeply ploughed land 
reduces the risk of loss from 
this cause, but with every pre- 
caution in that direction, there 
is still need for earlier ripening 
sorts. These could be planted 
after the last safe date for put- 
ting in the later-maturing crops 
and, in this way, the total acre- 
age for the season could be 
increased, for at best the plant- 
ing season is short in many 
parts of the High-veld. Early 
maturing sorts would also enable 
the farmer to replant in cases 
where the first crop has been 
destroyed by cutworm, etc. 

Unfortunately we find that 
early maturity is often corre- 
lated with relatively light yield. 
Within certain limits, however, 
it should be possible to correct 
this, that is to say, to increase 
the yield of the earlier maturing 
sorts, by careful breeding. 

The Transvaal Department 
of Agriculture was successful in 
introducing and acclimatizing 
several sorts which take less 
time to mature than Hickory 
King, and these are becoming 
popular with farmers. Among 
them may be mentioned Iowa 
Silver - mine, Chester County, 
Reid, and Minnesota Early. 

But the new importations 
do not meet the requirements of 




CHAP. 
V. 



Fig. 69. — Shortening the growing 
season of Hickory King ; a new 120- 
day type. (The bare tip is due to 
having given hand pollination once 
only.) 



156 MAIZE 

CHAP, all parts of the country, and it is desirable to breed earlier- 
maturing strains for particular localities and special needs. 
That it is possible to do this has been demonstrated by the 
writer, who grew a White Horsetooth which produced a ripe ear 
in 97 days, and a Hickory King which ripened in 120 days 
(Fig. 69). 

Although it is fully recognized that the heaviest yields of 
grain cannot be expected from the earliest-maturing breeds, 
early planting will, in many districts, do much towards mini- 
mizing loss from early frost, and there are many other parts 
of the country where an early maturing .sort will be welcome, 
if for nothing else than to supplement the main crop, and thus 
increase the acreage. 

113. Drought Resistance. — Although the South African 
climate is in the main admirably suited to maize-growing, there 
are districts towards the border of what we may call the Maize- 
belt, where the crops often suffer from the occurrence of droughty 
periods of perhaps twenty-one days of cloudless weather without 
rain. For such regions more drought-resistant breeds are re- 
quired than are necessary for districts of more even rainfall. 

Cultivation of many breeds, side by side, has shown a 
marked difference in constitutional ability to withstand drought. 
This difference can be made use of by breeders and emphasized. 
It is possible that great resistance to drought will be found 
correlated with lower yield, but if it enables us to produce 
even 6 muids to the acre where none could be grown before, 
it will serve a good purpose. 

114. Disease Resistance. — Undoubtedly the parasitic dis- 
eases which affect all farm crops tend to reduce the yield, 
for if they do not destroy the host plant outright, the parasites 
use up some of the food material of the host, or interfere 
with photosynthesis. An important line of improvement, 
therefore, in cases where we cannot keep the parasite in check 
by cultural methods and the use of fungicides, is to breed 
strains which will be more or less immune against attack. 

This has been successfully accomplished with some crops 
in some countries. But the problem is not always an easy 
one, and in the case of some diseases has so far failed. 

x'\ttempts were made in Java to render the maize grown 
there less subject to chlorosis (If 37 ij by crossing with teo- 



INHERirANCR—IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 5 7 



sinte {Euchlcena mexicana var. luxurians), with a view to 
adding to the maize plant the greater fertility and greater 
resistance to chlorosis of the teosinte. The results were not 
satisfactory ; the first generation of hybrids resembled teosinte 
chiefly, but were uniform and intermediate in kind, while in 
the second generation all of the original characteristics had 
disappeared and still only intermediate forms were obtained. 
In the third and fourth generations marked chlorotic symptoms 
occurred while the fruitfulness and ear characteristics were still 
intermediate {Exp. Sta. Kec, Vol. XXVI, p. 40, 191 2). 



CHAP. 
V. 




Fig. 70. — Result of weak stalk. The weakness of the stalk allowed the 
ear to fall to the ground before harvest ; the grain then germinated with the 
late rains. By breeding stouter stalks this can be avoided. 



115. Loss from Weak Stalks, Shanks, or Cobs. — The de- 
velopment of strains with exceptionally thin cobs and shanks 
sometimes results in loss. If the cob is very thin, it is apt to 
break in two before harvest, and part of the ear is lost. If the 
shank or stalk are very thin they break off with the increasing 
weight of the ear, often before the main crop is ripe ; such ears 
fall to the ground and become food for rodents, or the seed 
germinates (see Fig. 70) and is worthless. 



158 MAIZE 

CHAP. 1 16. Necessity for the Pi-odtiction of Pure Seed. — As a rule 

it is not desirable to export mixed grades of grain, such as 
mixed yellows and whites, or dents and flints. The merchant 
may not object, because he can always sell cheap maize, but 
the farmer is always paid less on the ground of mixed quality. 

We can only avoid having mixed grain to sell, by growing 
pure seed. To secure this we must plant pure seed and take 
he necessary precautions to prevent it becoming crossed. 

It is also necessary to reduce to a minimum the percentage 
of small and misshapen grains. This can be done only by 
the use of well-bred seed, combined with good cultivation. 

If a herd of dairy cows contains some poor milkers, many 
moderately good, and only a few very good ones, the yield of 
milk and consequent profit are undoubtedly less than if all of 
the herd were good milkers ; it costs as much to feed and look 
after a poor milker as a good one ; a wise dairyman therefore 
weeds out the poor animals and buys or breeds better-class 
stock. It is the same with farm crops ; investigations made 
by the writer show that even the best maize crops are usually 
very impure or heterozygous, containing many different 
strains ; the analyses of these crops, some of which are sum- 
marized in Tables XIX to XXIX, show that the different 
strains of which each so-called breed is composed, vary greatly 
in relative productiveness. This difference in yield power is 
heritable. 

A plant which gives a poor yield occupies as much soil 
surface as one which gives a heavy yield, so that it is a waste 
both of time and of money to use seed of a poor-yielding 
strain when we can grow something better, 

1 1 7. Other Desirable Points. — There are many other points 
in which the maize crop may be improved. For example, 
scientific maize-breeders have demonstrated that it is possible 
to greatly change the average chemical composition of the 
maize-grain in starch-content, protein-content, oil-content, 
amount of horny endosperm, etc., to meet special trade require- 
ments. By elaborate methods of selection and breeding, 
immense improvements have been effected in the United 
States, representing a monetary value of millions of dollars to 
the producing States, and amply repaying what at the time ap- 
peared to be very heavy expenditure for scientific investigation. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 5 9 



The following table {Hopkins, 2) shows the variation in CHAP. 
results obtained on a breeding plot at the Illinois Experi- ^- 
ment Station from seed-maize with a 7-year pedigree. 

Table XXXII. 

VARIATION IN COMPOSITION AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT EARS' 
SELECTED FOR BREEDING. 



Field Row No. 


Protein in Seed 
Ear. 


Weight of Ear Com 
in Crop. 


I 
2 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
II 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 








Per Cent. 
I2-o6 
12-17 
12-19 
12-26 
12-31 
12-40 
12-66 
12-83 
12-90 
1578 
12-93 
12-90 
12-72 
12-45 
12-32 
12-31 
12-23 
12-18 
12-07 
12-06 


Lbs. 
91-0 
86-0 
98-5 
99-5 
77-0 
1 18-0 
116-0 

54-5 
107-0 
103-0 

87-0 
127-5 
113-0 
123-5 
103-5 

92-0 

85-5 
117-0 
140-5 

97-0 


Av 


erage 




• 


12-59 


loi-g 



The protein-content varied in the parent ears from i2'o6 to 
1578 per cent and the weight of ear-maize in the crop from 
54-5 lbs. to 140-5 lbs. 

Such improvements are also needed in South Africa, and 
would help her to meet the requirements of particular markets, 
especially when she develops her own factories for the local 
manufacture of articles now imported by her. The question of 
protein-content is of especial importance to compound man- 
agers as well as to stock feeders ; it is believed that a higher 
proportion of protein would materially affect the efficiency of 
the native workers on the mines. 

1 1 8. Necessity for Development of New Breeds. — After test- 
ing in South Africa scores of the best breeds of maize grown 
in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, 



i6o MAIZE 

CHAP. Argentina, France, Italy, the Balkans, India, Australia, Egypt, 
Somaliland, Nyassaland, and all the breeds and strains com- 
mercially grown in different parts of South Africa, the writer 
has reached the conclusion that none of them gives the best 
results which it is possible to obtain under South African con- 
ditions, and that it is necessary to breed improved types which 
will meet the varying conditions of different parts of the 
country, and combine high yield with market requirements. 
A good market has been established for South African maize, 
and the country must see to it that it is kept supplied with a 
steadily increasing quantity of grain suited to its various 
demands. 

Inheritance of Characters. 

1 1 9. Fluctuations. — There are some plant-characters, such 
as relative height of stem, number of leaves, size of leaf, length 
of ear, etc., which are not stable, but are more or less in- 
fluenced by conditions of environment such as richness or 
poverty of soil, sufficiency or lack of moisture, temperature, 
and sunshine. These have been iQvmQd fluctuations , and "we 
have no valid reason for supposing that they are ever inherited " 
{Punnett, I, p. 133). Such variations have also been called 
''acquired characters". They are not to be confused with 
mere mutilations, due to borer, hail, smut, etc., which are not 
known to be transmitted. 

120. Heritable Characters. — There are other characters, 
such as colour and shape, flintness or dentness of grain, which 
are not dependent for their manifestation on the influence of 
environment. These are transmitted from parent to offspring. 
When such a character affects the vegetative part of a plant, 
as for example the height of the stem, number or breadth of 
leaves, etc., it may be difficult to tell whether it is a fluctuation 
or a heritable character, except by growing it on for one or 
two generations. 

121. Importance of a Knowledge of the Laws Governing the 
Transmission of Characters. — Improvement by scientific breed- 
ing must depend on a knowledge of the laws and methods of 
the transmission of characters from parent to offspring, inas- 
much as such knowledge will (l) prevent the selection of 
parents unfitted to produce definite desired results ; and (2) 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO FEME NT B Y BREEDING 1 6 1 

enable us to "fix" a new type when we get it. "Choose CHAP, 
your parents" is the axiom of the successful breeder. It is ^• 
true that considerable success has in the past been achieved 
by empirical mating ; but it does not advance the farmer far, 
and at best it is but a slow, risky, and expensive means of 
attaining the desired end. 

The fact that maize is the basis of the agricultural wealth 
of a large country makes it eminently desirable that every fact 
about the inheritance of its characters should be learned as 
soon as possible. " It is only through the application of such 
knowledge that the present arbitrary and, in a way, unscientific 
methods of its improvement as an economic crop will be placed 
upon a definite and orderly basis" {East and Hayes, i). 

Certain phases of the question of inheritance are of definite 
practical agricultural interest, as, for instance, the possibility 
of increasing the yield of a farm crop. Other phases which 
are the subject of investigation by students of genetics may 
seem, on the surface, to be of less importance, or to have no 
bearing at all on practical problems. But it should be borne 
in mind that all problems in genetics, even though they appear 
to be of scientific interest solely, bring us nearer to the com- 
plete understanding of the transmission of those characters in 
our live stock as well as in our various crops, which are of 
definite importance from the financial point of view. 

12 2. Inheritance of Characters in Maise follows Mendelian 
Law. — Different students and writers have shown from time 
to time that the maize plant behaves in accordance with Mendel's 
latvs of the inheritance of characters. As the result of extended 
investigation by East and Hayes (i), these authors conclude 
that in the behaviour of the maize plant there is no conclusive 
evidence of (i) failure of segregation of the male gametes ; (2) 
selective fertilization ; and (3) partial gametic coupling ; and 
that aberrant ratios such as have occasionally been reported 
(e.g. Correns, 3) may be due to modification by other unknown 
characters possessed by the parents. 

" When Mendel's Law of Heredity was rediscovered in 
1900, it was the general belief that it covered only a few 
isolated cases. Many apparent exceptions were cited. One 
by one, however, these exceptions have been found to yield 
to interpretation by simple extensions of the Mendelian nota- 
II 



1 62 MAIZE 

:hap. tion when fully understood. /;/ our experience, as reported 
^- here, no exceptions to Mendelian interpretation have been found. 
Such exceptions may exist, yet it seems as unwise to say that 
Mendel's Law is not general as to conclude at once that it 
can be made to cover every possible case. One may say that 
Mendel's Law has covered so many cases that its generality is 
rendered highly probable, although insufficient genetic investi- 
gation has been accomplished to place it on equal terms with 
any of the great laws of physics and chemistry. Yet some of 
the great laws of chemistry were accepted when surrounded 
by seeming exceptions. Some of these e.xceptions have been 
cleared up by such recent advances as the Ionic Theory and 
the Phase Rule ; some still remain. 

" Is it not probable that other like generalities will be 
found in biology, which, although they may entirely change 
our general conception of the fundamental action of Mendel's 
Laws, will nevertheless leave the facts upon which it was 
based as useful and practicable as have been left the facts of 
chemical recombination in definite and multiple proportions, in 
the light of the Electron Theory" {East and Hayes, \). 

123. Reproduction and Transmission of Characters. — As 
already explained (''^ 74, ']'], and 78) the higher types 
of plants, like animals, bear male and female organs of 
reproduction, and the formation of a new maize plant 
depends on the fertilization of a female cell by a male 
cell. Reproduction is effected by the union of the nucleus 
of the pollen grain (II 'j'^') of the male flower with the nucleus 
of the egg-cell in the ovule of the female flower. These .sexual 
cells, viz., the pollen grain and the egg-cell, are known as 
gametes or " marrying cells ". By the fusion of the nuclei of 
the gametes a new cell is formed, known as the zygote. The 
zygote gives rise — by repeated cell-division, called somatic 
division — to the complete adult plant, bearing new germ-cells, 
which subsequently ripen into gametes, thus completing the 
life-cycle of the plant. 

Since the gametes are the only connecting link between 
successive generations, each gamete carries the power of repro- 
ducing the parental characters. If the parents are alike, and 
are pure-bred {^ 125), the progeny will be like them. Selection 
in breeding is based on the principle that union betzveen two of 
a kind produces the same kind, provided the strain is pure. 



INHERITANCE—IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 163 
When we plant seed of Hickory King maize we expect CHAP. 



to harvest a crop of white Hickory King, and when we plant 
seed of Yellow Horsetooth we expect to harvest Yellow Horse- 
tooth grain ; in other words, we recognize that in plants, as in 
animals, certain characters are inherited from the parent and 
again transmitted to the offspring, from generation to genera- 
tion. This is such a general rule that it is the exceptions to it 
which cause remark. 

124. Mechanism of I'ransmission. — Although it is the 
gamete which carries the power of reproducing the parental 
characters, it is not yet known what part of the cell mechanism 
actually takes part in the process. As it is the nuclei of the 
two cells which unite in fertilization, they must be associated 
with the process of transmission. It has been suggested fre- 
quently that the chromosomes of the nucleus are the actual 
conveyors of the separate characters, but many botanists and 
geneticists see objections, apparently insurmountable, to the 
"chromosome theory" as it has been called, and the subject 
is still one of investigation. In the case of maize the small 
size of its chromosomes makes their study difficult, and little is 
known about them. 

125. l^he Zygote.- — ^The term zygote was originally applied 
to the single cell produced by the union of two gametes (If 123). 
But since this cell, by growth through somatic division (if 123), 
develops into a complete plant bearing the characters of the 
original zygote, the term is often extended to the plant de- 
veloping from that zygote. 

As the zygote may be derived either from gametes which 
are alike as regards contained characters, or from gametes 
which are dissimilar, they may be either pure-bred or cross- 
bred. The pure-bred zygote, formed by the union of two 
similar gametes, is called a homozygote ; that derived from the 
union of dissimilar gametes is called a heterozygote. 

126. The Homozygote. — The homozygote is the progeny of 
parents similar in character, it is therefore like them as regards 
those characters which are common to the two parents, and 
its progeny are also like them and continue to breed true. 

It is probable that, strictly speaking, there is no such thing 
as a regularly domesticated plant which is homozygous (i.e. 
pure-bred) for all its characters. We usually use the term with 



V. 



164 



MAIZE 



CHAP, reference to the most striking or important characters, and speak 
^- of a plant as being homozygous for this or for that character. 

1 27. The Heterozygote. — The 
heterozygote is formed by the 
union of gametes bearing the two 
characters of an allelomorphic pair 
(IT 129). It is the progeny of 
parents which are dissimilar in 
some, or all, characters, and may 
be either exactly like one parent, 
or may have derived some visible 
characters from each parent, in 
which case it will not be exactly 
like either, i.e. in all its main 
characters. 

The progeny of a heterozygote 
are unlike ; some are more or less 
like one, and some like the other 
parent, while some are unlike either. 

128. Unit-Characters. — We 
learned from the preceding chapter 
that in maize the two gametes or 
sexual cells, which unite to form 
a zygote, often come from separate 
plants. These two plants may 
belong to different breeds, having 
different characters. We know 
from experience that if a white 
dent breed is fertilized with pollen 
from an ordinary pure-bred yellow 
dent breed, the resulting grain 
(i.e. of the first generation) will be 
yellow dent, but that in the fol- 
lowing generation some grains on 
one and the same ear will be white 
and some yellow ; or that if we 
cross a sugar breed, having wrinkled 
breed having rounded grain, the 

That this is due not 




Fig. 71. — A heterozygous 
ear of the Fg seed generation of 
a cross between black wrinkled 
and white dent (IF 127). 



grain, with pollen of a flint 

resulting grain will be round and flinty 

merely to what has sometimes been called " prepotency of the 



IN HP. RITA NCE—IMPRO VEMENT /.' J ' B REEDING 1 6 5 

male parent," is shown by the fact that if the process is re- CHAP, 
versed, i.e. if we make the recipjvcal cross by taking the pollen ^" 
from the wrinkled sugar-maize, this being then the male 




C 


P 



Fig. 72. — Dominance ot one character from each parent, after crossing. 
A and B, parental ears of Arcadia Sugar-maize. A, White Flint ; B, Black Sugar ; 
C, Black Flint (Fj seed generation from cross A 5 x B ^^). 



parent, the result is just the same as in the case of the direct 
cross, i.e. the resulting (the first or FJ grain is round and 



i66 



.\fAlXP. 



CHAP 
V. 




Fig. 73. — Seg^regation of characters 
in the F„ seed generation. If the sepa- 
rate grains are planted and seifed they 
produce the nine types shown in the 
three following figures. 



flinty. In the following (i.e. 
the second or Fg) generation of 
either the direct or the recip- 
rocal cross, however, some 
grain is wrinkled and some, 
on the same ear, is round and 
flinty. 

If, as a matter of further ex- 
periment, we cross a pure white 
flint breed (Fig. 72A) with a 
pure-bred black wrinkled breed 
(Fig. 72B), the result is still 
more interesting and instruc- 
ti\e. In the first seed gene- 
ration all the grains are black 
flints (Fig. 72c). But in the 
second seed generation four 
kinds of grain occur on the 
same ear (Fig. 73); two of 
them are like those of the two 
grandparents (i.e. the original 
parents used in the cross), and 
two (a black flint and a white 
xvrinkled) different from either 
grandparent. It is evident, 
therefore, that the characters 
we have been studying in this 
case, i.e. blackness and wrin- 
kledness, whiteness and flint- 
ness, may be segregated or 
separated from each other b\- 
crossing, and either trans- 
mitted independently (or 
re-united) as separate and in- 
dependent units ; they are, 
therefore, called unit-charac- 
ters. The individual character 
of any species of animal or 
plant is made up of 7nany 
separate unit-characters, and 



INHERITANCE^ IMP/^i ) VEMENT B Y BREED INC 1 6 7 

the difference between races, breeds, varieties, or species CHAP, 
depends on the presence or absence of one or more such ^• 
characters. 

" The demonstration that there exist definite and separable 




Fia. 74. — Segregation of characters in the F. seed generation ; A, B, and 
C, all-black ears. 



1 68 MAIZE 

CHAP, unit-characters ... is the first great debt that science owes 
^- to Mendel " {Lock, i ). 

Segregation of unit-characters derived from the union of 
two dissimilar gametes cannot take place in the first (Fj) 
generation because only one zygote is formed by the union of 
two gametes. However if the gametes are dissimilar, the 
zygote is heterozygous, and in the second (F.,) generation, 
segregation of unit-characters does take place among the 
many newly-formed gametes of the heterozygote. 

Segregation of unit-characters takes place prior to the 
separation of the two germinal nuclei in the pollen tube (IF 78), 
since the two germinal nuclei of any pollen grain always bear 
the same allelomorph (II 129) {Lock, i, p. 121). 

The completeness of the segregation may be still further 
demonstrated by planting all of the grains from the Fg ear 
and selfing each plant. The progeny (the F'g seed generation, 
borne on the F.^ plant generation) will, if there are enough of 
them, consist of nine distinct types of ear (F"igs. 74, 75, and 
76) as follows : — 

{a) The white wrinkled grains produce only white wrinkled 
(F'ig. 76G) ; they are therefore recessive (IF 129) both for white- 
ness and for wrinkledness, and will breed true. These are 
called extracted recessives. 

(h) The white flints will produce tivo sorts of ear: (i) a 
few ears bearing all white flint grains (Fig. 76 I) some of 
which will probably breed true in the following generation ; 
if they do, they will be pure dominants (II 129), called extracted 
dominants ; and (2) more ears producing both white flint 
and white wrinkled grains (Fig. 76H) approximately in the 
proportion of 75 per cent of the former and 25 per cent of 
the latter, or 3 to i. 

{c) The black wrinkled grains will produce two sorts of 
ear : (i) with all black wrinkled grains (Fig. 74C) some of which 
will probably breed true in the following generation, in which 
case they will be pure dominants, also called extracted domin- 
ants. (2) Some ears will be borne which produce both black 
and white wrinkled grains (Fig. 75F), in the proportion of 
75 per cent of the former to 25 per cent of the latter. 

{d) The black flints will prodncQ four types of ear: (i) 
ears like the parent ear, carrying black flint, black wrinkled, 



iNHRRITANCR—iMPRO V EM KMT /.' Y BREEDING 1 69 

white flint, and white wrinkled grains (Fig. 75E); (2) ears CHAP. 
with black flint and white flint grains (Fig. 75D) ; (3) ears ^* 




f T iWi B ^g tlltlllf1m<> 

E 



1 




% 




F 



Fig. 75.— Segregation of characters in the F3 seed generation ; D, E, and 
F, black-and-white ears. 



with black flint and black sugar grains (Fig. 74B) ; and (4) a few 
all-black flint ears (Fig. 74A) ; a few of these latter may breed 
true, being pure dominants for both blackness and flintness. 



I7C3 



MAtZE 



CHAP. 129. Alleloinorphic Pairs of Unit-characters. — A plant 

either possesses a particular unit-character or does not possess 
it; it is either tall, or it is not tall, its grain is either blue or it 




Fir,. 76. — Segregation of characters in the R; 
I, all-white ears. 



seed generation ; G, H, and 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING i ^ t 
is not blue. If it is not blue, it may be white, cream, or some CHAP, 



other colour; if it is not tall, it may be short or medium- 
sized. These facts have led to the concept of pairs of opposite 
unit-characters, known as allelomorphic pairs, either one, but 
not both of which, can be present in any gamete. Any one 
allelomorphic pair consists only of its two allelomorphs, i.e. 
characters which will not unite in the same gamete ; but a 
gamete may include any number of characters which are not 
allelomorphic, i.e. not opposed to one another. The zygote, on 
the other hand, can carry both, since it is composed of two 
gametes each of which may contain either one of the two 
allelomorphs. But where each of the two parents possesses 
the opposite one of an allelomorphic pair of characters (e.g. 
blackness and absence of blackness), both of these allelomorphs 
cannot appear in the F, heterozygote with the same strength 
with which they appear ,in the parents ; it is found that one of 
the two unit-characters (ai/ze/^jj appears (Fig. 72c) to the ex- 
clusion of the other, e.g. when we crossed yellow- and white- 
grained types of maize the resulting grain was yellow. 

The one unit-character which appears in the first filial (F,) 
generation is called dominant, because when present it masks 
the other ; the other is called recessive because it always re- 
cedes, or gives place to the dominant, when the latter is 
present. Bateson (i) has pointed out that dominance of cer- 
tain characters is often an important but never an essential 
feature of Mendelian heredity ; it is only a subordinate incident 
of special cases. 

We sometimes meet with cases in which two colours ap- 
pear to merge in the Fj progeny, e.g. when blue- and yellow- 
grained breeds of maize are crossed together, the result is 
green ; this latter is probably not a case of " incomplete 
dominance," but the temporary merging of two dominants 
belonging to different allelomorphic pairs. 

From the examples cited in preceding paragraphs we 
learn that : {a) the characters of both parents are transmitted 
to the offspring, even though the two parents are very dis- 
similar ; (/;) if the parents are dissimilar their immediate 
progeny cannot be like each of them in all particulars ; ^ 

' Other experiments show that this also holds true when two similar parents 
are mated, if they are heterozygous (^ 127), i.e. themselves the progeny of dis 
similar parents. 



V. 



172 MAtZR 

CHAP, {c) that where unit-characters are opposed to each other, i.e. 



belong to an allelomorphic pair, only one of them appears in 
the immediate progeny ; this does not mean that the two 
merge, for they segregate again in the second generation ; 
id) that parents markedly differing from each other in characters 
which are not allelomorphic, will, if mated, produce in the 
second generation offspring in which these characters will be 
united in combinations differing from those of either parent. 

Cross-breeding is based on the principle that the union 
between two di.ssimilar plants or animals vvill produce some- 
thing dissimilar to either, though combining some of the 
characters of each, as in the case of the black flint maize 
produced by crossing a black wrinkled with a white flint, de- 
scribed in IT 128. 

" The complete segregation of the two allelomorphs in 
equal numbers of the germ cells of a heterozygote constitutes 
the first and most important section of the generalization 
known as Mendel's Law. The second part of the law refers to 
the fact that, as a general rule, separate pairs of allelomorphs 
segregate quite independently of one another" {Lock, i). In 
other words, the gametes formed by a heterozygote contain 
in equal numbers the pure parental allelomorphs completely 
separated from one another ; and if the cross-bred plant is 
heterozygous in respect of more than one pair of allelomorphs, 
then all possible combinations of these allelomorphs occur in 
equal numbers of gametes.^ 

1 30. Dominant and Recessive Allelomorphs. — The following 
characters in maize have been found to behave as Mendelian 
dominants and recessives respectively : — 

Dominant : Recessive : 

Starchiness of endosperm. Wrinkled (i.e. non-starchy) endo- 

sperm. 
Flintness of endosperm." Dentness of endosperm. 

Colour of endosperm (e.g. yellow,-' Absence of colour; in a starch}' 
red, purple, or black). grain this shows as white ; a non- 

1 But allowance should be made for such exceptions as occur in the case of 
coupling and repulsion of characters (H 132). 

-In some cases observed by the writer ; East and Hayes illustrate cases in 
which the Fj grains were intermediate in character, and in the F.^ the flint was 
recessive in proportions indicating a dihybrid composition. 

■'• There is a second yellow endosperm character which behaves as though its 
appearance were dependent on the presence of a factor for colour ; in the absence 
of this second factor the endosperm is white. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 1 7 3 



Dominant : 




Recessive : 


CHAP. 






starchy grain becomes trans- 
lucent and horn - coloured or 


V. 


lent of "pods" 


around 


creamy. 
Nakedness of grain. 





the gram. 

Red colour of cob. Absence of.red, i.e. white. 

Red silk. Greenish white silks with or with- 

out red hairs, and white silks. 

Red pericarp. Colourless pericarp. 

Green leaves. "White" leaves, i.e. absence of 

chlorophyll. In this case the 
heterozygous plants have striped 
leaves.^ 

Tendency of the ear to split at the Normal type of ear. 
base into 2-rowed sections. 

Fasciation of the ear. Normal shape of ear. 

Presence of ligule and auricles. Absence of ligule and auricles. 

131. Interaction of Unit-characters. — In some cases we find 
that a dominant character is present, although it does not 
appear; to such cases the term "imperfect dominance" has 
sometimes been given, because it has been thought that they 
were cases in which the so-called " Law of Dominance" did 
not apply. It has been found, however, in several instances 
that the failure of the dominant character to appear is due to 
the absence or presence of some other factor on which its 
appearance or non-appearance depends. The phenomenon is 
known to occur in sweet-peas and other plants, and also 
among animals. 

The character of flintness is present in some breeds of 
sugar-maize, but is unable to appear owing to the absence of 
white starch in the endosperm. In some breeds of maize two 
kinds of yellow colour are present in the endosperm ; one of 
these depends for its appearance on the presence of a factor 
(C) for colour, though what this factor is, is not yet known ; 
the result in this case is that by crossing two whites we obtain 
a yellow if each of the parents carries one of the requisite 
factors ; this has sometimes led to the supposition that a 
dominant white was present (i.e., that the yellow colour was 
recessive). That this is not really the case is demonstrable, 
for by adding the factor for colour the two together are domi- 
nant over white. 

' East and Hayes observe that several races exist in which the striping ig 
apparently homozygous and the race breeds true. 



74 



MAIZE 



:hap. 

V. 



East and Hayes have shown that two white breeds of 
maize (Pc and pC), which show not the slightest trace of 
colour, may bring together the two factors F and C necessary 
for the full development of purple colour. They also refer to 
cases in which, owing to the presence of a certain factor, the 
red or purple colour of the aleurone layer is inhibited from 
appearing. Such cases are different from mere absence of the 
colour, for the colour factor is present even though not visible. 
The following results are obtainable by crossing between an 
allelomorphic pair where such an inhibiting factor is con- 
cerned : — 



Male Parent. 


Inhibiting Factor 
Female Parent. (Present P or 
Absent A). 


Fi Seed. 


Purple 
Purple 
White 
White 


White i A 
White P 
Purple A 
Purple P 


Purple 
White 
Purple 
White 



132. Repulsion and Coupling of Characters. — This subject 
is too complex to be discussed, at length here, and we can- 
not do better than quote a few extracts from Professor Punnett 
(i, pp. 81-8). "A few cases have been worked out," he says, 
" in which the distribution of the different factors, to the 
gametes, is affected by their simultaneous presence in the 
zygote. And the influence which they are able to exert upon 
one another in such cases is of two kinds. They may repel 
one another, refusing, as it were, to enter into the same gamete ; 
or they may attract one another, and, becoming linked to- 
gether, pass into the same gamete, as it were, by preference." 
In the cases of repulsion cited by him, " the original cross was 
such as to introduce one of the repelling factors with each of the 
two parents''. But ''when both of the factors are brought into 
the cross by the same parent, we get coupling between them instead 
of repulsion. The phenomena of repulsion and coupling be- 
tween separate factors are intimately related, though hitherto 
we have not been able to decide why this should be so. Nor 
for the present can we suggest why certain factors should be 
linked together in the peculiar way that we have reason* to 
suppose that they are during the process of the formation of 



IN HE RITA NCE- IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 1 7 5 
the gametes. Nevertheless the phenomena are very definite, CHAP, 



and it is not unlikely that a further study of them may throw 
important light on the architecture of the living cell." 

East and Hayes report a case in which perfect coupling 
occurred between red cobs and red pericarp colour in their 
Rj red (If 144), and another case in which the red pericarp colour 
of R3 (U 144) was completely coupled with red silks; "Coup- 
ling is proved by the fact that red silks occur ivithout red 
pericarp in other combinations". Emerson has reported (cf 
East and Hayes, i) cases in which certain red colours of maize 
are absolutely coupled in their inheritance, while in other cases 
spurious allelomorphism occurs. 

133. Xenia. — When an ear of pure-bred white-grained 
maize is crossed with pollen of a pure-bred yellow-grained 
breed, the resulting grain is yellow, and the same result is 
obtained with the reciprocal cross. As this is the F^ seed 
generation, and as all the cross-bred grains are yellow, this is 
not a case of segregation of a unit-character (^ 128), but is the 
visible effect of the second male nucleus on the endosperm ; it 
is called xenia. The term was originally proposed by Focke 
(i) to express the supposed influence of foreign pollen on 
maternal tissue. But Guignard (i) and Nawaschin (i) found 
that the endosperm is in reality a part of the filial generation, 
formed by the development of the endosperm nucleus after 
fusion with the second male nucleus of the pollen cell ; this 
disposed of the only authentic examples of xenia as originally 
defined, and there is no further reason to use the word in that 
sense. But as the phenomena remain the same, the term is 
still used to express them. 

Xenia, in the modified sense of the word, affects not only 
the colour, but also the chemical composition, of the endo- 
sperm ; if wrinkled sugar maize is crossed with pollen of a 
starchy breed, the resulting grain is starchy (whether flint or 
dent). East and Hayes (i) find that when a flint (starchy) 
breed is crossed with a dent breed (arlso starchy) the resulting 
grain is intermediate, i.e. partial xenia shows in that the re- 
sulting grain may carry a slight, though often almost indis- 
tinguishable, crease. 

It will be noticed that in the cases cited it is the dominant 
factor, whether carried by the male or the female parent, 



176 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



which behaves as xenia ; the reciprocal cross, in which the 
r^f:^j-j-/W allelomorph is brought in by the other parent, whether 
male or female, does not materially alter the endosperm. 
Xenia is therefore not due to the influence of sex, but is the 
immediate manifestation of the dominant character, in the 
Fj seed. 

Correns (i), Webber (2), and East and Hayes (i) observed 
several cases in which xenia occurred in only one half of the 
endosperm. The last two authors suggest that these rare 
phenomena are probably similar in nature to the gynandro- 
morphs occurring in insects. They report having grown a 
number of them to see if the tendency was inherited, but with- 
out positive results. The present writer has met with a few 




Fig. 77. — Grain showing part starchy and part wrinkled cliaracters. 

cases in which both the starchy and the wrinkled characters 
appeared side by side in the same grain (Fig. yj). These 
occurred on heterozygous Y.i ears, and it was therefore not 
possible to say definitely that they were due to xenia, but 
this seems to be the most probable explanation of the 
phenomenon. 

Experiments by East and Hayes confirm the observation 
of Correns that in every case where xenia may be expected to 
occur, the seeds showing xenia were always hybrids. This 
fact was assumed to prove that the second male nucleus (II 78) 
always bears the same characters as the one that fuses with the 
egg-cell to form the embryo, and that for this reason Mendelian 
segregation of the gametes must have occurred previous to the 
division of the pollen nucleus. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT R Y R REEDING 1 7 7 
It is clear that when a female flower carrying a dominant CHAP. 



character such as flintness, or colour of the endosperm, is 
crossed with pollen from a breed carrying the recessive allelo- 
morph, it may be impossible to detect that a cross has taken 
place. 

There are cases, however, in which the recessive allelomorph 
does modify the dominant, behaving as xenia. In some breeds 
of dent maize, where there is a large area of crown starch (see 
chapter XIII. ^r 608), the yellow when crossedwith white becomes 
somewhat lighter, xenia appearing as a cap of lighter colour 
than the homozygous yellow. In some breeds, e.g. Chester 
County, the modification of colour varies in degree ; some 
grains have a distinct white cap, others are quite unchanged, 
and among the remainder numerous intermediate shades 
occur (Fig. 78B). Where the crown starch is plentiful in the 
white-grained female parent, xenia may only affect the body 
of the grain, leaving the white crown-starch unchanged 
(Fig. 78A). 

When yellow-grained breeds of flour corn (var. amylacea) 
are crossed with pollen of white-grained breeds of the same 
variety, the lighter colour of the heterozygote is not confined 
to the cap, but extends throughout the endosperm. " In this 
case difference in colour is always great enough to be noticed 
by a careful observer, in either cross" {East and Hayes, i). 

In the flint and pop varieties, having corneous endosperm, 
colour occurs as xenia, as a rule, only when the female parent 
carries the recessive character. But even here, East and Hayes 
have found exceptional cases in which a few heterozygous 
yellows were distinguishable from homozygous yellows when 
the female parent bore the dominant character. 

Both red and purple colour of the aleurone layer are com- 
pletely dominant, and xenia occurs only when they are trans- 
mitted by the male parent. 

Fast and Hayes also find that in the case of Pc or pC, 
as described in U 131, purple appears as xenia when 
either of them is the female parent. The writer has found 
what appears to be a similar case, in the second (i.e. paler) 
yellow colour which occurs in some breeds of maize, but fur- 
ther evidence is required to demonstrate the actual facts of the 



V. 



78 



MAIZE 




Fig. 78. — Xenia. A, effect of " yellow " pollen on white Hickory King (the 
yellow colour is indicated by the dark shade in the sulci), B, effect of " white " 
pollen on yellow Chester County. 



INHERirANCE—IMPRO VEAIENT R Y R REEDING i 79 
When a purple is crossed with white, the resulting grain CHAP. 



may be white. Xenia results when an inhibiting factor (1[ 131) 
occurs to prevent the appearance of colour. East and Hayes's 
explanation of this phenomenon shows that it does not, as 
has been suggested, indicate dominance of whiteness. These 
authors also found cases in which the purple is not fully in- 
hibited, and then a light purple results, whichever parent 
carries the colour. 

Our knowledge of xenia in maize may be summarized as 
follows : — 

(i) When the parents of a heterozygote differ in a si?ig/e 
visible endosperm character in which dominance is complete, the 
pollen only produces xenia tvhen it carries the dominant allelo- 
morph. 

(2) When the parents differ in a single visible endosperm 
character in which dominance is incomplete, the pollen produces 
a modifying effect on the visible strength of the dominant allelo- 
morph. 

(3) When each parent carries one of two characters the union 
of both of which is necessary to render the other visible, the pollen 
also produces xenia when it carries the factor necessary to render 
visible the dominant allelomorph borne by the female parent. 

(4) When the pollen parent bears the recessive allelomorph, 
full xenia does not result, though in some cases a partial effect 

may be produced. 

Xenia does not appear to affect the shape or size of the 
grain, as these are plant characters; in crosses between two 
dent breeds of the same colour, but which differ in shape and 
size of grain, no difference has been detected in the first ear 
produced. 

From the foregoing it is clear that though xenia, i.e. the 
effect of pollen on the Fj seed generation, may in some cases 
be useful as an indication that crossing has taken place, the 
absence of xenia cannot be relied upon to indicate that crossing 
has not taken place ; in many cases, therefore, the hand-picking 
of seed-grain is useless as a means of entirely eliminating the 
effect of crossing. 

1 34. Splashed Purple Colour of Aleurone Layer. — The cause 
of the occurrence of splashed purple colour in the aleurone 
layer has long been a subject of speculation and investigation. 



V. 



I So MAIZE 

CHAP, and various theories have been proposed to account for it. 
^- Webber (i) thought that it might be due to mosaic develop- 
ment of cell descendants of the endosperm nucleus and of the 
second male nucleus. East and Hayes, on the other hand, 
attribute it to incomplete dominance caused by other factors, 
arguing that if it were due to mosaic development the .same 
cause would act in the case of heterozygous yellow endosperm, 
whereas " such cases have never been reported ". 

135. Gametic Segregation.— T^xt. heterozygous maize plant 
obtained by the crossing of male and female gametes produces 
flowers, and these develop new gametes, approximately 1 ,000 
female (egg-cells) and several thousand times as many male 
(pollen grains). The new gametes are formed by the division 
of a primitive cell into pairs of daughter cells; this process is 
constantly repeated till the requisite number is reached. 

In this cell-division for the formation of new gametes, 
the constituent dominant and recessive characters of any one 
allelomorphic pair (such as yellowness and absence of yellow- 
ness) both of which were present in the heterozygous mother 
cell, do not pass into the daughter cells in combination, but 
the dominant passes into one gamete (e.g. either a pollen 
grain or an egg-cell) and the recessive into the other (e.g. 
either an egg-cell or a pollen grain), so that each gamete con- 
tains only one of an allelomorphic pair of characters, i.e. it is 
pure for that character. 

As regards any one allelomorphic pair of characters, e.g. 
yellowness and absence of yellowness, a heterozygous plant 
produces gametes of only two kinds, dominant (yellow) and 
recessive (non-yellow) and produces them in equal numbers ; 
thus the heterozygous maize plant would produce approxi- 
mately 500 ovules carrying the dominant, and 500 the recessive 
character, while of its pollen grains one half (say a million) 
would contain the dominant and an equal number the recessive. 
But we find that a heterozygous parent does not produce an 
equal number of dominants and recessives ; instead we get 
for every three showing the dominant only one showing the 
recessive character. Let us see why this is. 

1 36. The Reasoji for Segregation in Definite Mathematical 
Ratios. — We have seen that half of the pollen grains of a 
heterozygote contain the dominant character and half the 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 8 1 

recessive (IT 135), and that the same applies to the ovules. CHAP. 
The chances are therefore equal that if the heterozygote 
is self-pollinated, as much pollen containing the dominant 
character will fall on "dominant" silks as pollen contain- 
ing the recessive character falls on "recessive" silks, the 
result being progeny homozygous for the dominant and for 
the recessive characters respectively. But there is equal pro- 
bability that some pollen with the dominant character will 
fertilize ovules bearing the recessive character, and vice versa, 
the net result being the same in either case, i.e., the production 



Black. White. 



Pi Zygotes 



(m) (■>»<-(□) (□) Pi Gametes^ 



First parental generation. 



Fj Zygote 



F„ 
( heterozygous, Zygotes. 

■ but black because 
(black is dominant. 



(SH 



(gHf 



(B)-- 



produces 


H 






produces 


1 1 






produces 


CZD 






produces 





homozygous black. 



(heterozygous, but black 
1 because black is dominant. 



( heterozygous, but black 
I because black is dommant. 



homozygous white. 



F"iG. 79. — Diagram to illustrate segregation of characters. 

of a new heterozygote. Thus the chances are equal whether 
the progeny will be heterozygous or homozygous. In practice 
we find that about 50 per cent of the progeny of a heterozygote 
are also heterozygous (if the total number is sufficiently large) ; 
the other 50 per cent are homozygous, one half of them being 
like the dominant grandparent and the other half like the 
recessive grandparent. But as all the heterozygotes contain 
the factor which is dominant, and as the essential feature of 
dominance is that it masks the presence of the recessive, we 



1 82 MAIZE 

CHAP, find all of the heterozygotes (i.e. 50 per cent of the total) as 

^- well as half of the homozygotes (i.e. an additional 25 per cent 

of the total, making 75 per cent in all), showing the dotninatit 

character. This explains why we get three dominants to one 

recessive in the F^ generation. This is illustrated in Fig. 79. 

This is known as a inonohybrid ratio because only one 
pair of allelomorphs is concerned. 

The occurrence of definite mathematical ratios is a useful 
guide in the breeding of animals and plants, as it indicates the 
dominant and recessive factors, respectively, and which of the 
progeny of a heterozygote will breed true. 

1 37. The Monohybrid Ratio. — The notation usually adopted 
to indicate this ratio is i : 2 : i or 25 : 50 : 25 per cent, which 
indicates that there is i dominant homozygote to 2 hetero- 
zygotes and I recessive homozygote ; it is often referred to 
as the 3 : i ratio, because there are three zygotes in which the 
dominant character is visible, to one in which it is absent. 
This ratio is due to the fact that where only one allelomorphic 
pair (Aa ^) is concerned in the cross, there are only four 
possible zygotic combinations of the characters involved, i.e. 
A A, Aa, a A, and aa. 

If, instead of selfing the heterozygote Aa it is re-crossed 
with either of the homozygous parental types (AA or aa) we 
naturally get a different ratio, for the homozygous parent 
carries only one of each of the allelomorphs ; if Aa is crossed 
with AA for instance, it produces AA and aA in equal propor- 
tions ; or 50 per cent homozygous for the dominant character, 
and 50 per cent heterozygous. Or if Aa is crossed with aa it 
produces Aa and aa in equal proportions ; or 50 per cent 
heterozygous, and 50 per cent homozygous for the recessive 
character. 

1 38. Dihybrid Ratios. — -Where, however, two allelomorphic 
pairs (e.g. Aa and Bb) enter into the cross, there will be six- 
teen possible combinations of their four allelomorphs. When 
gametic segregation takes place in the heterozygote AaBb, 
the chances of B being distributed to a gamete containing A, 
or a, are equal ; hence the gametes containing B will be of two 
sorts, AB and aB ; so, also, the gametes without B will be of 
two sorts bA and ba, and these will be produced in equal 

I A convenient notation, A ~ the dominant ; a, the recessive allelomorph. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 183 
imbers. The heterozygous plant therefore gives rise to chap. 



ovules comprising equal numbers of gametes of the four dif- 
ferent types AB, Ab, aB, and ab, and also to pollen grains 
comprising the same four types. When the heterozygous 
plant is .self-pollinated, an ovule of any one of these four types 
has an equal chance of fertilization by a pollen grain con- 
taining any one of these four types. The result is mechanic- 
ally demonstrable by the " chess-board " method of plotting, 
as shown in Table XXXIII. Each of the four terms AB, Ab, 
aB, and ab of the gametic series, is first written four times 
horizontally across the table, from left to right ; it is then 
written four times vertically, from top to bottom, care being 
taken to follow the same order. In this simple mechanical 
way all the possible combinations are represented, and in their 
proper proportions. 

The following are the possible combinations in which the 
gametes would segregate in a dihybrid : — 

Table XXXIII. 

DISTRIBUTION OF GAMETES IN A DIHYBRID. 

(AB (AB (AB fAB 

JAB JAb jaB jab 

(Ab (Ab (Ab (Ab 

(AB (Ab laB |ab 

(aB (aB (aB (aB 

(AB lAb laB (ab 

(ab (ab (ab ( ab 

(AB |Ab "laB lab 

Siimmayy : 

AABB = I AB 

AABb + AAbB = 2 ABb 

AAbb = I Ab 

AaBB + aABB = 2 AaB 
AaBb + AabB + aABb + aAbB = 4 AaBb 

Aabb + a Abb = 2 Aabb 



V. 



= I aB 

aaBb + aabB = 2 aBb 

aabb = i ab 

Thus there are nine cases in which both dominants (A and 
B) meet; three contain the dominant A, without B; three 
contain B without A, and one carries the two recessives a and 
d, without either dominant. This gives the ratio: — 

9:3:3:1: 
or 56-25 : 1875 : 1875 • 6*25 per cent. 



1 84 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



When this ratio is met with in a heterozygous family, we 
conclude that we are dealing with a dihyhrid. 

The following example of a dihybrid cross (ear 1,157) 
between a white wrinkled and a red starchy maize is taken at 
random from among the writer's records : — 

Table XXXIV. 

ANALYSIS OF A DIHYBRID CROSS BETWEEN WHITE WRINKLED 
AND RED STARCHY MAIZE. 





Starchy. 


Wrinkled. 


Total. 


Red. 


White. 


Red. 


White. 


Total 

Average per row . 

Per cent .... 

Mendel ian expectation 


15 
16 
18 

17 
16 

19 
19 
14 

;^ 

19 
17 


7 
6 
3 
9 
8 
4 
4 
9 
7 
5 
4 
7 


7 
10 
8 
4 
4 
4 
6 

5 

I 

7 
4 


2 

I 

3 

I 
4 
4 
3 
2 
I 
2 

3 


31 
33 
32 
31 
32 
31 
32 
30 
29 
31 
30 
31 


202 
17 

54-16 
56-25 


73 
6 
19-57 

18-75 


72 
6 

19-30 
18-75 


26 
2 

6-97 
6-25 


373 
31 



139. Trihybrid Ratios. — Crosses are met with in which a 
third factor, which we may designate as C, has an influence on 
the second factor B, so that when the two meet they produce 
colour, but when either is absent, the appearance is the same 
as though neither was present. In such cases we get the 
ratio 48 : 9 : 7. By growing on the seven recessives we find 
that they are not homozygous, but consist of 3 B, 3 C and 
I abc, the latter only (i.e. ^V of ^H) a pure recessive ; the 
actual ratio is therefore : — 

48 : 9:6:1 



75 : 14-0625 : 9-375 •■ 1-5625 per cent. 

When three allelomorphic pairs (e.g. Aa, Bb, and Cc) enter 
into the cross, there are si.xty-four possible combinations of 
these characters. In such a cross the results will be: — 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 85 



ABC 


27 


ABc 


9 




- = 36 AB 


Abe 


3 


AbC 


g 




- = 12 Ab 


aBC 


9 




- = 9BC 


aBc 


3 


abC 


3 




— = 6 B or C 



abc 



48 with A 



BC, B, or C 
abc 



CHAP. 
V. 



The distribution of the gametes is shown in Tables 
XXXV, XXXVI and XXXVII following. 

Table XXXV. 
DISTRIBUTION OF THE GAMETES IN A TRIHYBRID CROSS. 



ABC 
ABC 


ABC 
ABc 


ABC 
AbC 


ABC 

Abc 


ABC 
aBC 


ABC 
aBc 


ABC 
abC 


ABC 
abc 


ABc 
ABC 


ABc 
ABc 


ABc 
AbC 


ABc 
Abc 


ABc 
aBC 


ABc 
aBc 


ABc 

abC 


ABc 
abc 


AbC 
ABC 


AbC 
ABc 


AbC 

AbC 


AbC 
Abc 


AbC 
aBC 


AbC 
aBc 


AbC 
abC 


AbC 
abc 


Abc 
ABC 


Abc 
ABc 


Abc 
AbC 


Abc 

Abc 


Abc 
aBC 


Abc 
aBc 


Abc 
abC 


Abc 
abc 


aBC 
ABC 


aBC 
ABc 


aBC 
AbC 


aBC 
Abc 


aBC 
aBC 


aBC 
aBc 


aBC 
abC 


aBC 
abc 


aBc 
ABC 


aBc 
ABc 


aBc 
AbC 


aBc 
Abc 


aBc 
aBC 


aBc 
aBc 


aBc 
abC 


aBc 
abc 


abC 
ABC 


abC 
ABc 


abC 
AbC 


abC 
Abc 


abC 
aBC 


abC 
aBc 


abC 
abC 


abC 
abc 


abc 
ABC 


abc 
ABc 


abc 
AbC 


abc 
Abc 


abc 
aBC 


abc 
aBc 


abc 
abC 


abc 
abc 



The above 
following : — 



chess-board" is classified in Table XXXVI 



1 86 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 




Ta 


BLE XXXVI. 








^' CLASSIFIED SUMMARY OF TABLE 


XXXV. 




AABBCC . 
AABBCc H cC. 






— _ _ 


I 


Per Cent. 
1-5625 


' 


AABBcc . 




• ' 


— _ 


I 

-4 


3-125 
1-5625 


4 


AABbCC . ] 




J 


J 


2 

4 

2 


3-125 
6-250 
3-125 




AABbCc + cC 
AABbcc . j 


+ bB 


1 


I — — 


8 










12 




















AAbbCC . 




I 






1-5625 




AAbbCc + cC . 








^ 




AAbbcc . 




I 


— 


I 
16 


3-125 
1-5625 


4 


AaBBCC . 
AaBBCc + cC . 
AaBBcc . 


• 1 

. 1 
i 


. I 

. 2 


2 — 

III 


2 
4 


3-125 
6-250 


8' 


AaBbCC . 1 


1 

1 


I 


^ 


3-125 
6-250 
12-500 
6-250 
3-125 
6-250 

3-125 




AaBbCc + cC 
AaBbcc . ) 
AabbCC . 
AabbCc + cC . 
Aabbcc . 


+ bB - 

• i 
. J 


+ clA 2 

I 
. I 

. 2 
. I 


2 2 2 
I I I 


4 
8 
4 
2 
4 
2 


16 

8. 










4_8 






aaBBCC . 
aaBBCc + cC . 




• I 


- - - 


I 


1-5625 

3-125 

1-5625 

3-125 

6-250 

3-125 

1-5625 

3-125 

1-5625 




aaBBcc . 
aaBbCC . i 




I 
I 


- - - 


I 


4 


aaBbCc + cC 
aaBbcc . ) 


+ bB 


. 2 


2 - — 


4 


8 . 


aabbCC . 
aabbCc + cC . 




. 2 


- - - 


I 
2 




aabbcc 




. I 


- - - 


1 


4. 










^ 


100-0000 


£i 






Table XXXVII. 










SU 


MMARY 


OF TABLE XXXVI. 












Per Cent. 










ABC 


27 = 


42-1875 










AB 


9 = 


14-0625 










AC 


9 = 


14-0625 










A 


3 = 


4-6875 
48 = 75 











BC 


9 


9 = 14 


•0625 








B 


3 = 


4-6875 










c 


3 = 


4-6875 










abc 


~~ 


1-5625 
7 = 10 


9375 







64 = 100 



INHERITANCE—IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 8 7 

It is conceivable that there might be other interactions of CHAP, 
factors in a trihybrid combination of this character, which would ^• 
give quite different Mendelian ratios ; for instance if A were 
only visible in the presence of C we should have a ratio of — 

36 AC : 21 B : 3 A : 3 C : I abc 

of which A and C might conceivably give the same appear- 
ance as abc, giving an apparent ratio of 36 : 21 : 7. 

Bateson gives the following scheme by which the number 
of types, and the ratios in which each will appear, is given for 
any number of pairs of factors, one factor of each pair being 
dominant and the other recessive. 

4 = 3 + 1 

16 = (3 + i)2 = 32 + 3 + 3 + I = 9 + 3 + 3 + I 
64 = (3 + ^V = 3^ + 3"3- + 3'3 + I = 27 + 27 + 9 + I 
256 = (3 + i)^ = 3-' + 4-3-' + 6-3^ + 4*3 + I 
= 81+27 + 27 + 27 + 27 

+9+9+9+9+9+9 

+3+3+3+3 

+ I. 

So in general 

4" = 3" 

+ 3"^' + 3"^' + n times 

+ 3"'"" + 3""^ + ^« (« - i) times 

+ 3"''' + 3""'' + i« ('« - i) (« - 2) times. 

+ etc. 

140. Inheritance of Colour. — There are several different 
colours in the maize grain, and also in the vegetative part of 
the growing plant, which behave as separate allelomorphic 
pairs, transmissible independently. In a few cases coupling 
of allelomorphs appears to take place. Owing to the different 
behaviour of these several colours it will be convenient to dis- 
cuss them separately. 

141. Yellow Endosperm. — Yellow colour of the endosperm 
and its absence behave as an allelomorphic pair. 

Shull, East and Hayes, and the present writer have found 
two kinds of yellow each of which behaves with its opposite as 
an independent allelomorphic pair. One of these (the darker 
yellow) gives the Mendelian ratio i : 2 : i ; the other (the 
paler) gives the ratio 9:3:3:1- In some cases the latter is 
so faint as to be easily overlooked in a poor light, and has been 
mistaken for a "dominant white". If non-yellows breed true 



1 88 MAIZE 

CHAP, in the Fg generation, they are usually considered pure {East 
and Hayes, i), but if the absence of yellow is due to the absence 
of a factor on which the appearance of colour depends, they 
may, even though heterozygous, continue to breed white until 
crossed with another white carrying the complementary factor, 
when yellow will appear. The relative amount of soft and 
horny starch contained in the seed is one cause of varying in- 
tensity of the yellow colour in F.j crosses between yellow and 
white. 

East and Hayes appear to have found six shades of yellow 
in the progeny of a cross between yellow and white maize, for 
they observe that " in the case of the two yellow colours in 
the maize endosperm, the intensity of the yellow decreases in 
the following order:— 

Yi Yj Y2 Y2 

Y,y,Y3Y,orYiYiYiy, 

Yj Yj or Yo Y„ 

Y, y, or Y., y, 

Yi Yi y-i y-1 C'-e. pure white ?] " 

The present writer has found six shades of yellow in the 
F.2 seed generation, and ten shades in the F3 seed generation 
after crossing with white. The two yellows already referred 
to are involved in the production of these shades, and there 
is a distinct break in the gamut of tints between what appears 
to be the palest of No. i, and the darkest of No. 2. 

142. " White Starchy'' Endosperm. — This was shown to be 
a Mendelian dominant by Correns in 1901, and confirmed by 
Lock in 1904, and later by the writer and by East and Hayes 
working simultaneously though unknown to each other. East 
and Hayes found that dominance was complete ; in no case 
was there the slightest difference between the homozygous and 
the heterozygous seeds in eijther outward appearance or in the 
character of the starch cells when examined microscopically. 

143, Inheritance of Characters which Affect the Growing 
Plant. — The characters which we have been discussing are those 
which affect the endosperm, and are therefore visible in the 
daughter seeds of the ear that has been crossed, i.e. the first 
new generation. There are other characters, however, affecting 
the growing plant, which do not show in the seed. These will 
be discussed seriatim. 



INHERITANCE^ IMPRO VEMENT R V R REE DING 1 89 

144. Pericarp Colour. — The colour of the maize-grain is CHAP, 
sometimes found in, and confined to, the pericarp; in such ^• 
cases this is readily demonstrated by soaking the grain in 
water until the pericarp can be peeled off without removing 
the aleurone layer. The red striped Ciisco flour corn is a case 
in point ; we also meet with sporadic cases of red ears appearing 
unexpectedly in crops of white breeds, which, on examination, 
prove to be cases of red pericarp colour. 

The pericarp of the grain belongs to the parental, and not 
to the filial, generation ; it is part of the female plant parent. 
The pollen grain therefore does not produce xenia in the peri- 
carp. Thus if a white breed is crossed with pollen of a breed 
with red pericarp colour, the resulting grain (Fi seed genera- 
tion) will not show the red colour, though this will appear in 
the second (Fo seed) generation. 

The present writer has found four distinct red pericarp 
colours, and East and Hayes describe five, which they call Rj, 
R,, R3, R4, and R,. 

Rj. — An ordinary dark red pop-corn ; glumes of male florets 
sometimes reddish, but neither cobs nor silks red. Crossed 
with white it gave 75 R and 22 W ears in the Fg generation, 
the reds being all dark and the whites showing no trace of 
colour. The writer has met with a red pop, answering to 
this description, in South Africa. 

Rg. — A dark mosaic red, occurring as irregular red stripes 
radiating from the point where the silk was attached. A similar 
red occurs in South African maize. 

Rg. — A dirty red colour, more abundant at the base of the 
seed and almost wanting at the summit ; it appears to be 
coupled with red silks. The dye occurs in small amounts. 
" It is almost certain that this red forms an allelomorphic pair 
with its absence, that is entirely independent of Rj, R.^, and R^." 

R4. — A rose-red, which " develops only in the presence of 
light, hence the ears with thick husks show the colour but 
faintly. When the husks are stripped away and the ear 
matures in full sunlight, the colour appears over the entire ear 
as a bright rose-red." Red was not present in other parts of 
the plants grown. A rose-red answering this description 
occurs also in South Africa, where it threatens to give some 
trouble to growers. 



1 90 



MAIZE 



CHAP 
V. 



R;,. — A rose-red resembling R^, but occurring in lesser 
amounts, and on thick-husked ears only detected by very 
careful examination. It behaves with its absence as a sepa- 
rate allelomorphic pair to R^. 

R,;. — Is a dark red pericari) colour of sugar maize, from 

an |ear of unknown parentage, found by the writer in South 

Africa. The combined red colour 

and wrinkled endosperm tend to 

give the impression of dried raisins. 

145. Somatic Variation in Peri- 
carp Colour. — Cases not infrequently 
occur in which an ear in a crop of 
white develops red pericarp on one 
side, or part of one side, of the 
ear, and white, or white striped 
with red, on the other side or part 
of that side (Fig. 80). Such cases 
have been attributed by East and 
Hayes to bud variations similar to 
those which occur in perennial garden 
plants, and also, though less fre- 
quently noticed, in annuals. In such 

JSiiXl.' ^WS '*''! cases the plant due to produce a red 

^^^r*^ -i. a f^ ear varies somatically so that one 

part of the ear becomes red and the 
rest white or striped. In a case 
which they record, this variation was 
transmitted by the seeds. 

146. Silk-colour. — Maize silks 
vary from almost colourless, through 
cream and green, to dark red. Some- 
times the style itself is red, some- 
times only the hairs on the style. 
Sometimes the colour of the silk is 

coupled with that of the pericarp, and perhaps also with colour 
in the glumes. But redness of the silk occurs commonly 
when the cob and pericarp are not coloured. According to 
East and Hayes, study of the transmission of this colour char- 
acter is obscured by the action of the bag over the ear to be 
hand-pollinated, which prevents the full development of the 




Fig. 80. — Somatic variation 
in pericarp colour. 



INHERITANCE— IM PRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 9 1 
red colour by shuttiiii^ out the light, so that it is difficult to CHAP. 



tell whether the h\ silks which are selfed are full red, or only- 
red-haired. 

147. Red Cob-colour. — Experiments conducted by the writer 
(and it appears, simultaneously by East and Hayes (i)), show 
that red cob-colour is dominant to white cob-colour, and behaves 
as a simple monohybrid. These authors suggest that " it is not 
beyond probability " that dihybrid reds may be found in an 
extensive series of crosses. Cob-colour is not necessarily 
coupled with red endosperm colour, for red cob-colour is not 
infrequently found in a white-grained breed, e.g. Hickory King, 
which normally produces white cobs. Many yellow-grained 
breeds have red cobs, but white-cobbed ears are often found 
amongst them ; other yellow-grained breeds normally have 
white cobs, but red-cobbed ears are occasionally found amongst 
them. East and Hayes record a case in which perfect coup- 
ling occurred between red cobs and red pericarp colour. 

148. Glume Colour. — The glumes often carry red colour, 
and vary considerably in the amount of redness present ; some- 
times it is confined to very narrow or broader streaks along the 
nerves. Glume colour appears to be correlated with colour in 
other parts of the plant, for East and Hayes state that they 
have not yet found a plant which has red glumes and yet 
shows no red colour in other parts of the plant, though one 
has been found that is pure for red glumes and yet shows no 
red in other parts with the exception of the silks. 

149. Development of '' Pods'\ — Pod maize (Fig. 51) when 
crossed with breeds free from pods, behaves as a simple Men- 
delian monohybrid. The podded character is dominant, and 
appears in the F., generation in the proportion of 3 to i ; the 
extracted recessives breed absolutely true {East and Hayes, i). 

150. Inheritajice of Ligule and Auricles. — Emerson (i) 
finds that absence of Hgule and auricle behaves as a recessive 
to presence of these organs, and that they are transmitted as a 
single hereditary character. Four liguleless plants, crossed 
with unrelated normal-leaved plants, produced 103 F,^ individ- 
uals, all with normal leaves. Twelve of the latter were selfed, 
and produced 74S F2 plants, of which 572 had normal leaves 
and 176 had no ligules, or practically a 3 : i ratio. Counting 
together all families in which both types of leaf occurred, he 



V. 



192 MAIZE 

CHAP, obtained a total of 672 normal-leaved and 221 liguleless- 
^" leaved plants ; to have given as nearly a 3 : i ratio as possible 
the respective numbers would only have to be changed to 670 
and 223. 

151. Physical Condition of the Starch. — Presence and ab- 
sence of starch, as we have already seen, behaves as a Men- 
delian allelomorphic pair ; the presence of starch is a filial 
character, and shows as xenia in individual seeds. East and 
Hayes find, however, that the physical condition of the starch 
behaves as a plant character affecting the whole ear : — 

" The characters which give the flint or the dent appear- 
ance to maize are transmitted as plant characters to the entire 
ear and not as endosperm characters to the seed. They 
conform to the essential feature of Mendelism by showing 
segregation ; and they are due to the action of more than 
one transmissible character. The question remains, can any 
or all of these characters be named ? Our experience suggests 
that the proportion of corneous starch to soft starch depends 
partially upon size and shape of the pericarp, and upon the 
number of rows per ear. . . . There is also some relation 
between the size of the plants and the amount of soft starch 
in their seeds. . . . Relationship between the physical char- 
acter of the starch and shape of pericarp is much more intimate 
than it is between the former and size characters. . . . The 
shape of the pericarp depends somewhat on the number of 
rows, as the greater this number the more the seeds are 
crowded together and thus lengthened. . . . These relation- 
ships may simply be correlations and not direct causes of 
the proportion of corneous starch to soft starch that exists 
in various strains of corn. But even if they were directly 
concerned, they could not account for the large number of 
differences in varieties, for none of the correlations are suffi- 
ciently high. Many other characters, the exact nature of 
which is unknown, must be concerned in the matter. The 
simplest interpretation . . . seems to be the interaction of 
independent allelomorphic pairs, of the nature reported -by 
Nillson-Ehle (i) and East (4) in earlier papers." 

152. Size Characters. — Among size characters are in- 
cluded : height of plant, number and length of internodes, 
thickness of stem, breadth and length of leaf, length of sheath, 
length of ear, number of rows per ear, thickness of cob, size of 
seed, etc. 



INHERITANCE— IMP RO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 1 93 
In the maize plant the factors which interact to cause the CHAP. 



transmissible differences in the size of the organs are very 
complex, as has been pointed out by East and Hayes, who 
refer to the consequent difficulty of working out in detail their 
inheritance. 

" It is perfectly obvious to one familiar with the maize plant 
that it is almost impossible to work out in detail the inherit- 
ance of the complex factors that interact to cause the trans- 
missible differences in the size of the organs. 

" That size characters are complex in themselves is shown 
by the numerous varieties grown commercially. They each 
vary from their own means, but different variety means in 
height are found all the way from two and one half to fourteen 
feet, with but little actual difference between the most similar 
strains. Further to complicate matters, all size characters 
respond to environmental stimuli, and these non-inherited 
fluctuations obscure the analysis of pedigree cultures in a still 
greater degree. 

" For these reasons we do not attempt to analyse our results 
further than to say that they do show segregation in every case. 
And segregation is held to be the important and essential feature 
of Mendelism. Therefore we believe that size characters Men- 
delize. . . . But in size characters dominance is probably very 
incomplete or absent. ..." 

" Several genes for the same character may exist in the germ 
cells of one organism, the number being limited possibly by the 
number of chromosomes. The limited number of cases, thus far 
found, presumably is due to the fact that few size characters 
have been investigated, for nowhere would these phenomena 
be so likely to occur as in quantitative characters. . . . Several 
independent allelomorphic pairs may produce the same somatic 
character." 

" A heterozygous combination presumably produces half 
the effect of a homozygous combination. Then as dominance 
becomes less and less evident the Mendelian classes vary more 
and more from the formula (3 + i)" and approach the normal 
curve of error {\ + 4^)«. When there is no dominance and open 
fertilization, a state is reached in which the curve of variation 
simulates the fluctuation curve, with the difference that the 
gradations are heritable. The heritable variations are al- 
ways more or less obscured, however, by the ever present 
fluctuation." 

13 



V. 



194 



MAIZE 



c.v. 


H CJi PO •* lO o> o 
PI r^u-100 l^u-iin« 
•i- PI lo kp o in -rt- 

+1+1 +1+1 +1+1+1 

w M 00 in Th PI in 
in o o (^ m o O 
b> inc« In PO PI PI 


[/5 


■* PO 0^0 r--oo ■* 

PO PI in'ri- y^ ^ PO 

+1+1 +1+1 +1+1+1 5 lo o ;no S''^ o^ 
OM^Hvoaomoo ° 2" 2 "^ "' '^^ ?! 5- 
_T)- o PI t^ r^ in PI r-' 
o inc» PI H bi b 

HH M 


< 


rj- -)- t^O GO ip |n 5, '^ ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 

+1+1 +1+1+1 +1+1 1 1 


PI 00 m o povo -1- 

pi w in o ro -^ PI ^ 


^11 1^1 
t 


o 
1 



S 


fo PI in 1 t>> ji c. 1 M 


2 


1 1 1 00 1 H 1 1 1 1 


2 


. ?^^- , - Kl ;?> i 1 1 -^ , 


S j ,'g**2"^ 'R 5 , 1 1 1 S*^, 


g| , ;2-^00^M^ jn ^ 1 1 1 1 ^^i^g'^ 


O||C0O000M0 O|^l|||0^Hro 


g,||P,o^o.noOM ^-|t^,. ig,^-^ 


O 1 , P,O.;nO00 0> ^1 O , 1 1 I^O^ 


£"1 , --S22^ 5 1^ , j 1 1 ^g^;^ 


0^1 1 1 ^*-«;?^ ¥,1^1111 S?;^?!- 


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00 j o 1 , o m fo H N 
r^ 1 I'm h h in 


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I^.l'^ii^i^i ^!i iiiiii 


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INHERITANCE— IMP RO VEMENT B V BREEDING 1 95 



" 111 considering experiments in the inheritance of size 
characters in maize, we must remember that fluctuations are 
present, and that often many genotypes are present in one 
parent." 

153. Inheritance of Height of Plants. — The results of East 
and Hayes's investigations, as far as described in their paper 
(i), show segregation from the lowest class range of the shorter 
parent to the highest class range of the taller parent, but they 
do not consider these 
segregates as pure types, 
and " their behaviour in 
further generations is still 
problematical". In every 
case the comparative size 
of the coefficient of varia- 
tion was at least 50 per 
cent higher in the F., 
generation than in the 



CHAP. 
V. 




F, generation (see Table 
XXXVIII). The Fj 
generation is not inter- 
mediate between the two 
parents, but is nearly as 
high as the taller parent. 
This fact, they point out, 
is not to be regarded as 
in any way connected 
with dominance, but is 
due to the increased 
vigour of the maize plant 
which comes from cross- 
ing, as pointed out by East (3) in a previous paper. 

An entirely different case has come under the observation 
of the writer, in the F^ progeny of a cross between Hickory 
King (Fig. 8 1 A) and Wills Gehii (Fig. 81B). 

The relative height is shown by the walking-stick which 
stands alongside, at the same relative distance from the camera 
as the stem of the plant, in each case. 

In this case the F^ plants. Figs. 82A and B, show the dwarf 
habit of the Wills Gehu parent, and little, if any, increase 
13* 



Fig. 81A. — Inheritance of size characters. 
Hickory King, 8 to 9 feet high. (Type used 
to produce cross shown in Fig. 82 and grown 
the same season.) 



196 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 




Fig. 8ib. — Inhcniance of size characters. W ilh Gchii, 4 to 4^ feet high. 
(Type used to produce cross shown in Fig. 82 and grown the same season.) 




Fig. 82A. — Fj plant progeny of cross between types shown in Fig. 81 ; 
plants 4^ to 5 feet high. 



INHERITANCE— IMP RO FEME NT B V BREEDING 1 9 7 

in \'igour due to crossing was noticeable, such as was met 
with by East and Hayes. The same result was obtained with 
the reciprocal cross, showing that in this case the short habit 
is dominant. 

154. Inheritance of Abnormal Dwarfness. — Abnormally 
dwarf forms, li to 3 feet high, sometimes appear, possibly as 
examples of " reversion " or of " mutation ". East and Hayes 



CHAP. 
V. 




Fig. S^i;. 



,'eny of cross between type 
plants 4^ to 5 feet high. 



shov 



in Fig. 81 ; 



find that segregation takes place in their inheritance, in the 
proportion of three normal to less than one abnormal, but the 
number of cases studied was perhaps inadequate to determine 
whether it was a case of Mendelian dominance. 

155. Inheritance of Length of Ears. — Ear length does not 
show the increased vigour, according to East and Hayes, due 
to heterozygosis, that is seen in the heights of the plants. 
They conclude that there is scarcely a doubt that the greatly 



198 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 









^ 














00 


m 
















m 


r^ 




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t^ 




> 


+1 


+1 


+1 


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INHERITANCK~IMrR( ) ]'EMENT /? V BREEDING 1 99 

increased variability in F.2 (see Table XXXIX) is the direct CHAP, 
result of segregation. 

156. Inheritance of Size and Weight of Grain. — East and 
Hayes conclude that segregation occurs in the progeny of 
ears heterozygous for size and weight of grain. 




Fig. 83. — Inheritance of row numbers. A, lo-row Hickory (Louisiana). 
B, Hickory with 10 rows below and 8 above. 

li;^'] . Inheritance of Row Numbers. — The number of rows 
of grain in an ear varies according to the breed. In some 
breeds it is more definitely fixed than in others, e.g. Hickory 
King ; many of the flint breeds are normally 8-rowed and 
rarely exceed that number when pure-bred ; in these cases an 
ear carrying more than 8 rows is considered untrue to type, 



200 MAIZE 

CHAP, but it is doubtful whether aii)- commercial maize crop grown 
breeds entirely true in regard to row numbers. That this is 
traceable, in part at least, to fluctuating variability, seems to be 
indicated by the following cases of irregularity : — 

Not infrequently ears are met with in which two or four 
rows cease before reaching the tip (Fig. 83 B). 

That such cases may be dependent on nutrition, as affected 
by variation in the character of the season, is suggested by 
the fact that in the season 1 910- 11 the writer found ears 
bearing two more rows on the upper (tip) portion of the ear 
than on the lower portion ; the weather was dry during the 
early part of the season, which tended to check development, 
but was wet during the latter part of the season. The possible 
connection between the season and such cases requires further 
investigation before we can definitely connect them as cause 
and effect. 

In some cases, as shown in Fig. 84B, it is clear that a 
pair of rows has been dropped; this is unusual, however. 
More frequently one row of each of two pairs has stopped 
(Fig. 83B). 

Many cases have come under the writer's notice, in which 
two ears borne on the same plant produce different row 
numbers; in thirty-three plants of Arcadia Sugar-maize each 
bearing two fully-matured ears on one culm, twelve plants 
bore an equal number of rows on each ear ; fourteen plants 
had more rows on the lower ear than on the upper ; on seven 
plants the largest number was borne on the upper ear ; in 
most of these cases there were but two extra rows, but in a 
single case there were fo7ir more. The actual results obtained 
are shown in Table XL. 



INHERITANCE— I M PRO J 'EMENT B Y BREEDING 201 



Taf.i,i. XL. CHAP. 

ROW NUMBERS IN A FAMILY OF ARCADIA SUGAR-MAIZE. V. 

Plants with Two Ears. 



Plant No. 


Upper Ear. 


Lower Ear. 


Number of Rows. 


Number of Rows. 


I 


8 


12 


2 


10 


10 


3 


10 


14 


4 


10 


12 


5 


12 


12 


6 


10 


8 


7 


10 


8 


8 


10 


12 


9 


12 


12 


10 


8 


10 


II 


8 


12 


12 


12 


12 


'3 


12 


12 


14 


10 


12 


15 


12 


12 


16 


12 


12 


17 


12 


12 


i8 


12 


10 


19 


12 


14 


20 


10 


12 


21 


8 


10 


22 


10 


10 


23 


10 


8 


24 


12 


10 


25 


8 


12 


26 


12 


12 


27 


12 


10 


28 


12 


10 


29 


10 


10 


30 


8 


10 


31 


10 


12 


32 sears. 


upper middle 8 
no grain 


8 


33 


10 


12 



Class. 


Upper Ear. 


Lower Ear. 


Number of 
Plants. 


Number of 

Plants in 

each Class. 


As many rows in lower as J 
in upper . .1 

More rows in lower than in J 
upper .... 1 

Fewer rows in lower than / 
in upper . (^ 


(12 
(10 

(8 

(12 

(ro 

(10 

(8 

(8 

(12 
(10 


12 
10 

8 

14 

12 
12 

lO 

10 

8 


8) 
3) 
I) 

I) 
I) 
6) 

^3! 

4) 

3) 


1" 

I" 

1 ' 



202 




MAizn 




CHAP. 




Tahlk XL [contnnied). 


V. 




SUMMARY. 




Upper Ear. 


Lower Ear. Number of Plants. 






( 8 I 




8 


ii 12 3 






( ^ 

1 lO 
12 


3 




lo 


3 

6 






I 14 I 






I « 







12 


10 
^2 


4 
8 






(, 14 


I 




- 


1 
1 


Total 33 



The total number of ears producing any triven number of 
rows was as follows : — 



Rows. 


Ears. 


8 

10 

12 

. 14 


ri 
23 
30 

2 


- 


Total 66 



A few ears are also met with in which the grains are 
scattered promiscuously, in mosaic fashion, over the ear (Fig. 
84A), so that the number of rows can only be determined b\' 
cross-sectioning the cob. 

Experiments conducted by the writer show that the cross 
between an 8-row and an i8-row breed results in the j)roduc- 
tion of an intermediate form in the F, generation. Of thirty- 
nine cross-bred F, ears examined, only two produced the same 
number of rows as either parent, while nearly 75 per cent 
produced either 12 or 14 rows, i.e. more than one, and less 
than the other, parent ; as regards these two row numbers, 
the cross and the reciprocal cross produced nearly the .same 



INHERITANCE—IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING 203 

proportions, the i8-row % x 8-row ^ giving 7r5 per cent, CHAP, 
and the 8-row ? x 1 8-row $ jG per cent. The cross was ^' 
made between No. 904, an 8-rowed white dent, and No. 
905, an 1 8-rowed yellow dent, both pedigree ears as regards 
colour and row numbers, which bred true when selfed {Biirtt- 
DnvVy 27). The results obtained are given in Table XL I. 





A 


f^l ■ "■ 5 


t^iS^ 












^11 




J 

( 




PI s 





Fig. 84. — Undesirable types for seed. A, Mosaic arrangement of grains. 
B, Failure to develop two pairs of rows : a 4-rowed ear. 



Eighty-nine ears from a commercial crop of Ladysviith, 
studied by the writer, gave the following figures : — 



Row Classes 

Number of Ears 
Percentages 



29 

32-58 



CHAP. 
V. 



204 MAIZF. 

Table XLl. 
INHERITANCE OF ROW NUMBERS IN CROSS-BRED MAIZE. 

1063 ex 905 (i8-row ? ) x 904 (8-ro\V(^) Yellow Grain with Light Yellow Caps. 

1064 „ do. do. Yellow Grain with White Caps. 

1066 „ 904 (8-row ? ) x 905 (iS-rowc^) Do. 

1067 „ do. do. Do. 

1068 „ do. do. Do. 

Separating the two crosses, we have the following figures : — 
i8-row ? X 8 row f^ 



Parent Ear No. 


Rows. 


Total r.ars. 


8 


10 


13 


14 


16 


1063 
1064 







I 
2 


4 
4 


2 



I 


8 
6 


Total . 

Per Cent . 






3 

21-4 


8 2 
57-1 14-3 


I 
7-2 


14 
= 100 



8-row ? X i8-row $ 



Parent Ear No. 


Rows. 


Total Ears. 


8 


10 


12 


14 


16 


1066 
1067 
1068 


I 

I 


2 
2 



3 
4 
3 


T 

3 
3 







7 
9 
9 


Total . 
Per Cent . 


2 

8 


4 
i6 


10 
40 


9 
36 






.5 ! 
.00 1 



Smnttiarr. 



Parent Ear No. 


Rows. 


Total Ears. 


8 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 X 8 
8 X 18 



2 


3 
4 


8 
10 


2 
9 


I 




14 

25 


Total . 
Per Cent . 


2 7 

5-1 , i8-i 


18 
46-2 


II 

28-2 


2-6 


39 
100 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 205 



East and Hayes find that two distinct kinds of irregularity CHAP, 
of row numbers occur : one a physiological fluctuation which ^• 
is not inherited, and one a definitely inherited character, or 
possibly a set of characters. 

" The non-inherited fluctuations are always present, while 
the inherited irregularity may be present or absent. The latter 
kind has been isolated in several varieties [breeds], the most con- 
spicuous being the Country Gentleman [sweet] corn. . . . Since 
the inherited irregularity can only be distinguished from the 
fluctuation by breeding, and then with difficulty owing to the 
obscuring effect of the latter, it is difficult to come to any 
conclusion regarding the method of its transmission when 
dealing with mixed strains. It could undoubtedly be deter- 
mined by careful work with a cross of which Country Gentle- 
man formed one of the parents. We have not made such a 
cross, but observations of large commercial cultures of Country 
Gentleman lead us to believe that irregularity is a Mendelian 
dominant, although it may not act as a simple monohybrid. 
. . . The one fact that stands out clearly is that if the per- 
centage of irregular ears increases much over 4 per cent in a 
commercial progeny row culture, the whole culture must be dis- 
carded to eliminate the undesirable 'blood'.'' 

The results obtained by them, to the F3 generation, are 
shown in Table XLII following: — 

Table XLII. 
INHERITANCE OF ROWS IN A MAIZE CROSS. 













Row Classes. 








Rows 
of 






No. 




Gen. 


























Parents. 




























8 


10 

T 


12 
54 


14 
36 


16 
12 


18 
2 


20 


22 


24 


No. 8 dent . 




P 


12 






No. 54 sugar 




P 


8 


89 


25 


7 














No. 8 X 54 . 




Fi 


12 


I 


6 


14 














(8 X 54) - I 
( '. ) - 5 




?! 


12 
12 


9 

I 


22 
3 


16 
16 


I 
I 














_ I . 


f:. 


10 


— 


IS 


87 


4 












( >i ) - I 


- 2 . 


F3 


8 


20 


38 


50 














( .. ) - I 


- 2a 


F, 


10 


61 


48 


54 














( -. ) - I 


- 3 . 


f; 


10 


32 


75 


15 














( „ ) - I 


- 3a 


F.. 


8 


5 


20 


27 


I 












( " ) ~ I 




F^i 


12 


— 


33 


158 


26 


3 










( n ) - I 


- 6 . 


F-i 


12 


4 


36 


109 


8 


2 










{ .. ) - I 


- ID 


F., 


8 


Very irr 


egular, mostly 8-rowed 






( M ) - I 


- 13 


F. 


10 


96 j 43 


mil 







2o6 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



158. Four-rowed Ears. — The writer has occasionally found 
in both flint and dent breeds, ears with only 4 or 6 rows (Fig. 
84B). The occasional presence at the base of the ears of the 
beginnings of additional rows, suggests that they are cases of 
failure to develop certain pairs of rows. East and Hayes 
associate the condition with the tendency commonly met with 
in ears of 8-row flint breeds, to split at the base into 2- 
rowed sections. Their investigations indicate that the tendency 
to the abnormality is dominant to the normal condition. 

I 5 9. Inheritance of Fasciated and Lobed Ears. — Flatten i ng , 





A B 

Fig. 85. — A, P'asciated ear. B, Lobed ear. 



fasciation, and lobing of the tip of the ear (Fig. 85A and B) are 
not infrequently met with, and flattening and fasciation are 
more common in some races than in others ; in the Transvaal 
flattening is common in strains of Chester County. 

East and Hayes have studied the inheritance of this ab- 
normality and find that it is a dominant character, alternatively 
inherited, and that it is difficult to tell the pure normal ears by 
inspection, but that they appear to breed true when isolated. 

160. InJieritancc of Laterally Branched Ears. — Laterally 
branched ears (Fig, 86) are occasionally met with. Attempts 



INHERIl ANCE~IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 2 o 7 

made by East and Hayes and by the writer to study the in- CHAP, 
heritance of the tendency have not been very successful. But ^- 
East and Hayes conclude that the character is transmitted 
and does segregate, for both normals and abnormals are pro- 
duced in the Fg generation. Such ears are undesirable, 
especially as they produce irregular grain, and they should not 
be used for seed purposes. 
161. Striped Leaves. — 
Races of maize occur, as, 
for example, Zea Mays var. 
japonica, in which the leaves 
are green, with white stripes 
(they are deficient in chloro- 
phyll), but which breed true, 
the striping being appar- 
ently homozygous. 

But East and Hayes 
record cases in which the 
striping indicates a hetero- 
zygous condition; the 
dominant form in this case 
is fully green. Plants with- 
out chlorophyll died, when 
only a {q.^^ inches high, 
from lack of the power of 
assimilation ; these were 
considered by the authors 
as "probably homozygous 
recessives ". 

162. Difficulties En- 
countered in Studying In- 
heritance in Maize. — The 
investigation of the inheri- 
tance of characters in the 
maize plant is not as simple 
appear. 

{a) The amount of pollen produced is so great that it is 
continually present during the flowering period, in the air of 
the maize field ; it adheres to the clothes and hands of the 
breeder, or to the leaves and stems of the plant, and is easily 




Fig. 86.— Laterally branched ear. 
a problem as might at first 



V. 



2o8 MAIZE 

CHAP, transmitted from them to the silks of plants which are to be 
kept pure. In spite of all possible precautions, seeds of un- 
known paternal ancestry do creep into the cultures. With 
tassels bagged three days before any pollen was ripe, it was 
found that stray pollen was already present, and though old, a 
certain percentage was viable, although East and Hayes con- 
clude that the po.ssible error from this source would be only 
one to about 10,000. But in the bagging of the silks there 
is also a chance of enclosing foreign pollen ; the same investi- 
gators have found that about one ear in five would have one or 
more grains so crossed, even when the greatest care was taken. 

They conclude that in this work there is a possibility 
of an experimental error of five or six seeds out of the 
200 to 800 produced on an ear ; this is to be considered 
as a maximum and not the probable error, the latter being 
less than one seed per ear. As they well observe, however, 
" the determination of a probable error in a mass of data is 
not sufficient in genetic work ; an actual error, in which a 
single seed of unknown paternity becomes the ancestor of a 
pedigreed line, is sufficient to upset all inductions drawn from 
the data ". 

{b) The small size of the chromosomes makes them diffi- 
cult to study. 

(c) And, finally, maize seed is rather delicate ; when pro- 
perly matured and dried it remains in fairly good condition for 
only three seasons ; seed older than this is almost worthless, 
and there is even a possibility of the results from second year 
seed being distorted. 

All the.se factors add to the difficulty of carrying out in- 
vestigations. 

Methods of Plant Breeding. 

A man should be very careful in the selection of his parents. 

— Heink. 

163. A Few General Principles. — In plant breeding it is 
necessary to carefully decide upon an ideal and to work 
steadily and persistently toward it. We must remember that 
it takes several generations of the plant to acquire and fix a 
desired character, and that any deviation from the original aim 



/ 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 209 
may involve us in complications difficult to unravel. With CHAP, 



our present knowledge of genetics, the safest course to follow 
is to work step by step, building up the new type, one character 
at a time, rather than to attempt to add two or three characters 
at once. 

Promiscuous or aimless crossing, and crossing which is 
not followed by rigorous selection, is worse than useles.s, for 
it spoils an established breed only to produce a mongrel race. 
Vacillation in breeding is equally unproductive ; success is 
then mere chance, and we work like men lost on the veld, 
wandering sometimes forwards, sometimes back on our tracks. 

In order to breed intelligently and to good purpose, it is 
necessary not only to know what we want, but also how to 
attain it, which involves a close and thorough study of each 
breed. In the case of maize, our ideal should include not only 
the colour and shape of the grain and ear, but also the average 
yield of grain from each ear, and the average stand of plants 
per acre. 

Briefly, we may say that there are three things essential 
to the development of pedigree stock, whether of animals or 
plants : (i) start with the best stock you can get ; (2) propa- 
gate only the best (which implies also the elimination of the 
unfit) ; (3) improve by crossing, when you know how to ob- 
tain and fix the desired character. 

164. Methods of Plant Breeding. — The methods employed 
in the breeding of plants are much the same as those used 
with domestic animals — horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, or poultry. 
The fundamental point, after the determination of the desired 
type, is the continuous mating (i.e. without interruption) of 
those parents, both male and female, which most nearly 
approach that type. 

In the breeding of plants three principal courses are 
followed: (i) selection, (2) cros.s-fertilization, and (3) hybridi- 
zation. Inbreeding necessarily follows any one of these three 
methods. 

Selection may be roughly defined as the choice of suitable 
parents for the production of a strain of the desired type. 
They may belong to the same or to different breeds. Selec- 
tion implies that there is a choice of characters to select from. 

It is necessary to resort to selection and inbreeding to 
14 



V. 



2IO MAIZE 

CHAP, obtain pure strains from mixed ones, and to propagate pure 
^' strains when one has them. 

By rigid selection we avoid the production or propagation of 
new forms ; by cross-breeding we encourage it. 

By cross-fertili::ation we mean crossing plants of different 
" varieties," breeds, or races of the same species as, for instance, 
two kinds of maize. This will be discussed more fully a little 
farther on. 

The strict definition of the term hybridization implies 
breeding from two parent plants belonging to different species 
or genera as, for instance, wheat and rye. It is of little or no 
practical importance in the improvement of farm crops, and 
need not be further discussed here. 

165. Selection of Parents. — The first step in breeding is to 
secure well-bred stock. This does not always mean the im- 
portation of fresh strains, unless the latter offer decided im- 
provement over the old ; if the breeds already acclimatized in 
the country are satisfactory as regards breed characteristics, it 
is sometimes better to use them as a basis for improvement 
than to rely entirely on something the adaptability of which 
to local conditions has not been proven. As Hartley (5) 
tersely puts it : " Under extremely difficult conditions of 
growth, teosinte and the buffalo will thrive better than im- 
proved types ". But local strains are often so mongrel (i.e. 
heterozygous) in character that it would take years of patient 
toil, and much expense, to breed them pure; in such cases we 
must rely on the importation of fresh stocks. Whichever course 
we follow, we must select the parents best fitted to produce the 
desired type of offspring. 

Sheep farmers, who start with a highly-bred stud flock of 
acclimatized animals, do not take long to build up a large flock 
if they are good sheep farmers. But the best of them find it 
comparatively slow work to grade up a mixed flock. So it is 
with maize. If we can start with pure, high-bred, acclimatized 
seed, we gain enormously in time, for 'all that is then nece.ssary 
is to maintain the purity, and continue the improvement already 
started. But at the present time it is impossible to meet the 
demand for pure high-bred seed, acclimatized to each maize- 
growing district in South Africa. 

In the selection of parents care is taken that both are as 



i 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO FEME NT R ] ' TREE DING 2 1 1 

true to type as possible. The usual result of mating like with CHAP, 
like, is to produce like, provided alzvays that the strains are ^' 
pure ; the last point is essential. There are exceptions to this 
rule, due to the interaction of other factors (II 131) which we 
need not discuss at the moment as they do not affect the 
principle ; we refer to such cases as the crossing of two 
white-grained breeds of maize, which sometimes results in the 
production of purple grain ; and the crossing of two dwarfs, 
which in some instances results in the production of tall plants. 

It is equally important to remember that by crossing the 
unlike we usually produce unlike, at least in the second 
generation. 

Selection can carry us to a certain point, but no farther ; it 
isolates characters and eliminates the unfit, but it cannot add 
characters which are not there. This is accomplished by cross- 
breeding. " Any permanent improvement that is made by 
selection is merely the separation of one of the extreme 
biotypes. When an extreme line is entirely separated, however, 
selection of its extreme fluctuations causes no change (or at 
least no permanent change) of type, because there is almost 
complete regression to the mode of its line" {East, 2). 

166. Effect of hibreeding. — Strict inbreeding gradually leads 
to the isolation of the homozygous type, as was pointed out by 
Mendel, and as is demonstrated in the following diagram, for 
which the writer is indebted to Professor Punnett : — 



(Heterozygous Parent, inbred) 



I I I 

4 DD selfed 8 DR selfed 4 RR selfed 



I I I I 

F„ 16 DD 8 DD 16 DR 8 RR 16 RR 



F, 64 DD 32 DD 16 DD 32 DR 16 RR 32 RR 64 RR 

This gives, in the F3 generation, 112 DD (pure extracted 
dominants), 112 RR (pure extracted recessives), and only 32 
DR (heterozygotes). This scheme supposes that each plant 
of the progeny produces but four offspring and that chances 



212 MAIZE 

CHAP, are equal for the development of progeny of homozygous and 
^' heterozygous parents. 

But as Shull (i), East (2), and others have pointed out, in 
maize " self-fertilization, or even inbreeding between much 
wider than individual limits, results in deterioration ". Again : 
" Although a study of the injurious effects of self-fertilization 
was not the aim of the investigation, it was immediately ap- 
parent in the smaller, weaker stalks, fewer and smaller ears, 
and the much greater susceptibility to the attacks of the corn- 
smut {Ustilago Maydis). The results were almost as marked 
when the chosen parents were above the average quality, as 
when they were below it, which in itself refutes the idea that 
the injurious effect is due to the accumulation of deficiencies 
possessed by the chosen parents" {Shull, i). 

" Inbreeding in maize gives the same effect as lack of 
nutrients, while cross-breeding gives the opposite effect. There 
is retardation or acceleration of cell division, respectively. . . . 
It is an established fact, although the cause is unknown, 
that crosses between nearly related types are more vigorous 
than either of the types alone" {East, 2). 

Collins (2) calls attention to the fact, however, that while 
it is fully recognized that isolating the pure strains or biotypes 
will very greatly reduce their vigour and yield, yet by making 
a combination of the proper strains, so isolated, it is believed 
that the degree of fertility of the cross will reach that of the 
most productive plants in the original mixed strain, and that 
an increase of the total yield can be obtained in this way. He 
also quotes an experiment of Dr. Shull, in which two self- 
fertilized strains which were separated from a common stock 
in 1904, and continuously self-fertilized since that time, were 
reciprocally crossed in 1907. In 1908 the yields of these re- 
ciprocal crosses were compared with each other, with the self- 
fertilized plants, and with cross-bred stocks of the original 
breed. The yield from the cross-pollinated seed was 2,0 per cent 
greater than that from the self-pollinated ear, and 2 per cent 
greater than the average of the original cross-bred stock. 

By this means it is found possible to isolate a homozygous 
type, the individuals of which, when mated, are as vigorous 
and productive as the original mongrel heterozygote, but with- 
out its objectionable features. 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 2 1 3 

Inbreeding, then, has no permanently injurious effect on CHAP, 
the breed. 

167. Improvement in Yield by Use of First-generation 
Crosses. — The facts mentioned in the last paragraph indicate 
the possibility of utilizing the added vigour gained by crossing. 
The suggestion of making practical use of this fact was made 
by Prof W. J. Beal, as long ago as 1876, but no advantage 
appears to have been taken of the idea until quite recently, 
when it was again brought forward by ShuU (i), East (2), and 
Collins (2). Increases of 5 1 per cent over the normal crop have 
recently been obtained in this way in the United States. 

In the case of maize the beneficial effect is noticeable mainly 
in the first season, and is said to disappear gradually. In the 
case of wheat. Professor Biffen finds it applies only in the F^ 
generation. The principle, therefore, involves a new cross 
each year ; this fact accounts for the loss of vigour and pro- 
ductiveness which new breeds often show when grown on a 
commercial scale. 

Difficulties in the use of first-generation crosses in farm 
practice have been met with, but will doubtless be overcome in 
time. 

168. Fundamental Points of Seed Selection. — The funda- 
mental points in seed-maize selection are those which affect 
yield and quality ; briefly they include : — 

Depth of grain ; 
Shape of grain ; 

3. Thickness of grain ; 

4. Narrowness of sulci ; 

5. Length of ear. 

The following points are of lesser importance, but should 
not be neglected : — 

6. Shape of ear ; 

7. Straightness of row ; 

8. Regularity of grain in the row. 

9. Covering and regularity of the butt ; 

10. Covering and regularity of the tip ; 

1 1. Thickness of the cob. 

169. Correlation of Characters. — It is well known among 
breeders both of plants and animals that certain characters in 
an individual plant are more or less related to each other, and 



214 MAIZE 

CHAP, are inherited together. When one of such characters is present 
^" in an individual, another character is almost certain to be 
present which is correlated with it. These correlations may 
be of several kinds ; Webber (3) divides them into four groui)s, 
which he has termed Environmental, Morphological, Physio- 
logical, and Coherital. 

By environmental correlation he means to indicate relation 
to physical conditions or environment, such as to soils of vary- 
ing degrees of fertility. Such correlations include increase in 
number of grains with increase in height of culm, etc. They 
" are merely the expression for equality or conformity to con- 
dition of luxuriance. Strictly speaking, these are not corre- 
lated characters, and their consideration is of little or no value 
to the breeder." 

He defines morphological correlations as those cases where 
a variation in one character is the primary cause for variation 
in another character, e.g. where the relationship between the 
characters is similar to that which exists between size of germ 
and oil-content of maize-grain. 

Physiological correlations include such cases as the reduc- 
tion in yield of fruit and seed in inverse ratio to excess of 
leaf-production, as in some races of tobacco, or of wood as in 
the case of certain fruit-trees. 

Coherital correlations include " those characters which are 
not related to each other in any direct or causal sense, but 
which are inherited as single unit-characters". Such cases 
include the naked grain of certain races of oat correlated with 
large number of flowers in a spikelet. 

It is of practical importance to the breeder to understand 
the correlations of the characters with which he deals. It is 
essential to a proper selection of parent plants that he should 
not only pick out those bearing good ears, but that he should 
also study the habit of growth of the plant, its stem, lieaf, and 
flowers, for these have an important influence on the produc- 
tion of good grain, and their precise relationships should be 
accurately determined and defined. 

"As yield is the character of paramount importance, and 
as this character can now be determined only by laborious 
field tests, it is of the utmost importance that careful considera- 
tion be given to plant characters that may be correlated to 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 2 1 5 

yield. Discussions along this line have been almost wholly chap. 
confined to characters of the ear. A careful tabulation of ^' 
yields as compared with other ear characters, covering six years' 
work with four varieties, embracing in all more than 1,000 ear- 
to-row tests of production, indicates that no visible characters 
of apparently good seed-ears are indicative of high-yielding 
power. It is reasonable to expect, however, that a careful 
study of the entire plant in connection with its environment 
will reveal such characters" {Hartley, 5). 

170. Desirable Stalks. — The stalk represents the individual 
plant, and corresponds to the individual animal, the form and 
size of which are so carefully selected by stock-breeders. 

For a grain-maize (i.e. apart from the question of ensilage), 
a desirable stalk should have no suckers or off-shoots, should 
have well-developed roots, be thick at the base and gradually 
taper to the top, and bear a good ear ; this should be a little 
below the middle point of the stem to reduce the danger of 
blowing down in a strong wind. For the same reason the stalk 
should not be too high ; even in the Low-veld of South Africa 
it is doubtful whether a height of more than 8 feet is desirable. 

171. Desirable Leaves. — To produce the large amount of 
starch which is stored in a full ear, a large leaf surface is 
necessary; 14 to 16 blades is a good number, and, on well- 
grown plants, the blade of the middle leaf should be from 4 
inches to 6 inches across. 

172. Desirable Ears. — The shank of the ear should not 
be more than 4 inches or 5 inches long ; individual plants pro- 
duce shanks of 9 inches to 1 2 inches, which is an undesirable 
character. 

An ear of cylindrical shape, well rounded at each end, gives 
the largest percentage of grain to cob ; its grains are also more 
uniform in shape. The number of rows should be uniform 
and typical of the breed (8, 10, 12, etc.); the rows should be 
straight and with little space between ; the grains should fit 
together compactly and be firm on the cob, and should be 
uniform in shape and length on all parts of the ear. 

It is sometimes suggested that it would be desirable to 
save seed from plants bearing two or three ears, in order to 
develop a more productive race. Experience shows, however, 
that with most breeds it is preferable to grow one good ear 



2i6 MAIZE 

CHAP, on a plant rather than two medium or poor ones ; few plants 
^' seem able to develop two really good ears, and much energy 
is wasted in the attempt, which might better be devoted to 
the production of one good ear per plant. 

The weight of the husked ear can be taken as a fairly good 
guide to the relative yield of grain. In some breeds, however, 
the heaviest ears do not always give the greatest weight of 
grain, though such exceptions seem rare. Certain ears of 
Wiscotisin x Iowa Silver-mine, weighing 1095 O'^s., gave 8'64 
ozs. of grain, while those of Yellow Hogan, weighing only 
lO'So ozs., gave 9-20 ozs. of grain, the difference in percentage 
of grain to ear being 5 '81 per cent in favour -of the Yellow 
Hogan. Other similar cases have come under the writer's 
observation. It is quite possible, however, that such differences 
are not constant. American experiments show that the pro* 
duction of a large number of well-bred but medium-sized ears 
is more profitable than the attempt to produce abnormally 
large ears. 

In endeavouring to improve the yield by breeding, we may 
start with th5 moderate aim of a 75 per cent stand and an 
average of 8 ozs. of grain per ear. If this is attained it will 
give 6,534 plants (planted 40 x 18 inches), and 16 muids of 
shelled grain per acre. 

Some local breeds show strong tendency for the sheath 
of the ear not to cover the end of the cob. This is a bad de- 
fect, and should be bred out. It leaves the uppermost ovules 
and silks exposed to weather and insects, with resulting loss 
of grain. 

The most desirable character of a seed-ear is its power to 
reproduce abundantly a good quality of ears, but this can only 
be finally determined by comparative growing tests. 

173. Desirable Cobs. — " Selecting for small cob results in 
reducing the size of the ear, and it is also an easy matter to 
reduce the size of the cob to such an extent that the pressure 
of the kernels causes the ear to break " (^Hartley, 5). 

But it is important that the cob should not be too thick, or 
it will not dry out quickly, when it is apt to discolour the 
grain. 

174. Desirable Grains. — To again quote Hartley (5): 
" Lenofth is a verv desirable character for the grains of maize 



INHERITANCE— IMPRO VEMENT B Y BREEDING 2 1 7 

to possess, as it is by increased length in proportion to the CHAP, 
diameter of cob that the percentage of grain is increased. ^• 
Soft, chaffy grains, though long, or grains with prolonged 
chaffy caps, are not desired. It is much better to select for 
increased length of kernel than to select for small cobs." The 
most desirable shape of grain, he adds, is that of a wedge hav- 
ing straight sides and edges. This shape admits of the grains 
fitting together so compactly that little or no space is wasted. 
" The germ, the most nutritious portion, and the portion in \ 
which is located the embryo plant, should be large, smooth, 1 
and firm." 

This American ideal excludes such broad types of grain as 
the broad Natal Hickory King, and yet Hickory King is con- 





A B 

Fig. 87. — A, Desirable shape of grain. B, Device for standardizing grains. 



sidered one of the best selling types on the local South African 
market. But it does not necessarily follow that Hickory King 
is the most profitable type to grow. We need further informa- 
tion on several points in this connection before we can form a 
definite opinion as to the breed that will pay best, //"we can 
get the best price, combined with good yield, from the broad 
Hickory King, that may be the best type for us to grow. But 
if we get, say, los. a muid for Hickory King, yielding .12 muids 
per acre, and only 9s. per muid for some other variety yielding 
I 5 muids per acre, it will pay better to grow the 9s. variety, 
for it will sell for 15s. per acre (or £'j los. per ten acres) more 
than the Hickory King. 

175. Fancy Points. — There are some points made use of in 
judging maize at shows which are good in their way, but which 



2i8 MAIZE 

CHAP, are not known to be of practical value in the selection of parent 
ears for breeding purposes ; these include such fancy points as 
well-covered tips, perfectly straight rows, very thin cobs, etc. 
On this question we may think over the words of Dr. Hopkins 
of the Illinois State Agricultural Experiment Station : — 

"There is some danger of corn breeders making too much 
of what might be called fancy points in selecting seed ears. 
We would learn the facts which are facts and not base our 
selections too much upon mere ideas and opinions. For 
example, it is not known that ears whose tips are well filled 
and capped with kernels are the best seed ears. Indeed it is 
not improbable that the selection of such seed ears will cause 
the production of shorter ears and a reduced yield per acre. 
It is true that the percentage of shelled corn from a given ear 
is the greater, the greater the proportion of corn to the cob, 
but our interest in that percentage is very slight compared to 
that of yield per acre, and perhaps for the greatest possible 
yield of shelled corn per acre it requires that the ears shall 
have good-sized cobs. Possibly the corn which shall ultimately 
surpass all others for yield per acre will have tapering and not 
cylindrical ears. These are some of the points regarding which 
men have some ideas and opinions, but as yet we have no 
definite facts and we shall need several years more to obtain 
absolute knowledge regarding some of these points. Let us 
base our selections of seed-corn first upon known facts and 
performance-records, and secondly upon what one may call 
his ' type' of corn." 

176. Methods of Selection. — The attempt to practise plant 
breeding without sufficient knowledge of either the science or 
the practice has led to disappointment and failure in many 
cases. One mistake has been the buying of prize bags of 
shelled seed at agricultural shows, irrespective of the pedigree 
of the seed. Now prize bags of shelled maize generally con- 
tain the largest grain the farmer is able to find ; the largest 
grain is often borne on the smallest ears and therefore does 
not represent high crop-producing power; the largest grain 
does not always produce good ears and good yields. Prize 
maize may have been sifted from bulk grain, shelled in the 
field, and often consists of the tailings which pass over the 
riddles'; it is sometimes produced by a very indifferent crop! 

Again, too much reliance has been placed upon seed-maize 



INHERITANCE— I M PRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 2 1 9 

taken from the biggest ears from the bulk crop. Big ears are CHAP, 
more likely to reproduce their kind than big seed, and this is ^" 
better than no selection ; but the farmer soon finds that it does 
not bring him beyond a certain point. This is because the 
ears in the ordinary bulk field have been cross-bred with inferior 
strains. In an ordinary commercial field of maize the pro- 
portion of good, typical ears is very small. Not long ago the 
writer went through a South African field of what looked like 
a good maize crop, running probably ten bags to the acre. In 
the course of about an hour he could find only two plants, in 
the best parts of the field of 15 acres, which could be con- 
sidered ideal for seed purposes. And though this was much 
superior to the ordinary crop of the country, he could not find 
100 plants in an acre that were worth picking for seed. An 
acre carried over 8,000 plants, and at this rate there would be 
80 poor plants to every good one. As the maize plant is 
usually not self-pollinated, but depends on cross pollination, it 
is probable that every plant in that field was crossed with 
pollen from one or more of the many poor plants with which 
it was surrounded. Deterioration in the quality of the seed 
produced must inevitably have followed. Such deterioration 
might not show in the ear produced that year, but it would 
show in the following crop. Deterioration is constantly taking 
place where breeding is not practised. 

It is not only big ears that produce heavy yields. A big 
ear is better than a little one, but big ears often produce 
small, light grains ; medium ears with deep heavy grains 
usually produce the heaviest yield per acre. 

In practical plant breeding, three processes are usually 
followed in the selection of maize for the breeding plot : — 

{a) Field-selection of original mother plants ; 

ifi) Selection of ears in the seed-store ; 

ic) Selection by continuous performance-record in the 
breeding plot. 

177. Importance of Care in Selection. — Selection should not 
be done carelessly, nor be left to the ignorant. Hand picking 
by Kaffirs may be better than no selection, but it will not carry 
forward the work of improvement. One season's careless 
handling of the seed crop may undo all the good wliich has 
been accomplished in three or four years. The man who is 



2 20 MAIZE 

CHAP, selecting must know thoroughly what points to select, and this 
^' knowledge depends on an intimate acquaintance with the laws 
governing the transmission of characters. The day of empiri- 
cal selection has passed ; it can no longer be left in the hands 
of the ordinary farm labourer. 

178. Field Selection of Parent Ears. — If we select only 
from among harvested ears, we cannot tell whether the mother 
plant was vigorous or weakly, tall or short, leafy or sparsely 
leaved, subject to rust or rust-resistant, or whether a particular 
ear has grown at the right place on the stem, or has had a 
desirable shank. All these points and many others have a 
definite bearing on the future yield of the crop to be grown, 
for they are correlated with characters directly concerning 
yield. Field selection is obviously most important. 

Good ears cannot come from poor plants any more than 
good wool from poor sheep ! And the one is as likely to pro- 
pagate its kind as the other. A sheep with a poor constitution 
would not be used in a good stud flock. No more should the 
grain from a maize plant with a poor constitution be used for 
seed purposes, for it will not produce a heavy crop. It is not 
sufficient to select all the largest ears at harvest to be used for 
the seed plot. The large ear does not always come from a 
plant desirable in other respects. In breeding for wool, a 
sheep farmer does not base his selection of his stud sheep 
solely on the amount and quality of the wool. A shapely 
body and robust constitution also take an important place in 
the list of characters which make up a desirable stud sheep. 
Plants like animals are living things with varying degrees of 
vigour. As with live stock, it is important that we make 
a similar study of desirable points in selecting our parent 
seed plants. In order to produce good crops we must begin 
with the mother plant in the field, and that plant must be 
vigorous, must have plenty of leaf surface, produce large 
ears, and possess other qualities correlated with the characters 
which our standard demands. 

Having in mind the standard of stalk, leaf, ear, and shank, 
it is necessary to select 100 to 500 plants which come as close 
as possible to that type ; these should be marked conspicuously 
so that they will be found at harvest time. A field of from 
I 5 acres to 30 acres should be chosen for this purpose. The 



INHERITANCE^IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING , 221 

time when the selection is made will depend partly on the CHAP, 
object sought ; if this be early maturity it will be desirable to ^" 
go through the field when the Jirsf tassels and silks appear, 
marking all the earliest plants, provided they are desirable 
from other points of view. It will also be desirable to repeat 
the process when the first plants begin to ripen, because it 
does not seem to be the case that the earliest plants to mature 
are always the earliest to flower ; this point needs further in- 
vestigation, however. For ordinary selection for yield and 
quality the best time is probably when the ears are well de- 
veloped, and before the leaves have turned brown ; at this 
stage the breadth and colour of the leaf can be observed to 
good advantage. 

By systematically walking through a field, row by row, 
and tying labels on the desirable plants, it does not take long 
to mark off 500. The principal points to be observed in field- 
selection are : — 

1 . General vigour of the plant, 

2. Leafiness of plant and width of leaf. 

3. Size of ear. 

4. Straightness and strength of stem. 

5. Stem broad at base, tapering gradually. 

6. Ear borne about middle of stem. 

7. Shank of ear short. 

8. Husks compact and firm on ear. 

9. Apex of ear well covered with the husk. 

10. Freedom from rust and smut. 

Where early maturity is desired, as on the extreme High- 
veld, this can also be taken into account. 

Each selected plant should be marked with a conspicuous 
label which will not be lost sight of when the leaves turn 
brown at harvest. For this purpose sized cloth labels prove 
least satisfactory ; they quickly blacken, lose the " size " and 
become indistinguishable, losing entirely the figures written on 
them. Our best results have been obtained with ordinary 
brown paper parcel-labels, numbered with ordinary black or 
blue pencil. But even these are too much like the dry maize 
leaves and husks in colour to be easily seen at harvest ; and 
when a label is tied near the tassel away from the leaves. 



22 2 .\fAr/.K 

CHAP, both tassel and label will disappear in many cases b)' the 
breaking off of the tops of the culms. 

At harvest all the marked plants that can be found are 
cut by hand and removed before the rest of the crop is 
harvested. The ears are hand-husked and stored until they 
can receive personal attention. By that time they should 
have dried out thoroughly, so that reliable comparative tests 
of weight can be made. 

The ears should be allowed to ripen well on the stalks ; the 
stalks of the selected plants might be harvested and shocked 
by themselves to avoid delaying the rest of the harvest. When 
thoroughly dry, careful selection of the ears must be made, 
only forty or fifty of those which come closest to the ideal 
being retained for the breeding plot. These should be weighed 
separately, and a record kept of the total weight and of the 
weight of shelled grain from each. 

179. Seed-room Selection of Ears. — The 500 ears selected 
in the field are weighed in bulk and then laid out on benches 
in the seed-room. All small, distorted, or otherwise undesir- 
able ears are at once discarded, their total \veight being 
taken, as a check. Field selection cannot be so perfect that 
none but desirable ears will be harvested. In a test case of 
five breeds selected in the field, the following proportions were 
retained as suitable for the breeding plot : — 

Per Cent. 

Yellow Hogan 80 

Yellow Horsetooth ...... 65 

Hickory King . . . . . . . 61 

Golden King ....... 59 

Ladysmith ....... 56 

It is doubtful whether in ordinary selection of large ears 
at husking it would be possible to obtain even lO per cent 
of desirable ears from an ordinary crop. And then one would 
not have the advantage of knowing that they came from 
robust and otherwise desirable parents. 

Of the 300 or so ears left, a more critical study is made. 
One hundred of the best are reserved for the centre of the 
breeding plot and the remainder shelled off at once to be used 
for the end rows. 

After some practice the selection of the best 100 ears can 
easil}' be made by eye. When increased yield per acre is the 



INHERITANCE— IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING 223 

primary consideration, the points on which selection is made CHAP, 
can be reduced to the following : — 

1. Size and weight of ears ; 

2. Depth of grain ; 

3. Closeness of rows (i.e. narrow sulci) ; 

4. Regularity of rows ; 

5. Regularity of grain ; 

6. Shape of ear, and character of tips and butts ; 

7. Yield of grain per ear. 




Fig. 88. — Selecting seed-maize : the final selection. 

All these points have a direct bearing on the yield per acre. 

The final selection consists in classifying the picked lOO 
ears into groups of ten each, according to depth of grain and 
size and weight of ear, etc. (Fig. 88). The weights of each 
group of ten are then taken ; they are arranged in a row, with 
the twenty best ears in the centre, the next best next, and so 
on, the poorest of the lOO occupying the two ends of the row. 

In the final selection too much reliance must not be placed 
on weight or size of ear. The writer has frequently found that 



2 24 MAIZE 

CHAP, the smaller of two ears gives the greater weight of grain. This 
^" is due to the fact that there is an immense difference in the 
depth of the grain on different ears of the same variety. Other 
things being equal, the greater the length of the individual 
grains the greater the yield per acre. It is bulk of grain that 
is sought, not size of ear ; the latter is important only as it 
aids to produce the former. It is true that the ear, as well as 
the vegetative characters of the plant, give an indication of its 
capacity ; but it is the individual grain which carries the 
embryo plant, and as the grain is, so will its progeny be, 
except always for such changes as may be brought about by 
the influence of environment or cross-pollination. 

The ear must be taken into account only in connection 
with the grain that it bears. 

1 80. Character of the Grain. — Therefore, after the sub- 
division by size, weight, and other external characters, it is 
necessary to examine carefully the character of the grains of 
each ear, and to re-arrange the ears in accordance therewith ; 
it is surprising to find how great a range of variation occurs in 
respect to the size and shape of the grain within the limits of 
one breed (see Fig. 68). This comparison is best accomplished 
by taking six grains from each ear, two from a point about 
one-third from the tip, two from the same distance from the 
butt, and two from the centre. These six grains are laid on 
the table at the foot of the ear from which they are taken. 
Comparison is then made of the grains from all the ears, 
especially in regard to uniformity, length, shape, thickness, and 
size of embryo. It is important to consider uniformity of 
grain, for if — as is often the case — the grains on the upper part 
of the ear are shorter than those on the lower part, the weight 
of grain must obviously be less than if they were longer. After 
careful study of the grains, the ears must be arranged accord- 
ingly, even at the expense of size and weight ; in some cases 
a compromise may be made with advantage, but this can only 
be done effectively by persons having a thorough knowledge 
of the subject. 

In the case of the ten best ears of each breed, full notes 
are taken of the length, circumference, and character of each 
ear ; samples of the grain from each are retained for reference 
the following season, in order to determine whether the char- 



INHERIT ANCE—IMPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 2 2 5 

acters for which the ear was selected are being transmitted or CHAP, 
whether they are only of a temporary nature. If any one or ^' 
more ears show fluctuating variability as regards such char- 
acters, the progeny of those ears can be discarded next season. 

The object of placing the very best ears in the centre, and 
the worst of the 100 on the outside, is that the same sequence 
may be preserved in the breeding plot. By this means, and 
as the grain from each ear will be used to plant only one row 
of the plot, the grain from all of the best ears will be removed 
as far as possible from danger of pollination by plants de- 
rived from poorer ears. In this way the tendency to deteriora- 
tion, through cross-pollination with poor plants, is reduced to 
a minimum. 

After this the ears are shelled by means of a hand-sheller ; 
the cobs of each ten are weighed separately ; the weight of 
cob deducted from the weight of ear previously taken gives 
the weight of grain. Being in groups of ten the average 
weight of individuals in a group can be determined at a glance. 

Each ear is shelled into a paper bag (half-pound bags 
with folding flap have been found satisfactory) and num- 
bered with a consecutive number from i to 100, preserving 
carefully the same sequence as that of the final selection. 
The packets of each breed are then placed in separate 
boxes, the highest number at the bottom, and carefully 
labelled ready to be taken to the breeding-plot at planting 
time. This completes the work of selection for the season. 

181. Selection by Continuous Perfonnance-record. — This 
consists in the strict and continuous selection of parent ears 
from among the best progeny of the best plants which have 
year after year given the best performance-record in the 
direction desired (i.e. yield, early maturity, drought resistance, 
etc.). An idea of the method practised is given in Table 
XLIII following, which shows the sort of record kept each 
year of the performance of certain strains grown in the breed- 
ing plot of the Illinois State Experiment Station. Selection 
for the following year would be made of those ears which give 
the best record in this analysis. It is noticeable that the nine 
best ears ^ are those in the centre of the table, which come from 
the centre of the breeding plot, and that the best result of all 
^ As regards protein-content, for which the ears were selected. 
15 



226 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
V. 



is obtained from the centre row (No. lo). This indicates 
inheritance of good characters, for in the breeding plot the 
best ear was planted in the centre of the row, the two next 
best on either side, and so on, to prevent crossing of the best 
with the poorer plants. 



Table XLIII. 
PERFORMANCE-RECORD OF BREEDING PLOT, 
Illinois Expekiment Station. 
(Breeding for High Protein.) 



igoi 





Relative Weight 








Field Row 
Number. 


of Ear Corn in 


No. of Ears per 


Weight per Acre 


Protein 


Crop (Average of 


Acre (on an 


(on an Average of 


in 


200 Plants per 
Row). 


Average of 8,000). 


I lb. per Ear). 


Seed-ear. 




Lbs. 


No. 


Muids. 


Per Cent 


I 


gi-o 


7,280 


i8-2 


12-06 


2 




86-0 


6,880 


17-2 


12-17 


3 




98-5 


7,880 


19-7 


12-19 


4 




99'5 


7,960 


19-9 


12-26 


5 




77-0 


6,160 


15-4 


12-31 


6 




; II8-0 


9,440 


23-6 


12-40 


1 


7 




ii6"o 


9,280 


23-2 


12-66 


8 




■ 54-5 


4.360 


lo-g 


12-83 


S 


9 




107*0 


8,560 


21-4 


12-90 


-1 


ID 




103-0 


8,240 


20-6 


1578 


II 




87-0 


6,960 


174 


12-93 


■H. 


12 




127-5 


10,200 


25-5 


12-94 


§ 


13 




113-0 


9,040 


22-6 


12-72 


X 


14 




123-5 


9,880 


24-7 


12-45 -* 


15 




103-5 


8,280 


20-7 


12-32 


i6 




92-0 


7,360 


18-4 


12-31 


17 




85-5 


6,840 


17-I 


12-23 


i8 




117-0 


9,360 


23-4 


12-18 


19 




140-5 


11,240 


28-1 


12-07 


20 




97-0 


7,760 


19-4 


12-06 


Average 


loi-g 


8,148 


20-37 


12-59 



182. Method of Propagation. — Difficulty has been experi- 
enced by growers in propagating the seed-maize after it has 
been selected, and some have been so discouraged by the 
results of cross-pollination, that they have given it up. It 
should be remembered that it takes three years, at least, before 
material improvement can be expected. The difficulty is 
largely due to the small amount of seed available as the result 
of the first selection. The following method has been found 
satisfactory. 



INHERITANCE— I MPRO VEMENT B V BREEDING 2 2 7 

Fz'rs^ Years Selection. — Let us suppose that only twenty CHAP, 
good ears, coming up to our ideal, have been selected this 




Fig. 89. — Selecting the best ears from the bulk plot. 



season; what are we to do to prevent this progeny being 

crossed by plants in the same field grown from unselected 

seed ? The best plan is to plant the seed in a square of, say, 

15* 



2 28 MAIZE 

CHAP. 70 yards by 70 yards (an English acre), at one corner of the 
^- field where the bulk of the same breed is grown. This should 
be, preferably, on the side nearest the homestead or road, so 
that the plot may be watched. This is called the breeding 
plot (f 183). The rest of the field is planted with the best of 
the seed which is not considered suitable for the breeding 
plot. 

Second Years Selection. — The three outer rows of the breed- 
ing plot (which have been most exposed to crossing with the 
plants in the bulk field) are harvested with the bulk crop. 
The rest of the breeding plot is harvested separately, and any 
nubbins or undesirable ears are rigidly discarded. From the 
remainder the twenty best ears are again selected and planted 
in the breeding plot. The remainder are used for what is 
known as the propagation plot, which may vary in size from 
five to ten acres or more, according to the amount of seed 
available. The propagation plot is planted around the breed- 
ing plot, and forms a buffer between it and the bulk plot. 
The best ears selected (Fig. 89) from the bulk plot are used 
to plant the current season's bulk plot. 

Third Years Selection. — ^At harvest time the three outer 
rows of the breeding plot are harvested with the propagation 
plot, and the three outer rows of the propagation plot are thrown 
in with the bulk crop. The remainder of the breeding plot is 
harvested separately, and any nubbins and undesirable ears are 
discarded ; from the balance the twenty best ears are again 
selected for the next season's breeding plot, and the remainder 
are used to plant the propagation plot. 

The remainder of the propagation plot is harvested sepa- 
rately ; nubbins and objectionable ears are discarded, and the 
best of the balance is used to plant the bulk fields. 

Thus in the third and subsequent years the bulk fields are 
supplied entirely from twice selected seed from the propagation 
plot, while the propagation plot is itself supplied from the 
breeding plot. 

In the fourth and subsequent years the work is continued 
as in the third year ; it must always be maintained, for though 
there is a maximum beyond which "selection" alone cannot 
carry one, deterioration takes place with remarkable rapidity 
when selection ceases. 



J 



IN HER I TANCE—IMPR O VEMRNT B \ ' BREEDING 229 

The fundamental principle of the method described above CHAP, 



is the rigid elimination of undesirable types, which may appear 
owing to reversion, and the mating together in the breeding 
and propagation plots of the most desirable types. 

183. The Breeding Plot should be so selected that the soil 
will be typical of that on which the main crop will be grown. 
The same preparation should be given as for the main crop, 
no extra care or fertilizer being used. The object is to find 
out which plants will give the best results under normal con- 
ditions ; if they do well, then they may be expected to do 
better on well-fertilized soils. 

It is absolutely necessary that the plot should be isolated 
at least 400 yards from any other sort, or from strains of the 
same sort, flowering at the same time. Any stray plants from 
previous plantings must be carefully rogued out before they 
have a chance to tassel. 

The rows should be 200 or more yards long and of exactly 
the same length. The seed should be planted on the principle 
of one row to each ear. After removing the tips and butts 
from the selected ears, the rest of the grain should be planted 
in a single row. It is better to drill the seed than to check- 
row it, as it is difficult to isolate suckers from main stalks 
when more than one plant occupies a place. Each row should 
be numbered consecutively and labelled with a stake at the 
end. With the seed left over from the rows three or four 
border rows may be planted all round the breeding plot to 
protect the plot to some extent from depredation. 

184. Devices to Prevent or Detect Cross-pollination. — As a 
means of minimizing the amount of cross-pollination between 
breeds of maize grown near to each other on similar soils, the 
following devices, among others, have been resorted to at the 
Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria ; none of them, how- 
ever, has been entirely successful. 

Planting one week and two weeks apart was tried. Several 
of the breeds tested were new to us, and their relative time of 
flowering in that climate was not known, so that some of the 
later-sown flowered earlier than those planted before them. 
The danger of cross-pollination was minimized by bagging 
and hand-pollination, but the number of plants of each that 
could be treated this way was small, and the amount of seed 



2 3^ MAI /P. 

CHAP, saved was therefore limited. It was also found that in some 
cases in the same breed there was a difference of nearly two 
weeks in the time of flowering. This experiment demon- 
strated clearly that close planting, even allowing two weeks 
between plantings, cannot be relied upon to prevent cross- 
pollination. 

By planting first an early-maturing breed, and two weeks 
later a late-maturing breed, a certain degree of immunity may 
be secured. But there would be little practical advantage in this, 
except where it is necessary to plant several breeds in close 
proximity, for the farmer usually desires to plant all his late- 
maturing maize first, and afterwards that which takes less time. 

The use of rows of sorghum and kaffir-corn to separate the 
different sorts has proved unsatisfactory on the Transvaal 
High-veld, the maize having come into flower before the sor- 
ghum was tall enough to afford any protection. 

Detasselling is perhaps the most satisfactory method of deel- 
ing with the problem. But there is a certain amount of fluctuat- 
ing variability as regards time of flowering, and variability will 
be still more pronounced where the strain is heterozygous for 
this character. In practice this means that detasselling must 
be repeated (in the same row) two or perhaps three times within 
a week or ten days, and that great vigilance must be exercised 
to detect individual plants which flower later than others, and 
prevent pollen scattering from their earliest anthers. 

Covering the plots with cheese-cloth was tried at the 
Government Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom, as a means of 
isolating the breeding plots, but was not found satisfactory. 

185. Production of New Types by Artificial Cross-pollination. 
—The popular idea of cross-breeding maize is that by crossing 
two sorts the result will be a hybrid combining the characters 
of the two parents. This may be the case with the first ear 
obtained by the cross, but it is not always the case in the pro- 
geny of the first generation. Experience shows, moreover, 
that even where it does occur, the second generation from the 
cross produces a great deal of variation, more particularly with 
moncEcious plants like maize, and unless scientifically guided 
efforts are made, this variation will continue from generation 
to generation for an indefinite period. We have already dis- 
cussed the reason for this mixture of characters, and how it 
may be avoided or made use of. 



INHERITANCE— I MPk O VEMENT B V BREEDING 2 3 1 
Cross-breds of unknown pedigree are difficult to deal with, CHAP. 



and it may take years before they yield any desirable progeny. 
They should, therefore, be avoided, and the work of improve- 
ment should be started with well-bred seed. 

Where it is desired to ad(if new characters to a breed which 
does not already possess them, cross-breeding must be resorted 
to. The actual process of crossing is easy, but to isolate and 
fix the desired type is an entirely different problem. Crossing 
produces such varied heterozygous combinations that endless 
confusion results, and it requires knowledge of the laws of in- 
heritance, and infinite time and patience, to produce order 
out of chaos. Therefore cross-breeding should only be practised 
or permitted where the effect of crossing is understood, the object 
sought is well known, and the method well pla?tned. 

186. Reciprocal Crosses. — Where it is desired to transmit 
a definite unit-character from one breed to another,' it appears 
to be immaterial which breed furnishes the male and which 
the female parent ; the results in the F., generation are usually 
the same in either case. 

187. Method of ^ Cross-pollinating. — Cross-pollination is a 
comparatively simple matter. The silks of the plant to be 
pollinated must be carefully protected from the access of any 
stray pollen (Fig. 90) ; and the pollen of the male plant must 
be carefully collected so that it will not be mixed with stray 
pollen of other plants in the neighbourhood. The pollen is 
then shaken on to the silks and the latter are again covered 
up until all danger from stray pollen is over. It should be 
remembered that the pollen is light and easily carried by the 
wind ; when the field or plot is in tassel, the air may be charged 
with pollen grains, so that difficulty is experienced in pre- 
venting contamination of the silks with stray pollen. 

188. Collecting the Pollen. — The tassel should be covered 
with a paper bag, an ordinary 2 lbs. grocer's bag, of thin but 
tough brown paper, is found satisfactory. This is tied tightly 
round the stem below the lowest branches of the tassels. The 
bag should not be placed on the tassels until the first anthers 
appear on the terminal branch of the tassel, otherwise the 
anthers are apt not to develop properly. In the Transvaal, 
much of the pollen is found to lose its vitality after the third 
day. 



>32 



MAtZE 




Fig. go. — A new breed of maize in process of development. (Courtesy of the 
South African Railways Publicity Department.) 



INHERITANCE— IMPROVEMENT BY BREEDING 233 

The tassels may appear before the silks, and sometimes even CHAP. 



shed all their pollen before any silk appears (IT 79)- 

The appearance of the tassels is by no means uniform in 
individuals of the same variety. This is an important point in 
connection with the work of detasselling, for it makes it neces- 
sary to go through the breeding plot three or four times, at 
different dates, to effectually prevent self-pollination. 

189. Covering the Silks. — This is done by means of paper 
bags similar to those used for covering the tassel (II 188). The 
ear should be covered just before the silks first appear, to pre- 
vent contamination with stray pollen. The ear may be left 
for four days or a week before the pollen is applied, in order 
to allow all the silks to develop. For pollination, the bag is 
removed and a good dose of pollen shaken on to the silk, care 
being taken that it reaches all the silks. The bag is then re- 
placed quickly to avoid contamination with stray pollen. The 
first attempts at hand-pollination are not always satisfactory, 
but excellent ears may be obtained as a result of skill gained 
by experience and practice. 

The silks may appear either before or after the tassels. 
Not all the silks mature at the same time ; those from the 
ovules lowest on the cob appear first. Sometimes fresh silks 
continue to appear over a period of seven days. A single 
hand-pollination, effected when the silks first appear, is therefore 
inadequate ; nor is it sufficient to repeat it on two successive 
days ; this results in the lower half of the cob being well-filled 
while the apex remains undeveloped. Three pollinations, at 
intervals of three days between each, generally prove the most 
effectual, but by this means greater risk of contamination is 
incurred. 

In some cases, and in the same breed, the silks appear be- 
fore the tassels. When such an individual happens to be the 
earliest to flower in a field, it may fail to develop seed ; this 
tendency is therefore unlikely to be propagated to any great 
extent. 

190. The F^ Plants. — Three or four hundred grains will be 
obtained from a single successful crossing. If the parents 
differ in colour of endosperm, it will sometimes be possible to 
tell which grains have been crossed and which selfed acciden- 
tally, and the latter can be discarded. But F^ seed should be 



V. 



234 MAIZE 

CHAP, planted in an isolated breeding plot and each resulting plant 
should be carefully selfed. By this means it will be possible 
to detect the results of accidental crossing with stray pollen, 
and to prevent its spread to the other plants of the cross. 

The ears produced by these plants will show segregation 
in the seed, if the characters involved in the cross are seed 
characters, and from them selection of the desired grains can 
be made. 

191. The F^ Plants. — The F.^ plants must also be grown 
by themselves, and selfed. If the desired character is recessive, 
it will be possible to isolate it and commence propagation. 
But as our knowledge of the individual unit-characters is at 
present imperfect, it is desirable to grow the plants on for 
another generation, and self them, in order to eliminate any 
undesirable character which may not have appeared. If the 
F3 generation breeds true, the new type may be considered 
fixed and we may proceed to propagate. 

192. I mprovement by Breeding is Slow at First. — At best, 
improvement by breeding is a tedious process, and the man 
who is not prepared to be patient, methodical, and persistent, 
should not undertake it. The writer has known men who 
started out well, with no little expenditure of time and money, 
but who, seeing no visible results, gave it up in disgust after 
the first year. As has been said, visible results cannot be ob- 
tained during the first few seasons. It is probable that there 
is not a pure pedigree commercial crop of maize in South 
Africa to-day, and very few elsewhere, for maize is a remark- 
ably heterozygous mixture. Before we can hope to make 
definite progress, we must purify the strains we wish to im- 
prove. Hitherto time has been largely taken up with trying 
out breeds suited to different parts of the country. Now that 
we have formed definite ideas on this subject, we can devote 
our attention to their improvement by breeding. 

Addendum. — Arrangements have been made by the Agri- 
cultural Supply Association, Limited, P.O. Box 1 148, Johannes- 
burg, to supply pure-bred seed of heavy-yielding strains of 
maize especially suited to the High-veld of the Transvaal and 
Orange Free State. 



CHAPTER VI. 

JUDGING AND SELECTION FOR EXHIBITION. 

Send forth the best ye breed. 

— Kipling. 

193. The Object of Exhibiting at Agricultural Shows. — The CHAP, 
agricultural show does not exist solely nor prinnarily for the 
purpose of winning and awarding prizes. Unfortunately there 
are too many people who exhibit merely for the sake of prize- 
winning, having in view either the value of the prize itself, 
or the advertising of their seeds and other farm products. 
Those who take all the prizes year after year discourage others 
who have not equal facilities for preparing special exhibits, 
but whose work is, nevertheless, worthy of a prize ; therefore 
the number of prizes which can be drawn by any one ex- 
hibitor in any section should be limited. 

The main object of the agricultural show should be educa- 
tional : the farmer should be able to learn from the exhibits 
(i) the need for, and the means of, improving his own crops, 
(2) the relative merits of new breeds, and (3) where to obtain 
good seed. He may not realize the need for improving his 
methods and seed until he sees that other farmers' results are 
better than his own, and an agricultural show should be the 
best place for him to see this. 

We agree with the American writer who says that exhibits 
arranged with respect to the ready comparison of typical 
samples of different breeds, offer one of the most effective 
methods of diffusing knowledge with regard to the character- 
istics of different breeds. 

The main points enumerated in this chapter are already 
familiar to maize judges of experience, but are given here for 
reference. Owing to the short time usually allotted to judg- 
235 



236 



MAIZE 



1. 


. SS£ 


^ A ; 


ra . ^- 


;-^,;J^-p f ' 


Vx 


p^ 


i:|'5^>,;. 


11 




■■ 


B3f*"/'^^-., 




' r? '' ^^^0|f nnHblK ^WitmHr^^^^^^^^ 1 . I'l^HI 


l^^^^WK! 


iJ^ 


7 '■■ wi'- m"' 


! F^^la^'iWiPJMpl! i 


»*■/ • f: 


.. -ii- ■ aftaM$'i&'«ei 




'It 






)r\ ■ 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 237 

ing at local shows, certain of the details can be taken into chap, 
consideration only where competition is very close. ^'• 

194. Rules Governing Maize Exhibits. — The following 
rules are based on experience gained at leading South African 
shows : — 

(i). Each entry must be accompanied by a certificate giving 
as nearly as possible the date of planting and date of harvesting 
of the crop and name of the district in which it was grown. 
These certificates must not be seen by the judge till after the 
judging. 

(2). No exhibit may be entered in more than one class. 

(3). An exhibitor may receive only one prize in any one 
class. 

(4). An exhibitor is barred from exhibiting in more than 
three classes in any one of Sections I to III inclusive. This 
allows each exhibitor to show an early, medium or main-crop, 
and a late breed in each section. (At some American shows 
an exhibitor may enter only in three classes in all.) 

(5). Every exhibitor may enter for all classes in Section IV 
(special prizes), but may only take two prizes in this section; 
should he obtain more awards he will have the option of 
choosing which two prizes he will take. All awards will 
count as points in the aggregate for the Grand Championship. 

(6). Where there is but one entry in a class a prize shall be 
awarded only if the judge considers the exhibit deserving of 
recognition. 

(7). In such a case the judge shall decide whether a first, 
second, or third prize shall be awarded. 

(8). Grand Championship. — The Grand Championship Prize 
will be awarded for the highest number of points obtained 
by any exhibitor. Points will be given as follows : Com- 
mended, I point ; highly commended, \ point ; third prize, i 
point ; second prize, 2 points ; first prize, 3 points ; champion- 
ship of first prizes in a section, 4 points extra. The last- 
named provision is made to prevent mere number of entries 
from scoring over quality of exhibit. An exhibitor A who 
makes three entries in each of the Sections I to III inclusive, 
and who obtains six first prizes, would score 1 8 points ; another 
exhibitor B who enters in only one class in each of the three 
sections may obtain the first prize and the championship in 



238 MAIZE 

CHAP, each section ; unless the championship counted for more 
^^' than 3 points, B would score no more points than A, al- 
though the quality of his exhibit was superior as evidenced 
by his taking three championships. The aim of agricultural 
shows should be to encourage quality rather than number of 
exhibits from any one exhibitor. 

(9). In the event of a tie, the judge must decide as to the 
general relative merits of the two tieing exhibits and award the 
championship to the one which in his opinion is the best. If 
taken in an absolutely mathematical sense, the counting of 
points may result in an injustice to the best exhibit. It is 
obvious that if an exhibit wins prizes against severe competi- 
tion, it is more worthy of a championship than one which has 
no competition. 

(10). The exhibits must have been harvested during the 
twelve months immediately preceding the show. 

(11). Exhibits mustnot.be treated unfairly by removing 
poor, cross-bred, injured, or otherwise undesirable grains and 
replacing them by good ones. Any unfair or tricky occur- 
rences bar the exhibitor from all entries and all privileges of 
the show. One, or not more than three, grains may be 
removed by the exhibitor from one or more sides of each ear, 
in order to decide whether the ear is fit for exhibition. 

(12). " Grooming" of the ears in such a manner as to allow 
of their best possible presentation, is strongly recommended ; 
e.g. shanks of ears should be neatly removed with a pocket 
knife, and loose silks should be carefully taken off. 

(13). Exhibits must be delivered to the stewards of the pro- 
duce section two clear days before the opening of the show. 
They must be carefully labelled both inside and outside of the 
bag or box, for it often happens that the outside label is torn 
off in transit, and the owner is then traced with difficulty. 
The inside label should bear the name and address of ex- 
hibitor, the date of forwarding, and the section and class in 
which the entry is made. It is best to tie this on to at least 
one of the ears, or inside the mouth of the sack of shelled grain. 

(14). All exhibits are subject to necessary handling by the 
judge, but remain the property of the exhibitor, and may be 
secured by him immediately after the show is declared closed 
and the awards have been made. 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 239 

(15). Professional maize breeders, seed dealers, or expert CHAP. 



judges will not be allowed to compete except in classes 
specially arranged for them. 

(16). A bag of shelled maize shall weigh 203 lbs. gross. 

(17). A bag of ears must be contained in a full muid maize 
sack, and must weigh about lOO lbs. 

(18). An ear of maize is a cob with the grain still attached, 
but with the husks removed. 

(19). In classes in which the breed is not specified, each 
entry must be conspicuously labelled with the name of the 
breed, or the entry will be disqualified, and the name of the 
breed, as given by the exhibitor, should be printed in the show 
catalogue. 

195. The Prize-list. — It is important that the growing of 
recognized standard breeds of maize be encouraged ; the offer- 
ing of prizes for specific named breeds is doing much to per- 
manently improve the maize industry of South Africa. The 
custom of allowing one recognized breed to compete with 
another in the same class (except for a championship) should 
not be allowed, except in certain special cases indicated farther 
on in this chapter. 

196. Classification. — The proper classification of exhibits 
is essential to the educational value of a show, and to suc- 
cessful judging. In the classification of maize two main points 
should receive consideration : — 

(i) The exhibition of ears selected for seed, by which the 
would-be buyer can determine by whom and where 
the best seed maize is grown in his particular dis- 
trict, province, or country. In this section there 
are usually two subsections, {a) the ten-ear and 
ib) the single-ear competitions. It is sometimes 
argued that this section has no value to the prac- 
tical farmer because " anyone can grow ten good 
ears in his back garden ". This, however, is not 
the case. To produce ten really good exhibition 
ears from a small plot is almost impossible, owing 
to the much greater danger of imperfect pollination, 
attacks by insect pests, etc. The ten-ear and 
single-ear competitions are essentially educational ; 
through them a farmer learns what to select for seed. 



VI. 



240 MAIZE 

CHAP. (2) The exhibition of the commercial article — the maize- 



VI. 



grain — -by which the merchant and manufacturer 
are enabled to learn where and by whom are grown 
the best qualities for their particular classes of 
trade. 
Two distinct score-cards are required for the judging of 
these sections. 

197. Sections. — The following sections are found suitable 
for South African shows : — 

Section I. — Shelled maize for market or export. One 
muid (203 lbs. gross) of shelled maize, each bag to be ac- 
companied by one full bag (to weigh about 100 lbs.) of ears 
from the same crop ; these ears to be taken into consideration 
by the judge in making the awards. 

Section II. — -Seed-maize; ten ears selected for the breed- 
ing plot. 

Section III. — Best single breeding ear. 

Section IV. — Special prizes. 

As far as possible all of these sections should be repre- 
sented in every prize list, in districts where maize is a staple 
crop. 

198. Classes. — The following is a list of classes suitable 
for maize shows. It is usually only the central shows which 
are able to offer such a complete list as is here given ; very 
few district shows need include all of the classes, for only a 
few of the breeds named are grown in any one district. 

Section I. — Seed-maize : Ten Ears Selected for the 
Breeding Plot. 

Entrance fee, 5s. per class. 

Prizes (in each class) : 1st, £2 ; 2nd, £\ ; 3rd, lOs. Cham- 
pionship (of all classes in this section), ^3. 

Dent Breeds (white). 

Class. 

1. Hickory King {^-row). 

2. lO-row Hickory or Louisiana. 

3. 1 2-row Hickory or Hickory Horsetooth. 

4. Salisbury White, Mazoe, or Brindette. 

5. Mercer. 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 241 

Class. CHAP. 

6. Iowa Silver-mine. VI. 

7. Boone County. 

8. Ladysmith or Champion White Pearl, 

9. Natal White Horsetooth. 

10. Any other white dent breed. (In this class entries 

must be conspicuously labelled with the name of 
the breed, or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Dent Breeds (yellow). 

11. Eureka. 

12. Yellow Hogan. 

1 3. Chester County. 

14. Reid. 

15. Yellow Horsetooth or German Yellow. 

16. Golden Beauty. 

17. Minnesota Early. 

18. Golden Eagle. 

19. Any other yellow dent breed. (In this class entries 

must be conspicuously labelled with the name of 
the breed, or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Flint Breeds (white). 

20. Any white flint breed. (In this class entries must be 

conspicuously labelled with the name of the breed, 
or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Flint Breeds (yellow). 

2 1 . Yellow Botmafi. 

22. Yellow Cango. 

23. Wills Gehu. 

24. Any other yellow flint breed. (In this class entries 

must be labelled with the name of the breed or the 
exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Flour corn or Bread-mielies. 

25. Brazilian Flour corn or South African Bread-mielie. 

Sugar maize. 

26. Any breed of sugar maize. (In this class entries must 

be conspicuously labelled with the name of the 
breed, or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 
16 



242 MAIZE 

CHAP. Pop-corn. 

VI. Class. 

27. Any breed of pop-corn. (In this class entries must be 
conspicuously labelled with the name of the breed, 
or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 



Section II. — Best Single Breeding Ear. 

Entrance fee, 2s. 6d. per class. 

Prizes (in each class): 1st, £\ \ 2nd, lOs. ; 3rd, 5s.; 
Champion Ear (the best ear of all the first prize ears), £2. 

Dent Breeds (white). 

28. Hickory King (8-row). 

29. lo-row Hickory. 

30. 1 2-row Hickory or Hickory Horsetooth. 

31. Salisbury White. 

32. Mercer. 

33. Iowa Silver-mine. 

34. Boone County. 

35. Lady smith or Champion White Pearl. 

36. Natal White Horsetooth. 

37. Any other white dent breed. (In this class entries 

must be conspicuously labelled with the name of 
the breed, or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Dent Breeds (yellow). 

38. Eureka. 

39. Yellow Hogan. 

40. Chester County. 

41. Reid. 

42. Yellow Horsetooth or German Yellow. 

43. Golden Beauty. 

44. Minnesota Early. 

45. Golden Eagle. 

46. Any other yellow dent breed. (In this class entries 

must be conspicuously labelled with the name of 
the breed, or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 243 

Flint Breeds (white). CHAP. 

Class. VI. 

47. Any white flint breed. (In this class entries must be 

conspicuously labelled with the name of the breed, 
or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Flint Breeds (yellow). 

48. Yellow Botman. 

49. Yellow Cango. 

50. Wills Gehu. 

51. Any other yellow flint breed. (In this class entries 

must be labelled with the name of the breed, or the 
exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Flour corn or Bread-mielies. 
52. Brazilian Flour corn or South African Bread -mielie. 

Sugar maize. 

53. Any breed of sugar maize. (In this class entries must 

be conspicuously labelled with the name of the 
breed, or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Pop-corn. 

54. Any breed of pop-corn. (In this class entries must be 

conspicuously labelled with the name of the breed, 
or the exhibit will be disqualified.) 

Section III. — Shelled Maize for Market or Export. 

One muid (203 lbs. gross) of shelled maize ; each entry 
must include one full bag (to weigh about 100 lbs.) of ears 
from the same crop. These ears will be considered in judging 
the sample. 

Entrance fee, 5s. per class. 

Prizes (in each class): 1st, £l ; 2nd, £2 ; 3rd, ^i ; cham- 
pionship (of all classes in this section), £^. 

White "Flat". 

55. Hickory King. 

56. Natal White Horsetooth. 

57. Any other flat white dent breed. 

16* 



244 MAIZE 

CHAP. Yellow " P^at ". 

VI. Class. 

58. Any flat yellow dent breed. 

White " Round ". 

59. Any round white breed. 

Yellow " Round ". 

60. Any round yellow breed. 

Section IV. — Special Prizes. 

Entrance fee, 20s. 

Every exhibitor will be allowed to enter for all classes in 
this section, but may take only two prizes ; should he get 
more awards in this section, he will have the option of choosing 
which two prizes he will take. All awards will count as points 
in the aggregate for the Grand Championship Prize. 

61. P"ive muids of shelled "Choice White Flat" maize, 

suitable for export (any breed), with one bag of 
ears of seed-maize of the same breed, each bag to 
weigh about lOO lbs. 

Each entry must be accompanied by a certificate 
signed in the presence of the Field Cornet or the 
Resident Justice of the Peace, stating that the ex- 
hibitor has produced at least 500 muids of the same 
breed of maize on dry lands, during the past season, 
and that this particular exhibit was grown without 
irrigation. 

First prize . . . ;^io 

Second prize . . . i^5 

Third prize . . . £^ 

62. Five muids of shelled " Choice Yellow Flat " maize, 

suitable for stock food or for export (any breed), 
with one bag of ears of seed-maize of the same 
breed, each bag to weigh about 100 lbs. 

Each entry must be accompanied by a certificate 
signed in the presence of the Pleld Cornet or the 
Resident Justice of the Peace, stating that the ex- 
hibitor has produced at least 500 muids of the same 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 245 

Class. CHAP, 

breed of maize on dry lands, during the past season, vi. 

and that this particular exhibit was grown without 

irrigation. 

First prize . . . ^10 

Second prize . . . £^ 

Third prize ... ^3 
^l. Five muids "Choice Yellow Round" maize, suitable 
for export (any breed), with one bag of ears of seed- 
maize of the same breed, each bag to weigh about 
100 lbs. 

Each entry must be accompanied by a certificate 
signed in the presence of the Field Cornet or the 
Resident Justice of the Peace, stating that the ex- 
hibitor has produced at least 500 muids of the same 
breed of maize on dry lands, during the past season, 
and that this particular exhibit was grown without 
irrigation. 

First prize . . . £\o 

Second prize ... ^5 

Third prize . . . £l 

64. Five bags of ears oi Hickory King seed-maize (grain 

on the cob). Each bag to weigh about 100 lbs. 
First prize . . . £\o 

Second prize . . . i!^5 

Third prize ... ^3 

65. Five bags of white seed-maize on the cob, of any one 

breed (except Hickory King). Each bag to weigh 
about 100 lbs. 

First prize . . • ;^I5 

Second prize . . . ^10 

Third Prize . . . £s 

66. Five bags of yellow seed-maize on the cob, of any one 

breed. Each bag to weigh about 100 lbs. 

First prize . . . £iS 

Second prize . . . ;i^io 

Third prize ■ ■ . £S 

199. Championships. — Championships are a great stimulus 

to keen competition, if properly arranged and managed. But 



246 MAIZE 

CHAP, at some local shows in South Africa the whole purport of a 
^^- championship seems to have been misunderstood, and the mis- 
take has been made of calling for separate* entries for the 
championship, thus turning it into a distinct class, which is 
uncalled for and undesirable. The aim and object of the 
championship is to determine which is the best exhibit in any 
class in the whole show ; experience proves that if separate 
entries are called for, for the championship, the end aimed at 
is defeated, for the majority of exhibitors will not make 
separate entries, nor pay two fees, on the chance of securing 
the championship. 

200. Principles of Judging. — Although each Province and 
District specializes in particular breeds of maize, and though 
the ears produced in each may differ in size, etc., the principles 
underlying maize judging are the same for all conditions, and 
these must be clearly understood in order to judge successfully. 
It is not merely a question as to which is the best exhibit in 
its class, on a particular show, but whether the exhibit com- 
pares favourably with a definite standard. This standard 
should be the one recognized by authorities as embodying all 
of the qualifications of the best maize. Therefore the judge 
must be thoroughly familiar with the points on which maize is 
judged, and with the standards which have been set for each 
breed. A printed "standard of perfection" is a useful guide; 
such a standard cannot be final, but will grow or be modified 
from year to year as the various breeds are improved or 
altered. 

A well-arranged score card is of great assistance in main- 
taining a judicial balance. But the judge should bear in 
mind that there are no absolute rules which can be reduced to 
writing by which maize samples can be properly judged, in- 
dependent of that intuitive perception of good and bad points 
which in a good judge accompanies experience. The score 
card may. easily be abused if it is used in a strictly 
mathematical sense, for there are certain points which 
cannot be reduced to precise figures, and which will be 
neglected in the effort to do so. If the score card is slavishly 
followed, a wrong decision will result. On this account the 
use of the score card is sometimes condemned, though it is 
usually not the score card but the lack of comprehension on 



lUDGING AND SELECTION 247 

the part of the judge which is to blame. The judgment of the CHAP, 
person who is comparing the exhibit must enter into the score, 
and experience*should guide him in marking each point on the 
card. There are some men who are born judges, who can 
intuitively judge by eye without the aid of a score card ; there 
are a few who even claim to find the score card a hindrance, 
because their perception and summarizing of points go together 
so quickly ; but we believe such men are rare. 

There are so many points in an exhibit, that one may easily 
place undue value on those which can be seen at a glance, 
such as length of ear, uniformity, narrow sulci, good colour 
and good tips, to the neglect of such important points as shape 
and depth of grain, circumference and shape of ear, yield per 
ear, percentage of grain to cob, and the like. To the average 
judge of maize, the score card is of great assistance in just 
such cases. 

201. Methods of Judging. — The aim in judging is to de- 
termine which is the best exhibit, by careful comparison with 
a uniform standard scale of points. It is desirable to keep the 
separate scores of different exhibits side by side for comparison, 
and the most convenient way to do this is to have a printed 
score card of uniform size and shape. In .scoring any point, it 
is useful to have the exhibits which have already been judged 
also laid out side by side, so that at any time a comparison 
of scores already made may be easily and quickly noted. Where 
there are many entries and the scoring is at ail close, it is well 
to refer from time to time to the score previously given for the 
same point in the other exhibits. Unless this is done, it is 
difficult for the judge to keep clearly in mind the exact " cut " 
made on a point in previous cases. 

The stewards, judge, and assistants should use care not to 
injure the ears, which should be handled as little as possible, 
and .should not be broken. If damaged by falling, the loss of 
grain will affect the percentage of yield. 

Good light is necessary in order to detect poor colour of 
grain and cross-bred grains. A convenient table is essential 
to good judging ; it should be of such a height that the judge 
can see both tips' and butts without handling the ears, and 
so that he need not stoop unduly to examine them. The 
judging table should be of such size and so arranged that 



24^ 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VI. 





Fig. 92. — Maize Exhibits at the First South African Maize and Citrus Show, 
Johannesburg, rgio. 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 249 

the ten ears of each exhibit can be laid out side by side for CHAP. 

VI. 
comparison. 

An exhibit of ten ears is desirable, as it facilitates scoring 
of points and rapid calculation of averages. Rapidity of 
movement is essential to success in judging a large number of 
entries ; ten minutes should be long enough for any one ex- 
hibit of ten ears, except for determination of percentage of 
grain to cob and total yield of grain. To judge a sample 
accurately in ten minutes means that all unnecessary moves 
must be omitted. The eye must be trained to judge accurately 
at first sight. 

After the other points have been determined in any one 
sample, a competent assistant should follow to shell off and 
weigh up the ears to determine percentage of grain to cob. 
For this purpose the five alternate ears of the ten are weighed 
and shelled, the weight of shelled grain is taken, and the 
percentage determined. 

202. Judging Maize for Seed. — The aim in judging seed- 
maize is to determine which is the best sample for seed pur- 
poses. The best seed-maize is that which will produce the 
heaviest yield per acre of grain, of the best quality for feeding 
or for manufacture. Such a type will, obviously, be the most 
profitable to grow. The competing exhibits are carefully 
compared with the standard recognized as embodying all of 
the qualifications of the best seed-maize. These qualifications 
include points 

(i) which ensure good yield, e.g. size, uniformity, and 
shape of ears, straightness of rows, well-filled butts 
and tips, shape of grain, yield of grain per ear, per- 
centage of grain to cob, etc. ; 

(2) which ensure a perfect " stand" or crop in the field, 

e.g. uniformity in shape of grain, size of embryo, 
percentage and vigour of germination ; 

(3) which ensure good condition for consumption or export, 

e.g. maturity, soundness, dryness, etc. ; 

(4) trueness to type and breed characteristics in shape, 

colour, etc. ; 

(5) the value of the sample for feeding or manufacturing 

purposes as evidenced by the comparative percentage 
of protein, oil, starch, etc. 



2 so MAIZE 

CHAP. Shamel points out that these standards have been de- 

veloped and arranged by experienced growers, breeders, and 
judges to such a degree that a sample which comes up to 
these standards has been found (i) to give the best yield ; (2) 
to have the greatest degree of vitality ; (3) to be the most 
profitable seed to grow, and consequently (4) to command the 
highest price as seed. It is recognized, however, that not 
enough is yet known about the correlation of characters to say 
that the standards are perfect. 

203. Desirable Characters for Breeding Ears. — A casual 
glance at an ordinary harvested crop of maize ears conveys 
but little idea of the degree of variation among them. It is 
surprisingly difficult to find ten uniform ears in a heap of many 
thousands from an ordinary crop. 

Much remains to be done in the thorough scientific study 
of the maize plant to find out which visible characters are 
associated ("correlated ") with the invisible characters to which 
we owe yield and quality. That such visible characters 
exist is well known among stock-breeders ; an experienced 
dairyman buying a milch cow looks for one with a long, thin 
tail, prominent "milk" veins, good udder, and with a certain 
type of body and head. It is not probable that a thin tail has 
any direct connection with the supply of milk, but experience 
shows that a thin-tailed cow is usually a better milker than one 
with a thick coarse tail. So with plants ; there are visible cha- 
racters which may be correlated with the invisible. Experience 
shows that certain characters of the ears are in certain breeds 
associated with heavy yields. A study of these correlations 
has led to the framing of score cards for judging. 

204. South African Score Card for Seed-maize. — The 
following score card has been successfully used by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture of the Union of South Africa. It has 
been carefully prepared by comparing and testing the various 
score cards in use in the United States. It differs from any 
one of them in that greater stress is laid on weight of grain 
per ear than on proportion of grain to cob ; it is the yield of 
grain that is important, irrespective of the amount of cob. 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 



251 



Score Card for Judging Maize Ears. 

Show Date 

No. of Exhibit Class Breed 

Name and Address of Exhibitor '. 

Disqualify any exhibit of white maize which has a red cob. 
If any exhibit is conspicuously deficient in one or more of the eight last- 
named points, those particular points should be taken into consideration first. 

Score. Points. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



1. Length of ears. (Measure and compare with standard 

of perfection ; add the total sum of the deficiency, 
and for each inch cut i point) ..... 

2. Sulci, i.e. space between rows. (Cut i for sulci | inch 

wide or over, 75 for iVr to i ; -5 for ./„ to i\) . 

3. Shape of grain. (This depends partly on the breed; it 

is usually desirable for the grain to be wedge-shaped, 
and even in Hickory King it should be longer than 
broad ; take particular note of the shoulders at top 
and bottom of the grain. Allow -^ for every ear 
having well-shaped grain) 

4. Length of grain. (This must depend on the breed 

standard ; a well-grown Hickory King may be |J 
inch long; and a good Yellow Horsetooth, Eureka, 
Reid, or Iowa Silver-mine should reach f inch ; 
cut I for every ear having short grain) 

5. Uniformity of grain. (Place one grain from each ear 

side by side ; cut i for every grain \\ hich is not 
uniform with the majority) 

6. Yield of grain. (Carefully shell and weigh the grain 

from half the ears in each exhibit; take the average 
weight per ear, and for each \ oz. below standard cut 
I point) ......... 



If exhibits score at all closely on the above six points, 
the following eight additional points should be taken into 
consideration : — 

7. Trueness to type or breed characteristics. (Cut -5 for 

each ear not coming up to standard in this particular) 

8. Shape of ear and straightness of rows .... 

9. Uniformity of exhibit ....... 

10. Covering of butts ........ 

11. Covering of tips ........ 

12. Colour of grain. (Cut for variation in shade or tint) . 

13. Size of embryo 

14. Market condition (i.e. dryness and soundness of ear and 

grain and firmness of grain on the cob ; the grains 
should be free from decay and should be well filled, 
not shrivelled nor chaffy) ...... 

N.B. — Some breeds, e.g. Lady smith, Boone County, 
and Iowa Silver-mine, have naturally rough 
grain ; no cut should be made for roughness 
unless it is clearly due to lack of condition ; cut 
I for every ear out of condition. 



Possible. 

10 

10 

5 

10 
10 

10 


Award. 


55 
10 




100 





252 MAIZE 

CHAP. 205. Length of Ear. — Standards at best are but approxi- 

mate, and especially is this true in regard to length of ear. 
Change of altitude and latitude affect development, so that it is 
necessary to vary the standard for length of ear of the same 
breed, according to the part of the world (e.g. America or 
South Africa) or even according to the part of the same 
country (e.g. the Transvaal or Natal), in which it is grow- 
ing. Seven and a half to 8^ inches is the usual length for 
ears of Hickory King in the United States. We have been 
able to grow ears of this breed 1 1^ inches long, and it may be 
necessary to fix the South African standard higher than that 
of the States. The difference is perhaps due to crossing and 
subsequent selection over a period of years. Variation of 
season also affects length of ear, so that it will not do to take 
the measurements of a single season as a guide in setting the 
standard. But variation of season need not affect the use of 
the standard in judging. In an unfavourable season it may 
happen that no exhibit comes up to standard length ; then all 
exhibits lose alike on this point, and, at the most, length of 
ear only affects the score by 10 per cent. 

Very long ears are usually produced only when the season 
is long and particularly favourable, for long ears appear to 
require a relatively long season for full development. It is 
probable that the majority of the longest ears in a crop were 
produced on late-maturing plants, therefore we may reasonably 
expect that if in seed selection we pick the very longest ears 
we may be developing a late-maturing strain. This may be 
counteracted, to some extent, by selecting from among the 
long ears those that have the most perfect tips. 

In measuring ears take the full measurement from extreme 
butt to tip. This can be done best by the use of the foot-rule 
held in both hands, one end even with the butt the other end 
over the tip of the ear. Add together the deficiency and 
excess of length of each of the ten ears, as compared with the 
standard, and cut one point for each inch so obtained. 

206. Sulci or Spaces between Rows. — A wide space between 
rows means waste of space that should be filled by the grains, 
and therefore means loss of grain. ihere are two places at 
which waste space must be looked for — ■ 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 253 

(i) the j-z^/«" or spaces between the rows of grain on the CHAP, 
surface of the ear ; ' 

(2) the space between the tips of the grain, especially 
noticeable with sharply-pointed grains. 

The sulci are generally widest in broad-, shallow- and I 
smooth-grained ears, and in those breeds having fewest rows. 
Cut I point for sulci \ inch wide or over; 75 for yV to ^ inch, / 
and -5 for ^-^ to iV of an inch. But judgment must be 
guided by experience in this matter. 

The space at the tips can be judged fairly well by the shape 
of the grain, but in close judging it is well to shell off a space 
4 inches long and 4 rows wide, on the five ears that are to be 
shelled for determination of yield of grain. By examining 
the exposed ends and sides of the rows it is easy to determine 
the degree of loss of space; 25 may be cut for each ear show- 
ing too much loss of space. 

Reduction of width of sulci is well illustrated in Fig. 67 
of Doyle Hickory King. 

207. Shape of Grain. — Generally speaking, the wedge- 
shaped grain is the best type to breed to, because it neces- 
sarily furnishes the greatest amount of grain for the same size 
of ear. 

The shape of the grain is influenced to some extent by the 
number of rows, for we find that ears bearing eighteen to 
twenty-four rows usually have wedge-shaped grain, while those 
with less than eighteen rows are apt to have broader, rectangu- 
lar, or round-edged grains. This is not constant, however, 
for lo-row Hickory has more or less wedge-shaped grains. The 
question of the most desirable shape for each breed is largely 
a matter of experience. In South Africa the types have not 
yet been definitely fixed. The edges of the wedge should not 
be curved but straight. 

The proportion of starch is much higher in a thick grain 
than a thin one, and the proportion of bran and waste 
lower, which appeals to the miller and merchant ; therefore 
thick grains are more desirable than thin ones. By thick grains 
we mean thick in the direction of the main axis of the ear. 

The tip of the grain should be thick, plump, and not 
sharply pointed. Grain with a thin tip has a relatively low 
oil- and protein-content, and usually a lower vitality. 



254 MAIZE 

CHAP. In scorin^j, 5 is allowed for each ear haviiii^ well-shaped 

grain. 

208. Length of Grain. — The longer the grain, the greater 
the yield, but the shape varies with the breed, and the length 
should be in good proportion to the width. Breeders classify 
by shape of grain, having three groups of breeds : — 

{a) Grain broader than deep. 

{b) Grain as broad as deep. 

{c) Grain deeper than broad. 

Scoring should be based on the characteristic shape of the 
particular breed being judged, which implies a good knowledge 
of the different breeds : e.g. Hickory King is judged as Hickory 
King, and should not be cut because the grain is broad in pro- 
portion to its length ; but even in Hickory King there is 
great variation in length of grain, and preference should be 
given to the exhibit having the longest grain, if true to breed 
characteristics. 

209. Uniformity of Grain. — Take two grains from every 
ear at about one-third of the distance from the butt and place 
them on the table in front of the ear, with the tip of the grain 
pointing to the ear. The shape of the grain will vary with 
the breed (see Fig. 61), and its shape should be true to the 
characteristic of that breed. Whatever the shape and size of 
grain in the breed, the grains should be uniform on all parts 
of the ear, not only in shape and size, but also (in dent breeds) 
in the character of the dent and smoothness or roughness of 

' the grain end. Thus on smooth ears all the grains should be 
smooth, and on rough ears all should be rough. Roughness 
of grain is not necessarily objectionable, for as a general rule 
we find that a smooth grain is usually shallow, while a more 
or less rough grain is usually deep ; but roughness may be too 
pronounced, and an extremely rough ear is difficult to handle 
and makes husking a slower and more expensive process. 

210. Yield of Grain per Ear. — Weigh together the five 
alternate ears of the exhibit, shell them carefully so that none 
of the grain is lost, and weigh the grain ; calculate the average 
weight per ear by dividing by five, and for each half ounce be- 
low standard cut i point. 

The percentage of grain to cob can then be calculated ; 
this will depend partly on the condition of the ears, for ears 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 255 

that are thoroughly dry yield a greater percentage than those CHAP, 
which are still wet. If the yield of grain per ear is obtained, 
there appears to be little — if any — advantage in scoring for 
[Dercentage ; it is the total weight of grain which we wish to 
increase, and whether it is borne on a thin or a comparatively 
thick cob is immaterial. Experience shows that very thin 
cobs do not give such heavy yields of grain as comparatively 
thick ones. 

211. Trueness to Type and Breed Characteristics. — In live- 
stock breeding the desirability of keeping to uniform types is 
universally recognized. It is equally important in plant- 
breeding, but the principle is less rigorously applied because 
the types of farm crops are not so definitely fixed. Stock- 
breeding on systematic lines has been practised for many 
generations ; maize-breeding on definite lines is much younger, 
and in some cases the types change as the breeds improve. 
But even in maize, standards have been set by Breeders' As- 
sociations, for the older and well-established breeds, and where 
this is the case it is desirable to adhere to them. 

Variations of one sort or another are met with, more or 
less frequently, in most breeds of animals and plants ; these 
are culled out by the careful breeder. If any such variation 
is likely to prove beneficial, the individuals showing it may be 
isolated and inter-bred in order to " fix " the new character, 
and by this means new strains, races, or breeds may be pro- 
duced. But it is 7iut desirable to start new breeds unless their 
distinctive characters are clearly worth having ; there is far too 
much naming and propagating of novelties based on trivial or 
unstable characters. Such "new creations" often lead to 
bitter disappointment on the part of the grower ; the farmer 
would be wise to await the verdict of a competent Breeders' 
Association before spending time and money over untried 
novelties, and the Show Committee should not include them 
in the prize list without good authority. 

Selection to type is necessary to the preservation of the 
characteristics of the breed, and also to the development of 
that uniformity which is essential to the production of the best 
merchantable article. With maize it is not always easy to 
furnish a written description of the breed characteristics, which 
could be recognized by anyone unfamiliar with them ; in 
judging this point experience is the best guide. 



256 MAIZE 

CHAP. In the case of breeds the characteristics of which are not 

■ yet definitely fixed, the grower must choose for himself since 

there is no established standard to guide him. Among the 

ears in his crop which show variation in characters there is 

usually one type which is better than the others. 

212. Shape of Ears. — The shape of the ear affects the 
yield, quality, and uniformity of the grain. The object in view 
is the selection of the best shape of ear to produce the largest 
possible yield of shelled grain, and to ensure proper maturity 
under prevailing climatic conditions. The cylindrical ear is, 
on the whole, the best for these purposes, but some breeds are 
characterized by a more or less tapering ear, and where a 
tapering ear is a characteristic of the breed it should not be 
treated as a defect, nor should the exhibit be " cut " on that 
account. If the grower does not like a tapering ear he can 
discard that particular breed in favour of one with a more 
cylindrical ear, or he can begin to develop from the old breed 
a new one which will meet his particular requirements. But 
little is yet known as to the actual relative merits of the 
different ear-shapes. 

The principal objection to a tapering ear is that the grains 
in the upper portion are usually much smaller than those on 
the rest of the ear, and an uneven sample is the result. It is 
sometimes found that two rows run only part way up the ear, 
or in other words are "lost" (Fig. 83); this is a defect, as 
it means lo.ss of grain. 

It is difficult to define the varying degree of tapering in 
different breeds, and here, again, experience rather than written 
rules must be the judge's guide. 

Some breeds being grown in South Africa at the present 
time, e.g. Chester County, show a tendency to flattening or 
lateral compression of the ear which sometimes develops into 
a fasciation (Fig. 85A) of either the whole, or the upper portion, 
of the ear, and sometimes to a lobing or division of the apex 
into fingers (Fig. 85 b). These features are undesirable, and 
all tendency towards them should be bred out by discarding 
ears which show flattening at the tip. A quarter point is 
allowed for each well-shaped ear in the exhibit. 

213. Straightness of Rows. — Straightness of rows may be 
less important than size or shape of ear and depth of grain. 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 257 

but although it may appear at first sight to be merely a CHAP, 
"fancy point" (^\ 175), it has a bearing upon the yield and ^^" 
quality of the grain. An ear with twisted (Figs. 58 and 59) 
or irregular (Fig. 84) rows cannot carry as much grain of 
uniform quality as one of the same size but with straight, 
regular rows. Moreover, the tendency to twisted rows seems 
to be cumulative, and may develop into complete loss of rows, 
which tends to a reduction of yield and an unevenness of grain. 
At the same time it has been observed that some other- 
wise well-bred strains develop a marked tendency towards 
slight twist in the row, and an exhibit should not be scored too 
heavily on this account, if it has depth of grain and other de- 
sirable characters. 

214. Unifonnity of Exhibit. — Uniformity of exhibit refers 
to uniformity in appearance, shape, size, colour, indentation, 
smoothness, etc., but not to the kind oS. shape or colour. The 
shape and size maybe poor, but if the ears are alike they must 
be given full marks for uniformity ; the poor shape and size 
will be scored down when those particular points are dealt 
with. In scoring for uniformity remove those ears which are 
distinctly different from their fellows; half a point is allowed 
for each of the remaining uniform ears. 

215, Butts of Ears. — To some extent the shape and cover- 
ing of the butt are breed characteristics, and in such cases 
allowance may be made for this fact. With most breeds, 
however, it is desirable that the rows of grain should be carried 
well over the butt (Fig. 66a) leaving only a narrow opening 
through which the shank passes to the cob. If the rows of 1 
grain end abruptly on a level with the end of the cob (Fig. 66b) 
the ear will not yield as much (other things being equal) as if 
they are well carried over. A swollen butt is an undesirable 
character, for large, poorly filled butts usually have unduly 
large and thick cobs ; these dry out slowly, and delay harvest ; 

in frosty parts of the country this results in damage to the 
grain. The shank should be medium in size, for large, \ 
coarse shanks break off with difficulty and delay the work 
of harvesting and shelling where the latter is done by hand. 
But the shank should not be too small (Fig, 70) or the ear 
will break off in the wind before the main crop is ready to 
harvest. Exhibitors at a show should trim out the shanks 

17 



258 MAIZE 

CHAP, with a penknife before sending in their exhibits, for if the 
shanks are left on, the appearance of the exhibit is spoiled 
and the judge is apt to mark down accordingly. 

Well-filled butts are more frequently met with than well- 
filled tips, because the silks from the butt appear first and 
I remain in a receptive condition until sufficient pollen is avail- 
able for fertilization. The silks from the tip of the ear 
appear last, and it not infrequently happens that all the 
pollen has been shed before they appear. In most South 
African breeds the pollen is mature some days before the silks 
become receptive. 

The following scores are allowed for butts : — 
(i) For butts having the grains swelled out around the 
shank in a regular manner, leaving a concave de- 
pression, allow full marks. 

(2) Grains swelling out but not in a regular manner : cut -i. 

(3) Grains not swelling out beyond cob but regular in size : 

cut 2. 

(4) End of cob covered, but grains flat, shallow, and irre- 

gular : cut -3. 

(5) For poorly covered butt: cut -5. 

216. Thickness of Cob. — ^The cob is merely the support 
j which carries the grains, and the larger the cob — other things 
I being equal — the greater the number of grains that can be 

carried upon it. A careful study of this point shows that the 
best yielding ears have thicker cobs than those which give 
p'oor yields, or, in other words, that thin cobs generally result 
in poor yields. But a very thick cob should be avoided, because 
it requires too long to dry out thoroughly and is more difficult 
to shell off in a hand-sheller. 

217. Tips of Ears. — There should not be any projection of 
bare cob beyond the uppermost grains on the ear, becau.se this 
indicates lack of pollination through irregularity in flowering 
or other defects in the parent. The tip of a well-bred ear 

' should be regularly covered with uniformly-sized grains. 
The percentage of such well-covered tips will vary with the 
season, and in some seasons it may be difficult to find any so 
covered ; but if the scoring is uniform in this particular, all 
exhibitors will be affected alike and no injustice will be done. 
It is usually found that short ears are better filled than long 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 259 

ones, and, other things being equal, it is preferable to select CHAP. 



long ears which are not so well covered than uniformly short 
ears which are well covered. In judging, however, length of 
ear is dealt with independently and must not affect the scoring 
for covering of the tips. In a well-covered tip the grains 
should continue in straight rows up to the very end, and not 
be scattered irregularly ; for irregular grains the tips should 
be scored down according to degree of irregularity. For 
every exposed or badly covered tip i inch long, a cut of -5 
may be made, while less is taken off for shorter exposed tips. 

218. Colour of Grain. — Yellow grains on a white ear in- 
dicate crossing, whether the yellowness is dark or pale ; this 
means either : — 

(i) that the crop has been grown too near to a yellow 
breed ; or 

(2) that the seed used was not quite pure, containing some 

(perhaps only a few) yellow grains or white grains 
carrying a yellow " factor " ; or 

(3) that grains from a crop of yellow previously grown on 

the same ground have produced volunteer plants 
which have caused the crossing. 

In the first case the yellow grains are usually most plenti- 
ful near either the tip or the butt, owing to the fact that the 
volunteer plants, or the neighbouring field of yellows, came 
into flower at the beginning or close of the flowering period 
of the white breed. 

The effect of crossing a yellow breed with white pollen is 
not always as clearly marked as in the case of yellow on 
white ; in some cases the whiteness on the yellow is quite 
imperceptible, in other cases it shows in the form of a white 
cap on the yellow grain. Some pure breeds have a normally 
white-capped grain, e.g. White-cap Dent and Bristol 100-Day ; 
in such cases a white cap does not necessarily indicate crossing. 

For one or two yellow grains on a white ear, or white 
grains on a yellow ear, a "cut" of -25 points is made; for 
three or four such grains, '5 ; for five or six, 75 ; for seven or 
more, cut i point. 

Missing grains are considered as having been crossed, for 
the judge has no means of telling that they were not removed 
by the exhibitor to prevent a " cut " for crossing. In practice 
17* 



VI. 



26o MAIZE 

CHAi'. cut I (jf a point for each missing grain, except for those grains 
^'' i^three only). (II 194, § ii) which have been removed by the 
exhibitor from near the centre of each ear to determine whether 
the ears were suitable for seed or exhibition. 

Richness of colour is a point in favour of yellow maize, 
but some breeds are naturally paler than others, e.g. Golden 
King- as compared with Yellow Hogan. Dullness of colour 
may be due to age, to damage in drying, or to harvesting 
before the grain was sufficiently dry. 

219. Size of Embryo. — -A small, poorly developed embryo 
I gives a poor germination and a weak seedling, which is less 

capable of withstanding drought, insect attacks, etc. Most of 
the oil of the maize-grain is contained in the embryo, so that 
the larger the embryo, the higher the oil-content. 

220. Market Cori'iition. — By market condition is meant the 
best condition for marketing purposes. Condition includes 
dryness, firmness of grain on the cob, soundness, maturity, 
and freedom from injury or disease. Maturity is deter- 

] mined by the filling out of the grain. Chaffy ends usually 
indicate lack of maturity, but some breeds naturally have 
rough ends even when the grain is thoroughly mature, and a 
good knowledge of breeds is essential, to avoid mistakes in this 
respect. Loose grain usually indicates lack of maturity, but 
here again knowledge of breeds is necessary, because some of 
them naturally have a loose grain. By twisting the ear 
sharply in the hand (but not sufficiently to break it) it is easy 
to determine whether it is mature or not; if it remains rigid, 
it is generally ripe and dry, but if it yields to the twist it 
generally means that the cob is still moist ; a cut of half a 
point (5) is made for each ear not in condition. At agricul- 
tural shows held early in the season it is difficult to obtain 
thoroughly dry ears, and allowance must be made accordingly. 
In the case of seed-maize the vitality of the sample is of 
very great importance ; this can be determined by means of a 
germination test, but at an agricultural show there is not time 
to make such a test, which takes five days. To determine 
the viability of a sample of seed-maize, three grains are taken 
from each ear, one from near the butt, one near the tip, and 
one near the centre. These will germinate between wet 
blotting paper, or preferably on a plate of pure damp sand ; 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 261 

the grains are planted with the point downward and barely chap. 
covered with the sand. They are arranged and marked in ^^' 
such a way that the particular ear from which any set of three 
was taken can always be determined, so that ears with a poor 
germination may be discarded. A small plate or saucer or a 
sheet of glass are used to cover the germinating grain to 
check evaporation, and if the test is made in cold weather it 
should be carried on in a warm room. Daily examinations 
should be made and a note taken of the sets which take long- 
est to germinate. A germination of 97 per cent in five days 
is the usual standard. 

221. Colour of Cob. — -White maize should have a white 
cob. Yellow breeds of maize usually have red cobs. Some 
breeds of yellow, however, always have white cobs ; this is 
particularly the case with most of the yellow flint breeds 
{Cango, Botman, New Etigland S-row, etc.) and with Golden King, 
Hawkesbury Champion, Yellow Horsetooth, and German Yellow. 
A red cob in a white breed or a white cob in a yellow breed, 
excepting in the cases noted above, is an indication of careless 
selection, and the exhibit is disqualified accordingly. 

222. Circumference of Ears. — An exceptionally thin ear \ 
usually indicates shallow grain, and an abnormally thick ear , 
indicates an unusually thick cob; both will have been scored ) 
down when considering depth of grain, uniformity of exhibit 
and yield of grain per ear, while the lack of proportion will 
have received further consideration in scoring for length of ear. 

Where competition is keen it is customary to take into 
consideration the circumference of the ears as compared with 
their length. The standard is approximately as 7^ inches 
to 10 inches of length, or 8 inches to 12 inches, but this varies 
to some extent with the breed. As in the case of length 
of ear, the excess or deficiency of each ear as compared with 
the standard, are added together, but the cut made for each 
inch so obtained is only -25. A mechanic's small steel tape, 
divided into millimetres, is applied at a point about one- 
third the distance from the butt. With a little practice these 
measurements can be taken with ease and some degree of 
rapidity, but it is slow work at best, and as it is of minor 
value it is usually omitted unless necessitated, as was said 
before, by close competition. 



262 



MAIZE 



CHAP. It is best to measure the circumference in centimetres. 

^'* The average can be converted into inches by the following 
table :— 



Table XLIV. 

FOR CONVERSION OF CENTIMETRES TO INCHES, IN MEASURING 
CIRCUMFERENCE OF EARS. 



Centimetres. 


Inches, 


Centimetres. 


Inches. 


II'O 


4-32 


17-0 


67 


"•5 


4-51 


17-5 


6-9 


I2-0 


471 


1778 


7-0 


12-5 


4-92 


i8-o 


7-1 


127 


5-0 


i8-5 


7-3 


13-0 


5-1 


ig-o 


7-5 


13-5 


5-3 


19-5 


77 


14-0 


5-5 


20 'O 


7-88 


14-5 


57 


20-32 


8-0 


i5'o 


5-9 


20-5 


8-o8 


15-24 


6-0 


21 -o 


8-26 


I5*5 


6-1 


21-5 


8-46 


i6-o 


6-3 


22-0 


8-66 


i6-5 


6-5 







223. Standards of Perfection. — Standardization of breeds is 
essential to good judging ; where there are as many breeds as 
there are in maize it is impossible to carry their several measure- 
ments in mind without great risk of error. All the leading 
American breeds have been standardized. The word standard, 
as here used, is not intended to imply finality ; probably no 
one of the recognized breeds is yet perfect or thoroughly 
fixed ; as improvement takes place, standards gradually 
change. For the newer breeds, standards have yet to be es- 
tablished. The following provisional South African standards 
are given for the guidance of growers and exhibitors. Weight 
of ear refers to well-matured ears weighed ^ between July and 
October ; weight per bushel varies with locality ; the large, 
fine-looking Natal-grown Hickory King weighs less per bushel 
than the smaller Transvaal-grown grain, 

1 These weights exceed the figures for weight of grain per ear plus weight of 
cob, because they are taken from the best single ears available, whereas the 
weight of ear here given is the average of a number of ears. 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 



263 



PROVISIONAL STANDARD OF PERFECTION.— DENT BREEDS. 



CHAP. 
VI. 





Hickory King. 


Iowa 
Silver-mine. 


Boone County. 


Natal White 
Horsetooth. 


Ladysmith. 


Ear: 
Shape . 


Partly cylin- 


Cylindrical 


Cylindrical 


Slowly taper- 


Slowly taper 




drical 






ing 


ing 


Length . 
Circumference 


9 in. 


10 in. 


10 in. 


12 in. 


10-5 in. 


6'5 in. 


77 in. 


7'5 Jn. 


8-5 in. 


875 in. 


Rows 


8 


14 or 16 


16-22 


14-18 


14-20 


Arrangement . 
Sulci 


Distinct 


Pairs 


Pairs 


Pairs 


Pairs 


Medium to wide 


Narrow 


Medium 


Medium 


Narrow 


Butt 


Even 


Moderately 


Moderately 


Even to 


Even to 






rounded 


r ounded 


shallow 


sh allow 








compressed 


rounded 


rounded 


Tip 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


— 




of grain 


of grain 


of grain 


of grain 




Shank . 


Small 


Small 


Medium 


Very large 


Small 


Weight . 


10 oz. 


17 oz. 


17-5 oz. 


22 oz. 


i8*5 oz. 


Cob: 












Size 


Very small 


Small 


Medium 


Very large 


Medium 


Colour . 


White 


White 


White 


White 


White 


Weight . 


1-45 oz. 


1-86 oz. 


— 


3-84 oz. 


175 oz. 


Grain : 












Condition 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Colour . 


Pearl white 


Cream white 


Cream white 


Pearl white 


Pearl white 


Apex 


Smooth to 

roughish 
Crease 


Very rough 


Rough 


Smooth 


Very rough 


Form of dent . 


Pinched 


Pinched 


Crease 


Pinched 


Shape . 


Broader than 


Medium 


Medium 


Broad and 


Deep wedge 


deep 


wedge 


wedge 


shallow but 
thick 

78 




Per cent to ear 


«7 


90 


86 


88 


Number per 












ear 


400 


800 to 1,100 


1,000 to 1,100 


750 


800 


Weight per ear 

Weight per 

bushel : lbs. 


875 


10 oz. 


— 


12-5 oz. 


10-25 oz. 


53 to 62 lbs. 


57 to 64J lbs. 


- 


62 


57§ to 62 



224. Judging Shelled Maize and the Accompanying Ears. — 
Both quality and condition are taken into consideration in 
judging shelled maize. In a close competition it is impossible 
to give a just judgment without reference to thoroughly re- 
presentative ears from the crop. 

In the classes for commercial (shelled) maize there has 
been a good deal of divergence of opinion and practice as to 
whether tip and butt grains should be included or not, and 
owing to the loose wording of many prize-lists the decision 
of the judge has been a matter of bitter controversy. In 



264 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VI. 



some cases the best entries have been disqualified on this 
account. 

Unless the prize-list clearly states that tip and butt grains 
are not to be removed, the exhibitor is entitled to remove 
them, and should do so. A good judge does not study the 
tip and butt grains, and it only makes it more difificult to 
determine the relative merits of the bulk of the grain (which 
is that from the centre of the ear) if the tips and butts are left 



PROVISIONAL STANDARD OF PERFECTION.— DENT BREEDS. 





i2-row Hickory 
or Hickory 
Horsetooth. 


lo-row Hickory 
or Louisiana. 


Yellow 
Horsetooth. 


Yellow Hogan. 


Eureka. 


Ear: 












Shape . 


Partly cylindri- 


Partly cylin- 


Slowly taper- 


Slowly taper- 


Slowly taper- 




cal 


drical 


ing 


ing 


ing 


Length . 


8-50 in. 


8-5 in. 


10 in. 


9 in. 


II in. 


Circumference 


6-g in. 


6-9 in. 


775 in. 


7-25 in. 


7-25 in. 


Rows 


12 


10 


14 


12 or 14 


16 or 18 


Arrangement . 


Pairs 


Distinct 


Distinct 


Pairs 


Pairs 


Sulci . 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Narrow 


Butt 


Even to shal- 


Even 


Even, some- 


Even to shal- 


Shallow 




low rounded 




times ex- 


low round- 


rounded, 








panded 


ed, slightly 
enlarged 
Regular rows 


enlarged 


Tip . . 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 




of grains 


of grains 


of grains 


of grains 


of grains 


Shank . 


Medium 


Small 


Large 


Small 


Large 


Weight . 


12 oz. 


13-5 oz. 


16-5 oz. 


14 oz. 


17-5 oz. 


Cob : 












Size 


Small 


Small 


Large 


Small 


Large 


Colour . 


White 


White 


White 


Red 


Deep red 


Weight . 


— 


— 


2-25 oz. 


1-85 oz. 


— 


Grain : 












Condition 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Colour . 


Pearl White 


Pearl white 


Yellow with 
light cap 


Orange yel- 
low 


Deep yellow 


Apex 


Smooth 


Slightly 


Smooth 


Medium 


Medium 






rough 




smooth or 
smooth 


smooth 


Form of dent . 


Crease 


Crease 


Dimple 


Crease 


Crease 


Shape . 


Medium wedge 


Medium 


Broad shal- 


Medium 


Medium 






wedge 


low wedge 


wedge 


wedge 


Per cent to ear 


— . 


— 


82 


86 





Number per 












ear 


500 


450 


625 


650 


900 


Weight per ear 


— 


— 


T075 oz. 


9-25 oz. 




Weight per 












bushel : lbs. 


63 


55i-56 


— 


59i-64 


62 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 



265 



in. Nothing is gained by leaving them in, and much precious CHAP, 
time is saved if they are removed by the exhibitor ; if he does ^^• 
not do it the judge or stewards must do it for him (when 
judging the sample), and they have more important work. 

If the show committee considers that it is a fairer competi- 
tion to have the tip and butt grains left in, the fact should be 
clearly stated in the prize-list. It does not appear that any 

PROVISIONAL STANDARD OF PERFECTION.— DENT BREEDS. 





Chester County. 


Learning. 


Reid. 


Golden King. 


Golden Eagle. 


Ear: 












Shape . 


Slowly taper- 


Tapering 


Slowly taper- 


Slowly taper- 


Slowly taper- 




ing 




ing 


ing 


ing 


Length . 


10 in. 


8 in. 


10 in. 


8 in. 


9 in. 


Circumference 


7 in. 


7 in. 


7 in. 


7 in. 


7 in. 


Rows . 


16 or 18 


16-24 


18-24 


10-14 


16-20 


Arrangement . 


Pairs or not 


Pairs 


Pairs 


Distinct 


Distinct 


Sulci . 


Narrow 


Medium 


Narrow (yV 
or less) 


Medium 


Medium 


Butt 


Well rounded 


S h a 1 1 ^^' 


Deeply 


Even to 


Moderately 






rounded, 


rounded, 


shallow 


rounded, 






compressed. 


compressed 


rounded 


compressed 






expanded 








Tip . . 


Irregular rows 


Irregular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 




of grains 


of grains 


of grains 


of grains 


of grains 


Shank . 


Small 


Medium 


Small 


Large 


Small 


Weight . 


13 oz. 


13 oz. 


12-5 oz. 


14 oz. 


— 


Cob: 












Size 


Small 


Medium 


Medium 


Large 


Small 


Colour . 


Deep red 


Deep red 


Deep red 


White 


Deep red 


Weight . 


1-54 oz. 


— 




2-4 oz. 


— 


Grain : 












Condition 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Loose upright 


Colour . 


Deep yellow 
with lighter 
cap 

Smooth or me- 


Deep yellow 


Light yellow 


Dull yellow 


Deep yellow 


Apex 


Rough 


Medium 


Smooth 


Very rough 




dium smooth 




smooth 






Form of dent . 


Dimple 


Crease 


Dimple 


Dimple 





Shape . 


Medium wedge 


Medium 


Long wedge. 


Broad and 








wedge 


shoulder 
square 


shallow 


Broad wedge 


Per cent to ear 


85--i5 


— 


88 


83-25 


go 


Number per 












ear 


1,000 


1,100 


900 


600 





Weight per ear 


9 oz. 


— 




11-5 oz. 





Weight per 












bushel : lbs. 


57-63i 


59-66 


— 


61 


— 



266 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VI. 



advantage is gained by this form of competition, and it 
certainly offers the temptation to exhibitors to remove at 
least sotne of their tip and butt grains. It must also be 
borne in mind that with modern shelling machinery, some 
of the tip and butt grains can be removed in the process 
of shelling. Is a farmer to be penalized for using such 
machinery ? 



PROVISIONAL STANDARD OF PERFECTION. 
FLINT BREEDS. 



-DENT, FLOUR, AND 





Golden Beauty 


Yellow Cango 


White Cango 


New England 


Brazilian Flour- 




(Dent). 


(Flint). 


(Flint). 


8-row (Flint). 


corn (Flour). 


Ear: 












Shape . 


Slowly taper- 
ing 


Cylindrical 


Tapering 


Partly cylin- 
drical 


Tapering 


Length . 


975 in. 


II in. 


g in. 


1175 in. 


g in. 


Circumference 


7 in. 


6*5 in. 


5-5 in. 


5*5 in. 


6-5 in. 


Rows 


12 


12 


12 




14 


Arrangement . 


Pairs 


Pairs at the 
butt 


Pairs at the 
butt 


Pairs 


Distinct 


Sulci . 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Narrow 


Butt 


Even 


Even d e- 


Even, slightly 


Even, usually 


Even 






pressed 


enlarged 


expanded 




Tip . . 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 


Regular rows 




of grains 


of grains 


of grains 


ot grains 


of grains 


Shank . 


Medium 


Small 


Large 


Large 


Medium 


Weight . 


13-5 oz. 


12 oz. 


8 oz. 


10 oz. 


g oz. 


Coh: 












Size 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Large 


Colour . 


Deep red 


White 


White 


White 


White 


Weight . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Grain : 












Condition 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Firm upright 


Colour . 


Deep yellow 


Orange yel- 


Dirty white 


Orange yel- 


Milk white 




paler cap 


low 




low 




Apex 


Smooth 


Smooth 


Smooth 


Smooth 


Smooth 


Form of dent . 


Crease 





_ 


— 


— 


Shape . 


Broad wedge, 


Flat sides. 


Flat sides. 


Flat sides, 


Flat sides. 




rounded 


rounded 


rounded 


rounded 


rounded 




corners 


above 


above 


above 


above 


Per cent to ear 











— 


— 


Number per 












ear 


550 


600 


600 


420 


680 


Weight per ear 




— 


— 




— 


Weight per 












bushel: lbs. 


— 


62-67 


60-68 


62-68 


52^62 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 
Score Card for Judging Shfxled Maize. 

Show Date.. 

No. of Exhibit Class Breed. 

Name and Address of Exhibitor 



267 



CHAP. 
VI. 



Score. 

N.B. — Some judges find it more convenient to allow only 
one point instead of five for each item on the score 
card ; it makes no diiference so long as either method 
is used consistently throughout. 

Qualify of Grain : — 

1. Length ......... 

2. Shape 

3. Thickness ........ 

4. Uniformity (in size, shape, and thickness) 

5. Colour (trueness to type) ..... 

6. Shade and uniformity of colour .... 

7. Colour of cob ........ 

8. Weight per bushel 

9. Chemical composition ...... 

Condition of Grain : — 

10. Dryness ......... 

11. Sweetness ........ 

12. Soundness (freedom from decay) .... 

13. Plumpness (grain should be well filled not shrivelled 

nor chaffy 

14. Cleanness and freedom from rubbish 

15. Brightness ........ 

Ears Accompanying Shelled Maize: — 

16. Length ......... 

17. Sulci (space between rows) 

18. Trueness to type ....... 

ig. Shape and straightness of rows .... 

20. Firmness of grain on the cob ..... 



Notes. 



Points. 



Quality of Grain. — Quality refers to thickness, shape, size, 
uniformity, and colour of grain, weight per unit measure, and 
colour of chaff. 

Length of Grain. — A deep grain gives a larger percent- 
age of grain to cob than a shallow one. 



268 MAIZE 

CHAP. Shape of Grain. — A rather narrow, wedge-shaped grain 

^^- gives a larger percentage of embryo to endosperm than a very 

broad shallow grain, and for some classes of trade the embryo is 

of more value than the starchy endosperm. But wedge-shaped 

grains should not have narrow tips. 

Thickness of Grain. — A thick grain contains more starch 
in proportion to " hull " or " bran " than a thin one, and is there- 
fore preferred for certain classes of manufacture. 

Uniformity in thickness, in shape, and in depth of grain, 
improve the quality ; these can be secured by good breeding. 

Purity of Colour. — White grain must be at least 98 per 
cent white, and yellow grain 95 per cent yellow ; all else is 
classed as " mixed ". This applies to bulk shelled grain only. 

Shade. — White grain should be pure white, free from 
black tips and brown blotches ; cut for brownish tinge ac- 
quired in sun-drying. Yellow grain should be clear, deep 
yellow, and uniform in colour. 

Colour of Cob. — White grain should not have red tips, 
which spoil the colour for certain manufacturing purposes ; 
yellow grain should have white tips in Golden King, Austin 
Colossal, German Yellow, Yellow Horsetooth, and the standard 
yellow flint breeds. 

Weight per Unit IVleasure. — This is usually given in 
standard bushels. The American Standard in all but two 
States is 56 lbs. of shelled grain. Although in South Africa 
grain is not sold by measure, it is desirable to take the weights 
per unit of measure, as samples vary greatly, and the weight 
gives some indication of quality and chemical composition, 
for the richer the grain in protein the heavier it usually is. 

Chemical Composition. — The character of the endosperm 
can be determined to some extent by holding the grain to the 
light and by cutting it longitudinally parallel with the broad 
axis ; the larger the amount of translucent horny starch the 
richer in protein. Inasmuch as most of the oil-content of the 
maize-grain occurs in the embryo a large embryo usually in- 
dicates a high oil-content. 

Dryness. — Dry grain should not (on the High-veld) con- 
tain more than 12 per cent moi.sture. A parcel containing 
not more than 12 per cent will travel safely from South 
Africa to Europe. 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 269 

Sweetness. — Sweet grain is free from mustiness or other CHAP, 
objectionable smell. 

Soundness. — Sound grain is free from decay, or the 
ravages of insects and Diplodia injury (Fig. 159). 

Plumpness. — Plump grain is well filled, not shrivelled nor 
chaffy. 

Cleanness. — This refers to freedom from bits of cob, chaff, 
and all extraneous matter. 

Brightness. — A prime choice parcel of maize should be 
bright and shiny. Some breeds, e.g. Golden King, lack the 
lustre of others. Grain which has been harvested wet, and 
then dried out, often loses its brightness, and a dull sample 
(from whatever cause) is assumed to be due to harvesting 
when wet. 

Condition of Shelled Grain refers to soundness, plumpness, 
sweetness, dryness, cleanness, and brightness. Soundness 
and plumpness are considered the primary points in studying 
condition ; sweetness comes third, dryness fourth — for a sweet 
sample, but not quite dry, may dry out, but a dry sample 
that is musty will never get quite sweet again. 

For grader's requirements, see chapter XII. 

Twenty-five points may be reserved for the ears accompany- 
ing a sample of shelled maize. The points to be considered in 
this connection are those which particularly affect uniformity 
and the quality of the grain, i.e. trueness to type, shape, space 
between rows, straightness of rows and regularity of grain, and 
firmness of grain on the cob. 

Length. — Length of ear affects the yield ; other things 
being equal, the longest ears should have the preference pro- 
vided they no not exceed the standard of length for the breed. 

Space between Rows. — Wide space between rows is space 
wasted, and usually implies badly shaped grain. 

Trueness to Type. — Unless the ears are true to type the 
sample will not be uniform. 

Shape of Ears.— The more cylindrical the ear the more 
uniform the grain. Allowance must be made for breed char- 
acteristics in this respect, for the ears of Learning, Chester 
County, and some other breeds are naturally tapering. 

Firmness of Grain on the Cob If grain is loose on the 

cob it may mean that it is not as plump and well filled as 



270 



MAIZE 




JUDGING AND SELECTION 271 

possible. Observation of this point is the quickest and surest CHAP, 
way to detect this defect. But the point is comparative only, ^^• 
for in some breeds the grain is always more or less loose ; 
however, this does not appear to apply to breeds grown in 
South Africa. 

Straightness of Rows and Regularity of Grain. — Unless 
the rows are straight and the grain is regular in the rows it 
will not be uniform. 

225. Judges Computing Sheet. — The following form has 
been found of great assistance in reducing the time required 
for judging exhibits. It was first designed for use with ex- 
hibits of ten ears, but by increasing the number of points from 
fourteen to twenty and leaving out the figures for possible 
award, it has been adapted for use with either ears or shelled 
erain : — 



CHAP. 
VI. 



272 



MAIZE 
Form for Usii in Judging Maizk by Points, 
Date 



Show.. 
Class.. 



Points. 



Entry Numbers. 



Possible 
Award. 



Total . 
Yield of Grain 

per Ear 
Weight of Grain 

per Bushel . 
Average Length 

of Ear . 



Awards. 

ist Prize. 

2nd Prize. 

3rd Prize. 

Highly Commended. 

Commended. 

Special Prize. 



Notes. 



226. Useful Form of Judges Card. — It is a great con- 
venience to the judge, and is conducive to greater rapidity and 
accuracy in the granting of awards, if a convenient form of 
Judge' s card is used. The variety of judge's cards and note- 



JUDGING AND SELECTION 



273 



books is almost as great as the number of shows held ; it 
includes plain notebooks, printed triplicating books, and 
printed cards. The card of which a facsimile (reduced in 
size) is given below, is one of the best for convenience and 
rapidity of handling. The actual measurements of the card 
are 10x6 inches. 



CHAP. 
VI. 



.Agricultural Society. 



Judge's Card. 



Class No. 



Judge's Name 

Class No. 

No. of Entries in this Class. 
Entry No 



Judge's Remarks. 



Time Judged . 
Date 



Entry No. 



Awards. 

ist Prize No 

2nd Prize No 

3rd Prize No 

H. Commended No., 

Commended No 

Champion 



Judge. 
> Stewards. 



Triplicating carbon-books are also useful ; as soon as a 
class has been judged the steward tears out the two carbons, 
one of which is sent to the Secretary's office and the other to 
the Press room, while the original is retained for reference by 
the stewards and judge until all the classes have been judged. 



18 



CHAPTER VII. 

VARIETIES AND BREEDS. 

And whene'er some lucky maiden 
Found a red ear in the husking, 
Found a maize-ear red as blood is, 
" Nushka ! " cried they all together, 
" Nushka ! you shall have a sweetheart, 
You shall have a handsome husband ! " 

— Hiawatha. 

CHAP. 227. Botanical Varieties. — The genus Zea comprises but a 

^^^' single known species, Zea Mays Linn. As is the case with 
most of the older cultivated plants, the species is very j:)oly- 
morphous. The various forms of maize are grouped under the 
ten botanical varieties described below. Of these, five only, 
flint, dent, flour, sugar and pop-corn, are regularly cultivated 
for their grain. Sturtevant (2) considered these and two other 
varieties to be distinct species, but later botanists have not 
followed him in keeping them separate. 

1. ZEA MAYS L., var. TUNICATA St. Hil. ; {Zea crypto- 

sperma Bonaf, 1836 ; Zea Mays var. vaginata Sturt., 
1 884 ; Zea tunicata (St. Hil.) Sturt., 1 894). Pod maize. 

2. ZEA MAYS L., var. PRECOX Bonaf, 1836; {Zea Mays 

Lam., 1823 ; Zea hirta Bonaf. ; Zea Mays var. minima 
Bonaf. ; Zea Mays var. rostrata Bonaf ; Zea canina 
S. Wats., 1891 ; Zea everta Sturt, 1894; Zea Mays 
L.,var. everta (Sturt.) Bailey, 1902). The pop-corns. 

3. ZEA MAYS L., var. INDURATA (Sturt.) Bailey, 1902; 

{Zea indurata Sturt., 1894). The flint breeds. 

4. ZEA MAYS L., var. INDENTATA (Sturt.) Bailey, 1902; 

{Zea indentata, Sturt., 1894). The dent breeds. 

5. ZEA MAYS L., var. ERYTHROLEPIS (Bonafous) Alefeld ; 

{Zea erythrolepis Bonaf., 1836; Zea amylacea Sturt, 
1894 ; Zea Mays L., var. amylacea (Sturt.) Bailey, 
1902). Soft maize or flour-corns. 
274 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 275 

6. ZEA MAYS L., var. RUGOSA Boiiaf, 1836; {Zea sac- CHAP. 

charata Sturt,, 1894; Zea Mays L., var. saccharata ^^^" 
(Sturt.) Bailey, 1902). Sugar maize. 

7. ZEA MAYS L., var. AMYLEA-SACCHARATA (Sturt.) Bailey, 

1902; {Z. amylea-saccharata Sturt., 1886). The 
starchy-sugar corns. Grown by the San Pedro Indians 
of Mexico, and in Peru {Sturtevant, 2). 

8. ZEA MAYS L., var. JAPONICA (Van Houtte) Koern. ; {Z. 

japonica Van Houtte ; Z. vittata Hort.). A small 
plant with foliage variously striped with white ; 
grown for ornament. 

9. ZEA MAYS L., var. GRACILLIMA Koern. ; (Z. gracillima 

Hort. and Z. minima Hort). A very dwarf, slender 
form with green leaves, sometimes cultivated for 
ornament. 

10. ZEA MAYS L., var. CURAGUA (MoHna) Alefeld ; {Z. 

Cui'agua Molina). A robust green-leaved form, grown 
for ornament. Considered by Sturtevant (2) to belong 
to var. prcBcox. 

228. Pod Maize {Zea Mays var. tunicata St. Hil.) ; (Fig. 51). 
— In this breed each grain is enclosed in a pod or husk formed 
by the enlarged glumes ; the whole ear also has its usual coat- 
ing of husks formed b>' the leaf-sheaths. 

Vernacular names : Pod corn, cow corn, stock corn, forage 
corn, husk corn, primitive corn, California corn, Egyptian corn. 
Rocky Mountain corn, Oregon corn (United States) ; pinsin- 
gallo (Buenos Aires) ; manigette (Ethiopia) ; balg-maiz 
(Germany). 

The grain is small and very flinty, often with a sharp beak, 
and is said to be particularly resistant to weevils. Dr. Sturte- 
vant (2) notes that once his whole collection of maize breeds 
(an exceptionally fine one) was destroyed by weevils, except 
the pod maize. The plant is excessively leafy, and has a 
great tendency to sucker. The tassels are unusually heavy 
and are inclined to be grain-bearing. 

Caspar Bauhin in 1623 referred to the occurrence of pod 
maize in Ethiopia, under the name of manigette. Sturtevant 
was inclined to look upon it as the aboriginal form of maize, 
but admitted that it may be an abnormal and proliferous state 
of the flint variety. Darwin considered that the aboriginal 



2 76 MAIZE 

CHAP, form of maize would almost certainly have had its grains pro- 
^^^' tected in this way. Sturtevant (2) points out that podded 
corn is less conspicuous than the naked kernels of cultivated 
varieties, and is looser on the cob, yet firmly attached. This 
favours both protection from, and distribution by, birds. As 
insect and bird depredation furnish the strongest barrier to the 
growing of wild forms of maize, these protective characters 
assume importance in the argument that pod corn is an ab- 
original form. The property of floating upon water, which 
the podded kernels possess in strong degree, would also facili- 
tate distribution in a state of nature, as also the moisture con- 
tained within the pod. But pod maize does not appear to 
have been found in the ancient cemeteries of Peru. 

Pod maize is said to be cultivated by the Guaycurus Indians 
of Uruguay and Paraguay ; elsewhere only as a curiosity, 
though it is occasionally found in maize fields throughout the 
United States, in Brazil, and South Africa. 

229. Pop-corn {Zea Mays var. prcEcox Bonaf ). Coyote corn ; 
German : frilher zwei'g-maiz. — Characterized by the exception- 
ally large proportion of corneous endosperm (in the best breeds 
it comprises the whole endosperm) and the small size of the 
grains and ear. The grain is sharply pointed in some breeds. 

The breeds of this variety are said to be more subject to 
sports and monstrous growths than those of any other, and 
the tendency to bear many ears to the stalk is highly de- 
veloped. The grain has strong vegetative power, and possesses 
the property of germination, after drying, to a great degree 
{Sturtevant, 2). It has the property of " popping," which 
means the complete eversion, or turning inside-out, of the 
endosperm, through the explosion of the contained moisture 
and the swelling of the starch on the application of heat. The 
presence of a small amount of starchy endosperm does not 
greatly interfere with the property of popping, but when there 
is a large amount of starchy endosperm,, the corn does not 
pop well, for only the corneous portion explodes, leaving the 
starchy portion unchanged. 

Pop maize has been much cultivated by native tribes both 
in North and South America, and has been found illustrated 
in sculpture, or petrified, among Peruvian ruins {Sturtevant, 2). 
It is a favourite sweetmeat with Americans. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 277 

Golden pop and Rice pop have been introduced into South CHAP. 



Africa, but at present scarcely any pop-corn is grown there. 

A form of this variety was reported under the name of 
Coyote corn as having been found growing " wild " in Mexico, 
and was named Zea canina by Dr. Sereno Watson ; subsequent 
investigations have shown, however, that it was a cross between 
pop-corn and some other variety, and there is no evidence that 
it was not an escape from cultivation. 

230. Flint MaizeiZea Mays van indurata (Sturt.) Bailey). — 
Recognized by the corneous (horny) endosperm completely 
enclosing the starchy endosperm ; the latter does not reach 
the apex as it does in the var. indentata, a fact which may be 
demonstrated in a split grain ; the horny endosperm varies in 
thickness in different breeds. 

Most, if not all, of the earliest-maturing commercial breeds 
belong to the flint variety ; in many places where they are 
grown, e.g. in Southern Europe, the growing-season is so short 
(forty to fifty days) that only a very small amount of grain can 
be produced and, as a rule, the flint breeds are relatively light 
yielders. 

Flint maize is the type usually grown by native tribes, 
e.g. in South Africa, Egypt, Somaliland, Mexico, Honduras, 
Trinidad, Paraguay, and Brazil. Also ninety per cent of the 
Argentine crop, and practically all of that of South Europe, is 
flint maize. The greater demand for dent maize has relegated 
the flint breeds to a subsidiary place, mainly as catch-crops 
at the end of the season or for use in parts of the world where 
the growing-season is too short for dent breeds. Flint maize 
is grown in Canada as far north as 54° north latitude. 

The grains of some breeds of flint maize, being smaller than 
tho.se of the dents, are preferred in the European markets for 
feeding poultry, game, and stock, and command a slightly 
higher price than the dents. 

The smaller-grained flint breeds grown commercially are 
known to the trade as " round " maize. 

As flint grain is much harder than dent, it is less easily 
injured by weevil and grain-moth. It takes longer to dry 
out than dent, but when once dry, does not re-absorb moisture 
so easily, and is therefore better suited to a long sea \'oyage. 

231. Dent Maize {Zea Mays var. indentata (Sturt.) Bailey). 



VII. 



278 MAIZE 

CHAP. — Recognized by the indentation (or "dent") at the apex and 



VII. 



the presence of corneous (horny) endosperm at the sides of the 
grain ; the starchy endosperm extends to the apex. The 
horny endosperm varies in height and thickness in different 
breeds ; this determines the character of the indentation, which 
is caused by the drying and shrinkage of the " starchy " endo- 
sperm at the summit of the grain, which is drawn in or 
together, as the grain dries ; the horny endosperm is not 
affected in this way, which accounts for the fact that the flint 
breeds (in which there is no "starchy" endosperm at the 
apex) do not develop a " dent ". 

The breeds of dent maize are far more numerous than those 
of any other variety, and in the United States they are more 
extensively grown than any others, furnishing nearly all of the 
maize exported. 

Dent maize is known to have been grown in Peru in 1650, 
and by some of the North American Indians in 1608. It is also 
grown by the native tribes of Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil. 
The earliest-maturing breeds can be cultivated as far north as 
Ottawa, Canada (about 46° north latitude), but generally 
speaking the dent breeds are not so well suited as the flints 
to regions of short growing-season. 

232, Soft Maize {Zea Mays var. erythrolepis (Bonaf.) Alef ). 
— This variety includes the flour corns or " bread mielies " and 
is recognized by the absence of corneous endosperm. The 
grain is soft, and although most of the breeds of soft maize 
appear to have been grown in tropical America, the grain does 
not keep well on account of susceptibility to weevil and grain- 
moth ; it is therefore not well suited to cultivation in tropical 
and sub-tropical countries. 

It is probably on this account that there are so few breeds of 
soft maize; Sturtevant describes only twenty-seven, some of 
which appear to be merely colour forms of others. Soft maize 
is used both for meal and for eating as " green mielies," but the 
feeding value is poor ; both protein and fat-content are low. 
Two breeds are occasionally grown in South Africa, both having 
white grain, viz. South African Bread Mielie and Brazilian flour 
corn. Tuscarora and Cuzco have been tested in the Transvaal 
and abandoned ; red grains are met with in both of these 
breeds. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 279 

The " mummy-corns" from Peru, Chile, and Arizona were CHAP 
largely flour corns. Flour maize is still grown by native ^^^' 
Indians of Brazil, Mexico, Arizona, and other parts of North 
America, for their own consumption, but it is not much culti- 
vated commercially. 

233. Sugar Maize {Zea Mays var. rugosa Bonaf ). French : 
mats ride ; German : Gekornelte maiz. — Well defined by the 
more or less crinkled, wrinkled, or shrivelled condition of the 
grains and their translucent, horny appearance. Sturtevant 
describes sixty-three sorts. 

The cultivation of sweet maize in place of the " bread 
mielie " and the " field corns," for use as a green vegetable, is 
slowly gaining ground in South Africa, and seed can now be 
obtained from most of the local seedsmen. Until recently 
difficulty has been found in obtaining good seed in South 
Africa, as American-grown sugar maize loses its vitality in 
transit. Good sugar maize ears bring as much as 20s. per bag 
on the Johannesburg market at the very beginning of the 
season (November and December), and should pay well at the 
price. 

Sugar maize is extensively used in the United States for 
canning, and in the State of Maine is grown as a field crop for 
this purpose, in localities which are too far north for the seed 
to ripen. A number of the early-maturing breeds ripen their 
crop as far north as Ottawa, Canada. Sugar maize is but little 
grown in the Southern States, and apparently improves in 
quality as it proceeds northward. The grain ripens on the 
cob even when plucked at an early stage of edible maturity 
{Sturtevant, 2). 

234. The Agricultural Breeds. — Botanical varieties produce 
cultural "breeds" or "races". It is said that in 18 14 there 
were only five breeds of maize known in the United States, 
viz., Big Yellow, Big White, Little Yellow, Little White, and 
Gourd Seed ; but by 1 840 nearly forty breeds were recognized ; 
and at least one of those grown at the present day, viz.. Learn- 
ing, originated before that date. 

Sturtevant (2) in 1894 described over 500 cultivated breeds 
of maize ; to these many have since been added, while others 
have dropped out of cultivation. These 500 were grouped as 
follows : — 



28o 



MAi;^.I^. 



CHAP 
VII. 



Breeds. 

Pop-corns 25 

Flints 69 

Dents 323 

Soft Maize 27 

Sugar Maize 63 

507 

The leading agricultural breeds are described in the follow- 
ing pages, but for a ready means of comparing their leading 
characteristics the reader is referred to the Standards of Per- 
fection in the preceding chapter {*\ 223). 

235. Comparative Yield of Dent and Flint Breeds. — Dent 
maize is, with few exceptions, a much better yielding variety 
than flint maize. Each variety has its place, but where dents 
can be grown they are, generally speaking, the most desirable. 
On this account the xA.merican farmer grows only dents, except 
in localities which do not suit them. The difference in market 
value is so small that it does not pay to grow a poor-yielding 
sort if another can be grown which yields a bag to the acre 
more. Hunt (i) clearly shows the superiority of dents, even 
in Pennsylvania where the climate is not so well suited to 
them as in some other parts of the States. As a result of a 
three years' test he obtained the following result : — 



Variety. 


Weight of Ear 
in Lbs. 


Weight of Stover 
in Lbs. 


Total Lbs. 


Dent Maize 
Flint Maize 


3.012 
1.750 


3.258 
1,691 


6,270 
3.441 


Difference 


1,262 


1.567 


2,829 



The following yields were obtained at the Maine (U.S.A.) 
Agricultural Experiment Station, as a result of a three-year 
test :— 



Variety. 


Breed. 


Total Crop per 
Acre Green. 


Yield of Dry Matter 
per Acre. 


Dent 
Flint 
Sugar . 


White Horsetooth . 
Local .... 
Early Crosby . 


35.195 lbs. 
19.197 .. 
16,908 „ 


4,798 lbs. 
2,893 ,. 
2,420 „ 



VARIETIES AND liREEDS 281 

At the Cornell (U.S.A.) Station a dent breed gave 10 per chap, 
cent more dry matter than a flint. 

236. Principal Breeds of Dent Maize Grown in America. — 
The following are the twenty-five principal breeds of maize 
now grown in the " Corn-belt " of the United States : — 

Yellows. — Leaming (the oldest known breed), Reid, Legal 
Tender, Riley Favourite, Golden Eagle, Shenandoah, Farmers' 
Reliance, Pride-of-the-North, Early Mastodon, Golden Row, 
Mammoth Golden, Willhoit, Cattle King, Kansas Sunflower, 
Minnesota 13, and Hildreth. 

Whites. — Iowa Silver-mine, Boone County, White Superior, 
Silver King, Chases, Wisconsin No. 7, McAuley, Nebraska 
White Prize, and Iowa Ideal. 

Nearly all of these have been tried in South Africa, and 
most of them have not proved satisfactory, indicating a differ- 
ence in condition of climate or soil, or both. 

237. Other Dent Breeds Grown in America. — In addition 
to the above, the following breed.s are recommended by the 
several State Experiment Stations (at which they have been 
tested for the number of years .stated), as suited to their vary- 
ing climatic and soil conditions : — ^ 

1. Adams Early (w.d.) — 7. Boston Market (Sweet) (w.d.) — 

Colorado (i). Massachusetts Hatch (4 e.). 

2. Albemarle Prolific (w.d.) — 8. Bradberry Improved (y.d.) — 

South Carolina (i, on thin upland). Georgia (7), i-n years. 

(2, on bottom land). g_ Bristol 100-day (w.d.)— 

3. Blount (w.d.)— North Carolina (i g. and st.).-» 

Alabama (Auburn Sta.) (4), 5 years. ^^ Burrill and Whitman (w.d.)- 

4. Blount Pro . fie (w.d.)- N^^ York State Sta. (3 e.). 

New York State Sta. (2 e.).^ V^r^ont (i e.). 

North Carolma (^ g. and s.).' „ ... , ,,,, .^ ,- •, 

Texas (r), 3 years.^ 11. Burr.ll and Whitman Ensilage 

5. Boggs Home-grown — ,,,- ' '' • /^i 

South Carolina(i,on bottom land). „^'f °"''"/^>- , 

„ (5, on thin upland). 12. Burr White (w.d.)— 

6. Boone County White (w.d.)— Illinois (3), 6 years. 

Illinois (i), 6 years. I3- Calico (mixed)— 
Indiana (4), 5 years. Nebraska (11), 2 years. 

Kansas (5), 3 years. 14. Champion Pearl (w.d.) — 
Nebraska (14), 2 years. Vermont (3 e.). 

^The numbers in brackets refer to the relative position which the particular 
breed occupies at the Station named ; thus "■Albemarle Prolific, South Carolina 
(i, on thin upland) " indicates that it is considered the foremost breed at that 
Station for that particular soil, where Mosby Prolific occupies only 6th place. 

'^ e. = grown for ensilage. 

^ g. and s. = grown for grain and silage. 

* g. and St. = grown for grain and stover. 



282 



MAlZlt 



CHAP. ^5- Champion White Pearl (w.d.) — 
YII ' Arkansas (4), 2 years. 

Illinois (2), 6 years. 
Iowa (5), 3 years. 
Utah (9), 10 years. 

16. Champion Yellow Dent (y-d.) — 

Kansas (7), 3 years. 
Louisiana (3 g. and St.), i year. 

17. Clarage (y.d.) — 

Ohio (t medium), 10 years. 
iS. Clark's Early Mastodon (y.d.)- — 

Louisiana (7 g. and St.), i year. 

Utah (5), 9 years. 
rg. Clark's Iroquois (y.d.) — 

Illinois {5), 6 years. 

20. Cleveland Colossal — 

New York State Sta. (4 e.). 

21. Cocke Prolific (w.d.) — 

Georgia (6), i-ii years. 
North Carolina (i g. and s.). 

22. Dakota Dent (y.d.)— 

Wyoming (2). 

23. Darke Co. Early Mammoth (y.d.)— 

Ohio (5), 6 years. 

24. Delaware Co. Dent — 

North Carolina (2 g. and St.). 

25. Early Butler (y.d.)— 

Ohio (3 early), 10 years. 

26. Early Cattle King (y.d.) — 

Nebraska (12), 2 years. 

27. Pearly Ripe Fodder, No. 152 — 

North Dakota (2). 

28. Early Huron Dent (y.d.) — 

Utah (7), 7 years. 

29. Early Mastodon (y.d.) — 

Arkansas (3), 2 years. 
Texas (7), 3 years. 
Vermont (5 e.). 

30. Early Prolific (w.d.) — 

Vermont (4 e.). 

31. Early Thompson (y.d.) — 

Kansas (i), 3 years. 

32. Early White (w.d.) — 

Kansas (3), 3 years. 

33. Early Yellow (y.d.) — 

Indiana (6), 5 years. 

34. Early Yellow Rose (y.d.) — 

Kansas (6), 3 years. 
Nebraska (7), 2 years. 

35. Edmonds (y.d.) — 

Illinois (8), 6 years. 

36. Ellis- 

Tennessee (3 Fodder), i year. 

37. Flureka (y.d.) — 

Georgia (4), i-ii years. 
Massachusetts Hatch Sta. (3 e.). 

38. Evans (y.d.) — 

Vermont (6 e.). 

39. Evergreen (Sweet) — 

Wisconsin (8). 



Experiment Station Yellow (y.d.) — 

Alabama (Auburn Sta.) (3), 5 
years. 
Extra Early Huron Dent (y.d.) — 

Ohio (4 early), 9 years. 
Fargo Brothers Ensilage — • 

W'isconsin (5). 
Farmers' Favourite (y.d.) — 

Ohio (4), 3 years. 
Fitzpatrick Improved (y.d.) — 

Georgia (10), i-ii j-ears. 
Fleming Yellow (y.d.) — 

Indiana (3), 5 years. 
Florida — 

Tennessee (L. Fodder). 
Forsyth (w.d.) — 

Oregon (4 g. and s.). 
Forsyth Favourite (w.d.) — 

Texas (4), 2 years. 
Gandy — 

Louisiana (2 g. and st.), i year. 
Garrick Improved — 

South Carolina (2, on thin upland). 
Golden Beauty — 

'Arkansas (i), 2 years. 

Illinois (10), 6 years. 

Iowa (6), 3 years. 

Missouri (i), 3 years. 

North Carolina (5 g. and St.). 

Texas (3), 3 years. 
Golden Beauty, Improved (y.d.) — 

Tennessee (2). 
Golden Cap (y.d.)— 

Nebraska (5), 2 years. 
Golden Dent (y.d.)— 

Arkansas (6), 2 years. 
Golden Dent, Improved (y.d.) — 

Georgia (15), i-ii vears. 
Golden Row (y-d-)— 

Nebraska (4), 2 years. 
Hartman (w.d.) — 

Kansas (2), 3 j'ears. 
Hartman White (w.d.)— 

Indiana Sta. (2), 5 years. 
Henderson Eureka (y.d.) — 

Ohio (3), 3 years. 
Henry Grady (w.d. ?) — 

Georgia (2), i-ii years. 
Hickory King (w.d.) — 

Alabama (Auburn Sta.) (5), 5 years. 

Arkansas (5), 2 years. 

New York (i e.). 

Texas (5), 3 years. 

Utah (10), 9 years. 

Vermont (7 e.). 
Hogue Yellow Dent (y.d.) — 

Nebraska (i), 2 years. 
Huffman (w.d.) — 

Tennessee (4 Fodder), 
Hughson Dent (y.d.) — , 

South Dakota (2). 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



--83 



65. 


Huron Pure Yellow Dent (y.d.)— 
Oregon (3 g. and s.). 


87. 


66. 


Iowa Gold Mine (y.d.)— 
Nebraska (r3), 2 years. 




ey- 


J. E. Lewis Prolific (w.d.)— 
South Carolina (3, on thin up- 


88. 




land). 


89. 


es. 


Johnston & Stokes Giant Beauty- 






North Carolina (3 g. and St.). 


90. 


69. 


King of the Earliest (w.d.)— • 






Ohio (2 early), 9 years. 


91. 




Utah (6), 10 years. 




70. 


Learning (y.d.) — 
Arkansas (7), 2 years. 


92. 




Illinois (4), 6 years. 


93. 




Missouri (2), 3 years. 






Nebraska (9), 2 years. 


94- 




New Hampshire (i). 






North Carolina (4 g. and St.). 


95. 




Ohio (6), 4 years. 




Texas (6), 3 years. 


96. 


71- 


Learning Cuppy (y.d.)— 




Ohio (2 medium), 5 years. 




72. 


Learning Field (y.d.)— 






Massachusetts (Hatch Sta.) (2 e.). 


97- 


73- 


Learning, Improved (y.d.)— 






Tennessee (3). 


98. 


74- 


Legal Tender (y.d.) — 
Illinois (6), 6 years. 






Iowa (2), 3 years. 


99. 




Nebraska (3), 2 years. 




75- 


Lenocher Homestead — 
Iowa (10), 3 years. 


100. 


76. 


Long Yellow Dent (y.d.)— 
Utah (3), 5 years. 


lOI. 


77- 


Loveland Dent (y.d.)— 
South Dakota (i). 




78. 


Madison County Red (y.d.) — 
Alabama (Canebrake Sta.) 2 






years. 


102. 


79- 


Mammoth Cuban- 






Iowa (7), 3 years. 


103. 


80. 


Mammoth Golden Yellow (y.d.)— 






Nebraska (10), 2 years. 


104. 


8r. 


Mammoth White Pearl (w.d.)— 






Nebraska (rs), 2 years. 


105. 


82. 


Marlboro Prolific (w.d.) — 






Georgia (i), i-ii years. 


106. 




Louisiana (6 g. and St.), i year. 




83. 


Minnesota King (y.d.)— 
Oregon (2 g. and s.). 
South Dakota (4). 
Wyoming (r). 


107. 


84. 


Minnesota No. 13 (y.d.) — 
Nebraska (19). 


108. 


85. 


Missouri Learning (y.d.)— 
Ohio (i), I year. 




86. 


Mosby (w.d.) — 






Alabama (Auburn Sta.) (i), 5 


ro9. 



Mosby Prolific (w.d.)— 

Mississippi (i). 

South Carolina (6, on thin up- 
land). 
Moyer Improved (y.d.) — 

Georgia (8), i-ii years. 
Murdock (y.d.)— 

Illinois (7), 6 years. 
Murdock (y.d.) — 

Texas (2), 3 years. 
Nebraska White Prize (w.d.) — 

Iowa (9), 3 years. 
Nebraska White Prize (w.d.) — 

Nebraska (8), 2 years. 
Normandy White Giant — ■ 

Wisconsin (4). 
Northern White Field (w.d.)— 

North Carolina (2 g. and s.). 
North Star Yellow Dent (y.d.) — 

Ottawa (Canada) (r), 3 years. 
North-western Dent (No. 124) 
(w.d.)- 

North Dakota (i). 
Piasa King (w.d.) — 

Missouri (3), 2 years. 
Piasa Queen (w.d.)- — 

Nevada (2 st.), i year. 

New York (5 e.), r year. 
Pride of Kansas — 

Kansas (4), 3 years. 
. Prairie Queen (y.d.) — 

Vermont (8 e.). 
. Pride of the North (y.d.)— 

Nebraska (18), 2 years. 

Nevada (i), i year. 

Ohio (i Early), 8 years. 

Oregon (i g. and s.). 

South Dakota (3). 
. Purdue Yellow Dent (y.d.) — 

Indiana (i), 5 years. 
. Queen of the Field (y.d.) — 

Utah (8), 10 years. 
. Queen of the North (y.d.) — 

Utah (4), 7 years. 
. Red Cob Ensilage (w.d.) — 

North Carolina (5 g. and s.). 
. Red Driver — • 

Louisiana (4 g. and st.), i year. 
. Reid Yellow Dent (y.d.)— ' 

Iowa (i), 3 years. 

Nebraska (2), 2 years. 

Ohio (2), 2 years. 
. Riley Favourite (y.d.) — 

Illinois (9), 6 years. 

Indiana (7), 5 years. 

Nebraska (17), 2 years. 

Texas (9), 3 years. 
. Rural Thoroughbred — 

Massachusetts^ (Hatch Sta.) (i e.). 



CHAP. 
VII. 



284 



.\fAlZE 



CHAP. '^^o. Salzer Earliest Canadian Yellow 

vu. ' (y-d-)— 

Utah (i), 5 years. 

111. Sander Improved (y.d.) — 
Georgia (3), i-ii years. 

112. Sander Improved (y.d.) — 

South Carolina (4, on thin up- 
land). 

113. Seckler Perfection (w.d. ?) — 

Iowa (4), 3 years. 

114. Shaw White (w.d.)— 
Georgia (12), i-ii years. 

115. Shaw Yellow (y.d.) — 

Georgia (ir), i-ii years. 

116. Sibley Sheep Tooth — 

Wisconsin (7). 

117. Silver-mine (w.d.) — ■ 

Nebraska (16), 2 years. 

118. Smedley Dent (y.d.) — 
Wisconsin (3). 

rig. Smith Improved (y.d.) — 
Georgia (13), i-ii years. 

120. Snowflake (w.d.) — 

Georgia (Atlanta Sta.) (14), r-ii 
years. 

121. Snowflake White (w.d.) — 

Nebraska (6), 2 years. 

122. Southern Ensilage- 

Wisconsin (2). 
Southern Horsetooth — 
Wisconsin (i). 
Southern White Gourd Seed 

(w.d.)- 
Texas (8), 3 years. 



123. 



C24. 



125. St. Charles (w.d.)— 

Alabama (Auburn Sta.) (2), 5 years. 
Missouri (4), 2 years. 

126. Stones White (w.d.)— 
Georgia (9), i-ii years. 

127. Stones Yellow Show Pad (y.d.) — 

Georgia (r6), i-ii years. 

128. Tatum Choice — 

Mississippi (2). 

129. Tennessee No. 3889 — 
Tennessee (i), i year. 

,, (2 Fodder). 

130. Virginia Horsetooth (w.d.) — 
Vermont (9 e.). 

131. Virginia White Dent (w.d.) — 

Louisiana (i g. and st.), r year. 

132. Weekley Improved (y.d.) — 
Georgia (5), i-ii years. 

133. Western Yellow Dent (y.d.) — 

Iowa (8), 3 years. 

134. White Cap Yellow Dent (w.d. and 

y.d.)- 
Ohio (3 medium), 7 years. 

135. White Dent (w.d.) — 
Arkansas (2), 2 years. 
North Carolina (4 g. and s.). 

136. Whitmire Mountain Seed Corn — 
South Carolina (3, on bottom 

land). 

137. Wisconsin Early White (w.d.) — 
Utah (2), 8 years. 

138. Yellow Creole — 

Louisiana (5 g. and st.), i year. 

139. Yellow Speckled Dent (y.d.)— 

Indiana (5), 5 years. 



238. Principal Breeds of Dent Maize Grown in South 
Africa. — White dents: Hickory King, Louisiana or 10- row 
Hickory,, 1 2-row Hickory or Hickory Horsetooth, Natal White 
Horsetooth, Iowa Silver-mine, Ladysmith, Boone County, and 
Salisbury White are the breeds most largely grown. 

The following have been tested and discontinued : Large 
White, Late White Horsetooth (not the breed known by this 
name in Natal), Mayfield Earliest, Champion-of-the-North, 
Blount Prolific, Minnesota White, Ninety-day White, Wiscon- 
sin, Woods Northern, Improved Early Horsetooth, Virginia 
Horsetooth, Red-cob Ensilage, Cocke Prolific, Snow-white, 
McMackin Gourd-seed, Snowflake, McAuley, Silver King, 
and Sheep's Tooth. 

Yellow dents: The principal sorts grown are: Yellow 
Horsetooth, German Yellow, Golden Beauty, Chester County, 
Eureka, Yellow Hogan, Golden Eagle, Reid Yellow Dent, 
Minnesota Early, Learning, and Golden King. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



285 




CHAP. 
VII. 



Fig. 94. — A, Hickory King, unusually good ear, but sulci rather wide. 
B, Ladysmith. 



286 MAIZE 

CHAP. The following have been tried and discontinued : Waterloo 

^^^- Extra Early, Late Mastodon, Yellow Butcher, Bloody Butcher, 
Wealth of Nations, King Early, Pride of the North, Improved 
Learning, Legal Tender, Early Mastodon, Extra-early Huron, 
Minnesota 13, White-cap, Early Butler, Droughtproof, Austin 
Colossal, Bristol 1 00-day, White-cap, Brewer, Riley Favourite, 
Clarence River, Hawkesbury Champion, Iowa Gold-mine, Red 
Hogan, King-of-the-Earliest, Kansas Sunflower, Queen of the 
Prairie, Hildreth. 

239. Hickory King. — Figs. 94A, 95, and 96. Class : medium 
late white dent ; rows, 8 ; length of ear, 9 inches ; circumference 
of ear at 2 inches from butt, 6\ inches, from tip, 5-| inches ; grain, 
often as broad as deep, narrow crease-dented, roughish to 
smooth. First introduced into Natal before the War, thence 
into the Transvaal and Orange Free State ; fresh introductions 
from the United States were made by the writer after the 
War. 

Hickory King is the best known and most extensively 
grown breed in South Africa, although its average yielding 
capacity is lower than that of several other breeds. It is later 
in maturing than several other sorts grown, and is therefore 
better suited to Midland or Bush-veld conditions than to 
the Upland or High-veld climate. Generally speaking, it is 
not a good drought-resister, but is considered less particular 
about its soil-requirements than some other breeds, and is 
grown successfully on lighter, sandy soils, where Boone County 
fails. The grain is large and attractive in appearance, which 
probably accounts for the general popularity of the breed, 
and the cob is extremely thin, drying out quickly. The 
breed is typically 8-rowed, but there has been a good deal 
of inter-crossing with 10- and 12-rowed breeds, and there may 
also be a certain amount of fluctuating variability in this 
direction ; but as a rule well-bred Hickory King is more 
constant in row numbers than other dent breeds. The 8-row 
character appears to be partly responsible for low yield, inas- 
much as there is too great width of sulci when there is any 
depth to the grain ; or when there is no loss of space between 
rows, the grain is shallow and apt to be too thin ; these facts 
suggest that lo-row and 12-row types of Hickory should be 
better yielders, and breed tests show that this is the case. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



287 




A B 

Fig. 95. — Hickory King. A, defective tip. B, a good average ear. 



288 



MAIZE 




Fig. 96. — Variation in ears of Hickory King;. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 289 

In spite of the lack of crowding, or possibly on account of CHAP, 
it, there is a great tendency to irregularity in the rows. The 
frequent occurrence of an extra grain out of place (see Fig. 97), 
forming an irregular star, suggests the possibility that a larger 
number of rows is more normal. 

The extensive cultivation of Hickory King has led to the 
accidental production of innumerable crosses, most of which 
appear to be useless, and none of which are definitely fixed. 
Of these Ladysmith Hickory (Fig. 97) is a promising type,' 
characterized by the length of ear ; it was found by the writer 
among some exhibits at the Ladysmith Show in 191 2. Other 
probable crosses with Hickory King are referred to under the 
types which they more nearly represent. 

240. Hickory Horsetooth, or 12-rozv Hickory. — Fig. 98. 
Class : medium late white dent ; length of ear, 9 inches on the 
High- veld to 10^ at lower altitudes; circumference of ear at 
2 inches from butt, 6f to y\ inches, from tip, 6 to 6\ inches ; 
rows, 1 2 ; grain, deep wedge-shaped, broad crease-dented, 
smooth to roughish. Grown in the United States, both sepa- 
rately and in mixed stands of Hickory, and sometimes known 
as Texas Hickory. 

At the Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, the writer 
isolated this type as likely to prove more productive than 
Hickory King owing to the greater depth and better shape of 
the grains, which allow greater yield of grain to the same 
size of ear. This type was subsequently propagated at the 
Governnient Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom ; also by Mr. 
McLaren at Vereeniging, and by other Transvaal farmers. 
The writer has started selections of individual strains of this 
breed on several farms in the Transvaal and Natal ; the yield 
is proving better than that of Hickory King. There is a ten- 
dency for the length of ear to fall to 8^ inches, when close selec- 
tion for well-covered tips is practised at expense of length, 
with consequent reduction of yield, and this should be over- 
come by selection. 

Hickory Horsetooth varies in time of maturity, according to 
the character of the particular cross from which it has been 
segregated, and the part of the country in which it has been 
acclimatized. The strain grown at Potchefstroom has proved 
to be a late sort (i.e. later than Hickory King, and about the 
^9 



290 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VIT. 




Fig. gj.—Ladysmith Hickory; 
a promising but unfixed cross-bred 
grown at Ladysmith, Natal. 



p,G. gS,.— Hickory Horsctooth, or 
i2-ro\v Hickory. 



same as 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 29 r 

Ladvsmith, Yellow Hogan^ and Golden Beautv), but CHAP. 

VII. 



some strains grown on the High-veld are medium early. 

Several different strains occur, due to the fact that the 
South African type has been isolated from other breeds, and 
variously crossed with such breeds as Hickory King, Virginia 
Horsetootk, etc. ; some of these strains have been named, e.g. 
Mercer, Noodsberg Horsetooth, Salisbury White, etc. 

241. Salisbury White. — Fig. 99. Class: late white dent ; 
rows, 12 ; length, 8| to 9 inches ; circumference at 2 inches from 
butt, 7f inches, from tip, 7 inches ; grain, medium wedge- 
shape, broad crease-dented, smooth. 

Appears to be a cross between 12-row Hickory and some 
other type, and not very different from Hickory Horsetooth 
except in length of ear and width of sulci. Said to have 
originated at Salisbury, and to be extensively grown in 
Rhodesia. Sometimes called Masoe or Brindette. 

242. Noodsberg Horsetooth. — Fig. lOO. Class : late white 
dent; rows, 14; length, 10 inches: grain, deep wedge-shaped, 
shallow crease-dented, roughish. 

This was exhibited at the VVeenen County Show, Estcourt, 
Natal, 20 June, 191 2, by two growers, Mr. C. How of Willow 
Grange and Mr. John Rencken, J. P. It is said to have 
originated on the Noodsberg from a cross between Hickory 
King and Natal White Horsetooth. Some farmers in that 
vicinity have called it the Mercer, but it is quite different from 
that breed ; it is not unlike Salisbury White as grown in 
Swaziland. Noodsberg Horsetooth is said to breed true to 
type, and to be fairly drought-resistant ; in spite of a bad season 
it had produced compact, well-covered ears. 

243. Mercer. — Figs. loi and 103. Class: late white 
dent ; rows, 12 ; length, 9 inches ; circumference, J-^-^ inches at 
3 inches from butt ; grain, deep wedge-shaped with pinch- 
creased dent, roughish. 

Originated as an accidental cross between Hickory King 
and ''North American Horsetooth" (i.e. Virginia Horsetooth, 
Fig. 102), on the farm of Mr. W. Mercer, Cato Ridge, Natal. 
Mr. Mercer informs the writer that about the year 1904 he 
planted for comparative test with, and alongside, his Hickory 
King some seed of " North American Horsetooth " which had 
been introduced by Mr. Gavin of Umhlaas Road, Natal. Some 
19* 



292 



AfAlZE 





Fig. gg.—Salisbiiry White; specimen cour- Fig. too. — Noodsbcrg Horse foot ft ; a promising 

teously furnished by the Department of Agricul- unfixed cross-bred, 

ture, Salisbury, Rhodesia. 



VARIETIES And nREF.m 



293 




Fk;. ioi. — MiVi 



294 



MAIZP: 



CHAP, two years later he found that his Hickory King crop produced 
^^^- H number of ears carrying 12 rows of grain of a much deeper 




FiCr. 102. — V\ririn'ui Hoisetouth. 



VARlETlf.S AND BREEDS ^95 

character than Hickory King and somewhat resembling the CHAP. 
^^ North American Horsetooth'\ 

These he selected and planted by themselves, with the 
result that he obtained from among the progeny both 8-row 
Hickory King and the deep-grained i2-row type, some ears 
also producing lo rows. By continued selection of the 12- 
rowed, deep-grained ears his crop now produces mainly that 
type, although it still gives some 8- and lo-rowed ears. 

Although the characteristic features are not yet fully fixed, 
the type is so distinct, and of such good quality, and is, more- 
over, proving such a good yielder (as is to be expected where 
the grain is of such depth), that it seems worthy of further 
attention, but it is only likely to suit localities with a long 
growing-season. 

Description of ear No. 11,137, selected from Mr. Mercer's 
crop : — 

Length — g inches. 

Shape — Slowly tapering. 

Circumference, 3 inches from butt — 7j^g inches. 

Rows — 12. 

Arrangement of rows — In pairs. 

Sulci — i inch between pairs, less between the rows of a pair. 

Butt — Deeply rounded, slightly enlarged ; rows regular, passing 
straight over. 

Tip — Regular rows up to the end. 

Shank — f inch diameter. 

Weight — 16-5 ozs. 
Coh— 

Size — Medium ; \\ inches circumlcrence. 

Colour — White. 

Weight — 2 ounces. 
Grain — 

Condition — Firm upright ; very rigid. 

Colour — Cream white. 

Indentation — Roughish. 

Form of dent — Pinched crease. 

Shape — Medium wedge. 

Length — i§ to \% in. ; the latter is the type for selection. 

Width at apex — ^-^e inch. 

Per cent of grain per ear — 8yi per cent. 

Number of grains per ear — 600. 

Weight of grain per ear — 13'5 ozs. 

244. lO-Row Hicko7y, ov " Louisiafia". — Figs. 104 and 105. 
Class : medium late white dent ; length, 8^ inches ; circumference. 



296 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 

VII. 



6^ inches; rows, 10 ; grain, medium wedge-shaped, deep crease- 
dented, shghtly rough. 

One of the types of Hickory grown in the United States 
and usually found segregating in fields of Hickory King, both 



ftfff f 
ffff f f 

iflf t 




103. — A, grains of Mercer : B, surplus crop after filling Mr. Mercer's barn 
(Cato Ridge, Natal). 



VARTF.rri'.S AND liRERDS 



^97 



there and in South Africa. The writer isolated a strain of this CHAP, 
type some years ago, which now breeds fairly true though a ^'*- 



B?"^ 


^-9 


^^mcy-'~'\^ 




I^^Vv. ^"^ — ■ 


s 


^. ^:~t -_Z**^^^H 1 


^K^'— ■;- 


"^ 


'3 


I^^V^ V«ai 


, — .-— 

, — 


" 


— V— ■-'^f^^B 


— " 


^'~ ■■'_>-^^^^B 


^K,|;r"^r*^ 


1^^^ 




\^ 


1:^5^ 







Fig. T04. — lo-Row Hickory or '• Louisiana 



igS 



MAizn 



CHAP. 
VII. 



certain amount of fluctuating variability occurs. The tendency 
is for the ear to be rather short and well filled, which is an 
advantage for the High-veld as it tends to hasten the time of 
maturity. 

As the local market is still prejudiced in favour of a broad 
grain, it is a matter of opinion whether the broad-grained 




'm% 




A 

Fig. 105. — Two prize ear.s of lo-row Hickory at the Johannesburg Maize 
Show. A, grown by Reynolds Bros. ; B, grown by Hutchinson and Shaw (Val 
Station, Transvaal). 



lO-row Louisiana type is not preferable to the narrower- 
grained i2-row of the Hickory Horsetooth (although the dif- 
ference is but slight), especially on the High- veld, where the 
earlier-maturing habit of the former is in its favour. It may 
be possible to develop a Hickory Horsetooth with equall)' broad 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



^99 



grain and earlier- maturing habit. Sometimes the lo-row grain 
is no broader than that of the i 2-row, in which case the 12-row 
is preferable where the climate suits it ; the 12-row produces a 
larger percentage of embryo than the lO-row, and at Potchef- 
stroom the latter has been discarded in favour of Hickory 
Horsetooth. 

245. Iowa Silver-mine. — Figs. 
106 and 107. Class: medium-early 
white dent; rows, 14 or 16; length, 
10 inches ; circumference at 2 inches 
from butt, 7 inches, from tip, 6 
inches ; grain, medium wedge, pinch- 
dented, very rough. 

A drought-resistant, early-matur- 
ing breed, producing compact, heavy, 
rough ears. It does not seem suited 
to wet soils and climates, in which 
its behaviour is exactly the opposite 
of Boone County (Fig. 108). Iowa 
Silver-mine was introduced by the 
writer in 1905, from J. M. Thor- 
burn and Co., New York, U.S.A. ; 
it has given excellent results in the 
drier parts of the South-western 
Transvaal, in British Bechuanaland, 
the Orange Free State and near 
Aliwal North. It proves to be rich 
in protein and horny endosperm, 
and is therefore well suited for the 
manufacture of samp, and makes a 
nutritious mielie-meal if "whole- 
ground ". 

An improved strain of Silver- 
mine, known as Johnson County, was introduced by the writer 
a few years ago, and has been widely distributed and used to 
cross into the acclimatized strain. 

A strain of Silver-mine from Illinois, U.S.A., was intro- 
duced into Natal some years ago, and is said to have become 
a favourite there, standing next to Boone County in point of 
}'ield. 



CHAP. 
VII. 




F'iG. 106. — hnca Silvcr-miiic 
a prize ear. 



360 



MAI/R 



CHAP. 
VII. 



246. Boone County, — Fig. 108. Class: late white dent; 
rows, 16 to 22; length, 10 inches; circumference at 2 inches 
from butt, 7 i- inches, from tip, 6 inches ; grain, medium 
wedge-shaped, pinch-dented, rough. 

Introduced into the Transvaal by the writer in 1905 and 
[previously into Natal from Indiana, U.S.A. 




Fig. 107. — Two prize ears of Iowa Silver-mine at the Johannesburg Maize 
Show. A, grown by W. A. McLaren (Vereeniging) ; B, grown by M. Geerdts 
(Boksburg), Transvaal ; the tip of the latter is very defective. 

It has been grown successfully, but to a limited extent, in 
the wetter parts of Natal, in the Eastern Transvaal (in warm, 
sheltered localities) and in Rhodesia, but the conditions most 
generally prevalent throughout South Africa do not seem 
favourable to this breed. According to Sawer it is found in 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



301 



Natal to be hardy and resistant to rust, but a rank feeder, 

with extensive root system, 

yielding record crops only 

on rich, heavy vlei soil, and 

requiring 135 to 150 days 

to mature. 

247. Lady smith. — Figs. 
9415 and 109. Class: late 
white dent ; rows, 14 to 20 ; 
length, 10^ inches ; circum- 
ference at 2 inches from 
butt, 8|, from tip, 6f inches ; 
grain, deep wedge, pinch- 
dented, beaked, very rough. 

Grown by Mr. Walter 
Pepworth of Pepworth, near 
Ladysmith, and taken from 
his farm to Vereeniging by 
Mr. McLaren, who called 
it the Ladysmith for want 
of another name. It prob- 
ably originated from Cham- 
pion White Pearl, which it 
resembles in its beaked 
grain, and it is known by 
that name among many far- 
mers in Natal. But it differs 
in other respects (larger size, 
later maturity, better yield, 
etc.) from typical Champion 
White Pearl as imported by 
the writer some years ago, 
and grown for several years 
at the Botanical Experi- 
mental Station, Pretoria, 
and the Government Ex- 
periment Farm, Potchef- 
stroom. 

Ladysmith is a late- 
maturing breed, and best Fig. ioS.— ZJw«f County. 



CHAP. 
VII. 




302 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VII. 



suited to the Midlands and wetter parts of the Bush-veld. 
When planted early it has matured satisfactorily at Vereenig- 
ing, but cannot be recommended as a High-veld breed, nor for 




Fig. log. — Variation in types of Lady smith. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 303 

regions of low rainfall. Ladysmith has been discarded at Pre- CHAF. 
toria and Potchefstroom. Champion White Pear L'\s,s'i\\\^xo\\n} ^^^• 

The grain is appreciated on the English market, for samp 
and grit manufacture, as it contains a large percentage of 
horny endosperm. 

248. Natal White Horsetooth. — -Figs. 1 10 and i 1 1. Class : 




Fig. x-lo. — Natal White Hoi'sctootli. 

very late white dent ; rows, 14 to 18 ; length, 10^ to 12 inches ; 
circumference at 2 inches from butt, 8^, from tip, 6f to 7 inches ; 
grain, broad and shallow, but thick, crease-dented, smooth ; cob, 
very thick, drying slowly. Synonym : Late White Horsetooth. 
According to Sawer it takes 140-150 days to ripen in 
Natal, but is a good drought resister and heavy cropper. 

' Under the name Potchefstroom Pearl, which is a selected strain of Champion 
White Pearl. 



304 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VII. 



This breed has been grown for some years in Natal, but 
owing to its late-maturing and slow-drying habit its cultiva- 
tion has not extended much to other parts of the country. It 
is one of the six best yielding breeds at Potchefstroom and has 
been grown successfully at Vereeniging, but is too late as a 
main-crop for the High-veld. The grain is floury, and valued 
for the manufacture of starch, corn- 
flour, and mielie meal. 

Crosses between Natal White 
Horsetooth and Hickory King are not 
infrequently met with ; some of these 
have a narrower ear (Fig. ill), with 
thinner cob than the Horsetooth, while 
retaining something of its thickness 
of grain. The so-called Mazoe or 
Brindette grown in Swaziland may 
])erhaps have some Natal White 
Horsetooth "blood" in it, though said 
to have been brought down from the 
Mazoe Valley, Rhodesia. 

249. Eureka. — Fig. 11 2A. Class: 
medium or mid-season yellow dent; 
rows, 16 or 18; length, Q-j to ii 
inches ; circumference at 2 inches from 
butt, 'j\ inches, from tip, 5f to 6\ 
inches ; grain, medium wedge-shaped, 
crease-dented, medium smooth. 

Introduced by the writer in 1905 
from Peter Henderson, New York, 
U.S.A. ; now widely distributed in 
the Transvaal, but apparently not 
equally suited to all climates and 
soils. Topped the list for yield at the 
Government Experiment Farm, 
Potchefstroom, for three years ( 1 907-8 to 1909-10), and gave 
the highest average yield for six years. Valuable for 
stock-food and export. 

250. Chester County. — Fig, 1 1 2U. Class : early yellow dent ; 
rows, 16 or 18; length, 10 inches; circumference at 2 inches 
from butt, 6\ to 7 inches, from tip, 5f inches; grain, small, 




Fig. Ill 
Horsetooth 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



305 




A B 

Fig. 112.— a, Eureka; B, Chester County. 



3o6 MAIZE 

CHAP, deep, narrow wedge-shaped, thick, round dimple-dented, smooth 
^^^" or medium smooth, deep yellow with lighter cap. 

Introduced b)' the writer in 1905 from Peter Henderson, 
New York, U.S.A., and now widely distributed. Valued for 
its early maturity, drought resistance, and heavy yield. Gave 
the heaviest yield at Potchefstroom in 1910-1 1, and the second 
highest average for six years. Is proving suited to the Up- 
lands of Natal, which have hitherto been considered outside 
the Maize-belt, or only suited to flint breeds. 

The small size of the grain is considered objectionable 
by some local buyers, but the grain is appreciated for stock- 
food on the European markets. 

25 I. Yellow Hogan. — P'ig. 1 1 3H. Class : late yellow dent ; 
rows, 12 or 14; length, 9 inches; circumference at 2 inches 
from butt, ']\ inches, from tip, 6 inches; grain, medium wedge- 
shaped, crease-dented, medium smooth or smooth, rich orange 
yellow. 

Introduced by the writer in 1904 from P. L. C. Shepheard 
and Son, Sydney, N.S.W. At Potchefstroom Yellow Hogan 
beat Eureka for yield in 1905-6 and 1 906-7, and came a close 
second in 1910-11 ; it stands third in the average for seven 
years. 

252. Golden Beauty. — Fig. 1 1 3A. Class : late yellow dent ; 
rows, 12; length, 12 inches; circumference at 2 inches from 
butt, 6^ inches, from tip, ^\ inches ; grain, deep, broad wedge- 
shaped rounded corners, crease-dented, smooth to medium 
smooth, rich orange-yellow. 

Introduced by the writer, in 1904, from Burpee, Phila- 
delphia, U.S.A., but did not prove satisfactory in the Trans- 
vaal, and was subsequently discarded. Separately introduced 
into Natal where it has proved more satisfactory, and is 
grown in the Richmond District. A handsome ear, producing 
a fine, well-coloured grain. 

According to Sawer, Golden Beauty takes 140 da)'s to 
mature in Natal, proves a vigorous grower, is very drought 
and wind resistant and does not sucker; "a good general 
purpose breed, but rather slow for the High-veld". 

253. Yellow Horsetooth. — Fig. 114. Class: medium-late 
yellow dent ; rows, 14; length, 9 to 10 inches; circumference 
at 2 inches from butt, 7| to 8 inches ; from tip, 6 inches ; grain, 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



307 




CHAP. 
Vll. 



A B 

Fig. 113. — A, Golden Beauty .- B, Yellow Hogan. 



MAIZE 



CHAP 
VII. 




[4. — Yellow Horsetooth or 
Gevman Yellow. 



hallow crease-dent ; cob, large, 
white. Synonyms : Ger- 
man Yellow Horsetooth ; 
Natal Yclloiv Horsetooth ; 
Bishop. 

There are two types 
in South Africa, known 
respectively as German 
Yellow (Fig. 1 1 4) and 
Natal Yellow, Horsetooth ; 
the former is apt to be 
earlier in maturing and 
more drought resistant 
than the latter, but both 
\'ary greatly in these re- 
spects, according to the 
part of the country in 
which they have become 
acclimatized, and the 
character of the other 
strains which have en- 
tered into their composi- 
tion, for both are very 
impure. In some cases 
the type grown under 
this name is a mongrel 
flint, segregating each 
\ear into flints and dents, 
and in others it is a par- 
tial dent which segregates 
into dents and flints. We 
are not aware that any 
distinctive and pure 
strains have been iso- 
lated. 

If planted early, Yel- 
lozv Horsetooth does well 
on the High-veld, where 
it proves a good yielder 
both in grain and fodder. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 309 

The grain, when true to the dent type, is valued on the CHAP, 
London market, both for manufacturing purposes and for the 
preparation of flakes. 

254. Reid Yellow Dent. — Fig. 115. Class: medium-early 
yellow dent; rows, 18 or 20; length, 9-10 inches; circumference, 
7 inches ; grain, long wedge, dimple-dented, medium smooth 
(the rougher grains usually have greatest depth). 

An early maturing and comparatively drought resistant 
type, giving good yields. Introduced by the writer from the 
United States, in 1909 ; gave excellent results at the 
Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, in 1909-10, 1910-11, 
and 191 1 -1 2; now being tested at Potchefstroom, where the 
returns have so far been good. 

Reid Yellow Dent was originated in 1846 by Mr. James 
L. Reid, of Tazewell County, Illinois, U.S.A., as a cross be- 
tween " Gordon Hopkms" of Brown County, Ohio, and Little 
Yellow. Its characteristics of shape, length and circumference 
of ear, filling out at tips and butts, size and shape of cob, and 
shape and indentation of grain, are said to have been strongly 
fixed by careful and intelligent selection, and are uniformly 
reproduced, and it is considered one of the most improved 
breeds of maize grown in the United States. The following 
are characteristics as recorded by Sturtevant and Myrick : — 

Ear, 94 inches long, 6| inches (6'9 inches) circumference, 2^ 
inches diameter, slowly tapering; rows, 18-20 in distinct pairs ; 
sulci narrow, scarcely well defined ; butt deeply rounded, very 
compressed, with diverging grains. Grains very firm on the 
cob, upright, broadly truncate-cuneate, tapering to a point by 
straight lines, y^ inch broad, \ inch deep ; long dimple-dented, 
smooth ; tip grains conical ; colour horn-orange with yellow cap. 
(T^^ red. Shank medium to small. Season reported as 118 
days in Indiana. According to Sturtevant this appears from 
the description to be the same as Queen of the Field from Iowa. 

255. Minnesota Early. — Fig. 116. Class: medium-early 
yellow dent ; rows, 16 or 18 ; length, 9^ inches ; grain, medium 
wedge, fairly deep, dimple-dented, medium smooth. 

An early-maturing yellow dent introduced by the writer in 
1909 from the United States ; it gave promising results at the 
Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, in 1909-10, and is 
being tested further. 



3IO 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VII. 




Fig. 115,— Two types of Rcid Yellow Dent, showing improvement by selec- 
tion, B is the improved t> pe. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



311 



256. Star Learning. — Fig. 117. Class: medium - early CHAP, 
yellow dent ; rows, 16 to 20 ; length, 10 inches ; circumference, ^^'" 




Fig, 116. — Minnesota Early. 



Fig. 117. — Star Learning. 



312 MAIZE 

CHAP. 7 inches ; grain, medium wedge, crease-dented, rough. Intro- 
duced by the writer in 1904 from P. L. C. Shepheard and Son, 
Sydney, N.S.W. Proved particularly useful on the eastern 
High-veld. 

Leaning- is one of the most extensively grown breeds of 
maize in the United States, and is said to have the most uni- 
form characteristics of any yellow maize grown. It there 
proves adaptable, by selection, to widely different conditions 
of soil and climate. It was originated in 1826 from a common 
yellow sort growing on the bottom lands of the Little Miami 
River, Hamilton County, Ohio, by Mr. J. S. Leaming, and was 
selected by him towards a standard type for a period o\ fifty- 
six years. It is supposed to be the type from which many 
breeds of yellow maize have been developed, as most of the 
yellow breeds show some of its characteristics, and many of 
them can be actually traced back to Learning. 

The general characteristics of the Leaming group are : Ear 
tapering, 9^^^ inches long, 7 inches circumference; butt rounding 
or moderately rounding, more or less compressed, with tendency 
to expand ; rows in distinct pairs but mixed at tip, 16 to 24, 
with a tendency to reduction about the middle of the ear; sulci 
medium. Grains generally firm (sometimes loose) and mostly 
upright ; generally wedge-shape with square-cut summits and 
nearly straight edges, long dimple to pinch-dented, horn-orange 
with yellow cap. Coh red, medium. Shank medium to large. 

Sturtevant recognized five strains o{ Learning, viz.: {\) Early 
Leaming (IWinoxs) \ {2) Imp7'oved Leaming ; ij^) Leaming Yellow 
(Ohio); {4) Missouri Leaming ; ($) S^ar Leaming (Ohio). Of 
these Early Leaming, Improved Leaming, and Star Leaming 
have been tested at the Government Experiment Farm at 
Potchefstroom, but have now been discarded in favour of 
better yielding breeds. They were also distributed among 
farmers on the High-veld, where they have done well in some 
cases. 

257. Golden Eagle. — Fig. 118, Class: late yellow dent; 
rows, 16 to 20 ; length, 10 to 1 1 inches ; circumference, 7 inches ; 
grain, broad wedge, dimple-dented, rough to very rough (or 
medium smooth. Fig. 1181'.). 

Introduced from the United States, where it was originated 
by Mr. H. B. Perry of Illinois in 187 1. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



313 




rS 






E 



CHAP. 

VII. 



Fig. iiS.—Guhlen Eagle, as grown in Rhodesia; ears courteously supplied by 
the Department of Agriculture, Salisbury. 



314 MAIZE 

CHAP. In South Africa the cultivation of this breed appears to be 

^- mainly confined to Rhodesia, and even there (we are informed) 

the tendency is to discard yellows in favour of whites for 

export purposes. Reported {Saiver, i) as a strong, gross 

feeder, requiring heavy and fertile soils. 

258. Principal American Breeds of Flint Maize. — The 
following twenty-one breeds of flint maize are recommended, 
principally for grain production, by the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations of the States mentioned after their names, as 
reported by Hunt (i):— ' 

1. Angel of Midnight (r) : Utah 11. Milliken's Prize (y) : Vermont. 

(tested ten years), Vermont, 12. *North Dakota (w) : North Dakota 
Wyoming, (No. 148) ; Utah (tested seven 

2. *Canada yellow (y) : Nevada (did years). 

not ripen grain). 13. Orange County (w) : Vermont. 

3. Canada i2-ro\ved (y) : Vermont. 14. Rideout corn (y) : Wyoming. 

4. Early Demand (o) : Vermont. 15. *Sanford (\V) : New Hampshire, 

5. P'rench Squaw No. 32 (w) : North Vermont. 

Dakota. 16. Smut-nose (w) : South Dakota. 

6. *Gehu, No. 123 (y) : North Dakota. 17. Squaw corn (w) : Utah (tested 

7. Golden Dewdrop (y) : Utah (tested seven years). 

seven years). 18. *Thoroughbred (w) : Vermont. 

8. *King Philip (y) : Ottawa, Kansas, 19. Waushakum (y) : Vermont. 

Oregon, South Dakota, Utah 20. White flint (w) : Utah (tested ten 
(tested nine years), Wisconsin. years). 

9. *Longfellow (y) : Ottawa, Vermont. 21. Yellow Flint Corn (y) : South 
10. Long Yellow flint (y) : Utah (tested Carolina (on thin upland soil). 

ten years). 

259. Principal South African Flint Breeds. — Flints appear 
to have been grown in South Africa long before the introduc- 
tion of dents, and still persist in the Native Territories, and in 
districts of poor rainfall devoted mainly to stock-raising. 
The breeds principally grown were : Botman (both white and 
yellow) ; Cango (both white and yellow) ; Repatriation (yellow) ; 
Bushman (yellow); and ''Kaffir mielies'' (mixed white, red, 
blue, and yellow). The three first-named are now so mixed 
as often to be indistinguishable, except that difference in time 
of maturity is associated with the strains grown in one part of 
the country as compared with those of another. " Bushman " is 
rarely met with. The " Kaffir mielie " is probably a descendant 
of the old Squaw or " native " corn still grown in Canada, and a 
similar type has been received from Italian Somaliland. ' The 
natives are said to have a predilection for parti-coloured ears. 

' Red = (r) ; orange = (o) ; yellow = (y) ; white = (w). Those marked with 
an asterisk have been tried in South Africa. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 315 

The Transvaal Department of Agriculture introduced and CHAP. 



tested a number of the improved American and other sorts, 
some of which have been discarded as unsatisfactory, while 
others having proved superior to the older sorts already 
grown, have been widely distributed, and are now mixed with 
the old types. Among the best of these are New England 
S-row (y) and Rural Thoroughbred (w). Wills Gehu (y) and 
North Dakota (w), introduced in 1909, matured in eighty- 
seven days at the Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, and 
gave a very fair yield for such a short season ; a fresh con- 
signment of seed was obtained and widely distributed among 
farmers for the season of 1910-1 1. 

The early-maturing flints of South Europe, such as Cin- 
guantino, Odessa, and Bessarabia, while maturing quickly (some- 
times in forty to fifty days) give such poor yields as to be 
unsuited to the broad type of agriculture necessarily in vogue 
in a large part of South Africa. They seem better suited to 
the small farm areas of the south of Europe. Another draw- 
back is their habit of bearing ears low down on the stem, 
which renders them particularly liable to injury by vermin and 
to damage by torrential summer rains. These breeds might 
be useful to plant late, where the regular crop has been 
destroyed by hail or locusts ; but the difficulty would then be 
to obtain a sufficient quantity of seed at the moment when it 
is needed, as no one cares to grow for seed those breeds for 
which there will only be a demand in a bad season. 

The following have also been tested : — 

Yellow Flints. — Compton Early, Canada Early (8-rowed), 
Vilmorin Early, Vilmorin Early (long-eared), Henderson Large 
Yellow, Ninety-day, Longfellow, Improved King Philip, Harris 
Golden, Cinquantino, Odessa, La Plata, Argentina, and Shep- 
pard Yellow Flint. 

Red Flints. — Indian Pearl ; the ears often carry white, red, 
and blue grains mixed. 

White Flints. — Egyptian, Somali, and Western Beauty 
have been tried and discarded. Burlington Hybrid is grown 
to a very limited extent. 

260. Cango, white. — Class : medium white flint ; ears, 9 to 
10 inches long ; 5f inches circumference at tip, H inches diame- 
ter ; slowly tapering ; butt even ; rows distinctly distichous 



VII. 



3i6 MAIZE 

CHAP, below, 8 to lo. Grain rather large, 6 lines broad, 4^ deep ; 
roundish at apex, flattish at sides (sometimes classed as a 
" flat " in the trade), brownish white, embryo large. Shank 
medium. Cob thin, white. Medium early; loth in average 
yield at Potchefstroom ; useful breed for late districts. Stem 
medium short ; tillers freely. Extensively grown throughout 
the country. Supposed to take its name from the Cango Dis- 
trict, Oudtshoorn Division, Cape Province, whence it is said 
to have been brought north. A form of white flint with larger 
ears than the Botman, and with grains " flatly rounded on 
top," is described by Sturtevant as being grown at Rio Claro, 
on the uplands of Brazil, under the name Milho catete ; it was 
distributed by American seedsmen between 1881 and 1884 
under the names '' Hotntny'' " White Pearl" (not Champion 
White Pearl), and "Large White Flint". 

There is no demand for this class of maize on the London 
or Liverpool markets. 

Cango and Botman are probably the types introduced by 
the Portuguese, from their Brazilian settlements, into the East 
Indies and China, and dropped at Mossamedes, Cape Town, 
and on the East Coast en route. An African-grown ear of 
white flint maize, received probably from the late Prof. 
MacOwan, Cape Town, about the year 1884, was classified by 
Sturtevant as differing only in colour from Chinese samples 
exhibited at the Centennial Exposition, and from the milho 
dourado grown at Rio Claro, in the Province of Goyaz, on the 
uplands of Brazil ; Rio Claro is on the trade route from Rio 
de Janeiro to Matto Grosso and Bolivia. Colour we now 
know to be a most inconstant character, due to crossing ; 
there are both white and yellow Cangos and white and yellow 
Botmans. 

261. Thoroughbred, Rural. — Ear, 11 to 12 inches long, 2 
inches diameter, depressed, very open, strongly distichous, often 
expanded at butt ; rows, 8. Grain 6| lines broad, scant 44^ 
lines deep, rounded, dingy white. Shank\diX%t.. (To/; medium, 
white. Early to medium early. Stem medium short ; growth 
fair. Introduced by the writer in 1905 from Thorburn, New 
York, under the name " Thoroughbred White Flint" but it ap- 
pears to be the same as tlie standard breed known as Rural 
Thoroughbred. Widely distributed and favourably reported 



on 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 317 

from the Heidelberg, Standerton, Bethal, and Carolina CHAP, 
^ VII. 



Districts. The "blood" of this strain has entered into the 
composition of much of the " White Cango " now grown, from 
which it is no longer kept distinct, and the name of Thonmgh- 
hred has been dropped. 

262. Cango, yellow. — Fig. 119A. Class: medium-late 
yellow flint ; ear, %\ to 9 inches long; circumference at butt, 
5f to 6\ inches, at tip, 5^ to sy^- inches ; diameter, U to if 
inches; cylindrical; butt even, slightly compressed; rows, 10 
or 1 2. Grain medium, 4f to 5 lines wide, \\ to 5 lines deep, 
shallowly rounded above, flat on sides, colour golden yellow. 
Shank small. Cob thin, white. Stem medium-tall, robust, 
leafy, tillering ; good drought-resister, well acclimatized. 
Medium late. Valued for maize hay, and at one time exten- 
sively grown in small plots. 

263. Wills Gehu. — Fig. 119c. Class: early yellow flint; 
ears, 6 to 7^ inches long ; circumference at butt, 4I to 5 
inches, at tip, 3f to 4I inches; diameter, i^ to \\ inches; 
almost cylindrical to slowly tapering; butt even; rows, 12, 
10, or 8. Grain 5 lines broad, 4 lines deep, shallow rounded 
above, flat on the sides (intermediate between "flat" and 
" round "), bright yellow. Shank large. Cob white. De- 
scribed from ears imported by the writer in 1 910 from the 
breeders, Oscar H. Will & Co., Bismarck, North Dakota. 
Stem short ; inclined to stool ; early maturing, ripened at the 
Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, in eighty-two days. 
Has given excellent results in British Bechuanaland and the 
semi-arid regions of the S.W. Transvaal and western Orange 
Free State. 

264. North Dakota. — Fig. 119B. Class: early white flint; 
ears, 7 to 8 inches long ; circumference at butt, 4| to 5 inches, 
at tip, 4I to 4| inches; diameter, i| to U inches; cylindrical 
to tapering; butt even; rows, 12 (rarely 8). Grain small, 
roundish, 4 lines broad and deep, shallowly rounded above, 
flattish on sides (intermediate between round and flat), greyish 
white. Shank large. Cob white. Described from ears im- 
ported by the writer in 1910 from the breeders, Oscar H. Will 
& Co., Bismarck, North Dakota, U.S.A. Stem short, inclined 
to stool. Early-maturing ; ripe at Skinner's Court, Pretoria, 
in eighty-seven days, in 1910. 



3'8 



MAIZE 




Fig. 



-Three flint breeds grown in South Africa. A, Yellow Catigo ; 
B, North Dakota ; C. Wills Gehu. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



319 




CHAP. 
VII. 



.\ B 

Fig. 120. — A, New England 8-row Yellow Flint; B, Improved Yellow Botmati. 



320 MAIZE 

CHAR 265. Batman, white. — Class: medium-early white flint; 

VII 

ears, %\ to 9 inches long; 5| to 6| inches circumference at 

butt, 5| to 5 1 inches at tip ; i^ inches diameter; tapering to 
cylindraceous, even and slightly enlarged at butt; rows, 12, 14, 
or 16. Grain rather small, 6,\ lines broad and deep, rounded 
above, flattish on sides (classed as " round " in the trade), 
white. Shank variable. Cob thin, white. Stent medium 
height, tillering, leafy below. Early maturing, earlier than 
white Cango but less robust. One of the principal sorts for- 
merly grown in small patches in the drier parts of the Western 
Transvaal and adjacent Bechuanaland, as far west as Kuruman. 
After seven years' trial at Potchefstroom it remains, as usual, 
at the bottom of the list as regards yield, a striking demonstra- 
tion of the fact that new types developed by sound scientific 
breeding are superior to some of the older established and 
longer acclimatized breeds. 

266. Botman, yellow. — Fig. 120P.. Class: medium-early 
yellow flint; ears, 8 to 8| inches long; circumference, ^^ 
inches at butt, 4I inches at tip; diameter, i^ inches; slowly 
tapering, even at butt; rows, 12 or 14. Gratn*/\\ lines broad, 
3| lines deep, rounded above, light yellow, said to be softer 
than that oi A^czu England ^-row and therefore preferred by the 
older residents of South Africa. Shank small. Cob slender, 
often found to be white, but the typical yellow Botman is said 
to have a red cob. Considered less drought-resistant than 
New England "i-row. Tillers freely. One of the principal 
sorts formerly grown by the smaller producers in the Transvaal 
and Orange Free State. Synonym : Transvaal Yellow. 

267. New England ?>-row. — Fig. 120A. Class: medium- 
early yellow flint; ear, 9 to 12 inches long; circumference 
at butt, 5iV inches, at tip, 4^ inches; diameter, li inches; 
a little enlarged at butt, but rarely depressed or expanded ; 
rows, 8. Grain hard, 6 lines broad, 44^ to 7 lines deep, 
rounded above, flat on sides (sometimes classed in the trade 
as " flat "), golden yellow. Shank large. Cob thin, white. 
Medium-early ; stem medium height ; plant stools freely ; said 
to stand drought better than yellow Botman ; one of the best 
of the flint breeds. Introduced by the writer in 1904 from 
Burpee, Philadelphia (No. 758-04). Subsequently grown and 
distributed by the Government Experiment P'arm, Potchef- 
stroom, and by Messrs. John Fowler & Co., at Vereeniging. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



321 



268. Burlington Hybrid. — Class : white flint ; ear, 8| to CHAP. 
9 inches long; circumference, 6^ inches at butt, 5| inches at ^^^- 



:--:::: ^ 






&£!' 



Fig. 121, — Gillespie Yellow Flint. 



Fig. 122. — Brazilian Flonr Corn, 



32 2 MAIZE 

CHAP, tip; diameter, I -^ inches ; slowly tapering ; butt even, enlarged 
and open ; rows, lo. Grain 6 lines broad, 5 lines deep, thick, 
rounded above, flattish on sides, dusky white, embryo large. 
Shank large. Cob rather thick, white. Stems, 5 feet, not 
tillering, ears borne low ; maturing fairly early. Ears from 
W. Gillespie, Rietpoort, Zandspruit, Transvaal, 1909, who 
grew it from seed obtained in Natal. Grown in Natal for 
some years ; catalogued by Kirchoff, Howie, etc. ; said to make 
a good table maize. Has been described as a hybrid between 
sugar and flint maize, but in South Africa it shows no sign of 
sugariness. 

269. Gillespie Yellow. — Fig. 121. Class: medium yellow 
flint; rows, 12; length, lof to 11 inches; circumference at 2 
inches from butt, 5| inches, from tip, 4f inches ; cob red ; grain 
reddish. Selection towards a lighter coloured grain would be 
desirable from a commercial point of view. 

A red-cobbed segregate obtained by Mr. W. Gillespie, 
Rietpoort, Zandspruit, Transvaal, and exhibited at the Johan- 
nesburg Maize Show, 1910. 

270. Indian Pearl. — Class : parti-coloured flint. Ears long. 
Cob thin, white. Grain small, roundish, of high feeding" quality, 
mixed dark red, purple, blue or pearly white on the same or 
on separate ears. Medium early; yield good to medium. 
Stem medium height, tillering freely, leafy, good for ensiling. 
Introduced by the writer in 1903 from Vilmorin, Paris (No, 
639"03). Grown for some years at the Government Experi- 
ment Farm at Potchefstroom, and distributed, but now dis- 
carded. The strain has entered into the composition of other 
breeds, and occasionally crops out as a "reversion " ; probably 
the source of the red colour in Claret Sugar. Probably one 
of the earliest forms introduced into the Old World, and of 
common parentage with the ^' Squaw" or ''Native'^ maize 
grown by the Indians of the Northern United States and 
Canada. 

271. The Principal Breeds of Soft Maize or Flour Corn. — 
Owing to their poor keeping quality in districts subject to 
weevil and grain moth, and their consequent unsuitability for 
export, the flour corns are now but little grown in countries 
of large maize production. There are, therefore, but few com- 
mercial breeds. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 323 

The old South African Bread-inielie differs but little, if at CHAF. 
all, from the Brazilian Flour Corn of America. It is stated^ ^'^" 
that before the Boer War, there were two sorts of flour corn 
grown in the Transvaal : (i) the Kaffir Bread-mielie (known in 
Zulu as iCIilanza-gazaan^, having a short stem, small ears, and 
white grain ; and (2) the true Bread-mielie, with taller stem, 
larger ears, and dirty-white grain with red tips ; this latter 
type is said to be most nearly approached by the sorts of bread 
mielie recently exhibited at local shows in the Transvaal. 

A white flour corn was exhibited at the Johannesburg 
Maize Show, by Mr. Glass of Grahamstown, Cape Province, 
under the name Glass's Early Flour Corn. 

272. Bj'azilian Flour Corn. — Fig. 122. Class: white soft 
maize; rows, 14; length, 9 inches; circumference, 6\ inches; 
grain rounded above, with slight dent, and flat sides ; cob 
large, white. 

Probably the original type from which the old South African 
Bread-mielie was derived. Introduced by the writer in 1903 
from the United States ; chiefly grown for local consumption, 
especially on High-veld farms. Mr. F. le Roux of Oudehouts- 
kloof, Volksrust, Transvaal, often exhibits it at local shows. 

273. Principal Breeds of Sugar Maize Grown in America. 
— The following breeds are mentioned by Hunt (i) as having 
been recommended by three or more of the State Experiment 
Stations. 

Early Sorts. — Cory, Marblehead, Crosby, Chicago Market, 
Early Landreth. 

Medium Sorts. — Squantum, Maule XX, Stabler Early. 

Late. — Ne-plus-ultra, Stowell Evergreen, Country Gentle- 
man. 

274. Sugar Breeds introduced into South Africa. — Several 
breeds have been introduced into South Africa by seedsmen and 
by the Transvaal Department of Agriculture. These include : 
Black Mexican {T.D.A.), Crosby Early {T.D.A.), White Cory 
{Clark), Landreth {T.D.A.), Stowell Evergreen (C/ar/l', Howie), 
Country Gentleman {Clark, Howie), Golden Bantam {T.D.A.), 
New Cory {Clark), Cory Early {Howie), Marblehead {Howie). 

Poor germination has generally been experienced with 
imported seed of sugar maize. To Mr. James Clark, seeds- 
'e.g. by Mr. C. J. Morgan, at the Volksrust Show, 3 March, 1910. 



324 MAIZE 

CHAP, man and florist of Pretoria, is due the credit of what was pro- 
^"- bably the first attempt to produce a distinctly South African 
breed of sugar maize. In one of his early catalogues (un- 
dated, but from internal evidence issued later than 27 Septem- 
ber, 1904), he offers " Clark's Favourite'^ as a South African 
production. 

275. Clark Favourite. — Mr. Clark issued the following 
account in the catalogue referred to above : — 

" Sweet Corn : Clark's Favourite (Early Sugar Corn). — For 
years I have been working to get a cross with our Bread 
Mealie ; this I am pleased to say is a true cross with the Early 
Cory and Bread Corn. Clark's Early Sugar Corn is not only 
the earliest, but has a good-sized ear, white cob, very tender, 
sweet and nutritious ; it also keeps a long time in good condi- 
tion before hardening. In all-round good qualities it is the 
finest of all Sweet Corns ; it grows to a medium height, and 
the ears are formed low and two or three on each stock. This 
is undoubtedly the most important Vegetable Novelty of this 
year [1904-5]. Stock very limited." 

276. Arcadia Sugar-maize. — Fig. 123. In 1906 the 
writer obtained a few white sugar grains from a cross between 
Black Mexican ^ and a Transvaal white flint ; in the season 
of 1907-8 these were propagated and bred true, producing 
ears of white sugar maize, without any admixture of black. 
The new breed has since been improved, and was distributed 
in 191 1. It produces two good ears on a stalk ; the ears are 
i2-rowed ; planted on 20 August, 191 1, it flowered on 9 Nov- 
ember ; ears were ready for boiling on 9 December, i.e. in 1 10 
days ; it was ready to harvest for seed on 4 January, or i ^^y days 
{Burtt-Davy, 8). Earlier-maturing strains producing larger 
ears have since been produced (Fig. 123B). 

277. Claret Sugar. — Developed from a few grains selected 
by the writer from a Black Mexican cross grown in his garden 
in Arcadia, Pretoria. A dwarf, early-maturing sort, with 
pale claret coloured grains. Planted 8 November, flowered 
6 January, ready for eating 6 February, i.e. ninety days. It 
seems likely that the red colour (an aleurone colour) was ob- 

' Brought to South Africa in 1903 by Miss Florence Bolton, from the farm 
of Mr, B. Hayvvard ol Pescadero, California, U.S.A. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



325 



tained by an accidental cross between Black Mexiaui and chap. 
fmUan Pearl. Breeds true. VII. 




Fig. 12^.— Arcadia Sugar-maize. Improvement by breeding. A, original type ; 
B, improved type. 



326 



MAIZE 



CHAP 
VII. 



278. Union Suf^ar. — Developed from a few grains obtained 
by the writer from a cross between an unnamed red sort and 
Arcadia Sugar, grown at the Bo- 
tanical Experiment Station. The 
grains were obtained from the red 
ear, and are blood-red, and ver}- 
deep (^ inch), giving an excellent 
bite. Probably contains some 
Indian Pearl strain. Breeds true. 

279. Golden Sugar. — Developed 
from a few grains selected b\- the 
writer from a multiple cross grown 
in his garden in Arcadia, Pretoria. 
Grains shallow, but broad. Breeds 
true. 

280. Pop-corn. — Fig. 124. Pop- 
corn is at present but little grown 
in South Africa, though the demand 
is increasing. Several breeds have 
been introduced from time to time 
from the United States and South 
Europe. 

281. Special-purpose Sorts. — It 
is an axiom in agriculture that 
breeds adapted to particular classes 
of trade generally command a better 
price than ordinary general-purpose 
sorts, provided they are well grown, 
and that their production is not 
overdone. The manufacture of 
corn-flour, corn-flakes, silver-flakes, 
grits, .semola, hominy, samp, and 
other special food preparations, calls 
for particular qualities of grain, 
wJiich the climate of South Africa 
seems better fitted to produce than 
that of most parts of the world. 
But good "condition" (due to 

Fio. 124. — Pop-corn ; a hetero- i- i. n • ^ ^v i • -^ 

^ I \ ' . V climate) is not the on y requisite 

zygous Fo (seed generation) ear ^ / n 

(yellow and white). of the manufacturer, and it is 




VARIETIES AND BREEDS 327 

necessary to produce for him the type of grain called for b)- the CHAP, 
market. One of the first requirements is a large percentage ^^^' 
of endosperm in proportion to '* bran " or " hull " ; to secure 
this we should aim to produce a thick (not necessarily broad), 
long grain, instead of the very thin, flat type which is being 
grown so much to-day. 

There is a large demand in Europe for a small, " round," 
flint maize suitable for feeding poultry, pheasants, etc. This 
commands from 6d. to is. 6d. per muid more than ordinary 
yellow flint maize. South African Cango and Nezv England 
^-row are too large for this trade, and are being classed as 
" Flats " instead of rounds by buyers for Europe. If South 
African farmers can grow the smaller type of maize, it may 
prove worth while as a catch-crop, provided the yield is satis- 
factory. 

282. Silage Breeds. — In growing crops for silage, it is an 
object to get as large a yield of forage as possible from an 
acre of ground. For this purpose tall, leafy sorts which tend 
to sucker freely are preferred. Useful sorts are ''Red-cob En- 
silage," " Indian FearV,' and " Sweet Fodder-corn ". 

But it is difficult to obtain seed of breeds specially suited 
to silage production, as they are not regularly grown for seed. 
South African farmers do not care to grow their own seed of 
special silage maize, because of the danger of crossing with their 
grain crops. Most farmers, therefore, prefer to grow for silage 
the same sorts which are grown for grain, planting them closer 
in order to get the requisite yield. In America we find that 
it is mainly those States which are not grain producers which 
grow special sorts for silage; in the "Corn-belt" the ordinary 
grain sorts are used, but dents are always preferred to flints 
becau.se of the greater yield. 

There is a tendency to use as silage-crops, on the High- 
veld of South Africa, breeds which are grown as grain crops 
only at lower altitudes, such as Natal White Horsetooth and 
Yellow Horsetooth. The reason is that their season of growth 
being longer than the upland sorts, they continue to grow 
later in the season, and thus may produce a greater yield of 
green-stuff" per acre than those breeds grown mainly for grain. 
But the percentage of ears to stalk and leaves is lower, and the 
percentage of water to dry matter is apt to be higher, requiring 



328 MAIZE 

CHAP, the handling and storing of a larger mass and weight of green- 



VII 



stuff in proportion to amount of dry matter and feeding value. 
It is not desirable to cut silage too green, and it is therefore 
doubtful whether it is desirable to use very late-maturing sorts 
even for this purpose. 

283. Classes Best Suited for Cultivation in South Africa. — 
There is not, and probably never will be, any one breed or 
variety of maize which can be said, without reserve, to be the 
best for general cultivation throughout the Union, or in any 
one Province. Maize is sensitive to changes in climate or 
soil, and a breed which proves suitable in one district is not 
equally suited to all, owing to the great variations in altitude, 
temperature, moisture, and soil between different parts of the 
country. 

Speaking generally, the dent breeds are the best for the 
main crop, as they usually give the highest yields, and are in 
greatest demand. The flint breeds are most suitable for 
localities where the rainfall is limited and the growing season 
short, or for planting after the last date suitable for dents, to 
increase the acreage under crop. On the other hand, the flint 
breeds are generally richer in protein than most of the dents, 
and are therefore more nutritious for stock-food ; but on 
account of their lower yield they cannot be recommended for 
the main crop where dents can be grown satisfactorily. A 
certain amount of flint maize is useful on every farm, however. 
Yellow flints are more suitable than white, for the yellows 
have a better flavour, and are preferred for stock-food, though 
the yellow colour does not necessarily indicate higher feeding 
value. The oversea demand for white flints seems to be nil, 
while for yellow flints it is unlimited. 

Hickory King is now more widely grown in South Africa 
than any other breed of dent maize. It is in special demand 
for the mines' trade, though it does not appear to command a 
higher price than any other well-grown breed of white dent, 
unless a glut in the market gives the buyer a choice. For the 
export trade, well-grown Hickory King has met with a favour- 
able reception on the European markets, especially among 
manufacturers of grits, flakes, breakfast foods, etc., and among 
distillers and brewers. The higher price already obtained 
indicates that if the trade is carefully fostered by rigid grading 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 329 

and the exclusion from the "No. i white flat" grade of all CHAP, 
but the very best, there is a possibility of securing increased ^^'• 
demand and still better prices for the best Hickory King. 
Ladysmith and Iowa Silver-mine sell readily in Europe as " No. 
2 flat white," and choice parcels as " No. i ". 

For the grade known as No. 2, or fair average quality 
("F.A.Q. "), yellow dents are in demand for stock-feeding 
purposes, but yellow flints may be of equal market value if 
of good quality. 

For the supply of the present markets, the course for the 
South African farmer to follow is clearly to produce : — 

{ii) A very "choice" (No. i) grade of Hickory King, in 
order to increase the promising, though at present 
very limited, export trade in this class of maize. 

{h) A good quality of white dent maize of the No. 2 
grade, such as Hickory Horsetooth^ lo-rozv Hickory, 
Ladysmith, Boone County, Mercer, or Iowa Silver- 
mine, for use on the mines and for export. 

ic) A No. 2 quality of yellow dent maize, to be used for 
stock food locally and in Europe. 

{ci) A limited amount of yellow flint (where dents cannot 
be grown profitably) for feeding his own stock, 
and for export when the price warrants. 

In the present condition of the market, farmers will pro- 
bably find it better to limit their export trade to the first, 
second and third classes indicated above, though it is not 
improbable that the export demand for yellow flint will 
increase. 

With the exception of choice Hickory King for export, and 
yellow maize for local stock food, it does not appear to matter 
what particular breed is grown so long as it meets the above 
general requirements. From the farmer's point of view, there- 
fore, the question resolves itself into finding out which breed 
gives the best yield of maize of good quality under the con- 
ditions of climate and soil of his particular farm, and this de- 
pends largely on (i) the time taken by a breed to mature, and 
(2) length of growing season, which latter depends in turn on {pi) 
altitude, (/;) amount and (r) incidence of rainfall. 



33° MAIZE 

CHAP. 284. Relative Len^t/i of Groiving Season. — The time taken 

for the crop to mature varies greatly from year to year, accord- 
ing to the fluctuations of the seasons ; in a dry, warm, sunny 
season the crop takes a shorter time than in a cold, wet, rela- 
tively cloudy season. Therefore no definite time limit for the 
ripening of the grain can be assigned to any variety or breed 
of maize ; the time fluctuates with the season. Prof. Morrow, 
of the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, notes the fol- 
lowing differences in the ripening o{ Burr White Dent: — 

in 135 days. 



j-ooo in 135 uays. 

1889 in 144 and 156 days. 

1890 in 130 days. 

1892 and 1893 in 127 days. 



Prof. Burrill, of the same experiment station, notes the 
following difference in time of reaching edible maturity in 
Crosby Early sweet maize : — 

1888 in 62 to 64 days. 

1889 in 83 to 85 days. 
i8go in 79 days. 

The season does not affect all breeds in equal degree, but 
there is a relative proportion between their times of maturit}^ 
which can be used for classificatory purposes and as a guide 
to the adaptability of the different breeds to climatic conditions 
in different parts of the country. 

The relative ripening period of the different breeds may be 
roughly classified as follows, the time referring to the period 
between appearance above ground and the time when the plant 
is safe from injury from early frost : — 

Very Late 150 days and over. 

Late 140 to 150 days. 

Medium Late ..... 125 „ 140 ,, 

Medium Early . . . . no ,, 125 ,, 

Early 95 „ no ,, 

Very Early 85 „ 95 „ 

The relative time of maturity for different breeds is shown 
in the following list, but the reader should understand clearly 
that such a list is only approximate, and that the relative posi- 
tion of different breeds varies in different districts and in 
diff'erent seasons. As a rough guide, however, such a list has 
its uses. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 331 

Very Lates (150 days and over), lor early planting: — CHAP. 

Natal White Horsetooth (White dent). VII. 

Ladysmith (White dent). 
Salisbury White (White dent). 
Yellow Horsetooth (Yellow dent). 

Lates (140 to 150 days), for early planting : — 

Hickory King (White dent) ; in parts of the Transvaal and Natal. 

Hickory Horsetooth (White dent). 

Yellow Hogan (Yellow dent). 

Golden Beauty (Yellow dent). 

Golden King (Yellow dent). 

Brazilian Flour Corn (White soft). 

Mercer (White dent). 

Boone County (White dent) ; in Natal. 

Medium Lates (125 to 140 days), for main crop : — 
Hickory King (White dent). 

lo-Rowed Hickory or "Louisiana" (White dent). 
Yellow Cango (Yellow flint). 
German Yellow (Yellow dent). 
Eureka (Yellow flint). 

Boone County (White dent) ; in Transvaal. 
Golden Eagle (Yellow dent). 

Medium Earlies (no to 125 days), for main crop: — 
Iowa Silver-mine (White dent) ; in Natal. 
Reid (Yellow dent). 
Star Leaming (Yellow dent). 
White Botman (White flint). 
White Cango (White flint). 
New England 8-row (Yellow flint). 

Earlies (95 to no days), for late planting : — 
Wills Gehu (Yellow flint, 85 days). 
North Dakota (White flint, 85 days). 
Chester County (Yellow dent). 
Thoroughbred (White flint). 
Transvaal Bread-mielie (Flour corn). 
Minnesota Early (Yellow dent). 
Iowa Silver-mine (White dent) ; in Transvaal. 

285. Breeds Suitable for the High-veld. — On the extreme 
High-veld (5,000-6,000 feet) it is now generally recognized that 
Hickory King is too risky for the main crop owing to danger 
from early frost ; many thousands of bags are annually lost 
from this cause. Where this is the case farmers would be well 
advised to discontinue growing it, except for very early planting, 
and to choose a sort which will supply one of the three other 
classes of merchantable grain mentioned in H 283, Iowa Silver- 
mine is said to make as good a " mielie meal " as Hickory King, 



332 MAIZF. 

CHAP, for use on the mines. For the export trade, or for stock food, 
earher maturing yellow dents, such as Chester County, Reid, or 
Minnesota Early, can generally be sown where the season is too 
short for Hickory King. The two early flints already referred 
to, Wills Gehu and North Dakota, prove particularly valuable 
for late planting. 

For Early Planting. — Hickory King (w.d.) ; Hickory 
Horsetooth and lo-row Hickory (w.d.); Eureka (y.d.). 

For Main Crop. — Iowa Silver-mine (w.d.) ; Chester County 
(y.d.) ; Reid (y.d.). 

For Late Planting.— ^NWU Gehu (y.f ). 

286. Breeds Suitable for the Maize-belt of the Transvaal 
and Orange Free State. — For the Maize-belt proper, lying 
(roughly) between 4,000 and 5,000 feet, the following seem 
most suitable : — 

For Early Planting. — Ladysmith (w.d.) ; Yellow Horse- 
tooth (y.d.) ; Yellow Hogan (y.d.). 

For Main Crop. — Hickory King (w.d.) ; Hickory Horse- 
tooth and lo-row Hickory (w.d.); Eureka (y.d.). 

For Late Planting. — Iowa Silver-mine (w.d.) ; Chester 
County (y.d.) ; Reid (y.d.) ; Minnesota Early (y.d.). 

For Very Late Plantins^, or as a catch-crop, — Wills Gehu 
(y.f). 

287. Breeds Suitable for the Maize-belt of the " Midlands'' 
East of the Drakensberg. — ^For the lower-lying country east of 
the Drakensberg, 2,000 to 3,500 feet elevation, later-maturing 
breeds can be grown owing to the longer growing-season and 
larger rainfall. 

For Early Planting. — Natal White Horsetooth (w.d.). 

For Main Crop. — Hickory King (w.d.) ; Ladysmith (w.d.) ; 
Boone County (w.d.) ; Mercer (w.d.) ; Golden Beauty (y.d.) ; 
Yellow Horsetooth (y.d.). Yellow Hogan (y.d.) is worth trial, 
the quality of the grain being superior to that of either of the 
other two yellow dents named. 

For Late Planting. — Eureka (y.d.) is worth trial. 

288. Breeds Suitable for the Coast-belt. — This part of the 
country is suitable for the cultivation of late-maturing sorts 
when the incidence of the rainfall gives a long growing-season. 
Boone Co7mty {w.d.), Ladysmith (w.d.), and " Yellow Dent" do 
well. Hickory King and Golden Beauty are also grown. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 333 

At the Government Experiment Station, Stanger, the three CHAP 
following breeds stood out prominently in the breed tests of 
1907 :— 

Yield per Acre. 

Ladysmith 5, 100 lbs. = 25'5 muids. 

Hickory King .... 4,260 ,, = 21*3 „ 

Golden Beauty .... 3,950 ,, = i9'75 „ 

289. Breeds Suitable for the Semi-arid Western Region. — 
The region west of a line drawn between Bloemfontein and 
Lichtenburg is with small exception too dry for any but short- 
season breeds. Botman (flint) is the breed which has been 
grown most extensively but it yields poorly ; a white Botman 
is grown successfully at Grootfontein and Blikfontein on the 
Kaap Plateau. German Yellow (y.d.) is favourably reported 
on from parts of the Orange Free State, as fairly drought- 
resistant, early, and a good yielder. Hickory King is only safe 
in exceptionally favourable seasons and when planted early ; 
lO-row Hickory (w.d.) is more suitable. Iowa Silver-mine ^wA 
Chester County have given excellent results in the Wolmarans- 
stad District. ]Vills Gehu (y.d.) and Wills Dakota (w.d.) 
should be especially valuable here. 

290. Breeds Suitable for the Upper Bush-veld. — There is an 
enormous area of territory in the Northern Transvaal, west of 
the Drakensberg, which is at present but thinly settled by 
white people. It is a good cattle country and grows excellent 
maize in ordinary seasons. But the rains fall late and the 
growing-season is somewhat short. On the Springbok Flats, 
Hickory King (w.d.) has given good results, but Hickory 
Horsetooth is more promising. Iowa Silver-mine (w.d.) should 
do well and Chester County (y.d.) is worth trial. 

291. Breeds Grown in Rhodesia. — Hickory King, Salisbury 
White, and Golden Eagle appear to be favourites, and do 
excellently in those parts of the country suited to maize 
growing. 

292. Relative Yields of Different Breeds in the Transvaal. 
— The relative yields obtained in any one district do not 
necessarily apply, except in a very general way, to districts 
belonging to a different crop-zone or to localities having a 
different soil. Nor will the returns obtained during one or 
two years be a safe criterion as to the relative merits of differ- 



334 



MAIZE 



CHAP 
VII. 



ent breeds. Seasonal conditions affect the various breeds 
differently, and as it requires a ten-year average of the 
various factors to determine the character of the climate, so 
also a ten-year average is desirable for determining accurately 
the relative yields of different breeds. But some breeds can 
be discarded after two seasons, and many before the expiry 
of ten years, so even without the full ten-year record a table 
of relative yields has its value. 

Breed tests have been conducted on the Government Ex- 
periment Farm, Potchefstroom, since 1905-6, and the results 
are summarized in Tables XLV and XLVI. 



Table XLV. 
SUMMARY OF POTCHEFSTROOM BREED TESTS. 





Average Yield in Muids for 


3 Years (1906-7 
to 1908-9). 


5 Years (1906-7 
to 1910-1 1 ). 


6 or 7 Years. 


1. Eureka 

2. Chester County . 

3. Yellow Hogan . 

4. Hickory Horsetooth . 

5. Natal White Horse- 

tooth 

6. Hickory King . 

7. New England 8-row . 

8. Iowa Silver-mine ' 

9. Champion White Pearl 

10. White Cango . 

11. Yellow Cango . 

12. White Botman . . : 


25-79 

24-77 
23-27 
23-00 

23-83 
25-14 
20-82 
21-70 
21-50 
23-50 
21-58 
i8-6 


24-1 
23-1 
21-3 
20-65 

22-IO 

21-9 

I9T 

20-4 

20-0 

20-3 

20-I 

16-4 


21-75 6) 
21-15 (6) 
20-59 (7) 
20 -oo (6) 

19-73 (7) 
19-53 (7) 

18-76 (6) 
18-72 (6) 
17-36 (7) 
17-24 (7) 
14-73 (7) 



The following brief notes giving some idea of the method 
followed in conducting these tests are taken from the Reports 
of Mr. Holm (i) and Mr. Bell (r) :— 

Definite comparative experiments with maize were com- 
menced on this farm in the season 1904-5. 

Breeds.— "WiQ crops were grown on land which had, during 
the previous year, produced mangels or potatoes, which received 
from 8 tons to 10 tons dung per acre, and about 300 lbs. of a 

' The low position held by this breed at Potchefstroom is not maintained in 
some other parts of the country ; it does not like low-lying, damp ground, and 
does better in localities with less soil-moisture. 



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336 MAIZE 

CHAP, phosphatic manure, but no manure was applied directly to the 
VII 

maize crop. 

The first "comparative" trials were put down in the season 
1904-5. More breeds were procured for the 1905-6 planting, 
but as they largely consisted of imported seed it would not be 
safe to take the results of the first year's growth as a basis of 
comparison. In this report, the comparative records are there- 
fore dated from the season 1906-7, During that year and the 
previous two years the results, however, served a useful purpose 
in the determination of breeds which could be discarded. 

The Seed. — Most of the breeds were procured by the 
Division of Botany from America, Canada, and Australia, but 
attention was also paid to local sorts from the best seed 
procurable. 

It was soon seen that the results obtained in the first 
two years of experiment could not be regarded as strictly 
comparative, since the seed of most of the breeds was not 
acclimatized. This is a further rea.son for only dating these 
records from the year 1906-7. 

The Cultivations. — As a general rule the land was deeply 
ploughed once after the potatoes or mangels were cleared. 
Such cultivations as "cultivating," "harrowing," and " rolling" 
were performed to procure a satisfactory tilth prior to planting. 
Immediately after planting the land was harrowed ; subsequent 
cultiv^ations generally consisted of one or two harrowings, one 
hand-hoeing, and one horse-hoeing. 

In the year 1906-7, the breeds were planted with the 
ordinary " 2-row planter," and a special series of plates was 
used to plant grains of such great diversity, equidistant, but it 
was found that this did not give as great accuracy as could be 
desired for experiment. Consequently, in succeeding years, 
the planting for this breed test was done by hand, the grains 
dropped in hills 3 feet apart in each direction, three to each 
hill. 

In 1909-10 the trials were conducted on land consisting 
of a brown loam in a very good state of fertility. 

The actual piece of land devoted to the experiment was of 
course selected for its uniformity, and to ensure results most 
favourable for comparison, two rows of each breed of maize 
were [)lantecl across the full length of the field, breeds of 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 337 

similar robustness and general character of growth being chap. 
placed next to each other ^^^• 

In previous years the trials had been conducted on check- 
row principles, the seed being sown in hills 3 feet apart in 
each direction ; but in this year that system was discarded 
and the seed planted in continuous rows 3 feet apart. 

" The field was watched throughout the season, and any 
blanks in the ' plant ' due to borer, faulty germination, or other 
such accidental cause, carefully noted. Such blanks, of course, 
affect the yield, and as they are the result of accident, and not 
a characteristic of particular breeds, allowance must be made 
for them in comparative experiments. These allowances, and 
the fact that the most even stand in a field, even if not the 
best part, is certainly not the worst, together make the cal- 
culated yield per acre come out at a higher figure than is 
actually obtained over large areas. This, however, though 
giving a somewhat inflated appearance to the yield generally, 
does not affect the relative positions of the different breeds." 
In harvesting, two stretches, each 22 yards in length, were 
selected out of the full length of the rows at places where the 
stand seemed to be the most even for all breeds. The ears 
from both rows of each breed were harvested from these two 
selected areas, shelled, the grain weighed, and the result 
calculated out to weight per acre, after the necessary additions 
for blanks were made. This makes a total of four chains 
length harvested for each breed. 

The character of the season should be taken into account 
in comparing the yields. In 1905-6 two very severe droughts 
were experienced during the growing period, viz., in January 
and February, and it is probable that the medium-early 
breeds were most affected, as these droughts took place at a 
critical stage in their growth. Late breeds also suffered to 
some extent, but the early breeds did not appear to have 
been much affected. 

The year 1906-7 was ideal for securing heavy yields. A 
good rainfall took place throughout the growing period, and 
at no stage of its growth did the crop suffer either from 
" drought " or a supersaturated soil. 

The year 1907-8 was too dry in February, a critical stage 
in the crop's development, while in 1908-9, though a sufficient 
22 



33^ 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VII. 



total rainfall fell during growth, the crop suffered during 
December from drought, and, later, from a water-logged soil 
and absence of sunshine. 

In the season 1909-10 the crops suffered from drought in 
the early stages, were flooded out in December, recovered 
somewhat, and produced a fair crop. 

In the last season (1910-11), owing to heavy early rains, 
the young plants made rapid growth and got an excellent 
start. Then came the drought, which reached, and continued 
at, its worst at the time when the majority of the breeds were 
at the most critical stage of growth, i.e. during the flowering 
period. Owing to this, in many cases imperfect pollination 
took place, which resulted in an abnormal proportion of small, 
badly-filled ears. Rain fell after this, but to the end of the 
season the fall was considerably below the average and quite 
insufficient to produce the best results. 

The rainfall for the period 1906-7 to 1909-10 is given in 
Table XLVII following:— 



Table XLVII. 

RAINFALL AT GOVERNMENT EXPERIMENT FARM, POTCHEF- 
STROOM, 1906-7 TO 1909-10. 





1906.7. 


1907-8. 


1908-9. 1909-10. 


1910-11. 


Inches. 


c « 


Inches. 


rl 


Inches. 


A 


Inches. 


r^ 


Inches. 


rl 






OQ 




OQ 




OQ 




OQ 




OQ 


July . . . 











_ 


•64 


4 0-36 


2 


_ 





August 


— 


— 


— 


— 


•9« 


4 0-31 


2 


— 


— 


September 


•10 


3 


2-04 


6 


1-67 


5 I 0-02 


I 


0-88 


I 


October . 


2-03 


9 


1-48 


10 


173 


7 0-39 


4 


6-00 


13 


November 


3-93 


10 


3-96 


10 


2-64 


9 1 2-8i 


10 


1-62 


7 


December 


3-50 


9 


4-II 


12 


2-59 


7 10-26 


14 


4-13 


13 


January . 


6-40 


15 


4-21 


12 


7-00 


17 


3-45 


12 


i-4b 


10 


February . 


8-94 


10 


2-95 


16 


472 


13 


1-77 


II 


3-13 


10 


March 


2-00 


10 


3 39 


12 


2-93 


7 


2-49 


5 


1-91 


II 


April 


5-25 


II 


•02 


I 


•80 


4 


0-14 


3 


2-53 


9 


May 


1-39 


7 


•06 


I 


I-2I 


6 


0-15 


3 


2-68 


9 


June 

Total Rainfall . 


0-2 


I 


•03 


I 


— 


— 


o-o6 


2 


o-oi 


I 


33*56 





22-25 





26-91 


_ 


22-21 


_ 


24'35 


_ 


Number of Days 




85 




81 


— 


83 





69 




84 



These climatic conditions are reflected in the yields, 
each year all the breeds were safe before frost occurred. 



In 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 339 

293. Relative Yields of Breeds in Natal. — The followinii;- CHAP, 
report on breed tests carried on at Cedara, Natal, is furnished ^^^• 
by Mr. Sawer (i): — 

" In 1904-5 the variety tests were made in Block iC of the 
variety section. The rows were 35 feet long and 3 feet apart, 
and there were two rows of each variety. Ten tons of farm- 
yard manure were ploughed in, and a mixture of 200 lbs. 
sulphate of ammonia, 400 lbs. superphosphate, and 100 lbs. 
potash chloride was spread broadcast and harrowed in. The 
same lots of seed from America, France, and England were 
used as in the previous year ; also several lots from Dammann 
and Co., of San Giovanni a Teduccio, near Naples, Italy, and 
some two or three other lots. In all cases the seed was 
planted too late for the best results, the Brazilian and the 
Virginian Dent on 28 and 29 December, and all the others on 
1 9 December, three weeks later than desirable. Some of the 
yields were good, but in all probability the general average 
would have been higher had the seed been planted earlier. 
The peculiarity of the 1904-5 season, to produce much stalk 
but comparatively little grain, was shown throughout. The 
following are the results in detail, arranged in order of grain 
yield " : — 



340 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VII. 



Tahle XLVIII. 

RELATIVE YIELDS OF MAIZE BREEDS AT GOVERNMENT 
EXPERIMENT FARM, CEDARA, NATAL, 1904-5. 









Aver- 


Yield. 


No. 


Variety. 


Source. 


age 
Height 
















Feet. 


Grain. 


Stalk, etc. 


I 


Hickory King (L.) 


Trelawny Adams 


7* 


3.538 


6,128 


2 


Boone County (L.) . 


Henderson (grown 
by W.Pepworth) 


7 


2,917 


10,417 


3 


White Flint 


Henderson, New 
York 


6 


1,719 


6,771 


4 


Yellow Hogan . 


Hawkesbury Exp. 
Farm, N.S.Wales 


7 


1,614 


6,406 


5 


Adams Early 


Kilminster, Durban 


4 


I.510 


2,838 


6 


Early Butler 


Henderson 


6 


1.432 


11,041 


7 


Longfellow 


„ 


6 


1.354 


6,328 


8 


Improved Learning . 


,, 


6 


r.237 


6.341 


9 


Improved Early Horsetooth 




7 


1,224 


8,346 


10 


Early Yellow Long Eared . 


Vilmorin, Paris 


6 


1,175 


1,680 


II 


Early Mastodon . 


Henderson 


7 


1. 172 


12,578 


12 


Sugar Corn, Evergreen Late 


Vilmorin 


5 


1,167 


5,768 


13 


Early Minnesota 


Dammann, Italy 


5 


1,167 


3.633 


14 


Golden Beauty . 


Henderson 


7 , 


1,146 


10,286 


15 


King Philip 


,, 


6 


1,133 


5.300 


16 


Rural Thoroughbred . 


„ 


6i 


1,120 


9,895 


17 


Large Yellow Flint . 


„ 


6 


1,015 


6,419 


18 


Southern Horsetooth 


,, 


7 


1,015 


4.297 


19 


Queen of the Prairie . 


It 


6i 


976 


7.526 


20 


Late White Horsetooth 


Vilmorin 


6 


911 


10,338 


21 


Six Weeks, or Quarantino . 


Dammann 


4 


911 


1,953 


22 


Crosby Early Sweet Corn . 




l\ 


898 


6,706 


23 


White Cap Yellow . 


Henderson 


6 


885 


4,948 


24 


Extra Early Huron . 


,, 


6 


794 


4.414 


25 


White Early Pyrenean 


Vilmorin 


5i 


791 


1,706 


26 


Sweet Fodder 


Hendirson 


4 


755 


2,995 


27 


King Philip Early White . 


Vilmorin 


5 


743 


2,070 


28 


Compton Early . 


Henderson 


6 


729 


4,674 


29 


Henderson Eureka 


„ 


7 


716 


".783 


30 


White Pyrenean 


Sutton, England 


4 


703 


2,200 


31 


Pearl White 


Dammann 


5i 


664 


2,473 


32 


Extra Early Szekely . 


Vilmorin 


4 


664 


1,068 


33 


Stowell Evergreen 


Kilminster, Durban 


5 


651 


6,627 


34 


Curagua .... 


Dammann 


6 


612 


4,805 


35 


Sugar Corn, Early Dwarf . 


Vilmorin 


4i 


586 


1,549 


36 


Indian Corn Yellow . 


„ 


5^ 


567 


1.693 


37 


Ambra .... 


Dammann 


3 


560 


1.719 


38 


Seven Weeks, or Cinquan- 












tino .... 


„ 


4 


547 


2,317 


39 


Early Dwarf Sugar Cane . 


Sutton 


3 


531 


2,578 


40 


Kansas King (in the husk) 


Dammann 


4i 


521 


6,016 


41 


Hickory King . 


Henderson 


7 


508 


9,778 


42 


Extra Early Yellow . 


Sutton 


4 


504 


1.354 


43 


Brazilian (L.) . 


C. Harding, near 












Estcourt 


6 


456 


3,398 




L. = local seed 











VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



34] 



Table XLVIII (continued). 

RELATIVE YIELDS OF MAIZE BREEDS AT GOVERNMENT 
EXPERIMENT FARM, CEDARA, NATAL, 1904-5. 



CHAP. 
VII. 









Aver- 


Yield. 


No. 


Variety. 


Source. 


age 
Height 
















Feft. 


Grain. 


Stalk, etc. 


44 


Late Bicolor Pearl 


Vilmorin 


5 


443 


12,174 


45 


Early Small Yellow Au- 












xonne .... 


,, 


4 


420 


1,146 


46 


Evergreen Sweet 


Henderson 


4* 


377 


4,153 


47 


Extra Early Small Yellow 


Vilmorin 


3 


266 


846 


48 


Mastodon Improved . 


Dammann 


7 


182 


963 


49 


Moor Early Concord . 


,, 


3 


156 


911 


50 


King Philip, Early Brown . 


Vilmorin 


3 


137 


625 


51 


Iowa Silver-mine 


Dammann 


3 


133 


664 


52 


Japanese Striped 


Sutton 


3i 


104 


1.354 


53 


Perry Hybrid . 


Dammann 


3 


104 


443 


54 


Virginia Dent . 


Henderson 


6 


39 


9,127 


55 


Cuzco White 


Vilmorin 


5 


26 


1,380 


56 


Mammoth .... 


Dammann 


5 


26 


364 


57 


Nanerotollo 


.^ 


I 


20 


26 


58 


Egyptian .... 


,, 


5i 


13 


1.536 


59 


Cuzco Red 


Vilmorin 


5 




3.125 


60 


Very Early August . 


,, 


2 


* 


2,083 


61 


Adams Extra Early . 


Dammann ^ 

ii / 








62 


Cory Early Red Cob . 








63 


Iowa Gold-mine 


Failed 






64 


Longfellow Yellow . 








65 


Leaming Yellow 

Average of 60 






4,496 


768 



*The ears were all destroyed by crows. The grain would perhaps have 
weighed 200 lbs. per acre. 



342 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VII. 



Table XLIX. 
RESULTS OF MAIZIi BREED TESTS, CEDARA, NATAL, 1905-6. 











Yield. 




No. 


Variety. 


Source. 


Average 






Date of 
Harvest- 


Heigh: 












Feet. 


Grain. 


Stalk, 
etc. 


ing. 


I 


Hickory King . 


Trelawny Adams 


7 


5,990 


9,869 


30 May 


2 


Virginia White Dent i 


Henderson 


7 


5,220 


18,385 




3 


Early Mastodon 


,, 


7 


4,844 


5,755 


.. ,, 


4 


Boone County White . 


through 
W. Pepworth 


7 


3.662 


8,242 


„ „ 


5 


Yellow Hogan . 


Hawkesbury Ex. 
Farm, N.S.W. 


Ik 


4,219 


9,241 


„ ,. 


6 


Mastodon Improved . 


Dammann 


8 


4,206 


7,214 


14 .. 


7 


Queen of the Prairie . 


Henderson 


8 


4,140 


5,443 




8 


Zulu Red, Zululand 












■ 


Mealie . 


Rawlins 


8 


4.075 


18,789 


30 ., 


9 


Golden Beauty . 


Henderson 


9 


4,010 


6,745 


14 .. 


10 


Late White Horsetooth 


Vilmorin 


^h 


3.906 


15.729 


30 „ 


II 


Extra Early Huron . 


Henderson 


8i 


3.737 


5.013 


14 .. 


12 


Horsetooth and Hick- 














ory King, Grey town 


Thresh 


1\ 


3.633 


8,507 


30 „ 


13 


Hickory King . 


Henderson 


7 


3,542 


5,482 




14 


Improved Early Horse- 














tooth 


,, 


Ih 


3,515 


5.469 


„ ,, 


15 


Virginia White Dent 2 


,, 


6 


3.411 


4,662 


„ .. 


16 


Burlington Hybrid, 














Ingogo . 


Panzera 


7 


3.398 


4,453 


3 ., 


17 


White Cap Yellow . 


Henderson 


8 


3.372 


5,182 


14 „ 


18 


Japanese Striped 


Sutton 


4 


3,268 


4,844 


30 ,. 


19 


Southern Horsetooth . 


Henderson 


74 


3,255 


12,696 




20 


Henderson Elureka . 


,, 


84 


3.255 


5,560 


14 ,',' 


21 


Improved Leaming . 




7 


3,216 


3,776 




22 


Iowa Silver-mine 


Dammann 


7 


3.190 


6,107 


12 „ 


23 


Large Yellow Flint . 


Henderson 


7 


3.060 


3,515 


3 ., 


24 


Horsetooth or Cura- 














gua, N.S. 


Vilmorin 


64 


3,008 


11,042 


30 „ 


25 


Rural Thoroughbred . 


Henderson 


8 


3,008 


10,663 


14 <, 


26 


Early Butler 


,, 


7 


2,956 


4,779 


3 ., 


27 


Curagua 


Dammann 


Iw 


2,903 


7.214 


12 „ 


28 


King Philip 


Henderson 


6!i 


2,786 


4.375 


3 „ 


29 


Brazilian . 


C. Harding 


6 


2,760 


7.865 


30 „ 


30 


White Flint 


Henderson 




2,760 


3.763 


3 ., 


31 


Evergreen Sweet 


,, 


64 


2,760 


3,620 


12 ,, 


32 


Compton Early . 


,, 


64 


2,708 


3,685 


3 .. 


33 


King Philip Early 














Brown . 


Vilmorin 


6 


2,682 


6,797 


12 April 


34 


Longfellow 


Henderson 


64 


2,630 


5,651 


3 May 


35 


Kansas King (in the 














Husk) . 


Dammann 


7 


2,408 


5,521 


14 .. 


36 


Mammoth . 




62 


2,356 


4,271 


2 „ 


37 


Small Yellow S.Ameri- 


Natal Agricult. 












can, N.S. 


Dept. 


54 


2,356 


4,219 


30 ,. 


3« 


King Philip Early 














Brown, N.S. . 


Vilmorin 


6 


2,253 


4,948 


12 April 


39 


Late Bicolor Pearl, 














N.S. 




5 


2,161 


5.654 


30 May 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 



343 



Table XLIX {continued). 
RESULT OF MAIZE BREED TESTS, CEDARA, NATAL, 



1905-6- 



CHAP. 
VIL 











Yield. 




No. 


Variety. 


Source. 


Average 
Height 






Date of 
Harvest. 








1 
1 


Feet. 


Grain. 


Stalk, 
etc. 


ing. 


40 


Boone County White, 














N.S. . 


Henderson 


6i 


2,148 


5.248 


30 May 


41 


Indian Corn, Large 














Yellow . 


Vilmorin 


5i 


2,122 


3,893 


12 April 


42 


Perry Hybrid . 


Dammann 


7 


2,096 


2,773 


2 May 


43 


Sweet Fodder . 


Henderson 


6 


2,083 


3,125 


3 „ 


44 


Late Bicolor Pearl . 


Vilmorin 


5^ 


2,051 


5,937 


30 ., 


45 


Moor Early Concord . 


Dammann 


5i 


2,005 


2,304 


2 ,, 


46 


White Early Pyrenean, 














N.S. 


Vilmorin 


6 


1,912 


3,711 


12 April 


47 


Crosby Early Sweet 














Corn 


Dammann 


5h 


1,784 


2,565 


3 May 


48 


King Philip Early 












White, N.S. . . Vilmorin 


6 


1,706 


4,167 


12 April 


49 


Sugar Corn, Evergreen, 












Late, N.S. . .1 


5'i 


1,680 


4,844 


2 May 


50 


Pearl White . . Dammann 


5i 


1,667 


5,768 


30 „ 


51 


Early Yellow, Long 












Eared . . . Vilmorin 


5i 


1,653 


2,044 


12 April 


52 


Early Minnesota . Dammann 


5i 


1,627 


2,395 


2 May 


53 


Large Yellow, N.S. . i Vilmorin 


5* 


1,615 


3,503 


12 April 


54 


White Early Pyrenean ,, 


5i . 


1,615 


2,825 


,, „ 


•55 


King Philip Early 














White . 


,, 


6 


1,602 


3,906 


,, „ 


56 


Sugar Corn, Evergreen 














Late 


,, 


6 


1,588 


3,633 


2 May 


57 


Sugar Corn, Early 














Dwarf, N.S. . 


,, 


4l 


1,536 


2,109 


12 April 


58 


Adams Early 


Kilminster, Dur- 














ban 


5 


1,475 


2,457 


„ ,, 


59 


Stowell Evergreen 


1. 


6 


1,424 


2,361 


,, 


60 


Early Yellow, Long 














Eared, N.S. . 


Vilmorin 


6 


1,419 


3,307 


,, 


6i 


Ambra 


Dammann 


5i 


1,406 


1,693 


!,' '.! 


62 


Egyptian . 




^ 


1,380 


5,912 


2 May 


63 


Seven Weeks, or 












Cinquantino . . , ,, 


6 


1,380 


2,773 


12 April 


64 


Extra Early Dwarf 












Sugar Corn . . Vilmorin 


4i 


1,380 


2,526 


,, „ 


65 


Six Weeks, or Quaran- 














tino 


Dammann 


5i 


1,328 


1,901 


„ 


66 


White Pyrenean 


Sutton 


4! 


1,315 


2,330 


31 Mar. 


67 


Early Szekely . 


Vilmorin 


6 


1,146 


2,317 


26 „ 


68 


Early Small Yellow 














Auxonne 


1. 


5i 


1,016 


3,368 


21 ,, 


69 


Austin Yellow Corn . 


Ferguson 


.6^ 


989 


2,486 


30 May 


70 


Extra Early Yellow . 


Henderson 


4k 


989 


1,015 


31 Mar. 


71 


Extra Early Szekely . 


Vilmorin 


6 


976 


4,447 


21 ,, 


72 


Extra Earlv Small 














Yellow . " . . 


,, 


5i 


926 


2,279 


26 „ 


73 


Early Small Auxonne 


,, 


6 


871 


3,385 


21 „ 


74 


Early Dwarf Sugar 














Corn 


Sutton 


3i 


599 


2,669 


31 „ 


75 


Very Early August , 


Vilmorin 


x| 


13 


218 


17 „ 



344 MAIZE 

CHAP. 294. Third Seasons Results, Cedam, Natal. — "In 1905-6 

tests were carried out on the same grounds as in the previous 
season, but as there were more varieties to be tested the ground 
had to be extended into Block iD. This block in the previous 
season had been manured with 10 tons per acre of farmyard 
manure, and 200 lbs. superphosphates and 50 lbs. potash 
chloride. The whole ground was manured again in 1905-6 
with 10 tons per acre of farmyard manure ploughed in, and 
415 lbs. per acre superphosphate applied in the drills with the 
seed. The seed used was from the previous season's variety 
plots in all cases except those marked ' n.s.' which means new 
stock or newly imported seed, or with the words Zululand, 
Greytown, or Ingogo. The rows were, as before, 35 feet long 
and 3 feet apart, and the plants were 18 inches apart in the 
rows. There were two rows of each variety. The seeds 
were all planted on 9 December, about ten days later than 
they should have been, but the 1905-6 season was favourable 
to late sowing, so that no great harm was done by the delay. 
Some very fine yields were obtained : the average of seventy-five 
varieties was at the rate of 2,424 lbs. grain and 5,085 lbs. stalks, 
etc., to the acre, and the highest yield was only i o lbs. short of 30 
muids of grain per acre, or actually io6| bushels." 
Table XLIX gives the results in detail. 
295. Relative Weight of Grain per Bushel of Different 
Breeds. — The standard weight of a bushel measure of maize, 
in the United States, is 56 lbs. But there is great difference 
between the relative weight per bushel of the different breeds. 
The grain which weighs heaviest in the bag or bushel measure 
does not necessarily give the heaviest crop, in fact the re- 
verse is generally the case ; the flint breeds usually weigh 
heavier than the dents, but we generally find that they give 
fewer muids per acre of ground. 

The weight per bushel varies with the degree of dryness, 
so that to make a reliable comparison between them, it is 
necessary to take all the weights at the same time. It would 
be more accurate to take them in conjunction with a moisture- 
test. The comparative weights per bushel of some leading 
South African breeds, taken at the Johannesburg Maize Show, 
July, 1 910, are given in Table L. 



VARIETIES AND BREEDS 
Table L. 

WEIGHTS PER BUSHEL OF SOUTH AFRICAN SHELLED 
MAIZE. 



345 



CHAP. 
VII. 



Where Grown. 



Hickory King . 

lo-row Hickory (Louisiana) 

Iowa Silver-mine 



Ladysmith 
Yellow Hogan 

Chester County 

Learning 

Yellow Cango 

New England 8-row 

Gillespie Yellow 

White Cango . 

Glass Early Flour Corn 

Brazilian Flour Corn 



Natnl 
Transvaal 



Natal 
Transvaal 



Cape Province 
Transvaal 



Average for i8 samples 

Lightest of all = Brazilian Flour Corn .... 
Heaviest Flint = Cango, New England and Gillespie Yellow 

Lightest Flint = White Cango 

Heaviest Dent = Yellow Hogan and Chester County . 

Lightest Dent = Hickory King 

American Standard Weight 



Lbs. 
53 
55 
55i 
55i 
58 
57 
57^ 
59i 
60 
60 
57 
59 
62 
62 
62 
60 
55 
52* 



18/1040J 
57-8 
52^ 
62 
60 
60 
53 
56 



CHAPTER VIII. 

SOILvS AND MANURES. 

The fundamental secret of continued success in farming is the maintenance 
of soil fertility. — Mr. Runciman, President of the Board of Agriculture. 

Maize requires a better quality of land, and a higher grade of farming, than 
any other of the great staple crops. — Prof. T. N, Carver. 

By dung we are limited to the quantity of it we can procure, which in most 
places is too scanty. But by tillage we can enlarge our field of subterranean pas- 
ture without limitation. — Jethro Tull. 

CHAP. 296. The Soil. — Soil is the medium in which plants grow 

'^'"- and from which they draw the chemical substances used in the 
processes of growth. Soils are produced by the weathering" 
and decomposition of rocks. They vary in texture, and are 
described as stony, sandy, loamy, or clayey ; a loam is inter- 
mediate between sand and clay. 

Soils vary in chemical composition according to the nature 
of the rocks from which they have been derived, and may thus 
vary in the amount of plant-food which they contain. Ninety 
to 95 per cent of most of the fertile soils consist of the following 
substances: phosphoric acid, potash, lime, soda, magnesia, iron 
oxide, sulphuric acid, chlorine, silica, and alumina, which, how- 
ever, do not usually exist in a free state. The remaining 10 
or 5 per cent is made up o{ humus or decayed vegetable matter 
containing nitrogen. Sometimes a fertile soil has only 2 or 3 
per cent of humus, while in other cases it may contain 25 and 
even 50 per cent. Nitrogen is also contained in rain-water, 
in varying amounts, and is further added to the soil by the 
action of nitrifying bacteria living on the roots of leguminose 
plants (If 3 1 1 ). 

Both texture and chemical composition of the soil have an 
important bearing on plant growth. 
346 



SOILS AND MANURES 347 

297. Chemical Elements of the Soil Required by Plants. — CHAP 



All of the above-mentioned chemical substances of the soil 
occur likewise in plants, with the exception of alumina (oxide 
of aluminium), and this is always present in good soils, so that 
it may be said that all are requisite to plant growth. Some 
are always present in such abundance that there is no danger 
of their becoming exhausted. The supply of others, how- 
ever, especially phosphoric acid, potash, lime, and nitrogen, 
is frequently insufficient for the production of good crops, and 
the deficiency has to be supplied by the farmer. Of these, 
nitrogen is the one which is most expensive to replace. 

All of the mineral substances found in the ash of plants must 
come from the soil ; plants cannot get them in any other way. 
The carbon used in the structure of plant tissue is taken from 
the air. The hydrogen and oxygen come from the water in 
the soil. 

298. Soil Moisture. — The chemical substances in the soil 
can only be made use of by the plant when they are dissolved 
in water, and water is capable of dissolving from the soil all 
the substances that it contains which enter into the food of 
plants ; this explains why moisture is necessary to plant life. 
Dilute solutions of these substances are drawn in through the 
minute hairs which clothe the ends of the youngest rootlets, 
and are carried up into the plant, where they undergo a 
chemical change into the various compounds on which the 
plant feeds. 

Soil has the power of absorbing and retaining water that 
passes through it, and also of drawing up water from below ; 
the latter is known as capillary action, and is similar to the 
action by which the oil is " drawn " up into a lamp-wick. Good 
soils will frequently absorb and hold one-half or more of their 
own weight of water ; some, much more, and those containing 
most humus will hold most water. Soils also absorb a small 
amount of moisture from the air. Even when a soil seems 
perfectly dry it still contains considerable moisture. Soils ex- 
posed to the direct rays of the sun or to drying wind give up 
much of their moisture by evaporation, and as the surface dries 
water begins to ascend from the lower strata by capillary 
action. When the soil is protected by a " mulch," evaporation 
is checked. 



VIII. 



348 MAIZE 

CHAP. 299. Conservation of Moisture by Tillage. — South African 

■ maize-growers in the drier districts have often experienced loss 
of their crops, and have had to plant twice or thrice because 
the stands have "burned off" in a long drought following a 
good spring rain. Such loss may often be prevented — or 
greatly reduced — by good tillage. After a rain or after 
irrigation the surface of the soil is packed tight and a " crust" 
is formed. Through this crust capillary action is set up, and, 
as the water evaporates from the surface, more is drawn up 
from below, until the soil is dried out to a considerable depth. 
But if that crust is finely broken up, capillary action cannot 
take place ; the fine soil on top forms a " mulch," evaporation 
is checked, and the soil moisture is left for the young plants 
instead of being drawn into the air. 

300. Dry-land Farming. — By the conservation of soil-mois- 
ture, through the adoption of better tillage, it is probable that 
maize-growing may be extended considerably beyond the pre- 
sent western limits of the South African Maize-belt ; just how 
far, has yet to be determined, but the practice of dry-farming 
methods would undoubtedly add greatly to the area at present 
under crop. Jethro Tull (i) says : — 

" The well hoed earth, being open, receives and retains the 
dews ; the benign solar influence is sufficient to put them in 
motion, but not to exhale them from thence. The hoe pre- 
vents the [growth of] turf, which would otherwise by its blades 
or roots intercept and return back the dews into the atmos- 
phere, with the assistance of a moderate heat. So that this 
husbandry [i.e. dry-farming] secures Luserne from the injury 
of a wet summer, and also causes the rain-water to sink down 
more speedily, and disperse its riches all the way of its passage ; 
otherwise the water would be more apt to stand on the surface, 
chill the earth, and keep off the sun and air from drying it : 
for, when the surface is dry and open, Luserne will bear a very 
great degree of heat, or grow with a mean one." 

301. Irrigation. — Irrigation, also, might extend the area 
now planted to maize. But irrigated land is too valuable to 
be devoted to this crop except in the vicinity of good markets, 
where early "green mielies," for table use, command a suffi- 
ciently high price, or where climatic conditions do not permit 
maize to be grown otherwise ; and then only if the cost of 
importation exceeds the local value of the crop. 



SOILS AND MANURES 349 

302. Available Plant-food. — Some of the phosphoric acid, CHAP, 
potash, etc., present in the soil is in a state of chemical com- ^'"* 
bination in which the plant cannot make use of it for food, 

until a certain amount of "weathering" and decay has taken 
place through the action of moisture and air. Estimations of 
the total quantities of such salts present in the soil are there- 
fore of comparatively little value, alone, as indications of its 
actual fertility or of its manurial requirements, without a know- 
ledge of the amounts available as plant food at any one time. 

303. Recuperative Power of Soils. — Soils are possessed of 
great recuperative power, and if the conditions are favourable 
the renewal of the available plant-food may take place with 
considerable rapidity Under the action of moisture and air a 
process of "weathering" is constantly taking place, and the 
salts are thereby rendered soluble. This is one reason why 
summer fallowing often proves so beneficial. Even if the 
available salts had been quite exhausted before fallowing was 
resorted to, the soil would not long remain unproductive ; the 
available plant-food would soon be restored by the action of 
moisture and air on the mineral matter. 

304. Character of South African Soils. — As a general rule 
South African soils are not rich in the total amount of salts 
required by plants, as compared with those of many parts of 
the world. Yet the peculiar fact remains, as pointed out by 
Ingle (i), that luxuriant crops are yielded by soils which, on 
analysis, appear to be extremely deficient in plant-food. This is 
partly explained by the favouring influences of abundant sun- 
shine and high temperature. In tropical and sub-tropical 
countries the processes of soil renewal appear to go on more 
rapidly than in other climates. Soils poor in available salts 
may, under these conditions, give the plants actually greater 
nutriment than soils containing a considerably larger percent- 
age of salts under conditions less favourable {Ingle, i). 

305. Soils Suitable for Maize-growing. — Maize as a sur- 
face-rooting plant is quickly affected by change of climate 
{Burtt-Davy, 16). It is also sensitive to variations of soil — 
perhaps more so than other cereal crops. To succeed well 
it requires a good deal of moisture, but standing water or 
water-logged soils are injurious ; to secure the best results the 
soil should be moist, but well drained. It should also be of 



350 MAIZE 

CHAP, good depth, for shallow soils require manuring sooner than 
^''^" deep ones. A friable soil which neither bakes nor cracks much 
in dry weather is desirable. The black " turf" soils of parts of 
South Africa are often rich, but in seasons of drought are apt 
to dry out too much, or in wet years to become water-logged. 
Red clay soils, also, give good crops in some districts. Some 
of the more sandy soils bear two or three crops and are then 
exhausted, or become so loose with cultivation that they blow 
away from the roots of the young maize plants. 

There are some soils along the Drakensberg range of 
mountains which Prof. Watt {Watt, R. D., i) has found to 
contain so much of the ferrous iron compounds that maize 
and kaffir corn do not grow more than a few inches in height 
even in favourable seasons. Loamy soils, whether red or 
grey, with some admixture of sand, are among the best all- 
round soils for maize. In the Transvaal such are found 
largely in the Heidelberg, Standerton, Bethal, Ermelo, and 
Lichtenburg Districts, and on that large stretch of country 
known as the Springbok Flats. Deep, loamy, alluvial river- 
bottom soils, such as are found along parts of the Vaal River, 
Kaffir Spruit, the Crocodile, Hex, Marico, and other Transvaal 
streams, are admirably suited to maize-growing. The rich 
soils found in pockets along the foot of the eastern slopes of 
the Drakensberg produce some of the finest crops in the 
country, but only a short distance out on the plains beyond, 
there occurs a strip of ashy grey soil which seems unsuited to 
maize or almost any other crop. 

306. New V. Old Lands. — A comrnon practice in South 
Africa is to abandon maize lands after the third year, either 
because they are supposedly '' worn out," or on account of 
weeds. New lands usually give poor maize crops. Experi- 
ence at the Government Experiment Farm at Potchefstroom, 
the Government Stud Farm at Standerton, and the demon- 
stration farms of Messrs. John P'owler & Co. at Vereeniging, 
all in the Transvaal, shows that the best crops may be ob- 
tained in the fourth and fifth year of continuous cultivation 
of the soil. As the land becomes well opened up to air and 
water, chemical changes take place in the soil which liberate 
the plant-food or make it available to the plant. There 
are a few places in the Transvaal where the soil does not 



SOILS AND MANURES 351 

seem able to stand cropping with maize for more than three CHAP, 
years, but in most cases the abandonment of the land at the ^^^^" 
third year means giving it up just when it should be pro- 
ducing the very best crops. At Vereeniging an average of 
18 muids per English acre has been obtained over a field of 
32 acres, without manure, on steam-ploughed land ; this was 
the sixth crop of maize from the land, five having been in 
succession. On new lands the Vereeniging crop has been as 
low as 2\ muids per acre. 

307. Effect of Tillage. — "Tillage is manure" is an oft- 
quoted saying attributed to Jethro Tull, but sometimes mis- 
understood. Prof Morrow states that proper tillage of the 
.soil increases its productive power ; the ability of a soil to 
produce crops is often as directly increased by tillage as by the 
application of manures (^Morrow and Hunt, i). 

Tillage is described by Jethro Tull (i) as "breaking and 
dividing the ground by spade, plough, hoe, or other instru- 
ments which divide by a sort of altition (or contusion), as dung 
does by fermentation. . . . Tillage (as well as dung) is bene- 
ficial to all sorts of land. . . . The finer the land is made by 
tillage, the richer will it become, and the more plants it will 
maintain." But it should not be concluded from this that 
good tillage makes it unnecessary to manure, for manure 
adds to the soil, while tillage only makes available what 
is already there. For a few years after the first breaking of 
the veld, land may continue to improve and yield better crops, 
under good tillage, but after that, deterioration begins. 

The following are the principal reasons why cultivation 
makes soils more productive : — 

(i) Stirring and pulverizing a hard, compact .soil enables 
the roots of plants to penetrate more easily and reach a larger 
quantity of the salts which are to be converted into plant-food. 

(2) It opens the soil to the weathering effect of air and 
water, which increases the supply of available plant-food. 

(3) With very fine, loose soils tillage (and rolling) may 
make them more compact, increasing the capillary action. 

(4) Surface cultivation, which keeps the surface soil loose 
and dry, forms a mulch, which checks evaporation. 

(5) Tillage kills weeds, which otherwise rob the soil of 
food and water. 



352 MAIZE 

CHAP. Z'^'^- Effect of Continuous Cropping. — It is well known that 

^'''- the crop-producing power of the soil is reduced to a point 
below that of profitable cultivation by continuous cropping 
with maize or any other cereal, even where the soils are rich 
in the constituents of plant-food. As the average soils of 
South Africa are not rich in these substances (H 304) they 
will the sooner become exhausted, unless steps are taken to 
renovate them. There has been a tendency in parts of South 
Africa to crop continuously over a long series of years, until 
the soir has become "sick" or "worn out". Continuous 
cropping means the annual removal of a certain amount of 
plant-food from the soil, without replacing any. Neither the 
greatest quantity, nor the best quality, can be produced by 
growing the same crop year after year on the same soil. 
Fortunately there are still large tracts of unbroken veld, but 
they cannot be drawn upon indefinitely ; the time is rapidly 
approaching when there will be no more raw veld to be broken 
to the plough. When this time comes South Africa will be 
compelled to resort to some means of restoring the fertility of 
the soil. 

This has been the experience in every farming country, until 
the lesson was learned and a more normal practice established. 
Where the soils are naturally poor in plant-food farmers 
should not wait until they are " worn out " before adopting a 
better method of treatment ; it is easier and cheaper to main- 
tain and add to what is already there than to undertake to 
renovate an already impoverished soil. 

309. Maintaining the Crop-producing Power .of the Soil. — 
Continuous cropping with a heavy-yielding crop like maize, 
will inevitably result in exhaustion of the soil unless steps 
are taken to maintain its crop-producing power. 

Quoting Mr. Runciman,' the President of the British Board 
of Agriculture : " The fundamental secret of continued success 
in farming is the maintenance of soil fertility. This is where 
England excels. Her system of land tenure is often criticized, 
but it is a significant circumstance that it is associated with 

' In a speech at the Government dinner given in honour of the American 
Commission on Agricultural Credit and Co-operation, July, 1913, as reported in 
The Field, Vol. CXXII, p. 128, 19 July, 1913. 



SOILS AND MANURES 353 

the best and most enduring methods of husbandry known in CHAP. 
^ „ VIII. 

any country. 

There is no need for South African farmers to become 
pessimistic on the question of soil exhaustion, if they will 
study the example of England in contrast with that of the 
United States ; in the latter we find, according to Hopkins 
(6), thousands of acres of land practically ruined from an agri- 
cultural point of view, after but 200 years of farming ; while 
on the other hand we learn from Mr. Runciman that "-the 
older England grows the richer become the average soils ; cases 
of impoverishment are few and far between ". The English 
tenant-farmer is compelled, under the terms of his lease, to 
restore to the soil what he takes from it, and nothing ends 
a tenancy more speedily than evidences of exhaustive 
farming. 

If proper steps are taken to maintain the crop-producing 
power of the soil, maize does not prove an exhaustive crop. 
Hunt (I) makes the following points — that (i) the amount of 
soil elements removed is small in proportion to the amount of 
foodstuff produced ; (2) large quantities of organic matter are 
produced which when fed to live-stock make large quantities 
of organic manure to return to the soil ; (3) the intercultural 
tillage required by the maize crop is beneficial to the soil. 

Hopkins (5, p. 200) says that to return the maximum 
amount of organic matter to the land requires that the manure 
shall be applied to the soil before losses occur by fermentation 
and decay. " In ordinary farm practice more or less loss of 
organic matter is almost certain to occur unless the manure is 
applied to the soil within a day or two after it is produced." 
English farm practice is changing in accord with this view, 
largely owing, no doubt, to the effect of the dairy regulations 
which require that the manure shall be removed daily from the 
immediate vicinity of the milking sheds ; dairy farmers now 
find it convenient to cart it direct to the land, and the results 
appear to be entirely satisfactory. 

The best means of maintaining the crop-producing power 
of the soil on a maize farm, as at present demonstrated, 
are : — 

(i) The use of stable manure and kraal manure wher- 
ever available. The available amount can be increased by the 

23 



354 



MAIZE 



CHAP, adoption of the best methods of preserving the fodder and 
^^'^" stover of the crop, and conserving the manure. 

(2) The ploughing-in of green-manure crops. 

(3) The suitable rotation of crops in connection with stock- 
raising. 

(4) The use of suitable artificial manures. 

310. StDnmer Fallowing. — Where large areas are under crop 
on any one farm (as in many parts of the western United States 
and parts of South America and South Africa) it is not practicable 
to give the same amount of cultivation as would be possible on 
a farm of smaller area. It needs too large an investment of capi- 
tal in machinery and draught animals, not to mention the diffi- 
culty of getting labour. But without cultivation weeds soon 
get hold of the land, smother the crop, and greatly reduce the 
yield. Under such circumstances summer fallowing may be 
resorted to with advantage. By summer fallowing we mean 
leaving a portion of the land without crop during the summer 
season, so that it may be cleaned of weeds. Crops of young 
weeds are allowed to grow, and are then ploughed under as 
"green manure," or harrowed off before they get too large to 
be pulled out or old enough to scatter seed. The latter point 
is of great importance, for there is much truth in the old pro- 
verb that " one year's seeding makes seven years' weeding ". 

Summer fallowing has been decried alike by practical far- 
mers and writers on agriculture, because no immediate return is 
obtained from the land for a whole season. Another objection 
offered is that much of the plant-food may be leached out of 
the soil and carried away in the drainage water, if the lands 
have a steep slope and the rains are heavy. Experiments 
conducted by Mr. W. A. McLaren at Vereeniging, Transvaal, 
have shown, however, that summer fallowing was followed 
by an increase of 1 1 muids (2,200 lbs.) per acre in the maize 
yield, without the use of fertilizers. At one of the American 
State Experiment Stations the yield of wheat from a field 
cropped only in alternate years, during a period of ten years, 
was greater than from a field cropped every year during the 
same period, thus five crops gave a heavier yield than ten. 
Somewhat similar results were recorded by Lawes and Gilbert 
at Rothamstead, England. 

If the total yield obtained by cropping in alternate years 



SOILS AND MANURES 355 

is equal to that obtained by cropping each year over the same chap. 
period, the cost of production is reduced and the profit con- ^^^^• 
sequently increased. Unless the cost of fallowing and rent of 
the land (or its equivalent in interest) are heavier than the 
cost of production of a crop without fallow, fallowing will 
thus pay for itself while at the same time it cleans the land. 

Notonly so, but the cost of cultivation is lessened by plough- 
ing under two or more crops of weeds on the fallowed land 
before they have had a chance to seed. Where farms are large 
and land is cheap, there need be no loss of revenue, if each 
year only one-third or one-quarter of the land is kept in fallow 
and the rest under crop. For example, if 1,000 acres of arable 
land is all that a South African farmer can maintain each year, 
owing to lack of either capital or labour, or both, he might 
have 200 or 300 acres of it under fallow each year. During 
the comparatively slack season, from the end of December to 
the end of March, he could usually employ his draught animals 
and " boys " to cultivate these fallow lands. By this means 
he would save much of the time and expense which would 
otherwise have to be devoted to cleaning the crop during the 
following growing season. 

311. Rotation of Crops for Fertility Conservation. — One of 
the cheapest and most profitable methods of resting the land 
after it has once reached good cropping condition (II 306) is 'to 
adopt a system of change or " rotation " in which some other 
crop than maize is grown every third or, even, second year. 
Some farmers grow potatoes the third year with the aid of 
commercial fertilizers, but for unmanured land the best kind 
of rotation for maize is a leguminose crop, such as cowpeas, 
kafiir beans, velvet beans, soybeans, peas, or peanuts (IF 3 1 3). 
This rotation crop may be cut for hay or silage, or, better 
still, ploughed into the ground at the beginning of winter. 

Practising rotation of crops is one of the best methods of 
checking the wearing-out of the land {Biirtt-Davy, 15). The 
principal advantages of rotation are : — 

(I) That as some crops require more of one kind of plant- 
food than others, an intermediate crop can be grown between 
two crops of a kind without interfering with the general fertility 
of the soil, and still allow time for the chemical changes which 
replace a certain proportion of the available salts required for 
23* 



3S6 MAIZE 

CHAP, the following crop. For example, a crop of wheat withdraws 
^"^' large amounts of phosphoric acid from the soil, but takes re- 
latively small quantities of lime and potash, while a crop of 
beans requires a great deal of potash and relatively less 
phosphoric acid. 

(2) Some crops are surface feeders while others root more 
deeply, drawing their food from the lower layers of the soil. 
By alternation of deeper with shallower rooted crops the avail- 
able food supply is utilized to better advantage and made to 
last longer. 

(3) Certain crops replace in the soil certain ingredients 
which have been removed by other crops, for instance such 
crops as lucerne and peanuts give back nitrogen. 

(4) Rotation of crops helps to clean the ground of "vol- 
unteer" plants from the preceding crop, which, in the case of 
wheat, oats, and especially of maize, cause so much mixing 
or crossing of seed, with resulting loss to the farmer. 

(5) As different crops require different treatment of the 
soil, a change enables the farmer more easily to clean the 
land of such weeds as are particularly injurious to a given 
crop. In the rotation the farmer can use crops which are 
known as " cleaning" crops. 

The general results of rotation may be summarized as : — 

{a) The production of crops of greater vigour and better 
yield. When crops of the same kind are grown continuously 
on the same land the crop becomes less vigorous and, con- 
sequently, more susceptible to attack by insect and fungous 
pests. Rotation disturbs the "balance of nature" in such a 
way that the pest dies from lack of its normal food or goes 
away to search for it elsewhere. 

ib) The reduction of the manure bill. 

ic) A principle of rotation is the division of the land into 
two to four portions, no two of which bear the same crop in 
the same season. A well-arranged rotation reduces the labour 
required at any one time, inasmuch as not all crops require to 
be planted, cultivated, or harvested at once. 

The principal points to observe in planning a rotation are : — 

(1) Have at least one leguminose crop in the rotation. 

(2) Have at least one cultivated or " cleaning crop," or, in 

its place, a "smother crop" for weeds. 



SOILS AND MANURES 357 

(3) Alternate shallow-rooting crops with deep-rooting CHAP. 

crops. ^"'- 

(4) Where there is danger of loss of plant-food from leach- 

ing of the soil owing to the slope of the land, plan 
to have a growing crop on the land all the summer. 

(5) Bare summer fallow can be used to advantage if the 

weeds are allowed to grow during the rainy season 
and are ploughed in before they seed. 

(6) Do not rotate cereals with cereals. 

(7) Plan the rotation so as to have about the same amount 

of forage, hay, and roots each year. 

(8) Unless it is thoroughly rotted, so that the weed-seeds 

which it contains are killed, apply the stable manure 

to the root crop (if one is used in the rotation) or 

to a rank-growing crop like maize. 

312, Organic Matter. — By organic matter is meant matter 

composed of substances that are or have been living organisms, 

in contradistinction to the inorganic matter derived directly 

from rocks, metals, etc. Organic manures include farmyard 

manure and humus, which are valuable sources of plant-food, 

especially nitrogen. Humus and organic matter are not 

synonymous, for humus includes only that part of the organic 

matter which has passed the most active stage of decomposition 

and completely lost the physical structure of the materials 

from which it is made ; it has thus become, as a rule, 

thoroughly incorporated with the soil mass {Hopkins, 5). 

Beside returning plant-food to the soil, organic matter im- 
proves its mechanical condition ; when it is in the proper state 
it may materially modify the water-content. Soil which has 
been manured with stable manure is usually moister than un- 
manured ground ; this may be for some or all of four 
reasons : — 

(i) It may absorb more rain-water; 

(2) It may draw up more water from below, by capillary 

action ; 

(3) It may lose less water from the surface by evaporation ; 

or 

(4) It may lose less water by drainage. 

Briefly, then, organic matter improves the texture of the soil, 
adds to its moisture-retaining power, and furnishes nitrogen. 



358 MAIZE 

^\mF South African soils are frequently deficient in humus, and 

where this is the case organic matter must be added if good 
crops are to be obtained. This may be done by manuring 
with farmyard manure (IT 309), or by ploughing into the soil 
some "green-manure " crop. 

313. [/se of Leguminose Green-inaniire Crops. — On sandy 
soils a leguminose crop, such as soybeans, velvet beans, 
cowpeas, or kaffir beans, proves very beneficial to the maize 
crop following. A greater yield of maize may be obtained on 
a poor, sandy soil from the use of a crop of this character, 
with the addition of a phosphatic fertilizer, than would be 
secured in two years where maize is grown continuously {JVaU, 
R. D., 2). 

To the South African farmer a particularly important feat- 
ure of crop rotation is the possibility it furnishes of adding 
humus (if 312) to the soil by ploughing in a growing crop, 
usually a legume, which at the same time adds one of the 
most expensive elements of plant-food, namely nitrogen, to 
the soil. The leguminose crop in the rotation (H 311 and 
314) is often treated in this way, but a crop of any kind of- 
green weeds may also be ploughed in to advantage, where 
humus only is wanted, and this may be done when the land 
is in summer fallow. 

Hopkins (5, p. 199) definitely states that the most import- 
ant, and least appreciated, method of maintaining or increasing 
the supply of organic matter in the soil is by the use of green 
manures and crop residues. A ton of clover ploughed under 
will add nearly three times as much organic matter to the soil 
as can possibly be recovered in the manure if the clover is fed ; 
but with maize onXy one-tenth of the dry matter of the crop is 
found in the manure. 

314. Rotations with Mair:e in other Countries. — A look at 
a few rotations practised elsewhere may be instructive. One 
in use in the Northern United States is : — 

First year . Wheat or rye. 

Second year . . . Clover or grass. 

Third year . . Maize with farmyard manure, and with 

winter rye sown at the last weeding to 
furnish late pasture and winter feed. 

Fourth year . . . Oats. 



SOILS AND MANURES 359 

In the State of Rhode Island two different rotations with CHAP, 
maize have been practised on Hght and worn-out lands : — 

(i) A four-year course . Maize, potatoes, rye, clover. 
(2) A five-year course . Maize, potatoes, rye, grass and clover for 
two years. 

In the State of Delaware the following rotation has been 
practised to advantage :-^ 

First year . . . Maize, followed by crimson clover. 
Second year . . . Cowpeas, followed by winter oats. 
Third year . . . Red or crimson clover. 

In Louisiana, where the climatic conditions are more nearly 
like those of the warmer parts of South Africa, the rotation 
recommended by the State Agricultural Experiment Station 
is: — 

First year . . . Maize. 

Second year . . . Oats, followed by cowpeas. 

Third year . . . Cotton. 

Another rotation practised in parts of the United States 



First year . . . Wheat. 

Second and third years . Clover and pasture (or hay) grass. 

Fourth year . . . Maize (manured with farmyard manure). 

In the Maize-belt of Illinois a twenty-year test was made 
with maize after maize, as compared with maize in a six-course 
rotation, viz., oats one year, clover three years, maize two years. 
The average increase the first year after clover was 5 muids 1 20 ' 
lbs., and the second year 4 muids 51 lbs. {Hunt, l). 

315. Some Transvaal Rotations. — ^No systematic plan of 
rotation has yet been adopted in the Transvaal. On the light 
sandy loams of some of the potato farms in the Standerton 
District it is customary to grow -maize for two years in suc- 
cession after potatoes. From 600 to 800 lbs. per acre of 
commercial fertilizer is applied to the potato crop ; the two 
maize crops which follow use the residue of the manure not 
required by the potatoes, and give crops varying from 20 down 
to 1 5 muids per acre. On these soils, however, it has been 
found that after six years' cropping a change is required, to 
add humus to the soil. Farmers are, therefore, conducting 
experiments to include green-manure crops in the rotation ; 



36o MAIZE 

CHAP, the kaffir bean, cowpea, and soybean have given the most 
^'^^" promising results. 

In the Standerton District ploughing in of teff for green 
manure has been tried.^ The rapid growth of this grass makes 
it possible to get it in as a catch crop where other crops might 
not be practicable. 

At the Botanical Experiment Statipn, Pretoria, experiments 
conducted to determine the effect of green-manure crops on 
subsequent crops of maize, wheat, and sunflowers all gave 
marked results in favour of the green-manured plots. 

The Division of Tobacco and Cotton of the South African 
Department of Agriculture is conducting a series of rotation 
experiments at Rustenburg, Tzaneen, Barberton, and Piet 
Retief, in the Transvaal. These experiments are designed 
to determine the best rotation for the improvement of worn- 
out tobacco lands. The experiments include the following 
rotation : — 

First year .... Tobacco. 
Second year . . . Cotton. 

Third year . . .A leguminosc crop such as velvet beans, cow- 

peas, peanuts, or soybeans. 
Fourth j-ear . . . Maize. 

It is intended to add to this a small cereal winter crop 
such as wheat, barley, or oats, on irrigated lands, to come 
between the tobacco and cotton, or between the legumes and 
maize crops. The experiments are not yet complete. 

316. The functions of tnatiures zxQ. \y^Q){o\^, restorative and 
additive; to maintain fertility and to increase it. Restorative 
manures are merely intended to replace in the soil those ele- 
ments of plant-food which have been taken out of it by 
cropping. Restorative manures should be of a "complete" or 
general character, i.e. must contain all the fertilizing ingredients. 
Restoration is chiefly effected by farmyard manure. Additive 
manures should be adapted to the special requirements of the 
soils and crops to which they are applied ; they may be, but 
are not necessarily, or usually, complete. As a rule, addition 
can only be made in the form of the so-called artificial manures. 

3 1 7. Manurial Requirements of the Mair^e Crop. — Hunt ( i ) 
concludes that, as far as maize is concerned, the influence of the 

1 By Messrs. Revnolds Hros., Zandbaken. Vai Station. 



SOILS AND MANURES 36 T 

several ingredients of commercial fertilizers appears to be more chap. 
dependent upon the soil than upon the crop. At the Govern- ^^^^• 
ment Experiment Farm, Ottawa, Canada, mixed horse and 
cow manure gave an average return during fourteen years of 
I4'32 tons of green silage per acre, as compared with 8"02 
tons on the unmanured plots ; of the artificial manures, phos- 
phates, nitrates, and potash, mixed, gave the best result, viz. 
1 1 '97 tons per acre (Canadian Government, l). At Koedoes- 
poort, Pretoria, superphosphate and nitrates gave the best • 
results. At Potchefstroom superphosphates alone and dung 
have given good crops. At Manderston, Natal, bone-meal is 
said to have given excellent results for a series of about 
fourteen years. 

318. Does the Use of Fertilizeis Pay? — Experiments con- 
ducted at Vereeniging, under the direction of Prof. Watt, 
showed that on unmanured land an increase of 60 per cent 
in crop can be secured by the direct application of 150 lbs. 
of commercial fertilizer per acre, when drilled in with the 
seed. When 300 lbs. was applied broadcast the increase was 
very slight the first year, but it is probable that some effect 
would have been noticeable the second year if the test could 
have been carried on. On a certain farm at Manderston, in 
Natal,^ 400 lbs. per acre of bone-dust was used the first year, 
and 200 lbs. every subsequent year, and excellent crops have 
been harvested for twenty-three years in succession. On poor 
soils at Koedoespoort, Prof. Watt obtained an increase of 
1 1^ muids in two years through the use of artificial fertilizers. 
The net increase from the use of suitable manures has been 
found by Prof Watt and Mr. Holm to amount to £2 or 
£2 5s. per acre ; in one case the expenditure of iSs. 8d. per 
acre resulted in an added gain of ;{^2 19s. 6d. per acre. It is 
evident, therefore, that it pays to manure if a suitable quantity 
of the right kind of fertilizer is used. 

The kind of fertilizer will vary with the chemical composi- 
tion and physical character of the particular soil, and this 
should be determined by analysis by a competent agricultural 
chemist before the farmer invests heavily in any chance manure 
offered, which may not at all suit his soil. 

319. Cost of Fertilizers in the Interior Provinces. — One of 

' Mr. John Moon's. 



3^2 MAIZR 

CHAP, the greatest hindrances in the past to the use of commercial 



VIII 



fertilizers in the interior provinces has been their high cost, 
due to high rate of transportation inland. In view of the fact 
that South African soils are not as fertile as those of other 
countries competing for the maize trade, it is important to the 
farmer that the cost of fertilizers should be reduced to the 
lowest possible figure. It would result not only in an enor- 
mous increase in the output of crop, both for local consumption 
and for export, but in tremendous increase in the amount 
of fertilizer used and consequently in the increase of trade in 
that commodity. 

320. Residual Value of Manures. — Farmyard manure and 
the chemical manures do not always yield up the whole of their 
component salts to the crop the first season. Prof. Watt (2) 
found in carrying out manurial experiments that the residual 
value of the fertilizers used is a matter of greater importance 
in the Transvaal than in almost any other part of the world. 
Phosphatic fertilizers, like superphosphate and basic slag, may 
have a greater effect on the second crop than on that to zvhich they 
are applied. With the dry winter climate of the South African 
Maize-belt, even such a soluble manure as nitrate of soda has 
some residual value. A judicious use of maize fertilizers will 
give a profitable return, even from poor land, provided two 
years' results are taken into account. On some soils the use 
of 600 lbs. per acre of commercial fertilizer for a crop of pota- 
toes leaves enough plant-food in the soil to afterward produce 
two excellent crops of maize in succession (H 3 1 5). Farmers ^ 
in the Standerton District of the Transvaal have obtained 20 
muids of maize per acre the first year, and 1 5 the second year, 
after a potato crop which had been manured in this way. 

321. Stable and Kraal Manure. — Organic manures, such 
as farmyard manure, are found to be among the best of fertilizers, 
perhaps because of the effect of the large amount of organic 
matter contained, on the texture of the soil (H 312). As 
already pointed out, the function of farmyard manure is chiefly 
restorative. The pasturing of cattle on the old maize fields 
undoubtedly has a beneficial effect on the soil, but is not an 
equivalent compensation for such a large amount of grain 
(over a ton per acre) as is removed from the land. 

1 Messrs. Hutchinson and Shaw, and Messrs. Reynolds Bros. 



SOILS AND MANURES 363 

The Indiana (U.S.A.) Station {Bull. 55, p. 29) manured a CHAP 
series of plots which had grown maize continuously for five 
years, with about 50 tons per acre in two years, of fresh horse 
manure, no manure having been used either before or after. 
Comparing the manured with the unmanured plots, it was 
found that during twelve years the average yield was about 
560 lbs. per acre, and on the last year of the twelve about 
280 lbs. per acre; more on the former than on the latter. The 
total increase, due to the use of the manure, was about 33-^ 
muids. 

At the Government Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom, 
Transvaal, the effect of a dressing of 8 tons of dung per acre 
had almost entirely disappeared in the third year following 
the application {Holm, i), indicating that frequent applications, 
or larger amounts at a time, are necessary to produce satis- 
factory results. The quantity usually applied in the United 
States varies from 10 to 20 tons per acre. 

Owing to the size of the farms and the sparseness of the 
white population in South Africa, the amount of stable manure 
produced is not sufficient to permit of its use on a large 
scale, and Holm (i) concludes that the comparatively small 
amount available on most South African farms can be more 
profitably used on other crops, such as mangels and potatoes, 
than directly on the maize crop. In the United States, even 
to-day, the supply of dung is totally inadequate to the demands 
of the field crops, and hardly more than is needed for the 
kitchen garden and a few " truck patches " near the farm-house. 

The value of stable, and kraal, and other home manures, 
should not be underestimated. The farmer should endeavour 
to increase the supply of them rather than try to become inde- 
pendent of their use. But it would be just as unwise to so 
overestimate the value of home manures as to lead to the policy 
of ignoring altogether the aid of commercial forms of plant- 
food. Director Redding of the Georgia State Experiment 
Station (i) points out that the true farm economy is that which 
utilizes to the fullest every home resource and then supple- 
ments their use by the purchase of commercial forms of plant- 
food in the proportions demanded by different crops, and 
modified to some extent by the character and condition of 
the soils to be fertilized. 



364 MAIZE 

CHAP. 322. Artificial Manures or Commercial Fertilizers. — The 

^'"" scarcity of farmyard manure has led to the manufacture and 
use of the so-called Commercial Fertilizers ox Chemical Manures. 
Their principal function in the economy of the farm is to 
increase fertility, not to maintain it. They are obtained from 
natural deposits, such as the nitrate beds of Chile and g:uano 
from the Guano Islands or from caves, or are manufactured 
from bones, blood, and refuse of various sorts. Artificial 
manures are of two sorts, " tjeneral " or complete, and 
" special " or incomplete. 

323. Method of Applying- Fertilizers. — Experiments con- 
ducted on a large scale have clearly shown that the best 
method of applying the fertilizer to the maize crop is through 
the planter with the seed ; this is usually done by means of 
the fertilizer attachment which can be bought with every good 
planter. Some commercial fertilizers are not so well dried as 
others and are apt to stick in the box of the machine unless 
watched ; the result is that the machine may run for the 
greater part of a row without dropping" any manure, and an 
uneven stand and growth will result. 

One of the great advantages derived from the application 
of these fertilizers in the climate of South Africa is the 
stimulus which they give to the young seedling, enabling it 
to get a good start in life. Broadcast sowing of artificial 
manure generally benefits the weeds rather than the maize 
plants, for in the often dry spring of the South African Maize- 
belt it rarely gets washed down to their roots. 

324. Influence of Season on the Efficacy of Fertilizers. — It 
has been found that fertilizers produce different effects on the 
crop in different years, and this has been traced to seasonal 
variations, such as difference in rainfall. In the United States 
it has been found that in dry seasons land manured with stable 
manure may give poorer returns than land which has had no 
manure at all. Also that the best results from the use of either 
stable manure or commercial fertilizers are obtained in seasons 
of good rainfall. 

^^2^.' Use of Li)ne. — Lime is an essential constituent of 
good soils and is extensively used for the improvement of agri- 
cultural land. It is absorbed by the crop, being found in the 
ash of plants, but its specific action in promoting plant growth is 



SOILS AND MANURES 365 

not well understood. Lime is not in itself a manure. It has CHAP, 
a beneficial effect on the soil, and therefore on the crop. It 
encourages nitrification, rendering nitrogenous matter in the 
soil available to the growing plant. It also improves the soil 
texture, making heavy adhesive soils more friable and granular, 
and reducing their tendency to puddle, while it makes loose, 
sandy soils more compact and retentive of organic matter. 
Lime counteracts acidity of the soil, thus improving it for the 
development of nitrifying organisms, and is useful for sweeten- 
ing freshly drained swampy lands. Lime hastens the decom- 
position of decaying matter, and may therefore be applied with 
stable manure to advantage. But continuous application of 
lime without the addition of real plant-food tends to impoverish 
the soil ; there is a good old adage to the effect that " all lime 
and no manure soon makes the farmer poor ". 

For soils deficient in lime, maize is a good crop with which 
to apply it ; in the United States it is used with this crop to a 
considerable extent, with apparently satisfactory results. 

326. Indication of Need of Lime. — Many South African 
soils are deficient in lime, but others contain sufficient, and 
where that is the case the application of more would only be 
a waste of money. The farmer can tell whether lime will im- 
prove his crops or not : (i) by chemical analysis, which will 
show the percentage of lime (CaO) present ; for agricultural 
crops 0*2 per cent is usually considered the minimum require- 
ment ; (2) by a test with neutral litmus paper which, if it 
turns red, will indicate acidity in very sour soils and the con- 
sequent need for lime ; (3) by the excessive adhesiveness of 
clay soils ; (4) by the character of the native vegetation (e.g. 
in South Africa theVaalbosch {Tarchonanthus camphoratus) and 
Salvia mgosa generally occur on soils rich in lime) ; (5) by 
the persistent failure of certain crops, such as lucerne or sain- 
foin ; (6) by experimental application — and this is probably 
the most reliable test — of a good dressing of lime on say one 
acre of a field of maize where the soil is uniform, and under 
conditions which make it possible to tell whether there is' any 
increase of crop as a result of the application. 

327. Kinds of Lime. — Commercial lime is not always of 
the same chemical composition. Two kinds are commonly 
met with in South Africa, White and Blue lime. Blue lime 



366 MAIZE 

CHAP, made from dolomite or " magnesian " limestone is found 
by experience to be unsuitable for agricultural purposes 
( Vipondy I ). White lime (calcium carbonate or carbonate of 
lime) is the sort recommended by agricultural chemists. 

328. Preparation of the Lime. — For agricultural purposes 
lime is usually burned and slaked before using. To slake 
lime for use in the field, it is heaped and covered with earth to 
exclude the air ; water is then poured on it ; in a few days it 
" falls" into a fine powder suitable for spreading on the land. 
Full advantage of the lime dressing is obtained only if the 
lime is very fine in texture ; if it is still coarse after burning 
and slaking it should be ground. 

The Pennsylvania Station {Rep. 1902) shows that the con- 
tinued use of caustic (i.e. burned) lime, tends to exhaust or 
destroy the fertility of the soil (see also Hopkins, 5 and 6). 
Both the Pennsylvania and Maryland Stations found that 
ground limestone geive better results in sustaining the productive 
capacity of the soil, than burned lime. Hopkins (6) cites 
results'obtained in Germany and England favouring the use 
of the former as a more profitable and effective form than the 
latter. 

329. Method of Applying Lime. — As lime is somewhat 
soluble and apt to be carried off in the drainage, it is best to 
apply it after the soil has been partly prepared ; it is then 
spread broadcast and cultivated into the surface. The amount 
used should vary according to the texture and chemical com- 
position of the soil. Haifa ton per acre is often recommended, 
but on very heavy, sour soils a ton to the acre may not be too 
much. In the United States up to 4 tons per acre is some- 
times used for maize, but ordinarily not more than 2 tons 
{Hunt, i). The Agricultural Chemist of the Department or 
College of Agriculture should be consulted as to the amount 
to be used on any particular soil. 

330. Phosphatic Matiures. — Phosphatic manures, such as 
superphosphate, bone-meal, and basic slag, may have a greater 
effect on the second crop than on that to which they are ap- 
plied. Where they are used on sandy soils a greater yield of 
maize may be obtained after a crop like cowpeas than would 
be got in two years where maize is grown continuously 
without fertilizer {Watt, K. D., 2). The experiments at the 



SOILS AND MANURES 367 

Government Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom, Transvaal, in- CHAP, 
dicate {Holm, i) that these manures greatly increase the yield, ^^"• 
and that profits are obtained on the expenditure ; from 
3| muids per acre without manure the yield was raised to 
8 muids, an increase of about 133 per cent. 

331. Superphosphate Alone. — At Stanger, Natal, in 1903-4, 
the use of concentrated superphosphate, at the rate of 120 lbs. 
5 oz. per acre, resulted in an increased yield of 4 muids 82 
lbs. per acre {Anon., i). At Koedoespoort, Pretoria, in 1907-8, 
the increase was only 240 lbs. of grain per acre and in 1908-9, 
360 lbs., and the net cash gain (at los. per muid) from the use 
of this manure only 5s. 4d. per acre (JVall, R. D., 2). In the 
experiments at Potchefstroom, superphosphate proved the most 
profitable manure to use, the average yield for the three years 
being 14 muids 97 lbs. per acre, a gain of 300 per cent, and a 
net gain of £2. os. lod. per acre, estimating the value of the 
crop at 8s. per muid. The cost of the manure was i8s. 8d. 
per acre {Holm, i). 

332. Bone-meal Alone. — In the experiments at Potchef- 
stroom no increase was obtained the first year from the use of 
bone-meal alone. But in the second and third years the 
yield was good. The average for the three years was 6 muids 
164 lbs. per annum {Holm, i), which is very low, showing that 
this manure when used alone, on this particular type of soil, 
did not supply the requirements of a good maize crop. 

333. Superphosphate and Bone-tneal Mixed. — H o 1 m ( i ) co n - 
eludes that a mixture of superphosphates and bone-meal is 
likely to give the best results of any artificial manure, especially 
in the first and perhaps also in the second year ; after that only 
bone-meal need be applied. The mixing of bone-meal with 
superphosphate facilitates the sowing of the latter. An English 
Agricultural Chemist states that: "By mixing and allowing 
them to stand some little time before using, the action of the 
superphosphates on the bone-meal tends to increase the solu- 
bility of the phosphates in the bone-meal, which in a dry climate 
is an advantage ". To get the best results, the bone-meal must 
be very finely ground ; according to competent agricultural 
chemists, " the bulk of that offered on the South African market 
is too coarse ". Such coarse particles may remain many years 
in the soil before they are rendered available for plant-food, 



368 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



and it is likely that chemical action eventually takes place which 
renders a part at least of their phosphate insoluble and there- 
fore of no value as plant-food {Holm, i). 

Steamed bone flour is more readily soluble than bone-meal. 

334. Basic Slag Alone. — At Koedoespoort, Pretoria, on 
sandy soils poor in lime, Prof Watt found that a dressing 
of basic slag was beneficial to the leguminose crop grown in 
rotation with the maize {Watt, R. D.,'2). At Potchefstroom 
the average yield for three years with the use of basic slag was 








vW. .^:' i'i,^ il^ 



!5. — l-.tlcct ot basic slat^ on maize (cf. Fil;. ud). 



8 muids 106 lbs. per acre, and the net gain 17s. 5d per acre 
{Holm, I). 

335. Nitrate of Soda Alone. — This is a very soluble manure 
and is apt to leach out in the drainage, so that in some climates 
there is little or none left for the following year ; but with the 
dry winters of South Africa some residual value may remain 
for the succeeding crop. Though an important element of 
plant-food, experiments show that the application of this 
manure is not always profitable. As it is one of the most 



SOILS AND MANURES 



369 



expensive of commercial fertilizers, the farmer should make CHAP, 
sure that it will prove beneficial before going to the expense ^^^^• 
of purchasing. 

A three-year series of trials at the Government Experiment 
Farm, Potchefstroom, showed that the average yield of grain 
was only 30 lbs. per acre more (worth is. 3d.) with the use of 
nitrate of soda than without. As the cost of this manure 
was £1 OS. id. per acre, the net loss from its application was 
1 8s. lod. per acre. The amount used was 200 lbs. the first 




3. 126. — Effect of growing maize without manures (on plot adjacent 
to that shown in Fig. 127). 



year and lOO lbs. each year in the two succeeding years {Holm, 
i). Similar results have been obtained with maize at Cedara, 
Natal {Sazver, i), and with other cereals at Potchefstroom. 

336. Superphosphate and Nitrate of Soda. — On poor sandy 
soils at Koedoespoort, near Pretoria, Prof. Watt obtained an 
increase of 500 per cent on his maize crop, the first season, on 
the plot on which nitrate of soda (200 lbs. per acre) and super- 
phosphate (400 lbs. per acre) were used, as compared with that 
on which superphosphate was used alone. The second crop 
24 



^^o 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
VIII. 



after the application of the mixed fertilizer was nearly double 
that obtained with the use of superphosphate alone. The 
total increase was more than 1 1^ muids per acre in two years, 
and the net value of the increase due to the use of the mixture 
was £2 1 6s. 3d. per acre, as against 5s. 4d, per acre gained by 
the use of superphosphate alone {\Vatt, R. D., 2). 

The conflicting results obtained with nitrate of soda at 
Koedoespoort and at Potchefstroom emphasize the fact already 
alluded to, that different soils require different manures to 







Fig. 127. — Effect of superphosphate and nitrate of soda mixed. 

produce the same crop. They also point to the necessity for 
extended manurial experiments in different parts of South 
Africa. 

337. Manganese Compounds. — Experiments conducted in 
Japan and Italy, and at Woburn, Gronigen, and Uitenhage 
{Sutherst, i), have shown that manganese has a beneficial effect 
on certain crops and especially on maize. Large amounts of 
manganese salts are injurious to crops, and the manganic salts 
much more injurious than the manganous, but small amounts 
(50 to 60 lbs. per acre) are found to improve the crops. 



sons AND MANURES 



371 



Mr. Ingle {Sittliersi and Ingle, i) concludes that for the pre- 
sent it will be safer to assume that manganese exerts a "tonic' 
action, and that its application to a soil must not be regarded 
as at all an efficient substitute for the plant-food required, and 
usually supplied by means of artificial manures^ In other 
words, it is probably better regarded as a medicine than as a 
food. 

Russel (2) observes that manganese is considered by 



CHAP. 
VIII. 




Fig. 128. — Effect of manganese compounds on maize ; A, Effect of 
mansranese dioxide. 



Bertrand (i) to be a constituent of oxidases, and, therefore, 
necessary to the plant ; minute traces only are required, larger 
quantities being harmful. A number of field experiments^ have 
shown that manganese salts may act as manures. Bertrand 
classes them as '' engrais coinplementaires'\ 



1 Numerous Japanese experiments are recorded in the Bull. Coll. Agric, 
Tokyo, 1906 et seq., and Italian experiments in the Studi e Ricerche di Chimia 
Agraria, Pisa, 1906-8. 

24* 



:>72 



MAIZE 



CHAP 
VIII. 



338. Po/assiuiii. — At Koedocspoort, Prof. Watt obtained 
an increase of 452 lbs. of maize per acre the first year and 360 
lbs. the second year, after an application of 150 lbs. per acre 
of sulphate of potassium, but the net value of the increase due 
to manuring was only 5s. 5d. per acre. At Potchefstroom 
the use of sulphate of potassium (150 lbs. per acre the first 
year, and 75 lbs. in each of the two succeeding years) resulted 
in an average loss of 252 lbs, of maize-grain per acre, valued at 
I OS. As the cost of the manure was i6s. id. per acre, the 




Fig. 129. — Effect of sulphate of potassium on maize (cf. Fig. 126). 



total loss due to its use was ;^i 6s. id, per acre. As sulphate of 
potash is considered the least deleterious of all potassic manures, 
it has been suggested {Holin^ i) that it is not likely that either 
kainit or chloride of potassium (" muriate of potash ") would 
give any better results ; but it has been pointed out by an 
agricultural chemist that it is just possible that the propert}- 
possessed by kainit of holding moisture — due to its sodium- 
chloride content — may prove it to be better than potassium 
sulphate for sudi crops as are not injuriously affected by the 



SOILS AND MANURES 373 

use of the salt, and this to some extent would apply to chloride CHAP, 
of potassium also. He refers to the fact that in England ^^^^" 
it has been proved in many cases that potassium in the * 
form of chloride (i.e. " muriate of potash ") applied to potatoes 
is not so beneficial as when the potassium is applied in the 
form of sulphate, and in fact has caused deterioration in the 
quality of the crop, while kainit has given the best results. 

Addendum. — The writer is informed that in Rhodesia the 
"chocolate" soils prove best suited to maize, and produce 
heavy crops year after year without the application of manure. 
The "red" soils produce maize for about three years in suc- 
cession, and then require a rest. The granite .soils, though 
producing good tobacco, are found unsuited to maize-growing.' 



CHAPTER IX. 

TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION. 

Two or three additional ploughings will supply the place of dung ... if 
they be performed at proper season. — Jethro Tull. 

There ain't but one principle to follow in raisin' corn ; keep it clean. — An 
Iowa Farmer. 

CHAP. 339. Time of Ploughing. — In the Maize-belt of South Africa 

new lands, and lands which have been fallowed with a rotation 
crop, may be ploughed as early as is possible in the autumn 
(preferably in January, February, and March), in order to pre- 
pare a proper seed bed and to conserve the moisture for early 
planting. Old lands may with advantage be ploughed as soon 
as they can be eaten off by the cattle. In the Transvaal the 
lands should not be left unploughed any longer than can be 
avoided, and should be ready for planting as soon as good 
rains fall in September or early October, but in parts of Natal, 
on light, grey sandy loams subject to much washing, it is found 
desirable to leave the ploughing as late as possible before 
planting. 

340. Depth of Ploughing. — -Shallow ploughing causes the 
maize plant to suffer from drought in a dry season, and from 
waterlogging (on some soils) in a wet season. It has been 
demonstrated clearly during many years that, in the Transvaal 
and Orange Free State, deep ploughing conserves soil moisture. 
In very wet seasons it has also been demonstrated in Natal 
that deep ploughing enabled the surplus moisture to drain 
away better ; on one farm it was shown that the only maize 
crop produced was on land which had been deeply steam- 
ploughed ; on adjacent land, which had been ploughed to the 
ordinary depth of ox-ploughing, the maize crop had been 
either washed away or " drowned out ". 
374 



TILLAGE, PLANTLVG, AND CULTIVATION 375 



CHAP. 
IX. 











^i^#;^i§iy ^'^,^y-!g>^-.€^^K'^ '^ 



Fig. 130.— Primitive method of preparing land for maize, in Zululand. 




Fig. 131. — Deep ploughing by steam, 12 furrows at a time by direct traction. 



CHAP. 
IX. 



376 



MAIZE 



Eight to nine inches is a good depth for ox-ploughing ; but 
steam-ploughing to a depth of 12 to 15 inches generally 
gives better results. Deep ploughing is more necessary for 
maize than for wheat. On shallow soils, however, with an 
unfavourable subsoil, 6 to 8 inches is found sufficient. 

"Whether it is done well or badly, ploughing is a slow 
business, and I think it is important that when it is done, it 
should be done well" (\V. A. McLaren). 




Fig. 132. — The " Fowler " direct traction engine (for oil or coal). 

Subsoiling ^ is generally considered most effective where 
the subsoil is heavy. 

341. Different Soils Require Different Treatvient. — It has 
already been pointed out (IT 307) that the object of tillage is 
(i) to improve the texture or physical condition of the soil so 
that the plant-roots may have the best chance to reach food 
and moisture ; (2) to render the salts more readily available 
to the plant ; (3) to retain the moisture of dry soils and remove 
surplus moisture from those that are too wet. 

' Subsoiling has been described as a method of increasing the depth ot 
ploughing by running a special " subsoil plough " in the bottom of every furrow 
made by the ordinary turn-plough (Duggar, 2). 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 



377 



Thus different soils will require different treatment to CHAP, 
secure the best results. The difference in returns from ap- 
plying uniform treatment to different soils can be deduced 
from the experiments conducted in Natal by Mr. Pearson, 
then Director of Agricultural Experiments at Cedara, as 
shown in the following table : — 

Table LI. 
EFFECT OF TREATMENT OF SOIL ON YIELD. 





Light Sandy Soil. 


Soil of Less Open Texture. 


Yield without Subsoiling . 
Yield with Subsoiling 
Yield without Surface Cul 


1945 lbs.= 9725 muids 
1935 „ = 9-675 ., 


1640 lbs. = 8-20 muids 
i860 „ = 9-30 „ 


tivation .... 
Yield with Surface Culti- 


2001 ,, =io'oo5 „ 


i860 „ = 9-30 ,, 


vation .... 


1894 .. = 9-47 - 


2040 „ = I0-20 „ 



The returns from the same treatment were practically 
reversed on the two soils. It is clear, therefore, that there 
are some soils in South Africa so light and sandy that they 
will not bear much cultivation ; in fact, as Mr. Pearson states, 
the less such soils are disturbed beyond the ordinary plough- 
ing, the better the results. In some cases in the Transvaal — 
such as certain lands along the Vaal River — the soil blows 
away if too much cultivation is practised. But such soils 
are exceptional ; often they do not bear good crops for more 
than about three seasons. 

342. Preparation after Ploughing. — Maize requires a deep, 
loose seed bed, though the soil need not be as fine as for 
wheat. To produce this, it is essential, in the climate of South 
Africa, that particular attention be paid to the after prepara- 
tion of the seed bed. This will vary with different soils and 
in different districts ; we can only speak here in general terms. 

A well-known agriculturist has said that very much de- 
pends upon performing each tillage operation when the soil 
is in exactly the right condition ; two hours of sunshine will 
often make the difference between success and failure in the 
operation of a tillage implement ; compare the old couplet : — 

He that by the plough would thrive 
Himself must either hold or drive. 



378 



MAIZE 



CHAP. Land becomes very hard and lumpy if left rough to dry 

out, but new land, broken at the end of the summer, may be 




Fig. 133. — Disk cultivating ; double-engine system. 

allowed to lie fallow till the spring rains in order to " weather ' 
and kill the sod. Old lands broken in summer may be pul- 




Fif). 134. — Harrowing by steam ; double-engine system. 

verized at once and harrowed to produce a mulch and to 
conserve moisture for early spring planting. 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 379 

After ploughing old maize lands, the stalks and roots lying chap. 
in or near the surface should be gathered together by means ^^" 




Fig. 135.— Zigzag harrow. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co.) 

of the harrow and burned in heaps to kill the stalk-borers 
(" mest-worms ") which are hiding through the winter in the 
hollow part of the base of the stem (cf. H 407). 




Fig. 136.— Riding cultivator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co.) 

Cross ploughing or cross cultivation are useful methods 
of treatment for closing up the air spaces by drawing together 



38o 



MAIZE 




Fig. 137.— Riding disk cultivator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co.) 




Fig. 138. — Spring-tooth harrows. (Courtesy ol Messrs, Malcomess & Co. 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 381 

the sod. The implements used must necessarily vary with the CHAP 
character of the soil, but the plough, Martin cultivator, disk 
harrow, spring-tooth harrow, and zigzag harrow are the imple- 
ments most in use. The Cambridge roller is a useful implement 
at times and on certain soils, but great care must be exercised 
not to use it unless the soil is sufficiently dry or otherwise fit ; 
a roller may do much damage if used at the wrong time. 

After planting it is desirable to barrow at least twice with 
the zigzag harrow or anti-clog weeder ; this may be done when 




Fig. 139.— Harrowing the young maize plants, Vereeniging, with zigzag harrow. 

the maize plants are just up above the ground, and again while 
they are still quite young. The second harrowing should 
kill the first crop of weeds, but should not be given till the 
maize plants are well out of the ground, otherwise too many 
of the young plants may be pulled up ; for the same reason 
this harrowing should be done across the drills, not along the 
rows ; if it runs down the drills, a harrow tooth may pull out a 
large part of a row of maize ; on some soils, it is true, harrow- 
ing with the rows is found preferable to harrowing across 



them. 



CHAP 
IX. 



382 



MAIZE 



343. Time of Planting. — South African farmers have a dis- 
tinct advantage in being able to plant for at least eight consecu- 
tive weeks, whereas in the Maize-belt of the United States the 
time is only three to four weeks : this means that with the same 




Fig. 140. — Part of the gang of fifty-two " Champion " planters at work on 
Messrs. John Fowler & Co.'s demonstration farms at Vereeniging. 



amount of labour we can plant double the acreage. The time 
of planting undoubtedly has an influence on the yield. Late 
planting does not allow the plants time to develop a full crop 
before the frosts set in, and is responsible for much loss. In 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 3^3 

good seasons late planting may give satisfactory returns, but CHAP, 
one cannot depend on the seasons ; to plant late is to " tempt 
Providence ". On the other hand early planting means danger 
of injury from late frost. It also tends to induce ripening 
before the summer rains are over, with consequent injury to 
the grain. However, it has been shown on a large scale 
that in the South African Maize-belt seed can safely be 
planted and germinate before the rains begin, as early as 
26 August. 




Fig. 141, — Fowler's steam planter. 

At Vereeniging (4,750 to 4,900 feet) large areas have been 
successfully planted during the last week of August. Here the 
season usually ends about 5 December, though in some seasons 
it has been successfully extended to 26 December. There are 
some disadvantages in planting very early (i) because the 
weeds do not start as soon as the maize plants, and when they 
do come they cannot be destroyed as easily by the harrow, on 
account of the size of the maize plants ; (2) there seems to be 
more loss from cutworms and other insect pests. This diffi- 
culty can usually be overcome by clean cultivation and winter 



[aize sown 


22 Oct., 


,, ,, 


3 Nov. 


» ,, 


15 „ 


" 


27 - 
g Dec. 


,. .. 


21 „ 



384 MAIZE 

CHAP, ploughing of the maize fields. No actual planting calendar can 
be given which would apply equally to all parts of the country, 
for this necessarily varies with temperature and time of arrival 
of the spring rains, which vary greatly in different districts and 
different seasons. 

Experiments conducted at the Government Experiment 
Farm, Cedara, Natal, gave the following results : — 

Table LII. 

EFFECT OF TIME OF PLANTING ON YIELD. 

[904, yielded 720 lbs. (3*6) muids of grain per acre. 

760 „ (3-8o) 

„ 1690 „ (8-45t 

., 1890 ,, (9-45) 

1680 „ (8-40) 

., .. 600 ,, (3'oo) „ ,, ,, 

Plantings made on the same dates in successive years are 
not likely to show uniform results, for time of planting can 
have no direct bearing on the crop except as it is correlated 
with conditions of the weather and seasonal variations in the 
prevalence and effect of pests and diseases. At the same time 
it should be noted that observations of this character, conducted 
over a long series of years, with the same variety of crop and 
in the same locality, are of the greatest importance for localities 
having similar conditions. For every district there must be a 
time for sowing when weather conditions are, on the average, 
at the best for the production of good crops. 

At the Government Experiment Farm, Fotchefstroom, the 
usual time for maize planting is between 1 5 October and 7 
November. 

In parts of the Pretoria District (4,000 to 4,500 feet altitude) 
the usual time is from the occurrence of first rains, until 
Christmas. In this district the " planting rains " rarely come 
before 1 5 November, which throws the growing season so 
late that there is danger of early autumn frost catching the 
crop before it is mature ; these frosts sometimes fall as early 
as 28 March. By ploughing the ground in January, February 
or March, and choosing the moister soils of the farm, planting 
can be started the following season independently of the spring 
rains, even as early as i September, and by deep plant- 
ing (4 to 5 inches) and frequent harrowing, the seedlings do 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 385 

not suffer from the usually intermittent character of these CHAP, 
rains. As a-rule the occasional light frosts of early September '^• 
do not seriously affect the young plants. At the Botanical 
Experiment Station, Pretoria (4,300 feet), planting commences 
on I November and continues until Christmas. 

At Witbank, Middelburg District, Transvaal, one crop was 
planted as early as 26 August in 1909 and did not suffer 
from cutworm or stalk-borer. 

On the eastern High-veld, where the rainfall is heavier, 
October is the general month for main crop planting, which 
continues till the middle of November. Planting at the Govern- 
ment Stud Farm, Standerton (5,000 to 5,500 feet), on well-pre- 
pared land, begins about 25 September and is continued till 
25 October. At Bethal, 31 October is considered about the 
last safe date for planting Hickory King. 

In the drier parts of the Waterberg and Western Zoutpans- 
berg (3,500 to 4,000 feet) the rains usually fall late, and the 
commencement of planting is often delayed until the middle of 
December ; but as the early frosts fall later here than at higher 
altitudes, the planting season for early maturing sorts may 
continue till the middle of January. 

In the Lower Bush-veld of the Transvaal the planting 
season is independent of frost, but the rainfall being less than 
on the High-veld, and evaporation and transpiration greater, 
the season varies with the rainfall and must be so planned that 
the plants will secure about 13 inches of rainfall during the 
three principal growing months of the crop. In Rhodesia, 
according to Mr. Odium, maize is planted as soon as sufficient 
rain has fallen to thoroughly saturate the soil. Sometimes 
this is in November, but more often not until December. 

At Himeville, Natal, in the Underberg District, planting 
sometimes commences at the end of August, while at Cedara, 
in the Umgeni District, the end of November has been found 
the best time. At Manderston, Camperdown District, the ten 
days from 22 November to i December have given the best 
results.^ 

344. Listing. — Planting with a lister (Fig. 142) is a 

common practice in those parts of the United States in which 

the soils are friable and the rainfall scanty. It is claimed, 

1 According to Mr. John Moon. 

25 



CHAP. 
IX. 



386 



MAIZE 



says Shelton (i), that listed com endures dry weather much 
better than that planted near the surface ; that it gives in- 
creased yield ; and that the labour of growing a crop is there- 
by reduced one-fourth to one-third. In 1888 "nearly or 
quite three-fourths of Kansas corn was raised by the method 
known as listing ; which . . . consists of drilling the .seed in 
the bottoms of deep furrows struck at the usual intervals, in 
ground not otherwise ploughed" {Shelton, i). In experiments 
conducted at the Kansas and Oklahoma Stations, five out of 
eight trials of listed maize gave the best results, with an 
average yield of the eight trials 6 per cent greater than that 




Fig. 142. — Combined lister and planter. 



with surface planting ; but at the Illinois Station the results 
were in favour of surface planting {Hunt, i). 

A few listing implements have been introduced into South 
Africa, but the writer has not yet seen the results of any trials 
conducted with them. 

345. Use of Planters. — The use of planters is rapidly gain- 
ing ground. An implement dealer in a small country town of 
the Transvaal stated that in 1908 he sold nineteen planters, 
which was more than he had sold iri the previous six years. 
In 1909 he sold fifty-one planters before the end of August; 
and there were two other firms in the same town who dealt in 
planters. This means progress. The great advantage of the 
planter lies in the uniformity in distance and in depth of 
planting, rapidity of work, and economy in labour. Many 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 



387 



planters are on the market, such as the Moline Champion, 
Deere & Mansur Improved, Black Hawk, Rock Island, 
Farmers' Friend, Hoosier, Bradley, and Planet Junior. The 
simpler the mechanism the better, where farm labour is in- 
efficient and unskilled. 

Some of these machines are furnished with centre-hole 
plates for the seed to pass through into the hopper, while the 
plates of others have edge-hole plates, i.e. the holes are in the 
form of notches in the edge of the plate. The general ex- 
perience seems to be that for ordinary purposes, and with 
ordinary seed of variable size and shape, the centre-hole plate 



CHAP 
IX. 






P'iG. 143A. — A home-made hand planter 
for maize. (After Myrick, The 
Book of Com.) 




Fig. 143B. — Home-made marker 
for planting maize by hand. 
(After Myrick, The Book of 
Corn.) 



does the best work, resulting in fewer misses in the row. It 
seems likely that the edge-hole plate would plant more evenly 
and accurately, provided the seed were very evenly graded 
and uniform, otherwise the centre-hole plate is preferable. 

346. Check-rowing on small areas (up to, say, 200 acres) has 
an advantage in that it enables the farmer to cultivate both 
up and down and also across the field, and thus to get rid 
of a large proportion of weeds. But it takes a longer time, 
and on large areas the farmer may not have labour enough 
for this inter-cultural tillage. Moreover when check-rowing 
bunches four or five plants in a hill, the results appear 
25* 



388 MAIZE 

CHAP, to be unsatisfactory (H 350) unless the surplus plants can be 
^^- pulled or hoed out ; this means extra labour and loss of 
time, and where maize is grown on a large scale it is doubt- 
ful whether the extra work would pay. If check-rowing is 
practised, care should be taken not to leave too many maize 
plants together ; probably two will be found sufficient for any 
one "hill ". 

347. Distance of Planting.— D\sX.'^ncc of planting affects 




Fig. 144.— Maize planter, " Moline Champion". 

the crop in several ways. Too close planting is injurious, be- 
cause, in the first place, it reduces the amount of plant-food 
available for each plant, maize being a surface-feeder ; in dry 
times it injuriously reduces the amount of moisture available 
to each plant ; it also retards photosynthesis since less light is 
available to the leaves (11 69) ; finally it prevents proper weed- 
ing. On the other hand the plant does not require an indefi- 
nite amount of space, and if more than a certain optimum of 



TILLAGE, PLANTING^ AND CULTIVATION 3^9 

soil space is allowed, the ground area lies waste. In brief, to CHAP 
secure the best yield, it is necessary that an acre should carry 
as many maize plants as possible without injury to one 
another. 

It is obvious that as the richness and texture of the soil and 
the amount of available moisture vary tremendously, not only 
in different parts of South Africa, but also on the same 
farm, the optimum distance of planting will vary in different 
places, and even on the same farm. There is no uniform 
distance suitable for the maize crop in all parts of the country. 
Owing to the difference in amount and incidence of the rain- 
fall in different seasons, a greater distance of planting would 
be desirable in some seasons than in others ; but as the farmer 
cannot foretell the rainfall, he cannot vary his planting in 
anticipation, but should regularly adopt the average distance 
which his own records over a number of years have proved 
most satisfactory for a particular field. 

Distance should also vary with the kind of maize grown ; 
a large-growing sort naturally requires more plant-food, and 
therefore more soil and light space, than a small kind. 

The farmer will find it to his advantage to carry out a 
series of distance tests on his own farm over a series of years 
and on different soils : a comparison of the average yields from 
each planting at the same distance will (if carried out long 
enough) give the optimum distance for that particular soil and 
locality. But a single test is not sufficient ; it should be re- 
peated for several years and the results should be compared 
carefully. In order to start an experiment intelligently, it is 
well to know something of the results obtained elsewhere, as a 
basis on which to start ; a few such results have been given in 
the following paragraph. 

348. Distance Tests in the Transvaal. — The following results 
(Table LIII) were obtained from an experiment conducted at 
the Botanical Experiment Station, Skinner's Court, Pretoria, on 
shallow red soil of poor quality. The breed used was Hickory 
King and only one grain was planted to each hill. It will be 
noted that at the greater distances the results were not satis- 
factory. 

Further results (Table LIV) were obtained from a subse- 
quent experiment conducted at the Botanical Experiment 



390 



MAIZE 



CHAP. Tablk LIII. 

IX. RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS ON YIELD OF HICKORY KING. 



Distance. 


Soil Surface ^""TpiTnts^n."?''" 
Area per Plant. j "^ ^1^',^ P" 


Yield 
of Grain. 


Per Cent 

of 

Total Yield. 


3' X 3' 
3' X 2i' 

3' X 2' 

3' X ir 


Square Feet, 
go 

7-5 
6-0 

4-5 


4,840 
5,808 
7,260 
9,680 


Lbs. 
100 

180 
196 


15-36 
27-65 
26-88 
30-10 


651 


99-99 



Table LIV. 

RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS ON YIELD OF IOWA 
SILVER-MINE. 



Experiment 
Number. 


Distances. 


Crop 
Harvested. 


Equivalent Yield per 
Acre. 


A.217 


3' 6" X I' 6" 


960 


Lbs. 
384 


Lbs. 
2,846 


Muids. 
14-23 


A.218 


3' 4" X i' 6" 


997 


290 


2,249 


11-25 


A.219 


3' 8" X I' 6" 


1,038 


352 


2,559 


12-79 


A.220 


3' 6" X I' 


1,211 


255 


2,890 


14-45 ' 


A.22I 


3' 4" X i' 


931 


200 


1,555 


7-77 



Experiment 
Number. 


Soil Surface 

Area per 

Plant. 


Equivalent 

Numbei of 

Plants per 

Acre. 


Average 
Weight 
per Ear. 


Possible Return if every Hill 
had borne a Plant, and every 
Plant one Ear up to the Aver- 
age weight for that Distance. 
Total Weight per .\cre. 


A.217 
A.218 
A.219 
A.220 
A.22I 


Square Feet. 
5-25 

4-995 

5-49 

3-50 

3-33 


8,297 
8,720 
7.934 
12,445 
13,081 


Oz. 
6-402 

4-65 
5-42 
3-37 
3-44 


Lbs. 
3,318-8 

2,534-2 

2,68S-o 

2,621-1 

2,812-4 


Muids. 
16-59 

12-67 

13-44 
13-10 
14-06 



' Some plants evidently bore more than one ear. 

- The largest ears gave the largest yield per acre, but the lowest yield per 
acre was not obtained from the plants which produced the ears of smallest 
average size (cf. experiments A.218 and A.220). 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 391 

Station, on red soil, with Iowa Silver-mine. This breed was CHAP, 
used, as it was already being grown for other purposes which 
would not interfere with the distance tests. 

The plot was 56 yards long, and ten rows were grown at 
each distance. The distances chosen were based on the results 
obtained in the previous experiment. 

From Table LIV it is obvious that the heaviest ears 
were obtained, in all cases except one, from the plants having 
the largest amount of free soil space per plant ; in the one ex- 
ception the difference is so slight that it does not affect the 
results. But in an experiment with sunflowers conducted at 
the Botanical Experiment Station a few years previously, it 
was clearly proved that the plants which produced the smaller 
heads gave a better crop than those which bore very large 
heads, because there were more of them. 

We must therefore find out whether the reduced weight of 
ear, in cases of less soil space per plant, may not be compen- 
sated by the larger number of plants per acre. Table LIV 
shows that in the above experiment this was not the case. 
In Illinois, however, the smaller ears gave the heaviest total 
yield (11350). 

One of the factors which affects the maize yield is sunshine, 
and on this account distance between the rows may be of greater 
importance than distance iti the rows. But this again is some- 
times affected by the direction of the rows, especially in a 
cloudy, wet season ; in such a season wide rows, running 
north and south, have an advantage over narrow rows running 
east and west. 

At Vereeniging Mr. McLaren has tried various distances, 
and now usually plants 3 feet 4 inches between the rows, the 
grain being dropped on the average at about i foot 6 inches 
in the row, giving 5 square feet to each plant, or 8,712 plants 
per acre. 

On some of the Transvaal soils it seems likely that 3 feet 
X I foot 6 inches, or 9,680 plants per acre, will give better 
results, but this requires further investigation. 

349. Distance Tests in Natal. — At the Government Experi- 
ment Farm, Cedara, Natal, the following returns of yield of 
grain per acre were obtained : — ^ 

' In jQoi. 



392 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
IX. 



Table LV. 
RESULTS OF DISTANCE TESTS IN NATAL. 



Distance in the 
Rows. 


Rows, 2i feet Apart. 


Rows, 3 feet Apart. 


Rows, 4 feet Apart. 




Lbs. 


Muids. 


Lbs. 


Muids. 


Lbs. 


Muids. 


I foot apart 


l,88o 


9-40 


1,908 


9-54 


1,696 


8-48 


I* „ „ 


1,702 


8-51 


1,744 


872 


1,510 


7-55 


2 feet „ 


1,632 


816 


1,592 


7-96 


1,290 


6-45 


2j „ .. 


1,580 


7-90 


1,458 


7-29 


1,174 


5-87 


3 „ 


— 


— 


1,342 


671 


1,014 


5-07 


4 » » 


1 . 


~ 


~ 


~ 


864 


4-32 



Clearly the best distance, in that locality and soil and for 
that season, was 3 feet between the rows and i foot apart in 
the rows. It must be remembered, however, that unless such an 
experiment is conducted over a series of years, or on a large 
area, and an average taken, the variations which occur may be 
due to slight differences in soil, or to greater insect attack in 
some spots than others, these being usually restricted to 
patches and not uniformly distributed. 

A farmer at Manderston, Natal, ^ informed the writer that 
he planted Hickory King 2 feet 8 inches x 14 inches, which 
is equivalent to about 14,000 plants per acre; this was on 
well-manured land. His crop when planted at this distance 
averaged 14 muids per acre which appears like a good yield ; 
but this means that with a full stand of plants the average 
yield per plant would have been only 3*2 oz., which is very 
low, indicating either that an unusual allowance must be made 
for misses, grubs, etc., or that the planting was too close. 

350. Distances Tried in the United States. — From accounts 
of experiments in the United States it would appear that the 
best crops are obtained at distances giving 11,000 to 12,000 
plants per acre, but there, also, we find variation according to 
climate and richness of soil. Recent experiments have shown 
that the crop is apt to suffer if the plants are bunched, four or 
five together in a hill, and from this point of view continuous 
row planting seems to be superior to check-row planting. At 
the Missouri Station, the largest yield on poor land (36 bushels) 
was obtained from leaving only two stalks per hill, with the hills 
3 feet 9 inches apart each way, or 6,480 stalks per acre ; while 
' Mr. John Moon. 



TIIXAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 39;^ 

on good land 70 bushels was obtained with four stalks per hill, CHAP, 
the hills being the same distance apart {Himt, 31). At the ^^' 
Illinois Station {Bull. 13, p. 410) close planting (23,760 plants 
per acre) gave smaller ears, lOO weighing only 39 lbs. ; but a 
heavier yield of shelled grain {y6 bushels) per acre, as compared 
with 5,940 plants per acre which gave large ears (100 weighing 
66 lbs.) but only 55 bushels of shelled grain per acre. 

351. Planting Distance for Silage or Fodder Maize. — When 
the object is to get the heaviest possible yield of fodder from 
each acre of ground, the plants may stand much closer together 
than when grain is to be harvested. At the Botanical Experi- 
ment Station, Pretoria, the rows are kept the same distance 
apart as when planted for grain, i.e. 3 feet 6 inches, in order 
to allow space for cleaning, for sunlight, and for leaf-develop- 
ment, but the seed is planted every 5 or 6 inches instead of 
1 8 inches. But no definite rule can be laid down because so 
much depends on the local conditions of soil and climate, and 
the particular breed grown. The Pennsylvania and Michigan 
Stations found the most satisfactory distance to be rows 40 
inches apart and single stalks 3 to 9 inches apart in the row. 

In the Standerton District (Transvaal) some farmers^ leave 
3 feet between the rows, planting 10 inches apart in the row, 
and cultivate just as they would for grain ; but they are not 
sure that 2 feet 6 inches x 10 inches might not give a better 
yield, though "if planted too thick the bottom leaves die," and 
the leaf is the most valuable part of the fodder. They use 
Natal Yellow Horsetooth, a vigorous grower, which could not 
be grown as thickly as some other sorts; they plant 14 to 
I 5 lbs. of seed per acre. 

352. Effect of Thickness of Planting on Composition of the 
Fodder. — The American Experiment Stations have found that 
where the crop has been planted thickly the protein content of 
the fodder is materially reduced and the percentage of crude 
fibre considerably increased ; but when there is no greater 
variation in rate of planting than that of one grain every 6 to 
12 inches, there is no material difference in the composition of 
the fodder {Hunt, 3 1 ). 

353. Number of Plants to an Acre of Ground at Different 
Distances : — 

' e.g. Messrs. Hutchinson and Shaw of Val Station. 



394 



MAIZE 



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TH.I.AGFt, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 395 

354. A mount of Seed Planted per Acre. — This varies greatly CHAP, 
with the method and distance of planting, and with the breed ^ • 
of maize planted. If plates with suitable holes are used, a muid 

of Chester County will plant many more acres than a muid of 
Hickory King, because it contains so many more grains. It is 
usually estimated that 1 8 to 20 lbs. of Hickory King are required 
to plant an English acre (70 x 70 yards), or, in other words, 
that a muid will plant 10 acres. 

355. Depth of Planting. — The rule with maize is to plant it 
just deep enough to ensure a continuous supply of moisture. 
In countries subject to periodic drought, like most parts of 
South Africa, deeper planting is required than in countries of 
more uniform rainfall. Deep planting allows the seed to re- 
main in contact with moist soil ; at the same time it takes 
longer and requires more effort for the plant to reach the 
surface. But there is a possibility of planting too deeply, and 
in the United States it has been found that too deep planting 
reduces the yield per acre, apparently because too many seeds 
fail in germination. 

Deep planting does not appear to materially affect the 
depth to which the roots penetrate the soil, nor does it ap- 
parently affect the yield per individual stalk, which has been 
found to be the same at all depths tested. 

Tests made at the Botanical Experiment Station,, Pretoria, 
gave the best results with seed planted at depths of 4 and 5 
inches. In drier seasons it seems probable that 6 inches would 
be still better. Seed planted at 8 inches, even, germinated well, 
though slowly. 

Seed of the same breed, planted the same day, at different 
depths, at the Botanical Experiment Station, gave the follow- 
ing results. Sown 23 November, followed by a rainfall of 
0"95 inch on the 26th, appeared above ground as follows: — 

TABLE LVII. 

EFFECT OF DEPTH OF PLANTING ON GERMINATION. 

Depth. 

i-inch ; seedlings first appeared above ground 27 Nov. 

2- >, „ ,, ,, ,, „ 27 „ 

3- ., .< ,, ,. ,. ,, 28 „ appeared next best to 5 

inches. 

4- .. >. ,> ,' ,, M 30 r, 



IX. 



396 MAIZE 

CHAP J^^P"'- 

■ 5-inch ; seedlings first appeared above ground 30 Nov. germinated most evenly 

and looked best. 

6- ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 30 ,, only a few appeared. 

7- ,, ,1 i> .1 >. >> '^ Dec. 

8- „ „ „ 2 

Germination was poorest (though growth was at first most 
rapid) in those planted at i inch ; but these had made the least 
subsequent growth when examined a few weeks later. The 
most vigorous growth was attained by those planted at 5 
inches. 

This experiment should be repeated, for some at present 
unexplained factor affected the growth of those planted at 4 
inches, which were less vigorous than those planted at 3 inches. 

356. Planting behind the Plough. — This method is largely 
practised by Boers and natives, especially in breaking new 
veld, but the resulting crop is not as good as when the land 
has been properly prepared. 

357. Planting before Ploughing. — This method is sometimes 
practised by natives, especially on sandy soils ; it naturally 
results in an uneven stand, and in irregularity of germination, 
growth, flowering, and ripening, and is not the best method of 
producing a profitable crop ; as a rule it is said to result in a 
crop of not more than \\ bags per acre. 

358. After-cultivation. — Maize requires a better quality of 
land and a higher grade of farming than any other of the great 
staple crops. One of the principal causes of low yields is the 
prevalence of weeds, such as pig-weed, mest-briede {Amarantus 
paniculatus), Bermuda quick or quagga kweek-gras [Cynodon 
Dactylon), uintjes {Cyperus esculentus), and the sweet grasses 
(Chloris virgata and Panicuni IcBvifolium). Weeds rob the 
maize roots of moisture and plant food, and thus reduce the 
yield of grain. Their successful eradication is one of the most 
important problems the South African farmer has to face. 
Occasional fallowing of the soil and rotation of crops do much 
to reduce the weed crop. Frequent harrowing, while the weed 
seedlings are small, is one of the most economical and rapid 
methods of treatment. But the frequent use of the cultivator 
between the rows of a check-rowed field is far the best. Cul- 
tivation not only keeps the land clean but also helps to retain 
the moisture in the soil during dry spells, b)- maintaining a soil 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 397 




39« 



MAIZE 




TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 



399 



mulch. Some South African maize-growers cultivate between CHAP, 
the rows as much as eight times in a season. To keep the maize ^^" 
crop clean one must have the land in good condition before 
the crop is planted, and then keep working it, never allowing 
the weeds to get a start. This subject is more fully discussed 
in chapter X. 

For these reasons the small maize farmers of the United 
States who give their crop thorough cultivation, obtain heavier 
returns per acre than those who grow maize on a larger scale 
and are unable to give it the same attention. Prof. Carver 
notes (cf IT 6) that there is a noticeable general decline in the 
intensity of cultivation of the maize crop, with the increase in 
size of farm in the Western States. There is also a noticeable 




Fig. 147. — " New Western " cultivator. (Courtesy of Messrs. 
Malcomess & Co.) 



decrease in yield per acre ; that this is associated with the less 
intensive cultivation rather than to geographical reasons, is 
indicated by the fact that the highest average yields per acre 
are obtained in the North Atlantic States, quite out of the 
Maize-belt (1i4i> 

Care should be exercised in the use of the cultivator, for 
if it is set too deeply, or run too close to the plants, it may 
prune off a proportion of the roots, below the surface, which will 
probably reduce the yield below the potential ; for this reason 
some American Stations recommend that after the first cultiva- 
tion the implements should not be allowed to cut deeper than 
2 inches ; deep cultivation also tends to turn up a fresh crop 
of weed seeds. 



CHAP. 

IX. 



400 



MAIZE 



359. I mpletnents for Weeding. — Many implements are in 
use in South Africa for cleaning the land of weeds and keeping 
a loose mulch on the surface after rains. Probably no one of 
these can be said to be the best implement for all classes 
of soil. 




Fig. 148. — Anti-clog weeder. 

The use of the ordinary zigzag harrow and the anti-clog- 
weeder have already been alluded to. Among others should 
be mentioned the Planet Junior, Collet, and Howard scuffiers, 
which are in use at the Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom ; 
the Martin cultivator and the Captain Kidd disk cultivator, 
both of which are in use at Vereeniging ; and the Peg-tooth 




Fig 



Captain Kidd ' cultivator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co.) 



cultivator used by farmers in the Standerton District.' The 
following are also in use in the Transvaal : The Hallock, In- 
dependent, Keystone-adjustable, Corn King, Dandy, Golden 
Rule, New Age, New Western, etc. 

Where the crop is in danger of suffering from excessive 

'e.g. Messrs. Reynolds Bros., Val Station. 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 401 

moisture, it is useful to run a moulflboard plough down the 
rows to throw up the earth around the maize roots and form a 
shallow channel down which the surface water can run instead 



CHAP 
IX. 




Fig. 150. 



Single Dutchman " cultivator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess 
& Co.) 




Fig. 151. — Adjustable cultivator. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co.) 

of standing. The maize plant does not like stagnant water, 
and many a crop has been saved by this simple method of 
treatment. 

26 



402 MAIZE 

CHAP. 360. Power. — The usual source of power employed on the 

South African farm is the ox, most frequently the Africander 
breed. The argument generally used in favour of the ox is 
that he requires little artificial feed, and can be sold to the 
butcher when his draught days are over. This may have held 
good in the days of the 6,000-acre farm, and when the beef 
market was less critical than it is to-day. But when we 
think of the number of oxen required to haul a load or draw a 
plough, and consider that the same grass necessary to keep 
them might be making prime beef such as the trek-ox never 




Fig. 152. — Adjustable Weeder. (Courtesy of Messrs. Malcomess & Co.) 

can produce, we begin to question where the economy of the 
trek-ox comes in ; he is, at best, a slow beast and an expensive 
form of power. When drawing the planter he makes crooked 
rows, and when drawing the cultivator through the growing 
maize he cuts out the plants in the bends which he made when 
planting, thus still further decreasing the yield ; and he is so 
ponderous and so slow in getting over the ground that a larger 
number of planters and natives must be employed to cover a 
given area in the limited amount of time available for planting 
and cleaning, than would be needed if horses or good mules 
were used. 

For the preparation of the land there is nothing to equal 



TILLAGE, PLANTING, AND CULTIVATION 



403 



IX. 



steam cultivation, and the best machinery and implements for CHAP, 
steam ploughing are apparently those manufactured by Messrs. 
John Fowler & Co. (Leeds), Limited (Figs. 131 to 134, 141 and 
153), whose extensive and long-continued demonstrations at 




Fig. 153. — Steam-ploughing and subsoil packing the land at Vereeniging ; 
double engine system. (Courtesy of Messrs. John Fowler & Co.) 

Vereeniging have proved beyond doubt the efficiency of this 
form of power for maize-growing in South Africa. This firm 
is now putting on the market a direct-traction oil-tractor (Fig. 
132), the "Fowler," which, if it proves adapted to South 
African conditions, is likely to greatly reduce the cost of 
machine ploughing. 



26 



404 



MAIXE 




Fig. 154.—" Lucky Jim " weeder. An implement for cleaning the 



g the growing crop. 




Fig. 155,— " Red King" cultivator. Anoth 



er implement for cleaning the growing crop. 



CHAPTER X. 

DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP. 

Every crop has its pest. 

— Proverb. 

Overgrown, through long years of peace and neglect, with grass and alien 
weeds. 

— Hawthorne. 

Plant Diseases. 

Speaking broadly, maize in South Africa appears to be less chap. 
seriously affected by disease than most crops ; though the ^• 
maize plant is the host of certain rusts and smuts, they 
do not appear — at present, at least- — to materially affect the 
yield. The principal diseases are : brown rust {P/iccijiia 
Maydis Bereng), red rust {Puccinia purpurea Cooke), maize 
smut or " brand " {Sorosporiuin reiliajium (Kiihn) McAlp.), 
dry-rot {Diplodia Zees (Schw.) Lev.), and leaf scorch (Hel- 
viinthcsporiuin turciaim Pass.). 

361. Brown Rust of Maize. — This is a fungus, Puccinia 
Maydis Bereng (Fig. 156), which usually appears when the 
maize plants are in flower, or a little earlier. At first a few 
isolated brown pustules are to be seen on the leaves and, later, 
the leaves and sheaths are gradually covered with pustular 
areas, which bear both the uredo- and teleuto-spores. Accord- 
ing to the Plant Pathologist of the Department of Agriculture, 
Union of South Africa, abundant teleutospore masses are 
formed on the leaves, sheaths, and stalks towards the close 
of the rust season, and the incubation period of its uredo-stage 
is of considerably shorter duration as compared with that 
of other cereal rusts, viz. five and six days instead of about 
ten days ; this must aid in the- rapid spread of the disease. 
The parasite is widely distributed, occurring practically wher- 
405 



4o6 MAIZE 

CHAP, ever maize is grown, e.g. in the United States, France, 
'"^^ Germany, Italy, India, and South Africa. 

He {Evans, 3) notes that some breeds of maize " are 
far more susceptible than others ; those varieties which have 
been longest in the country, e.g. Transvaal Ye/low, seem to be 
affected most " ; apparently this depends in part on seasonal 
conditions and the stage of development of the maize plant at 
the time these conditions prevail. In Rhodesia it has been 
stated that Hickory King, Golden Dent, and His Excellency 
were particularly susceptible. In the season 1905-6 over 
one hundred strains of maize were under cultivation at 
the Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, and brown rust 
appeared on nearly all of them, to a greater or lesser extent ; 
Transvaal Yellow and Egyptian were very appreciably affected 
by it, but there was little damage apparent on the others. 

Brown rust is also said to propagate upon the teosinte 
and sugar-cane plants. 

A serious outbreak of rust in the maize crop of the Pretoria 
district in P'ebruary, 191 1, coupled with reports concerning the 
damage done elsewhere, especially in the Eastern districts of 
the Cape Province, in Rhodesia and in British East Africa, 
rendered an investigation of the life-history of the pest advis- 
able, for in many instances a large proportion of the plants 
were so severely attacked that they set no ears. To quote 
directly : — 

" The .severe epidemic of the rust at the Botanical Experi- 
ment Station, Pretoria, was preceded by a heavy and most 
noticeable aecidial infection of Oxalis corniculata plants close 
by, and the probable association of these two rusts, the one 
with the other, was immediately .suggested by Prof. J. C. 
Arthur's cultures of Uredinea; in 1904, in which he found that 
the scidiospores of Aicidiuni Oxalidis Thuem., on Oxalis 
cymosa Small., when sown on maize produced the uredo-form 
of Puccinia Maydis Bereng. 

" A collection of the infected Oxalis corniculata leaves was 
made and a number of healthy maize plants, growing in the 
greenhouse, inoculated with the a^cidiospores thus obtained. 
In ten days all the inoculated plants were showing a profuse 
development of uredo-pustules of Puccinia Maydis. This 
result left no doubt as to the connection between the ^ecidium 
on Oxalis corniculata and the brown rust of the mielie. Thus 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 4°? 




4o8 MAIZE 

CHAP, it was evident that the little yellow sorrel, Oxalis corniculata, 
^- was in part responsible for the rust epidemics in the mielie ; 
but whether it is the only host for the ;ecidial stage of the 
rust is a matter for further investigation. Strange to relate, 
the first yEcidium recorded on Oxalis was collected in South 
Africa as far back as 1876 by the late Prof P. MacOvvan on 
Oxalis Bowiei and was named and described by Von Thuemen 
as ^cidiunt Oxalidis. Whether this yEcidium is the same 
fungus as that which occurs on Oxalis cymosa and on Oxalis 
corniculata seems at present doubtful, although Arthur is of 
opinion that they are identical. 

" My reason for regarding the /Ecidium on Oxalis Bowiei 
to be different from that on Oxalis corniculata, is due to the 
fact that repeated inoculations of Oxalis Bowiei, Oxalis setosa, 
Oxalis Sinithii, and Oxalis corniculata, have only resulted in 
the infection of the last-mentioned plant, whereas the others, 
which are endemic to the country, have always remained 
immune. 

" Specimens of the artificially infected Oxalis corniculata 
leaves were submitted to Prof. P. Magnus of Berlin and the 
^cidia were confirmed by him as being identical with yEcidium 
Peyritschianum Magn., which was collected on the same species 
of Oxalis in the Austrian Tyrol in the year 1893 " {Evans, 4), 

The brown rust has not hitherto been regarded as a 
serious pest of the maize crop in South Africa, but Mr. Pole 
Evans considers that before very long it will have to be 
reckoned with as one of its most serious enemies ; " the more 
that maize is grown, the more the disease will manifest itself". 
He (3) does not suggest remedial measures other than " paying 
all possible care and attention to the cultivation of rust- 
resistant varieties, while those which show tendency to rust 
should be discontinued at all costs, as they are to a large extent 
responsible for the rapid spread of the disease," but he hopes 
" shortly to publish full details regarding the life-history of this 
rust ". 

362. Red Rust of Maize. — This is the fungus Puccinia 
purpurea Cooke ; as far as observations in South Africa go it 
is at present confined to the Province of Natal. It is readily 
distinguished from the brown rust of maize by the discolora- 
tion produced in the leaf by the uredo-pustules, which are 
distinctly red, to blood-red {Evans, 4j. 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 409 
363. " White Rust" or ''Blight". — In certain seasons the CHAP 



maize crop in some localities is affected by a disease which 
causes the plants to " whiten " and wither off prematurely as 
though frost-nipped ; sometimes it becomes so serious that a 
large part, or it may be the whole crop, is lost. This trouble 
has been reported from the Transvaal, Orange Free State, 
Natal, and Rhodesia, under the name of "white rust" or 
"blight". Some farmers consider certain breeds to be more 
susceptible than others ; inquiry shows, however, that in some 
cases Hickory King was affected and Iowa Silver-mine or Yellow 
Horsetooth on the same farm appeared to be less susceptible, 
while in other cases lotva Silver-mine suffered and 'Hickory 
King was not affected. Whether this disease is due to fungus 
or bacterial causes does not appear to be yet known ; the 
writer has observed that somewhat similar symptoms are some- 
times produced by drought, and disappear when the crop has 
been irrigated. If drought should prove to be the cause of 
white rust, the incidence of the disease as referred to above 
would be explicable ; the varying conditions of the soil might 
easily account for one field being affected while another, per- 
haps carrying a different breed of maize, remained healthy. 

The occurrence and serious nature of this disease in Rho- 
desia were referred to by Mr. Odium (4) in 1906, but he does 
not explain the cause of the trouble. He suggests, however, 
as a remedial measure, the breeding of " blight-resistant " 
strains ; if drought is the cause, the breeding of " drought- 
resistant " strains would probably assist in some measure. 

364. Mai:;e Smut or " Brand". — This fungus parasite, 
Sorosporium reilianum (Kiihn) McAlp.,^ is conspicuous in 
one stage of its life-history as large, black, sooty masses on 
the tassel (Fig. i 57) or the ear (Fig. 158); when it occurs on the 
leaves it appears generally in the form of black streaks. How 
long maize smut has been known in South Africa is not clear, 
but its occurrence in the Cape Province was commented on in 
June, 1906 (Anon., 3). It is now a familiar phenomenon to 
almost every farmer throughout South Africa ; the microscopic 
fungus-plant lives as a parasite within the tissues of the maize 
plant, and is only seen by the ordinary observer when it breaks 

1 Also known as Ustilago Maydis (DC.) Corda, and Ustilago Mays-zea 
Magnus {Evans, i). 



4IO 



MAIZE 



CHAP, out on the surface of ihe invaded parts as a black dusty mass. 

To quote Mr. Pole Evans 
(1,2, and 3): " The black- 
powder or smut consists 
of myriads of microscopic 
reproductive bodies, com- 
monly known as spores. 
They serve to propagate 
the fungus and dissemin- 
ate the disease, and corre- 
spond in function to seeds 
in the higher plants. Each 
spore is brown and spheri- 
cal, and measures about 
one thirty -three hun- 
dredths of an inch in dia- 
meter. Under favourable 
conditions these spores 
germinate, and give rise 
to a number of secondary 
bodies, which are blown 
about by the wind. 

v^. ...a..^ V... t..v. ' ^^ '^ found that the 

tassel. spores germinate more 

readily, and also give rise to a larger number of secondary 
bodies, in fresh stable manure than in ordinary soil. Conse- 
quently, if a heavy dressing of fresh stable manure is applied 
to land infested with smut spores just before planting, the risk 
of infection will be much greater to plants growing in such 
ground, inasmuch as more secondary bodies will be produced 
than would have occurred in untreated land. 

''As the secondary spores are able to infect all young and 
tender parts of the maize plant, their presence in the maize 
lands should be prevented as far as possible. This can best 
be done by removing and burning all smutted plants, by using 
seed free from smut spores, and by avoiding the use of fresh 
stable manure at the time of sowing." 

This parasite is said to occur wherever maize is grown. 
It appears to be spreading in some parts of South Africa. In 
some cases in the Standerton District, Transvaal, it was found 




Maize smut or brand on the 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 



411 



to affect 2 per cent of the plants in several crops of maize ; 
2 per cent on a 10 muid per acre yield means a loss of 2 muids 
from every 10 acres, or 20 muids from 100 acres, which at 8s. 
per muid amounts to ;^8. The general average of infected 
plants in the United States crops is said not to exceed i or 2 
per cent ; but Prof Brewer reports having heard of cases of 



CHAP. 
X. 




Maize smut or brand on the ear. 



16 per cent, and Prof Bessey states that in a garden where 
sugar maize had been grown for several years in succession, 
66 per cent of the crop was destroyed by smut in one season 
{Weed, I). 

Maize smut is quite a different fungus from the smut of 
wheat, oats, etc. ; it gains access to the plant in a different way, 
and is not controlled by dipping seed in bluestone or formalin 
solutions but by destruction of infected plants. Most people. 



412 MAIZE 

CHAP, says an American writer, do not begin picking smutty ears until 
^" it is too late, when the sooty spores have already begun to be 
scattered by the wind and to infect the ground ; if the work is 
begun earlier in the season, and all plants showing the small 
pustules on the young tender parts of the plant are gathered 
and burned, the enormous crop of spores which would other- 
wise be produced will be prevented from coming to maturity. 
The ear, when it is first affected, appears as a white malformed 
mass, sometimes the whole ear, sometimes a part only of the 
grains, being changed ; the white mass gradually grows darker, 
finally becoming brownish-black and powdery ; on the tassels 
the swellings are not so large, and on the stem and leaf their 
size varies greatly {]Veed, i). 

"Where domestic animals are allowed to eat smut in the 
field they become the carriers of the spores, and their drop- 
pings, filled with the still living spores, become the centres of 
infection. No animal should be permitted to eat smutted 
corn, even though the owner be convinced of its harmlessness 
to the animal itself The harm lies in the distribution of the 
spores, which are little, if at all, injured by passing through the 
alimentary canals of animals" {Bessey, quoted by Anon., 3). 

Many farmers believe that corn smut is injurious when eaten 
by cattle. Cases of death attributed to this cause are not 
common, however, and feeding experiments made by Professors 
Gamgee, Henry, and others, indicate that the amount of smut 
which cattle are likely to eat, under ordinary circumstances, 
would do little, if any, injury (IVeed, quoted by Anon., 3). 

The only other known host plant of Sorosporimn reiliamun 
is teosinte {EuchUena viexicand), which suggests the near re- 
lationship of the latter to Zea Mays. 

365. Leaf Scorch or Maize '' Blight '\ — Leaf scorch or 
maize " blight," H eiminthosporium turcicum Pass., is a fungus 
parasite common on the leaves of the maize plant in South 
Africa, "forming somewhat elongated, reddish-brown areas". 
It is .said to commonly attack the plant also in Southern 
Europe, Queensland, and the United States. This fungus is 
sometimes discussed in the literature under the names 
Helviinthosporiuvi inconspicuuni Cooke and Ell lis, Hehninthos- 
porinni graminum Rab., and "leaf-blight fungus". In the 



DISEASES AND PESTS OE THE MAIZE CROP 413 

United States this disease is considered to have "little 
economic importance" {Hunt, i). 

366. Ear-rots of Maize. — In 1910 at Vereeniging and at 
Potchefstroom, and in 191 2 at Ladysmith, Natal, the writer 
found maize ears affected with a fungus reminding him of 
Diplodia Zece (Schw.) Lev.^ (Fig. 159) as it occurs in the 



CHAP 

X. 





Fig. 159. — Dry-rot of maize, Diplodia Zea (Schw.) Lev. A, Ear showing white 
hyphje ; B, Grains showing small black fruiting bodies of the fungus. 

United States. Subsequently these were so identified by the 
Acting Plant Pathologist in Pretoria. In the State of Illinois 
the annual loss from ear-rots is said to be from 2 to 4*5 per 
cent of the entire crop, representing a money loss of from 



Also known as Diplodia Maydis (Berk.) Sacc. 



414 MAIZE 

CHAP. $2,000,000 to $5,500,000. Ninety per cent of the rot is found 
^- to be due to Diplodia ZecB {Heald, Wilcox, and Poole, i). In 
Nebraska it has been found that there is a loss of weight on 
infected ears of over 50 per cent (^Burrill and Barrett, 2). 

This disease is shown in Fig. 159, and is very fully de- 
scribed and well illustrated by Burrill and Barrett (i and 2),^ 
who conclude that "in the case of the Diplodia disease, . . . 
the fungus perpetuates itself over winter on old diseased ears 
and old stalks," and recommend that all diseased ears be col- 
lected and burned, and that where fields are infected to any 
considerable extent, the stalks be deeply ploughed under or 
burned. " If the first suggestion is adopted and the second 
followed wherever necessity demands it," they consider that 
serious losses will be practically prevented. 

In Illinois three species oi Fusariuni are found to be largely 
responsible for 10 per cent of ear-rot in that State; the char- 
acteristic rot of each species is described by Heald, Wilcox, 
and Poole (i). 

Smith and Hedges (i) point out that there is little doubt 
that the manner of infection by ear-rots is from the soil into 
the roots, from these to the interior of the stems, and thence 
upward to the cobs, and finally to the grains, but that it is 
not unlikely that certain soil conditions may favour or hinder 
the root infection. 

" Unquestionably the Diplodia, like the Fusariian, is a soil- 
organism persisting from year to year in infected fields, which 
for this reason should be staked off and planted to other crops 
than corn." 

They further suggest that " it is also worthy of inquiry 
whether this fungus may not be the cause of the so-called 
' cornstalk ' disease prevalent among cattle in the West. It is 
also possible that to Diplodia should be referred the great 
number of deaths of negroes in the South during the past 
three years, from the so-called pellagra (Chap. Xl\) following 
the consumption of mouldy corn-meal and mouldy hominy. 
This fungus {Diplodia) is also a cause of mouldy corn in Italy. 
The only other fungi we have reason for suspecting in this con- 
nection are species of Aspergillus" {Smith and Hedges, i). 

1 See also Barrett (i). 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 415 

367. Dothiorella. — A disease of maize is recorded as oc- chap. 



curring in Cochin China, caused by a fungus of the genus 
Dothiorella {Foex and Berthmilt, i). 

368. BurrilT s Bacterial Disease of Dent and Sugar Maize. 
— A bacterial disease is reported as affecting the roots of young 
maize plants in some parts of the United States, but the writer 
is not aware that it has yet made its appearance in South Africa. 

" The young plant is first affected in the roots. After mid- 
summer the disease manifests itself also in the full-grown corn 
stalks, more particularly on the leaf-sheaths, by certain dis- 
coloured areas. Even the developing ears are often infected, 
showing a jelly-like disposition, occasionally becoming a mass 
of rotten slime. An attack upon the very young plant means 
the dwarfing of its growth and destruction of the crop. A 
lessened yield and valueless fodder are the only results of infec- 
tion of the more mature stalk. The presence of the disease is 
noted to a greater extent some years than others. Means of 
prevention have not yet been carefully studied, but destroying 
affected parts is said to be the only sure way of absolute 
eradication. This disease is sometimes known as 'corn 
blight'" {Illinois Station Bull., 5). 

369. Stewarts Corn Wilt. — Another bacterial disease, in 
this case caused by Pseudomonas Stewartii, has been reported 
as destroying whole fields of maize in the United States. 
Affected plants are said to wilt and dry up, but do not roll up 
as when they suffer from lack of moisture. Young plants die 
in a few days, but older plants may live for some time after the 
first attack {Bowman and Crossley, i). 

370. Yellow Foliage. — Yellowness of leaves points to an 
unhealthy condition of the plant. It need not necessarily 
indicate the presence of a parasitic disease, but is often caused 
by a wet, cold soil, or the lack of sufficient sunshine, either 
condition interfering with the proper nutrition of the plant. 

371. Chlorosis. — In Java the maize crop is said to be 
particularly subject to Chlorosis, i.e. absence of chlorophyll, 
which results in the development of white leaves. Cavers (i) 
notes that chloritic culture plants are easily obtained with 
maize, and that the condition is readily remedied by adding an 
iron salt to the culture fluid. 

372. Physiological Effect of Drought. — Drought usually 



X. 



4i6 MAIZE 

CHAP, causes the leaves of the maize plant to curl up their edgt 



X. 



folding, and to assume a bluish- or in extreme cases whitish- 
green tint. 

Weeds. 

Rich soils are often to be weeded.— Bacon. 

373. Weeds. — A weed is a plant growing spontaneously 
where it is not wanted. 

When newly-broken veld is used for maize, weeds are not 
very troublesome, and cleaning is then a comparatively small 
item in the cost of production. But in three years, or less, of 
continuous maize cultivation the land becomes foul and more 
time and labour are required to keep it clean. Cases occur 
where maize has been grown continuously for several years 
and where, owing to scarcity of labour, weeds have become 
such a pest that the yield is not more than one muid (200 lbs.) 
per acre. 

The weed question does not appeal to the farmer who con- 
trols such large areas that he can plough up new lands for 
maize, year after year, and abandon the old to grass. But 
the number of those who have no more suitable unbroken veld 
available for cropping is yearly increasing ; as the farms be- 
come divided into smaller holdings, and as it becomes necessary 
to crop the old lands, the weed problem is certain to become 
more acute. The farmer who has been used to the method of 
breaking new lands each year, already complains that under the 
changed conditions maize-growing is becoming unprofitable, and 
that as the new lands become exhausted South Africa will cease 
to be a maize-producing country. We do not agree with this 
pessimistic view ; in other countries maize is grown profitably 
on old lands, lands which have been for centuries under the 
plough, and the same can be done in South Africa ; it is only 
necessary to revise the methods to meet the changed conditions. 
In any ca.se maize requires cultivation to give the best returns, 
and the cultivation of the lands for the purpose of cleaning 
them of weeds will, in addition to destroying the weeds, greatly 
increase the maize crop (1i 307). 

374. Parasitic Weeds. — Weeds may be profitably dis- 
cussed under two heads. Parasitic and Non-parasitic weeds. 
Plant parasites in general are those which draw some, if not 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 417 

all, of their food materials directly from the plant on which CHAP, 
they grow, thus obliging the host to provide food for two, 
when it is constructed to feed only itself. Under this head 
come the smuts, which have already been discussed, as well as 
certain weeds such as the is-ona or witch-weed which are con- 
sidered later (IT 388). 

375. Non-parasitic Weeds, on the other hand, starve the 
young plants by robbing them of light and air, and indirectly of 
their provision of food and moisture. A farmer cannot profit- 
ably grow both weeds and maize on the same land at the same 
time ; in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred one or the other 
will suffer, and that one will be the maize, inasmuch as a weed 
is a weed because it is usually hardier than the crop that it 
infects. 

The principal non-parasitic weeds are of two sorts : — 

(i) Those which are Perennial, or continue from year to 

year by means of a persistent root^stock which keeps alive, 

though often dormant, through the winter. 

(2) The Annual wfeeds, or those which die in the winter 

and are reproduced again next year from seed scattered in the 

preceding autumn. 

376. Perennial Weeds. — From one point of view perennial 
weeds are the most difficult to eradicate, but as they can be 
dealt with during the dry winter months, when other agri- 
cultural operations are largely at a standstill, they are, in a 
way, more easily disposed of than annual weeds. 

The most pernicious perennial weeds are : Bermuda quick- 
grass [Cynodon Dactylon\ and uintjes {Cyperus esculentus and 
C. rotundus). Two others also threaten to become troublesome 
in South Africa, viz., bindweed [Convolvulus arvensis) and 
sorrel {Runiex Acetosella\ but up to the present time we have 
not met with them in the maize crops. Khaki-weed {Alternan- 
thera Achyrantha) and bachelors' ya\x\X.ox\'-,{Gomplirena globosa) 
appear from their habit less likely to become injurious. 

377. Annual Weeds. — The annual weeds grow, on the 
High-veld of South Africa, almost exclusively in the wet 
summer months. When the rains fall at sufficiently long 
intervals to allow the soil to dry out thoroughly, the weeds 
can be kept down with the horse-cultivator. It often happens, 
however, that the rains fall so continuously during the height 

27 



41 8 MAIZE 

CHAP, of the growing season, that the lands remain too soft for 



X 



cultivation, over a long period, and the weeds are apt to get 
ahead of the maize crop unless other methods of treatment 
are adopted. 

The principal annual weed-pests of the maize crop in South 
Africa are: mest-briede {Amarantiis paniculahis), black-jacks 
{Bidens pilosa and B. leucantha), the sweet-grasses {Chloris 
virgata and Panicuni Icevifoliuni), goosegrass {Eleusine indica), 
stink-blaad {Datura Stramonium and D. Tatula\ wild goose- 
berry {Physalis viinima), Mexican marigold {Tagetes minuta) 
and Nicandra physaloides. 

Many other annual weeds occur in the maize fields, such 
as rooinek {Zinnia pauciflora), burweed {Xanthium spinostim) 
and kaffir xnoXons {Citrullus vulgaris), but they are less trouble- 
some than those mentioned in the preceding paragraph. 

378. Volunteer Maize. — Volunteer maize plants may be 
considered weeds in the sense of our definition. They cross- 
pollinate plants of the main crop, thus producing " mixed," 
and consequently inferior, grain. When volunteer plants 
come up between the rows, they are usually removed by the 
cultivator; but it often happens that they come up in the 
rows themselves, and it is then more difficult to eradicate them. 
When it is remembered that a single maize tassel may produce 
from 3,000,000 up to 30,000,000 grains of pollen, that these 
pollen grains are so light that they may be carried by the wind 
for a distance of a quarter of a mile, and that it requires only 
a single grain of pollen to fertilize one grain of maize, it is 
readily seen that much damage may be done by a single 
volunteer plant. 

The appearance of volunteer maize is due to several causes, 
e.g. the planting of different breeds on the same land in suc- 
cessive years ; the dropping of ears or of loose grains on the 
land at harvest ; the dropping of undigested grain in the dung 
of animals working in the fields or pasturing on the stover. ^ 

379. How Weeds Spread. — The question sometimes arises 
as to how weeds get into the lands, and how they spread so 
rapidly in spite of cultivation. It is often found in the first 

' The Ohio Station found that 43 per cent of the dry maize grains which pass 
whole through the aUmentary tract of cows will germinate, but none of those 
which have been ensiled. 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 419 

season after breaking new veld that weeds appear which do CHAP, 
not grow in the unbroken veld, such, for example, as Mest- ■^• 
briede, Amarantus paniculatus. This- particular weed is 
greedily eaten by mules and other stock ; the seeds are hard 
and pass through the alimentary tract undigested, ready to 
germinate with the first favourable opportunity ; if the drop- 
pings of the mule or ox fall on land newly broken, the Amar- 
antus seeds become buried in the loose soil and a seedling 
soon follows the advent of favourable weather ; but if it falls 
on hard, unbroken veld, the probability is that the Amarantus 
seed will be picked up by a seed-eating bird ; or it may lie on 
the hard ground, sprout with the rains, and fail to grow into a 
fully-developed plant because the soil is too hard for the roots 
to penetrate quickly, and in the meantime the grass and other 
veld plants choke it. 

The seeds of other weeds, such as the sweet-grass {Cliloris 
virgata), are carried by the wind and scattered broadcast over 
the veld ; they do not grow readily in the unbroken veld be- 
cause the soil is too hard. But they will grow readily in loose, 
washed soil deposited along the roadsides, and soon develop 
seed ready to be blown across to any newly-ploughed lands in 
the vicinity. A few plants along a roadside will soon supply 
enough seed to cover whole fields. 

Blackjacks and burweed are carried on the legs of the 
mules and oxen which plough and work the land, or which are 
turned into the waste lands to eat down the stalks. These 
animals also spread weeds such as stink-blaad {Datura), the 
seeds of which pass through their alimentary tracts undigested. 

A South African farmer was once heard to remark that he 
would never turn cattle into his lands to eat his maize stalks 
because they would spread the seeds of weeds in their drop- 
pings. He might with as much reason argue that he would 
not use a gun because people have been killed through accidents 
with guns. Both guns and dung are necessary ; even the weeds 
brought in by the dung are valuable if turned into manure. 

Perennial weeds, such as quick-grass {Cynodon Dactylon) and 
uintjes {Cyperus, spp.), are spread from one field to another by 
the plough, cultivator, or harrow, if these implements are not 
properly cleaned before they are transported from a weedy part 
of the farm to clean lands. 

27* 



420 MAIZE 

CHAP. 380. Plant Less Maize and Produce More. — The solution 

of the weed problem lies in planting only so much maize as can 
be well cultivated. A small acreage well cultivated gives 
better returns than a large area allowed to become weedy. 
In maize-growing it is the higJi average yield per acre which 
pays ; a low yield per acre makes an unprofitable crop. 
Unless one can get a high average yield the cost of production 
takes too much out of the cash returns ; then the farmer finds 
that "maize-growing does not pay". 

381. Cultivation. — The South African farmer complains 
that it costs too much to keep the lands well cultivated and 
clean. The American maize-grower cultivates thoroughly 
though he has to pay more for his labour, yet he finds it 
profitable ; the secret of this is the higher yield per acre 
which he obtains through clean cultivation. The average 
South African farmer says that he cannot get enough labour 
for clean cultivation ; the American has less labour, and 
therefore plants only 90 or 100 acres to the South African's 
300 or 400. Those successful South African farmers who 
produce 1 5 to 20 muids per acre, do so by dint of good 
cultivation ; some give as many as eight cultivations in 
a season. Those who complain of having too little labour 
for more than four cultivations could give eight by halving 
their acreage. Where there is a small acreage, check-rowing 
may be practised ; this allows the land to be cross-cultivated 
and facilitates clean cultivation. 

The initial costs of ploughing, disking, harrowing, and 
cultivating an acre of ground are the .same, whether the resulting 
crop is light or heavy; so that every additional 100 lbs. of 
maize from that acre means so much extra profit, or, in other 
words, reduces the cost of production per bag. 

382. Effect of Clean Cultivation of the Maize Crop. — To 
demonstrate the value of cultivating the maize crop and keep- 
ing it free from weeds, an experiment was carried out at the 
Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, in 1905-6, on a piece 
of good black vlei land, which was weedy with sweet-grass, wild 
gooseberries, and mest-briede Transvaal Yellow flint and 
Hickory King dent were used. The land was treated uniformly 
before planting and all the seed was planted on the same day ; no 
manure was given in either case. No cultivation was done on 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 42 T 

one half of the plot, which was about one-eighth of an acre in size CHAP, 
(70 X I 50 feet) ; the other iialf was cultivated and cleaned of 
weeds three times during the period of growth. 

The increase in yield on the cleaned plot was marked ; the 
difference in total weight of stalks as cut was 757 per cent. 
In weight of cobs it was 57 per cent with the Transvaal Yellow 
flint and 70 per cent with Hickory King} 

383. Harrowing. — The cost of cultivation can be greatly 
reduced by the liberal use of the harrow both before and after 
planting, until such time as the maize plants are too large for 
the harrow. To be effective, the harrowing must be done as 
soon as a new crop of weed-seedlings appears, and while these 
are .so small that the harrow will break their roots instead of 
merely passing over the weed.s. 

384. Fallowing. — In localities where the soil is apt to re- 
main so wet, for a long period, that it is impossible to get on to 
it with the cultivators until the weeds are injuring the crop, 
some other method of treatment must be adopted, A season's 
crop of weeds comes from the seeds lying within the first few 
inches of soil. Those which lie deeper remain dormant till 
brought to the surface by the plough. It is obvious, therefore, 
that if all the surface weeds are killed, and no fresh crop of 
seeds is brought up from below by frequent ploughing, the cost 
of cleaning may be materially reduced. The principal weeds 
of the Maize-belt grow mostly in the summer, which facilitates 
the cleaning of lands allowed to Wq fallow for a summer ; during 
this time two or three crops of weeds are ploughed in or di.sked 
in, as fast as they come up, and before they go to seed. Weeds 
ploughed in in this way form a manure, adding humus to the 
soil. The resting of the land after two or three seasons' 
cropping with maize is also advantageous ; land cannot be 
cropped continuously with the same crop, unless methods are 
practised which will replace some of the ingredients removed 
from the .soil by that crop ; fallowing and ploughing-in the 
weeds helps to renovate the soil (H 3 1 o). 

385. Rotation of Crops for Cleaning Purposes. — A suitable 
rotation of crops assists in keeping the land clean (H 311); 
another crop, such as vetches, black medik, or teff, may be 
grown at a different season, or sown later than the maize crop, 

1 T.A.J., Vol. V, No. 18, p. 450, January, 1907. 



422 MAIZE 

CHAP, and thus allow the land to be harrowed free of those kinds of 
^- weeds which are not affected by winter tillage. One of the 
advantages of a catch crop like teff is that it is a short-season 
crop, which allows the farmer time for a certain amount of 
summer fallowing, while it also enables him to get some cash 
return the same season, for his labour. Teff, velvet beans 
and some other crops are useful as " smother-crops " ; if sown 
thickly they will sometimes clean the land by choking-out a crop 
of such weeds as grow more slowly than the smother-crop. 

Mangels and potatoes are useful " cleaning crops " for maize, 
as the cultivation necessary for these crops greatly reduces the 
stock of weeds stored in the land. Cabbages would have the 
same effect, but it is said that a cabbage crop greatly reduces 
the subsequent crop of maize, possibly because of the poisonous 
nature of the decomposition products of the cabbage stem and 
roots. 

386. The Best Time to Kill Weeds. — " The best time to kill 
weeds is just as the seeds are germinating, or while they are 
yet very small. When this is done, but little moisture is lost 
through them, and they render but little plant food insoluble. 
In the thorough and early preparation of the seed-bed many 
weeds are destroyed by killing them just as they are coming 
up. So, too, in the case of a grain field which is rolled after 
being seeded, and is then harrowed ; the rolling hastens the 
germination of the weed seeds, and the harrowing then throws 
them out into a dry soil, which kills them. If such a field is 
again harrowed just after the grain is up, a second crop of 
weeds may be destroyed, and the yield made greater as a con- 
sequence. In the case of potatoes and maize it is very easy 
to destroy at least two crops of weeds before the maize or 
potatoes are large enough to cultivate, by harrowing before 
and just after the plants are up. This is very important, 
because it not only saves plant food for the crop, but it can 
be done so much more cheaply and rapidly with the broad 
light harrows and weeders than it can later with the cultivator " 
{King, I). 

387. Weed Seeds do not all Genninate at once. — " It must 
be remembered in handling soils to kill weeds that the seeds 
do not all germinate at once. The first harrowing which is 
done to kill weeds may itself bring up from below seeds which 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 423 

were too deep in the ground to grow, or it may cover some chap. 
seeds which were lying upon or too close to the surface to ^• 
germinate, hence frequent cultivations for hoed crops are 
needful " {King, i). 

388. Is-ona, Witch-weed, or Rooibloem. — The is-ona, witch- 
weed, or rooibloem, Striga liitea Lour. (Figs. 160 and 161), 




Fig. 160. — Rooibloem, Striga liitea Lour. 

is one of the most troublesome pests with which the South 
African maize-grower has to deal. It is a small, branching, 
herbaceous plant, 6 to 9 inches high, bearing green leaves and 
bright scarlet and yellow flowers, and is a parasite on the ivots 
of the maize plant, to which it is very destructive. It also 
grows on the roots of kaffir corn, sorghum, and sugar-cane, and 
has recently been found apparently attacking teff-grass and 
the pea-nut plant. The seeds are extremely small and light, 



424 MAIZE 

CHAP, and are easily carried by the wind, lilown awa)' in the (hist, or 
carried by flood-waters. 

They may also be carried on seed-maize, especially if it is 
sent from place to place on the cob. In 191 2 the writer 
got an ear of Chester County from a locality where is-ona 
occurs, and planted a dozen grains in his garden ; the ear 
itself was taken into the garden and the grain was shelled off 
on the spot where it was planted ; in the middle of January, 
following, there was a single plant of Striga lutea in flower at 
the foot of one of the plants of Chester County. This is the 
eighth consecutive year in which maize has been grown in 
this garden, and is-ona has never appeared there before. 

Is-ona is known by several other names, e.g. soani, in 
Natal (see Anon.., 2); moloane, i.e. "fire-burner," by the 
Basutos of the Rustenburg District, Transvaal ; fire- weed ; 
rooibloemetje ; rooi-bosje ; mielie-gift ; mielie-poison ; the 
Zulu name is-ona indicates that the weed " bewitches " the 
maize, and supplies the English equivalent by which it is 
known {Fuller., 2). 

Is-ona is particularly abundant in the warmer parts of the 
country, e.g. in Zululand, parts of Natal, and the Bush-veld 
of the Transvaal. It is occasionally met with on the High- 
veld Plateau, but does not appear to be really troublesome at 
the higher altitudes. It would not be wise to conclude, how- 
ever, that the High-veld is immune; possibly it is only a case 
of time before it will be established there, and it will be well 
to take every precaution not to introduce it. 

On the Springbok Flats, Waterberg District, Transvaal, 
there are five leading types of agricultural soil: (i) bright 
red, (2) grey sandy loam, (3) chocolate, (4) black turf, (5) 
black loam. It is stated by local farmers that is-ona does 
not thrive on the first two of these ; on the other three it is 
very troublesome, but does more damage on the chocolate 
than on the black turf. 

The first explanation of the parasitic nature of this pest 
appears to have been given by Mr. Claude Fuller (2) as early 
as 1900. He illustrated the mode of attack and the haustoria 
of the parasite, and showed that the seeds only germinate 
when a growing root of their host-plant approaches closely to 
them as they lie in the soil. Also that they are endowed with 



DISEASES AND PESTS OE THE MAIZE CROP 425 



threat loiii^evity, remaiiiint^- dormant in the soil probably six CHAP, 
or more )-ears, until the root of a suitable host-plant approaches ^• 



Orouni/ Line. 




Fig. 161.— Rooibloem, Strlga Intea Lour. (Drawn from plate by Mr. Claude 
Fuller, in first report of Government Entomologist of Natal.) 

them. Investigations have recently been conducted by Prof. 
Pearson (i and 2) which confirm F'uller's earlier observations. 



426 MAIZE 

CHAP. The anatomy, and the structure and development of the 

haustorium, o{ Striga lutea Lour., have recently been worked 
out by Miss Edith L. Stephens {Stephens, i and 2). 

389. Remedies for Is-ona. — Discussing this pest in 1904 
{Burtt-Davy, i) the writer recommended that the farmer's 
main efforts should be directed towards preventing the seeding 
of the is-ona plants. "This can be done by hoeing them out 
wherever they are seen, before they form seed, and by keeping 
those places constantly cultivated so that the new growth 
may be killed before it has time to develop. If carried out 
thoroughly and persistently, this method cannot fail to be 
successful in the end. If, however, a single crop of the weed 
is allowed to scatter seed, all the previous work will be lost." 

F"urther investigation of the life-history of this pest has 
emphasized the importance of this point. 

390. Early Planting. — Early planting, if sufficiently early, 
also acts as a check, for in this way the maize plants become 
well established before the witch-weed has had time to injure 
them. In the Transvaal Bush-veld the is-ona plant rarely 
appears above ground until the end of January or the begin- 
ning of February. Unfortunately, however, this treatment is 
not always possible as it depends largely on the favourable 
nature of the season, and it is not recommended as a final 
remedy. In the Transvaal Bush-veld the rains usually fall 
too late to make it practicable {ibid.). 

391. Manuring. — Stimulating the rapid growth of the 
young maize plant with fertilizers has a beneficial effect on the 
crop ; but where the soil is full of is-ona seed it is not likely 
that there will be a good maize crop in any case, and it will 
be a waste of money to put manure upon such land. Where 
is-ona has not, however, taken a strong hold, heavy manuring 
with good kraal-manure or steamed bone-flour is likely to be 
beneficial, as it will produce a stronger growth of the maize 
plants, and may enable them to develop ears while supporting 
the parasite as well. But this is only a temporary expedient, 
making final eradication still more difficult and more remote, 
for it does not prevent the ground becoming more and more 
foul with the pest, and more and more heavily charged with 
its seeds {ibid.). 

392. Clear the Land of Is-ona Seed already there. — On 



DISEASES AND PESTS OE THE MAIZE CROP 427 

land which has become infested with is-ona seed, attention CHAP, 
should also be directed towards clearing the land of the seed ^• 
already there. Attempts have been made to starve out the 
rooibloem by short rotations (one or two years) with leguminose 
or other crops; these attempts failed to secure the desired 
result, but demonstrated that the is-ona seed could remain 
dormant five or six years, and that it would be necessary to 
clean the land of is-ona seed before maize could again be 
grown successfully. Two methods of treatment suggest them- 
selves, and are recommended by Pearson (2) — burning and 
the use of trap crops, (i) Burning: immediately after harvest 
the rubbish, weeds, and maize roots should be gathered into 
large heaps and burned on the places ivhere the is-ona has grown. 
(2) Trap-crops : infected areas may be sown down to kaffir 
corn for silage or fodder ; it is es^?ential, however, that the crop 
be cut, and the roots ploughed in, before the is-ona flowers, 
otherwise the kaffir corn will only tend to propagate the pest. 

393. Buy Seed-maize from Clean Farms. — As previously 
noted (IT 388) is-ona seed may be carried on an ear of maize 
from an infected to a clean farm. There is less likelihood of 
its being carried with shelled maize which has been machine- 
cleaned, but it would be safer not to take unnecessary risks 
and to refuse to buy any seed from infected farms. 

For his own sake the farmer should not allow the harvested 
maize ears to be laid on infected land, as they may carry the 
is-ona seed to clean lands. 

Animal Pests of the Maize Crop. 

394. The Chacma Baboon. — In some districts of South 
Africa, especially where rocky kopjes and kranses abound, 
the common Chacma baboon, Papio {Chceropithecus) porcarius 
(Bodd.), Fig. 162, sometimes does considerable damage to 
the ripening maize crop ; " if a herd once takes to a mielie 
field it will not leave off its daily visits until every cob is 
destroyed ". The general experience, however, is that baboons 
retreat before the advance of civilization ; as closer settlement 
takes place, and vacant farms become occupied, the pest 
becomes less troublesome. On the open High-veld plateau 
one does not hear of damage done by baboons. 

The baboon is a wily animal, most difficult to capture ; 



428 



.\fAlZF. 



CHAP, various plans ha\'e been suggested by writers to the Ai^ricnit/ira/ 
Journals of the several South African Provinces, but nc^ie of 
them appears to have given uniformly satisfactory results. To 
quote the late Dr. J. W. B. Gunning, Director of the Transvaal 
Museum : — ^ 

" They live in troops of ten, fifty, seventy, or even more, 
and their system of spying, and putting out sentries on the 
highest cliffs would compare favourably with that of any 
European army. 




F"iG. 162. — Chacma baboon, Cheer opithecus porcartus (Bodd.). (From Trans- 
vaal Agricultural jfonrnal.) 

" I have tried poison in many ways. Mealies soaked in an 
arsenical solution and afterwards sun-dried so as to have the 
aspect of the original size of the corn, and thrown broadcast 
in places daily frequented by a troop of baboons, were left un- 
touched. Whether the poison was detected and therefore the 
mealies discarded, or whether the baboons had noticed the 
human beings near by and therefore did not return to these 
places for some days, I cannot say ; at any rate the mealies 
were not picked up and no damage done to the baboons. .An 



1 T.A.y., Vol. 11, pp. 52.S-31, Plate CXXIII. 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 429 

old remedy advocated by the early settlers was to make a hole CHAP. 
in a pumpkin just big enough to let the empty baboon hand ^• 
through ; the baboon would then come and put his hand 
through the hole, fill it with pumpkin seed and would not be 
able to get his full hand back, nor would he think of letting 
the seeds go in order to withdraw his empty hand, and there- 
fore would be caught. I can only say that I have never been 
able to catch any baboons in this or any other traps ; I have 
found pumpkins with holes much wider than those made by 
myself, but the inside of the pumpkin had been eaten or carried 
off by the intruders. 

" In captivity I have tried in vain to destroy baboons with 
strychnine. I remember one old dangerous specimen which I 
tried to poison with about fifteen grains of pure strychnine, 
hidden in a banana. The banana was eaten— almost swallowed 
whole without biting — in my presence and the baboon did not 
show the slightest trace of indisposition. 1 have made similar 
attempts two or three times with the same negative results. 
The animals had simply to be shot. 

" Neither is it an easy task to approach a troop of baboons 
with a rifle, and even if one should be fortunate enough to kill 
one sentry by a well-directed and lucky shot, the troop will 
escape unharmed, and smarter sentries will be put out next 
time." 

He concludes, however, that the rifle is the only means of 
destruction ; the fight must be kept up continuously for a long 
time, before an old-established troop will be permanently 
driven away from its accustomed haunts. He advises the 
organization of large " drives," at frequent intervals, to surround 
the favourite haunts of a troop and exterminate it. 

Lyddekker in his book, On Mountain Excursions, quotes 
Mrs. Martin (in Home Life on an Ostrich Farm) : — 

" No vegetable poison has the slightest effect on the baboon's 
iron constitution ; and, indeed, if there exists any poison at all 
capable of killing him, it is quite certain that, with his superior 
intelligence, he would be far too artful to take it ; and when the 
fiat for his destruction has gone forth, a well-organized attack 
has to be made on him with dogs and guns. He can show 
fight, too, and the dogs must be well trained and have the 
safety of numbers to enable them to face him ; for in fighting 
he has the immense advantage of hands, with which he seizes 
a dog and holds him fast, while he inflicts a fetal bite through 



43° MAIZE 

CHAP, the loins. Indeed, for either dog or man, coming to close 



X. 



quarters with Adonis (as the chacma is ironically called by the 
Boers) is no trifling matter." 

Mr. D. E. Hutchins, late Conservator of Forests, Cape 
Town, notes ^ that some years ago a troop of baboons was 
doing a good deal of damage in the Government timber planta- 
tions at Tokai, near Cape Town, by scratching up the pine 
seed as fast as it was sown. On a certain day a quantity of 
pine seed, poisoned with strychnine, was left within their reach, 
and the next morning seven baboons were found dead near a 
mountain stream ; after this the band forsook the pine seed for 
a time. Later they returned, but the seeds meantime had 
developed into seedlings which were left unharmed by the 
baboons. Mr. Hutchins concludes, however, that baboons 
" are so intelligent that I am doubtful whether it would be 
possible to destroy a whole troop with poison ; after one or 
two deaths they would either forsake the locality or learn to 
avoid the poison ". 

Mr. P. Thomsen ^ makes this suggestion for ridding a farm 
of baboons : — 

Near the drinking or sleeping places of the baboons sow a 
small patch of maize. Before the ears appear, begin scatter- 
ing in the same neighbourhood a little maize grain at intervals 
of a day or two. When the baboons come to inspect the grow- 
ing maize they will find the grain on the ground and eat it. 
After a time begin putting out a {^vi ordinary sweets with the 
maize grains, and when these have been found to disappear 
make bonbons in the following manner: Boil some yellow 
sugar, as for ordinary sweets, and drop it in lumps on a stone slab 
to cool. When these have been eaten by the baboons, make 
more in the same way but add to the sugar, while it is still 
soft in the pan, some glass which has been well cleaned and 
then pounded fine. Drop this mixture, as before, on a slab to 
cool. Feed regularly for some time with these glass and sugar 
sweets, and gradually the baboons will cease to come to the 
field — the glass is sure to kill them. 

Another method recommended ^ is to put out near the 
haunts of the baboons a number of little heaps of grain or 
pumpkin seed, each with a detonator or dynamite cap in it. 

1 T.A.y., Vol. Ill, p. 385. 2 T.A.J. , Vol. Ill, p. 188. 

■" Mr. W. R. Life, of Rustenburg, Transvaal, in the V.A.J, 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 431 

It is said that the inquisitiveness of the baboon will lead him CHAP 
to pick at or bite this bright object and so bring about his own ^• 
destruction. The caps may also be laid on the twigs of wild 
fruit trees. It is as well to warn the natives of the nature of 
these attractive looking things. 

From another source ^ we get this idea for the u.se of 
arsenic : — 

Cut the tops nearly off some prickly pear fruits, take out 
part of the seeds, put a small quantity of arsenic in their place, 
and close down the lid formed by the top of the fruit. Put 
these near a " krans " or other place where the baboons sleep, 
taking care to keep away all stock (including goats) as long as 
any of these poisoned fruits are left. 

395. Monkeys. — Where bush-land on the sub-tropical 
coast-belt of South Africa is cleared for agriculture, the com- 
mon monkey, Cercopithecus pygerythrus Cuv., is a source of 
much annoyance and loss, raiding the maize fields unless the 
latter are constantly guarded ; in some places piccanins are 
regularly employed for this purpose. Doubtless as more ex- 
tensive bush-clearings are made on the coast the number of 
monkeys will be reduced ; but under existing conditions the 
coast-belt is considered less suitable for maize-growing than 
the midlands. 

An effective method of poisoning is to boil arsenic with 
maize, mix it with sugar and put the mixture in places fre- 
quented by the monkeys. It is reported - that in this way 
one man killed fifty-five at one time. 

396. Hares. — The jumping hare or spring-haas, Pedetes 
caffer(¥'\g. 163), hares, Lepus capensis a.nd L. ochropus, and other 
rodents occasionally damage the maize crop, digging out the 
young plants in spring when green food is scarce, and eating 
the ears of low-cobbing breeds in the autumn. The jumping 
hare is usually shot at night by the aid of a lantern which at- 
tracts the attention of the animal when out feeding. Various 
other methods for ridding the farms of this pest have been 
recommended as follows : — 

1 Mr. G. L. S. Holland, in T.A.J., Vol. HI, p. 386, 
2 Mr, F. Oosthuizen, in U.A.J. 



432 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
X. 



(ij Parboil some ears of green or ripe maize, break them 
into three or four pieces, slit down a row of the grains cutting 
fairly deep, widen out the slit a little, fill the cut with a small 
quantity of strychnine and squeeze the edges together again 
to prevent the strychnine from falling out. Lay the poisoned 
bait around the haunts of the jumping hares. ^ 

(2) Scatter about the field tiny cakes, about a cubic centi- 
metre in size, made of pollard or some attractive meal in which 




Fig. 103. — Jumping hare or spring-haas, Pcdctes caffcr. (Photograph from 
specimen in Cambridge University Museum of Zoology.) 

has been mixed yellow phosphorus dissolved in carbon bisul- 
phide (the cakes should not be too wet). Five hundred rab- 
bits were reported killed at one time by this method."- 

(3) A farmer ^ of the Orange Free State says that maize- 
grain cooked with arsenic is effective, but that the bait must be 
put out before the young maize plants come up, otherwise the 
hares will leave the grain in favour of the fresh green shoots. 

(4) The same farmer has had great success in driving off 
the hares by watching carefully for the first signs of digging 



' Mr. J. J. Keely, of Mosita, in the U.A.J., January and March, 1912. 

-Mr. J. van S. Wansbrough, of Holpan, Marico. Transvaal. 

■'Mr. N. A. Oberholzer, of Marseilles, Orange Free State, 23 Nov., 191 

u.A.y. 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 433 

for the young maize shoots. He harrows the land immediately CHAP, 
and when the hares find that the ground has been disturbed ^• 
they do not return. 

(5) Dissolve as much wolf-poison as can be held on the 
point of a knife, in a little boiling water, together with a large 
spoonful of sugar, stir into this a large cup of crushed maize 
and distribute the mixture in the fields.^ 

(6) To one dessertspoonful of Government red poison add 
three-quarters of a gallon of maize-grain, and make up to one 
gallon with water. Let it stand for twenty-four hours, then 
strew the mixture in the field, where the animals are likely to 
find it.- 

397. The Reed-rat. — In Swaziland, Zululand, and other 
parts of the north-eastern region of South Africa, considerable 
damage has been done to growing maize by the reed-rat, 
Thryononiys swinderenianus Temm. It does not appear to be 
frequent in the Transvaal, but specimens are occasionally met 
with, and Dr. Gunning reports that whereas it was formerly 
scarce it now appears to be on the increase. The reed-rat is a 
large and destructive rodent ; in November, 1910, a male reed- 
rat was killed on the farm " Busby," Lake Chrissie Ward, 
Ermelo District, weighing 1 1 lb., and measuring 20 inches in 
length to the root of the tail, and 19 inches in circumference. 
The reed-rat is hunted with dogs. 

398. The Porcupine or Yster-vark. — The porcupine, //;'j-/rz}tr 
afriae-australis, does some damage to the maize crop of the 
Bush-veld, as it likes the young tender ears. On the High- 
veld there is no complaint of loss from this cause. 

399. Birds. — Some damage is usually done to the young 
newly-planted crop through the depredations of birds, among 
which are the African rook or zwarte kraai, Heterocorax capensis 
(Licht), and the blue crane or blaauwe kraanvogel, Anthro- 

poides paradisea .(Licht), which dig up whole rows of grain, 
and appear to be the worst offenders. 

It is said that the rook is a great evil-doer; "he delights 
in continually stealing maize, and does not, apparently, render 
any useful services. . . . The guinea-fowl \_Nuinidia coronata\ 
and blue cranes or kraanvogel \Anthropoides paradisea {lJ\cik\.t^, 

^ Mr. W. L. de Wilde, Heidelberg, Cape Province, 4 Dec, 1911. 
2 Mr. A. du Plessis, of De Aar, Cape Province. 
28 



454 



MAIZE 



CHAP, though undoubtedly useful at times as destroyers of locusts 
^- and other insects, have got into the way of plundering maize 
and other crops." ^ 

A farmer- of the Cape Province states that the crows dig up 
his mielies wholesale, as fast as the young plants appear above 
the ground. He tried shooting the crows and also employed 
small boys to scare them away, but while these methods were 

fairly successful after 
sunrise, the birds visited 
the fields before sunrise 
or just after daybreak, 
and with about lOO 
acres of maize to watch, 
it proved impossible to 
keep them on the wing. 
He tried with great 
success the use of ar- 
senic,^ in the following 
manner: An ordinary 
paraffin tin was half 
filled with maize which 
was boiled until the 
grains burst open; to 
this was added half a 
pound of the arsenic ; 
the maize was well 
stirred until all the 
arsenic was absorbed, 
and was then strewn 
about the field. 

The s p u r w i n g 

goose, sporen gans, or 

wilde makauw, Plec- 

tropterus gambensis 
Fig. 164. — Maize ear damaged by small birds. ,t x • r^ 

^ ^ (L.), is often seen on 

the fields of young maize in early spring, but although the 
writer has frequently watched he has never detected it digging 
up the grain or pulling out the young plants. 

' Senator H. G. Stuart, of Elim, Winberg, Orange Free State, in T.A.J., 
Vol. Ill, p. 187. 

- Mr. Ben. Norton, Berlin, Cape Province, in U.A.J. 

•■•As specially stocked by South African chemists, at 1/6 per lb., for bird- 
killing. 




DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 435 
Some damage is done at times to maize standing in the CHAP. 



field to dry off before harvest, by birds which pick out the 
grains at the ends of ears (Fig. 164) imperfectly covered by 
the sheath, and especially of ears standing upright on the stalk. 
Ears so damaged are more liable to injury from moisture 
which penetrates the end of the ear where the sheaths have 
been torn off. One remedy is to breed strains of maize 
having well-developed sheaths, and ears which hang down on 
the stem when ripe ; selection of the very longest ears for seed 
purposes is apt to result in badly covered ears. 

The birds which do most damage in this way are the 
Spermestinae or bishop-birds, especially the southern pink- 
billed weaver or quela weaver, Quelea sanguinirostris lathami 
(A. Sm.), the red bishop-bird or roode kaffervink, Pyroinelana 
oryx (L.), and the sakkaboola, long-tailed widovvbird or flap, 
Diatropm'a procne (Bodd.). 

In many parts of the country the natives erect in the 
fields wooden platforms thatched with grass, or in the treeless 
High- veld, mounds of turf sods, from which stones or lumps 
of earth are thrown with switches ; they also adopt the old 
European country methods of beating empty tins and shouting 
to scare away the birds. 

Insect Pests. 

400. Insect Pests of the Maize Crop. — It is often stated 
that South Africa is peculiarly cursed with plagues, especially 
insect pests. On the other hand it requires only a glance at 
American literature on the subject to demonstrate that South 
Africa is more favoured than this great maize-producing 
country in its comparative freedom from insect pests. Hunt 
(l) says that there are 214 species of insects known to be 
injurious to the maize plant in the United States ; this gives 
some idea of the difficulties with which other maize-growers 
have to contend as compared with the few South African 
pests described below. In addition to the cutworms, 
ear-worms, and stalk-borers with which we have to contend, 
the American farmer has to fight wireworms, white grubs, 
corn-root worms, corn-root web-worms, seed-corn maggots, 
click-beetles, flea-beetles, army worms, the corn-root louse, 
28* 



X. 



436 MAIZE 

CHAP, corn bill-bugs, and the chinch-buir, none of which occur 

X 

in South Africa. 

The insect pests of maize appear to multiply in greater 
numbers as the acreage under crop is increased. Some 
farmers, accustomed to the easy production of good crops of 
maize before maize pests were as troublesome as they now are, 
have been inclined to abandon the crop in favour of some- 
thing else which they hope may be produced more easily. 
Speaking generally, the man who cultivates his land well and 
at the proper time, and who adopts ordinary methods of 
precaution, is not seriously troubled by insect pests, and this 
fact should be borne in mind by those who are inclined to be 
discouraged. 

The most troublesome pests of the maize plant in South 
Africa are: (i) the cutworms, larvse of several species of 
moth (Agrotis) ; (2) the stalk-borer, top-grub, or tassel-worm, 
the larva of the moth Sesamia fusca Hampson ; (3) the striped 
beard-grub or ear-worm, the larva of the moth Heliothis armi- 
ger Hubn. ; (4) the maize cricket, which feeds on the young 
silks ; (5) locusts {Acridid(B) ; and (6) the tok-tokje {Psavi- 
modes Reichei S.). All of these attack the growing plant. 

401. Methods of Combating Insect Pests of the Mair^e Crop. 
— The maize crop appears to suffer most from insect attack 
either when it is grown on newly broken veld, which has for 
a long period lain in grass or weeds, or when it has been grown 
on the same land for several years in succession and has there- 
fore become weedy. 

Some of the weeds of the veld and of maize fields are the 
partial host-plants of certain insects which also live upon the 
maize plant. These weeds therefore serve to carry over 
the pest from one crop of maize to another. By preventing 
the growth of the weeds we interfere with the life-cycle of the 
insect ; hence the most effective preventives against such insect 
attack are short and systematic rotation of crops, together with 
clean culture of the maize fields and of the surrounding land. 

Where the land is neither in grass nor maize for more than 
two years in succession, the attacks of insects are comparatively 
limited, except perhaps in the case of certain migratory ones 
such as locusts, whose increase in numbers has been brought 
about by special conditions. 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 437 

402. Cutworms, Agrotis spp. — Cutworms are among the CHAP, 
most troublesome pests with which maize-growers have to deal, ^' 
They are largely responsible for the relatively poor yields ob- 
tained, because they destroy so many young maize plants, thus 
thinning the stand. They are particularly destructive to early 
planted maize ; to delay planting in order to avoid them may 
seriously shorten the season and increase the risk of loss from 

frost before the crop is mature. The following notes have 
been kindly furnished by Mr. C. W. Mally, Government Ento- 
mologist, Cape Province, who informs the writer that much work 
has yet to be done on the systematic entomology and life- 
histories of these insects, of which there are probably six or seven 
species in South Africa. 

Cutworms vary in colour ; some are green to yellowish, 
while many are of a dirty greyish or light-brown colour. They 
are smooth (without hairs or spines) and greasy looking, often 
similar in colour to the soil in which they spend the day. 
Some feed day and night, but others rest during the day just 
below the surface of the soil or under logs, stones, bags, bark, 
or rubbish, and come out to feed at night. They feed for 
about two weeks before pupating, and remain in the ground 
in the pupal state for ten to fifteen days in warm weather, 
or longer in the cold season. The female moth which emerges 
from the chrysalis (" pupa "), flies about at dusk and lays eggs 
on any suitable weed or plant. The eggs hatch out in a few 
days and the young caterpillars at once begin to feed on any 
green thing accessible to them. A life-cycle may thus be 
completed in about six weeks, or longer in a cold season. 
There are at least two broods of cutworms in a season, but 
how many more is not yet known. 

403. Remedies for Cutworms.— K large number of cutworm 
eggs may be destroyed by keeping the land clean of weeds, 
and by the winter burning of, or deep ploughing-under of, 
such haulms of harvested crops as are not eaten off by stock. 
Where the cutworms are bad, Mr. Mally has found the use of 
poisoned bait to be effective. This is prepared by dipping 
bundles of green-stuff into a strong mixture of Paris green 
(i oz. to a bucket of water) or sprinkling them with a mixture 
made according to the following recipe : — 



CHAP 



438 MAIZE 

Arsenite of soda i lb. 

X. Treacle or brown sugar ...... 8 lbs. 

Water 10 gals. 

Dissolve the arsenite of soda and the treacle or sugar 
in the water. 

Mr. Mally describes his method as follows : — 

By cutting up any available green-stuff (lucerne, barley, 
oat-forage, cabbage, rape, young succulent weeds, etc.) into 
small bits, say half an inch in length, it can be moistened with 
the poisoned sweet and then scattered broadcast over the fields. 
If distributed evenly, and at frequent intervals, the cutworms 
are practically certain to find it before they find the growing 
crop. Their fondness for sweets induces the caterpillars to fully 
engorge themselves on the bait, a fact which makes their de- 
struction certain. There is also no danger to stock, for the 
pieces of bait are so small that nothing but poultry can pick 
them up, and it is not likely that even they will get enough 
to injure them. But, as a precaution, poultry should be kept 
from the lands where the bait has been spread. Care should 
be taken not to make the bait too wet or it will not scatter 
well when broadcast. For the best results the bait should be 
distributed a few days after the ground has been ploughed^ and all 
green succulent vegetation has been destroyed. The cutworms 
that are not crushed in ploughing will then be on the surface 
again, and on account of their long fast, practically all of them 
will be prowling around in search of food. In this way one 
application will probably be sufficient. If injury is noticed 
after the young maize plants appear, the application should 
be repeated. 

Where infestation of a crop takes place from outside 
stretches of unploughed veld, Mr. C. French, Jr., Assistant 
Government Entomologist, Victoria, recommends {French, i) 
running a flock of sheep in the infested paddock adjoining the 
crop, as the constant walking about of the sheep will destroy 
the cutworms. 

Autumn and winter ploughing has some reducing effect by 
disturbing and exposing the hibernating larvse to the weather 
and the attacks of insectivorous birds, and by destroying the 
food-plants on which they might feed in spring. 

404. The Mahe Stalk-borer. — The maize stalk-borer is 
variously known as the mielie stalk-borer, mielie grub, top- 
worm, or top-grub, and tassel- worm, and is often also called 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 439 




CHAP. 
X. 



Fig 165.— Maize stalk-borer, S^sawm /(/sea Hampson. (From coloured plate by 
McManus, illustrating article by C. W. Mally in Cape Agricultural Journal.) 



440 MAIZE 

CHAP, cutworm. Mr. Mally finds that two distinct insects with 
similar habits are known by the name stalk-borer, one of 
which is the larva of the moth Sesamia fusca Hampson (Fig. 
165) which was ably described by Mr. Mally and beautifully 
illustrated by Mr. McManus, in the Cape Agricultural Journal, 
August, 1905, pages 159-68. This pest is well known to all 
South African maize-growers, and is responsible for the loss of 
anywhere from 25 to over 50 per cent of the maize crop, ac- 
cording to estimates made by Mr. Mally and Mr. Claude Fuller. 

According to Mr. Mally the first evidence of the presence 
of the borers is the withering of the top of the young plant, 
which turns a brownish-red colour, as if scorched, due to the 
fact that the centre or " heart " has been eaten away. Although 
the centre of the plant has been destroyed, the outer leaves and 
roots do not always perish, but make an effort to recover. The 
leaves may become somewhat darker than in surrounding plants 
and in some cases "suckers" are thrown out later, so that in 
time the plant fills its place in the field. All such plants must 
be counted as loss, for they seldom or never produce ears ; their 
only value is for ensiling or for feeding to stock as green fodder. 
The second brood of stalk-borers does not exert such a decided 
influence, because the plant is then strong enough to resist the 
attack, for the burrows of the insect (Fig. 165, 3) are not suf- 
ficiently large to prevent the flow of sap. 

405. Life History of the Stalk-borer. — There are two 
broods of Sesamia fusca and three of the other species of stalk- 
borer, during the season. The last brood passes the winter as 
larvae within the stalks or in the cob, and in late-harvested 
ears they are often found wrapped up between the husk and 
the ear. These larvae pupate and then change into moths, 
which emerge between October and December. If maize plants 
are available, the female moths begin to lay their eggs almost 
immediately, but always at night, hiding during the day. These 
eggs are deposited in clusters under the edges of the leaf- 
sheaths, and hence are protected from destroying agents ; they 
are faintly visible through the sheaths, and vary in number 
from 5 or 10 to over 100. The eggs hatch in seven to nine 
days. The young larvjii begin feeding on the maize-stalk at 
once, quickly eating their way towards the centre; "they are 
very careful to remain under the sheath all the while, and it 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 441 

affords them perfect protection from rain or insecticides ". CHAP. 
When the food supply of one plant is exhausted, the larvae 
leave it and search for fresh plants. 

On reaching maturity, about the first week in January, the 
larva clears out a portion of the burrow which it has tunnelled 
into the stalk, prepares an opening through which the adult 
can escape (Fig. 165, 3), and then transforms to a dark-brown 
pupa, as shown in Fig. 165, 7, and 7 A. It remains in the 
pupal stage from a fortnight to three weeks, and then trans- 
forms to the dark-brown moth. . . . After pairing, the female 
lays eggs and dies, thus marking the end of the first brood. 
The eggs for the second brood are deposited under the edges 
of the leaf-sheaths about the first of February, and may be 
found anywhere from the main stem well up to the tassel, 
preference apparently being given to the younger portions of 
the plant. The eggs hatch about the end of the first week in 
February, and the larvae burrow into the centre of the stalk as 
before. They mature by the first of June, depending on the 
condition of the maize. They do not transform to pup^t at 
once, as in the first brood, but pass the winter as larvae within 
the stalks, occurring anywhere from the cob down to the roots, 
much depending on the size of the plant. . . . Observations 
. . . lead me to believe that the moths do not travel far in 
search of food-plants and that they are content to stay in the 
first maize plant they find {Mally, i). 

406. Parasites of the Stalk-borer. — Mr. Mally has found 
a few natural parasites of the maize stalk-borer, but study of 
their habits led him to the conclusion that " while they do 
some good, they have not shown themselves able to keep the 
pest under control ; hence we are forced to adopt artificial 
means to avoid serious loss ". 

407. Burning the Stalks to Destroy the Stalk-borer. — 
" From the brief sketch of the life-history of this insect it is 
apparent that there is no hope of destroying it during the sum- 
mer by the use of insecticides, because all its transformations 
take place ivithin the plant, and the moth itself is protected 
through being nocturnal. . . . Our main hope lies in the pos- 
sibility of establishing a system of cultural methods which will 
enable us to prevent injury. . . . The fact that the winter stage 
of the insect is passed within the remains of its food-plant is 
its weak point, and gives a control measure in the destruction 



442 AfAIZE 

CHAP, of the over-wintered stalks which, if carefully followed, makes 
it possible to prevent appreciable loss. The advisability of 
burning the stalks has often been suggested. . . . When the 
stalks have been left to dry up in the field they are of little 
value except as ' stalk-pasture ' for cattle and horses. Since 
the moths do not emerge till spring it is an advantage to use 
the stalks for pasture, for it reduces the bulk to be handled in 
burning them. Their value as a source of plant-food in the 
soil must not be overlooked, but there is also the disadvantage 
that coarse material tends to augment the effect of drought in 
certain sqils. The stalks are not [altogether] lost by burning, 
for the ashes remain and are readily available [as plant-food]. 
From the standpoint of value as stock-food or fertilizer the 
stalks can easily be turned to better advantage by means of the 
silo or by cutting them in time for ' fodder,' as pointed out later, 
and ultimately returning to the land as manure" {Mally, i). 

To destroy all the borers the maize stalks must be pulled or 
hoed out, after having been browsed by cattle, and be piled up 
in convenient heaps and burned ; especial care must be taken 
to completely burn the stumps. It is not sufficient to let the 
fire sweep through the heap and then gradually smoulder away ; 
the stalks and stumps around the edges must be raked up on 
to the centre of the burning mass, otherwise a few borers will 
remain alive. " It must be clearly understood that half-hearted 
work is of little use. The occasional stalks and stumps, which 
it seems hardly worth the trouble to clear up, may harbour 
enough borers to discredit the work when the young mielies 
are examined in the spring. The same is true of neglected 
spots or lands to be left fallow for the season. . . . Neglect 
is the strongest ally of the pests, for it provides them with a 
good base of supplies on which to gain strength for the next 
season's depredations." 

. Kaffir corn, sorghum, Johnson-grass, teosinte, and sugar- 
cane are recorded as additional host plants of the maize 
stalk-borer, and they should be treated in the same way as 
the maize stubble. 

408. Ploughing-under the Stalks. — This method of treat- 
ment is frequently suggested, but Mr. Mally does not recom- 
mend it owing to the difficulty experienced in burying all of 
the stalks, and because those which are left on the surface are 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 443 

enough to harbour a crop of borers for next season. Where cHAP. 
steam-ploughing is practised, however, and the stalks are ^• 
buried 1 2 to 18 inches below the surface, this is fairly efficacious, 
and in fact it seems the only practicable method where a 
farmer has between 1,000 and 6,000 acres under maize. 

409. Early and Late Planting to avoid Stalk-borer. — 
Early planted maize may miss the stalk-borer, but is liable 
to destruction by the spring brood of cutworms, and if the 
area under crop is large, the application of poisoned bait 
may be impracticable. Late planted maize, on the other 
hand, is in the best condition for the second brood of borers 
(II 405) and to provide a supply of them to pass the winter, 
and is in danger from early frost. Moreover, as the emergence 
of the moths lasts over a period of four to six weeks, variation 
in time of planting with a view to avoiding the borer is of 
doubtful utility. 

410. Trap Crops for Stalk-borer. — " A few rows of maize 
planted very early would render good service by attracting 
the moths so that the eggs for the first brood would be deposited 
o\\ these few rows. It would be an easy matter to go over 
them, say once a week, to destroy the plants showing signs 
of withering. An early breed of maize is preferable for this 
purpose because it tends to grow more rapidly and so 
augments the effects of early planting. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that unless the trap maize is looked after 
carefully, it is a positive danger because it will be the means 
of saving the eggs from the earliest moths and ensure the 
greatest possible number of the first brood coming to maturity " 
{Mally, I). Kaffir corn and sorghum appear to be more 
attractive to the stalk-borer than the maize plant, and might, 
therefore, prove more useful as trap crops. 

411. Ensiling and Shredding Maize as a Remedy for Stalk- 
borer.^ " For either ensilage or fodder the maize could be 
cut some time before the second brood of larvae has matured. 
Although no test has been made, it is difficult to see how 
they could survive in the silo. They survive without difficulty 
in maize cut and dried in the ordinary way for fodder but 
they would stand little chance of escaping the shredder. In 
case the fodder was dried without shredding, the coarse stalks 
should be collected and burned before the middle of September, 



444 MAIZE 

CHAP, to prevent the escape of moths from larvne that are not de- 
^' stroyed in tramping. The question of turning the crop into 
ensilage and fodder as preventive measures raises the whole 
problem of how best to utilize the maize crop when once it 
has been produced. A great many possibilities suggest them- 
selves in this connection. For the present we must be content 
to follow the methods which promise the greatest measure of 
success under existing conditions" {Mally, i). 

412. 7^ he Striped Beard -grub or Ear-zvori/i, HeliotJiis 
anniger Hubner. — According to Mr. Claude Fuller (i), Natal 
Government Entomologist, this insect feeds upon a variety of 
plants, but especially on maize and kaffir corn. The larvae 
(" worms ") vary in colour. Those which feed on kaffir corn 
heads are always dark, generally reddish, resembling the colour 
of the food-plant. Feeding on the silk ("beard") (Fig. 38) 
of the maize plant they may be green, brown, or reddish, 
according to the colour of the silk ; hidden away in the ear 
they will at times be dark in colour, but more frequently of a 
pale-pinkish or pinkish-brown. In all cases, however, they 
are characterized by dark stripes running the full length of the 
body, and cannot readily be confused with the larvae of the 
stalk-borer or the cutworms. The striped beard-grub usually 
pupates in the soil, though the pupae are occasionally found in 
the maize stalk or ear (Fig. 166). There are probably three or 
more generations in a summer, the broods overlapping. They 
make their appearance earlier than the stalk-borer, the first some- 
times as early as August, another about the end of January, 
and yet another during April and May. The early brood 
seems to do no conspicuous damage, but the caterpillars which 
feed upon the beards during February, often cause a lot of 
injury ; the moths of this brood emerge during April and 
May ; these are believed to lay eggs almost at once ; the eggs 
soon hatch and the caterpillars feed and come to full growth 
and crawl into the soil to pupate, remaining there enclosed in 
little earthen cocoons, at depths varying from a half to two 
inches below the surface, and emerging as moths about the 
month of August in Natal, and perhaps rather later on the 
High-veld. 

413. Remedies for the Striped Beard-grub. — -From the above 
sketch of the life-history of this insect it is clear that the com- 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 445 

mon practice of leaving the old lands unploughed until spring CHAP, 
encoiivages the propagation of the beard-grub, whereas winter 
ploughing and cultivation of the land (before August) must 
destroy a large proportion of the insects which are pupating 
in the soil. To reduce the size of the first spring batch of 
moths must help greatly to keep down subsequent sets. 




Fig. 166. — Striped beard-grub pupa in sheath at base of ear. 
Dipping or soaking the seed-maize in one or other of 
various preparations (e.g. saltpetre) is frequently recom- 
mended as a preventive measure against ear-worm and stalk- 
borer ; such methods of treatment were tersely likened, by 
the editor of an American agricultural paper, to " advising a 
man to soak his feet to prevent his hair from falling out " 
(^Pacific Rural Press, 14 May, 1904). 

414. The Maize Cricket. — Writing to the Cape Agricul- 



44 6 MAIZE 

CHAP, tural Journal for May, 1907,^ Mr. D. van Zijl, of Dichaking, 
^" Kuruman, British Bechuanaland, stated :— 

" We are greatly troubled in these parts with a certain in- 
sect generally called corn cricket. As it causes an enormous 
amount of damage to growing crops, I should be very glad if 
any of your readers could suggest a remedy for this destructive 
insect. In December, during the first rains, they hatch out 
just like small locusts, and December being in this district the 
month for sowing and planting, the insects develop simultane- 
ously with the growing crops, and start their work of destruction 
when the crops are in bloom. They climb up the mealie- 
plants, causing little or no damage to the stalks and leaves, 
but eating, within the space of a few minutes, all the grains of 
the mealie-cobs. They also consume the flowers of all creep- 
ing plants as pumpkins, water-melons, sweet melons, and beans, 
just when they make their appearance. Last January I had a 
splendid plot of beans, of which I expected a yield of 1 5 
muids, but, as described above, no sooner had they come in 
flower than the corn crickets appeared on the scene, and all I 
reaped was 2\ muids. Even all shoots were destroyed by 
them ; and this work of destruction is not limited to one year 
only, but goes on year after year with unabated vigour. I 
have tried several kinds of poison to kill the pest, such as 
Cooper's dip and Little's dip, and even wolf-poison. A 
strong solution of tobacco dip also failed to kill them. I 
should, therefore, be greatly obliged if you or any of your 
readers coul'd advise me what to do to get rid of this pest." 
The Assistant Entomologist, Cape Colony, replied: — 
"We are not aware of any remedial measures having been 
used in this country against these in.sects. We would, how- 
ever, recommend Mr. van Zijl to give a trial to poisoned bait 
as used against locusts. . . . The endeavour should be to 
ascertain the breeding spot of the pest and, as this is probably 
somewhere on the veld, the ploughing of the cultivated land 
probably preventing the escape of the young hatched from 
eggs laid there, the vegetation could be very effectively sprayed 
with the arsenic-soda-treacle solution, for instance, which 
should do excellent execution amongst the 'corn crickets'. 
This has been recommended for the destruction of a similar 
pest in Colorado. ..." 

415. Locusts (^<rrzV/z^^).— Shortly after the war the agri- 
cultural crops of South Africa were decimated by enormous 
> Vol. XXX, No. 5, p. 599. 



DISEASES AND PESTS OE THE MAIZE CROP 447 



CHAP, 
X. 




448 MAIZE 

CHAP, swarms of locusts (Fig. 167). These consisted of the common 
purple locust, Acridiwn ptirpiirifertim, in the central and western 
parts of South Africa, and the brown locust, Pachytilus sulci- 
collis in Natal and the eastern districts of the interior Pro- 
vinces. During the season 1906-7, the locust scourge was 
very severe in the northern, central, and western districts of 
the Transvaal. The wet, cool summer was partly respon- 
sible, as the crops were late in maturing, and the locust plague 
came at a time of year when, in a normal season, they would 
have been ripe and free from danger. One hundred and 
ninety-nine experimental crops being grown by Transvaal 
farmers in co-operation with the Division of Botany of the 
Department of Agriculture, were reported as having been 
destroyed by locusts. Locusts lay their eggs, a large number 
together, in the soil ; they hatch out when weather conditions 
are favourable, i.e. after good spring rains have fallen, which 
not only help to hatch the eggs, but also bring on the grass 
and spring vegetation which the young locusts require for 
food. The young locusts are not able to fly for some time after 
hatching, and are therefore known as voetgangers (i.e. walkers). 
They feed voraciously, and not being able to travel far, are easily 
dealt with in this stage, if their breeding grounds are known. 

Although the efforts of the Entomologists of the South 
African Locust Bureau, assisted by the locust birds, practically 
wiped out the scourge, there is always danger of fresh migra- 
tions from the North, and it is well to be prepared to combat 
the pest if it should reappear. After experimenting in various 
ways with the numerous remedies recommended, the Locust 
Bureau finally adopted the remedy tested and recommended 
by Mr. C. P. Lounsbury, Cape Government Entomologist. 
This consisted of a mixture of arsenite of soda and molasses 
or other syrup, which was sprayed on to the veld immediately 
.surrounding the newly hatched swarms. In order to locate all 
the swarms before they developed wings and began to migrate, 
a corps of volunteer swarm-reporters was organized throughout 
the country. These gentlemen, located in every district, re- 
ported by means of franked post cards, and by wire, the laying 
of eggs, the hatching of voetgangers, and later the migration 
of swarms from one part of the country to the other. The 
Government stocked and distributed free to farmers supplies 



DISEASES AND PESTS OF THE MAIZE CROP 449 

of spray-pumps and the components of the spray, and by CHAP. 
means of public meetings and lectures enlisted their hearty ^• 
co-operation. 

Much good work was also done by large flocks of locust- 
birds, the principal among which were (i) the true locust- 
bird, wattled starling or klein springhaan vogel, Creatophora 
carn7iculata ; (2) the small locust-birds or pratincoles, Glareola 
pratincola and G. inelanoptera ; (3) the white stork, Ciconia 
alba ; and (4) the white-bellied stork, Abdimia abdiniii. 

416. The Tok-tokje. — Mr. Mally reports damage done to 
young maize plants in the Eastern Province, Cape Colony, by 
the tok-tokje, Psamniodes ReicJiei S. : — 

" The larva attacks wheat, oats, barley, and maize. It 
evidently tunnels along in search of food, and when it locates 
a stool of wheat or other grain it comes to the surface, so that 
it can just reach the base of the stem. It then pulls off the 
hard outer layers in little shreds and arranges them so as to 
form a protectionary cover for itself It evidently feeds on 
the soft juicy inner layers of the stem, and when one stem is 
eaten off it makes for another one, the attacks usually being 
limited to the short basal joint. In a number of cases noted 
the larva had drawn the stem down into the burrow and de- 
voured it almost entirely. The plant may be injured at any 
time during its growth, and there may, therefore, be a heavy 
drain on the crop in addition to that indicated at the time of 
ripening. In one instance a larva was found feeding on the 
maize roots. There was a very poor stand of maize in this 
iield, and the farmer was inclined to think that these larvae 
were the cause of it. He said that early in the season many 
of the plants seemed to die off, and that others were blown 
down, but in time recovered and regained an upright position. 
This is due to the fact that the larva feeds from the side which 
it finds first, and in that way destroys about half of the roots, 
and the remaining half support the plant sufficiently to enable 
it to make a short turn at the base and make fairly good 
growth ; but it always remains a stunted plant." 

417. Remedies for the Tok-tokje. — Mr. Mally adds : — 

" I doubt the practicability of trying to starve out the larvae 

by clean cultivation, for they can go a long time without food. 

Frequent ploughing, harrowing, and rolling would be more 

likely to give good results, because the great majority of the 

2y 



450 MAIZE 

CHAP, larva: would be injured, and thus destroyed. If the ground 
^- could be kept under constant cultivation, by adopting a system 
of rotation and the ploughing-in of green manure, so as to pre- 
serve its fertility, in place of exhausting it by constant cropping 
for a term of years and then letting it lie fallow for a time to 
recuperate — as is done in the present system — I believe injury 
from this pest would be almost entirely avoided. Cultivated 
lands apparently do not attract the beetles, and they therefore 
take to the native veld to deposit their eggs. But before we 
can hope to induce the farmers to go in for a system of rota- 
tion in place of the present practice of long fallowing, it will 
be necessary to show by means of demonstration farms that 
the intensive cultivation necessary to make rotation answer 
will pay them better than the present system of extensive 
cultivation. I am satisfied myself that an intensive rotation 
would be much more profitable than the present .system, and 
would combine numerous other advantages — not the least of 
which will be the fact that it will open the way for a much 
larger farming population." 

418. Plant-lice {Aphides). — Aphis or green-fly is commonly 
found on the maize tassels in some seasons, but does not ap- 
pear to cause serious damage. A common opinion is that 
prevalence of green-fly coincides with drought ; the writer has 
noticed, however, that in some seasons (e.g. February, 191 3) 
it was abundant during a time of plentiful rains. 

419. Rose-chafers. — Some species of Rose-chafer, notabl)' 
Porphyronota Jiebrce and PlcEsiorhina plana^ feed on the male 
flowers of the maize plant, probably on account of the pollen. 
These two chafers are particularly troublesome in eating holes 
in paper bags used for the collection of pollen in maize-breeding, 
the pollen escaping through these holes ; from three to a dozen 
chafers will be found in one bag. They do not appear to 
injure the maize plant. 

The common hive bee. Apis mellifera, also visits the tassels 
of the maize plant for the purpose of collecting pollen ; on this 
account it is popularly supposed to effect cross-pollination, but 
during an extended series of observations the writer has never 
seen a bee carry pollen to, or even visit, the maize-silks, so that 
it is not at all probable that it is a factor in cross-pollination. 

Weevils and grain-moths are dealt with in chapter XI. 

' Both kindly identified by Ur. L. Peringuey, Director of the South African 
Museum, Cape Town. 



CHAPTER XI. 

HARVESTING AND STORAGE, AND PESTS OF STORED MAIZE.' 

. . . when the Autumn 
Changed the long green leaves to yellow, 
And the soft and juicy kernels 
Grew like wampum hard and yellow. 
Then the ripened ears he gathered. 
Stripped the withered husks from off them, 
As he had once stripped the wrestler. 



And they called the women round them. 
Called the young men and the maidens. 
To the harvest of the corn-fields, 
To the husking of the maize-ear. 



-Hiaivntha. 



Now the broad fields of maize are cut and the maize-cobs garnered. 

— Crawford, 

420. Mai:::e Harvesting. — The usual method of harvesting^ CHAP, 



maize in South Africa, before the acreage reached its present 
extent, was to pick the ears by hand as the stalks stood in the 
field, after the ears had become thoroughly sun-dried. Native 
labour, alone, has been employed for this work. But with 
increased development in agriculture, mining and manufactures, 
native labour is becoming scarcer and consequently more ex- 
pensive, and the necessity for adopting other methods of 
handling the crop is becoming apparent. A case has been 
reported within the last few years where, when the new 
planting season came round, it found the last crop not entirely 
harvested, owing to lack of labour ; another case came to 
the notice of the writer in which harvesting was only com- 
pleted the day before the planting of the new crop was begun, 

1 Much of the information on the use of maize-harvesting machinery in 
America has been taken from a special bulletin of the United States Department 
of Agriculture (Zinthco, i). 

451 29* 



XI. 



452 MAIZE 

CHAP. Maize is less easily harvested than almost any other cereal 

crop, except perhaps the sorghums, because of its large size 
and hard stem. Whereas machinery has for a long time re- 
placed hand labour in the harvesting of most cereals, it is 
only quite recently that the application of machinery to the 
harvesting of the maize crop has been practically and economic- 
ally successful. 

The method and time of harvesting depend to some ex- 
tent on the uses to which the crop is to be put, e.g. whether 
it is required for grain only, or whether for grain and stover, 
fodder or silage. 

The present method in general practice in South Africa, 
with local variations, is for native labourers to walk up and 
down the rows with sacks into which they put the ears as they 
break them from the shanks ; the husk is opened by hand, 
and the ear dexterously removed with a twist. One great 
drawback to this method is the amount of labour involved in 
walking back and forth with the sacks between the picking 
place and the headlands where the ears are to be shelled. 

Mr. W. A. McLaren, South African Manager for Messrs. 
John Fowler & Co. (Leeds), Ltd., has improved on this method 
by making the shelling machine accompany the pickers 
through the standing stalks (Fig. 179). 

421. Best Condition of the Crop for Harvesting. — The 
stage of maturity of the crop affects the total yield of dry 
matter. Also the difference in nutritive value at different 
stages is shown by analyses to be considerable. It is, there- 
fore, important to know the best stage of development at 
which to harvest maize intended for grain, stover, fodder or 
silage. 

In some fodder plants the feeding value increases gradually 
up to a certain stage of growth, but begins to decrease before 
the plant reaches full maturity, which is due in part to the 
transfer of nutritive matter from the leaves and stems to the 
seed, and in part to the loss of some of the leaves themselves. 
In the case of the maize plant, however, both the total amount 
and the feeding value of the dry matter increase up to, or 
nearly up to, the stage of complete maturity. The Kansas 
Station obtained the following yields at different stages of 
maturity : — 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



453 





Yield per Acre. 


Grain (bushels). 


Fodder (tons). 


Cut in the " milk " stage . 
„ ,, " dough " , 
,, when ripe .... 


35-5 
51-0 
74-0 


2-4 

2-4 

2-7 



CHAP. 

XI. 



The experiments conducted by .several other stations show- 
general agreement with these results. 

In some instances, however, the yield of the whole plant 
has been found to decrease slightly in weight of water-free 
substance, during the last one or two weeks of development, 
doubtless because of loss of leaves. 

The plant, exclusive of the ear, may decrease materially in 
weight, owing to translocation of material to the grain. At 
the Iowa Station {Bull. 2i) this decrease was found to equal 
17 per cent of dry matter during the three weeks from the 
time most of the ears were dented (but leaves and husks still 
all green) until the plant was entirely ripe. This was perhaps 
partly due to loss of leaves, but chiefly to translocation of 
material. 

When the maize plant is in full tassel it has developed 
one-third to one-half its weight of water-free substance. 
When it is in the roasting ear stage three-fourths to four-fifths 
of its dry matter has developed ; when at the silage .stage it 
has developed from three-quarters to nine-tenths of its dr)^ 
matter {Illinois Bull. 31, p. 361 ; Michigan Bull. 154, p. 
283 ; Cornell Bull. 4, p. 52). The greatest rate of growth in 
height precedes that of the development of dry matter 
{Hunt, I). 

The increase in percentage of starch and of soluble carbo- 
hydrates is rapid during the development of the ear, and there 
is a coincident decrease in proportion of crude fibre. After 
ripening there is a considerable loss of dry matter from the 
fodder, partly due, no doubt, to loss of the lower leaves in 
drying off The Iowa Station found that two months after 
ripening, under ordinary field conditions, the crop had lost 
about one-half of the dry matter and more than half of the 
feedine value. 



454 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
XI. 



\Vc conclude, therefore, that the maize crop should not be 
cut very early, whether intended for grain, or for fodder or 
silage ; nor, on the other hand, should it be allowed to stand 




in the field after ripening, if it is desired to obtain the maxi- 
mum yield of /W// grain and fodder. When the grain is in 
the " dough " stage, or even a little harder, the plant makes 
excellent silage, especially if passed through a chaff-cutter. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 455 

422. The Best Stage of Gnnuth for both Grain and 
Stover.— 1:\\^ total weight of grain increases up to the period of 
full maturity {Hunt, i). When the plant is grown for ears 
alone, it is not only allowed to ripen, but the ears are allowed 
to remain on the standing stalks until they have become dry 
enough to be safe for storage, usually about a month after 
the maize is ripe, or after the first killing frost. But when the 
stover, as well as the grain, is to be harvested, it is well to 
allow the plant to become as ripe as is possible without risk of 
the leaves falling off before or during the operation of shocking. 
The ears should be all, or nearly all, dented or glazed, the 
husks dry, and the leaves from one-third to one-half green 
{Hunt, I). 

According to the Iowa Station "the stover of a crop of 
maize seems to reach the highest yield and the best condition 
for feeding at the stage of growth indicated by a well-dented 
kernel and the first drying of the blades. The grain of a crop 
of maize seems to reach the highest yield and the best condition 
for utility at the stage of growth indicated by a well-ripened 
ear and a few dry blades ; and the best time for securing the 
crop with reference to the highest utility of both maize and 
stover would be found at a stage of ripening between the 
above." 

The Wisconsin Station recommends the cutting of flnit 
breeds for silage when just past glazing, and dent breeds when 
" well dented " ; while the Vermont Station recommends that 
maize be allowed to stand before ripening as long as it is safe 
from frost. The Ohio Station found there was little difference 
in the yield of grain from maize left standing, or maize cut 
and shocked, provided it was sufficiently matured at cutting 
time. 

In the field-curing of maize at the Colorado Station, large 
shocks lost 31 per cent of their dry matter, small shocks 43, 
and maize spread on the ground 55 per cent, largely because 
of the active fermentation in the seemingly dry and well-cured 
stalks. At the Oklahoma Station the outside stalks of maize 
shocks exposed to the sun, rain, and wind lost fully one- 
fourth of their feeding value as compared with the inner stalks. 
The average loss in dry matter at the Wisconsin Station, 
in ensiling maize, was 15-6 per cent and in field-curing the 
same fodder 23-8 per cent. 



CHAP. 
XI. 



456 MAIZE 

CHAP. " To Slim up, harvest maize for both strain and stover soon 

after the keriie/s are well dented and the blades be^^in to dry, but 
before the ears are thoroughly ripe7ied. For silage, harvest flint 
varieties when fust past glazing arid dent varieties when well 
dented'' {Farmers Cyclopedia of Agriculture). 

423. The best Stage of Growth for Fodder. — It is usually 
considered that the fodder stage is reached when the lower 
leaves have turned yellow, but have not become dry, while the 
husks on the ears are still green ; the grain should be fully 
glazed and practically mature. In this stage it has been found 
to give about the heaviest yield without loss of palatability, 
and to be in a suitable condition to " shock " without danger 
of becoming mouldy. Some farmers recommend that the 
stalks and the leaves above the ears should have begun to turn 
golden ; but as the whole crop cannot be cut at once, it would 
probably be best to begin in the earlier stage of development, 
i.e. when the lower leaves have turned yellow, but the upper 
are still green. 

When food of very high palatability is wanted, as, for in- 
stance, for young, growing stock, or animals being fattened 
for market, it is considered desirable to cut it rather earlier, 
i.e. when the lower leaves have just begun to turn and the 
ears are in the "roasting" stage {Hunt, i). 

Maize fodder cured in the field has been found to lose 
from 19 to 21 per cent of dry matter. The loss is nearly 5 
per cent less if the fodder is cut in the " green-mielie " stage, 
than if cut when nearly ripe. 

424. Best Stage of Growth for Ensiling. — ^The degree of 
maturity and the condition of succulence are the important 
factors in deciding when the crop is ready for ensiling. It is 
impossible to make a hard-and-fast rule on these points, as 
so much depends on local and seasonal conditions ; local ex- 
perience based on careful observation is therefore the best 
guide. 

Generally speaking, maize for silage should be cut rather 
greener than for fodder, otherwise it does not pack so well in 
the silo, too much air is left in the mass and it is apt to mould. 
Hunt (i) describes the best condition as reached when many, 
but not all the ears have become dented in the grain) a portion 
of the husks dry, and the bottom three or four lea\es dry, with 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



457 



the rest still green. Until this stage has been reached, it may 
be considered that the greener the maize, the greater the loss 
in the silo. He summarizes as follows the advantages of 
allowing the crop intended for silage to arrive at the stage of 
maturity indicated above : — 

(i) Greater yield of water- free substance. 

(2) Less total weight to handle. 

(3) Less loss in silo. 

(4)_ Superior composition. 

(5) Greater digestibility. 

(6) Greater palatability, resulting in a greater feeding value 
per acre at less cost. 

The following table (LVIII) prepared by Prof Hunt at the 
Cornell Station shows the influence of maturity upon weight 
of fresh and dry substance and loss in the silo. 



CHAP. 
XI. 



Table LVIII. 
INFLUENCE OF MATURITY ON YIELD. 







Dry Matter. 






Date of 
Cutting. 


Green Matter 
per Acre. 






Dry Matter 

in Silage ; 

Loss- per Acre. 


Condition of Maize. 


Per Acre. 


Per Cent 
Green Food. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 




Lbs. 




Aug. 10 


19,200 


2,672 


13-1 


752 


In full tassel 


„ 16 


20,800 


3,144 


I5-I 


502 


Maize in silk 


„ 22 


21,840 


3.712 


17-4 


305 


Grains fully formed 


„ 28 


19,200 


3,744 


19-5 


288 


Grains in milk 


Sept. 3 


16,960 


3,824 


22-5 


195 


Grains stili in milk 


9 


16,400 


4,168 


25-3 


188 


Grains past milk 


M 14 


14,720 


4,536 


30-8 


125 


Maize glazed 



If put into the silo before the grain has reached the 
"glazed" or "roasting" stage, the silage is less nutritious 
than it would otherwise be and is apt to be unduly acid. 
If, on the other hand, it is allowed to get riper than the 
"glazed" stage, it is less likely to pack well, and mouldy 
spots or masses will be found among the silage. The over- 
acid condition is due to excess of succulence, and the mouldy 
condition to lack of succulence. A partial remedy for the first 
trouble is to wilt the maize more or less before putting it into 
the silo ; for the mouldy condition, prevention is the best 



458 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
XI. 



rcmed)' — the maize should be cut rather younger. If, how- 
ever, it has already become a little too old before it has been 
practicable to cut it, the condition may be improved by pour- 
ing a little water over the mass while the silo is being filled, 
or by adding a little succulent material — such as green 
lucerne, velvet beans, cowpeas or soybeans. The amount of 
wilting required for immature maize depends on the degree of 
succulence, and must be learned by experience ; the younger 
the plants, the more they must be wilted. 

425. Frosted Maize. — The value of maize for silage is re- 
duced by freezing; but if the crop is cut and put into the silo 
immediately after being frosted, the value of the silage made 
from it, though reduced, is not seriously impaired ; if, on the 
other hand, the maize is allowed to stand uncut for any length 
of time after being frost-nipped, it is greatly injured for feeding. 

426. Composition of the Maize Plaiit at Different Stages 
of Maturity. — The following analyses made at the Maine 
Station (^Rep. 1893, Pt. 2, p. 25) show the variation in com- 
position of the maize plant at various stages of growth and 
have been generally verified at other stations {fordan, 3, p. 211). 
The percentages (Table LIX) are those of water-free matter. 



Table LIX. 
INFLUENCE OF MATURITY ON COMPOSITION. 











Total 








Stage of Growtfi. 


Protein. 


Sugar, 


Starch. 


Nitrogen- 
free 
Extract. 


Fat. 


Ash. 


Crude 
Fibre. 


Very immature 


15-0 


II-7 


_ 


46-6 


2-6 


9-3 


26-5 


(15 Aug.) 
















A few roasting ears 


117 


20-4 


2-1 


55-6 


2-9 


6-5 


23-3 


(28 Aug.) 
















All at roasting ear stage 


ir-4 


20-6 


4-9 


597 


3-0 


6-2 


197 


(4 «ept.) 
















Some ears glazing 


9-6 


2I-I 


5-3 


62-5 


30 


5-6 


19-3 


(12 Sept.) 
















All ears glazed 


9-2 


16-5 


15-4 


63-3 


30 


5-9 


i8-6 


(21 Sept.) 

















Though there is nearly 6 percent less' protein at the glazed 
stage, there is an increase of nearly 17 per cent of nitrogen- 
free extract, and a decrease of nearly 8 per cent of crude fibre. 



HARVESTIN.G AND STORAGE 



459 



427. Composition of Maize Fodder at Dijf event Stages of CHAP. 
Growth. — Maize fodder varies in protein-content according ^^* 
to the stage of growth at which it is cut, as is shown by the 
following table (LX) extracted from Jenkins & Winton's (i) 
tables : — 

Table LX. 
INFLUENCE OF MATURITY ON COMPOSITION OF FODDER. 



Fodder from flint breeds 

cut early 
Fodder from flint breeds 

cut after kernels had 

glazed 
Fodder from dent breeds 

cut early 
Fodder from dent breeds 

cut after kernels had 

glazed 
Leaves and husks cut 

green 
Stripped stalks cut green 
Silage . . . . 



Water. 


Ash. 


Protein. 


Fibre. 


Nitrogen- 
free 
Extract. 


Fat. 


Number 

of 
Analyses. 


79-8 


!•! 


2'0 


4-3 


I2T 


07 


40 


77-1 


I-I 


2-1 


4-3 


14-6 


0-8 


10 


79-0 


I '2 


17 


5-6 


I2-0 


0-5 


63 


73'4 


1-5 


2-0 


67 


15 5 


0-9 


7 


66-2 


2-9 


2-0 


87 


i9"o 


IT 


4 


76-1 
79-1 


07 

1-4 


0-5 

17 


7-3 
6-0 


14-9 
ii-i 


0-5 
0-8 


4 
99 



428. Comparative Digestibility of Maize Fodder and Silage 
at Different Stages of Maturity. — There is also a variation in 
the degree of digestibility, according to the stage of maturity 
at which the maize has been cut. Both with silage and fodder 
the digestibility is higher after the grain has glazed, or dented, 
than before. It has been found that the total digestible food 
value of the maize crop was 200 to 300 per cent greater in 
the fully mature crop than at the silking stage, and 36 per 
cent greater than at the time the ears were glazing {Arjiishy, 
J^ennsylvania Rep. 1892). 





Maize Fodder. 


Maize Silage. 


Max. 


Min. 


Av. 


Max. 


Min. 


Av. 


Cut before glazing ; thirteen 

experiments 
Cut after glazing ; ten ex- 
periments 


71-4 
74'2 


53-6 
6i-2 


657 
707 


77-8 
8o-2 


56-6 
65-2 


67-4 
73-6 



460 MAIZE 

CHAP. Jordan (3, p. 212) <;ivcs the above summary of experi- 

ments on the digestibihty of maize fodder and silage; the 
figures show the amount digested out of 100 parts of organic 
matter. 

The average difference in favour of the more mature crop 
is thus 5 per cent in the case of fodder and 6 per cent in the 
case of silage. 

429. Feeding Value of Maize Fodder at Different Stages of 
Growth. — The feeding value of maize fodder at different stages 
of growth, as determined by milk production, has been in- 
vestigated by the Pennsylvania Station {Rep. 1892) and the 
Ohio State University.^ The fodder was cut at three different 
stages of maturity : the roasting ear stage, the silage stage, and 
when ripe or nearly so. The weight of field-cured fodder 
increased with the stage of ripeness, the increase being greatest 
during the first interval. The percentage eaten was least in 
that cut early, though prepared with a feed cutter. Compared 
with the earlier cutting, the intermediate stage gave the greatest 
increase of milk and of live weight ; compared with the later 
cutting the difference was less marked. 

430. Pulling. — In the Southern United States there is a 
tendency for the maize leaves to dry up before the ears are 
sufficiently mature, and in consequence it has been customary 
to strip the leaves from the stalks while they are still green 
and the ears immature. 

In the States " fodder pulling is effected, according to 
latitude and season, from the first of August to the middle or 
even the last of September. When the operator's hands are 
full of blades and he can hold no more, the quantity is termed 
a 'hand,' and is bound rapidly with a twist and hung on a 
broken stalk to cure. On gathering a day or so later, from 
three to four hands form a ' bundle,' which is, also, bound 
with a few twisted blades. The bundle weighs from i^ to 2 
lbs. and forms the staple ' roughage ' of southern draft stock " 
{Myrick, i). 

The Georgia Station {Bull. 23) finds that the practice is 
only expedient under the most favourable circumstances ; but 
that where it is done, the best method is to strip the blades, 
from and including the ear-blade downwards, and in a week or 

1 D. A. Crowner, Thesis, 1896, quoted by Hunt (i). 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 461 

ten days to cut off the stalks above the ear ; this is more ex- CHAP. 



peditious than the ordinary method and adds largely to the 
yield of stover. 

The effect of this " pulling" on the yield of grain has been 
investigated by eight, at least, of the State Experiment 
Stations, and the general result shows a loss of 10 to 20 per 
cent of grain. The Florida Station {Bull. 16) finds that the 
"pulling" of fodder has the effect of loosening the husks in 
the ear before the grains become hard, thus promoting the 
ravages of weevils. 

431. Topping.- — This is a method which has been practised 
in some parts of the United States, when the stover is required 
to supply lack of food before the maize crop is ripe. The 
prevailing conditions in South Africa do not call for the 
practice of this method, because there is usually abundance of 
food at the time when the maize crop could be topped. In 
any case the practice cannot be recommended, for investiga- 
tions show that topping results in a loss of grain which is 
" more than the feeding value of the fodder secured" {Missis- 
sippi Bull. 33, 1895, P- 63 ; Pennsylvania Rep. 1891, pp. 
58-60). 

432. Methods of Harvesting for Grain. — Briefly the 
following methods and devices for harvesting maize for grain 
are in vogue : (i) Husking the ears from the standing crop ; 
(2) picking the ears from the standing crop with a " corn- 
picker"; (3) cutting the stalks by hand, with knives; (4) 
cutting with sled harvesters and similar devices, or cutting 
with (5) maize binders and (6) maize shockers. 

433. Husking by Hand from the Standing Stalks. — When 
the crop is allowed to dry off as it stands in the field, as is 
most usual in South Africa, husking is easily done by the 
"boys" who harvest the ears; opening the husk with one 
hand and catching hold of the ear with the other, a sharp 
twist or bend breaks the ear from the node above the upper 
husk ; the ears are dropped into a bag slung around the neck, 
and when this bag is full it is emptied into a sack common to 
three or four pickers, to be carried when full to the headland 
(Fig. 169); the sheller is moved from heap to heap. 

434. Cost of Hand-picking in the United States. — From 
300 replies furnished by farmers in different parts of the 



XI. 



462 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
XI. 



United States, the following figures were obtained, as to cost 
and efficiency of picking by hand ; — 

Yield of maize on tlie ear, average per acre .... 44 bushels. 

Average quantity picked per man per day, 59 bushels, or at 70 lbs. 

per bushel ot unshelled maize ...... 4,130 lbs. 

Cost per bushel for picking maize by hand, average . . • 3A cents, i^d. 

435. Cutting Maize by Hand. — A common method of 
harvesting maize in the United States is to cut the stalks by 
hand, close to the ground. The implement first used for 
corn-cutting was the hoe, but as this was rather heavy and 
awkward, the more progressive farmers substituted the corn 



^tfrtMuaw^ucri: 




Fig. 169. — Harvested ears of maize carried to the headland ready for shelling. 



knife. At first this was made from scythe blades, but these 
have been largely replaced by various sizes and shapes of 
factory-made knives. A short-handled, short-bladed scythe- 
like corn hook is much used in the States. In Natal the cane 
knife (Fig. 1 70) used by the coolies for cutting sugar-cane is 
now largely employed for maize-cutting, and its use has ex- 
tended to the Transvaal. This tool is so constructed that the 
weight of the falling knife is almost sufficient to sever a stalk, 
which facilitates rapid work. 

In America one man is able to cut and shock by hand 
about 34 shocks, 12 hills square, or nearly \\ acres of corn a 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



463 



day. The average cost for cutting by hand is reported to be CHAP. 
6-5 cents per bushel, or $r50 (6s. 3d.) per acre. ■^^• 

436. Does it Pay to Use Macliineiyfor Harvesting the Maize 
Crop ? — As the result of an exhaustive inquiry into maize- 
harvesting machinery in use in the United States, Mr. Zintheo 
(i) concludes that by the use of the proper machinery in place 
of hand methods of harvesting 
the ears (leaving the stalks to 
waste), the farmer may consider- 
ably increase the net income from 
his maize crop, and still allow 
full price for the use of the dif- 
ferent machines. But he also 
says that there is a limit beyond 
which it is not profitable for a 
farmer to invest in maize-har- 
vesting machinery, and that the 
amount of work to be done b)- 
the machine each year should be 
carefully considered before a pur- 
chase is made. As a general rule 
" it is better not to invest in ex- 
pensive implements unless there 
is sufficient work in sight to 
make them profitable ". 

The relative advantage of 
using machine or hand-labour 
depends in the first instance on 
the amount of work to be done ; 
the U.S. Department of Agricul- 
ture finds that a farmer who has 
only 20 acres of maize to cut per 
year, and who does not intend to 
cut any for his neighbours, would 

lose money by purchasing a maize binder if he could hire one 
from a neighbour, or had sufficient labour to harvest his crop 
by hand ; and further that it would require a cut of at least 80 
acres per year before the investment in a corn binder would 
be profitable.^ We have heard of a farmer on the Transvaal 

1 It is admitted, however, that this is a conservative estimate, for with proper 
care the life of the machine would probably be considerably longer than the 




170.- — Cane knife used for 
cutting maize. 



464 MAIZE 

CHAP. High-veld having 200 acres under crop, who used a binder for 
^^" one or two seasons and then " scrapped " it in favour of hand- 
labour ; but he was exceptionally well situated as regards a 
steady supply of the best native labour, and this single case 
cannot be relied upon as a demonstration of the relative value 
of machine and hand-labour in South Africa. 

"The farmer who would secure the full value of his corn 
crop should secure the fodder with as much care as he gives 
his clover hay, harvesting it at the proper period, and not 
allowing it to become ruined by rain or frost"; for South 
Africa we should have added : and drying-out by desiccating 
winds. 

437. Sled Haf-v esters. — In the United States many home- 
made harvesting devices of the sled pattern have been made 
from time to time (cf. Figs. 171 and 172). These were adapted 
for cutting either one or two rows at a time, according to 
draught available and other requirements. With most of 
these sled harvesters the driver rode on the platform, and it 
was necessary for him to gather the stalks in his arms in 
advance of the cutting edge, to prevent them falling in various 
directions. This method proved very exhausting to the men, 
and the acreage which could be handled per man per day was 
reduced in consequence. 

An improved harvester was designed, in which the stalks 
were collected on the platform by a guiding arm (Fig. 172), and 
it was only necessary for the driver to remove the stalks from 
the sled at intervals and to throw them on the ground. K 
further improvement was effected when, in order to reduce 
the draught, the sled was mounted on wheels. With this 
machine, two men sit on the platform, one facing each row, to 
guide the maize stalks against the cutting edge with one hand, 
and with the other hand and arm to collect the cut stalks 
on the tilting side-part or wing of the platform, holding the 
stalks against the leg, until enough have been collected to form 
a shock. 

438. Mechanical Harvesters. — These simple devices, while 

eight years used as a basis of calculation. " There is no doubt that in general 
half the money spent for implements couldhe saved if they were given better enre 
when in use, and ivhen not in nse protected in an implement shed, from wind, 
rain, sunshine, and farm animals," 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 465 

an improvement over cutting by hand, were felt to be inade- CHAP, 
quate, and further improvements were effected to reduce labour. 
A later machine consists of two driving wheels, between which 
is mounted the frame for the driving mechanism and platform. 
It is drawn by one horse, which walks between the two rows 
that are being cut. The dividers pick up the lodged maize. 




Fig. 171. — Device for cutting maize in the field. (After Myrick, The Book 
of Corn, Orange Judd Co.) 

except such as lies in the row of maize away from the 
machine, and guide it to the cutting apparatus, which consists 
of two stationary side blades, above which is a movable sickle ; 
this cuts the maize and deposits it horizontally on a platform 
elevated about 6 inches above the cutting apparatus. On 
the inner side is a guide chain, which helps in directing 




Fig. 172. — Another device for cutting maize in the field. 
(From Transvaal AgriculUiral yonrnal.) 

the stalks of maize to the knife and the platform. The rear 
part of the machine is provided with a small wheel, above 
which is a tilting lever ; by means of this lever the dividers 
in front can be raised or lowered to gather up the lodged maize 
until it comes in contact with the endless chain, and is thus 
carried backward to be cut and deposited on the platform. 
30 



466 MAIZE 

CHAP. Machines of this type gather and cut the maize and drop it 

^^' on the platform. When there is enough to start a shock, the 
horse is stopped and the shock is set up. 

439. Cost and Efficiency of Harvesters. — The different 
forms of maize harvesters vary in price from $5 {£\) to $55 
(;^ii), and " while their low cost is a great advantage, their 
degree of efficiency is not very highr The cheap sled harvesters 
can be used only when the corn stands straight, and the 
horse must walk rather fast in order that the work may be 
perfectly done. It is also hard work for the men to gather and 
shock the corn. The work of harvesting corn is such that only 
the best construction can withstand the strain for any great 
while, hence these machines are being used less than formerly," 

The following figures indicate the cost and efficiency of 
the.se machines : — 



Area of maize cut per day . 2 to lo acres. 

Use of machine and repairs . 84 cents per day 18 cents per acre. 

Twine ..... 19 ,, ,, 4 ,, ,, 

Expenses for one horse and man $275 ,, ,, 58-5 ,, ,, 

,, of second man . . iji'ys ,, ,, 37*5 „ ,, 

Average area cut and shocked per day by two men 

and one horse, with sled harvester 
Area cut by one man with a knife 
Cost of harvesting per acre .... 

,, ,, ,, (average of all reports) 

Cost of harvesting by hand, per acre . 
Saving in favour of the machines 



4*67 acres. 

1-47 ,. 
55 cents to $2, 
*i-i8 

•ifi'so 

32 cents. 



440. The Maize Binder. — The maize binder is a machine 
drawn, usually, by horses, and so designed that it will cut off 
the maize stalks near the roots, pick up any lodged plants 
lying across the rows, and bind the stalks into bundles. There 
are three different forms of maize binder, the vertical, the 
horizontal, and the inclined ; the last is a blend of the other 
two rather than a distinct type. These implements differ 
only in the relative position of their several parts, which are 
essentially the same in all. These are : the dividers, which 
pick up the lodged stalks, except such as lie in the row (i.e. in 
the direction in which the machine is travelling), and guide them 
to the cutting apparatus ; the latter consists of a serrated knife 
which passes to and fro across two stationary blades, one 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



467 



attached to each jaw ; the stalks are collected on the binder CHAP. 

XI. 




deck, where they are tied in bundles with twine ; each bundle 
30* 



468 



MAi/.n 



CHAP. 
XI. 



as it is tied is discharged on to the ground. Two or three men 
follow and shock the corn, i.e. set the sheaves up in the form 
of stooks or, as they are usually called, shocks. 

Maize binders weigh from 1,400 to 1,800 lbs. ; " generally 
speaking, those weighing in the neighbourhood of 1,500 lbs. 
have been most successful, this weight seeming to give the 
proper relation between driving power and durability ". 

"The corn binder is used to greatest advantage in fields 
where the corn is check-rowed, as it is possible to cut around 
a block, keeping the machine constantly in operation." 




ife^M^^M^ 




asAW-i--:* 






Fig. 174. — Maize binder at work in America. 



"The corn binder is well adapted for cutting corn for the 
silo, as the bundles are bound into convenient size for handling, 
but this saving of labour is accomplished at the cost of twine." 

44 1 . Estimated Cost of Using a Maize Binder. — We have 
no available data as to the relative cost of harvesting by hand 
and machinery in South Africa, since harvesting machinery 
has not yet come into general use. We must therefore take 
American figures as a basis on which to work. 

The following figures give some idea of the efficiency of the 
maize binder : — 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 469 

Number of acres cut per day, average ...... 7-73 CHAP. 

Number of horses used 3 XI. 

Number of men employed . . . . . . . . 3 or 4 

Lbs. of twine per acre cut, average ....... 2"44 

Life of corn binders, average in years ...... 8*17 

Acres of corn cut per binder, average (spread over 8'i7 years) . 66877 

First cost of corn binder, average ....... $125 

Cost per acre cut, including price of machine, repairs, 

and interest on the investment, average per acre . 29 cents, i.e. is. 2^d. 
Cost of driver and team : 

per day *3-55 „ 14s. g^d. 

per acre cut ........ 46 cents „ is. iid. 

Cost of twine per acre 30-5 ,, ,, is. 3^d. 

Cost of shocking after a corn binder, per acre . 44-8 „ „ is. lo^d. 

Total cost of harvesting maize with a corn binder, 

per acre $i'5o, ,, 6s. 3d. 

" The cost of cutting corn with the corn binder is therefore 
the same as the cost of cutting corn by hand, and 32 cents per 
acre higher than the cost of cutting with a sled harvester. 
This extra cost of cutting with the corn binder over the cost 
of cutting with the sled harvester may be attributed to the cost 
of the twine and the interest on the investment in the higher 
first cost of the machine. 

" One disadvantage in the use of the corn binder is that it 
knocks off more or less ears of corn, which either have to be 
picked up by hand, at a cost of about 10 cents (sd.) per acre, 
or left to waste or to be found by the cattle after the field is 
cleared." 

442. The Maize Stubble Cutter. — When the maize is cut 
high with a corn binder, the farmer may have difficulty in 
getting rid of his stubble. In order to obtain a clear field and 
to have the corn stalks cut close to the ground, an attachment 
to the corn binder has been invented. This is a knife, attached 
to the under side of the machine ; it floats on the ground, 
cutting the stalks even with the surface. The cutter has a 
drawing, slanting cut against spring resistance, which makes 
a clean cut. When this attachment is used, the binder is 
usually set to cut higher. The stubble may be ploughed in, 
and if cut when sappy, will decay quickly and form humus in 
the soil. By cutting the stubble in this way the ground may 
be more thoroughly prepared for the next crop, and the 
stubble and roots buried more deeply, with consequent de- 
struction of the stalk-borer, if present. 



470 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
XI. 



443. Draught of Maize Binders. — The average draught of 
a maize binder is about the same as that of a 6-foot wheat 
binder. It therefore requires the same number of animals to 
draw it, i.e. the equivalent of three good horses. Draught 
tests made by the United States Department of Agriculture 
show the following results : — 

Lbs. 

Draught of maize binder 'ivith stubble cutter . . . 437 

,, ,, ,, ivithont stubble cutter . . . 420 

Draught of stubble cutter 17 

444. Shocking Maize. — When the maize is cut before the 
stalks are dry, it must be put up in shocks (Fig. 175) in the 




Fig. 175. — Shocking maize in America. 

field, to allow it to cure properly. In the United States the 
shocks vary in size from 36 hills to the shock, i.e. collected 
from an area 6 hills square with check-rowed maize, to 256 hills 
from an area 16 hills square; but a common size is 144 hills 
or 12 hills square, which at a minimum of 2 stalks to the hill 
is at least 288 stalks. The smaller-sized shocks are common 
in the North Atlantic States, where it is found more difficult 
to properly cure the stover if the shocks are larger. In the 
North Central States 10 and 12 hill shocks are common: 10 
X 10 hills of check-rowed maize would be equivalent to about 
30 feet of continuous row-planting, for 10 rows, or 30 square 
feet if the rows are 3 feet apart. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE ^^\ 

A common method of building shocks is to tie together CHAP, 
the tops of four hills, as they stand, uncut, and then to cut and 
shock around them the rest of the hills in the square ; this is 
called the four-saddle method. Another way is to use a 
three-legged wooden horse as a temporary support. " In 
either case the shock is built around the support with great 
care, to prevent it from being blown over by heavy winds or 
damaged by rain. In some cases the maize is tied into small 
bundles which are set together to form the shock ; more 
commonly the stalks are gathered as cut, and set up, an arm- 
ful at a time. Where the wooden horse is used, the shock is 
built about it by leaning the first bundles or armfuls against 
a pair of projecting arms formed by inserting a stick through a 
hole bored at right angles to the horse. When the shock has 
been set up the stick is withdrawn, the horse removed, and 
the shock tied lightly near the top or left without tying, as 
the case may be. A rope with a hook at one end is some- 
times used to draw the tops together before tying. 

In the South African Bush-veld, where sticks are easily 
obtained, stakes are driven into the ground at suitable intervals, 
in rows through the fields, and the cut stalks are stood around 
the stake until a shock of suitable size is made, which is finally 
tied with a strip of bark from the " mimosa " thorn {^Acacia 
horridd). Strips from the fresh green leaves of the New 
Zealand flax {Phorinhan tenax) are also useful for this 
purpose. 

In the United States it takes about a month for shocked 
fodder to cure properly. After this the shocks are gathered 
together and stacked to prevent loss from frost and winds, 
or are husked by hand if it is not intended to feed the grain 
with the fodder. 

445. The Maize Shocker. — Maize shockers have the ad- 
vantage over binders in that they require the work of but one 
man, as the machine does the shocking of the maize bundles. 
Maize shockers cost about as much as binders and weigh ap- 
proximately the same. But the shock is not so easily loaded 
on a wagon, for the whole shock must be loaded at once, 
requiring some form of loading device or horse-power derrick, 
whereas the individual sheaves made by the binder can be 
loaded with a pitchfork. 



472 MAIZE 

CHAP. Number of acres cut per day, average ..... 4*7 

XI. Number of horses used 3 

Number of men employed ....... i 

Total cost of harvesting maize with shocker, per acre . . $i-o6, i.e. 4s. sd. 

"The wear and tear is less than on a corn binder, and the 
life of the machine ought to be greater. ... A corn shocker 
arranged to load the shocks on a wagon, would no doubt prove 
the cheapest method of harvesting corn for the silo. The 
general verdict of farmers who have used both the corn binder 
and the shocker, is that the shocker is the preferable machine for 
harvesting corn.'' 

446. A Maize Shock Loader. — A loading device for hand- 
ling the shocks adds greatly to the value of the shocker, for 
with it the maize can be more cheaply handled. "An im- 
proved loading device which can be carried along with the 
wagon or left in the field and driven about independently, is 
mounted on four wheels, and consists of an adjustable vertical 
mast on which is a horizontal steel cross-arm. On this is 
mounted a travelling block fitted with pulleys through which 
a rope passes. To the end of this rope a horse is hitched 
to lift the load. For loading corn shocks a grapple fork 
is used ; this is slipped under the shock, the grapple arms 
are closed, and with the pull of the horse the shock is lifted up 
on the wagon and laid on its side or stood on end ; the grapple 
arms are released by simply turning the handle of the fork. 
This machine was originally designed to load corn shocks, and 
it easily handles two shocks per minute, and will bear a stress 
of 2,000 lbs. It can also be applied to many other uses, such 
as loading hay, manure, small grain, dirt, lumber, telephone 
poles, and other heavy objects." 

447. Husking Shocked Maize by Hand. — When the maize 
is cut before it is dead ripe or dry, it must be husked after the 
crop has cured. Where large acreages are grown, the Com- 
bined Husker and Shredder is used to advantage, but where 
the acreage is small and labour plentiful and cheap, husking 
may be done by hand. 

A correspondent writing to the Rhodesian Agricultural 
fournal, under date 13 May, 191 o, describes the method of 
husking adopted by him, as follows :— 

" I give each native a piece of hard pointed stick about 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 473 

5 to 6 inches long, with a string round two notches in the CHAP, 
centre. The stick is held in the palm of the right hand with ^'• 
the point between the thumb and forefinger, the string 
being round the middle finger ; the mealie, still on the stalk, 
is grasped in the left hand, the point of the stick is inserted at 
the top of the cob, the forefinger and thumb grasping the husk, 
a sharp tug pulling half of the husk away, the remaining half 
comes away easily, and a sharp twist detaches the cob. The 
straw is then carted away and stacked alongside the wire 
kraals for winter use, to be fed to the cattle at night. I cart 
the cobs after this fashion ; the large, medium and small cobs 
are bagged separately. The large cobs are placed at the 
farther end of the mealie hock, the medium-size in the centre, 
and the smaller ones near the door for immediate use. 

" I may say the above methods are the quickest I have yet 
seen, and the natives are delighted with the pointed stick, 
which saves their fingers considerably. I make the mealie 
hock with wire woven with the Kitselman woven-wire fencing 
machine. The size of mesh can be altered from mouse-proof 
to any desired size. The hock is raised above the ground on 
posts." 

448. Maize Pickers. — In the American Corn-belt, where 
maize is the staple crop, it is grown for the ears principally. 
"The use of the corn binder and the shocker, while quite ex- 
tensive, does not solve the corn-harvesting problem in the 
purely corn-raising regions, where a large share of the corn is 
still picked by hand from the stalks as they stand in the field." 
It is often difficult to get sufficient labour for this somewhat 
tedious work, and for over fifty years inventors have been busy, 
trying to perfect a machine to pick the ears from the stalks. 

Several machines have been introduced since 1902 for this 
purpose. 

" The corn picker as now constructed, resembles the 
corn binder in the construction of the main frame, drive wheels, 
and dividers. It passes along the row of corn, which is 
straddled by the dividers, and the stalks, after being righted 
by the points, chains and other devices, pass between a pair 
of inclined, corrugated rollers that snap or strip off the ears. 
The rollers are so placed that the ears fall naturally into a 
trough that extends along beside them. In order to provide 
snapping rollers to remove the ears and force them to fall 



CHAP 
XI. 



474 



MAIZE 



always to the same side, yet permit free entrance of the up- 
right stalks at the receiving end, snapping rollers have been 
arranged in slightly skewed relation, by which the upright 
stalk may be gradually forced to one side as the picking 
rolls pass along, and the ears are broken off and directed 
to one side. The ears are carried back by a travelling con- 
veyor and either delivered to a set of husking rolls or else, 
without being husked, carried by an elevator and delivered 
into a wagon which is driven alongside the machine. 




Fig. 176.— Mai 



America. 



" Another form of modern practical corn picker has the 
guide chains with the usual prongs for straightening up the 
stalks. The chains form a stalk-passage extending rearwards 
through the machine. A rapidly moving chain provided with 
fingers is located at one side and between the guide chains in 
such a position that, as the machine passes over the row, the 
fingers engage the ears on the stalks and snap them off. By 
means of a deflector the ears are directed to a receptacle from 
which they are carried to the husking rollers and then to the 
wagon. The tops of the cornstalks are cut off, and by means 
of a conveyor this and other trash is carried to the rear and 
dropped on the ground. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 475 

" The corn picker is intended to remove the ears from the CHAP. 
stalks, which are left in the field. Most of the machines are ^^• 
built on the assumption that the stalks are valueless, and 
therefore they are practically destroyed. It has not been 
possible to construct a picker that will not to some extent 
break down or tear down the stalks. This is somewhat 
objectionable because, where the corn is picked by hand, the 
dried corn leaves and stalks serve as roughage for cattle during 
the fall and winter. The machine has, however, this advant- 
age, that the field can be picked more quickly and the cattle 
turned in earlier to make use of the roughage before the snow 
falls. 

" Another objectionable feature of the corn picker as com- 
pared with the hand method of picking corn is that it .shells 
considerable corn ; and, if the corn is lodged and tangled, 
more or less ears are missed by the machine. The corn 
picker with the husker attachment requires considerable 
motive power, at least four horses being required to pull it. 
For this reason some manufacturers have dispensed with the 
husking attachment and depend upon the snapping rollers 
for removing most of the husks. Machines of this kind will 
remove from 25 to 75 per cent of the husks, depending upon 
the stage of maturity of the corn, the brittleness of the stalks 
and the effects of freezing and damp weather. Where 
machines without the husker attachment are used, a stationary 
husker may be provided at the crib, in which the corn is 
husked and elevated into the corn-crib. 

" There is a variance of opinion among farmers as to the 
advisability of husking the ears clean. In the South the 
common practice is to leave the husks on the ears, and it is 
claimed that this practice tends to prevent injury by insects. 
In the North it is the common practice to husk the ears clean 
before they are cribbed. The objections offered, in reply to 
inquiries, to using a corn picker which leaves the husks on the 
ears, are : that more crib room is required for the ears ; that 
they will serve to attract and harbour rats and mice ; that the 
ears will not dry out, but will be liable to mould ; that the 
husks interfere with the shelling ; that, while for feeding 
cattle and hogs the husks will be advantageous, as they will 
serve as a roughage, horses will toss the ears in trying to 
remove the husks, and thus lose ear and all. For selling 
purposes the corn needs to be husked clean in order to 
command the best market price," 



476 MAIZE 

CHAP. 449. Cost and Efficiency of Maize Pickers. — The United 

States Department of Agriculture gives the following figures 
concerning cost and efficiency of American maize pickers : — 

Number of acres harvested per day, about ...... 773 

Life of maize pickers, average in years 8-17 

Acresof maize harvested, per picker (average over 8-17 years) . . 66877 
First cost ot maize picker, average ....... $25o"oo 

Cost per acre harvested, including price of machine, 

repairs, and interest on the investment, average 

per acre 58 cents, i.e. 2s. 5d. 

Cost of driver and team : 

per day .13-55 „ 14s. g^d. 

per acre harvested 46 cents ,, is. iid. 

Cost per acre of two wagons with teams to remove ears 

from the machine and deHver them into the crib, at 

$3 per day for each 77 cents ,, 3s. 2^d. • 

Total cost of harvesting maize with a maize picker, 

per acre .1:ii-8i „ 7s. 6^d. 

Weight of maize picked per day, bushels ...... 341 

Number of men required to do the same work by hand . . . 3*8 

Cost of labour for same ......... •'ifii'93 

Cost of extra teams for same $3-00 

Total cost for picking the same number of acres by hand, as can be 

picked with a maize picker per day ...... $i4'93 

Cost per acre by hand $i'93 

Cost per acre by maize picker ........ .l!r"8i 

"While the saving effected with the corn picker is not 
large, the use of a machine makes the fart) ler more independent 
of the labour market, as the work may be done without hiring 
extra men at a time when they are hard to secure. 

" But the advantage of hand over machine picking in the 
removal of the husks should not be overlooked." Moreover, 
" the corn picker is still an experinmital machine, and not until 
it has been perfected should the farmer purchase it". At the 
same time it will be well to watch the development of the 
maize picker, as it may become of great importance to the 
South African farmer. 

450. Hand-husking in America. — The method of hand- 
husking practised in America is described as follows : — 

For convenience in husking a movable table is sometimes 
used, on which the stalks are laid while being husked. The 
ears are thrown in piles on the ground near the shocks, and 
afterwards hauled to the crib. The stover is sometimes 
hauled to the barn and stored, but often it is left standing 
in shocks in the field till needed for feeding during the winter. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 477 

It is important to choose suitable weather conditions for husk- CHAP, 
ing, since if the plants are too dry the stalks will break and ^^' 
blades will fall off and be lost. On the other hand extremely 
wet weather makes the ground too soft for hauling in the ears 
to the barn, and the grain gets wet and damaged. 

Various forms of husking pegs and hook huskers are used 
for this purpose in America ; they are made in various sizes 
and shapes to suit different hands by " The Boss Manufactur- 




FiG. 177. — Deering combined busker and shredder. (Courtesy of Messrs. 
Malcomess & Co.) 

ing Company," of Kewanee, Illinois, and probably by other 
firms also. Simple husking pins may be made of wood. Other 
aids to maize husking consist of gloves with projecting points 
or pegs ; equipped with such a glove, the man husks the ears 
by tearing off the husks and snapping the stems. 

451. Covibined Husker and Shredder. — There is a particu- 
larly useful machine on the market for handling shocked 
maize, known as the Deeritis: combined husker and shredder. 



478 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
XL 



This machine takes the stalks with the ears on them, removes 
the ears, husks them, and shreds the stalks and leaves for 
feeding. 

There are many other makes, differing in design, but 
having much the same general construction. Where these 
machines are used it is a great advantage to have the stalks 
harvested by a maize binder, as they are then bound in 
straight bundles, thus saving time and avoiding the danger of 
choking the machine. 

Special threshing machines have sometimes been used for 




Fig. 178. — Marshall & Son's sheller. (Courtesy of Messrs. D. E. Hockly & Co., 
East London.) 

threshing maize fodder, but they do not appear to be in general 
use ; Hunt (i) suggests that the chief objection to the threshing 
machine was that it shelled the grain, which at that time of year 
usually contained too much moisture to be stored safely in 
that condition. 

452. Combined Husker and Sheller. — Where large crops of 
say 500 acres and over are grown, hand-husking is a practic- 
able impossibility owing to shortage of labour and the time 
involved. To meet this difficulty combined huskers and shelters 
have been designed, and a large number of them are now in 
use. In South Africa these are mostly of English make, and 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



479 



among the firms in the market are : Marshal Is ot Gainsborough ; CHAP. 
Clayton & Shuttleworth, Ruston Proctor & Co., and Robey & ^^* 
Co., all of Lincoln ; Ransomes Sims & Jefferies of Ipswich, and 
Garrett & Sons of Leiston. Some of these machines will shell, 
on an average, two muids per minute, or where they husk 
as well, one muid a minute. The price in South Africa is 
about ;i^200 to ;!^2 50 according to capacity. They are usually 
driven by portable engine? of 6 to 7 nominal horse-power 
or 10 effective horse-power. In this case the sheller remains 




Fig. 179. — Steam traction sheller (Fowler engine and Ransomes sheller). 



stationary and the ears are carted from the fields to the machine. 
At Vereeniging Mr. McLaren has attached a Fowler traction 
engine to a Ransomes sheller ; this pushes the sheller before it 
at walking pace, through the field of standing maize ; the machine 
is fed by fifty boys who walk ahead, each pulling the ears from 
two rows of maize, and carrying them in sacks or buckets to 
the hopper of the machine; a strip of lOO yards wide is thus 
cleared at each trip down the field. In this way the machine 
has been found by actual tally to average 60 muid bags of 
shelled maize per hour, in a ten-hour day. 



CHAP. 
XI. 



480 



MAIZE 



A smaller machine, the Marseilles-Adams, is also on the 
South African market; the listed price varying from £'/^ to 
^135 according to capacity. 

Owing to the capital outlay involved in the purchase of a 
shelling outfit, and the short period in the year for which it is 
required, comparatively few private farmers in South Africa 
own one. But the number of itinerant machines is on the 
increase : these travel from farm to farm, husking and shelling 




Fig 



Convertible hand or power sheller, suitable for small crops. 



for a percentage of the crop, or at a fixed price per muid, or 
at so much per day. 

453. Machines for Shelling Husked Maize. — For shelling 
husked maize there are on the market many machines, worked 
either by hand or power, and varying in capacity and price to 
suit the needs of every farmer. Listed prices range from 
;^i I OS, for the little Clinton hand sheller (weight 80 lbs.) 
to ;^50 for the Champion, requiring 6 to 8 brake horse-power, 
and having a capacity of 150 to 250 muids per day according 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 481 

to the condition of the crop and the manner in which the CHAP, 
sheller is operated and fed. • 

There are so many good shellers offered, that it is im- 
possible to say which is the best, without giving each a 
thorough trial. 

454. Importance of Drying-out the Grain. — Where the 
crop is grown for grain only, it is advisable to leave it in the 
field until it is thoroughly dry. The ear continues to ac- 
cumulate nutriment for a considerable time after the stalk 
has been cut. The value of the grain in the European 
market depends largely on its dryness ; for export it should 
not contain more than 1 2 per cent moisture. To secure this 
degree of dryness without injury to the grain, it should be 
allowed to dry out on the stalk. If the ears are " snapped " 
(i.e. broken from the stalk) before the grain is dry, the grain 
shrinks and is more or less damaged. Cutting and shocking 
the stalks, if done at the right stage of growth, does not 
interfere with the proper drying out and conditioning of the 
grain. 

455. Loss of Weight in Drying. — A considerable loss of 
weight is found to take place in maize, left on the cob between 
harvest and the middle of November. The lost moisture is 
not replaced in spring by humidity of the atmosphere, even 
when good rains occur after the middle of October. Tests 
made at the Botanical Experiment Station, Pretoria, in 1908, 
showed that the loss of moisture averaged 21 per cent in seven 
months, but ran as high as 35 per cent. In the United States 
it averages about i 5 per cent. South African maize is usually 
5 per cent drier than the American, which added to their 15 
per cent loss gives an average of about 20 per cent. Weighings 
were made on i April, at the beginning of the dry season, and 
again at the end, 17 November, The loss in drying on thirty 
ears of yellow dent, averaged 2173 per cent of the original 
weight and varied from -42 per cent to 31-2 per cent. Numer- 
ous tests have been made in the United States and have 
ranged from 3 per cent to an extreme of 30 per cent, ac- 
cording to degree of dryness at time of storing in the crib, 
in four and a half months. 

The amount of loss depends largely on the condition of 
the ears at the time that they are first weighed, and varies 



482 



MAIZE 



CHAP, considerably according to season and mode of storing. The 
' • results given in Table LXI have been obtained in the United 
States : — 



Table LXI. 
SHRINKAGE IN WEIGHT OF MAIZE STORED ON THE COB. 



Stored for : 


Total Shrinkage. 


Average per Month. 


3 months 
3i „ 

5 
5 


3 per cent 
"■5 


i-o per cent 1 

3-3 

3'o 


Average shrinkao;e in five months, 2-4 per cent per 
month or 9-6 per cent in four months. 


8 months 

9 

10 „ 
12 „ 


15-5 per cent 
775 ,. 
20 -o 
37 -o 


1-94 per cent 

•86 „ 
1-67 „ 

•31 ,. 



Average shrinkage I'tg per cent per month, or ii-g 
per cent in ten months. 
The method of storage in these cases appears to 
have been in open cribs or in stacks, and the larger 
the crib or stack the less the shrinkage. 



In the case of shelled grain, a large number of experiments 
showed that the loss averaged 7-5 per cent in five months or 
I -5 per cent monthly. 

" Assuming a loss of "j^ per cent on shelled grain in five 
months, and a price of los. per muid of 200 lbs. at the start, the 
muid at the end of five months would weigh only 185 lbs. and the 
price at that time would have to be los. 9|d. per muid to 
cover the loss through shrinkage. To this price would have 
to be added interest, which, at 8 per cent per annum, would 
amount to 2d. on los. for five months. There would also be 
storage charges, which, if the storing were done on the farm, 
might be taken as a halfpenny per muid. In addition to all 
this, there has to be taken into account the risk of damage by 
rats and weevils. This risk amounts to very little if the grain 
is stored in suitable bins, and the weevils are destroyed by use 



In this case the maize was in very dry condition when put into the crib. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



483 



of bisulphide of carbon, i to i^ lbs. bisulphide to 2,000 lbs. 
grain. 

" Reckoning everything, it may be said that los. per inuid 
at harvest time is equal to i is. id. per muid in five months. 
In a general way it may be considered that there would have 
to be a rise of 'j\ per cent in three months, (^\ per cent in four 
months, and 1 1 per cent in five months, in the selling price of 
mealies, in order that there should be no loss in the money 
value. Anything over and above these prices would be a gain. 
Thus there would be a 
decided gain if mealies, in- 
stead of being sold at los. 
per muid at harvest time, 
were sold at 1 2s. five months 
later" {Pearson in N.A.J.). 

456. Variation in Mois- 
ture-content is not Identical 
u'ith Loss or Gain in Weight 
Due to Change in Moisture- 
content. — Loss in weight due 
to the drying of maize 
always exceeds the per- 
centage reduction in mois- 
ture, because only part of 
the moisture is lost in or- 
dinary drying, and the 
second percentage of mois- 
ture is determined on the 
reduced total weight in- 
stead of on the original 
weight. The original per- 
centage was determined on the dry material, plus a certain 
amount of moisture ; after the loss of part of this moisture 
the percentage is again determined, but this time on a new 
basis, i.e. that of the net weight of dry grain, plus the balance 
of moisture. Therefore the variation in moisture-content is 
not identical with the loss or gain in weight. 

For example, 100 lbs. of maize containing 25 per cent 
free water is dried out till it weighs only 85 lbs. ; after losing 
I 5 per cent moisture by drying out, the percentage of moisture 
31* 



CHAP. 
XI. 



B| 


|H 


JB^^- '^A^IW 


b^LAjf^l^^ J 



Fig. 181.— NatuLiiiLiliuil 
in the husk, in trees, ; 



m^ maize 
and. 



484 MAIZE 

CHAP, left will not be 10 per cent but I 1-67 per cent. But 75 lbs. 
^^" of dry matter, plus i 5 lbs. of water lost, plus 1 1 67 per cent 
moisture remaining, equals ioi'67, or 1-67 more than the 
original weight. The discrepancy is due to the fact that the 
1 1 '67 per cent of moisture remaining in the sample is not 
11-67 per cent of the original 100 lbs., but of the 85 lbs. total 
weight left after partial drying. 

457. Storage in the Husk. — In order to keep the grain 
until market conditions are favourable for its disposal, the 
methods of storing to preserve it from depredation by vermin, 




Fig. 182. — Maize on the husk, stored in a pear-tree, hy Coloured people, 
Swellendam District. 



etc., vary according to the climate and the materials available 
for the construction of stores. In the Bush-veld of Swaziland 
the natives leave the ears in the husk, till required for use, and 
hang them in the branches of trees near the kraal or garden 
(Fig. 181). 

The same method is practised by the Coloured people of 
the Cape Province (Fig. 182). 

Among white people in South Africa it is not customary to 
leave the maize in the husk, owing to the danger of sweating 
and rotting if it is left in uncovered heaps in the field, and to 
the greater space required when stored. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



485 




Fl(,, iS,^ — M:u,H- hocl , W.itdi.ciL;- Distr 




Fig. 1S4. — Maize hock, Bechuanaland. 



CHAP. 
XI. 



486 MAIZE 

458. Stomi^c of Husked Maize. — Nor is it advisable to 
leave the husked maize on the ground, on account of damage 
by termites. It is customary, therefore, to store it in some 
sort of crib, called a hock. This is variously constructed ac- 
cording to the materials available in different parts of the 
country. 

Modern niai/c hocks of various sorts are shown in Figs. 
183, 184, and 185. 

459. Storage of Shelled Grain. — To reduce bulk and to be 
ready for a sudden rise in the market, it is becoming custom- 
ary to shell earl}' and sack the shelled grain. The sacks of 




Fig. 185. — Method of storing maize, Government Experiment 
P"arm, Potchefstroom. 



shelled grain, containing 200 lbs. net each, are stored in sheds 
(Fig. 186), or, in the usually dry winters of the interior, may 
be stacked on large platforms, raised above the ground 
(Fig. 187), and covered with sailcloth. 

The following description of the method of storing maize 
employed at the Trappist Monastery, Mariannhill, Natal, is 
taken from the Natal Agricultural Journal : — ' 

" The mealie store is an independent building erected on 
the face of the hill just above the mill proper. It contains 
five large cement-lined compartments, each capable of holding 

' Vol. VIII, No. 10, p. 1014, Oct., 1905. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



487 




Fig, 186.— Re-weighing and shipping stored maize, Messrs. John Fowler & C 
Store, Vereeniging. 




Fig. 187.— Stack, ol -^lirlhd inai. < ai \(i<< Hiding, ready for market. (Courtesy 
of Messrs. John Fowler & Co., Leeds, Ltd.) 



4^8 MAIZE 

CHAP. 500 muids of mealies. The building is 40 feet high, and the 
^^- walls, for coolness and strength, are hollow and 3 feet in 
thickness. The floor at the top is of cement, small trap doors 
giving entrance to the five silos or bins. Here there is an 
ingenious appliance for cooling and airing the mealies as soon 
as the time for weevil life begins. Let us suppose that the 
contents of one bin have been consumed, and in consequence 
that one bin is empty. A trough in which a spiral worm 
continually revolves is built below the exits of the bins. 
Number two, we will assume, will be taken in hand. The 
door of the exit, about a foot square, is opened sufficiently to 
feed the trough ; the revolving worm, like an archimedean 
screw, then brings along the mealies to the end of the building. 
Here they fall into a box in which an elevator — a band with 
buckets — carries them to the top of the building. Here they 
go into another trough and are forced along by a worm as far 
as the vacant bin, where an opening in the trough permits 
them to fall through. It will be seen that as soon as one bin 
has been emptied this automatic work can go on without 
cease — ^and to the discomfiture of the weevils. The cost of 
the appliances — two troughs with worms, and an elevator — 
being small, the system deserves consideration of those who 
handle large quantities of corn, where the climate, as at 
Mariannhill, is favourable for the weevil." 

460. Kaffir Method of Storage. — After harvest the native 
hangs up the maize ears to dry in the open air (Figs. 188 and 
189) for two or three months. In regions of winter rain this 
simple method would be impracticable owing to probable 
injury from damp. When sufficiently dry the grain is shelled 
off and stored in enormous jars of earthenware, wicker-work or 
grass ; the latter is called in Sesutu a sesco{^\^. 190). These 
are sometimes buried in the ground. In Cape Province 
according to Wallace (i) they are simply buried in a pit 
shaped like a short-necked water-bottle, dug 8 to 10 feet deep 
underneath the cattle kraal, the narrow mouth being covered 
by a flat stone, and the joints drawn with fresh dung to her- 
metically seal it. A foot or so of well-trodden manure on the 
kraal floor is an effectual protection against rain, and there is 
little damage from soil moisture ; the few grains on the outside 
which become mouldy, can be used for kaffir beer. The 
aroma inside the pit is said to be fresh and agreeable, not 
unlike that of malt or fresh sweet silage. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



489 




490 



MAIZE 



CHAP. Burchell (l, Vol. II, p. 520) gives the following account 

* • of the method of grain storage practised by the Bechuanas, in 
1811 :— 

" The corn is pre.served in what may be termed large jars, 
of various dimensions, but most commonly between 4 and 5 
feet high, and 3 wide. The shape of these corn-jars is nearly 
that of an egg-shell having its upper end cut off: sometimes 
their mouth is contracted in a manner which gives them a 
great resemblance to a European oil-jar. The)- are formed 




Fig. 189. — Native method of storing maize, Zoutpansberg District. 



w ith stakes and branches fixed into the ground and interwoven 
with twigs, this framework being afterwards plastered within 
and without, in the same manner as the walls of the building. 
Frequently the bottoms of these jars are raised about 6 inches 
or a foot above the ground : and the lower part of the stakes 
then being uncovered, gives them the appearance of standing 
on short legs. Their contents are usually protected by a 
covering of skin or straw." 

461. Need for Public Maize Stores or Silos in South 
Africa. — The problem of storage pending favourable market 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



491 



conditions is already felt to be a serious one. Winter CHAP, 
is the best time for hauling the crop to the station, for the 
weather is dry, the roads are good, and the farmer has more 
time and more transport and labour available than at other 
seasons of the year. Moreover when the crop is once at the 
station it can be railed more promptly should a temporary 




Fig. igo. — Basuto "sesco" of woven grass, for storing grain. (Courtesy 
of the Director, MacGregor Memorial Museum, Kimberley.) 



rise in the market require immediate delivery. The large 
grower can provide his own store at the station, but for the 
small producer it may not be worth while to do so. The 
Bloemfontein Maize Conference of 1910, therefore, recom- 
mended that the Government be requested to erect covered 
storehouses at the chief inland grain exporting railway stations 



492 MAIZE 

CHAP, for the convenience of farmers and merchants, and that a 
charge be made for storing and holding the grain, to cover 
cost of such services ; regulations to be made to prevent grain 
from being held in such storehouses for speculative purposes. 

Owing to danger of increase of moisture and of injury 
by weevil and grain, in the damper atmosphere of the coast, 
the Bloemfontein Conference recognized that such stores, ware- 
houses or elevators should be erected at inland centres, at 
high altitudes (5,000 feet or over), preferably within about an 
engine run from the coast. It was stated that at low alti- 
tudes like Ladysmith (3,284 feet), maize could not be stored 
safely after the end of October on account of weevil. 

At such centres, nriaize could be stored until sufficient 
quantities of one grade were accumulated to furnish a cargo of 
that grade, which could be run down to the wharf by special 
fast freight. 

At some railway stations the Co-operative Societies have 
already erected warehouses for storing the grain of their 
members. 

The South African Railway Administration leases land for 
the erection of stores for storage, but not for trading purposes. 

In default of adequate storage, some farmers stack their 
grain under tarpaulins. This method is expensive and waste- 
ful, for a certain amount of grain is damaged by leakage of 
water. 

462. Yield of Grain from a Given Measure of Ears. — At the 
Government Experiment Farm, Potchefstroom, it has been 
found that a cubic yard of average husked ears will produce 
three muids (600 lbs.) of grain. In the United States it is 
found that 2 cubic feet of sound, dry maize on the cob will 
make a bushel (56 lbs.) of shelled grain. 

To get at the quantity of shelled grain in a hock, crib, or 
barn of cobs, measure the length, breadth, and height of the 
crib. Multiply the length by the breadth, and the product by 
the height. Then divide the product by 2 ; this gives the 
number of bushels in the crib. For example, if the crib or barn 
is 20 feet long, 10 feet broad, and 8 feet high, and this is 
packed with husked maize: an area 20 by 10 by 8, equals 
1,600 cubic feet ; divide by 2, and we get 800, the number of 
bushels of shelled grrain in the barn. 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



493 



463. Country Damage. — In some seasons the maize crop CHAP, 
is characterized by inferior quality in two directions: (i) by 
the abundance of poorly filled grains ; (2) by the prevalence 
of discoloured or rotten grains. 

Rotten grains occur largely at the tips of the ears, and are 
then due to weathering from exposure of the tip to the heavy 
rains of late summer. This exposure is caused by the short- 
ness of the husks, which in many cases allow the tip of the 
ear to become exposed. This character is one that can and 
should be bred out by breeding from parent plants having 
ears well covered by the sheath. 

In some cases the whole ear is made up of these rotten or 
discoloured grains ; this is sometimes due to breakage of a 
weak stem, which allows the ear to fall to the ground, where 
it lies in the wet till harvest. 

Where maize is grown on a large scale it is desirable that 
some means of removing damaged grains should be devised. 
Such damaged grains are lighter than sound ones ; by careful 
weight of a large number the writer found a difference of iz 
per cent to 40 per cent in their average weight as compared 
with an equal number of good grains, as shown in the follow- 
ing table (LXII); the weights were taken 30 October, 1909, 
at the end of the dry season. 

Table LXII. 
RELATIVE WEIGHT OF SOUND AND COUNTRY DAMAGED GRAIN. 



I Tea-box full of good grains weighs 

I „ „ bad ,, ,, . . . 

Difference in weight . . . . . 

I Percentage difference . . . . . 

j I Tea-box full of unselected grains weighed 

500 good ,, ,, ,, weigh 

500 bad ,, „ ,, ,, 



Difference in weight 
Percentage difference 



Hickory King. 



41 ozs. 

32-5 M 

8-5 ,. 
2073 percent 
40-50 ozs. 
15 



5 ozs. 
33-33 per cent 



Iowa Silver-mine. 



12 OZS. 

28*56 per cent 



675 ozs. 
4'oo ,, 



275 ozs. 
40 74 per cent 



With such a marked difference in weight it should be 
possible to remove the bad grains by means of a winnower or 



494 MAIZE 

CHAP, aspirator. The term "country damage" is applied to such 
'^^" grain, in the English corn trade, in contradistinction to 
damage in storage or transit. 

Pests of Stored Grain. 

Lay up for yourselves treasures . . . where neither moth nor rust doth 
corrupt. — Matthew vi. 20. 

464. Losses Accruing from Storage of Grain. — If maize is 
stored for any length of time, it is subject to injury from the 
ravages of weevils and other insects, and of rats and mice. 
Loss of weight and depreciation in quality result. Rats and 
mice occur all over the country, but weevils are most trouble- 
some at altitudes below 4,500 feet; the High-veld is therefore 
more suitable for the winter storing of maize prior to export, 
than localities at lower altitudes. 

465. Insects Injurious to Stored Grain. — The principal 
insects which are injurious to stored grain in South Africa 
are the larvae of (i) the angoumois grain-moth {Gelechia 
cerealelld) ; (2) the granary weevil iCalandra granaria) and 
the rice weevil {Calandra Dry see). 

As there is much confusion in the minds of merchants and 
others who handle and store grain, as to the way in which 
these insects live and propagate their kind, and as this ignor- 
ance of the actual facts makes it more difficult to combat the 
pest, a brief account of their life-history is here given. These 
insects either destroy, or greatly impair, the vitality 0^ the 
grain. Trucks, stores and ships become infested with the 
adult insects, and whole consignments of sound grain may 
thus become infected in transit. 

466. Weevils. — The popular idea with regard to weevils 
{Calandra granaria and C. Oryzce) is conveyed in the ex- 
pression often heard, that "Weevils come out of the grain but 
don't go into it ". Like many untrained observers, those who 
make this statement utter a half-truth, the knowledge of which 
is perhaps more dangerous than total ignorance of the subject. 
It is true that the weevil does not enter the grain in the 
same form as the mature insect which the merchant finds 
emerging from it in his store, or crawling over his bags of 
grain. But it is equally true that the weevil could not 
come out of the grain unless it had first gone into it ! How 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 



495 



are these two statements 
briefly : a few weevils 
are found crawling over 
the maize ears in the 
field ; they are carried 
into the yard or shed 
where the ears are stored 
for shelling, and thus find 
their way into the build- 
ings. When conditions 
are favourable, the female 
weevil lays her eggs on 
the maize-grain, near the 
soft end. From the q.%% 
there hatches out a min- 
ute grub which bores into 
the soft end of the grain 
and begins to feed there, 
gradually working to- 
wards the upper part of 
the grain, and eating out 
a tunnel large enough to 
fit its enlarging body, 
leaving only a thin piece 
of the hull between itself 
and the outer air ; it then 
pupates, and when com- 
bined conditions of mois- 
ture and temperature are 
favourable, the mature, 
blackish weevil pushes 
its way out of the hole. 
The two sexes then seek 
each other, mate, and 
the female lays her eggs ; 
thus the life cycle is 
complete. 

There may be several 
generations of weevils 
in a year. 



to be reconciled? The facts are 



CHAP. 

XI. 




Fig. 



igi.— Effect of larvic of the angoumois 
ain-moth on maize-grain in the ear. 



496 MAIZE 

CHAP. 467. The Angoinnois (}rain-iiiotli {Gelechia cerealelld). — 



XI. 



The eggs of the moth are laid on the grain and in due course 
the larva, in the form of a minute caterpillar or "worm," as in 
the case of the grub of the weevil, bores its way into the soft 
part of the grain, feeds and grows, pupates and finally emerges 
as a full-grown moth, ready to mate and lay a fresh lot of eggs. 
The holes in the grain formed by the larva of this insect are 
shown on Fig. 191. 

468. Remedies for Insect Pests. — The storage of grain in 
weevil-proof tanks and silos greatly reduces the loss from this 
source, but it is not entirely effective because weevils and grain- 
moths (in the &%g or larval stage, or even as adults) may be 
brought into the tanks with the grain, and thus start fresh 
infection. An application of carbon-bisulphide in the propor- 
tion of I lb. to I ton of grain or in empty tanks or stores 
I lb. for every i,O0O cubic feet, is said by entomologists 
to be the simplest and best remedy. This substance is highly 
explosive, and the greatest care must be exercised that no 
light be allowed in or near the place where the carbon-bisulphide 
is in use. 

The late Mr. C. B. Simpson, Entomologist of the Trans- 
vaal Department of Agriculture, replied as follows to a corre- 
spondent, in the Transvaal Agricultural Journal : — 

" You are indeed unfortunate on account of the fact that your 
mealies became infested in the field. The weevil usually hides 
in cracks and crevices, or in grain which is strewn about and 
attacks the new grain as soon as it is stored. A thorough 
cleaning of the building in which mealies are to be stored is, 
therefore, one of the best preventive measures. Many farmers 
in Natal and Cape Colony have found that large tanks, made 
of corrugated iron, are most admirable for storing mealies. 
These tanks, which hold from fourteen to fifteen bags of mealies, 
are filled almost to the top with the grain and a lighted candle 
is placed in the tank and is allowed to burn until the air is 
exhausted, after which the tank is securely closed. Some 
farmers go so far as to state that this burning candle kills all 
the weevils already in the grain and prevents others from 
entering; I do not, however, place any confidence in the 
candle as a destroyer of insects, but on account of the fact that 
the tank is tight, no insects can enter. Bags of mealies may 
be stored in tight iron buildings or large tanks. The ideal 



HARVESTING AND STORAGE 497 

granary from the standpoint of insect ravages should be built CHAP. 
at some distance from the other buildings and made as nearly ^I, 
vermin proof as possible, the doors should fit tightly, the 
windows covered with wire gauze, the floors, walls and ceilings 
should be smooth, so as not to afford any lurking place for 
insects, and it would be well to have them oiled, painted or 
white-washed ; a coat of coal tar has been strongly recommended 
for the latter purpose. 

" You are, undoubtedly, already aware that kiln-dried 
mealies are but little attacked by weevils ; however, this method 
has many disadvantages. 

" If the mealies have already been attacked by weevils, the 
following methods may be employed, which will depend largely 
upon the means at hand, as well as other conditions. The 
grain is put into some air-tight bin or barrel, such as may be 
at hand, and carbon bisulphide is applied. This chemical is 
a colourless liquid with a strong, disagreeable odour, vaporizes 
rapidly, is highly inflammable, explosive and poisonous. The 
vapour is about two and a half times heavier than air and, 
consequently, the liquid should be placed at the top of the 
bin. For large masses of grain, from i lb. to i^ lbs. is used 
to a ton of grain ; for smaller masses, i oz. is sufficient for 
100 lbs. of infested matter. The bins are rendered as air- 
tight as possible, and the liquid poured in into an open dish, 
which is placed upon the grain. The infested grain is gener- 
ally subjected to this treatment for 24 hours, but may be 
exposed much longer without harming it for milling purposes ; 
if not exposed for more than 36 hours, its germinating 
power will not be impaired nor is it rendered unfit for feeding 
purposes. 

"The greatest care should always be taken with this 
chemical, as the vapour is explosive and a lighted pipe or 
cigarette may be sufificient to cause a disastrous explosion. 
I am quite sure that you will find carbon bisulphide the best 
method for the purpose, as it is largely used in other countries 
with universal success." 

469. Rats and Mice in Maize Stores. — Rats and mice are 
as troublesome in South Africa as in other grain-producing 
countries. Numerous remedial measures have been recom- 
mended from time to time, in the Agricultural Journals of the 
several Colonies, but perhaps none of them is more efficacious 
than the old-fashioned cat or a good trap. 

32 



CHAPTER XII. 

COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN. 

Merchandising ... is the vena porta of wealth in a State. — Bacon, Essays. 

I thank my fortune for it, my ventures are not in one bottom trusted, nor to 
one place ; nor is my whole estate upon the fortune of this one year : therefore 
my merchandise makes me not sad. — Merchant of Venice. 

CHAP. 470. Time of Arrival of the South African Crop. — Harvest- 

^^^- ing of the earliest-maturing South African maize begins about 
the end of May on the Transvaal High-veld, but the grain is 
still apt to be rather wet. The real harvesting season begins 
on the High-veld towards the end of June, and in the Midlands 
of Natal about the middle of July. 

If earlier-maturing breeds were more extensively planted, 
there is no doubt that South Africa could begin to ship dry 
maize to arrive in Europe by the middle of June, especially if a 
better price could be secured to compensate for a possible lower 
yield per acre. 

471. Local Markets. — South Africa is not only fortunate in 
being able to produce good maize and in having an oversea 
market for it, but also in having an increasingly large and 
profitable local market for what is rapidly becoming the most 
important crop of the country. A local market is often better 
for the small producer than that oversea. Maize is the staple 
foodstuff of the South African native, both in his kraal or on 
the mines. The consumption on the mines is large, but may 
not be increasing materially ; there is, however, a rapidly 
increasing amount used for feeding stock such as ostriches, 
horses, mules, cattle and sheep ; in this connection it is well to 
remember that the United States, which at one time exported 
some 50 per cent of her crop, now exports barely i -5 per cent, 
although her total annual production has increased enormously 
in the same time. A repetition of history may be confidently 

498 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 499 

expected in the South African maize industry ; the consumption chap. 
of maize on the farms, and ev^entually also in local manufactures, ^"• 
will steadily increase. 

472. The Mines Trade. — With regard to the quantities of 
maize, maize meal, and other maize products such as samp, 
which are consumed on the mines of South Africa, actual 
statistics seem to be lacking. 

The method of feeding differs on different mines ; some 
buy the rations for the " boys," while others prefer to let 
them buy their own, on the ground that they are less likely to 
waste it. The amount given in rations also differs, some 
mines allowing as much as 3 lbs. of mielie meal a day for 
each boy, and some giving less than 2 lbs., making up the 
difference with other foodstuffs. 

According to the Transvaal Leader o{ 21 November, 1908, 
the local consumption of maize in " Johannesburg " was then 
calculated to be " at a low estimate " 70,000 muids per month, 
or 840,000 muids per annum ; but it is not certain how much 
of the Witwatersrand was included in this calculation, and it 
would also include the maize used for feeding draught animals, 
which is no inconsiderable item. The writer is informed, l^ow- 
ever, by one of the large controllers of mines on the Rand, 
that 2 lbs. of maize meal a day, for each native, may be 
considered a good average figure as a basis of calculation. 
According to the 191 1 census there were then employed in 
the mines of the Union 261,835 natives. Two pounds of meal a 
day is equivalent to 3-65 muids a year for each native, or a 
total of 955,69775 muids of mielie meal per annum. Allow- 
ing 8 per cent for ordinary loss in milling, this represents 
1,038,801 muids of maize consumed each year by the natives 
on the mines. 

473. Consumption on the Kimberley Mines. — Tables LXIII 
and LXIV show the amount of maize consumed by the 
properties of the De Beers Consolidated Mines, in the year 
191 2. With an average monthly population of 14,306 
natives and 1,173 draught animals, there is a total con- 
sumption of 

I5>396 bags of white mielie meal. 

934 ,, „ samp. 
13)02 5 ,, „ yellow maize. 
32 * 



AfAlZE 



CHAP. 
XII. 



Allowing for 8 per cent loss in milling the maize into mielie 

meal and samp, this represents 16,076 muids of white maize 

actually used. 

Table LXIII. 

MAIZE CONSUMED BY THE DE BEERS CONSOLIDATED MINES, 
LTD., DURING THE TWELVE MONTHS ENDING 31 DECEM- 
BER, 1912. 





Kind of 


Amount of Maize 


Average Number of 




Maize. 


Bags. 


Cattle. 


January 


Yellow 


1,181 


1,204 


February 








,, 


I, III 


1,161 


March . 










J 


1,006 


1,160 


April . 










, 


1,081 


i,i6r 


May . 












1,117 


i,i6g 


June . 












1,239 


1,182 


July • 












1,034 


^,159 


August 












1,053 


1,129 


September 










, 


981 


r,i55 


October 












1,084 


i,iq8 


November 












1,074 


1,204 


December 












1,064 


1,193 


Total (200 lbs. per bag) . 


. 13,025 


1,173 

(Average number of 

cattle per month.) 



Table LXIV. 
MAIZE MEAL CONSUMED IN THE COMPOUNDS OF THE DE 
BEERS CONSOLIDATED MINES, LTD., DURING THE TWELVE 
MONTHS ENDING 31 DECEMBER, 1912. 









Amount of 


Average Number 
of Boys. 




Meal. 


Maize Meal. 


January 


White 


1,391 


15,195 


February 




„ 


1,449 


14,910 


March 








1,271 


14.749 


April . 








1,491 


14,901 


May . 








1,338 


14,610 


une . 








1,143 


14,712 


. uly . 








1,400 


14.673 


August 








1,232 


14,192 


September 








1,190 


13,694 


October 








1,327 


13,436 


November 








957 


13,275 


December 








1,207 


13,329 


Total (r8 


J lbs. per bag) 


15,396 bags, 


14,306 


( = 18,856-4 muids of 20( 


3 lbs.) 


(average monthly 
population). 



Note. — 934 bags, each 196 lbs., of samp were also consumed in the Com- 
pany's Compounds, by the natives, during the year 1912. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN Soi 

474. Cape Stock Fanners. — A considerable quantity of CHAP, 
maize is imported into the Cape Province from the other 
Provinces, for feeding ostriches and other live-stock. During 
1908, 174,827 muids were exported from Durban to Cape 
ports. Since Union, reduction of railage rates has permitted 

the direct consignment of maize by rail from the interior 
Provinces to consuming centres in the Cape Province. 

475. The Native Trade. — The native trade provides a 
valuable local market for those farmers who live in proximity 
to Locations of sufficient importance. The South African native 
is characteristically lacking in thrift; no sooner is the crop 
harvested than he — or more often she — starts to barter it off 
for trinkets, salt, etc., without any thought of the future. The 
individual crop is small, and in this way soon exhausted ; 
then the native begins to buy back from the local store-keeper 
or farmer at greatly enhanced prices. The native's methods of 
agriculture are not conducive to the conservation of soil-moist- 
ure ; in seasons of only comparative drought his crop often 
fails, and he is compelled to purchase from the more successful 
white farmer, paying for his grain in labour or in kind. It is 
this improvidence which largely maintains the supply of native 
labour; if the native were himself a good farmer and thrifty, 
he would not be under the necessity of working for wages, 
and the white farmer would lose the benefit of his services. 

476. Local Prices. — There is no doubt that the establish- 
ment of an export trade for South African maize has had a 
steadying effect on the local market. Although it is true that 
before it was established farmers were often able to realize 
20s. per muid for their maize, it should not be forgotten that 
when there was a "bumper "crop prices fell to 4s. or even 
3s. per muid, figures at which maize-growing did not pay ; 
these low prices were due to the fact that production had 
exceeded local consumption ; now that it is possible to ex- 
port the surplus, the local market can no longer drop below 
paying prices. 

The following figures, culled at random from the pages of 
the several South African Agricultural Journals, the Keeling 
Agency Reports, etc., etc., will give some idea of the range of 
prices prevailing in the several markets. 



502 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
XII. 



Table LXV. 

VARIATION IN MAIZE PRICES IN SOUTH AFRICAN MARKETS. 

(Price per muid.) 



Date. 


Johannesburg. 


Kimberley. 

23/- 


Maritz- 
burg. 


Durban. 


Bulawayo. 


Salisbury. 


1904. March (i) . 


24/6 


_ 





32/6 


25/- 


„ Oct. (6) . 


10/9 to ir/g 




7/6 


— 


— 


— 


1905. Sept. (3) . 


8/- to 9/- 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1906. Feb. (4) . 


12/9 to 13/- 


14/6 to 16/- 


— 


— 


24/- to 25/- 


22/6 to 25/- 


„ Oct. (5) . 


13/6 to 13/9 


15/- 


— 


— 


19/- to 22/- 


17/- to 20/- 


1908. July (7) . 




8/g to 9/6 


— 


10/- 


— 


— 


„ March (11). 


8/- to 9/6 


— 


— 


12/6 to 15/- 


— 


— 


„ Feb. (8) . 


8/- to 8/9 


8/- to 10/- 


9/- 


9/6 


— 


— 


„ Nov. (10) . 


16/9 to 17/3 


— 




13/- to 14/- 


— 


— 


1909. Nov. (9) . 


7/10 to 9/3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1908. Oct. (12) . 


9/9 to Il/lO 


— 






~ 


~ 



(i) Rhodesian Agricultural yournal. Vol. I, No. 5, April, 1904, p. 143. 

(3) „ ,, „ Vol. Ill, No. I, October, 1905. 

(4) „ ,, ,, Vol. Ill, No. 3, February, 1906. 

(5) ,, „ ,, Vol. IV, No. I, October, 1906. 

(6) Natal Agricultural Journal, Vol. VII, No. 10, October, 1904, p. 1006. 

(7) „ ,. ,, Vol. X, No. 7, July, 1908, p. 914. 

(8) ,, ,, „ Vol. XI, No. 2, February, 1908, p. 229. 

(9) Circular of the Keeling Agency, Ltd., dated 19 November, 1909. 

(10) Transvaal Leader, 21 November, 1908. 
(ri) Natal Agricultural Journal, March, 1908. 
(12) ,, „ ,, October, 1908. 

The prices paid by the native are usually good ; in districts 
remote from rail-communication as much as 60s. per muid was 
paid in the years 191 1 and 1912. 

477. Classes of Maize called for in the Local Trade. — For 
the mills supplying the Rand Mines, the large, flat, white grain 
produced by Hickory King (8-row), \o-row Hickory, Hickory 
Horsetooth, Mercer, Ladysmith, and similar large-grained dent 
breeds, is in greatest demand when a choice is ofifered. This 
is partly due to " trade fancy," but millers state that there is 
less bran produced in milling these sorts than is the case with 
the small grain. Where there is no choice of white flats, any 
flat white dent is acceptable to the miller in preference to 
yellows or even to round whites. At one time, the writer is 
told, the natives employed on the mines would eat yellow mielie 
meal in preference to white, but now it is the exception for a 
Rand native to eat any but white meal. Various excuses are 
given — such as the undoubted difference in flavour between 
white and yellow meal ; the supposed injurious effect of yellow 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 



503 



meal on the digestive system, etc. But in view of the large CHAP, 
amount of yellow " corn-meal " consumed in the United States, ^"" 
one is scarcely prepared to accept these as valid reasons ; it 
seems more probable that the real cause is the tendency of the 
native to imitate the white man, and that as the white man in 
South Africa eats only white mielie meal, the native thinks 
he ought to do so too. The reason may also be partly com- 
mercial ; millers prefer to mill only one colour of maize, and 
may have been instrumental in gradually inducing the mine 
natives to use white meal, not onl)'' for that reason, but also 
because white maize is usually cheaper than yellow in the 
Johannesburg market. 

Table LXVI. 
COMPARATIVE LOCAL PRICES OF MAIZE CLASSES. 





Large White 
Flat. 


Small Yellow. 


White Round. 


Yellow. 


Mixed. 


Johannesburg, 












Sept., 1904 


10/9 to 11/3 


— 


— 


11/- to 11/9 





Johannesburg, 












Sept., 1905 


8/6 to 9/- 


— 


— 


8/- to 8/6 





Johannesburg, 












Feb., 1906 . 


13/- 


— 


— 


12/9 


— 


Kimberley, 












Feb., 1906 . 


14/6 to 15/6 


— 


— 


15/3 to i6/- 





Cape Town, 












Sept. (1906) 


11/9 to 12/- 


13/3 to 13/6 


— 


12/- to 12/9 


11/9 to 12/- 


Kimberley, 












Sept. (1906) 


— 


— 


8/- to 9/6 


8/6 to 10/- 


7/- to 9/- 


Bulawayo, 












Oct., 1906 . 


21/- to 22/- 


— 


— 


19/- to 20/- 


_ 


Kimberley, 












Dec. (1906) 


— 


— 


9/- to 10/- 


9/- to 10/3 


8/9 to 9/9 


Cape Tuwn, 












14 Feb., 1908 . 


13/- to 13/6 


13/6 to 13/9 


— 





_ 


Cape Town, 












14 Feb., 1908 . 


13/9 to 14/- 


— 


— 


13/6 to 13/9 


13/- 


Kimberley, 












14 Feb., 1908 . 


— 


— 


8/6 to 10/- 


8/6 to 10/- 


8/- to 9/3 


Pretoria, 












14 Feb., 1908 . 


8/3 to 11/- 


— 


— 


8/6 to 11/- 


8/6 to 10/- 


Cape Town, 












II July, 1908 


12/6 to 12/9 


14/9 to 15/- 


_ 


14/6 to 15/- 





Johannesburg, 












Oct., 1908 . 


9/9 to 1 1/5 


— 





11/610 Il/lO 





Johannesburg, 












19 Nov., 1909 1 . 


8/3 to 8/5 


— 


7/10 to 8/- 


9/- to 9/3 


7/10 to 8/- 



Small white flat, 8/- to 8/3. 



504 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
XII. 



For feeding draught animals, however, on the Witwaters- 
rand, in Kimberley, and elsewhere, there is a demand {ox yclloiv 
maize, based on the idea that white is injurious to stock, espe- 
cially to horses and mules. And in these markets yellows 
generally command 6d. to is. per muid more than whites. 

That this demand is by no means small or to be despised 
is shown by the amount consumed by the De Beers Con- 
solidated Mines, Ltd., alone (II473). This class of trade will 
not buy white maize. 

The municipality of Johannesburg and the firms of cartage 
contractors on the Rand are large buyers of yellows ; in 
November, 1908, the municipality referred to was reported to 
have purchased 4,000 muids of yellows at l6s. pd, {Transvaal 
Leader, 21 November, 1908). 

478. Comparative Local Prices of Maize Classes. — 'The 
comparative figures in Table LXVI have been taken at random 
from the pages of the various South African Agricultural 
Journals. 

Table LXVI I. 

NATAL PRODUCTION, IMPORT AND RE-EXPORT OF MAIZE AND 

MAIZE PRODUCTS, 1904-6.1 



Maize produced in Natal 



1904. 

Lbs. 

155,301,600 



1905. 1906. 

Lbs. Lbs. 

140,098,000 113,608,200 



Imports :— 
By Sea . 
Overland 


• 43,638,365 
190,000 


524,627 
884,626 

1,409,253 


1,299,853 
2,530,510 




43,828,365 

180,534 

8,736,101 

4,881,551 

16,270,817 

152,120 


3,830,363 


Exports (not S.A.P.^):— 
By Sea . 
Cape Colony . 
Orange River Colony 
Transvaal 
Southern Rhodesia 
Basutoland . 


19,775 

133,592 

80 

1,042,696 

6,985 

1,203,128 


48 
20 




30,221,123 


68 


Exports (S.A.P.2):— 
By Sea . 
Cape Colony . 
Orange River Colony 
Transvaal 
Southern Rhodesia 


899,208 
• 17,071,092 

599,679 

. 30,143,272 

1,000 


4,628,088 

79,638,771 

314,023 

44,668,807 

13,200 


1,390,216 
39,404,961 

450,477 

31,874,661 

508,600 




48,714,251 


129,262,889 


73,628,915 



1 From N.A.y., Vol. X, No. 9, Sept., 1907. 
2 S. A. P. = South African Produce. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 



505 



479. Transvaal Maize Imports. — A further idea of the local CHAP, 
consumption is gained fronn the figures of Transvaal imports ^^^* 
furnished by the South African Customs Statistical Bureau. 
F^rom these we find that in addition to the large amount pro- 
duced locally in this colony alone, she imported in the year 
1907 (chiefly from Natal and the Orange River Colony) 
389,649 muids of maize, valued at ;^i 77,006. The preceding 
table (LXVII) shows the export from Natal to the Trans- 
vaal in 1904, 1905, and 1906, both of Natal grown and im- 
ported maize. 

Table LXVIII. 
TRANSVAAL MAIZE IMPORTS, 1907 and 1908. 




S.A.P. = South African Produce. 
Snmmarv. 



S.A.P. . 
Not S.A.P. 



Muids 



Lbs. 
34,172,994 
70.852 



34,243,846 
171,219 



265 



Lbs. 
74,878,129 
151.365 



75,029,494 
375,147 



£ 
167,438 
370 



167,808 



480. Rapid Increase in Production. — With the settlement 
of the Transvaal after the war, there soon came a great in- 



CHAP. 
XII. 



506 



MAIZE 



crease in the area planted to maize ; farmers realized that they 
had a good local market, worth competing for. 

The increase in local production was so rapid that the 
imports into the Transvaal fell from 375,147 muids in 1907 
to 171,219 in 1908, a reduction of about 55 per cent. From 
1904 to 1908 the value of the imports of maize and maize 
products fell from ^^"2 18,689 to ^74,017, a reduction of about 
66 per cent. 





Maize. 


Maize Meal. 


Total. 


Fiscal Year — 


£ 


I 


£ 


1904-5' • 


194.324 


24,335 


218,659 


1905-6' . 


141,300 


23.329 


164,629 


Calendar Year— 








1907 


— 


— 


167,808 


1908 


" 


~ 


74,017 



These figures are instructive in view of the fact that the 
consumption was increasing during this period, owing to the 
increase in mine development and in number of boys employed. 
No doubt this decline, which largely affected Natal, helped 
to induce that colony to look elsewhere and oversea for a 
new market. 

There is no question that there will be an enormous in- 
crease in the production of South African maize within the 
near future. The falling off in exports during the season 
191 1 -1 2 and the poor prospects for the season 191 2-1 3 are 
merely temporary phases, due to a series of unprecedented 
droughts ; to be able to do as well as South Africa has done 
under such adverse conditions, proves the soundness of the 
basis on which the industry has been established. But it is 
equally clear that however good her local markets may be, she 
must look to an export trade for the building up and main- 
tenance of the industry. The time is coming when, instead of 
exporting grain for the manufacture oversea of articles which 
are required for consumption in South Africa, large factories 
will be established for the local manufacture of maize products. 
In time, also, every farmer will be feeding his stock on maize 
and turning it into beef, mutton, pork, wool, or ostrich feathers 

' Figures furnished by llie South African Customs Statistical Bureau. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 507 

for export. But even then there must be a surphis to send over- CHAP 
sea. No farmer will be able to carry stock enough — in the maize ^"' 
belt at least — to consume all the maize he can produce, and 
every farmer will be well advised to plant a larger acreage than 
his anticipated local requirement, to provide against the partial 
failure of his crop. Although the United States no longer 
grows for export, her surplus is no mean figure, and she still 
furnishes huge cargoes of maize for the European markets — in 
fact she continues to be the largest supplier. However much 
local consumption increases. South Africa may always expect 
to have a good surplus. The recent ill-advised outcry 
against the export trade suggests an origin in the selfish 
motives of those who see that the steadying influence of 
the export reduces their chances of exploiting the local 
market. 

481. Importance of the Export Trade. — It may be ac- 
cepted as a fact that but for the export trade, the production 
of maize in South Africa could not have gone ahead as it has 
done ; the local market alone, although good, was too easily 
flooded. The export of South African maize stimulates local 
trade, ofl"ers a profitable outlet for the surplus crop of the 
country, and prevents the accumulation of supplies and conse- 
quent glutting, with the inevitable result of low prices. While 
it is true that it is more profitable to export manufactured or 
second products than the raw materials or first products, 
there are conditions — especially in a new country — under 
which it is desirable to export the raw material. It has been 
said by a well-known South African financier that every 
sovereign brought into the country from oversea is worth 
two of those which merely change hands locally, because the 
former brings capital into the country, and in a new country 
capital is badly needed for the development of its agricultural 
resources. 

482. Oversea Markets. — There is always a ready market 
for maize in Europe, as it is one of the best and most largely 
used foods for stock and poultry, and is also an important 
item in the distillation of whisky and gin, the brewing of beer, 
the manufacture of starch, glucose, etc., and the preparation 
of foodstuffs for human consumption. 

Manufacturers in Europe are constantly finding new uses 



So8 MAIZE 

CHAP, for maize and the demand is steadily increasing. Owing to 
the increase in population in other producing countries of the 
world, the tendency is for them to export less and less ; and 
the climatic conditions seem to preclude any very great in- 
crease in area available for maize production in those countries. 
With an increasing demand for maize and a tendency for the 
supply to diminish rather than to increase, there is a golden 
opportunity for South Africa to step into the market already 
made for her. This market is practically limitless and will 
take all that she can produce. 

South African maize, when shipped in a thoroughly dry 
condition (to ensure which it is desirable not to export before 
I July), sells readily and commands good prices on the 
European markets. Owing to its relatively dry condition 
it is in good demand, but the great difficulty of the oversea 
merchant is to find enough of it to meet this demand. 
There is a danger that unless European consignees can de- 
pend upon steady and regular supplies. South African trade 
will not be permanently established. 

It is therefore to the advantage of the South African 
farming community, as a whole, to increase the output and 
establish a permanent market. It has been demonstrated by 
actual experience that South Africa can produce maize at a 
cost that permits of profitable oversea export. 

483. Eiiropean Consumption. — The United Kingdom is the 
largest and best single oversea market for maize. It absorbs 
during the year something like 30,000,000 (thirty million) 
muids of maize, or nearly as much as the whole of continental 
Europe, which, at an average value of los. per muid or ^5 per 
ton of 2,000 lbs., represents ;^i 5,000,000 (fifteen million 
pounds). Why should not the South African farmer earn a 
fair share of this amount and so enrich both himself and his 
country ? 

If South Africa can caj^ture but a fifth of this trade it will 
mean about ^2,500,000 after allowing for freight and other 
charges, and such a sum would obviously be a valuable help 
to the country. But she can do so only by putting on the 
market an article which is either better than, or cheaper than, 
that supplied by other competing countries, or at a time when 
they are unable to compete. Otherwise she must rely on 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 509 

increased demand and decreasing supplies to open these CHAP, 
markets, at best an uncertain and unreliable policy. 

The continent of Europe, especially Germany, Holland, 
Belgium and France, is a large and increasing consumer. 
In the eight months ended 30 August, 1907, Europe im- 
ported 18,000,000 quarters (432,000,000 muids) of maize, of 
which 8,000,000 went to the United Kingdom and 10,000,000 
to the Continent. Of this amount the United States supplied 
the largest proportion. South Africa has also exported to 
the Canary Islands, Madeira, St. Helena, Australia, Mexico, 
Canada, India, Ceylon, Portuguese East Africa, Portuguese 
West Africa, Rhodesia, Katanga, Nyassaland, British East 
Africa, the Kerguelen Islands and Madagascar. 

The shipments made by South Africa in 1908 are small 
in com]3arison with what they may or ought to be. It should 
be remembered that in 1906 over 27,260,000 muids of maize 
were imported into England. If only y^o P^i't of the whole 
of South Africa were planted with maize it would be 
7,100,000 acres; estimating an average of four muids per 
English acre, the yield would be 28,400,000 muids, or a net 
weight of 5,680,000,000 lbs., a little over the amount con- 
sumed in England alone, without allowing for the enormous 
and increasing quantity used on the Continent. 

484. Possibility of Developing Trade with Canada. — The 
Canadian Trades Commissioner in Cape Town reported some 
time ago that large quantities of white maize are imported into 
Canada every year for manufacturing purposes, from dis- 
tances up to 1,500 miles by rail. Several shipments of South 
African Flat White maize were made, between 1907 and 1910, 
to the Ogilvie Flour Mill Co. of Montreal, and were pro- 
nounced the finest ever seen by them. 

The Archer Manufacturing Company, St. John, N.B., re- 
ported that if the price could compete with that of the Ameri- 
can article, a very large business could be done, Canadian 
steamers visit South African ports every month, and it is 
thought that the owners would be prepared to quote low 
freights for return cargoes. 

485. Egypt as a Possible Market. — Although Egypt is a 
considerable producer of maize, there seems to be an opening 
for the South African article in that country. The following 



5IO MAIZK 

CHAP, letter from a correspondent at Helouan, near Cairo, was pub- 
*^^^' lished in the Transvaal Agricultural Journal, Vol. VII, No. 26, 
page 309, January, 1909: — 

Having made inquiries here as to the demands and price 
of maize, I think the opportunity offers of doing a certain 
amount of business if I can obtain shipments, properly bagged 
and of uniform quality and size. I am prepared to do business 
with the Government, that is, if they have a department which 
is superintending the shipment of maize, or with a reliable 
firm, but I must impress upon you that if a shipment is not of 
uniform quality, and according to samples, it will destroy all 
confidence with the bank that advances on grain, and also 
local buyers, and will prevent me establishing a trade. I know 
the Government is doing its utmost to encourage export, and 
I leave it to them to see that 1 am protected. 

Methods of Dealing. — There are two ways : — 

1. Selling on commission, that is, for firms, which does 

not appeal to me. 

2. Buying direct. This would be better for both parties, 

as it might be necessary for me to split up the ship- 
ment and sell it in different districts. 

Method of Shipment. — The sellers would ship via East 
Coast to Suez, avoiding canal dues. The shipping companj' 
might grant low rates for some time in order to start the trade. 

Prices. — Sellers' prices include insurance and everything 
else, including landing charges by steamer at Suez. 

Duty. — Payable by me at Suez. 

Samples. — I would require 5 lb. samples of the different 
grades, with inclusive price, sent me every six weeks. 

Method of Purchasing. — I should purchase by cable, and 
on receipt of your advices through which bank and on whom 
to draw. I use the expression on whom, as I may have to 
deal with some firms here who have agencies in the provinces, 
and the facilities for storing grain. 

Prices. — State price per 100 lbs, 

486. India. — Although India is herself a large producer 
the possibilities of that country as a market for South African 
maize should not be overlooked, especially in the periodically 
recurring seasons of drought. 

487. Australia. — The direct service of steamers to Australia 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 



511 



and New Zealand affords the opportunity of developing a ^^AP- 
market there, especially to the stock-raising centres. The fact 
that South African cargoes for Australia do not cross the 
Equator should enable them to arrive iti excellent condition. 
Some extensive shipments have recently been made. 

488. Prices in European Markets. — Of some of the early 
consignments of South African maize, exported in 1907, it 
was reported: "The consignments of Natal mielies which 
have recently come to hand have met an active market, as 
much as 26s., and in some cases 26s. 6d. per quarter having 
been realized. A large quantity has reached Hamburg, Antwerp, 
and Rotterdam, during the last few days, to be used for dis- 
tilling purposes, and good business is stated to have been done." ^ 

489. Prices on the English Market, 1880- 1908. — During the 
thirty years from 1880 to 1909 the average yearly price of 
" American " and Argentine maize on the English markets has 
fluctuated between 12s. 9d. per quarter (5s. 3|d. per muid) in 
1897, to 28s. per quarter (lis. 8d. per muid) in 1882. The 
mean of the yearly averages for the twenty-nine years from 
1880 to 1908 was as follows: — 





London Market. 


Liverpool Market. 


Per Quarter. 


Per Muid. Per Quarter. 


Per Muid. 


American Mixed Maize . 
La Plata Maize, 20 years 


S. D. 
21 37 
19 8-3 


S. D. S. D. 
8 10-56 20 5-3 
8 2-47 19 3-4 


s. D. 
8 6-21 
8 0-41 



The average yearly prices of American mixed and La 
Plata yellow maize, for London and Liverpool, prompt ship- 
ment, per quarter of 480 lbs., for the years 1 880-1908, inclusive, 
will be found in Table LXIX. 

From the following table we see that the average price of 
American and La Plata maize has been rising steadily from 
the year 1897, with but a slight drop in 1904. 

490. The High London Prices of 1907-8. — The beginnings 
of the South African export trade are traceable to the con- 
junction of two fortuitous circumstances: (i) the temptingly 
high prices prevailing in Europe, and (2) increased production 

^N.A.y., Vol, X, No. 10, Oct., 1907. 



512 



MAIZE 



CHAP, of maize in 
XII 



the Transvaal and Orange Free State, which not 
only made it unnecessary to import from oversea, but seriously 
curtailed the demand for Natal maize on the mines, at the 
same time that her own production was increasing enormously. 

Table LXIX. 

AVERAGE YEARLY PRICES OF AMERICAN AND LA PLATA 
MAIZE IN LONDON. 



London, per 480 lbs. 




Liverpool, per 


^8o lbs. 


Year. 


American. 


La Plata. 


Year. 


American. 


La Plata. 




.S. D. 


S. D. 




S. D. 


s. n. 


1908 


24 II 


23 6 


1908 


24 9 


24 


1907 


22 9 


24 6 


IQ07 


22 6 


24 


1906 


20 9 


20 6 


1906 


20 6 


20 2 


1905 


20 9 


21 6 


1905 


20 6 


21 3 


1904 


20 3 


20 2 


1904 


20 I 


19 II 


1903 


20 7 


20 2 


1903 


20 4 


19 9 


1902 


21 2 


22 3 


1902 


20 II 


21 7 


1901 


21 9 


21 8 


1901 


20 I 


20 7 


1900 


19 


19 II 


1900 


18 I 


19 6 


1899 


17 2 


17 7 


1899 


15 10 


17 


1898 


16 4 


19 


1898 


15 5 


18 9 


1897 


14 6 


14 5 


1897 


12 9 


13 II 


1896 


14 7 


14 


1896 


13 5 


14 5 


1895 


18 8 


17 10 


1895 


17 9 


17 6 


1894 


19 6 


Failure 


1894 


19 2 


F'ailure 


1893 


19 10 


„ 


1893 


18 8 


„ 


1892 


21 


20 6 


1892 


20 3 


20 


1891 


26 6 


Failure 


1891 


26 5 


Failure 


1890 


20 6 


19 10 


1890 


19 7 


18 6 


1889 


18 6 


17 9 


1889 


18 


17 5 


1888 


22 3 


21 3 


1888 


21 5 


20 7 


1887 


20 8 


20 


1887 


19 6 


19 6 


1886 


19 10 


17 6 


1886 


20 


17 4 


1885 


21 9 


None shipped 


1885 


21 6 


None shipped 


1884 


22 


,, 


1884 


21 11 


,, 


1883 


26 6 


,, 


1883 


26 6 


,, 


1882 


28 


,, 


1882 


27 


,, 


1881 


25 9 


,, 


1881 


26 


„ 


1880 


24 


" 


1880 


24 


" 



In July, 1907, when it became necessary for Natal to find 
an outlet for her new season's crop, London prices were firm. 
23s. lo^d. per 492 lbs. was paid for Galatz-Foxanian maize 
ex steamer. In September, 1907, South Russian realized 
26s. 6d. per 492 lbs. and La Plata 26s. 6d. per quarter ; 
in September, 1908, La Plata rose to 26s. lo^d. per quarter, 
and in December to 27s. 6d. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 513 

The high prices maintained during 1907 and 1908 were CHAP, 
said to be due to the increased demand for maize for stock 
food and manufacture in the United Kingdom and on the 
Continent, coupled with very unfavourable reports of the crops 
in all three of the leading areas of production, the United 
States, Argentina, and South-Eastern Europe. 

491. Early Export Prices for South African Maize. — 
When in 1908 American Mixed averaged 24s. iid. on the 
London market, and La Plata 23s. 6d., South African White 
Flat realized 26s. to 28s. per quarter, i.e. los. lod. to lis. 8d. 
per muid. 

In September, 1 908, sixty -eight bags of Transvaal white 
maize shipped per S.S. " Tintagel Castle," for the Government, 
were sold at 26s. 6d. per quarter ex ship. A consignment of 
770 bags of white maize below grade sold at 27s. per quarter 
c.i.f ; "this maize was of an irregular description, and it was 
solely owing to Plate maize coming forward damaged that so 
high a price was obtained ". 

In September, 1909, South African yellow round, in passage 
to London, sold at 27s. 7-jd., a fall of nearly is. on the previous 
quotation. Prices were further reported as follows : — 



South African w.f., choice 
,, ,, w.f., f.a.q. 

,, ,, w.r., f.a.q. 

,, ,, y.r., f.a.q. 



7 October, 1909 



25s. 9d. to 26s. 3d. 
25s. 6d. to 26s. 
24s. 6d. to 25s. 
24s. gd. 



South African w.f., choice . 27s. 6d. for delivery Hamburg, October 

and November shipment. 
,, ,, y.r. . . . 24s. arrived. 

12 October, igog. 
South African y.r., afloat 24s. 

14 October, iqog. 
South African w.f., afloat ...... 25s. 



zi 



SM 



MAIZE 



CHAP. 
XII. 



Table LXX. 

PRICES OF SOUTH AFRICAN MAIZE IN EUROPE, 2 NOVEMBER, 
1909. 1 

Translation of Cable No. 48, Received from the Agent-general, dated London, 
2 November, igog. 

November or December shipment. Market is reported steady. 



Choice White 
F.A.Q. White 
Choice Yellow 
F.A.Q. Yellow 



Choice White 
F.A.Q. White 
Choice Yellow 
F.A.Q. Yellow 



Choice White 
F.A.Q. White 
Choice Yellow 
F.A.Q. Yellow 



Choice White 
F.A.Q. White 
Choice Yellow 
F.A.Q. Yellow 



Per 480 Lbs. Net. 
s. d. 
25 6 
25 
25 
25 



li 



Amsterdam. 



Hamburg. 



25 5 
25 2 
25 o 
24 io| 



25 5 
25 2 
25 o 
24 loj 



Per 200 


Lbs. Net. 


s. 


d. 


to 


7i 


10 


6i 


10 


5i 


10 


5 


10 


8 


10 


6:V 


10 


n 


10 


5 


10 


7 


10 


5l 


10 


5 


10 


4i 


10 


7 


10 


5? 


10 


5 


10 


4* 



The first column represents the cabled quotations per quarter of 480 lbs., 
and the second column for each port shows the equivalent price per 200 lbs. net. 

By deducting 2s. 8d. per bag from the figures in the last 
column, we get the net price realized by the South African 
shipper. 



From Transvaal Agricultural yoiirnal. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 



515 



Table LXXI. CHAP, 

COMPARATIVE PRICES OF SOUTH AFRICAN MAIZE IN EUROPE XII. 
DURING FEBRUARY, 1910.1 





Per Quarter of 480 lbs. 


I Feb. 


9 Feb. 


15 Feb. 


23 Feb. 




s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


London — 










Choice White .... 


27 


26 10 


27 


26 6 


F.A.Q. White .... 


26 g 


26 9 


26 9 


26 3 


Choice Yellow .... 


26 10 


26 10 


26 10 


26 3 


F.A.Q. Yellow . . . . 


26 9 


26 10 


26 9 


26 


Amsterdam — 










Choice White .... 


27 4 


27 6 


27 6 


26 7 


F.A.Q. White .... 


27 r 


27 3 


27 3 


26 6 


Choice Yellow .... 


27 3 


27 3 


27 3 


26 6 


F.A.Q. Yellow . . . . 


27 I 


27 I 


27 


26 3 


Antwerp- — 










Choice White . . . . 


27 3 


27 3 


27 3 


26 4 


F.A.Q. White .... 


27 I 


27 


,27 


26 3 


Choice Yellow .... 


27 I 


27 I 


27 


26 4 


F.A.Q. Yellow .... 


27 


27 


26 10 


26 I 


Hamburg — 










Choice White .... 


27 3 


26 10 


26 10 


26 3 


F.A.Q. White .... 


27 


26 7 


26 7 


25 9 


Choice Yellow .... 


27 


26 7 


26 7 


26 3 


F.A.Q. Yellow .... 


26 10 


26 6 


26 6 


26 



Fractions of a penny have been omitted. 

On 30 November, 1910, South African Flat White sold at 
23s. per quarter ex quay, while both Odessa and La Plata 
were 21s. per quarter ex ship. 

On I December, 1910, it was reported that South African 
was "too dear" for the London market, at 21s. 6d. for choice 
and 20s. 9d. to 21s. 2d. for f.a.q., so attention was directed to 
American which was selling at 19s. 7|d. to 20s. 

492. Changing Prices per Quarter to Prices per Muid. — In 
the London market maize is always sold by weight, the unit 
being the " quarter " of 480 lbs. To convert the market quota- 
tions from quarters to muids, we may remember that : — 

24s. per quarter is equal to los. per muid. 
36s. „ „ 15s. 

6s. ,, ,, 2S. 6d. ,. 

IS. ,, „ 5d. ,, 

3d. „ „ lid. „ 

' From the SoM</i African National Union Journal, March, 1910; supplied 
by the Central Agency for Co-operative Societies. 



Si6 



MAIZE 



CHAP. The followiiiir table is useful for ready reference : — 

XII. 

Table LXXII. 

TO CHANGE PRICES PER QUARTER TO PRICES PER MUID. 



Per 
Quarter. 


Equivalent per Muid. 


Per 
Quarter. 


Equivalent per 
Muid. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


S. d. 


S. d. 


O I 


o'4i66 


16 


6 8 


O 2 


o 0-8333 


17 


7 I 


o 3 


1-2500 (i.e. i|d.) 


18 


7 ^ 


o 4 


1-6666 


ig 


7 II 


o 5 


2-0833 


20 


8 4 


6 


2-5000 (i.e. 2^d.) 


21 


8 9 

9 2 


o 7 


2-9166 


22 


8 


3-3333 


23 


9 7 


O Q 


37500 (i.e. 3iid.) 


24 


10 


O 10 


4-1666 




II 

1 


4-5833 

5-0000 (i.e. 5d.) 


25 

26 


10 5 
10 10 


2 O 


10 


27 


" I 


3 o 

4 o 


I 3 

I 8 


28 


II 8 


29 


12 I 


5 o 


2 I 


30 


12 6 


6 o 


2 6 


31 


12 II 






32 


13 4 


7 

8 o 


2 II 

3 4 


33 

34 


13 9 

14 2 


9 o 


3 9 


35 


14 7 


10 o 


4 2 


36 


15 


II o 


4 7 






12 O 


5 


37 


15 5 




^—. 


38 


15 10 


13 o 


5 5 


39 


16 3 


14 o 


5 10 


40 


16 8 


15 o 


6 3 





493- Changing Pt'ices per 1,000 Kilograms to Prices per 
Muid. — Maize is usually quoted on the continental market at 
so many marks per 1,000 kilograms. The English sterling 
value of a mark is ii-75d. ; a kilogram equals 2-20462 lbs. 
avoirdupois, therefore 1,000 kilograms equals 2,204-62 lbs. or 
1 1 muids 4^ lbs. For conversion table see Table LXXIII. 

494. Market Reports. — The position of the local South 
African maize markets can be gleaned from the pages of the 
Union Agricultural Journal, issued monthly, free in South 
Africa, from the Government Printing Works, Pretoria. 

Among the papers which report the oversea market 
are : — 

George Broomhall's Corn Trade News (Liverpool). 

The Corn Trade News (Mark Lane, London). 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 



517 



Table LXXIII. 

TO CHANGE PRICES PER 1,000 KILOGRAMS TO PRICES PER 
MUID. 



CHAP. 
XII. 



Marks. 


Per 1,000 Kilo- 
grams (2,204-6 
Lbs.). 


Per 200 Lbs. 
Net. 


Marks. 


Per 1,000 Kilo- 
grams (2,204-6 
Lbs.). 


Per 


200 Lbs. 
Net. 




£ s. d. 


s. d. 




£ s. d. 


s. 


d. 


I 


iij 


1-06555 


102 


4 19 lo^ 


9 


0-72 


2 


I 11^ 


2-1319 


103 


5 loj 


9 


1-79 


3 


2 ii| 


3-1979 


104 


5 I 10 


9 


2-86 


4 


3 II 


4-2638 


105 


5 2 9l 


9 


3-92 


5 


4 lof 


5-329 


106 


5 3 9i 


9 


4-99 


6 


5 10^ 


6-3957 


107 


5 4 9i 


9 


6-05 


7 


6 io| 


7-4617 


108 


5 5 9 


9 


7-12 


8 


7 10 


8-5276 


109 


5 6 8| 


9 


8-i8 


9 


8 9l 


9*59355 


no 


5 7 8i 


9 


9-25 


10 


9 9i 


10-6595 


III 


5 8 8i 


9 


10-32 


15 


14 8J 


I 3-99 


112 


5 9 8 


9 


11-39 


20 


ig 7 


I 9-32 


113 


5 10 7f 


10 


0-45 


25 


I 4 5l 


2 2-65 


114 


5 II 7i 


10 


1-51 


40 


I 19 2 


3 6-64 


115 


5 12 7i 


10 


2-68 


50 


2 8 II* 


4 5-30 


116 


5 13 7^ 


10 


3-65 


55 


2 13 loj 


4 10-63 


117 


5 14 6f 


10 


4-72 


60 


2 18 9 


5 3-96 


118 


5 15 6i 


10 


5-78 


65 


3 3 7i 


5 9-28 


119 


5 16 6i 


10 


6-85 


70 


3 8 bh 


6 2-62 


120 


5 17 6 


10 


7*914 


71 


3 9 6J 


6 3-68 


121 


5 18 5l 


10 


8-98 


72 


3 10 6 


6 475 


122 


5 19 5i 


10 


10-04 


73 


3 II 5l 


6 5-8i 


123 


6 5i 


10 


ii-ii 


74 


3 12 5i 


6 6-88 


124 


6 I 5 


II 


o-i8 


75 


3 13 5i 


6 7-95 


125 


6 2 4f 


II 


1-24 


76 


3 14 5^ 


6 9-01 


126 


6 3 4i 


II 


2-31 


77 


3 15 4f 


6 io-o8 


127 


6 4 4i 


II 


3-37 


78 


3 16 41 


6 11-14 


128 


6 5 4 


II 


4-44 


79 


3 17 4i 


7 0-21 


129 


6 6 3I 


II 


5-51 


80 


3 18 4 


7 1-28 


130 


6 7 3i 


II 


6-57 


81 


3 19 3l 


7 2-34 


131 


6 8 3i 


II 


7-64 


82 


4 3i 


7 3-41 


132 


693 


II 


8-70 


83 


4 I 3i 


7 4'47 


133 


6 10 2| 


II 


9-77 


84 


423 


7 5'54 


134 


6 II 2^ 


II 


10-84 


85 


4 3 2| 


7 6-60 


135 


6 12 2j 


II 


11*90 


86 


4 4 2j 


7 7-67 


136 


6 13 2 


12 


0-97 


Vo 


4 5 2j 


7 8-74 


137 


6 14 If 


12 


2-04 


88 


4 6 2 


7 9-8o 


138 


6 15 4 


12 


3-IO 


89 


4 7 If 


7 10-87 


139 


6 16 li 


12 


4-17 


90 


4 8 li 


7 11-935 


140 


6 17 I 


12 


5-23 


91 


4 9 li 


8 i-oo 


141 


6 18 of 


12 


6-30 


92 


4 10 I 


8 2-07 


142 


6 19 0^ 


12 


7-36 


93 


4 II o| 


8 3-13 


143 


7 oi 


12 


8-43 


94 


4 12 oj 


8 4-20 


144 


710 


12 


9 49 


95 


4 13 oi 


8 5-265 


145 


7 I III 


12 


10-56 


96 


4 14 


8 6-33 


146 


7 2 iij 


12 


11-63 


97 


4 14 iif 


8 7-40 


147 


7 3 iij 


13 


0-69 


98 


4 15 ii| 


8 S-46 


148 


7 4 II 


13 


1-76 


99 


4 16 11^ 


8 9-53 


149 


7 5 lof 


13 


2-83 


100 


4 17 II 


8 10-595 


150 


7 6 10^ 


13 


3-89 


lOI 


4 18 loj 


8 11-66 











5i8 MAIZE 

CHAP. Beerbohm's Evening Corn Trade List (London). 

George Dornbusch's Floating Cargoes Eve?ii?tg List. 
Cincimiatti Price Current. 
Orayige Judd Farmer. 

495. Prices Affected by the World's Supply and Detnand. — 
Prices are governed by the European demand for maize for 
stock food, and also by the surplus supply available from the 
larger producing countries. The world's supply is increasing, 
and it is only the recurrence of unfavourable seasons, in 
various parts of the producing area, that has kept prices so 
high. Nevertheless the world's demand for maize for stock 
feeding and manufacturing purposes is also increasing rapidly, 
and this will tend to keep prices up, though it cannot reason- 
ably be expected that they will remain as good as they have 
been in recent years. 

496. Sotne Factors which Control Prices in the World's Maize 
Market. — South Africa is in the rather fortunate position of 
being able to market her maize before the North American 
crop is in sight, and after the bulk of the Argentine crop has 
been moved. Nevertheless the crops of these two regions will, 
for some time to come, largely govern the prices obtainable for 
South African maize in the European markets. The size 
and condition of the .South European crop also affects prices. 
In those quarters in which maize can be substituted for wheat, 
or wheat for maize, either as food or in the arts and manu- 
factures, fluctuations in the size of the world's wheat crop also 
affect the maize market. 

497. The World's Supply of Maize. — The importance of 
maize as a source of food for man and his domestic animals 
has led to its cultivation in practically all the tropical and sub- 
tropical parts of the world. It is also grown in those parts of 
the warm-temperate zone where the summer temperature and 
rainfall are relatively high and sunshine is plentiful. 

Its wider distribution is limited, however, by its climatic 
requirements. In countries thus meeting its requirements, 
maize is the most extensively grown of any cereal crop, 
because it is at the same time one of the most productive 
and most easily produced crops. Some idea of its import- 
ance may be gained from the fact that the world's crop of 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 519 

maize amounted in 1906, which was a "bumper" crop year, chap, 
to 3,928,947,000 bushels, i.e. 1,100,237,180 muids of 200 lbs. ^^^• 

South Africa's greatest competitors in the maize trade are 
the United States of America and Argentina. The former 
produces 2,927,416,000 bushels, or nearly 820,000,000 (eight 
hundred and twenty million) muids, which is 74-5 per cent of 
the total. At 8s. per muid this is worth ^"3 2 8,000,000, or many 
times the annual gold production of South Africa. Yet the 
United States exports (1909) under 11,000,000 muids, or 
about I "4 per cent of her crop, and every year the percentage 
exported grows less. This is because home demands are in- 
creasing, while climatic conditions prevent a corresponding in- 
crease in the area of production. 

Argentina produces less than 55,000,000 muids, and ex- 
ports about 50 per cent of the crop. As her population 
increases, more will be consumed locally for stock food and 
manufacture. There has been a marked drop in the export 
from Argentina, as compared with that of any one of the three 
years 1904, 1905 and 1906. 

Accompanying this fall in the exports from our com- 
petitors, we find the European demand steadily increasing ; 
new uses are being found for maize every day, for stock food 
and in the arts and manufactures. This means that either the 
price of maize will rise, or new fields for its production must 
be found ; but if the price increases it will tend to restrict the 
demand. 

In addition to the United States and Argentina the prin- 
cipal sources of supply at the present time are : South- 
east Europe (Austria- Hungary and Roumania), Egypt, South 
Africa, Australia, and Mexico. No other large areas of the 
world seem to have climatic conditions ideally suited to maize 
production. Of these countries South Africa is the only one 
in which there seems any prospect of a large increase of acre- 
age in maize. She has an ample average rainfall, coming at 
the right season of the year, and phenomenally dry winter 
weather for the natural production of the quality of grain most 
suitable for shipment. 

South Africa, therefore, has a great opportunity for com- 
peting for the trade in a commodity the demand for which is 
steadily increasing, while the supply is tending to decrease, 



520 MAIZE 

CHAP, and for which increased production seems limited to her own 

VTI 

territory. 

498. Early Attempts at an Export Maize Trade from South 
Africa. — According to Mr. John Moon of Manderston, a 
consignment of Natal maize was shipped from Durban to 
London by Mr. T. P. O'Meara, M.L.A., somewhere about the 
years 1886-7, but the attempt to establish an export trade 
failed because the surplus available was not sufficient to 
establish and maintain a steady supply, and the export trade 
ceased practically when it began. Another attempt appears 
to have been made about 1890. Mr. Moon writes under date 
16 November, 1910: "Some twenty years ago mealies were 
very low in price and we could only get about 4s, 6d. to 5 s. 
per muid. A New Leeds farmer then decided to try the 
English market, and we as members each sent so many muids, 
making in all, as far as my memory goes, 1,000 bags ; to our 
disappointment, after all expenses were paid, we were only 
left 4s. 9d. per muid. I think that ship freight was then los. 
3d. per ton." 

In the. Natal Agricultural Journal for 23 February, 1906, 
we find the following : — 

"■ Mealies for England. — In a letter from Mr. A. R. Rennie, 
of Messrs. Rennie & Sons, shippers, to Dr. Gubbins, M.L.A., 
published in the daily papers, some interesting facts are given 
with regard to shipments of mealies to London last year. The 
average price obtained was from 24s. 6d. to 24s. 9d. per quarter 
of 480 lbs. This works out at los. 2^d. per muid, and 
the sacks fetched 2|d. The price may therefore be calculated at 
los. 6d. per muid for mealies in London. Mr. Rennie says 
the mealies were not first-class. Reference to our exchanges 
shows the top price for mealies in London in the beginning 
of last month to have been 25s. per quarter. July, August and 
September are the months in London, according to Mr. Rennie, 
when the market is pretty bare. These facts are useful in 
showing that in the event of big crops there is no need for 
practically throwing away a large portion. Merchants should 
be able to buy at from 7s. to 8s. at the Point and be able to 
pay freight and shipping charges and come out with a little 
to the good. The price of mealies has been rising in England 
for some years. The reasons are various ; one of them is the 
favour into which this cereal has risen with Scotch and Irish 
whisky makers," 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 521 

499. Natal Government Enterprise. — Until the year 1907 CHAP. 



the possibility of the South African maize crop as an article 
for oversea export was not thoroughly appreciated. As long- 
as the local markets consumed more than was produced, 
there was little incentive to look abroad, and farmers were 
content to grow only enough for local requirements. In an 
unfavourable season this resulted in prices rising to 20s., 40s., 
and even 60s. per muid, while in a season favourable to the 
crop they were known to fall to 5s. and even 4s. 6d. per muid 
because there was no outlet for the surplus. Maize was there- 
fore a very speculative crop. The writer well remembers, on 
his arrival in the Transvaal, being told by a well-known busi- 
ness man, who is also a farmer, that maize was not a white 
man's crop, but was only fit for Kaffirs to grow. 

Four causes finally contributed to the establishment of the 
export trade in South African maize: (l) a "bumper" crop in 
1907, which threatened to bring local prices below a paying 
basis (3s. and 2s. 6d. per muid were publicly suggested ^ as 
possible prices) ; (2) the financial depression following the close 
of the Boer War which put business men on the qui vive for 
new openings ; (3) the high maize prices prevailing in Europe 
(H 490), which made it possible to export at a profit and thus 
stimulated production in South Africa ; and (4) the wisdom and 
foresight of the several South African Governments in render- 
ing practical assistance and encouragement to start an export 
trade, by offering reduced rates and other facilities. In addi- 
tion to these, the exhibits at the South African Products 
Exhibition held in London, in February, 1907, undoubtedly 
led English merchants to make inquiry in South Africa. 

The fact that the railways were under Government con- 
trol enabled them to reduce railage rates to a nominal figure 
in order to meet the exigencies of the situation. Severe 
criticisms were levelled at the Governments for their action ; 
they were accused of paternalism and interference with private 
enterprise ; but whatever mistakes may have been made, the 
results have certainly justified the action taken, and credit 
should be given where it has been so well earned. Anyone 
who looks into the matter with an unbiased mind, and who 
knows anything of the vicissitudes, difficulties, discourage- 

^N.A.J., Vol. XI, No. 2, p. 137, Feb., igo8. 



XII. 



52 2 MAIZE 

CHAP, ments and losses connected with the starting of new industries, 

XII 

will admit that the successful establishment of the export trade 
in maize is due in no small measure to the prompt assistance 
given to the infant industry by the several Governments. 

To the Hon. Mr. W. A. Deane, Minister for Agriculture of 
the Colony of Natal, is said to be due the credit for definitely 
starting the export trade. Where so many officials were 
necessarily concerned it seems almost invidious to mention 
names, but there are some which stand out conspicuously, 
viz. : The Right Honourable General Louis Botha, Transvaal 
Minister for Agriculture ; Sir T. R. Price, General Manager of 
the Central South African Railways ; the General Manager 
of the Natal Government Railways ; Mr. W. J. Palmer, 
Director of Agriculture, Orange Free State ; Mr. F. B. Smith, 
Director of Agriculture, Transvaal ; and Captain Rainnie, Port 
Captain, Durban. But in the words of Messrs. Wm. Cotts 
& Co., local exporters of grain, etc. : " Everybody concerned 
became enthused with the prospects this trade held out, and 
soon were hard at work to try and make it a success. The 
railway and harbour officials bent their full energies into their 
part of the business, and much credit is due to them for the 
unceasing efforts they put forward to carry things towards a 
successful issue" {Cotts, i). 

"Saturday, 3 August, 1907, is a historic date in the South 
African maize export. The Prime Minister and the Minister 
for Agriculture, of Natal, met at Maritzburg a number of 
persons interested in the production and handling of maize, 
to discuss the proposed organization of the export trade. A 
committee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Hayne, H. A. 
Light, and A. G. May, representing the commercial community, 
and Messrs. J. G. Colenbrander, John Moon, and Walter 
Pepworth, representing the farmers, to decide the grades to be 
adopted." 

Owing to lack of statistics as to supply and demand, 
Natal over-exported in the latter part of 1908, and it became 
necessary to import again. A case was reported in which 
a cargo of maize, which left Durban and was sold in Hamburg 
at I2S. 6d. per muid, was re-purchased, while still on the water, 
by the dealer who had originally sold it, for 17s. 6d. per 
muid. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 523 

qoo. Reduction in Freis:ht Rates. — The Natal Government chap 

XII 

approached the Union-Castle Mail S.S. Co., Ltd., on the 
subject of reduced ocean freight rates. This resulted in their 
agreeing (as representing the " Conference Lines") to convey 
the traffic from Durban to London at a rate of los. per 
ton of 2,240 lbs., and they shortly afterwards extended the 
rate to include all South African ports as well as the con- 
tinental ports of Antwerp and Hamburg. In July, 1909, the 
rate was raised to lis. 6d. to cover the sorting at the port of 
discharge, as it had been found to the advantage of the trade 
to have this expense included in the freight rather than pay- 
able by the consignee. This low freight brought South 
African farmers and merchants into touch with the world's 
markets, and Canada, Mexico, Australia, London, Liverpool, 
Glasgow, Antwerp, and Hamburg have since become her 
customers. 

The early experiences with maize export have been the 
same as those met with in most beginnings, and it was soon 
evident that methods would have to be greatly improved and 
abuses corrected. In April, 1907, Natal granted the traffic a 
rebate on the " South African Produce " railway rate. 

In July, 1907, the Natal, Portuguese and Central South 
African Railway systems came to an arrangement whereby the 
coastward rate on maize for export would be considerably 
reduced. The rate per ton from Pretoria and Volksrust was 
fixed in both cases at 13s. 4d. ; coupled with this, there was, 
also, a reduction in ocean freight, so that "it is now ap- 
parently possible to forward a bag of mealies from Pretoria 
via Delagoa Bay to London for something like 2s. 6d." ^ 

In November or early December of the same year, ac- 
cording to a Renter telegram to the daily press, quoted by 
the Natal Agricultural Journal^- negotiations were concluded 
between the Central South African Railways and the Cape 
Colony and Portuguese Railway Administrations, whereby the 
maximum rate for the conveyance of maize for export by any 
route, from any station in the Transvaal or Orange River 
Colony, was reduced to los. per 2,000 lbs., i.e. is. per muid. 

1 N.A.J., Vol. X, No. 8, p. S33, Aug., 1907. 

'•'Vol. X, No. 12, Dec, 1907, p. 1468: see also Transvaal Agricultural 
Journal, Vol. V, p. 339, Jan., igo8. 



524 MAIZE 

CHAP. This rate was to include delivery to vessels, and other services, 
and was to come into operation on i January, 1908. Negotia- 
tions were later completed with the Natal Government Railway 
Administration by which the same rates were made to apply 
over its lines. The special railway rate then worked out at 
^d. per ton (of 2,000 lbs.) per mile, with a maximum of los. per 
ton, and was made to apply to all stations within 506 miles 
of the port. 

At the same time arrangements were made by the Central 
South African Railway Administration for through booking 
and sales under Government auspices. 

In Rhodesia a rate of ^d. per ton per mile is in force ; 
there is a flat rate of is. per bag to Beira, for export. 

501. Government Control of Export. — The several Govern- 
ments of the four Colonies which are now united in the Union 
of South Africa, agreed upon the policy of keeping the control 
of the export trade in their own hands, to avoid the experience 
of previous years and a repetition of the old charge of mala 
fides which had been laid to the account of the public of South 
Africa. Officials were appointed at the ports by the several 
Departments of Agriculture to inspect the grain and grade it 
according to an accepted standard, to deal generally with the 
traffic in such a way as to ensure the confidence of the oversea 
buyer, and to prevent those who had not the interest of South 
Africa at heart from gaining any temporary benefit at the ex- 
pense of the country's good name. The code of regulations 
drawn up also provided that the grain must be properly dry 
before being railed for export, that it must be packed in new 
2\ lb. bags, and must weigh 203 lbs. gross {Hoy, i). 

502. Effect of Good Prices in Stimulating Trade. — Fortun- 
ately for South Africa, local prices were at the time well 
in favour of the South African exporter. Some Natal 
farmers between Durban and Maritzburg obtained los. per 
muid fo.r., their station, for large white Hickory King. During 
the season, local prices ranged between 7s. and los. on the 
Natal coast and in the Midlands, and between 5s. 6d. and 
8s. 6d. in the northern districts of Natal, the Orange River 
Colony, and the Transvaal, according to distance, quality, and 
market. As much as 36s. per quarter (15s. per muid) was 
realized on the London market. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 525 

There is no question but that the inauguration of an export CHAP, 
trade was very greatly stimulated by the exceptionally good ^'^• 
market which prevailed in 1907 and 1908. The editor of the 
London Corn Circular stated that conditions during 1907 had 
been abnormal : " There have been no such prices for many 
years," he said, " and while it is fairly safe to say that the high 
rate will continue on the present crop, next year may see a 
drop of 5s. per quarter to the average. The American crop 
has been poor as to quantity and quality, and even last season's 
yield was indifferent." The Corn Trade List, in its issue of 
I November, 1907, remarked that : "There is very little or no 
improvement in the Roumanian crop prospects, and none in the 
outlook of the American crop, whilst the Argentine surplus 
shows evident signs of approaching exhaustion ". 

The Times of Argentina, of 30 September, 1907, expressed 
the opinion that there was then " very little maize left in the 
country, and since then nearly 1,000,000 quarters have been 
exported. We have for some time held the opinion that the 
high prices have drawn out this year's surplus at a far greater 
rate than usual, and it is not improbable that the exports will 
come to a somewhat abrupt conclusion much earlier than many 
expect. It has been reported this week, indeed, that some 
November-December contracts have been cancelled. The 
present week's shipments are cabled as 114,000 quarters, 
against 151,000 quarters last week, and 243,000 quarters in 
the corresponding week last year : and our correspondent adds 
that the inland movement is now small." 



503. Cause of Abnormal Prices. — The cause of these prices 
was undoubtedly the unusual combination of" short" crops in 
the United States, Argentina, and Roumania, combined with 
an increased demand for stock-feeding and manufacture, both 
in England and on the Continent. Fortunately for South 
Africa, she had bumper crops, with a corresponding tendency 
to reduced local prices, which induced her to look abroad for 
an outlet for her surplus crop. It may thus be said that pro- 
pitious circumstances forced her into the oversea market. 

According to Beerbohm's Evening Corn Trade List (Nov- 
ember, 1907), estimates of the yields in the big surplus-pro- 
ducing Maize States indicated a shortage in those States of 



526 MAIZE 

CHAP. 284,000,000 bushels as compared with the previous year, and 

^^^" of 211,000,000 bushels as compared with the yield of 1905. 

But " it is always a difficult matter to suggest what surplus 

for export may exist in America ; it largely depends upon the 

price obtainable ". 

504. Natal Shipments, 1907. — In September, 1907, the 
Natal Agricultural Journal (yoX. X, No. 9, p. 1022) reported 
that :— 



" Mr. J. M. Westbrook, of the Dalton Farmers' Association, 
has been appointed by the Government as Inspector of Mealies 
at the Point. Not only are many farmers taking advantage 
of the Government grading, but the majority of the merchants 
also recognize the advantages to be derived therefrom and are 
having all the mealies passing through their hands for export, 
graded and weighed before shipment. This enables the 
mealies to be sold on sample before arrival. Renter's agent 
cabled on 20 September that mealies were realizing 25s. 7^d. 
a quarter of 480 lbs. on the London market, a price equivalent 
to los. 8d. gross per muid of 200 lbs. If the Natal mealies 
realize the same figure, the net amount will be from 8s. 2d. 
to 8s. 9d. a muid according to the distance from the port. 
Merchants have this season — up to the date of these notes 
being written — sent away some 50,000 bags, and there are 
some 20,000 more at the Point ready for shipment. Farmers 
have sent away some 2,000 odd bags through the Government, 
and other consignments are coming forward by rail, so that it 
will be seen that a sufficient quantity is being shipped to prove 
the success or otherwise of the exportation." 

In October, 1907, we find the following note in the Natal 
Agricultural Journal, Vol. X, No. 10, page 1185 : — 

" Most gratifying are the results of the effort that is being 
made to establish an export trade in grain with Great Britain. 

" Once more we see the truth of the principle that adversity 
brings strength — in national as in individual life. Our com- 
mercial depression — one day we shall have cause to bless this 
much-maligned depression of ours ! — has made us look to our 
own resources ; and here we are with every prospect of some 
;^200,000 or more coming into the country within the next 
two or three months as payment for the sale overseas of the 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 527 

500,000 muids of mealies that we expect to export this season CHAP. 
— and this season, moreover, we expect to do more than ^^^• 
experiment ! 

"The future lies with our farmers. What we are capable 
of doing now is evident. Our mealies are pronounced excel- 
lent, and they are realizing good prices in Europe : a well- 
informed Durban correspondent tells us that 27s. 3d. per 
quarter has been paid in London for our grain this month, and 
in a cable to the Minister of Agriculture on 16 October, the 
Agent-General stated that he had been informed that it is 
' extremely probable that the market will remain at 27s. to 
28s. per quarter landed at wharf, until the end of November'. 
Freights are low enough ; and the presence of a Government- 
appointed inspector at the port ensures adherence to standard. 
What more do we want ? The next step is to extend the 
cultivation of our staple crop : there is plenty of land lying 
fallow on private farms all over the country, which can be cul- 
tivated and a bumper crop be ensured next season. We have 
nothing to fear as regards the market. In the old days, to 
extend the cultivation of a crop beyond a certain limit spelt 
loss : to a certain degree, the smaller the crop was, the greater 
was the gain. Now, however, with the limitless market that 
lies before us, we can safely put more and more land under 
mealies ; and the extent of our income from this grain will 
only be bounded by our ability to produce. 

" The following from the Natal Metxiiry comes as a re- 
freshing breeze over the parched veld in these times of depres- 
sion, and gives a good idea of what is being done : ' Mealies 
are being sent to the port from up-country faster, almost, than 
accommodation can be found for them, and at the present rate 
the shed space available at the Point will be presently exceeded. 
Bags of yellow and white grain lie stacked in tens of thousands 
in Sheds C, D, E, and F, five and six deep, and covering every 
foot of the floor area, except the space that is kept clear for 
narrow alleyways between the ramparts of grain bags. Rows 
of railway trucks, loaded with mealies, are constantly passing 
in and out of each shed, discharging fresh consignments of 
grain for the great oversea market which Natal has just freshly 
discovered, and the Government inspector, Mr. Westbrook, is 
being kept employed each day, from half-past seven in the 
morning to half-past five in the afternoon, in doing nothing 
else but testing the grain in the bags, grading it according to 
quality, and certifying it to be fit for exportation as first-class 
Natal produce.' " 



528 MAIZE 

CHAP. In November, 1907, BeerbohnHs Evening Corn Trade List 

^^'* wrote regarding Natal maize in London : — 

"A new source of supply has lately made itself felt, viz.. 
Natal ; some very fine samples of both white and yellow 
corn have lately been received in London, and there is, 
we believe, a fair quantity still to come ; the value is about 
27s. landed, whilst for shipment 25s. c.i.f., bags included, is 
quoted." 

In December, 1907, the following London opinions were 
published in the Natal Agricultural Journal : — ^ 

" Discussing the newly-awakened activity in the exporta- 
tion of maize from Natal, South Africa says: 'While coming 
seasons may not offer the same inducement in respect of very 
high prices, there will always be a good market in London for 
the grain, and the South African Colonies must be prepared to 
secure their share in this market by exporting in much larger 
quantities, and by making up in the bulk the turnover for the 
proportionately smaller profits. The difference of the seasons 
will enable South Africa to supply the European market at a 
time of the year when fresh North American mealies have 
ceased to compete. . . . The South African article has made 
an excellent impression on the European market, and is sub- 
ject to no disadvantages that do not apply to maize from other 
parts of the world. Indeed, in several respects, it is reported 
as superior to the North and South American article. For 
these reasons, South African growers and exporters should do 
their best to increase the quantity and the regularity of the 
supplies, while, of course, keeping up or even improving upon 
the present quality.' 

" A representative of the same journal recently obtained 
the views of various people intimately connected with the 
London corn market respecting the importation of mealies 
from Natal, and the precise causes of the high prices that have 
been realized. While all admitted the hopeful character of 
the new movement, there was a general disposition to avoid 
prophecy as to the ultimate result. 

" The editor of the London Corn Circular, a leading organ 
of the trade, stated that conditions during the past season have 
been abnormal. . . . The white African variety was described 

I Vol. X, No. 12, p. 1468. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 529 

as a very bold, floury grain, and worth 6d. to is. per quarter chap. 
more than the American maize. Although there is a prejudice ^l^- 
against South African mealies on account of their being less 
known, the opinion was offered that if regular supplies were 
forwarded, they would obtain a firm hold on the British market 
in three or four years. A parallel case was instanced. Ran- 
goon haricots on their first appearance met with nothing but 
hostility from the buyers, but by the perseverance of the ship- 
pers, they have now come to the front. Replying to a question 
as to the best means of making the brands known, it was stated 
that there was nothing like a good market for the purposes of 
publicity in such a case. The maize should be allowed to sell 
on its merits while there was a demand, and should not be held 
back for a price which the buyer refuses to pay. As a staple 
article it would be rapidly distributed, and with showy-looking 
stuff like the Natal mealies, inquiries would soon be made, thus 
leading to a regular trade. It was added that South African 
maize germ meal, which has been coming to hand in small 
quantities during the past three months, has created a very 
good impression, the latest price being about £6 7s. 6d. per 
ton. It is regarded by English stock keepers as an excellent 
food. 

"A member of the firm of R. & W. Paul, Ltd., was 
somewhat more critical. He said that while the mealies came 
in their present condition people would buy them readily. 
When the maize arrived it looked very nice, but it showed 
traces of weevil, and the longer it stayed on their side the 
worse it became. On that account many firms would not take 
it, the Omnibus Companies objecting to it on that ground. 
' There are very few American mealies coming in,' was the 
concluding remark, ' and there is every hope of creating a solid 
trade with South Africa if we can get anything like a regular 
supply. If the stuff comes in fits and starts no progress will 
be made. Putting the American and Natal mealies together 
there is very little to choose between the two. The African 
variety is always dry, and if the American should be in a bad 
condition its rival will have every opportunity of getting the 
best of the market.' 

"Messrs. Berry, Barclay & Co., who have been handling a 
quantity of Natal maize, held similar opinons to those men- 
tioned, emphasising the importance of keeping the weevil in 
check as much as possible. It was agreed that the British 
market can absorb practically any quantity provided the quality 
is maintained." 

34 



530 MAIZE 

CHAP. 505. Transvaal and Orange Free State Shipments. — As 

^^^* South African maize was from the start particularly well received 
on the London and continental markets, and favourably com- 
mented on in market reports, the demand soon exceeded the 
supply, and Durban merchants began to look to the Orange 
River Colony and the Transvaal for supplementary cargoes. 
From May, 1907, and onwards, they were able to obtain con- 
siderable quantities of the small round yellow and white 
Basutoland maize. 

In July, 1907, the Johannesburg correspondent of the 
Natal Witness reported that there was a movement on foot 
to export from the Tran.svaal some 100,000 muids of maize 
during the current season.^ 

The Johannesburg correspondent of the Natal Witness, 
writing on 27 November, 1907, according to the Natal Agri- 
cultural Journal'^ stated : — 

" The Transvaal Government is so greatly impressed with 
the success of the Natal mealie exportation experiment that 
they intend to make a special effort to establish a big mealie 
growing industry in this colony. A million sterling is to be 
spent in settling white men on land which is suitable for 
mealies, on lines similar to the tin-mining scheme at Potgie- 
tersrust — that is, on a profit-sharing basis. The men will be 
given ground which, if they care to work hard, will eventually 
become their own. They will be supplied with provisions and 
tools, and Government steam ploughs will break up the land 
for them. Arrangements are being made with Delagoa Bay 
to provide shipping facilities enabling sailing vessels to take 
grain in bulk (thus saving the cost of bagging), and a uniform 
railway rate from all parts of the Transvaal will be charged. 
Hence, farmers living at a great distance from the port will be 
able to make the same profits on their grain as those nearer 
the line. The new land settlement scheme will, it is stated, 
be commenced next year, thus enabling settlers to sow their 
first crops next spring. It is believed that hundreds of men, 
who are unable to find work, will be glad of this opportunity 
of becoming successful farmers. Those who are prepared to 
work hard will be able, under ordinary circumstances, to make 
a good living, as mealies can be grown in almost every part of 
the Transvaal, and millions of acres of virgin soil are available." 

iN./4.y., Vol. X, No. 8, Aug., 1907, p. 833. 
■-'Vol. X, No. 12, p. 1467. 



COMMERCE IN MAIZE GRAIN 531 

At the close of the season of 1907 it was found that the CHAP. 



Transvaal and Orange River Colony had been the largest 
contributors to the oversea trade {Cotts, i). 

506. Some Difficulties Encountered. — In the earliest stages 
of the industry the grain received at the coast was often in a 
condition quite unfit for export: "the bags used were mostly 
old, patched with calico, badly sewn, or even ' perished,' while 
the grain itself was unscreened, mixed, sometimes wet, and of 
varying weights". This seemed likely to nip the industry in 
the bud by giving the product a bad name, and it entailed 
much re-bagging, re-screening, re-weighing, and consequent 
loss in weight. 

The difficulties experienced due to grain arriving in a con- 
dition unsuitable for shipment, soon showed the necessity, for 
regulating the trade, if it was to be conducted under Govern- 
ment auspices. When the inland Colonies became contributors 
the several railway authorities and merchants concerned met in 
consultation, to recommend to their respective Governments 
uniform regulations. These were amended in conference from 
year to year as experience showed it to be necessary. Con- 
ferences were held under official auspices at : — 

Pretoria, 1908, 7 and 8 January (IF 508). 
Durban, 1909, 6 to 10 September. 
Bloemfontein, 1910, 18 and 19 January (1[ 510). 

At the last named conference, a committee to be called the 
"Annual Maize Committee" was organized to carry on the 
work, this committee to consist of "one representative from 
each Province to be nominated by the Associated Chambers 
of Commerce ; one member of the Agricultural Department of 
each Province to be nominated by the respective Province ; and 
one member representing each Province to be nominated by 
the South African Agricultural Union ". The committee met 
in Durban on il May, 19 10, and again in Bloemfontein on 
1 1 July the same year, and has held subsequent meetings 
annually. 

Owing to difficulties experienced by farmers in obtaining 
suitable bags of uniform weight and quality, the Railway Ad- 
ministrations undertook, as a temporary measure, to furnish bags 
on application ; when, however, local firms stocked adequate 
34* 



XII. 



532 MAIZE 

CHAP, quantities of suitable quality, this assistance was withdrawn 
as no longer necessary. 

507. Inter-colonial Conferences. — The following resolu- 
tions were passed by the several inter-colonial conferences, 
previously referred to, and are instructive as showing some- 
thing of the problems which had to be faced in dealing with 
the new industry. 

508. Pretoria Conference, 7 and ^ fa?mary, 1908. — 

Present : — 

Cape Colony : Mr. A. Robb, Assistant General Manager, C.G.R. ; Mr. W. 
Binns, Cape Government Railways; Mr. P. J. Hannon, Agricultural Department; 
Mr. H. Moss, Agricultural Department ; Mr. H. B. Briscoe, Port Goods Manager, 
East London. 

Natal: Capt. J. Rainnie, Port Captain, Durban; Mr. J. McConnachie, 
District Traffic Superintendent, N.G.R., Durban. 

Orauj^e River Colony : Mr. A. C. Lyell, M.L.A. 

Portuguese Territory : Dr. Kduardo Saldanha, Portuguese Government ; 
Mr. Correa Mendes, C.F.L.M., Chief Clearing Officer ; Mr. V. L. L. deWaegenaere, 
Port Agent and C.F.L.M. Agent. 

Transvaal: Rt. Hon. L. Botha, M.L.A., Minister for Agriculture; Hon. 
H. C. Hull, M.L.A., Colonial Treasurer; Mr. Smith, Director of Agriculture ; 
Mr. Jacobsz, Agricultural Department; Mr. Enslin, Agricultural Department; 
Mr. McDougall, Private Secretary to Colonial Treasurer ; Mr. Bok, Private 
Secretary to Minister for Agriculture ; Mr. T. R. Price, General Manager, Central 
South African Railways. 

Union Castle Steamship Company : Mr. L. Clarence, Agent, Johannesburg. 

SUMMARY OF DECISIONS. 

1. Advisability or otherwise of encouraging the change of name from 
mealies to maize to correspond with the name this class of produce is now 
known by throughout Europe. 

It was resolved that the policy