NORTH CAROLINA HISTORY
R. D. W. CONNOR
SECRETARY OF THE NORTH CAROLINA HISTORICAL
THE THOMPSON PUBLISHING COMPANY
RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA
1 ' RY
Copyright, 1911, by
The Thompson Publishing Company
TO MY MOTHER
KATE WHITFIELD CONNOR
IN ALL THAT IS NOBLE IN WOMANHOOD AND BEAUTIFUL IN
MOTHERHOOD A TRUE REPRESENTATIVE OF NORTH
CAROLINA MOTHERS, WHO ARE, IN TRUTH,
THE REAL MAKERS OF THE
The title of this book sufficiently explains its purpose
and its scope. In it I have emphasized, as far as possi-
ble, the personalities of the men who have made our
history rather than the events in which they were con-
cerned. The latter can be studied in the narrative
histories of the State which of necessity must present
but little or nothing of the former. Of course I do
hot mean that the great events in which these men were
leaders have been neglected. The child who studies
this book will acquire as much knowledge of the general
history of the State as the average child in the grades
is capable of assimilating. This book has been written
under the impression that the children of North Caro-
lina have more knowledge of the great events of our
history than of the great leaders; and under the con-
viction that knowledge of the latter is equally as
important and even more interesting, to children, at
least, than the former.
I am, of course, aware that others selecting such a
list would probably reject some names that I have
included and include some that I have excluded. I
have no quarrel with their choice and I trust they will
have none with mine. The necessity of selecting at
all and the necessary limit to the number to be included
in such a book, account for the exclusion of several
names which deserve, as much as any in my list, to be
included in any list supposed to be complete of the
" Makers of North Carolina History." The names
of John Ashe, James Iredell, Samuel Johnston,
Willie P. Mangum, Braxton Craven, James and Alfred
Moore, John M. Morehead, Archibald D. Murphey,
David L. Swain, and others readily occur. Some of
those in my list certainly occupy no greater place in
our history than some of those here enumerated. Other
reasons, which obviously cannot be discussed here,
have determined my selections.
This book can be used in three ways:
First, as a history;
Second, as supplementary to a narrative history of
North Carolina or of the United States;
Third, as a supplementary reader.
The teacher will observe that the " Questions for
Special Study" which follow each of the sketches are
not the obvious questions suggested directly by the
text. They are derived indirectly from the text, and
as a rule can be answered by a little reading between
the lines of the narrative. Some of them are questions
of opinion only, and the pupils should be encouraged
to express their own opinions freely without dictation
from the teacher and be ready to defend their opinions
R. D. W. C.
I. Sir Walter Raleigh 1
II. George Durant 14
III. Thomas Pollock 26
IV. Edward Moseley 38
V. Hugh Waddell 51
VI. John Harvey 63
VII. Cornelius Harnett 76
VIII. Hooper, Hewes, and Penn 91
IX. Richard Caswell 105
X. Cleveland, Shelby, and Sevier 120
XL William Richardson Davie 132
XII. Nathaniel Macon 146
XIII. Johnston Blakely 159
XIV. William Gaston 170
XV. James Cochrane Dobbin 183
XVI. William Alexander Graham 192
XVII. Calvin Henderson Wiley 210
XVIII. Zebulon Baird Vance 222
XIX. Hill, Pettigrew, and Grimes 241
XX. Charles Duncan McIver 262
XXI. Makers of Modern North Carolina . . . 274
Appendix I. Origin and Names of the Counties
of North Carolina 295
Appendix II. List of the Governors of North
MAKERS OF NORTH CAROLINA
SIR WALTER RALEIGH
Why our Capital City was named Raleigh. — Raleigh,
the capital city of North Carolina, bears the name of
one of the great men of England. Why should an Ameri-
can State name its capital
city for an Englishman?
Was it because he was fa-
mous as a statesman, soldier,
author, and patriot? No, it
was because Sir Walter
Raleigh sent the first English
colony to America and his
colony settled in what is
now North Carolina. As
Raleigh's work won the best
part of the 1 New World for
the. English people, North
Carolina named her capital
city in his honor.
The Young Soldier. — Raleigh was born in England
in 1552, sixty years after Columbus discovered America.
He was born at a beautiful country place called " Hayes,"
on the southern coast of England. Near his home was
the town of Plymouth, a famous seaport where sailors
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Sir Walter Raleigh
2 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
came from all parts of the world. These sailors had
many a tale to tell about the countries they had visited.
Some of them had been to the New World where they
had seen wonderful wild birds and animals and the
savage red men with long bows and arrows and curious
wigwams. How eagerly young Raleigh listened to the
interesting stories of these sunburnt sailors! And how
he longed to sail out on the broad Atlantic to see the
wonders of America for himself!
But after a while school-days came and young Raleigh
was sent away from home to school. He studied
well and read a great deal. He liked books of travel
that told of adventure in foreign countries, and of the
strange people and customs of lands beyond the sea.
He was fond of history, and the great deeds of famous
men made him eager to win fame for himself. After
leaving school he became a soldier in the British army.
He was so skilful that he soon won the rank of captain,
and so fearless that his bravery attracted the attention
of Queen Elizabeth herself.
Raleigh becomes a Favorite of the Queen. — After
serving six years in the army, Raleigh went to London
and was presented at Court. His handsome form, his
fine face, his rich dress, and his elegant and pleasant
manners pleased good " Queen Bess." In a very short
time he became one of her most trusted advisers and
favorite courtiers. She made him a knight, and heaped
honors and riches on him until he became one of the
great men in England.
Raleigh plans to send a Colony to America. — At
that time England and Spain were at war with each
other. Spain owned great colonies in America from
SIR WALTER RALEIGH 3
which she received vast treasures of gold and silver.
With this wealth she fitted out armies and fleets against
England also claimed territory in America on account
of the voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot. But she
had not taken possession of it, and Spain denied that
she had any right to it. Sir Walter Raleigh thought
that England ought to send colonies to the New World.
Such colonies he said would help to make England richer
and more powerful than Spain. He laid his plans before
the Queen, and she gave him permission to take posses-
sion of her territory in America and plant a colony
Raleigh's First Expedition. — In less than a month
Raleigh had two vessels ready to sail for America. They
were commanded by daring sailors, Captains Philip
Amadas and Arthur Barlow. Raleigh intended for
them to explore the country and select a good place
for the colony. They sailed from England in the spring
of 1584, and on July 4th reached the coast of what is
now North Carolina. Springing upon the shore, they
first gave thanks to God for their safe arrival, and then
unfurling the English flag claimed the country in the
name of Queen Elizabeth and of Sir Walter Raleigh.
A few days later, while exploring the country, Captain
Barlow with seven of his men came to an island which
the natives called Roanoke. All about them were many
other islands "most beautiful and pleasant to behold."
The visitors seemed to think they had reached Para-
dise. They were charmed with the delightful climate,
the fertile soil, the sweet flowers, and the tall trees.
On every tree and shrub grew wild vines, filled with
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
sweet grapes, "in such plenty that in all the world the
like abundance could not be found. "
From the Indians, they received fruits, melons,
cucumbers, and corn, which was "very white, fair and
well tasted." The woods were full of deer, hares, and
birds ; and the waters were
alive with the goodliest
and best fish in the world."
As the men strolled
along the seashore, great
flocks of white cranes flew
up around them with such
cries that it seemed "as if
an army of men had
shouted all together."
The Indians treated their
visitors "with all love and
kindness"; and the Eng-
lishmen thought them
"most gentle, loving, and
" Virginia." — Amadas
and Barlow thought that
Roanoke was the very place for Raleigh's colony. After
spending two months exploring the country, they sailed
for England, carrying with them two of the Indians
whose names were Wanchese and Manteo. In England
their story was heard with wonder and delight. Every-
body was charmed with the new country and its gentle
loving people. When Amadas asked the Indians the
name of their country, they replied " Win-gan-da-coa,"
and by this name Amadas and Barlow called it. But
SIR WALTER RALEIGH 5
what the Indians really meant by " Win-gan-da-coa '
was, "What pretty clothes you wear!' Queen Eliza-
beth was so pleased that this new land was found
during her reign, that she called it " Virginia," in honor
of herself, the Virgin Queen.
The First Colony. — Raleigh lost no time in sending
a colony to Virginia. For governor, he selected Ralph
Lane, a brave soldier in the Queen's army. In this
colony were 108 men who sailed for Roanoke in a fleet
of seven vessels. After a voyage of three months,
they reached Roanoke in July, 1585.
Their first work was to build a rude fort, called
"Fort Raleigh," and then some dwelling-houses.
Lane was a good leader, but his men were lazy and
would not work. They expected to find gold and
silver at Roanoke and instead of planting crops,
they spent their time looking for precious metals.
So when winter came, their food gave out and
had it not been for Manteo, they would have
Wanchese and Manteo. — Wanchese and Manteo
had returned to Roanoke with Lane. What a wonder-
ful story they had to tell their old friends at home!
They had crossed the great ocean. They had been
to the great city of London. They had seen more
people with pale faces than they could count. They
had even been to the palace and seen the Queen. Manteo
loved the English people because they had # been kind
to him, and became their strong friend. But when
Wanchese saw how powerful the English people were,
he feared and hated them. Upon his return to Roanoke,
he made up his mind to destroy the little colony before
6 • HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
the pale-faced strangers became strong enough to take
the land from his people.
The Colony Fails. — When the English needed food,
Manteo sent them corn and fish, and persuaded the
other Indians to be friendly to them also. In return
Lane and his men were harsh and at times cruel. Then
Wanchese got the upper hand of Manteo, and the
Indians began to lay plans to get rid of their white
visitors. Soon a war broke out. But the red men
with their bows and arrows were no match for the
whites with their guns and pistols. Lane easily defeated
them, but after his victory he found it harder than
ever to get food for his men.
The men now began to ask each other anxiously,
"What shall we do? We can no longer depend on the
Indians, yet we must have food or we shall starve on
this lonely island." Had their friends in England for-
gotten them? Would Sir Walter Raleigh never send
them help? All were about to give up hope, when,
one day in June, a man dashed up to Lane, all out of
breath, and cried out that he had seen sails at sea.
How this good news cheered the homesick settlers!
An English fleet had arrived, and they were saved.
The commander of this fleet was Sir Francis Drake,
one of England's most famous naval heroes. In his
fleet were twenty-three vessels. He had been among
the West Indies plundering Spanish ships and now,
with vast treasures, was on his way back to England.
He offered to take Lane and his hungry men home.
They were glad enough to go and so in June, 1586,
they sailed away from Roanoke. Raleigh's first colony
SIR WALTER RALEIGH
Uppowoc,' Pagatour," and "Openauk." Lane
and his men found no gold in "Virginia." But they
carried home with them three plants that have brought
to England more wealth than the Spaniards got from
all their mines of gold and silver. These plants were
" uppowoc," "pagatour," and 'openauk." What odd
names these are! Who would
ever guess that " uppowoc"
was the Indian name for
tobacco, " pagatour" for
Indian corn, and u openauk"
for Irish potato?
And why, do you suppose,
the white potato, which came
from America, is called the
" Irish potato" ? Because,
after Raleigh planted it in
Ireland, the potato became
the chief food of the Irish
people and more than once
has saved them from star-
vation in time of famine. Raleigh also taught the
English people how to smoke. It is said that one day
while he was smoking his pipe, his servant entered the
room with a pitcher of ale. Frightened at seeing smoke
pouring out of his master's mouth and nose, he cried
out that Sir Walter was on fire, and dashed the ale in
Raleigh's Second Colony. — Raleigh was disappointed
at the failure of his colony, but he did not lose heart.
The next year he prepared a second colony for Vir-
ginia." John White, who had been at Roanoke with
Sir Francis Drake
8 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Lane, was appointed governor. In this colony were
ninety-one men, seventeen women, and nine children.
They sailed from England in April, 1587, and reached
Roanoke in July. They found Fort Raleigh in ruins,
but at once began to repair it and to build new houses.
Thus was begun the second English colony in America.
Virginia Dare. - On August 18, 1587, a baby girl
was born at Roanoke. Her mother, Eleanor Dare, was
a daughter of Governor White. On the following
Sunday the babv was baptized, and because she
was the first white child born in ' Virginia," her mother
named her Virginia. Perhaps more people know the
history of little Virginia Dare than of any other babv
that ever lived in America. The very spot on which
she was born is now in a county called Dare.
Governor White Returns to England. - As the settlers
reached Roanoke too late to plant a crop, somebody
had to return to England for food, clothes, and other
things. Who should go? The settlers said that Gov-
ernor White ought to go because he could get the things
they needed more easily than anybody else. But he
did not think that he ought to leave his colony, and at
first refused. Then all the men, and even the women,
gathered around him and begged so hard that at last
he consented. They promised him that if they had
to leave Roanoke before he returned they would carve
the name of their new settlement on a tree. If they
were in distress, they would cut a cross like this ("J")
above the name. Governor White then sailed for
''The Invincible Armada." — In England he found
everybody deeply stirred over a great war with Spain.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH
A powerful Spanish fleet called The Invincible Armada,"
with a large army on board, was coming to conquer
England. Every English vessel and every English
sailor was needed to defend the country. There was
no man in all the land busier than Sir Walter Raleigh.
Still Raleigh found time to prepare a ship loaded with
Indian Warriors at Roanoke Island, 1585
(From one of the pictures made by John White.)
supplies for his little colony. The ship started on its
voyage, but was soon driven back by Spanish war
vessels. It was then too late to send another. The
great " Armada ' had come, and every man's first duty
was to defend his country. In the midst of this great
danger to England, the little colony on far-away Roanoke
was neglected. Finally the great battle was fought
and the Spanish fleet destroyed. 'God blew with his
winds," said the Queen, "and they were scattered."
'Croatoan." -Two years had passed before Gov-
ernor White could sail again for Roanoke. He found
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
the island deserted. Not a sign of his colony could
be seen. He blew upon his trumpet. He called to
his people by name. He sang their old familiar songs.
He fired his guns and cannon. But there was no reply.
The houses had fallen down. Weeds grew within the
ruined walls. The settlers had disappeared.
Governor White wandered sadly about the place,
looking everywhere for some sign of his colony. At
last on a post near the
door of the fort, he
found one single word,
in capital letters,
above it was no cross
or any sign of distress.
Croatoan was the
place where Manteo,
the friend of the Eng-
lish, lived. So Gov-
ernor White started at once to find Croatoan.
The Lost Colony. — But during the night a great
storm arose. The wind snapped the ship's cables as
if they had been of twine. Three anchors were lost.
The vessel was driven on a sand bar and nearly wrecked.
Food ran low and fresh water gave out. When the
storm was over, the captain of the vessel refused to go
to Croatoan. In spite of Governor White's prayers,
he sailed away to the West Indies to repair his ship.
Even after the ship had been repaired, the captain
refused to sail for Croatoan, but returned to England,
carrying poor Governor White with him. Other expedi-
tions were sent to look for the colony, but no trace
Indians making a Canoe
SIR WALTER RALEIGH 11
of it was ever found. So Governor White never saw
his little granddaughter again, and to this day his colony
is known as "The Lost Colony."
Raleigh's Misfortunes. — Raleigh's colonies had cost
him a fortune and had not brought him in a single penny.
He soon found himself, too, out of favor with Queen
Elizabeth. She was angry because he had married one of
the ladies of her Court, and banished him from her sight.
But Raleigh, in spite of the Queen's disfavor, continued
to serve his country.
Upon the death of Queen Elizabeth, James Stuart,
King of Scotland, became King of England. He was a
wretched tyrant, and disliked the great men who had
made Elizabeth's reign so glorious. Of them all, he
hated Raleigh most. To please his friend, the King
of Spain, James had Raleigh thrown into prison. The
charge against him was treason, which everybody knew
to be false. Yet the King's judges declared Raleigh
guilty and sentenced him to death. But he was so
popular with the people that James was afraid to have
him executed, and he remained in prison for fourteen
Raleigh's Heroic Death. — During these years King
James fell more and more under the influence of the
King of Spain. There was no man in England whom
Spain feared and hated as much as Raleigh. So, to
show his love for Spain, in 1618 James ordered that
Raleigh be put to death. Raleigh met his death bravely.
When his friends came to say good-by, he smiled and
"I have a long journey to make, so I must take my
leave of you."
12 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
On the scaffold, he asked the headsman to let him see
the ax. The man hesitated.
"What!" said Raleigh. 'Let me see it. Dost
thou think I am afraid of it?" Running his finger
along the keen blade, he said:
"Tis a sharp medicine, but it will cure all my ills."
Then he laid his head on the block and told the heads-
man to strike. Again the man hesitated and trembled.
What dost thou fear, man!' exclaimed Raleigh.
Strike, man, strike!"
He struck and thus ended the life of one of England's
bravest and noblest sons.
Raleigh's own efforts to plant a colony in America
failed. But he never lost interest in the New World.
Soon after the loss of White's colony, writing of Vir-
ginia, he said, "I shall live to see it an English nation
yet." And he did live to see a permanent colony planted
at Jamestown. Sir Walter Raleigh rendered many
great services to his country, but his greatest service
was in pointing out the way to found an English nation
1. In what part of England is Plymouth?
2. Describe the position of England and Spain with reference
to Europe. To America. To each other.
3. What portion of the New World did Spain colonize? What
parts of the New World are now inhabited by English-speaking
4. Find and describe the situation of Roanoke Island.
5. Amadas and Barlow sailed from London down the Thames,
to the Canary Islands, thence to the West Indies, thence up the coast
of Florida to Cape Lookout, thence to Hatteras Inlet, thence to
Roanoke Island. Trace their route on your map.
SIR WALTER RALEIGH 13
6. Describe the location and surroundings of Roanoke Island.
What is its situation with reference to the West Indies? In what
county is it? What is its county seat?
1. Why was the Capital of North Carolina named Raleigh?
2. Describe Sir Walter Raleigh's early life.
3. Why did Raleigh become such a favorite with the Queen?
4. Why did England become interested in sending a colony
5. Describe the voyage of Amadas and Barlow.
6. How was their story received in England?
7. Tell the story of Raleigh's first colony.
8. What three plants did Lane take to England? Describe each of
these plants. Tell how it is cultivated. What are the uses of each?
9. Describe the second colony to Roanoke.
10. Why did Governor White return to England? What. promise
did the settlers make to him? Why did he not return at once to
11. Describe White's return.
12. Why did Raleigh give up his plans after the loss of his second
13. Describe Raleigh's last days.
14. What were the results of his efforts to plant a colony on Roanoke
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. How old was Raleigh when he was. presented to the Queen?
When he sent his first expedition to America? At his death?
2. How long did it take Amadas and Barlow to cross the Atlantic?
How long does it now take to go from New York to Liverpool?
3. How long did Lane's colony remain on Roanoke Island?
4. A certain historian says that the defeat of "The Invincible
Armada " was "the opening event in the history of the United States."
Explain what is meant by that statement.
5. Since Raleigh's efforts to colonize "Virginia" failed, what
right has he to be called "The Founder of English-America"?
How Settlers came to North Carolina. — After the
loss of the colony at Roanoke, many years passed before
other white settlers came to North Carolina. In 1607
Virginia was settled and grew into an important colony.
From Virginia came the pioneers who led the way to
the settlement of North Carolina.
In those days there were but few roads through the
wilderness. Travel by land was difficult and dangerous,
so the settlers usually traveled by water. By water,
too, they sent their products to market. Therefore
lands lying along the rivers and sounds were usually
selected for settlements. They were also more fertile
than the uplands. Accordingly the early settler usually
built his home on the bank of some stream. Many
of the streams of Southern Virginia flow into the sounds
of Eastern North Carolina. By following down the
banks of these streams, settlers from Virginia came into
Carolina, and built homes on the shore of Albemarle
George Durant. — Among the first of these early
settlers was George Durant. He was born in England
about 1632. While still a young man he left the Old
World to seek a home in Virginia. But Durant was not
satisfied with his situation in Virginia. He probably
heard hunters and explorers talking about the rich lands
on Albemarle Sound which could be had almost for
nothing. So, about the year 1660, he decided to explore
that country, and with several companions he set out
on a journey through the wilderness.
"Durant's Neck." — Durant's companions soon found
lands that suited them. They bought large tracts
from the Indians and began their new homes on the
Albemarle. But Durant himself was not so easily
satisfied. Before settling, he wanted to know more
about the new region. For two years he explored the
streams and the forests. At the end of that time he
probably knew more about the country on the Albe-
marle Sound than any other white man. It was this
habit of doing things thoroughly that later made him
a leader in the province.
At last Durant found a
place that he liked. It was a
fine tract lying on Perquim-
ans River and Albemarle
Sound. As it belonged to
the Indians, Durant bought
it from their chief, Kilco-
canen. He then lost no
time in clearing his land
and building a dwelling-
house. His plantation
which was a narrow point
of land between two rivers,
became known as " Du-
rant's Neck," and by this name it is known to this day.
" Carolina." — Other settlers now came to the Albe-
marle, and by 1663 their settlement had grown into
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
importance. Virginia claimed it as part of her territory,
but the King of England, Charles II, decided to use it
for another purpose. He wished to reward some of
his noblemen l who had done him great services by
giving them a large tract of land in America. In 1663
he signed a paper, called a charter, making them a pres-
ent, not only of the Albemarle section, but also of all
Sir George Carteret
Anthony Ashley Cooper
the region from Virginia to Florida, and from the At-
lantic to the Pacific. This region had already been
called Carolina, 2 in honor of King Charles I, father of
Charles II, and Charles II retained the name.
First Governor of Carolina. — The noblemen were
called the Lords Proprietors of Carolina. The King
gave them power to select a governor for their colony,
^hey were: George Monk, Duke of Albemarle; Edward Hyde, Earl of
Clarendon; Anthony Ashley Cooper; Lord Craven; Lord Berkeley; Sir
William Berkeley; Sir George Carteret; and Sir John Colleton.
2 From ' Carolus," the Latin word for Charles.
and in 1664, at the suggestion of Sir William Berkeley,
Governor of Virginia, they selected William Drummond.
Drummond ruled in Albemarle for three years. He
was a good governor. After leaving Carolina he went
to Virginia, where he took part in a rebellion against
his old friend, Sir William
Berkeley. The rebels
were defeated and Drum-
mond was captured and
taken before the Governor.
"Mr. Drummond, you
are very welcome," ex-
claimed the angry Gov-
ernor, "I am more pleased
to see you than any man
in Virginia. Mr. Drum-
mond, you shall be hanged
in half an hour." And
sure enough the old tyrant
had him hanged!
The New Government
and the People. — At first
the government of Carolina was simple enough,
people liked it because they had a voice in it.
governor was selected by the Lords Proprietors,
had six men to help him who were called his council.
The people themselves elected men to an Assembly. The
Assembly and the Council made the laws. But this plan
was too simple to please the Lords Proprietors. They
had a new one prepared, called the Grand Model, which
gave great authority to a class of noblemen who were
given such odd titles as " Landgrave' and 'Cacique."
Memorial Stone at Nixonton
(The people themselves elected men to
18 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
The Lords Proprietors were very proud of their new
plan. But it did not suit the people of Carolina, and
they soon raised a cry against it. 'Down with your
Landgraves! Down with your Caciques! Let us fly
to the King for protection." The Grand Model caused
nothing but trouble, because the people of North Caro-
lina would obey no government unless they had a voice
How the People prospered. — The colony was now
about ten years old. It contained nearly two thousand
people. Their chief crop was tobacco. As they had
no gold or silver, tobacco was used as money. People
bought and sold things, not for so many dollars, but
for so many pounds of tobacco.
Their trading was done chiefly with men from New
England. These New England men in their small
ships easily sailed right up to the doors of the planters.
To them the planters sold their crops. From them they
bought such things as could not be made on their plan-
tations. For a few years the affairs of the colony were
orderly and the people prospered.
Two Bad Laws. — In 1677 this happy condition came
to a sudden end. Two laws which were passed in
England, and a foolish officer who was sent over by the
Lords Proprietors, caused trouble and disorder. One
of these laws required the planters to pay a tax to the
King on every pound of tobacco they shipped out of
the colony. This tax was called the King's customs.
It was to be collected by an officer known as the collector
of the customs. The King's customs were a heavy
burden on the people because they were poor and
tobacco was their chief crop.
GEORGE DURANT 19
The other law required the planters to sell their
products to English merchants and to buy their goods
in England. This law was intended to break up the
trade with New England, and to enrich the British
merchants. It was called the Navigation Law.
The people protested against these laws. They
declared that it was not right to tax them for the benefit
of people in England. It was not right to make them
sell their tobacco to those who gave the lowest prices
for it, and to buy goods from those who charged the
highest prices. If they had to obey these laws they
would always remain poor. They therefore determined
not to obey them.
George Durant prepares to Resist. — In their resist-
ance to these laws, George Durant was their leader.
He was one of the largest planters in the province and
his influence with the people was very great. When
he called upon them to resist the Navigation Law,
they readily followed him in their first rebellion against
In 1676 two of the leading men from Carolina were
in England. One of them was Thomas Eastchurch,
who had been speaker of the Assembly. The other
was Thomas Miller. From them the Lords Proprietors
learned that affairs in Carolina were in bad shape.
The people were discontented with the new plan of
government. They disliked the Navigation Law. Their
governor had grown tired of his office, and gone to
England, leaving the colony " in ill order and in worse
The Lords Proprietors, therefore, had to select a
new governor. They wished to find one with whom
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
the people would be pleased. Perhaps, the Lords
Proprietors thought, the people would like to have one
of their own men for governor. They must like East-
church because they had elected him speaker of the
Assembly. Believing this, the Proprietors selected East-
Duke of Albemarle
Lord John Berkeley
church as the new governor. At the same time they
had Miller appointed collector of the customs.
But the Lords Proprietors were mistaken. The
people did not want Eastchurch for governor, and
there was one man who was bold enough to tell the
Proprietors so. That man was George Durant. Soon
after Eastchurch was appointed, Durant was in England.
Standing up boldly before the Proprietors, Durant
'My Lords, Eastchurch shall never be governor. If
he goes to Albemarle, I myself will lead a rebellion
GEORGE DURANT 21
Eastchurch and Miller. — In June, 1677, Governor
Eastchurch and Collector Miller sailed from England.
On their way they stopped at the island of Nevis, in
the West Indies. There Eastchurch fell in love with
a wealthy woman, and while he stayed to win a wife and
a fortune, he sent Miller on to look after the govern-
ment in Carolina. The people received Miller quietly,
and for a short time all went well.
But Miller's honors turned his head. He soon
began to abuse his power. He opposed the right of
the people to elect members of the Assembly. He
compelled men to pay heavy fines which were unjust.
He ordered his officers to arrest men whom he disliked
and bring them to him, dead or alive. He tried to break
up the trade with New England. He seized thousands
of pounds of tobacco for the King's customs, part of
which he used to keep up a guard of soldiers to do his
will. The people called it his " piping guard."
Durant leads our First Rebellion. — For a while
there was no one to lead the people, and Miller had his
own way. But in October, 1677, a ship arrived from
England with George Durant on board. Here was a
leader, at last, and Miller knew it. He determined to
catch Durant by surprise before he could arouse the
people. Quickly calling his "piping guard' together,
he hurried on board the vessel, pointed a pistol at
Durant's breast, and tried to arrest him as a traitor.
But Durant turned tables on him. He called on the
people to resist Miller's conduct. They rallied around
Durant, .arrested Miller, and threw him into prison.
Durant then suggested that the people elect an
Assembly to meet at his house. The Assembly met and
22 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
appointed John Culpeper collector in Miller's place,
and turned over to him the tobacco which Miller
had seized as the King's customs. The Assembly
then decided to have Miller tried for his crimes,
and George Durant was selected to bring him to
About this time a message was received from East
church. He had won his bride and was now in Virginia
on his way to become governor of Albemarle. East-
church was the lawful governor. Would George Durant
be bold enough to oppose him? Yes, he was ready to
do even that! He first had Miller declared guilty, and
imprisoned, and then he raised a strong guard to march
against Eastchurch. But no guard was needed, for
soon after Eastchurch reached Virginia, he died. And
so, just as Durant had declared, Eastchurch never
became governor of Albemarle.
The People's Government. — For a while after Miller's
defeat the people had a government of their own. But
in 1678 the Lords Proprietors decided to send over
one of their own number to be governor. Perhaps the
people would respect and obey a Proprietor. So they
selected Seth Sothel. 1 But while crossing the Atlantic,
Sothel was captured by pirates, and for the next four
years, first Thomas Harvey and then John Jenkins
acted as governor.
But during these years the real leader in the colony
was George Durant. The people had great confidence
in him. But his enemies declared that he was at the
head of the rebels. They said that he opposed the
governors sent over by the Lords Proprietors, and
x He had bought the share of Lord Clarendon.
GEORGE DURANT 23
pulled down and set up whom he pleased in their place.
"Although Jenkins had the title of governor/ 5 they
wrote, "yet in fact Durant governed and used Jenkins
but as his property."
Durant drives out a Wicked Governor. — In 1682
Sothel was released by the pirates and arrived in North
Carolina. He proved to be one of the worst governors
North Carolina ever had. George Durant denounced
him for his crimes. Then he arrested Durant for
treason, threw him into prison without a trial, and
seized his fine plantation. But he could not keep
Durant in prison. He was soon set free because he
could not be found guilty of any crime. Then he again
headed a rebellion, captured Sothel, and in turn threw
him into prison.
Durant then called upon the Assembly to decide
what should be done with the wicked governor. The
Assembly decided to send him to England to be tried
by the Lords Proprietors. But Sothel, afraid for the
Proprietors to find out all of his crimes, begged to be
tried by the Assembly. The Assembly granted his
prayer, found him guilty, and banished him from the
province. Thus for a second time, George Durant
freed Carolina from a tyrant.
Durant' s Last Days. — During the last years of his
life Durant was a justice of the peace. Among the
things that a justice of the peace had to do was to find
out and punish all persons engaged in "witchcrafts,
enchantments, sorceries, and magic arts." Let us hope
that George Durant found no poor old women to punish
as witches. He continued to be a leader in the province
until his death in 1694.
24 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
George Durant was our first patriot leader against
tyranny. Like all patriots he believed in obedience
to the law and to lawful rulers. But he also believed
in liberty, and when rulers broke the law and oppressed
the people, he was always ready to lead the people in
rebellion. The colony was small in his day, and his
struggles for liberty are but little known now. Never-
theless he fought the battles of freedom, and should be
remembered as a true patriot.
1. Trace the course of the James River. Point out the site of
2. Trace the course of the rivers of eastern Virginia that flow into
3. What are the principal sounds of North Carolina? What
rivers flow into them?
4. "Durant's Neck" is the point of land between the Perquimans
and Little rivers. Find it.
5. Describe the situation of the counties of Pasquotank, Perqui-
mans, Chowan, and Currituck, and name any streams or bodies of
water in each.
6. What is the general character of the coast of North Carolina?
1. When and where was the first permanent English settlement
made in America? Why did settlers from Virginia seek land on the
banks of Albemarle Sound?
2. Why did George Durant become interested in that region?
3. How did George Durant obtain land on the Albemarle?
4. What did King Charles do w r ith that region? What name was
then given it?
5. Tell the story of William Drummond.
6. Describe the government of Carolina. Why did the people
like it? What changes did the Lords Proprietors make in it? How
did the people like the changes?
GEORGE DURANT 25
7. How old was the colony then? How many people lived in it?
What was their chief crop? How was it used? Describe their trade.
8. What two bad laws were passed in 1677? What did the people
say about those laws?
9. Why did the Lords Proprietors select Eastchurch for gov-
ernor? What did Durant tell them?
10. Why did not Eastchurch go at once to Carolina? Describe
11. What occurred when Durant arrived in Carolina? Why did
not Eastchurch become governor?
12. Describe the government after the death of Eastchurch.
13. How did Durant rescue the colony from a wicked governor?
14. Why should we honor Durant?
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. How many years passed between the birth of Virginia Dare
and the settlement of Jamestown?
2. In what way has the geography of Eastern North Carolina
affected our history?
3. By what right did the whites take the land in America without
the consent of the Indians?
4. In what ways did the government of Carolina under the Lord
Proprietors resemble our government to-day? How did it differ?
5. What is a "tax"? For what purposes are taxes usually
collected? Who has the right to levy taxes in North Carolina?
6. In what ways did the Navigation Law injure the planters of
North Carolina? How did it benefit the English merchants?
Governor Sothel meets His Match. — Other men
besides George Durant suffered from the tyranny of
Governor Sothel. Once, when two vessels arrived in
Albemarle, Sothel determined to seize their cargoes
for his own use. Declaring that the captains were
pirates, he arrested and threw them into prison. One
of them died in prison 'of grief and ill usage." Just
before his death, this captain selected a young man,
who had recently come to the colony, to take charge
of his property for him. This young man was Thomas
Pollock. When Pollock demanded the property, Sothel
refused to give it up. Pollock threatened to go to
England and appeal to the Lords Proprietors. There-
upon Sothel flew into a rage, arrested the bold young
man, and locked him up in prison. But he was soon
released, for the people, tired of the tyrant Sothel, rose
against him and drove him out of the province.
Thomas Pollock. — Thomas Pollock was born in
Scotland, May 5, 1654, and came to Carolina in 1683.
Though he was still a young man, he already held a
high position. He was the deputy of Lord Carteret,
one of the Lords Proprietors. Each of the Lords
Proprietors sent to the colony a man to look after his
affairs there. These men were called "deputies.' 5 Next
THOMAS POLLOCK 27
to the governor they were the most important officers
in the colony. They formed the Governor's Council,
and advised him upon all important matters. They
were also part of the Assembly, and helped to pass laws
for the colony. When the office of governor became
vacant, the president of the Council filled it until a new
governor arrived. Thomas Pollock was twice president
of the Council, and twice acted as governor.
A Colonial Planter. — Pollock soon became one of
the largest and wealthiest planters in Carolina. In
those days there was
but little money in the
colony. A man's wealth
was counted by the
land and number of
slaves he owned. Pol-
lock owned plantations
on the Roanoke, the
r^t, j-t~ at j Colonial Plow
Chowan, the JN euse, and
the Trent rivers. One of his plantations was the site
on which the city of New Bern now stands.
He called his places by such names as Springfield,
Canecarora, Rosefield, Crany Island, and Balgra. In
all he owned 55,000 acres of land and about one hundred
slaves. His slaves were given such odd names as Scipio,
Jack Fiddler, Coffee Jacko, Long Mingo, Diego, Venus,
Tomboy, Diana, and Pompey. Most of them were
negroes, but a few were Indians.
The chief crops raised on Pollock's plantations were
tobacco, wheat, and corn. Other products were tar,
pitch, and turpentine which his slaves made from the
great pines that grew in his forests. These were very
28 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
useful for ship-building, and brought good prices in
Many fine horses, flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle
grazed in his rich pastures. Large droves of hogs ran
wild through his woods, fattening on roots, berries,
acorns, and wild fruit. Each of these animals bore a
certain mark by which Pollock could tell his from those
of his neighbors. A person found guilty of changing
another's mark was severely punished. He was made
to pay a heavy fine, and was taken to the whipping-post
and given " forty lashes on his bare back well laid on.' 5
If found guilty a second time, he was made to stand in
pillory and branded in the hand with the letter T'
(thief). Every year Pollock sent thousands of pounds
of pork to Virginia and to New England.
A Colonial Merchant. — In his will, Pollock called
himself a "merchant." This did not mean that he
owned a store as a merchant now does. In colonial
days a merchant was a man who owned ships and
carried on commerce with distant countries. Pollock
owned a number of vessels. From his wharves they
sailed to the ports of New England and to the West
Indies. They carried away cargoes of tobacco, salt
beef and pork, tallow, hides, furs, wool, and naval
stores; and they brought back rum, salt, sugar, molasses,
lumber, and such household articles as could not be
made on the plantations.
Sometimes Pollock even sent his ships across the ocean
to England. From England they brought clothes,
furniture, and other things for his own family. But
the clothes worn by the slaves and other servants, and
the rude furniture in their little cabins, were made by
THOMAS POLLOCK 29
his slaves. For Pollock, like other large planters, trained
his slave women to be skilful spinners and weavers;
while among his slave men were good tanners, shoe-
makers, blacksmiths, carpenters, and other mechanics.
. Many years passed before any sawmills were built
in i^lbemarle. Even the wealthiest planters, such as
Pollock, lived in log-houses. Their houses were built
of hewn logs, with wooden chimneys, wooden hinges,
and wooden locks. Indeed, they often had no iron-
work about them. But as Pollock grew wealthier, he
bought lumber, nails, iron hinges, and locks, in New
England, and, with the bricks made by his own slaves,
built better houses on his plantations.
The Planter at Home. — Hospitality was regarded
as one of the first duties of the colonial planter. Indeed,
most of them lived rather lonely lives, and were ever
ready to welcome guests to their houses. The traveler
brought news from other parts of the world, and his
stories helped the long evenings pass pleasantly. u The
inhabitants of Carolina," wrote one of these travelers,
"live an easy and pleasant life. As the land is very
fruitful, so are the planters hospitable to all that come
to visit them." Many housekeepers, he tells us, "give
away more provisions to coasters and guests who come
to see them than they expend among their own families."
Pollock's house was a favorite place for travelers. He
was known far and wide for his hospitality. At that
time there were no schools in Carolina. The wealthy
planters either had teachers in their own families, or
sent their sons to England to be educated. Pollock
sent his sons to England. One of them became an
officer in the English army.
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
An " Established Church" in Carolina. — Like many
of the other planters, Pollock was a member of the
Church of England. But in Carolina the people were
so widely scattered that it was very difficult for them to
have churches. Several years passed before any churches
were built, or any preachers came. The first preachers
in the colony were Quakers. These good men visited
the people in their homes,
preached to them, and
converted many to their
But such men as Pol-
lock thought there ought
to be an " Established
Church' in Carolina, just
as there was in England.
An " Established Church"
is a Church set up by
law to be the official
Church of the country. The law provides what officers
the Church must have, and requires everybody, whether
members or not, to pay taxes for its support. Such
Churches are found in nearly all the countries of Europe,
but not in America. In England the " Established
Church " is called the " Church of England," and it
is the same that we in America call the ' Episcopal
It was this church that Pollock wished to have estab-
lished in Carolina. The Quakers, and even some mem-
bers of the Church of England, opposed this plan. But
the Governor favored it, and in 1701 the Assembly
passed the law. By this law Quakers, as well as mem-
St. Thomas Church at Bath
(The oldest church in North Carolina
From a painting by Jacques Busbee)
THOMAS POLLOCK 31
bers of the Established Church, were required to pay
taxes to build churches and pay ministers. The law
divided the colony into small sections called " parishes/'
and provided that a church should be erected in each.
The officers of the church were called " vestrymen.''
In the parish of Chowan precinct, Pollock was the lead-
ing vestryman, and took an important part in building
the first church.
St. Paul's Church. — This church stood near the
present town of Edenton. It was known as St. Paul's
Church. Its length was only twenty-five feet. It
was built of hewn logs. The posts were driven into the
ground. Nails, screws, hinges, glass, and other material
had to be brought from England. When finished, it
was hardly more than a rude log cabin. But the mem-
bers were proud of their first church, and among them
were the governors, judges, and other high officers.
Their first service was held in January, 1703, but it
was not until 1705 that they chose a minister. They
agreed to pay him a salary of £30 a year. He was
also to have some land and certain fees by law. Only
two men paid as much as £5 annually toward this
sum. They were Thomas Pollock and Edward
Pollock and Moseley. — Pollock and Moseley were
great rivals. The people were divided into two parties,
with Pollock at the head of one, Moseley of the other.
In 1708 a dispute arose in the province as to whether
William Glover or Thomas Cary was the lawful governor.
Pollock was on Glover's side, Moseley on Cary's.
Finally the Lords Proprietors settled the matter by
sending Edward Hyde from England to be governor.
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Pollock and his friends welcomed the new governor,
but Cary rebelled against him. Both sides took up
arms and threw the colony into great disorder. This
division led to a terrible event in which Colonel Pollock
rendered his greatest service to the colony.
St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, begun in 1736
(Thomas Pollock took an important part in building the first church)
Bath and New Bern. — The first settlements were
made on the northern shore of Albemarle Sound. In
a few years settlers began to cross the sound and
move southward. In 1690 a few Frenchmen made a
settlement on Pamlico River. There, too, in 1705 was
laid off the town of Bath, the first town in North Caro-
lina. Later other pioneers crossed the Pamlico River
and cleared lands on the Neuse and the Trent. Here
they were joined, in 1710, by a body of Swiss and Ger-
mans under a Swiss nobleman. Baron Christopher de
Graffenried. These Swiss and Germans settled on
Pollock's plantation between the Neusc and the Trent,
where they founded the town of New Bern.
The Watchful Red Men. The increase in the
number of white men alarmed the Indians. They saw
that the whites were taking more and more of their
land, clearing the forests, and driving away the game.
■ SE- ;
*V. *« ' - ^
Bath, the Oldest Town in North Carolina
(A street scene of today)
The whites even captured some of the red men and
sold them into slavery. The Indians soon learned to
fear and hate their white neighbors. But for a long-
time they did not dare resist them. They waited pa-
tiently, pretending to be very friendly, but all the time
watching for a good chance to make an attack. The
quarrel between Gary and Hyde seemed to give them
the very chance they had been waiting for.
A Terrible Morning. — The leader of the Indians
was Chief Hancock. When he saw the whites fighting
among themselves, during Gary's Rebellion, he decided
34 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
that it was a good time for the Indians to strike a blow
that would destroy the colony. He appointed the morn-
ing of September 22, 1711, as the time for the attack.
His plans were kept so secret that the whites did not
dream of their danger.
They slept peacefully through the night. At day-
break the war-whoops of the savages aroused them from
sleep. Five hundred painted warriors poured out of
the woods on every side. Within two hours they had
slain 130 settlers on the Neuse, and burned their homes
to the ground. Men, women, and children fell beneath
their tomahawks. For three days the burning and
slaying went on. All along the Pamlico and the Neuse
there were scenes of blood and ashes and ruin.
South Carolina sends Help. — Governor Hyde did
his best to stop the awful work. He called upon Vir-
ginia and South Carolina for help. South Carolina
sent an army under Colonel John Barnwell. Barnwell
defeated the Indians in two great battles, but was him-
self defeated in the third. Then he and the Indians
agreed to a treaty of peace, and Barnwell returned to
South Carolina. But neither side kept the treaty. In
a little while the war broke out again. In the midst
of the war, Governor Hyde died, and the people turned
to Pollock to save the colony.
Pollock becomes Governor. — Pollock was chosen
president of the Council and acted as governor. In
times of peace he had refused to act as governor. But
now, in a time of danger and trouble, he thought it his
duty to serve the people in any way they wished. He
had to meet many trials and dangers. A number of
the people had been killed. Others were without homes,
THOMAS POLLOCK 35
clothes, or food. Arms and ammunition were scarce,
and there was no money to pay soldiers.
But Pollock did not stop to complain about his diffi-
culties. He sent messengers into Virginia and South
Carolina to seek help. He appealed to the people of
the province to forget their quarrels and unite to defend
their homes. Many, who had opposed Governor Hyde,
now came to Pollock's support. Even the Quakers,
who thought it sinful to take part in war, sent food and
supplies for the soldiers.
The Treaty with "King Blunt." — Not only did
Pollock unite the whites; he also divided the Indians.
One powerful chief, called Tom Blunt, had not taken
any part in the war. Pollock made an important treaty
with him. By this treaty Blunt was to be called "King
Blunt," and was to be regarded as the head of the Caro-
lina Indians. In return he promised to help the whites
against Hancock. In this way Pollock obtained valu-
able aid, for "King Blunt'' and his warriors were faith-
ful to their promises.
Soon after this treaty was made, Colonel James Moore,
of South Carolina, marched an army to the help of
North Carolina. He was joined by the soldiers whom
Pollock had raised. In March, 1713, they attacked
Hancock's fort, Nohoroco, on Contentnea Creek. The
battle lasted three days and Hancock was badly beaten.
He lost eight hundred of his bravest warriors. After this
terrible defeat, the rest of his tribe left North Carolina
and joined their kinsmen in New York. Never again
were the Indians in Eastern North Carolina strong
enough to destroy the white settlers.
Pollock establishes Peace. — The people had now
36 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
become tired of wars and quarrels. Pollock sought
earnestly to unite all parties. " Factions and parties
are no longer heard of," wrote an English clergyman,
who was in Carolina. " Thanks be to God," wrote
another, "we have no disturbance among ourselves.
All people's hearts unite and everybody is as happy as
the times will admit of, under the wise rule of our good
President." When the new governor, Charles Eden,
arrived in May, 1714, he found all "in peace and quiet-
Death of Colonel Pollock. — Charles Eden was gov-
ernor of North Carolina from 1714 to 1722. During
these years Pollock was a member of the Council.
When Eden died, in 1722, Pollock was again elected
president, and again acted as governor. He died in
office, August 30, 1722.
1. Where is Scotland?
2. Trace the course of the Roanoke River. The Chowan. The
Neuse. The Trent. The Pamlico. Is this last river called by the
same name throughout its entire length? Trace the course of Con-
3. Describe the situation of New Bern. Of Edenton. Of Bath.
1. Where was Thomas Pollock born? Why did he come to Caro-
lina? How was he treated by Governor Sothel?
2. Describe a colonial plantation.
3. Describe a colonial merchant.
4. Describe the colonial planter at home.
5. What was an "Established Church"? What Church was
established in Carolina? Why?
THOMAS POLLOCK 37
6. Where was the firsi church buil1 in Carolina? What was its
name? Describe it.
7. Tell the story of the founding of New Bern.
8. How did the Indians regard the increase in the white popula-
tion? What plans did they make? Who was their leader?
9. Describe the beginning of the war.
10. What help did North Carolina receive in this war from other
11. Why did Pollock become governor? What were the conditions
in the colony then? What did he do to make them better?
12. Tell how he divided the Indians.
13. How was the war brought to an end? What became of the
14. What were the results of Pollock's work as governor?
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. What is the meaning of the word "deputy" ?
2. How are pitch and tar made? For what purposes are they
used in ship-building?
3. Why was hospitality to travelers regarded as the special
duty of the planters in the South?
4. Why did De Graffenried's colonists name their town New
5. Why would not the Quakers bear arms in the Indian war? (See
St. Matthew 5:21-26.)
6. For whom was the town of Edenton named? What is the
meaning of the suffix "ton" ?
7. Why did the planters usually select their lands on a stream
or a sound?
8. Were the early towns usually founded on the banks of streams
or not? Give some illustrations.
The Rivals. — For many years the two leading men
in North Carolina were Thomas Pollock and Edward
Moseley. Each was wealthy, each was ambitious,
each was patriotic; and each wished to be the leader
in the province. So in public affairs they were generally
opposed to each other. First one, then the other would
get the upper hand. But after Pollock's death, no one
was left to dispute the leadership with Moseley, and he
became without a rival the leader of the people.
Edward Moseley. — Moseley came to North Caro-
lina about the year 1704. He made his home in Chowan
County but also owned large plantations in Chowan,
New Hanover, Tyrrell, Edgecombe, and Craven counties.
Altogether his plantations contained more than thirty-
five thousand acres, and he was the master of a hun-
dred slaves. His herds of cattle, his flocks of sheep,
his droves of hogs were as large and as fine as Colonel
Pollock's. No man in Carolina had finer or better
horses than Moseley; and his wife could boast of as
handsome silver tea kettles, silver coffee-pots, silver
knives, forks, spoons, tankards, casters, and other
furniture as any housekeeper in the colony.
Moseley was a well educated man. Perhaps no other
man of his day did so much as he for education in the
colony. In his will he says, "I would have my children
well educated," and left a sum of money for that pur-
pose. He owned the largest and best library in North
Carolina. His will mentioned nearly four hundred
books then in his library, and before his death he had
given away a large num-
ber. He sent money to
England for the purchase
of a communion service,
prayer books, and other
religious works for St.
Paul's Church. Three
years later he established
at Edenton a public library
worth more than £100.
The books in this library
were mostly written in
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew.
Career. — Moseley began
to take part in public
affairs about 1705. Dur-
ing the next forty years
he was chosen to every
public office to which the
people could elect him. From being a simple justice
of the peace, he rose to be chief justice of the prov-
ince. Year after year he was elected a member of
the Assembly, and was four times chosen speaker.
Like Pollock he was a vestryman of the Established
Church, but he believed in religious freedom, and
thought that eveiy man ought to be permitted to
Silver Service presented to St.
Paul's Church in 1725 by Edward
(Moseley sent money to England for the
purchase of a communion service,
prayer books, and other religious
works for St. Paul's Church)
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
worship God according to his own belief. He was also
a member of the Governor's Council, and in 1724,
for a short- time, acted as governor.
Moseley Comes to the Front. — It was in 1708,
during the dispute between Glover and Gary, that
Moseley came to the front as Pollock's rival. That
to ii I)
IV, i> . Poi
/ / /
-k \V\\( v\i
Colonial Currency Showing Moseley's Signature
dispute grew out of a law passed in England. This
law required every official in the colony to take an oath
to be true and loyal to Queen Anne. Such an oath is
called the "oath of allegiance." In North Carolina
there were thousands of Quakers who would not take
that oath. They were not opposed to Queen Anne,
but they thought it sinful to take any oath at all. Be-
fore 1704 they had always been permitted simply to
give their promise in place of the oath.
But when the Assembly met in 1704, Governor Daniel
said that the Quaker members, like all the other members,
must take the oath of allegiance. Tney refused. Then
the Governor declared they should not sit in the As-
EDWARD MOSELEY 41
sembly. The Quakers appealed to the Lords Proprietors.
Moseley, though not a Quaker, took their side. The
Lords Proprietors removed Daniel and put Thomas
Cary in his place. But Cary, too, declared that the
Quakers must obey the law. The Quaker party then
sent John Porter to England to appeal again to the
Lords Proprietors. Porter was successful. Cary was
removed and William Glover put in his place. But
this only made matters worse, for Glover also required
them to take the hateful oath. In great anger, the
Quaker party again turned to Cary, and again set him
up as governor.
But Glover refused to give up and Cary refused to
back down. Each claimed to be the only lawful gov-
ernor. For a time it looked as if there might be a war
about the matter. The people divided into two parties
over it. Most of those who favored an Established
Church supported Glover. Pollock was their leader.
Those who opposed an Established Church, as well as
some who favored it, supported Cary. Their leader
was Edward Moseley.
In 1708 the two parties agreed to let the Assembly
decide the dispute. An election was held, and both
sides worked liked beavers. When the Assembly met,
it was found that Moseley had led his party to victory.
He was at once chosen speaker. The Assembly then
decided in favor of Cary. Pollock and Glover, fearing
that their lives were in danger, fled to Virginia. For
the next two years Moseley and Cary ruled without
A New Governor. - - But in 1710 the Lords Proprietors
sent Edward Hyde to be governor of North Carolina.
42 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Hyde was a cousin of Queen Anne, and on that account
the people looked up to him with "awful respect." So
he was welcomed by all parties. Gary and Moseley
promised to receive him as governor, and Pollock re-
turned from Virginia.
For a while all went well. But soon Hyde began to
take Pollock's side against Moseley. He then made
up his mind to punish Moseley and Cary. Moseley
was arrested on a false charge. Then he and Cary
flew to arms. But the governor of Virginia sent aid
to Governor Hyde. Gary fled from the province, and
the rebellion came to an end. About the same time war
broke out with the Indians, and the whites saw that they
must stop their own quarrel to unite against the red men.
Moseley Takes a Stand for Liberty. — No man
hated tyranny or loved liberty more than Moseley.
He thought that the people ought to obey the laws and
respect their rulers; but he also thought that the rulers
themselves ought to obey the laws. The law of England
declared that the rulers should not take the property
of the people for any purpose without their consent.
Moseley believed that this should also be law in North
During the war with the Indians the colonial rulers
seized the property of the people for the public service
without their consent. Thev declared that it was
necessary to do so in order to save the colony. But
Moseley stood up boldly against such conduct. When
the Assembly met in 1715 he was speaker, and he per-
suaded the members to declare such acts to be unlawful
and against the rights and liberty of the people. Fifty
years later, when Great Britain tried to tax the Ameri-
cans without their consent, all the colonies echoed
Moseley's bold words.
Moseley Defies the Governor. — For several years
the rivers and sounds of North Carolina had been a
favorite place for pirates. Many of these daring
robbers brought their ves-
sels into Albemarle and
Pamlico sounds and into
Cape Fear river. They
captured hundreds of trad-
ing vessels, plundered their
cargoes, and murdered
their crews. The most
famous of these savage
men was Edward Teach,
whose bushy, black
whiskers gave him the nick-
name of "Blackbeard."
1 ' Blackbeard ' ' made his
headquarters at Bath, and
was the terror of the coun-
try. The people were anx-
ious to have him captured
and punished, but the governor, Charles Eden, would
not raise his hand against " Blackbeard."
After a while people began to whisper that the
Governor had been bribed by the pirate. It was said,
too, that even the chief justice, Tobias Knight, was
getting a share of the pirate's plunder. When Mose-
ley demanded that he be permitted to see the public
records, to find out if there was anything about
" Blackbeard" in them, Eden and Knight refused.
44 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
"Why/ 1 exclaimed Moseley, "the public records belong
to the people, and every man has a right to see them."
So he made up his mind to defy the Governor. Break-
ing into Knight's house, he seized the records in spite
of the Governor and the Chief Justice. The Governor
at once sent a band of armed men to arrest him. "It
seems easy enough," exclaimed Moseley, "for the
Governor to raise armed men to arrest me, but he
would not raise them to arrest the pirate." Moseley
was carried before the court and found guilty of break-
ing into Knight's house. He was fined £100 and for-
bidden to hold office for three years.
Moseley never proved that the Governor or the Chief
Justice was bribed by "Blackbeard." But Governor
Eden would never do anything to capture the pirate.
In 1718 Lieutenant Maynard, an officer of the British
navy, sailed in an armed vessel against Teach. A fierce
battle was fought, and Teach was beaten and killed.
An Old Quarrel with Virginia. — Lying between
North Carolina and Virginia was a strip of land about
fifteen miles wide which both colonies claimed. "Hun-
dreds of families"' had settled in it, and they would not
obey the laws of either colony. When the Virginia
officers tried to enforce the law against them, they
would say, "We are in North Carolina." When the
North Carolina officers came, they would say, "We are
in Virginia." They would not pay taxes or rent to
either colony. So it was very important to decide
which colony they were really in.
In 1709 the two colonies appointed certain men,
called "commissioners," to run the boundary line
between them and so settle the dispute. Edward
EDWARD MOSELEY 45
Moseley was North Carolina's chief commissioner.
When he met the Virginians, in 1710, he told them that
their surveying instruments were wrong. How angry
this made the haughty Virginians! They were so
indignant that they marched off to their homes, mutter-
ing many ugly things about the stupid Carolinians.
But it was not the Carolinians who were stupid that
time, for afterward it turned out that Moseley was
The King Interferes. — For many years the Vir-
ginians would have nothing more to do with the boundary
line. But in 1728 the King bought North Carolina
from the Lords Proprietors. He then sent an order
to the two colonies that they must settle their dispute.
Again Moseley was the principal commissioner from
North Carolina. The chief Virginia commissioner was
the proud and witty William Byrd.
How the Dispute was Settled. — The Virginians
prepared to come with great pomp and ceremony.
They wrote to Moseley and his companions that, for
the honor of their province, they would bring fine tents
and a long train of servants. "We shall also have/'
they said, "as much wine and rum as will enable us and
our men to drink every night to the good success of the
following day." They hoped the North Carolinians
would meet them with the same pomp and ceremony.
But Moseley and his companions were going for work,
not for play. So they replied that they had no wish
to outdo the Virginians "unless in care and diligence
in the affairs we come to meet vou about."
The commissioners and surveyors had a hard task.
They had to cut their way through dense forests and
46 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
wade through swamps and deep rivers. The surveyors
who ran the line were the first white men who ever found
their way through the Great Dismal Swamp. Many
disputes arose as to where the line ought to be run.
But after several weeks of hard work an agreement
was reached. The disputed territory was found to be
in North Carolina. In nearly every dispute Moseley
was right. Byrd was so angry that he wrote a spiteful
book about the boundary line, in which he said many
silly and untruthful things about North Carolina.
Moseley Moves to the Cape Fear. — A few years
later Moseley left Chowan County, and moved to the
new settlements on the Cape Fear River. The first
settlers in Carolina, as we have seen, built their homes
on Albemarle Sound. After that they pushed farther
and farther southward. In 1690 some French Hugue-
nots settled on Pamlico River. Then, in 1710, the
Swiss and Germans came and settled on Neuse River,
where they founded the town of New Bern.
But several years more passed before any white men
built homes on the Cape Fear. The Indians and pirates
stood in the way. But after they were defeated, settlers
began to clear the fertile lands on the banks of the
Cape Fear and its tributaries. The first ones moved
there about 1723. Two years later the old town of
Brunswick was laid off, and then, after a few years,
Wilmington was founded.
One of the leaders in the settlement of the Cape Fear
region was Edward Moseley. He became the owner
of several plantations in that section, as well as houses
and lots in Wilmington. In 1734 he moved to his
place at Rocky Point, where he made his home for the
rest of his life. His residence there was known as
Famous Homes on the Cape Fear. — Every planta-
tion in colonial days had a name. Some of those on
the Cape Fear have become famous in our history.
was Orton, the
home of Roger
Moore, who was
called, on account
of his great
wealth," Old King
Roger." A trav-
eler, who visited
him in 1734, said
Roger" was "the
chief gentleman in all Cape Fear. His house is built
of brick, and is exceedingly pleasantly situated about
two miles from the town, and about half a mile from
Near Orton was Kendal, the home of "King
Roger's" son, George Moore, who had twenty-eight
children; and Lilliput, which was "a beautiful brick
house," the home of Eleazar Allen, chief justice of the
colony. Near Moseley Hall, on the North East Cape
Fear, were several fine places. There was Lillington
Hall, where Alexander Lillington, a famous patriot of
the Revolution, lived. Across the river was Governor
Burrington's place, called Stag Park. Nearby were
The Neck, the home of Samuel Ashe who became
governor of North Carolina, and Green Hill, the
" Orton," as it is To-day
48 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
home of his brother, John Ashe, the famous soldier of
'The finest place in all Cape Fear," said the English
traveler, was Rocky Point, the home of Maurice Moore,
who was Edward Moseley's brother-in-law. Not far
away was Castle Haynes, where lived Colonel Hugh
Waddell, a famous soldier of the French and Indian
War. Close by lived John Burgwyn, treasurer of the
colony, at his home called The Hermitage.
Most of these houses were built of wood, but a few
were of brick. Usually they had only one story, and
were spread out over a large space. The rooms were
large and spacious, the halls and piazzas were wide.
In each room was a huge fireplace high enough for a
man to stand erect in and wide enough to hold a long
log. It was great fun in winter, during the long eve-
nings, for the family to build a roaring fire, and, drawing
their chairs in front of it, to roast apples, pop corn, and
pull candy, or perhaps to tell tales, or play games, or
read aloud to each other. Most of these houses stood
in the midst of large groves, on the banks of the rivers.
If you had visited one of them in 1734, you would not
have traveled in a carriage, or even on horseback;
and probably you would have found no horses or car-
riages at the front gate. But you would have seen
sloops, or schooners, or brigantines tied at the wharf
for most of the traveling and trading was done in boats.
Moseley's Last Service to the Colony. — It was in
this section among such neighbors that Moseley passed
the last years of his life. He continued to serve the
people and did much important work for the colony.
In 1737 he prepared a map of North Carolina. He
EDWARD MOSELEY 49
was api)ointed chief justice in 1744, and served until
His last important work was to help collect and revise
the laws of the province. So many laws had been
passed, so many had been repealed, and they were so badly
scattered, that it was difficult for one to tell what the
law was. In 1746, a committee was selected to gather
the laws together, to find out which ones were still in
force, and to have them printed in a single volume.
Moseley was at the head of this committee. The work
was completed before his death, but was not printed
Moseley died July 11, 1749. Throughout his life he
was a bold and earnest champion of liberty. In times
of trouble and danger, he was a wise and fearless leader.
The people trusted him, and he did not abuse their
trust. Wherever Edward Moseley led, they were ever
ready to follow.
1." Describe the situation of the following counties: Chowan,
New Hanover, Tyrrell, Edgecombe, Craven. Name and trace the
principal rivers and streams of each.
2. Why did the rivers and sounds of North Carolina afford a
good refuge for the pirates?
3. Describe the situation of the Dismal Swamp. What body
of water is in it? Can you guess the origin of the name of this lake?
4. Trace the boundary line between North Carolina and Virginia
a hundred miles from the coast. What streams does it cross? What
counties in each State border on it?
5. Trace the course of the Cape Fear river and its chief tribu-
taries. How did the river get its name?
6. Locate the city of Wilmington. Sixteen miles below Wil-
mington, on the west bank of the river, was the old town of Bruns-
wick. Mark the site on your map.
50 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
1. Moseley's wealth.
2. His interest in education.
3. What he thought about an Established Church.
4. How he came to the front in the affairs of the colony.
5. How he was treated by Governor Hyde.
6. What he thought about rulers taking the people's property
without their consent.
7. Moseley and "Blackbeard."
8. Running the boundary line between North Carolina and
9. The settlement of the Cape Fear region.
10. Famous colonial places on the Cape Fear.
11. Moseley's last public services.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. What were the duties of the speaker of the Assembly?
2. Do members of the Assembly and other officials in North
Carolina to-day have to take any oath when they enter upon their
duties? What do they have to promise?
3. Why were the Quakers opposed to taking an oath? See St.
Matthew 5: 33-37.
4. What King of England bought Carolina from the Lords Pro-
5. Who were the Huguenots? What four different nationalities
settled in Eastern North Carolina? Tell in what section each settled.
Do the names of the towns help in any way to locate their settle-
6. How long had Moseley been in North Carolina at his death?
Name the public offices that he held, and tell the principal duties of
England and France at War. — From 1756 to 1763,
England and France were at war with each other both
in Europe and in America. In European history this
war is known as the Seven Years' War; in American
history we call it the French and Indian War. One
of its causes was a dispute over territory in Amer-
ica. Both nations claimed the territory lying west
of the Alleghany Mountains and north of the Ohio
River. In 1753, the French sent soldiers to build forts
along the Ohio and hold that region for France. The
governor of Virginia commanded the French to with-
draw from British territory. The French refused.
Virginia then called on the other English colonies to
help her drive the French away. The war that followed
was to decide whether the French or the English were to
control the North American continent.
Hugh Waddell. — In this war North Carolina soldiers
fought under the banner of the king of England. One
of her soldiers became noted for his courage and abil-
ity. This man was a young Irishman who was only
nineteen years old when the war began. His name was
Hugh Waddell. He was born in Ireland, in 1737, and
had been in North Carolina but a short time when the
war broke out. His father's name was also Hugh Wad-
52 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
dell. His ancestors were natives of Scotland who had
settled in the northern part of Ireland. Hugh Waddell,
therefore, came from that race of people whom we call
Scotch-Irish. They were noted for their love of liberty,
of learning, and of religion.
Waddell comes to North Carolina.
— In 1742, the elder Hugh Waddell
killed a man in a duel, and fled to
America. He brought his son with
him. They went to Boston, where
the boy was sent to school. After a
few years, the elder Waddell thought
that he could safelv return to Ireland.
Upon his arrival there, he found that
during his absence all of his property had been taken
from him; and when he died a little later, he left his
son alone in the world, without any estate.
But young Waddell did not despair at this misfortune.
He promptly made up his mind to seek a new fortune in
America. In 1753, one of his father's Irish friends,
Arthur Dobbs, was appointed governor of North
Carolina. This event probably caused young Waddell
to select North Carolina as his future home. He
arrived in the colony about the beginning of the year
'Captain Waddell." — Soon after his arrival, the
Assembly voted to raise a regiment of 450 soldiers to
serve against the French. Colonel James Innes was
appointed commander of these troops. Hugh Waddell
was selected as one of his lieutenants. They were sent
to Virginia to serve against the French and Indians.
While on duty in Virginia, Lieutenant Waddell was such
HUGH WADDELL 53
an active and intelligent officer, that he was promoted
to the rank of captain.
On the Western Frontier of North Carolina. —
Because of his ability, Waddell was soon given an
important command on the western frontier of North
Carolina. His duties there were to keep a sharp watch
on the Indians, and to protect the inhabitants from
their attacks. The two most powerful tribes were the
Cherokee and Catawba. Both the English and the
French were anxious to secure their aid.
In 1755, the North Carolina Assembly voted £10,000
for a fort on the frontier. At the same time, it was
provided that three companies of soldiers should be
raised for a garrison. Governor Dobbs selected Captain
Waddell to build the fort and take command of the garri-
son. He was told to win the Indians to the side of the
English and to make a treaty with them.
Fort Dobbs. — This was a very important duty to
place on so young a man. But the young captain was
ambitious, and eager to show that he was worthy of the
trust placed in him. He went to work with a vim, and
soon had his fort built. It stood near the site of the
town of Statesville. The next year the Assembly sent
a committee to inspect the work. One of the members
was Richard Caswell, who became North Carolina's
most famous soldier during the Revolution.
This committee carefully examined Captain Waddell's
fort, and reported to the Assembly that it was a good and
substantial building. The walls were built of oak logs,
from six to sixteen inches thick, and twenty-four feet
high. The fort had three floors so arranged that a
hundred men could fire their muskets from each at the
54 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
same time. The committee said that the fort was
" beautifully situated in a fork of Fourth Creek, a
branch of the Yadkin river. The officers and soldiers
were well and in good spirits. ' ; Captain Waddell had
named it "Fort Dobbs/' in honor of the Governor.
Fort Dobbs was the most important post in the colony.
Governor Dobbs was so well pleased with Captain Wad-
dell's work, that he kept him in command of the fort
for nearly two years. He declared that the young
officer was in " every way qualified for such a command,
as he was young, active, and resolute." Captain Wad-
dell succeeded in making a treaty with the Indians, but
as we shall see they did not observe it very long.
An Over-Mountain March. — In 1757, Captain Wad-
dell received word that the English garrison at Fort
Loudon, on the Tennessee river, was in great danger.
Selecting some of his best men, he hurried to its aid.
His route lay through two hundred miles of unbroken
forests. He had to cross high rugged mountains
and to ford deep rivers. There were no roads and
no inhabitants except hostile Indians. But the young
commander conducted the march with great success.
He reached Fort Loudon, relieved its garrison, and
returned to Fort Dobbs in safety. Upon his return he
was again promoted, this time to the rank of major.
Major Waddell is ordered to Virginia. — The next year
Major Waddell was ordered to Virginia. A great expe-
dition was to march against the French at Fort
Duquesne. An army had been sent from England,
under General John Forbes. It was joined in Virginia
by troops from Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and
North Carolina. The Virginia troops were commanded
HUGH WADDELL 55
by Colonel George Washington. Major Waddell com-
manded the North Carolina troops. He had 300 white
soldiers and some Cherokee Indians.
The March to Fort Duquesne. — Major Waddell had
now become an experienced soldier. He was thoroughly
familiar with Indian warfare, and he knew how to fight
the savages after their own manner. His men were
skilful woodsmen and crack riflemen. They were just
the sort of men that General Forbes needed to lead
his army through the wilderness. So he placed Major
Waddell, together with Colonel Washington, in the
front of his army. Waddell' s duties were to keep a
sharp lookout for hostile Indians; to act as a scout
and gather information; to build bridges and boats;
and to prepare the route for the army to follow. This
was just the sort of work that Major Waddell liked.
On the march he " dressed and acted as an Indian," and
" had great honor done him."
Sergeant John Rogers. — One of Waddell's men per-
formed a service for which the Assembly rewarded
him. The march through the wilderness was very
slow and difficult. General Forbes feared that winter
would set in before he could reach Fort Duquesne.
To keep the army in the wilderness during the winter
would be too dangerous. Either he must push on more
rapidly, or turn back and wait for the spring. But he
was afraid to push on boldly until he knew more about
the situation at Fort Duquesne. So he offered a reward
of fifty guineas to any soldier who would capture an
Indian from whom the English could get information.
Sergeant John Rogers, one of Major Waddell's men,
won the reward. At great risk to his own life, he captured
56 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
an Indian warrior and brought him to General Forbes.
The Indian said that the French garrison was very small
and weak, and would abandon the fort as soon as the
English came in sight. General Forbes was delighted
with this news, but he forgot to give Sergeant Rogers
the promised reward. The North Carolina Assembly,
however, gave him twenty pounds for that important
The English capture Fort Duquesne. — General Forbes
decided to push on more rapidly than ever. He
selected his best companies, put them under the com-
mand of Colonel Washington, and ordered them to
attack the fort. Among these troops were the North
Carolina soldiers under Major Waddell. The rest of
the army followed more slowly.
The Indian's story proved to be true. When the
English appeared the French fled, and the fort fell into
Washington's hands. He changed its name to Fort
Pitt in honor of England's great statesman, William
Pitt, the friend of America. It is said that the first
English " soldier " to enter Fort Duquesne was a fine
large dog that belonged to Major Waddell. For his
services in this campaign, Major Waddell was promoted
to the rank of colonel.
Colonel Waddell defends Fort Dobbs. — Upon his
return to North Carolina, Colonel Waddell again found
work to do at Fort Dobbs. The Indians had broken
their treaty, and were on the warpath. Many of the
settlers were driven to seek refuge at Salisbury and
among the Moravians at Bathabara. Colonel Waddell
hurried to Fort Dobbs to protect the settlers. He was
able to check the Indians for a while, but could not
HUGH WADDELL 57
entirely stop their destroying property and murdering
In February, 1760, the Indians attempted to destroy
Fort Dobbs. One dark night, they gathered close
around the fort to make a secret attack. Suddenly the
dogs in the fort began to
make "an uncommon noise."
Taking ten stout soldiers,
Colonel Waddell went out to
see what the trouble was.
His little band was attacked
by seven times their own
number. But Waddell told
, . . , . ., , Stone marking site of Fort Dobbs
his men to keep together, and
hold their fire until the Indians were within ten steps.
Each musket was loaded with a bullet and seven buck
shot. When the soldiers fired, the red men retreated.
Colonel Waddell then returned safely to the fort.
Instantly the red men swarmed around in still larger
numbers. But Waddell was cool and calm. He inspired
his men with courage, and managed them so well that
he drove the Indians off in great confusion. Writing
to the Governor about the fight, Colonel Waddell said:
"I expected they would pay me another visit last night,
but find they did not like their reception."
The Indians beg for Peace. — The next year North
Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia joined in sending
a great expedition against the Indians. Colonel Waddell
commanded the North Carolina troops. They attacked
the Indians near the present town of Franklin, in Macon
county. The whites won a great victory. They des-
troyed the red men's supplies, laid their corn fields in
58 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
ruin, and burned their towns. This blow broke the power
of the Cherokee, and forced them to beg for peace.
Our Best Indian Fighter. — Colonel Waddell had
now become the foremost soldier in North Carolina. As
an Indian fighter he had no equal in the province, and
no superior anywhere. He had learned all the tricks
of the savages, and he knew how to meet them. His
hard life on the frontier had made him used to hard-
ships and dangers. He had grown into a large, powerful
man, with strong, active limbs, and deep, broad chest
and shoulders. As a leader he was fearless, cool, and
calm in the midst of danger, and quick to see the best
way out of it.
The Indian Fighter is captured. — In 1757, while he
was in command at Fort t)obbs, Waddell was elected to
represent Rowan county in the Assembly. In Novem-
ber, he went to Wilmington to attend the session.
There he found time not only to make laws for the
people, but also to make love for himself. The bright
eyes of Mary Haynes did what the most cunning
Indian could never do — they captured the brave
young Indian fighter!
Mary Haynes was the daughter of Captain Roger
Haynes, an officer of the British army. He owned a
fine place, called " Castle Haynes," near Wilmington.
To Castle Haynes, therefore, after his battles were over,
the young Colonel came to surrender himself. Colonel
Waddell then made his home at Wilmington. He owned
several plantations in Rowan, Anson, New Hanover,
and Bladen counties. His favorite residence was at
Bellefont, in Bladen county, on the Cape Fear, about
two miles below Elizabethtown.
WaddelPs Political Honors. — Colonel Waddell had
now become one of the leading men in the province. In
1760, he was again elected to the Assembly from Rowan
county. After he moved to Bladen he was elected to
the Assembly from that county four times. Gover-
nor Dobbs and Governor Tryon both recommended him
to the King for appointment to the Council. Tryon
wrote that Colonel Waddell possessed " an easy fortune,"
and was held " in much esteem as a gentleman of honor
Waddell defies the Governor. — When Parliament
passed the Stamp Act, the Americans declared they
would not obey it because Parliament had no right to
tax them without their consent. Waddell took the side
of the colonists in resisting it.
He became the military leader
of the patriots on the Cape Fear.
In November, 1765, he led them
in one of the boldest deeds ever
done in America.
On November 28, one of the
King's war vessels, the Dili-
gence, arrived at Brunswick with
the stamps for North Carolina.
The news of her arrival spread
quickly. Up and down the Cape Fear, and far into the
country, men snatched their rifles and hurried to Bruns-
wick. There they placed themselves under the leader-
ship of Colonel Waddell. He drew them up along the
river bank, and told the Captain of the Diligence that
none of the King's stamps should be brought to shore.
This daring deed prevented any of the stamps from
An English Revenue Stamp
for the Colonies
60 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
being used in North Carolina. Such resistance to the
King's officers was treason, and treason was punished
bv death. But Hugh Waddell and the men who
followed him dared even death in defence of their
Waddell helps the Governor. — When Governor
Tryon tried to make the people buy the stamps, Hugh
Waddell resisted him. But when Governor Tryon
raised an army to compel the Regulators to obey the
laws of the colony, Hugh Waddell was ready to help
him. He was ever ready to oppose both tyranny and
lawlessness. In the counties around Hillsboro the people
complained that the taxes were too high and the sheriffs
and other officers were dishonest. They called upon the
Governor and Assembly for relief. But it required some
time for the Governor and Assembly to act, and the
people became impatient. They formed themselves into
bands called Regulators and refused to obey the laws or
to pay taxes. They beat the officers, broke up the courts,
and insulted the judges. In 1771, Tryon raised an army
to march against them. He appointed Hugh Waddell
a general, and sent him to raise troops in the West.
Tryon met the Regulators and defeated them at Ala-
mance, but Waddell did not reach there in time to take
part in the battle.
Death. — The next year, 1772, General Waddell
started on a trip to England. He went down the Cape
Fear to Fort Johnston, near its mouth, to board the ship
for his journey. But he was taken suddenly ill and
compelled to return. After suffering for nearly a year,
he died April 9, 1773.
HUGH WADDELL 61
1. What states have been formed from the territory conquered by
England from France in the French and Indian War?
2. Fort Duquesne stood where the city of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania,
now stands. Describe its situation.
3. Fort Dobbs was in what is now Iredell county (then Rowan) near
the present town of Statesville. Locate its site. Where is Salem?
4. Fort Loudon was on the Tennessee river. Describe the char-
acter of the country through which Waddell had to march to reach it.
5. Describe the situation of the town of Franklin. It was near this
town that Waddell fought his last battle with the Cherokee.
6. Where is Elizabethtown? Hillsboro? The Eno River? Ala-
7. Fort Johnston was near the site of the present town of Southport.
Locate its site.
1. What was the cause of the French and Indian War?
2. Where was Hugh Waddell born? Who were the Scotch-Irish?
For what were they noted?
3. Why did Hugh Waddell come to North Carolina to live?
4. What was his first military service?
5. What important duty was given him on the frontier, and why?
6. Describe Fort Dobbs. Why was it such an important post?
7. Describe WaddelFs march to Fort Loudon.
8. What service did Waddell and his men render on the march to
9. Describe WaddelFs defence of Fort Dobbs.
10. Tell of Waddell as an Indian fighter.
11. What political honors did Waddell receive?
12. How and why did he defy Governor Tryon?
13. How and why did he help Tryon against the Regulators?
62 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. What part of North America was settled by the French? Give
some names of towns and other places that indicate they were French
settlements. Does France now own any territory in North America?
2. What part of North Carolina was settled by the Scotch-Irish?
3. What interest did North Carolina have in driving the French out
of the territory north of the Ohio?
4. Tell what is meant by fighting " Indian-fashion."
5. Why were the troops of Washington and Waddell, rather than
the regular soldiers from England, selected to make the attack on Fort
6. Why did Washington change the name of Fort Duquesne to Fort
7. When the United States was at war with Spain, in 1898, Congress
passed a Stamp Act and the people cheerfully paid the tax. What
was the difference between that tax and the one the people resisted in
John Harvey. — Lying in Perquimans county, between
the Yeopim and Perquimans rivers, is a narrow strip
of land known as " Harvey's Neck." Here in colonial
days lived the Harvey family. For more than a cen-
tury, this family bore an important part in the history
of North Carolina. One of them was speaker of the
Assembly, and the leader of the people at the begin-
ning of the Revolution.
This man was John Harvey. He was born at Harvey's
Neck about the year 1725. When he was four years
old his father died. In his will he left directions that
his four boys should be well educated.
These boys grew up on a large plantation. Besides
being well taught in their books, they learned to ride,
to hunt, to fish, to swim, to row, to sail a boat. They
learned, too, how to do the work of the plantation.
They became well educated men. All of them after-
wards were leaders in the affairs of the province.
John Harvey was a large and wealthy planter. Many
slaves worked on his plantations, and vessels from distant
colonies anchored at his wharves. They carried the
products of his farms to New England and to the West
Indies. He was a generous man with his wealth. One
who knew him tells us that " his house was one continued
64 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
scene of hospitality and benevolence, and his purse, his
hand, and heart were ever devoted to the service and
relief of the distressed."
John Harvey's Political Career. — Early in life, John
Harvey began to take part in public affairs. He was
just twenty-one when the people of Perquimans county
elected him to the Assembly. The Assembly met at
New Bern, and thither, in June, 1746, John Harvey
went to take his seat. Until 1775, he continued to rep-
resent his county. For several years he was speaker
and the leader of the Assembly in its struggles for liberty
against the King's governors.
The War with France. — Soon after he entered the
Assembly, the French and Indian War broke out.
The North Carolina Assembly ordered that soldiers
should be raised in the province to march against the
French and Indians, and voted £50,000 for their support.
John Harvey helped to prepare these laws. When the
Governor tried to force the Assembly to levy taxes
against the rights of the people, John Harvey spoke out
boldly against him. But in all proper measures for
carrying on the war, John Harvey supported the Gov-
ernor. After seven years of fighting, England and her
colonies defeated France, and compelled her to surrender
all the territory she owned in North America.
Harvey Becomes Speaker. — During these years,
Harvey became the leading man in the Assembly. When
the Assembly met in November, 1766, the members
had to choose a new speaker. All eyes turned toward
John Harvey. Richard Caswell proposed his name and
he received every vote in the Assembly. Then, accord-
ing to the ceremony of that day, they went into the
Council Chamber to present their new speaker to the
Governor, and ask if he approved of their choice. The
Governor bowed and smiled pleasantly, and declared
that he was much pleased with their choice of Mr. John
Harvey. Then the members returned to their own hall
and Harvey took his seat
Next to that of governor,
the office of speaker was the
highest office in the colony.
The governor was sent from
England by the King, and
the people had nothing to
do with selecting him. So
the office of speaker was
the highest to which a mem-
ber of the Assembly could
be chosen. He presided
over its sessions, and was its
leader in all important mat-
ters. John Harvey held that
office for seven years, and led the people in some of the
most important events in our history.
Harvey leads the Fight against Taxation by Parlia-
ment. — The war with France had left England deeply
in debt, and King George III decided to make the
Americans help pay it. The British Parliament, there-
fore, passed the Stamp Act, and other acts to tax the
Americans. But the Americans declared that these
taxes were unlawful and they would not pay them.
They refused to trade with the British merchants unless
the taxes were removed. So Parliament was forced to
George III, King of England
(The frontispiece on "Watts' Complete
Spelling Book" from which many-
colonial children were taught)
66 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
remove all except the tax on tea. That must be left
on, said the King, in order "to try the question with
America." We shall now see how John Harvey led
the North Carolina Assembly u to try the question with
In November, 1766, Harvey persuaded the Assembly
to appoint a committee to appeal to the King against
the tax. He was placed at the head of this committee,
and wrote an address which was sent to the King. In
it he said that North Carolina had already paid her share
of the cost of the war with France, and it was not fair
to make her pay England's, too. Whenever the King
had asked North Carolina for aid, the Assembly had
always " cheerfully and liberally' given it; and he
promised that it would continue to do so in the
But the British Parliament, he declared, had no right
to levy taxes on the people of North Carolina. They
were, he said, entitled to " all the rights and liberties '
that other Englishmen had. They were free men, and
" free men can not be legally taxed but by themselves
or their representatives." North Carolina had no repre-
sentatives in Parliament; therefore Parliament could
not legally levy taxes in North Carolina. And, moreover,
said bold John Harvey, the people of North Carolina
would not pay any such taxes!
Non-Importation Associations. — Such addresses made
the King and Parliament angry, and they passed laws
to punish the Americans. Then the Americans agreed
with each other that they would buy no more goods in
England until all such laws were repealed. Such agree-
ments were called " Non-Importation Associations."
JOHN HARVEY 67
The King at once ordered his governors to break up
So when John Harvey, in November, 1769, proposed
for the Assembly to adopt a " Non-Importation Associa-
tion," Governor Try on angrily dismissed the members
and commanded them to go home. But Harvey at
once called on them to meet in spite of the Governor.
Sixty-four of them obeyed his call. They met as a
convention independent of the Governor. John Harvey
was chosen their leader. He was called " Moderator."
The members declared that they would resist every
attempt of Parliament to levy taxes on Americans.
They adopted a " Non-Importation Association," called
on all the merchants to sign it, and resolved to treat
with contempt all who refused. Most of the merchants
in the province signed it, and trade with British mer-
chants was stopped.
The Assembly Rewards Harvey. — Harvey had now
become the most trusted leader in the province. The
people had great confidence in him. The members
of the Assembly were ready to follow whenever he led.
In order to show their devotion to him, they voted, in
1773, to give him £100 as a reward for his faithful
services to the colony; and the next year they voted
Committees of Correspondence. — The quarrel with
the King had now become very bitter. He sent an
army to Boston to overawe the people. In some of the
colonies there was fighting and bloodshed. Men began
to fear that the quarrel would lead to war, and they
saw that the colonies must unite in self-defence.
The Virginia Assembly proposed that each colony
68 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
appoint a committee to keep in touch with the other
colonies. These committees were to write letters to
each other so that each might learn what the other
colonies were doing, and make helpful suggestions. They
were called " Committees of Correspondence." The
King denounced this plan, for he was afraid if the colonies
united they would be strong enough to resist him.
Nowhere was there greater excitement than in North
Carolina. The Assembly, led by John Harvey, was
struggling hard with the Governor, Josiah Martin, who
had succeeded Governor Tryon in 1771. The Assembly
stood for the liberties of the Americans; the Governor
stood for the power of the King and Parliament. He
refused to give his consent to laws passed by the Assem-
bly. Trade was at a standstill. The courts were closed.
Business men could not collect their debts. Criminals
escaped without punishment. The people were greatly
alarmed, but they were determined to follow John
Harvey until they won their liberties.
In December, 1773, Harvey proposed that the Assembly
appoint a Committee of Correspondence. The Governor
tried hard to prevent this step, but the Assembly followed
Harvey's advice. Nine men were selected with Harvey
at their head. The others were Robert Howe, Cornelius
Harnett, William Hooper, Richard Caswell, Edward
Vail, John Ashe, Joseph Hewes, and Samuel Johnston.
When this committee met, it wrote to the other
colonies that North Carolina was readv to unite with
them against the King and Parliament. The committee
thought that all the colonies ought to elect delegates to
a great Continental Congress at Philadelphia to agree
on a plan of union.
JOHN HARVEY 69
John Harvey leads the Way to Revolution. — These
delegates were to be chosen by the Assembly. But
the Assembly could not meet except when the Gover-
nor called the members together. Governor Martin did
not want North Carolina to send delegates to the Con-
tinental Congress, so he made up his mind not to call
a meeting of the Assembly until it was too late to
elect them. When John Harvey heard of this, he flew
into a terrible rage.
" In that case," he exclaimed, " the people will call
an Assembly themselves." He hastened to ccnsult
some of the other leaders.
" Let us call a convention independent of the Gover-
nor," he urged. " I will call on the people to elect
members, and you
must help me. Let
us get to work at
This was one of the
ever made in North
Carolina. Timid men
drew back, for they feared that John Harvey was lead-
ing them into rebellion. But he fearlessly took the
lead, and the people followed. Governor Martin's anger
rose to white heat. He denounced John Harvey's plan.
" It is against the law," he cried. " It is an insult to
the King." The Governor declared that it was re-
bellion, and that those who dared take part in it should
be punished. He commanded the members not to hold
any such meeting. But under the bold leadership of
John Harvey they met at New Bern, August 25, 1774.
Governor's Palace at New Bern
70 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
The First Provincial Congress. — Such a Congress
could resist the measures of the King better than the
Assembly could. The Assembly could meet only when
the King's Governor called it. The Congress met when-
ever it chose. The Governor could dismiss the Assem-
bly whenever he pleased. He had nothing to do with the
Congress. Acts passed by the Assembly did not become
laws until he approved them. Acts of the Congress did
not need his consent. So it was a wise plan of John Har-
vey to call this Congress to oppose the King's tyranny.
Seventy-one members attended. Every one of them
looked to John Harvey as their leader. They elected
him moderator. The Congress remained in session four
days. Some very important resolutions were adopted.
It was agreed that:
1. There must be no more trade with England until
Parliament repealed the laws against America.
2. Merchants must not charge higher prices than
usual for their goods.
3. The people must drink no tea until the tax was
4. Planters must not import slaves.
5. There must be no dealings with any colony or any
person who would not join the Non-Importation Associa-
6. The people of North Carolina must obey the
measures of the Continental Congress.
7. William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and Richard Cas-
well were to go as delegates to the Continental Con-
gress at Philadelphia to represent North Carolina.
Thus John Harvey again beat the King's Governor;
and before the Congress adjourned, it voted to give its
JOHN HARVEY 71
thanks to " Mr. Moderator Harvey, for his faithful
exercise of his office, and the services he has thereby
rendered to this province, and to the friends of America
How the People obeyed the Provincial Congress. —
In all parts of the colony patriots willingly obeyed the
measures of the Provincial Congress. Merchants refused
to buy any more goods from England, planters imported
no more slaves, and women stopped drinking tea. At
Edenton, October 25, 1774, fifty-one women met at the
home of Mrs. Elizabeth King and there signed a paper
binding themselves to give up the "custom of drinking
tea" until the tax was taken off. The "Edenton Tea
Party," as this event is called, showed that the women
of North Carolina were as ready to make sacrifices for
the good of their country as were their fathers and
Harvey aids the Boston Patriots. — A few weeks before
the "Edenton Tea Party," in September, 1774, John
Harvey showed his devotion to the American cause in
a very generous way. A cry of distress had reached
North Carolina from the people of far-away Boston.
Because some citizens of Boston one night seized a ship
lying in the harbor loaded with tea and threw all the
tea overboard (which act is known as the Boston Tea
Party), Parliament had passed a law shutting up their
port. No vessel could go in or come out, for war ships
guarded the entrance, and the people began to suffer for
food. The other colonies then raised the cry that "the
cause of Boston is the cause of all." They sent food and
clothes to the other towns in Massachusetts to be used
for the relief of Boston.
72 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
In September, 1774, John Harvey and Joseph Hewes
began to collect supplies around Edenton to be sent to
Boston. They collected two thousand bushels of corn,
twenty barrels of flour, and seventeen barrels of pork.
Then they hired the sloop, Penelope, loaded her with
these supplies, and sent them to " their distressed
brethren of Boston." At the same time Harvey wrote
a letter in which he said: "I hope to be able to send
another cargo this winter, for the same charitable pur-
pose, as the American inhabitants of this colony entertain
a just sense of the sufferings of our brethren in Boston."
The Penelope reached her destination 1 October 15.
We may be sure that her cargo was gladly received.
The Boston committee wrote John Harvey a long letter
of thanks for his noble and generous donation.
The Last Colonial Assembly. — The Governor now
decided to hold another Assembly. Perhaps the mem-
bers might listen to his appeals for obedience to the
King. If they would not, then perhaps he could
frighten them into obedience. So he called an Assembly
to meet at New Bern, April 4, 1775.
John Harvey knew that Governor Martin would
dismiss the Assembly as soon as it showed any sympathy
with the American cause. He thought, therefore, that a
Congress ought to be held at the same time to watch the
Governor, and be ready to act if necessary. So he called
upon the people to elect delegates to a Congress to meet
at New Bern, April 3, 1775. How furious Governor
Martin was ! He denounced Harvey and the Congress,
1 Probably Marblehead, which upon the passage of the Boston Port Bill
"immediately invited the merchants of Boston to use its wharves and
warehouses free of charge in shipping and unshipping their goods.'"'
JOHN HARVEY 73
too, but his anger did him no good. The people chose
the same men to represent them in both bodies.
They met at New Bern at the appointed time. The
Assembly elected John Harvey speaker, the Congress
elected him moderator. The Congress did not have
much work to do except to watch the Governor. The
Assembly was in session only four days, and each day
its actions angered the Governor more and more. Fi-
nally, April 8, 1775, in a great rage, he sent a message
dismissing the members and commanding them to go
home. This was the last time an Assembly, under the
rule of a British king, met in North Carolina. When
the next Assembly met, North Carolina was a free and
Death of John Harvey. — But John Harvey was
not there to be its speaker. One day, soon after he
returned home from New Bern in April, 1775, he fell
from his horse and was badly injured. A few days later,
at his home in Perquimans county, he died. The news
of his death was heard by the patriots of the colony with
great grief and sorrow.
"He will be much missed," wrote Joseph Hewes from
Philadelphia. " We sincerely condole with all friends of
American liberty in this province," wrote Robert Howe,
Cornelius Harnett, and John Ashe, "on the death of our
worthy friend, Colonel Harvey. We regret it as a public
loss, especially at this critical juncture." " In public
life," said another, " all his actions were directed to the
good of his country. In him the advocates for American
freedom, have lost a real and true friend."
74 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
1. Describe the situation of Perquimans county. Beaufort county,
2. Why did the colonists select Philadelphia as the place for holding
the Continental Congress?
1. Where did the Harvey family live?
2. Describe John Harvey's boyhood; his plantation.
3. How old was he when elected to the Assembly? How long did
he serve in the Assembly?
4. What services did he render in connection with the French and
5. To what office was he elected in 1766? Why was this an impor-
6. Describe how England tried to make America help pay her debts.
7. How did John Harvey lead the fight against taxation by Parlia-
ment? What did he say about it?
8. What was the Non-Importation Association?
9. How did John Harvey have this adopted in North Carolina?
10. What plan did Virginia suggest for the colonies to help each
11. Tell how this plan was adopted in North Carolina. Describe
the conditions in North Carolina at that time.
12. How did John Harvey lead the way to Revolution?
13. Describe the first Provincial Congress. What resolutions did
it adopt? Tell how the people obeyed them.
14. What was the Continental Congress? Who were chosen dele-
gates from North Carolina?
15. How did John Harvey aid the patriots of Boston?
16. Describe the last colonial Assembly in North Carolina.
17. Tell of the death of John Harvey. What did the other patriots
say of him?
18. State briefly the chief events in Harvey's life.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. What did the King mean when he said that the tax must be
left on tea in order "to try the question with the Americans?"
JOHN HARVEY 75
2. What did the Americans mean by saying that "taxation with-
out representation is tyranny?" What body did they say alone had
the right to levy taxes in each colony? What body now has the power
to levy taxes in North Carolina? In the United States? What are
taxes used for?
3. When the Congress wrote the Constitution of 1776, it put this
clause in it: " The people have a right to assemble together to consult
for their common good," etc. Was there anything in John Harvey's
experience that explains why this clause was put in the Constitution?
4. In colonial days, acts of the Assembly had to be approved by
the governor before they became laws. Is this necessary in North
Carolina now? How is it in the United States?
5. Explain the differences between the General Assembly and the
Cornelius Harnett. — Side by side with John Harvey
in his battles for American freedom stood his friend,
Cornelius Harnett. Harnett's home was on the Cape
Fear river, near Wilmington. He was born in Chowan
county in 1723. When he was three years old his
father moved to the new settlements on the Cape
Fear. There young Harnett
grew up. He received a good
Cornelius Harnett was one
of the first settlers of Wil-
mington. Two of his plan-
tations, Maynard and Poplar
Grove, were near that town.
His house at Maynard was a
large brick building. It stood near the river, at the end
of a beautiful avenue of trees, in the midst of a grove of
cedars and oaks.
Harnett was a small, slender man. His hair and eyes
were light brown. He had a pleasing countenance, which
would often light up with a smile so sweet and kindly that
it cheered every person in his presence. His manner was
dignified, but courteous and kindly. He loved books and
music, and was always an interesting companion.
House of Cornelius Harnett
Harnett in the Assembly. — Harnett was still a
young man when he began to take part in public
affairs. For eleven years he was alderman of Wilming-
ton. In 1754 the people of that town elected him to
represent them in the Assembly. He served in the
Assembly for twenty-one years. When the Revolution
broke out, Harnett was the leading patriot of the Cape
Fear section. His popularity was so great that he is
called, " The Pride of the Cape Fear."
While he was in the Assembly, the colony was growing
rapidly. Settlements soon stretched from the Atlantic
to the Blue Ridge. The Assembly had much work to
do for the benefit of the new settlers. Harnett took an
active part in that work. He helped to prepare laws
for building new roads through the wilderness; for
establishing ferries over rivers; for laying off new towns;
for building new court-houses and school-houses; for
erecting churches; and for protecting the frontier against
the Indians. In the disputes with
the governors he became one of the
leading champions of the people, and
stood up manfully for their liberties.
The Stamp Act on the Cape
Fear. — Harnett boldly resisted the
Stamp Act. When news of that act
reached North Carolina the people
quickly made up their minds that no
stamps should be sold in the colony.
Large crowds gathered at Wilming-
ton to prepare for resistance. They marched through the
streets shouting, " Liberty, Property, and No Stamp
Duty." Every man wore in his hat a little white slip on
Stone marking Site op
Scene of Resistance
to Stamp Act on the
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
which was printed the word LIBERTY. They made
William Houston, who had been appointed to sell the
stamps, resign his office and swear that he would not try
to sell any stamps in North Carolina. They compelled
Andrew Stewart, the printer, to publish his paper without
using the stamps. They pledged themselves to resist the
Stamp Act to the death. And when the Diligence
arrived with the stamps, they seized their guns and
prepared to fight.
Harnett Leads a Revolt Against the Stamp Act.
— Captain Lobb, a British officer, commanded another
war vessel, the Viper, at Brunswick. In February,
1766, he seized three ships because they had no
Cape Fear Patriots Resist the Landing of Stamps at Brunswick
stamps on their papers. Never had anything so
aroused the people. They refused to send any food
to the crew of the Viper. They seized the sailors who
CORNELIUS HARNETT 79
came ashore for food and threw them into jail. Cornelius
Harnett and James Moore led six hundred men to Bruns-
wick, went aboard the man-of-war, and compelled Cap-
tain Lobb to surrender the captured vessels.
They then decided to make all the King's officers
swear not to enforce the Stamp Act. One of these
officers, a Mr. Pennington, fled to Governor Tryon's
house for protection. Harnett promptly led his men
there, surrounded the house, and demanded the surrender
of Pennington. The Governor refused.
" Your Excellency must let him go," said Harnett.
" We are determined to have him, and will take him out
by force if you detain him. But we do not wish to insult
" You have already offered me every insult in your
power," retorted the Governor. " You have surrounded
my house and made me a prisoner without any cause."
Pennington became frightened, and said that he would
go with Harnett. " But I had rather resign my office,"
he added, " than do anything contrary to my duty to
" Then," said Tryon, turning angrily upon him,
" you had better resign before you leave here." So
Pennington wrote out his resignation. " Now, Sir,"
said the angry Governor, " you may go." And Harnett
led Pennington out of the house to the people.
Harnett then led his men back to Brunswick. There
they placed the officers in a circle and made them swear
not to enforce the Stamp Act in North Carolina. As
each took the oath, the cheers of the crowd reached Gov-
ernor Tryon at his home, and he knew that the Stamp
Act was a failure. Cornelius Harnett had beaten the
80 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
King's Governor, and had become the idol of his
Harnett Enforces the " Non-Importation Association."
— In 1769, Harnett was one of the members of the
Assembly who met with John Harvey in a convention
to adopt the " Non-Importation Association. " It was
very important that the merchants should all agree
to this association. The merchants on the Cape Fear
bought large quantities of goods in England. The
patriots were anxious for the Cape Fear merchants
to support the " Non-Importation Association/' and
they looked to Cornelius Harnett to lead them.
Harnett called a meeting of the merchants and planters
at Wilmington in June, 1770. He laid the association
before them, and urged them to sign it. They followed
his lead without hesitation, and after signing it, chose
him as their leader to see that all obeyed it. This was
a trying position, but Harnett promptly accepted it.
He declared that he was " ready to stand or fall with
the other colonies in support of American liberty," and
that he " would not tamely submit to the yoke of oppres-
sion." From this we see that Harnett was in favor of
the colonies uniting against England. So when the
time came to plan for union, he was ready to take the
Harnett Has a Visitor From Boston. — The time
came soon. One day in March, 1773, a traveler rode
up to the door at Poplar Grove and asked for Mr.
Harnett. This man was Josiah Quincy, a famous
patriot of Boston. He was making a journey through
the colonies, and had come to Poplar Grove to discuss
with Harnett a plan for uniting the colonies. Harnett
CORNELIUS HARNETT 81
at once sent across the river for his friend, Colonel Robert
These three sat up all night discussing the plan for
committees of correspondence. They agreed that the
plan ought to be adopted. Quincy was so delighted at
Harnett's patriotic views that, in the midst of their
discussion, he sprang up and embraced him. When he
returned to Boston he told the patriots there of the great
patriot of Wilmington. He declared that Massachusetts
could depend on North Carolina in resisting the King.
When the Assembly met in December, Harnett and
Howe both urged the appointment of a Committee of
Correspondence. Their names stood in the committee
next to the name of John Harvey.
Harnett visits New England. — The next year,
Harnett made a trip to New England and other
northern colonies. Such visits as his to the North and
Quincy' s to the South did great good. By them the
leading men of the different colonies learned to know
and trust each other. Harnett was away on this trip
when the Congress met at New Bern in August, 1774,
and therefore he was not a member. But he was a
member of the Congress in April, 1775, and of all the
other congresses that met in North Carolina during the
Committees of Safety. — The Congress in August,
1774, advised the people to select a committee in
each county to see that its measures were obeyed.
Such committees were called "Committees of Safety."
They had great power, for they took the place of both the
Governor and the courts. Governor Martin commanded
the people not to obey them. But the people no longer
82 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
paid any attention to his commands, and they gave
strict obedience to the committees of safety. These
committees proved to be so useful that the Congress
which met at Hillsboro in August, 1775, appointed a
committee for the whole province which was to be at the
head of all the other committees. At first it was called
the " Provincial Council; " but, in 1776, its name was
changed to " Council of Safety."
Cornelius Harnett was the leader in the work of these
committees. In November, 1774, he was chosen chair-
man of the Committee of Safety at Wilmington. In
January, 1775, he was chosen chairman of the Committee
of Safety for New Hanover county. In October, 1775,
he was elected president of the Provincial Council.
And in June, 1776, he was elected president of the Coun-
cil of Safety.
As president of the Council, Harnett was the chief
officer in the province and the leader of the patriots.
There was no busier man in North Carolina than he.
His committees compelled debtors to pay their debts.
They punished criminals for their crimes. They re-
quired men to obey the measures of Congress. They
raised money to buy arms, gunpowder, and other things
needed in war. They enrolled men into companies,
armed them, and elected officers to lead them. They
fitted out armed vessels which sailed to the West Indies
and brought supplies of all sorts into the colony. In
these ways Harnett's committees prepared the colony
for the war which all knew was near at hand.
Stirring News From Boston. — One day in May,
1775, Cornelius Harnett received news that a battle
had been fought at Lexington, Massachusetts, between
the British and Americans. Riders on fleet horses bore
the news from colony to colony, from town to
town, from committee to committee. Day and night
they rode through
villages, swam deep
rivers, and dashed
along lonely roads.
A rider with the news
reached Edenton on
May 4. From Eden-
ton he dashed on to
Bath, from Bath to
New Bern, and from
New Bern to Wil-
It was in the after-
noon of May 8, when
he gave his message to Cornelius Harnett. This stirring
news thoroughly aroused Harnett. He hurried the man
on to Brunswick with a message for the Brunswick com-
mittee. " For God's sake," he wrote, "send the man on
without the least delay, and write to Mr. Marion to
forward it by night and day." Everywhere the news
created great excitement, and stirred the people to
The Last Royal Governor. — Harnett and John
Ashe now decided that the royal Governor must be
driven out of the province. He had already fled from
New Bern, where the governor's residence was at
that time, to seek refuge in Fort Johnston near the
mouth of Cape Fear river. There he was hard at
work trying to stir up the slaves against their masters,
Old Court-house at Edenton
The oldest Court-house in North Carolina,
still in use. Built in 1767.
84 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
and the King's followers called Tories against the
patriots, sometimes called Whigs. But Harnett's com-
mittees kept close watch on him and prevented his
carrying out his plans. Governor Martin declared that
all his troubles were due to four men, who stood
foremost among the leaders of the rebellion. They
were Cornelius Harnett, John Ashe, Robert Howe, and
Abner Nash. He wrote to England that he hoped the
King would never pardon them, but would have them
put to death.
When Governor Martin learned that Harnett and
Ashe were getting ready to attack Fort Johnston, he
fled from the fort to the British war vessel, Cruizer.
Early in the morning, July 19, somebody on the Cruizer
waked him with a cry that Fort Johnston was on fire.
He hurried to the deck just in time to see five hundred
minute-men from Wilmington and Brunswick burning
the fort to the ground. " Mr. John Ashe and Mr.
Cornelius Harnett," he wrote to England, "were ring-
leaders of this savage and audacious mob." Governor
Martin was the last royal Governor of North Carolina,
for soon after Harnett and Ashe drove him away, the
people declared themselves independent of Great Britain,
and elected their own governor.
Harnett Leads the Way to Independence. — The
man who pointed the way to independence was
Cornelius Harnett. When the North Carolina Con-
gress met at Halifax in April, 1776, none of the colo-
nies had taken a stand for independence. They loved
the mother country and were anxious to make up
their quarrel with her. But when the King refused even
to hear their prayers, they saw that they must either
CORNELIUS HARNETT 85
separate from Great Britain, or surrender their liberties.
But who would take the lead? After the last royal
governor was driven out of North Carolina, the Whigs
won a great victory over the Tories at Moore's Creek
Bridge, February 27, 1776. Then the North Carolina
patriots cried out that they were ready to lead the way
So, on April 8, Congress appointed a committee to
write out what North Carolina should say on that
subject. Cornelius Harnett was at the head of that
committee. The other members were Allen Jones,
Thomas Burke, Abner Nash, John Kinchen, Thomas
Person, and Thomas Jones. Harnett wrote the report
for the committee. Amid a deep silence, April 12, 1776,
he read this report to the Congress.
In his report, Harnett declared that the King and
Parliament had tried to destroy the " peace, liberty, and
safety " of America. The Americans, he said, had
humbly prayed for relief. The King had replied to
their prayers by sending armies to destroy the people
and their property; by ordering his war vessels to seize
their ships ; and by stirring up the slaves to murder their
masters. Many persons had been killed, and others
had been reduced from wealth and ease to poverty and
Harnett thought, therefore, that the Americans ought
to overthrow the rule of such a tyrant, and that North
Carolina ought to lead the way. After hearing his report,
the Congress voted for it. This resolution required the
North Carolina delegates in the Continental Congress
to " concur with the delegates of the other colonies in
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
A copy of the resolution was sent off at once to Joseph
Hewes, who was in the Continental Congress at Philadel-
phia. How pleased he was when he found that North
Carolina had led all the colonies in declaring for independ-
ence! He showed the resolution to the other members
of the Continental Congress. Many of them promptly
sent copies to their own colonies and urged them to
The State House, or Independence Hall, Philadelphia
Where the Declaration of Independence was Signed
follow North Carolina's example. Virginia was the
first to do so. Then others followed. Finally, in July,
the Continental Congress itself adopted the Declaration
of Independence for all the colonies. Thus North Caro-
lina led the other colonies just as Cornelius Harnett
led North Carolina.
Harnett Selected For Punishment. — The British
did not forget the part Harnett played in thfs
CORNELIUS HARNETT 87
important step. He was selected for the King's
special vengeance. While Congress was in session at
Halifax, Sir Henry Clinton, the British general, with a
powerful army, reached the Cape Fear. On May 5 he
issued a paper promising that the King would par-
don all the rebels in North Carolina who would lay
down their arms; but he excepted " from the bene-
fits of such pardon Cornelius Harnett and Robert
Harnett Proclaims Independence. — When the Dec-
laration of Independence reached North Carolina,
the Council of Safety was in session at Halifax.
The people of North Carolina, declared the Council,
were now " absolved from all allegiance to the British
Crown." So the Council ordered that the Declaration
of Independence should be publicly read to the people
on August first.
On that day a great crowd gathered in the little
village of Halifax. At midday the soldiers marched
through the streets, with beating drums and flying flags.
A loud cheer went up from the people when President
Harnett, escorted by the soldiers, mounted the platform,
with the declaration in his hand. While he read, all
listened in deep silence. But when he finished, they
showed their gladness by shouts of joy, waving of flags,
and booming of cannon. The soldiers seized President
Harnett, and bore him on their shoulders through
the excited crowd. The people cheered him as their
champion and proclaimed their allegiance to the United
Harnett Becomes a Member of the Continental
Congress. — North Carolina was now an independent
88 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
state. The Congress at Halifax in December, 1776,
adopted a new plan of government, called the ' Con-
stitution of 1776." Harnett took an important part
in preparing this Constitution. After it was adopted,
Richard Caswell was elected governor and Harnett
was elected president of the Council of State. But
he did not hold that office long. In May, 1777,
the Assembly elected him a delegate to the Con-
tinental Congress. This was regarded as " the highest
honor that a free state could bestow on one of its mem-
Harnett was elected to the Continental Congress
three times. When he returned home, in 1779, the
Assembly thanked him " for his faithful and important
services rendered this State." His work was so hard
and he suffered so many hardships that his health broke
down completely. Nothing but devotion to his country
held him to his post. His expenses were £6,000 more
than his salary, but he declared: " I am content to sit
down with this loss and much more, if my country re-
quires it." "I shall think it my duty," he wrote to
Governor Caswell, " to serve my country to the best of
my poor abilities, either with or without pay."
His chief wish, however, was to return home. There,
he said: " I will sit down under my own vine and fig tree
(for I have them both) at Poplar Grove, where none shall
make me afraid except the boats of the British cruisers."
This wish was realized in February, 1780.
Harnett in Prison. — But Harnett did not long
enjoy his vine and fig tree. In January, 1781, the
British captured Wilmington. The patriot leaders had
to fly for their lives. There was none of them whom
CORNELIUS HARNETT 89
the British were so eager to capture as Harnett. Major
Craige, the British commander, at once sent out a party
of soldiers to take him. Harnett tried to escape, but
after going a few miles was so overcome with illness that
he had to stop at a friend's house in Onslow county.
There the British soldiers found him. They pulled
him out of bed, and drove him on foot before them until
he fell in the road. Then binding his hands and feet
they threw him across a soldier's horse " like a sack of
meal," and so carried him to Wilmington. Major
Craige threw him into prison and kept him there until
he was in a dying condition. In April, 1781, at the
request of Harnett's Tory friends, Craige released him.
But it was too late to save his life. He never recovered
from his cruel treatment, and died on April 28, 1781.
The Legislature of North Carolina has named a county
in his honor, and in the heart of the city of Wilmington,
on the bank of the Cape Fear, near where his body lies
buried, a monument has been erected to his memory.
Trace the route of the messenger who bore the news of the battle
of Lexington, from Suffolk, Virginia, across North Carolina to Bruns-
wick. What streams and bodies of water did he cross? What
1. Harnett's home. His appearance and manners.
2. His work in the Assembly.
3. How the people of Wilmington resisted the Stamp Act.
4. How Harnett led the revolt against it.
5. How he enforced the Non-Importation Association.
6. Josiah Quincy's visit to Harnett.
90 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
7. The Committees of Safety. The duties of the Provincial
8. How the news of the battle of Lexington was carried; how
Harnett received it.
9. How the royal Governor was driven out of the province.
10. How Harnett led the way to a Declaration of Independence.
11. The punishment selected for him.
12. How the Declaration of Independence was received at Halifax.
13. Harnett's services in the Continental Congress.
14. His sacrifices in the cause of independence.
15. His death.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. Harnett represented the town of Wilmington in the General
Assembly. Do any towns now have the right to send a representative
to the Assembly?
2. State the reasons why the Cape Fear became the place of chief
resistance to the Stamp Act.
HOOPER, HEWES, AND PENN
Signers of the Declaration of Independence. — In
the history of North Carolina we always think
of William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and John Penn
together. If you look at a copy of the Declaration of
Independence, you will see the reason. There, one after
the other, stand the names of the three patriots who
signed the great Declaration for the people of North
Carolina. William Hooper was an eloquent lawyer of
Wilmington; Joseph Hewes, a wealthy merchant of
Edenton; John Penn, a liberty-loving lawyer of Williams-
boro. Hooper was a native of Massachusetts, Hewes
of New Jersey, and Penn of Virginia. But all three
gave their services to North Carolina, and their fame
belongs to the Old North State.
William Hooper. — William Hooper was born in
Boston, June 17, 1742. His father- wished him to be
a preacher, and so determined to give him a good educa-
tion. Young Hooper first attended the Boston Latin
School, and at fifteen years of age entered Harvard
College. Three years later he was graduated with
special honor in languages, literature, and history.
When he came to choose his life's work, he decided
against the ministry in favor of the law. In 1761 he
began to study law under the great Boston patriot,
James Otis. This was fortunate for Hooper. Otis was
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
not only a great lawyer, but he was also Boston's leading
patriot. In the disputes between
the Americans and the King the
other members of Hooper's family
took the King's side. But through
the influence of Otis, William Hooper
became a devoted Whig; in other
words he opposed the King's way of
dealing with the colonies. After
receiving his license to practise law,
he sailed on a visit to Wilmington,
North Carolina. The town and its
people delighted the young Boston
attorney, and he adopted Wilmington as his future
Joseph Hewes. — Joseph Hewes was twelve years
older than Hooper. His birthplace was on a farm near
Kinston, New Jersey. While he was a small boy, he was
sent to a school in the neighborhood, where he learned
reading, writing and arithmetic. But
his school days did not last long.
In those days people thought that a
man did not need much of an edu-
cation unless he intended to be a
preacher, a lawyer, or a doctor.
Hewes' father intended for him to be
a merchant. So after a short time at
school, young Hewes was placed under
a merchant in Philadelphia to be
. Joseph Hewes
trained m the business of a merchant.
At twenty-one years of age Hewes entered into business
for himself. It is probable that he had a trade with the
HOOPER, HEWES, AND PENN 93
merchants of Edenton, North Carolina, for he soon
decided to move to that town. In 1756, he left Phila-
delphia and became a merchant at Edenton.
John Penn. — Hewes was eleven years older, and
Hooper one year younger than John Penn. Penn was
born in Caroline county, Virginia. When he was
eighteen years old, his father died,
leaving him a small fortune. Though
a man of means, Penn's father cared
but little about educating his son.
John Penn's school days lasted only
two or three years. But fortunately
near his home lived his kinsman, the
famous Edmund Pendleton, who had
a good library. He gave young Penn
1 . 1M r t John Penn
permission to use his library ireely,
and by careful reading, Penn made up for his lack of
With Pendleton's aid he studied law, and in 1762
received his license to practise. At first Penn practised
law in Virginia, where he gained a reputation as a careful,
painstaking attorney. In 1774 he decided to move
to North Carolina, and selected the little village of
Williamsboro, in Granville county, as his home.
Hooper and Hewes in the Assembly. — When Penn
reached Williamsboro, he found the patriots of North
Carolina deeply stirred over the contest with the
royal Governor and the King. Among the leaders
of the Whigs he heard mentioned the names of William
Hooper and Joseph Hewes. Both were members of the
General Assembly. Hooper represented the little village
of Campbellton. He entered the Assembly in 1773, and
94 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
there met Hewes, who had been the member for Edenton
These two men soon became warm friends. They
served on many important committees and stood to-
gether in all the struggles against the Governor. The
most important event during the Assembly of 1773, as
we have already seen, was the appointment of the Com-
mittee of Correspondence. Hooper and Hewes were
both made members of this committee.
They Send Aid to Boston. — In 1774 these two
friends were active in collecting clothes and food for
the poor people of Boston. At Edenton, Hewes together
with John Harvey loaded the Penelope with a cargo and
sent it to the Boston patriots. At Wilmington, Hooper
called a meeting of the people to decide what Wilmington
should do. This meeting declared that the people of
Wilmington regarded "the cause of the town of Boston
as the common cause of British America, and as suffering
in defence of the rights of the colonies in general."
Under the leadership of Hooper, the Wilmington patriots
collected two ship loads of supplies and £2,000 in money
and sent them to the patriots of Boston.
Hooper and Hewes in the Provincial Congress. —
At the same meeting the Wilmington patriots took
another important step. You will remember how
John Harvey, in the spring of 1774, suggested
to Samuel Johnston the calling of a provincial congress.
Johnston at once wrote to Hooper to ask what he thought
of Harvey's plan. Hooper was strongly in favor of it.
When the Wilmington patriots met, July 21, 1774, to
consider the cause of Boston, Hooper was chosen chair-
man of the meeting. He advocated the Provincial
HOOPER, HEWES, AND PENN 95
Congress, and the Wilmington meeting declared in favor
of holding such a Congress. Hooper and John Ashe
were chosen to represent New Hanover county. When
they reached New Bern, where the Congress met, Hooper
found that his friend Hewes was there as the member
The Congress met August 25, 1774. The most im-
portant business was the election of delegates to repre-
sent North Carolina in the Continental Congress which
was to meet at Philadelphia. William Hooper, Joseph
Hewes, and Richard Caswell were chosen. They were
given power to act for North Carolina. Any action
they took, or any promise they made to the other colonies,
was to be binding upon every person in North Carolina
who was not an enemy to the liberties of his country.
John Penn Joins Hooper and Hewes in the Conti-
nental Congress. — The first Continental Congress met
at Philadelphia September 5, 1774. It came to a close
October 26. The next year the second Continen-
tal Congress met at Philadelphia on May 10. Hooper,
Hewes and Caswell again represented North Caro-
lina. But in September, 1775, Caswell resigned,
and the North Carolina Congress had to elect some-
body to take his place. One of the members of the
North Carolina Congress, which met at Hillsboro in
August, 1775, was John Penn. He had been in North
Carolina only a year, yet he had already become one of
the leaders of the patriots. The other members now
turned to him to take Caswell's place in the Continental
Congress. He was elected in September, and in October
he took his seat in Congress along with Hooper and
96 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Hooper, the Orator. — William Hooper served on
thirty-four different committees in the Continental Con-
gress. He helped to prepare an address to the people
of England. This address set forth the rights of the
colonists and showed how the King had trampled on
them. Hooper also helped in forming a plan to raise an
army to defend American rights. And he helped to
write an address to the people of the colonies urging
them to support their liberties with their lives.
In this address the committee said: " We have taken
up arms in the best of causes. Our troops are animated
with the love of freedom. They have fought like good
citizens as well as brave soldiers. Britain and these
colonies have been a blessing to each other. We feel
sure they might continue to be so. But that we may
continue to be connected with Great Britain is our second
wish — our first is, that America may be free! "
Hooper took an active part in the debates of Congress,
and gained a reputation as an eloquent speaker. John
Adams wrote that Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry,
and William Hooper were "the orators'' of Congress.
Hewes, the Business Man. — Hewes was not an
orator. He was a plain-spoken, business man. As a
merchant he had learned much about ships and the sea.
So when Congress decided to build a navy to meet Eng-
land on the sea, Hewes put his knowledge to good use
for his country. He was placed at the head of the com-
mittee in charge of building war vessels, equipping them
with arms and men, and selecting officers. One of the
officers selected was the famous John Paul Jones. After
Jones had become famous he declared that he owed
much of his success to the interest taken in him by Hewes.
HOOPER, HEWES, AND PENN 97
No man in Congress worked harder than Hewes. In
the interest of his country he forgot his own welfare.
Hooper and Penn wrote of him: " From the large share
of naval and mercantile business which has been allotted
to his attention by Congress, his health has been much
impaired. From six in the morning till five and some-
times six in the afternoon, without eating or drinking,
he would be at work." His health broke completely
down, and in September, 1776, he was compelled to
return to North Carolina.
Penn in Congress. — John Penn took his seat in
the Continental Congress October 12, 1775. He did
not have so much work to do in Congress as Hooper and
Hewes. But like them he wrote many letters to his
friends at home, telling them what the Congress, the
army and the other colonies were doing, and urging them
to stand firm for American liberties.
What Hooper Wrote. — A few days before the battle
of Moore's Creek Bridge, Hooper wrote to one of his
friends: " Do we not play a game where slavery or
liberty is at stake? Were I to advise, the whole force
of the colony should be collected for immediate action
when called for, and bid adieu to ploughshares and prun-
ing hooks till the sword could find its scabbard with
safety and honor to its owner. My first wish is to be
free; my second to be reconciled to Great Britain. God
grant that both may soon take place. Measures must
be taken immediately. Ere this the troops of the enemy
are in your country; may you stand forth like men, and
fight the cause of liberty, the cause of the living God."
What Hewes Wrote. — A few days after the battle
of Bunker's Hill, Hewes wrote to Samuel Johnston:
98 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
" I hope you will drive every principle of Toryism out
of all parts of your Province. I consider myself now
over head and ears in rebellion. But I feel no regret
for the part I have taken, nor for the number of our
enemies lately slain in the battle of Bunker's Hill."
At another time he said: " All accounts from England
seem to agree that we shall have a dreadful storm bursting
on our heads through all America in the spring. We
must not shrink from it. We ought not to show any
signs of fear. We ought to be so firm as to stand un-
moved at the bursting of an earthquake. I feel myself
quite composed. I have furnished myself with a good
musket and bayonet, and when I can no longer be useful
in council, I hope I shall be willing to take the field."
What Penn Wrote. — Neither Hooper nor Hewes
were more in earnest than Penn. As soon as he
learned that a large British force had been sent to North
Carolina to help crush the patriots, he wrote to Colonel
Thomas Person! " I make no doubt but the Southern
Provinces will soon be the scene of action. I hope we
to the southward shall act like men determined to be
free. For God's sake, my good Sir, encourage our people
— animate them to dare even to die for their country."
"Striding Fast to Independence." — Soon after this
letter was written, the patriots of North Carolina
began to talk of declaring for independence. Among
the first men to sse that the colonies must become
independent was William Hooper. In 1774 he wrote
that they were " striding fast to independence, and
ere long will build an empire upon the ruins of Great
Britain." Hewes and Penn also wrote in favor of
HOOPER, HEWES, AND PENN
Mecklenburg County Takes a Bold Step. — In
every part of the province the people were soon
talking about independence. Some of course were op-
posed to such a bold step, but many others favored it.
The boldest of all was the action taken by the patriots
of Mecklenburg county.
While they were holding a
meeting at Charlotte, in
May, 1775, they received
news of the battle of Lex-
ington, and the killing of
American patriots by British
soldiers. In great anger they
ail cried out: " Let us be
independent! Let us be
independent! " They de-
clared that Great Britain
ought no longer to have any
authority over the colonists.
So they elected county offi-
cers, and declared that they
should hold their offices "in- (Mecklenb ^^^^^
dependent of the Crown of
Great Britain." Captain James Jack at once set off on
a fleet horse to carry this declaration to Hooper, Hewes,
and Penn at Philadelphia.
North Carolina Declares For Independence. — In
April, 1776, Hooper and Penn left Philadelphia to
attend the Provincial Congress at Halifax. They
found the North Carolina patriots eager to be independ-
ent of the King. Everybody was talking about inde-
pendence. "All regard or fondness for the King or
Monument to the Signers of the
"Mecklenburg Declaration of
100 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
nation of Britain is gone/' wrote Penn to John Adams.
" A total separation is what they want. Independence
is the word most used." So on April 12, as we have
seen, the Congress resolved in favor of a Declaration of
Hooper, Hewes, and Penn Sign the Declaration
of Independence. — A copy of the " Resolution of
April 12" was sent in great haste to Joseph Hewes,
who had remained at Philadelphia. A few days later
Hewes laid it before the Continental Congress. It
was the first resolution passed by any of the colonies
in favor of independence and the patriots welcomed
it. John Adams, Samuel Adams, and other delegates
wrote to their own colonies urging that they follow
North Carolina's good example. Several of them did
so. Then in July the Continental Congress adopted
the great Declaration of Independence, and Hooper,
Hewes, and Penn signed it for North Carolina.
Hooper's Last Services. — In 1777 the Assembly
again elected Hooper a delegate to the Continental
Congress, but this time he declined. For several years
he was a member of the General Assembly, and was
always active in supporting the cause of independence.
When the British captured Wilmington, in 1781, Hooper,
like his friend Harnett, had to fly for his life and seek
refuge in the interior of the State.
After the Revolution Hooper made his home at
Hillsboro. There he practised law and struggled hard
to regain the fortune he had lost in the Revolution.
But his sacrifices had not only swept away his fortune,
they had also ruined his health. He died, October 14,
1790, worn out in the service of his country.
HOOPER, HEWES, AND PENN 101
Hewes' Last Services. — When Hooper died, Hewes
had been dead eleven years. After leaving the Con-
tinental Congress, in 1776, Hewes returned to Eden-
ton to regain his health. During the next three years
he rendered important service in securing supplies for
Washington's army. He sent his own ships down to the
West Indies for cargoes of arms, ammunition, clothes,
and other supplies. These supplies were brought to
Edenton and then sent overland to the army in the North.
We may be sure that they were gladly received by the
ragged veterans and their great general.
In 1779 the Assembly again chose Hewes a delegate
to the Continental Congress. Hewes knew that he was
not strong enough to stand the hard work, but he thought
it his duty to try. So he again went to Philadelphia.
But his health was so poor that he was absent from
Congress much of the time. The last time that he
attended a session of Congress was on October 29, 1779.
Eleven days later he died. When he was buried, the
members of Congress, the General Assembly of Penn-
sylvania, and a large body of soldiers and citizens at-
tended the funeral.
Penn's Last Services. — Penn remained in the
Continental Congress after Hewes had died. After
adopting the Declaration of Independence, Congress
had to prepare a plan of government for the United
States. John Penn took part in this work. A great
deal of careful thought and discussion was given to it.
It was called the " Articles of Confederation and Per-
This plan bound the thirteen colonies together as the
United States. The laws for this union were to be made
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
by the Continental Congress. This plan proved to be
very imperfect, and afterwards was given up for the
Constitution of the United States. But it served the
United States for nearly ten years, and under it they
fought the Revolution and won their independence.
The men who signed the Articles of Confederation for
North Carolina were John Penn, Cornelius Harnett,
and John Williams.
After signing these Articles, John Penn returned to
North Carolina. In 1780 the affairs of the United
States were very gloomy. Their
armies had been beaten in Georgia
and South Carolina, and Lord
Cornwallis, with a large army, was
getting ready to march into North
Carolina. It looked as if North
Carolina, too, might be conquered.
To meet this great danger, the
Legislature appointed a Board of
War, composed of three men, to
take charge of the military affairs
of the State. John Penn was one
of the men selected, and did more
than both of the others together
to prevent the conquest of North Carolina. This board
collected arms, ammunition, clothing, food, and other
military supplies for the army, so that it might be
ready to meet Cornwallis when he came.
The work was very difficult. Penn suffered many hard-
ships, dangers, and anxieties. His health broke down
under his heavy work, and he was compelled to resign.
Returning to his home in Granville county, he spent the
ment at Guilford
HOOPER, HEWES, AND PENN 103
last few years of his life quietly on his farm, where he
died in September, 1787.
A Monument to the Signers. — Hooper was buried
at Hillsboro, Hewes at Philadelphia, and Penn on
his farm in Granville. Hewes' grave has been lost.
In 1894 the bodies of Hooper and Penn were re-
moved to the Guilford Battle-ground. There the two
friends and patriots now rest side by side. Over their
grave a statue of an orator has been erected, holding in
his hand a scroll which represents the Declaration of
1. Why do we think of the names of Hooper, Hewes, and Penn
2. When and where was each born? Describe the education of
each. Where did each settle in North Carolina?
3. Describe the political services of Hooper and Hewes.
4. How did they aid the Boston patriots?
5. What did Hooper have to do with calling the first Provincial
Congress? Whom did the Congress elect as delegates to the Conti-
nental Congress? What powers were given these delegates? Who
succeeded Caswell in the Continental Congress? When?
6. Describe Hooper's work in the Continental Congress.
7. Describe Hewes' work in the Continental Congress.
8. What did Hooper, Hewes, and Penn write about the quarrel
9. What did Hooper write about independence?
10. What action did Mecklenburg County take?
11. When Hooper and Penn reached Halifax, what did they learn
about the feeling of the people toward independence?
12. What effect did the Resolution of April 12 have in other colo-
13. Describe Hooper's last days.
14. What service did Hewes render to Washington's army? Tell
of his death.
104 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
15. What were the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual
Union"? Who signed them for North Carolina?
16. Describe Penn's services on the Board of War.
17. Write a summary of the work of Hooper. Of Hewes. Of
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. What act of James Otis placed him in the front of the patriot
leaders? Of Patrick Henry? Of Richard Henry Lee?
2. Tell the story of John Paul Jones. His real name was John
Paul. How did he get the Jones?
3. The Congress at Halifax, April 12, 1776, did not try to declare
North Carolina independent. It left the making of the Declaration
of Independence to the Continental Congress? Why?
The Young Surveyor. — In 1746 Gabriel Johnston
was governor of North Carolina. One day in that
year a young man rode up to his door and handed him
a letter. The Governor found that it was from the
Governor of Maryland, introducing to him the young
man who had brought it. He was a bright young fellow
of seventeen, well-educated, ambitious, and determined
to make his way in the world. He was already a skilful
surveyor, and had come to North Carolina to seek work.
Good surveyors were needed in the province, so Governor
Johnston gave the young stranger a hearty welcome.
How little he thought that he was welcoming a man who
would afterwards be chosen governor of North Carolina
This young surveyor was Richard Caswell. He was
born in Maryland, August 3, 1729. His father, who had
been a merchant, had failed in business, so young Caswell
had to start out early to make his own living. He had
probably heard that every year thousands of people
were moving into North Carolina, where good land was
plentiful and cheap. So he thought that North Carolina
would be a good place for a surveyor.
Caswell Becomes Deputy-Surveyor. — He was not
mistaken. There was plenty of work for him to do,
106 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
and he was successful from the very first. Within
two years he had made enough to purchase for himself
more than three thousand acres of land in Johnston
and Anson counties. Governor Johnston was so much
pleased with young Caswell's work that he appointed
him deputy-surveyor of the province. This was a
very important office and the duties were difficult.
Every year thousands of acres were being bought by
immigrants, and the deputy-surveyor had to mark off
the tracts and show the people where their lands were.
It was hard work and full of danger. Frequently
Caswell's duties carried him deep down into the forests
where bears, panthers, wolves, and other wild beasts
were plentiful. Sometimes, too, he had to enter the
wilderness where Indians still roamed and hunted. But
it was good training for him. It hardened his muscles,
taught him to endure hardships, and gave him steady
nerves and keen eyes. He learned the ways of the
forests, and these lessons he afterwards put to good use
in the service of his country.
Caswell Is Elected to the Assembly. — Caswell's
work brought him in close touch with the people, and
he soon became well known in the colony. In 1752
his friend Governor Johnston died, and two years later
Arthur Dobbs became governor. In the same year
Caswell was elected to represent Johnston county in the
Assembly. He remained a member of the Assembly
until the outbreak of the Revolution. In 1770 and
again in 1771, he was elected speaker.
A Champion of Liberty. — In the Assembly Caswell
was a strong champion of the liberties of the people,
and stood with Harvey, Harnett, Hooper, and Hewes
RICHARD CASWELL 107
in their contests for self-government. He voted for
laws to make the courts better. He wanted none but
learned lawyers to be judges. He thought the judges
ought to be required to hold court in different parts of
the province, instead of in the same place all the time,
so the people would not have to travel so far to attend
them. He worked hard, too, for improvements in the
colony. He voted for money to build forts on the
western frontier and to raise soldiers to march under
Colonel Waddell against the French and Indians. He
worked to establish silk industries, to improve agricul-
ture, and to increase the trade of the province.
A Champion of Law and Order. — Though Caswell
was a champion of liberty, he was also a champion of
law and order. When the Regulators refused to obey
the laws, and began to abuse the officers and destroy
people's property, Caswell was in favor of punishing
them. Like Harvey and Harnett, he urged Governor
Tryon who had succeeded Governor Dobbs, to call out
the militia to put down the Regulators and compel them
to obey the laws. Tryon appointed him a colonel
in his army, and Caswell marched with him to
At the battle of Alamance, May 16, 1771, Colonel
Caswell led the right wing of Tryon' s army. The
Regulators were badly beaten, and some of their leaders
punished. But most of them were pardoned upon
promising to obey the laws and keep order. In this
battle Caswell showed himself to be a brave and skilful
officer, and won praises from Governor Tryon. He
learned some lessons in war that he afterwards put into
practise in a way that Tryon liked little enough.
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Arms used in Revolutionary War
(Muskets, pistols, powder horns, bullet pouch,
Caswell Opposes the King. — After the battle of
Alamance, Tryon became governor of New York, and
Josiah Martin was appointed governor of North Caro-
lina. At this time the quarrel with the King was
becoming more and more serious. In all the contests
with the Governor and the King, Caswell took the side
of the people. He
was often on commit-
tees to draw addresses
for the Assembly. In
1773, he was ap-
pointed a member of
the Committee of
was a member of the
first Provincial Con-
gress in August, 1774, and by that Congress was elected
one of the delegates to the Continental Congress.
Caswell's Journey to Philadelphia. — Caswell set
out for Philadelphia, September 3, 1774. He kept
an interesting account of his journey. How different
traveling was in 1774 from what it is now! Caswell
rode all the way to Philadelphia on horseback. It
took him twelve days to make the trip. Some days
he rode only sixteen miles, and the longest distance he
made in any one day was forty-eight miles. His horse
gave out, and at Petersburg, Virginia, he had to buy
He usually stopped for his meals and night's rest at
public taverns, but sometimes he was entertained in the
homes of planters. At Philadelphia he received many
invitations to dine, but he did not neglect his duties in
RICHARD CASWELL 109
Congress. He paid close attention to the work of the
Congress, and when he returned home the Congress of
North Carolina thanked him and the other delegates
for their services.
The Uprising of the People. — Caswell was also
elected a delegate to the Second Continental Con-
gress, which met at Philadelphia, May 10, 1775. This
time Caswell and Hewes made the journey together.
As they rode along the road, they met riders on fleet
horses, bearing the news of the battle of Lexington.
They now pushed on as fast as possible, for this news
made them more than ever eager to reach Philadelphia.
They knew that war had now begun in earnest. All
along their route they found the people greatly excited.
Everywhere companies of soldiers were marching, drill-
ing, and practising for war.
Caswell and Hewes learned that a few miles ahead of
them were the Virginia delegates on their way to Phila-
delphia. All along the route they passed " armed men
who had been to escort the delegates of Virginia." So
they spurred up their horses to overtake the Virginians.
At the Potomac river the militia was drawn up under
arms to receive them. The soldiers escorted the Caro-
linians for some distance " with all the honors due to
general officers." At Port Tobacco, Maryland, they
overtook the Virginians, after which they all traveled
together, escorted by armed troops.
At Baltimore great honors were paid to the Virginia
and Carolina delegates. The Maryland troops, in their
gayest uniforms, marched out to be reviewed by one of
the Virginians. This was Colonel George Washington.
Caswell was deeply interested in all these military dis-
110 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
plays, and wrote that the Maryland soldiers performed
" their exercises extremely clever." After the review
all the delegates were "very genteelly entertained at the
The Carolina and Virginia delegates were now joined
by the Maryland delegates. They reached Philadelphia
about midday, May 9. Congress met the next day.
As everybody now realized that the Americans would
have to fight for their liberties, Congress promptly took
charge of the American army at Boston, and elected
George Washington commander-in-chief. The whole
country was in great excitement. From Philadelphia
Caswell wrote: " Here a greater martial spirit prevails
if possible than I have been describing in Virginia and
Maryland." " The men," he said, " march out to the
Common and go through their exercises twice a day
regularly; scarce anything but warlike music is to be
heard in the streets. 'Tis said they will in a few days
have 3,000 men under arms ready to defend their
Caswell Takes the Field. — The martial excitement
stirred Caswell's fighting blood, and he was eager
to take the field. He wrote to his son urging him to
raise a company in Dobbs 1 county. " Reject none,"
he said, " who will not discredit the company. If I live
to return I will cheerfully join any of my countrymen,
even as a rank and file man. I am here exposed to
danger. But I shall not shun any danger whilst I have
blood in my veins, but freely offer it in support of the
liberties of my country. You, my dear boy, must
1 Afterwards divided into Lenoir and Greene. Caswell lived in the
part now embraced in Lenoir.
RICHARD CASWELL 111
become a soldier and risk your life in support of those
blessings which, if once lost, we shall never be able to
Caswell had to wait but a short time before North
Carolina called for his services in the field. The Con-
gress of North Carolina met at Hillsboro in August,
1775, and decided to raise 4,000 soldiers for the defense
of the colonies. Caswell, on account of his services at
Alamance, was already regarded as one of North Caro-
lina's best soldiers. So the Congress elected him a colonel
in the new army. He at once returned from Philadelphia
to take command of his regiment. He worked hard to
get his men prepared for war, and before many months
had passed he had them ready to march against the
Highlanders at Moore's Creek Bridge.
The March of the Highlanders. — The Scotch High-
landers, who lived on the Cape Fear river around
Cross Creek, were nearly all on the King's side. In
1776 Governor Martin commanded them to form com-
panies and march down the river to meet him at Wil-
mington. He promised that he would join them there
with 10,000 British soldiers, under Sir Henry Clinton
and Lord Cornwallis. With the aid of the Highlanders
he expected to conquer North Carolina and crush the
rebellion in the very beginning.
Nearly 2,000 Highlanders gathered at Cross Creek in
February, 1776. They were all well armed and in high
spirits, for they expected to win an easy victory over the
rebels. So they marched out of the little village toward
Wilmington, with drums beating and bagpipes playing,
singing their old Scotch songs.
But the Whigs were on the lookout. The Highlanders
112 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
soon found General James Moore, with 1,100 Whig
soldiers, blocking the way. Then they turned back,
crossed the Cape Fear river, and took another road to
Wilmington. But when they reached the bridge over
Moore's Creek they found it guarded by 1,100 patriots.
They were under the command of Colonel Caswell and
Colonel Alexander Lillington. The Highlanders had
now either to fight or give up their attempt to get to
Wilmington. They were too brave to give up, so they
prepared for the battle.
The Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. — At day-
break, February 27, 1776, they marched out to attack
the Americans. Their leader was General Donald Mac-
Donald, but he was too ill to take part in the battle.
So they were led to battle by Donald McLeod. Their
battle-cry was: " King George and broadswords! ' The
signal for the attack to begin was to be three cheers,
the drums to beat and the pipes to play. McLeod
led the charge. When he reached the bridge, nobody
was to be seen, and he thought the Americans had
run away during the night. So calling upon his men to
follow, he started across the bridge. Then somebody
" Who goes there? "
" A friend,' 7 replied McLeod.
" A friend to whom? " asked the other.
" To the King," replied the Highlander.
Then all was silence. McLeod raised his gun, fired,
gave three cheers, and dashed across the bridge. The
Whigs then opened fire. The brave McLeod fell dead.
His men tried to cross, but as fast as they rushed on the
bridge they were shot down. More than thirty of the
RICHARD CASWELL 113
bravest fell into the creek. Then the others lost heart,
turned and fled. Caswell commanded his men to follow.
They overtook the Highlanders, killed a few and captured
a large number. It was a complete victory. The Whigs
lost only one man. They captured 850 of the Highland-
ers, 150 swords, 1,500 rifles, 15 wagons with all their
provisions and horses, and £15,000 in gold.
Caswell and Lillington had won one of the most impor-
tant victories of the war. They had saved North
Carolina from conquest, and probably Virginia, South
Carolina, and Georgia. The patriots were overjoyed at
their success. Nearly ten thousand men sprang to
arms, and when Clinton and Cornwallis came with their
great army they did not dare to land. So they sailed
away to Charleston, South Carolina, where they were
badly beaten. The Highlanders did not try to help the
King again. They were glad enough to remain at home
quietly. The North Carolina Congress thanked Caswell
and his brave men for their great victory, and soon after-
wards made Caswell a general.
Caswell Is Elected Governor. — The victory at
Moore's Creek Bridge, as we have already seen, caused
the Congress on April 12 to declare in favor of a
Declaration of Independence. In December, 1776, the
new Constitution of North Carolina was adopted. Con-
gress then elected the first officers of the independent
State. When the members came to choose a governor,
all eyes turned to the victor of Moore's Creek Bridge.
So December 20, 1776, Richard Caswell was elected the
first governor of North Carolina independent of Great
Britain. He was to serve only until the Legislature
could meet and elect a governor for the regular term.
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
The Legislature met in April, 1777, and at once elected
Caswell governor. No other man has ever been chosen
governor of North Carolina as often as Caswell. At
that time the governor served only one year unless he
was re-elected. Caswell was first elected in 1776, and
afterwards was re-elected six times. From 1777 to 1780
his attention was given
chiefly to the war. He had
to raise men for the army,
to see that they were sup-
plied with arms, ammu-
nition, food, and clothes.
While he was governor he
had gun factories estab-
lished, and powder mills
erected. He sent out ships
to the West Indies to pur-
chase supplies for the sol-
Governor Caswell not only
worked hard to keep a good
army in the field, but he also
worked to keep up the spirits
of the people during the dark days of the Revolution.
His own son was a soldier. To him Caswell wrote that
he must " put up with hardships, fatigues, and incon-
veniences which others may shudder at." " Let
virtue, honor, and prudence conduct you." The Con-
stitution provided that no man could be governor
more than three years in succession. When Caswell
retired in 1780, the Assembly thanked him for his great
services to the State.
Cannon Purchased by Governor
Caswell during Revolution
(Now in Capitol Square at Raleigh)
Inscription on the Tablet
Bought in France by Richard Caswell
Mounted at Edenton, 1778
Re-mounted 1871. Captured by U.S. Force
1862. Trunnion broken off
Presented by Edenton to the
State of North Carolina, 1903
RICHARD CASWELL 115
The Dark Days of the Revolution. — In 1779 a
large British army was sent to conquer the South-
ern States. The patriots of Georgia, South Caro-
lina, and North Carolina made great exertions to meet
the enemy. The Legislature gave General Caswell
command of all the North Carolina militia, with the
rank of major-general. When General Gates came
to take command of all the American armies in the
South, General Caswell marched to join him. At
Camden, South Carolina, the Americans were badly
beaten because Gates would not follow Caswell's
The next year the British invaded North Carolina.
Everything looked dark and gloomy for the patriots.
The British captured Wilmington, Charlotte, and Hills-
boro. The American army under General Greene was
forced to retreat with the British under Cornwallis right
on its heels. Then the Legislature again turned to
Caswell to defend the State.
Never did a man work harder for his country. Caswell
collected men and supplies and sent them to General
Greene's assistance. After a time Greene was strong
enough to turn on Cornwallis. At Guilford Court-
house the two armies met in one of the hardest fought
battles of the war. General Greene was driven from the
field but his army was ready the next day for another
trial with the British. Cornwallis claimed the victory,
but his army was so badly damaged that he did not dare
attack Greene again. He retreated hurriedly to Wilming-
ton, and then marched to Yorktown, Virginia, where
Washington pounced down upon him and captured his
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Caswell Elected Governor Again. — Caswell's skill
and bravery, and his willingness to make sacrifices
for the good of the country, had made him one of the
most popular men in the State. He was frequently
Monument to Richard Caswell at Kinston
The people of
have erected this
monument in grate-
ful remembrance of
the eminent service
of Richard Caswell,
the first Governor
under a free Con-
He was called to
the head of affairs
in North Carolina
in the darkest hour
of the struggle with
Great Britain for
gave his service
without stint and
Born August 3,
1729, died Novem-
ber 10, 1789. An
able lawyer, pro-
found statesman, a
worthj- grand mas-
ter, a devoted pa-
triot, and an honest
Member of Pro-
Four times elected
Governor. 1 Dele-
gate elect to the
frame the federal
Constitution — one
of the commanding
officers at Moore's
Creek, and a suc-
cessful general of
the American Revo-
elected a member of the Legislature, and was also elected
speaker. In 1784, he was again elected governor and
served three years. While he was governor, North
Carolina was asked to send delegates to a convention in
Philadelphia, in 1787, to form a better government for
the United States. Caswell was chosen one of the
delegates for North Carolina.
x An error. He was elected sevea times.
RICHARD CASWELL 117
Caswell thought some changes ought to be made in
the Articles of Confederation and was in favor of a con-
vention. But he did not think that he ought to leave
the State for such a long time while he was governor.
So he appointed William Blount to go in his place.
After the new Constitution of the United States was
prepared by the Convention, he urged that it should be
adopted by North Carolina. But at first, in 1788,
North Carolina rejected it, and it was not adopted in
this State until after Caswell's death.
Caswell's Death. — In 1789 Caswell was elected
speaker of the North Carolina Senate. But the days
of his public services were now about over. Soon after
the Assembly met, he was taken sick, and a few days
later died (November 10, 1789). The news of his death
was received with great sorrow throughout the State.
The Assembly appointed a special committee to arrange
for the funeral, and then adjourned in honor to his mem-
ory. His body was taken to his home near Kinston,
and buried. At Kinston a monument has been erected
to his memory, and one of the counties of the State was
named in his honor.
1. On his journey to the first Continental Congress Caswell took
the following route: Kinston to Nahunta (near the present town of
Snow Hill), Enfield, Halifax, Petersburg, Va., Richmond, Hanover
Court-house, Port Tobacco, Baltimore, Md., Wilmington, Del., to
Philadelphia. Trace his route on your maps, naming the counties
that he passed through in North Carolina, and the rivers in all the
2. Dobbs county was what is now Lenoir and Greene. Describe
118 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
3. What part of North Carolina was settled by the Scotch High-
landers? Describe the situation of Moore's Creek with reference to
Cross Creek (Fayetteville) and Wilmington.
4. Trace the line of Gates's retreat from Camden, S. C, to Char-
lotte, Salisbury, Hillsboro.
5. What part of North Carolina was settled principally between
1746 and 1776? (In answering this question consider the new coun-
ties formed during those years and their location).
1. When and where was Richard Caswell born? Why did he come
to North Carolina?
2. What was his profession? To what office did Governor John-
ston appoint him? Describe his work as deputy-surveyor. Why was
it good training for him?
3. Describe his work in the Assembly.
4. How did he help Governor Tryon preserve law and order?
5. Which side did he take in the quarrel between the colonies and
the King? To what important places was he chosen by the Assembly?
6. Describe Caswell's first journey to the Continental Congress.
7. Describe the journey of Caswell and Hewes to the Continental
8. What did Caswell write to his son about the war? To what
military position did the Assembly choose him?
9. Describe the march of the Highlanders.
10. Give an accouno of the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. What
were the chief results of this battle?
11. Who was the first governor of North Carolina independent of
Great Britain? When was he elected? How many times was he
12. What were Caswell's principal duties as governor?
13. Describe Caswell's services during the dark days of the Revolu-
14. What did Caswell think about adopting a new Constitution
for the United States?
15. Tell of his last services and death.
16. Write on the blackboard a brief summary of his life.
RICHARD CASWELL 119
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. How long was Caswell in the General Assembly?
2. What improvements in the courts favored by him do we now
3. By what right did the Continental Congress exercise authority
over the colonists? Did all the people recognize its authority?
4. Why did the Scotch Highlanders take the King's side in the
Revolution? So did most of the Regulators. Why?
5. Why was Cape Fear the bqst place for Governor Martin to
make his first attack on North Carolina?
6. How much would £15,000 amount to in United States money?
7. Describe the effects of the victory at Moore's Creek Bridge
in North Carolina and the other Southern colonies.
CLEVELAND, SHELBY, AND SEVIER
Life on the Carolina Frontier. — The boy who grew
up on the frontier of North' Carolina before the Revo-
lution became used to hardships and dangers. His
home was surrounded by great forests. If he went out
to chase a rabbit or to shoot a squirrel, he never knew
but that he might run into the den of a savage old bear, or
look up suddenly into the glaring eyes of a fierce panther.
When he lay down at night to sleep, he never knew but
that he might soon be waked by the glare of his burn-
ing cabin or the wild war-whoops of painted savages.
His life was full of excitement and narrow escapes.
Such a life called for steady nerves, quick sight, pres-
ence of mind, and strength of limbs and body. The
man who would live on the frontier must be keen on the
trail of man and beast. He must know how to trap, to
hunt, and to fight, and he must be able to do these things
well. He may have learned but little out of books, but
he learned much about the woods and the streams, the
birds and the beasts, and he knew all the tricks of the
Indians. To keep silence, to shoot straight, and to hit
hard were among his first lessons. Such was the early
training of Benjamin Cleveland, Isaac Shelby, John
Sevier, and the other " Heroes of King's Mountain."
Benjamin Cleveland. — Benjamin Cleveland was born
CLEVELAND, SHELBY, AND SEVIER 121
in Virginia, May 26, 1738. He grew to manhood in the
backwoods of Virginia and North Carolina. When, he
was thirty-one years old he came to North Carolina to
make his home. He selected a beautiful spot in what is
now Wilkes county. There he farmed, raised stock,
and fought Indians. His favorite amusements were
horse-racing, hunting, and fishing.
During the Revolution Cleveland was an ardent Whig.
There were many Tories on the frontier and the fight-
ing between them and the Whigs was bitter and bloody.
Many cruel deeds were done by both. Colonel Cleve-
land was one of the most active Whig leaders on the
border. His soldiers were proud of him. They admired
his good humor, his hearty greeting, and his reckless
courage. He weighed over three hundred pounds and
his men called him " Old Roundabout.' 5 They called
themselves " Cleveland's Bulldogs;" but the Tories
called them " Cleveland's Devils."
In 1776 General Griffith Rutherford led an army across
the mountains to attack the Cherokee Indians who
were murdering the people and burning their homes.
Cleveland was a captain in Rutherford's army. For
his skill and bravery he was made a colonel. He
rendered good service to the American cause by break-
ing up the Tory bands that scoured the frontier, burning
and plundering. He even marched as far south as
Georgia and took part in some battles against the regular
Isaac Shelby. — One of Cleveland's companions was
Colonel Isaac Shelby. He was born in Maryland, De-
cember 11, 1750. He was so constantly engaged in the
Indian wars of that period that, like Cleveland, he did
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
not receive much of an education. When he became
twenty-one years of age his father sent him across the
Allegheny Mountains to engage in stock-raising on the
frontier. In 1774 he was appointed a
lieutenant in the militia and took part
in several battles with the Indians.
During the years 1775 and 1776
Shelby explored the wilds of Ken-
tucky, then a part of Virginia.
While he was engaged in this work
the Revolution broke out. Governor
Patrick Henry, of Virginia, appointed
him a captain in the Virginia militia.
Later Shelby was appointed to run
the boundary line between North
Carolina and Virginia. He ran the
line westward between what is now
Kentucky and Tennessee. At that time Kentucky was
part of Virginia, and Tennessee was part of North
Carolina. After running the line, Shelby found that his
home was on the North Carolina side. So Governor
Caswell appointed him a colonel in the North Carolina
John Sevier. — Another bold frontiersman of the
Revolution was John Sevier. He also lived in that part
of North Carolina which is now in Tennessee. Sevier
was born September 23, 1745, in Virginia. When he
was only ten years old, his home was burned by the
Indians. For several years there was war all the time
with the Indians, and Sevier became one of the most
famous Indian fighters on the frontier. It is said that
he defeated the Indians in thirty-five battles.
CLEVELAND, SHELBY, AND SEVIER
When he was twenty-seven years old, he moved into
the western settlements of North Carolina. His plan-
tation was in what was called the Dis-
trict of Washington, on the Watauga
and Nolichucky rivers. Sevier soon
became the leading man in the settle-
ment. His friends called him " Noli-
chucky Jack." In 1776 he was elected
a member of the Congress of North
Carolina that met at Halifax.
"Nolichucky Jack" and "Bonnie
Kate." — During one of the Indian
wars on the frontier the whites were compelled to take
refuge in a fort. A large number of women and children
were among them. For several days nothing was seen
of any Indians, and everybody began to hope that they
had gone away. One day some of the girls slipped out
of the fort to gather wild flowers. As they laughed and
talked and enjoyed their freedom they strayed farther
and farther from the fort.
Suddenly they heard a cry that sent them scamper-
ing back to the fort for their very lives. " The Indians!
The Indians! Run, run for your lives!" Crack! crack!
went the rifles of the men on guard. The frightened
girls flew over the ground, and all but one got safely
through the gate. When this girl saw that she could not
reach the gate safely, she ran for another part of the fort.
There stood a tall backwoodsman, rifle in hand, and
every time his rifle cracked, an Indian tumbled over.
The girl sprang to the wall, scrambled over, and fell
safely into this frontiersman's brawny arms.
This girl's name was Catherine Sherrill, but her friends
124 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
called her " Bonnie Kate." The tall backwoodsman
was " Nolichucky Jack." Afterward there was great
rejoicing and dancing in the settlement when " Bonnie
Kate " and " Nolichucky Jack " were married.
The Rising of the Backwoodsmen. — One day a mes-
senger reached the backwoods settlements with news
that a British army was marching in that direction.
This army was composed of 1200 British and Tories.
Its commander was Major Patrick Ferguson, who was
one of Lord Cornwallis's best officers. Major Ferguson
sent word to the backwoodsmen that if they did not stop
sending aid to the rebels of North Carolina and South
Carolina, he would cross the mountains and destroy
their settlements. But he little knew what sort of men
Benjamin Cleveland, Isaac Shelby, John Sevier, and
their followers were. As soon as they heard that Fergu-
son was near them, they decided not to wait for his
arrival, but to go out and meet him.
So the leaders sent scouts all through the mountains
calling on the people to rise up in defense of their homes.
Old men and young boys, hunters and farmers, snatched
their long rifles from their racks and hurried to the
meeting place. Their only fear was that all the fighting
might be over before they got there. At Sycamore
Shoals, on the Watauga River, about 1000 of these fear-
less woodsmen gathered. There were 400 Virginians
under Colonel William Campbell ; 500 North Carolinians
under Colonel Shelby and Colonel Sevier; and 160 North
Carolinians under Colonel Joseph McDowell. After-
ward they were joined on the march by Colonel Cleve-
land with 400 men from North Carolina, and Colonel
James Williams with 400 from South Carolina.
CLEVELAND, SHELBY, AND SEVIER 125
" A Crowd of Dirty Mongrels." — It was a queer-
looking army. The men had no bright uniforms. There
were no flying flags. No drum beat step for them as
they marched. Their only uniforms were coonskin
caps, buckskin shirts, fringed leggings, and Indian moc-
casins. They were burdened with no tents or baggage.
Their only cover at night was the starry sky, their chief
food a pocketful of parched corn for each man. But
every man rode a good horse, and carried a sharp hunt-
ing-knife, a tomahawk, and his trusty rifle. There was
scarcely a man in that little army who could not send
a rifle-ball through the head of a squirrel perched on the
highest limb. They were as fleet as deer, as bold as
bears, and as keen as Indians on the trail. Nearly every
man of them had been in battles with the Indians and
knew how to fight " Indian fashion.' 5 At first Fergu-
son made much fun of this queer army and called it
"a crowd of dirty mongrels."
Ferguson Flees to King's Mountain. — But when he
learned that this " crowd of dirty mongrels" was getting
nearer and nearer, Ferguson began to think that he had
better get out of the way. So he turned and fled in
haste to the top of King's Mountain. There he took
a strong position and declared that all the rebels in the
world could not drive him off. But he forgot that he
was dealing with men who were used to climbing moun-
Cleveland's Speech. — Just before the patriots were
ready to go into battle, the leaders drew their men up
in line to tell them their plans. Then " Old Round-
about ' Cleveland, raising his coonskin cap, rode up in
front and said:
126 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
"Now, my brave fellows, I have come to tell you the
news. The enemy is close at hand. We must go for
him. Now is the time for every man to show what kind
of a man he is. When the pinch comes, your leaders
will be right with you. But we don't want anybody to
go into this battle who wants to turn back. We have
no place for cowards. If any man is afraid to go into
this fight and win his share of the glory, now is the
time for him to back out. So when I give the signal,
all who want to back out can take three steps to the
That would, indeed, have been " backing out."
But " Old Roundabout ' knew his men. Not a one
" backed out," but all cried out for him to lead them
against the enemy.
Shelby's Speech. — Then up rode Colonel Shelby.
"I am proud of you, my fine fellows," he said. " I am
glad to see you so determined to meet your enemy and
beat him. When we meet the British, don't wait for
your officers to give the command. Let each man be
his own officer, and do the best he can. If we meet them
in the woods, give them Indian play. Advance from
tree to tree, and pour your shots into them. Your
officers will shrink from no danger, but will be in the
foremost of the fight. Come on, then, my gallant boys,
and let us go after Ferguson."
The Battle on the Mountain-top. — The men cheered
their leaders, and they went boldly after Ferguson.
It was October 7, 1780. Up the sides of King's Moun-
tain the bold pioneers rushed. As they advanced from
behind trees and rocks they poured a deadly fire into
the British. Ferguson and his men fought bravely, but
CLEVELAND, SHELBY, AND SEVIER
they were no match for the backwoodsmen. They fell
thick and fast before the sure aim of the hunters and
Indian lighters. Ferguson himself, struck by several
balls, fell from his horse, dead. Then the British raised
the white flag and surrendered to the " crowd of dirty
Battle of King's Mountain
mongrels." The patriots had killed nearly 400 of their
enemies and captured more than 700. Of their own
men 28 were killed and 60 wounded.
A Glorious Victory. — Such a glorious victory had
not been won in the South since Caswell had beaten the
Highlanders at Moore's Creek. Lord Cornwallis was
at Charlotte when he heard the gloomy news. He saw
at once that North Carolina was not a safe place for him,
so he turned and fled to South Carolina. He was ter-
ribly afraid that the King's Mountain boys were coming
128 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
But the King's Mountain boys were not thinking of
Cornwallis. After their victory they returned to their
mountain homes, hung their rifles again in the racks
over the great fireplaces, and went quietly to work.
They had merely done what they had set out to do, and
had done it well. They had beaten their haughty
enemy. They had won an important victory. They
had saved the State. And yet it never occurred to them
that they were heroes!
Cleveland's Last Days. — After the Revolution
Colonel Cleveland spent the rest of his life quietly. He
grew so fat that he weighed over 450 pounds and could
not get about easily. Full of wit and good humor, he
loved a good story and always welcomed a good fellow
to his house. He amused himself in his last days by
sitting on his porch cracking jokes with those who
passed by. In October, 1806, he suddenly died while
eating his breakfast.
Shelby Moves to Kentucky. — At the close of the war
Shelby moved to the settlements founded by Daniel
Boone in Kentucky. He took an important part in
founding the new State of Kentucky. After the Con-
stitution was adopted, he was chosen the first governor.
He served as governor for four years. During the War
of 1812 he was again elected governor and bent all his
energies toward helping the United States win the vic-
tory. In 1813 he led the Kentucky troops on an expe-
dition against the British in Canada, and took part in
the battle of the Thames. For this service the Congress
of the United States voted him a gold medal.
In 1818 President Monroe appointed Governor Shel-
by secretary of war for the United States, but on ac-
CLEVELAND, SHELBY, AND SEVIER 129
count of his age Shelby declined. He died July 18,
The State of Franklin. — After the Revolution the
people of the District of Washington became discon-
tented with the government of North Carolina. So
they set up a new State which they called the " State of
Franklin," and elected John Sevier governor. But North
Carolina declared that Sevier and his followers were
rebels against her. Officers who were sent to arrest him
brought him to Morganton to be tried for rebellion.
A Bold Adventure. — But we may be sure that " Bon-
nie Kate " would not rest quietly at home and let " Noli-
chucky Jack ' be punished. She called together a few
of his best friends and they agreed on a plan to rescue
their leader. A small party rode all the way from the
" State of Franklin ' to Morganton. They carried
Sevier's fleet horse, ready bridled and saddled. At
Morganton a large crowd gathered to hear the trial of
the hero of King's Mountain. The little court-house
was packed. Sevier's friends entered quietly, and gave
him a secret sign. Nobody else knew who they were or
what they had come for.
Suddenly the leader stepped out in front of the judge
and, pointing to Sevier, exclaimed in a loud voice:
" When are you going to let that man go?"
Everybody sprang up in surprise and confusion.
Before the sheriff realized what had occurred, Sevier was
out of the door, on his horse, and away to the mountains
as fast as the wind. It was needless to try to catch him. 1
Perhaps the people, who had not. forgotten his services
1 This is the traditional account. Historically it may be inaccurate
in some of its details, but it is doubtless true in its main features.
130 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
at King's Mountain, did not want him to be caught.
Anyhow " Nolichucky Jack ' was soon over the moun-
tains kissing his brave little wife, " Bonnie Kate/' who
was glad enough to see him. He was never tried for
rebellion because the Legislature of North Carolina
passed a law that he should be pardoned and permitted
to go free.
Sevier's Last Days. — The ''State of Franklin' did
not last long, for the people had to yield to the authority
of North Carolina. But afterward North Carolina gave
all that great territory, now the State of Tennessee, to
the United States. Then the State of Tennessee was
formed, and Sevier was elected governor. The people
elected him governor six times. They also elected him
to Congress three times, once before Tennessee became a
State, and twice afterwards. When he died, at seventy
years of age, he had been the leader of the Tennessee
pioneers for more than forty years.
1. Describe the situation of Wilkes county. Of King's Mountain.
Of Morganton. Of Jonesboro, Tenn.
2. Trace and describe the course of the Watauga and Nolichucky
3. Where is Cleveland county? What is its county seat?
4. Describe the character of the country through which the "King's
Mountain Boys" had to march.
1. Describe life on the frontier before the Revolution.
2. What kind of education was needed on the frontier?
3. When and where was Benjamin Cleveland born? Where in
North Carolina did he settle? What were his chief occupations and
CLEVELAND, SHELBY, AND SEVIER 131
4. Which side was he on in the Revolution? What kind of war-
fare did he wage? What did his soldiers think of him? What was
5. When and where was Isaac Shelby born? Describe his early
life. What service did he perform for North Carolina and Virginia?
To what military positions was he appointed?
6. When and where was John Sevier born? What is said of him
as an Indian fighter? Where did he make his home? What did his
friends call him?
7. Tell the story of "Nolichueky Jack" and "Bonnie Kate."
8. Who was Patrick Ferguson? What message did he send the
backwoodsmen? How did they prepare to answer it?
9. Describe the rising of the backwoodsmen.
10. What kind of an army did they make? What did Ferguson
11. Where did he seek refuge? Why?
12. Repeat by heart Cleveland's speech to his men. Shelby's
13. Describe the battle of King's Mountain.
14. What effect did this battle have on Lord Cornwallis? What
did the frontiersmen do after the battle?
15. Describe Cleveland's last days.
16. What services did Shelby render the State of Kentucky? The
17. What was the " State of Franklin " ? What part did Sevier take
in it? What did North Carolina say and do about it?
18. Describe the rescue of Sevier.
19. What services did he render the State of Tennessee?
WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE
How an English Boy Became an American. — One
day in 1763 a tall stranger rode into the Waxhaw settle-
ment of South Carolina and asked the way to the home
of Rev. William Richardson. With him was a handsome
little fellow who seemed to be about seven years old.
The stranger gave his name as Archibald Davie, and said
that Mr. Richardson was his brother-in-law. He had
come all the way from England to bring his little son,
William, to see his uncle.
How glad Mr. Richardson must have been to see his
brother-in-law and his handsome little nephew. As he
had no children of his own, he wished to adopt his
nephew as his son and heir. So when Archibald Davie
left, the lad remained behind with his uncle. Thus the
little English boy became an American.
His Education. — His name was William Richardson
Davie. He was born in England, June 20, 1756. His
uncle, William Richardson, was a Presbyterian clergy-
man. He desired that his adopted son should be well
educated. When the boy was about ten years old he
was sent to Queen's Museum, a school at Charlotte,
North Carolina. A few years later he entered the
famous college in New Jersey, then called Nassau Hall,
but now known as Princeton University.
WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE
While young Davie was at Princeton his uncle died,
leaving him a good estate. Davie was now alone in the
world and free to follow his own desires. He was an
ambitious boy and determined to make a name for him-
self. In 1776 he was graduated at Princeton with the
highest honors. Then he returned
to North Carolina and began the
study of the law at Salisbury. From
that time till near the close of his life
he made his home in North Carolina.
The Student Becomes a Soldier.
— While Davie was at Princeton the
Revolution broke out. New Jersey
soon became the scene of some hard
fighting, and a party of Princeton
students offered to serve against the
British. Davie was one of these young patriots.
Though born in England, he had become an ardent
American and was eager to fight for American inde-
pendence. In New Jersey, therefore, in the summer of
1776, while he was a college student, he saw his first
But it was not long before he entered the war in ear-
nest. While he was studying law at Salisbury, the war
reached that part of North Carolina, and in a little while
was raging all around him. In such times patriots
think not of their own welfare, but of their country.
So in 1777 Davie laid aside his law books and buckled
on his sword. Joining the North Carolina troops under
General Allen Jones, he started to the defense of Charles-
ton, South Carolina. But on the way General Jones
received word that the British had given up the attack,
134 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
and for a little while Davie returned to Salisbury to his
Davie Becomes a Cavalry Officer. — But he was soon
called to the field again. The British had sent a large
force to conquer the Southern States. Davie helped
to raise a troop of cavalry in Rowan and Mecklenburg
counties, and was at once elected lieutenant. In 1779
his company joined the American army under General
Benjamin Lincoln in South Carolina. A few weeks
later Davie was elected captain, and soon afterward was
promoted to the rank of major.
A Narrow Escape. — On June 20, 1779, Davie led
his men at the battle of Stono Ferry, near Charleston.
The Americans were beaten and driven from the field.
While leading his men Davie was shot in the leg and
fell from his horse. He was so badly wounded that
he could not re-mount, and the British were sweep-
ing right down upon him. In a minute they would
have ridden over him. But just then a private soldier,
regardless of his own danger, stopped in the retreat,
placed Major Davie on his horse, and led him safely
from the field.
The man then disappeared without even telling his
name. Two years later, the night before the battle of
Ninety-six, while Davie was sitting in his tent, a stranger
entered. He said that he was the man who had saved
Davie at Stono Ferry. Davie of course was delighted
to see him again and, grasping his hand, thanked him
warmly for his brave deed. The man left, saying that
he would come again to see Davie. But the next day,
after the battle, the gallant soldier's body was found on
the battle-field among the slain.
WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE 135
Davie Becomes a Lawyer. — Davie's wound was so
serious that after the battle of Stono Ferry he could not
serve in the army again for nearly a year. So he returned
to his studies and in September, 1779, was given his
license to practise law.
A Patriot's Sacrifices. — As we have already seen, the
year 1780 was a gloomy time for the patriots in the
South. The British, having conquered Georgia and
South Carolina, prepared to set out in the fall upon
the conquest of North Carolina. The North Carolina
patriots aroused themselves to meet this danger.
Davie sent word to the governor that his wound was
healed enough for him to take the field again. The
North Carolina Assembly promptly gave him authority
to raise a troop of cavalry. But the State had no
money to give him for the expenses. What then was
Davie to do? He must have money to equip his
soldiers. He did not hesitate a moment. He sold
part of the property his uncle had left him, and with
the money purchased arms, ammunition, horses, and
clothes for his men.
Davie's Battles. — It would take too long to tell you
about all the battles that Davie fought for his country.
He helped to crush the Tories after their defeat at
Ramsauer's Mill. At Hanging Rock, in South Carolina,
he surprised a British force, cut it to pieces, captured
many horses, rifles, and muskets, without losing a single
man. When General Gates was defeated at Camden,
Davie threw his horsemen between the retreating Amer-
icans and the victorious British. He saved from capture
a large number of wagons loaded with clothes and
medicines, and saved the life of many a brave fellow
136 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
who afterward did good fighting for American inde-
How Davie Fought. — Davie led his men from place
to place so swiftly and secretly that the British could
not keep up with him. When they were expecting him
at one place, he would suddenly attack them at another.
He taught his men to ride fast, to strike hard and to
One of Davie's soldiers at the battle of Hanging Rock
was a boy thirteen years old. He afterward became
the most famous American soldier of his day, and was
twice elected President of the United States. This boy
was Andrew Jackson. In his old age Jackson often said
that Davie was the best soldier he ever knew, and that
he learned his best lessons in war from him.
The Hornets' Nest. — Davie's skill and boldness won
praises from everybody. In September, 1780, he was
appointed colonel of all the cavalry in the western part
of North Carolina. When Lord Cornwallis started on
his march for North Carolina, the only force between
him and Charlotte was Colonel Davie's cavalry. The
British numbered ten times as many men as were in
Davie's force, and Davie knew, of course, that he could
not beat them. But he hoped to worry them and delay
their march as much as possible in order to give the
Americans time to collect a force at Salisbury.
So Davie hovered about the flanks of the British army.
His men shot down the British soldiers at every chance.
They cut off their messengers, captured their scouts,
and broke up their foraging parties. It seemed to Lord
Cornwallis that an American soldier was hidden behind
every rock and tree and fence.
WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE 137
At Charlotte Davie stationed his men under the court-
house which stood just at the crossing of two streets.
When the British came in sight, his men opened fire.
The attack was so bold that Cornwallis thought the
whole American army must be before him. Three times
the British charged and three times they were driven
back. For four hours Davie's little band of 150 men held
the entire British army at bay. Then he coolly and skil-
fully withdrew and retreated toward Salisbury. Can
you wonder that Lord Cornwallis said that "the counties
of Mecklenburg and Rowan are more hostile to England
than any in America?" Can you wonder that his officers
called Charlotte the " Hornets' Nest of the Revolution " ?
Davie Equips Greene's Army. — After the battle of
Camden, Washington sent General Nathanael Greene
to take command of the American army in North Caro-
lina. Greene took command in December, 1780, at
Charlotte. He found an army of good soldiers who
were badly in need of arms, ammunition, food, and
clothes. Of course no army can fight without these
things, no matter how brave the men may be. Greene's
first thought was to find a man upon whom he could
depend to equip his army. He had never met Davie,
but he knew about his services, and he decided that
Davie was just the man for that important work.
Davie preferred to remain at the head of his brave
horsemen. He loved the excitement of battle, and was
ambitious for military glory. But he told General
Greene that he was willing to serve wherever he could do
the greatest good. So Greene appointed him quarter-
master-general. His duty was to find equipment for
the army. This was a most difficult task. Davie often
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
had to pledge his own fortune before he could secure
supplies for the soldiers. But with Governor Caswell's
help he succeeded in equipping Greene's army well
enough for him to fight the battles of Guilford Court-
house, Hobkirk's Hill, and Eutaw Springs. These
Home of Davie at Halifax
battles forced the British to abandon North Carolina
and South Carolina.
Davie as a Lawyer. — At the close of the war Davie
moved to Halifax to practise law. He was a tall, hand-
some man. His manners were graceful and impressive.
He was a hard student, and always prepared his work
with great care. His voice was so mellow, his eloquence
so impressive, that the court-house was sure to be crowded
whenever he rose to speak. His clients came from all
parts of the State, and he attended the coufts as far
east as Edenton and New Bern and as far west as Salis-
bury. Some of our most eminent lawyers studied law
under Davie. One of them, a judge of the Supreme,
WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE 139
Court, said that Davie was the best lawyer he ever
knew. Archibald D. Murphey, a judge and a fine
scholar, who often heard Davie speak, declared: "He
is certainly to be ranked among the first orators whom
the American nation has produced."
Davie Saves the Constitution. — In 1787 Davie was a
member of the convention at Philadelphia that framed
the Constitution of the United States. The other dele-
gates from North Carolina were Alexander Martin,
Richard Dobbs Spaight, William Blount, and Hugh
Williamson. Had it not been for Davie's patriotism
and wisdom this convention would probably have broken
up without adopting any constitution. It had been
decided that the laws for the United States should be
made by a Congress. This Congress was to be com-
posed of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
Before any measure could become a law, it must be
passed by both of these bodies.
But how many representatives should each State have
in Congress? This important question was debated for
several days. The large States said that each State
should send a number of members according to its popu-
lation. But the smaller States replied that the large
States would then have too much power in Congress.
They thought that each State ought to have the same
number of members, at least in the Senate, and they de-
clared that they would not go into any union unless such
a plan was adopted. When the vote was taken it was
found to be a tie. There was great excitement in the
convention. For a while neither side would give way,
and it looked as if the convention would break up in
confusion without forming any constitution.
140 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Then in the midst of the excitement Davie rose to
his feet. Everybody bent forward eagerly to hear what
he was going to say. North Carolina, he said, was one
of the larger States and had voted against the plan sug-
gested by the smaller States. But he thought the time
had now come when the larger States ought to yield.
So he and his colleagues were ready to vote that
each State should have the same number of members
in the Senate. His speech was greeted with great
applause. The tie was broken, and the Constitution
North Carolina Rejects the Constitution. — After the
convention had finished its work a copy of the Consti-
tution was sent to every State. Those which accepted it,
if there were as many as nine, would become members,
of the Union; the others would no longer be mem-
bers of the United States. Should North Carolina
accept the Constitution? On this important question
the people were divided. A convention to decide the
matter was held at Hillsboro in July, 1738.
The leaders of those opposed to the Constitution
were Willie Jones, who had been a prominent patriot
of the Revolution, Samuel Spencer, who became a judge,
Thomas Person, who had been a Revolutionary general,
and Timothy Bloodworth, who afterward became
United States senator. On the other side were Samuel
Johnston, who was then governor, James Iredell, whom
Washington afterward appointed a judge of the Supreme
Court of the United States, and William R. Davie.
These three great men worked hard and spoke eloquently
for the Constitution and the Union, but when the vote
was taken the other side had the majority.
WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE
North Carolina Adopts the Constitution. — So when
Washington was first elected President of the United
States, North Carolina was not a member of the Union.
But the friends of the Constitution did not give up the
University of North Carolina, Old East Building
(The oldest building at the University. The corner-stone was laid
by Davie, October 12, 1793)
fight. Iredell and Davie continued to write and speak
in favor of the Constitution, and in 1789 they persuaded
the Legislature to call another convention. This con-
vention met at Fayetteville in November, 1789. This
time the friends of the Constitution had a majority of
the members, and when the vote was taken it was in
favor of the Constitution. So on November 21, 1789,
North Carolina again became one of the United States.
Founding of the University. — In the meantime Davie
had rendered other important services to the State.
The people of Halifax elected him a member of the
Legislature eight times. " In the House of Commons," 1
1 Now called House of Representatives.
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
says Judge Murphey, " he had no rival, and on all ques-
tions before that body his eloquence was irresistible."
It was in 1789 that Davie made his great speech in
favor of establishing a university. Among those who
heard it was Judge Murphey. Says he: " Although
more than thirty years have
elapsed, I have the most
vivid recollection of the
greatness of his manner and
the power of his eloquence
on that occasion." There
was much strong opposition
to the University, but
Davie's great speech over-
came it. No other man did
as much as he to establish
the University He wrote
the law creating it; his elo-
quence persuaded the Leg-
islature to pass it; he was
The Davie Poplar 0ne ° f the first trustees; he
(A giant poplar standing in the center laid the COmer-stone of the
of University (N. C.) Campus under r> > r -i v i i
which Davie and his party rested for hrst building; and he Was
lunch when locating the site of the 1 c '±. i.
University in 1792) always one ot its warmest
friends. For these reasons he
is called "The Father of the University/' and no other
man in the history of the State has won a prouder title.
Governor of North Carolina. — In 1798 Davie was
elected a member of the Legislature. A few days after
the Legislature met he was elected governor of North
Carolina, and began his duties December 4, 1798. As
governor he was interested in education, agriculture,
WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE 143
and other matters for the improvement of the State.
But he did not remain governor long enough to accom-
plish much. The United States needed him for an
important work and in September, 1799, he resigned
his office as governor.
Davie is Sent to France. — During the Revolution
France had been friendly to the United States and
helped them to win their independence. But after the
war several matters arose which caused disputes between
the two countries, and in 1794 it looked as if they would
go to war. Troops were raised and warlike preparations
were made. Davie was appointed general of the North
Carolina troops. Fortunately war was avoided. Again,
in 1798, the quarrel broke out afresh. Congress raised
an army, placed Washington at its head, and voted
money for war. Washington at once appointed Davie
a general in the United States Army.
But the president, John Adams, was anxious to pre-
vent war. So he decided to send three men to France to
try to settle the disputes peaceably. He selected Oliver
Ellsworth, chief justice of the United States Supreme
Court, William R. Davie, governor of North Carolina,
and William Vans Murray, United States minister to
Holland. A war vessel, the United States, carried Ells-
worth and Davie to Europe where they met Murray.
The ruler of France at that time was Napoleon Bona-
parte. He appointed three men to meet the Americans.
After a long discussion an agreement was reached, a
treaty adopted, and war was prevented. In the fall of
1800 Davie brought the treaty to the United States
and delivered it to President Adams.
144 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Davie's Last Days. — Soon after Davie returned from
France his wife died. He had grown tired of office and pub-
lic life, and was anxious to devote himself to agriculture.
So in November, 1805, he left North Carolina and moved
to his plantation in South Carolina. When the War of
1812 began, President Madison appointed Davie a major-
general in the United States Army. But Davie declared
that he was too old for military service, and declined.
On his great plantation he passed his last days in
ease and comfort. His home was always open to his
friends and his hospitality was unbounded. Many of
his old Revolutionary companions came to visit him.
Under an immense oak in his yard they would sit for
hours talking over their battles for the independence
of their country. Davie died November 18, 1820, and
was buried at W^axhaw Church, Lancaster county,
South Carolina. Of him Judge William Gaston wrote:
" He was a great man in an age of great men, admired
and beloved by the virtuous and the wise."
1. Locate the following places in North Carolina: Waxhaw,
Charlotte, Salisbury, Chapel Hill. Ramsauer's Mill was in Lincoln
county, near Lincolnton. Describe the situation of Lincolnton.
Guilford Court-house was near Greensboro. Describe its situation.
2. Describe the situation of the following places in South Carolina:
Charleston, Stono Ferry, Ninety-Six, Camden, Hanging Rock,
Hobkirk's Hill, Eutaw Springs.
Give an account of —
1. When and where Davie was born. Why he came to North
2. His education. His profession.
3. His first military service.
WILLIAM RICHARDSON DAVIE 145
4. His law studies. How the war interrupted them.
5. Battle of Stono Ferry.
6. How Davie raised a regiment of cavalry.
7. The principal battles in which he fought.
8. His method of fighting.
9. What Andrew Jackson said of Davie.
10. How Davie defended Charlotte.
11. The condition of the American army in North Carolina when
General Greene took command.
12. How Davie helped Greene with the army.
13. Davie as a lawyer and orator.
14. How Davie saved the Constitution of the United States.
15. What North Carolina did about the Constitution.
16. The leaders for and against the Constitution.
17. How the Constitution was finally adopted.
18. The founding of the University.
19. Davie's work as governor.
20. How Davie helped to prevent war with France.
21. Davie's last days.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. Give an account of the following battles: Stono Ferry, Ninety-
Six, Ramsauer's Mill, Hanging Rock, Camden, Guilford Court-house,
Hobkirk's Hill, Eutaw Springs.
2. What changes in the government of the United States did the
Constitution make? How many members does each State elect to
the United States Senate? How many does North Carolina now have
in the House of Representatives? New York? Delaware? Ohio?
3. In 1787 North Carolina was fourth in population among the
States. What is it now? How many people in the State now?
4. What other State besides North Carolina at first refused to
adopt the Constitution? How many States were in the Union when
Washington was first elected President?
5. How was- the governor of North Carolina elected in 1798 ? How
long did he serve then? How elected now? How long does he serve now?
6. Who has the authority to make treaties between the United
States and foreign nations?
Warren County. — In 1764 the General Assembly cut
off the northeast corner of Granville county and formed
a new county, called Bute. It was named in honor of
an English nobleman, the Earl of Bute, who was a close
friend of the King. When the Revolution broke out,
Lord Bute was, of course hostile to the Americans. So,
in 1779, the Legislature changed the name of the county
to Warren, r m nfeior of the American patriot, General
Joseph Warren, who was killed at the battle of Bunker
Nathaniel Macon. — It was in this part of old Gran-
ville that Nathaniel Macon was born, December 17,
1758. His father was Gideon Macon, and his mother
was Priscilla Jones. It is said that his grandmother,
Abigail Sugan, was the first white woman to settle in
that section of North Carolina. Nathaniel was the
youngest of eight children. When he was five years
old, his father died, leaving his widow with a large
family and very little property.
Nathaniel was such a bright, thoughtful boy that all
the family agreed that he ought to be given a good edu-
cation. His first teacher was Charles Pettigrew who
taught an " old-field " school in the neighborhood.
When Macon was fifteen he entered Princeton College,
in New Jersey. The breaking out of the Revolution
NATHANIEL MACON 147
interrupted his studies there, and in 1776 he returned to
North Carolina. For a little while he studied law, but
did not like it and never received his license to practise.
There was no good library near his home, but Macon
read eagerly such books as he could obtain. He was
fond of history and became familiar with the histories of
Rome, England, and Scotland. In those days it was
very difficult to get good candles, and most of Macon's
studying and reading was done by a lightwood fire.
Macon Takes Up Arms. — While Macon was at
Princeton the Declaration of Independence was adopted.
Young Macon had been raised in a patriotic community.
It had become a common saying in North Carolina,
" There are no Tories in Bute." Macon was eager to
join in the fight for independence, and when the war
came near Princeton, he promptly dropped his books
and shouldered his musket. He joined a party of stu-
dents who entered upon a short campaign in New Jer-
sey. At the end of the campaign they went back to
their studies. A few weeks later Macon returned
The war then seemed to be going against the patriots
in the South. Macon thought it his duty to defend his
country, so he enlisted in the army as a private. His
comrades elected him as their captain, but he declined.
During the years 1779 and 1780 he saw much hard fight-
ing. He was at the fall of Fort Moultrie, the surrender
of Charleston, the defeat at Camden, and with Greene
during his terrible retreat across North Carolina in
Macon in the Legislature. — While he was in the army,
Macon was elected a member of the State Senate from
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Warren county. The first he heard of his election was
a message from the Governor summoning him to attend
the Legislature. Most men would have welcomed such
a good excuse for leaving the army. But Macon was
not like other men. He refused to leave. General
Greene soon heard about the stanch young soldier who
preferred a place full of dan-
ger and hardship to one of
safety and ease. Why, he
thought, I must learn some-
thing more about this young
fellow. So he sent for
Macon and asked him why
he had refused to obey the
" Sir," replied the young
soldier, " I have often seen
the faces of the British sol-
diers, but I have never seen
their backs. I am determined to remain in the army
until I do see them."
General Greene was much pleased at this spirited reply.
But he told Macon that he could do the American cause
more good as a member of the Legislature than as a
soldier. In the army he was but one man; in the Legis-
lature he might persuade the members to send hundreds
of men to the army. And he could also tell the Legis-
lature from his own experience how badly the army
needed supplies and equipment.
Macon then saw that it was his duty to attend the
meeting of the Legislature, and he no longer hesitated.
It proved to be just as General Greene predicted.
NATHANIEL MACON 149
Macon's services in the Legislature were very useful
in obtaining men and supplies for the army. He him-
self never entered the army again. He refused to accept
any pay for his services as a soldier, for he declared that
it was the patriot's duty to serve his country without
being paid for it.
'Buck Spring." — After the war Macon returned to his
farm in Warren county. He called his plantation " Buck
Spring," on account of a fine spring where the deer,
which roamed his woods in great numbers, were accus-
tomed to drink. In the midst of a splendid grove of
oaks Macon built a small, simple house. Grouped around
the house were several smaller buildings, called " offices,"
which were really rooms for his guests. On one side was
the kitchen with its great fireplace tall enough for a
man to stand erect in. The cooking was done in huge
pots hung from hooks over the fire. In the distance
were the cabins for the slaves, called the " quarters,"
and near them were the barns and stables.
Macon loved the country. He used to say that he
did not want to live near enough to any man to see the
smoke from his chimney or to hear his dog bark. His
nearest neighbor lived five miles away. Macon was
fond of the work of the farm. Even after he had become
a distinguished statesman, he would take his hoe, or
plow, and work in the field at the head of his negroes.
He cared nothing for riches. His fields, his flocks, and
his herds gave him enough for his simple wants, and he
desired no more.
In his habits he was one of the simplest of men. He
never changed his style of dressing. His clothes were
made of plain, blue cloth in the style worn during the
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Revolution. He wore the best linen, a fine cambric
stock, a fur hat with a brim, and top-boots into which
he tucked his trousers. He was always neat in his
Macon's Amusements. — Macon's favorite amuse-
ments were horse-racing and hunting. The fox chases
Farmers of North Carolina on a Fox Hunt
at Buck Spring became famous. In his stables Macon
kept the fleetest thoroughbreds for his friends to ride
when they came to Buck Spring. One of his most
frequent visitors was the famous John Randolph, of
Virginia, who was Macon's life-long friend and com-
panion. In 1819, when President Monroe made a
tour of the Southern States, he made a special visit to
Buck Spring to take part in one of Macon's famous fox
chases. Macon was fond of company. He kept open
house at Buck Spring and many guests came to share
in his well-known hospitality.
NATHANIEL MACON 151
Macon's Political Career. — Macon's public career
began when he was elected to the State Senate in 1781;
it lasted forty-two years. He was five times elected to
the Legislature, twelve times to Congress, three times
to the United States Senate, and once a delegate to the
Convention to amend the State constitution. In Con-
gress he was elected speaker of the House of Represen-
tatives three times and president of the Senate three
times. He was also elected president of the North
Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1835. And yet
it is said that he never asked any person to vote for
him, and never told any one that he desired to be
elected to any office.
Macon as a Public Official. — In public office, though
he held high and important places, Macon was as simple
and plain as in his own home. He was a real democrat.
Whenever the people understand any public question,
he declared, they will decide it right. He would accept
no offices except those to which he was elected by the
people or by their representatives. Thomas Jefferson
twice offered him a place in the President's cabinet, but
both times he refused because it was not an office on
which the people could vote.
Macon was as punctual in attending to his public
duties as he was in attending to his private affairs. He
thought that public officers who wasted their time were
robbing the people. He was too honest to take credit
for any act which was due to some one else. Once he
presented a very able report to the United States Sen-
ate. Another senator, thinking that Macon wrote it,
praised it very highly. " Yes/ 5 said Macon, " it is a
good report; Senator Tazewell wrote it." Though he
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
was as true as steel to his friends, he would not violate
his public duty to please them. When he was speaker
of the House of Representatives, he removed his dear-
est friend, John Randolph, from an important position
because he thought another man could perform its
duties better. Nor would he ever appoint any of his
own relatives to public office.
Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Va.
(Named after the two friends, John Randolph and Nathaniel Macon)
Macon was not an orator. Indeed, he had but little
patience with speech-making. A few plain, simple words,
to explain any subject, were all he cared to hear. His
own speeches were short and plain-spoken. The famous
Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri, said that Macon "spoke
more good sense while he was getting up out of his chair,
and getting back into it, than many others did in long
NATHANIEL MACON 153
Macon's Work in Congress. — While in Congress,
Macon took a leading part in many of the most impor-
tant events in the history of the United States. He
opposed the famous Alien and Sedition laws, because
they were against the liberty of the people and the free-
dom of the press. Aided by Randolph, he persuaded
Congress to vote the money that enabled President
Jefferson to purchase the Louisiana territory. He
always voted against measures for internal improve-
ments because, he said, the Constitution gave Congress
no power to pass such measures. For the same reason
he spoke and voted against a protective tariff.
In 1809 Macon was chairman of the Committee on
Foreign Relations in the House of Representatives.
This committee had charge of all measures relating to
foreign countries. At that time, on account of our
quarrels with England and France, it was the most
important committee in Congress. Macon was strongly
opposed to war with either country.
"This nation," he said, " in my opinion, must take
her choice of two alternatives : to be happy and contented
without war and without internal taxes, or to be war-
like and glorious, abounding in what is called honor and
dignity, or, in other words, taxes and blood. Public
force and liberty can not dwell in the same country."
What wise words these are! But, though desiring peace,
Macon would not have his country submit to injustice.
When war with England became necessary in 1812, he
voted for it and gave it his support.
While Thomas Jefferson was President, some of the
judges of the Supreme Court severely criticized him
and his party. Jefferson and his friends were very
154 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
angry. They planned to impeach one of the judges,
remove him from office, and put one of the President's
friends in his place. But they could not carry out this
plan without Macon's help. He belonged to the same
political party as the President, so the President's friends
thought of course Macon would help them.
But Macon thought that it was a wicked scheme and
he would have nothing to do with it. " Suppose," he
said, " the judges had flattered the President. Would
he then threaten them with punishment? Certainly
not. And yet flattery is worse than abuse, and is more
dangerous. If you would not punish them for the greater
offense, why for the lesser? Besides, if the judges speak
falsely they will soon lose the confidence of the people;
if truly, it is best for the country to hear them." As
nothing could be done without Macon's aid, the plan
to impeach the judges failed.
Macon Retires from Congress. — Macon was a close
reader of the Bible. In the Bible he read: " The days
of our years are three score years and ten; and if by
reason of strength they be four score years, yet is their
strength labor and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and
we fly away." He resolved that, when he became three
score and ten years of age, he would retire from public
office and spend the remaining years of his life quietly
When his seventieth birthday came he was a member
of the United States Senate, and had two more years to
serve before his term would come to its close. His
friends urged him to remain in the Senate at least those
two years. " Your health," they said, " is still good
and your mind is as strong and clear as ever." " Yes,"
he replied, " my mind is clear enough for me to know
that I ought to quit office before my mind quits me."
So he wrote to the Legislature and resigned his office
as senator, thanking the Legislature for its long confi-
dence in him. At the same time he resigned as justice
of the peace and as trustee of the University.
The Convention of 1835. — But Macon's services
were needed in one more important event in North
Carolina. The time had come when some changes were
Capitol at Washington
needed in the State constitution. It was decided, there-
fore, to hold a convention at Raleigh, in 1835, to con-
sider what changes should be made. Many distinguished
men were elected members of this convention. But
when the convention met, all eyes turned at once to
Nathaniel Macon for president, and he was unanimously
Several important changes were made in the consti-
tution. The people of Western North Carolina had
156 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
long complained that the eastern part of the State had
more than its share of members in the Legislature.
Each county had two members without regard to its
population. The West wished that the number of mem-
bers for each county should depend upon its population.
After a long debate this change was adopted. Before
this time, seven towns — Edenton, New Bern, Wilming-
ton, Halifax, Fayetteville, Hillsboro, and Salisbury —
had each the right to send a member to the Legislature.
The convention took away this right. Since 1776 the
Legislature had met once every year; the convention
changed the time of its meeting to once every two years.
The right to vote was taken away from free negroes. In
the future the governor was not to be elected by the
Legislature, but by the people, and his term of office
was changed from one to two years.
During this convention the members from the West
and those from the East had many warm debates. They
said many harsh things about each other. More than
once it looked as if the convention would break up in a
quarrel. Then the aged Macon would rise from his
seat, and with a few calm, patriotic words quiet the
Macon's Death. — Macon died June 29, 1837, at
Buck Spring. He himself selected the place for his
grave. It was a barren ridge near the center of his plan-
tation, and he selected it because he said it was too poor
for any other use. He wished his grave to be marked
by a pile of rough stones, which, he said, were good for
nothing else. He himself directed the carpenter how
to make his coffin, and paid him for it, because he wished
to leave no debts to be paid after his death. The last
NATHANIEL MACON 157
few hours of his life were spent in conversation with his
friends and relatives.
Many tributes have been paid to Macon's memory.
President John Tyler said of him: " Nothing sordid ever
entered into his imagination. He was a devoted patriot
whose whole heart — and every corner of it — was filled
with love of country." John Randolph said, in his will,
Nathaniel Macon was " the best, wisest, and purest
man I ever knew."
1. Where was Macon born? When?
2. Give an account of his education.
3. What military service did he perform during the Revolution?
4. Tell how Macon's political career began.
5. Describe "Buck Spring." Macon's habits.
6. What were Macon's favorite amusements?
7. How long was Macon in public life? What important public
offices did he hold?
8. Describe him as a public officer. What did Benton say of him?
9. Give an account of Macon's work in Congress. What did he
say about the United States and war?
10. Give an account of the plan to impeach the judges, and what
Macon said about it.
11. When and why did Macon retire from Congress? Did he ever
hold any other office?
12. What important changes were made in the Constitution of
North Carolina in 1835?
13. Describe Macon's death.
14. What tributes were paid to him?
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. Name the counties in North Carolina whose names were changed
on account of the part that the men for whom they were named took
in the Revolution.
158 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
2. Name the counties which were named in honor of Revolutionary
leaders. Of Revolutionary leaders of other States. Of British states-
men who were friendly to the Americans.
3. For how long a term is a United States senator elected? A
representative? Explain the difference in the way in which they
are elected. Why was this difference adopted?
4. How are the members of the President's Cabinet selected?
5. What were the Alien and Sedition laws?
6. What is a protective tariff?
7. Explain what is meant by "impeaching" a public official.
8. In what way can the Constitution of North Carolina be changed?
What is the difference between a convention and the General
9. How is it decided how many members each county shall have
in the Legislature? How many does your county have? How many
members all told in the North Carolina House of Representatives?
In the Senate?
10. How often does the Legislature meet? When and where?
How is the governor now elected? For how long? Does he have
anything to do with making laws?
Our Second War with England. — For many years
after the Revolution England acted toward the United
States in a very unfriendly manner. She felt humiliated
at being beaten by her colonies, and
treated the Americans with great
contempt. She refused to remove
her soldiers from the forts on our
frontier as she had agreed to do. The
British Parliament passed acts to
injure the commerce of the United
States. But worst of all was what
was called the " impressment of
The British Government declared
that many sailors ran away from the
British navy and entered the American navy or went
into the service of American merchant vessels. So
Great Britain claimed the right of stopping Ameri-
can vessels on the Atlantic, arresting any seamen
whom she claimed to be British subjects, and forcing
or impressing them into the British service. The United
States tried hard in a peaceful manner to put a stop to
such outrages. But England would listen to no protests.
So at length, in 1812, the United States declared war.
160 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
In that war a young North Carolina captain won great
fame by his skill and daring as a naval commander.
Johnston Blakely. — This officer was Captain John-
ston Blakely. He was born in Ireland in 1781. Soon
after his birth his mother died, and his father brought
his infant son to Wilmington, North Carolina. When
they landed from the vessel they were met at the wharf
by a fellow countryman, Edward Jones, a distinguished
lawyer of Wilmington.
Mr. Jones gave the strangers a warm welcome.
Taking the little motherless boy in his arms, he led the
way to his own home. There his kind-hearted wife
made the strangers feel as if they were really at home.
From that day she became as a mother to little Johnston.
The elder Blakely was a pleasant, agreeable man. He
soon made many friends in his new home. He became
a merchant in Wilmington, and when he died left his
son a small fortune.
Johnston Blakely at the University. — Johnston
Blakely was sent to school on Long Island, New York.
But when he was sixteen years old he entered the
University of North Carolina. He was a good student.
The subjects that he liked best were mathematics, sur-
veying, and navigation. At that time the students at
the University were often disorderly, and sometimes
engaged in riots and rebellions. Young Blakely refused
to join in these disorders. Still he lost none of his popu-
larity with his fellow students, for everybody liked the
genial young Irishman. In the Philanthropic Literary
Society he was elected to every office.
Blakely Enters the Navy. — Two years after he entered
the University Blakely suffered a serious misfortune.
JOHNSTON BLAKELY 161
A fire at Wilmington destroyed a large portion of his
property. This loss compelled him to leave the Uni-
versity in 1799. He then had to decide what profession
he would follow, and determined to enter the United
States Navy. In 1800 he was appointed a midshipman,
and placed on board the President, under Commodore
Richard Dale. In her he sailed on a cruise to the Med-
iterranean Sea. Dale was a splendid officer. During
the Revolution he had sailed on board the Bonhomme
Richard, under that famous seaman, John Paul Jones.
Under Dale, therefore, Blakely had a fine opportunity
to study, and he was quick to take advantage of it.
War with the Pirates. — Along the northern shore of
Africa were four States which made a business of piracy.
Their rulers sent out war vessels on the Mediterranean
to rob and plunder. They captured many travelers,
and either held them for large ransoms, or sold them
into slavery. Such nations as England and France paid
the rulers of those robber states large sums not to plun-
der their ships.
The pirates thought of course that the United States,
which was a small, weak nation, would do the same thing.
But when they demanded a bribe for being good to
American vessels, the United States sent a fleet of war
vessels to punish them. A war which lasted two years
followed. In that war Johnston Blakely saw his first
fighting. He was ordered on board the ship of Commo-
dore Preble who commanded the American fleet. This
little fleet of four vessels was engaged in some hard
fighting with the pirates. They thoroughly humbled
the robbers, who were glad to make peace.
Though this war was a small affair, it served a good
162 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
purpose in training American seamen for the war which
soon followed with England. One of the best officers
trained in this war was Johnston Blakely. He learned
how to handle a ship in battle and how to fire his guns
rapidly and accurately.
Blakely Commands the " Enterprise." — Blakely was
twice promoted on account of his skill and bravery.
Soon after the war began with England he was given
command of the Enterprise. He worked hard to fit her
for the sea and to train her crew. When everything was
ready she sailed out in search of the enemy. A few days
after leaving port she caught sight of the Fly, sl British
ship, and after a chase of eight hours overtook and cap-
A Vessel with a Sting. — As a reward for this success,
Blakely was given command of a larger and better ship
than the Enterprise. This was the Wasp, one of the
new ships which Congress had ordered to be built. The
Wasp was to be one of the finest vessels in the Ameri-
can navy. Blakely was delighted with his good luck.
'In the Wasp" he thought, "I shall win fame and
glory." And oh! what a sting this Wasp had. She
sailed out of the harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire,
May 1, 1814. Her crew numbered 173 men. Captain
Blakely was impatient to meet the enemy, and steered
straight for the English Channel.
The "Wasp" Meets the " Reindeer. " — Blakely was
not disappointed. For several days he met nothing
except merchant vessels, which he captured. But on
June 28, 1814, a war vessel came in sight. Blakely
promptly hailed her. He found that she was the British
ship Reindeer. Both vessels at once prepared for battle.
The Reindeer was ready first and opened fire before the
Wasp could get into a position to fire. But this did not
disturb Captain Blakely. He coolly waited until every-
thing was in readiness and then gave the command.
The two vessels were about twenty yards apart and
were gradually getting closer. The fighting was terrific.
Wasp and Reindeer
Blakely stood in the thick of it, giving his orders and
cheering his men as calmly as if he had been sailing on
a pleasure trip. After a few minutes the Reindeer ran
alongside the Wasp, and her men tried to get aboard the
American vessel. But after a sharp fight they were
driven back. Their captain fell dead. Then Blakely
sprang forward and commanded his men to board the
Reindeer. With shouts of triumph they scrambled on
her deck. A furious hand-to-hand fight followed, but
164 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
in a few minutes it was all over. The British sailors
threw down their arms and surrendered.
Captain Blakely placed all the survivors on board
the Wasp and set fire to the Reindeer. Soon a tremen-
dous explosion was heard. When the smoke cleared
away nothing was seen of the Reindeer but a few pieces
of smoking timbers floating on the water.
The French Welcome Blakely. — The victorious Wasp
sailed into a French port to repair her damages. The
French were overjoyed at the victory of the Ameri-
can vessel, for France was also at war with England.
They gave the Wasp and her crew a royal welcome.
The British newspapers declared that "the American
crew were hailed as victors, tapped on the back, shaken
by the hand, and complimented on their superior
A Battle in the Dark. — As soon as he had repaired
his damages, Captain Blakely steered again for the
English Channel. On September 1, 1814, he fought
one of the most remarkable battles in our history.
While cruising about after nightfall, he caught sight of
a vessel a short distance away. The night was so dark
that neither vessel could make out what kind of ship the
other was. All that the men could see were two huge
black objects looming up in the darkness. But each
knew that the other was an enemy, and they opened
fire on each other at about half past nine o'clock at
In spite of the darkness the American gunners fired
so accurately that in half an hour the other vessel gave
the signal of surrender. But before Captain Blakely
could board her to take possession, three other British
vessels, attracted by the firing, came up. Blakely
thought it would be unsafe for him to meet these three
together. He sailed away, therefore, without even
finding out the name of the vessel he had beaten.
Afterward it was learned that she was the Avon.
A Bold Challenge. — Blakely's spirits rose with his
success. He had shown himself to be one of the most
Wasp Sinking the Avon
skilful captains in the American navy. The name of
the Wasp had become famous in Europe as well as in
the United States. Blakely had so much confidence in
himself, his crew, and his ship, that he sent a messenger
into the harbor of Plymouth, England, "with a challenge
to engage any two brigs in his Majesty's service." But
the British seamen had learned what a sharp sting this
American Wasp had, and they would not accept her
The " Wasp's" Sharp Work. — Captain Blakely
cruised about the English Channel for sixty days.
During that time the saucy little Wasp captured or
166 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
destroyed thirteen British merchant vessels and sunk
two men-of-war. And all the time thirty-five British
war vessels, carrying one thousand cannon, were guard-
ing the channel!
Honors for Blakely. — In the United States the whole
country rang with praises of Blakely. The Secretary
of the Navy declared that Blakely had done "all that
skill and valor could do." Congress voted to give him
a gold medal, and asked the President of the United
States to present it to him in the name of the American
North Carolina of course was proud of her famous
son. The Legislature declared that his victories had
" thrown around the national flag a blaze of glory." It
was voted unanimously to present to him "a superb
sword" in the name of his fellow-citizens. But the
brave young hero was never to learn what honors awaited
his return to his country.
The "Wasp" Disappears. — After his victory over the
Avon, Blakely captured three merchant vessels. On
October 6, 1814, he met with a Swedish ship, the Adonis,
which had on board two American officers. They had
been prisoners of the British and only a few days before
had been exchanged. When they met the Wasp they
boarded her, and the Adonis sailed on her way.
From that day to this nobody has ever known what
became of Johnston Blakely and his brave crew.
Whether the Wasp was sunk in battle, or wrecked in a
storm, or blown up by an explosion of some of her own
guns, nobody has ever known. She was never heard of
again. The Wasp sailed the seas only five months, but
in that time she won a fame that will endure as long as
JOHNSTON BLAKELY 167
the American navy exists. Theodore Roosevelt has
declared that she was "as ably commanded as any
vessel in our little navy."
Blakely's Personality. — Captain Blakely was a small
man, but very strong and active. He had a bright,
kindly face, with black eyes and hair. Though as brave
as a lion in battle, he was shy and retiring among
strangers. When a boy he would sit for hours reading
in the library while the other children were playing out-
side. He had good manners, was full of fun and good
humor, and was liked by all who knew him.
The Captain's Daughter. — In 1814, while waiting
for the Wasp to be finished, Captain Blakely was married
to Miss Jane Ann Hoope, of Boston. Soon after his
marriage the daring captain sailed away in search of
glory. Little did his bride dream, as she waved good-by
to him, that she would never see him again. While
everybody was guessing what had been his fate, his
little daughter was born. Her mother named her Udney
Maria. Perhaps no child in the United States excited
so much interest and sympathy as little Udney Maria
North Carolina's Adopted Daughter. — As Captain
Blakely did not return to receive his sword, the Legis-
lature decided to make some gift to his daughter. So
the Governor was asked to send to Mrs. Blakely a hand-
some silver tea-set "to be kept by her and presented to
the infant daughter of Johnston Blakely when she shall
arrive at the age of fifteen years." At the same time the
Legislature determined to adopt the little girl as the
daughter of North Carolina, and to have her educated at
the expense of the State.
168 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
When the Governor wrote to Mrs. Blakely about this
action, she replied that it was "an act of such noble
and unexpected generosity, that it deprives me of all
power to express what I feel." As soon as Udney Maria
was old enough she was placed in school in Philadelphia,
and twice every year, until 1829, the governor of North
Carolina sent to her guardian the money to pay her
Five years after Captain Blakely's death Mrs. Blakely
was married again and moved to the island of St. Croix,
in the West Indies. Upon leaving school Udney Maria
Blakely joined her mother in her new home, where she
died in 1842.
Since that time North Carolina has established schools
at the public expense for all of her children; but the
only child ever adopted by the State was the little
daughter of our most famous naval hero.
1. What were the four African States with which the United States
went to war? Describe their situation.
2. Where is the English Channel? Plymouth (England)?
1. What was the cause of the War of 1812?
2. Describe Johnston Blakely's childhood.
3. Where was he educated? Give an account of his career at the
4. Why did he leave the University? What profession did he
adopt? What kind of training did he obtain?
5. Give an account of the war with the pirates.
6. What vessel did Blakely first command in the War of 1812?
What success did he have? How was he rewarded?
7. Describe the battle between the Wasp and the Reindeer.
JOHNSTON BLAKELY 169
8. How was Blakely received in France?
9. Give an account of the battle between the Wasp and the Avon.
10. What challenge did Blakely send to the British navy?
11. Give a summary of the Wasp's work in the British Channel.
12. What honors were prepared for Blakely at home? Why did he
never receive them?
13. Describe Johnston Blakely's character.
14. Tell the story of his daughter.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. What acts did England pass to injure American trade?
2. England claimed that a man who was once a British subject
could never become a citizen of any other country. Do nations still
hold to that claim? What is meant by "naturalization"?
3. How does the United States now train her naval officers?
4. Why did Blakely sail for the English Channel? What do you
suppose became of the Wasp f
Carolina! Carolina! — Perhaps every boy and girl in
school in North Carolina to-day has sung our State song
"The Old North State/' and has been thrilled with
patriotic pride at the opening line,
" Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend her! "
The man who wrote this song was one of the Old North
State's truly great men, and every North Carolina boy
and girl should know something about him.
The Gastons. — William Gaston was a son of Dr.
Alexander Gaston, a physician of New Bern. Dr. Gas-
ton was a native of Ireland. His ancestors were French
Huguenots who fled from religious persecution in
France. They went first to Scotland, and afterward to
Ireland. Alexander Gaston studied medicine at the
University of Edinburgh. After leaving the University
he served as a surgeon in the British navy. A few
years later he resigned, came to North Carolina, and
settled at New Bern.
At New Bern Dr. Gaston met Margaret Sharpe, a
bright, intelligent young Englishwoman, who had been
educated in a convent in France. He promptly fell in
love with her, courted her, and won her for his wife.
They were married at New Bern in May, 1775. There,
September 19, 1778, their son William was born.
Alexander Gaston, the American Patriot. — When
the Revolution broke out, Dr. Gaston became an ardent
patriot. He was selected as a member of the Committee
of Safety at New Bern. In June, 1775, he was one of the
patriots who drove the royal
governor, Josiah Martin, out
of the " Palace," and com-
pelled him to seek refuge
on board the Cruizer, below
Wilmington. During the
next six years he worked
steadily in support of the
cause of independence.
On account of Dr. Gaston's
activity for the American
cause the Tories bitterly
hated him. When they cap-
tured New Bern, in 1781, Dr.
Gaston was one of the first
men they wanted to take.
He was compelled to leave
his home and seek refuge in
the country. But one day
he ventured into town to see
his wife and children. The next morning Mrs. Gaston
begged him to return to the country before the Tories
found out that he was in New Bern. He had already
started across the river in an open boat, when a band
of Tories galloped into town and rode straight to the
Many years later Judge Gaston told the story of what
happened at the wharf. " I have so often heard it re-
172 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
peated by my weeping mother," he said, "that I can
never forget it. Mrs. Gaston, fearful that her husband
might not have crossed the ferry, rushed down the
street to the old county wharf, and found them firing
at him. He was in the ferry boat, a short distance
from the shore, and alone. She threw herself between
him and the Tories, and on her knees, with all a woman's
eloquence, implored them to spare the life of her hus-
band. The captain of the savage band answered these
cries by damning him for a rebel, called for a rifle, leveled
it over her shoulder, and stretched him a corpse." l
Margaret Gaston. — Margaret Gaston was left alone
in the world with two children to rear and educate. She
was a woman of strong character and deep religious
faith. She was to be seen at all hours with her Bible
on her knees. The great object of her life was to teach
her son high and noble ideals and the same religious
faith which she herself had. Her income was small,
and she had to make sacrifices in order to give to him
a complete education.
William Gaston's Education. — Until he was thirteen
years old, Gaston attended school at the New Bern
Academy. In 1791 he was sent to Georgetown College,
a Roman Catholic college near Washington City. It
is now one of the best known colleges in the United
States. But in 1791 it had just been established and
Gaston was its first student. Its finest building bears
the name of " Gaston Hall," in his honor. Gaston was
a good student in all his classes, but his favorite studies
1 When William Gaston, while a member of Congress, opposed the War
of 1812, one of his opponents called him an unpatriotic American. In
reply, Gaston said: "I was baptized an American in the blood of a
WILLIAM GASTON 173
were Latin and Greek. He pored so closely over his
books that he injured his health, and in 1793 was com-
pelled to return home. The next year he entered Prince-
ton College, and in 1796 was graduated at the head of
his class with the highest honors.
Gaston Becomes a Lawyer. — Leaving Princeton,
Gaston returned to New Bern to study law. His teacher
was Francis Xavier Martin, afterward chief justice of
Louisiana. When Gaston was twenty years old he was
given his license to practise. At the same time his
brother-in-law, John Louis Taylor, was appointed a
judge, and turned all of his practise over to Gaston.
From that time until he himself became a judge, Gaston
had a large practise. His reputation as a lawyer soon
reached beyond North Carolina, and he came to be
regarded as one of America's greatest lawyers.
Gaston in the Legislature. — Gaston's courtesy and
kindness soon made him very popular in his native
town. His learning and eloquence won for him many
admirers. He was only twenty-five when they elected
him a member of the State Senate. He was elected a
member of the Senate four times and of the House of
Commons six times. In the Legislature he was as popu-
lar as he was at home. At his first session in the House
of Commons he was chosen speaker. The next year he
was elected speaker a second time.
Measures Which Gaston Advocated. — Many men
are elected to public offices who never do anything
worthy to be remembered. But William Gaston was
not such a man. Any measure that he thought would
promote the welfare of North Carolina was sure to
receive his support. He favored plans for establishing
174 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
public schools. He spoke in favor of internal improve-
ments. He advocated a better system of courts. Upon
the courts depend men's property and often their lives
and liberty. But at that time the courts were so poorly
arranged that the judges could not do their work prop-
erly. Often people found it difficult to get their cases
tried at all.
Gaston gave this matter much thought, and proposed
a plan to make the necessary improvements. His plan
was to establish a Supreme Court, to be composed of
three judges who were to be the best lawyers that could
be found in the State. Whenever a man thought that
he did not get justice in the lower courts, he could go
before the Supreme Court, which would give him another
hearing. But what the Supreme Court said about a
case was to be final. There was much opposition to
this plan, but Gaston spoke so earnestly and eloquently
in its favor that the Legislature passed the law. That
was in 1818, and the Supreme Court as Gaston planned it
(except that we now have five judges) has been in exist-
ence ever since. We now wonder how the people ever
managed to get along without it.
Gaston Saves the State Banks. — In 1828 Gaston
saved the State from a great calamity. A powerful
party of men were trying to destroy the banks of the
State. They declared that the banks had disobeyed
the law and dealt unjustly with the people. So they
proposed to close their doors and seize their money and
property. At first a majority of the Legislature was in
favor of this scheme. But among those who opposed
it was William Gaston. To destroy the banks, he said,
would ruin thousands of people who had put their money
in them, and would cause great suffering. He spoke
eloquently against this scheme and showed that the
charges against the banks were not true.
The debate lasted several days. A member of the
Legislature, who heard it, said: "Mr. Gaston stood up
day after day, and though sneered at and reviled, day
after day did he labor and toil against that furious major-
ity; day after day did he take captive some of his oppo-
nents by the mere force of his arguments; until at last
he succeeded in bringing the vote to a tie, thus saving
the banks from destruction and the State from disgrace."
The Burning of the Capitol. — The last year that
Gaston served in the Legislature was in 1831. Just
before the Legislature met, the State Capitol was burned.
One of the most im-
p o r t a n t questions
which that Legisla-
ture had to decide
was this: "Shall the
capitol be rebuilt at
Raleigh, or shall it
be moved to Fayette-
ville ? " A long de-
bate took place, for
many members were
in favor of moving it.
Gaston's speech in favor of Raleigh, says one who
heard it, "was a masterpiece of brilliant, elaborate and
finished oratory." But the Legislature refused to vote
any money for a new building and North Carolina was
left without a capitol. The next year, however, the
money was voted and the capitol was rebuilt at Raleigh.
Capitol of North Carolina. Burned
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Gaston in Congress. — In 1813, and again in 1815,
Gaston was elected to the Congress of the United States.
He did not like the work in Congress and declined to
accept another election.
In one of the debates in 1816 Gaston was matched
against Henry Clay, and most of those who heard the
debate thought Gaston got the better of Clay. Clay
was " somewhat soured/' and for some time he and
Capitol of North Carolina as it Looks To-day
(East front showing statue of Z. B. Vance in foreground)
Gaston were not very friendly. But William Seaton,
who admired both, wished them to make up their quarrel.
So he invited them to dine at his home. When they met,
they bowed to each other coldly. Then Mr. Seaton,
looking straight at them, said, " Friendship in marble,
enmities in dust." They both smiled, clasped hands
warmly, and were ever afterward good friends. When
WILLIAM GASTON 177
Clay spoke in Raleigh, in 1844, after Gaston's death, he
paid a beautiful tribute to Gaston's memory.
Gaston Becomes "Judge Gaston." — In 1833 Judge
Henderson, one of the judges of the Supreme Court,
died. All eyes at once turned toward Gaston to take
his place. He was recognized as one of the State's
ablest lawyers, and in learning, character, and ability
fitted for the highest judicial office in the State. The
Legislature elected him by a large majority. Many of
his political opponents voted for him. Soon afterward
he took his seat on the Supreme Court bench, and served
on it until the day of his death, eleven years later. He
was a great judge, learned, upright, and just.
When Gaston became judge, some people declared
that he had done a great wrong. At that time the con-
stitution of North Carolina declared that no person who
denied "the truth of the Protestant religion" could
hold office in North Carolina. This clause, it was said,
was intended to keep Roman Catholics out of office,
and as Gaston was a Roman Catholic he had done
wrong to accept an office. When he swore to support
the constitution, said his opponents, he swore to a
But Gaston's friends did not think so. They said
Roman Catholics did not deny any " truth" of the
Protestant religion. Besides, Roman Catholics had held
office in North Carolina before Gaston. Many of the
men who wrote the constitution had elected Thomas
Burke governor in 1781, and Burke was a Roman
Catholic. So it was plain that they did not mean for
the constitution to keep Roman Catholics out of office.
Gaston in the Convention of 1835. — Still many peo-
178 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
pie wished to have that clause of the constitution changed.
Gaston wished for this to be done. So when it was
decided to hold a convention in 1835, Gaston became
a member. He took part in many of the most impor-
tant debates, but his greatest speech was in favor of
changing that clause which was supposed to be against
At first several members spoke against making any
change at all. Most of the members seemed to be
against the change. Then Gaston arose. People had
come to Raleigh from all parts of the State to hear him
speak. The convention hall was crowded. Not a sound,
not a whisper, was heard when Gaston began to speak.
Members and visitors leaned forward eager to catch
every word that he uttered. He spoke for two days.
So eloquent and so powerful was his speech that every-
body knew, long before he closed, that he had won a
great victory. When the vote was taken it stood 74 for
the change, 52 against it.
Gaston's Popularity. — Gaston had now become one
of the most popular men in North Carolina. In 1840
the Legislature had to elect a United States senator.
The Whigs, who had a majority of the members, wished
Gaston to accept the place. But he declined. In his
letter he said: "I find my heart yet throbbing at any
indication of the favorable opinion of my fellow-citizens;
and that heart will have wholly ceased to beat before I
cease to take an interest in the happiness of this glorious
Union, and especially in our part of it, the good Old
He thought that his duties as judge were "as impor-
tant to the public welfare" as the duties of a senator.
WILLIAM GASTON 179
To explain the laws, to settle disputes between men
peaceably, to administer justice "with a steady hand
and upright purpose, appear to me/ 5 said he, "to be
among the highest civil duties. And so long as God
spares me health and understanding to perform these
faithfully, how can I better serve my country?" So he
declined to accept an election to the United States Sen-
ate, and when the Legislature met it elected Gaston's
young friend, William A. Graham.
Gaston as an Orator. — Among the orators of his day,
Gaston took high rank. He was always a modest man,
and when he arose to speak he would seem at first to be
frightened. His limbs would tremble and his voice
quaver. But after speaking a few minutes he would
gain control of himself. Then his voice became calm
and steady, and his low, quiet tones would command
perfect silence and attention. When he spoke, said one
who often heard him, "the grandeur of his expression
seemed to increase," and "his whole person seemed
Two Notable Orations. — Such a speaker was of course
often invited to make public addresses. In 1832 Gaston
delivered a notable address at the University Com-
mencement. The largest crowd that had ever attended
a commencement gathered to hear him. "No other
address ever delivered at the University," it has been
said, "has been so much admired or so often referred to."
Three years later he delivered an important address at
the Commencement of Princeton University.
In these two speeches Gaston spoke on the duties of
citizenship. He urged the students to prepare them-
selves for those duties. In the first he pointed out the
180 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
evils of slavery in the South, and told the students that
one of their first duties would be to find some remedy
for those evils. In eloquent words he spoke of the
blessings of the Union, and warned the people against the
men who were trying to destroy it. He spoke also of
the liberty, the prosperity, and the happiness which they
enjoyed under the Constitution of the United States.
" Surely," he said, "such a country and such a Consti-
tution have claims upon you which cannot be disre-
garded. I entreat and adjure you, then, preserve that
country, uphold that Constitution. Resolve that they
shall not be lost while in your keeping, and may God
Almighty strengthen you to fulfil that vow."
Gaston's Honors. — None of the men whom we have
read about received as many honors from other states
as Gaston. He was made a Doctor of Laws by the
University of Pennsylvania, by Columbia University
in New York, by Princeton University in New Jersey,
and by Harvard University in Massachusetts. His name
was presented at Harvard by the distinguished judge
of the Supreme Court of the United States, Judge Story.
"My reason," said Judge Story, "for naming Mr.
Gaston was because he is one of the most distinguished
of American lawyers in the highest sense of the phrase;
and because, as a private gentleman, he is all that one
could wish or desire. I consider our appointment as
conferring honor upon ourselves, not on Mr. Gaston. I
am proud that he should stand on our catalogue as truly
a Doctor of Laws, whom to know is to respect." Gaston
always took a deep interest in the welfare of the Univer-
sity of North Carolina, and for forty-two years served
as a trustee.
WILLIAM GASTON 181
Gaston's Death. — Judge Gaston died at Raleigh,
January 23, 1844. In the morning he took his seat as
usual in the Supreme Court. Soon afterward he was
taken sick and carried to his room. Later in the day
he felt better, and his friends called to see him. They
talked and laughed gaily. Judge Gaston told several
interesting anecdotes. He told of meeting in Washing-
ton, many years before, a man who did not believe in
"From that day," said Judge Gaston, "I always
looked on that man with distrust. An infidel may be
an honorable man, but I dare not trust him. A belief
in an All-ruling Divinity, who shapes our ends, whose
eye is upon us, and who will reward us according to our
deeds, is necessary. We must believe and feel that there
is a God — All-wise and Almighty." As he spoke these
words he fell back, dead.
Gaston was buried at New Bern. Over his grave is
a large massive tomb on which is carved the single word
" Gaston." Edward Everett, the great orator of Boston,
standing uncovered by this tomb, declared: "This
eminent man had few equals and no superiors."
Give an account of —
1. Dr. Alexander Gaston's early life and marriage.
2. His services to American independence.
3. His death.
4. Margaret Gaston.
5. William Gaston's education.
6. Gaston as a lawver.
7. His elections to the Legislature.
8. Measures which he favored.
182 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
9. How he saved the state banks.
10. The burning and rebuilding of the capitol.
11. Gaston's service in Congress.
12. His election as judge of the Supreme Court. What his oppo-
nents said about his election. What his friends said.
13. His work in the Convention of 1835.
14. What he said about the duties of a judge.
15. Gaston as an orator.
16. His addresses at the University and at Princeton. What he
said about the Constitution of the United States.
17. His honors. What Judge Story said of him.
18. His death.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. Who were the French "Huguenots"? Why were they persecuted
in France ?
2. What men have we read about who were educated at Princeton
3. What is meant by "internal improvements" ?
4. How many members do we now have on the Supreme Court
of North Carolina ? How are they chosen? For how long? What
are their duties?
5. Explain what Mr. Seaton meant by "Friendship in marble,
enmities in dust."
6. Gaston was a judge and member of the Convention of 1835 at
the same time. He could not have been a judge and a member of the
Legislature at the same time. Explain the reason for this difference.
7. What is meant by such terms as "Doctor of Laws"? "Doctor
of Divinity"? Why are such titles given to men?
JAMES COCHRANE DOBBIN
James C. Dobbin
Dobbin's Early Education. — James Cochrane Dobbin
was born at Fayetteville, January 17, 1814. He was
a son of John Dobbin, a merchant,
and Agnes Cochrane Dobbin. When
James was about six years old he
was sent to school in Fayetteville.
A few years later he entered the
famous William Bingham School at
Hillsboro, where he was prepared for
At the University. — Dobbin en-
tered the University when he was
only fourteen years old. Soon after-
ward he became a member of the Philanthropic Literary
Society. He always took an active part in the work of
the society. The training that he received there in debate
made him one of the most eloquent orators of his time.
He was elected to the highest offices of the society.
At the University, Dobbin was one of the best students
in his class. He was known for his prompt, faithful
attendance to his duties and ready, cheerful obedience
to the rules of the University. He was gentle in his
manners, kind in his actions, and correct in his conduct.
There was no more popular student at the University.
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Dr. Caldwell, president of the
University, was often heard to
say: " It would gladden my
heart to be father to such a
son as James C. Dobbin."
When he was graduated in
1832 Dobbin ranked fourth in
Dobbin Studies Law. —
Leaving the University, Dob-
bin returned to Fayetteville to
study law under Judge Robert
Strange. Judge Strange was
an able lawyer and his training
had no little to do with Dob-
bin's success. In 1835 Dobbin
received his license to practise
law and settled at Fayetteville.
Dobbin was not impatient to
become famous as a lawyer all
at once. He continued to study
hard and paid close attention
to his profession. Though the
people of the county wished
to elect him to the Legislature,
he would not consent, for he
was not ambitious for political
Elected to Congress. — But
in 1845 the Democratic Party
decided that it could get along
without him no longer. So
JAMES COCHRANE DOBBIN 185
without his knowledge that party nominated him for
Congress. This time he yielded to the people's wishes.
But he wrote: "Had my personal wishes been con-
sulted, the Convention would certainly have nomi-
nated some other gentleman." He saw, however, that
" discord and division' would result if he declined, so
he accepted and was elected by a large majority. He
served in Congress only two years and then declined to
accept a second election.
Dobbin in the Legislature. — Dobbin wished to remain
in private life, but the people of Cumberland county
needed his services. So they elected him, in 1848, a
member of the General Assembly. The Democrats in
the Legislature selected him as their leader. In the
Legislature he favored the measures which he thought
would advance the happiness and prosperity of the
people, though he often had to oppose his own party.
He voted for internal improvements, and for the build-
ing of the North Carolina Railroad.
The Work of Dorothea L. Dix. — It was in 1848 that
Dobbin rendered his greatest service to North Carolina.
At that time the State had no hospital for the care of
insane persons. There were more than a thousand such
persons in North Carolina and no suitable place to care
for them. The rich sent their insane to the hospitals of
other states, but the poor could not do this. Large
numbers of them were chained down in cold rooms, cells,
and cages of poorhouses and jails. They were often mis-
treated and suffered cruel tortures. Many of these
poor creatures could have been cured if they had been
cared for properly.
Finally their condition attracted the attention of a
186 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
noble woman of Massachusetts. Her name was Dor-
othea Lynde Dix. She had given up her life to work
for the insane. In 1848 she came to North Carolina to
study the condition of the insane in this State. After
traveling all over the State she wrote an account of what
she saw and sent it to the Legislature. She asked the
Legislature to build a hospital to cost $100,000, in which
the insane might be properly treated. But the members
of the Legislature were afraid that the people would not
approve of such action. Many of them thought they
would not be reelected to the Legislature if they voted
for this hospital. So Miss Dix's bill was defeated by a
Dobbin's Great Triumph. — But Miss Dix did not
give up. On the day the vote was taken Dobbin was
absent from the Legislature. His wife was very ill and
he was at her bedside. Miss Dix had been nursing Mrs.
Dobbin and the two had become good friends. One day
Mrs. Dobbin said that she would like to do something
to show how much she appreciated Miss Dix's kindness.
"You can do something," replied Miss Dix. "Ask
your husband to speak in favor of the asylum for the
insane." So just before her death, Mrs. Dobbin asked
her husband, and he promised.
As soon as possible after his wife's death, Dobbin
returned to the Legislature and asked that the asylum
bill be voted on again. His request was granted and
he arose from his seat to speak in its favor.
As he spoke he seemed to forget himself in his eloquent
plea for the insane. He scarcely realized that he was
effecting anything until he noticed the stillness in the
hall and saw tears in the eyes of the Speaker. He won
JAMES COCHRANE DOBBIN 187
a great triumph. The bill was voted on again and passed
by a vote of 91 to 10.
The next day Miss Dix wrote in great joy to a friend:
" Rejoice, rejoice with me. Through toil, anxiety, and
tribulation my bill has passed. ... I am not well,
though perfectly happy. I leave North Carolina com-
pensated a thousand-fold for all my labors by this great
success. " Work was soon begun on the hospital. A
beautiful site was selected for it near Raleigh. The site
is called "Dix Hill." A large, handsome building stands
in the midst of a splendid grove of oaks. Thousands
of unfortunate insane persons have been cared for
there, and many of them have been cured. Since then
the State has erected another hospital for insane white
persons at Morganton, and one for insane negroes at
Dobbin Becomes Speaker. — If Dobbin had rendered
no other service to North Carolina, the passage of the
asylum bill alone would entitle him to our gratitude.
But he did render many other services. In 1850 he
was again a member of the Legislature, and was elected
speaker of the House of Commons. At this session a
great debate occurred on the question whether a State
had a right to withdraw from the Union. Dobbin made
one of the greatest speeches of his life. He declared
that a State did have a right to secede if it was necessary,
but he hoped that it would never become necessary.
The day that this Union is destroyed, he exclaimed,
"will be the darkest day for human liberty the world
has ever seen." And he made a strong plea for good
will between the North and the South and loyalty to the
188 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Dobbin as Secretary of the Navy. — Dobbin was again
a member of the Legislature in 1852, and the Democrats
again chose him as their leader. They also nominated
him for the United States Senate. But there were three
candidates and the parties were so evenly divided that
no senator could be elected. For two years North Caro-
lina had only one senator. In 1854 the Democrats had
a majority of the Legislature. They offered to elect
Dobbin senator, but at that time he was a member of
the President's Cabinet and declined.
In 1852 Franklin Pierce was elected President of the
United States. Dobbin had given important aid in
electing him, so Pierce appointed Dobbin secretary of
the navy. Dobbin went to Washington and entered
upon his duties March 7, 1853. He served until March
6, 1857. As secretary of the navy he won a wide repu-
tation throughout the Union. "He is," said a distin-
guished statesman, "the most truthful public man I
have ever known."
Dobbin's services as secretary of the navy were of
the greatest importance. He destroyed many old abuses.
He abolished corporal punishment in the navy. Before
he entered the office, the United States had found great
difficulty in getting good men to serve on our vessels.
Dobbin declared that the troubles were low wages, ill
treatment, and lack of rewards for long and faithful
services. He, therefore, suggested plans for changing
these conditions, and Congress adopted them. After
these plans were put into operation, more and better
seamen were easily secured. Dobbin believed that the
United States ought to have a large and powerful navy.
Said he: "I regard the steady increase of naval
JAMES COCHRANE DOBBIN
strength not as a war, but as a peace measure." So he
suggested to Congress the building of six new first-class
war vessels. Congress adopted his plans and voted the
money. Dobbin gave the closest attention to. the build-
ing of these ships. They
were regarded as the finest
in the American navy.
The Return of the Perry
Expedition. — Just before
Dobbin became secretary of
the navy another North
Carolinian, William A. Gra-
ham, had held that office.
Graham had sent out an ex-
pedition, under Commodore
M. C. Perry, to make a treaty
of peace between the United
States and the Emperor of
Japan. But Graham resigned before Perry returned
to the United States. When Perry reached this country
Dobbin was the secretary of the navy. Perry brought
back an important treaty which, as we shall see later,
has had a wonderful effect on the history of the world.
This important work was begun while one North Caro-
linian was at the head of the navy department, and
completed while another was its head.
Dobbin's Return to North Carolina. — Dobbin did his
great work in spite of very poor health. He realized that
his work in the cabinet was slowly pulling him down to
the grave. At one time he thought of resigning, but
the President begged him not to do so. He therefore
remained at his post until the end. On March 6, 1857, his
190 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
term of office came to an end, and he prepared at once to
return to North Carolina.
The people all along the route in the State prepared to
give him a royal welcome. At Weldon Matt W. Ransom,
who was afterward for many years a United States sen-
ator, was appointed to deliver the address welcoming
Dobbin back to North Carolina. But Dobbin was too
ill to leave the train, and the ceremonies were omitted.
At Wilmington, too, similar preparations were made but
could not be carried out. All the flags on the vessels in
the harbor were displayed in honor of the distinguished
secretary. A great reception had been planned at Fay-
etteville; but it, too, had to be given up. The committee
addressed to Mr. Dobbin a beautiful letter welcoming
him back to his native town. To this he replied feelingly
Dobbin's Death. — Dobbin and his friends all realized
that he had returned home to die. His death occurred
at his home in Fayetteville, August 4, 1857. His last
words were: " Praise the Lord, oh, my soul!" The
news of his death was everywhere received with great
sorrow. Many eloquent tributes were paid to his mem-
ory. Probably no other man in the history of North
Carolina ever attained such eminence, or rendered such
great services to the State and Nation, at so early an age,
as James C. Dobbin.
1. When and where was Dobbin born? Where did he receive his
2. How old was he when he entered the University? Give an
account of his career at the University.
JAMES COCHRANE DOBBIN 191
3. What is said about Dobbin as a lawyer?
4. Tell about his election to Congress.
5. What measures did he support in the Legislature?
6. Describe the work of Dorothea Dix in North Carolina.
7. How did Dobbin help her? What did Miss Dix say about her
8. What other services did Dobbin render in the Legislature?
9. Give an account of his services as secretary of the navy.
10. Tell of his return to North Carolina. His death.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. What other North Carolinians have been at the head of the Navy
Department? Who were the Presidents at the time?
2. Explain what Dobbin meant by saying that a large navy was
"not a war, but a peace measure"?
3. For what purposes are war vessels used besides for fighting?
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM
Two Officers of the Revolution. — Two of the officers
under William R. Davie who helped to win for Charlotte
the name of " Hornets' Nest"
were Major Joseph Graham
and Major John Davidson.
During the war they fought
side by side for American
independence and became
close friends. After the Rev-
olution their friendship was
made still closer when Major
Graham married Major Da-
vidson's beautiful daughter,
Isabella. The young couple
made their home in Lincoln
county. They had twelve
children. Their eleventh
child was William Alexander Graham.
William A. Graham's School Days. — William A.
Graham was born in Lincoln county, September 5, 1804.
His mother died when he was only three and a half years
old. Until he was old enough to go to school, William
ran about the farm and enjoyed the free and happy life
of a country boy. His older brothers must have told
William Alexander Graham
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM 193
him some dreadful tales about the things that happened
at school, for when the day came for William to start to
school he could not be found. After a long search he
was discovered hiding under the bed, and kicking and
screaming he was dragged out by the heels.
His first school was near his home, but when he was
a little older he was sent to a school in Mecklenburg
county. There he lived with an uncle three miles from
the schoolhouse. Every day William rode horseback
to school with his little friend James W. Osborne riding
behind. Afterward he attended schools at Lincolnton,
States ville, and Hillsboro. His teachers declared that
he was one of their best pupils, and praised him for his
sense of honor and truthfulness. One of his classmates
said: "He was the only boy I ever knew who would
spend his Saturdays in reviewing the studies of the week."
Graham at the University. — At fifteen Graham
entered the University of North Carolina. He was
noted for his careful observance of the rules of the college
and for his courtesy to members of the faculty. He was
popular, too, with the students. Although he was a
hard student, he found time to give to reading, and to
pay close attention to the work of the Dialectic Literary
Society. There he received the training that made him
one of North Carolina's greatest orators. In 1824 he
was graduated with the highest honors and was selected
to be one of the speakers at commencement.
Admission to the Bar. — Leaving the University,
Graham went to Hillsboro to study law under the great
lawyer, Chief Justice Ruffin. In 1827 he received his
license and settled at Hillsboro. At that time no other
town in the State was the home of so many eminent
194 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
men. Among them were Chief Justice Ruffin, Fred-
erick Nash, who afterward became chief justice, Archi-
bald D. Murphey, and Willie P. Mangum, who became
a United States senator. Other great lawyers attended
the courts at Hillsboro.
It was not long before William A. Graham showed
himself able to stand among the greatest of them. One
of his first cases attracted a large crowd to the court-
house. He spoke so well that the older lawyers present
were surprised. William H. Haywood, of Raleigh,
asked somebody who had prepared young Graham's
speech. When told that Graham had prepared it him-
self, Haywood exclaimed, " William Gaston could have
done it no better."
Graham as an Orator. — Graham was well fitted to
be a great orator. He had read a great deal and re-
membered what he read. All of his speeches were pre-
pared with great care. Besides, he looked like an orator.
Six feet in height, straight as an arrow, with broad, high
forehead and flashing eyes, he was the very picture of
an orator. His manners were easy and graceful, and
his voice, though full and strong, was soft and musical.
He spoke with much force and feeling, but he was careful
to treat his opponents with fairness and courtesy.
His Work in the Legislature. — In 1833 Graham was
elected a member of the Legislature, and was reelected
seven times. In 1838 he was elected speaker, and two
years later was again elected unanimously. Whenever
he rose to speak, the other members listened attentively
to his words. He served on many of the most important
committees of the Assembly.
The two things that interested Graham most were
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM 195
education and internal improvements. He advocated
laws for the building of good roads, the digging of canals,
and the widening and deepening of channels of rivers.
These things he declared were necessary in order that
farmers and manufacturers might get their products to
market easily and cheaply.
But Graham's best work was done in behalf of schools
and railroads. He was one of those statesmen, very
rare in those days, who thought that all the children of
the State ought to be educated in schools supported by
public taxation. While traveling through New England
in 1831 he wrote that of all the interesting things that
he had seen he liked best the public schools. He called
them "the glory of New England." In the Legislature
he spoke eloquently in favor of public schools for North
Carolina, and he always served on the committee on
education. He wrote a large part of the first law to
provide public schools in North Carolina.
Graham was also greatly interested in the building
of railroads. The first two railroads built in North
Carolina were the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad
and the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad. Graham advo-
cated the law for building the former and wrote the law
for building the latter. For building these two rail-
roads the Legislature voted large sums. Many members
of the Legislature opposed these measures because they
said railroads would ruin the State! But Graham and
other leading men spoke eloquently for them and pointed
out their benefits so plainly that the laws were passed
and work was soon begun on the roads. We cannot see
now how we could get along without them.
Graham in the United States Senate. — Graham's
196 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
work in the Legislature was so wise, that in 1840 he was
elected United States senator. In the Senate he served
on several important committees and took part in some of
the Senate's most important business. Two of his speeches
in the Senate attracted much attention in the country.
At that time John Tyler was President. Tyler was
elected by the Whig Party, of which Graham was also a
member, but he and the Whigs had quarreled. Many
of the leading Whigs, therefore, refused to vote money
to enable him to carry on the business of the government.
But Graham declared such action was unpatriotic. He
would not cripple the whole government in order to
spite the President. 'I will not," he exclaimed, "stop
the action of the government by denying it the means
of going on, no matter who may be in power." All
patriotic people applauded this sentiment.
On another occasion, during a heated debate, a New
England senator declared that the States would not
obey a certain law which the Senate was about to pass.
" What then will you do? " he asked. " Will the govern-
ment send armed troops to compel the States to obey?"
But Graham sharply rebuked the Northern senator for
such unpatriotic words. The States, he said, would
obey the Constitution and the laws, not from fear of
punishment, but because it was their duty to do so.
'It is faith, honor, conscience," he exclaimed, "and not
the hangman's whip' upon which rest the blessings of
Such patriotic words won for Graham many friends
and admirers. He was in the Senate only two years,
but in that time he took a leading place among the states-
men of the Union.
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM 197
Four Years as Governor. — Upon leaving the Senate
in 1842 Graham returned to Hillsboro to practise law.
But the people would not permit him to remain in pri-
vate life. In 1844 they elected him governor, and in
1846 they elected him a second time. In the first election
he defeated his opponent by a majority of 3,153, but in
the second election his majority was twice that number.
He declared that if he were to consult his own wishes, he
would decline the high honor, but, if the people wanted
him to serve them, he thought it his duty to obey. So
he began his work as governor, January 1, 1845.
The new Governor's inaugural address was heard by
a large crowd. In it he urged the people to love and
honor their native State. " If," said he, " we glory in the
name of American citizens, it should be with feelings
akin to filial affection and gratitude that we remember
we are North Carolinians. In our past history we have
gained a high character for the virtues of honesty and
fidelity. In the future let us fervently unite our prayers
that our beloved North Carolina may still be permitted to
walk in her integrity, the object of our loyalty and pride,
as she is the home of our hearts and affections."
As governor Graham devoted his energies to the im-
provement of agriculture, commerce, and education in the
State. He formed wise plans to increase the revenue
of the State so that great works of internal improvements
might be carried on. He urged the building of railroads,
canals, and public highways. He advocated an agricul-
tural survey of the State so as to find out what products
were best suited to each section. He earnestly sup-
ported the plans for a school for the deaf and dumb,
and for an asylum for the insane.
198 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
In him the public schools found one of their best
friends. He thought that their greatest need was a
general head, called the superintendent, who should
"devote his whole time and attention in imparting to
them vigor and usefulness.' 5 This was a subject, he
declared, which ought to " engage the best talents and
most exalted patriotism of the country." Afterward,
in 1852, the Legislature appointed a superintendent as
Graham had suggested.
The North Carolina Railroad. — We have already
seen how Graham while a, member of the Legislature
advocated the building of the Wilmington and Weldon
and the Raleigh and Gaston railroads. As governor he
urged the building of another railroad from Raleigh to
Charlotte. The plan was for the road afterward to be
extended to Goldsboro. At Raleigh it would connect
with the railroads of the North, at Charlotte with those
of the South, and at Goldsboro with both. It was to be
called the North Carolina Railroad. Governor Graham
worked hard to get the law passed to vote money for
building this railroad. But as the Democrats were
opposed to it, there was a hard struggle. The bill was
passed in the House of Commons, but when the vote
was taken in the Senate it was a tie.
Then occurred one of the bravest and most patriotic
acts in our history. It was the duty of the Speaker to
break the tie. The speaker was Calvin Graves, a Demo-
crat. He knew that his party was opposed to the bill.
If he voted for it, the Democrats would never again elect
him to a public office. Yet he believed that the railroad
would be a great blessing to the State. What then
should he do? Should he sacrifice all his hopes of high
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM 199
public office, and vote for the bill? Or should he vote
against it and win the applause of his party? He did
not hesitate. He loved his State better than he did his
party, and gave his vote for the railroad.
So the bill became a law. Calvin Graves was never
again elected to a public office. But he had done his
State a great service, for the North Carolina Railroad
has proved to be a great blessing to the State. The
work was begun in July, 1851. In the presence of a
great crowd at Greensboro, Calvin Graves threw the
first shovel of dirt which began this great work. The
North Carolina Railroad now runs from Goldsboro to
Charlotte and is a part of the Southern Railway system.
War with Mexico. — While Graham was governor,
war broke out between the United States and Mexico.
The Whigs were opposed to this war. They thought
that the United States was wrong in her claims and that
the war was unnecessary. This was also Governor
Graham's opinion. But he thought also that, after the
war was begun, it was the duty of patriotic citizens to
support their own country.
So when the President called on North Carolina for
troops, Governor Graham responded promptly. He
issued his call for volunteers, and more than three times
the required number offered their services. The United
States army officer in charge of these troops said: " Pub-
lic men may differ about the justice of the war, but
the good people of the Old North State have shown that,
in a foreign war, they know no party but their country,
and no country but their own."
Graham Becomes a Member of the President's Cabi-
net. — Under the Constitution of North Carolina no
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
man could be governor for more than two terms, or four
years. So in 1849 Governor Graham retired from that
office. His reputation as a wise statesman had now
spread throughout the Union. President Taylor offered
to appoint him United States minister either to Russia
or to Spain, but he declined to accept either place. The
next year President Fillmore asked him to become a
member of his cabinet as secretary of the navy. This
office Graham accepted. As
secretary of the navy he per-
formed several important ser-
vices for the United States, but
here we can mention only one
The Opening of Japan. —
In 1852 Graham sent a naval
expedition to Japan that has
had a wonderful influence on
the history of the whole world.
At that time the Japanese
were only a half-civilized people. They lived entirely
to themselves. They carried on no commerce with
foreign people and would not even permit foreigners to
enter their country.
But since 1852 a great change has taken place. To-day
Japan carries on commerce with all parts of the world,
and is one of the great and powerful nations of the earth.
Her people are industrious, enlightened, and highly
civilized. This wonderful change began with the expe-
dition which William A. Graham sent to Japan.
Several events had occurred which made it important
for the United States to be on friendly terms with Japan.
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM
California had just been added to the United States, so
that the Union stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Thousands of people were moving into that State every
year. A railroad had just been built across the Isthmus
of Panama. Some American seamen who had been
Perry Delivering President's Letter to Emperor of Japan
shipwrecked on the coast of Japan had been thrown
into prison and cruelly treated.
So Secretary Graham decided to send a naval expedi-
tion to Japan to try to make a treaty of peace with the
Emperor. He placed the expedition under the command
of Commodore M. C. Perry. Perry carried, sealed in
a costly gold box, a letter from the President of the
L T nited States to the Emperor of Japan. The Japanese
were very reluctant to have any dealings with the for-
eigners, but Perry was wise and careful. He finally
succeeded in getting the Emperor to sign a treaty
which permitted the Japanese and the Americans to
202 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
carry on trade with each other. As we have already
seen, this treaty was completed while James C. Dobbin
was secretary of the navy. Since then Japan has made
similar treaties with other nations and has become one
of the great commercial nations of the world.
Graham Nominated for Vice-President. — In 1852
the Whig Party nominated Graham for the Vice-Presi-
dency of the United States. Accordingly he resigned
his position in the Cabinet. In the election the Whigs
were defeated. Graham then returned to the practise
of the law at Hillsboro.
The Slavery Question. — During the next few years
the whole country became deeply stirred over the slavery
question. When the Union was formed, all of the States
permitted slaves to be held within their limits. But
after a few years, finding that slavery did not pay in the
cold North, most of the Northern States abolished it.
Little by little the Northern people began to think that
slavery was a great moral wrong. They had many
discussions about it and formed many plans to have it
abolished throughout the Union.
But the Southern people did not think it wrong to
hold slaves. They declared that the negroes were better
off than if they had remained in Africa. In the South,
they said, the slaves were treated kindly, cared for in
sickness and old age, and taught the Christian religion.
Both the whites and the negroes in the South were
satisfied, so the Northern people had no right to interfere
Congress had no power to abolish slavery in any of the
States. But Congress could declare that slaves should
not be held in any of the new States which should be
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM 203
admitted to the Union. The North, therefore, insisted
that this should be done. The South opposed it. The
Southern people declared that the territory from which
these States were formed belonged to all the people of
the United States. Therefore the Southern people ought
to have the same right to carry their slaves into such
States as the Northern people had to carry their horses
and cattle. Great disputes grew out of these questions.
Both sides became angry and said many harsh things
about each other.
Secession. — Finally some of the Southern States
declared that if they could not get equal rights in the
Union, they would withdraw from the Union. Such
withdrawal was called " secession." But the North
declared that no State had a right to secede from
the Union. For a while the two sections forgot their
quarrel over slavery, and quarreled about the right of
In 1860 Abraham Lincoln, a Northern man who was
bitterly opposed to slavery, was elected President.
Thereupon South Carolina declared him to be such an
enemy to the South that she would no longer remain in
the Union. In 1860 she seceded. Georgia, Alabama,
Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas soon did like-
wise. These seven States then formed a new government
called "The Confederate States of America," and invited
the other Southern States to join them.
Shall North Carolina Secede. — Should North Caro-
lina accept this invitation? On this question the people
were divided. William A. Graham was among those
who answered, "No!" He loved the old Union for
which his father had fought so bravely and which he
204 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
himself had served so well. So he worked hard to
prevent North Carolina from seceding. He spoke
powerfully and eloquently in favor of the Union and
against secession. When the people, in February, 1861,
came to vote on the question, they followed Graham's
advice, and voted against secession.
North Carolina tried to preserve peace between the
North .and the South. But in April, 1861, war began
in spite of her efforts. President Lincoln then demanded
that North Carolina send troops to fight the other South-
ern States. But the Governor, John W. Ellis, replied,
"You can get no troops from North Carolina." Even
Governor Graham and others who had opposed secession
now declared that North Carolina must take her stand
with the South. So a Convention was called to meet at
Raleigh, May 20, 1861, to decide what should be done.
Graham was elected a member of that Convention. On
May 20, the Convention adopted the ordinance of
secession, which separated North Carolina from the
United States. Graham voted for this ordinance.
North Carolina then joined the Confederate States.
Graham in the Confederate States Senate. — In 1863
Graham was elected a member of the Confederate States
Senate. He at once became one of the leaders in that
body, and was elected president, pro tern. 1 He gave
loyal support to the Confederate government. When he
saw that the South could not win, he urged President
Davis to makepeace. President Davis declared that he
had no power to make peace, but, if the States wished
1 The Vice-President (/Alexander H. Stephens) was President of the
Senate. But the Senate elected a President pro tern to preside whenever
the Vice-President of the Confederate States was absent.
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM
to do so, each one could make peace for herself. So in
April, 1865 Graham went to Raleigh to urge Governor
Vance to make peace for North Carolina and put a stop
to further bloodshed. But Vance was not willing to do
The Capitol at Richmond, Va., in which the Confederate Congress Met
so. Besides, it was too late, for while they were dis-
cussing the matter, General Lee surrendered to General
Grant, and soon the war was at an end.
Reconstruction. — After the war, sad times followed
for the South. Union soldiers were stationed in various
places to overawe the people. Northern adventurers,
called ' carpet-baggers," roamed from place to place,
protected by the soldiers while they robbed and plundered
at will. Ignorant negroes were placed in high and impor-
tant offices, but such men as Graham and Vance were
not allowed even to vote. Men who remained true to
206 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
the South were denied their rights, deprived of their
liberties, and often treated with great cruelty.
During those terrible days the people of North Caro-
lina looked to Governor Graham as their wisest leader.
In 1868 a great meeting of the leading men of the State
was held at Raleigh. They were to decide on plans for
rescuing the State from the carpet-baggers and negroes.
Governor Graham was selected as the leader of this
convention. He opened the session with a speech which
aroused the members from their despair and planted
in them a determination to rescue the State.
How a Governor was Punished. — This Convention
formed a new party made up of men who had been Demo-
crats and men who had been Whigs before the war. All
forgot their old differences in trying to save the State
from the new dangers. They called their new party the
Conservative Party. In 1870 Graham led this party to
victory. He then advised the Legislature to impeach
the governor, William W. Holden. Holden had been
elected by the carpet-baggers and negroes, and was
accused of committing crimes against the State.
Graham's advice was taken, and Holden was brought
before the Senate to be tried. Graham made a powerful
speech against him. He showed that Governor Holden
had disobeyed the Constitution and broken the laws of
the State. The Senate found him guilty of the charges,
and removed him from office. Thus the rule of the carpet-
baggers and negroes was overthrown in North Carolina.
Graham's Work for Education. — Governor Graham
always took a deep interest in education. In 1834 he
was chosen a member of the Board of Trustees of the
University and served until his death.
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM 207
One of the greatest calamities of the war in North
Carolina was the destruction of the public schools. The
people of the South were too poor immediately after the
war to reopen their schools. In 1867 George Peabody,
a wealthy merchant of New England, gave $3,500,000
to be used in helping to reestablish the schools of the
South. He appointed a board, called "The Peabody
Education Board," to manage this fund. It was com-
posed of some of the best known men in the United
States. One of them was Governor Graham. He
served on the board until his death and was deeply inter-
ested in its work. Through the work of this board
hundreds of schools in the South were reopened, and
thousands of Southern boys and girls were educated.
Graham's Last Service and Death. — The last service
Graham was called on to render was for the State of
Virginia. For many years Virginia and Maryland had
had a dispute about their boundary line. In 1874 they
agreed to select three men to decide the dispute. Vir-
ginia selected Governor Graham. Maryland selected
Governor Black of Pennsylvania. The third man was
Governor Winston of Alabama. In the summer of 1875
they met at Saratoga Springs, New York, to begin their
work. But soon after meeting, Governor Graham was
taken seriously ill, and on August 11, 1875, he died.
Great honor was paid to his memory by the two
States whose dispute he was trying to settle, and by
his native State. His body was placed in the Capitol
at Raleigh, where thousands of people came to see their
great leader for the last time. Then, escorted by the
soldiers of the State, it was taken to Hillsboro and
buried in the Presbyterian Churchyard. Of him Gov-
208 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
ernor Stuart of Virginia, who knew him well, said: 'I
have rarely met a wiser man, and never a better man
than William A. Graham."
1. Trace the course of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad.
2. The Raleigh and Gaston Railroad ran between the two towns of
those names. It is now part of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad.
Trace its course.
3. What towns and counties do these two railroads pass through?
1. When and where was Graham born? Tell about his school
2. What is said about his work at the University?
3. What profession did he choose? Where did he make his home?
Who were some of the lawyers there at the time? What success did
4. How was he fitted to be an orator?
5. Give an account of his services in the Legislature.
6. What is said of his services in the United States Senate?
7. Tell about Graham's election as governor. What did he say
about North Carolina in his inaugural address?
8. Give an account of his services as governor.
9. Tell the story of the fight for the North Carolina Railroad.
10. What did Graham think about the war with Mexico? How did
he help the United States?
11. To what office was he appointed by President Fillmore?
12. Give an account of the expedition he sent to Japan.
13. Explain what the North and the South each thought about
14. What power did Congress have over slavery? How did this
lead to disputes between the North and the South?
15. What remedy did the South suggest? What did the North
say about secession?
16. Tell about the formation of the Confederate States.
WILLIAM ALEXANDER GRAHAM 209
17. What did the people of North Carolina say and do about seces-
sion? What was Graham's position?
18. What event occurred in April, 1861, that changed the ideas of
such men as Graham? What did the State then do? What was the
date of the secession of North Carolina?
19. Give an account of Graham's services as Confederate States
20. What is meant by "Reconstruction"? What services did
Graham render to the State during those days ?
21. What new party was formed in 1868? What was its object?
Who was its leader? What success did it have?
22. Give an account of Graham's work for education.
23. What service did Graham render the State of Virginia?
24. W T rite a summary of his life.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. Explain how good roads and other internal improvements help
the people of any community.
2. What is the difference between a "bill" and a "law" ?
3. What were the causes of the war with Mexico? Why were the
Whigs opposed to this war?
4. Make a list of the members of President Fillmore's Cabinet.
5. Explain how the adding of California to the United States
affected our relations with Japan.
6. Explain fully the difference between the ideas of the North and
the South on slavery. On secession.
7. W T hy did North Carolina refuse to secede in February, 1861,
and then secede in May, 1861 ?
8. Who were the carpet-baggers and why were they called that?
9. Many schools in North Carolina have received aid from the
Peabody Education Fund. Is yours one of them?
CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY
The Founding of Colleges. — We have seen how
William R. Davie and others worked to establish the
University. After the year 1800 several other colleges
were built. Among them were colleges for girls at
Salem, Greensboro and Raleigh, and such colleges for
boys as Wake Forest, Davidson, Trinity, and Guilford.
All of these colleges, except the University, were under
the control of the various churches of the State. The
University was a great public school, controlled by the
State. But it was intended only for well-advanced boys.
Many years passed after the founding of the University
before any public schools for little folk were opened.
Common Schools. — The three men who took the
leading part in the founding of public schools for beginners
were Bartlett Yancey, Joseph Caldwell, and Archibald
D. Murphey. Yancey was for many years one of the
leading members of the Legislature. Caldwell was pres-
ident of the University. Murphey was a learned lawyer,
a fine scholar and an eminent judge.
In 1816 Murphey prepared a plan for public schools
which he presented in 1817 to the Legislature. Such
schools then were called " common schools.' 7 Murphey's
plan was considered so good that he is often called the
' Father of the Common Schools." Yancey and Cald-
CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 211
well supported Murphey's plan and all three spoke and
wrote strongly for the common schools.
The Literary Board. — But nearly ten years passed
before they could get the Legislature to do anything.
In 1825 the Legislature passed a law to lay aside certain
money to be used for the support of common schools.
This was to be called the " Literary Fund/' and was
to be managed by five men who were called the ' Liter-
ary Board." At first the fund was small, and ten more
years passed before any of it was used for education.
In 1837 North Carolina received more than one million
dollars as her share of some money which the United
States Government distributed to the States. The
Legislature passed a law to add most of this money to
the Literary Fund, and the fund soon amounted to
about two million dollars.
Opening of the Common Schools. — In 1840, therefore,
the common schools were opened. But for several
years they did not do very well and the people were not
satisfied with them. The members of the Literary
Board all had other work to do and of course could
not give much attention to the schools. Many people
thought that the schools ought to have one man at their
head whose duty it should be to look after them and
nothing else. Such an officer would be called the super-
intendent of common schools. So in 1852 the Legis-
lature passed a law to place a superintendent in charge of
the schools, and elected to that important office Calvin
Calvin Henderson Wiley. — None of the men that
we have read about did a more important work for
North Carolina than Calvin H. Wiley, He was elected
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
superintendent of common schools six times, and re-
mained at their head for thirteen years. The people had
great confidence in him and became very proud of their
schools. In these schools thousands of children received
the only education they ever had.
Calvin H. Wiley was born on a farm in Guilford
county, February 3, 1819.
The first member of his
family in North Carolina
came from Pennsylvania
some time before the Revo-
lution. His grandfather,
David Wiley, when a small
boy, was present at the bat-
tle of Alamance. When the
Revolution broke out David
Wiley entered the American
army and fought bravely for
Calvin H. Wiley's father
was David L. Wiley and his
mother was Anne Woodburn.
His mother hoped that he
would become a Presbyterian preacher, so she selected
for him the names of two Presbyterian ministers, that
of the great John Calvin and that of her old pastor,
Rev. Dr. Henderson.
Wiley's Early Life. — At an early age young Wiley
was sent to Caldwell Institute at Greensboro, where he
was prepared for college. In 1836 he entered the Uni-
versity, where he was graduated in 1840. Instead of
entering the ministry, he decided to study law. In 1841
Calvin H. Wiley
CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 213
he settled at Oxford to practise his profession. But
clients were few in number and the young attorney
found more time than cases on his hands. But he made
good use of his spare time by reading and writing. From
1841 to 1843 he was editor of a paper called the Oxford
Mercury. In 1847 he published a novel called " Ala-
mance," and two years later a second novel called
Wiley Discovers Two Great Evils. — But Wiley soon
found more important work to do than writing novels.
He had noticed two evils in North' Carolina that gave
him much anxiety.
First, he noticed that North Carolina was regarded by
publishing companies as one of the best states in the
Union for the sale of trashy books, and that every year
thousands of such books were sold in the State.
Secondly, he noticed that every year thousands of
people were leaving North Carolina and moving to the
South and West. North Carolina, he declared, seemed
to be " regarded by its own citizens as a mere nursery
to grow up in." The sign "For Sale' seemed to be
posted all over the State. "The ruinous effects," he
wrote, " are eloquently recorded in deserted farms, . . .
in the absence of improvements, and in the hardships,
sacrifices and sorrows of constant emigration."
Wiley Proposes a Remedy. — Wiley set himself the
task of finding a remedy for these evils. After carefully
studying the situation he decided that the only remedy
was education. The children of North Carolina, he
declared, must be taught to love their own State, to take
a pride in her welfare, and to understand the opportu-
nities which she offered to them. They must also be
214 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
trained how to make use of those opportunities. This
great work could be done only by the common schools,
and the great need of the common schools was a superin-
tendent to direct them in their work.
To this work Wiley decided to devote his life. In
1849 he left Oxford and returned to Guilford county.
There he told the people what he wanted to do. In
order to do it he must become a member of the Legisla-
ture. So he asked the people of Guilford county to
elect him their representative in the Legislature of 1850.
The people had great confidence in him and chose him
to represent them in the General Assembly. When the
Legislature met, Wiley worked hard to get a law passed
to provide a superintendent for the common schools.
He spoke eloquently in favor of his plan.
" These schools," he said, "have been open for seven
or eight years. ... In that time they have shed on
thirty thousand darkened souls the strengthening and
healthful light of knowledge. . . . But perhaps there
are those who believe the book of knowledge should be a
sealed book to the millions. I have heard such opinions
expressed. ... I can only say, in answer to those
who may think so, that in all my observation I have
found happiness, comfort, and intelligence dwelling to-
gether. . . . Let the laborer as well as the politician
be educated, and our ships and fields and farms will
then take rank with our sermons and speeches. You
have doubtless seen magicians taking any amount of
stores from a bag of plenty which appeared to be
empty: the free schoolhouses, the dirty log houses . . .
are filled with untold treasures if we but only knew how
to draw them out."
CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY
But the Legislature, in spite of his powerful appeal,
refused to pass his bill. However, he did not give up
the fight. In 1852 he returned to the Legislature and
again went to work for the common schools. He was so
much in earnest, he worked so hard, and he spoke so
eloquently in favor of his plan, that this time he suc-
ceeded. A law was passed providing for a superintendent
of the common schools, and when the time came to elect
a man to the office all eyes turned at once toward Wiley
himself. So he was elected and began his work January
Wiley's Task. — Wiley found a hard task before him.
The schools were in a wretched condition. Most of the
school-houses were mere log hovels. Teachers were
scarce and generally very poor. They cared but little
about their work. The money for the schools was
being wasted. The people did not understand how to
manage their schools. Many thought they were charity
schools intended only for poor children. Others had
no confidence in their
work. They were
poorly attended, and
thousands of children
were growing up in
they had no one to
direct their educa-
First of all the su-
perintendent had to teach the people what common
schools really were. He rode nearly all over the State,
from the mountains to the sea, in an old-fashioned buggy,
The Old Type of a School
216 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
talking to the people about education and trying to get
them interested in their schools. He wrote about the
schools in the newspapers, in hundreds of letters, in
messages to the governor, and he spoke about them
in eloquent speeches.
Two of his hardest tasks were to teach the officers
their duties and to teach the teachers how to teach. To
aid in this important work he established in every school
district a Teachers' Library Association to supply the
teachers with good books. He began the publication
of a teachers' magazine called the North Carolina School
Journal. He organized the teachers of the State into
a State Teachers' Association. Others had tried several
times to organize a teachers' association, but where they
failed Wiley succeeded.
What Wiley Accomplished. — His work was slow and
discouraging. But Wiley had patience and determina-
tion. He resolved to succeed, and he did not know the
meaning of the word " give-up." And in the end he did
succeed. Old friends of the schools were discovered
and put to work. Many new friends were made.
Enemies were met and routed. Better school-houses
were built. The school term was made longer than
ever before. Incompetent officers were removed, and
the good ones were spurred on to better work. Poor
teachers were dismissed, and better ones put in their
places. The colleges began to take an interest in the
common schools, and the people were proud of them.
When Wiley began his work there were only 800
public school teachers in the State. He increased this
number to more than 2,000. The number of schools was
increased from less than 2,000 to nearly 3,000. He
CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY
increased the amount of money spent each year from
$130,000 to $400,000. When he took charge he found
only 83,000 children enrolled; this number was increased
to 116,000. And those 116,000 children had better
A Modern Rural Elementary School-house
(Many are found in North Carolina)
school-houses, better books, better teachers, and longer
terms than the 83,000 had had.
Besides these improvements, the people were no
longer leaving North Carolina in such large numbers.
The spirit of education was bringing about industrial
progress and agricultural improvement. The people
were becoming aware of the opportunities offered
in North Carolina and were more attached to their
homes than ever before. Everybody admitted that
the success of the common schools was due to
Calvin H. Wiley.
218 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Shall the Common Schools be Closed? — But suddenly
everything was changed. In 1861, just as the common
schools were beginning to do their best work, the great
war between the North and the South broke out. North
Carolina needed large sums of money to buy arms,
ammunition, food, and clothes for her soldiers. Some
persons suggested that the common schools be closed
and the school money used for the purposes of war.
Wiley was strongly opposed to this. "No people," he
exclaimed, "can, or ought to be free, who are not willing
to educate their children." The schools, he said, must
be kept open in spite of the war.
He first went to see the Governor. The Governor
heard him gladly and promised to help him. Then
Wiley went before the Legislature and spoke for the
schools. Here he had his hardest fight, for many of the
members were in favor of closing the schools until after
the war. But Wiley was just as determined to fight the
battles of the children as the soldiers were to fight
the battles of their country. He fought hard and won a
great victory. The Legislature declared that the school
money must not be used for war purposes and that the
schools must be kept open.
The Schools are Kept Open. — So in spite of war
and poverty and suffering Wiley kept the doors of the
common schools open. But of course they suffered from
the war just as everything else did. Wiley's difficulties
were greater than ever. He found it hard to get text-
books. He found it hard to get teachers. But in spite
of all these troubles, and a hundred others, in 1863 the
common schools enrolled more than 50,000 children.
Nothing, declared Wiley, reflected greater honor on
CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY
North Carolina, or showed her spirit better, than this
The Schools are Closed. — But when the war came to
a close and the South was defeated, everything was
thrown into confusion. Men from
the North who cared nothing for
North Carolina gained control of
the State. They turned Governor
Vance and the other officers out of
their offices. Men who had been
true to the South were not allowed
either to hold office or to vote.
Their places were taken by North-
ern " carpet-baggers " and ignorant
Wiley, too, was dismissed from
office. Then the common schools,
which he had kept open during
all the terrible days of war, were
closed. But he had done a great
work for the State. Many thou-
sand children who could never have
gone to any other schools had been
taught in the common schools and
become educated men and women.
Wiley Enters the Ministry. —
While he was superintendent of com-
mon schools Wiley studied theology
and became a Presbyterian minister. Many honors were
bestowed on him. He was frequently asked to make
educational addresses both in North Carolina and in
other states. The Legislature of Georgia invited him
Monument to Calvin H.
Wiley at West End
School, Winston, N. C.
Erected by the pupils of
The Graded Schools of
Winston to the Memory of
Rev. Calvin H. Wiley, D. D.
As one of the Founders of
The Schools of this City
And as the Father of the
Public School System of N. C.
Feb. 3, 1819-Jan. 11, 1887
Supt. Public Instruction
220 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
to address them on the subject of common schools and
to help them organize in Georgia such a system as he
had organized in North Carolina. In 1881 the Uni-
versity conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of
Wiley's Last Years. — After the war Dr. Wiley moved
for a short time to Tennessee, but in 1874 returned to
North Carolina. From then till his death his home
was in Winston. In that city he became the leader in
establishing the Winston graded schools, and for many
years was the chairman of the board of trustees. He
died in Winston, January 11, 1887. The school children
of Winston have erected, on their playground, a monu-
ment to his memory.
Give an account of —
1. The founding of colleges in North Carolina.
2. The leaders in the founding of common schools.
3. The Literary Board.
4. The opening of the common schools.
5. The early life of Calvin H. Wiley. His education.
6. The two great evils that Wiley discovered in North Carolina.
7. The remedy that he proposed.
8. His plan for obtaining this remedy.
9. What he said about the common schools.
10. Educational conditions in North Carolina when Wiley took
charge of the common schools.
11. His plans to interest the people in education.
12. Results of his work.
13. Effect of the Civil War on the common schools.
14. The closing of the schools.
15. Wiley's career after the war.
CALVIN HENDERSON WILEY 221
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. What schools were founded for girls at Salem, Greensboro, and
Raleigh before 1840 ? When and where were Wake Forest, Trinity,
Davidson, Elon, and Guilford colleges founded ?
2. What official is now at the head of the public school system of
North Carolina? Make a list with the dates of their terms of all the
men who have held this office in North Carolina.
3. How is money raised in North Carolina for the support of public
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE
The Vances and the Bairds. — Zebulon Baird Vance
was born about ten miles from Asheville, May 13, 1830.
His father's name was David Vance, his mother's Mar-
garet Baird. They named
their boy after his mother's
father, Zebulon Baird.
The Vances and the Bairds
were among the earliest
settlers in the mountainous
section of North Carolina.
During the Revolution both
families sent sturdy patri-
ots to the American army.
Some of them were among
the heroes of King's Moun-
tain. From them young
Zebulon B. Vance inherited
a strong mind, a vigorous
body, and an intense love of
The house in which Zebulon B. Vance was born, was
a small, simple farmhouse. But it stood amid some
of the grandest scenery on the American continent.
Near by the beautiful French Broad river flowed through
a green valley. The loftiest peaks of the Blue Ridge
Z. B. Vance
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE 223
Mountains threw their shadows on the little cottage.
Within plain view was Mt. Mitchell, the highest moun-
tain east of the Rocky Mountains. Forests of giant
oaks and hickory and laurel covered the mountain sides.
The valley was bright with flowers and musical with the
songs of birds.
All this beauty and grandeur had a strong effect on
the lad who grew up in its midst. It kindled his imagi-
nation; it planted in him an intense love of nature; it
filled him with a deep pride in his native land; and it
aroused in him an ambition to be of some great service
to his country.
Vance at School. — There were no good schools near
young "Zeb" Vance's home. The poorest boy in
North Carolina to-day can find a better school right at
his door than "Zeb' Vance could have found in many
a mile of the French Broad. When he was twelve years
old his father sent him across the mountains to a school
in Tennessee. He also sent him some good advice. "Do
mind your books/' he wrote, "and be careful of giving
offense to your school mates." "Zeb' seems to have
minded his books well, for his mother wrote to him: " We
are very glad to hear that you are learning so fast. We
hope that you will improve your time so as to make a
great and good man."
Vance and his Mother. — Many years afterward,
while he was governor of his State and was great and
famous, he remembered those words; and it made him
happy to think that he had not disappointed his mother.
Her last words to him were, "God bless you, my dear
boy! You have been a good and loving son to me."
"How happy it made me feel!" he wrote to one of his
224 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
friends. " Believe me, ... I would not exchange
the feeling those blessed assurances of my Mother's love
and approbation inspire for all the honors I ever have
received or may receive in this world."
Vance had been at school but a short time when he
was called home by the death of his father. For the
next seven or eight years he had to work to help his
mother support the family. It was a hard task, but
"Zeb" never grumbled.
Vance at the University. — When he became twenty-
one Vance decided to study law. He wanted to go to
the University, but had no money. What then should
he do? At that time the president of the University
was David L. Swain. Swain was a native of Buncombe
County and knew the Vances well. So "Zeb" decided
to write to him for help.
The manly tone of young Vance's letter pleased Presi-
dent Swain. He replied at once that Vance should have
the necessary money. So Vance mounted his horse
and rode over the mountains, down to Chapel Hill, and
began his studies. He and President Swain soon became
warm friends, and their friendship continued until
Vance remained at the University only one year.
But he studied hard, read good books, and became a
well-educated man. His favorite books were the Bible,
the works of Shakespere, and the stories of Sir Walter
Scott. It would certainly be a difficult task to select
a better library than this mountain boy selected for
himself. He read but few books, but those few he knew
thoroughly. Better still, he made many friends at the
University who remained true to him throughout his life.
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE
226 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
The Young Lawyer. — After leaving the University-
Vance went to Asheville to practise law. He soon had
a good practice. But he was not too busy with his law
to practice love at the same time. On August 3, 1853,
he was married to Miss Harriet N. Espy.
Vance in the Legislature and in Congress. — Vance
was such a good speaker and knew so many good stories
that he was always welcome into any company. His
lively spirits, his ready wit, and his good humor made
him very popular. In 1854, when he was only twenty-
four years old, the Whigs elected him a member of the
Legislature. Four years later they elected him a member
of Congress. He was the youngest member of that body.
In 1860 he was elected a second time, but did not remain
in Congress much longer.
Vance Pleads for the Union. — When the dispute
arose between the North and South about secession,
Vance w^s a strong Union man. During the years 1860
and 1861 he spoke frequently in different parts of the
State against secession. His greatest speech for the
Union was at Salisbury, October 11, 1860. Thousands
of people had gathered there to hold a great Union
meeting. They marched about the streets in long
Union processions. The bands played Union tunes.
The people carried Union flags and banners. Many of
the most distinguished men in the State were to speak
for the Union. There were Governor Graham, Governor
John M. Morehead, and George E. Badger, who had
been a United States senator.
The speaking began in the morning and lasted all day.
Vance spoke first. For two hours 5,000 people stood in
a cold, drizzling rain and listened to him. When he
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE 227
proposed to stop they cried out, "Go on! Go on!"
Not a single person left while he was speaking. When
night came, after the others had spoken, the crowd
went for Vance, bore him on their shoulders through
the streets, and called for another speech.
"In a minute," says a writer who was present, "he
was up and at it, and for nearly two hours swayed the
throng at his will, now with eloquence and argument,
and now with uncontrollable mirth. Such a store of
amusing and appropriate anecdotes as this ' Mountain
Boy' has, is not possessed by any other man living."
When one of Badger's friends complimented him on his
speech, that great man replied: "You ought to have
heard young Vance. He is the greatest stump speaker
that ever was — the greatest that ever was!"
Vance Goes to War. — Vance worked hard for the
Union. But when war began in spite of his efforts,
Vance declared that he would stand by the South. "If,"
he said, "war must come, I prefer to be with my own
people. If we have to shed blood, I prefer to shed
Northern rather than Southern blood. If I have to
slay, I had rather slay strangers than my own kindred
So in 1861 he left Congress and came home to get
ready for the war. He returned at once to Buncombe
county, where he raised a company of sturdy mountain
men. They promptly elected him their captain. He
called his company the "Rough and Ready Guards."
In May, 1861, he led them down to Raleigh, where they
joined other North Carolina troops. During the summer
Captain Vance was sent to help defend New Bern against
an attack by the United States troops. Soon afterward
228 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
he was elected colonel of the Twenty-sixth North Caro-
The Battle of New Bern. — The Confederate army at
New Bern was commanded by General L. O'B. Branch,
of North Carolina. On March 14, 1862, a strong Union
force attacked the Confederates and beat them. General
Branch was driven out of New Bern and forced to retreat
How Vance Saved his Regiment. — In this battle
Colonel Vance showed himself to be a brave and skilful
officer. Nothing but his courage and skill saved his
regiment from destruction. During the battle Colonel
Vance was stationed between a swamp in front and the
Trent river behind him. The Union soldiers drove the
other Confederates back and got between Colonel Vance
and New Bern. They were marching right down on
him when he was warned of his danger. All the other
Confederate regiments had crossed the Trent on a bridge,
but when Colonel Vance reached the river he found the
bridge in flames.
He hurried up the river to a creek called Brice's Creek.
This creek was almost as deep and wide as the river,
but it must be crossed. Colonel Vance could find but
one small boat, and it could carry only three men at
a time. The enemy was about half a mile away with
ten times his own numbers. What was he to do? He
decided in a flash.
"I jumped my horse in to swim him over," he wrote
to his wife, "but when a little way in he refused to swim,
sank two or three times with me, and I had to jump off
and swim across with my sword, pistols, and cartridge
box on. Once over I rode half a mile to a house and
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE
John R. Lane Harry K. Burgwyn, Jr. Z. B. Vance
Colonels of the 26th North Carolina Regiment
230 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
got three boats, which we carried on our shoulders to the
creek, and after four hours of hard labor got all my men
over but three poor fellows who were drowned.
"I can not now speak of the thousand dangers which
I passed through. Balls struck all around me. Men
were hit right at my feet. My men fought gloriously.
We feel quite proud of the good name we have obtained
and are determined to maintain it. I should like to
dwell upon the many instances of love and affection
exhibited by the regiment toward me during the fight
and the retreat. I believe they would every one follow
me into the jaws of certain death if I led the way."
Vance Ordered to Virginia. — Soon after the battle
of New Bern, Colonel Vance was ordered to join the
Confederate army in Virginia. In the great battles
around Richmond he led his men with much skill and
courage. He was so daring in battle that his men were
afraid he would be killed. They begged him not to
expose his life so recklessly. North Carolina, they said,
could not afford for him to be killed, for in August the
people were going to elect him governor.
But Vance refused to shun any danger to which his
men were exposed. Every time they went into battle,
he rode at their head, cheering and encouraging them.
After one of his battles he wrote to his wife: "I was
surprised at my feelings. Excitement and pleasure
removed every other feeling and I could not resist cheer-
ing with might and main." Can we wonder that the
soldiers were proud of their gallant young colonel?
Thoughts of Home. — But this brave soldier, who
took such delight at riding into battle where danger was
thickest, could be as tender and loving as a little child.
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE 231
"I am again officer of the day," he wrote to his wife,
"and shall have to tramp all night around our lines and
pickets. The moon is at the full, though, and the nights
are beautiful. I shall cast many a thought to-night
toward my dear home and many a prayer for my lonely
wife and sweet little children. Dear little children! Of
such indeed must be the kingdom of heaven!"
A Soldier's Letter. — Would you not like to read a
letter which this young soldier, sitting in his tent after
the battle, wrote to his little six-year-old son?
" My Dear Son Charlie,
Pa received your letter, and
was very happy to read it. I was mighty sorry to
lose poor Todd. I wanted to keep him for my children
to ride when this war is over. I want you and Brother
David to be very good boys, obey your Mother, be kind
to each other and to Brother Zebbie. You are getting
old enough now to be of great assistance as well as com-
pany to Mother, and whilst Pa is away you ought to try
hard to take care of her and protect her in her lonely
home. You write me that the yard and grass are mighty
green and nice. Pa is glad to hear his dear ones have
such a beautiful home, and you and Brother will always
remember not to break or injure the shrubs and flowers,
but always to play in the walks or on the grass away
from the shrubbery. Goodbye, son. Kiss Mother and
Brother and Cousin for me, and tell the servants howdye
for me. Your affectionate Father,
Z. B. Vance."
Vance is Elected Governor. — In August 1862, while
Colonel Vance was in Virginia fighting at the head of
232 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
his regiment, he was elected governor of North Carolina.
He did not ask for this office, but when the people had
chosen him he felt that it was his duty to accept. Every
soldier in his regiment voted for him. He received
twice as many votes from the other North Carolina
soldiers as his opponent received. The soldiers believed
that he could do more good for the State and for the
South as governor than as a soldier. So Vance left the
army, went to Raleigh, and on September 8, 1862, began
his duties as governor.
The Great War Governor. — Not since the days of
Governor Caswell had any governor of North Carolina
had a harder task before him, and never did any gov-
ernor serve the people better. Vance kept the ranks of
the North Carolina regiments full. He caused North
Carolina to send more soldiers to the Confederate army
than there were voters in the State, and he kept her
soldiers better clothed and better fed than the soldiers
of any other Southern State.
It would take too long to tell you all the things that
Governor Vance sent to the soldiers. But a few of the
things that he bought for them in Europe can be men-
tioned. Among them were 2000 fine rifles with 200,000
rounds of ammunition, 12,000 overcoats, 50,000 blankets,
250,000 pairs of shoes, gray cloth for 250,000 uniforms,
100,000 pounds of bacon, $50,000 worth of medicine,
and many other things for use in the hospitals.
Most of these things of course went to the North
Carolina soldiers, but some were also sent to the soldiers
of other states. After the great battle of Chickamauga,
General Longstreet's soldiers were nearly all in rags.
Governor Vance sent them 14,000 suits of uniforms.
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE 233
Many a poor, ragged soldier had shoes on his feet, a
blanket to cover him from the snow, and a piece of bacon
once a week because Zebulon Baird Vance was governor
of North Carolina. For the comfort of soldiers travel-
ing to and fro he had inns and hospitals established at
several places in the State. In them the wearied, the
sick and the wounded were cared for and their wants
attended to. Is it any wonder that the soldiers called
Governor Vance "Our Zeb," and said that he was the
" Great War Governor of the South."
Suffering in the South. — The war brought great suf-
fering to the people of the South. They found it hard
to get enough food and clothes. A gallon of molasses
cost $8. It took $50 to buy a bushel of corn, and $100
to buy a barrel of flour. A pair of boy's boots cost $150.
Carpets were torn up from the floors and cut into
blankets. In order to relieve the suffering of the poor
as much as possible, Governor Vance had granaries
established at certain places and corn distributed from
them. He also had committees appointed in each
county to look after the suffering of the needy. Even
the richest people had to do without many common
necessities which the poorest now have.
Vance's Great Speeches. — When the soldiers learned
how their families were suffering at home they of course
became dissatisfied, and many of them deserted. No
other man did so much as Governor Vance to keep up
the spirits of the soldiers and the people. He made
eloquent speeches at several places in the State. He
visited the army in Virginia and made some stirring
speeches to the soldiers. These speeches filled their
hearts with new hope and courage. General Lee said
234 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Vance's visit to the army was worth 50,000 soldiers
Blockade-Runners. — But Vance did more than make
speeches. The chief cause of the suffering in the South
was the blockade. The United States, which had a
large navy, placed armed vessels at the Southern ports
to prevent ships from going out or coming in. The
South, whose navy was very small, could not ship out
her cotton, tobacco, and other products to Europe.
And but few clothes or food or military supplies could
be brought in from European countries. But some-
times, in spite of the watchful war vessels, fast-sailing
little ships would slip out of or into the ports. Such
vessels were called blockade-runners. The most famous
of these blockade-runners was the Advance.
The Advance was a swift little steamer that Gov-
ernor Vance bought in Scotland. She was sent to the
West Indies, where she took on a cargo and then slipped
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE 235
through the Federal fleet into the harbor of Wilmington.
There she was protected by a powerful fort called Fort
Fisher. Then loaded with cotton, she would again slip
by the war vessels and make a trip to Nassau (Bermuda)
or Halifax (Nova Scotia), sell her cotton, and buy another
cargo for North Carolina.
The Advance made eleven trips before the United
States war vessels could catch her. On these trips she
carried out thousands of bales of cotton, and brought
back tools for farmers, medicines for the hospitals, uni-
forms, blankets, shoes, clothes, and arms and ammunition
for the army.
Vance in Prison. — In 1864 Vance was elected governor
a second time. But before his term was out the war
came to a close and he was removed from office by the
United States Government. On his thirty-fifth birth-
day he was arrested at his home in Statesville by United
States soldiers. They carried him to Washington and
locked him up in a cell of the Old Capitol Prison. In
the same cell with him was John Letcher, governor of
Though a prisoner, uncertain of what punishment was
intended for him, Vance never lost his good spirits.
He soon became very popular even with the officers
who had to guard him. The United States army officer
who was in charge of the prison learned to respect and
to love his genial, good-humored prisoner. He did for
Vance many acts of kindness and courtesy, and a few
years later, when Vance was a member of the United
States Senate, he had several opportunities to show his
gratitude. Vance's enemies tried hard to find some
acts of his that would give them a good excuse to punish
236 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
him. But they could find nothing. When the Secretary
of War of the United States learned how kind Vance
had been to the Union soldiers who were prisoners
during the war, he promptly ordered that he be set at
After the War. — Vance was then permitted to return to
his home. During the terrible days that followed the war,
he was one of the leaders who rescued the State from
the carpet-baggers and negroes. After the Conservatives
won their great victory over the carpet-baggers, they elec-
ted Vance to represent North Carolina in the United
States Senate. This was in 1870. But when Vance went
to Washington to take his seat in the Senate, the northern
men who controlled Congress refused to admit him.
Vance Becomes Governor a Third Time. — Then in
1876 the people of North Carolina again turned to him
to be their governor. He was elected a third time, and
entered upon his duties January 1, 1877.
Vance won for himself a place among North Carolina's
greatest statesmen. He worked hard to improve the
schools for both the whites and the negroes. He urged
that normal schools for the training of teachers be estab-
lished. He improved the charitable institutions of the
State. He aided in the building of railroads. While
he was governor peace and order were again enjoyed;
the lives and property of the people were protected;
schools and colleges were opened. The hum of mills, the
shriek of factory whistles, the roar of trains proclaimed
that industry had taken the place of war and strife.
Trade began to flourish, farmers plowed their fields in
safety, and the State grew stronger and richer and
happier than ever before.
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE 237
While he was thus making the people of the State
happy, Governor Vance himself suffered two great
sorrows. Soon after he became governor his mother
died, and within less than a month he lost his wife also.
These sorrows made the people of the State love him all
Vance Becomes Senator. — In 1879, after he had
been governor two years, Vance was again elected to
the United States senate. This time he was permitted
to take his seat. Vance remained in the Senate fifteen
years and became one of the strongest leaders of the
"New South." He was so eloquent, so generous, so
kindly, and so honest that many who had been his
enemies became his friends. He defended the South
without offending the North.
No man did more than he to make the two sections
In one of his great speeches in the Senate he said: " If
I were permitted to say but one word as to what my
country most needed, that word would be, Rest! Rest
from strife, rest from sectional conflict, rest from sec-
tional bitterness. . . . Can we not give rest to our peo-
ple? I know that those from whom I come desire it
above their chief joy. The excitement through which
we have passed for the last twenty years, the suffering
and the sorrow, the calamity, public and private, which
they have undergone, have filled their hearts with
indescribable yearnings for national peace."
Vance was often invited to speak in different parts
of the Union. In the North he defended the South and
urged the Northern people to be friendly toward the
Southern people. In an address before the Union
238 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
soldiers of Boston he spoke eloquently against distrust
and hatred between the North and South. Let us, he
said, adopt "that wiser and nobler policy which seeks
to make every spark of genius, every arm of strength,
every heart of integrity," contribute " to the strengthen-
ing and upbuilding of freedom, and the glory of the great
Republic." In the South he spoke for the Union, urged
the Southern people to be good Americans, and to love
and honor the American flag.
Gombroon. — In 1880, while he was in the Senate,
Vance was married to Mrs. Florence Steele Martin, of
Kentucky. In the winter they made their home in
Washington. But their summer home was a beautiful
place in the mountains near Asheville. They called it
"Gombroon." It was a large, comfortable house in
the midst of dense forests and lofty mountain peaks.
There Senator Vance planted his vineyards, orchards,
and garden, and rested from his hard work in the Senate.
"'Zeb' Vance is Dead." — His hard work injured
his health. He pored so closely over his studies that he
became blind in one eye. His physicians sent him to
the mountains of North Carolina, to Florida, and to
Europe in search of health. How anxiously the people
of North Carolina waited for the news that their great
senator was well again. But this good news never came.
Instead, April 15, 1894, the sad message came, "'Zeb'
Vance is dead."
Never before had the people of North Carolina so
mourned the death of any man. His body was carried
from Washington, where he died, to Raleigh, and from
Raleigh to Asheville. At every station, and in the
valleys and on the hillsides along the railroad, thousands
ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE 239
crowded to catch a glimpse of the train that bore
his body. Great crowds gathered at Raleigh and at
Asheville to see his face for the last time.
The people of the State at once took steps to honor
his memory. While he was still living, the Legislature
had named a county for him. After his death the
State erected a monument to his memory in the Capitol
Square at Raleigh. This is the only monument which
the State has ever erected with public money to any of
her sons. Another monument, a tall, straight shaft of
granite, has been erected to him in the heart of the city
1. Describe the section of North Carolina in which Vance was
born. What is the height of Mt. Mitchell? Name other prominent
mountains near Asheville.
2. What river is Asheville on?
3. Describe the West Indies with reference to Wilmington. Find
on the map Nassau. Halifax (N. S.).
1. When and where was Vance born? Describe his birthplace.
2. Give an account of his early schooldays. What advice did his
father send him?
3. Tell about Vance and his mother.
4. What profession did Vance choose? How did he get his pro-
fessional education? What were Vance's favorite books? Where did
he make his home?
5. What were his early political services?
6. What did he think and say about secession? Describe the great
Union meeting in Salisbury.
7. After the war began, what position did he take in regard to it ?
8. Describe how he saved his regiment at the battle of New Bern.
9. Give an account of his military career in Virginia.
240 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
10. Tell about Vance's election as governor.
11. What is said about his work for the soldiers during his term as
12. Describe the suffering in the South.
13. How did Vance keep up the spirit of the people?
14. What was the blockade? How did it injure the South?
15. What did Vance do to break the blockade?
16. How was Vance punished for his part in the war?
17. Give an account of his prison life.
18. What part did Vance take in rescuing North Carolina from the
19. Give an account of his work during his third term as governor.
20. What service did he render to the South in the United States
Senate? How did he help to make the North and South friends
21. Repeat what he said about the country's greatest need.
22. Give an account of his death.
23. Write a summary of the chief events in his career.
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. Have you ever read any of the plays of Shakespere? Any of
the stories of Sir Walter Scott?
2. Name the principal battles fought around Richmond in 1862.
3. Make a list of the men mentioned in this book who were
governors of North Carolina.
4. How many soldiers did North Carolina send to the Confederate
5. Explain fully how the blockade was managed, and how it
injured the Confederacy. Why could not the South manufacture the
supplies that were needed in the war?
6. What is meant by the "New South"?
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES
Getting Ready for War. —April and May, 1861,
were busy months in North Carolina. In every house
women were hard at work knitting socks, making
shirts, underwear, and other articles of clothing. Fac-
tories were busily making guns, cannon, powder, swords,
and bayonets. Bugles were blowing, drums were beat-
ing, flags were flying, soldiers were marching. In every
town and village crowds cheered the soldiers as they
marched down the street and boarded the train; and
pretty girls waved at them and urged them to fight
bravely for their homes and country.
All this was because war had begun between the
North and the South, and North Carolina was getting
ready for it. President Lincoln had demanded that
North Carolina send soldiers to fight the other Southern
States, and Governor Ellis had telegraphed to him,
"You can get no troops from North Carolina." But
the Governor had sent out a call for North Carolina to
rally to the South, and soon every train was filled with
soldiers hurrying to Raleigh to be armed and drilled
for battle. As fast as they could be taught the duties
of war they marched away to join the Confederate
armies in Eastern North Carolina, in Tennessee, Vir-
ginia, and other States.
242 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
North Carolina in the Civil War. — North Carolina
sent to the Confederate armies during the war more
than 125,000 soldiers. Some of them were kept in
North Carolina to defend the forts along the coast.
A large number were sent across the mountains to the
defense of Tennessee, Georgia, and other States. But
the largest number were sent to Virginia. They took
part in every important battle of the war. More than
40,000 were either killed or died of disease. No other
Southern State lost so many soldiers.
Several North Carolina officers won fame. Among
them were two lieutenant-generals, seven major-generals,
and twenty-six brigadier-generals. Major-Generals W.
D. Pender, Stephen D. Ramseur, and W. H. C. Whiting
were killed. General D. H. Hill commanded the
North Carolina soldiers in the first regular battle of
the war; General James Johnston Pettigrew led the
soldiers who charged farthest in the great charge at
Gettysburg; and General Bryan Grimes planned and
fought the last battle of the Confederate army in
Daniel Harvey Hill. — At the opening of the war the
soldiers were first sent to Raleigh to be trained for war.
There they were placed in a camp of instruction under
the command of Colonel Daniel H. Hill. Colonel Hill
was educated at the United States Military Academy,
at West Point. For several years he was an officer in
the United States Army and served in the war with
Mexico. In that war he won a reputation as one of
the best soldiers in the American army, and was pro-
moted three times. Many years afterward, General
Joseph E. Johnston, the famous Confederate general,
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES
wrote to General Hill: "Do you know that in Mexico
the young officers called you the bravest man in the
The Beginning of Civil War. — After the Mexican
War, Hill left the army to become a teacher. He
taught first in Washington
College, at Lexington, Vir-
ginia, and then in Davidson
College in North Carolina.
During these years he
watched closely the dispute
between the North and the
South. He clearly foresaw
that it must end in war, and
he urged the South to get
ready for it. In 1859 he left
Davidson College to take
charge of a military school at
Charlotte in order to train
Southern boys in military
affairs. He was teaching
there when, in 1861, Gov- d. h. Hill
ernor Ellis called him to Raleigh to take charge of
the camp of instruction. The Governor appointed him
to the rank of colonel.
In a few weeks Colonel Hill had a regiment ready for
the field. It was the First North Carolina Regiment.
The men had learned to have great confidence in Colonel
Hill, and when they were ordered to the front, were
anxious for him to lead them. So he was placed in com-
mand, and in June led them into Virginia, where a large
and powerful Union army was preparing to march
244 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
against Richmond. Colonel Hill reached the front in
time to win the first regular battle of the war.
First at Bethel. — This battle was fought at Big
Bethel near Yorktown, Virginia. The Confederate
army numbered only 1200 men. Of these, 800 were
the North Carolina troops under Colonel Hill. The
other 400 were Virginians. They were attacked by
about three times their number, but Colonel Hill had
trained his men so well that they stood their ground,
and together with the Virginians, drove the enemy back.
During this battle several Union soldiers took shelter
in a house between the two armies. Colonel Hill called
for some of his men to set fire to the house, and five
brave fellows sprang eagerly forward. A hot fire met
them and one of their number fell dead. This soldier,
Henry L. Wyatt, was the first Confederate soldier
killed in open battle during the Civil War.
The news that the Confederates had won a victory
sent a thrill of joy throughout North Carolina. Every-
body praised "the brave boys in gray." The Con-
vention, in session at Raleigh, resolved that the First
Regiment should be known as the " Bethel Regiment/ 5
and gave it permission to inscribe the word " Bethel" on
its flag. For his share in the victory Colonel Hill was
appointed a brigadier-general.
General Hill in Battle. — The war had now begun in
earnest. In 1862 the United States sent a strong army
to march up the peninsula between the York and James
rivers to attack Richmond. The Confederate army
opposed the Federals at every step. Before the Union
troops were finally driven back, the battles of Williams-
burg, Hanover Court House, Seven Pines, Fair Oaks,
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES 245
and the famous Seven Days' Battles around Richmond
In these battles General Hill led his troops with great
skill. He won promotion twice, first as major-general
and then as lieutenant-general, the next highest rank
in the army. It was said that his troops were never
found in the rear during a battle nor in front during a
At Williamsburg he led two of his regiments, one
from North Carolina, the other from Virginia, with
such daring that the Union general, Hancock, declared:
" Those two regiments deserve to have ' Immortal'
inscribed on their banners." President Davis said
that the Confederate victory at Seven Pines was largely
due to General Hill's " courage, vigilance, and daring."
He led his men in a charge against the Union works,
drove the enemy off, and turned their own cannon
against them. Again at Gaines's Mill General Hill's
charge decided the day for the Confederates and won
high praise from Lee and Jackson. Three horses were
killed under him at the bloody battle of Sharpsburg in
Maryland. Under such a leader can you wonder that
his men, as General Longstreet said, " fought like game
" General," asked one of his friends, "why do you
expose yourself so recklessly? Do you never feel any
"Sir," replied General Hill, "I would never order
my men to go where I would not go myself. I do not
fear death if it comes w r hile I am doing my duty."
Though General Hill was so brave, he was not reckless.
He never risked his life or exposed his soldiers unless
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
he thought it necessary. No officer in the army took
better care of the health, happiness, and safety of his
men. He taught them how to use the pick, the spade,
and the shovel as well as the bayonet.
General Hill Defends North Carolina. — In 1863, at
*.■ ' ■f&? 1 '
* V • X
Gaines's Mill as it Looks To-day
the special request of Governor Vance, General Hill
was sent to the defense of North Carolina. At that
time New Bern, Washington, and other places in Eastern
North Carolina were held by Union troops. From
these towns they frequently made sudden marches out
into the country to overawe the people and destroy
their crops. These movements were very injurious to
Lee's army in Virginia, because they cut off the supplies
which were sent from Eastern North Carolina. So
Governor Vance and General Lee were anxious to drive
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES
the Federal forces out of the State or to shut them up
in the towns.
This important task was entrusted to General Hill.
His army was so small that he could not hope to drive
the enemy out of North Carolina. But he acted with
such great vigor and struck such hard blows that for
a time he put a stop to their raids. His activity enabled
the long wagon trains with supplies to get safely on
their way to Lee's army in Virginia. After this cam-
paign General Hill returned to Virginia and was put in
command of the defense of Richmond when Lee marched
northward into Pennsylvania.
James Johnston Pettigrew. — Among the North Caro-
lina officers who followed Lee into Pennsylvania was Gen-
eral James Johnston Pettigrew. Though he had reached
high rank in the army, General Petti-
grew had not been trained as a soldier.
Before the war he had won fame as a
scholar, an author, and a lawyer.
When the war began, he felt it his
duty to give up fame and wealth at
the bar and take up arms in defense
of the South.
Pettigrew Prepares for War. —
After graduating from the L^niversity
of North Carolina, Pettigrew studied
law and made his home at Charleston, S. C. Like
General Hill he foresaw that war was certain to come
between the North and the South. He, too, wished the
South to prepare herself for the struggle. In 1859, the
same year that Hill took charge of the military school
at Charlotte, Pettigrew sailed for Europe to study
James J. Pettigrew
248 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
military affairs. A war was being waged in Italy, and
he applied for a place in the Italian army. His applica-
tion was granted, but before he could reach Italy peace
was declared, and he had to return to the United States
without seeing a battle. At Charleston he studied
books on military matters, served first as captain and
then as colonel of the militia, and worked hard to pre-
pare himself for high rank in the Southern army when
war should come.
The Private Soldier Becomes a General. — Petti-
grew was ambitious. He knew that he would have to
work hard for the rank that he wanted. So he did not
sit still and wait until somebody should offer it to him.
As soon as war began he entered the Confederate army
as a private soldier, determined to fight his way upward.
One day while he was serving as a private in Virginia
a message was delivered to him. How his heart jumped
with joy when he read it! The message informed him
that he had been elected colonel of the Twelfth North
Carolina Regiment, then at Raleigh, and ordered him
to go and take command at once.
Pettigrew needed no urging. As soon as possible he
was at Raleigh, hard at work drilling his men and pre-
paring them for the field. He was so full of enthusiasm
that his men soon caught his spirit and worked as eagerly
as he. They were proud of their brilliant young colonel,
and he was proud of them. When they finally marched
away to Virginia, there was no better regiment in the
Confederate army. Pettigrew was offered the rank of
brigadier-general, but he declined it because he did not
want to be separated from his regiment. Afterwards
it was arranged so that he could accept the appointment
and still have his regiment under his command.
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES 249
Wounded and in Prison. — In 1862 General Petti-
grew took part in the great battles around Richmond.
At the battle of Seven Pines he led his men in one of
the bravest charges of the war. While cheering them
on, he was hit in the throat and fell from his horse.
Thinking that he was killed his men swept on, leaving
him on the field. He was captured and sent to prison
at Fort Delaware. After remaining in prison for a few
months he was exchanged and returned to the army in
Virginia. A new brigade, consisting of five North Caro-
lina regiments, was formed and placed under his command.
One of these regiments was the famous Twenty-Sixth,
which Vance had led at the battle of New Bern. .
Farthest to the Front at Gettysburg. — With these
regiments General Pettigrew followed Lee into Penn-
sylvania. The Federal army took a strong position at
Gettysburg. There, during the first three days of July,
1863, was fought the greatest battle in American history.
Lee's task was to drive the Union army from behind
its breastworks. If he failed to do this he must retreat
into Virginia. The first day's fighting resulted in a
Confederate success. They drove the Union forces out
of Gettysburg and captured the town. In this battle
Pettigrew bore an important part. His men drove
the enemy before them and won great honor. It was
a splendid sight, said another Confederate officer, to
see Pettigrew a as he galloped along the line in the
hottest of the fight cheering on his men."
Pettigrew was not in the battle of the second
The third day found the two armies still facing each
other. The center of the Union line was stationed
250 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
behind a long stone wall on top of a high ridge, called
Cemetery Ridge. In order to break through it the
Confederates had to march across an open field, rush
up Cemetery Ridge, and charge against the stone wall.
If they failed the battle was lost; if they succeeded,
they would win a great victory, which might end the
war. Could they succeed? General Lee believed they
could and he determined to try. Selecting 15,000 of
his very best troops he ordered them to make the at-
tempt. One column was led by Pettigrew, the other
by General Pickett, of Virginia. With Pettigrew were
fifteen regiments of North Carolinians, and some troops
from other States.
They were about to make the most daring charge
ever made by American soldiers. As they marched
across the open field to take their position, with drums
beating and flags flying, both armies held their breath.
Then came the order to advance, and they swept bravely
forward. Sword in hand, Pettigrew rode before his
men cheering them on and setting an example of bravery
which they bravely followed.
Suddenly, from Cemetery Ridge, the Union guns
opened fire. Men fell by the hundreds. For a moment
the Confederate line wavered and seemed about to
break. But above the roar of the guns was heard the
cool command of Pettigrew and his officers, " Close up!
Forward!' The men rallied and swept onward. They
reached the foot of Cemetery Ridge, they dashed right
up to the stone wall, they sprang over it. For a mo-
ment the Confederate flag waved from the Union
breastworks. Around it raged a fierce, hand-to-hand
struggle. But so few had lived to defend it that they
were soon driven back in retreat and confusion.
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES 251
Again the Union lines had held firm, and the battle
of Gettysburg was over. The Confederates had lost;
but as long as men admire brave deeds, the Pickett-
Pettigrew charge at Gettysburg will live in history.
The Famous Twenty-Sixth at Gettysburg. — When
the dead were counted, it was found that the Confed-
erates who fell farthest within the Union lines were the
North Carolinians led by Pettigrew. More than 1300
North Carolina soldiers fell in that charge. Vance's
old regiment, the famous Twenty-Sixth, lost at Gettys-
burg the largest number of men lost by any regiment
on either side during the entire war. Though sad at
the death of so many brave men, Pettigrew was proud
of their fine record. After the battle he wrote to Gov-
ernor Vance: " Knowing that you would be anxious
to hear from your old regiment, I embrace this oppor-
tunity to write you a hasty note. It covered itself
with glory. Their loss has been heavy, very heavy, but
the missing are on the battle-field and in the hospital."
The Death of Pettigrew. — The next day, July 4,
Lee began his retreat into Virginia. The most important
and dangerous post in a retreating army is the rear.
The rear must guard the army against attacks from the
pursuing enemy. During the retreat from Gettysburg,
Pettigrew was in command of the rear of one division
of Lee's army. On July 14, while his men were at
breakfast, they were attacked by a small Union force.
Pettigrew, rushing into the midst of the fight, fell mor-
tally wounded. He died three days later.
Bryan Grimes. — When the Confederates captured
the town of Gettysburg, July 1, the first regiment to
enter the town was the Fourth North Carolina Regi-
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
ment. This regiment was commanded by Colonel Bryan
Grimes. Colonel Grimes was born in Pitt county. After
graduating from the University of North Carolina he
traveled in Europe and then settled on his large plantation
in Pitt county. There he lived quietly
until the outbreak of the war. In 1861
he was elected a member of the Con-
vention and voted for the secession of
North Carolina. "Our cause is just,"
he declared; '" for it I will fight, even
for it I am willing to die." As soon,
therefore, as North Carolina had
seceded, Grimes resigned from the
convention and entered the Confeder-
ate army. Governor Ellis at once
appointed him major of the Fourth
North Carolina Regiment. Afterward he was made a
lieutenant-colonel and ordered to Virginia.
Colonel Grimes at Seven Pines. — Though not trained
as a soldier, Colonel Grimes soon showed himself to be
a born leader. At the battle of Seven Pines, near
Richmond, he distinguished himself and his regiment.
While riding at the head of his men in a charge, a cannon
ball blew off his horse's head. The horse fell, catching
Colonel Grimes's leg under his body. Thinking their
colonel was killed, the soldiers wavered. But Colonel
Grimes, waving his sword above the dead horse's body,
cried, " Forward! forward!' When his men had re-
leased him, he sprang to his feet, seized the flag of the
regiment, rushed to the front, and called on his men to
follow him. They dashed upon the Union breastworks
and captured them. In this charge every officer of
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES
the regiment, except Colonel Grimes, was either killed
Colonel Grimes and His Regiment. — Lieutenant-
Colonel Grimes's gallantry at Seven Pines won for him
Seven Pines Battle-field as it Looks To-day
promotion to the rank of colonel. His regiment soon
became, under his leadership, one of the best in the
Confederate army. He was strict with his men and
required them to attend closely to their duties. But
he soon won their respect and love, for he was careful
of their health and comfort, and he always led, but
never followed them into battle. Wherever the fight-
ing was hottest, there Colonel Grimes was sure to be
found. During the war seven horses were killed under
him. No wonder his soldiers were so devoted to him
and were ready to follow wherever he led. General
254 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Anderson, who commanded the brigade, declared that,
" Though small in number, Colonel Grimes's regiment
is the keystone of my brigade."
Colonel Grimes Wins the Rank of General. — In
several of the great battles of the war Colonel Grimes ,
and his regiment won high praise from the commanding
generals. Though only a colonel, he was placed in
command of a brigade at Fredericksburg, which he led
with much skill and judgment. At Chancellors ville,
while leading a charge, his sword was cut in two by a
bullet, his clothing was torn in several places, a ball
struck his sword-belt, and another wounded him in
the foot. On the first day at Gettysburg, Colonel
Grimes led his men into the town, and in a charge
captured more prisoners than there were men in his
regiment. During the bloody battle of the Wilder-
ness, the brave General Ramseur, of North Carolina,
was wounded. The brigade wavered. Colonel Grimes
sprang to its head, ordered a charge, and captured the
enemy's position. General Lee himself rode up and,
thanking Colonel Grimes for his action, declared that
he had saved the Confederate army and deserved the
thanks of the country. A few days later Colonel Grimes
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general to
succeed General Junius Daniel, who had been killed at
In the Shenandoah Valley. — General Grimes was
then sent to join the Confederate army under General
Jubal A. Early in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia.
Their plan was to march up the valley as if to make an
attack on Washington City. It was hoped that Presi-
dent Lincoln would think the capital in such danger
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES 255
that he would call back a part of Grant's army to defend
it. Then Lee might attack the rest of Grant's force
and defeat it.
At first the Confederates swept everything before
them. They marched into Pennsylvania, captured the
town of Chambersburg, and approached so near to
Washington that the men could see the dome of the
Capitol. But Lincoln did not call back any of Grant's
men. Instead he sent a powerful force under General
Sheridan into the Shenandoah Valley. Two important
battles were fought, at Winchester and at Cedar Creek.
In both battles General Grimes led his men with great
skill and daring. At Winchester he had one horse shot
from under him, and at Cedar Creek two. His men
fought with their usual bravery, but they could not
succeed against such great numbers. After some of
the hardest fighting of the war the Confederates were
defeated and retreated down the valley. So important
were General Grimes's services in, this campaign that he
was promoted over several of his senior officers to the
rank of major-general.
In the Trenches at Petersburg. — Lee and Grant
were now facing each other at Petersburg, Virginia.
Grant had more than twice as many men as Lee. Lee
needed every man he could get, so General Grimes was
called back from the valley to help in the defense of
The Confederates had thrown up great breastworks
to protect the city. Behind these works they had dug
long, deep trenches, in which the soldiers stood and
fought. Often they had to stand for hours at a time
knee-deep in cold mud and water. They suffered
256 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
terribly from cold, hunger, and sickness. Yet they were
compelled, day and night, to be always on the alert
and ready for duty. Even when asleep they wore their
clothes and slept on their arms. At any moment they
might be awakened by a call to battle. For nearly a
year, every day and night, the Union soldiers with great
bravery kept up their attacks on the Confederate works.
The Confederates, realizing that, if their works were
lost, all would be over, fought desperately. During
this long siege some of the most daring deeds in the
history of warfare were performed by both armies.
General Grimes held one of the most important posts
in the Confederate lines. With about 2200 men he
had to defend more than three miles of breastworks
against a force several times as large as his own. He
did it so well as to add greatly to his fame as a daring
and skilful officer. One day General Lee ordered an
attack on the Union lines. At Grimes's command his
men sprang over their breastworks, surprised the enemy,
captured a general and 500 prisoners, and took the
enemy's position. General Grimes, riding a captured
horse, was a perfect target for the enemy's sharpshooters.
His coolness and courage under the thickest fire filled
his men with confidence and determination. Though
attacked by ten times their own number, they held the
Union works for two hours before they were forced to
Last at Appomattox. — After nine months of fighting
Lee decided that he could no longer hold Petersburg,
so he gave the order to retreat. His army turned
westward, hoping to escape from Grant and join the
Confederates under General Joseph E. Johnston in
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES 257
North Carolina. On this retreat General Grimes, com-
manding his own division and other troops placed under
him by General Lee, was assigned the duty of protecting
the rear of the Confederate army from attacks by the
pursuing enemy. When the Confederates reached Appo-
mattox Court-house they found themselves surrounded
by about four times their own number. What should
be done? This question Lee put to his generals. After
an anxious discussion Lee decided to make one attempt
to break through the enemy's line and, if possible, to
escape to the mountains. The attack was to be made
on the morning of April 9, 1865.
When morning came, the generals who were expected
to order the attack could not agree how it should be made.
While they were discussing it, General Grimes rode up
and impatiently demanded the cause of the delay.
"It is somebody's duty," he declared, 'to carry out
General Lee's orders. If you do not want to do it, I
will do it myself." The others then told him to go
So he at once arranged his plans, placed his men in
proper positions, and gave the command to advance.
Cheered by their leader's example, the men rushed for-
ward with a vim, and after a short, sharp fight drove the
enemy back for nearly a mile. General Grimes then
hurried off a message to General Gordon telling him that
the way was open for the wagons to escape. To his
great surprise he received in reply an order to withdraw
his men. Thinking there must be some mistake, he did
not obey. Finally a similar order came from General
Lee himself. Then General Grimes gave the command
for a retreat. The Union forces followed and made a
258 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
sudden attack. A volley from General William R.
Cox's North Carolina brigade drove them back, and
Grimes's command retired safely.
Riding up to General Gordon, Grimes asked where
he should place his men. " Any where you choose," re-
plied Gordon. Surprised at this strange answer, Grimes
asked what he meant. Then he learned that General
Lee had gone to meet General Grant, to surrender
the Confederate army. All was now over, and General
Grimes's men had fought the last battle and fired the
last shot of the Confederate army in Virginia.
General Hill's Last Battle. — Lee's surrender did
not immediately end the war. There were other
Confederate armies in the South, and they too had to
be overcome before peace could be established. One
of these armies was in North Carolina under the com-
mand of General Joseph E. Johnston. His army of
about 30,000 ragged, hungry men was retreating north-
ward before General Sherman's army of about 60,000.
At Bentonville, in North Carolina, March 19, 1865, the
two armies fought their last battle.
General D. H. Hill, who had borne such an important
part in the first battle at Bethel, also bore an impor-
tant part at Bentonville. In 1863 he had been promoted
to the rank of lieutenant-general and sent to aid the
Confederates in Tennessee. There he was welcomed
as "a stern and dauntless soldier." He commanded
part of the army at the great battle of Chickamauga, in
which he added to his fame for skill and courage. After
this battle he was recalled to Virginia, and later returned
to North Carolina, where he joined General Johnston in
time to take part in the battle of Bentonville.
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES
The fighting at Bentonville was severe, and both
armies displayed great bravery. At first the Confeder-
ates were successful, and their spirits were high in hopes
of victory. But the numbers against them were too
great. More Union troops came up and Johnston was
forced to retreat.
He retreated toward Raleigh hoping
to join General Lee. But on April 10
he heard of Lee's surrender, and he
knew that the end had come. So, on
April 26, he met General Sherman
near Durham and surrendered to him.
The Last Days of Hill and Grimes.
— After the war Hill and Grimes
returned to their homes in North
Carolina. Their last years were
spent in helping the South to re-
cover her wealth and prosperity,
one in education, the other in agriculture.
For several years General Hill edited a magazine,
published at Charlotte, called The Land We Love. It
was devoted to the history, literature, and industries of
the South. In 1877 he was elected president of the
University of Arkansas. Seven years later (1885) he
moved to Georgia, as president of the Georgia Military
and Agricultural College, where he remained until his
death. Thus the last twelve years of his life were spent
in teaching the boys whose fathers he had so often led
to battle in the great Civil War. He died at Charlotte,
N. C, in 1889.
General Grimes returned to his plantation in Pitt
county. No work was more important for the South
ment at Raleigh
(State Capitol in back-
260 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
than the rebuilding of her agricultural interests, which
the war had nearly destroyed. To this work General
Grimes devoted his closing years. He became one of
the largest and most successful planters in the State.
In his neighborhood was a band of bad men whose
crimes kept peaceful people in constant terror. General
Grimes made earnest effort to have them captured and
punished. They determined to get rid of him. One
evening about dark, in 1880, this brave soldier, who had
faced death so often on the battle-field, was shot to death
by a hired assassin hiding in ambush.
1. Trace the courses of the York and James rivers in Virginia.
Between these rivers several of the battles mentioned in this chapter
were fought. Describe the location of each.
2. Describe the location of Gettysburg with reference to Washing-
ton, Philadelphia, Harrisburg.
3. Describe the location of Chancellorsville with reference to
Washington and Richmond. Petersburg with reference to North
Carolina and Richmond. Appomattox with reference to Richmond,
Petersburg, and North Carolina.
4. General Sherman marched from Cheraw, S. C, to Fayetteville,
N. C, thence to Bentonville, thence to Goldsboro, thence to Raleigh,
Durham, and Greensboro. Trace the line of his march in North
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
1. Describe North Carolina's preparations for war.
2. How many troops did North Carolina send to the Confederate
armies? In what States did they serve? How many were killed or
died of disease? What North Carolina generals were killed?
3. Tell the story of General Hill's life before the Civil War.
4. Describe the battle of Big Bethel.
HILL, PETTIGREW, AND GRIMES 261
5. What is said about General Hill's conduct in battle ?
6. What services did he perform in North Carolina in 1863 ?
7. Describe Pettigrew's preparations for war.
8. How did Pettigrew become a general?
9. Give an account of his action at the battle of Seven Pines.
10. Describe Pettigrew's conduct in the first day's battle of
11. Describe the Picket-Pettigrew charge on the third day at
12. Give an account of North Carolina's losses at Gettysburg.
13. Describe Pettigrew's death.
14. What is said of Bryan Grimes's education and life before the
15. Describe the charge of- his regiment at Seven Pines.
16. What is said of his training of his regiment? What did General
Anderson say of him?
17. How did Grimes win the rank of general?
18. Describe his campaign under Early.
19. Give an account of the siege of Petersburg.
20. How and why did General Grimes lead the last charge at
21. What were General Hill's last services in the Confederate army?
22. Describe the last years of Hill's life.
23. Tell of the death of General Grimes.
CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER
Charles D. McIver
Education Since the War. — - One of the greatest evils
that North Carolina suffered from the Civil War and
Reconstruction was the closing of
her public schools. During the war
Calvin H. Wiley carefully protected
the public school funds and kept
the schools open. President Swain,
with great difficulty, kept the doors
of the University open.
But when Reconstruction came,
both the public schools and the
University were closed. A few pri-
vate schools and church colleges struggled bravely along
and rendered important services to the State. But
they could not provide education for all the children of
North Carolina. Many thousands of them, therefore,
never had any chance to go to school at all, and grew
up in illiteracy.
But when the " carpet-baggers ' were driven out of
power, one of the first things the people did was to
reopen their public schools and the University. Since
that time more attention has been given to education
than ever before. Public schools have been established
both for the whites and for the negroes. More than
CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 263
twice as many children now attend these schools as
attended them in the days of Calvin H. Wiley. More
than five times as much money is spent for their educa-
tion. The school-houses are better, the school terms
are longer, the teachers are better trained, and there
are fewer illiterate people in the State than ever before.
Charles Duncan Mclver. — Many of the State's
greatest men have taken part in this work, but perhaps
none of them did so much as Charles Duncan Mclver.
To-day thousands of children in North Carolina are at
school in pretty school-houses, sitting in comfortable
desks, reciting to good teachers, and looking forward
to bright futures, because this man was their friend.
They may never have seen him; he may never have
seen them. But he was interested in them, worked
for them, spoke for them, wrote for them, and fought
and won battles for them.
Charles D. Mclver was born on a farm in Moore
county, September 27, 1860. The names of most of
the people in that community, like his own, began with
' Mac," for they were descendants of the brave old
Scotch Highlanders. Mclver's own grandfather was
born in the Highlands of Scotland, and came to North
Carolina when he was a mere lad of eight years.
Mclver's Early Training. — Two things Mclver's
father always required his boys to do. First, they had
to attend regularly the best school within their reach.
When school opened in the fall, young Mclver was
there' ready for work. And he was there on the last
day when it closed in the spring. Whatever he might
do, there was no shirking his school duties. Secondly,
when school was not in session, the Mclver boys had to
264 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
do regular work on the farm. Charles D. Mclver used
"I did all kinds of farm work from planting, har-
vesting, splitting rails, minding the gap, log-rolling,
corn-shucking, piling brush, and digging ditches, to
plowing a deaf mule in a new ground with a bull-
There were no loafers on the Mclver farm. Idleness
was not permitted. So young Mclver learned to love
work, whether it was work with his books or work with
the plow. 'The hardest work I ever did," he said,
"was resting." After he became a man, his friends
often urged him to take a vacation and rest. But he
would reply, 'I cannot rest until my work is done.
My work is my joy."
Mclver at the University. — When he was seventeen
years old, Mclver entered the University. There he
worked hard for four years. When he was graduated
in 1881 he was one of the best scholars in his class. He
stood first in Greek and French, and shared with three
others the first place in Latin.
He made many strong friends at the University. Two
of his best friends were his teachers, Dr. Kemp P.
Battle, president of the University, and Dr. George T.
Winston, professor of Latin.
"Dr. Battle," said Mclver, "regards the people of
North Carolina as a great big family, each member of
which owes to every other member affectionate sym-
pathy and loyal support in any worthy undertaking.
He loves the people of this State. Every sprig of grass
and every bird that touches the soil of North Carolina
is dear to him. He is proud of our history and is proud
CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 265
that he is proud of it. No man can come under his
influence without wishing to be of service to so good a
State and so great a poeple."
Of Dr. Winston, Mclver said: 'Dr. Winston inspires
in all young men with whom he comes in contact self-
reliance and the audacity to undertake large tasks. 5 '
To these two men Mclver said he owed more than to
any of his other teachers. From Dr. Battle he learned
to love North Carolina and to desire to render some great
service to the State. From Dr. Winston he gained
self-confidence and a willingness to undertake difficult
tasks. He was popular both with the faculty and the
students. The students called him 'Mac/' and they
all liked the big, genial Scotch boy who had such a
catching laugh and told such good stories.
Mclver's First Vote. — After graduating from the
University, Mclver went to Durham to teach in a pri-
vate school. Soon afterward an election was held there
upon the question of a local tax for a public graded
school. Mclver knew that if the people voted to estab-
lish the graded school, his own school would soon be
closed. But he also knew that there were many chil-
dren in the town who could never get an education unless
a graded school were established. What, then, should
he do? Should he vote for the graded school and against
his own school? Or should he vote against the graded
school and for his own school?
It did not take Mclver long to decide this question,
for he was eager "to be of service' to the children.
He was willing to close his own school if he might help
to open a school in which all the children could be edu-
cated. So he worked hard for the graded school and
266 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
persuaded other men to work for it. On election day
he went to the voting place and cast his vote for the
graded school. It was his first vote, and he was always
proud that he had cast it for a tax for public education.
Mclver Begins Public School Work. — When the
graded school was opened, Mclver's school was closed.
The people of Durham at once called on him to teach
in the graded school. After teaching in the Durham
school for a little more than a year, he went to Winston
to teach in the graded school started there by Calvin
H. Wiley. In Winston he not only taught others, but
he also learned at least one lesson himself that he had
not known before. He learned what it was to fall in
love, and in 1885 he was married to Miss Lula V. Martin.
After nearly two years in Winston he became a teacher
in Peace Institute at Raleigh, where he taught until
North Carolina's Most Important Question. — Dur-
ing all these years Mclver worked hard to improve
himself as a teacher. He visited other schools, talked
with other teachers about their work, and read many
books about teaching. During the summer months
he taught in summer schools and institutes for teachers.
Everywhere he went he tried to impress upon the people
the importance of education. 'The supreme question
in civilization," he told them, "is education."
In North Carolina he declared that two great needs
were: better school-houses and longer school terms;
but the greatest need of all was better school-teachers.
No school can be better than its teachers. 'The school-
teacher," said Mclver, "is our most important public
official." North Carolina's most important question,
CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER
therefore, was, How can the schools secure better
Mclver Finds the Answer. - Mclver found the
answer to this important question. The State, he
declared, must establish a college where teachers can
be taught and trained how to teach. Such a college is
called a normal college. In 1886 Mclver attended
the North Carolina
to speak in favor of
a normal college.
Hundreds of North
were there. When
they had heard him,
they declared in fa-
vor of his plan, and
appointed a commit-
tee to urge the Leg-
islature to establish
such a college. Mclver was placed at the head of
this committee. He worked hard with the members
of the Legislature, but could not persuade them to do
what he asked.
A Campaign of Education. — Instead of establishing
the normal college, the Legislature decided to send out
two men to hold institutes for teachers and to speak to
the people about education. The two men selected
were Charles D. Mclver and Edwin A. Alderman.
They began their work in September, 1889. In every
count}^ in the State one or the other of them met the
teachers and taught them how to teach.
A Modern Rural High School Building
in Wade County
(Many are found in the State)
268 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
But they had other work to do also. They were
expected to speak to the people to get them interested
in the education of their children. So everywhere they
went, they held public meetings. Farmers, preachers,
lawyers, doctors, merchants, editors, mechanics, and
many others went out to hear them. They urged the
people to vote local taxes to improve their schools.
" Ignorance and illiteracy," said Mclver, "cost more than
education." They spoke about the normal college and
urged the people to demand that their legislators vote
the money for it.
Mclver's Victory. — When the Legislature met in
1891, Mclver again went to Raleigh to work for the nor-
mal college. He found it a hard task, for many of the
members were too impatient to listen to him. But he
never let slip a chance to talk about the college. He
met men in the Capitol, on the streets, in the hotels,
and wherever he could get them to listen he would talk.
And many were glad to hear him, for he talked well.
He declared that the only hope thousands of boys and
girls in North Carolina had for an education was in the
public schools. Most of the teachers in these schools
were women. The men who wished to teach could
study at the University, but the State had never estab-
lished such a college for women. For the good of the
children the State ought to establish a college for women,
where they could be trained as teachers. "We can
better afford to have five illiterate men," Mclver
declared, "than one illiterate mother."
Mclver was so deeply in earnest and worked so hard
that he finally succeeded. The Legislature voted
$10,000 for the establishment of the u State Normal and
CHARLES DUNCAN McIVKR
Industrial College" at Greensboro. Mclver was elected
its first president and remained at its head for fourteen
Mclver's Ideal of a College. Mclver had a noble
ideal of what such a college ought to be. A 'great
Buildings of North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College
(View looking north down College Avenue)
and useful college," he said, should teach "love of
truth for truth's sake; . . . belief in fair play and the
willingness to applaud an honest victor in any contest;
. . . the habit of tolerance toward those with whom
one does not entirely agree; . . . the recognition of
authority; . . . the spirit of overlooking the blunders
of others and of helping those who are weak; the con-
tempt for idleness and shirkers; the love of one's fellow-
270 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
workers, even though they be one's rivals; self-reliance;
faith in human progress; confidence in right; and
belief in God." This was the sort of college that he
tried to make of the State Normal and Industrial College.
While he was president, the college had a wonderful
growth. The two or three buildings on ten acres of
ground grew to eleven buildings on 130 acres. The
number of teachers increased from fifteen to fifty.
More than 3000 young women were students there.
They were the daughters of rich men and poor men;
of preachers, lawyers, and physicians; of merchants,
manufacturers, and farmers; of mechanics, engineers,
and day-laborers. They were from the country, the
town, and the city. They came from every county in
North Carolina. Students of the college have taught
in the public schools of every county. More than 2000
teachers were trained there under Dr. Mclver, and
they have taught more than 200,000 North Carolina
Our Great Educational Leader. — The teachers of
North Carolina looked upon Dr. Mclver as their leader.
Wherever there was a word to be spoken in the cause
of education, his voice was sure to be heard. Invita-
tions to speak on education came to him from all parts
of North Carolina, and from more than half the States
of the Union. But nothing gave him so much pleasure
as to help some small rural district in North Carolina
secure a better school than it had had before.
The Southern Education Board. — In 1901 a group
of patriotic men from various parts of the United States
met at Salem, N. C, and formed the "Southern Educa-
tion Board." Their purpose was to help improve the
CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 271
rural schools of the South. Dr. Mclver was one of the
leading members of this board. When the board decided
to send out speakers in all parts of the South to speak
on education, it selected Dr. Mclver to take charge of
that work. Proud of the fact that he had cast his first
vote for local taxation, he now urged other people to do
the same thing. He favored local taxation for longer
school terms, better school-houses, and better school-
teachers. Hundreds of communities followed his advice
and are to-day enjoying good schools.
Mclver's Honors. — Many honors came to Dr. Mc-
lver. He did not seek them; they sought him. They
sought him because he was always thinking, not of his
own ambition, but of the welfare of others. He was
president of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly,
and president of the Southern Educational Association.
He held high and important places in the National
Educational Association. For many years he was a
member of the Board of Trustees of the University.
Because of his work for education, the University and
Davidson College conferred upon him the degree of
Doctor of Laws.
Mclver's Death. — On October 17, 1906, while on
the train returning from Raleigh to Greensboro, Dr.
Mclver was suddenly attacked by a severe pain in the
chest. Before a physician could reach him, he fell into
the arms of a friend, dead.
The news of his death was received with great grief
in North Carolina and the South. In North Carolina
the sorrow was universal. Not since the death of Vance
had the people grieved so deeply at the death of any
citizen. Men on the streets, women in the school-room,
272 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
children in the backwoods, all felt as if they had lost a
The Governor issued a proclamation in which he said:
"The life-work of Charles D. Mclver is ended. For
twenty-five years he served his State with fidelity, zeal,
and efficiency not surpassed in her annals. No one
has rendered the State a greater service. . . . Charles
D. Mclver's entire life was given for the better educa-
tion of all our women, the improvement of the edu-
cational opportunities of all our children, the uplifting of
all our citizenship, and the elevation of all our ideals of
1. What effect did Reconstruction have on education in North
2. What did the people do after the "carpet-baggers" were over-
3. What part did Charles D. Mclver have in this work?
4. When and where was he born? Tell about his life on the farm.
What did he say was the hardest work he ever did? Repeat what he
5. Give an account of his career at the University.
6. Tell about his first vote.
7. Where did Mclver begin his public school work? How did he
prepare himself for his work?
8. What did he say was North Carolina's most important public
9. What answer did he give to it?
10. What plan did he propose to the Legislature? What did the
Legislature do about it? Describe Mclver's campaign for education.
11. How did he finally win his victory? When and where was the
State Normal and Industrial College established? W T ho was its first
12. Repeat by heart Mclver's ideal of a college.
CHARLES DUNCAN McIVER 273
13. Give an account of the work of the college while Mclver was
president of it.
14. Tell about him as our great educational leader.
15. What is the Southern Education Board? What relation did
Mclver have to it ?
16. What honors came to him?
17. Describe his death.
18. What did the Governor say about him?
19. Repeat what Mclver said was the supreme question in
QUESTIONS FOR SPECIAL STUDY
1. Find out the following facts about the public schools of North
Carolina during the past year: (a) Number of schools for white
children. (6) For negro children, (c) Number of white children en-
rolled, (d) Number of negro children enrolled, (e) Number of white
teachers. (/) Negro teachers, (g) Amount of money spent for white
schools, (h) For negro schools, (i) Length of term in white schools.
(j) In negro schools, (k) Number of white people in the State who
could not read or write. (I) Number of negroes who could not read
2. Explain the influence that Dr. Battle and Dr. Winston had on
Dr. Mclver. How did it show itself?
3. What is a "local tax"? How many school districts in North
Carolina have a local tax for schools? Is yours one of them?
4. Explain what Mclver meant when he said, "Ignorance and
illiteracy cost more than education."
5. How many of the public school teachers of North Carolina last
year were men? How many were women?
6. Why can the State afford to have five illiterate men rather than
one illiterate mother? How many illiterate men were there in the
State in 1886 ? How many now? How many illiterate women in 1886 ?
How many now?
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA
A Sad and Gloomy Picture. — After the surrender
of the Confederate armies the North Carolina soldiers
returned quietly to their homes. Everywhere they saw
a sad and gloomy picture. Many of the comfortable
homes they had left in 1861 were now piles of ashes or
deserted ruins. Barns and stables were falling down
from neglect. Farming tools were rusty from long
idleness. So many thousand horses and mules had been
destroyed that not enough were left to cultivate the
farms. Fields were growing up in weeds. The farming
lands of North Carolina had fallen more than $75,000,000
in value since 1860. Country roads were cut to pieces
and often impassable. Miles of railroad track were
torn up, and hundreds of cars and locomotives were use-
less. In 1861 there had been but few factories in the
State: even of these few nearly all had been closed or
destroyed. The school-houses were empty and falling
into ruins. In the towns and cities the streets were
deserted and desolate.
As bad as were these calamities, there were others still
worse. More than 40,000 of the State's brightest and
bravest sons had fallen in the war. Other thousands had
come home crippled for life, broken in health and ruined
in fortune. They found their families in poverty and
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 275
often suffering for food and clothes. The whole State
seemed crushed by her misfortunes. " There was
indeed," as Governor Vance said, "a cry and lament
through all her borders."
The Soldier's New Task. — But amid all this ruin
the returning soldier did not despair. He determined
to repair the damages done by war and went to work at
his new task with a vim. He would build a new home
on the ruins of the old. He would raise more cotton
and corn and tobacco than he had raised before the war.
He would build new and better factories. He would
improve his country roads so they would be good at all
seasons of the year. He would repair the old railroads
and build new ones. He would place a school-house
within reach of every child in the State. He would make
his villages grow into towns and his towns into busy
cities. And he would make North Carolina a richer and
better State than it had been before the war. This was
his new task; let us see how well he has performed it.
Agriculture During the War. — Agriculture has always
been the chief industry of North Carolina. When
agriculture fails, the whole State suffers. The great
suffering of the people during the war was due chiefly
to the damage done to agriculture. In North Carolina
more than a million acres of farm lands were left to lie
idle. The corn crop fell from 30,000,000 bushels to less
than 15,000,000; the tobacco crop from 32,000,000
pounds to one-third that amount; while the cotton,
wheat, and potato crops fell off in the same way. Cattle,
hogs, sheep, and chickens were destroyed by the
tens of thousands. The value of farm lands fell from
$140,000,000 to less than $75,000,000.
276 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
The State Department of Agriculture. — One of the
most important things the State had to do after the war
was to repair the damage done to agriculture. To aid
in this task a State Department of Agriculture was
created; and a college and public high schools for the
teaching of agriculture were established.
The Department of Agriculture was established in
1877. The chief official of the department is the Com-
missioner of Agriculture. The first Commissioner of
Agriculture was Leonidas L. Polk. In 1862 he became
a Confederate soldier in the regiment commanded by
Colonel Z. B. Vance. After serving in the army two
years he resigned because the soldiers had elected him
a member of the Legislature. At the close of the war he
returned to his farm and soon became one of the most
progressive farmers in the State. He was interested in
everything that would help to improve the agriculture of
North Carolina. In 1877 he appeared before the Legisla-
ture to urge the members to establish a Department of
Agriculture. After the department was created Polk was
chosen the first Commissioner of Agriculture, to organize it
and begin its work. He served from 1877 to 1880 and laid
the foundations for the work which the department has
Agricultural Education. — In order to supply trained
and educated leaders in the work of agriculture the
North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic
Arts was established. Two of the leading men in the
founding of this college were Augustus Leazar, of Iredell
County, and Richard Stanhope Pullen, of Raleigh.
Mr. Leazar, like Polk, had been a Confederate soldier.
He thought that North Carolina's greatest needs, after
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 277
the war, were better schools and better farms. So he
devoted himself to education and agriculture. In him
the State University, the State Normal and Industrial
College, and the public schools always found a strong
friend. But he believed that the most important kind
of education for North Carolina was education in agri-
culture. A plan had been proposed for the establish-
ment of a college to teach agriculture. Mr. Leazar was
much interested in this plan, and in 1885, while he was a
member of the Legislature, he wrote a bill for the found-
ing of such a college. He worked hard and spoke ably
for his bill, and it became a law.
The college was erected at Raleigh on land given by
Richard Stanhope Pullen, a wealthy business man who
always took a deep interest in education and everything
that helped to build up the State. He gave a large tract
of land to the city of Raleigh for a beautiful park, which
is known as " Pullen Park." When the State Normal
and Industrial College was founded at Greensboro he
gave one-half of the land on which it was built. So, too,
when the agricultural college was established he gave
land enough for the buildings and a large farm.
The college was opened to students in 1889. Its first
president was Colonel Alexander Q. Holladay who or-
ganized the college and directed its affairs from 1889 to
1899. He was succeeded by Dr. George T Winston, who
had formerly been president of the University of North
Carolina. Under his direction the faculty and equip-
ment of the college were doubled and the number of
students trebled. When he resigned, Dr. Daniel H. Hill,
son of the famous Confederate general, D. H. Hill, was
elected. Dr. Hill had been professor of English in the
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
college for several years. He is author of several books
on history and agriculture. Since he has been president,
a number of excellent buildings have been erected and
the work of the college has been greatly extended.
The public schools of the State are also required by
law to teach agriculture. In 1911 the Legislature pro-
Agricultural Building at the Agricultural and Mechanical
College, Raleigh, N. C.
vided for agricultural high schools, called " Farm Life
Schools," which train boys and girls for life on the farm.
Agricultural Progress. — Under the direction of these
agencies, agriculture has become a more important in-
dustry in North Carolina than ever before. In 1910
more people in the State were engaged in it than in all
other occupations combined and nearly every crop that
was grown in the United States was grown in North
Carolina. But the principal crops were corn, cotton,
tobacco, peanuts, potatoes, wheat, and other grains.
All of these old crops had increased wonderfully through
the new methods of agriculture. Many new crops, espe-
cially fruits and vegetables, had been introduced. Truck
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 279
farming had grown to be one of the most important indus-
tries in the State. These improvements in agriculture
meant that three-fourths of the people of North Carolina
dwelt in better houses and lived more comfortably than
Manufacturing. - - Before the war very little of the
cotton and tobacco raised in North Carolina was manu-
factured here. Most of it was sent to the mills and fac-
tories of other States and of Europe. When the war
began there were many factories in North Carolina, but
they were very small and all together employed less
than 15,000 persons. The value of their products did
not reach $16,000,000 annually. Most of these factories
were destroyed by the war. So when the United States
fleets blockaded the Southern ports, and kept the people
from importing goods from Europe, shoes, clothes, writ-
ing paper, and all other manufactured articles became
After the war great changes were made. Men began
to ask, Why should we not manufacture our own cotton
and tobacco and lumber? We have great rivers with
immense water-power. We have extensive forests which
offer abundant fuel. Here are the cotton, the tobacco,
the lumber, all right at our own doors. And here, too,
are the railroads which will carry our goods to the great
cities of the North and West. Let us then build mills
and factories and make North Carolina as great a state
in manufacturing as in agriculture.
Founders of Cotton Mills. — The most important
article manufactured in North Carolina is cotton.
Among the men who founded this industry in the State
were Michael Schenck, Joel Battle, Francis Fries, and
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Edwin M. Holt. Schenck built the first cotton mill in
North Carolina. It was erected in 1813 on a small
stream in Lincoln county. Joel Battle's mill was
erected seven years later on the Tar River, in Nash
county, near Rocky Mount. Francis Fries was one of
the men who made Salem famous as a manufacturing
The Old Alamance Mill, Burlington, N. C.
(This mill was founded by Edwin M. Holt, and the first colored cotton
fabric manufactured in the South was woven in this mill)
center. He not only operated cotton mills, but in 1840
he erected a woollen mill. Perhaps the man who did
more to develop the manufacture of cotton goods in
North Carolina than any other was Edwin M. Holt.
Holt's First Mill. — Edwin M. Holt was born on a
farm in Orange county. When not at school, he worked
on his father's farm or in his shops. In these planta-
tion shops, where all sorts of repair work was done,
young Holt learned to like machinery and did his first
manufacturing. He often visited a cotton mill operated
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 281
by steam at Greensboro and became greatly interested
in its work. After studying it carefully he decided that
it should be better and cheaper to operate such mills
by water than by steam. He determined to build one
on Great Alamance Creek
which ran through his
father's farm. His father
thought his plan would cer-
tainly fail and advised
against it. But young Holt's
mind was made up, and in
1837 he bought the machi-
nery, erected his mill, and
started it to work. The peo-
ple in that section watched
the experiment with great
interest, and the wise ones
shook their heads sadly.
Edwin Holt, they predicted,
would waste his time and
How Holt Succeeded. —
But Holt was determined
not to fail. He worked hard, and was always ready to
make improvements. One day in 1838 a Frenchman
came to the mill, who offered for $100 and his board to
teach Holt how to color cotton yarn. Holt at once
accepted the offer, bought the machinery, and erected
the dye-house. This was the first dyeing plant in the
Holt's experiment proved so successful that he trained
all of his sons in the business. After his death, in 1884,
Edwin M. Holt
282 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
they continued to operate the mills, which grew steadily.
When the Civil War began, the Holt mills operated 1200
spindles and 96 looms. Since the war the number of
spindles has increased to more than 160,000 and the
looms to more than 6000.
Growth of Cotton Manufacturing. — Inspired by
Holt's success, other progressive men followed his ex-
ample. After his death cotton, woollen, silk, and knit-
ting mills sprang up in every part of North Carolina.
By 1910 the number had increased to more than four
hundred, and in the manufacture of cotton North Caro-
lina ranked third among the States. Thousands of
people left their farms to seek work in the mills, and
through them many sleepy little villages became thriving
towns, while around the mills several new towns have
grown into importance.
Manufacture of Tobacco. — Since Sir Walter Raleigh's
colonists landed on Roanoke Island in 1585 the tobacco
plant has played an important part in the history of
North Carolina. In colonial days, as you have already
learned, it was so important that the people used it for
money. Ever since then it has been one of the chief
means of bringing wealth into North Carolina. When
the Civil War began in 1861 there were nearly one
hundred tobacco factories in North Carolina, but they
were small and employed less than two thousand per-
sons. Most of these factories were on the farms where
the tobacco was raised. It was manufactured by hand
and sold chiefly to the people of the surrounding country.
Since the war the manufacture and sale of tobacco has
become second in importance only to the manufacture
and sale of cotton. Upon it depend the growth and
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 283
prosperity of several of North Carolina's most impor-
tant towns and cities, and in some parts of the State it
has become the chief crop.
"Durham Tobacco." — In 1865 General Sherman's
army, after receiving the surrender of General Johnston's
army, encamped near a
railroad crossing in Orange
county, called Durham's
Crossing. The soldiers
liked the tobacco which
grew in that section and
Washington Dukes First
they called it " Durham
tobacco." When they re-
turned to their homes they
carried supplies of this to-
bacco with them, and after
it had given out, many of
them wrote back for more.
In this way they spread the
use of " Durham tobacco ' and unconsciously helped
to lay the foundation of one of the greatest manufac-
turing interests of North Carolina.
The little town of Durham soon became the center of
the tobacco trade. W. T. Blackwell, Julian S. Carr,
Washington Duke, and others built factories there and
by their energy and ability soon made the name of
" Durham tobacco' famous throughout the world.
The Present Duke Tobacco
Factory at Durham
These two factories are typical of the
growth of manufactures in North
Carolina, not only in tobacco, but
in all products
284 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Durham grew rapidly from a railroad crossing to one
of our most modern cities.
" Uppowoc " in 1586 and To-day. — Of course many
other men entered into the manufacture of tobacco.
They soon made the names of Winston, Reidsville, and
other towns and cities famous throughout the world
for their tobacco factories. Tobacco became almost as
important a crop as cotton, and such towns as Wilson,
Kinston, Greenville, and Rocky Mount, as well as
Winston and Durham, became great tobacco markets.
In 1586 Ralph Lane carried the first " uppowoc ' from
Roanoke Island to England, and showed Sir Walter
Raleigh how to smoke. Three hundred years later
Washington Duke and other manufacturers made North
Carolina tobacco famous the world over. During all
these years the tobacco plant was one of North Caro-
lina's chief sources of wealth and prosperity.
Railroads. — As North Carolina has no large rivers
and harbors, most of her commerce must be carried on
by railroads. No great progress could have been made
in agriculture and manufacturing unless equal progress
had been made in the building of railroads. When the
war came to a close there were less than nine hundred
miles of railroad in North Carolina. In 1910 there
were nearly five thousand miles. The principal sys-
tems were the Seaboard Air Line, the Southern, and the
Atlantic Coast Line. In the development of these
systems Major John Cox Winder, Colonel Alexander
Boyd Andrews, and Robert Rufus Bridgers were among
the leaders. Major Winder and Colonel Andrews were
both Confederate soldiers, and Mr. Bridgers served for
four years in the Confederate States Congress.
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 285
Builders of Railroads. — Major John C. Winder
rendered important service to the Confederate States
by building strong fortifications along the coast of
North Carolina. His chief work was Fort Fisher, on
the Cape Fear river, the most important fort in the
South. This fort guarded the port of Wilmington and
protected the Advance and other blockade-runners sent
out by Governor Vance. The United States attempted
to destroy Fort Fisher, but Major Winder had done his
work so well and the fort was so bravely defended that
it held out longer than any other fort in the Confederacy.
Finally in 1865, after the most terrific bombardment in
our history, it was captured.
After the war Major Winder turned his attention to
the building of railroads. You will remember how, in
1840, the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad was completed
from Raleigh northward to Gaston. In 1861 a rail-
road, running southward from Raleigh, called the Raleigh
and Augusta Air Line, was begun. Major Winder's
work was with these two railroads. He improved the
track and the road-bed, put on better trains, added new
lines, and greatly extended the system. Afterwards
these roads became a part of the Seaboard Air Line
system, which, in 1910, operated 3000 miles of road,
about 600 of which were in North Carolina.
Colonel A. B. Andrews began his railroad career at
seventeen years of age. At twenty he gave up his
work to enter the Confederate army. In the army he
fought his way upward from a private to the rank of
captain. During the war the railroad bridge over the
Roanoke River at Gaston was destroyed. Passengers
and freight had to be carried over with great difficulty
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
and danger in ordinary flat-bottom boats. Colonel
Andrews suggested a plan for ferry-boats which the
railroad officials adopted. He operated the ferry while
a bridge was being built, and was so successful that he
was afterwards given a position with the Raleigh and
Gaston Railroad. Later he helped to build the Raleigh
and Augusta Air Line. When the Southern Railway
Company was formed he was made one of the vice-
presidents. This system has grown so rapidly that it is
now the largest railway system in the South. In North
Carolina alone it operates more than 1200 miles of
The work of Robert R. Bridgers was done in Eastern
North Carolina. He was not, like Major Winder and
Colonel Andrews, a Confederate sol-
dier. But he served in the Confederate
Congress from 1861 till the close of
the war. After the war he became
president of the Wilmington and
Weldon Railroad Company. When
the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad
Company was formed he was chosen
its president. Under his direction the
system was extended into various'
sections of Eastern North Carolina,
as well as into other Southern States. WTien he became
president the company operated less than 300 miles of
railroad; in 1910 it owned altogether more than 4500
miles, and operated 950 miles in North Carolina alone.
The Western North Carolina Railroad. — Perhaps the
greatest achievement in railroad building in North
Carolina is the Western North Carolina Railroad. This
R. R. Bridgers
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 287
road, now part of the Southern Railway system, runs
from Salisbury to Asheville. There it divides into two
branches, one to Murphy, the other to Paint Rock, on
the boundary line of North Carolina and Tennessee.
It was begun by the State in 1854 in order to give a
railroad to the people of the mountains. It reached
Asheville in 1879. The cost of building the road over
the mountains had been so great that the State decided
not to go any further with it. It was turned over to a
company of wealthy men who undertook to finish it,
but they failed, and the people of the mountains were
in despair. Finally, through the work of Governor
Thomas J. Jarvis, Colonel A. B. Andrews, and Major
James W. Wilson, work was begun again, all difficulties
were mastered, and the road was completed and opened
The building of this railroad was the greatest piece
of engineering work ever done in North Carolina. Its
success was due largely to the skill of Major James W.
Wilson, the chief engineer. Under his direction rivers
were bridged, mountains were tunneled, deep gorges
were filled in. The track crosses the Catawba, the
French Broad, the Pigeon, the Little Tennessee, and
the Hiwassee rivers. It spans great gorges. It climbs
to the tops of mountains. It runs through dark tunnels,
one of which, the Swannanoa, is nearly a third of a mile
The success of this undertaking has made Western
North Carolina one of the most prosperous parts of the
State. Thousands of people go there every year for
their health, or to escape the heat of summer. Manu-
facturing plants have been established, and several
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
mountains towns, once straggling little villages, have
become famous resorts. Asheville has grown into one
of the State's largest and prettiest cities.
Educational Leaders Since the War. — Our educa-
tional development has kept pace with our industrial
Davie Hall, University of North Carolina
development. After the war came to an end the doors
of the University of North Carolina and of the public
schools were closed. But as soon as the white people
of the State had regained control of affairs they turned
their attention again to their schools and colleges. The
public school system was reestablished and the doors
of the University were again opened to students.
As William R. Davie founded the University after
the Revolution, so Kemp P. Battle saved it after the
Civil War. He was a graduate of the University, and
for a few years before the war was a member of its
faculty. No son of the University loved it more than
he. After its doors were closed he undertook the
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 289
difficult task of having them reopened. The State was
then very poor, but Dr. Battle's earnest efforts suc-
ceeded in raising $20,000 for his purpose. Then he
appealed to the Legislature, which appropriated 87500
a year to the University. As soon as it became certain
that the doors would be reopened the trustees met and
elected Dr. Battle president.
In September, 1875, the doors were thrown open to
students. Dr. Battle found the campus grown up in
weeds, the buildings greatly damaged, the libraries
scattered, and the recitation rooms empty. But these
difficulties did not daunt him. He went to work with
great energy and wisdom. He remained at the head
of the University for fifteen years, and under his leader-
ship it regained the place in the State which it had held
in the days of President Swain before the Civil War.
At the University were educated such men as Charles
B. Aycock, James Y. Joyner, and many others who,
together with Sidney M. Finger and John C. Scar-
borough, were the leaders in reestablishing the public
school system of the State. Mr. Finger and Mr. Scar-
borough were both Confederate soldiers. After the war
they devoted themselves to work in education, and each
became superintendent of public instruction. Their
great work was to reorganize the public schools, and
restore them to the confidence of the people. It was
under their direction that Charles D. Mclver and
Edwin A. Alderman made their famous campaign for
education which you have already read about. One
of the most important results of the work of these
leaders was the establishment of excellent graded school
systems in the leading towns and cities of the State.
HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
In 1900 another great educational campaign for the
improvement of the public schools was started in North
Carolina in which the leader was the governor, Charles
B. Ay cock. By his eloquent speeches in all parts of the
State and by his efforts to increase the public school fund,
A Modern City Public School at Asheville
he won the title of the " Educational Governor of North
Carolina." In 1902 Governor Aycock appointed James
Y. Joyner superintendent of public instruction. From
1902 to 1910, under Superintendent Joyner's direction,
the public school fund increased from less than $1,500,000
to more than $3,500,000 annually. During the same
time nearly 3500 school-houses were built and the value
of public school property increased from less than
$2,000,000 to about $6,000,000. The number of pupils
increased from 400,000 to 500,000, and the school term
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 291
from eighty to one hundred days annually. As a result
of these changes there are fewer people in the State who
cannot read and write than ever before.
Temperance Movement. - - As Governor Aycock be-
came known as the " Educational Governor of North
Carolina " so Governor Robert B. Glenn became known
as the " Prohibition Governor." Along with the educa-
tional movement sprang up, soon after the war, a demand
that the sale of whisky and other alcoholic liquors be
forbidden in North Carolina. The movement at first
grew slowly. As the years passed, a town here and a
town there, and sometimes a rural community, had laws
passed forbidding the sale of such liquors in its territory,
Then the advocates of prohibition demanded that the
sale of alcoholic liquor should be" forbidden throughout
the State. In 1903 a law was passed forbidding its
sale except in towns. Two years later another law was
passed forbidding its sale except in towns which had
as many as one thousand people. Finally in 1908 the
General Assembly passed a law which required that the
people of the whole State should vote on the question
whether alcoholic liquor should be sold at all in the
A great campaign followed for prohibition. Speakers
went into all sections of the State speaking for tem-
perance as, a few years before, they had done for
education. As Governor Aycock led the campaign
for education, so Governor Glenn led the prohibition
campaign. The election was held in May, 1908, and
resulted in a victory for prohibition. Since then it has
been unlawful to sell or manufacture whisky or other
alcoholic liquors in North Carolina.
292 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
Forty Years of Progress. — With the progress of
North Carolina in agriculture, manufacturing, commerce,
and education, has gone equal progress in numerous
Since the close of the war, the value of farming land
in North Carolina has trebled. The corn crop has
become three times, the cotton crop five times, and the
tobacco crop more than ten times, as large as they were
Mills and factories have been built that manufacture
cotton, tobacco, furniture, wagons, carriages, and numer-
ous other articles. Ten times as many persons are
employed in them, and fourteen times as much money
used in their work, as in 1865.
In every part of the State miles upon miles of good
roads have been built. Over these good roads hundreds
of rural free mail delivery routes carry daily thousands
of letters, papers, and magazines to the people of all
sections of the State. The number of newspapers has
increased from 64 to more than 300, and their circula-
tion from about 70,000 to 1,250,000. More than two
thousand rural schools have good libraries, and many of
our towns and cities have erected beautiful public
library buildings, containing thousands of the world's
best books, which are free to all the people.
In no way has more progress been made than in the
growth of the churches of the State. Since the war the
number of churches has increased from 2,500, to 8,500,
and the value of church buildings from $2,000,000 to
The improvement of our towns and cities has been
marked. Such old towns as Wilmington, Charlotte,
MAKERS OF MODERN NORTH CAROLINA 293
Raleigh, and New Bern, and such old villages as Greens-
boro, Asheville, and Winston-Salem have grown into
busy cities. Several new towns and cities, such as
Gastonia, High Point, and Durham, have sprung up.
The population of the State has increased from about
1,000,000 to more than 2,200,000, and its wealth from
$125,000,000 to more than $600,000,000.
These great changes are the results of much toil,
sacrifice, and suffering. From the days of Sir Walter
Raleigh down to our own time, thousands of brave men
and women, many of whom have been forgotten, have
worked and struggled in order that they might help to
make North Carolina a better and happier place for
their children. If the boys and girls who read this book
will learn to love the Old North State as those men and
women loved her, they too will some day enroll their
names among the " Makers of North Carolina History."
1. What is the chief cotton section of North Carolina? Tobacco
section? Corn section? Trucking section?
2. In what sections of North Carolina are most of the cotton mills?
Have these sections any natural advantage over other sections for
3. Locate Alamance Creek, Haw River, Graham, Spray, Gastonia.
4. Locate the towns mentioned in the lesson as being centers of the
5. Trace the main lines of the Seaboard Air Line railroad. The
Southern. The Atlantic Coast Line. Name the chief towns on these
1. Describe the conditions in North Carolina at the close of the
2. What were the chief features of the soldiers' new task?
294 HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA
3. What effect did the war have on agriculture?
4. Give an account of the work of L. L. Polk in the development
of agriculture. Of Augustus Leazar. Of Richard Stanhope Pullen.
Of the presidents of the State A. & M. College.
5. Describe the influence of these agencies on agriculture.
6. What effect did the war have on manufacturing in North
Carolina? What lessons did the people learn from this?
7. Give an account of the founding of cotton mills in North
8. Who was Edwin M. Holt? Give an account of his first
9. How did Holt succeed?
10. Describe the progress made in cotton manufacturing.
11. In what way has the tobacco plant been important in our
12. How did " Durham tobacco " become famous?
13. Tell the history of tobacco in North Carolina since 1586.
14. How many miles of railroad were in North Carolina in 1865?
In 1910? What were the chief sj^stems in 1910?
15. Give an account of John C. Winder's services to the Con-
federacy. Of his railroad career.
16. Tell the stor}^ of A. B. Andrew's railroad career.
17. Describe Robert R. Bridgers's services as president of the
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad and the Atlantic Coast Line.
18. Tell the story of the building of the Western North Carolina
railroad. What effect has it had on Western North Carolina?
19. What effect did the Civil War have on the schools and
colleges of North Carolina?
20. Tell the story of the re-opening of the University.
21. Give an account of the leaders in the reestablishment of our
public school system.
22. What has been the result of their work.
23. What has been the history of Prohibition in North Carolina?
24. Describe the progress made in North Carolina since the war.
ORIGIN OF THE NAMES OF THE COUNTIES
OF NORTH CAROLINA
Alamance. Formed in 1849 from Orange. The name of the county
is derived from Alamance Creek, on the banks of which was fought
the battle between Governor Tryon and the Regulators. It is
the name of an Indian tribe which dwelt in that locality.
Alexander. Formed in 1847 from Iredell, Caldwell, and Wilkes.
Named in honor of William J. Alexander of Mecklenburg county,
several times a member of the Legislature and speaker of the
House of Commons.
Alleghany. Formed in 1859 from Ashe. Name derived from an
Indian tribe in the limits of North Carolina.
Anson. Formed in 1749 from Bladen. Named in honor of George,
Lord Anson, a celebrated English admiral who circumnavigated
the globe. He lived for awhile on the Pedee in South Carolina.
In 1761 he was given the honor of bringing to her marriage with
King George III, Charlotte, Princess of Mecklenburg, for whom
Mecklenburg county was named.
Ashe. Formed in 1799 from Wilkes. Named in honor of Samuel
Ashe of New Hanover, brother of General John Ashe. Samuel
Ashe was a Revolutionary patriot, one of the first judges of the
State, and afterwards governor.
Avery. Formed in 1911 from Mitchell, Watauga, and Caldwell.
Named in honor of Colonel Waightstill Avery " of Revolutionary
fame," Attorney-General of North Carolina, 1777-1779.
Beaufort. Formed in 1705 from Bath. 1 Named in honor of Henry,
1 Bath county was formed in 1696 out of territory bordering on
Pamlico Sound and extending southward to the Cape Fear river. It
was at first divided into "precincts," which in 1738 became "counties."
296 APPENDIX I
Duke of Beaufort, who in 1728 was one of the Lords Proprietors
of Carolina. He purchased the share of the Duke of Albemarle.
Bertie. Formed in 1722 from Bath. Named in honor of James and
Henry Bertie, Lords Proprietors, who in 1728 owned the share of
Bladen. Formed in 1734 from Bath. Named in honor of Martin
Bladen, one of the members of the board of trade which had charge
of colonial affairs.
Brunswick. Formed in 1764 from New Hanover and Bladen. Named
in honor of the famous House of Brunswick, of which the four
Georges, Kings of England, were members. It was named at the
time of the marriage of Princess Augusta, daughter of King
George II, to Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick.
Buncombe. Formed in 1791 from Burke and Rutherford. Named
in honor of Colonel Edward Buncombe, a Revolutionary soldier
who was killed at the battle of Germantown, near Philadelphia.
Colonel Buncombe lived in Tyrrell county. He was noted for
his hospitality. Over the door of his house were these lines,
" To Buncombe Hall,
Burke. Formed in 1777 from Rowan. Named in honor of Dr.
Thomas Burke, member of the Continental Congress and gov-
ernor of North Carolina.
Cabarrus. Formed in 1792 from Mecklenburg. Named in honor of
Stephen Cabarrus, of Edenton, several times a member of the
Legislature and often speaker of the House of Commons.
Caldwell. Formed in 1841 from Burke and Wilkes. Named in
honor of Joseph Caldwell, the first president of the University
of North Carolina. He was one of the first and strongest advo-
cates of the public school system and of the railroad through the
center of the state from Morehead City to Tennessee.
Camden. Formed in 1777 from Pasquotank. Named in honor of
the learned Englishman, Charles Pratt, Earl of Camden, who was
one of the strongest friends of the Americans in the British Par-
liament. He took their side in the dispute over taxation with-
Carteret. Formed in 1722 from Bath. Named in honor of Sir John
Carteret, afterwards Earl Granville, one of the Lords Proprietors.
APPENDIX I 297
When the other Lords Proprietors sold their shares to the king in
1728, Carteret refused to sell, and an immense tract of land in
North Carolina was laid off as his share in 1744. It was called
the Granville District and was the cause of a great deal of trouble.
He lost it when the Revolution freed North Carolina from British
Caswell. Formed in 1777 from Orange and named in honor of Richard
Caswell. (See Biography of Caswell, p. 105.)
Catawba. Formed in 1842 from Lincoln. Named after a tribe of
Indians which dwelt in that section of the State.
Chatham. Formed in 1770 from Orange. Named in honor of the
great Englishman who won for England all of French America
and was the most eloquent defender of the American cause in the
British Parliament during the Revolution — William Pitt, Earl
Cherokee. Formed in 1839 from Macon. Named after an Indian
tribe which still dwells in that section of the State.
Chowan. Formed in 1672 from Albemarle. 1 Named for an Indian
tribe dwelling in the northeastern part of the State when the
English first came to North Carolina.
Clay. Formed in 1861 from Cherokee. Named in honor of the great
orator and statesman, Henry Clay.
Cleveland. Formed in 1841 from Rutherford and Lincoln. Named
in honor of Colonel Benjamin Cleveland. (See Biography of
Cleveland, p. 120.)
Columbus. Formed in 1808 from Bladen and Brunswick. Named in
honor of the Discoverer of the New World.
Craven. Formed in 1712 from Bath. Named in honor of William,
Lord Craven, one of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina.
Cumberland. Formed in 1754 from Bladen. Named in honor of
William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, second son of King
George II. Cumberland was the commander of the English
army at the battle of Culloden, in which the Scotch Highlanders
were so badly defeated. Many of them came to America, and
1 Albemarle county was the first county in North Carolina. It was
divided into " precincts," which in 1738 became u counties," and "Albe-
marle county " disappeared from the map. For a long time the
governors of North Carolina were called "governors of Albemarle."
298 APPENDIX 1
their principal settlement was at Cross Creek in Cumberland
Currituck. Formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Named after an Indian
Dare. Formed in 1870 from Currituck, Tyrrell, and Hyde. Named
in honor of Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America.
Davidson. Formed in 1822 from Rowan. Named in honor of General
William L. Davidson, a soldier of the Revolution who was killed
at the battle of Cowan's Ford. When General Greene retreated
across North Carolina before Cornwallis in 1781, he stationed
some troops under General Davidson at Cowan's Ford over the
Catawba river to delay the British army. The British attacked
the Americans, killed General Davidson, and forced the passage.
The United States has erected a monument in his honor on Guil-
Davie. Formed in 1836 from Rowan. Named in honor of William
R. Davie. (See Biography of Davie, p. 132.)
Duplin. Formed in 1749 from New Hanover. Named in honor of
George Henry, Lord Duplin, an English nobleman.
Durham. Formed in 1881 from Orange and Wake. Named after
the town of Durham, a thriving manufacturing city.
Edgecombe. Formed in 1732 from Bath. Named in honor of Sir
Richard, Baron Edgecombe, an English nobleman, and a lord of
Forsyth. Formed in 1849 from Stokes. Named in honor of Captain
Benjamin Forsyth, of Stokes county, who in the War of 1812
raised a company of riflemen and marched to Canada, where he
was killed in battle.
Franklin. Formed in 1779 from Bute. (See p. 146.) Named in
honor of the great philosopher and statesman, Benjamin Franklin.
Gaston. Formed in 1846 from Lincoln. Named in honor of Judge
William Gaston. (See Biography of Gaston, p. 170.)
Gates. Formed in 1779 from Hertford. Named in honor of General
Horatio Gates, who commanded the American army at the battle
of Saratoga. At this battle an entire British army was captured,
but General Gates contributed nothing to that success. It is
regarded as one of the most important battles in the history of
APPENDIX I 299
Graham. Formed in 1872 from Cherokee. Named in honor of
Governor William A. Graham. (See Biography of Graham,
Granville. Formed in 1746 from Edgecombe. Named in honor of
Carteret, Earl Granville, who owned the Granville District. He
was Prime Minister under King George II, and a very brilliant
Greene. Formed in 1799 from Glasgow 1 and Craven. Named in
honor of General Nathaniel Greene, Washington's "right-hand
man." Next to Washington, General Greene is regarded as the
greatest soldier of the Revolution. He fought the battle of Guil-
ford Court House and saved North Carolina from the British.
Guilford. Formed in 1770 from Rowan and Orange. Named in
honor of Francis, Earl of Guilford, an English nobleman. He was
the father of Lord North, who was Prime Minister under King
George III. during the Revolution. Lord North afterwards
became Earl of Guilford.
Halifax. Formed in 1758 from Edgecombe. Named in honor of
George, Earl of Halifax, president of the board of trade, which
had control of the colonies before the Revolution.
Harnett. Formed in 1855 from Cumberland. Named in honor of
Cornelius Harnett. (See Biography of Harnett, p. 76.)
Haywood. Formed in 1808 from Buncombe. Named in honor of
John Haywood, who for forty years was the popular treasurer
of the State.
Henderson. Formed in 1838 from Buncombe. Named in honor of
Leonard Henderson, chief justice of the Supreme Court of North
Carolina, and his brother, Archibald Henderson, a member of
Congress and a very able lawyer.
Hertford. Formed in. 1759 from Chowan, Bertie, and Northampton.
Named in honor of Francis Seymour Conway, Earl of Hertford,
an English nobleman. He was a brother of General Conway, a
distinguished British soldier and member of Parliament, who
1 Glasgow county was named in honor of James Glasgow, the first,
secretary of state after 1776. He had been a prominent patriot during
the Revolution, and while secretary of state was convicted of fraud in
issuing land grants in Tennessee, and his name was expunged from the
300 APPENDIX I
favored the repeal of the Stamp Act. The word Hertford is said
to mean "Red Ford."
Hoke. Formed in 1911 from Cumberland and Robeson. Named
in honor of Robert F. Hoke, of North Carolina, Major-General
in the Confederate States Army.
Hyde. Formed in 1705 from Bath. Called Wickham until about
1712. Named Hyde in honor of Edward Hyde, Earl of
Clarendon, one of the Lords Proprietors.
Iredell. Formed in 1788 from Rowan. Named in honor of James
Iredell, of Edenton. James Iredell was one of the foremost
lawyers of the State. In 1788 and 1789 he was one of the
leaders in the State in advocating the adoption of the Consti-
tution of the United States. His speeches in the Convention
of 1788 at Hillsboro were among the ablest delivered by
any of the advocates of the Constitution. Washington ap-
pointed him in 1790 a judge of the Supreme Court of the
Jackson. Formed in 1851 from Haywood and Macon. Named
in honor of Andrew Jackson, who was born in Mecklenburg
county (the site of his birthplace is now in Union), won the
brilliant victory over the British at New Orleans, in 1815,
and was twice elected President of the United States.
Johnston. Formed in 1746 from Craven. Afterwards parts of
Duplin and Orange were added. Named in honor of Gabriel
Johnston, governor of North Carolina from 1734 to 1752.
Jones. Formed in 1779 from Craven. Named in honor of Willie
Jones, of Halifax. He was one of the leading patriots of the
Revolution, was president of the Council of Safety, and was
opposed to the adoption of the Constitution of the United
States. It was due to his influence that the Convention of
1788 rejected it.
Lee. Formed in 1907 from Chatham and Moore. Named in
honor of Robert E. Lee, the Confederate General.
Lenoir. Formed in 1791 from Dobbs 1 and Craven. Named in
1 Dobbs county was named in honor of Arthur Dobbs, one of the
royal governors of North Carolina. In 1791 the county was divided
into Lenoir and Glasgow, and the name of Dobbs was erased from the
APPENDIX I 301
honor of General William Lenoir, one of the heroes of King's
Lincoln. Formed in 1779 from Tryon. 1 Named in honor of
General Benjamin Lincoln, a distinguished general of the
Revolution, whom Washington appointed to receive the sword
of Lord Cornwallis at the surrender at Yorktown.
Macon. Formed in 1828 from Haywood. Named in honor of
Nathaniel Macon. (See Biography of Macon, p. 146.)
Madison. Formed in 1851 from Buncombe and Yancey. Named
in honor of James Madison, fourth President of the United
Martin. Formed in 1774 from Halifax and Tyrrell. Named in
honor of Josiah Martin, the last royal governor of North
Carolina. It is probable that this name would have been
changed like that of Dobbs and Tryon but for the popularity of
Alexander Martin, who was governor in 1782 and again in
McDowell. Formed in 1842 from Rutherford and Burke. Named
in honor of Colonel Joseph McDowell an active officer of the
Mecklenburg. Formed in 1762 from Anson. Named in honor
of Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg, Queen of George III,
King of England. The county seat, Charlotte, one of the
prettiest cities in the State, was also named in her honor.
Mecklenburg county was the scene of some of the most
stirring events of the Revolution.
Mitchell. Formed in 1861 from Yancey, Watauga, Caldwell,
Burke, and McDowell. Named in honor of Dr. Elisha
Mitchell, a professor in the University of North Carolina.
While on an exploring expedition on Mt. Mitchell, the highest
peak east of the Rocky Mountains, which was named in his
honor, Dr. Mitchell fell from a high peak and was killed.
His body is buried on the top of this lofty mountain.
Montgomery. Formed in 1779 from Anson. Named in honor of
the brave General Richard Montgomery, who lost his life at
the battle of Quebec in 1775 while trying to conquer Canada.
1 Named for Governor William Tryon, who defeated the Regulators.
302 APPENDIX I
Moore. Formed in 1784 from Cumberland. Named in honor of
Captain Alfred Moore, of Brunswick, a soldier of the Revolu-
tion, and afterwards a judge of the Supreme Court of the
Nash. Formed in 1777 from Edgecombe. Named in honor of
General Francis Nash, a soldier of the Revolution, who was
killed while fighting under Washington at Germantown. The
United States has erected a monument in his honor at the
Guilford battle-ground near Greensboro.
New Hanover. Formed in 1729 from Bath. Named after Han-
over, a country in Europe whose ruler became King of England
with the title of George I.
Northampton. Formed in 1741 from Bertie. Named in honor
of George, Earl of Northampton, an English nobleman. His
son, Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, was high in
office when Gabriel Johnston was governor of North Carolina
who had the town of Wilmington named in his honor.
Onslow. Formed in 1734 from Bath. Named in honor of Arthur
Onslow, for more than thirty years speaker of the House of
Commons in the British Parliament.
Orange. Formed in 1752 from Granville, Johnston, and Bladen.
Named in honor of William of Orange, who became King
William III of England. He was one of the greatest of the
kings of England and saved the English people from the
tyranny of James II His name is held in honor wherever
English liberty is enjoyed.
Pamlico. Formed in 1872 from Craven and Beaufort. Named
after the sound of the same name, which was the name of a
tribe of Indians in eastern North Carolina.
Pasquotank. Formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Named for a
tribe of Indians in eastern Carolina.
Pender. Formed in 1875 from New Hanover. Named in honor
of General William D. Pender, of Edgecombe county, a
brave Confederate soldier who was killed at the battle of
Gettysburg. The last order ever given by the famous " Stone-
wall " Jackson on the battle-field was given to General Pender:
" You must hold your ground, General Pender, you must hold
APPENDIX I 303
your ground," he cried as he was carried off the field to die.
General Pender held his ground.
Perquimans. Formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Named after a
tribe of Indians.
Person. Formed in 1791 from Caswell. Named in honor of
General Thomas Person, Revolutionary patriot, member of
the Council of Safety, and trustee of the University. He gave
a large sum of money to the University, and a building was
erected in his honor called Person Hall.
Pitt. Formed in 1760 from Beaufort. Named in honor of Wil-
liam Pitt. (See Chatham.)
Polk. Formed in 1855 from Rutherford and Henderson. Named
in honor of Colonel William Polk, " who rendered distinguished
services in the battles of Germantown, Brandywine, and
Eutaw, in all of which he was wounded."
Randolph. Formed in 1779 from Guilford. Named in honor of
Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, the president of the first Con-
Richmond. Formed in 1779 from Anson. Named in honor of
Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond, principal secretary of
state in William Pitt's second administration. He was a
strong friend of the American colonies and made the motion
in the House of Lords that they be granted their independence.
Robeson. Formed in 1786 from Bladen. Named in honor of
Colonel Thomas Robeson, a soldier of the Revolution. He
was one of the leaders at the battle of Elizabethtown, which
was fought in September, 1781. By this battle the Tories
in the southeastern part of the State were crushed forever.
The commander of the Whigs was Colonel Thomas Brown.
Rockingham. Formed in 1785 from Guilford. Named in honor
of Charles Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham, who was
the leader of the party in the British Parliament that advo-
cated American independence. He was Prime Minister when
the Stamp Act was repealed.
Rowan. Formed in 1753 from Anson. Named in honor of
Matthew Rowan, a prominent leader before the Revolution,
and for a short time after the death of Governor Gabriel
Johnston, acting governor.
304 APPENDIX I
Rutherford. Formed in 1779 from Tryon and Burke. Named in
honor of General Griffith Rutherford, one of the most promi-
nent of the Revolutionary patriots. He led the expedition
that crushed the Cherokees in 1776, and rendered other im-
portant services both in the Legislature and on the battle-field.
Sampson. Formed in 1784 from Duplin and New Hanover.
Named in honor of Colonel John Sampson, who was a member
of Governor Martin's Council.
Scotland. Formed in 1899 from Richmond. Named after the
country of Scotland, the northern part of the island of Great
Britain. Most of the people of this county are descendants
of Scotch Highlanders.
Stanly. Formed in 1841 from Montgomery. Named in honor
of John Stanly, for many years a member of the Legislature,
and several times speaker of the House of Commons.
Stokes. Formed in 1789 from Surry. Named in honor of Colonel
John Stokes, a brave soldier of the Revolution, who was
desperately wounded at the Waxhaw massacre, when Colonel
Buford's regiment was cut to pieces by Tarleton. After the
war Washington appointed him a judge of the United States
Court in North Carolina.
Surry. Formed in 1771 from Rowan. Named in honor of Lord
Surrey, a prominent member of Parliament who opposed the
taxation of the American colonies by Parliament.
Swain. Formed in 1871 from Jackson and Macon. Named in
honor of David L. Swain, governor of North Carolina and
president of the University.
Transylvania. Formed in 1861 from Henderson and Jackson.
The name is derived from two Latin words, " trans," across,
" sylva," woods.
Tyrrell. Formed in 1729 from Albemarle. Named in honor of
Sir John Tyrrell, who at one time was one of the Lords Pro-
Union. Formed in 1842 from Anson and Mecklenburg.
Vance. Formed in 1881 from Granville, Warren, and Franklin.
Named in honor of Zebulon B. Vance, " the Great War
Governor." (See Biography of Vance, p. 222.)
Wake. Formed in 1770 from Johnston, Cumberland, and Orange.
APPENDIX I 305
Named in honor of Governor Tryon's wife, whose maiden
name was Wake. Some historians say that the county was
named for " Esther Wake, the popular sister of Tryon's
wife," but there is no reason to suppose that any such person
ever existed. She is purely a creature of the imagination.
Warren. Formed in 1779 from Bute and Granville. Named in
honor of General Joseph Warren, a brave Massachusetts
soldier who fell while fighting at the battle of Bunker Hill.
Washington. Formed in 1799 from Tyrrell. Named in honor of
Watauga. Formed in 1849 from Ashe, Wilkes, Caldwell, and
Yancey. Named after an Indian tribe.
Wayne. Formed in 1779 from Dobbs and Craven. Named in
honor of General Anthony Wayne, one of Washington's most
trusted soldiers. His courage was so great as to amount
almost to rashness, and his soldiers called him " Mad Anthony
Wilkes. Formed in 1777 from Surry and Burke. Named in
honor of John Wilkes. Wilkes was a violent opponent of
the Tory party in England, who would not let him take his
seat in Parliament to which he had been elected. The Ameri-
cans imagined he was suffering in the cause of liberty and
named the county in his honor.
Wilson. Formed in 1855 from Edgecombe, Nash, Johnston, and
Wayne. Named in honor of Louis D. Wilson, many times a
member of the Legislature from Edgcombe county, a soldier
of the Mexican War, and the benefactor of the poor of his
Yadkin. Formed in 1850 from Surry. Name derived from the
name of the Yadkin river which runs through it. It is sup-
posed to be an Indian name.
Yancey. Formed in 1833 from Burke and Buncombe. Named in
honor of Bartlett Yancey, an eloquent orator, many times a
member of the Legislature, speaker of the State Senate, and a
member of Congress. He was one of the earliest advocates
of the public school system of North Carolina.
CHIEF EXECUTIVES OF NORTH CAROLINA
Governors of Colonial North Carolina
Governors of " Virginia "
April 1585 — June 1586 .... Ralph Lane ' Appointed by Walter Raleigh
April 1587 — Aug. 1587 . . . .John White 2 Appointed by Walter Raleigh
Governors, Deputies, and Presidents of the Council under the Proprietors
Oct. 1663 — Oct. 1667 . . . .William Drummond 3 . . .Appointed by the Proprietors
Oct. 1667 — Dec. 1669 . . . .Samuel Stephens Appointed by the Proprietors
Oct. 1670 — May 1673 .... Peter Carteret Appointed by the Proprietors
May 1673 — Nov. 1676 . . . .John Jenkins President of Council
Nov. 1676 — Nov. 1678 . . . .Thomas Eastchurch 4 . . .Appointed by the Proprietors
1677 — ... .Thomas Miller 4 Eastchurch's Deputy
1677 — 1678 John Culpepper * Elected by Rebels
1678 — ... .Seth Sothel ° Appointed by the Proprietors
Feb. 1679 — Aug. 1679 . . . .John Harvey Deputy appointed by Proprietors
Nov. 1679 — 1681 . . . .John Jenkins President of Council
1682 — 1689 Seth Sothel 5 Appointed by the Proprietors
Dec. 1689 — 1691 . . . .Philip Ludwell Appointed by the Proprietors
1691 — 1694 . . . .Philip Ludwell Governor of all Carolina
1691 — 1694 . . . .Thomas Jarvis Lud well's Deputy
1694 — 1696 . . . .John Archdale Governor of all Carolina
1694 — 1699 . . . .John Harvey Deputy-Governor
1699 — 1704 . . . .Henderson Walker President of Council
1704 — 1705 . . . .Robert Daniel Deputy-Governor
1705 — 1706 . . . .Thomas Cary 6 Deputy-Governor
1706 — Aug. 1708 William - Clover" 7 President of Council
1708 — Jan. 1711 . . . .Thomas Cary 7 . .President of Council
Jan. 1711 — Sept. 1712 . . . .Edward Hyde 7 Appointed by the Proprietors
Sept. 1712 — May 1714 Thomas Pollock 7 President of the Council
May 1714 — Mar. 1722 . . . .Charles Eden Appointed by the Proprietors
May 1722 — Aug. 1722 Thomas Pollock 8 President of Council
Sept. 1722 — 1724 William Reed President of Council
1724 — July 1725 . . . .George Burrington Appointed by the Proprietors
July 1725 — May 1728 . . . .Richard Everard Appointed by the Proprietors
i See p. 5. 2 See p. 7. 3 See p. 17. * See pp. 19-22. 5 See p. 23.
6 See p. 41. 7 See p. 34. 8 See p. 36.
Governors under the Crown
. . Richard Everard Filled interval
. . George Burrington Appointed by the Crown
. . Gabriel Johnston Appointed by the Crown
. . Matthew Rowan President of the Council
. . Arthur Dobb3 Appointed by the Crown
. . William Tryon Appointed by the Crown
. . James Hasell President of Council
. . Josiah Martin Appointed by the Crown
Presidents of the Council under the Revolutionary Government
Oct. 18, 1775 — Aug. 21, 1776 Cornelius Harnett New Hanover
Aug. 21, 1776 — Sept. 27, 1776 Samuel Ashe New Hanover
Sept. 27, 1776 — Oct. 25, 1776 Willie Jones Halifax
— Feb. 1731 ...
— Nov. 1734 . . .
— July 1752 . . .
— Nov. 1754 . .
— May 1765 . . .
— June 1771 . . .
— Aug. 1771 . . .
— May 1775 . . .
Dec. 31, 1836 — Jan.
Jan. 1, 1841 — Jan.
1 See p. 82.
of North Carolina Since Independence
Elected by the Legislature 2
1780 Richard Caswell Lenoir
1781 Abner Nash Craven
1782 Thomas Burke Orange
1784 Alexander Martin Guilford
1787 Richard Caswell Lenoir
1789 Samuel Johnston Chowan
1792 Alexander Martin Guilford .
1795 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven
1798 Samuel Ashe New Hanover
1799 William R. Davie Halifax
1802 Benjamin Williams Moore
1805 James Turner Warren
1807 Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg
1808 Benjamin Williams Moore
1810 David Stone Bertie
1811 Benjamin Smith Brunswick
1814 William Hawkins Warren
1817 William Miller Warren
1820 John Branch Halifax
1821 Jesse Franklin Surry
1824 Gabriel Holmes Sampson
1827 Hutchins G. Burton Halifax
1828 James Iredell Chowan
1830 John Owen Bladen
1832 Montford Stokes Wilkes
1835 David L. Swain Buncombe
1836 Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr Craven
Elected by the People 3
1, 1841 Edward B. Dudley New Hanover
1, 1845 John M. Morehead Guilford
2 Term of office one year.
3 Term of office changed to two years in 1835.
1849 William A. Graham Orange
1851 Charles Manly Wake
1854 David S. Reid Rockingham
1855 Warren Winslow Cumberland
1859 Thomas Bragg Northampton
1861 John W. Ellis Rowan
1862 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe
1865 Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe
1865 William W. Holden Wake
1868 Jonathan Worth Randolph
1871 William W. Holden » Wake
1874 Tod R. Caldwell Burke
1877 Curtis H. Brogden Wayne
1879 Zebulon B. Vance Mecklenburg
1885 Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt
1889 Alfred M. Scales Rockingham
1891 Daniel G. Fowle Wake
1893 Thomas M. Holt Alamance
1897 Elias Carr Edgecombe
1901 Daniel L. Russell Brunswick
1905 Charles B. Aycock Wayne
1909 Robert B. Glenn Forsyth
William W. Kitchin Person
1 Term of office changed to four years in 1868.
Advance, the, 234-235
Agricultural and Mechanical Col-
lege, the, 277
Agriculture, in colonial times, 27-28;
effect of the Civil War on, 274-
275; State Department of, 276;
progress in since 1865, 278
Alamance, battle of, 60, 107
Albemarle Sound, settlements on
shores of, 14
Alderman, Edwin A., conducts edu-
cational campaign, 267
Amadas, Philip, explores Roanoke
Andrews, Alexander Boyd, a rail-
road builder, 284
Appomattox, last charge at, 257-
Articles of Confederation, 101-102
Ashe, John, on Committee of Cor-
respondence, 68; burns Fort
Johnston, 83-84; proscribed by
Governor Martin, 84
Aycock, Charles Brantley, governor
of North Carolina leads educa-
tional campaign, 290
Badger, George E. 226-227
ntrtt s Tt by Gast , on ' 17 t" 175 ,
Barlow Arthur, explores Roanoke | Board of War, 102
Bethel Regiment, 244
Blackbeard, the pirate, 43; defeated
and killed, 44
Blackwell, W. T., builds tobacco
Blakely, Johnston, birth, 160; is
brought to North Carolina, 160;
at the University, 160; enters
the United States Navy, 160;
in the war with the Algerine
pirates, 161-162; in command of
the Enterprise, 162; of the Wasp,
162-166; captures the Reindeer,
162-164; sinks the Avon, 164-165;
welcome in France, 164; sends
challenge to British navy, 165;
career on the Wasp, 165-166;
honors at home, 166; death, 166;
his personality, 167; marriage, 167
Blakely, Udney Maria, daughter of
Johnston Blakely, adopted and
educated by the State of North
Blockade running, 234-235
Blount, William, delegate to the
Convention of 1787, 117, 139
Bloodworth, Timothy, opposes Fed-
eral Constitution, 140
Blunt, Tom, Indian chief, 35
Bath, oldest town in North Carolina,
Battle, Joel, builds cotton mill, 279.
Battle, Kemp Plummer, president
of the University, 264, 288
Benton, Thomas, tribute to Macon,
Bentonville, battle of, 259
Bethel, battle of, 243-244
Boston, aided by North Carolina
Branch, General L. O'B., 228
Bridgers, Robert Rufus, railroad
Buck Spring, 149
Burke, Thomas, 85
Bute County, abolished, 146
Byrd, commissioner to run Virginia-
Carolina boundary, 45-46
Cabot, John, 3
Caldwell, Joseph, favors common
Camden, battle of, 135
Campbell, William, at battle of
King's Mt., 124
Cape Fear Section, settlement of,
46; famous homes in, 47
Capitol, burned, 175; rebuilt at
Carolina, named for Charles I, 16;
retained for Charles II, 16; gov-
ernment of, 17
Carr, Julian S., 283
Cary, Thomas, 31, 40-42
Cary's rebellion, 33, 40-42
Caswell, Richard, inspects Fort
Dobbs, 53; birth, 105; moves to
North Carolina, 105; appointed
deputy-surveyor, 106; elected to
the Assembly, 106; work in the
Assembly, 106-107; serves against
the Regulators, 107; on the Com-
mittee of Correspondence, 68, 108;
elected to the Continental Con-
gress, 70, 95, 108; journey to
Philadelphia, 108-110; describes
situation at Philadelphia, 110;
appointed colonel of North Caro-
lina troops, 110-111; defeats the
Highlanders at Moore's Creek,
111-113; elected governor, 113-
114, 116; services as governor,
114; at battle of Camden, 115;
defends North Carolina against
invasion, 115; speaker of House
of Ccmmons, 116; declines elec-
tion to Constitutional Conven-
tion of 1787, 117; death, 117
Charles II., grants Carolina to Lords
Charlotte, defence of by Davie, 136-
Churches in North Carolina, 292
Cities of North Carolina, 292
Civil War, preparations for, 241;
North Carolina troops in, 232-233,
Cleveland, Benjamin, early life, 120-
121; services in Revolution, 121;
in King's Mountain campaign,
124-128; speech to his men, 126;
last days, 128
Clinton, Sir Henrv, at Cape Fear,
Confederate States of America, 203-
Congress of 1774, meets at New
Bern, 69; measures of, 70; elects
delegates to Continental Congress,
Commerce, in colonial days, 27-28
Committees of Correspondence, 67-
Committees of Safety, 81-82
Common Schools, 210-220
Corn, carried to England, 7
Cornwallis, Lord, at Cape Fear, 113;
retreats from Charlotte, 127;
invades North Carolina, 136-137
Conservative Party, 206
Constitution of North Carolina,
1776, 113; amended by Conven-
tion of 1835, 156, 177-178
Constitution of the United States,
139-140; rejected by North Caro-
lina, 140; adopted, 141
Continental Congress, 68
Convention of 1787 at Philadelphia,
Convention of 1788 at Hillsboro, 140
of 1789 at Fayetteville, 141
Convention of 1835, amendments to
Cotton manufactures, 282
Council of Safety, 82
Cox, General William R., 258
Culpepper, John, appointed collec-
Culpepper's Rebellion, 18-23
Dale, Richard, 161
Dare, Eleanor, mother of Virginia
Dare, Virginia, first white child born
in " Virginia," 8
Davidson, John, 192
Davidson College, 210, 243
Davie, Archibald, 132
Davie, William Richardson, birth
and education, 132-133; volun-
teers in Revolutionary army, 133;
major of cavalry, 134; narrow
escape at Stono Ferry, 134; ad-
mitted to bar, 135; pledges for-
tune to equip his company, 135;
his battles, 135-136; as a soldier,
136; defence of Charlotte, 136-
137; appointed quartermaster,
137; equips Greene's army, 137-
138; as a lawyer, 138; as an
orator, 139; member of Conven-
tion of 1787, 139-140; of Conven-
tion of 1788, 140; of Convention
of 1789, 141; supports the Fed-
eral Constitution, 140-141; in
the House of Commons, 141;
founds the University, 142; elected
governor, 142-143; United States
commissioner to France, 143; de-
clines appointment as major-
general in United States army,
144; last days, 144; Gaston's
tribute to, 144
Davis, Jefferson, 205
De Graffenried, Christopher, founds
New Bern, 32
Deputies of the Lords Proprietors,
Dix, Dorothea, work for an asylum
for the insane, 185-187
Dobbin, James Cochran, birth, 183;
education, 183; admitted to the
bar, 184; elected to Congress,
184-185; in the General Assembly
185; speech on insane asylum
bill, 186-187; speaker of House
of Commons, 187; on secession,
187-188; Secretary of the Navy,
188-190; death, 190
Dobbs, Arthur, appointed governor,
Drake, Sir Francis, carries Lane's
colony to England, 6
Drummond, first governor of Caro-
Duke, Washington, 283
Durant, George, birth, 14; moves
to Carolina, 15; selects site for
his home 15; buys land from
Indian chief, 15; leads resistance
to navigation laws, 19; threatens
to rebel against Eastchurch, 20;
arrives in Carolina from England,
21; leads rebellion, 21; in con-
trol of government, 22; resists
Seth Sothel, 23; a justice of the
peace, 23; death, 23
Durant's Neck, 15
Eastchurch, Thomas, in England,
19; appointed governor of Albe-
marle, 20; stops in West Indies,
21; sends Miller to administer
government, 21; arrives in Vir-
^ ginia, 22; death, 22
Eden, Charles, governor of North
Carolina, 36; suspected of friend-
ship for Blackbeard, 43
Education, in colonial days, 29, 38-
39; before 1860, 194, 197-198, 210-
220,262-271; progress since 1902,
Elizabeth, Queen, confers knight-
hood on Raleigh, 2; gives him
permission to send colony to
America, 3; names new country
" Virginia," 5; banishes Raleigh
from her court, 11
Ellis, John W., governor of North
Carolina, refuses troops to Presi-
dent Lincoln, 204, 241
Ellsworth, Oliver, 143
Enterprise, the, commanded by
Established Church in Carolina, 30-
Eutaw Springs, battle of, 138
Farm Life Schools, 278
Ferguson, Patrick, threatens fron-
tiersmen, 124; flees to King's
Mountain, 125; killed, 127
Fort Dobbs, description of, 53-54;
Fort Duquesne, 54-56
Fort Johnston, 83-84
Fort Nohoroco, 35
Fort Raleigh, built by Lane, 5; in
France, hostility of, to the United
States, 143; treaty with, 143
Franklin, State of, 129
French and Indian War, 51-56
Fries, Francis, 280
Frontier Life before the Revolution
Gaston, Alexander, 170-172
Gaston, Margaret Sharpe, 170-172
Gaston, William, birth, 170; edu-
cation, 172-173; admitted to bar,
173; in the Legislature, 173-175;
speaker, 173; supports plan for a
supreme court, 174; saves the
State Bank, 174-175; opposes
removal of the capitol, 175;
elected to Congress, 175; ap-
pointed judge of the Supreme
Court, 177; work in the Conven-
tion of 1835, 177-178; popu-
larity, 178-179; as an orator, 179;
orations at the University and at
Princeton, 179-180; honors, 180;
death 181; mentioned, 194
Gaston Hall, 172
Gates, General Horatio, defeated at
Camden, 115, 135
Gettysburg, battle of, 249-251
Glenn, Robert Broadnax, governor
of North Carolina, leads fight for
Glover, William, 31, 40-42
Gombroon, home of Z. B. Vance, 238
Graham, Joseph, 192
Graham, William Alexander, men-
tioned, 189; birth, 192; educa-
tion, 192-193; at the University,
193; admitted to the bar, 193;
as an orator, 194; work in the
Legislature, 194-195; in the
United States Senate, 195-196;
as governor, 197-198; favors
North Carolina Railroad, 198;
raises troops for Mexican War,
199; Secretary of the Navy, 199-
200; sends Perry expedition to
Japan, 200-201 ; opinion on seces-
sion, 203-204; member of Con-
vention of 1861, 204; Confederate
States senator, 204-205; favors
peace, 205; leads fight against
reconstruction in North Carolina,
206; favors impeachment of Gov-
ernor Holden, 206; member of
Peabody Education Board, 207;
represents Virginia in Virginia-
Maryland boundary controversy,
207; death, 207-208
Grand Model, sent to Carolina by
Lords Proprietors, 17; resisted by
the people, 18
Graves, Calvin, votes for North
Carolina Railroad, 198-99
Greene, General Nathaniel, in com-
mand of Southern army, 137;
appoints Davie quarter-master,
137; fights battles of Guilford
Court House, Hobkirk's Hill,
Eutaw Springs, 138; urges Macon
to go to the Legislature, 148
Grimes, Major-General Bryan,
favors secession, 242; at battle of
Seven Pines, 252-253; as a sol-
dier, 253-254; appointed briga-
dier-general, 254-255; service in
Shenandoah Valley, 255; ap-
pointed major-general, 255; at
siege of Petersburg, 255-257;
plans last battle of Lee's army,
257-258; last days, 259-260
Guilford Court House, battle of,
Guilford College, 210
Hancock, Indian chief, 33; insti-
gates attack on whites, 34; de-
Hanging Rock, battle of, 135
Harnett, Cornelius, birth, 76; moves
to Wilmington, 76; appearance,
76; in the Assembly, 77; resists
Stamp Act, 77-80; enforces non-
importation association, 80; plans
committees of correspondence,
80-81; member of Committee of
Correspondence, 68; visits New
England, 81; member Provincial
Congress, 81; president Provin-
cial Council, 82; receives news of
battle of Lexington, 82; burns
Fort Johnston, 83-84; proscribed
by Governor Martin, 84; leads
way to independence, 84-86;
proscribed by Sir Henry Clinton,
87; reads Declaration of Inde-
pendence to people at Halifax, 87;
elected delegate to Continental
Congress, 88; his sacrifices in
cause of independence, 88; death,
89; signs Articles of Confedera-
Harvey, John, birth, 63; education,
63; wealth, 63; elected to the
Assembly, 64; speaker, 64-65; op-
poses taxation by Parliament, 66;
moderator of convention of 1769,
67; rewarded for services, 67; on
Committee of Correspondence, 68;
calls Congress of 1774, 69; thanked
for service by Congress, 70-71;
sends aid to Boston, 71-72; speaker
of last colonial Assembly, 72-73;
moderator of Congress of 1775,
72-73; death, 73; tributes to, 73
Harvey, Thomas, 22
Harvey's Neck, 63
Haywood, William H., 194
Hewes, Joseph, member of Com-
mittee of Correspondence, 68;
elected a delegate to Continental
Congress, 70, 95; sends aid to
Boston, 72, 94; lays Resolution
of April 12, 1776, before Conti-
nental Congress, 86; birth, 92;
education, 92; moves to Edenton,
93; in the Assembly, 93; mem-
ber of Provincial Congress, 95;
head of naval committee of Con-
tinental Congress, 96-97; urges
resistance to the King, 98; sends
supplies to Washington's army,
101; death, 101; journey to Con-
tinental Congress, 109
Hill, General Daniel Harvey, mili-
tary training, 242-243; trains
North Carolina troops, 243; at
battle of Bethel, 243-244; his
bearing in battle, 244-246; placed
in defence of North Carolina, 246-
247; service in Tennessee, 258-
259; at battle of Bentonville. 259;
last days, 259-260
Hill, Daniel Harvey, Jr., president
of A. & M. College, 277
Hobkirk's Hill, battle of, 138
Holden, William W., governor of
North Carolina, impeachment of,
Holladay, Alexander Q., president
of A. &M. College, 277
Holt, Edwin M., 280; erects cotton
mill, 281; erects first dye plant
in South, 281; the Holt mills, 282
Hooper, William, member of the
Committee of Correspondence,
68; birth, 91; education, 91-
92; moves to Wilmington, 92;
in Assembly, 93; sends aid to
Boston, 94; advocates a Provincial
Congress, 94-95; member of Pro-
vincial Congress, 95; elected dele-
gate to Continental Congress, 70,
95; as an orator, 96; urges re-
sistance to King, 97; predicts
independence of colonies, 98;
last days and death, 100; monu-
Hornet's Nest, 136
Houston, William, forced to resign
office of stamp agent, 78
Howe, Robert, on Committee of
Correspondence, 68; proscribed
by Martin, 84; by Clinton, 87
Huguenots, settle in North Caro-
Hyde, Edward, appointed governor
of North Carolina, 31, 41; seeks
help against Indians from South
Carolina and Virginia, 34; death,
34; sides with Pollock against
Independence, 84-86, 99
Indians, plan attack on whites, 33;
in French and Indian War, 52-58
Innes, Colonel James, commands
North Carolina troops, 52
Insane Asylum, 185-187
Internal Improvements, 194-195,
Invincible Armada, 8-9
Iredell, James, supports Federal
Jackson, Andrew, opinion of Davie,
Jamestown, founding of, 12
Japan, treaty with, 189-190, 200-
Jarvis, Thomas J., governor of North
Jenkins, John, acting governor of
North Carolina, 22
Johnston, Gabriel, governor of North
Johnston, General Joseph E., sur-
renders to General Sherman near
Johnston, Samuel, member of Com-
mittee of Correspondence, 68;
supports Federal Constitution, 140
Jones, General Allen, 85, 133
Jones, John Paul, 96, 161
Jones, Thomas, 85
Jones, Willie, opposes Federal Con-
Joyner, James Yadkin, superin-
tendent of public instruction,
289; progress in education under,
Kilcocanen, sells land to George
Kinchen, John, 85
King's Mountain, battle of, 125-128
Lane, Ralph, governor of first
colony; 5; abandons Roanoke, 6
Leazar, Augustus, author of bill to
establish A. & M. College, 277
Lexington, battle of, 82-83
Libraries in North Carolina, 292
Lillington, Colonel Alexander, at
battle of Moore's Creek, 112
Lincoln, Abraham, President of the
United States, 203
Literary Board, the, 211
Lords Proprietors, receive grant
from the King, 16; formulate
government for Carolina, 17;
appoint Eastchurch governor, 20;
Lost Colony, the, 10-11
McDowell, Joseph, in King's Moun-
tain campaign, 124
Mclver, Charles Duncan, birth, 263;
education, 263-264; at the Uni-
versity, 264-265; first vote, 265-
266; as a teacher, 266; needs of
public schools, 266-267; founds
State Normal and Industrial Col-
lege, 267-70; as an educational
leader, 270; member of Southern
Educational Board; 270-271;
honors, 271; death, 270-271
Macon, Nathaniel, birth, 146; edu-
cation, 146-147; volunteers in
patriot army, 147; elected to
Legislature, 147-149; builds Buck
Spring, 149; habits, 149; amuse-
ments, 150; political offices, 151;
as a public official, 151; his work
in Congress, 153-154; on war,
153; retires from Congress, 154-
156; president of Convention of
1835, 156; death, 157
Manteo, Indian warrior, goes to
England, 4; returns to Roanoke,
5; sends food to Lane's colony, 6
Martin, Alexander, member of Con-
vention of 1787, 139
Martin, Josiah, governor of North
Carolina, refuses to convene the
Assembly, 69; denounces the
committees of safety, 81; plans
uprising of the Tories, 111
Mecklenburg County, organizes an
independent government, 99
Mexican War, North Carolina troops
Miller, Thomas, in England, 19;
appointed collector, 20; tyranny
of, 21 ; arrested and imprisoned 21
Moore, Colonel James, defeats Han-
Moore, General James, resists Stamp
Act; commands North Carolina
troops in Moore's Creek cam-
Moore's Creek Bridge, battle of, 85,
Morehead, John M., governor of
North Carolina, 226
Moseley, Edward, rival of Thomas
Pollock, 31; moves to North Caro-
lina, 38; his plantations and
wealth, 38; library, 39; political
career, 39; member of governor's
council, 40; in the Cary Rebellion,
40-41; declares against taxation
without representation, 42; de-
nounces governor Eden for failure
to punish pirates, 43-44; im-
prisoned, 44; boundary line com-
missioner, 45-46; moves to Cape
Fear, 46; builds Moseley Hall,
47; last services to colony, 48;
Murphey, Archibald D., 139, 142,
Murray, William Vans, 143
Nash, Frederick, 194
Nash, Abner, governor of North
Carolina, proscribed by Governor
Martin, 84; mentioned, 85
Navigation Laws, resisted by the
New Bern, founding of, 32; battle
Newspapers in North Carolina,
Non-Importation Association, 66-
North Carolina Railroad, 198-199
North Carolina-Virginia Boundary
Peabody Education Board, 207
Pender, Major-General William D.,
Penn, John, birth, 93; education,
93; moves to North Carolina, 93;
in the Assembly, 95; elected dele-
gate to the Continental Congress,
95-97; urges resistance to the
King, 98; signs Articles of Con-
federation, 101 ; member of Board
of War, 102; death, 102-103;
monument to, 103
Perry, Commodore M. C, com-
mands expedition to Japan, 189|f
Person, Thomas, 85; opposes Fed-
eral Constitution, 140
Pettigrew, James Johnston, pre-
pares for war, 247-248; enters
Confederate army, 248; in prison,
249; at the battle of Gettysburg,
249-251; death, 251-252
Polk, Leonidas L., commissioner of
Pollock, Thomas, arrested by Sothel,
26; birth, 26; comes to North
Carolina as deputy of Lord Car-
teret, 26; as a planter, 27; rival
of Moseley, 31; president of the
Council, 34; defends settlers,
against Indians, 35; makes treaty
with Tom Blunt, 35; establishes
peace in the colony, 36; death, 36
Population of North Carolina, 1870-
Potato, the, taken to England, 7
Prohibition in North Carolina, 291
Provincial Council, 82
Pullen, Richard Stanhope, donates
land for college, 277
Quakers, in the colony, 30; refuse
to take Oath of Allegiance, 40-41
Quincy, Josiah, visits Harnett, 80
Railroads, 195; since 1865, 285
Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, 195
Raleigh, City of, name, 1
Raleigh, Sir Walter, birth, 1; early
life, 1-2; knighted by the Queen
2; sends expedition to America, 3
send a colony to Roanoke, 5
plants the potato in Ireland, 7
learns to smoke, 7; sends a second
colony to Roanoke, 7; busy
against the Spanish Armada, 9;
loses the Queen's favor, 11;
thrown into prison by King
James, 11; death, 11-12
Ramsauer's Mill, battle of, 135
Ramseur, Major-General Stephen
D., 242, 254
Randolph, John, of Roanoke, 150,
152; tribute to Macon, 157
Ransom, Matt W., 190
Reconstruction, 205-206, 262
Regulators, the, 107
Religion, in colonial days, 30
Resolution of April 12, 1776, declar-
ing for independence, 85-86; effect
on other colonies, 100
Richardson, Rev. William, 132
Roanoke Island, explored by Ama-
das and Barlow, 3; selected for
colony, 4; Lane's colony, 5;
White's colony on, 7
Rogers, Sergeant John, on expedi-
tion to Fort Duquesne, 55-56
Roosevelt, Theodore, tribute to
Rough and Ready Guards, raised
by Vance, 227-228
Ruffin, Chief Justice Thomas, 193,
utherford, General Griffith, 121
St. Paul's Church, 31
Schenck, Michael, erects first cotton
mill in North Carolina, 280
Secession, 187-188, 203-204
Sevier, John, early life, 122; moves
to North Carolina, 123; marriage
123-124; raises troops against
• Ferguson, 124-128; governor of
the State of Franklin, 129;
arrested, 129; escape, 129-130;
last days, 130
Shelby, Isaac, early life, 121-122;
colonel of North Carolina militia,
122; in King's Mountain cam-
paign, 124-128; moves to Ken-
tucky, 128; governor of Kentucky
128; in the War of 1812, 128-129;
Slaves and slavery, 27, 202-203
Social life in the colony, 28-29
Sothel, Seth, governor of North
Carolina, 22-23, 26
South Carolina, sends aid against the
Indians, 34-35; secession of, 203
Southern Education Board, 270-271
Spaight, Richard Dobbs, governor
of North Carolina, member of
Convention of 1787, 139
Spencer, Samuel, opposes Federal
Stamp Act, the, 59, 65, 77-80
State Normal and Industrial Col-
Stono Ferry, battle of, 134
Supreme Court of North Carolina,
Swain, David Lowrie, governor of
North Carolina, 224
Tea tax, 65
Tobacco, carried to England, 7;
used for money, 18; manufacture
Trinity College, 210
Tryon, William, governor of North
Carolina, defeats the Regulators,
60; resists the Assembly, 68;
fails to enforce Stamp Act, 79-80
Twenty-sixth North Carolina Regi-
ment, 228, 151
Tyler, John, tribute to Macon 157,
University of North Carolina, found-
ing of, 141-142; customs at in
early days, 160; 141-142, 155,
160, 179-180, 183, 193, 210, 213,
220, 224, 242, 247, 262, 264; re-
opened after Civil War, 289
Vail, Edward, member of Committee
of Correspondence, 68
Vance, Zebulon Baird, governor of
North Carolina, 205; birth, 222;
education, 223; his mother, 223-
224; at the University, 224;
admitted to the bar, 226; in the
Legislature and in Congress, 226;
opposes secession, 226-227; as an
orator, 226-227; goes to war, 227;
at battle of New Bern, 228-230;
in battles around Richmond, 230;
elected governor, 231-232, 236-
237; services as governor, 232,
236; speeches to army in Vir-
ginia, 233-234; sends out block-
ade runners, 234-235; in prison,
235-236; elected United States
senator, 237-238; death, 238
" Virginia," named by Elizabeth, 4-5.
Virginia, settlers from, come to
North Carolina, 14
Virginia-North Carolina boundary
Waddell, Hugh, the elder, comes to
Waddell, Hugh, his son, birth, 51;
comes to North Carolina, 52;
appointed captain of North Caro-
lina troops, 52-53; sent to western
frontier, 53; builds Fort Dobbs,
53; makes treaty with Indians.
54; relieves Fort Loudon, 54;
joins expedition against Fort
Duquesne, 54-56; defends Fort
Dobbs, 56-57; forces Indians to
make peace, 57; as an Indian
fighter, 58; in the General As-
sembly, 58; marriage, 58; poli-
tical honors, 59; resists the
Stamp Act, 59; serves against the
Regulators, 60; death, 60
Wake Forest College, 210
Wanchese, Indian warrior, goes to
England; 4; returns to Roanoke
5; plans destruction of Lane's
War of 1812, 159, 162-167, 176
Warren County, formed, 146
Washington, George, 55-56, 109-110
Wasp, the, commanded by Blakely,
162-166; loss of, 166
Western North Carolina, 222-223
Western North Carolina Railroad,
White, John, governor of "Virginia,"
7; returns to England, 8; returns
to Roanoke, 9; searches for his
Whiting, Major-General W. H. C,
Wiley, Calvin Henderson, superin-
tendent of common schools, 211-
212; birth, 212; education, 212-
213; author, 213; proposes crea-
tion of office of superintendent of
common schools, 213-214; elected
to the General Assembly, 214-215;
elected superintendent of common
schools, 215; his work for education,
215-217; keeps schools open during
Civil War, 218; enters the Ministry,
219; death, 220.
Williams, James, in King's Mountain
Williams, John, signs Articles of
Williamson, Hugh, member of the
Convention of 1787, 139
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad,
Wilson, James W., builds Western
North Carolina Railroad, 287
Winder, John Cox, railroad builder,
Winston, George Tayloe, president
University, 264; president of A.
and M. College, 277
Wyatt, Henry, L., 244
Yancey, Bartlett, 201