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Illlllllllllllllllllllllililiiliiiiiiiiiiiiii iniiiiiiiHii 

3 1833 01254 9298 


Major David Gavin's Horseback Ride 

St. George, S.C. to Mississippi and Return 


Lauderdale County, Mississippi 


St. George, Ll.G. to Mios j c.iippi and Return 


Dona ted by 
W.L. Clayton 

Retyped by 
Miss Alma Taylor 

Printed by 
Lauderdale County MS School System 

Published by 

Lauderdale County Department of Archives & History Inc. 
P.O. Box ^511 
Court House Annex Building 
Meridian MS 39302 


3t. George, S.C. to Miss::-;ippi and Return 


A copy of this journal was donated to the Lauderdale County 

Lepartment of Archives Inc. bv Mr. William L. Clayton of ' 
Lauderdale County, Mississippi 

This journal was retyped and published by the Lauderdale 
County Lepartment of Archives and History Inc. All proceeds from 

the sale of this journal go to Lauderdale County Lepartment of 
Archives & History, Inc. 

['jlhvtnri from honip in Lit. Georf;': Parish, Colleton District 
the .st.'ite of So. fJarolJna, Feb u'.ry the 13th, 1843, went 
l() , rem.') i nod there tw; rilghts. Wedneady the 15th 

or-u;;;jor1 thf; North Kdisto at L)o i^i : (i Hoe's and went to Thos. 
T.'i turn ' 

Thursday, went to Orangeburg crossing the south prong 
at, the M. Gramling, then went up the Bull Swamp Road 
l/'m to Mr. Casper Listrunk at thf' junction of Bull Swamp 
and Kdisto. The country high, cry fine land, some a little 
rolling, particularly near the river, soil sandy, some red 
cJay land near the river. This cay 22m. and 42m. from home 
it being 30 from home to Orangeburg, 

Monday the 20th Started from :;asper Listrunk's travelled 
three miles to Wm. Nott's mill on Bull Swamp, thence to 
Mrs. Wolf's a place of election, turned the left above Mrs. 
Wolf's andcrossed North Edisto at Jones' bridge. This place 
appears to be a depot of lumber for some of the neighbor- 
ing mills as there was a quantity lying here, the E. side 
is low and flat. The W. high and dry. Thence by H. Living- 
stons and Corbets mills on Dean Swamp, then 10 m. to Davis' 
bridge on S. Edisto and staid at Needhan Davis' on the W. 
baak, where Pond Creed enters on which are situated Dr. 
E.G. Guignard's mill. Davis was a Union man, uses hJs 
tongue freely in politics and almost everything, says he 
was once wealthy and did in Columbia and after leaving 
that place did a considerable lumber business, he appears 
to be a vain, ostentatious man, and speaks much of his former 
wealth, and that Wm. Nott injured him. Five hours, this 
day 31 m. 

Tuesday the 21st Started at 9 and travelled over a high, 
level, poor pine country 17 m. to Aiken, travelled on and 
near the R.H. several miles, some of the land is level 
and handsome but poor. Aiken is a place of some trade 
on the dividing ridge between Savannah and Edisto rivers 
at the head of Horse Creek and at the inclined plane of the 
R.R. in Barnwell Disct. It has the appearance of being 
healthy and a place of some business, the location of the 

town 1 am told was a soft when Mr. Schultz undertook 

to make his town and it must have cost immense labour to 
render it as dry as it is. Schultz's residence and Fort 
are situated on the hill above back of the town. 1 
suppose he thought of the old feudal times when he built 
his fort and now fancies himself a Feudal baron the 10th or 
12th century with his castle for the protection of the Town 
or village, for in thos days th ? peasants never pretended' 
to build a village except in tne neighborhood of the Castle 
of their Feudal Lord, who could orotect them from the robbers 
or bandits of the country, an^J the neighboring warlike 
Barons. 1 left my horse at Simpson's livery stables and put 
upat T. Hubbard's American hotel. Hubbard is a Whig and 
keeps a good house but his cl"ar,^e is too high, being $1.50 
for my bourse bC, cigars 6i. I have heard a 

very pretty lady play on the pi 3no but think wife Virginia 

somf'thing of a coquet vvhici spoiled much of her pretty 
appearance for she was handsome. A lady named Mrs. Griffing 
from Savannah but a nati/e of Edgefield, S.C, appeared to 
be (juite an amiable la iy and a strong Ulay Whig, although 
we did not exactly agrei n politics I was much pleased with 
her manners and conversation. This day 3'5 m. 

Wednesday the 22nd Started late and remained in Augusta 
until 9 "o'clock looking at a procession and a couple of 
Military companies celebra ;.ng Washington's birthday in17''2. 

The Savannah is nerea wide nice streamand navigable 
for steamboats. Augusta it; a considerable town and one of 
age, having been built before the Revolution. It is near 
or quite a mile long up and down the river perhaps more, 
but it is not so wide. There are some fine buildings 
here, several fine large hotels. Thence the Warrenton 
Road is hilly and mostly sandy and poor. The Geo. R.R. 
running with the road, about 20 m, the red hills begin to 
show themselves with some graveland rock. Butler's creek is 
on the left and full of saw mills, like Horse Ok. 

on the S.C. side. Just .jfter leaving Augusta overtook 
two men, Wilson and Rogers of Warren Oo. They appeared socl.'ii 
gentlemen, in but stopping at a grog shop I left them, 
thence to John Harris's, who keeps a good house and stable 
and deserves patronage. He lives in Oolumbia Oo. 2^m. ho. $1.00, 
6^ cts for cigars?. 

Wednesday?(Thursday ) , February the 23rd. Started h after 8 
travelled 5 m. to Steeds another hotel, here is a sm. creek 
Sweet Water on which there is an overshot grist and saw 
mill, 16 m. to Warrenton, the Oo. side of Warren, the land 
is mostly clear and is sandy, hilly and poor. It improves 
some in city near Warrenton. This is a nice little 
village and has a R. Road to the main one which is three 
miles to theright, 41 m. from Augusta. It looks somewhat 
old, thence 9 m to Ageeche River at Latimers, the land hilly 
and much washed but mostly lively, some red mulatto and some 
sandy land, the farms and dwellings look well and better 
than in 1'^35 for it appears planters are turning their 
attention to the improvement of the land, pebbles and rocks 
in the road and fields. There is a considerable fall inthf 
river here on which there is a mill and near by a ijtore,just crossing are some large rock, the growth oak. Ai'ter 
one mile took a right hiani road at Whaley's to Mr. /ion 11 m. 
At first the land was hjth, rolling and lively, then hi^-h 
barren pine land. The r:dge between Ageechoe and I'ul.son 
Greek, the land thence high, rolling and rocky, growthi 
generally oak and soil rca. At Laurimore's plantation from 
Mt. Zion are a number c .' large rock in old fieidn fi-cjm whifh 
trees almost appear to grow. This i:; a vi liege ^n llaru-cfk 
Oo. 6m N. of Sparta the Oo . aite, it ha:; a few r>ior(".v, "> 
churches an(i an academy. This day's travel has be^'n througti 

t.hc- mrj;; t. hJJly broken and roc ly country I almost ever 
t,rf;i vo J J f.'d ,up n J 1. 1 and down da'l'i, over gullies, creeks and 
in <'j wf;t time through mud and ;]?-:y. Mt. Zion is on the waters 
of I ,i:(,ii('<: , .'itaJtj at the only h/t(i, kept by Little. This 
h(/u.'3(; in tolerabJe, but not as goon as Harris. Joseph Bry- 
ant of thjs pJace appears to b- -i gentleman. This day 37 m. 
ho. %^ .2b . Mr. Little or. say:: '.hat even the high and rug- 
ged hi] is about here can be im;ir(^ved and told me of having 
made fine crops of wheat on ianr that had been considered 
an worn out by former owners w k- had moved away. Damp and 
cold this evening. This is a beautiful country of hills 
and the lands have been rich, out is now mostly cleared or 
turned into old fields. A godi ]ilanatation will make pro- 
visicjns and 4 or '? bales cotton, and is said to behealthy 

Friday the ^4t b (damp and rainy) Started X before 8 and 
travelled 1 m. to Dry Fork of Shoulderbone Creek, water of 
Uconee, then about 6 m. further the two prongs of Shoulder- 
bone Crrk, the land hilly and rock and mostly cleared, 
houses good and neat. Then 12 m. to Kinlittle's ferry 
on the Oconee, the land mostly red, clayey soil but some 
little sandy, very hilly, cool and rainy. This ferry 24m. 
above Millegevil le. On crossing the river was in a fine 
large plantation and a blacksmith shop near the river, on 
which the land is valued at from S5.00 to $8.00 per acre 
and the planters make from 4 to 7 bales cotton to the hand, 
thence 4m. to Kockville. It has three dwellings, 1 store, 
and a Dr.'s shopand.a very appropriate name, as it is very 
rooky. 1 came near crossing through this townbefore 1 
knew it was one and then enquired of a boy to be certain. 
The land from the river hilly and very rocky and mostly 
light and more sandy than the £. side. Thence 11m. to 
Etonton the Co. site of Putnam Co. the land hilly and rolling 
mostly sandy but some red clayey soil and lively near the 
creeks. Just after leaving Rockville saw some attempts 
at a rock fence, for I suppose the owner had to remove 
them from the ground before plowing and thought he might as 
well help the fence with them as they were not likely to rot 
like timber rails; this is the most rocky country I ever 
saw. Ktenton is built on a red hill and is a handsome village, 
with a fine brick Court house and some fine dwellings consid- 
erable stores. Thence 4m. tc the Etenton factory on Little 
River, water of Oconee. It is on a scale of some extent 
and manufacture cotton into cloth and spin wool. The build- 
ing is three stories high. It is gratifying to see such 
enterprises prospering as I am told this is, as it retains 
a great deal of money in the cojntry and givesemployment 
to a number of persons who wcul i otherwise do but little. 
$^0.00 or S60.00 is the wages of a hand a year for the 
girls and boys and most of the hands are of this kind, 
but they have some grown hards and some negroes to per- 
form the heavy work. 


A girl 12 or 15 yrs , old a'.tends to two looms. ]t is pleas- 
ing and grand to see sue i u vast work going onby the power 
of water which would o:hr>rwise flow on and do littJe or 
no good, morethan a flat av/amp. It shows us that many things 
of which we make no use now may by industry and enterprise 
be rendered of service t ■ us. Before reaching the Factory 
I fell in company with a mf;rchant of Hillsborough named 
Clemens, who accompanied fie to examine it and appeared quite 
friendly and sociable, but is I think frolicksome. }le was 
acquainted with the superintendent of the factory who 
behaved quite gentlemanly and showed the machinery. 
Thence 4m. to Roby ' s . At etenton saw a hedge made of the 
Cherokee rose bush which is to be goodfencing, but J 
afterwards learned that a severe wind had killed the roses 
and destroyed a good deal of hedge and some of the planters 
with characteristic southern preservance abandoned it hs V 
or not answering the purposes, although timber is scarce 
being much cleared and the bill sides much washed. The 
planters mostly use well water but they springs are abundant 
and good. This country is all represented as heaithy, both 
the sandy and clay soil. The houses are generally good and 
some tastefully built. Growth oak & short leaf pine. This 
is a good plain house. Hari the company of a schooimaster 
named Elliot, a Doctor, who appeared a well behaved man. This 
is a tolerable house. 50m. above Macon, this day 35 m pd . 

Saturday, the 25th . Started after 9, travelled Im to Beaver- 
dam Ck. then 1 m. to Murder Creek. Both these are bold creeks, 
and the land on them fine, partidularly the last. Poplar 
and ash on the hills, it is rolling, hilly red land and 
mostly cleared and worn. 10m. to Monticello the Co. site of 
Jasper. Planters here make from3 to 4 bales of cotton to the 
hand but in 1940 & 41, the cottonwas mostly destroyed by 
the worm. Von's plantation near Monticello can be bought 
for 32.00 per acre. It is much like the other neighboring 
plantations, worn and scarce of timber. Saw here the remains 
of some of the Cherokee hedges. The soil clayey and 
although rolling 1 suppose susceptible of improvement for 
it has been rich and where not washed off so yet. Some 
rock but not so many as yesterday. Monticello is a neat 
handsome village not quite so large as Ktenton but has a 
splendid court house, tb-it is splendid one for Geo, Thencv) 
10m to Wise's ferry on tne Oakmulgee 4(Jm. above M/aoon in 
Butts Co. As soon as 1 '-rossed the river, from MonticeJlo 
there is some little t ed clay land but mostly sandy and 
light, but lively. Then^-p 6 m. to the Indian Springs on 
Sandy Creek. The springs and ten acres around them are 
reserved by the U.S. which includes a beautiful sft of 
falls or rapids on the cre3k. There are three board in/', 
houses and several shops here. Theland on theroari to them 
from the view high and hilly with oak growth and n 
few chestnut, the land sandy and light or grey, some rock. 

Thf.' r.])rinfn; are irnpropny ted wit,h sulphur and perhaps magnesia 
and the wat,er tastes iikesulphn- or a rotten egg, and smells 
mu'.'h thie same. It is however a r'omantic place and from my 
iflf'a of romance well calculated for love making, for 1 doubt 
li m(;re do not attend them witn the Intention and greater 
desire of breaking or wounding and healing hearts, than stren- 
gthiening ? and curing diseases, although I have no 
doubt that the medical proper ties (?) of the water are good 
in all cases where sulphur water is good. The main spring 
is situated in the fork of Sandy Creek and another creek 
some 10 or 1? ft. from the lattp-r and but little further 
from the other, it runs? from .i riill some 20 or 50 ft. high 
and out of a rock which appear 5 i,o have a small fissur-e? or 
crack for the especial purpose of this water cache?, a small 
basin holding about 3 gills catches the water, and although 
there appears but little at a time, it runs so fast that there 
are always plenty rising? upas brisk as you please, by the 
time the dipper is out, it is againfull. Ln 15 or 20 ft. 
is sandy creek over whose rock and down a considerable rapid 
the water is tumbling in all tne beauty of such places. 

Thence 9 m. to the high falls ^f Towaliga River at Elijah 
Philip's toll bridge pd . 6^. These falls are grand and 
sublime and are said to be 6D ft. high and including the 
first commencement of the rapijs may be the banks are high 
on both sides; in the rapids and just at the top where 
the fall becomes perpendicular or nearly so, two pines and 
some bushes are growing on an island and appear from the shore 
to be growing out of a rock, but I suppose there is some 
soil, but very little else but rock is perceivable from the 
shore. One pine is growing just below the falls and has 
much the appearance of coming out of a rock like those 
at the top. Some geese were sitting on the rocksabove water 
as unconcerned as if it was a pond around them instead of a 
boiling and foaming cataract. J would judge the perpendi- 
cular fall to be 20 or 50 ft. or more, for it may be sixty. 
All this powerful force of water which is sufficient to carry 
vast machinery and spin and weave bales of cotton and wool 
and give employment to hundreds, is allwed to rollon in 
native grandeur, except what is used above the falls and in 
the rapids to turn an ordinary grist mill. There are some 
cedars growing on the E. bank from among the large flat rock 
on the surface of the ground. Thence 6m. to Settle's over 
a high oak and chestnut couhtry, land not very good. The 
road appears to be on a ridge higher than the adjoining 
country above or below as I couldsee sometimes apparently 
for miles on the right and left. The trees on the right 
bounding the prospect looking like a cloud. The country is 
romantic and resemb-iea Spartanburg Dist., S.C. but is 
1 thinK a little more rolling and rocky. Everything 
here looks more new than on East side of Oakmulgee. Settle 
lives on fin§ land and has good land on a creek or river 

south of him; he is 14m . Libjve Forsyth the Co. site ■ f Mcjnroe 
in which he lives and keens a good house worthy of p:tronyp;e. 
This day 40 m. pd 

Sunday the 26th . otartcl at 8 travelled 1 rn . to ;. vilJap;o 
Van liuren. It has one piliiic house and 2 or 5 ;jhops. Thence 
1m. to a beautiful boJd creek with /^ood banks and a 
rofky bottom, 3 m. to Newton on the Monroe K.K. Thin i :; a 
pO(/r apology for a tov :; for I should have passofi it with- 
out notice had J not I ^-^n told it was a town. Then ■^>iu . 
to a large (Jk . the wa'.-T's of Klint named i'ototoe, thence 
6 m. to /ebulon the Co. t->e of Pike. This is a neat iittio 
village, but the Court hci::;e is of wood and needs repairs. 
1 saw no jail. The count '-y is mostly poor or ordinary and 
is high and rolling or ur;dulating. The trees at a distance 
on the right and left loc-k like clouds. Thence 14m. to 
Clegg's bridge on Flint, pd . 6 cts. This is about 3^' m. 

above Knoxville, Crawf ore Co. A church in which service 

was performing, the country not very rich but lively, 
the growth mostly oak but some long leaf pine and chestnut, 
and some rock. The Pine mountains visible on the left about 
9 m. distant. The land sandy with a small mixture of clay. 
There appears not to be a great deal of wealth here, more 
like farmers, with few or no hands than planters, except 
one on the west side of the river. Then 14m. to Hunter's 
5 m. of Greenville, Fierriwether Co. The country iiigh 

and in some places rocky more undulating than hill 5Sm. 
above Columbus. The roac most of the day with a good mixture 
of sand andclay to make it firm and may be cownted a p(;or 
country, but healthy. About Greenville, the land appears 
some better or rather in the evening before arriving at 
Hunter's, the country here being considered healthy. Planters 
of a good year make from 3 to 5 bales cottonto the hand with 
provisions. A good plantation may average 15 bushels corn 
and from 4 to 8 seed cotton and is not considered good 

cotton land generally and sells for from 5 to $8.00 per acre. 
This day's journey somewt'rit, romantic, some places vt^ry rocky, 
but not generally so. AJ '.'-r travelling about 30 m. saw monstrous 
rock on left of road anc ' m. further large ones on the 
right. The soil rathei' coarse. This is a good house,' 

pd 1.12t which 1 Ihink 12^ too much. This 42 

m. travelled in the nig^'l. 

Monday, February the 27th. Started h after 7. Tra vf; I 1 od 

a few miles over a hill^ lountry anci across some bolfl ffi'k;;, 

on which the land was mix,-; city clay anri sand and of a 

red cast comnion inreal mi^'-itto land. Grnwt?i (jak and shnft 

1 e.-j r pine with some che; tr-ut, thr-n I'^ur i '•.) f mixed with 

(.th'T /T'l-wth, and thin < ■■ prjor l;irid / ■'nu . In Whi i t^M v i I I .• , 

in llaiT-i:: Co. thf.-n morf' /i -iatto lookin,'; land jnd M/tn'.-wh-i I, 

better than that preceed i ■:/' , then long Irv-ff [)irie;;, lor- a 

few miles before reaching •ho Cha t tahc-ch J <.■ , very hilly .ind 

roiling red land, said '^ \,e better than it Ujr.k;;. ' I r, 

the morning the houses w< >■>- generally g(;orj anri rir^.-it,. )n 

tho evening log houses and stone chimneys instead of brick. 
Crossed the Chattahochie at Coxlin's ferry 25ni. above Columbus 
anf] 10 m. below West Point. P'l .&nd ^ a mile from the town 
ul' Merlin in Chambers Co. Ala. b^ing now in that state. Ber- 
i i ri has a do^';pery and smith shf)p with several loafers about 
the first. At the river overtook a young man named Richard 
Comer, from Prince George Co., Va . going to Gainsville, 
Ala. He was out of money and appeared to be in distress. 
Offered me a pair of india rubner over-shoes to pay his toll. 
1 refused to take the shoes but paid his toll, and he appear- 
ing young and having the appearance of honesty, loaned him 
on parting seven dollars. We rode together only a few 
miles, 2 or 3 m. I regret I did not do more, for on reflec- 
tion 1 might have spirted him a trifle more, and the plea- 
sure it afforded me to be able to spirit him was gratifying. 
If 1 am deceived in him, I can hope I live without the 
money, but shall regret it was not bestowed on a more worthy 
object, but I shall still have the satisfaction of doing what 
I thought a Christian duty. I had travelled when young and 
imagined how wretched I should feel if I should lose my 
money or by any means be far from home without the means of 
returning to it. After crossing the Chattahochie 1 m. to 
Apannupper Creek on which there is a mill, 2 m. turned to the 
left m. to Ins. Floyd's In Charmbers Co. Ala., on Nol- 
lewacca Ck., the land high anii rolling and some rock, mostly 
long leaf pine mixed with some oak. Land said to produce 
from 8 to 12 cwt cotton and 18 to 20 bushels of corn per 
acre. Land worth 1 to $5.00 per acre. Some has been sold 
for less at Sheriff at $1.25 and 1.50. The lady of the 
house Mrs. Floyd. The people of Ala. are worse than those 
of Georgia. This day 41m. pd . $100 fare tolerable. 

Tuesday, February 25th, 1843. Started ^ past 7, travelled 
18m. to Apelaxica near the line of Chambers and 
Macon Go's. The country generally hilly and rocky and 
mixed with sand although of a mulatto^ or dark color. 
Crossed some small cks. the watersof Chattahochie or Nolle- 
wacca ck. which is a water of Cha ttachochie . I should have 
traveled (?) through without knowing it was a town had 1 
not observed a church and sohc^olhouse and the number of 
residences made me enquire, as J did not wish to be so 
impolite to any other towns as I had been to Berlin. 
This place has the credit or is rather not disgraced by 
any doggery, there being neither doggery nor store, but 
entirely a rural village. Then 4 m. to Powledge's mill 
on a branch of Chawocla Creek a water of Tallapoosa. 
Thence 2 m. to Mitchel's mill on Chawocla, the land 
high and rolling, and on the creek some very rich, but 
rolling. Growth oak, hickory, ash and poplar. I saw 

only a small portion of this kind of land. This is a stout 
ck. with high banks and roc"cy bed. Over hi^h fine land a 
few miles to Adorn Ck. on which the land appeared more kind 
and genial, being fine pine land and although on casual 
observation does not appear rich, is said to produce from 
8 to 10 cwt. cotton and i'rom 15 to 25 bushels corn, but if 
it does it deceives its I'l^ks, but the water of the creek 
appears to be limstone which I suppose with its lime? accounts 
for its fertility. I suppose this ck. to be 7 m. from 
Mitchels mills on Chawacla, thence 15 m. to Sistrunk's. The 
rock soon ceased after crossing Chawocla, although there were 
a great many pebbles near Odom Creek. Land on this ck. from 
$3.00 to S5.00 per acre. The soils below Chawocla were 
good appeared more genia] and mellow and better suited for 
cotton than above. Thence 13m. to the J-'ederal Road over 
a high barren fine countiy, thence 4m. to Sistrunk's in the 
fork of Chawocla and Big Swamp. The land lively. I saw a 
pond or two and gall berry bushes near some little creek. 
This day 40 m. Distance from Casper Sistrunk's at the mouth 
of the Bull Swamp, Orangeburg Disct., So. Car. to Joel 
Sistrunks in Macon Co., Ala. 7 m. E. of Tuskegge the Co. 
site, three hundred and twenty four miles (324 } and my 
travelling expences, eleven dollars ($11.00) with seven loaned 
to Richard Comer make S15.00 less than started with. 

Monday, March the 6th. 1843 :: Went to a Sheriff sale in 
Tuskegee, the Co. site of Macon Co. Ala. It is supposed 
to be a healthy location and appears to be improving. It 
has several schools, court house and jail. Several plant- 
ers of the neighboring country have residences here for the 
convenience of schoolsand the advantage of health. A con- 
siderable portion of the country south prairie and other 
rich soils in bodies which render it unhealthy. The Cal- 
ebee Creek is the first iarge ck. south. ' 

Thursday the 9th . Started S.W. course for Union Springs. 
The 1st 5m. high poor pine land, but most of it settled, 
then oak and short leaf pine and clay soil mixed with lime, 
or called lime land to Persimon Swamp. On this swamp 
this land was rich with some level flats and a stiff soil 
very little mixed with sand, then high land and a little 
rolling across theold Federal road to Calebee swamp. The 
growth short leaf pine and oak and on the swamp, some level 
long leaf pine flats witli sandy soil which sold some 
years ago for $10.00 per acre. This is a large creek, or 
swamp, and had to swim t«^ore I got to the bridge; on the 
South side the land high growth oak, hickory, poplar, ash 
and other rich growth. The produce said to be 20 or 30 
bushels of corn and 10 oi' 15 cwt of cotton, water scarce 
and not good. I think the settlers will soon know what the 
fever is here if they have not already learned. Land 
sells for from $9 to 12.00 per acre. Went a few miles 

further south, the growth continued to be oak and the soil 
cJay, but I thoup;ht, poor. Met a man named Butler who 
ownod a plantation in Barbour and informed me of Mr. L.P. 
Murray i ri the N.W. corner of Russell Co. and turned back, 
[le rippeared to be a clever man. i^eturned to Sistrunk's 

Friday the 10th . Started for the upper part of Russell Co. 
and found Mr. L.P. Murray in the N.W. corner of sd . Co. 
near the Chambers and Macon Co.'''ne and on the N.W. heads 
of the Little Oswitchie Ck. He had bought i a section of 
land in which were someof the fjeads of the Oswitchie. It 
is high land, the growth mostly v.hite? and red oak, hickory, 
short leaf pine, and some fewlcfig leaf. It is a little roll- 
ing and rocky and appears to be .Lively but not very rich, 
and better adapted for grain thnn cotton. I should 
lives 1 think on the of scrr.c section perhaps, 18, in 
Tounahip 19, Range 27E. (II may be township 18) Thomas 
lives on S.9T19, Range 27E. Mangum on Township IB Range 27E. 
These are in Russell Co. near the head of the . Range 
27E is the 1st or West Range ir Russell Co. and Range 26E. 
is the last or East Range of Macon Co. There some rich land 
up here on the Chawocla, but it is generally in small bodies 
and generally high rolling and rocky. It is not generally 
rich, that being in small bodies but lively. It is not 
considered good cotton land, but excellent for grain, corn 
and wheat. Murray gave $2.50 cts per acre and the best 
may be bought for S5.00 or $7.00 per acre unimproved, and I 
think less. There is but little doubt of the health of this' 
section of country, and is within a few miles of the celebrat- 
ed town of Apolaxica which I had nearly passed through before 
I knew it was a town and was uncertain until on enquiry 
1 was informed it was one. A man named Moat liveson Odom 
Creek (which I had to swim going and returning) on the 
south i of Section 34 Township 19 Range 25D being the last 
or East Range in Macon Co. Shorter lives on Odom Ck . on 
S5.T17.R26E. Mim's plantation on T.18R.26E. Milton T. 
Turner owns andwishes to sell the South 'i Section 27T.27R. 
26E on Odom Creek, Moat lives at the fork of the creek. 
The Aswitchee generally called Lichee opposite here or east 
of Moat's is in T.18 Range 29E. You count the Ranges from 
W to E. and the Townships from South to North. The difference 
between the soil and general appearance of the country 
above Chawacla at Mitchel's mi 1 .^ or in Chamber Go. and that 
below or in Macon is very ast()n:shing. That above appears 
hard and rocky and where there are no rock it has a dry 
arid appearance, and although tre settlers say it pro- 
duces corn and small grain wel', it does not please my Fancy. 
They acknowledge it does not prc."uce cotton as well as it 
does corn and grain, below th- ck, although the growth does 
not appear so rich, being nearly all long leaf pine, the land 


looks much more mellow and free. It has not the dry hard 
appearance of that above. I allude mostly to the Odom (Jk. 
lands as there is little or none after leaving? it fit for 
cultivation until you get i;o the Federal road, but the same 
remarks will apply to it a:; to the Odom Ck . lands, as to 
its free mellow appearance. In going from Apelaxica towards 
Auburn the lands have a more lively free appearance and 
are said to be better adapted to cotton, but there are 
pebbles and small rock and more or less? of that hard dry 
arid appearance until you get 5 or 6 m. south of Auburn 
when the lime again shows itself by the water and the free 
mellow look of the land, but somewhat rolling, and although 
the farmers make fine crops of cotton, corn, and wheat, the 
soil does not look so mellow and free as lower down on the 
Chawacla and Big Swamp. The residents here think it more 
healthy than lower down. Not far below Mitchell's mills are 
some noted fine cotton lands nearly or quite all the fertile 
lands on Chawacla from about Odom Creek down are good cotton 
lands . 

Thursday, March the 16th . Rain, snow and sleet, did not 
start to '. Pd . 2 5 c t s . Tobacco & 

Friday the 17th . Cold, clear and freezing, but having 
remained much longer tat Sistrunk's than 1 calculated, 
started for the Sovereign State of Mississippi. 2 m. to Big 
Swamp, pd . 12^ toll and Mr. Moon 6i tobacco, 5m. to Tuskegee, 
the road over highpine land, dotted with houses or residences 
some of them handsome, the planters South preferring the high 
dry land to the soil on their plantations. After this 
village turned to the right, leaving the Montgomery or Fed- 
eral road to the flats of Jiufaubee Creek, then down these 
flats and the Montgomery and WestPoint R.R. to within 
two miles of Franklin on the R.R. The flats (are) pine and 
do not appear rich. Saw plenty of gallberry bushes. They 
were, however, richer than theyappeared . The Eufaubee is 
here a large ck., almost a small river. Crossed on a fine 
large high bridge and proceeded down on the other or N. side. 
The flats level and some large with fine plantations and 
better than the S, side, but the cotton and corn stalks do 
not appear so large as those of Big Swamp and Chawacla. 
After proceeding a few miles left the flats and to the right 
to cross a high poor pine country on the E. bank of Talla- 
poosa River. Thereare high banks on both sideo of 
the river but the is tne E. There is a considerable fall 
or rapid in the river h^r>i and the water tumbles over the 
rocks with a roaring noi.:;c. These falls may be one day val- 
uable for turning machinery in the manufactory of cotton 
or other commodities when we get in a better humor with) man- 

ufactoring of the scarcity of Land compels us to pay 
some attention to some other bueiness than planting, for 
now few think themselves settled for life in whatever business 
he may bo, unless he has a plantation and negroes. That 
soems to be our end and aim as it repents worldly acquisi- 
tions. The town is fast decaying. It appears to have been 
an old Indian town, and after Ihe whites began to settle, 
prospered a while by the trade v/ith the emigrating Creeks; 
crossed the river into Talapoosa Co. over an elegant bridge. 
Pd . 1?^ cts. The land here docs not appear very rich and 
the level small, then 2 m. over high pine land, then 
pine fiats which became larger and richer until 1 crossed 
a large bold ck. called Wallahatcy 4m. Here saw by 
bushes and red and looking places on the right and slant of 
hills, the pond appearance might have been cased by springs 
bursting from the hill sides and not having strength to force 
its way down, stagnated in the small basins and caused 
Indian? settlements here by which I suppose they are eighter 
owned by or are not so good or large as I supposed 
them to be. Then very high pine hills, almost mountains, 
for a few miles to another creek called Little Ha tchychubby , 
on which were some good flats. 10m. to Robert Let's in 
the edge of Co. and just over ot on the West bank 

of a small ck. Land valued at from $5. to S5.00 per acre 
on Little Ha tchychubby . It looks lively but that is 
enough. Accomodation fair, but high. The old man insisted 
on my looking at the blazing star or Commet and appeared 
anxious to have my opinion, but it was the 1st time I had 
seen or heard of it and consequently had no opinion about 
it. He appeared to fear some of Miller's preditions and 
that this star was a preludeto their fulfilment. Saw a 
pretty interesting girl here. He was from Harris Co. Geo. 
He was a Clay Whit, This day 55m. p. 1.25 

Saturday, March the 19th, 1843 . Cloudy and freezing early 

in the morning then fair and cole. Started 2nm. after 

8.4m. to Bife Hatchychubby , On it, were some Indian old 

fields and it is a stout creek and tolerable land. 6m 

to Wetumpkee, the road high, hill and clayey barren to 

Corn creek, which was rocky and lively land but Hilly, and 

very high hills on left. This land only appears lovely 

in comparison to that preceeding it, for although the growth 

appears to indicate lively land T am not prepared to say 

it is of much consequence. The little imitation village 

of New Georgia and Fraction appeared before Wekumpkee, which 

appears to be a place of business, placed at the head of 

navigation on the Coosa Riber, and on both sides though 

West Watumpkee or that part on the W. or side is almost 

deserted, although much the oldest, for it was settled 

whilst that on the E. side belonged to the Creek Indians. 


The finest buildings and much the greater part of the business 
is now done on the E. sidt;, the ground onthe E. side is 
uneven in the best locations and some of the houses are 
built at the foot and on the sides of very high hills, which 
will prevent its being very wide. Consequently, if it 

stains any great size it must go up the river, for the 
hills backof the town are too high and steep for the 
mercantile business to extend in that direction, and the 
bridge being about the center of the town and at the falls, 
the boats can go no higher than at present. However, the 
town may advance upward. The West side is level and 
appears much the handsomest site for a town, but capitol and 
influence apirted perhaps by the fact that most of the trade 
comes from the E. side has permanently located the 

main business on the E. side in Coosa Co. and is but little 
above the line of Montgomery Co. The Ala. Penitentiary 
is about a mile up the E. bank of the river and is a fine 
brick building with work shops. The keepers appear 

to be very obliging in showing strangers the interior and 
giving information of the police of the establishment. 
There were 6 guard and 53 convicts, some head workmen and 
overseers. The Court house and Jail of Coosa Co. It is 
supposed that the Capitol of the State will ultimately be 
removed from Tuscaloosa to which appears very likely 
from the fact of the Penitentiary here which is many miles 
from the seat of Government, and it appears to me its 
location where the members could annually make a personal 
inspection Which would? be much better than to depend en- 
tirely on written reports? I saw a steam boat lying here 
and saw a flat boat laden with cotton come down the river. 
Saw W.J, Stevens of Blackville, Barnwell Disct., So. Ca . , 
bought some acid pd . 6i cts., crossed Coosa into 
Autauga Co. and the W. part of the town over a high 
fine covered bridge pd . 12^ cts. For a short distance the 
land is level and lively and has sold high perhaps $10.00 
per acre, then level low? land with some ponds and although 
it appears poor is certainly better for cotton than a strang- 
er might suppose. 9 m. to Mortor ck. on which large fields 
may be got and of lively Land , although fine, it lies nicely 
generally 25 m. to Kingston the Co. site. It is a poor 
apology for a town and the seat of government of the great 
Co. of Autauga. It has a Court house of plank, I saw no 
jail, one hotelj two shops and a few other houses, a few 
barren hills on the roa : , thence 5m. to Motley's. The 
country high, hilly poor pine land, with a few small farms 
in the hollows of tolerable land. The soil sandy. 
Motley appeared to have a considerable farm of tolerably 
level and lively pine land being ineasy circumstances, he 
pays but little attention to travellers but keep.-) h goDfi 
table and fair stable. He and his son-in-lawamused them- 
selves playing checkers and I was compelled to amuse myself 
by looking on as the ladie.-s were in the opposite end of the 

house. Ordinary conversation .-. jld have been motre entertain- 
in/'; to me, but as we cannot vui" in the castles of other, but 
ifiuut conform to their customs ^f.d his being to amuse himself 
t;/ [jJayin/^ with hia son-in-law, ;riine was necessarily to 
;imij;iO my .self by looking at them play, or at the fire, for I 
ijrjw neither books nor papers, oaw sleet this evening that 
folJ Wednesday night or Thursday morning, 8m. from Vernon 
on Ala. River, about N. this day 41m. pd . 1.00 

Sunday, March the 19th. 1843 . i:tarted 20 m. after 8, cold 
&. cloudy, some little f"»in, snow and sleet. Saw some of 
the latter that fell Wednesday. 2m. to Independence on 
Jwift Creek. This ck. is small ond has some lively flats 
but not very rich. The town is In the flat and has a dog- 
gery which was open today and a few other houses. 7m. to 
Milton. High broken land of a dark red colour but 
sandy and light, being easily washed. Then over a very 
hilly country to Mulberry ck, (intending to cross at Smith's 
bridge but found it washed away). The hills higher than the 
trees, although they were high forest trees. The land 
settled and cultivated, but not densely. The hill sides 
have rich growth. Encountered the Selma R. Road at the 
Mulberry ck, and having crossed? the bridge kept up the 
creek with the R.R. which runs in the flats some of which 
are rich but broken by a great many glades and bogs. The 
hills on the right were almost mountain high, the flats 
and sometimes bogs of the ck. on the left, and when a spring 
branch entered the creek these bogs were sometimes with some 
difficulty crossed. Passed?. the residence of Jefferson & 
Thos. Hogg and Peoples. Travelled up several miles and 
crossed where the R.R. did at John Melshe's. The ck here 
is 15 or 20 yds. wide and has a good current, but I forded 
it without difficulty. The road 1 have been travelling 
up the E. bank of the Mulberry was new and not very good, 
after detouring? through a level field, entered the public 
road to Selma on the W. side, but travelled it but a short 
distance when J turned to the right and nearly West, over 
a very hilly road. 9m. to liayler's. The growth oak 
and hickory and . The soil red but light and washy,' 
the farms generally small. After leaving the waters of the 
Mulberry, I crossed the heads of Valley Ck . then the little 
Oakmulges, some sm. flats or t rich. This last is the 
most hilly road 1 ever traveli'-i oweing no doubt to the heads 
of the Valley Creek. Autab- . Co. extends to the Mul- 
berry Ck. then Perry Co. Ala. : had went considerably out 
of my way but was obliged to d.^ so to cross the Mulberry 
without swimming. A negro boy at Hogg's gave me directions 
and wished me a good journey t^oause I was a Carolinian 
which was his native State, sore where about Camden. It 
seemed his native home had made a more lasting than 

some white men. Bayler is c .aihoung Whig & Nully, very 
talkative and overflown with politics and has more "gab 
than guts" to use a homely phi-3'--e. I could scarcely get 


a comment? for his talki ,f^. He lives on Section 29. Town- 
ship 19 Range 10E. Thi;: -iay 32 m. Pd . $1.00. Gerard in 
Russell Co. on the Cha t ' -iiiachie River in East side of the 
State is in Range 30 E. I saw in this man Bayler a sample 
of the Western politiciaiS, who not only discuss the policy 
of their county or stat? hut the U.S. and then branch off 
to Europe as soon as they learn there is such a place. 
Indeed, but few, if any. pay much attention to their own 
Go. or State except as .; the election of officers which 
they wish to be themselv ■:- in the 1st place and then some 
person cf their own part.;. It matters but little what other 
qualifications they hav , if they have the ability to 
make stump speeches and laud democracy, praise their own 
party and abuse the opposite one, few of whom know much 
more of the or policy of the country than what they 
gather from some little j)arty newspaper, and little more 
of democracy than the name, which is in the mouth of nearly 
every one who can pronounce the word. Like the man in 
the Scripture they wish to take the moat out of their broth- 
er's eye before the beam in removed from their own. By 
endeavouring to regulatethe affairs at Washington they are 
ready and anxious to sweep the dirt from the doors of their 
neighbors, but cannot see that which lies immediately 
before their own. They have made the word democracy 
synonymous with mob-oc-ra-cy , lynch law, tumult, confusion 
and almost anarchy. The rights of property are but little 
respected as there is not the least provision made for 
its representation in the Legislature, yet they tax it for 
the support of Government, contrary to one of the first 
principles of the Declaration of Independence which declares 
that taxation and representation are inseparable. They 
arogate to themselves as much power and as unjust as the 
British parliament which caused the revolution. And for 
fear of losing popularity, none dare oppose it. He will be 
denounced as an aristocrat who wishes to put the negroes on 
a footing with whites. How consistent this is? But I must 
go on the next days journey. 

Monday. March the 20th, 1843 . Started i past 9. Crossed 
Big Oakmulgee at a mill. This is a bold ck. but not so 
large as the Mulberry and has a considerable swamp which 
appears mostly wet and too low for cultivation. 3m. to 
Perryville. It tes a dogeery and a few other houses but is 
nearly deserted. The c0"(ftry very hilly and inclined to be 
sandy. After traveling five miles saw a few long leaf 
pine, then poor, indeed ail the morning and last evening tho 
country might be denominated poor but not so poor as this. 
The farms are all small and the land very hilly, and the 
farmers or inhabitants mak'- enough to support on. J^m. 
I'rom i'ltt, 'b ferry on Cahiawba. The l.-jnd became l(;Vf.'l .iri'l 
fiat and the growth long l';af {)ine. Near the river in 

some rich land, and lively for perhaps a mile. Crossed in 
a flat, pd . 12$. Then for 5m. the land lively with rich 
growth to Rice's Creek within 3 m. of Marion, the Co. site 
of Ferry, but thinking to go a nearer way, turned to 
l\\(' left into a path. Crossed a large creek on which were 
some rich flats, but the lands were mostly hilly and although 
not rich, should judge it to bo lively. To Crenshaw's on 
the Cahawba road, then to Gen. King's again within 3ms. of 
Marion. This is a splendid plantation and generally level. 
After passing? Gen. King's for a short distance the land is 
more thtn, then generaklly fine level fertile land to 
Thomas's within 1m. of Greensburough in Green Co. The 
growth generadly oak, hickory, otc, thickly settled and 
timber appears to be scarce although the fencing is general- 
ly good and the houses neat and well built and generally 
painted white. Although it is almost level, there it is a 
little rolling. I saw circular plowing to prevent the lands 
washing which look very handsome. The soil is mostly of a 
mulatto colour but mixed with fine sand. There is some white 
or grey and some black soil. The red or mulatto is consider- 
ed the best for cotton but not so good for corn valued form 

per acre. 10m. from Greensborough 1 took the left 
hand road and near the line of Green Co. on the right saw 
a particularly fine residence. There is some prairie soil 
before getting to Greensborough and some of the land will 
command from $10 to 30.00 per acre. The whole distance 
from Gen. King's may be counted fertile, although there is 
some thin land and is generally in a high state of culti- 
vation and 1 do not recollect ever having seen a finer? 
country where the farmsgenerally looked better managed than 
in this section. In the spring of 1832 I went through 
this country on my return home from Miss. It then ap- 
peared the most lovely country I had seen since leaving 
St. Georges Parish So. Ca . And it has lost none of its 
charms since but has rather inacresed for there is more 
improvements and there are more neat residences and the 
farming more generally uniform and handsome or I may rather 
say the planting for they are rather plantations than farms, 
but not generally very large plantations. I should judge 
the force of the planters are 2:orierally from 10 to 30 hands. 
It is said to be healthy and e/'-^y appearance of being so 
except its fertility and localit-/ in the south. It appears 
high and dry, but I think but f'- v places where the lands 
ai-e rich can boast of great heaV.h and particularly in the 
south. Thomas's is a tolerab'^ house with quite a sociable 
and genteel landlady, but her z )n appears to be an afflict- 
ed lad , but behavedcivil. He i ; a democrat but makes 
no great about politics. .'his day 3? m. pd . 1.25. 

Tuesday the 21st . Started at 8 ^'id travelled 1 m. to Greens- 
borough. Hough tpipe and toba-. ), pd . 12j, this is a con- 
siderable inland town and has j. le pretensions to beauty, 
being a mixture of town and cinotry and built on sandy 


soil. It has three churches and several hotels and is a 
place of some business, which it owes no doubt to the fer- 
tility of the surround country, as there is no court house, 

or anything of the kind. It is said to be heaJthy 
which is somewhat surpri:;ir'g as it is surrounded, and indeed 
is situated, on fertile Land, but the surrounding country 
is called healthy. However, that it should be so does not 
agree with my idea of economy, for I should suppose that 
the csubstances which cause fertility in the soil would 
create dampness, malaria or something to create sickness 
in any climate, and more in a southern than a northern one, 
particularly a large body of rich land. And there is a 
large extent of country here which may be denominated rich 
and mostly level, land will here probably command frin S6 to 
10.00 per acre and some perhaps $15.00 and produce from 8 
to 12 cwt of cotton, and is, I should judge, more suitable 
for cotton than corn or rather good cotton land. Then 
14m. to Erie on the E. bank of the Black Warrior, the former 
Co. site of Green Co. which is now removed to Eutaw a few 
miles above and I think on the W. side. The country until 
within a few miles of Erie, high level oak and hickory on 
sandy land, soil generally fine and good. All land not 
prairie soil in the neighborhood of prairies is called 
sandy land, well settled and cultiva tedmuch like the planta- 
tions E. of Greensborough . For a few miles before reaching 
Erie there is prairie soil, also well cultivated and fer- 
tile. It is, or appears to be, much more disagreeable to 
cultivate than the sandy oi- oak and hickory land. There are 
kinds of prairie soil here, as indeed is in most prairie 
countries which I have seen, the white and black soil. The 
first I have generally considered of little or no 
value, but I am informed that the white soil here is 
nearly or quite as good as the black, and better for cotton 
as more certain. I have had this affirmed since but would 
still prefer the black. The white soil is easier and more 
agreeable to cultivate. The fences and houses are gener- 
ally good, and I have observed in all this country of Perry 
& Green Go's, that almost every planter breaks up hin 
land before planting. The fields were all lately broken up 
or in process of breaking. Indeed 1 saw little or none 
unbroken. Erie decaying since the ct. house or seat of the 
Co. government has been removed. The soil on which it is 
built is clay and in wet weather the streets muridy and 
disagreeable. It has alen a small mixture of prairie soil. 

Toll at the Warrior. Erie is 40m. below Tuscaloosa 
and 24m. above Iiemopolis. The Warrior here is a fine stream 
and navigable for steam u. ats to Tuscaloosa, 40 m. above. 
Cold damp day, some sleet. 

The swamp extends about 6 miles en the West side of the 
of the Warrior, the East being a high bluff, that io, it 

has the appearance of a swamp being low and level, soil of 

a light or grey colour, interspersed with creek and iMgc.onn, 

r-.ome few plantations. After travelling 6m. stopped at 
the house of an engaging lady (to warm) whose maiden name 
wa:; Collins originally from Barnwell Dist., So. Ca . and what 
is remarkable was born and raised in Green Co., Ala. and 
was never out of it. And this in a country where the popu- 
lation are almost constantly on the move. But in Ala. I 
judge the moving disposition is not so great as in Ga . or 
Miss, for such a thing would be almost a miracle in one of 
those States. 1 this morning cot shin plasters on the change 
Co. of Greenborough for the fi-'.-. t I had seen. Land here, the 
good ones, frora$6 to 10.00. It nas the appearance of swamp 
and 1 should suppose it unhealthy. It is also low, stiff, 
cold looking land. Thence 5m. to Derden's ferry. I went to 
this place by inistake. The country low and level but some 
low pineland indicated that 1 was near the edge of the 
swamp which lay on my left as I had now left the Warrior 
Swamp soon after passing Miss Collin's and found I was going 
up the Tombigby and in the edge of the swamp or near the band. 
Derden's i'erry is on the Tombigby. Thence 9m. up the Tom- 
bigby to Buzzard Roost or Bluff Point. I think however the 
first name the most appropriate as the ferryman is impudent 
and unobliging and most of the other persons seen appear 
to be an outlandish set. Iregret the loss of their names, 
as so incourteous a set ought to be remembered. From 
Darden's the land level and several settlements and one or 
two plantations, but the land, although it may be rich, does 
not please my fancy. It either appears poor or lowand wet 
and stiff soil of a light colour or grey. Some looks rich,' 
some, however, appears mixed with sand. The settlements 
mostly appear small and poor andit cannot be other than 
sickly. There is a deep swamj) for several miles before reach- 
ing the ferry. Pd . 18 3/4. The W. side is bluff thence 
2^m. over a high hilly prairie country to Mrs. Williams. 
Counted fertile, this Sumpter Cc . land valued from $5 to 
$9.00 per acre. 

This a poor apology for an entertainment but I was glad to 
get even here. The fare coarse for man and horse. There is 
a buxom girl here who I think fond of beans and gossip, 
but as it was late, cold, damr. "nd disagreeable, I had not 
much chance for chat. Pd . I.IZ^. This day 38m. 

Wednesday, March the 22nd, 1943. Large white frost and 
very foggy. This plantation valued at 5^10.00 per 
acre and is sandy land. Startea before 8 to livingston, 
the Co. site of Sumpter. At first a little land of prairie 
nature with black Jack and scrub? oak growth and somewhat 
rcjJling or undulating, then on some ck's a few small bottoms 
of oak and hickory. Sandy lane to Livingston, This is a 
flourishing looking place witn j' fine brick Ct. house with 
a high steeple situated on the' N. or N.K. bank of the 
Suckanatchy Creek, which here m^ikes a bluff and is a con- 
siderable creek but too small for navigation unless with 
small keel boats, and then if the road to the river was rea- 
sonable, I should judge the l-^^id navigation better than 


than the river or creek. i crossed it on a bridf^e at the 
town and proceeded up the L.W. bank for a few miles, '5m. It 
appeared level and rich. Then the rolling land commenced 
and continued about 1 m. '..en oak for prairie natured 
land to the Ala. line. ['.''I ashy and white, some red with 
the clay near or on thf ^urface. Water scarce and few or 
no settlers, the land be;nf poor. After a ride of 15m. 
crossed a creek on which were some apparently rich flat and 
some cleared land and coarse improvement, held at $10.00 
per acre. Saw a few sht-rt leaf pine mixed with the oak for 
the first since crossing the river. A few miles further 
at another improvement the land valued at $3.00 per acre, 
but if the owners find no persons who fancy their places 
no more than I do they wJll be apt to keep them some t.ime 
at those prices. Thence "^ m . further the waters of Ponta cW . 
Nice rich flats and sandy cr hickory land, the big oak land, 
the dry land being through with. Thence 5m. up Ponta, fine 
hickory flats a little inclined to be stiff, the soil being 
of a grey or white ashy colour andvery fine, the growth 
generally being thin and low of what we Carolinians would 
say, of a scrubby or barren nature. Then some pine hills 
with better timber but poor land except the hollows, which 
appear lively. About 10m. to cousin John W. Clayton's 
in Lauderdale Co, Miss. This appears to be a high plea- 
sant country, some hickory and some pine hollows of a fine 
sandy soil, generally an ashyor grey colour, and appears 
lively but not very rich. The hickory of the low knotty 
scrub kind and the growth upon the flats and hills gener- 
ally low and thin. A good portion of poor pine hills, the 
swamps being the and branchesare generally level, and 
I judge, rich. They were once covered with cane which have 
now mostly disappeared. The soil appears to be of two 
kinds, a grey or light coloured soil which is generally 
stiff and hard, but said to produce well, and then a soil 
of a darker color and generally more light and sandy and 
appears to be more dry, free and easier 'to cultivate. 
There is also some black similar to, but not exactly like, 
prairie soil. You will observe in these swamps, wherever 
hickory or red oak grow, there is moreor less sand and the 
soil appears more free. The Ponta even here is 10 or 15 
yds. wide and sometimes swift and the swamp is from i to 3/4 
of a mile wide covered with a very heavy tall thick growth 
of oak of different kinds. Clayton's or Lost Horse creek, 
which empties at ck. Clayton's about 2 m. below is smaller 
and the flat or swamp proportionable so, some places only 
a few hundred yds or qus'-'er of a mile wide. 1 think the 
soil of this creek preferable to Ponta, there being a 
greater portion of sandy or light soil. The soil in Ponta 
being generally of a stiffer nature. You may here live in 
the pin*^ land and cultiva te hickory or swamp land. 
The hickory land has however thus far proved healthy. 
There not appear tf; me to be much Jimo In thfr;*' lanrlc, 
but it is aupposed that M,e water of the creaks (jh U>i- land 

on the land ia imprep^na ted with sulfur? which increases 
its fertility. There are several places impregnated with 
sulphur and spr:irjgs have been dug in which the sulphur water 
(Mjlloctod. The I'osumville 'iprin/^s abc^ut 7tn. IJ,K. owned by 
(J'Ti. l^atton, are strongly irripr^ gnatod with 3u]phur and what 
ap[)enrs to me more remarkable iocatedV in the centre of a 
large reed brake. I should judge the water to be strongly 
impregnated and the spring is flush and bold and the water 
abundant. Most, if not all, the sulphur water rises or is 
found in the reed brakes or lew t;)laces. There are other 
waters here supposed to be of a mineral character, some called 
Ghalybea te . 

Thursday March the 23rd, 1843 . Very cold with large frost 
but fair, iieiiiained at John W. Ciayton's until evening when 
E.G. llusey and Wm. Clayton came over to see me, and I 
want home with Husey. The country generally high and 
hilly and poor. There was a little on Posura Creek that 
appeared a little lively, on the hills immediately adjoin- 
ing the Ck. but may all except the flat of the creek be de- 
nominated poor, and they were too small to be of much 
consequence. I am however inclined to think the water 
of this creek has some impregnation of lime. There is on 
the road some long leaf pine. The soil of which is sandy, 
some oak and short leaf, this of a stiff clayey nature. 

Friday the 24th . 1 and Husey went to Marion, the Co. 
site . Cloudy cold and freezing. The country high and 
rolling. Some lively oak and hickory land, free sandy and 
light. Some flats a little more stiff. Marion is 10m. 
from Clayton's. It snowed through the day and was very 
cold. After dark it snowed rapidly. Saw Shields S. Husey 
at Marion, Arthur Tucker and Wm . Rhode. 

Sa turd ay the 2 3th . Pair and cold. The snow fell last night 
1 i or 2 i n . deep. Went to a battalion muster near Capt. 
S.A. Griffith's. Saw him and h].A. Durr at the muster. 
Heard several stump speeches from the several candidates for 
the Legislature. It seems thi^^ was the commencement of 
th(j campaign and the first bro3dnide was fired here. The 
speeches were all morelikepop '".is than cannon and only of 
a party nature. 1 think ther.' .vas scarcely a Statesmanlike 
view brought up or mentioned, ij though oneof the parties 
made some sensible remarks and others announced themselves 
candidates and said but little. Although 1 make these remarks, 
I cannot make a speech at all. Lt shows the necessity of a 
public man here being able to inake speeches, as the quality 
it matters but little. Party .^ling, local or sectional pre- 
judice, the fact is, a real st'^esman if he condescends to 
make'a show? of stump speakin^;;;, must leave his statesmanship 
out or home when he goes a stumping. Stump orators generally 


know very little about Statesmanhip, the policies of, or 
economy of government and ':he essential principles of gov- 
ernment. Party slang anH jests are much more effective of 
the purpose, mixed with a little party politics or policy 
than sage reasoning to prove sound theories of government, 
and indeed the people will find very little sound political 
economy in any partyspeechos , and it would be wonderful if 
any in one made before tho people. When they are 
made to them it is generally to gain votes and advance a 
party. Where there is not a great deal of partyism the 
speeches I think much more apt to contain sound political 
orstatesman like views. 

Thursday the 30th . Went to examine McKinley's or Luntsford's 
land in Ponta swamp. It is nice level land mostly in the 
swamp, with a heavy tall growth of timber. Most of the soil 
of the white or grey nature, stiff but seems to be rich. 
Rain this evening. 

Distance from I. Sistrunk's Macon Co. Ala. to J.W, Clayton's, 
Lauderdale, Miss. 218 miles and expense of man and horse 
$6.93 3/4 cts. Distance from Jasper Sistrunks's in Orange- 
burg, S.Ca. to Clayon's 542 miles and cost $17.93 3/4 
From home in St. Georges to G. Sistrunk*s 42m. cost 
From G. Sistrunks to Joel Sistrunks's 324 m. cost 11.00 
From Joel Sistrunks to J.W. Clayton's Lauderdale, Miss. 
218 M. Cost $6.93 Given to $7.00. 9 days from G. to I. 
Sistrunk's. 6 da. from Tod Sistrunk's to J. VI. Clayton's 

April the 6th 1843 . Started from A. Tucker's 4m. to Marion 
Pd 6i for medicine for horse. Got it of an animal called 
a Dr., but I should very muchdislike to risk a good dog to 
his treatment. He is a dirty looking man and has dirty 
medicine. Thence 27M. tc Sherad's on the W. side of Chick.= 
asawhay a few hundred yards from Enterprise, having crossed 
the river in a flat at the junction of Oaktibbeeha and 
Chunky which makes the Chickasawhay . Pd . 12^. Land mostly 
high and poor, some a little lively, some of the hills were 
very high. My road most of the way going down the ridge 
of high land that divides the waters of Tombigbe from those 
of Chickasawhay. The prospect from some of these high hills 
overlooking the valleys and lower hills was beautiful and 
the pinee or growth on the opposite hills appearing regular 
and having sometimes the appearance of a dark cloud. The 
land on the river did not please my fancy but considered 
by Sherod as valuable, he having given some 8 or 10.00 oer 
acre. This is Clark Co. Township 6, Range 14 R1.5. This 
is not a very good hou^-, the lady very talkative and fond 
of courtships & weddings and I think if a widow, could benm 
and be very flattery. Th€: house may be called toler^bJe. 
This day 31m. pd . $1.00. GoA 16 dimes in change for $3.00 
the bill high enough for the fare. 

Thursda.y April the 7th, 1843 . Citarted at 8 and travelled 
^m. to Jue and Lovey (TTouTnTovoy ) Creek. Some few hickory 
n^ts on the ck, but generally high, poor pine land. 
Th-^nce 8m. to Boulton'i3 on Penantly Ck . in Jasper 
Ucj. 10 m, above I'aulding the Co. site. Land mostly poor 
but some hickory land and somi? of a prairie nature with 
black jack and post oak growth. Bolton have lively hickory 
land and a line sandy soil, in Section 25, Township 4, 
Range 12£. 

Friday April 8th. 1943 . Went to A. Wheeler's Rat- 
cliff's and Christopher Tatum's. Mostly prairie land rolling 
and spotted. Some hickory land. Wheeler and Ratcliff 
on the dividing ridge between Tallehalee and Chickasawhay 
Rivers. The Chickasawhay waters running first into PenantlJy, 

then into Sue and Lovey (Souinlovey) and then into 
Chickasawhay. They live on very high hills with sandy soils, 
have springs and cultivate prairie land. The prospect or 
view is delightful and fine from their houses. Also from 
Tatum's but particularly from Ratcliff's fromwhence you 
may see for miles and West it is said to be 8m. to the hills 
on the opposite side of the valley, and the trees have the 
appearance of a dark cloud . Thence in the evening over 
rather a hilly road and sandy soil. 10m. to Paulding the 
Co. site, then 8m. to Capt. I.H. Clayton's His plantation 
is at the head of a sm. ck. called Bogue-Phaliah , water of 
Tallahala and is rich hickory land but rich growth oak, 
hickory, on S33 T2 R12i;.Pauld ing on S11 Township 2 Range 12 

Saturday April the 9th . Went in company with Clayton to 

CT"^ Rhode on Tallahatta ck. water a Tallehalee River. 

Rode on S23 Tl R12E. Paulding is one hundred and twenty 

five milesfrom Mobile. 

Su nday April the 10th, 1843 . Started from Clayton's at 9 
o'clock and crossing Bogue=Phali3h travelled over a high 
hilly country to Tallahatta Ctfc. The land mostly lively 
with a growth ofoak, hickory and short leaf pine. I cross - 
ed the Jasper Co, line just below the Tallahatta Ck. and 
entered the Co. of Jones, dutbo-i the State of Jones. The 
land here mostly of pineland un the creeks and Tallahalee 
River down which the road far. to Sumnall's, 10m. £. of 
Monroe in Perry Co. Some of the swamp of Tallehalee is said 
to be lively but liable to inundations. This old gentleman 
appeared very clever and kind aii] a democrat. This day 42m. 
Pd 87i cts. He appears to be a plain honest farmer and 
good citizen which quickly made ne feel at home. Pare plain 
but horse well fed. His daughter-in-law from Texas living 
with him. 

Monday the 11th . Started at 7, travelled 16m. down the 


Tallehalee River and most of the time in the flats of said 
river tc ^ugusta, the Cc . site of Perry. The land is 
generally poor, but some of the flats are lively, oak 4 
hickory, tut generally Augusta is the seat of a 
land office and lands cf a large extentof country are 
subject to sale here, but a large portion of it is poor. 
It is a pour town and scarcely deserves the name except that 
it has a kind of Court he/use and jail, two dwellings, n shop 
or two but nothing that reserves the name of store. 1 hero 
saw some of my acquaintat'ces of 1532. Wade Hampton 

Xichclls recognized and treated me with the kindness and 
politeness of an old friend, an acquaintance which I trust 
I shall not soon forget. , crossed Leaf River here, 

pd . 12^ , tobacco 6j, po£ Inge to a letter to N. GramlJn 25 c ts . 
Thence down the west side 10m. to Aunt Nancy Bolton's, the 
road most of the way in the pine flats of the river and 
generally poor. This day 26m. Listance from Lauderdale 
the way 1 came 131 m. expense S2.50, total expenditure 
since leaving home ^p20.4^ and total distance 673 miles. 

This section of country is generally poor and barren, the 
best lands lie in the swamps which, almost without exception, 
is liable to inundation. The flats cf the river which on a 
casual observation a person from the lower part of Carolina 
would suppose to be lively, I am told is of little value, 
the most of them, without exception?. After leaving the 
river flats the country is composed of high, hilly broken 
nine land, fit only for range, with occasionally a level 
place suitable for a stack miinden, house and cow pen. west- 
wardly on Black Ck. the range is said to be better. Jouth- 
wardly the country becomes more level and low, and of course 
the range better, as a moist stmosphere promotes the growth 
of grass, but I should suppose it not so healthy as higher 
up where the soil is more dry and the country more hilly. 
The village of Biloxi on a bay of the same name on the gulf, 
said to be a healthy and pleasant place and in the neighbor- 
hood on the coast there is said to be some little 
lively hammock land, but it is insmall bodies, and there 
are few or no persons deserving the name of planters, 
their farming being confined mostly to provisions and market- 
ing. The inhabitants are mostly of French descent and are 
more engaged in amusement than labour. I'lany have stocks of 
cattle which support them, also fishing, hunting and burnig 
coal and brick occupy the time some. Some persons in this 
country have accumulated considerabDe fortunes by raising 
cattle and are the owners of from 500 to 2000 head. Some 
who own these large stocks commenced with only a few head. 
A person however who makes a business of stock must m.'Jke 
his associates of them, for he oannot assi.'^iatr but littlo 
with men. The lonely life and difficulty of fHjcijting a 
family would d^ter most men from following the bu3in'-":n whri 
had the capital to commence life in some other bun; o^-::.;, hit 

it suits the taste and habits of some persons andshows that 
in almost every department of business, if we attend to its 
duties we may improve our (Condition and a smaller? capital is 
necessary to commence in this than any other. Buy a few head 
of cattle, no land need be bought, and very regular labour 
is required, although considerable-aiding and attention, mark- 
ing and driving cattle, and many who are opposed to regular 
labour are pleased with and delight in this. 

Saturday April the 22nd , 1 bavp been most of my time since 
the 11th here at Aunt Nancy's, Today heavy showers of rain, 
last night and in the forenoon, cloudy and sultry at Morn- 
ing? & afternoon. Pd . 25 cts tobacco, 

SundayApril the 23rd 1843 . Warm and Leaf River rising rapid- 
ly and bidding fair for a freshet. This is a lovely place 
to a person fond of a change of company. You must learn to 
commune with yourself and prize higher the company you have, 
although fond of company, it appears I desire little other 
than we have. 

Most persons here admit the improper management of the gov- 
ernment under its present organization with is all democracy 
or itiob-oc-ra-cy , and to all reasoning and argument against 
it, their answer is, it is democratic, and appears willing 
to bear the changeable, uncertain, and often unjust exercise 
of the law &rfear of something they scarcelyknow what, 
or rather say what. Many are no doubt afraid of being put 
under more restraint bji a more strict enforcement of the 
law, and being punished for misdeeds which they now escape. 
Many are fearful of their popularity, which is a very essen- 
tial thing here, whether you are in public or private life 
for most cases are decided more by the popularity or un- 
popularity or the keen intrigue of the parties than the 
equity or justice of the case. All appear suspicious of 
their public officers and are fearful of trusting them 
more than absolute necessity requires. They seem disposed 
to trust them with but little authority and that for a short 

time, and they have some right for they are often most''_^ 

deceived and always will be until they alter the manner Tn 
which, and the time for which, they are elected. Some ap- 
pear to be afraid that some aspirant will usurp the govern- 
ment and have more thoughts of aristocracy than all the 
titled nobility of Europe, They advocate frequent elections 
so that they may have the democratic satisfaction of see- 
ing and hearing the candidates; bow to and ask them for the 
highest places, which they are generally incapable of, or 
afraid, to fill as they should be, for fear of being turned 
out. For this slight evil, envious and vain gratification 
the people of Miss, bear al!. the evils of the worst of 
civilized governn>ent. Yet th:s is called democracy and 
people love, or appear to love it although it protects 


neither his person or prDpe^rty, wife or children, or does it 
very precariously, for nothing is firm or steady without 
perhaps fraud, deceit etc. They admit the bad administration 
of public affairs, but ascribe, or endeavor to ascribe it, 
to the men who administer, rather than to the formation of 
the government. Were you vO object to the everlasting system 
of electioneering you would be denounced as aristocratic 
and run the risk of insult or something worse from these 
Sovereign democrats. They forget that the operation of the 
government fosters all tho bad and suppresses the 
good, and they will no doubt have a good ostensible reason 
for laying blame on the officers of government as long as 
they are elected in the present manner, for it will be a 
rare thing for one not to deserve censure after having cater- 
ed, canvased, bargained and intrigued to get votes enough to 
elect him. He will be pure indeed if he can pass through 
many of the scenes of moral pollution, political, degrad- 
ation and democratic humbugry, and republican mockery, 
without being tinctured with principles and habits which will 
give the sovereign mob-o-crats of Miss, a good ostensible 
excuse for laying the blame of vascillation, , brib- 
erty, corruption and almost every other kind of improper man- 
agement on the officers who compare instead of the organi- 
zation of the Government. The probability is that the rage 
of democracy or mob-o-cracy will cause a person to glory 
in being lynched or abused because it will be done by the 
Sovereign people and one killed or murdered by them will 
be Deified and sent immediately to heaven because he died 
by the hands or power of the Sovereign people or mob, 
like the Moors who are murdered or put to death by their 
saintly or annointed Emperor. The Moor will court death 
from the Emperor because he goes immediately to heaven, 
and so our mob=o=crats may soon do so for the like reason. 
For even now some say the people can do no wrong. My own 
ideas of democracy, however, does not carry me quite so 
far, for I should consider an injury, not the less hurting 
or an injustice, whether done by the Soverign mob-o-crats 
or any other soveriegn tyrant. 

Monday April 24th. 1943 . Warm hot, sultry and cloudy, the 
river rising and Aunt Boulton's people cannot get into the 
swamp to work without swimming. T.H. Shelton, former 
president of the Brandon bank drowned himself in Pearl 
River and body found. This is the end of a financier who 
made a fortune by improper management of the bank, and also 
lost it andcame near to poverty. May it be a warning to 
all fraudulent and immoral practices to accumulate wealth, 
whether by fraudulent transactions with banks, individuals, 
states or otherwise. Graves, the treasurer of the State, 
ran away with the funds of the State, but a large amount 
of the money or funds returned by his wife and father-in-law 
Thomas. Deficiency yet ^47,000.00. He left 1 thinkS?.10 
in the Treasury of the Sovereign State of Miss. Although 
so many officers are defaulting yet there are abundance 
of candidates offering to fill the vacancies, abusing thoso 
who have preceeded them ami probably many of them reariy to 
do the same thing if a good and profitable opportunity 

offers. .Some no doubt advocating the present mob-o-cra tic 
mode of electing officicers thinking they can more easily 
delude and deceive the Sovereign people by flattery fine 
spooches and chicanery than they could a fewer number who 
would probably watch closer, for it is notorious that the 
many are more easily deceived arid worked upon than a few. 
The responsibility of watching and detecting malpractice or 
jncompetency is less individually on the many than the few 
and the many are more easily worked upon and excited because 
the more combustibles the fiercer the fire burns. The 
people here suspicion all who do not flatter their vanity 
by saying they are intelligent, virtuous and able to select 
their rulers. Those who speak the truth and do not flatter 
are denounced as Aristocrats. There however are few or none 
now who have the moral courage to speak against the immoral 
form of G-overnment and run the risk of political condemation 
for their Aristocratic notions for if there are any of those 
who cry Democracy, and the people have so much better lungs 
that the voice of the other party is not heard. Almost 
everything is done by party and abuse and recriminations 
is the order of the day. The party i" power is abused and 
endeavoured to be made answerable for all the officers of 
its party and the weakness and mishaps of a weak and im- 
becile and impracticable form of Government. Some call 
Judge John Black a tyrant in the exercise of the duties of 
his office whilst Judge, but are constrained at the same 
time to acknowledge that he exercised the office with dig- 
nity andimpartiali ty , and enforced order and decorum in 
Court, with lawyers, jurors and spectators, (and cannot 
point to a single instance where he inflicted undeserved 
punishment), which is more than any can now say is the case 
with their Courts and present Judges. Yet the country was 
then more new and the presumption is that morals were more 
lax and men harder to restrain from their evil courses and 
dispositions than at present. It shows that people will 
not respect authority that they directly confer themselves 
and must soon return to them again, as when conferred by 
others. They have the officer under their control and 
instead of the officers comma :i ng, he is commanded. If he 
does not wink at and allow their evil propensities scope, he 
is turned out and one elected that will. Soon none will do 
it, mere acquire a contempt of the law and the officers by 
being allowed to violate the one and insult the authority 
of the other with impunity. 

A judge is fearful of giving an opinion or making a decision 
for fear it may be unpopular. lie must go with the popular 
current or lose his office (wVich is for four years). He is 
almost compelled to do wrong which will i^ooner or later bring 
him into contempt, but were he to act with the dignity be- 
coming a judge he would be deriounced as an Aristocrat. 


People here have the shadow of protection without the 
substance, the appearance of law, but little else. A mob 
will get together and order a man from the country and if 
he does not obey, it is often as much as his life or property 
or personal abuse is worth, and must then go. And from the 
lax and loose manner in which the laws are enforced, this 
kind of law is almost necessary, but liable to all the abuse 
of prejudice, envy, hatred, malice and every other evil 
passion. Yet here, with all their boasted democracy, thie 
Mississippians sanction ;ind perpetuate the most tyrannical 
acts, acts that Queen Victcria or Louis Phillipe would not 
dare to do, punish a man with stripes, blows and even death 
net only without, but directly contrary to law, destroy his 
property and almost everythiing else; but the Sovereign people 
do it and they are infallible and can do no wrong, and when 
the storm comes you must bend to the wind. The fable of the 
weed and the oak, it would be well to remember. 

Indictments are sometimes set asideon the most frivilous 
pleas and pretenses and bonds quashed or set aside for 
almost nothing. By this means the meanest scoundrels often 
not only escape punishment, but trial, which is often a 
mere form, as criminals who have popularity or influence 
have every opportunity of packing a jury and getting a 
verdict to suit them or making a mistrial, and escape by 
limitation or some other means. By these means honest 
citizens are often defraudt;d of their rights. It tends to 
exalt villany and depress virtue and causes many to act 
improperly and ruin themselves both in this and the world 
to come who would otherwise be good citizens. Alos demo- 
cracy!' How much rascality, villany, tyranny and injustice 
is committed under the sanction or protection of thy powerful 
name!. How many men use it to deceive, tyrannize, and de- 
fraud, yet the blame is laid on the man instead of the 
causes although it is repeated over and over again by differ- 
ent men from and by the same cause. Men are tempted to do 
wrong because they can in most cases do it with impunity, 
Officers are tempted to be unfaithful because they^ an acquire 
gain and retain public confidence, and if not that, respect. 

In LauderdaleCo. a man named Luntsford had been run off 
just before I arrived there, his brother beaten and himself 
barely escaped. Sold his place low and I expect his pro- 
visions for little or nothing. He no doubt deserved pun- 
ishment but ought to have been proved guiJty and tried by a 
jury of his peers. This in a free country that boasts of 
its democracy and equal rights, equality of poor and rich - 
democracy! Mobocracy ! Which name suits best. NumberM 
in the samr^ county rio doubt denerve the same or w(;roe IrrTil- 
ment as much as Luntsford. If democracy makeB jjuch .'icLm 
necessary and tempt men to do acts to deserve them, gr.'int 
me a different Government. Almost any kind before Mobocracy. 

1 13 nocGssity may and I doubt not does exist in such a 
dem'K,T'i(;y or rather mobocracy, but one that does not require 
.lufi^e Lynr-h suits honest peacible citizens best. 

lj;ju(iordo 1 e County has some nice rich land on the cks and swamps, 
amJ some lively land on some of the ridges, hollows and 
flats of the small creeks. Ix is generally high and roll- 
ing except the swamps and hickory flats. Ponta swamp con- 
tains a considerable quantity of level land esteemed rich 
nearly all of it. It is mostly of an ashy colour and very 
stiff, and has the largest and tallest growth I almost ever 
saw, white and red oak, hickory, ash & C. Some of it re- 
quires draining but it is thought small drains will gener- 
ally answer. The flat swamp is large from ^ to a mile wide. 
The flats of and are smaller but are not gen- 
erally so stiff and of a more open free nature and rich. 
Posom Ck. has some fine land and more lime than either of 
the others, for I think they have little or none. The flats 
are not very large but rich and less stiff and more free and 
light than those of Ponta. Some of the reed brakes in 
this Co. are said to be very rich and produce corn in 
abundance but not cotton so well. For a reed brake to be 
rich is a thing I never heard before. A fine large sulphur 
spring in the middle of a reed brake on a branch of Posum Ck 
Gen. Patton's sulphur is found inseveral other reed brakes 
in the neighborhood, but none so large and strong as Patton's 

Tuesday the 25th . Warm, hot and sunshine, with prospect of 
rain, some cool breezes, river rasing. 

Thursday April the 27th, 1843 . Very hot and sultry in the 
morning, pleasant in the evening, river falling at Mr. J.L. 
Dantzler 's. 

Friday, Saturday & Monday, May the 1st, 1843 . At Aunt Boul- 
ton's, cool, pleasant and river falling. 

Tuesday, May the 2nd 1943 . Started from Aunt Boulton's, 
10m. to Augusta. Pd 12^ thence 26m. up Tallehalee River to 
Thomas Lyon's in Jones Co. He was and is a Union man 
from Abbeville District, South Carolina, and for Van Buren. 
He does not keep a good house but appears hospitable? and 
kind and we could talk of ole times and places and it did 
me good to find him firm and true to the good cause. Pd . 
1 .00, this day. 36m. 

Wednesday May the 3rd 1843 . Slfrted early and after travel- 
ling a "few miles took the & Township road, being a 
crop road leading from Ellisville the Co. site of Jones to 
Winchester the Co. site of Wayne and travelling 11m. over 
barren pine hill reached Matthew Tucker's onBogue Homa . He 


He has level pine flats to cultivate on the W. side of the 
swamp and good range. Saw Mrs. Annis Patrick here, ohe 
was not pleased with the country. Took dinner here thence 
3 m. up Bogue Homa to Tr';'i"as Tucker's. I was received 
here with true Caroliniar Vospitality and after an hour or 
so proceeded on 19m. to ^.C. Edwards. The land most of the 
way high uneven poor pinf land until within a few miles of 
Edwards when it appeared oetter. A ck. named below 
appearing the commenceme!. t of the lively land. 1m. below 
Edwards lies the town of ■'Jayborne. Of all the towns I 
had ever seen this was ti - poorest. Not a single regular 
inhabitant. Pole huts tl;? buildings, one I learned contained 
some goods (whiskey and .-tacco 1 suppose) and was styled 
a store. This day 32m. .rfward lives on the ridge between 
Tallehatta and Bogue Hom;i , the waterfrom his fields running 
into the latter. Got acquainted here with C.C. Dease. 
He is quite an amusing character and sensible or crank in 
some of his observations. 

Thursday May the 4th, 1843 . Went 1m. to Mrs. E. Rhodes 
1m . to C.C. Rhodes. Gave him $5.00 to pay for advertising 
land and taxes. The land on Tallehatta about here lively 
and growth mostly oak, hickory, short leaf pine and black jack, 

Monday May the 8th . Went to Paulding to Court. Heard a 
speech from V.E. Howard of Jackson, a candidate for U..S. 
Senator and a bond paying drmocrat. Judge V, Tromp Craw- 
ford presided, the Judge of the district H. Mounger being 
concerned as principle or security in so many notes, bonds 
etc. that he changed circuits. This Court has scarcely 
the semblance of the dignity of a Carolina Court, and a 
man who lacks popularity and wealth and cannot supply the 
deficiency by intrigue and management, may not expect 
justice against one who possesses? these qualities and re- 
quisites of a fortunate litigant in a Mississippi Court, 
although he may sometimes get justice. I think it more by 
accident than otherwise, for the Judge being elective by the 
popular vote every four years has every natural inducement 
to lean to the popular side instead of that of Equity and 
Justice. If on th weak or unpopular side, the practice of 
picking up talis jurors, also ennable men of influence to 
pack juries. The judge. is not allowed to give any opin- 
ion in a case trying before him unless at the request 
of the two parties litigant or their attorneys, and in thf 
place of the evidence and pleadings, each lawyer writar. down 
a few words of instruction for the jury and his Honor has 
the right of objecting to it or having it altered. This i r. 
done to endeavour to prov(;nt or mitigate the [)fj rt i al i t.y 
that .-J .Judge here terfipt,'"' t,o us(; «Ilufled f,o 
above. J see the Judge <:■. little else than f;a I I over- i.h<« 
docket and direct the lav.yors instruct! orii! t,(, jufhs'i 
to be altered. Pd . ^2k J^bacco. 

Tii''::day May Uie 'U,h 1'MJ. At /rvros Gavin's who lives 6 m. 
r)bf;ve Paulding noar- Gonhon, tbo missionary station, on the 
dividin^^ ridge between ok. waters of (Jhickasawhay 

Kivor and Tallehales itiver or Ck . and although it is cloudy 
can see for rniles in a M. or N.E. direction over the tops 
of the trees and over Ponantly Ck . & to the N. or K. bank od 

creek. In that direction for some distance the 
yoil and country is of a prairie nature. S. & SW. oak and 
hickory on sandy land. In prairie countries all soils not 
prairie are denominated sandy, i-iayhew, a mile south, is the 
seat of a missionary (I think) of Presbyterians. It is a 
nice level fine sandy soil and lively with a bold and handsome 
spring of good water a few hundred yards S.W. of the old 
buildings. It might be made a very handsome residence, and 
being level and lively, susceptible of improvement with 
little labour so as to be valuable. But the titles are con- 
sidered uncertain for there are now not less than two claim- 
ants and perhaps more. It seems a little strange to a person 
unacquainted with the rascality that has been and continues 
to be practiced here on the government and Indians, to learn 
that the titles to land is very uncertain and a great deal 
that is safe from the government has leins or mortgages and 
debts, dowers etc. on account of the fraud of debtors and 
which was very often assisted by the loose and irregular 
manner in which the records of the courts and registers of 
the Counties were kept. It is not to be expected when 
officers are changed almost every two years that their 
offices will be kept well particularly when we recollect 
the time that is devoted to electioneering. 

Thursday May the 11th, 1943 . At Paulding to Court. Last 
night a gentleman of types, a journeyman in the office of 
the Paulding Clarion named Ramsey, not having the fear of 
his honour Judge Van Trorap Crawford nor of the honourable 
Court, broke open a house and box therein and took therefrom 
some money which had been there deposited by his employer 
Li.k. Adam.s. Some others not having the fear of the above 
mentioned personage allowed their Southern blood to grow 
too hot, and drawing a bowie knife and pistol commenced 
practicing sd . instruments on each other. One received a 
cut on the arm which hearly severed it and is supposed was ' 
only prevented by throwing up a stick which received most 
of the blow. The one using th'^ pistol missed his aim. The 
lawyers instruct the jury, the ^udge is prevented by law 
unless both parties agree to allow him to give instructions. 
The venirie is composed of 36 men and at Court, the Grand 
Jurors are drawn from these, so you do not know on what 
jury you are to serve until the Court commences business. 
The balance of the petit jurors are picked up by the sheriff 
at haphazard from among the men about the Court yard whether 
there on business, amusement or being interested in some 
case on purpose to be taken for juror. These are called 
Talis jurors. Any person may see by this with what ease 
an influential man or a band of /illians may pack a jury 
and by make a mistrial defeat ends of justice, particu- 
larly when they recollect that tne Sheriff holds his office 


only two years and is c ontjequently almost continually elent- 
ioneering. It is a tempt-ition for him to .Tct improperly, 
and when the law puts te p'-.ation before an officer, it is 
unfortunately fcr our vez::r natures too great for a man fond 
of office to withstand, ^r,A also when we recollect that 
crimes in this country h?v'3 a limitation and a few mistrials 
added to being put off a court or two clears the culprit 
by limitation, and the scoundrel who deserves to be hanged 
often comes off clear by --/cciting the sympathy of the com- 
munity with a slight puri;"hment. 

Saturday May the 13th, ISA.-) . Myself ando.C. Rhode st.irted 
for Clark Co. to see our Tand . After leaving the Tallnhatta 
the first waters were the neads of J^ogue Home, the land 
somewhat rolling but lively and the bottoms rich. The country 
then appeared more level and most of the land thin and some 
pine land. On the waters of level and of a prairie 
nature. My land on Rak-chick-ma or good water not as good 
as I thought but some lively. That on was part very 
rich but there was more tnin land than I expected. The 
country here I think more level generally than in Jasper 
Co. about 15m. from Rhodes, and my land is only 6 m. from 
Chickasawhay River in which there is a steamboat at this time-- 
and I have but little doubt can be navigated by steamboats 
of 300 or 400 bales cotton. We dines at Mr. Isaac Cha- 
ducks' to whom I pd . S2.50 for taxes. This day very hot 
and returned in the night to Rhodes. There is some fine 
land on Tallahatta. Rhode lives in R. 12E T.S.23. l.H. 
Clayton in the same Range on Bogue Fhaliah. The land 
hilly and rich and strongly impregnated with lime. 

There is but little dependence to be placed in a public ' 
officer or a Court here. The State and all the counties 
deep in debt and their paper at a ruinous discount. State 
paper from 30 to 45 per cent and many of the counties more. 
Land here rates from $2 to$3 per acre. A large portion of 
it has been mortgaged to the Union Bank. 

Monday May the 15th, 1943 . At Capt. l.H. Clayton's we went 
to see a lime cave at tFe head of one of the prongs of Bogue 
Phaliah. The sides of the cB-^e appear to be composed of 
soft limestone rock, and commences a short distance up 
the side cf a very high hill. A beautiful spring of water 
rises from within and sinks near the mouth or just after 
issuing from it, and some distance below rises again, then 
sinks and rises again. The mouth of the cave is 4 or 5 
ft. square. I went in 20 or 30 ft. but could not see Lho 
extremity and I did not feel disposed to risk myv.i'W too 
far in where the light c.MjLd not reach. Thf;re wep'; :u,rrM- 
bones at the mouth, an" 1 also saw somf very \:\ry<- t)e tri- 
fled bones at Androo Gavif.'s found in hie pra'i r' i f;;i .' Th(; 
soil of the hill in which this cave if! and all ^ibout It i;i 

vory ric-h. This morning cool and cloudy, then fair and 
warm. Bcgue means creek and tolle means ringing or bell 

'I'uesday I6th Went to Paulding and got a schedule and copy 
of the appraisment of the negroes belonging to Grandmother. 
i'(i . ()h. for tobacco . 

Wednesday May th 17th. Went to Uriah Millsapsand returned 
the next day. This section of country (which is the S.E. 
corner of Jasper Co. and on Bogue Homa Ck.) is generally 
hilly and some of the land lively and good. There is some 
rich and mixed with lime. The richest is mostly hilly, but 
there is some lively level lanci and Millsaps is cultivating 
some of Bogue lioma Swamp which produces well and, he sup- 
poses, will ultimately be the most valuable land. The hilly 
or roiling land in all this country will soon wash away with 
the system of culture that is now followed, which is mostly 
with the plow, the turning, dagin carey etc. Millsaps is 
1? or 14 m. SE of Paulding, the queen city of the East. 
This Co. is a romantic country beautifully diversified with 
hills and dale, some beautiful creeks and pretty clear springs 
of good water except some of the prairie portions and I 
almost love it for its beauty, healthy appearance and good 
land, and I believe should quite if there was a good 
steady and efficient government that could and would protect 
a man's rights. That is, his person, family and property. 
Hut a government where we must electioneer to get justice, 
beg for what you have a right to demand and then as often 
fai] as otherwise, I do not call a republican government. 
Where you are cc)mpelled often to flatter, cajole or bribe the 
Sovereign people to get your rights and property respected 
is but Jittle if any better than to use the same means with 
a King or Emperor, for they are seldom more capricious or 

tyrannical than those who are as accustomed to it as these 
Sovereigns. The main difference I perceive is that here you 
sometimes have persons bowing to you to get that you have 
sometimes have to seek, Justice. But I cannot see but what 
this is more injurious to public morals and virtue than the 
other, for vice and crime are often more importunate in 
electioneering for sympathy and friends than deserving virtue, 
which in most cases is more modest and retiring and resting 
more on the justice of its cause is more apt to fail. Can- 
didates are compelled to do what few decent, deserving and 
able men will do, electioneer, flatter and cajole, make 
stump speeches and fine promises whicli are remembered 
sometimes as long as it takes to make them, and the principle 
study of a public man here is the principle of pleasing 
and flattering the Sovereign peonle, the turns and ohifts of 
jjarty and to learn the course tho popular wind is and will 
blow. lie has but little time to study and less to practice 
or improve upon the principles of other States and empires. 


to search out their defects and avoid them. How a 
measure will operate in ■ li lS or has in another country is 
now his business to kno,;. Whether it will be popular for the 
time being is the questi '^ for him to solve and the politi- 
cal economy for him to stuay. If I am not mistaken tho 
main tendency of the government is to keep men of genuine 
talent and virtue in priva'.e life, or if they enter the 
arena of politics is calculated to compel them to study 
and practice the narrow yiows and policies of the po] i t i c.-il 
demagogi>e nK/t-e Inan the extended views and noble aspii'ations 
of the patriotic statesimn. Mcl)ugal for 

lynching a peaceable citizen names Smith was fined 2[) cLs. 
This is Democracy? Kep-'i. 1 icanism? A burglar to 3 years 
imprisonment in the peni Lcn tiary instead of 3 ! Strange 
as it may appear, however-, there are many honest moral men 
in this country, where virtue and moral honesty is so light- 
ly esteemed and scantily rewarded by the public and vice so 
triumphant and seldom punished, and lightly when it is only 
in the popular outbreaks, that is unless I am mistaken in 
the men. Clayton's corn knee high and higher. 

Monday May 29th, 1843 . Light rain last night, cool & plea- 
sant. Staid at l.D. Ratcliff. Pd . Mrs. Rion 6h cts. tobacco, 
Tuesday 30 th . At Aaron Boulton's, very cool. 

Thursday June the 2nd, 1943 . Went to Garlandsville 15m. 
above Paulding, Went by or over Aulsberry's hill, from 
which the head waters of tne Tallehalee River flows. From 
its summit, which contains several acres of level, lively 
sandy land (being mostly Indian old fields), the surround- 
ing country may be viewed for miles in every direction, 
which is generally prairie and thinly timbered. It is 
prairie soil and thinly timbered to Garlandsville, 3ni. 
There are some permanent springs that rise at the bottom of 
this hill and some that dry up in the summer from this hill 
and those near on the same ridge. Garlandsville has little 
of the village, except the name, and empty store houses 
and some with a few goolcand the name of store, built; and 
full in the days when Br-'tijon money was current and any man 
with a good stock of assurance and with a loose tongue light- 
ly hung could get credit and was all that was necessary to 
make him rich. The Watts' are the principal owners and 
inhabitants. It is a be;iutiful sandy and shady village or 
settlement on the N. banK of the Su & Lovey Creek, which 

is here small and like mc^.t prairie creeks, dry in summer. 
The S. side of the ere;;:; is prairie, the North sandy land. 
The village is only a few hundred yards from the creek. 
There were probably 5 or 600 Indians here and an office 
of the commissioners afypointed to attenri to and •■x.'u/i i nf- 
thojf claims for land unrier the arti(;lf.> (>i' t^l'■ Tr-'iai.y (.f 
Uancing Rabbit Creek. The speculators or- l;jnd sLcviJor.M .-ir-c 
very b'Jsy collecting evidence of tho claims of tho IndianM, 
and I have been told that they have brought Indiann irom 
Arkansas after they have emigrated, and induced thf-m tc 
lay claim to lands. Kor their trouble I am tolrl they 
are to have half the land they get, and it will not bo 
difficult to cheat the Indians out of the balance. 

'r\if'.j have about the same love lor the Indian that a wolf 

h^.s for a lamb. If they can succeed in cheating the govern- 

rnent out of the land, I suppose we may see the scenes of 

the Crf.'Ok Mation in Ala. ro-enacted, So far as there are 
Duhjectn to act upon. 

I saw an Indian ball play 28 on a side. This is interesting 
as one of the national games of l.he Choctaws and most of 
the native tribes. They never touch the ball with the hand 
except at the commencement when <'ne not in the game throws 
i t up in the center of the two sets of poles through which 
party endeavours to throw the ball and the other to prevent 
them. They use two sticks crocjked at the end and bottomed 
with dearskin strings or entire pieces as as to prevent the 
ball from falling through. With these they catch and throw 
the ball. They are allowed toput it through the poles with 
the sticks without throwing if they can. Judge V.T. Crawford 
gave them a talk expressive of the pleasure hefelt in wit- 
nessing their sports and was answered by one of their Chiefs 
eloquently or solemnly, John Nail a half breed acting as 
interpreter. Some of these poor Indians are beginning to mimic 
the whites in their dress but to me they appear much nobler 
and finer in their native dress. The ball players were all 
dressed after the fasion of the Indian, ornamented with 
feathers and cow tails, generally the latter. The face was 
painted various colours and farms. This I suppose made them 
have the native feature and form, which was generally fine, 
tall and erect, but they are not generlly so tall, erect and 
squarely built or their features so generally handsome as 
the Creeks. But alas, they were once, no doubt, a noble 
race, but spirits and aspiration v/ith the whites has ruined 
and debased them, and they are only the image of whSit they 
once were. And those who obstinately refuse to emigrate 
beyond the f'lississippi will soon descend below the grade of 
the Negro bond or feee, if they are not already so, many of 
them. I spoke to one Capt. Jackson whv he did not move but 
his answer was there was no ti'ade, sickly etc. home Missi- 
ssippi., He would talk of trade. New Orleans, 
i^obile, and the probability is he had never made ten dollars 
worth of marketalDle produce over his consumption in his life 
and probably never would. A few deer skins is his great 
produce for which he is so solicitous of a market. 

We returned by Hanson Aulsberrj-'s former plantation on 
Cotton Wood Creek near where it enters Sue ^< Ijcvey, over 
which or on the N. side I am told is long leaf pine, but 
on the South where the plantation is, the timber is scarce 
and the land is esteemed rich. There is timber on and in 
the creeks and flats and the high, waving cotton wood trees 
on the creek of the same nam? ] ook handsome and bode good 
land. i am told the settlement is sandy and has water from 

a spring. There was about 200 acres cleared and in cultiva- 
tion, and the corn and cotton looked well considering the 
work it appeared to havf received. The corn and cotton on 
the white prairie appeared nearly or quite as good as that 
on the black, but I would prefer the black. Aulsberry's 
hill does not all belong;; to this plantation, which in iiowever 
very large containing nearly two sections or more, section 
17, Township 4, Range 1^ J-ast. It is about 2m. N. or of 
the hill. He (Aulsberry) has i-un away and gone to Texas 
and smuggled this plant. ;tj on not even allowing his creditors 
this after taking off Lis negroes and everything else he 
could carry. A. A. Boulton has land near here nnd the hi J I 
which is partly public larid . Pd 6i c ts tobacco. 

Saturday June the 10th, 1-M3 . Rain after much dry weather. 
By request of Mr. Henry l-iiley, 1 am to search foi- a piece ■ 
of land granted to him since 1800 situated in the lower 
part of Barnwell Uisct. on the W. side of Lemon Gwamp about, 
2m. above where it and Little Galkitcher comes together. 
A branch which empties into Lemon Swanp about the head of 
Miley's afterwards Leightsey's old mill pond it the upper 
line.. Two sides bound on the old Miley plantation or 
grave yard place or Robert Miley, contains 200 or 250 
acres. One corner is in a large cypress pond. This is 
S.W. Corner. The branch neads in or near the clear pond. 
The R. Miley place lies a', of it. 

Monday June the 12th, 194$ . Cloudy and rain yesterday, also 
today. We had the company of Wm. Judge who is counted a 
good farmei', having made 49 bales of 400 lbs. Last year 
with 8 or 9 hands. I and Capt. Clayton viewed bis farm 
on Friday last. The ground sufficiently wet for agridultur- 
al purposes. Some of ids cotton knee high with squares 
for blossoms. It is on the E. side of Tallehalee Creek 
and most of it high and rolling, S.W. dltection from Clay- 
ton's. It belongs to Kr. Ulmer for whom Mr. Judge- over- 
sees. Some of the soil is of a whitish colour, which I 
think not so good as the dark land although the cotton in 
it appeared equally as fine as that on the other soiJ. 
Mr. Judge does not lay off his rows over the hil.l.s to [ire- 
vent their washing but straity like on level land. The con- 
sequence will be that in a few years this fine soil will 
be washed off and the hill sides which are now ric)-! will be 
left bare and barren. 1 do not think this plantation ar 
good as Clayton's, not having so much lime and there 
being more white soil. There is a section of country hiore 
of several miles extent, perhaps 5 or 6 miles square of 
high, hilly broken land, with a growth of oak, hickor-y arid 
some poplar and ash. : '. is generally productivf; fr(-c -inrl 
lively sandy land, and some of thehill sides and f',,'i 
very rich. The flats luwever are generally small. Th'' 

U(fil)or nn the hiiJt; is generally knotty and low, but some 
ui' the hill sidet; and the flat.s have tal] pine timber. 
.';pr-vngs of good water are abundant, but it is very hilly. 
1 would suppose the production might be put down at from 9 
to 12 cWt. seed cotton and 20 or 30 bushels of corn on an 
average to a plantation. It is all impregnated with lime 
(i think) more or less as lime rock is sometimes in the sides 
of the hills, and at the moutn of a cave on Capt. I.H. 
Clayton's plantation, but there is few or no rock to inter- 
fere with cultivation. Nature has done more for few countries 
this county and country generally. And if men would do theirs 
by making a good efficient government, able to enforce its 
laws and protect the weak and peaceable from the strong and 
vicious and designing, few countries would excel it. It 
is partly rolling with some level tracts of fine rich hickory 
Land and prairie soil at a reasonable price, well watered 
with springs of good water and beautifully diversified with 
hills and vallies. Poor land and rich, a farmer with mod- 
erate inductry can make from 16 to 20 cwt. of clean cotton 
per hand and provisions in abundance. Land from S2to 5.00 
per acre. Pd . 12-| cts. tobacco. 

Wednesday June 14-th, 1843 . Pair. Came from A.C. Rhodes' to 
Clayton's whose corn is tasselling and saw silk a few days 
ago. Read the "Broken Hyacinth by Ellen C. Sophia", an 
excellent book for children, and many grown persons might be 
benefitted and none could be injured. 

Thursday June the l^th, 1943. Heavy rain. Pd . for 
shoes S2.00, Ryon and Street tobacco 193/4 cts. 

Friday June the 23rd . Left Cousin A. A. Boulton's and 
traveled 9 m. to Joshus Tatum's in Newton County W. of 
Chunky, the path leading over a high uneven country with 
some lively hickory flats, but generally small. On Sue & 
Lovey Gk. was some swamp land on which the corn looked 
fine. Even the hills here wh:ch does not appear rich is 
mixed with hickory of 3 or 5 inches in diameter and some 
oak. In the evening we went to David Rich's on the 3. side 
of Potterchitto Creek. The '»rr<^ high and rolling, growth 
oak, hickory and short' leaf pine. Some good flats but 
generally small, but a gooc ';^uantity of the high land 
has a lively appearance. Public land:. in this neighborhood 
and in Potterchitto Swamp is purposed to be fine rich land. 
Rich is just changed from a violent Whig to a Democrat 
since being a candidate for P'^i'ce Officer. Tatum lives ;on 
Section 23, Township 5, Range l.'E. This day 9m. 


Saturday June the 24th, 1S43 . Mr. Tatum accompanied me 
6m. to Potterchitto Creek. The country is high and hilly 
and some appears to be ]:vely. On the creek and in i tr. swamp 
isr. some level nickory land and swamp. A large reed brake 
on the S. side is suppoiied to be rich. The creek is 15 
or ?0 ft. wide, and in tl^e fork is some level hickory land. 
^ mile to Tolla-hatta. The junction of thene two creek below 
mark Chunky, which is on the right, and by a great bend to 
the i::iast makes my route lead down the left or N. side of it. 
Crossing a few small branches on which was some lively 
hickory land. 4m. to Dr. Robinson's or lion. Gressett's who 
has some lively high hickory land and some rich level flats 
on a sm. ck. or branch, ard Chunky Swamp. I do not' think 
there is much lime in the soil since leaving Boulton's. 
The water plentiful and gocd and see nothing to create sick- 
ness but the mere fact of its being a southern climate. 
And if this section of country is sickly I do not see 
why all countries of the same latitude should not be be the 
same. There are some few rock but little or no inconvenience 
to agriculture. This is near the E. line of Newton ad- 
joining Lauderdale Co. Tl-is day 10 m. 

Sunda.y June the 23th, 1P43 . Cousin Ch . Gressett went wj th 
me a short distance. We soon crossed a small ck . called 
Skittena, which in English means little. Saw some small 
fertile flats and am told there is some fine land on it. 
Then up a drain with pine flats (similar to the Bowyer 
flats of Simpson Co.) which appear lively, and after travel- 
ling 4 or 5m. came to a high barren hilly pine country. 1 
ascended the highest of one of these hills, that I saw, and 
could view the country for miles in almost every direction. 
The trees in the distance had the appearance of a dark cloud, 
and the vallies over which I looked appeared to be low 
land. I think this hill is near about the highest land in 
this section of country. There is some rock on some of these 
barren hills. After travelling some miles I got into the 
public road leading from Marion to Decatur, I think 12 or 
14 m. West of Marion, and travelling this road I saw some 
lively looking land in the flat of a creek on my right 
hand extending some distance on the course I was travelling, 
E. I then crossed a small ck. and a few hundred yds. 
further Oaktibbeehaw River which is 15 or 20 ft. wide 
with a bridge over it. There is some tolerable flats here 
and some swamp land thct may be good, but what I saw in 
cultivation was too much reduced by the tariff alias grass, 
for the corn to look well. I then crossed several cks . befcjre 
reaching Sow-wash-a on wioh there is some good pine flats 
and it has the reputation nf affording I'ood land, but, in 
Brandon times when money was abund'uit or rather fi.-jpcr 
issues from banks, nearly .ill the land in thf.' Choctaw Na- 
tion was considered rich and men entered land on specul n Li cjn 

whioh is now not really worth half the entrance money. It 
\u not far to Marlon, the Co. site of Lauderdale, which 
with itr; environs is a neat village with a respectable wooden 
court house. This is the place where the court house was 
burrif^d in 57 or '5^ to prevent th'^ judf';e from holding court every other effort failed. 23M. Gressetts. $1.00 
pontage on two letters. 

1 remained here but a short time and proceeded East for 
Mr. o.A. Griffith's over a highi "illy country and generally 
pO(r wi t,h some exceptions, Durr ' s '•-,7)lanta tion . 7 m. to Grif- 
fith's, this day 50 m. 

Monday June the 26th, 1943 . James Riddlesburger awoke me 
this morning to tell me that my horse was badly foundered, 
in which state he remained for near two weeks. 1 am under 
considerable obligation to Mr. Griffith for his kindess to 
me whilst he was sick for he would scarcely paid more atten- 
tion had the horse been his own or I his brother. He and 
lady are the same kind friends they were in So. Ca . 

Mr. Griffith lives on the N. side of Toorr.suba Creek and 
(jwns three eights of land mostly in the flat of said creek, 
o. T.R. Some of it comes under the denomination of hickory 
and some swamp, some of a dark colour free and lively rich 
soil, some of a light or ash colour rich also, but having 
less sand is more stiff and consequently harder to culti- 
vate. The run of the creek hero is 10 or 15 ft. wide and 
being deep seldom overflows its banks. It is delightful 
to stand upon the hills and view the corn and cotton in 
these flats. Griffith with 7 hands made 13 bales cotton 
and provisions in abundance. Residence in the pine woods 
and plantation commences within a few hundred- yards. 

July the 4th, 1943 . We went to a barbecue at Laleville 
but were too late to hear the oration which was delivered 
by Wm. Buc Hancock, a native Choctaw from I think a half 
breed mother and a French father. He is a respectable 
young lad in appearance and was elected to the House of Rep. 
this fall. There were a number of Ladies cut to grace 
the festivities and add life by their beauty and smiles. 
Miss Lelk & two Misses Crane were ranked amang the beauties. 

There is a handsome spring in the yard of Mr. Hancock 

whicFi has some mineral qualities, is palateable and looks 
clear and beautiful. This is b^t a V^ov village having 
only a store or two and perhaps a shop or doggery, with a 
few private houses or residence. There is said to be 
good and very valuable land in I'onta Swamp and r;ear it, 
which flows not far to the S.W. of the village. We had 
some quarrelling in th evening but fortunately not more 


fight than a blow. I fenrfd the Bowie knives and pistolp, '' 
for 1 knew there were sone, but none were drawn. LalevJlle 
is about 10m. N. of Marion. 

July 6th 194':; . 1 and Fir. Griffith went down Toomsuba to 
within Jim. of the Ala. line. We viewed Mr. iattleberry 
Brown's plantation. The swamp part near the run of the ck. 
is level and rich. That nearer the pine hiiis on which 
Mr. Brown resides is a little uneven, and does not appear 
quite as strong, but is good land. I should call it not 
only a valuable but hanrisome plantation in L'.T.K. The 
corn and cotton fine. Odom owns the i section adjoining^ 
Brown on the ck. and is nearly surrounded on W. &. li . by 
Brown's entries and corners with Clinton's land i sectic;n. 
Clinton has tolerable improvements, 60 acres cleared and 
about 90 acres rich swamp, the balance more like ?nd qual- 
ity of Brown's and some level pine land, T-7 K. 17K 
Rogers next has 290 acre:^, respectable improvements, mostly 
rich creek bottom or swamp but some pine land. Next Marsh's 
200 acres, 40 acres level lively looking pine land, 30 or 
40 acres cleared and sone cabins. 

These last plantations are mostly for sale and the highest 
price that it is supposed will be asked is $5.00 per acre, 
except Rogers who has a gin and a crew. The land on the N. 
side is generally level pine land or uneven for some distance 
from the bottom or swamp land, and appears lively. The 5J. 
side appears more hilly or broken. However I wentonly to 
Mr. Roger's house which was on the S. or lower side. This 
is a beautiful section of country and i should suppose 
it healthy, for you may have your plantation in the creek 
flat and reside in the pine land which is adjoining or as 
much farther out as you like or thinkmost conducive to 
health. I do not think tiiere is much lime in thisland and 
guess it to be isinglass. These is not so much lime in 
this or Newton Co., generally as in Jasper Co., although 
there is some. There is some I judge in Possum Ck . 

Friday the 7 th 1943. Today went to Marion to see my old 
friend Abraham Carr and remained with him at Fisher's 
Hotel till tomorrow, 1 came near getting into a pt)Iitical 
squabble with a little lawyer or pettifogger nariied Kvans. 
Mr. Fisher did get vexed. Got acquainted with lawyer MoJ")! r-oy 
who, 1 am told, is the only responsible lawyer for several 
counties adjoining, that is who has visible property that 
may be made answerable for debts or money collected and 
spent oh lost. If he is the best, God help the balance 
and him too. 

Saturday July the 9th, 1943 . There was to be a political 
meeting or a stump speech- i-fi-ca-tion in Marion today, hut 

I do not expect to be much edified by the learning and re- 
aocMrch or muoh delighted by the speakers, for I have heard 
tjpeeoho:-; ;^nd stump oratory till 1 am tired of it. It and 
every other kind of electioneering is carriei to great excess 
hor-f:. [jO 1 went with Mr. Griffith to the Possumville white 
r.uiphur springs, owned by Gen. Patton who appears quite 
gentlemanly and pleasant in his manners. These springs are 
bold and rise near the middle of a reed brake. Are, I think, 
r.trongly impregnated with sulphur. Gen. Patton is putting 
up buildings for the accomodation of visitors, a numberof 
whoin are hei'e now but mostly transient, for as this is the 
fiT'St season that any accommodation has been here, its 
reputation is not well established but is said to be good in 
dropsical cases and I expect in all diseases in which sulphur 
water is good. There are also some huts built for private 
families and hold their lots witli condition of receiving no 
boarders to the expense? of the proprietors' hotel. There 
is also one or two doggeries and unfortunately some visit 
the springs more from the love of strong drink and frollick- 
ing than the benefit of the mineral waters. There are con- 
siderablehills on each side of the reed brake. Growth oak, 
hickory and short leaf pine and soil sandy. They are not 
rich but some are lively. There are other impregnations 
of sulphur in other parts of Lauderdale Co. but none so 
strong as these. I went this evening home with Ch . Clayton 
and it w;js the 1st day I rode my horse since his founder 
on the ?5th June. 

ounday July the 9th, 1843 . >ent to church at the Baptist 
church near Hightowers & Daleville; there was a respectable 
congregation and I saw our old friend and acquaintance Jas. 
Ratcliff, formerly of Orangeburg, S. Ca . He appeared with 
the same friendly smile of old and had not forgotten the 
old home of .S . Ga . and its associations. 

Thursday July the 13th, 1943 . '»\ent a-hunting with E.Y. 
ilussey & D. Tucker and took a stand whilst Kassey made one 
drive. We however started nothing. Stayed? with E.Y. 
Hussey for Traxler and Mrs. Ann Hussey. Expenses 12.00. 

ociturday July the 15th, 1543 * t:t Arthur Tucker's and Wm . 
Rhodes, went to Sam'l Reed's and got his man Reuben to shoe 
my horse pd . S1.50. This plantation and the adjoining one 
of Ramsey's are West of Tucker's and 5 or 6m. N. or iI.W. 
of Marion on a sm. ck . the water of Sowashee. It is high 
rolling or hilly land, sandy, free and iively, but net ric?i 
unless a small flat of the cl. . , and is not counted a rich 
plantation. Last year Reed with 10 hands made 5)C , 5C'0cwt 
bales of cotton but his provi.'-.icns are scarce, Wm. Rhodes 
is between this and Marion on tie E. side of the same ck. 


where a sm. branch enti^rs. He has lively land and 
some good one In the flat; of the ck. but not much that I 
would think would come under the denomination of rich 
land; it is mostly of a iifht ashy colour which produces 
well, bu L 1 would prefer the dark land. A. (Arthur?) 
Tucker has some immediatf:-'ly E. of Rhodes (;n the same bi;anch 
that io level and , and near the run of the ck. 
rich and dark soil, the bt-lance of the soil mostly white, 
the corn on all which looked fine for new land. Public land 
lies north and E. of this field of Tucker's, yomo of which 
he has under cultivation and produces finely, but is gen- 
erally rolling and of a white colour and not so fine as 
that nearer the ck. The growth is oak & hickory/ mixed with 
short leaf pine. The soil sandy light and free. Wat. or 
plentiful and good and tl'e country or neighborhood may be 
denominated hilly or rolling. It is reputed healthy and I 
should suppose correctly. E.Y. Hussey lives near and has 
similar lands. Kis principal planting lands lie in a liol- 
low or flat .v. of Tucker's house and is good land 1 should 
judge but is not reputed rich. It is sandy, free and 
lively. The corn looks well but Hussey has over planted 
himself and the tariff alias grass had injured it some. 

i^onday July the 17th, 1843 . I went in company with cousin 
Charles & V/m . Clayton from Charles' who lives in the fork 
of Porta and Lost [iorse or Clayton's Creek on ^.?0 T. 
R. down the creek and viewed and examined some fine 
level rich swamp land. 

Below this Rogers :has a quarter section of land count- 
ed which appears rich, part of which is a reed brake adjoin- 
ing the swamp. The bills adjoining the swamp on the J. are 
high and I judge healthy, with some flats on them that are 
lively. The swamp lower down I do not think as good as 
here, and as the swamp gets larger and longer more like- 
ly to overflow. I can get three eights below Claytons' 
for a little over government price, and the hill adjoining 
for a settlement at government price. I think the land good. 
It is level and beautiful with a heavy growth of tall timber 
at the junction of Clayton's and Lost Horsfe Creeks. It 
might: requirea few sm. ditches or drains. These fine I'lnd 
and cheap or low are very tempting to emigration, paj-ticMj- 
larly when added to the solicitation of friends and relatives, 
and I think these swamp lands will last for ages. They are 
level and rich and with a little care and attention wj 1 J jiro- 
duce well for ages, I think. 

Wednesday July the 19th, 1'343. Started from Cousin .r.W. 
lay torj ':i for Noxubee (>-. i^or thi firiit few tiiili'M the 
land generally high un(;ven pine land with dow llvf'ly [)iric 
flats, then more hilly or rolling with less 1 i vel.y . Pwnl 
than lower down. Black Water is a smart creek but Um' Ujnd 
on it appears stiff and hard. Within a few miles I enterof) 
Kemper Co. A small reed brake creek had a considerable 
ferra on it, but the corn did not show that it was very rich. 
17m. to DeKalb the Co. Site of Kemper. It has a court. 

h'jur.e nrifi j-'^iJ, 2 cr 3 stoi'es and hotel, and on the whole 
)■ n'.t rnu'-h of h village. 1 think, howover, it has a school 
H'ihh^-'l r.f.ndcjuy . Thenco 3rn. to .'jucarnoochoe . The road high 

.'ind fjoor. .'•omo flatn i/nrnod i -j tely on the rivor that ap- 
[i-'.jf.M livf'ly, bu L the graivj lookr; rf;uch betterthan the cot- 
L(.n. i''urded the river which ir; 15/ or ZO yds. wide. The 
f]at is much larger on the N. ox- upper side than the S. or 
lower side. There were a few settlements, the road rolling 
ari'i the land poor. At about the distance of 7m. & 10m. are 
two good flats. The balance, then, with only one or two 
exceptions in the evening the land poor. The first part of 
of the distance rolling high land, then more level post 
eak land and water appeared sfcarce. As the few creeks were 
dry except the rain then falling which was loud and heavy, 
with but a few settlements and these had more the appearance 
of ciquntters than settlers. To In. Moore's in Noxabee Co. 
on Running water Creek, on which he had a mill and gave S3C 
per acre for 200 acres with the mill. This is a permanent 
stream and a bold creek. The land is level and stiff clay 
soil. Moore is a bond Whig, and would judge overbearing 
in his manners, one that does not stop for trifles, the fare 
scarcely ordinary, Pd . :Ip1.50. This is the highest bill 
since 1 left fiamburg, S. Ca . an;! but little better than the 
meanest place 1 put up at since leaving home. 

Thursday July the 20th, 1843. Crossed Running Water and 
entered the prairies which were at first rolling with black 
jack and post oak growth and not suitable to my fancy of the 
great and rich Co. of Noxabee. It is hower, I suppose, toler- 
able land, at least some of it. 5M. to Walker's near the 
Woxabee River who has a fine mansion and good slue land prai- 
rie soil. "He appeared quite kind and polite in directing me 
the way. i-'rom here 1 turned to the left up the South side 
of Noxabee River. Some good land, then post oak land, 
which 1 judge to be thin, but better than that below Run- 
ning A'ater and appears to produce lively. In the Noxabee 
swamp was some very rich land but I afterwards learned it 
overflowed occasionally. I forded the Noxabee which is 
perhaps 25 or 30 yds. wide with apparently high banks as 
the water was low. I then proceeded up the N. bank to 
Major Joseph Roger's (12M. from Moore's) who not being at 
home, 1 continued on up the river and across Wet 'Water Creek 
tc^ his daughter's, Mrs. M.L. Stokes. The prairie soil 
ceased after crossing Noxabee at.d the country was rolling 
and hilly, the soil sandy hickory land, the growth mostly 
oak and hickory. The land is lively but not counted' rich, 
20 or jO bushels of corn and '^ or 10 cwt of cotton per acre. 
Although I had not seen Mrs. Stckes for several years and 
but seldom within the last 12 or 14, she knew me at a glance, 
and her features appeared th-i tame to me but improved, 
for although now the mother o*: lour children and the eldest 


a lad of 12 or 14 years, sjie appears equally as handsome 
or more so thar when a irl. We are about the same f^i'-R 
and many a play have we h^d together when children at scho'il 
in St. Georges parish, S,C. But saw she is residing Jn 
this far country hundreds of miles from the place of cujr 
nativity, and my home whl^Mi is at the old place. I was 
received with all the kir.dness of an old schoomate and 
friend. She has a finf^ plantation and of the dwell- 
ing. The plantation is a^.l in one opening, and the rolling 
hills covered with corn -nd cotton has a pleasing rjp[)earancp . 
She is a business lady ■:::') made 83 bales of cotton and 
abundant provisions las- ,/ear, and I judge manages fier bur?- 
in'jss throughout with pr','i';nce and economy. 

Saturday, July the 22 nd, 1 '-'43 . This mcrninp Mrs. Ann 
L'lxon and Mary Caroline K<jger came over to Mrs. Stokes' 
and in the evening haj. Koger, and I went home with him. 1 
was received in a kind and friendly manner by all and part- 
iulariy by Mrs, Koger who could not have met me much more 
kindly had I been her own 3on. How I felt on meeting these 
familiar faces and particularly Mrs. Koger after a separation 
of over five years is not for me to describe. What sen- 
sations!. What melancholy recollections of by gone days! 
Days that are past and gone and which I shall never see or 
enjoy again. How ofter had 1 thought of and wished for 
this meeting, yet I dreaded and avoided it. I wished for 
this meeting, yet I dreaded and avoided it. i wished it 
because I thought my friends were genuine, high and hon- 
ourable. 1 dreaded it because I feared I might be mistaken 
and entertained higher views and felt more friendship and 
respect for them than they thought me worthy of receiving 
or than they felt for me. 1 dreaded the thought of a cold 
formal reception, one dictated by the cold rules of civil- 
ity and politeness. This would do from mere acquaintances, 
but the thought of it from persons that I esteemed ae these 
chilled my very heart and made me summon my little pride 
to brace my system to be able to return the same ind if f erenc»i 
or politeness that I received . I was only prepared to moet 
what I feared most, cold civility and politeness! Iru t how 
completely was 1 taken off my guard. Instead of the polite- 
ness of merely an old acquaintance, I received that of a 
near friend or relative. Mrs. Dixon, who had once been my 
pupil by her kindness made me feel that although we had 
been separated manyyears, she had not forgotten bygone^ 
days. Melancholy! After remaining a few days I went in 
company with Maj, Koger to his son's T. Jeff. Koger who 
lives in the priaries 5 m. a little N. of E. from Major 
Roger's. For 2 or 3m. the country was rolling hickory 
lan(] and lively. On the border of the prairie land it 
appeared of prairie nature roiling, and for thf m''.;!. 
part i nhould judge poor, oxoept her-hapr; in thi'' ( iMt,;; . 
The cfjuntry thfn became J(>vel and generally rich, Wil.h -i 
few exceptions of poor -potj; occasionally, but l,hf> r-lr-h 

I.iri'l .'!(< f'-'ir predorf, i na t,od t.Fiat il rrii^ht be caiied a rich 
c'juntry. ThyncR 4 IM . to Aunt r'ar,";aret Gavin's nearly an 
(■.iwt. cour;:e arKJ within 6 m . of |.^j ckenHvi 1 1g , Ala. and 
'j,^. 'jf Tonibl/^Lce Hiver-. The f.-ountry level and with a few 
''.•x';';ptionr, rich. The land here is very rich and is valued 
from .i|15.00 to :I^20.00 per acre. John K. Gavin holds his 
at $25.00 and it is a choice piece of land. Just as rich 
as any person could wish. They calculate on from 30 to 50 
bushels of corn and from 10 to 16 cwt. of seed cotton and 
of a good season more. It is all prairie soil. My rela- 
tive:; received me with kindnesy and like relatives. 

John Gavin and 1 went to Macon the last of this month. 
The country level and rich with few exceptions. Thence 7m. 
ufj the N. side of Noxabee River to Maj. Roger's. The country 
a little rolling or hilly and for some 2m. the land of a 
[irairie nature with blackjack growth, but knobby and poor. 
To ilorse Hunters Creek in the flat of which the land appear- 
ed good. The creek is 10 or 15 yds. wide but like all prai- 
rie creeks runs only in wet weather and now has water only 
in holes. The land was then hickory or sandy land and 
although it continued rolling it was generally lively with 
some poor and some barren spots. There is another 
ci'eek about one mile above Horse hunter with which it 
unites before it enter the Noxabee. Pd . 25ct. tobacco. 

Tuesday August the 1st, 1843. l^aw a boll of open cotton 
full grown apparently. After a few days I visited Col. 
Wm . C. Mims in Lowndes Co. I6m. North. After a few miles 
the country of a prairie nature and lively land. lOni. was 
thn commencement of a large prairie which 1 entered and the 
road followed it to Col. Mims' 6 m. It was generally level 
with just undulations enough to carry off the water. I do 
n'!t think it generally rich but It is counted good. The 
want of timber will for a long lime retard its cultivation, 
for you may lool. or travel for miles without passing a tree, 
oome times a small clump of crookod knotty black jack or post 
oak and sometimes a single one or two. It is several miles 
across and its length I do not know. I travelled it 6m. 
and as far as the eye could see the vision only interrupted 
by the trees on either side, the distant horizon and the 
im[)ediments mentioned above. TliLs is splendid grass here 
from 6 ins. to 2 ft. but when ine country gets settled 
and a good deal of stock socn eat it down. Before it 
is much eaten the rich and poor spots are easily distinguish- 
ed, as the first has much the tallest grass. 

Col. l^lim's plantation lies below the Cotawper Ck. and is 
of the richest prairie soil. r. good many st. gum mixed 
with other rich growth. It is /ery stiff, requiring two 


horses to a plow in the opining. Nearly the whole body of 
country here is rich, or rfither a larp;e portion ol it. i-liins 
with 20 h'jnds 23 in numbisr made 181 bales of 5^0 Iho. 
and one of his neighbors, Joseph Toland, witli 5'^ in number 
counted 25 hands made 24 7 'oales. Land valued a t:lt;2().0(j 

One evening 1 went over Jotawyper to see David i'latt. The 
country is generally rolling, and although lively, is poor 
in comparison to that below the creek. It has sand, although 
some appears to be of a prairie nature. ;3aw Mr. Emanue] 
Ruple formerly of Orangeburg, So. Ca . Major Koger made with 
45 in number counted as 35 hands 160 bales of 500 Jbs. 
Mrs. Stokes 83 bales. 

Friday, August the 11th 1S43 . Cloudy & cool with showers, 
then warm and hard rain the evening. Went to an examina- 
tion at Union Academy, otoval principal, with Maj. 
Koger's family. The boys performed their parts well and 
some of them repeated part.'3 of speeches delivered in the 
Senate of the U.S. by So. Ca . Senators, and ansv/crs tcj them 
by those of Massachusetts and elsewhere. It made me a lit- 
tle proud to hear So. Ca . mentioned and her eloquence 
(although opposed to me ^ in politics) so much noticed as 
to cause the speeches of her senators and the answers 
thereto, to be selected in this country in preference to a 
any others for the exhibition, as examples of eloquence 
to the mind of the students. We had also a specimen of 
back-woods stump speaking by Mr. Sherman, one of the 
teachers. It was delivered for the special benefit of the 
candidates (a number of whom were here) and no doubt suit- 
ed many cases. The orator first appeared toi be electioneer- 
ing for the nomination by a meeting, committee or conven- 
tion, and told what qualities the candidate ought to have 
and what kind of man he should be. He then tells what 
he was and what were his principles and qualities, and 
declares hewill never be found in one place and his princi- 
ples in another" and a great deal more 6f the egotism 
and flattery, and humourous tales and sweet words, patriotic 
sentiments and devotion to, and love for the Sovereign 
people, used by the genrality of' stump orators and d(>ma- 
gogues to get the votes of the dear Sovereign people. 

I do not think there was a great display of beauty al- 
though a gr'-'-at many ladies, but some very engaging " origin- 
ally from So. Ca. There was a great deal of gall an try 
and generally is in this so, more than l ever saw anywhere 
else, and I think could net be exceeded by an equal company 
of community of French, an(j I exjiect about as hearties:; dv 
more so, for wealth is much sought after and 1 expect, 
prized by most of the gallants above virtue, intellig<nice 
or beauty. Indeed, I cio not value the last over much, 
myself. The ladies generally appear to he very fond of it. 
I however found one exception, if she spoke candidly, fjnd I 

wiJl to her the credit to teliove she did. Politeness 
.'jrid ojviJit.y to the female sex is duo from every man and 
3hoi;lfi not be ne^';]ected by any ;^entleman, but when it de- 
^',( n<-'ra teH .Into mean sycophancy and heartless protestations 
■ jnd fawning flattery with a pretence of excessive tenderness, 
more for show and form than anytriing else, I despise it. 
liu I the man who is looking for land and negroes with his wife 
mut:t do all this, particularly in a new country where 
pr^o[)le are but little known to each other, and all wish to 
make themselves well bred and educated as fashionable ladies 
and gentlemen. If a real lady would recollect that those 
who flatted most are generally more desirous to deceive, 
and that those who are most forward and obsequious are often 
the least worthy, there would probably be less excessive 
gallantry and more real politeness. 

Saturday August the 12th . At Major Roger's very rainy. 

Monday the 14th. Went to Aunt M. Gavins' 20 m. E. of 

Koger's in Section 29 Township 15 Range ^^E. She made 63 
bales cotton with 16 hands and Jno. E. Gavin 45 Bales with 
8 or 9 hands, provisions abundantly. Myself, with Allen 
Gavin, after a few days went on a visit to Mr. D .A.J. 
Liantzler near the N. side of the Noxabee River about 10 m. 
from Aunt Gavins' a little W. of South and 6 m. S.E. from 
Macon (down the river). The country generally level and 
rich with some exceptions of post oak land which is called 
poor but is valuable on account of the timber. Mr. Dant- 
zler has a very rich fine plantation and made the last year 
150 teles cotton with 23 workers, little and big. 'water, 
however, is scarce in all this country, and the only per- 
manent wells are those bored in the rock, which near the 
I'iver is not so deep, from 70 to 100 ft. Aunt's is 82 ft. 
Further from the river they are deeper sometimes being 
2 or 300ft. Mr. I.T. Hunds 25 m. from the river cost $350 
to be completed and ensure water with a good pump. The 
streams and water courses all dry up in the summer or any 
dry time, and the stock must find their water in holes or 
lakes in these creeks or get it from the wells. In a dry 
season they often suffer and sometimes die of thirst, but 
as the settlers are generally digging wells, they have 
that resource when the lakes dry up and at some plantations 
these lakes are so distant that the stock depend entirely 
on the well. There are no springs and the only permanent 
streams that 1 know of in Noxabee Co. are Noxabee River and 
Running Water and these head in the pine hills of the 
interior or it is probably they would also dry up. It is the 
same case with Lowndes Co. imn.ediately above, that is the W 
or prairie portion. The Tombigbee is its (the prairie) 
boundary and in or near thai rortion I know of no permanent 
stream except the river. The same remarks of Noxabee will 


apply to Lowndes. There ire wells called prairie or seop 
wells which sometimes s -r'-e for drinking and culinary pur- 
poses but they are uncer.n'.n and often fail. They are dug 
through the soil to the :zck which 1 think underlays all 
this prairie country, an i zhe water soaks through the soil 
and collects in basins of the rock. If the well happens 
to be dug in a large basin that holds a quantity of water, 
it lasts a longer time. If not is soon fails. This rock 
sometimes comes above an'' soil and sometimes descends as 
low as 10 to 12 ft. V/he . .t is near the top of the ground, 
although the soil may be -ich not having sufficient dG'()th, 
the vegetation burns for I ick of moisture and jiroduces little 
or nothing. This I'ock bci )g limestone the water froni tlieso 
wells arc generally strongly impregnated wi t?i lime. The 
wells bored are sometimes impregnated with sulphur and on 
examining some of the pif^ces of rock taken from these welln 
and cisterns dug in the rock, there appears to be particles 
of sulphur mixed with it. As it comes through a limestone 
rock and is generally contained in a well, the bottom of 
which is certain to be lime rock, you may suppose it is also 
mixed with it. Some cf th? planters dig cisterns in the 
rock and catch rain water in the winter for drinking and 
culinary purposes in the summer and dry seasons. If there 
is no lake near, often dig one to contain water for the 
horses, stock, .etc. of the plantation. The water lies in 
these lakes or ponds both natural and artificial, soinetimes 
until there is a thick green scum covering the surface. The 
horses and stock need not be above drinking it for it has 
not been long since the people were glad to get this l(' 
drink themselves, and often haul it for several miles .j t 
that. Those who have not bored wells use this for washing 
clothes etc. also. 

Monday August 21st. 1943 . Went to Macon 15 m. In the 
prairie are some fine farms or plantations or rather on the 
edge of it, th middle being somewhat elevated and the planta- 
tions on the edges and extending in. A view of the fine 
level fields of corn and cotton from this small elevation 
in the centre looks grand and picturesque being here and 
there dotted with quarters? or Negro'^ huts, and the almost 
universal attendant, a gin house, towering above any othei', 
for that is generally the first good house erected, it be- 
ing a necessary appendage to a large cotton plantation. 
Then a prong of the Horse Hunter prairie to Macon. There is 
considerable difference in the soil of some of these prairies 
and some in all, and a good deal of inferior land in the 
Co. more than a stranger who had only heard of it would 
suppose. Prom Macon 3 m. to Geo. B. Augustus' on llorsc 
Hunter Creek. The land l.rro begins t') be :;andy anri irniff-) 
it, dof.'S Mbout Macon but ros a prairie .-ippe.-i Ponce .-irid ir,.iy 

perhaps be said to bo on a Koil with a mixture of prairie 
atic) .'lan'ly land, ati it is betweer and on the borders of both 
the prairiG and sandy land. Ther.ce 4 m. to Major Roger's, 
oanciy land and rolling and not very rich. Blackjack & oak 
with acjme hickory. Near and at Kajor Koger's lively hickory 
land. Uome rust in the hickory land cotton and the boll 
worm in some of the prairie cotton. The very richest lands 
are supposed not to be so liable to these casualties. 
Windy ^y cool but fair. 

M'l.jor Koger's plantation is situated on the N.E. or upper 
sido of Noxabee River at the mouth and on both sides of 
.1 small creek or swamp called '.vet Water. His plantation 
on i^. side of Wet Water where his residence is, is high roll- 
ing hickory land and produces well having averaged the last 
year 300 lbs. of clean cotton per acre. That on the W. side 
near the mouth of the creek and near the river is level 
and rich, but being low is sometimes injured by the inun- 
dations, which would be difficult to be kept out on account 
of the water of the creek being backed up by the river 
water when both are up, and is generally wet in the spring. 
Another large field higher up the creek on the same side is 
high and a little rolling, but is generally thin and counted 
poor, and would not be counted rich in So. Ca . but lively. 
ay industry, however, he manages to make good crops and last 
year with 35 hands 45 in number made 80,000 lbs. of clean 
cotton from 220 acres, which sold at 6i cts. per .lb. and 
brcjught 84B88.6G cents after paying expenses except bailing, 
which amount to :lt254.00. Krs . Stokes 83 bales with 15 or 
If) hands, T.II. bixon 7 hands 40 bales which, being prairie 
land cotton, sold 30 bales at 5s cts. and 10 at 5 3/4 cts. 
per lb. These prices are in Ala. money which is at 15 & 25 
cen t d iscoun t . 

Wednesday August 23rd, 1843 . Heard of a letter and went to 
Mr3 . Stokes' for it but it not being there went to T.J. 
Koger's. Pd . for [)Ostage & tobacco 50 cts. 

Thursday August the 24th, 1843 . Came from T. Jefferson to 
Kajor Koger's 6 m. This is a strange world and although it 
often uses us ill, yet we often cling to that v;hich refuses 
and ill uses us. Our best designs and purest intentions 
are often misconstrued. For devotion and attachment we are 
often paid but in base coin which is worse than nothing. 
Modest merit and virtue are often passed by unheeded and un- 
requited ,whi 1st forwardness and professions receive the re- 
ward due to merit and virtue. ''Jas! virtue and honor 1 
have worshipped thee as a true God, but your devotees are 
much oflener allowed to pine and die in secret or obscurity, 
than for vice and imprudence to be rebuked or punished. 
He that does not take care of lis friends does not deserve 
any . 



A camp-meeting near Major Roger's came on about this time 
and I attended it from Friday to, I think, Tuesday mornin/^. 
There was a good deal of slicw at this meeting, gallantry, 
dressing, and preaching. It appears the people of thJs count- 
ry carry every thing they go at to extremes. Klecti oneer^^ig, 
gallantry, dressing and even preaching, praying, shouting 
and other religious exercises. Indeed I do not know what it 
is that they undertake which is not for a time carried to 
excess, and the misfortune is, the worst is sometimes (-carri- 
ed fiactherest and generally continued longest if possible. i 
became tired of the meeting and went to Lowndes Co. with 
John ohuler. After travelling about 10 ni . we stc^ppod ;jnd 
dined at Mr. Randall's and then accompanied Miss Mar^y R.m- 
dall & Miss Elizabeth Brown of Columbus to Mr. Tes;-;?; 
Smith's then to Mr. N. Lawrence's. Miss Randall is quite a 
handsome lady, small and neatly formed, with beautiful glossy 
black hair that falls in beautiful ringlets and handsome 
curls down her fair and delicate neck to her shoulders. 
She would almost be a fit subject for an artist to paint 
a Venus or other emblem of beauty. She is the handsomest 
lady I have seen in this State. She is polite and agree- 
able in conversation, lively and intelligent. Miss Brown is 
not so handsome but has the appearance and manner of an 
amiable lady. 

i'rom I'lrs . Lawrence's I proceeded to Jas. Piatt's and then 
to Mr. Artemas Jenning's about '6m. S.L'^. of Mr. Lawrence's 
over Magower Swamp, or on the S. side, and about C m. from 
Moore's Bluff on the Toinbigbee. Mr. Jennings ajipearn to 
be a very clever plain- man. His lady appears also t(; b^ 
an amiable and domestic woman. lie has very rich praii-ie 
hammock land, and with 15 hands, 17 in number made lasi, 
year 140 bales of cotton. The boll worm in the cotton. 

Friday September the gth, 1S43 . At Mrs. Stokes'. Very hot, 
the 9th and 10th very hot. V/ent to Aunt Gavin's 

Sunday September tlie 17th and 13th . Attended a protracted 
meeting near Memphis about 5 m. S. of Aunt Gavin's Saw two 
great beauties, a widow, Mrs. Cameron, and Miss Ann McLeod. 
The first is a handsome lady but has a slight blemish in 
one eye which has destroyed the sight. 6he is counted rich 
having a plantation & 10 or 15 hands. Miss Mcl.eod is very 
tall, and although not handsome, has a very pleasing and 
interesting countenance, l-d . 3I4, read the Conspritor. 

Thursday. Sept. the 21st The meeting still continues and 

1 am at Cousin John Gaviri's not going to thf: mer-ting, he 1 n/'' 
unwell and feel feverisn. The weather very war' .ind dry. 
1 feol satiated with idlerjess and my mjd d'isgu::Led, r-r-' \-;iH\'-r- 
tired of contemplating favours of fortune and' r.ccupy. of 
happiness which I shall probably never teali;',e or wnjoy. Jj1?i- 
appointment in what 1 harj greatly set my mind upon seorns to 

foJIuw (ri,y r,j terl foot.'iteps. i'-i;iJist! Am I one? T scarce- 
1;/ I'.nr/w th'. nieytiLng of the wc r ' . Yet I fear- 1 am one and 
fij I ''•'J by J tG dootinJes. Yet ' pray God to make me thank- 
fi. I I'lv the many blessings I, and the good fortune 
.■ind'S-.j that has attended sonie of my exertions, and be 
r'--;; i pned Id my disappointments a] though they may pierce the 
teridr^rcst part, the heart, for my very heart is sick and my 
energy 1 fear weakened, if not broken. Alas! i^y life has 
been a checkered scene, with many and deep sorrows, with a 
few short gleams of joy. But God suits the wind to the 
shorn lamb, for 1 scarecly thi-nk I could have borne my pres- 
ent burdens ten years ago; but 1 am a sinful creature, 
r.h God, give me strength and resignation to bear up amidst 
my disappointments, courage and perseverance in following my 
precepts, strengthen my good and virtuous inclinations and 
weaken my evil ones. Teach mo to remember the past only for 
imfirovement , particularly what has occurred so many years. 
Head '18th, 49, & 50 Chapts. 

Saturday September the 23 or 4th, 1943 . went to Thos. Dixon's 
and being still sick, Mrs. Dixon kindly mixed and gave me 
medicine, composition & Lobelia. Pd . 25 cts. tobacco. 

Tuesday Sept. the 26th, 1S43 . At Major Roger's rainy and 
cool . This i s the first day that has felt like fall. 

l''riday Sept. the 29th . Came from Mrs. Stokes'. Rainy and 
cool, i'all has set in and I am still here at nothing. I 
have been to bid Mrs. Stlkes adieu, and think every day 1 
will do the same to Maj. Koger and family, but when the time 
arrives, 1 postpone it to another. Here where I only expect- 
ed to remain a few days I have staid most of my time since 
the 20th. July. How I regret with bitterness to leave, but 
1 have overstaid my time and I almost hate myself for 
being so idle. Time has flown so swiftly and pleasantly 
that the year has passed almost like a dream, a dream J 
should J ike very well to awake from v/i th a good little 
helpmate. i:iu t alas! For me I fear there is little hope. 
I am afraid to allow love to take deep hold lest I may 
Ik.' disappointed, and without it i am not yet disposed to 
mnrry. Thiero is one 1 coul(! freely and ardently love if 
there was hope, but for fear c-f losing her esteem and 
trlendship, which 1 am vain eM.,;gh to believe 1 now enjoy. 
1 expt^ct she will not likely kt'w that I esteem her above 
any otlier lady living; it appf-^irs every act and movement 
is becoming, and although I do -:iot think her perfection, I 
cfinnot point to any defect (or anything in her person or 
manner that I could wish altered i. Reason and experience 
teaches me not to expect perfection. Alas! How sad the 
prospect of a bachelor's life vhen his gloomy and sad ex- 
is tance and cheerless home mi£ it be enlivened and cheer- 
ed by the smiles of a virtuous, intelligent and amiable 
lady; but disappointment seems to be my portion, and every 

succeeding one more poi,:n;int than the last. Toll & hoy 
12^ cts. 

Saturday September the ^'C:;h,1843 At Ma j . Roger's heavy 
rain and hard wind, almoct a storm, blew out some cotton 
but not as much as I exp--^' ;ed . 

Monday October 2nd, 194' . Bid adieu to Majj. Kogor and 
family. J had always adrii.-ed? Mrs. Koger and family, but 
never knew its extent un- L- about to leave them, and a. 1 though 
it may be called womani::n, I freely own Vnn tears flowed 
more plentifully and fre'ly than for years. 1 had almost 
thought disapytointment a,.:i sorrow had quelled? my water 
sources, but all my^phy makes me a poor stoic. It, 
with all my pride, is overturned, and 1 firi(] my heart, in 
stead of being turned to cold steel, is of the same warm 
metal as of former days. ^jove, what asweet and holy sound! 
Yet, to me it has been, and appears likely to Continue to 
be, a source of disappcintrr^ent . God forbid that I may not 
be tempted to stay cursed by what to others is happiness 
and pleasure, but why should a wretch like me think of lovo 
when it has heretofore always eluded my grasp. 

Went to T.H. Dixon's 6 m . and although 1 expected to leave 
the next day, remained until Thursday evening. I am to get 
rose bush seed and cuttings for M.C.R. 8< English cheT^ry 
seed for Mrs. Dixon. 

Thursday Oct. the 5th, 1843 . Well's 16 m. 

Friday 6th . To Aunt Gavins '4 m. from Maj. Roger's farm. 

Thursday October the 12th 1943. Although I did not expect 
to remain with Aunt more than a fay or two, I did not leave 
until today. On Thursday my horse showed some symptoms 
of a founder but appeared clear of it today. Gabriel Gavirj 
went with me to Pickensville 6 m. West. Country level 
rich prairie land about two miles, then sandy oak, hickory 
and swamp land some of it however lively and good . Some 
little appeared poor. A few short leaf pine. Pickensville 
is a small place with a hote, two blacksmith shops and 
three or four stores, and is situated on the E. side of thp 
Tombigbee River and 25m. below Columbus. Thence 11 m. to 
Carolton, this is the Co. side and patently? poorer than 
Pickensville. It hag^-a good brick Court House and jail. 
The country generally high and dry with stroamr. of wat^r. 
The land on the cks. dark sandy soil and some rich bottom, 
and has the appearance ..f a healthy pleasant, country. Tlic 
cropo on most of the far-rr:-^ look well. Thf hoij:-.r:,<; n'^-it, hu I, 
not magnificent. 7 m. fi..,fi I'ickennvJ 1 J c pa;;nf;d .') n".)l, 
church and campground. : r )m Carrolton 1 m. to .'iuhbub Ck . 

'/in t.lijr; ck. there \'^ a little lively land near the creek. 
Thence ^ ijtephen Blinetts. High hill and poor with a 
/-'rrwth of oak and pine, and he says he has good bottom land 
.;. of his residence, and improved land valued at S5J0O & 
6. CO an(J a farm will average 1 "3 or 20 bushels of corn and 
from 7 to 10 cts. of seed cotton per acre, irom Pickensville 
to Oarrolton, the growth oak, hickory and short leaf pine. 
Thence to the soil generally poor and growth oak and 
pine. ?d . boy tobacco & Toll 31i, resetting horse shoes 
7'^ cts. Total $1.06. This is a tolerable house but poor 
as l,o r.tyie. The family appeared plain and clever and the 
(jld lady sti]l loved Chester Disct. So. Ca . This day ?7 ra. 
I'd. 1XJ0, total expences of the day ^2.064. 

!''riday October the 15th, 1943 . started about 8 o'clock, 
travelled 13 m. to river, Tuscaloosa Co. The country 
high, hilly and sandy, generally poor, with the exception 
of a little lively land near some of the creeks on which were 
a few small settlements, similar to that from Carrolton to 
Blissett's. This river is much like Noxabee being, perhaps, 
20 or 30 yds. wide and appeared deeper and the swamp .lower, 
being in a wood or sandy land country. I expect the water 
is more regular. The swamp is wide, crossed it on a cause- 
way and bridges. I'd. 12^. Thence 18 m. to Old Ken tuck 
on the W. side of the Black 'warrior River. The country not 
so hilly as the West of and 5 or 6 m. before reaching 
Olri Kentuck the country becan-e level pine land. Before and 
yiere poor, but the level one mere suited to my ideas of 
planting than the hills. This is not much of a town ' 
but would be a smart village. There is a fine covered 
bridge across the Warrior on brick pillars. Pd . 12^. This 
is the head of navigation on the warrior. Tuscaloosa is a 
neat and handsome town on the B. bank of the river and is 
the Co. Site and seat of Govei'nment of Ala. The Capitol 
is a handsome edifice at the lower end cf town and front- 
ing the main street. The house in which the G-overnor now 
resides, although not State property, is a fine mansion 
situated at the upper end of the Town, fronting the main 
street being the avenue to each, and the street having the 
appearance of being closed at each end by these edifices. 
After passing the G-overnor's house you come to the College. 
These are not fine buildings or large. The President's 
house is a neat building, but is separated from the others 
by the public road. There is a fine open square or green 
around the main building which causes it to show to some 
advantage, and is neatly plantec' with shade trees. There 
js several handsome residenc3s ornamented with beautiful 
gardens in this or the upper 3nc: of the town. Then 10 m. 
along the route of 1835 to :irown's. lor the first few 
miles the land lively and only a little rolling, but the 
T'oad gradually leaves the river and the country becomes 


poor and hill^witb a few ''ed rock. (iff the road the land 
is said to be better, b;t mostly pine and produces lively. 
Or the road, the land i r^ ""-iluable on account of the locatjon 
for public hriuses and s:i-ing provisions , and produces bet- 
ter than it appears from f.'ie looks of the soil. This is 
the main route from Tus:.:; oosa to North Al.n., I!untsville, 
etc. This dny 36 m. Pa'.' ^iJljOO. Brown's is "• m. E. of tho 
river and is a good neat r'juse with good bed, table & i;t;jbln, 
without style. His lady 1.: a N. Carolinian and is h I'ocorn- 
mendaticri to Ijer country, Deing agreeable and en L(^rtai n i ng 
with r.ome beauty. band .-• i' ued at $G or 7 .'^C' V^^ acre iii,firov- 
ed . 

iJaturda;/ lc tober the 14th, 1?43 . Started at 7. (iroy ■ ■ 
headed winter showed his white frosty head thiis morning, 
which makes the cotton and other similar herbs and plants 
look quite sorrowful and sad. Travelled over a hilly 
poor country 14m. to Hillory Creek. Some land in this 
settlement lively but not rich and not much lively one. 
There is a brick mansion in the flat of this creek. Thence 
about 10 m. to Pratt's ferry on the Cahawba Kiver. The 
country generally a high rolling poor pine country with some 
few but poor settlements. Near the river is some oak land, 
high, hilly and rocky and not very rich. 1j forded the river 
and found it not to my horse.' s belly. barge white rocks 
just across the river, but on the b. side are lose, rc^cks 
than the IV. The soil appears more free and lively, there 
being a few small dry hollows of lively land. Thence " m. 
to Old Bibb Court House, or Coker's for this is lUbb Co. 
The place of the Old Ct. House is now a plantation and th(^ 
Proprietor, Mr. Coker, keeps a hotel. Thence to Garner's. 
It being dark, the place looked desolate and the people not 
acting to please my fancy. I grew suspicious and left the 
place intending to stop at the next house, Green's, but it 
appeared that the negroes and whites here also lived together 
and not liking such company, I proceeded on although dark. 
14 m. to Maplesville via Pert Rascal. Crossed several 
creeks or swamps being the heads of the South prong of Bi/'; 
Mulberry on which there is said to be some lively kind 
land, but I scarcely think there was much of it near the 
road, for I saw no place that I could venture to stay all 
night, and but few settiements of any kind. Maplesville 
is on the Middle prong of Big Mulberry which is a ::m. 
ck. This is a poor village and scattering. Although latr; 
at night, found the Landlord and his company up, one of 
whom was playing the fiddle, and got acquainted with a 
traveler from Winsborough, Fairfield Disct., So. Ca . rinmeri 
■Jnhn Mil lor. band hf;r" valued at from i;4.0() t,f) r.Od ,-ind 
Ls s;indy anri lively. |M.,.nd free Jarirl but net v-r-y r'i''h .iri'' 
not a grf-at deal oi' it. -iw a larjy 1-ior'f.. r.ri /- i na ] i.y yr<>u, 
Orangestjurg Ldact. So. 0... which maiden riamf' wa:; ';hol:ujr,. 
My Landlord, C.T. Bilirgsiy and lady, are virginir,n .'ind 

'■lOf.f.'.'jf p')l i to ?)n'i f.*l''Vor, but .,,,1 tn bo fc-r their bills arc 
hj/';h (;ric;u/';h to cr.ffiporis;) te t.l-ier.', Hjr their cond esoens j on . 
A I t,h''U/';?i 1 think the bill hif^!-i i-nn-up-h, I do not demur to it, 
i''ir 1 W'l.jJd prefor hJs bill and fare tlian risk any other 
lor IS ni. on the other end ri tbr- road. I'd. 1.?5. This 
day 47 m, 

Jumia.-ytjc tober the 16th , 1643 . Started at 8 and travelled 
a few miles to the East prong cf Big Mulberry, then the head 
of Little Mulberry and 8 m. over a high poor pine country 
to owift Creek, which is in Autauga Co. A settler here told 
aio there was some good land onthis ck., but saw very little 
myseli'. The country not so inhospitable? as yesterday .Al- 
though it was Sunday I heard the hounds and saw a few of 
those pious republican democrats or mob-o-crats at a dis- 
tance in the woods. To Henry :.';egler's 37 m. from Maples- 
ville, the country generally pine and poor. The latter part 
more level than the first and some about Zegler's it might 
be counted a level pine country, but high here and lively. 
1 crossed this evening the line of a defunct R. Road. Some 
part had been cleared and some excavation (I think) done. 
Ihere turned off, although near dark and 4 m. to Wm. L. 
Morgan's. The land level pine land and some flats almost 
resembling our flats with some little pretensions to ponds, 
but few have attained the full name of a pond. Morgan is 
a democrat and appears to be a clever gentleman and of some 
information. He has been a member of the Ala. i^egisla- 
ture and was formerly a union man. This level pine land 
v^ilued at $3 or 4.00 per acre and the river land st $10.00 
per acre, none in the m.arket. This day 41 m. pd . S1 .00 

Monday October the 16th. 1843 . Started at 8, breakfast like 
yefiterday, being late. Morgan accompanied me to Wetumkee 
4 rn . level lively pine land. This is m.y eld route out. 
wetumpkee is at the head or division on the Coosa River 
and at the falls, and bids fair to be a place of consider- 
ablo' trade and is at present the seat of one of some 
imiiortonce . There is some fine buildings of brick but 
mostly of wood. There is also splendid covered bridge with 
brick or stone pillars across tne river connecting the two 
parts of the Town, for it is en both sides of the river. 
That on the v^. is in Autanga Cc . aid is considerably desert- 
pd , but 1 am informed is again improving. Its location, 
I tljink, more handsome being le^el, and I suppose above 
high water. The E. side is higher? and is much more 
flourishing and densely popula'-^^i than the west Wetumnka. 
The ground is uneven with very '::igh hills clcse on the rear 
or East, so that it canne ': extend much further back 
or East unless the buildings e^r made on the sides of high 
and steep hills. It is also l^''- seat of the Ala. peniten- 
tiary, which is situated aboi.' 3 mile up the river on the 


E. bank. There is 53 convicts and 6 guards who are w^rikinp 
amongst the convicts witr^ ",heir muskets and bayonets. Nn;jrly 
all kjnd of work is carried on which was politely shown 
me by one of the guards named, Ithink, Hill. 1 saw their 
workshops, sleeping cells and a box for punishment. The 
building is a tiigh wall inclosing an open area. Tho wr^rk- 
shops and offices are built to this wall. In front it 
extends mucn higher and here the lower j)art is tht^ super- 
intendent's or keeper's office and above is his residence. 
I suppose there is another or outer wall. Pd . cigars ^2h. 
tobacco 6j. 

Thence to Talassee 23 m. The country generally high, hilly 
and poor. Some good land on a ck. 13 m. from Wetmumpka. 
There is also' some new settlements and an old one which in- 
dicate good land in the neighborhood. I'dr the first few 
miles the land is high hilly and sandy mixed with oak, 
then pine with a clay or prairie na tured soil and not so 
abruptly hilly, on the creek or at Let's where I' 
staid. As 1 went out so;ne lively land and three settle- 
ments, then high hilly pine land with o few exceptions to 
Talasce. At this place the corn and cotton indicated better 
land than i supposed it in the spring. There is a finr- 
bridge here across the Tallapoosa River. I'lJ . 1?^ cts. T})ere 
is a fall or rapid here, and the water tumbles over the 
rocks with considerable noise. There is no swamp on either 
side of the river and little that appears low enough to 
be called a flat; the West side approaches nearer that name 
than the East side. It is one of the towns that has been. 
There is not a great many houses but judging froin those 
that are here", it was a place of some business and specu- 
lation in th* days of bank and Creek Indian land 
speculation, for most cf the Creek lands were held by the 
Indians, and nominally sold by them to the speculators, or 
had it stolen from them. I am told that i.t is supposed 
the Government scarcely sold land enough to pay the expencee 
of surveying and keeping open the land offices. From every 
account, speculation and villiany was carried to the great- 
est excess. Here in this purchase is the first p]nce i 
ever heard of stealing land. I thought land was one thing 
that would defy the art of the thief, but the speculators 
learned a way here to steal it. 1 heard it from a man Jiv- 
ing in lower part of the last purchase between (-akmulger, 
& Chattahochie Rivers. 6 m. to Ranklin on the Mcjnt/';oniory 
road and on the L> . side of Eufawbie Creek which has a 
very high and good bridge. It is a very large creel^ wifle 
and has beautiful level pine flats that are lively with fine 
plantations, but I do nol, think them very rich. The r;oil i :; 
very sandy, loose and mellow, more so on tFie H, then the ;;. 
side. I suppose the land is valued high by the s i xo of 
the plantations. Neither the flats nor the plan La t,j f^r,:; rir<: 
as large on the lower or Ll. side as on the N. or ur)per< 

."id'.. Tlience 6 (n . over- i> Vii 3 l.y : J ne coutry to Tuskegee, the 
<',n\in\,y n i t,o of Macc-n. TIjIs iu i consi (ieryble place, live- 
ly ■ ind improving, although ricj ri j; i ga ti on near and the trade 
nrily that of the riurround i n// cou",'try. Its location, however, 
i:: iM>nrj i fiorcd healthy being a hir^h pine level and the country 
a low miles S. being rich and unnealthy. oome planters 
now reside here and it is supposed it will be the general 
sunuiior resort for health and schools. There are several good 
schools aready, a male and a ferriale, and there appears to 
be considerable business on a small scale, such as retailing 
or se]ling by the small quantity, for no loads of staple 
commodities are sold and no loads of merchandise carried 
off. Then 5 m. to Big Swamp. Pd . 12^cts. 

Thence 2 m. to Cousin Joel Sistrunk's in the fork of Big 
Swamp and Chawocla. The country high rolling pine land. On 
both these creeks or swamps are some fine land and pine flats 
impregnated with lime. From V.'etumpka to Tallasee my route 
led near the lower line of Coosa and Tallapoosa Co.'s and 
the upper line of Montgomery Co., perhaps sometimes in one 
county and sometimes in another, but probably oftener in 
the Coosa and Tallapoosa Counties. Expences three tolls. 
yih' Tobacco & Cigars 18 3/4 total 36i,this day 49 m. 

Expenses frcm Aunt Margaret Gavir 's six dollars twenty five 
cents ($6.25), distance one hundred and ninety-nine miles 
(199). Thence to Maj. Koger's 21 m. Total to Roger's 

'A'ednesday October the 18th, 1813. Head some in the Southern 
Ijiterary Messenger of Augusta. September &. October and 
copied the following lines of poetry: 

Love Sketches I^'o . VIII . 

Thou knowest not what glowing? tints. 

My homeward fancies trace. 

Mor how, with many bitter tears, 

J pine to see thy face. 

Mow all my lightly spvOkon words 
Itepentently return. 
Ah! me, how many pai. IjI thoughts 
The absent one must IcTn! 

K perfect womn , nobly olanned , 

To warm, to comford an.; command; 

With something of an ajv^l light. , 

The Fatal Effects of insincerity, Persecution 

And when my heart wcu- 1 gush with feeling, 
To catch one kind, or.^ sunny look; 
Ivhen love would be a J.o3f of healing 
Hut scorn a thing I v.'^l not brcok. 


Oh! It is hard to put the heart 
Aicne, and descl.ate away, 
To curl the lip, with pride, ami part 
With the kinds thoughts of yesterday. 

Uh ! that there should be 

Things which we Irve with such deep tendernes.^. , 
Bu , through that Love, to learn how much of we, 
Dwell in one hour like this! 

(1 thinK the poet is speaking of a Coquet.) 

I would bind my neart as soon. 

To the fickle wind or changing moon. ' '■ 

Uh ! deep in a wounded heart, and strong, 
A voice that cries against mighty wrong; 
And full of death as a hot windy blight, 
Doth the ire of crushed affection ligh. 

Nature hath assigned 

Two sovereign remedies for human grief; 
Religion, surest, firmest, first, and best, 
Strength to the week, and to the wounded balm, 
And strenuous action next. 

Wednesday, October 18th, 1843 . Sometimes 1 almost impious- 
ly think it would have been ^better had I been born with a 
cold, selfish heart, one that did not beat so high and 
fervently and bov/ so devotedly at the shrine of love ; 
had I been cold and selfish, how many disappintments , and 
how many, many melancholy hours, days, weeks, months and 
years I should have avoided: I should not now love one 
who, perhaps, thinks not of me, and if she does, with nothing 
like the warm and devoted feelings of my own heart. Jf 
she thinks of me at all, it is perhaps only as an acquaint- 
ance, Alas! Perhaps not with dislike in any other light 
than friend or acquaintance Alas!. Perhaps not with kind- 
ness at all or entire neglect. Forgotten me, surely 
Miss has not yet forgotten our friendship, or turned 
it to hatred or dislike. To retain her friendsliip, how- 
ever, perhaps I had better retain my love v/ithin my own 
breast. Alas! could 1 like some, turn my Invc for 
virtue, dignity and intelligence in the most amiablo of 
women, into love of cotton bags, lands and negroes, ?)Ow 
quick I would endeavour to get them. I love and desire 
them for their uses, one of which is to share them with 
an amiable, virtuous and intelligent lady, one who will 
divide the sorrows and double the joys of life, and to 
assist me in getting thr'ough thii^ selfish and prourl 

Al;jy! that age and the appearc-ce of more years than I posses 
appears on me, how high my heart could beat with joyful 
an ticifia tion , with the heat and fervor of youth, but I 
rtiur't repress it. My heart must not ^et too warm or 
my expf:',' ta tions be raised, or the shock of cold disappoint- 
ment wi 11 be greater. Yes, I must repress or smother it, 
and endeavour to change a naturally warm and tender heart 
to a cold and selfish, or rather melancholy, one. But it 
is hard to change tre naturally warm and ardent from its 
natural bent and inclination, to be cold and selfish. I 
have before experienced disapficintments enough to change it, 
if it was anything like easy. 

Saturday October the 21st. 1943 . Went to see Lovie L. 
murry who appeared to be honest and disposed to settle the 
note i had against him. Travelled a ridge path or road 
12 m. to Odom Creek. Crossed Chawacla below Mitohell's, 
now Shorter 's , Mills and went up on the NV>C side. High, 
rocky & broken but lively. This is better suited to wheat 
than at Sistrunk's and the country and soil has quite a 
different aspect. 

Sunday October the 22nd, 1943 . Went in company with Mr. 
Murray to Apelexica. It has little of the Village except 
th" church and schoolhouse and a few residences. 

The land has small pebbles in the soil, v/hich has fertility 
enough to produce lively corn and grain. Thence to Auburn, 
the first part of the country h;igh, rocky and rolling and 
tVif? pine on the creeks said to be lively. Auburn is a 
neat little rural village with some few residences for 
convenience of school, a few sinaJl stores, a post office, 
blacksmith shop, M.E. Church and one Baptist and school 
house. The land high rolling and long leaf pine and has 
every appearance of being healthy. The people were at 
church and by their dress and equipages would suppose the 
surrounding country to be li'iely. As I proceeded, the 
land appeared more lively by naving the appearance of lime 
i Ti the creeks and appearing free and lively, and although 
it is pine land that on the creeks, I am told, will produce 
from 7 to 10 cwt. cotton and from 15 to 20 bushels of corn. 
5 m. from Auburn to Cousin Michael Durr's S.W. course. 
(!iis mother and my maternal grandmother were sisters). 
Hin land is high pine land mixed with lime and is valued 
at from ^^5.00 to 10.00 per acre. The branches on which 
he Jives are smalland empty in.o the Ivaufaubee. 

Tuesday Oct. the 24th, 1943. Started for I. Sistrunk's 
Kor about three miles the lani appeared lively, then high 
i)Oor pine land to Smith's Fori 1 m. above Sistrunk's, 12 
m. from Durr's. This pine barr^jn country is denominated 
Texas : (taxes?) and has some people living or rather 


staying here. They do little or no work and live on game, 
stock, etc. Opposite Ljrr's on the the land is 
said to be of the first quality for cotton. 

Friday October the 27th, 1943 . Rainy and ccol . As whole- 
some competition Js the ".ife of trade, co a rertain por- 
tion or nurnbei of popular elections is the life (jf a free 
government, but when conpc ti tion in trarie i^ carried r; i 
far as to break one of tlie parties, the other can niont;- 
polize the wlioie trade and practice extortion without 
fear or i-estraint. Wnen there are too many pof)u]'if 
elections, the populace and demagogues may, and do, procU'cr- 
the most atrocious tyrannies without fear of punishment, 
because the officers, oeing all dependent on them fdv re- 
election, dare not enforce the law and often have not fjower, 
Often those who may be the law and elect the officers aro; 
criminals, or violators of the law. Where the govern- 
ment is too weak to enforce its laws, the best laws are 
of no service. It is like giving medicine to a patient 
but in such small quantities as only to make him sick and 
not enough to operate freely and throw off the (disease. 
You tantalize him with the idea of a cure when in reality 
you make him worse. So with a weak government. It 
promises its citizens protection which, when needed, is 
rarely if ever realized. Tobacco 64 cts. 

Saturday Oct. the 28th, 1H43 . Went to a regimental review 
at Tuskegee which, I think, was the greatest military foT'ce 
I had ever yet seen, unless cne at Augusta, Perry Co., 
Miss, in the fall of 1831 equalled it under the command of 
Col. 3arf ield . The music, 1 am certain, exceeded any 
regimental band I ever heard. The instruments were a drum 
and a fiddle. 5 swords, 2 caps & 3 uniform coats was the 
whole of the military equipment of the line, staff and field 
officers. Some of the privates had guns. I went this even- 
ing home with Mr. Zebalon Pike Mottey who married Caro- 
line Sistrunk. He lived about 8 m. S. W. on the N. side 
of the Caleebee Swamp and on the old li'ederal Road. The 
land is mostly pine flats and produces well particularly 
cotton. The country generally high, hilly pine land, with 
a slight tincture of lime which is stronger near the creeks. 
The soil generally light and mellow with fine sand and a 
mixture of clay occasionally, and I judge the whole sub- 
soil is fine clay. Near the swamp is some hammock which 
is rich. This is valuer- at SIO.OO per acre, some more 
and some less. The gi-owth, except on the hammock land, 
is long leaf pine and sometimes a few oak and hickory 
mixed, also some places some short leaf pine. 

Monday October the 30th. 1843 . Started from 1. Sir. t/-unk 'j 
ir: Macon Co., Ga . , in company with Mr. (Jeaphaa M. M'^Mir-hac] 

"f f r'.rn Dfj. Ca . In Maccn Co. the country mostly pine 
/■ini ;jnri lively and better than it looks with a sandy 
li,"ht. Tree soil exce()t about , the land of which is 
(')■ :i olnyey stjll nature. 10 m . to Ij&ciety iiill. This is 
a 7illa/je riirjro in name than any thing else. Thence 14 m. 
to 'Jrawford or' (^r-ocke tteville , the Co. site of I(ussell 
';o. The country high, rolling, poor sandy pine land with 
fow settlements. Crawford has a fine brick Ct. House and 
lolorabJe jail, ancJ a few stor^-:; and lawyers' offices. 
1 L do(;s not have the appearance of much business and there 
ar"-' few or no stores of much size. It appears to be laid 
uut on a large scale as the street is wide and the houses 
pi'etty much scattered. Thence 4 m. to the Oswitchee or 
Oachee Creek which is here large and has a fine bridge. 
l''l . ^2h ct. Thence 3 m. to Hugh McLean's. Land poor 
and s'lndy, that on the Oswitchiee scarcely being an except- 
ion, for although more lively than that off, it is very 
sandy and does not appear very rich. The West appears 
better than the Sast side for it is here nearly bluff and 
H. is low swamp. McLean's land is poor although he gave 
S10.00 per acre in the days wnen bank bills were abundant. 
He is a Calhoun democrat, pompous and talkative and loves 
his grog, but pays attention to travellers and keeps a 
tolerable house although 1 think too high charge for his 
fare and the times. Pd . $1.25. This day 51 m. Total ex- 
pense |;l.37^ 

Tuesday (;ct. the 31pt, 1943 . Started at ", 5 m . to Gerard 
on the V.'. side of the Chattahoochee River in Range 30 L. 
■^ Russell Co. This place for its wickedness was nick- 
named uodom. It appears tohave some business on a small 
scale but there are not many stores of much size being 
principally shops, and has rather a dirty appearance. 
There is a hotel but I do net recollect any church. Vt'e 
crossed the Chattahoochee on a fine bridge just below the 
falls to Columbus, I'iUschogee Co., G-eorgia. This is a 
iiandsr-me town and a place of considerable business and 
is at the head of river? navigation. It has several 
churches and banks and more of the latter than are able 
tc; pay their notes. IndeecJ, the corporation itself has 
repudiated its debto and has thereby paid its obligations, 
at once and in gentlemanly manner, and I expect if specu- 
I'ltion, swindling and the like was considered wickedness 
in tho'ir dictionary, he wou'd not be far, if any, behind 
their neighbor, Gerard, acrors the river, but 1 suppose 
gambling ancJ licentiousness i.^ carried to somewhat greater 
excess in the latter than the former according to its 
size, as many of the abandonr-ri wretches who can live no 
longer in Columbus cross eve"- 'he river to Gerard which 
IS in another State and is .i < rade or two lower in moral- 
ity. Thence 7 m. to Randal':^ oreek which has a very 


high bridge and rocky cottom and a saw mil.) jtif.t above 
the road. We then cros^e'' several small creek genoi'a'l ly 
with rock bottoms, and o ", the distance of 15 m., wo 
crossed Upatoie Creek ■u a bridge. It is 20 or 30 yd >"■■ . 
across with a rocky bottom, but the water was shal]ow which 
was, however, the case a i -.h all. The country generaJly 
high , rolling, poor, pine land, but more lively on the creeks, 
off f:fom them being only a grade above barren but is protty 
thickly settled. Thenc3 3 m. to George Jameison's bein^^ 
25 m. from Columbus an' in Talbot Co. 8 m. S. of Talbot- 
ton. The road sandy an:i hilly or rolling. The land in 
this section valued at '• -m $5 to 8,00 per acre and will 
produce in ordinary yeais from 800 to 10(jO lbs. seed cot, ion. 
This year from 4 to 6 cts. Very good year 12 or 15 cwt. 
Corn 20 or 50 bushels por acre. This is the lands on 
the creeks, for that from them is generally hilly poor pi no 
land. The land is lajri off in squares of ?32^ acror; and 
so in purchasing a tract, you generally get a portion of 
poor land with your gooi] one. There is no land selling 
at tbis time , although a gocd quantity is offering for iiale. 
I expect cotton has fallen since the above prices was ob- 
tained for land, and purchasers are not disposed to give 
as much now when cotton is worti 5 or 6 cts. as when it was 
worth 10 to 12 cts. The object appears to be to sell and 
go farther West, for the good country'' is generally ahead 
at least some distance from us, for we are apt to be 
at one place and contemplate another, often overlooking the 
advantages at a present location. As our greatest happiness 
is derived from anticipation, we can enjoy the pleasure of 
supposing a country at a distance to be possessed of every 
advange and be almost a paradise until we try it. \h} 
often find ourselves deceived and are then ready to fall 
into the same or similar error respecting some other 
place. Often we get into a habit of moving v/hich is, 
like most other habits, hard to quit. However, I do not 
condemn emigration in all cases for sometimes it is of 
considerable advantage, but it is a thing that can be 
easily overdone and often is, particularly, in those coun- 
tries, for the people appear to have no local attachnifni t 
to any place. I believe after breaking the attachment for 
our native place and country and changing our habits and 
customs to suit other places and society, we seldom, if 
ever, become so much attached to any other place or ^'ustom, 
unless we make the change when young and not over on.,--? 
or twice. Geo. Jameison is a lively and jolifyWhig that 
loves his grog. Fare coarse, no stable. Dimes do not pass 
for 12i cts. Pd. $1.00. This day 31 m. 

^edriesday Nov. the 1st. 1843 . Cloudy, Paw day. r:torto,i 
after 7 and ti'avelled over n hl^h, i^andy, borrf^n ;irid unin- 
habJtod country 8 m. tc; ?a t,ra 1 i /-;;) Ok. which hnn a r'ock 
bottom and some habitable land, perFiap:; 9 grodr. :,\)ir/i- 

|i(jor', h;jviri;'; rei\ oak and -J amh :. i r^ppear^ncp of clay with' a 
pr'Mioni i nanco of t;and . Tht-nce ''; m . tc La vis ton (having 
'•ril'..'r''.'fJ Iho :;tage road tViat ^o.;; by Talbot ton). 

It :3f;.'i pff; ly deserves the name (■■' village, having a small 
r.twi'c ur shop, post office and -j few old dwellings rriostly 
going to decay. Thence 10 m. to i-iitcbel's Calhoun's 
old ferry on llint i(iver. Pd . 6 cts. The country generally 
uneven or hilly and rocky and mixed with oak. It is all 
settled and near the river the land appears lively and 
the soil sandy. Thence 1 m. to Oakchumbee Creek and 2 m. 
t(j Alkahatchee. Both have bridges over their rocky beds. 
I'hi'ncc^ 10 m. to Lewis i\ Hicks' near Knoxville, the Co. 
r.ite of Crawford. The country hilly and rocky roost of the 
way, and the land although rocky is lively and generally 
S'.'ttled by small farmers, the land appearing too poor to 
sufjpcr't alarge plantation. The country appears well water- 
ed as we crossed a number of pretty running brooks with 
pebbly bottoms. Land valued at from $4- to 6.00 and produce 
from 5 to 6 cwt. cotton and 1 [i and 20 bushels corn. There 
is scarecly any person living here now who lived here in 
1955, 30 Mr. Licks imforms me. He is a native Georgian, 
mild and gentle in bis manners. His lady is young, talkative, 
lively, smart, neat and handsome. They keep a good table 
and stable, worthy of patronage. Pd . toll at Ferry 84-. Pd . 
SI. 061". This day 36 m. 

Thursday Nov. the 2nd, 1945 . Started at 7 o'clock and 
passed through Knoxville which appears to have improved 
some since 1S35. In 1835 it was a very trifling place. It 
appears now like a place of some small business, mostly I 
suppose arising from the fact of its being the Co. site. 
Thence 24 ra. to Macon the Co. site of Bibb and ctj the W 
side of the Oakmulgee Kiver. The country generally rol- 
ling and a little rocky. Vve r-ross three ccnsitierable cks. 
with bridges and rocky bottoms or beds with little or no 
cotton land attached. The land generally sandy except near 
thf^ creeks which are inclined to be clayey and rolling. 
It is generally settled and valued on account of the 
roaci . The country appears to Loh^^althy and well watered 
as the small creeks or branc'"^' ire numerous. is 
a considerable town in size 3:,^; of business establishments?. 
'L'ho H. Road leaves her'~ for the up country, 
and tl-ie Central R. lioad commu" i ^a tes with side at 
Port Hawkins which is separate: from Placon only by the 
river over which is a fine brl^-'e. It is a poor town with 
some shops but few or no store:;. The C'akmulgee is navig- 
able for small steam... boats. is a companj'- of boats' 
which take freight direct for 'jijarles ton , S. Car. Fort 
iiawkins, where the Central R. '-ioad ends, is in Jones 
Co. about one mile to a large c:'eek now nearly dry. 
Thence 14 m. over a rolling s-i-iy road with a few rocks and 
and generally poor land to Krc. Williams'. This is the 


central house between Ar frusta &. CoJumbun and ;)partfj and 
Knoxville. The country well watered with creeks. This 
in a [joori houce kept by a handsome , taiko U vo wjdov/. ThiK 
day J^L' m. Pd . 1.25, bc^ 6\ toll over f-akinulgee f>h:. 

P'riday l\ov . the 3rd, ig^;3 . Started at 7. Travelled 7 m. 
to wumrr:] ss.i oners Creek vhjch is very rocky and a bold 
stream. There is to be a manufactory of cotton erected 
upon it. The country h:'gli rolling sandy and poor, ('n this 
creek clayey and rocky, scarcely any bottom land. Thence 
9 m. to Milledgeville, on the W. bank of Ocone KJver and 
in Baldwin Co. The road hilly and rocky and the country 
very beautifully diversified with hills and dales, but the 
land is rocky and poor. Some of the views' from these Viigh 
hills are pictureque and handsome. Mlllegeville is a 
poor town although the seat of Government and the peniten- 
tiary. There are five hotels but none appear to be on a 
scale anything like tho5;e of Columbia, S. Ca . There are 
VJhig and Democrat houses. The penitentiary occupies con- 
siderable space in whicl-. ell kinds of mcohanical busi- 
ness is carried on. There are few stores of much ;ji'/,e and 
of course the trade not gi'eat. Pd , 12^ cts. at (jconof-^ 
ferry which is a smart stream but not navigable. Thence 

1 m. Took a right hand read called the Middle or County 
Line Road between Hancock and Washington Co's. 16 m. to 
Long's bridge on Buffalo Creek, which is a high long one. 
Iv'e also crossed several other creeks. The road /';enf-r- 
ally rocky and land poor. Country poor pine land. Thence 
15 m. to James S. Harrisrn's. The country high, sandy, 
and poor with few settlers. This fellow keeps a doggery. 
His fare coarse & dirty and little better than lying out. 
This day 27 m. Pd . ^l.OC;. Had crossed Little Ogeeche 

2 m. back at a jug factory. 

Saturday Nov. the 4th, 1S43 . Started at 7 and travelled 
2 m. to the shoals of Big Ogeeche, Cilly's. This place 
is very rocky and there ir a bridge just above which there 
is a saw and grist mill and cotton factory. V/e now werf in 
Warren Co. Thence 8 miles to Kooky Comfort ('reek. This 
is a bold creek with a bridge and if rocks are any f>om- 
fort has an appropriate name for in its bottom are enough. 
However, rocks are generally found plentifully near the 
creek, and a fev/ elsewhere along the road. The country' 
high, sandy, pine land and poor but produces some r'cturn 
for labour. Prom Mlllegeville to Longs bridge wo had th(^ 
company of Georgian of Washington Co. who was quire anius- 
ing on account of bis consequential airs, learning (^ 
grammatical expressions, etc. Prom Kocky Comfort, 14 m. 
to the sta^e road 29 m. fi-om August^). The country genera 1- 
ly poor and the latter part barren. Then 29 ni. to Au/njf-- 1 < . 
This road i had travelled as 1 went out. U, is /';r-rier.'i I I y 

l-i1gh, rolJing hnd poor and much en the line of the Georgia 
H. Koad . o topped a few minutes at J no. tiarris'. Put up at 
I. ho Unitfd otates Hotel kept by Frazier. Silver forks 
;jre u.'icd h'^r''' whjch appears quite consistent with democracy, 
t;ut in fontrary l^ Mr. Calhoun's ideas cf an ti-bankism , 
lor li'' wJ;;Fio,'j all such furniture to be forced into its 
lo^'i timate place which he says is coin. This day -5? m. 
Pd . 1.75 and ?5 cts for a cold snack for dinner, which is 
m''"t; than I ever before knew tc be charged. I had not on 
t,r'i;; journ'.^y paid anything befure, but in 1825 3 Georgian 
narnod Ho(iuck charged me 121; cts. for 6 biscuits. 

:;ufiday I^ov. the 5th, 1643 . /.s I went out I passed through 
this place on 'Washington's birthday February 22nd . Crossed 
the oavannah River at the bridge leading to Hamburg. Pd . 
12^. Thence 16 m. to aiken, the road turning down the 
river until it crosses Horse Creek and then turns to the 
left and generally follows the course of said creek, on 
which are a great many saw mills. Aiken is a thriv- 
ing little place built at the inclined plane of the Ii.R. 
and on a high level pine ridge which divides the waters 
of the Savannah River from those of South Edisto, and was 
brought into existence by th(^ R.R. It appears a heal- 
thy place and one of some business. There are several 
^■hurches, 5 or 4 hotels and several good stores besides 
r.hops and private residences. Thence 17 m. t^' Davis' 
bridge- on S. I'Jdisto, thence 2 rn . to Dr. l.(J?) G. Guig- 
nard's in Orangeburg Disct. 'is soon as we crossed the 
;.;avannah at Haniburg and for some- distance we were in Edge- 
field Lisct. When at Aiken and from it to Davis' bridge 
we were in Barnwell Disct. Tnis is generally high, level, 
sandy, poor pine country with only a few settlers, with 
small farms. This day 35 m. 

Morjday November the 6th, 1643 . Started late for Dr. Guig- 
nard is a bachelor, and as is the case in most persons in 
similar situations, the operations of his cooking depart- 
ment atx- slow. Travelled 2 m. to Jno. li. Felder's mills on 
Lean Swamp, then 5 m. to Good Land Swamp, which is much 
like a pretty creek with a swamp attached with some lively 
I'jnd. The far famed city of Joonsborough is, or was, situ- 
a t(^d on the L. side and contains three pole houses or 
huts w})i (;)-:, crice upon a tiin.' whien money was abundant as 
Satan but little restricted in these part, contained 
two or three doggeries or grog? shops. There are now none 
1 ri operation as ti)e whole borough is owned by r;r. Demnsey 
Corbet. Thence 4 m. to Rocky Swamp on which is vVest's 
mills, thence to T'lr. H. McMi::hael's plantations on N. 
Edisto 9 m. from Orangeburg. '?he country high, dry and 
sandy witli few settlements except those mentioned, but 
some of the land locks as if i: would produce if cultivated, 
although poor, and some appear;- almost barren. I saw a few 


open and cypress ponds. Vhis day 21 m. PH. bey 6,^ c ts . 

Tuesday Nov. the 7 th, 1 ^-m "'■ . Went by T. '»v . Glover's '; .ti . to 
Orangeburg. id. i^. Grairi^n $3.00 for Grand fa ther ' r 
will sent to me in I>iJss. and I think was charged oven- 
fees. Then'^e across th: J^disto again and down tho V/. side 
of North Edisto to Thos. Ta turn 's .Ponds and J ow 

flat pine land began to show itself this evening. 

Wednesday Nov. the 8th . Crossed the N. Edisto at Donald 
Kowe's plantation, then Llirough Mrs. Russell's & Geo. 
Bowman's to vvm .', where I dined and he.'jrd of the 
death of onn of my negi ■.. women. Thence to Mr. John iiorry'i 
Settled with wm. Traxler. 

Thursday Nov. the 9th . W(;nt home to Charles Gavin's on 
Indian i'ield Swamp, St. (iRorges Parish, Colleton Liisct, 
So. Ca.