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Full text of "Major Notes"

M>iM^t&^ 



SPRING 
EDITION 



* -s^ * 



Inside . . . 

Higher Education — 1958 

A 32-page Report 
Millsaps and Freedom 
New Dormitories Named 

Coming Events . . . 

Alumni Day, May 10 

Singers Reunion 

Faculty Seminars 

Kismet 
Graduation, June 2 



* ■* * 



MILLSAPS 
COLLEGE 
BULLETIN 




GoncERninG freedoki hi mibiiSRPS 







^"^ 



cA Message , . . 
From the President 



This issue of the Alumni Bulletin 
carries statements which should hel]) 
clarify the matters which received such 
extensive publicity in 
March. It is hoped 
that the Alumni will 
give careful attention 
to all of these official 
words. They deserve 
study. 

Nune of these state- 
ments is perfect. 
Words are helpful, 
but they are limited. 
It is never easy ade- 
quately and fully to communicate with 
the help of either the written or spoken 
word. Under the circumstances, it is 
believed that these statements are com- 
mendable. 

I wish that personal conversations 
with all Alumni were possible. The\» 
would help them, even more, to under- 
stand clearly the entire situation. 

The Alumni will be pleased to learn 
that faculty and student morale is hig-h. 
The Alumni will be gratified also tT 
know that the members of the Board 
of Trustees were not only unanimous 
in the approval of their statements, but 
that they were unanimous in their senti- 
ments and enthusiastic about them. The 
spirit of the entire college community — 
Faculty, Students and Trustees — is, in 
my judgment, admirable. 

And the spirit of the Alumni is equally 
admirable. I wish it were possible for 
all of the Alumni to share with me the 
expressions of loyalty to Millsaps Col- 
lege that have come from graduates. It 
could be reassuiing to you as it has 
been to me. 

We at the College have made mistakes 
in the past. We will make mistakes in 
the future. The Alumni can be sure that 
the Administration and Faculty will 
continue to endeavor to do what is right 
and good so that the purpose of Millsaps 
College can be fulfilled. 



Earlier in the year the Christian Council, interdenominational student group, 
scheduled a series of lectures to stimulate thought on questions which concern 
the current generation of college students. Effort was made to secure speakers 
presenting widely different points of view. One of the lecture series was on the 
subject "Christianity and Race Relations." The lectures were planned for members 
of the College community. 

Two speakers appeared dui'ing the four-week series. The first was Dv. 
Ernst Borinski, professor of sociology at Tougaloo College, a Negro institution 
supported by the Congregational Christian Church. The other speaker was John 
Satteri'ield, alumnus and Yazoo City attorney, a segregationist. 

Following the first talk a local newspaper, whose reporter had attended with 
others from the local community, presented stories concerning the series which 
touched off a bitter attack on the policies of Millsaps College. Other groups 
joined the paper in this effort. 

Statements issued by Dr. Finger on Maich 9, and the Board of Trustees and 
the Student Senate later, concerning the recent controversy appear below. There 
may be the feeling on the part of some that it is not necessary to review the subject 
in such detail here. However, our decision to publish the following statements 
is based on the firm belief that Millsaps College alumni logically are the closest 
of her constituents and, as such, should be intelligently informed concerning the 
state of the College, its needs and its problems, as well as its progress. Parents 
of students currently enrolled, of those applying for admission next year, ami 
members of the Methodist Church in Mississippi have received full reports from the 
College on the incidents. They have responded in a magnificent manner. We 
have faith in the alumni, in their love Tor the College, and in their desire to use 
their influence for its continued strength and leadership in the field of Christian 
higher education, .^s an introduction and a background for intelligent study of 
the situation, the Statement of Purpose of the College prepared by the faculty 
in 1956 precedes the other statements. J.J.L. 




The Purpose of Millsaps College 

Millsaps College has as its primary aim the development of men and women 
for responsible leadership and well-rounded lives of useful service to their fellow 
men, their country, and their God. It seeks to Tunction as a community of learners 
where faculty and students together seek the truth that frees the minds of men. 

As an institution of the Methodist Church, Millsaps College is dedicated to 
the idea that religion is a vital part of education; that education is an integral 
part of the Christian religion; and that church-related colleges, providing a sound 
academic program in a Christian environment, afford a kind of discipline and 
influence which no other type of institution can offer. The College provides a con- 
genial atmosphere where persons of all faiths may study and work together for 
the development of their physical, intellectual, and spiritual capacities. 

As a liberal arts college, Millsaps seeks to give the student adequate breadth 
and depth of understanding of civilization and culture in order to broaden his 
perspective, to enrich his personality, and to enable him to think and act intelli- 
gently amid the complexities of the modern world. The curriculum is designed to 
avoid premature specialization and to integrate the humanities, the social studies, 
and the natural sciences for their mutual enrichment. 

The College recognizes that training which will enable a person to support 
himself adequately is an essential part of a well-rounded education. On the other 
hand, it believes that one of the chief problems of modern society is that in too 
many cases training as expert technicians has not been accompanied by education 
for good citizenship. It offers, therefore, professional and pre-professional train- 
ing balanced by cultural and humane studies. In the environment that emphasizes 
the cultural and esthetic values to be found in the study of language, literature, 



Page Two 



MAJOR NOTES 



philosophy, and science, the student at Millsaps can also obtain the necessary 
courses to prepare him for service in such fields as teaching, journalism, social 
woik, and business or for professional study in these areas as well as in theology, 
medicine, dentistry, engineering, law, and other fields. 

As an institution of higher learning, Millsaps College fosters an attitude of 
continuing intellectual awareness, uf tolerance, and of unbiased inquiry, without 
which true education cannot exist. It does not seek to indoctrinate, but to inform 
and inspire. It does not shape the student in a common mold of thought and 
ideas, but rather attempts to seaich out his often deeply hidden aptitudes, capacities, 
and aspirations and to provide opportunities for his maximum potential develo])ment. 
It seeks to broaden his horizons and to lift his eyes and heart toward the higher 
and nobler attributes of life. The desired result is an intelligent, voluntary dedi- 
cation to moral principles and a growing social consciousness that will griide him 
into a rich, well-rounded Christian life, with lead;. acceptance of responsibility 
to neighbor, state, and church- 
Adopted by the Facults and lUiard of fru-itees — 19o5-5() 



The President's Statement 

In view of the extensive i.ewspaper publicity given in lecent days to some 
discussion groups at Millsaps College, it is appropriate for a statement to be made 
to all friends of the College. It is hoped that this statement will be carefully 
read and considered in its entirety. Apology is made for its length. Its importance 
justifies it. 

The Millsaps College Christian Council, composed oi 9 students elected by the 
several denominational and religious groups on the campus and (5 faculty members, 
coordinates the religious life program of the College. 

This group planned G discussion groups for the month of Maich on the following 
topics: (1) Theological Trends; (2) Consequences of Nuclear Energy; (3) Chris- 
tianity and Race Relations; (4) The Christian and International Relations; (5) The 
Christian Interpretation of Man; and (6) The Ecumenical Movement in the Church. 
A number of guests were invited representing different points oi" view to present 
a part of the topic. The groups were to meet simultaneously on Monday evenings. 

Some students expressed an interest in hearing a presentation of more than 
one side of the topic on Christianity and Race Relations. It is difficult to find 
a white man in Jackson who would speak to the Negro's point of Wew. It was 
therefore suggested that a white professor at Tougaloo be asked to present the 
topic as he understands that the Negro sees it. When the invitation was issued 
no questions were asked about what organizations the professor belonged to. 

The professor was invited to speak on Monday evening, March 3. He spoke to 
IG students. It is exceedingly regrettable that this invitation was issued. 

The next speaker scheduled was Mr. Glenn Smiley. At a student conference 
during the Christmas vacation Mr. Smiley spoke to a number of college students 
about possible visits to their campuses. Some Millsaps College students knew of 
this conversation and encouraged Mr. Smiley to pursue his interest. He was 
scheduled to speak on the Race Relations Forum. He was to have spoken on 
the importance of not using violence in any controversies or differences between 
racial groups. 

There are, to be sure, differences of opinion on the ends Mr. Smiley seeks. 
There surely is no difference of opinion among Christians about his means. AVc 
propose to resolve our differences, whatever they are. without violence. This 
was to have been his presentation. 

The press received a story announcing that a "second integrationist" was 
scheduled to speak at the College. The story was so misleading about the purpose 
of this scheduled talk that Mr. Smiley 's appearance was cancelled. It is also 
exceedingly regrettable that this invitation was extended. The College Administra- 
tion will urge all committees inviting- .guest speakers to exercise tare and caution 
in the selection of appropriate personnel. 

A second speaker in the group on race relations is a well-known and highly 
respected citizen of Jackson and Yazoo City. He will present the topic from the 
viewpoint of a segregationist. His name did not appear in the original list 
of speakers for the reason that the Christian Council had been unable to reach 
him for a specific commitment. 

The press carried reports also of a discussion led at Tougaloo College by a 



MAJOR NOTES 

-Millsaps College .Vlumni .Magazine 

Editor James J. Livesa\ 

.Associate Editor Shirley Caldwell 



Contents 

MILLSAPS A\D FREEDOM 2 

ALUMNI ELECTION _._ „..5 

REUNION OF -13 5 

TRUSTEE ACTION 5 

ALUMNI DAY 6 

THE BK; STORY 7 



.AIILLSAF'S COLLEGE BULLETIN 



Vol. 42 



APRIL, i;i:)S 



No. 8 



Published by Millsaps College monthly 
during the College year 

Entered as Second Class Matter Novem- 
ber 21, 1917 at the Post Office in Jack- 
son, Miss., under the Act of .August 
24, 1912. 



ABOUT THE COVER 




(Continued on Page 39) 



SPRING 



Thousands across ihc iialiiui \\:\\c Ihcii 
inspired by the Millsai)s Singers since 
(he organization « as founded in 1934 
Ijy .\lvin J. King. This year's choir is 
picturtni above before the spring con- 
cert t(uir. They were direclcd by Music 
Department Chairman Holmes Ambrose. 
The photograph, taken by Hiatt's Studio, 
honors today's Singers and those of the 
1934-.')(; era who will be holding their 
first reunion on the campus on .Vlumni 
Day. .May 10. 

Page Three 



This Issue 



The face of Millsaps College is fa- 
miliar to her sons and daughters. In- 
fluences of the days spent on her campus 
and in her classrooms have continued 
through the years. If MAJOR NOTES 
has filled its purpose with any effective- 
ness, the College today, its actions, its 
planning, its goals are well known. 
Regular reports in this magazine have 
provided information which should have 
enabled the alumnus to determine the 
importance of his role in the future 
of the College. 

But have we told the story of Ameri- 
can higher education in all its national 
diversity, strength, urgency and oppor- 
tunity ? Do we provide perspective that 
shows our Alma Mater in its world 
orientation ? 

There are reasons that we could not, 
of course. We have limits of manpower, 
budget, time; there are immediate, de- 
manding preoccupations. But a few 
months ago a group of 14 editors of 
American alumni magazines was chal- 
lenged to pool individual resources and 
tackle the bigger assignment together. 
The special 32-page supplement, begin- 
ing on page seven and bound into this 
issue, is the result. 

It was not achieved simply or easily, 
this survey essay on American higher 
education 1958. The original 14 invited 
other editors to share in this project. 
Dozens helped scout out what was sig- 
nificant in every region. Material was 
collected, collated, written and rewritten. 

Last fall alumni magazine editors 
were given a chance to subscribe to the 
special supplement. They could not be 
shown any final product to inspect, but 
153 institutions bought it, sight unseen. 
The list of them is impressive in its 
scope and differences but linked in a 
sense of common cause. Large universi- 
ties and small liberal arts colleges are 
included among those publishing the 
report. They are among the nation's 
most respected institutions of higher 
learning. In all, 1,350,000 copies were 
printed. It has been a cooperative ex- 
periment without precedent. We're 
grateful to those who made this unusual, 
thoughtful treat possible for us all. 

The alumnus of Millsaps College will 
look in vain for direct mention of his 
Alma Mater. But, alongside many a 
paragraph and many a photo, he will 
find an implicit checkmark of relevance. 
Names or not, Millsaps is there. 
Page Four 




MAJOR NOTES 



President Re-elected 

The Board of Trustees of Millsaps 
College has re-elected Dr. H. E. Finger, 
Jr., to the presidency of the sixty-six 
year old institution for another three- 
year term. 

The action was taken at the February 
meeting of the Board in which two dorm- 
itories now under construction were 
named. 

Re-elected as officers of the Board 
were Bishop Marvin Franklin, chairman; 
Dr. B. il. Hunt, vice-chairman; Dr. X. 
J. Golding, secretary; and Dr. Boyd 
Campbell, treasurer. 

A dormitory for men which will house 
132 students has been named Ezelle 
Hall in recognition of the outstanding 
service of R. L. Ezelle, Jackson business 
man and former chairman of the Board 
of Trustees of the College. 

The women's dormitory will be called 
Fae Franklin Hall in honor of the wife 
of Methodist Bishop Marvin A. Franklin. 
It will accommodate up to 100 students. 

Dr. Finger was praised for his leader- 
ship and vision displayed since he was 
inaugurated in 1952 as the sixth presi- 
dent of Millsaps College. 



Biggest, Best Day 

More than 550 guests converged on 
the Millsaps College campus Saturday, 
March 15, to take part in the twentieth 
annual High School Day program. 

Most of the visitors were high school 
seniors who were strongly considering- 
applying for admission. It was the 
largest and most successful High School 
Day in history, according to veteran 
observers. 

Top winners in the competitive scho- 
larship tests included Harley Harris, 
Jackson (Murrah), first place; Jane 
Montgomery, Greenwood, second place; 
and Brenda Sartoris, Jackson (Provine) 
and Robert N. Leggett, Jr., Vicksburg, 
third place. Scores on tests were well 
above the level reached by contestants 
in previous years. 



Reunion of '13 Set 



So successful was the 1953 reunion of 
the Class of 1913 that its members have 
decided they can't wait until their get- 
together comes up on the schedule again. 
They've voted to meet two years earlier 
than the alumni reunion plan suggests. 

Originally scheduled for 1960, the 
meeting was called for Homecoming 
1958. A committee composed of Sam 

SPRING 



Lampton, Herbert Lester, and Frank 
Scott was appointed to plan the event. 

In March the committee announced 
that a survey revealed that a majority 
of the class members preferred to meet 
at Commencement on June 2, 1958. Plans 
have been made, and the class will get 
together from 3 to 5 p. m. on June 2 at 
the home of Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Lester, 
"Woodlawn Place," 1915 Terry Road, 
in Jackson. 

All members of the class of 1913 have 
been invited to attend the reunion. That 
includes, of course, former students who 
would have graduated with the class of 
'13 if they had remained at Millsaps. 

It is evident that persons whose class- 
es have been meeting and who have not 
joined their classmates at the meeting 
have been missing something. October 
25, 1958, is a good time for the members 
of the classes of '42, '41, '40, '39, '23, 
'22, '21, '20, and '09 and before to find 
out just what it is. 



Boyd Is Instructor 

A successful first year as debate coach 
at Millsaps is being completed by Alton 
Boyd, '57. 

Boyd joined the speech department 
in September of '57 as instructor of 
speech. Remembering his fine work as 
a member of the debate team, officials 
asked him to assume duties as coach. 

A Millsaps student under his super- 
vision, Welborn Rives, of Jackson, won 
first place in the state oratorical con- 
test in March. 

The Millsaps team has shown up well 
in other contests. Students have won 
approximately 70' < of the 65 debates 
they have entered this season. 



Nominees Chosen 

A slate of ten nominees for officers 
of the Alumni Association for the year 
1958-59 was announced at press time by 
0. B. Triplett, Jr., president. 

Presidential nominees are The Rev- 
erend Roy C. Clark, '41, Jackson minister; 
and Rubel Phillips, '48, Jackson attorney. 

Named as candidates for the three 
vice-presidential posts were J. D. Cox, 
'47, Jackson; W. B. Dribben, '29, Green- 
wood; W. T. Hankins, '28, Jackson; The 
Reverend Garland Holloman, '34, Clarks- 
dale; Mrs. J. Earl Rhea (Mildred Clegg), 
'38, Jackson; and Dr. Xoel Womack, '44, 
Jackson. 

Nominees for recording secretary are 
Evelyn McGahey, '40, Jackson; and Mrs. 
John D. Wofford (Elizabeth Ridgway), 
'50, also of Jackson. 

Results of the ballot-by-mail election 
will be announced at the Alumni Day 
banquet on Saturday, May 10. 



Campus Saddened 

Sorrow has come to the Millsaps Col- 
lege community since the publication 
of the last issue of the alumni magazine. 

After a long illness, death came on 
January 21 to Dr. W. E. Riecken, former 
dean and chairman of the department 
of biology for 20 years. Because of ill 
health Dr. Riecken was given a leave 
of absence in 1954 and, despite a heroic 
effort, was never able to return to the 
profession he loved so well and served 
so effectively. 

On March 29. .Mrs. W. H. Ratliff, 
prominent churchwoman and mother of 
Mrs. H. E. Finger, Jr., was killed in a 
tragic automobile accident a few miles 
south of Canton, Mississippi. 

Mrs. Ratliff, a resident of Sherard, 
Mississippi, had given unselfishly of 
her time and talent to the Methodist 
Church, serving in positions of leadership 
on the national, regional and state level. 
She was widely traveled and was in 
demand as a speaker and consultant in 
many fields. 

Millsaps College alumni have joined 
many others in expressing their deep 
concern and sympathy to the two fami- 
lies, whose members have contributed 
so much to higher education in Missis- 
sippi. 



Superior Students 

Millsaps College students have been 
selected for recognition by two national 
foundations. 

The Woodrow Wilson National Fel- 
lowship Foundation has awarded fellow- 
ships to seven students enrolled in Mis- 
sissippi institutions, four of whom are 
seniors at Millsaps. 

The Wilson Fellowships are awarded 
to outstanding students who are in- 
terested in preparing for the college 
teaching profession. 

Seniors and their fields of study are 
Kaisa Braaten, Laurel, psychology; Carol 
Broun, Jackson, European history; .\nn 
Myers, Greenwood, comparative govern- 
ment; and Kermit Scott, Leland, philos- 
ophy. 

The Fund for Adult Education has 
chosen The Reverend Carlton R. Sollie. 
of Georgetown, as one of 40 students 
throughout the nation to receive a gi-ant 
to finance study for one year in the in- 
stitution of their choice. 

Sollie will study in the field of the 
humanities and social sciences at Mill- 
saps. 

Page Five 



Jn ilftttoriam 



This column is dedicated to the mem- 
oi'y of graduates, former students, and 
friends who have passed away in recent 
months. Every effort has been made to 
compile an accurate list, but there will 
be unintentional omissions. Your help 
is solicited in order that we may make 
the column as complete as possible. 
Those whose memory we honor are as 
follows: 

Mayor James U. Arrington, '28-'30, 
of Collins, Mississippi, who died of a 
heart attack Christmas Day while pre- 
paring for a family reunion and Christ- 
mas dinner. Publisher of the Collins 
News Commercial and author of a daily 
feature column in Jackson's State Times, 
he was a nationally known after-dinner 
speaker. 

Charles Richard Cook, '02, who died 
May 3, 1957. He was a resident of 
Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Judge Lamar F. Easterling, '03, who 
died January 31, 1958. He was a resident 
of Jackson. 

Woodson K. Jones, '29, who died Jan- 
uary 29, 1958. A lumberman and garden- 
ing specialist, he had lived in Jackson. 

Curtis Mullen, IH, sophomore, who 
was killed in a highway accident Jan- 
uary 20, 1958. He had lived in Canton, 
Mississippi. 

West O'Neal Tatum, a former student 
('99-'01) and a member of the Board 
of Trustees of Millsaps, who died Jan- 
uary 5 at his home in Hattiesburg, 
Mississippi. 

Harry L. Wright, 'OO-'Ol, who died in 
March. He had been associated for 
twenty years with the Engineering De- 
partment of the city of Jackson. 



Alumni Day and You 

Alumni Day is Saturday, May 10. For 
the fifth consecutive year a spring- 
garbed campus will welcome graduates 
and former students, many of whom will 
be returning for the first time. 

In many respects Alumni Day this 
year will be quite similar to those of 
the immediate past. Registration will 
begin at 11:30 a. m. There'll be the 
glad greetings, the warm feelings of 
nostalgia, the flash of the college 
camera, groups of former students en- 
gaged in happy conversation. 

As in the past the college cafeteria 
will be the scene of the informal lunch- 
with-the-students interlude, beginning 
this year at noon. 

Seminars conducted by Millsaps pro- 

Poge Six 



fessors will begin at 2 p. m. Classrooms 
in the Christian Center Building will be 
used for this increasingly popular Alum- 
ni Day feature. Alumni "students" will 
take a break at 3 p. m. for coffee and 
go back for another hour of continuing 
education. 

At 5:15 p. m. the afternoon convocation 
will be held, featuring the first reunion 
of the now "fabulous" group, the Mill- 
saps Singers. Tour choir members from 
1934 through 1956 will present an in- 
formal piogram for other alumni and, 
best of all, "Pop" will be on the podium. 

Then there'll be the traditional Alumni 
Day banquet, with the induction of the 
Class of '58 as members of the Associa- 
tion, and an important address by Pres- 
ident Finger. Results of the ballot-by- 
mail elections of Alumni Association of- 
ficers will be announced at the lianquet. 

To conclude a memorable day there'll 
be the hit Broadway musical, "Kismet," 
at 8:15 p. m. in the Christian Center 
auditorium. The magic of the evening 
will be provided by the Millsaps Players 
and the Department of Music. As is 
so often the case, these two organiza- 
tions will be bringing their audiences a 
first in Mississippi. 

Yes, in many respects, Saturday, May 
10, will be much like the other Alumni 
Days at Millsaps. There will be some 
differences, however. 

For the first time since its founding 
by Alvin J. King in 1934, the Millsaps 
Singers will meet for fellowship and to 
sing together. It should be a real thrill 
to hear members of all of the choirs 
unite their voices in informal concert. 

Never before has an Alumni Day audi- 
ence been treated to a Broadway musi- 
cal. Graduates and former students will 
be guests of the College, and "Kismet" 
should be an unforgettable experience. 

The greatest difference, we believe, 
will be in the spirit of those who re- 
turn to their Alma Mater. Recent events, 
wddely publicized in the Mississippi 
press, have impressed upon the minds 
and hearts of most Millsaps alumni the 
integrity and great value of their Alma 
Mater. Many persons who never re- 
sponded before will attend Alumni Day 
functions to demonstrate their faith in 
the College and to symbolize their con- 
tinuing loyalty and support. 

We predict Alumni Day will be for 
former students a day of decision, just 
as High School Day was for a magnifi- 
cent group of future alumni. It will be 
a day of awakening for many who had 
never realized their responsibility to 
Millsaps College before. 

What better time than May 10 for you 
to respond to the needs of your Alma 
Mater and Christian higher education in 
this present hour? 



Murrah Heads Club 

The son of the first president of Mill- 
saps College has been named president of 
the Memphis Area Millsaps College 
Alumni Club. 

He is W. F. Murrah, prominent Mem- 
phis citizen, who is a member of the 
Association's 45-man Board of Directors. 

Named to serve with Murrah were 
James B. Kisner, vice-president, and 
Ralph McCool and J. T. Stuckenschneid- 
er, directors. 

Retiring president J. J. Valentine was 
elected chairman of the Board of the 
Memphis group. 

The election was held at the organi- 
zation's winter meeting on February 10 
in the home of Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Wof- 
ford. 

Since its founding in 1954, the Mem- 
l)his Club has been one of the most 
active and effective area alumni organ- 
izations. 

The next meeting will be held at 
President Murrah's country home near 
Memphis. 

Heartiest congratulations to the group 
on their continuing progress. 



Fund Total Given 



Figures released on April 11th showed 
a total of $10,573 in cash and pledges 
subscribed to the Alumni Fund by 436 
persons. 

The survey showed the following class- 
es to be leading the field in individual 
categories : pei'centage of members giv- 
ing, the Class of 1907 with 32'y; num- 
ber of members giving, the Class of 
1953 with 26; and total pledged or paid, 
the Class of 1917 with $1,302. 

Special recognition goes to the classes 
of 1907 and 1941 for placing among the 
top five in two of the three categories. 

Campaign Chairman George Pickett 
has expressed confidence that the 1957- 
58 Fund campaign goal of $17,500 will 
be reached and exceeded. 

Closing date for the campaign is June 
30, 1958. 

Last year, in its first year, the Alumni 
Fund program obtained $16,483.81 from 
783 alumni. Thus far this year individ- 
ual gifts to the Fund have been running 
higher than last year's gifts. 

Pickett urged every reader of MAJOR 
NOTES to give something to the Fund. 
Size of the gift is not of primary 
importance, he said. 

MAJOR NOTES 



A SPECIAL REPORT 



AMERICAN 
HIGHER EDUCATION 

1958 



ITS PRESSING PROBLEMS AND NEEDS ARE 
EXCEEDED ONLY BY ITS OPPORTUNITIES 



THIS is a special report. It is published because the 
time has come for colleges and universities — and 
their alumni — to recognize and act upon some ex- 
traordinary challenges and opportunities. 

Item: Three million, si.vty-eight thousand young men and 
women are enrolled in America's colleges and uni\'ersities 
this year — 45 per cent more than were enrolled six years 
ago, although the number of young people in the eighteen- 
to-t\venty-one age bracket has increased only 2 per cent in 
the same period. A decade hence, when colleges will feel 
the effects of the unprecedented birth rates of the mid- 
1940's. today's already-enormous enrollments will double. 
Item: In the midst of planning to ser\e ntorc students, 
higher education is faced with the problem of not losing 
sight of its cxiraordiiuiry students. ""Whal is going to happen 
to the genius or two in this crowd?" asked a professor at 
one big university this term, waving his hand at a seemingly 
endless line of students waiting to fill out forms at reaistra- 




H, 




liGHER education in America 
had its beginnings when the Puritans 
founded a college to train their ministers. 
Here, reflected in a modern librar\ 
window, is the chapel spire at Har\ard. 



tion desks. '■Hea\en knows, if the free world ever needed 
to disco\er its geniuses, it needs to do so now." President 
Robert Gordon Sproul of the University of California 
puts it this way: "If we fail in our hold upon quality, the 
cherished American dream of uni\ersal education will 
degenerate into a nightmare." 

Item: A college diploma is the sine qua non for almost 
any white-collar job nowadays, and nearly everybody 
wants one. In the scramble, a lot of students are going 
to college who cannot succeed there. .At the Ohio State 
L'ni\ersity. for instance, which is required by law to 
admit every Ohioan who owns a high-school diploma 
and is able to complete the entrance blanks, two thousand 
students flunked out last year. Nor is Ohio State's 
problem unique. The resultant waste of teaching talents, 
physical facilities, and mone> is shocking — to say 
nothing of the damage to young people's self-respect. 

Item: The cost of educating a student is soaring. Like 
many others. Brown Uni\ersity is boosting its fees this 
spring: Brown students henceforth will pay an annual 
tuition bill of SI. 250, But it costs Brown S2.300 to 
provide a year's instruction in return. The difference 
between charges and actual cost, says Brown's President 
Barnaby C. Keeney. "represents a kind of scholarship 
from the faculty. They pay for it out of their hides." 

Item: The Educational Testing Sersice reports that 
lack of money keeps many of America's ablest high- 
school students from attending college — 150.000 last 
year. The LI S. Office of Education found not long ago 
that e\en at public colleges and uni\ersities. where 
tuition rates are still nominal, a student needs around 
SI, 500 a year to get by. 

Item : Non-monetary reasons are keeping man> promis- 
ing young people from college, also. The Social Science 
Research Council offers e\idence that fewer than half of 
the students in the upper tenth of their high-school 
classes go on to college. In addition to lack of money, 
a major reason for this defection is "lack of motivation." 

Item: \\. present rates, only one in eight college 
teachers can e%er expect to earn more than S7.500 a 
year. If colleges are to attract and hold competent 
teachers, says Devereux C. Josephs, chairman of the 
President's Committee on Education Beyond the High 
School, facultv salaries must be increased bv at least 



I ROM its simple beginnings, 

American higher education has grown into 

1,800 institLitions of incredible 

diversity. At the right is but a sampling 

of their \ast interests and activities. 




50 per cent during the next live years. Such an increase 
would cost the colleges and universities around half a 
billion dollars a year. 

Item: Some critics say that too many colleges and 
unixersitics have been willing to accept — or, perhaps 
more accurately, have failed firmly to reject — certain 
tasks which have been oflered to or thrust upon them, 
but which may not properly be the business of higher 
education at all. "The professor," said one college 
administrator recently, "should not be a carhop who 
answers every demanding horn. Educational institutions 
must not be hot-dog stands." 

Item: The colleges and universities, some say, are not 
teaching what they ought to be teaching or arc not 
teaching it effectively. "Where are the creative thinkers?" 
they ask. Have we, without quite realizing it, grown into 
a nation of gadgeteers, of tailfin technicians, and lost 
the art of basic thought? (And from all sides comes the 
worried reminder that the other side launched their 
earth satellites first.) 

THESE are some of the problems — only some of 
them — which confront American higher education 
in 1958. Some of the problems are higher edu- 
cation's own offspring; some are products of the times. 

But some are born of a fact that is the identifying 
strength of higher education in America: its adaptability 
to the free world's needs, and hence its diversity. 

Indeed, so diverse is it — in organization, sponsorship, 
purpose, and philosophy — that perhaps it is fallacious 
to use the generalization, "American higher education," 
at all. it includes 320-year-old Harvard and the University 
of Southern Florida, which now is only on the drawing 
boards and will not open until I960. The humanities 
research center at the University of Texas and the 
course in gunsmithing at Lassen Junior College in 
Susanville, California. Vassar and the U. S. Naval 
Academy. The University of California, with its forty- 
two thousand students, and Deep Springs Junior College, 
on the eastern side of the same state, with only nineteen. 

Altogether there are more than 1,800 American insti- 
tutions which offer "higher education," and no two of 
ihcni are alike. Some are liberal-arts colleges, some are 




UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO 



MILLS COLLEGE 




G REIJKT I S S U ES 
BOX 




DAUTM'U TH Ci'LLEGE 




AMHtlts-T t oLLEt;E 





UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 



DEEP SPltlNilS JrNIi>K COLLEGE 



EMnK\ rNlVEIt.>-tTV 





UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 




w, 



Mill growth ha\e come problems 

for the colleges and universities. One of 

the most pressing, today, is swelling 

enrollments. Already they are straining 

higher education's campuses and 

leaching resources. But the present large 

student population is only a fraction 

of the total expected in the next decade. 





SMITH COLLEGE 



vast universities, some specialize in such fields as law, 
agriculture, medicine, and engineering. Some are sup- 
ported by taxation, some are affiliated with churches. 
some are independent in both organization and finance. 
Thus any generalization about .American higher edu- 
cation will have its exceptions — including the one that 
all colleges and universities desperately need more money. 
(Among the 1,S00, there may be one or two which 
don't.) in higher education's diversity— the result o\' its 
restlessness, its freedom, its geography, its compeiiti\e- 
ness — lies a good deal of its strength. 

^i MERICAN higher education in 195!S is hardly what 
L\ the Puritans envisioned when they founded the 
§ \ country's first college to train their ministers in 
1636. For nearly two and a half centuries after that, the 
aim of America's colleges, most of them founded b> 
churches, was limited: to teach young people the rudi- 
ments of philosophy, theology, the classical languages, 
and mathematics. Anvone who wanted a more extensive 
education had to go to Europe for it. 

One break from tradition came in lt>76. with the 
founding of the Johns Hopkins L niversiiy. Here, for the 
lirst time, was an .American institution with European 
standards of advanced studv in the arts and sciences. 

Other schools soon followed the Hopkins example. 
.And with the advanced standards came an emphasis on 
research. No lonaer did American universitv scholars 



In the flood of vast numbers of students, 

the colleges and universities are concerned that 

they not lose sight of the individuals 

in the crowd. They are also worried about costs: 

every extra student adds to their financial deficits. 



H.ARV.MID UNrVERSITY 



simply pass along knowledge gained in Europe; they 
began to make significant contributions themselves. 

Another spectactilar change began at about the same 
time. With the growth o\' science, agriculture — until 
then a rekili\el\ snnple art — became increasingly com- 
plex. In the IXSO's a ntmiber of institutions were founded 
to train people for it, but most of them failed to survive. 

In 1S62, however, in the darkest hoius of the Ci\il 
War, Abraham Lincoln signed the Morrill Land-Grant 
Act, offering each state public lands and support for 
at least one college to teach agriculture and the mechanic 
arts. Thus was the foundation laid for the U. S. state- 
university system. "In all the annals of republics," said 
Andrew D. White, the first president of one institution 
founded under the act, Cornell University, "there is no 
more significant utterance of confidence in national 
destiny, out from the midst of national calamity." 

NOW there was no stopping .American higher edu- 
cation's growth, or the growth of its diversity. 
Optimistically America moved into the 1900"s, 
and higher education moved with it. More and more 
Americans wanted to go to college and were able to do 
so. Public and private institutions were established and 
expanded. Tax dollars by the millions were appropriated, 
and philanthropists like Rockefeller and Carnegie and 
Stanford vied to support education on a large scale. 
Able teachers, now being graduated in numbers by 
America's own universities, joined their staffs. 

In the universities' graduate and professional schools, 
research flourished. It reached outward to explore the 
universe, the world, and the creatures that inhabit it. 
Scholars examined the past, enlarged and tended man's 
cultural heritage, and pressed their great twentieth- 
century search for the secrets of life and matter. 

Participating in the exploration were thousands of 
young Americans, poor and rich. As students they were 
acquiring skills and sometimes even wisdom. And, with 



their professors, they were building a uniquely American 
tradition of higher education which has continued to 

this day. 

OUR aspirations, as a nation, have never been 
higher. Our need for educational excellence has 
never been greater. But never have the challenges 
been as sharp as they are in 1958. 

Look at California, for one \ iew of American edu- 
cation's problems and opportunities — and for a view of 
imaginative and daring action, as well. 

Nowhere is the public appetite for higher education 
more avid, the need for highly trained men and women 
more clear, the pressure of population more acute. In a 
recent four-year period during which the country's 
population rose 7.5 per cent, California's rose some 
17.(1 per cent. Californians — witii a resoluteness which 
is, unfortunately, not typical of the nation as a whole — 
have shown a remarkable determination to face and even 
to anticipate these facts. 

They have decided that the state should build fifteen 
new junior colleges, thirteen new state colleges, and five 
new campuses for their university. (Already the state 
has 135 institutions of higher learning: sixty-three private 
establishments, sixty-one public junior colleges, ten state 
colleges, and the University of California with eight 
campuses. Nearly 40 cents of every tax dollar goes to 
support education on the state level.) 

But California has recognized that providing new 
facilities is only part of the solution. New philosophies 
are needed, as well. 

The students looking for classrooms, for example, vary 
tremendously, one from the other, in aptitudes, aims, 
and abilities. "If higher education is to meet the varied 
needs of students and also the diverse requirements of 
an increasingly complex society," a California report 
says, "there will have to be corresponding diversity 
amonsj and within educational institutions. ... It will 






i^r 



* ,* 



f i> 




.5!i^^^Pfe:SS2^. 




..J^«*y«ift|S:| 



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lo accommodate more students 
and to keep pace with increasing demands 
lor complex research uork, 

higher education must spend more on construction 
this >ear than in anv other \ear in histors. 














[A 



■fw 



not be suflncient for California — or any other state, for 
that matter — simply to preside enough places for the 
students who will seek college admission in future years. 
It uill also have to supply, with reasonable economy 
and efficiency, a wide range of educational programs." 

Like all of the country, California and Californians 
have some big decisions to make. 

DR. LEWIS H. CHRISMAN is a professor of 
English at West Virginia Wesleyan, a Methodist 
college near the town of Buckhannon. He ac- 
cepted an appointment there in 1919, when it consisted 
of just five major buildings and a coeducational student 
body of 150. One of the main reasons he took the appoint- 
ment. Dr. Chrisman said later, was that a new library 
was to be built "right away." 

Thirty years later the student body had jumped to 
720. Nearly a hundred other students were taking ex- 
tension and evening courses. The zooming postwar birth 
rate was already in the census statistics, in West Virginia 
as elsewhere. 

But Dr. Chrisman was still waiting for that library. 
West Virginia Wesleyan had been plagued with problems. 
Not a single major building had gone up in thirty-five 
years. To catch up with its needs, the college would have 
to spend S500.000. 

For a small college to raise a half million dollars is 
often as tough as for a state university to obtain perhaps 
ten times as much, if not tougher. But Wesleyan"s 
president, trustees, faculty, and alumni decided that if 
independent colleges, including church-related ones, were 
to be as significant a force in the times ahead as they had 
been in the past, they must try. 

Now West Virginia Wesleyan has an eighty -thousand- 
volume library, three other buildings completed, a fifth 
to be ready this spring, and nine more on the agenda. 

A group of people reached a hard decision, and then 
made it work. Dr. Chrisman"s hopes have been more 
than fulfilled. 

So it goes, all over .America. The L. S. Office of Edu- 
cation recently asked the colleges and universities how 
much they are spending on new construction this year. 




TVEST VIRGINIA WESLEYAN COLLEGE 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 



T, 



I HE most serious shortage that higher education faces 

is in its teaching staffs. Many are underpaid, 

and not enough young people are entering the held. 

Here, left to right, are a Nobel Prizewinning chemist, 

a Bible historian, a heart SLirgeon. a physicist, and a poet. 




Ninety per cent of them replied. In calendar I95S, they 
are spending $1,078 billion. 

Purdue alone has $37 million worth of construction 
in process. Penn has embarked on twenty-two projects 
costing over $31 million. Wake Forest and Goucher and 
ColbyColleges,among others, have left their old campuses 
and moved to brand-new ones. Stanford is undergoing 
the greatest building boom since its founding. Every- 
where in higher education, the bulldozer, advance agent 
of growth, is working to keep up with America's insati- 
able, irresistible demands. 



BUILDING PROJECTS, however, are only the 
outward and visible signs of higher education's 
elTort to stay geared to the times. And in many 
ways they are the easiest part of the solution to its 
problems. Others go deeper. 



Not long ago the vice president of a large university 
was wondering aloud. "Perhaps," he said, "we have 
been thinking that by adding more schools and institutes 
as more knowledge seemed necessary to the world, we 
were serving the cause of learning. Many are now calling 
for a reconsideration of what the whole of the university 
is trying to do." 

The problem is a very real one. In the course of her 
200-year-plus history, the university had picked up so 
many schools, institutes, colleges, projects, and "centers" 
that almost no one man could name them all, much less 
give an accurate description of their functions. Other 
institutions are in the same quandary. 

Why? One reason is suggested by the sice president's 
comment. Another is the number of demands which we 
as a nation have placed upon our institutions of higher 
learning. 

We call upon them to give us space-age weapons and 




UKNSSKLAKU POL^TK* HNH INsTlTl'TK 



BAYLOR UNIVERSITY 





DARTMOLTH COLLEGE 



polio \accine. We ask ihem to pro\ido us uitli lumber- 
men and liberally educated PTA presidents, doctors and 
statesmen, business executives and poets, teachers and 
housewives. We expect the colleges to give us religious 
training, better fertilizers, extension courses in music 
appreciation, fresh ideas on city planning, classes in 
square dancing, an understanding of medieval literature, 
and basic research. 

The nation does need many services, and higher edu- 
cation has never been shy about olTering to provide a 
great portion of them. Now however, in the face of a 
multitude of pressures ranging from the population 
surge to the doubts many people have about the quality 
of American thought, there are those who are wondering 
if America is not in danger of over-extending its edu- 
cational resources: if we haven't demanded, and if under 
the banner of higher education our colleges and universi- 
ties haven't taken on, too much. 



^VmHRICA has never been as ready to pay for its 
L\ educational services as it has been to request 
# \ them. A single statistic underlines the point. We 
spend about seven tenths of 1 per cent of our gross 
national product on higher education. (Not that wo 
should look to the Russians to set our standards for us 
— but it is worth noting that they spend on higher 
education more than 2 per cent of //u7> gross.) 

.As a result, this spring, many colleges and universities 
fuid themselves in a tightening vise. It is not only that 
prices have skv rocketed; the real cost of providing 
education has risen, too. As knowledge has broadened 
and deepened, for example, more complicated and 
costly eqinpmeni has become essential. 

Feeling the hnancial squeeze most painfully are the 
faculty members. The average salary of a college or 
university teacher in Americi today is Just over S5,000. 
The average salary of a full professor is just over S7,000. 



It is a frequent occurrence on college campuses for a 
graduating senior, nowadays, to be offered a starting 
salary in industry that is higher than that paid to most 
of the faculty men who trained him. 

On humane grounds alone, the problem is shocking. 
But it is not limited to a question of humaneness; there 
is a serious question of national welfare, also. 

"Any institution that fails through inability or de- 
linquency to attract and hold its share of the best 
academic minds of the nation is accepting one of two 
consequences," says President Cornells W. de Kiewiet of 
the University of Rochester. "The first is a sentence of 
inferiority and decline, indeed an inferiority so much 
greater and a decline so much more intractable that 
trustees, alumni, and friends can only react in distress 
when they finally see the truth. . . . 

"The second ... is the heavy cost of rehabilitation 
once the damage has been done. In education as in busi- 
ness there is no economy more foolish than poor mainte- 
nance and upkeep. Staffs that have been poorly maintained 
can be rebuilt only at far greater cost. Since even less- 
qualified and inferior people are going to be in short 
supply, institutions content to jog along will be denied 
even the solace of doing a moderate job at a moderate 
cost. It is going to be disturbingly expensive to do even 
a bad job." 

The effects of mediocrity in college and university 
teaching, if the country should permit it to come about, 
could only amount to a national disaster. 



^_\CEPTiONAL students must 

not be overlooked, 

especially in a time when 

America needs to educate 

every outstanding man and woman 

to fullest capacity. The 

students at the right are in a 

philosophy of science class. 



WITH the endless squeezes, economies, and 
crises it is experiencing, it would not be 
particularly remarkable if American higher 
education, this spring, were alternately reproaching its 
neglecters and struggling feebly against a desperate fate. 
By and large, it is doing nothing of the sort. 

Instead, higher education is moving out to meet its 
problems and, even more significantly, looking beyond 
them. Its plans take into account that it may have twice 
as many students by 1970. It recognizes that it must not. 
in this struggle to accommodate quantity, lose sight of 
quality or turn into a molder of "mass minds." It is con- 
tinuing to search for ways to improve its present teaching. 
It is charting new services to local communities, the 
nation, and vast constituencies overseas. It is entering 
new areas of research, so revolutionary that it must 
invent new names for them. 



c 



ONSIDER the question of maintaining quality 
amidst quantity. "How," educators ask them- 
selves, "can you educate everyone who is ambi- 



tious and has the basic qualifications, and still ha\e time, 
teachers, and money to spend on the unusual boy or 
girl? Are we being true to our belief in the indisidual if 
we put e\eryone into the same mold, ignoring human 
differences'.' Besides, let's be practical about it: doesn't 
this country need to develop every genius it has'.'" 

There is one approach to the problem at an institution 
in eastern California, Deep Springs. The best way to get 
there is to go to Reno, Nevada, and then drive about five 
hours through the Sierras to a place called Big Pine. 
Deep Springs has four faculty members, is well endowed, 
selects its students carefully, and charges no tuition or 
fees. It cannot lose sight of its good students: its total 
enrollment is nineteen. 

At another extreme, some institutions have had to 




de\ote their time and elTort to training as nian_\ people 
as possible. The student with uniiMial talent has had to 
find it and de\elop it without help. 

Other institutions are looking for the solution some- 
where in between. 

The I ni\ersil\ of Kansas, for example, like man\ 
other state iinixersities, is legalls bound to accept e\er_\ 
graduate ol'an accredited state high school who applies, 
without examinations or other entrance requirements. 
■"I ntil recentls," sa\s Dean George Waggoner of Kan- 
sas's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, "man) of us 
spent a great deal ofour time trying to sohe the problem 
of marginal students." 

In the tali of 1955. the uni\ersit\ announced a pro- 
gram designed especiall\ for the "gifted student." Its 



objective: to make sure that exceptional \oung men and 
women would not be o\erlookcd or imder-exposed in a 
time of great student population and limited faculty. 

Now Kansas uses state-wide examinations to spot 
these exceptional high-school boys and girls early. It 
invites high-school principals to nominate candidates for 
scholarships from the upper 5 per cent of their senior 
classes It brings the promising high-school students to 
its Lawrence campus for further testing, screening, and 
selection. 

When they arrive at the universitv as freshmen, the 
students hnd themselves in touch with a special faculty 
committee. It has the power to waive man> .icademic 
rules for them. They are allowed to take as large a bite 
of education as they can swallow, and the usual course 





^_VEN in institutions with thousands 
of students, young people with 
extraordinary talents can be spotted 
and developed. This teacher is leading 
an honors section at a big university. 





prerequisites do not apply; they may enter junior and 
senior-level courses if they can handle the work. They 
use the library with the same status as faculty members 
and graduate students, and some serve as short-term 
research associates for professors. 

The force of the program has been felt beyond the 
students and the faculty members who are immediately 
involved. It has sent a current throughout the College of 
Liberal Arts and Sciences. All students on the dean's 
honor roll, for example, no longer face a strict limit in 
the number of courses they may take. Departments have 
strengthened their honor sections or, in some cases, 
established them for the first time. The value of the 
program reaches down into the high schools, too, stimu- 
lating teachers and attracting to the university strong 
students who might otherwise be lost to Kansas. 

Across the country, there has been an attack on the 
problem of the bright student's boredom during his early 
months in college. (Too often he can do nothing but 
fidget restlessly as teachers gear their courses to students 
less talented than he.) Now, significantly large numbers 
are being admitted to college before they have finished 
high school; experiments with new curricula and oppor- 
tunities for small discussion groups, fresh focus, and 
independent study are found in many schools. Founda- 
tions, so influential in many areas of higher education 
today, are giving their support. 




The "quality i,v. quantily" issue has other ramifica- 
tions. "Education's problem ofthe future," says President 
Eidon L. Johnson of the University of New Hampshire, 
"is the rehition of mnid and mass. . . . The challenge is 
to reach niunbers without mass treatment and the 
creation ol' mass men. ... It is in this setting and this 
philosophy that the state university finds its place." 

And. one might add. the independent institution as 
well. For the old idea that the public school is concerned 
with quantity and the private school with quality is a 
false one. All of American higher education, in its diver- 
sity, must meet the twin needs of extraordmary persons 
and a better educated, more thoughtful citi/enry. 

WH.AT /,v a better educated, more thoughtful 
citizenry'.' .And how do we get one? If .Ameri- 
ca's colleges and universities thought they 
had the perfect answers, a pleasant complacency might 
spread across the land. 

in the ofTices of those who are responsible for laying 
out programs of education, however, there is anything 
but complacency. Ever since they stopped being content 
with a simple curriculum of theology, philosophy. Latin, 
Greek, and math, the colleges and universities have been 
searching for better ways of educating their students in 
breadth as well as depth. And they are still hunting. 



Take the etTorts at .Amherst, as an example of what 
many are doing. Since its founding .Amherst has devel- 
oped and retined its curriculum constantly. Once it 
offered a free elective system: students chose the courses 
they wanted. Next it tried specialization: students selected 
a major field of study in their last two years. Next, to 
make sure that they got at least a taste of many different 
fields, Amherst worked out a system t"or balancing the 
elective courses that its students were permitted to select. 

But by World War II. even this last refinement seemed 
inadequate. .Amherst began — again — a re-evaluation. 

When the self-testing was over. Amherst's students 
began taking three sets of required courses in their fresh- 
man and sophomore years: one each in science, history, 
and the humanities. The courses were designed to build 
the groundwork tor responsible lives: they sought 
to help students form an integrated picture of civiliza- 
tion's issues and processes. (But they were not "surveys" 
— or what Philosophy Professor Cjail Kennedy, chairman 
of the faculty committee that developed the program, 
calls "those superficial omnibus alTairs.") 

How did the student body react? .Angrily. \\ hen Pro- 
fessor Arnold B. Arons first gave his course in physical 
science and mathematics, a wave of resentment arose. It 
culminated at a mid-year dance. The music stopped, con- 
versations ceased, and the students observed a solemn, 
two-minute silence. They called it a "Hate .Arons Silence." 



But at the end of the year they gave the professor a 
standing ovation. He had been rough. He had not pro- 
vided his students with pat answers. He had forced them 
to think, and it had been a shoci< at first. But as they got 
used to it, the students found that thinicing, among all of 
life's experiences, can sometimes be the most exhilarating. 



TO TEACH them to think: that is the problem. 
It is impossible, today, for any school, under- 
graduate or professional, to equip its students 
with all the knowledge they will need to become compe- 
tent engineers, doctors, farmers, or business men. On the 
other hand, it can provide its students with a chance to 
discover something with which, on their own, they can 
live an extraordinary life: their ability to think. 



THUS, in the midst of its planning for swollen 
enrollments, enlarged campuses, balanced bud- 
gets, and faculty-procurement crises, higher edu- 
cation gives deep thought to the effectiveness of its 
programs. When the svsollen enrollments do come and 
the shortage of teachers does become acute, higher 
education hopes it can maintain its vitality. 

ii\-\L<'n rN-i\h:iis|-i\ 





T 



lo iMi'Rovr the cIVcctiscncss of their 
teaching, colleges and universities 
are experimenting with new techniques like 
recordings of plays (uhavc) and tele\ision, 
which (h'll) can bring medical students 
a closeup view of delicate experiments. 



,jSf-'Mi*iM?«^»W***»**'**' 




( \KV M(n I NI\ KH-ITl 



To stretch teaching resources without sacrificing (and, 
perhaps, even improving) their effectiveness, it is explor- 
ing such new techniques as microfilms, movies, and 
television. At Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in Troy, 
New York, the exploration is unusually intense. 

RPI calls its concerted study "Project Reward." How 
good, Project Reward asks, are movies, audio-visual aids, 
closed-circuit television? How can we set up really ef- 
fective demonstrations in our science courses? How much 
more effective, if at all, is a small class than a big one? 
Which is better: lecture or discussion groups?Says Roland 
H. Trathen, associate head of Rensselaer's department 
of mechanics and a leader in the Project Reward enter- 
prise, when he is asked about the future, "If creative 
contributions to teaching are recognized and rewarded 
in the same manner as creative contributions to research, 
we have nothing to fear." 

The showman in a good professor comes to the fore 
when he is offered that new but dangerous tool of com- 
munication, television. Like many gadgets, television can 
be used merely to grind out more degree-holders, or — in 
the hands of imaginative, dedicated teachers — it can be 
a powerful instrument for improvement. 

Experiments with television are going on all over the 
place. A man at the University of Oregon, this spring, 
can teach a course simultaneously on his own campus 
and three others in the state, thanks to an electronic link. 
Pennsylvania State experimented with the medium for 
three years and discovered that in some cases the TV 
students did better than their counterparts who saw their 
instructors in the flesh. 

The dangers in assembly-line education are real. But 
with new knowledge about how people actually learn — 
and new devices to help them learn — interesting pos- 
sibilities appear. 

Even so, some institutions may cling to time-worn 
notions about teaching until they are torn loose by 
the current of the age. Others may adulterate the quality 
of their product by rushing into short-cut schemes. The 
reader can hope that his college, at least, will use the 
new tools wisely: with courage yet with caution. Most 
of all, he can hope that it will not be forced into adopting 
them in desperation, because of poverty or its inability 
to hold good teachers, but from a position of confidence 
and strength. 



yVMERICAN higher education does not limit itself 

L\ to college campuses or the basic function of edu- 

# * eating the young. It has assumed responsibility 

for direct, active, specific community service, also. 

"Democracy's Growing Edge," the Teacher's College 



of the University of Nebraska calls one such service 
project. Its sponsors are convinced that one of the basic 
functions of local schools is to improve their communi- 
ties, and they are working through the local boards of 
education in Nebraska towns to demonstrate it. 

Consider Mullen (pop. 750), in northwest Nebraska's 
sandhills area, the only town in its cattle-ranching county. 
The nearest hospital is ninety miles away. Mullen needs 
its own clinic; one was started six years ago, only to bog 
down. Under the university's auspices, with Mullen's 
school board coordinating the project and the Teacher's 
College furnishing a full-time associate coordinator, the 
citizens went to work. Mullen now has its clinical facilities. 

Or consider Syracuse, in the southeast corner of the 
state, a trading center for some three thousand persons. 
It is concerned about its future because its young people 
are migrating to neighboring Lincoln and Omaha; to 
hold them, Syracuse needs new industry and recreational 
facilities. Again, through the university's program, towns- 
people have taken action, voting for a power con- 
tract that will assure sufficient electricity to attract 
industry and provide opportunities for youth. 

Many other institutions currently are offering a variety 












:■ "vifH 



of community projects — as many as seventy-eight at one 
state university this spring. Some samples: 

The University of Dayton has tailored its research 
program to the needs of local industry and offers training 
programs for management. Ohio State has planted the 
nation's first poison plant garden to find out why some 
plants are poisonous to livestock when grown in some 
soils yet harmless in others. Northwestern's study of 
traffic problems has grown into a new transportation 
center. The University of Southern California encourages 
able high-school students to work in its scientific labora- 
tories in the summer. Regis College runs a series of 
economics seminars for Boston professional women. 

Community service takes the form of late-afternoon 
and evening colleges, also, which offer courses to school 
teachers and business men. Television is in the picture, 
too. Thousands of New Yorkers, for example, rise before 
dawn to catch New York University's "Sunrise Semester," 
a stiff and stimulating series of courses on WCBS-TV. 

In California, San Bernardino Valley College has gone 
on radio. One night a week, members of more than seventy- 
five discussion groups gather in private homes and turn 
on their sets. For a half hour, they listen to a program 



TNIVERSITY OF nKL.\HOM.\ 



^f. 



^Jffnm ,(ttw 111 ite° ^^ 

*.■.■ ■ mm nz 



such as "Great Men and Great Issues" or "The Ways of 
Mankind," a study of anthropology. 

When the program is over (it is then 8:30), the li\ing- 
room discussions start. People talk, argue, raise ques- 
tions — and learn. One thousand of them are hard at it. 
all over the San Bernardino Valley area. 

Then, at ten o'clock, they turn on the radio again. A 
panel of experts is on. Members of the discussion groups 
pick up their phones and ask questions about the night's 
topic. The panel gives its answers over the air. 

Says one participant, "I learned that people who once 
seemed dull, uninteresting, and pedestrian had exciting 
things to say if I would keep my mouth shut and let 
them say it." 

When it thinks of community services, American higher 
education does not limit itself to its own back yard. 

Behind the new agricultural chemistry building at the 
University of the Philippines stand bare concrete columns 
which support nothing. The jungle has grown up around 
their bases. But you can still see the remains of buildings 
which once housed one of the most distinguished agri- 
cultural schools in the Far East, the university's College 
of Agriculture. When Filipinos returned to the campus 
after World War II, they found \irtually nothing. 

The needs of the Philippines' devastated lands for 
trained men were clear and immediate. The faculty began 
to put the broken pieces back together again, but it was 
plain that the rebuilding would take decades. 

In 1952, Cornell University's New York State College 
of Agriculture formed a partnership with them. The ob- 
jective: to help the Filipinos rebuild, not in a couple of 
generations, but in a few years. Twelve top faculty mem- 
bers from Cornell have spent a year or more as regular 
members of the staff. Filipinos ha\e gone to New 'Sork 
to take part in programs there. 

Now, Philippine agriculture has a new lease on life — 
and Filipinos say that the Cornell partnership should 
receive much of the credit. Farms are at last big enough 
to support their tenants. Weeds and insects are being 
brought under control. Grassland yields are up. .And the 
college enrollment has leaped from little more than a 
hundred in 1945 to more than four thousand today. 

In Peru, the North Carolina College of .Agriculture 
and Engineering is helping to strengthen the country's 
agricultural research; North Carolina State College is 



IN ADDITION to teaching and conducting 
research. America's colleges and unl\ersities 
offer a wide range of community services. 
At the left are hundreds of curriculum 
materials a\ailable at one state uni\ersitv. 



^■^ 



4> . 



N, 



I ONE of its sersices can function 
effectively unless higher education 
remains free. Freedom to pursue 
knowledge is the strongest attraction 
of college and university teaching. 




helping to develop Peruvian research in textiles; and the 
University of North Carolina co-operates in a program 
of technical assistance in sanitary engineering. In Liberia. 
Prairie View A. and M. College of Texas (the Negro 
college of the Texas A. and M. system) is working with 
the Booker Washington Agricultural and industrial Insti- 
tute to expand vocational education. Syracuse Universitv 
is producing audio-visual aids for the Middle East, par- 
ticularly Iran. The University of Tennessee is providing 
home-economics specialists to assist in training similar 
specialists in India. The University of Oregon is working 
with Nepal in establishing an educational system where 
none existed before (only eleven persons in the entire 
country of !S.5 million had had any professional training 
in education). Harvard is providing technical advice and 
assistance to Latin .American countries in developing 
and maintaining nutrition programs. 

THL S emerges a picture of American higher edu- 
cation. 1958. Its diversity, its hope that it can 
handle large numbers of students without losing 
sight of quality in the process, its willingness to extend 
its services far beyond its classrooms and even its home 
towns: all these things are true of .America's colleges and 
universities today. They can be seen. 

But not as visible, like a s>ibsurface flaw in the earth's 
apparently solid crust, lie some facts that may alter the 
landscape considerably. Not enough young people, for 
instance, are currently x'.orking their way through the 
long process of preparation to become college and uni- 
versity teachers. Others, who had already embarked on 
laculty careers, are leaving the profession. Scholars .ind 
teachers are becoming one of the American economv's 
scarcest commodities. 

Salary scales, as described earlier in this .irticle, are 
largely responsible for the scarcity, but not entirely. 

Three faculty members at the L niversity of Oklahoma 
sat around a table not long ago and tried to exphiin why 
they are staying where they are. All are young. .All are 
brilliant men who have turned down lucrative Jobs in 
business or industry. All have been offered higher-paving 
posts at other universities. 




L.VERYWHERE — in business, government, 
the professions, the arts — college 
graduates are in demand. Thus society pays 
tribute to the college teacher. 
It relies upon him today as never before. 



"it's the atmosphere, call it the teaching climate, that 
keeps me here," said one. 

"Teachers want to know they are appreciated, that 
their ideas have a chance,"" said another. "1 suppose you 
might say we like being a part of our institution, not 
members of a manpower pool." 

"Oklahoma has made a real effort to provide an op- 
portunity for our opinions to count,"" said the third. "Our 
advice may be asked on anything from hiring a new pro- 
fessor to suggesting salary increases."" 

The University of Oklahoma, like many other institu- 
tions but w//like many more, has a self-governing faculty. 
"The by-products of the university government,"" says 
Oklahoma's Professor Cortez A. M. Ewing, "may prove 
to be its most important feature. In spite of untoward 
conditions — heavy teaching loads, low salaries, and mar- 
ginal physical and laboratory resources, to mention a 
few — the spirit of co-operation is exceeded only by the 
dedication of the faculty."" 

The professor worth his title mus! be free. He must be 
free to explore and probe and investigate. He must be 
free to pursue the truth, wherever the chase may take 
him. This, if the bread-and-butter necessities of salary 
scales can be met, is and will always be the great attrac- 
tion of college and university teaching. We must take 
care that nothing be allowed to diminish it. 



GONE is the old caricature of the absent-minded, 
impractical academician. The image of the col- 
lege professor has changed, just as the image of 
the college boy and the college alumnus has changed. If 
fifty years ago a college graduate had to apologize for his 
education and even conceal it as he entered the business 
world, he does so no longer. Today society demands the 
educated man. Thus society gi\'es its indirect respect to 
the man who taught him, and links a new reliance with 
that respect. 

It is more than need which warrants this esteem and 
reliance. The professor is aware of his world and 
travels to its coldest, remotest corners to learn more 
about it. Nor does he o\erlook the pressing matters at 
the very edge of his campus. He takes part in the Inter- 
national Geophysical Year"s study of the universe; he 
attacks the cancer in the human body and the human 
spirit; he nourishes the art of living more readily than 
the art of killing; he is the frontiersman everywhere. He 
builds and masters the most modern of tools from the 
cyclotron to the mechanical brain. He remembers the 
artist and the philosopher above the clamor of the 
machine. 
The professor still has the color that his students recall, 




and he still gets his applause in the spring at the end of 
an inspiring semester or at the end of a dedicated career. 
But today there is a difference. It is on him that the nation 
depends more than ever. On him the free world relies — 
just as the enslaved world does, too. 



DR. SELMAN A. WAKSMAN of Rutgers was 
not interested in a specific, useful topic. Rather, 
he was fascinated by the organisms that live in 
a spadeful of dirt. 

A Russian emigrant, born in a thatched house in 
Priluka, ninety miles from the civilization of Kiev, he 
came to the United States at the age of seventeen and 
enrolled in Rutgers. Early in his undergraduate career he 
became interested in the fundamental aspects of living 
systems. And, as a student of the College of Agriculture, 
he looked to the soil. For his senior project he dug a 
number of trenches on the college farm and took soil 
samples in order to count the different colonies of bacteria. 

But when he examined the samples under his micro- 
scope, Waksman saw some strange colonies, different 
from either bacteria or fungi. One of his professors said 
they were only "higher bacteria." Another, however, 
identified them as little-known organisms usually called 
actinomyces. 

Waksman was graduated in 1915. As a research as- 
sistant in soil bacteriology, he began working toward a 
master's degree. But he soon began to devote more and 
more time to soil fungi and the strange actinomyces. He 
was forever testing soils, isolating cultures, transferring 
cultures, examining cultures, weighing, analyzing. 

Studying for his Ph.D. at the L'niversity of California, 
he made one finding that interested him particularly. 
Several groups of microbes appeared to live in harmony, 
while others fed on their fellows or otherwise inhibited 
their growth. In 1918 Waksman returned to Rutgers as 
a microbioloaist, to continue his research and teachine. 



HUTGER.S UNIVERSITY 




V^OME research by faculty 
members strikes people as "point- 
less." it was one such 
pointless project that led 
Dr. Selman A. Waksman (/<.'/') to 
hnd streptomycin. Good basic 
research is a continuing need. 




In 1923 one of his pupils, Rene Dubos, isolated tyro- 
thricin and demonstrated that chemical substances from 
microbes found in the soil can kill disease-producing 
germs. In 1932 Waksman studied the fate of tuberculosis 
bacteria in the soil. In 1937 he published three papers on 
antagonistic relations among soil micro-organisms. He 
needed only a nudge to make him turn all his attention 
to what he was later to call "antibiotics." 

The war provided that nudge. Waksman organized his 
laboratory staff for the campaign. He soon decided to 
focus on the organisms he had first met as an undergradu- 
ate almost thirty years before, the actinomyces. The first 
antibiotic substance to be isolated was called actinomy- 
cin, but it was so toxic that it could have no clinical 
application; other antibiotics turned out to be the same. 
It was not until the summer of 1943 that the breakthrough 
came. 

One day a soil sample from a heavily manured field 
was brought into the laboratory. The workers processed 
it as they had processed thousands of others before. But 
this culture showed remarkable antagonism to disease- 
producing bacteria. It was a strain — streptomyces griseus 
— that Waksman had puzzled over as a student. Clinical 
tests proved its effectiveness against some forms of pneu- 
monia, gonorrhea, dysentery, whooping cough, syphilis, 
and, most spectacularly, TB. 

Streptomycin went into production quickly. Along 
with the many other antibiotics that came from the soil, 
it was labeled a "miracle drug." Waksman received the 
Nobel Prize and the heartfelt praise of millions through- 
out the world. 

In a sense, discoveries like Dr. Waksman's are acci- 
dents; they are unplanned and unprogrammed. They 
emerge from scholarly activity which, judged by appear- 
ances or practical yardsticks, is aimless. But mankind 
has had enough experience with such accidents to have 
learned, by now, that "pure research" — the pursuit of 
knowledge for the sake of knowledge alone — is its best 
assurance that accidents will continue to happen. When 
Chicago's still-active Emeritus Professor Herman Schles- 
inger got curious about the chemical linkage in a rare 
and explosive gas called diobrane, he took the first steps 
toward tne development of a new kind of jet and rocket 
fuel — accidentally. When scientists at Harvard worked 
on the fractionization of blood, they were accidentally 
making possible the development of a substitute for whole 
blood which was so desperately needed in World War II. 

But what about the University of Texas's Humanities 
Research Center, set up to integrate experiments in lin- 
guistics, criticism, and other fields? Or the Missouri 
expedition to Cyprus which excavated an Early-Bronze- 



,» 




T, 



lo UNO the most promising young 
people of America and then provide them 
with exceptional educational opportunities: 
that is the challenge. Above, medical 
school prol'essors vote on a candidate. 



.J- 



■p^ 



;.,j^ 




BAILOR tNIVKH^IT'i 



Age site at Episkopi three years ago and is planning to 
go bacl< again tPiis year? Or the research on folk ballads 
at the University of Arkansas? In an ageof ICBM's, what 
is the value of this work? 

If there is more to human destiny than easing our toils 
or enriching our pocketbooks, then such work is im- 
portant. Whatever adds to man's knowledge will inevi- 
tably add to his stature, as well. To make sure that higher 
education can keep providing the opportunities for such 
research is one of 1958 man's best guarantees that human 
life will not sink to meaninglessness. 



Alfred north whitehead once said, "in 
L^ the conditions of modern life, the rule is abso- 
# mlute: the race which does not value trained 
intelligence is doomed." 

In recent months, the American people have begun to 
re-learn the truth of Whitehead's statement. For years 
the nation has taken trained intelligence for granted — or, 
worse, sometimes shown contempt for it, or denied the 
conditions mider which trained intelligence might flour- 
ish. That millions are now recognizing the mistake — and 
recognizing it before it is too late — is fortunate. 

Knowing how to solve the problem, hov\e\er, and 
knowing how to provide the means for solution, is more 
difficult. 

But again .America is fortunate. There is, among us, a 
group who not only have been ahead of the general 
public in recognizing the problem but who also ha\e the 
understanding and the power, iio\\\ to solve it. That group 
is the college alumni and alumnae. 

Years ago Dr. Hu Shih, the scholar who was then 
Chinese ambassador to the United States, said America's 
greatest contribution to education was its revolutionary 
concept of the alumnus: its concept of the former student 
as an understanding, responsible partner and champion. 

Today, this partner and champion of American higher 
education has an opportunity for service unparalleled in 
our history. He recognizes, better than anyone, the es- 
sential truth in the statement to which millions, finally, 
now subscribe: that upon higher education depends, in 
large part, our society's physical and intellectual sur- 
vival. He recognizes, better than anyone else, the truth 
in the statement that the race can attain even loftier goals 
ahead, by strengthening our system of higher education 
in all its parts. As an alumnus — first by understanding, 
and then by exercising his leadership — he holds within 
his own grasp the means of doing so. 

Rarely has one group in our society — indeed, every 
member of the group — had the opportunity and the 
ability for such high service. 




^—DUCATlON of high quality for as 
many as are qualified for it has been a 
cherished American dream. Today 
we are too close to realizing that dream 
not to intensify our striving for it. 




I 

I 



at " 











CTCT 



I ' l-VNK I Nl\ LUMTV 



EDITORIAL STAFF 



FELICIA ANTHENELLI 

The University of Chicago 



WILLIAM SCHRAMM 
The University of Pennsylvania 



DAVID A. BURR 

The University of Oklahoma 



VERNE A. STADTMAN 
The University of California 



JEAN DINWOODEY 
The American Alumni Council 



FREDERIC A. STOTT 

Phillips Academy, Andover 



DAN H. FENN, JR. 

Harvard University 



FRANK J. TATE 
The Ohio State University 



RANDOLPH L. FORT 

Emory University 



ERIK WENSBERG 

Columbia University 



CORBIN GWALTNEY 

The Johns Hopkins University 



CHARLES E. WIDMAYER 

Dartmouth College 



L. FRANKLIN HEALD 

The University of New Hampshire 



CHESLEY WORTHINGTON 

Brown University 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Photographs : erich hartmann, magnum 
Typesetting: American typesetting corporation, 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Printing: CUNEO PRESS, kokomo, Indiana 
Paper: cico-DUOSET by champion-international 

company of LAWRENCE, MASSACHUSETTS 



PRINTED IN U.S.A. 




Mary Ann Akiridge, ■o2-'53, and 
Charles Norman Vittitoe were married 
on February 7. They are living in Madi- 
son, Wisconsin. 

Nancy Edna Barineau, '56-'58, and 
James (). ISerry, '57, were married on 
February 14. They are living in Kent- 
wood, Louisiana. 

Frances Anne Beacham, "51, and Wil- 
liam Frank Johnson were married on 
February 1. They are living in Jackson. 

.Mary Jane Brent, '51, married Charles 
Thomas Bennett on December 21. They 
are living in Houma, Louisiana. 

The wedding of Lila June Brock, '53- 
"55, and Walter Sherrill Jeffery was an 
event of December 21. The couple re- 
sides in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

Willette Louise Burton, '53, was mar- 
ried to John William DeBarr, Jr.. on 
December 28. They are living in War- 
rington, Florida. 

The wedding of Martha .\nn Crauford. 
'53-'55, and Lt. Larry Warner Jones 
was solemnized on December 6. The 
couple will make their home in Tucson. 

Regina Kay Davis, '57, was married 
to Carl Richard Coers, IH, on December 
20. They are living in Jackson. 

The marriage of .Margueritte Lane 
Denny, '53, and James Russell Ransom 
was held on December 27. They are 
residing in Baltimore, Maryland. 

Sara Gaby, '54-'55, was married to 
Charley Fletcher Mills on October 12. 
They are living in Starkville, Mississippi. 

Rosemary Flint, '55-'58, and Steve 
Grantham were married on March 7 in 
Jackson. They are living in Oxford, 
Mississippi. 

Catherine Moseley Hairston, '45, be- 
came the bride of Leonard Max Tomsyck 
on December 28. The couple is residing 
in New Orleans. 

The "Bride and Groom" television 
program was the scene of the wedding 
of Regina Pauline Harlan, '56-'57, and 
Derwood Ray Boyles. They are living in 
Jackson. 

Betty Anne Hicks and Marvin E. Wig- 
gins, Jr., '46-'47, were married in Febru- 
ary. The couple is living in Jackson. 

An event of November 27 was the 
wedding of Judith Anne Johnston and 
Carl Bertram Causey, '57. They are 

(Continued on Page 41) 
SPRING 



CONCERNING FREEDOM— 

(Continued from Page 3) 

Millsaps College professor. Some readers have concluded that there was some 
relationship between this and the discussion groups at Millsaps. There was no 
such relationship. 

The Millsaps professor accepted the speaking engagement some weeks ago, 
before any of the Christian Council discussion groups had been announced or 
planned. A number of othe.- highly respected and prominent white citizens of 
Jackson have addressed this monthly Social Seminar Forum at Tougaloo. This is 
an instance Ox white men being invited to speak to a Negro group. 

A number of Millsaps students expressed an interest in hearing the Millsaps 
professor at Tougaloo. The Millsaps professor himself arranged a segregated seating 
arrangement for these students at Tougaloo. 

L'nfortunately, a reporter secured hastily made statements from some of 
these students. The students, we feel, were exploited. They had neithe.- the time 
nor the opportunity to -iive careful thought to the wording or implications of 
their statements. 

The Administration oj Millsaps College will urge all staff members to be 
discriminating in accepting speaking en.gagements and be always mindful of their 
responsibilities to the College. The .Administration will also urge professors to 
use great care in the meetings they recommend to their students. 

It is regrettable that so much attention has been paid to these incidents and 
that so much misunderstanding has resulted. It does offer an opportunity to 
make some pertinent observations: 

1. College students have a right to hear various points of view. They are 
more mature in their judgments than they sometimes are credited with. It is 
far better in a democracy and in a Christian college to allow opportunities for 
different points of view to be heard than to forbid them to be presented. 

2. Millsaps College has its weaknesses. Nobody knows this better than the 
Faculty, the TiUstees, and the Administration, all of whom seek diligently to 
identify the weaknesses and to correct them. 

Indoctrination is not one of our weaknesses. It is to be noted that a Roman 
Catholic priest accepted an invitation to appear on one of the Forums. The 
Christian Council had no thought that the Protestant listeners would become 
attracted to the Roman Chuich. They felt that it would be informative to have 
this point of view presented along with others. 

Millsaps College is proud to be an institution of the Methodist Church. We 
are proud to note that a large proportion or our students a^e members of other 
denominations than Methodist. The Colle.ge endeavors faithfully to be fair in 
championing the Christian faith in a persuasive manner. The Purpose of Millsaps 
College clearly states this and is available for all to examine. 

3. In an age when we are alarmed at the increasing controls of government, 
we should be strengthening those institutions which support and preserve freedom 
of speech. It is better to have freedom of speech abused now and then than 
not to have it at all. A tightly censored control by Chui-ch or other groups is 
as offensive and ultimately as fatal to freedom as is state regimentation. 

The Christian tradition maintains steadfastl.v that we are ultimately governed 
liy Christ. This is no plea for an irresponsible use or abuse of freedom. It is a plea 
for the freedom we treasure and for which our forefathers died. 

4. Millsaps College is willing now, as always, to be judged by its graduates. 
In scores of Mississippi communities and beyond there are useful and faithful 
ministers, teachers, doctors, lawyers, farmers, business men. statesmen and house- 
wives — products of this College in early and recent years. We can thank God for 
what this College has meant to the City of Jackson, to Mississippi, to the 
Methodist Church, and to the nation. Its greatest years of usefulness lie in the 
future. 

Every thoughtful person needs carefully to consider that if freedom is attacked 
at one college, it will eventually be attacked at all educational institutions. Moreover, 
every pulpit, every newspaper, every individual could be pressured. Differences of 
opinion are to be welcomed. The only alternative is dreaded thought control. 
Millsaps College joins with the entire Christian Church, of which it is an integral 
part, in pledging to its constituents its devotion to preserving a climate where 
freedom may prosper and where intimidation, fear and bondage are doomed. 

H. E. FINGER. JR. 

Page Thirty-Nine 



CONCERNING FREEDOM— 

(Continued from Page 39) 

The Statement of the Board 

In view of the widespread interest manifested in recent events at Millsaps 
College, it is appropriate for its Board of Trustees to make the following statement: 

We follow the founders of Millsaps in the encouragement of academic free- 
dom in the faculty and the spirit of inquiry in the students. We recognize the 
distinction between good teaching, on the one hand, — a setting forth, on the 
part of a teacher, of all the facts on all sides of any question under discussion — 
and indoctrination, on the other hand, — an attempt, on the part of the teacher, 
to force his opinion and beliefs upon a student. The former we approve because 
it stimulates thinking by which students reach their own conclusions. The latter 
we do not approve because it jeopardizes the basic concepts of the free enterprise 
system of democracy, and of Christianity itself. The purpose of a college is not 
to tell people what to think but to teach them how to think. Our purpose at 
Millsaps College is to create an atmosphei'e in which Christian convictions may 
grow and mature. 

Neither segregation nor integration is an issue at Millsaps College. Segre- 
gation always has been, and is now, the policy of Millsaps College. There is no 
thought, purpose, or intention on the part of those in charge of its affairs to 
change this policy. 

The administration of these principles is the responsibility of the President, 
and for their implementation he is responsible to the Board of Trustees. The Board 
commends the manner in which Dr. Finger has fulfilled this responsibility. We 
have confidence in the integrity of the faculty and of the administration. 

Marvin A. Franklin, Chairman W. B. Selah 

N. J. Golding R. G. Moore 

J. W. Leggett, Jr. W. E. Bufkin 

R. L. Ezelle Fred B. Smith 

Roy N. Boggan J. D. Wroten, Sr. 

B. M. Hunt V. D. Youngblood 

W. L. Robinson John E. McEachin 

John F. Egger J. D. Slay 




Student Leaders Speak 

The following resolution was adopted Tuesday night, March 18, by the student 
Senate by a vote of 13 to 4. 

It is with real concern and deep regret that we, the Student Senate of 
Millsaps College, review the events of recent days. We are impelled by the con- 
tinued attacks brought against our College to come to its defense. We speak only 
for ourselves; we make no attempt to represent the Student Body as a whole. 

We are distressed to discover those forces within our state which would so 
eagerly damage the good reputation of our Alma Mater and all that she stands 
for. It is unfortunate that they have brought such gross misunderstandings to 
bear on the life of this educational institution. 

We are disappointed in a state which inspires us to be educated, but which 
now would deprive us of one of the fundamentals of education — the right to 
consider various points of view and draw our own conclusions therefrom. We 
ask of those who would criticize us — have we reached the point where we cannot 
even listen to another point of view without fear of pressure or public denunciation ? 
It is a serious time which will not allow all views to be expressed, 
regardless of what they may be. This contradicts all that America and the state 
of Mississippi have historically stood for. We urge those who speak of these 
freedoms to practice them, and to allow us to do so. 

We are disturbed by the lack of confidence which some apparently have in 
our ability as students to draw our own conclusions. In a matter of years we will 

Page Forty 







We welcome the following into the 
Future Alumni Club of the Millsaps 
College Alumni Association: 

Frank Terrill Alford was born July 
20, 1957, to Mr. and Mrs. Flavius Alford 
(Mary Ann O'Neil, '53). The Alfords 
have a daughter, Annette, 2%. 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles W. Chadwick 
are the proud parents of a daughter, 
their sixth child. Clara Gene was born 
April 24, 1957. Mrs. Chadwick (Evelyn 
Clark) is a member of the class of '36. 

Katharine Lynn Child was born Jan- 
uary 14, 1958, to Mr. and Mrs. James 
K. Child. Mrs. Child is the former Kay 
Fort, '55. 

Joseph Patterson Clark was born to 
Mr. and Mrs. James Watts Clark on 
January 13, 1958. Mrs. Clark is the 
former Mary Alice Moss, '51. Joseph 
Patterson has a brother, James Watts, 
II. 

Martha Elizabeth Conner was born 
December 16, 1957, to the Reverend and 
Mrs. James Conner. Mr. Conner is a 
member of the class of '38. Mrs. Conner 
is the former Betty Langdon, '47. 

Cheryl Ann Crosby was welcomed by 
a sister, Cynthia, 2%, when she made 
her entrance on August 25, 1957. Her 
parents are the Reverend and Mrs. Tom 
Crosby (Wilma Faye Dyess, '50), of 
Luling, Louisiana. 

Lou Ann Farris, born November 30, 
1957, is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Bill Farris, of Cleburne, Texas. Mrs. 
Farris is the former Lucretia Caldwell, 
'54. 

Paul Glenn Green arrived on January 
4, 1958. His parents are Mr. and Mrs. 
Paul Green, of Natchez, Mississippi. 
Mrs. Green is the former Bernice Edgar, 
'54. 

Miriam Elise Hall was born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Waverly ("Chuck") Hall on 
December 6, 1957. Mr. Hall is a mem- 
ber of the class of '51. 

Charles Daniel Laseter, Jr., was born 
December 29, 1957. He is the son of the 
Reverend Charles Laseter, '54, and Mrs. 
Laseter, of Cary, Mississippi. 

Deborah Sue Lovell was born July 18, 

(Continued on Page 41) 

MAJOR NOTES 



ourselves be voting citizens of this state. Many of us are now 
now be trusted, who in the future will make our choices for us ? 

We commend the administration of this College for reserving these rights 
for us. We admire their courage to stand for freedom of expession and inquiry 
in the face of criticism and the impossible demands of groups and individuals 
within our state. 

We insist that the current issue before us is not race, but rather whether 
the subject o; race — or any other suljject — may be explored honestly and without 
bias. This is part of the freedom of any man. We demand no more than this, 
but we do expect this much. Our right to inquire into such matters, and the 
right of others to furnish us this information, has been challenged. We regard this 
as a violation of our freedom of inquiry and expression. 

We do not intend to be deprived by any person, group, or organization of our 
belief in the Scriptural admonition, "Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall 
make you free." In this we must stand firm. Our Christian conviction demands that 
we not forsake this principle in compromise with those who would undermine it. 



If we cannot FUTURE ALUMNI— 




With the coming of spring .-.uch rebellions against convention as the cameraman 
has framed above can be seen on the Millsaps College campus. Dr. Ross Moore 
lectures to a seminar group concerning problems in history. Great teaching has 
made of .Millsaps one of the foremost institutions of its type in the nation. 



FROM THIS DAY— 

(Contiiiued from Page 39) 
living in Pensacola. 

Ursula Ann Kenyon and Lt. (j.g) 
Pat H. Curtis, '53, were married on De- 
cember 14. They are residing in Fort 
Wayne, Indiana. 

Sudie Kate Mitchell and Verlin Marvin 
Bell, '54-'55, were married in March. 
They are living in P>elzoni. 

The marriage of Dorothy Marie Mof- 
fett to Hugh Jonathan Burford, '54, took 
place on December 26. They are residing 
in Lawh-ence, Kansas. 

An event of March was the wedding 
of Lynnice Parker. '57, and Alvah C. 
Long, Jr. They are living in Birming- 
ham. 

Marriage vows were said by Johnny 
Belle Pittraan and Albert Godfrey San- 

SPRING 



ders. Jr., '42, on January 11. They are 
residing- in West Point, Mississippi. 

January IS was the date of Calheriiio 
Powell's ('47) marriage to Philip Alex- 
ander Klipple. They are living in Austin. 
Texas. 

The marriage of Uucy Price, '57, to 
James Edward Inkster was solemnized 
April 3. The couple is living in Stark- 
ville, Mississippi. 

The wedding of Mattelyn Keid, "55-'57. 
and Dr. James Edward Booth was an 
event of the Christmas season. The 
couple resides in Eupora. Mississippi. 

Rosa Ann Rials was married to James 
Kayford Woodrick, '57, on February 2. 
They will live at Carson, Mississippi, 
until June, when they will move to 
Durham, North Carolina. 



(Continued from Page 40) 

1957, to Mr. and Mrs. Charles Lovell. 
Deborah Sue is the granddaughter of 
Mrs. A. M. Kirkpatrick, (Leota Taylor, 
'18). 

Judith Lynn Manley was born on De- 
cember 30, 1957, to Dr. and Mrs. Harry 
Manley. Dr. Manley is a member of the 
Millsaps political science department. 
The couple has two other children, 
Melinda, 8, and Martha, 4. 

Rubel Lex Phillips. Jr., arrived De- 
cember 8, 1957. He is the son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Rubel Lex Phillips, of Jackson. 
Mr. Phillips is a '51 graduate. 

Mark .Ashworth Short was born May 
28, 1957. He is the son of Dr. and Mrs. 
Louie C. Short, both '54. Mrs. Short is 
the former Frances Jo Peacock. 

Craig Norman Smith arrived Febru- 
ary 23. 1958. He is the son of Mr. and 
Mrs. V. G. Smith (Bonnie Lee Harmer, 
'47). Other members of the family in- 
clude Connie Lee, Cheryl, and Charlie. 

William Trent Stout was born to Mr. 
and Mrs. Trent Stout on December 7, 
1957. Mrs. Stout is the former Cornelia 
Hegman, a member of the class of '45. 



The wedding of Charlotte Sue Schmidt 
and Dr. Clayton Justus Overton. '54, 
was held December 21. The coui)le will 
live in Jackson. 

Evelyn Shoemaker was married to 
Ivichard Holmes, '4(;-'50, on February 7. 
They are living in Jackson. 

January 24 was the wedding day of 
-Marianna .Simmons, '53-'56, and Klemmer 
Lee Simmons. They are living in Jack- 
son. 

Anne Parker Smith, '49, married Lt. 
S. P. Passantino January 18. They are 
living in Bay St. Louis. Mississippi. 

Hazel Elizabeth Truluck, '58. married 
IIenr\ lUirton .lackson. '5(1. They are 
living in Norfolk, \'irginia. 

Katherino Caroline Watson. ■54-'55. 
ami James Baker Check. Jr.. were niar- 
rieil on December 27. They are living in 
Vicksbur.g. Jlississippi. 

Frances West was married to Leslie 
Page. Jr.. '54, on December 27. They 
are living in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

Claudette Westerficld. '55, was mar- 
ried to Edward Joseph Songy in Decem- 
ber. They are living in Biloxi. Mis- 
sissippi. 

March 15 was the date of the wedding 
of Margaret Whitfield, '5ti. and Layton 
J. Smith. The couple is living in Jackson. 

Poge Forty-One 



c^VlAJOR MISCELLANY 



1892-1919 

Cannon Mills' senior vice-president and 
manager of the sheet department, James 
G. Johnson, '10, has announced his re- 
tirement plans after 27 years of service. 
Cannon Mills president Stanley Phillips 
said that Mr. Johnson plans to devote 
more time to travel and personal affairs. 



Leon McCluer, '12-'15, is teaching in 
the education department at Alabama 
State Teachers College in Jacksonville, 
Alabama. Mrs. McCluer, the former 
Mary Moore, attended Millsaps from 
1905 through 1907. 



It appears that a whole column could 
be devoted to the talents and achieve- 
ments of Dr. C. C. Norton, '19, who was 
recently elected district governor of 
Rotary International District 775. Listed 
in "Who's Who in America," he is the 
John M. Reeves Professor of Sociology 
and Government at Wofford College. 
He is the author of thi'ee books in dif- 
ferent fields and does a weekly cartoon 
which appears in several denominational 
papers and the Spartanburg Herald 
Journal. For more than 30 years he 
has annually interpreted Dickens' 
"Christmas Carol" in person and over 
radio and television — usually fi-10 
times a season. He is married to the 
former Mabel Binning. A daughter 
teaches art in France and a son is a 
practicing physician. 

1920-1929 

A note from the Reverend Jesse F. 
Watson, '24, pastor of the First Metho- 
dist Church in LaMesa, New Mexico, 
said, "Distance and the time with a bit 
of money thrown in with them add to 
absences from your meeting's. But it 
gives me pleasure to check up on what 
is going on around there and to see 
pictures of the Worthies of the Alma 
Mater, to reminisce a bit over a time, 
a place and folk that have meant and 
do mean a lot to this Mississippi Hill 
Billy out on the 'Lone Prairie.' " 



The National School Service Institute, 
a trade association for manufacturers 
and distributors of school equipment and 
supplies, has named James W. Campbell. 
'24, to serve as president. Mr. Campbell 
is in his 35th year with Mississippi 
School Supply Company and has served 
as its president for the past three years. 
Mrs. Campbell is the former Evelyn 
Flowers, '25. 



Dr. Vernon L. Wharton, '28, Dean of 
the College of Liberal Arts at South- 
western Louisiana Institute, presided at 

Page Forty-Two 



one of the lectures given at Louisiana 
State University by Avery O. Craven on 
the First Cold War. The lectures were 
sponsored by the graduate school and 
the history department of LSU. 



The 160-acre farm and Magnolia Seed 
Company owned by Mr. and Mrs. Wil- 
liam A. Bilbo, Jr., keep them busy, but 
they still find time for civic and social 
activities, and the list is quite a long one. 
Mr. Bilbo, '29, was named Pike County's 
Man of the Year in 195(1. The couple 
has two children. 

1930-1939 

Will Jacobs, Jr., superintendent of the 
Liberty, Mississippi, Consolidated Schools 
for the past eight years, resigned to 
become principal of the Inverness, Mis- 
sissippi, High School. After graduating 
from Millsaps in 1932 he received his 
MA degree from Mississippi Southern. 



The College Registrars of Mississippi 
section of the Mississippi Education As- 
sociation have named Paul Hardin, '35, 
to serve as president of the group. Mr. 
Hardin is registrar at Millsaps. 



Eternalite Corporation, a business con- 
cern which produces light bulbs guaran- 
teed to last five years, has as its pi'esi- 
dent a Millsaps alumnus, Robert C. 
Smith, '32-'33. Mr. Smith, formerly an 
insurance executive, obtained the pro- 
cess for the bulbs from the Swiss Em- 
bassy and began manufacturing them 
in the States. He has his headquarters 
in New Orleans. 



Members of the Neurosurgical Society 
of America have elected Dr. Charles L. 
Neill, Jr., 'ofi, to serve as their president. 
Dr. Neill received his MD degree at 
Cornell and did his advanced training 
work at Cornell-Beilvue Medical Center 
in New York before entering practice in 
Jackson. 

L. T. DeLauP, '33-36, has been ap- 
pointed assistant to the president of 
Southwest Steel Products, of Houston. 
Texas. After leaving Millsaps Mr. De- 
Laup graduated from Louisiana State 
LTniversitv. 



Mrs. Lottie B. McRaney Mitchell, '39, 
is serving as associate professor of 
English at Southeastern Louisiana Col- 
lege in Hammond, Louisiana. Her son 
received his Master's degree in business 
administration from LSU last summer. 

1940-1949 
Esso Research Laboratories has creat- 



ed a personnel section at its Baton 
Rouge office, and Dr. Leslie M. Addison, 

'41, has been appointed head of the 
division. After graduating from Mill- 
saps Dr. Addison received his M.S. degree 
from the University of North Carolina 
and his Ph. D. from Purdue. He is mar- 
ried and has two daughters. 



The first Mississippian to earn the 
nationally recognized designation of 
"Chartered Property and Casualty Un- 
derwriter," Zach Taylor, Jr., '44, has 
opened his own firm, Taylor Insurance 
Agency, in Jackson. He is married to the 
former Dot Jones, '45, and they have 
three children, Patricia, Zachary, and 
Walter. 



For the past five years Delbert Bow- 
den, '43-'44, has taught music and Eng- 
lish at Crane High School in Chicago. 
He and his wife have two daughters, 
aged 6 and 3. 



Katherine and Elizabeth Riddell, '47 

and '40-'42, recently purchased the prop- 
erty at 2 Park Avenue in Jackson. It 
was sold to their great grandfather. Dr. 
W. J. J. Sullivan, by Major Millsaps 
about 1907. 



Now in her sixth year with Prudential 
Insurance Company in Jackson, Sara 
Frances Clark is serving as senior clerk. 
She is a member of the class of '47. 



Wallace L. Cook, '47, is field represen- 
tative with the Bureau of Old Age and 
Survivors Insurance of the Social Se- 
curity Administration. He makes his 
home in Pueblo, Colorado. 



A recent appointment to managership 
of the J. C. Penney Store in West Palm 
Beach, Florida, makes Jim Longinotti, 
'48, one of the youngest managers with 
the chain. He is married to the former 
Betty Brewer, '48, and the couple has 
two daughters. 

1950-1957 
Hagan Thompson, '50, renounced his 
title as "World's Oldest Teenager" to 
head for the West Coast and show busi- 
ness. Things were looking up for him 
in that "hardest of businesses to get 
into," according to latest I'eports. He 
won his title as WOT on "Teen Tempos," 
a Jackson television program which he 
emceed. It is predicted that his wife, 
Marilyn Sanderson, '49, and children, 
Lyn, 4, Dan, 2, and Maurice, 1, will be 
joining him in Hollywood soon. 

MAJOR NOTES 




he worked with the TVA in Alabama. 



These senior class officers head the largest group to graduate from Millsaps 
College in eight years. They are. left to right. Julian Kush, Meridian, president; 
.John ."stone, Jackson, vice president; and ISetty (Jarrison, Jackson, secretary- 
treasurer. They and their classmates will be guests of honor at the Alumni Day 
banquet on .Ma\ 10. The class of 19.)8 will graduate on .Monday. June 2. 



Tip H. .\llen, Jr., '51, will complete 
work on his doctorate in political science 
this year at the University of Alabama. 
Mrs. Allen is the former Margaret Buch- 
anan, '53-'54. 



of Economics and Business Administra- 
tion. In his first semester in the school 
he maintained a near straight-A avera.ge. 



Classmates of Inez McCoy, '51, were 
very excited when they saw her on "To 
Tell the Truth." a national television 
panel show. Now a resident of Xew 
York. Miss McCoy was one of three con- 
testants, each trying to convince the 
panel that she was the person telling the 
truth about an established fact. 

Rubel I'hillips, '51, resigned from his 
position as chairman of the Mississippi 
Public Service Commission to join the 
law firm of Wright, Overstreet, Kuy- 
kendall and Perry. In announcing his 
decision he stated that he was fulfilling 
a lifelong ambition to enter the practice 
of law. He's using his spare time to 
serve as state chairman of the Cerebral 
Palsy campaign. 



On the 24th of March Pat Curtis, 
'53, was released from active duty in the 
Xavy. He immediately moved to Fort 
Wayne, Indiana, where he is studying 
group insurance with Lincoln National 
Life Insurance Company. 



Dr. Ray Joseph Haddad, '5o. is not let- 
ting a term in the Xavy interfere with 
his medical career. .\t night he serves 
as doctor in the Xorth Carolina State 
Prison Hospital. 



Concern, national news magazine for 
Methodist youth, has two Millsaps alum- 
ni at its head. Charles Hoyles, '53, was 
named editor, and Eddie Gossard, '54, 
will serve as managing editor. Gossard 
is married to the former Sarah Ann 
Dennis, "54. 



Lee Baker, '48-'51. was named sports 
editor for the Jackson Daily News in 
January. Mr. Baker began work for 
the paper while he was a student at 
Millsaps. His column, "Baker's Dozen," 
is a favorite with sports enthusiasts of 
Mississippi. Mrs. Baker is the former 
Lacv Rees. '50-'52. 



John R. Howell, '54, has been appoint- 
ed child welfare worker for the Wash- 
ington County Welfare Department. He 
has received his Master's degree in social 
work from Tulane L'niversity and was 
associated with the Harrison County 
Welfare Department at Gulfport. 



A report from Vanderbilt L'niversity 
indicates that David McFarland, "53, is 
making a superior record in the School 

SPRING 



I'aul Alice Wiggins, '54, is an analyti- 
cal chemist with the Xational Distillers 
and Chemical Corporation in Cincinnati. 
Prior to accepting his present position 



Xow a student in the Department of 
Radio, Television, and Motion Pictures 
at the University of Xorth Carolina, 
Leslie Page, Jr., '54, received his M.A. 
degree in religious education from Em- 
ory University. His recent marriage to 
Frances West is also a result of at- 
tending Emory — he met her there. 



Eugene Antley, *55, is teaching history 
and government at Spartanburg Junior 
College in Spartanburg, South Carolina. 



Robert M. Maddo.x, 'oti. has recently 
been promoted to assistant cashier of 
the Jlechanics State Bank in McComb. 
.■^-lississippi. 



Annicf Loflin and Virginia ."^later, 'of,, 
have been accepted for membership in 
the American Society of Medical Tech- 
nologists. Both are now employed by 
the L'niversity of Mississippi Medical 
Center in Jackson, having completed 
their training at Charity Hospital in 
Xew Orleans. 



"Cambridge is definitely the intellec- 
tual center of the world," Reynolds 
Cheney, '57, writes, and he's busy trying 
to take advantage of every opportunity 
while enrolled in Episcopal Theological 
School there. He is working in a parish 
in downtown Boston and will do three 
months' clinical training in a mental 
institution this summer. 



Continuing the fine work she did with 
the Players at Millsaps, Shirley Brown, 
'57, was selected to serve as stage man- 
ager for the Jackson Little Theater's 
presentation of "Dial M for Murder." 
She also served as stage manager for the 
Opera Guild's production of "The Ini- 
rressario." She accepted a position with 
the YWCA upon graduation from Mill- 
saps. 



ALl MM DAY ACTIVITY 

Friday. .May 9 

Singers Rehearsal 7 p.m. 

Saturday. May 10 

Singers Fellowship 9 a. m. 

Singers Rehearsal 10 a. m. 

Registration (All .Alumni) 11:30 a.m. 

Dutch Luncheon 12 noon 

Seminars 2 p. m. 

Convocation 5:15 p.m. 

-■Mumni Day Banquet _ ...6:15 p.m. 

"Kismet" _ ._ 8:15 p.m. 

Poge Forty-Three 




If you want to know more about what the 
college crisis means to you, send for the free 
booklet "The Closing College Door" to: Box 
36, Times Square Station, New York 36, N. Y. 



J- his could be 
the college your child 
wants to enter in 1967. 



It could be any college in the country in 
another ten years. Or every college, for that 
matter. It's a sobering thought. 

Farfetched? 

Not in the least. The blessing of a growing 
population has brought with it a serious 
threat to our cherished system of higher edu- 
cation. College classrooms and laboratories 
are already alarmingly overcrowded by 
mounting enrollments. Admissions authori- 
ties see no letup ... in fact, expect to have 
twice as many appUcants clamoring at the 
gates by 1967. Even more critical is the fact 
that faculty salaries remain pathetically in- 
adequate, and qualified people, dedicated 
but discouraged, are seeking greener fields, 
elsewhere. 

If this trend continues, the time will come 
when our colleges will be less able to produce 
thinking, well-informed graduates. When 
that happens, American education will face 
a sad day. And so will our children, our 
country, our way of life. 

But this threat doesn't have to become a 
reality. You can do your part to keep our 
system on a sound footing. 

How? "--C ' -■■ 

By helping the colleges or universities of 
your choice. With your aid, they can assure 
us continued progress in science, in business, 
in statesmanship, in the better things of life 
. . . for us, and for our children. 




Sponsored as a public service, in cooperation with the Council for Financial Aid to Education, by 

MILLSAPS COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 



HIGHER EDUCATION 




KEEP IT BRIGHT