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1 ' RY 


I91« L 

Copyright, 1911, by 
The Thompson Publishing Company 









The title of this book sufficiently explains its purpose 
and its scope. In it I have emphasized, as far as possi- 
ble, the personalities of the men who have made our 
history rather than the events in which they were con- 
cerned. The latter can be studied in the narrative 
histories of the State which of necessity must present 
but little or nothing of the former. Of course I do 
hot mean that the great events in which these men were 
leaders have been neglected. The child who studies 
this book will acquire as much knowledge of the general 
history of the State as the average child in the grades 
is capable of assimilating. This book has been written 
under the impression that the children of North Caro- 
lina have more knowledge of the great events of our 
history than of the great leaders; and under the con- 
viction that knowledge of the latter is equally as 
important and even more interesting, to children, at 
least, than the former. 

I am, of course, aware that others selecting such a 
list would probably reject some names that I have 
included and include some that I have excluded. I 
have no quarrel with their choice and I trust they will 
have none with mine. The necessity of selecting at 
all and the necessary limit to the number to be included 
in such a book, account for the exclusion of several 
names which deserve, as much as any in my list, to be 



included in any list supposed to be complete of the 
" Makers of North Carolina History." The names 
of John Ashe, James Iredell, Samuel Johnston, 
Willie P. Mangum, Braxton Craven, James and Alfred 
Moore, John M. Morehead, Archibald D. Murphey, 
David L. Swain, and others readily occur. Some of 
those in my list certainly occupy no greater place in 
our history than some of those here enumerated. Other 
reasons, which obviously cannot be discussed here, 
have determined my selections. 

This book can be used in three ways: 

First, as a history; 

Second, as supplementary to a narrative history of 
North Carolina or of the United States; 

Third, as a supplementary reader. 

The teacher will observe that the " Questions for 
Special Study" which follow each of the sketches are 
not the obvious questions suggested directly by the 
text. They are derived indirectly from the text, and 
as a rule can be answered by a little reading between 
the lines of the narrative. Some of them are questions 
of opinion only, and the pupils should be encouraged 
to express their own opinions freely without dictation 
from the teacher and be ready to defend their opinions 
when attacked. 

R. D. W. C. 



I. Sir Walter Raleigh 1 

II. George Durant 14 

III. Thomas Pollock 26 

IV. Edward Moseley 38 

V. Hugh Waddell 51 

VI. John Harvey 63 

VII. Cornelius Harnett 76 

VIII. Hooper, Hewes, and Penn 91 

IX. Richard Caswell 105 

X. Cleveland, Shelby, and Sevier 120 

XL William Richardson Davie 132 

XII. Nathaniel Macon 146 

XIII. Johnston Blakely 159 

XIV. William Gaston 170 

XV. James Cochrane Dobbin 183 

XVI. William Alexander Graham 192 

XVII. Calvin Henderson Wiley 210 

XVIII. Zebulon Baird Vance 222 

XIX. Hill, Pettigrew, and Grimes 241 

XX. Charles Duncan McIver 262 

XXI. Makers of Modern North Carolina . . . 274 

Appendix I. Origin and Names of the Counties 


of North Carolina 295 

Appendix II. List of the Governors of North 

Carolina 306 

Index 309 





Why our Capital City was named Raleigh. — Raleigh, 
the capital city of North Carolina, bears the name of 
one of the great men of England. Why should an Ameri- 
can State name its capital 
city for an Englishman? 
Was it because he was fa- 
mous as a statesman, soldier, 
author, and patriot? No, it 
was because Sir Walter 
Raleigh sent the first English 
colony to America and his 
colony settled in what is 
now North Carolina. As 
Raleigh's work won the best 
part of the 1 New World for 
the. English people, North 
Carolina named her capital 
city in his honor. 

The Young Soldier. — Raleigh was born in England 

in 1552, sixty years after Columbus discovered America. 

He was born at a beautiful country place called " Hayes," 

on the southern coast of England. Near his home was 

the town of Plymouth, a famous seaport where sailors 




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Sir Walter Raleigh 


came from all parts of the world. These sailors had 
many a tale to tell about the countries they had visited. 
Some of them had been to the New World where they 
had seen wonderful wild birds and animals and the 
savage red men with long bows and arrows and curious 
wigwams. How eagerly young Raleigh listened to the 
interesting stories of these sunburnt sailors! And how 
he longed to sail out on the broad Atlantic to see the 
wonders of America for himself! 

But after a while school-days came and young Raleigh 
was sent away from home to school. He studied 
well and read a great deal. He liked books of travel 
that told of adventure in foreign countries, and of the 
strange people and customs of lands beyond the sea. 
He was fond of history, and the great deeds of famous 
men made him eager to win fame for himself. After 
leaving school he became a soldier in the British army. 
He was so skilful that he soon won the rank of captain, 
and so fearless that his bravery attracted the attention 
of Queen Elizabeth herself. 

Raleigh becomes a Favorite of the Queen. — After 
serving six years in the army, Raleigh went to London 
and was presented at Court. His handsome form, his 
fine face, his rich dress, and his elegant and pleasant 
manners pleased good " Queen Bess." In a very short 
time he became one of her most trusted advisers and 
favorite courtiers. She made him a knight, and heaped 
honors and riches on him until he became one of the 
great men in England. 

Raleigh plans to send a Colony to America. — At 
that time England and Spain were at war with each 
other. Spain owned great colonies in America from 


which she received vast treasures of gold and silver. 
With this wealth she fitted out armies and fleets against 

England also claimed territory in America on account 
of the voyages of John and Sebastian Cabot. But she 
had not taken possession of it, and Spain denied that 
she had any right to it. Sir Walter Raleigh thought 
that England ought to send colonies to the New World. 
Such colonies he said would help to make England richer 
and more powerful than Spain. He laid his plans before 
the Queen, and she gave him permission to take posses- 
sion of her territory in America and plant a colony 

Raleigh's First Expedition. — In less than a month 
Raleigh had two vessels ready to sail for America. They 
were commanded by daring sailors, Captains Philip 
Amadas and Arthur Barlow. Raleigh intended for 
them to explore the country and select a good place 
for the colony. They sailed from England in the spring 
of 1584, and on July 4th reached the coast of what is 
now North Carolina. Springing upon the shore, they 
first gave thanks to God for their safe arrival, and then 
unfurling the English flag claimed the country in the 
name of Queen Elizabeth and of Sir Walter Raleigh. 
A few days later, while exploring the country, Captain 
Barlow with seven of his men came to an island which 
the natives called Roanoke. All about them were many 
other islands "most beautiful and pleasant to behold." 

The visitors seemed to think they had reached Para- 
dise. They were charmed with the delightful climate, 
the fertile soil, the sweet flowers, and the tall trees. 
On every tree and shrub grew wild vines, filled with 


sweet grapes, "in such plenty that in all the world the 
like abundance could not be found. " 

From the Indians, they received fruits, melons, 
cucumbers, and corn, which was "very white, fair and 
well tasted." The woods were full of deer, hares, and 

birds ; and the waters were 

alive with the goodliest 
and best fish in the world." 
As the men strolled 
along the seashore, great 
flocks of white cranes flew 
up around them with such 
cries that it seemed "as if 
an army of men had 
shouted all together." 
The Indians treated their 
visitors "with all love and 
kindness"; and the Eng- 
lishmen thought them 
"most gentle, loving, and 

" Virginia." — Amadas 
and Barlow thought that 
Roanoke was the very place for Raleigh's colony. After 
spending two months exploring the country, they sailed 
for England, carrying with them two of the Indians 
whose names were Wanchese and Manteo. In England 
their story was heard with wonder and delight. Every- 
body was charmed with the new country and its gentle 
loving people. When Amadas asked the Indians the 
name of their country, they replied " Win-gan-da-coa," 
and by this name Amadas and Barlow called it. But 

Queen Elizabeth 


what the Indians really meant by " Win-gan-da-coa ' 
was, "What pretty clothes you wear!' Queen Eliza- 
beth was so pleased that this new land was found 
during her reign, that she called it " Virginia," in honor 
of herself, the Virgin Queen. 

The First Colony. — Raleigh lost no time in sending 
a colony to Virginia. For governor, he selected Ralph 
Lane, a brave soldier in the Queen's army. In this 
colony were 108 men who sailed for Roanoke in a fleet 
of seven vessels. After a voyage of three months, 
they reached Roanoke in July, 1585. 

Their first work was to build a rude fort, called 
"Fort Raleigh," and then some dwelling-houses. 
Lane was a good leader, but his men were lazy and 
would not work. They expected to find gold and 
silver at Roanoke and instead of planting crops, 
they spent their time looking for precious metals. 
So when winter came, their food gave out and 
had it not been for Manteo, they would have 

Wanchese and Manteo. — Wanchese and Manteo 
had returned to Roanoke with Lane. What a wonder- 
ful story they had to tell their old friends at home! 
They had crossed the great ocean. They had been 
to the great city of London. They had seen more 
people with pale faces than they could count. They 
had even been to the palace and seen the Queen. Manteo 
loved the English people because they had # been kind 
to him, and became their strong friend. But when 
Wanchese saw how powerful the English people were, 
he feared and hated them. Upon his return to Roanoke, 
he made up his mind to destroy the little colony before 


the pale-faced strangers became strong enough to take 
the land from his people. 

The Colony Fails. — When the English needed food, 
Manteo sent them corn and fish, and persuaded the 
other Indians to be friendly to them also. In return 
Lane and his men were harsh and at times cruel. Then 
Wanchese got the upper hand of Manteo, and the 
Indians began to lay plans to get rid of their white 
visitors. Soon a war broke out. But the red men 
with their bows and arrows were no match for the 
whites with their guns and pistols. Lane easily defeated 
them, but after his victory he found it harder than 
ever to get food for his men. 

The men now began to ask each other anxiously, 
"What shall we do? We can no longer depend on the 
Indians, yet we must have food or we shall starve on 
this lonely island." Had their friends in England for- 
gotten them? Would Sir Walter Raleigh never send 
them help? All were about to give up hope, when, 
one day in June, a man dashed up to Lane, all out of 
breath, and cried out that he had seen sails at sea. 
How this good news cheered the homesick settlers! 
An English fleet had arrived, and they were saved. 
The commander of this fleet was Sir Francis Drake, 
one of England's most famous naval heroes. In his 
fleet were twenty-three vessels. He had been among 
the West Indies plundering Spanish ships and now, 
with vast treasures, was on his way back to England. 
He offered to take Lane and his hungry men home. 
They were glad enough to go and so in June, 1586, 
they sailed away from Roanoke. Raleigh's first colony 
had failed. 




Uppowoc,' Pagatour," and "Openauk." Lane 
and his men found no gold in "Virginia." But they 
carried home with them three plants that have brought 
to England more wealth than the Spaniards got from 
all their mines of gold and silver. These plants were 
" uppowoc," "pagatour," and 'openauk." What odd 
names these are! Who would 
ever guess that " uppowoc" 
was the Indian name for 
tobacco, " pagatour" for 
Indian corn, and u openauk" 
for Irish potato? 

And why, do you suppose, 
the white potato, which came 
from America, is called the 
" Irish potato" ? Because, 
after Raleigh planted it in 
Ireland, the potato became 
the chief food of the Irish 
people and more than once 
has saved them from star- 
vation in time of famine. Raleigh also taught the 
English people how to smoke. It is said that one day 
while he was smoking his pipe, his servant entered the 
room with a pitcher of ale. Frightened at seeing smoke 
pouring out of his master's mouth and nose, he cried 
out that Sir Walter was on fire, and dashed the ale in 
his face! 

Raleigh's Second Colony. — Raleigh was disappointed 
at the failure of his colony, but he did not lose heart. 
The next year he prepared a second colony for Vir- 
ginia." John White, who had been at Roanoke with 

Sir Francis Drake 


Lane, was appointed governor. In this colony were 
ninety-one men, seventeen women, and nine children. 
They sailed from England in April, 1587, and reached 
Roanoke in July. They found Fort Raleigh in ruins, 
but at once began to repair it and to build new houses. 
Thus was begun the second English colony in America. 

Virginia Dare. - On August 18, 1587, a baby girl 
was born at Roanoke. Her mother, Eleanor Dare, was 
a daughter of Governor White. On the following 
Sunday the babv was baptized, and because she 
was the first white child born in ' Virginia," her mother 
named her Virginia. Perhaps more people know the 
history of little Virginia Dare than of any other babv 
that ever lived in America. The very spot on which 
she was born is now in a county called Dare. 

Governor White Returns to England. - As the settlers 
reached Roanoke too late to plant a crop, somebody 
had to return to England for food, clothes, and other 
things. Who should go? The settlers said that Gov- 
ernor White ought to go because he could get the things 
they needed more easily than anybody else. But he 
did not think that he ought to leave his colony, and at 
first refused. Then all the men, and even the women, 
gathered around him and begged so hard that at last 
he consented. They promised him that if they had 
to leave Roanoke before he returned they would carve 
the name of their new settlement on a tree. If they 
were in distress, they would cut a cross like this ("J") 
above the name. Governor White then sailed for 

''The Invincible Armada." — In England he found 
everybody deeply stirred over a great war with Spain. 


A powerful Spanish fleet called The Invincible Armada," 
with a large army on board, was coming to conquer 
England. Every English vessel and every English 
sailor was needed to defend the country. There was 
no man in all the land busier than Sir Walter Raleigh. 
Still Raleigh found time to prepare a ship loaded with 

Indian Warriors at Roanoke Island, 1585 
(From one of the pictures made by John White.) 

supplies for his little colony. The ship started on its 
voyage, but was soon driven back by Spanish war 
vessels. It was then too late to send another. The 
great " Armada ' had come, and every man's first duty 
was to defend his country. In the midst of this great 
danger to England, the little colony on far-away Roanoke 
was neglected. Finally the great battle was fought 
and the Spanish fleet destroyed. 'God blew with his 
winds," said the Queen, "and they were scattered." 

'Croatoan." -Two years had passed before Gov- 
ernor White could sail again for Roanoke. He found 



the island deserted. Not a sign of his colony could 
be seen. He blew upon his trumpet. He called to 
his people by name. He sang their old familiar songs. 
He fired his guns and cannon. But there was no reply. 
The houses had fallen down. Weeds grew within the 
ruined walls. The settlers had disappeared. 

Governor White wandered sadly about the place, 
looking everywhere for some sign of his colony. At 

last on a post near the 
door of the fort, he 
found one single word, 
in capital letters, 
above it was no cross 
or any sign of distress. 
Croatoan was the 
place where Manteo, 
the friend of the Eng- 
lish, lived. So Gov- 
ernor White started at once to find Croatoan. 

The Lost Colony. — But during the night a great 
storm arose. The wind snapped the ship's cables as 
if they had been of twine. Three anchors were lost. 
The vessel was driven on a sand bar and nearly wrecked. 
Food ran low and fresh water gave out. When the 
storm was over, the captain of the vessel refused to go 
to Croatoan. In spite of Governor White's prayers, 
he sailed away to the West Indies to repair his ship. 
Even after the ship had been repaired, the captain 
refused to sail for Croatoan, but returned to England, 
carrying poor Governor White with him. Other expedi- 
tions were sent to look for the colony, but no trace 

Indians making a Canoe 


of it was ever found. So Governor White never saw 
his little granddaughter again, and to this day his colony 
is known as "The Lost Colony." 

Raleigh's Misfortunes. — Raleigh's colonies had cost 
him a fortune and had not brought him in a single penny. 
He soon found himself, too, out of favor with Queen 
Elizabeth. She was angry because he had married one of 
the ladies of her Court, and banished him from her sight. 
But Raleigh, in spite of the Queen's disfavor, continued 
to serve his country. 

Upon the death of Queen Elizabeth, James Stuart, 
King of Scotland, became King of England. He was a 
wretched tyrant, and disliked the great men who had 
made Elizabeth's reign so glorious. Of them all, he 
hated Raleigh most. To please his friend, the King 
of Spain, James had Raleigh thrown into prison. The 
charge against him was treason, which everybody knew 
to be false. Yet the King's judges declared Raleigh 
guilty and sentenced him to death. But he was so 
popular with the people that James was afraid to have 
him executed, and he remained in prison for fourteen 

Raleigh's Heroic Death. — During these years King 
James fell more and more under the influence of the 
King of Spain. There was no man in England whom 
Spain feared and hated as much as Raleigh. So, to 
show his love for Spain, in 1618 James ordered that 
Raleigh be put to death. Raleigh met his death bravely. 
When his friends came to say good-by, he smiled and 

"I have a long journey to make, so I must take my 
leave of you." 


On the scaffold, he asked the headsman to let him see 
the ax. The man hesitated. 

"What!" said Raleigh. 'Let me see it. Dost 
thou think I am afraid of it?" Running his finger 
along the keen blade, he said: 

"Tis a sharp medicine, but it will cure all my ills." 

Then he laid his head on the block and told the heads- 
man to strike. Again the man hesitated and trembled. 
What dost thou fear, man!' exclaimed Raleigh. 
Strike, man, strike!" 

He struck and thus ended the life of one of England's 
bravest and noblest sons. 

Raleigh's own efforts to plant a colony in America 
failed. But he never lost interest in the New World. 
Soon after the loss of White's colony, writing of Vir- 
ginia, he said, "I shall live to see it an English nation 
yet." And he did live to see a permanent colony planted 
at Jamestown. Sir Walter Raleigh rendered many 
great services to his country, but his greatest service 
was in pointing out the way to found an English nation 
in America. 


1. In what part of England is Plymouth? 

2. Describe the position of England and Spain with reference 
to Europe. To America. To each other. 

3. What portion of the New World did Spain colonize? What 
parts of the New World are now inhabited by English-speaking 

4. Find and describe the situation of Roanoke Island. 

5. Amadas and Barlow sailed from London down the Thames, 
to the Canary Islands, thence to the West Indies, thence up the coast 
of Florida to Cape Lookout, thence to Hatteras Inlet, thence to 
Roanoke Island. Trace their route on your map. 


6. Describe the location and surroundings of Roanoke Island. 
What is its situation with reference to the West Indies? In what 
county is it? What is its county seat? 


1. Why was the Capital of North Carolina named Raleigh? 

2. Describe Sir Walter Raleigh's early life. 

3. Why did Raleigh become such a favorite with the Queen? 

4. Why did England become interested in sending a colony 
to America? 

5. Describe the voyage of Amadas and Barlow. 

6. How was their story received in England? 

7. Tell the story of Raleigh's first colony. 

8. What three plants did Lane take to England? Describe each of 
these plants. Tell how it is cultivated. What are the uses of each? 

9. Describe the second colony to Roanoke. 

10. Why did Governor White return to England? What. promise 
did the settlers make to him? Why did he not return at once to 

11. Describe White's return. 

12. Why did Raleigh give up his plans after the loss of his second 

13. Describe Raleigh's last days. 

14. What were the results of his efforts to plant a colony on Roanoke 


1. How old was Raleigh when he was. presented to the Queen? 
When he sent his first expedition to America? At his death? 

2. How long did it take Amadas and Barlow to cross the Atlantic? 
How long does it now take to go from New York to Liverpool? 

3. How long did Lane's colony remain on Roanoke Island? 

4. A certain historian says that the defeat of "The Invincible 
Armada " was "the opening event in the history of the United States." 
Explain what is meant by that statement. 

5. Since Raleigh's efforts to colonize "Virginia" failed, what 
right has he to be called "The Founder of English-America"? 



How Settlers came to North Carolina. — After the 
loss of the colony at Roanoke, many years passed before 
other white settlers came to North Carolina. In 1607 
Virginia was settled and grew into an important colony. 
From Virginia came the pioneers who led the way to 
the settlement of North Carolina. 

In those days there were but few roads through the 
wilderness. Travel by land was difficult and dangerous, 
so the settlers usually traveled by water. By water, 
too, they sent their products to market. Therefore 
lands lying along the rivers and sounds were usually 
selected for settlements. They were also more fertile 
than the uplands. Accordingly the early settler usually 
built his home on the bank of some stream. Many 
of the streams of Southern Virginia flow into the sounds 
of Eastern North Carolina. By following down the 
banks of these streams, settlers from Virginia came into 
Carolina, and built homes on the shore of Albemarle 

George Durant. — Among the first of these early 
settlers was George Durant. He was born in England 
about 1632. While still a young man he left the Old 
World to seek a home in Virginia. But Durant was not 
satisfied with his situation in Virginia. He probably 
heard hunters and explorers talking about the rich lands 




on Albemarle Sound which could be had almost for 
nothing. So, about the year 1660, he decided to explore 
that country, and with several companions he set out 
on a journey through the wilderness. 

"Durant's Neck." — Durant's companions soon found 
lands that suited them. They bought large tracts 
from the Indians and began their new homes on the 
Albemarle. But Durant himself was not so easily 
satisfied. Before settling, he wanted to know more 
about the new region. For two years he explored the 
streams and the forests. At the end of that time he 
probably knew more about the country on the Albe- 
marle Sound than any other white man. It was this 
habit of doing things thoroughly that later made him 
a leader in the province. 

At last Durant found a 
place that he liked. It was a 
fine tract lying on Perquim- 
ans River and Albemarle 
Sound. As it belonged to 
the Indians, Durant bought 
it from their chief, Kilco- 
canen. He then lost no 
time in clearing his land 
and building a dwelling- 
house. His plantation 
which was a narrow point 
of land between two rivers, 
became known as " Du- 
rant's Neck," and by this name it is known to this day. 

" Carolina." — Other settlers now came to the Albe- 
marle, and by 1663 their settlement had grown into 

Charles II 



importance. Virginia claimed it as part of her territory, 
but the King of England, Charles II, decided to use it 
for another purpose. He wished to reward some of 
his noblemen l who had done him great services by 
giving them a large tract of land in America. In 1663 
he signed a paper, called a charter, making them a pres- 
ent, not only of the Albemarle section, but also of all 

Sir George Carteret 

Anthony Ashley Cooper 

the region from Virginia to Florida, and from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific. This region had already been 
called Carolina, 2 in honor of King Charles I, father of 
Charles II, and Charles II retained the name. 

First Governor of Carolina. — The noblemen were 
called the Lords Proprietors of Carolina. The King 
gave them power to select a governor for their colony, 

^hey were: George Monk, Duke of Albemarle; Edward Hyde, Earl of 
Clarendon; Anthony Ashley Cooper; Lord Craven; Lord Berkeley; Sir 
William Berkeley; Sir George Carteret; and Sir John Colleton. 

2 From ' Carolus," the Latin word for Charles. 



and in 1664, at the suggestion of Sir William Berkeley, 
Governor of Virginia, they selected William Drummond. 
Drummond ruled in Albemarle for three years. He 
was a good governor. After leaving Carolina he went 
to Virginia, where he took part in a rebellion against 
his old friend, Sir William 
Berkeley. The rebels 
were defeated and Drum- 
mond was captured and 
taken before the Governor. 

"Mr. Drummond, you 
are very welcome," ex- 
claimed the angry Gov- 
ernor, "I am more pleased 
to see you than any man 
in Virginia. Mr. Drum- 
mond, you shall be hanged 
in half an hour." And 
sure enough the old tyrant 
had him hanged! 

The New Government 
and the People. — At first 

the government of Carolina was simple enough, 
people liked it because they had a voice in it. 
governor was selected by the Lords Proprietors, 
had six men to help him who were called his council. 
The people themselves elected men to an Assembly. The 
Assembly and the Council made the laws. But this plan 
was too simple to please the Lords Proprietors. They 
had a new one prepared, called the Grand Model, which 
gave great authority to a class of noblemen who were 
given such odd titles as " Landgrave' and 'Cacique." 

Memorial Stone at Nixonton 

(The people themselves elected men to 
an assembly.) 





The Lords Proprietors were very proud of their new 
plan. But it did not suit the people of Carolina, and 
they soon raised a cry against it. 'Down with your 
Landgraves! Down with your Caciques! Let us fly 
to the King for protection." The Grand Model caused 
nothing but trouble, because the people of North Caro- 
lina would obey no government unless they had a voice 
in it. 

How the People prospered. — The colony was now 
about ten years old. It contained nearly two thousand 
people. Their chief crop was tobacco. As they had 
no gold or silver, tobacco was used as money. People 
bought and sold things, not for so many dollars, but 
for so many pounds of tobacco. 

Their trading was done chiefly with men from New 
England. These New England men in their small 
ships easily sailed right up to the doors of the planters. 
To them the planters sold their crops. From them they 
bought such things as could not be made on their plan- 
tations. For a few years the affairs of the colony were 
orderly and the people prospered. 

Two Bad Laws. — In 1677 this happy condition came 
to a sudden end. Two laws which were passed in 
England, and a foolish officer who was sent over by the 
Lords Proprietors, caused trouble and disorder. One 
of these laws required the planters to pay a tax to the 
King on every pound of tobacco they shipped out of 
the colony. This tax was called the King's customs. 
It was to be collected by an officer known as the collector 
of the customs. The King's customs were a heavy 
burden on the people because they were poor and 
tobacco was their chief crop. 


The other law required the planters to sell their 
products to English merchants and to buy their goods 
in England. This law was intended to break up the 
trade with New England, and to enrich the British 
merchants. It was called the Navigation Law. 

The people protested against these laws. They 
declared that it was not right to tax them for the benefit 
of people in England. It was not right to make them 
sell their tobacco to those who gave the lowest prices 
for it, and to buy goods from those who charged the 
highest prices. If they had to obey these laws they 
would always remain poor. They therefore determined 
not to obey them. 

George Durant prepares to Resist. — In their resist- 
ance to these laws, George Durant was their leader. 
He was one of the largest planters in the province and 
his influence with the people was very great. When 
he called upon them to resist the Navigation Law, 
they readily followed him in their first rebellion against 
unjust laws. 

In 1676 two of the leading men from Carolina were 
in England. One of them was Thomas Eastchurch, 
who had been speaker of the Assembly. The other 
was Thomas Miller. From them the Lords Proprietors 
learned that affairs in Carolina were in bad shape. 
The people were discontented with the new plan of 
government. They disliked the Navigation Law. Their 
governor had grown tired of his office, and gone to 
England, leaving the colony " in ill order and in worse 

The Lords Proprietors, therefore, had to select a 
new governor. They wished to find one with whom 



the people would be pleased. Perhaps, the Lords 
Proprietors thought, the people would like to have one 
of their own men for governor. They must like East- 
church because they had elected him speaker of the 
Assembly. Believing this, the Proprietors selected East- 

Duke of Albemarle 

Lord John Berkeley 

church as the new governor. At the same time they 
had Miller appointed collector of the customs. 

But the Lords Proprietors were mistaken. The 
people did not want Eastchurch for governor, and 
there was one man who was bold enough to tell the 
Proprietors so. That man was George Durant. Soon 
after Eastchurch was appointed, Durant was in England. 
Standing up boldly before the Proprietors, Durant 
said : 

'My Lords, Eastchurch shall never be governor. If 
he goes to Albemarle, I myself will lead a rebellion 
against him." 


Eastchurch and Miller. — In June, 1677, Governor 
Eastchurch and Collector Miller sailed from England. 
On their way they stopped at the island of Nevis, in 
the West Indies. There Eastchurch fell in love with 
a wealthy woman, and while he stayed to win a wife and 
a fortune, he sent Miller on to look after the govern- 
ment in Carolina. The people received Miller quietly, 
and for a short time all went well. 

But Miller's honors turned his head. He soon 
began to abuse his power. He opposed the right of 
the people to elect members of the Assembly. He 
compelled men to pay heavy fines which were unjust. 
He ordered his officers to arrest men whom he disliked 
and bring them to him, dead or alive. He tried to break 
up the trade with New England. He seized thousands 
of pounds of tobacco for the King's customs, part of 
which he used to keep up a guard of soldiers to do his 
will. The people called it his " piping guard." 

Durant leads our First Rebellion. — For a while 
there was no one to lead the people, and Miller had his 
own way. But in October, 1677, a ship arrived from 
England with George Durant on board. Here was a 
leader, at last, and Miller knew it. He determined to 
catch Durant by surprise before he could arouse the 
people. Quickly calling his "piping guard' together, 
he hurried on board the vessel, pointed a pistol at 
Durant's breast, and tried to arrest him as a traitor. 
But Durant turned tables on him. He called on the 
people to resist Miller's conduct. They rallied around 
Durant, .arrested Miller, and threw him into prison. 

Durant then suggested that the people elect an 
Assembly to meet at his house. The Assembly met and 


appointed John Culpeper collector in Miller's place, 
and turned over to him the tobacco which Miller 
had seized as the King's customs. The Assembly 
then decided to have Miller tried for his crimes, 
and George Durant was selected to bring him to 

About this time a message was received from East 
church. He had won his bride and was now in Virginia 
on his way to become governor of Albemarle. East- 
church was the lawful governor. Would George Durant 
be bold enough to oppose him? Yes, he was ready to 
do even that! He first had Miller declared guilty, and 
imprisoned, and then he raised a strong guard to march 
against Eastchurch. But no guard was needed, for 
soon after Eastchurch reached Virginia, he died. And 
so, just as Durant had declared, Eastchurch never 
became governor of Albemarle. 

The People's Government. — For a while after Miller's 
defeat the people had a government of their own. But 
in 1678 the Lords Proprietors decided to send over 
one of their own number to be governor. Perhaps the 
people would respect and obey a Proprietor. So they 
selected Seth Sothel. 1 But while crossing the Atlantic, 
Sothel was captured by pirates, and for the next four 
years, first Thomas Harvey and then John Jenkins 
acted as governor. 

But during these years the real leader in the colony 
was George Durant. The people had great confidence 
in him. But his enemies declared that he was at the 
head of the rebels. They said that he opposed the 
governors sent over by the Lords Proprietors, and 

x He had bought the share of Lord Clarendon. 


pulled down and set up whom he pleased in their place. 
"Although Jenkins had the title of governor/ 5 they 
wrote, "yet in fact Durant governed and used Jenkins 
but as his property." 

Durant drives out a Wicked Governor. — In 1682 
Sothel was released by the pirates and arrived in North 
Carolina. He proved to be one of the worst governors 
North Carolina ever had. George Durant denounced 
him for his crimes. Then he arrested Durant for 
treason, threw him into prison without a trial, and 
seized his fine plantation. But he could not keep 
Durant in prison. He was soon set free because he 
could not be found guilty of any crime. Then he again 
headed a rebellion, captured Sothel, and in turn threw 
him into prison. 

Durant then called upon the Assembly to decide 
what should be done with the wicked governor. The 
Assembly decided to send him to England to be tried 
by the Lords Proprietors. But Sothel, afraid for the 
Proprietors to find out all of his crimes, begged to be 
tried by the Assembly. The Assembly granted his 
prayer, found him guilty, and banished him from the 
province. Thus for a second time, George Durant 
freed Carolina from a tyrant. 

Durant' s Last Days. — During the last years of his 
life Durant was a justice of the peace. Among the 
things that a justice of the peace had to do was to find 
out and punish all persons engaged in "witchcrafts, 
enchantments, sorceries, and magic arts." Let us hope 
that George Durant found no poor old women to punish 
as witches. He continued to be a leader in the province 
until his death in 1694. 


George Durant was our first patriot leader against 
tyranny. Like all patriots he believed in obedience 
to the law and to lawful rulers. But he also believed 
in liberty, and when rulers broke the law and oppressed 
the people, he was always ready to lead the people in 
rebellion. The colony was small in his day, and his 
struggles for liberty are but little known now. Never- 
theless he fought the battles of freedom, and should be 
remembered as a true patriot. 


1. Trace the course of the James River. Point out the site of 

2. Trace the course of the rivers of eastern Virginia that flow into 
North Carolina. 

3. What are the principal sounds of North Carolina? What 
rivers flow into them? 

4. "Durant's Neck" is the point of land between the Perquimans 
and Little rivers. Find it. 

5. Describe the situation of the counties of Pasquotank, Perqui- 
mans, Chowan, and Currituck, and name any streams or bodies of 
water in each. 

6. What is the general character of the coast of North Carolina? 


1. When and where was the first permanent English settlement 
made in America? Why did settlers from Virginia seek land on the 
banks of Albemarle Sound? 

2. Why did George Durant become interested in that region? 

3. How did George Durant obtain land on the Albemarle? 

4. What did King Charles do w r ith that region? What name was 
then given it? 

5. Tell the story of William Drummond. 

6. Describe the government of Carolina. Why did the people 
like it? What changes did the Lords Proprietors make in it? How 
did the people like the changes? 


7. How old was the colony then? How many people lived in it? 
What was their chief crop? How was it used? Describe their trade. 

8. What two bad laws were passed in 1677? What did the people 
say about those laws? 

9. Why did the Lords Proprietors select Eastchurch for gov- 
ernor? What did Durant tell them? 

10. Why did not Eastchurch go at once to Carolina? Describe 
Miller's conduct. 

11. What occurred when Durant arrived in Carolina? Why did 
not Eastchurch become governor? 

12. Describe the government after the death of Eastchurch. 

13. How did Durant rescue the colony from a wicked governor? 

14. Why should we honor Durant? 


1. How many years passed between the birth of Virginia Dare 
and the settlement of Jamestown? 

2. In what way has the geography of Eastern North Carolina 
affected our history? 

3. By what right did the whites take the land in America without 
the consent of the Indians? 

4. In what ways did the government of Carolina under the Lord 
Proprietors resemble our government to-day? How did it differ? 

5. What is a "tax"? For what purposes are taxes usually 
collected? Who has the right to levy taxes in North Carolina? 

6. In what ways did the Navigation Law injure the planters of 
North Carolina? How did it benefit the English merchants? 



Governor Sothel meets His Match. — Other men 
besides George Durant suffered from the tyranny of 
Governor Sothel. Once, when two vessels arrived in 
Albemarle, Sothel determined to seize their cargoes 
for his own use. Declaring that the captains were 
pirates, he arrested and threw them into prison. One 
of them died in prison 'of grief and ill usage." Just 
before his death, this captain selected a young man, 
who had recently come to the colony, to take charge 
of his property for him. This young man was Thomas 
Pollock. When Pollock demanded the property, Sothel 
refused to give it up. Pollock threatened to go to 
England and appeal to the Lords Proprietors. There- 
upon Sothel flew into a rage, arrested the bold young 
man, and locked him up in prison. But he was soon 
released, for the people, tired of the tyrant Sothel, rose 
against him and drove him out of the province. 

Thomas Pollock. — Thomas Pollock was born in 
Scotland, May 5, 1654, and came to Carolina in 1683. 
Though he was still a young man, he already held a 
high position. He was the deputy of Lord Carteret, 
one of the Lords Proprietors. Each of the Lords 
Proprietors sent to the colony a man to look after his 
affairs there. These men were called "deputies.' 5 Next 




to the governor they were the most important officers 
in the colony. They formed the Governor's Council, 
and advised him upon all important matters. They 
were also part of the Assembly, and helped to pass laws 
for the colony. When the office of governor became 
vacant, the president of the Council filled it until a new 
governor arrived. Thomas Pollock was twice president 
of the Council, and twice acted as governor. 

A Colonial Planter. — Pollock soon became one of 
the largest and wealthiest planters in Carolina. In 
those days there was 
but little money in the 
colony. A man's wealth 
was counted by the 
land and number of 
slaves he owned. Pol- 
lock owned plantations 
on the Roanoke, the 

r^t, j-t~ at j Colonial Plow 

Chowan, the JN euse, and 

the Trent rivers. One of his plantations was the site 

on which the city of New Bern now stands. 

He called his places by such names as Springfield, 
Canecarora, Rosefield, Crany Island, and Balgra. In 
all he owned 55,000 acres of land and about one hundred 
slaves. His slaves were given such odd names as Scipio, 
Jack Fiddler, Coffee Jacko, Long Mingo, Diego, Venus, 
Tomboy, Diana, and Pompey. Most of them were 
negroes, but a few were Indians. 

The chief crops raised on Pollock's plantations were 
tobacco, wheat, and corn. Other products were tar, 
pitch, and turpentine which his slaves made from the 
great pines that grew in his forests. These were very 


useful for ship-building, and brought good prices in 
New England. 

Many fine horses, flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle 
grazed in his rich pastures. Large droves of hogs ran 
wild through his woods, fattening on roots, berries, 
acorns, and wild fruit. Each of these animals bore a 
certain mark by which Pollock could tell his from those 
of his neighbors. A person found guilty of changing 
another's mark was severely punished. He was made 
to pay a heavy fine, and was taken to the whipping-post 
and given " forty lashes on his bare back well laid on.' 5 
If found guilty a second time, he was made to stand in 
pillory and branded in the hand with the letter T' 
(thief). Every year Pollock sent thousands of pounds 
of pork to Virginia and to New England. 

A Colonial Merchant. — In his will, Pollock called 
himself a "merchant." This did not mean that he 
owned a store as a merchant now does. In colonial 
days a merchant was a man who owned ships and 
carried on commerce with distant countries. Pollock 
owned a number of vessels. From his wharves they 
sailed to the ports of New England and to the West 
Indies. They carried away cargoes of tobacco, salt 
beef and pork, tallow, hides, furs, wool, and naval 
stores; and they brought back rum, salt, sugar, molasses, 
lumber, and such household articles as could not be 
made on the plantations. 

Sometimes Pollock even sent his ships across the ocean 
to England. From England they brought clothes, 
furniture, and other things for his own family. But 
the clothes worn by the slaves and other servants, and 
the rude furniture in their little cabins, were made by 


his slaves. For Pollock, like other large planters, trained 
his slave women to be skilful spinners and weavers; 
while among his slave men were good tanners, shoe- 
makers, blacksmiths, carpenters, and other mechanics. 
. Many years passed before any sawmills were built 
in i^lbemarle. Even the wealthiest planters, such as 
Pollock, lived in log-houses. Their houses were built 
of hewn logs, with wooden chimneys, wooden hinges, 
and wooden locks. Indeed, they often had no iron- 
work about them. But as Pollock grew wealthier, he 
bought lumber, nails, iron hinges, and locks, in New 
England, and, with the bricks made by his own slaves, 
built better houses on his plantations. 

The Planter at Home. — Hospitality was regarded 
as one of the first duties of the colonial planter. Indeed, 
most of them lived rather lonely lives, and were ever 
ready to welcome guests to their houses. The traveler 
brought news from other parts of the world, and his 
stories helped the long evenings pass pleasantly. u The 
inhabitants of Carolina," wrote one of these travelers, 
"live an easy and pleasant life. As the land is very 
fruitful, so are the planters hospitable to all that come 
to visit them." Many housekeepers, he tells us, "give 
away more provisions to coasters and guests who come 
to see them than they expend among their own families." 
Pollock's house was a favorite place for travelers. He 
was known far and wide for his hospitality. At that 
time there were no schools in Carolina. The wealthy 
planters either had teachers in their own families, or 
sent their sons to England to be educated. Pollock 
sent his sons to England. One of them became an 
officer in the English army. 



An " Established Church" in Carolina. — Like many 
of the other planters, Pollock was a member of the 
Church of England. But in Carolina the people were 
so widely scattered that it was very difficult for them to 
have churches. Several years passed before any churches 
were built, or any preachers came. The first preachers 
in the colony were Quakers. These good men visited 

the people in their homes, 
preached to them, and 
converted many to their 

But such men as Pol- 
lock thought there ought 
to be an " Established 
Church' in Carolina, just 
as there was in England. 
An " Established Church" 
is a Church set up by 
law to be the official 
Church of the country. The law provides what officers 
the Church must have, and requires everybody, whether 
members or not, to pay taxes for its support. Such 
Churches are found in nearly all the countries of Europe, 
but not in America. In England the " Established 
Church " is called the " Church of England," and it 
is the same that we in America call the ' Episcopal 

It was this church that Pollock wished to have estab- 
lished in Carolina. The Quakers, and even some mem- 
bers of the Church of England, opposed this plan. But 
the Governor favored it, and in 1701 the Assembly 
passed the law. By this law Quakers, as well as mem- 

St. Thomas Church at Bath 

(The oldest church in North Carolina 
From a painting by Jacques Busbee) 


bers of the Established Church, were required to pay 
taxes to build churches and pay ministers. The law 
divided the colony into small sections called " parishes/' 
and provided that a church should be erected in each. 
The officers of the church were called " vestrymen.'' 
In the parish of Chowan precinct, Pollock was the lead- 
ing vestryman, and took an important part in building 
the first church. 

St. Paul's Church. — This church stood near the 
present town of Edenton. It was known as St. Paul's 
Church. Its length was only twenty-five feet. It 
was built of hewn logs. The posts were driven into the 
ground. Nails, screws, hinges, glass, and other material 
had to be brought from England. When finished, it 
was hardly more than a rude log cabin. But the mem- 
bers were proud of their first church, and among them 
were the governors, judges, and other high officers. 
Their first service was held in January, 1703, but it 
was not until 1705 that they chose a minister. They 
agreed to pay him a salary of £30 a year. He was 
also to have some land and certain fees by law. Only 
two men paid as much as £5 annually toward this 
sum. They were Thomas Pollock and Edward 

Pollock and Moseley. — Pollock and Moseley were 
great rivals. The people were divided into two parties, 
with Pollock at the head of one, Moseley of the other. 
In 1708 a dispute arose in the province as to whether 
William Glover or Thomas Cary was the lawful governor. 
Pollock was on Glover's side, Moseley on Cary's. 

Finally the Lords Proprietors settled the matter by 
sending Edward Hyde from England to be governor. 



Pollock and his friends welcomed the new governor, 
but Cary rebelled against him. Both sides took up 
arms and threw the colony into great disorder. This 
division led to a terrible event in which Colonel Pollock 
rendered his greatest service to the colony. 

St. Paul's Church, Edenton, N. C, begun in 1736 
(Thomas Pollock took an important part in building the first church) 

Bath and New Bern. — The first settlements were 
made on the northern shore of Albemarle Sound. In 
a few years settlers began to cross the sound and 
move southward. In 1690 a few Frenchmen made a 
settlement on Pamlico River. There, too, in 1705 was 
laid off the town of Bath, the first town in North Caro- 
lina. Later other pioneers crossed the Pamlico River 
and cleared lands on the Neuse and the Trent. Here 
they were joined, in 1710, by a body of Swiss and Ger- 
mans under a Swiss nobleman. Baron Christopher de 
Graffenried. These Swiss and Germans settled on 



Pollock's plantation between the Neusc and the Trent, 
where they founded the town of New Bern. 

The Watchful Red Men. The increase in the 
number of white men alarmed the Indians. They saw 
that the whites were taking more and more of their 
land, clearing the forests, and driving away the game. 


wf%*^ : 

*c x 



■pr' ^ 



Mi!'- 1 



^^■^- M^ 

■ SE- ; 



*V. *« ' - ^ 



- .gj 

Bath, the Oldest Town in North Carolina 
(A street scene of today) 

The whites even captured some of the red men and 
sold them into slavery. The Indians soon learned to 
fear and hate their white neighbors. But for a long- 
time they did not dare resist them. They waited pa- 
tiently, pretending to be very friendly, but all the time 
watching for a good chance to make an attack. The 
quarrel between Gary and Hyde seemed to give them 
the very chance they had been waiting for. 

A Terrible Morning. — The leader of the Indians 
was Chief Hancock. When he saw the whites fighting 
among themselves, during Gary's Rebellion, he decided 


that it was a good time for the Indians to strike a blow 
that would destroy the colony. He appointed the morn- 
ing of September 22, 1711, as the time for the attack. 
His plans were kept so secret that the whites did not 
dream of their danger. 

They slept peacefully through the night. At day- 
break the war-whoops of the savages aroused them from 
sleep. Five hundred painted warriors poured out of 
the woods on every side. Within two hours they had 
slain 130 settlers on the Neuse, and burned their homes 
to the ground. Men, women, and children fell beneath 
their tomahawks. For three days the burning and 
slaying went on. All along the Pamlico and the Neuse 
there were scenes of blood and ashes and ruin. 

South Carolina sends Help. — Governor Hyde did 
his best to stop the awful work. He called upon Vir- 
ginia and South Carolina for help. South Carolina 
sent an army under Colonel John Barnwell. Barnwell 
defeated the Indians in two great battles, but was him- 
self defeated in the third. Then he and the Indians 
agreed to a treaty of peace, and Barnwell returned to 
South Carolina. But neither side kept the treaty. In 
a little while the war broke out again. In the midst 
of the war, Governor Hyde died, and the people turned 
to Pollock to save the colony. 

Pollock becomes Governor. — Pollock was chosen 
president of the Council and acted as governor. In 
times of peace he had refused to act as governor. But 
now, in a time of danger and trouble, he thought it his 
duty to serve the people in any way they wished. He 
had to meet many trials and dangers. A number of 
the people had been killed. Others were without homes, 


clothes, or food. Arms and ammunition were scarce, 
and there was no money to pay soldiers. 

But Pollock did not stop to complain about his diffi- 
culties. He sent messengers into Virginia and South 
Carolina to seek help. He appealed to the people of 
the province to forget their quarrels and unite to defend 
their homes. Many, who had opposed Governor Hyde, 
now came to Pollock's support. Even the Quakers, 
who thought it sinful to take part in war, sent food and 
supplies for the soldiers. 

The Treaty with "King Blunt." — Not only did 
Pollock unite the whites; he also divided the Indians. 
One powerful chief, called Tom Blunt, had not taken 
any part in the war. Pollock made an important treaty 
with him. By this treaty Blunt was to be called "King 
Blunt," and was to be regarded as the head of the Caro- 
lina Indians. In return he promised to help the whites 
against Hancock. In this way Pollock obtained valu- 
able aid, for "King Blunt'' and his warriors were faith- 
ful to their promises. 

Soon after this treaty was made, Colonel James Moore, 
of South Carolina, marched an army to the help of 
North Carolina. He was joined by the soldiers whom 
Pollock had raised. In March, 1713, they attacked 
Hancock's fort, Nohoroco, on Contentnea Creek. The 
battle lasted three days and Hancock was badly beaten. 
He lost eight hundred of his bravest warriors. After this 
terrible defeat, the rest of his tribe left North Carolina 
and joined their kinsmen in New York. Never again 
were the Indians in Eastern North Carolina strong 
enough to destroy the white settlers. 

Pollock establishes Peace. — The people had now 


become tired of wars and quarrels. Pollock sought 
earnestly to unite all parties. " Factions and parties 
are no longer heard of," wrote an English clergyman, 
who was in Carolina. " Thanks be to God," wrote 
another, "we have no disturbance among ourselves. 
All people's hearts unite and everybody is as happy as 
the times will admit of, under the wise rule of our good 
President." When the new governor, Charles Eden, 
arrived in May, 1714, he found all "in peace and quiet- 

Death of Colonel Pollock. — Charles Eden was gov- 
ernor of North Carolina from 1714 to 1722. During 
these years Pollock was a member of the Council. 
When Eden died, in 1722, Pollock was again elected 
president, and again acted as governor. He died in 
office, August 30, 1722. 


1. Where is Scotland? 

2. Trace the course of the Roanoke River. The Chowan. The 
Neuse. The Trent. The Pamlico. Is this last river called by the 
same name throughout its entire length? Trace the course of Con- 
tentnea Creek. 

3. Describe the situation of New Bern. Of Edenton. Of Bath. 


1. Where was Thomas Pollock born? Why did he come to Caro- 
lina? How was he treated by Governor Sothel? 

2. Describe a colonial plantation. 

3. Describe a colonial merchant. 

4. Describe the colonial planter at home. 

5. What was an "Established Church"? What Church was 
established in Carolina? Why? 


6. Where was the firsi church buil1 in Carolina? What was its 
name? Describe it. 

7. Tell the story of the founding of New Bern. 

8. How did the Indians regard the increase in the white popula- 
tion? What plans did they make? Who was their leader? 

9. Describe the beginning of the war. 

10. What help did North Carolina receive in this war from other 

11. Why did Pollock become governor? What were the conditions 
in the colony then? What did he do to make them better? 

12. Tell how he divided the Indians. 

13. How was the war brought to an end? What became of the 

14. What were the results of Pollock's work as governor? 


1. What is the meaning of the word "deputy" ? 

2. How are pitch and tar made? For what purposes are they 
used in ship-building? 

3. Why was hospitality to travelers regarded as the special 
duty of the planters in the South? 

4. Why did De Graffenried's colonists name their town New 

5. Why would not the Quakers bear arms in the Indian war? (See 
St. Matthew 5:21-26.) 

6. For whom was the town of Edenton named? What is the 
meaning of the suffix "ton" ? 

7. Why did the planters usually select their lands on a stream 
or a sound? 

8. Were the early towns usually founded on the banks of streams 
or not? Give some illustrations. 



The Rivals. — For many years the two leading men 
in North Carolina were Thomas Pollock and Edward 
Moseley. Each was wealthy, each was ambitious, 
each was patriotic; and each wished to be the leader 
in the province. So in public affairs they were generally 
opposed to each other. First one, then the other would 
get the upper hand. But after Pollock's death, no one 
was left to dispute the leadership with Moseley, and he 
became without a rival the leader of the people. 

Edward Moseley. — Moseley came to North Caro- 
lina about the year 1704. He made his home in Chowan 
County but also owned large plantations in Chowan, 
New Hanover, Tyrrell, Edgecombe, and Craven counties. 
Altogether his plantations contained more than thirty- 
five thousand acres, and he was the master of a hun- 
dred slaves. His herds of cattle, his flocks of sheep, 
his droves of hogs were as large and as fine as Colonel 
Pollock's. No man in Carolina had finer or better 
horses than Moseley; and his wife could boast of as 
handsome silver tea kettles, silver coffee-pots, silver 
knives, forks, spoons, tankards, casters, and other 
furniture as any housekeeper in the colony. 

Moseley was a well educated man. Perhaps no other 
man of his day did so much as he for education in the 




colony. In his will he says, "I would have my children 
well educated," and left a sum of money for that pur- 
pose. He owned the largest and best library in North 
Carolina. His will mentioned nearly four hundred 
books then in his library, and before his death he had 
given away a large num- 
ber. He sent money to 
England for the purchase 
of a communion service, 
prayer books, and other 
religious works for St. 
Paul's Church. Three 
years later he established 
at Edenton a public library 
worth more than £100. 
The books in this library 
were mostly written in 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. 
Moseley's Political 
Career. — Moseley began 
to take part in public 
affairs about 1705. Dur- 
ing the next forty years 
he was chosen to every 
public office to which the 

people could elect him. From being a simple justice 
of the peace, he rose to be chief justice of the prov- 
ince. Year after year he was elected a member of 
the Assembly, and was four times chosen speaker. 
Like Pollock he was a vestryman of the Established 
Church, but he believed in religious freedom, and 
thought that eveiy man ought to be permitted to 

Silver Service presented to St. 
Paul's Church in 1725 by Edward 

(Moseley sent money to England for the 
purchase of a communion service, 
prayer books, and other religious 
works for St. Paul's Church) 



worship God according to his own belief. He was also 
a member of the Governor's Council, and in 1724, 
for a short- time, acted as governor. 

Moseley Comes to the Front. — It was in 1708, 
during the dispute between Glover and Gary, that 
Moseley came to the front as Pollock's rival. That 

to ii I) 

IV, i> . Poi 

It PlCNU'. 


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f/vfy /.'tf/ifnOb 

/ / / 

-k \V\\( v\i 

Colonial Currency Showing Moseley's Signature 

dispute grew out of a law passed in England. This 
law required every official in the colony to take an oath 
to be true and loyal to Queen Anne. Such an oath is 
called the "oath of allegiance." In North Carolina 
there were thousands of Quakers who would not take 
that oath. They were not opposed to Queen Anne, 
but they thought it sinful to take any oath at all. Be- 
fore 1704 they had always been permitted simply to 
give their promise in place of the oath. 

But when the Assembly met in 1704, Governor Daniel 
said that the Quaker members, like all the other members, 
must take the oath of allegiance. Tney refused. Then 
the Governor declared they should not sit in the As- 


sembly. The Quakers appealed to the Lords Proprietors. 
Moseley, though not a Quaker, took their side. The 
Lords Proprietors removed Daniel and put Thomas 
Cary in his place. But Cary, too, declared that the 
Quakers must obey the law. The Quaker party then 
sent John Porter to England to appeal again to the 
Lords Proprietors. Porter was successful. Cary was 
removed and William Glover put in his place. But 
this only made matters worse, for Glover also required 
them to take the hateful oath. In great anger, the 
Quaker party again turned to Cary, and again set him 
up as governor. 

But Glover refused to give up and Cary refused to 
back down. Each claimed to be the only lawful gov- 
ernor. For a time it looked as if there might be a war 
about the matter. The people divided into two parties 
over it. Most of those who favored an Established 
Church supported Glover. Pollock was their leader. 
Those who opposed an Established Church, as well as 
some who favored it, supported Cary. Their leader 
was Edward Moseley. 

In 1708 the two parties agreed to let the Assembly 
decide the dispute. An election was held, and both 
sides worked liked beavers. When the Assembly met, 
it was found that Moseley had led his party to victory. 
He was at once chosen speaker. The Assembly then 
decided in favor of Cary. Pollock and Glover, fearing 
that their lives were in danger, fled to Virginia. For 
the next two years Moseley and Cary ruled without 

A New Governor. - - But in 1710 the Lords Proprietors 
sent Edward Hyde to be governor of North Carolina. 


Hyde was a cousin of Queen Anne, and on that account 
the people looked up to him with "awful respect." So 
he was welcomed by all parties. Gary and Moseley 
promised to receive him as governor, and Pollock re- 
turned from Virginia. 

For a while all went well. But soon Hyde began to 
take Pollock's side against Moseley. He then made 
up his mind to punish Moseley and Cary. Moseley 
was arrested on a false charge. Then he and Cary 
flew to arms. But the governor of Virginia sent aid 
to Governor Hyde. Gary fled from the province, and 
the rebellion came to an end. About the same time war 
broke out with the Indians, and the whites saw that they 
must stop their own quarrel to unite against the red men. 

Moseley Takes a Stand for Liberty. — No man 
hated tyranny or loved liberty more than Moseley. 
He thought that the people ought to obey the laws and 
respect their rulers; but he also thought that the rulers 
themselves ought to obey the laws. The law of England 
declared that the rulers should not take the property 
of the people for any purpose without their consent. 
Moseley believed that this should also be law in North 

During the war with the Indians the colonial rulers 
seized the property of the people for the public service 
without their consent. Thev declared that it was 
necessary to do so in order to save the colony. But 
Moseley stood up boldly against such conduct. When 
the Assembly met in 1715 he was speaker, and he per- 
suaded the members to declare such acts to be unlawful 
and against the rights and liberty of the people. Fifty 
years later, when Great Britain tried to tax the Ameri- 



cans without their consent, all the colonies echoed 
Moseley's bold words. 

Moseley Defies the Governor. — For several years 
the rivers and sounds of North Carolina had been a 
favorite place for pirates. Many of these daring 
robbers brought their ves- 
sels into Albemarle and 
Pamlico sounds and into 
Cape Fear river. They 
captured hundreds of trad- 
ing vessels, plundered their 
cargoes, and murdered 
their crews. The most 
famous of these savage 
men was Edward Teach, 
whose bushy, black 
whiskers gave him the nick- 
name of "Blackbeard." 
1 ' Blackbeard ' ' made his 
headquarters at Bath, and 
was the terror of the coun- 
try. The people were anx- 
ious to have him captured 
and punished, but the governor, Charles Eden, would 
not raise his hand against " Blackbeard." 

After a while people began to whisper that the 
Governor had been bribed by the pirate. It was said, 
too, that even the chief justice, Tobias Knight, was 
getting a share of the pirate's plunder. When Mose- 
ley demanded that he be permitted to see the public 
records, to find out if there was anything about 
" Blackbeard" in them, Eden and Knight refused. 

"Blackbeard " 


"Why/ 1 exclaimed Moseley, "the public records belong 
to the people, and every man has a right to see them." 

So he made up his mind to defy the Governor. Break- 
ing into Knight's house, he seized the records in spite 
of the Governor and the Chief Justice. The Governor 
at once sent a band of armed men to arrest him. "It 
seems easy enough," exclaimed Moseley, "for the 
Governor to raise armed men to arrest me, but he 
would not raise them to arrest the pirate." Moseley 
was carried before the court and found guilty of break- 
ing into Knight's house. He was fined £100 and for- 
bidden to hold office for three years. 

Moseley never proved that the Governor or the Chief 
Justice was bribed by "Blackbeard." But Governor 
Eden would never do anything to capture the pirate. 
In 1718 Lieutenant Maynard, an officer of the British 
navy, sailed in an armed vessel against Teach. A fierce 
battle was fought, and Teach was beaten and killed. 

An Old Quarrel with Virginia. — Lying between 
North Carolina and Virginia was a strip of land about 
fifteen miles wide which both colonies claimed. "Hun- 
dreds of families"' had settled in it, and they would not 
obey the laws of either colony. When the Virginia 
officers tried to enforce the law against them, they 
would say, "We are in North Carolina." When the 
North Carolina officers came, they would say, "We are 
in Virginia." They would not pay taxes or rent to 
either colony. So it was very important to decide 
which colony they were really in. 

In 1709 the two colonies appointed certain men, 
called "commissioners," to run the boundary line 
between them and so settle the dispute. Edward 


Moseley was North Carolina's chief commissioner. 
When he met the Virginians, in 1710, he told them that 
their surveying instruments were wrong. How angry 
this made the haughty Virginians! They were so 
indignant that they marched off to their homes, mutter- 
ing many ugly things about the stupid Carolinians. 
But it was not the Carolinians who were stupid that 
time, for afterward it turned out that Moseley was 
exactly right. 

The King Interferes. — For many years the Vir- 
ginians would have nothing more to do with the boundary 
line. But in 1728 the King bought North Carolina 
from the Lords Proprietors. He then sent an order 
to the two colonies that they must settle their dispute. 
Again Moseley was the principal commissioner from 
North Carolina. The chief Virginia commissioner was 
the proud and witty William Byrd. 

How the Dispute was Settled. — The Virginians 
prepared to come with great pomp and ceremony. 
They wrote to Moseley and his companions that, for 
the honor of their province, they would bring fine tents 
and a long train of servants. "We shall also have/' 
they said, "as much wine and rum as will enable us and 
our men to drink every night to the good success of the 
following day." They hoped the North Carolinians 
would meet them with the same pomp and ceremony. 
But Moseley and his companions were going for work, 
not for play. So they replied that they had no wish 
to outdo the Virginians "unless in care and diligence 
in the affairs we come to meet vou about." 

The commissioners and surveyors had a hard task. 
They had to cut their way through dense forests and 


wade through swamps and deep rivers. The surveyors 
who ran the line were the first white men who ever found 
their way through the Great Dismal Swamp. Many 
disputes arose as to where the line ought to be run. 
But after several weeks of hard work an agreement 
was reached. The disputed territory was found to be 
in North Carolina. In nearly every dispute Moseley 
was right. Byrd was so angry that he wrote a spiteful 
book about the boundary line, in which he said many 
silly and untruthful things about North Carolina. 

Moseley Moves to the Cape Fear. — A few years 
later Moseley left Chowan County, and moved to the 
new settlements on the Cape Fear River. The first 
settlers in Carolina, as we have seen, built their homes 
on Albemarle Sound. After that they pushed farther 
and farther southward. In 1690 some French Hugue- 
nots settled on Pamlico River. Then, in 1710, the 
Swiss and Germans came and settled on Neuse River, 
where they founded the town of New Bern. 

But several years more passed before any white men 
built homes on the Cape Fear. The Indians and pirates 
stood in the way. But after they were defeated, settlers 
began to clear the fertile lands on the banks of the 
Cape Fear and its tributaries. The first ones moved 
there about 1723. Two years later the old town of 
Brunswick was laid off, and then, after a few years, 
Wilmington was founded. 

One of the leaders in the settlement of the Cape Fear 
region was Edward Moseley. He became the owner 
of several plantations in that section, as well as houses 
and lots in Wilmington. In 1734 he moved to his 
place at Rocky Point, where he made his home for the 



rest of his life. His residence there was known as 
"Moseley Hall." 

Famous Homes on the Cape Fear. — Every planta- 
tion in colonial days had a name. Some of those on 
the Cape Fear have become famous in our history. 
Near Brunswick 
was Orton, the 
home of Roger 
Moore, who was 
called, on account 
of his great 
wealth," Old King 
Roger." A trav- 
eler, who visited 
him in 1734, said 
that "King 
Roger" was "the 
chief gentleman in all Cape Fear. His house is built 
of brick, and is exceedingly pleasantly situated about 
two miles from the town, and about half a mile from 
the river." 

Near Orton was Kendal, the home of "King 
Roger's" son, George Moore, who had twenty-eight 
children; and Lilliput, which was "a beautiful brick 
house," the home of Eleazar Allen, chief justice of the 
colony. Near Moseley Hall, on the North East Cape 
Fear, were several fine places. There was Lillington 
Hall, where Alexander Lillington, a famous patriot of 
the Revolution, lived. Across the river was Governor 
Burrington's place, called Stag Park. Nearby were 
The Neck, the home of Samuel Ashe who became 
governor of North Carolina, and Green Hill, the 

" Orton," as it is To-day 


home of his brother, John Ashe, the famous soldier of 
the Revolution. 

'The finest place in all Cape Fear," said the English 
traveler, was Rocky Point, the home of Maurice Moore, 
who was Edward Moseley's brother-in-law. Not far 
away was Castle Haynes, where lived Colonel Hugh 
Waddell, a famous soldier of the French and Indian 
War. Close by lived John Burgwyn, treasurer of the 
colony, at his home called The Hermitage. 

Most of these houses were built of wood, but a few 
were of brick. Usually they had only one story, and 
were spread out over a large space. The rooms were 
large and spacious, the halls and piazzas were wide. 
In each room was a huge fireplace high enough for a 
man to stand erect in and wide enough to hold a long 
log. It was great fun in winter, during the long eve- 
nings, for the family to build a roaring fire, and, drawing 
their chairs in front of it, to roast apples, pop corn, and 
pull candy, or perhaps to tell tales, or play games, or 
read aloud to each other. Most of these houses stood 
in the midst of large groves, on the banks of the rivers. 
If you had visited one of them in 1734, you would not 
have traveled in a carriage, or even on horseback; 
and probably you would have found no horses or car- 
riages at the front gate. But you would have seen 
sloops, or schooners, or brigantines tied at the wharf 
for most of the traveling and trading was done in boats. 

Moseley's Last Service to the Colony. — It was in 
this section among such neighbors that Moseley passed 
the last years of his life. He continued to serve the 
people and did much important work for the colony. 
In 1737 he prepared a map of North Carolina. He 


was api)ointed chief justice in 1744, and served until 
his death. 

His last important work was to help collect and revise 
the laws of the province. So many laws had been 
passed, so many had been repealed, and they were so badly 
scattered, that it was difficult for one to tell what the 
law was. In 1746, a committee was selected to gather 
the laws together, to find out which ones were still in 
force, and to have them printed in a single volume. 
Moseley was at the head of this committee. The work 
was completed before his death, but was not printed 
until afterwards. 

Moseley died July 11, 1749. Throughout his life he 
was a bold and earnest champion of liberty. In times 
of trouble and danger, he was a wise and fearless leader. 
The people trusted him, and he did not abuse their 
trust. Wherever Edward Moseley led, they were ever 
ready to follow. 


1." Describe the situation of the following counties: Chowan, 
New Hanover, Tyrrell, Edgecombe, Craven. Name and trace the 
principal rivers and streams of each. 

2. Why did the rivers and sounds of North Carolina afford a 
good refuge for the pirates? 

3. Describe the situation of the Dismal Swamp. What body 
of water is in it? Can you guess the origin of the name of this lake? 

4. Trace the boundary line between North Carolina and Virginia 
a hundred miles from the coast. What streams does it cross? What 
counties in each State border on it? 

5. Trace the course of the Cape Fear river and its chief tribu- 
taries. How did the river get its name? 

6. Locate the city of Wilmington. Sixteen miles below Wil- 
mington, on the west bank of the river, was the old town of Bruns- 
wick. Mark the site on your map. 


Tell about: 

1. Moseley's wealth. 

2. His interest in education. 

3. What he thought about an Established Church. 

4. How he came to the front in the affairs of the colony. 

5. How he was treated by Governor Hyde. 

6. What he thought about rulers taking the people's property 
without their consent. 

7. Moseley and "Blackbeard." 

8. Running the boundary line between North Carolina and 

9. The settlement of the Cape Fear region. 

10. Famous colonial places on the Cape Fear. 

11. Moseley's last public services. 


1. What were the duties of the speaker of the Assembly? 

2. Do members of the Assembly and other officials in North 
Carolina to-day have to take any oath when they enter upon their 
duties? What do they have to promise? 

3. Why were the Quakers opposed to taking an oath? See St. 
Matthew 5: 33-37. 

4. What King of England bought Carolina from the Lords Pro- 

5. Who were the Huguenots? What four different nationalities 
settled in Eastern North Carolina? Tell in what section each settled. 
Do the names of the towns help in any way to locate their settle- 
ments? How? 

6. How long had Moseley been in North Carolina at his death? 
Name the public offices that he held, and tell the principal duties of 


England and France at War. — From 1756 to 1763, 
England and France were at war with each other both 
in Europe and in America. In European history this 
war is known as the Seven Years' War; in American 
history we call it the French and Indian War. One 
of its causes was a dispute over territory in Amer- 
ica. Both nations claimed the territory lying west 
of the Alleghany Mountains and north of the Ohio 
River. In 1753, the French sent soldiers to build forts 
along the Ohio and hold that region for France. The 
governor of Virginia commanded the French to with- 
draw from British territory. The French refused. 
Virginia then called on the other English colonies to 
help her drive the French away. The war that followed 
was to decide whether the French or the English were to 
control the North American continent. 

Hugh Waddell. — In this war North Carolina soldiers 
fought under the banner of the king of England. One 
of her soldiers became noted for his courage and abil- 
ity. This man was a young Irishman who was only 
nineteen years old when the war began. His name was 
Hugh Waddell. He was born in Ireland, in 1737, and 
had been in North Carolina but a short time when the 
war broke out. His father's name was also Hugh Wad- 



dell. His ancestors were natives of Scotland who had 
settled in the northern part of Ireland. Hugh Waddell, 
therefore, came from that race of people whom we call 
Scotch-Irish. They were noted for their love of liberty, 

of learning, and of religion. 

Waddell comes to North Carolina. 
— In 1742, the elder Hugh Waddell 
killed a man in a duel, and fled to 
America. He brought his son with 
him. They went to Boston, where 
the boy was sent to school. After a 
few years, the elder Waddell thought 
that he could safelv return to Ireland. 


Upon his arrival there, he found that 
during his absence all of his property had been taken 
from him; and when he died a little later, he left his 
son alone in the world, without any estate. 

But young Waddell did not despair at this misfortune. 
He promptly made up his mind to seek a new fortune in 
America. In 1753, one of his father's Irish friends, 
Arthur Dobbs, was appointed governor of North 
Carolina. This event probably caused young Waddell 
to select North Carolina as his future home. He 
arrived in the colony about the beginning of the year 

'Captain Waddell." — Soon after his arrival, the 
Assembly voted to raise a regiment of 450 soldiers to 
serve against the French. Colonel James Innes was 
appointed commander of these troops. Hugh Waddell 
was selected as one of his lieutenants. They were sent 
to Virginia to serve against the French and Indians. 
While on duty in Virginia, Lieutenant Waddell was such 


an active and intelligent officer, that he was promoted 
to the rank of captain. 

On the Western Frontier of North Carolina. — 
Because of his ability, Waddell was soon given an 
important command on the western frontier of North 
Carolina. His duties there were to keep a sharp watch 
on the Indians, and to protect the inhabitants from 
their attacks. The two most powerful tribes were the 
Cherokee and Catawba. Both the English and the 
French were anxious to secure their aid. 

In 1755, the North Carolina Assembly voted £10,000 
for a fort on the frontier. At the same time, it was 
provided that three companies of soldiers should be 
raised for a garrison. Governor Dobbs selected Captain 
Waddell to build the fort and take command of the garri- 
son. He was told to win the Indians to the side of the 
English and to make a treaty with them. 

Fort Dobbs. — This was a very important duty to 
place on so young a man. But the young captain was 
ambitious, and eager to show that he was worthy of the 
trust placed in him. He went to work with a vim, and 
soon had his fort built. It stood near the site of the 
town of Statesville. The next year the Assembly sent 
a committee to inspect the work. One of the members 
was Richard Caswell, who became North Carolina's 
most famous soldier during the Revolution. 

This committee carefully examined Captain Waddell's 
fort, and reported to the Assembly that it was a good and 
substantial building. The walls were built of oak logs, 
from six to sixteen inches thick, and twenty-four feet 
high. The fort had three floors so arranged that a 
hundred men could fire their muskets from each at the 


same time. The committee said that the fort was 
" beautifully situated in a fork of Fourth Creek, a 
branch of the Yadkin river. The officers and soldiers 
were well and in good spirits. ' ; Captain Waddell had 
named it "Fort Dobbs/' in honor of the Governor. 

Fort Dobbs was the most important post in the colony. 
Governor Dobbs was so well pleased with Captain Wad- 
dell's work, that he kept him in command of the fort 
for nearly two years. He declared that the young 
officer was in " every way qualified for such a command, 
as he was young, active, and resolute." Captain Wad- 
dell succeeded in making a treaty with the Indians, but 
as we shall see they did not observe it very long. 

An Over-Mountain March. — In 1757, Captain Wad- 
dell received word that the English garrison at Fort 
Loudon, on the Tennessee river, was in great danger. 
Selecting some of his best men, he hurried to its aid. 
His route lay through two hundred miles of unbroken 
forests. He had to cross high rugged mountains 
and to ford deep rivers. There were no roads and 
no inhabitants except hostile Indians. But the young 
commander conducted the march with great success. 
He reached Fort Loudon, relieved its garrison, and 
returned to Fort Dobbs in safety. Upon his return he 
was again promoted, this time to the rank of major. 

Major Waddell is ordered to Virginia. — The next year 
Major Waddell was ordered to Virginia. A great expe- 
dition was to march against the French at Fort 
Duquesne. An army had been sent from England, 
under General John Forbes. It was joined in Virginia 
by troops from Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
North Carolina. The Virginia troops were commanded 


by Colonel George Washington. Major Waddell com- 
manded the North Carolina troops. He had 300 white 
soldiers and some Cherokee Indians. 

The March to Fort Duquesne. — Major Waddell had 
now become an experienced soldier. He was thoroughly 
familiar with Indian warfare, and he knew how to fight 
the savages after their own manner. His men were 
skilful woodsmen and crack riflemen. They were just 
the sort of men that General Forbes needed to lead 
his army through the wilderness. So he placed Major 
Waddell, together with Colonel Washington, in the 
front of his army. Waddell' s duties were to keep a 
sharp lookout for hostile Indians; to act as a scout 
and gather information; to build bridges and boats; 
and to prepare the route for the army to follow. This 
was just the sort of work that Major Waddell liked. 
On the march he " dressed and acted as an Indian," and 
" had great honor done him." 

Sergeant John Rogers. — One of Waddell's men per- 
formed a service for which the Assembly rewarded 
him. The march through the wilderness was very 
slow and difficult. General Forbes feared that winter 
would set in before he could reach Fort Duquesne. 
To keep the army in the wilderness during the winter 
would be too dangerous. Either he must push on more 
rapidly, or turn back and wait for the spring. But he 
was afraid to push on boldly until he knew more about 
the situation at Fort Duquesne. So he offered a reward 
of fifty guineas to any soldier who would capture an 
Indian from whom the English could get information. 

Sergeant John Rogers, one of Major Waddell's men, 
won the reward. At great risk to his own life, he captured 


an Indian warrior and brought him to General Forbes. 
The Indian said that the French garrison was very small 
and weak, and would abandon the fort as soon as the 
English came in sight. General Forbes was delighted 
with this news, but he forgot to give Sergeant Rogers 
the promised reward. The North Carolina Assembly, 
however, gave him twenty pounds for that important 

The English capture Fort Duquesne. — General Forbes 
decided to push on more rapidly than ever. He 
selected his best companies, put them under the com- 
mand of Colonel Washington, and ordered them to 
attack the fort. Among these troops were the North 
Carolina soldiers under Major Waddell. The rest of 
the army followed more slowly. 

The Indian's story proved to be true. When the 
English appeared the French fled, and the fort fell into 
Washington's hands. He changed its name to Fort 
Pitt in honor of England's great statesman, William 
Pitt, the friend of America. It is said that the first 
English " soldier " to enter Fort Duquesne was a fine 
large dog that belonged to Major Waddell. For his 
services in this campaign, Major Waddell was promoted 
to the rank of colonel. 

Colonel Waddell defends Fort Dobbs. — Upon his 
return to North Carolina, Colonel Waddell again found 
work to do at Fort Dobbs. The Indians had broken 
their treaty, and were on the warpath. Many of the 
settlers were driven to seek refuge at Salisbury and 
among the Moravians at Bathabara. Colonel Waddell 
hurried to Fort Dobbs to protect the settlers. He was 
able to check the Indians for a while, but could not 


entirely stop their destroying property and murdering 
the colonists. 

In February, 1760, the Indians attempted to destroy 
Fort Dobbs. One dark night, they gathered close 
around the fort to make a secret attack. Suddenly the 
dogs in the fort began to 
make "an uncommon noise." 
Taking ten stout soldiers, 
Colonel Waddell went out to 
see what the trouble was. 
His little band was attacked 
by seven times their own 
number. But Waddell told 

, . . , . ., , Stone marking site of Fort Dobbs 

his men to keep together, and 

hold their fire until the Indians were within ten steps. 
Each musket was loaded with a bullet and seven buck 
shot. When the soldiers fired, the red men retreated. 
Colonel Waddell then returned safely to the fort. 

Instantly the red men swarmed around in still larger 
numbers. But Waddell was cool and calm. He inspired 
his men with courage, and managed them so well that 
he drove the Indians off in great confusion. Writing 
to the Governor about the fight, Colonel Waddell said: 
"I expected they would pay me another visit last night, 
but find they did not like their reception." 

The Indians beg for Peace. — The next year North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia joined in sending 
a great expedition against the Indians. Colonel Waddell 
commanded the North Carolina troops. They attacked 
the Indians near the present town of Franklin, in Macon 
county. The whites won a great victory. They des- 
troyed the red men's supplies, laid their corn fields in 


ruin, and burned their towns. This blow broke the power 
of the Cherokee, and forced them to beg for peace. 

Our Best Indian Fighter. — Colonel Waddell had 
now become the foremost soldier in North Carolina. As 
an Indian fighter he had no equal in the province, and 
no superior anywhere. He had learned all the tricks 
of the savages, and he knew how to meet them. His 
hard life on the frontier had made him used to hard- 
ships and dangers. He had grown into a large, powerful 
man, with strong, active limbs, and deep, broad chest 
and shoulders. As a leader he was fearless, cool, and 
calm in the midst of danger, and quick to see the best 
way out of it. 

The Indian Fighter is captured. — In 1757, while he 
was in command at Fort t)obbs, Waddell was elected to 
represent Rowan county in the Assembly. In Novem- 
ber, he went to Wilmington to attend the session. 
There he found time not only to make laws for the 
people, but also to make love for himself. The bright 
eyes of Mary Haynes did what the most cunning 
Indian could never do — they captured the brave 
young Indian fighter! 

Mary Haynes was the daughter of Captain Roger 
Haynes, an officer of the British army. He owned a 
fine place, called " Castle Haynes," near Wilmington. 
To Castle Haynes, therefore, after his battles were over, 
the young Colonel came to surrender himself. Colonel 
Waddell then made his home at Wilmington. He owned 
several plantations in Rowan, Anson, New Hanover, 
and Bladen counties. His favorite residence was at 
Bellefont, in Bladen county, on the Cape Fear, about 
two miles below Elizabethtown. 



WaddelPs Political Honors. — Colonel Waddell had 
now become one of the leading men in the province. In 
1760, he was again elected to the Assembly from Rowan 
county. After he moved to Bladen he was elected to 
the Assembly from that county four times. Gover- 
nor Dobbs and Governor Tryon both recommended him 
to the King for appointment to the Council. Tryon 
wrote that Colonel Waddell possessed " an easy fortune," 
and was held " in much esteem as a gentleman of honor 
and spirit." 

Waddell defies the Governor. — When Parliament 
passed the Stamp Act, the Americans declared they 
would not obey it because Parliament had no right to 
tax them without their consent. Waddell took the side 
of the colonists in resisting it. 
He became the military leader 
of the patriots on the Cape Fear. 
In November, 1765, he led them 
in one of the boldest deeds ever 
done in America. 

On November 28, one of the 
King's war vessels, the Dili- 
gence, arrived at Brunswick with 
the stamps for North Carolina. 
The news of her arrival spread 
quickly. Up and down the Cape Fear, and far into the 
country, men snatched their rifles and hurried to Bruns- 
wick. There they placed themselves under the leader- 
ship of Colonel Waddell. He drew them up along the 
river bank, and told the Captain of the Diligence that 
none of the King's stamps should be brought to shore. 
This daring deed prevented any of the stamps from 


An English Revenue Stamp 
for the Colonies 


being used in North Carolina. Such resistance to the 
King's officers was treason, and treason was punished 
bv death. But Hugh Waddell and the men who 
followed him dared even death in defence of their 

Waddell helps the Governor. — When Governor 
Tryon tried to make the people buy the stamps, Hugh 
Waddell resisted him. But when Governor Tryon 
raised an army to compel the Regulators to obey the 
laws of the colony, Hugh Waddell was ready to help 
him. He was ever ready to oppose both tyranny and 
lawlessness. In the counties around Hillsboro the people 
complained that the taxes were too high and the sheriffs 
and other officers were dishonest. They called upon the 
Governor and Assembly for relief. But it required some 
time for the Governor and Assembly to act, and the 
people became impatient. They formed themselves into 
bands called Regulators and refused to obey the laws or 
to pay taxes. They beat the officers, broke up the courts, 
and insulted the judges. In 1771, Tryon raised an army 
to march against them. He appointed Hugh Waddell 
a general, and sent him to raise troops in the West. 
Tryon met the Regulators and defeated them at Ala- 
mance, but Waddell did not reach there in time to take 
part in the battle. 

Death. — The next year, 1772, General Waddell 
started on a trip to England. He went down the Cape 
Fear to Fort Johnston, near its mouth, to board the ship 
for his journey. But he was taken suddenly ill and 
compelled to return. After suffering for nearly a year, 
he died April 9, 1773. 



1. What states have been formed from the territory conquered by 
England from France in the French and Indian War? 

2. Fort Duquesne stood where the city of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
now stands. Describe its situation. 

3. Fort Dobbs was in what is now Iredell county (then Rowan) near 
the present town of Statesville. Locate its site. Where is Salem? 

4. Fort Loudon was on the Tennessee river. Describe the char- 
acter of the country through which Waddell had to march to reach it. 

5. Describe the situation of the town of Franklin. It was near this 
town that Waddell fought his last battle with the Cherokee. 

6. Where is Elizabethtown? Hillsboro? The Eno River? Ala- 

7. Fort Johnston was near the site of the present town of Southport. 
Locate its site. 


1. What was the cause of the French and Indian War? 

2. Where was Hugh Waddell born? Who were the Scotch-Irish? 
For what were they noted? 

3. Why did Hugh Waddell come to North Carolina to live? 

4. What was his first military service? 

5. What important duty was given him on the frontier, and why? 

6. Describe Fort Dobbs. Why was it such an important post? 

7. Describe WaddelFs march to Fort Loudon. 

8. What service did Waddell and his men render on the march to 
Fort Duquesne? 

9. Describe WaddelFs defence of Fort Dobbs. 

10. Tell of Waddell as an Indian fighter. 

11. What political honors did Waddell receive? 

12. How and why did he defy Governor Tryon? 

13. How and why did he help Tryon against the Regulators? 



1. What part of North America was settled by the French? Give 
some names of towns and other places that indicate they were French 
settlements. Does France now own any territory in North America? 

2. What part of North Carolina was settled by the Scotch-Irish? 

3. What interest did North Carolina have in driving the French out 
of the territory north of the Ohio? 

4. Tell what is meant by fighting " Indian-fashion." 

5. Why were the troops of Washington and Waddell, rather than 
the regular soldiers from England, selected to make the attack on Fort 

6. Why did Washington change the name of Fort Duquesne to Fort 

7. When the United States was at war with Spain, in 1898, Congress 
passed a Stamp Act and the people cheerfully paid the tax. What 
was the difference between that tax and the one the people resisted in 



John Harvey. — Lying in Perquimans county, between 
the Yeopim and Perquimans rivers, is a narrow strip 
of land known as " Harvey's Neck." Here in colonial 
days lived the Harvey family. For more than a cen- 
tury, this family bore an important part in the history 
of North Carolina. One of them was speaker of the 
Assembly, and the leader of the people at the begin- 
ning of the Revolution. 

This man was John Harvey. He was born at Harvey's 
Neck about the year 1725. When he was four years 
old his father died. In his will he left directions that 
his four boys should be well educated. 

These boys grew up on a large plantation. Besides 
being well taught in their books, they learned to ride, 
to hunt, to fish, to swim, to row, to sail a boat. They 
learned, too, how to do the work of the plantation. 
They became well educated men. All of them after- 
wards were leaders in the affairs of the province. 

John Harvey was a large and wealthy planter. Many 
slaves worked on his plantations, and vessels from distant 
colonies anchored at his wharves. They carried the 
products of his farms to New England and to the West 
Indies. He was a generous man with his wealth. One 
who knew him tells us that " his house was one continued 



scene of hospitality and benevolence, and his purse, his 
hand, and heart were ever devoted to the service and 
relief of the distressed." 

John Harvey's Political Career. — Early in life, John 
Harvey began to take part in public affairs. He was 
just twenty-one when the people of Perquimans county 
elected him to the Assembly. The Assembly met at 
New Bern, and thither, in June, 1746, John Harvey 
went to take his seat. Until 1775, he continued to rep- 
resent his county. For several years he was speaker 
and the leader of the Assembly in its struggles for liberty 
against the King's governors. 

The War with France. — Soon after he entered the 
Assembly, the French and Indian War broke out. 
The North Carolina Assembly ordered that soldiers 
should be raised in the province to march against the 
French and Indians, and voted £50,000 for their support. 
John Harvey helped to prepare these laws. When the 
Governor tried to force the Assembly to levy taxes 
against the rights of the people, John Harvey spoke out 
boldly against him. But in all proper measures for 
carrying on the war, John Harvey supported the Gov- 
ernor. After seven years of fighting, England and her 
colonies defeated France, and compelled her to surrender 
all the territory she owned in North America. 

Harvey Becomes Speaker. — During these years, 
Harvey became the leading man in the Assembly. When 
the Assembly met in November, 1766, the members 
had to choose a new speaker. All eyes turned toward 
John Harvey. Richard Caswell proposed his name and 
he received every vote in the Assembly. Then, accord- 
ing to the ceremony of that day, they went into the 



Council Chamber to present their new speaker to the 
Governor, and ask if he approved of their choice. The 
Governor bowed and smiled pleasantly, and declared 
that he was much pleased with their choice of Mr. John 
Harvey. Then the members returned to their own hall 
and Harvey took his seat 
as speaker. 

Next to that of governor, 
the office of speaker was the 
highest office in the colony. 
The governor was sent from 
England by the King, and 
the people had nothing to 
do with selecting him. So 
the office of speaker was 
the highest to which a mem- 
ber of the Assembly could 
be chosen. He presided 
over its sessions, and was its 
leader in all important mat- 
ters. John Harvey held that 

office for seven years, and led the people in some of the 
most important events in our history. 

Harvey leads the Fight against Taxation by Parlia- 
ment. — The war with France had left England deeply 
in debt, and King George III decided to make the 
Americans help pay it. The British Parliament, there- 
fore, passed the Stamp Act, and other acts to tax the 
Americans. But the Americans declared that these 
taxes were unlawful and they would not pay them. 
They refused to trade with the British merchants unless 
the taxes were removed. So Parliament was forced to 

George III, King of England 

(The frontispiece on "Watts' Complete 
Spelling Book" from which many- 
colonial children were taught) 


remove all except the tax on tea. That must be left 
on, said the King, in order "to try the question with 
America." We shall now see how John Harvey led 
the North Carolina Assembly u to try the question with 
the King." 

In November, 1766, Harvey persuaded the Assembly 
to appoint a committee to appeal to the King against 
the tax. He was placed at the head of this committee, 
and wrote an address which was sent to the King. In 
it he said that North Carolina had already paid her share 
of the cost of the war with France, and it was not fair 
to make her pay England's, too. Whenever the King 
had asked North Carolina for aid, the Assembly had 
always " cheerfully and liberally' given it; and he 
promised that it would continue to do so in the 

But the British Parliament, he declared, had no right 
to levy taxes on the people of North Carolina. They 
were, he said, entitled to " all the rights and liberties ' 
that other Englishmen had. They were free men, and 
" free men can not be legally taxed but by themselves 
or their representatives." North Carolina had no repre- 
sentatives in Parliament; therefore Parliament could 
not legally levy taxes in North Carolina. And, moreover, 
said bold John Harvey, the people of North Carolina 
would not pay any such taxes! 

Non-Importation Associations. — Such addresses made 
the King and Parliament angry, and they passed laws 
to punish the Americans. Then the Americans agreed 
with each other that they would buy no more goods in 
England until all such laws were repealed. Such agree- 
ments were called " Non-Importation Associations." 


The King at once ordered his governors to break up 
these associations. 

So when John Harvey, in November, 1769, proposed 
for the Assembly to adopt a " Non-Importation Associa- 
tion," Governor Try on angrily dismissed the members 
and commanded them to go home. But Harvey at 
once called on them to meet in spite of the Governor. 
Sixty-four of them obeyed his call. They met as a 
convention independent of the Governor. John Harvey 
was chosen their leader. He was called " Moderator." 
The members declared that they would resist every 
attempt of Parliament to levy taxes on Americans. 
They adopted a " Non-Importation Association," called 
on all the merchants to sign it, and resolved to treat 
with contempt all who refused. Most of the merchants 
in the province signed it, and trade with British mer- 
chants was stopped. 

The Assembly Rewards Harvey. — Harvey had now 
become the most trusted leader in the province. The 
people had great confidence in him. The members 
of the Assembly were ready to follow whenever he led. 
In order to show their devotion to him, they voted, in 
1773, to give him £100 as a reward for his faithful 
services to the colony; and the next year they voted 
£200 more. 

Committees of Correspondence. — The quarrel with 
the King had now become very bitter. He sent an 
army to Boston to overawe the people. In some of the 
colonies there was fighting and bloodshed. Men began 
to fear that the quarrel would lead to war, and they 
saw that the colonies must unite in self-defence. 
The Virginia Assembly proposed that each colony 


appoint a committee to keep in touch with the other 
colonies. These committees were to write letters to 
each other so that each might learn what the other 
colonies were doing, and make helpful suggestions. They 
were called " Committees of Correspondence." The 
King denounced this plan, for he was afraid if the colonies 
united they would be strong enough to resist him. 

Nowhere was there greater excitement than in North 
Carolina. The Assembly, led by John Harvey, was 
struggling hard with the Governor, Josiah Martin, who 
had succeeded Governor Tryon in 1771. The Assembly 
stood for the liberties of the Americans; the Governor 
stood for the power of the King and Parliament. He 
refused to give his consent to laws passed by the Assem- 
bly. Trade was at a standstill. The courts were closed. 
Business men could not collect their debts. Criminals 
escaped without punishment. The people were greatly 
alarmed, but they were determined to follow John 
Harvey until they won their liberties. 

In December, 1773, Harvey proposed that the Assembly 
appoint a Committee of Correspondence. The Governor 
tried hard to prevent this step, but the Assembly followed 
Harvey's advice. Nine men were selected with Harvey 
at their head. The others were Robert Howe, Cornelius 
Harnett, William Hooper, Richard Caswell, Edward 
Vail, John Ashe, Joseph Hewes, and Samuel Johnston. 

When this committee met, it wrote to the other 
colonies that North Carolina was readv to unite with 
them against the King and Parliament. The committee 
thought that all the colonies ought to elect delegates to 
a great Continental Congress at Philadelphia to agree 
on a plan of union. 


John Harvey leads the Way to Revolution. — These 
delegates were to be chosen by the Assembly. But 
the Assembly could not meet except when the Gover- 
nor called the members together. Governor Martin did 
not want North Carolina to send delegates to the Con- 
tinental Congress, so he made up his mind not to call 
a meeting of the Assembly until it was too late to 
elect them. When John Harvey heard of this, he flew 
into a terrible rage. 

" In that case," he exclaimed, " the people will call 
an Assembly themselves." He hastened to ccnsult 
some of the other leaders. 

" Let us call a convention independent of the Gover- 
nor," he urged. " I will call on the people to elect 
members, and you 
must help me. Let 
us get to work at 

This was one of the 
boldest suggestions 
ever made in North 
Carolina. Timid men 
drew back, for they feared that John Harvey was lead- 
ing them into rebellion. But he fearlessly took the 
lead, and the people followed. Governor Martin's anger 
rose to white heat. He denounced John Harvey's plan. 
" It is against the law," he cried. " It is an insult to 
the King." The Governor declared that it was re- 
bellion, and that those who dared take part in it should 
be punished. He commanded the members not to hold 
any such meeting. But under the bold leadership of 
John Harvey they met at New Bern, August 25, 1774. 

Governor's Palace at New Bern 


The First Provincial Congress. — Such a Congress 
could resist the measures of the King better than the 
Assembly could. The Assembly could meet only when 
the King's Governor called it. The Congress met when- 
ever it chose. The Governor could dismiss the Assem- 
bly whenever he pleased. He had nothing to do with the 
Congress. Acts passed by the Assembly did not become 
laws until he approved them. Acts of the Congress did 
not need his consent. So it was a wise plan of John Har- 
vey to call this Congress to oppose the King's tyranny. 

Seventy-one members attended. Every one of them 
looked to John Harvey as their leader. They elected 
him moderator. The Congress remained in session four 
days. Some very important resolutions were adopted. 
It was agreed that: 

1. There must be no more trade with England until 
Parliament repealed the laws against America. 

2. Merchants must not charge higher prices than 
usual for their goods. 

3. The people must drink no tea until the tax was 

4. Planters must not import slaves. 

5. There must be no dealings with any colony or any 
person who would not join the Non-Importation Associa- 

6. The people of North Carolina must obey the 
measures of the Continental Congress. 

7. William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and Richard Cas- 
well were to go as delegates to the Continental Con- 
gress at Philadelphia to represent North Carolina. 

Thus John Harvey again beat the King's Governor; 
and before the Congress adjourned, it voted to give its 


thanks to " Mr. Moderator Harvey, for his faithful 
exercise of his office, and the services he has thereby 
rendered to this province, and to the friends of America 
in general." 

How the People obeyed the Provincial Congress. — 
In all parts of the colony patriots willingly obeyed the 
measures of the Provincial Congress. Merchants refused 
to buy any more goods from England, planters imported 
no more slaves, and women stopped drinking tea. At 
Edenton, October 25, 1774, fifty-one women met at the 
home of Mrs. Elizabeth King and there signed a paper 
binding themselves to give up the "custom of drinking 
tea" until the tax was taken off. The "Edenton Tea 
Party," as this event is called, showed that the women 
of North Carolina were as ready to make sacrifices for 
the good of their country as were their fathers and 

Harvey aids the Boston Patriots. — A few weeks before 
the "Edenton Tea Party," in September, 1774, John 
Harvey showed his devotion to the American cause in 
a very generous way. A cry of distress had reached 
North Carolina from the people of far-away Boston. 
Because some citizens of Boston one night seized a ship 
lying in the harbor loaded with tea and threw all the 
tea overboard (which act is known as the Boston Tea 
Party), Parliament had passed a law shutting up their 
port. No vessel could go in or come out, for war ships 
guarded the entrance, and the people began to suffer for 
food. The other colonies then raised the cry that "the 
cause of Boston is the cause of all." They sent food and 
clothes to the other towns in Massachusetts to be used 
for the relief of Boston. 


In September, 1774, John Harvey and Joseph Hewes 
began to collect supplies around Edenton to be sent to 
Boston. They collected two thousand bushels of corn, 
twenty barrels of flour, and seventeen barrels of pork. 
Then they hired the sloop, Penelope, loaded her with 
these supplies, and sent them to " their distressed 
brethren of Boston." At the same time Harvey wrote 
a letter in which he said: "I hope to be able to send 
another cargo this winter, for the same charitable pur- 
pose, as the American inhabitants of this colony entertain 
a just sense of the sufferings of our brethren in Boston." 

The Penelope reached her destination 1 October 15. 
We may be sure that her cargo was gladly received. 
The Boston committee wrote John Harvey a long letter 
of thanks for his noble and generous donation. 

The Last Colonial Assembly. — The Governor now 
decided to hold another Assembly. Perhaps the mem- 
bers might listen to his appeals for obedience to the 
King. If they would not, then perhaps he could 
frighten them into obedience. So he called an Assembly 
to meet at New Bern, April 4, 1775. 

John Harvey knew that Governor Martin would 
dismiss the Assembly as soon as it showed any sympathy 
with the American cause. He thought, therefore, that a 
Congress ought to be held at the same time to watch the 
Governor, and be ready to act if necessary. So he called 
upon the people to elect delegates to a Congress to meet 
at New Bern, April 3, 1775. How furious Governor 
Martin was ! He denounced Harvey and the Congress, 

1 Probably Marblehead, which upon the passage of the Boston Port Bill 
"immediately invited the merchants of Boston to use its wharves and 
warehouses free of charge in shipping and unshipping their goods.'"' 


too, but his anger did him no good. The people chose 
the same men to represent them in both bodies. 

They met at New Bern at the appointed time. The 
Assembly elected John Harvey speaker, the Congress 
elected him moderator. The Congress did not have 
much work to do except to watch the Governor. The 
Assembly was in session only four days, and each day 
its actions angered the Governor more and more. Fi- 
nally, April 8, 1775, in a great rage, he sent a message 
dismissing the members and commanding them to go 
home. This was the last time an Assembly, under the 
rule of a British king, met in North Carolina. When 
the next Assembly met, North Carolina was a free and 
independent state. 

Death of John Harvey. — But John Harvey was 
not there to be its speaker. One day, soon after he 
returned home from New Bern in April, 1775, he fell 
from his horse and was badly injured. A few days later, 
at his home in Perquimans county, he died. The news 
of his death was heard by the patriots of the colony with 
great grief and sorrow. 

"He will be much missed," wrote Joseph Hewes from 
Philadelphia. " We sincerely condole with all friends of 
American liberty in this province," wrote Robert Howe, 
Cornelius Harnett, and John Ashe, "on the death of our 
worthy friend, Colonel Harvey. We regret it as a public 
loss, especially at this critical juncture." " In public 
life," said another, " all his actions were directed to the 
good of his country. In him the advocates for American 
freedom, have lost a real and true friend." 



1. Describe the situation of Perquimans county. Beaufort county, 
New Bern. 

2. Why did the colonists select Philadelphia as the place for holding 
the Continental Congress? 


1. Where did the Harvey family live? 

2. Describe John Harvey's boyhood; his plantation. 

3. How old was he when elected to the Assembly? How long did 
he serve in the Assembly? 

4. What services did he render in connection with the French and 
Indian War? 

5. To what office was he elected in 1766? Why was this an impor- 
tant office? 

6. Describe how England tried to make America help pay her debts. 

7. How did John Harvey lead the fight against taxation by Parlia- 
ment? What did he say about it? 

8. What was the Non-Importation Association? 

9. How did John Harvey have this adopted in North Carolina? 

10. What plan did Virginia suggest for the colonies to help each 

11. Tell how this plan was adopted in North Carolina. Describe 
the conditions in North Carolina at that time. 

12. How did John Harvey lead the way to Revolution? 

13. Describe the first Provincial Congress. What resolutions did 
it adopt? Tell how the people obeyed them. 

14. What was the Continental Congress? Who were chosen dele- 
gates from North Carolina? 

15. How did John Harvey aid the patriots of Boston? 

16. Describe the last colonial Assembly in North Carolina. 

17. Tell of the death of John Harvey. What did the other patriots 
say of him? 

18. State briefly the chief events in Harvey's life. 


1. What did the King mean when he said that the tax must be 
left on tea in order "to try the question with the Americans?" 


2. What did the Americans mean by saying that "taxation with- 
out representation is tyranny?" What body did they say alone had 
the right to levy taxes in each colony? What body now has the power 
to levy taxes in North Carolina? In the United States? What are 
taxes used for? 

3. When the Congress wrote the Constitution of 1776, it put this 
clause in it: " The people have a right to assemble together to consult 
for their common good," etc. Was there anything in John Harvey's 
experience that explains why this clause was put in the Constitution? 

4. In colonial days, acts of the Assembly had to be approved by 
the governor before they became laws. Is this necessary in North 
Carolina now? How is it in the United States? 

5. Explain the differences between the General Assembly and the 
Provincial Congress. 



Cornelius Harnett. — Side by side with John Harvey 
in his battles for American freedom stood his friend, 
Cornelius Harnett. Harnett's home was on the Cape 
Fear river, near Wilmington. He was born in Chowan 
county in 1723. When he was three years old his 
father moved to the new settlements on the Cape 

Fear. There young Harnett 
grew up. He received a good 

Cornelius Harnett was one 
of the first settlers of Wil- 
mington. Two of his plan- 
tations, Maynard and Poplar 
Grove, were near that town. 
His house at Maynard was a 
large brick building. It stood near the river, at the end 
of a beautiful avenue of trees, in the midst of a grove of 
cedars and oaks. 

Harnett was a small, slender man. His hair and eyes 
were light brown. He had a pleasing countenance, which 
would often light up with a smile so sweet and kindly that 
it cheered every person in his presence. His manner was 
dignified, but courteous and kindly. He loved books and 
music, and was always an interesting companion. 


House of Cornelius Harnett 
near Wilmington 



Harnett in the Assembly. — Harnett was still a 
young man when he began to take part in public 
affairs. For eleven years he was alderman of Wilming- 
ton. In 1754 the people of that town elected him to 
represent them in the Assembly. He served in the 
Assembly for twenty-one years. When the Revolution 
broke out, Harnett was the leading patriot of the Cape 
Fear section. His popularity was so great that he is 
called, " The Pride of the Cape Fear." 

While he was in the Assembly, the colony was growing 
rapidly. Settlements soon stretched from the Atlantic 
to the Blue Ridge. The Assembly had much work to 
do for the benefit of the new settlers. Harnett took an 
active part in that work. He helped to prepare laws 
for building new roads through the wilderness; for 
establishing ferries over rivers; for laying off new towns; 
for building new court-houses and school-houses; for 
erecting churches; and for protecting the frontier against 
the Indians. In the disputes with 
the governors he became one of the 
leading champions of the people, and 
stood up manfully for their liberties. 

The Stamp Act on the Cape 
Fear. — Harnett boldly resisted the 
Stamp Act. When news of that act 
reached North Carolina the people 
quickly made up their minds that no 
stamps should be sold in the colony. 
Large crowds gathered at Wilming- 
ton to prepare for resistance. They marched through the 
streets shouting, " Liberty, Property, and No Stamp 
Duty." Every man wore in his hat a little white slip on 

Stone marking Site op 
Rdssellborough, the 
Scene of Resistance 
to Stamp Act on the 
Cape Fear 



which was printed the word LIBERTY. They made 
William Houston, who had been appointed to sell the 
stamps, resign his office and swear that he would not try 
to sell any stamps in North Carolina. They compelled 
Andrew Stewart, the printer, to publish his paper without 
using the stamps. They pledged themselves to resist the 
Stamp Act to the death. And when the Diligence 
arrived with the stamps, they seized their guns and 
prepared to fight. 

Harnett Leads a Revolt Against the Stamp Act. 
— Captain Lobb, a British officer, commanded another 
war vessel, the Viper, at Brunswick. In February, 
1766, he seized three ships because they had no 

Cape Fear Patriots Resist the Landing of Stamps at Brunswick 

stamps on their papers. Never had anything so 
aroused the people. They refused to send any food 
to the crew of the Viper. They seized the sailors who 


came ashore for food and threw them into jail. Cornelius 
Harnett and James Moore led six hundred men to Bruns- 
wick, went aboard the man-of-war, and compelled Cap- 
tain Lobb to surrender the captured vessels. 

They then decided to make all the King's officers 
swear not to enforce the Stamp Act. One of these 
officers, a Mr. Pennington, fled to Governor Tryon's 
house for protection. Harnett promptly led his men 
there, surrounded the house, and demanded the surrender 
of Pennington. The Governor refused. 

" Your Excellency must let him go," said Harnett. 
" We are determined to have him, and will take him out 
by force if you detain him. But we do not wish to insult 
your Excellency." 

" You have already offered me every insult in your 
power," retorted the Governor. " You have surrounded 
my house and made me a prisoner without any cause." 

Pennington became frightened, and said that he would 
go with Harnett. " But I had rather resign my office," 
he added, " than do anything contrary to my duty to 
the King." 

" Then," said Tryon, turning angrily upon him, 
" you had better resign before you leave here." So 
Pennington wrote out his resignation. " Now, Sir," 
said the angry Governor, " you may go." And Harnett 
led Pennington out of the house to the people. 

Harnett then led his men back to Brunswick. There 
they placed the officers in a circle and made them swear 
not to enforce the Stamp Act in North Carolina. As 
each took the oath, the cheers of the crowd reached Gov- 
ernor Tryon at his home, and he knew that the Stamp 
Act was a failure. Cornelius Harnett had beaten the 


King's Governor, and had become the idol of his 


Harnett Enforces the " Non-Importation Association." 

— In 1769, Harnett was one of the members of the 
Assembly who met with John Harvey in a convention 
to adopt the " Non-Importation Association. " It was 
very important that the merchants should all agree 
to this association. The merchants on the Cape Fear 
bought large quantities of goods in England. The 
patriots were anxious for the Cape Fear merchants 
to support the " Non-Importation Association/' and 
they looked to Cornelius Harnett to lead them. 

Harnett called a meeting of the merchants and planters 
at Wilmington in June, 1770. He laid the association 
before them, and urged them to sign it. They followed 
his lead without hesitation, and after signing it, chose 
him as their leader to see that all obeyed it. This was 
a trying position, but Harnett promptly accepted it. 
He declared that he was " ready to stand or fall with 
the other colonies in support of American liberty," and 
that he " would not tamely submit to the yoke of oppres- 
sion." From this we see that Harnett was in favor of 
the colonies uniting against England. So when the 
time came to plan for union, he was ready to take the 

Harnett Has a Visitor From Boston. — The time 
came soon. One day in March, 1773, a traveler rode 
up to the door at Poplar Grove and asked for Mr. 
Harnett. This man was Josiah Quincy, a famous 
patriot of Boston. He was making a journey through 
the colonies, and had come to Poplar Grove to discuss 
with Harnett a plan for uniting the colonies. Harnett 


at once sent across the river for his friend, Colonel Robert 

These three sat up all night discussing the plan for 
committees of correspondence. They agreed that the 
plan ought to be adopted. Quincy was so delighted at 
Harnett's patriotic views that, in the midst of their 
discussion, he sprang up and embraced him. When he 
returned to Boston he told the patriots there of the great 
patriot of Wilmington. He declared that Massachusetts 
could depend on North Carolina in resisting the King. 

When the Assembly met in December, Harnett and 
Howe both urged the appointment of a Committee of 
Correspondence. Their names stood in the committee 
next to the name of John Harvey. 

Harnett visits New England. — The next year, 
Harnett made a trip to New England and other 
northern colonies. Such visits as his to the North and 
Quincy' s to the South did great good. By them the 
leading men of the different colonies learned to know 
and trust each other. Harnett was away on this trip 
when the Congress met at New Bern in August, 1774, 
and therefore he was not a member. But he was a 
member of the Congress in April, 1775, and of all the 
other congresses that met in North Carolina during the 

Committees of Safety. — The Congress in August, 
1774, advised the people to select a committee in 
each county to see that its measures were obeyed. 
Such committees were called "Committees of Safety." 
They had great power, for they took the place of both the 
Governor and the courts. Governor Martin commanded 
the people not to obey them. But the people no longer 


paid any attention to his commands, and they gave 
strict obedience to the committees of safety. These 
committees proved to be so useful that the Congress 
which met at Hillsboro in August, 1775, appointed a 
committee for the whole province which was to be at the 
head of all the other committees. At first it was called 
the " Provincial Council; " but, in 1776, its name was 
changed to " Council of Safety." 

Cornelius Harnett was the leader in the work of these 
committees. In November, 1774, he was chosen chair- 
man of the Committee of Safety at Wilmington. In 
January, 1775, he was chosen chairman of the Committee 
of Safety for New Hanover county. In October, 1775, 
he was elected president of the Provincial Council. 
And in June, 1776, he was elected president of the Coun- 
cil of Safety. 

As president of the Council, Harnett was the chief 
officer in the province and the leader of the patriots. 
There was no busier man in North Carolina than he. 
His committees compelled debtors to pay their debts. 
They punished criminals for their crimes. They re- 
quired men to obey the measures of Congress. They 
raised money to buy arms, gunpowder, and other things 
needed in war. They enrolled men into companies, 
armed them, and elected officers to lead them. They 
fitted out armed vessels which sailed to the West Indies 
and brought supplies of all sorts into the colony. In 
these ways Harnett's committees prepared the colony 
for the war which all knew was near at hand. 

Stirring News From Boston. — One day in May, 
1775, Cornelius Harnett received news that a battle 
had been fought at Lexington, Massachusetts, between 



the British and Americans. Riders on fleet horses bore 
the news from colony to colony, from town to 
town, from committee to committee. Day and night 
they rode through 
villages, swam deep 
rivers, and dashed 
along lonely roads. 
A rider with the news 
reached Edenton on 
May 4. From Eden- 
ton he dashed on to 
Bath, from Bath to 
New Bern, and from 
New Bern to Wil- 

It was in the after- 
noon of May 8, when 
he gave his message to Cornelius Harnett. This stirring 
news thoroughly aroused Harnett. He hurried the man 
on to Brunswick with a message for the Brunswick com- 
mittee. " For God's sake," he wrote, "send the man on 
without the least delay, and write to Mr. Marion to 
forward it by night and day." Everywhere the news 
created great excitement, and stirred the people to 

The Last Royal Governor. — Harnett and John 
Ashe now decided that the royal Governor must be 
driven out of the province. He had already fled from 
New Bern, where the governor's residence was at 
that time, to seek refuge in Fort Johnston near the 
mouth of Cape Fear river. There he was hard at 
work trying to stir up the slaves against their masters, 

Old Court-house at Edenton 

The oldest Court-house in North Carolina, 
still in use. Built in 1767. 


and the King's followers called Tories against the 
patriots, sometimes called Whigs. But Harnett's com- 
mittees kept close watch on him and prevented his 
carrying out his plans. Governor Martin declared that 
all his troubles were due to four men, who stood 
foremost among the leaders of the rebellion. They 
were Cornelius Harnett, John Ashe, Robert Howe, and 
Abner Nash. He wrote to England that he hoped the 
King would never pardon them, but would have them 
put to death. 

When Governor Martin learned that Harnett and 
Ashe were getting ready to attack Fort Johnston, he 
fled from the fort to the British war vessel, Cruizer. 
Early in the morning, July 19, somebody on the Cruizer 
waked him with a cry that Fort Johnston was on fire. 
He hurried to the deck just in time to see five hundred 
minute-men from Wilmington and Brunswick burning 
the fort to the ground. " Mr. John Ashe and Mr. 
Cornelius Harnett," he wrote to England, "were ring- 
leaders of this savage and audacious mob." Governor 
Martin was the last royal Governor of North Carolina, 
for soon after Harnett and Ashe drove him away, the 
people declared themselves independent of Great Britain, 
and elected their own governor. 

Harnett Leads the Way to Independence. — The 
man who pointed the way to independence was 
Cornelius Harnett. When the North Carolina Con- 
gress met at Halifax in April, 1776, none of the colo- 
nies had taken a stand for independence. They loved 
the mother country and were anxious to make up 
their quarrel with her. But when the King refused even 
to hear their prayers, they saw that they must either 


separate from Great Britain, or surrender their liberties. 
But who would take the lead? After the last royal 
governor was driven out of North Carolina, the Whigs 
won a great victory over the Tories at Moore's Creek 
Bridge, February 27, 1776. Then the North Carolina 
patriots cried out that they were ready to lead the way 
to independence. 

So, on April 8, Congress appointed a committee to 
write out what North Carolina should say on that 
subject. Cornelius Harnett was at the head of that 
committee. The other members were Allen Jones, 
Thomas Burke, Abner Nash, John Kinchen, Thomas 
Person, and Thomas Jones. Harnett wrote the report 
for the committee. Amid a deep silence, April 12, 1776, 
he read this report to the Congress. 

In his report, Harnett declared that the King and 
Parliament had tried to destroy the " peace, liberty, and 
safety " of America. The Americans, he said, had 
humbly prayed for relief. The King had replied to 
their prayers by sending armies to destroy the people 
and their property; by ordering his war vessels to seize 
their ships ; and by stirring up the slaves to murder their 
masters. Many persons had been killed, and others 
had been reduced from wealth and ease to poverty and 

Harnett thought, therefore, that the Americans ought 
to overthrow the rule of such a tyrant, and that North 
Carolina ought to lead the way. After hearing his report, 
the Congress voted for it. This resolution required the 
North Carolina delegates in the Continental Congress 
to " concur with the delegates of the other colonies in 
declaring independency." 



A copy of the resolution was sent off at once to Joseph 
Hewes, who was in the Continental Congress at Philadel- 
phia. How pleased he was when he found that North 
Carolina had led all the colonies in declaring for independ- 
ence! He showed the resolution to the other members 
of the Continental Congress. Many of them promptly 
sent copies to their own colonies and urged them to 

The State House, or Independence Hall, Philadelphia 
Where the Declaration of Independence was Signed 

follow North Carolina's example. Virginia was the 
first to do so. Then others followed. Finally, in July, 
the Continental Congress itself adopted the Declaration 
of Independence for all the colonies. Thus North Caro- 
lina led the other colonies just as Cornelius Harnett 
led North Carolina. 

Harnett Selected For Punishment. — The British 
did not forget the part Harnett played in thfs 


important step. He was selected for the King's 
special vengeance. While Congress was in session at 
Halifax, Sir Henry Clinton, the British general, with a 
powerful army, reached the Cape Fear. On May 5 he 
issued a paper promising that the King would par- 
don all the rebels in North Carolina who would lay 
down their arms; but he excepted " from the bene- 
fits of such pardon Cornelius Harnett and Robert 

Harnett Proclaims Independence. — When the Dec- 
laration of Independence reached North Carolina, 
the Council of Safety was in session at Halifax. 
The people of North Carolina, declared the Council, 
were now " absolved from all allegiance to the British 
Crown." So the Council ordered that the Declaration 
of Independence should be publicly read to the people 
on August first. 

On that day a great crowd gathered in the little 
village of Halifax. At midday the soldiers marched 
through the streets, with beating drums and flying flags. 
A loud cheer went up from the people when President 
Harnett, escorted by the soldiers, mounted the platform, 
with the declaration in his hand. While he read, all 
listened in deep silence. But when he finished, they 
showed their gladness by shouts of joy, waving of flags, 
and booming of cannon. The soldiers seized President 
Harnett, and bore him on their shoulders through 
the excited crowd. The people cheered him as their 
champion and proclaimed their allegiance to the United 

Harnett Becomes a Member of the Continental 
Congress. — North Carolina was now an independent 


state. The Congress at Halifax in December, 1776, 
adopted a new plan of government, called the ' Con- 
stitution of 1776." Harnett took an important part 
in preparing this Constitution. After it was adopted, 
Richard Caswell was elected governor and Harnett 
was elected president of the Council of State. But 
he did not hold that office long. In May, 1777, 
the Assembly elected him a delegate to the Con- 
tinental Congress. This was regarded as " the highest 
honor that a free state could bestow on one of its mem- 

Harnett was elected to the Continental Congress 
three times. When he returned home, in 1779, the 
Assembly thanked him " for his faithful and important 
services rendered this State." His work was so hard 
and he suffered so many hardships that his health broke 
down completely. Nothing but devotion to his country 
held him to his post. His expenses were £6,000 more 
than his salary, but he declared: " I am content to sit 
down with this loss and much more, if my country re- 
quires it." "I shall think it my duty," he wrote to 
Governor Caswell, " to serve my country to the best of 
my poor abilities, either with or without pay." 

His chief wish, however, was to return home. There, 
he said: " I will sit down under my own vine and fig tree 
(for I have them both) at Poplar Grove, where none shall 
make me afraid except the boats of the British cruisers." 
This wish was realized in February, 1780. 

Harnett in Prison. — But Harnett did not long 
enjoy his vine and fig tree. In January, 1781, the 
British captured Wilmington. The patriot leaders had 
to fly for their lives. There was none of them whom 


the British were so eager to capture as Harnett. Major 
Craige, the British commander, at once sent out a party 
of soldiers to take him. Harnett tried to escape, but 
after going a few miles was so overcome with illness that 
he had to stop at a friend's house in Onslow county. 

There the British soldiers found him. They pulled 
him out of bed, and drove him on foot before them until 
he fell in the road. Then binding his hands and feet 
they threw him across a soldier's horse " like a sack of 
meal," and so carried him to Wilmington. Major 
Craige threw him into prison and kept him there until 
he was in a dying condition. In April, 1781, at the 
request of Harnett's Tory friends, Craige released him. 
But it was too late to save his life. He never recovered 
from his cruel treatment, and died on April 28, 1781. 

The Legislature of North Carolina has named a county 
in his honor, and in the heart of the city of Wilmington, 
on the bank of the Cape Fear, near where his body lies 
buried, a monument has been erected to his memory. 


Trace the route of the messenger who bore the news of the battle 
of Lexington, from Suffolk, Virginia, across North Carolina to Bruns- 
wick. What streams and bodies of water did he cross? What 


Describe : 

1. Harnett's home. His appearance and manners. 

2. His work in the Assembly. 

3. How the people of Wilmington resisted the Stamp Act. 

4. How Harnett led the revolt against it. 

5. How he enforced the Non-Importation Association. 

6. Josiah Quincy's visit to Harnett. 


7. The Committees of Safety. The duties of the Provincial 

8. How the news of the battle of Lexington was carried; how 
Harnett received it. 

9. How the royal Governor was driven out of the province. 

10. How Harnett led the way to a Declaration of Independence. 

11. The punishment selected for him. 

12. How the Declaration of Independence was received at Halifax. 

13. Harnett's services in the Continental Congress. 

14. His sacrifices in the cause of independence. 

15. His death. 


1. Harnett represented the town of Wilmington in the General 
Assembly. Do any towns now have the right to send a representative 
to the Assembly? 

2. State the reasons why the Cape Fear became the place of chief 
resistance to the Stamp Act. 


Signers of the Declaration of Independence. — In 

the history of North Carolina we always think 
of William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and John Penn 
together. If you look at a copy of the Declaration of 
Independence, you will see the reason. There, one after 
the other, stand the names of the three patriots who 
signed the great Declaration for the people of North 
Carolina. William Hooper was an eloquent lawyer of 
Wilmington; Joseph Hewes, a wealthy merchant of 
Edenton; John Penn, a liberty-loving lawyer of Williams- 
boro. Hooper was a native of Massachusetts, Hewes 
of New Jersey, and Penn of Virginia. But all three 
gave their services to North Carolina, and their fame 
belongs to the Old North State. 

William Hooper. — William Hooper was born in 
Boston, June 17, 1742. His father- wished him to be 
a preacher, and so determined to give him a good educa- 
tion. Young Hooper first attended the Boston Latin 
School, and at fifteen years of age entered Harvard 
College. Three years later he was graduated with 
special honor in languages, literature, and history. 

When he came to choose his life's work, he decided 
against the ministry in favor of the law. In 1761 he 
began to study law under the great Boston patriot, 
James Otis. This was fortunate for Hooper. Otis was 




William Hooper 

not only a great lawyer, but he was also Boston's leading 

patriot. In the disputes between 
the Americans and the King the 
other members of Hooper's family 
took the King's side. But through 
the influence of Otis, William Hooper 
became a devoted Whig; in other 
words he opposed the King's way of 
dealing with the colonies. After 
receiving his license to practise law, 
he sailed on a visit to Wilmington, 
North Carolina. The town and its 
people delighted the young Boston 

attorney, and he adopted Wilmington as his future 


Joseph Hewes. — Joseph Hewes was twelve years 

older than Hooper. His birthplace was on a farm near 

Kinston, New Jersey. While he was a small boy, he was 

sent to a school in the neighborhood, where he learned 

reading, writing and arithmetic. But 

his school days did not last long. 

In those days people thought that a 

man did not need much of an edu- 
cation unless he intended to be a 

preacher, a lawyer, or a doctor. 

Hewes' father intended for him to be 

a merchant. So after a short time at 

school, young Hewes was placed under 

a merchant in Philadelphia to be 

. Joseph Hewes 

trained m the business of a merchant. 

At twenty-one years of age Hewes entered into business 
for himself. It is probable that he had a trade with the 


merchants of Edenton, North Carolina, for he soon 
decided to move to that town. In 1756, he left Phila- 
delphia and became a merchant at Edenton. 

John Penn. — Hewes was eleven years older, and 
Hooper one year younger than John Penn. Penn was 
born in Caroline county, Virginia. When he was 
eighteen years old, his father died, 
leaving him a small fortune. Though 
a man of means, Penn's father cared 
but little about educating his son. 
John Penn's school days lasted only 
two or three years. But fortunately 
near his home lived his kinsman, the 
famous Edmund Pendleton, who had 
a good library. He gave young Penn 

1 . 1M r t John Penn 

permission to use his library ireely, 

and by careful reading, Penn made up for his lack of 

early education. 

With Pendleton's aid he studied law, and in 1762 
received his license to practise. At first Penn practised 
law in Virginia, where he gained a reputation as a careful, 
painstaking attorney. In 1774 he decided to move 
to North Carolina, and selected the little village of 
Williamsboro, in Granville county, as his home. 

Hooper and Hewes in the Assembly. — When Penn 
reached Williamsboro, he found the patriots of North 
Carolina deeply stirred over the contest with the 
royal Governor and the King. Among the leaders 
of the Whigs he heard mentioned the names of William 
Hooper and Joseph Hewes. Both were members of the 
General Assembly. Hooper represented the little village 
of Campbellton. He entered the Assembly in 1773, and 


there met Hewes, who had been the member for Edenton 
since 1766. 

These two men soon became warm friends. They 
served on many important committees and stood to- 
gether in all the struggles against the Governor. The 
most important event during the Assembly of 1773, as 
we have already seen, was the appointment of the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence. Hooper and Hewes were 
both made members of this committee. 

They Send Aid to Boston. — In 1774 these two 
friends were active in collecting clothes and food for 
the poor people of Boston. At Edenton, Hewes together 
with John Harvey loaded the Penelope with a cargo and 
sent it to the Boston patriots. At Wilmington, Hooper 
called a meeting of the people to decide what Wilmington 
should do. This meeting declared that the people of 
Wilmington regarded "the cause of the town of Boston 
as the common cause of British America, and as suffering 
in defence of the rights of the colonies in general." 
Under the leadership of Hooper, the Wilmington patriots 
collected two ship loads of supplies and £2,000 in money 
and sent them to the patriots of Boston. 

Hooper and Hewes in the Provincial Congress. — 
At the same meeting the Wilmington patriots took 
another important step. You will remember how 
John Harvey, in the spring of 1774, suggested 
to Samuel Johnston the calling of a provincial congress. 
Johnston at once wrote to Hooper to ask what he thought 
of Harvey's plan. Hooper was strongly in favor of it. 
When the Wilmington patriots met, July 21, 1774, to 
consider the cause of Boston, Hooper was chosen chair- 
man of the meeting. He advocated the Provincial 


Congress, and the Wilmington meeting declared in favor 
of holding such a Congress. Hooper and John Ashe 
were chosen to represent New Hanover county. When 
they reached New Bern, where the Congress met, Hooper 
found that his friend Hewes was there as the member 
for Edenton. 

The Congress met August 25, 1774. The most im- 
portant business was the election of delegates to repre- 
sent North Carolina in the Continental Congress which 
was to meet at Philadelphia. William Hooper, Joseph 
Hewes, and Richard Caswell were chosen. They were 
given power to act for North Carolina. Any action 
they took, or any promise they made to the other colonies, 
was to be binding upon every person in North Carolina 
who was not an enemy to the liberties of his country. 

John Penn Joins Hooper and Hewes in the Conti- 
nental Congress. — The first Continental Congress met 
at Philadelphia September 5, 1774. It came to a close 
October 26. The next year the second Continen- 
tal Congress met at Philadelphia on May 10. Hooper, 
Hewes and Caswell again represented North Caro- 
lina. But in September, 1775, Caswell resigned, 
and the North Carolina Congress had to elect some- 
body to take his place. One of the members of the 
North Carolina Congress, which met at Hillsboro in 
August, 1775, was John Penn. He had been in North 
Carolina only a year, yet he had already become one of 
the leaders of the patriots. The other members now 
turned to him to take Caswell's place in the Continental 
Congress. He was elected in September, and in October 
he took his seat in Congress along with Hooper and 


Hooper, the Orator. — William Hooper served on 
thirty-four different committees in the Continental Con- 
gress. He helped to prepare an address to the people 
of England. This address set forth the rights of the 
colonists and showed how the King had trampled on 
them. Hooper also helped in forming a plan to raise an 
army to defend American rights. And he helped to 
write an address to the people of the colonies urging 
them to support their liberties with their lives. 

In this address the committee said: " We have taken 
up arms in the best of causes. Our troops are animated 
with the love of freedom. They have fought like good 
citizens as well as brave soldiers. Britain and these 
colonies have been a blessing to each other. We feel 
sure they might continue to be so. But that we may 
continue to be connected with Great Britain is our second 
wish — our first is, that America may be free! " 

Hooper took an active part in the debates of Congress, 
and gained a reputation as an eloquent speaker. John 
Adams wrote that Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, 
and William Hooper were "the orators'' of Congress. 

Hewes, the Business Man. — Hewes was not an 
orator. He was a plain-spoken, business man. As a 
merchant he had learned much about ships and the sea. 
So when Congress decided to build a navy to meet Eng- 
land on the sea, Hewes put his knowledge to good use 
for his country. He was placed at the head of the com- 
mittee in charge of building war vessels, equipping them 
with arms and men, and selecting officers. One of the 
officers selected was the famous John Paul Jones. After 
Jones had become famous he declared that he owed 
much of his success to the interest taken in him by Hewes. 


No man in Congress worked harder than Hewes. In 
the interest of his country he forgot his own welfare. 
Hooper and Penn wrote of him: " From the large share 
of naval and mercantile business which has been allotted 
to his attention by Congress, his health has been much 
impaired. From six in the morning till five and some- 
times six in the afternoon, without eating or drinking, 
he would be at work." His health broke completely 
down, and in September, 1776, he was compelled to 
return to North Carolina. 

Penn in Congress. — John Penn took his seat in 
the Continental Congress October 12, 1775. He did 
not have so much work to do in Congress as Hooper and 
Hewes. But like them he wrote many letters to his 
friends at home, telling them what the Congress, the 
army and the other colonies were doing, and urging them 
to stand firm for American liberties. 

What Hooper Wrote. — A few days before the battle 
of Moore's Creek Bridge, Hooper wrote to one of his 
friends: " Do we not play a game where slavery or 
liberty is at stake? Were I to advise, the whole force 
of the colony should be collected for immediate action 
when called for, and bid adieu to ploughshares and prun- 
ing hooks till the sword could find its scabbard with 
safety and honor to its owner. My first wish is to be 
free; my second to be reconciled to Great Britain. God 
grant that both may soon take place. Measures must 
be taken immediately. Ere this the troops of the enemy 
are in your country; may you stand forth like men, and 
fight the cause of liberty, the cause of the living God." 

What Hewes Wrote. — A few days after the battle 
of Bunker's Hill, Hewes wrote to Samuel Johnston: 


" I hope you will drive every principle of Toryism out 
of all parts of your Province. I consider myself now 
over head and ears in rebellion. But I feel no regret 
for the part I have taken, nor for the number of our 
enemies lately slain in the battle of Bunker's Hill." 

At another time he said: " All accounts from England 
seem to agree that we shall have a dreadful storm bursting 
on our heads through all America in the spring. We 
must not shrink from it. We ought not to show any 
signs of fear. We ought to be so firm as to stand un- 
moved at the bursting of an earthquake. I feel myself 
quite composed. I have furnished myself with a good 
musket and bayonet, and when I can no longer be useful 
in council, I hope I shall be willing to take the field." 

What Penn Wrote. — Neither Hooper nor Hewes 
were more in earnest than Penn. As soon as he 
learned that a large British force had been sent to North 
Carolina to help crush the patriots, he wrote to Colonel 
Thomas Person! " I make no doubt but the Southern 
Provinces will soon be the scene of action. I hope we 
to the southward shall act like men determined to be 
free. For God's sake, my good Sir, encourage our people 
— animate them to dare even to die for their country." 

"Striding Fast to Independence." — Soon after this 
letter was written, the patriots of North Carolina 
began to talk of declaring for independence. Among 
the first men to sse that the colonies must become 
independent was William Hooper. In 1774 he wrote 
that they were " striding fast to independence, and 
ere long will build an empire upon the ruins of Great 
Britain." Hewes and Penn also wrote in favor of 



Mecklenburg County Takes a Bold Step. — In 
every part of the province the people were soon 
talking about independence. Some of course were op- 
posed to such a bold step, but many others favored it. 
The boldest of all was the action taken by the patriots 
of Mecklenburg county. 
While they were holding a 
meeting at Charlotte, in 
May, 1775, they received 
news of the battle of Lex- 
ington, and the killing of 
American patriots by British 
soldiers. In great anger they 
ail cried out: " Let us be 
independent! Let us be 
independent! " They de- 
clared that Great Britain 
ought no longer to have any 
authority over the colonists. 
So they elected county offi- 
cers, and declared that they 
should hold their offices "in- (Mecklenb ^^^^^ 
dependent of the Crown of 

Great Britain." Captain James Jack at once set off on 
a fleet horse to carry this declaration to Hooper, Hewes, 
and Penn at Philadelphia. 

North Carolina Declares For Independence. — In 
April, 1776, Hooper and Penn left Philadelphia to 
attend the Provincial Congress at Halifax. They 
found the North Carolina patriots eager to be independ- 
ent of the King. Everybody was talking about inde- 
pendence. "All regard or fondness for the King or 

Monument to the Signers of the 
"Mecklenburg Declaration of 

Independence " 


nation of Britain is gone/' wrote Penn to John Adams. 
" A total separation is what they want. Independence 
is the word most used." So on April 12, as we have 
seen, the Congress resolved in favor of a Declaration of 

Hooper, Hewes, and Penn Sign the Declaration 
of Independence. — A copy of the " Resolution of 
April 12" was sent in great haste to Joseph Hewes, 
who had remained at Philadelphia. A few days later 
Hewes laid it before the Continental Congress. It 
was the first resolution passed by any of the colonies 
in favor of independence and the patriots welcomed 
it. John Adams, Samuel Adams, and other delegates 
wrote to their own colonies urging that they follow 
North Carolina's good example. Several of them did 
so. Then in July the Continental Congress adopted 
the great Declaration of Independence, and Hooper, 
Hewes, and Penn signed it for North Carolina. 

Hooper's Last Services. — In 1777 the Assembly 
again elected Hooper a delegate to the Continental 
Congress, but this time he declined. For several years 
he was a member of the General Assembly, and was 
always active in supporting the cause of independence. 
When the British captured Wilmington, in 1781, Hooper, 
like his friend Harnett, had to fly for his life and seek 
refuge in the interior of the State. 

After the Revolution Hooper made his home at 
Hillsboro. There he practised law and struggled hard 
to regain the fortune he had lost in the Revolution. 
But his sacrifices had not only swept away his fortune, 
they had also ruined his health. He died, October 14, 
1790, worn out in the service of his country. 


Hewes' Last Services. — When Hooper died, Hewes 
had been dead eleven years. After leaving the Con- 
tinental Congress, in 1776, Hewes returned to Eden- 
ton to regain his health. During the next three years 
he rendered important service in securing supplies for 
Washington's army. He sent his own ships down to the 
West Indies for cargoes of arms, ammunition, clothes, 
and other supplies. These supplies were brought to 
Edenton and then sent overland to the army in the North. 
We may be sure that they were gladly received by the 
ragged veterans and their great general. 

In 1779 the Assembly again chose Hewes a delegate 
to the Continental Congress. Hewes knew that he was 
not strong enough to stand the hard work, but he thought 
it his duty to try. So he again went to Philadelphia. 
But his health was so poor that he was absent from 
Congress much of the time. The last time that he 
attended a session of Congress was on October 29, 1779. 
Eleven days later he died. When he was buried, the 
members of Congress, the General Assembly of Penn- 
sylvania, and a large body of soldiers and citizens at- 
tended the funeral. 

Penn's Last Services. — Penn remained in the 
Continental Congress after Hewes had died. After 
adopting the Declaration of Independence, Congress 
had to prepare a plan of government for the United 
States. John Penn took part in this work. A great 
deal of careful thought and discussion was given to it. 
It was called the " Articles of Confederation and Per- 
petual Union." 

This plan bound the thirteen colonies together as the 
United States. The laws for this union were to be made 



by the Continental Congress. This plan proved to be 
very imperfect, and afterwards was given up for the 
Constitution of the United States. But it served the 
United States for nearly ten years, and under it they 
fought the Revolution and won their independence. 
The men who signed the Articles of Confederation for 
North Carolina were John Penn, Cornelius Harnett, 
and John Williams. 

After signing these Articles, John Penn returned to 
North Carolina. In 1780 the affairs of the United 

States were very gloomy. Their 
armies had been beaten in Georgia 
and South Carolina, and Lord 
Cornwallis, with a large army, was 
getting ready to march into North 
Carolina. It looked as if North 
Carolina, too, might be conquered. 
To meet this great danger, the 
Legislature appointed a Board of 
War, composed of three men, to 
take charge of the military affairs 
of the State. John Penn was one 
of the men selected, and did more 
than both of the others together 
to prevent the conquest of North Carolina. This board 
collected arms, ammunition, clothing, food, and other 
military supplies for the army, so that it might be 
ready to meet Cornwallis when he came. 

The work was very difficult. Penn suffered many hard- 
ships, dangers, and anxieties. His health broke down 
under his heavy work, and he was compelled to resign. 
Returning to his home in Granville county, he spent the 

Hooper-Penn Monu- 
ment at Guilford 


last few years of his life quietly on his farm, where he 
died in September, 1787. 

A Monument to the Signers. — Hooper was buried 
at Hillsboro, Hewes at Philadelphia, and Penn on 
his farm in Granville. Hewes' grave has been lost. 
In 1894 the bodies of Hooper and Penn were re- 
moved to the Guilford Battle-ground. There the two 
friends and patriots now rest side by side. Over their 
grave a statue of an orator has been erected, holding in 
his hand a scroll which represents the Declaration of 


1. Why do we think of the names of Hooper, Hewes, and Penn 

2. When and where was each born? Describe the education of 
each. Where did each settle in North Carolina? 

3. Describe the political services of Hooper and Hewes. 

4. How did they aid the Boston patriots? 

5. What did Hooper have to do with calling the first Provincial 
Congress? Whom did the Congress elect as delegates to the Conti- 
nental Congress? What powers were given these delegates? Who 
succeeded Caswell in the Continental Congress? When? 

6. Describe Hooper's work in the Continental Congress. 

7. Describe Hewes' work in the Continental Congress. 

8. What did Hooper, Hewes, and Penn write about the quarrel 
with England? 

9. What did Hooper write about independence? 

10. What action did Mecklenburg County take? 

11. When Hooper and Penn reached Halifax, what did they learn 
about the feeling of the people toward independence? 

12. What effect did the Resolution of April 12 have in other colo- 

13. Describe Hooper's last days. 

14. What service did Hewes render to Washington's army? Tell 
of his death. 


15. What were the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual 
Union"? Who signed them for North Carolina? 

16. Describe Penn's services on the Board of War. 

17. Write a summary of the work of Hooper. Of Hewes. Of 


1. What act of James Otis placed him in the front of the patriot 
leaders? Of Patrick Henry? Of Richard Henry Lee? 

2. Tell the story of John Paul Jones. His real name was John 
Paul. How did he get the Jones? 

3. The Congress at Halifax, April 12, 1776, did not try to declare 
North Carolina independent. It left the making of the Declaration 
of Independence to the Continental Congress? Why? 



The Young Surveyor. — In 1746 Gabriel Johnston 
was governor of North Carolina. One day in that 
year a young man rode up to his door and handed him 
a letter. The Governor found that it was from the 
Governor of Maryland, introducing to him the young 
man who had brought it. He was a bright young fellow 
of seventeen, well-educated, ambitious, and determined 
to make his way in the world. He was already a skilful 
surveyor, and had come to North Carolina to seek work. 
Good surveyors were needed in the province, so Governor 
Johnston gave the young stranger a hearty welcome. 
How little he thought that he was welcoming a man who 
would afterwards be chosen governor of North Carolina 
seven times! 

This young surveyor was Richard Caswell. He was 
born in Maryland, August 3, 1729. His father, who had 
been a merchant, had failed in business, so young Caswell 
had to start out early to make his own living. He had 
probably heard that every year thousands of people 
were moving into North Carolina, where good land was 
plentiful and cheap. So he thought that North Carolina 
would be a good place for a surveyor. 

Caswell Becomes Deputy-Surveyor. — He was not 
mistaken. There was plenty of work for him to do, 



and he was successful from the very first. Within 
two years he had made enough to purchase for himself 
more than three thousand acres of land in Johnston 
and Anson counties. Governor Johnston was so much 
pleased with young Caswell's work that he appointed 
him deputy-surveyor of the province. This was a 
very important office and the duties were difficult. 
Every year thousands of acres were being bought by 
immigrants, and the deputy-surveyor had to mark off 
the tracts and show the people where their lands were. 

It was hard work and full of danger. Frequently 
Caswell's duties carried him deep down into the forests 
where bears, panthers, wolves, and other wild beasts 
were plentiful. Sometimes, too, he had to enter the 
wilderness where Indians still roamed and hunted. But 
it was good training for him. It hardened his muscles, 
taught him to endure hardships, and gave him steady 
nerves and keen eyes. He learned the ways of the 
forests, and these lessons he afterwards put to good use 
in the service of his country. 

Caswell Is Elected to the Assembly. — Caswell's 
work brought him in close touch with the people, and 
he soon became well known in the colony. In 1752 
his friend Governor Johnston died, and two years later 
Arthur Dobbs became governor. In the same year 
Caswell was elected to represent Johnston county in the 
Assembly. He remained a member of the Assembly 
until the outbreak of the Revolution. In 1770 and 
again in 1771, he was elected speaker. 

A Champion of Liberty. — In the Assembly Caswell 
was a strong champion of the liberties of the people, 
and stood with Harvey, Harnett, Hooper, and Hewes 


in their contests for self-government. He voted for 
laws to make the courts better. He wanted none but 
learned lawyers to be judges. He thought the judges 
ought to be required to hold court in different parts of 
the province, instead of in the same place all the time, 
so the people would not have to travel so far to attend 
them. He worked hard, too, for improvements in the 
colony. He voted for money to build forts on the 
western frontier and to raise soldiers to march under 
Colonel Waddell against the French and Indians. He 
worked to establish silk industries, to improve agricul- 
ture, and to increase the trade of the province. 

A Champion of Law and Order. — Though Caswell 
was a champion of liberty, he was also a champion of 
law and order. When the Regulators refused to obey 
the laws, and began to abuse the officers and destroy 
people's property, Caswell was in favor of punishing 
them. Like Harvey and Harnett, he urged Governor 
Tryon who had succeeded Governor Dobbs, to call out 
the militia to put down the Regulators and compel them 
to obey the laws. Tryon appointed him a colonel 
in his army, and Caswell marched with him to 

At the battle of Alamance, May 16, 1771, Colonel 
Caswell led the right wing of Tryon' s army. The 
Regulators were badly beaten, and some of their leaders 
punished. But most of them were pardoned upon 
promising to obey the laws and keep order. In this 
battle Caswell showed himself to be a brave and skilful 
officer, and won praises from Governor Tryon. He 
learned some lessons in war that he afterwards put into 
practise in a way that Tryon liked little enough. 



Arms used in Revolutionary War 

(Muskets, pistols, powder horns, bullet pouch, 


Caswell Opposes the King. — After the battle of 
Alamance, Tryon became governor of New York, and 
Josiah Martin was appointed governor of North Caro- 
lina. At this time the quarrel with the King was 
becoming more and more serious. In all the contests 
with the Governor and the King, Caswell took the side 

of the people. He 
was often on commit- 
tees to draw addresses 
for the Assembly. In 
1773, he was ap- 
pointed a member of 
the Committee of 
Correspondence. He 
was a member of the 
first Provincial Con- 
gress in August, 1774, and by that Congress was elected 
one of the delegates to the Continental Congress. 

Caswell's Journey to Philadelphia. — Caswell set 
out for Philadelphia, September 3, 1774. He kept 
an interesting account of his journey. How different 
traveling was in 1774 from what it is now! Caswell 
rode all the way to Philadelphia on horseback. It 
took him twelve days to make the trip. Some days 
he rode only sixteen miles, and the longest distance he 
made in any one day was forty-eight miles. His horse 
gave out, and at Petersburg, Virginia, he had to buy 

He usually stopped for his meals and night's rest at 
public taverns, but sometimes he was entertained in the 
homes of planters. At Philadelphia he received many 
invitations to dine, but he did not neglect his duties in 


Congress. He paid close attention to the work of the 
Congress, and when he returned home the Congress of 
North Carolina thanked him and the other delegates 
for their services. 

The Uprising of the People. — Caswell was also 
elected a delegate to the Second Continental Con- 
gress, which met at Philadelphia, May 10, 1775. This 
time Caswell and Hewes made the journey together. 
As they rode along the road, they met riders on fleet 
horses, bearing the news of the battle of Lexington. 
They now pushed on as fast as possible, for this news 
made them more than ever eager to reach Philadelphia. 
They knew that war had now begun in earnest. All 
along their route they found the people greatly excited. 
Everywhere companies of soldiers were marching, drill- 
ing, and practising for war. 

Caswell and Hewes learned that a few miles ahead of 
them were the Virginia delegates on their way to Phila- 
delphia. All along the route they passed " armed men 
who had been to escort the delegates of Virginia." So 
they spurred up their horses to overtake the Virginians. 
At the Potomac river the militia was drawn up under 
arms to receive them. The soldiers escorted the Caro- 
linians for some distance " with all the honors due to 
general officers." At Port Tobacco, Maryland, they 
overtook the Virginians, after which they all traveled 
together, escorted by armed troops. 

At Baltimore great honors were paid to the Virginia 
and Carolina delegates. The Maryland troops, in their 
gayest uniforms, marched out to be reviewed by one of 
the Virginians. This was Colonel George Washington. 
Caswell was deeply interested in all these military dis- 


plays, and wrote that the Maryland soldiers performed 
" their exercises extremely clever." After the review 
all the delegates were "very genteelly entertained at the 

The Carolina and Virginia delegates were now joined 
by the Maryland delegates. They reached Philadelphia 
about midday, May 9. Congress met the next day. 
As everybody now realized that the Americans would 
have to fight for their liberties, Congress promptly took 
charge of the American army at Boston, and elected 
George Washington commander-in-chief. The whole 
country was in great excitement. From Philadelphia 
Caswell wrote: " Here a greater martial spirit prevails 
if possible than I have been describing in Virginia and 
Maryland." " The men," he said, " march out to the 
Common and go through their exercises twice a day 
regularly; scarce anything but warlike music is to be 
heard in the streets. 'Tis said they will in a few days 
have 3,000 men under arms ready to defend their 

Caswell Takes the Field. — The martial excitement 
stirred Caswell's fighting blood, and he was eager 
to take the field. He wrote to his son urging him to 
raise a company in Dobbs 1 county. " Reject none," 
he said, " who will not discredit the company. If I live 
to return I will cheerfully join any of my countrymen, 
even as a rank and file man. I am here exposed to 
danger. But I shall not shun any danger whilst I have 
blood in my veins, but freely offer it in support of the 
liberties of my country. You, my dear boy, must 

1 Afterwards divided into Lenoir and Greene. Caswell lived in the 
part now embraced in Lenoir. 


become a soldier and risk your life in support of those 
blessings which, if once lost, we shall never be able to 

Caswell had to wait but a short time before North 
Carolina called for his services in the field. The Con- 
gress of North Carolina met at Hillsboro in August, 
1775, and decided to raise 4,000 soldiers for the defense 
of the colonies. Caswell, on account of his services at 
Alamance, was already regarded as one of North Caro- 
lina's best soldiers. So the Congress elected him a colonel 
in the new army. He at once returned from Philadelphia 
to take command of his regiment. He worked hard to 
get his men prepared for war, and before many months 
had passed he had them ready to march against the 
Highlanders at Moore's Creek Bridge. 

The March of the Highlanders. — The Scotch High- 
landers, who lived on the Cape Fear river around 
Cross Creek, were nearly all on the King's side. In 
1776 Governor Martin commanded them to form com- 
panies and march down the river to meet him at Wil- 
mington. He promised that he would join them there 
with 10,000 British soldiers, under Sir Henry Clinton 
and Lord Cornwallis. With the aid of the Highlanders 
he expected to conquer North Carolina and crush the 
rebellion in the very beginning. 

Nearly 2,000 Highlanders gathered at Cross Creek in 
February, 1776. They were all well armed and in high 
spirits, for they expected to win an easy victory over the 
rebels. So they marched out of the little village toward 
Wilmington, with drums beating and bagpipes playing, 
singing their old Scotch songs. 

But the Whigs were on the lookout. The Highlanders 


soon found General James Moore, with 1,100 Whig 
soldiers, blocking the way. Then they turned back, 
crossed the Cape Fear river, and took another road to 
Wilmington. But when they reached the bridge over 
Moore's Creek they found it guarded by 1,100 patriots. 
They were under the command of Colonel Caswell and 
Colonel Alexander Lillington. The Highlanders had 
now either to fight or give up their attempt to get to 
Wilmington. They were too brave to give up, so they 
prepared for the battle. 

The Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. — At day- 
break, February 27, 1776, they marched out to attack 
the Americans. Their leader was General Donald Mac- 
Donald, but he was too ill to take part in the battle. 
So they were led to battle by Donald McLeod. Their 
battle-cry was: " King George and broadswords! ' The 
signal for the attack to begin was to be three cheers, 
the drums to beat and the pipes to play. McLeod 
led the charge. When he reached the bridge, nobody 
was to be seen, and he thought the Americans had 
run away during the night. So calling upon his men to 
follow, he started across the bridge. Then somebody 
cried out: 

" Who goes there? " 

" A friend,' 7 replied McLeod. 

" A friend to whom? " asked the other. 

" To the King," replied the Highlander. 

Then all was silence. McLeod raised his gun, fired, 
gave three cheers, and dashed across the bridge. The 
Whigs then opened fire. The brave McLeod fell dead. 
His men tried to cross, but as fast as they rushed on the 
bridge they were shot down. More than thirty of the 


bravest fell into the creek. Then the others lost heart, 
turned and fled. Caswell commanded his men to follow. 
They overtook the Highlanders, killed a few and captured 
a large number. It was a complete victory. The Whigs 
lost only one man. They captured 850 of the Highland- 
ers, 150 swords, 1,500 rifles, 15 wagons with all their 
provisions and horses, and £15,000 in gold. 

Caswell and Lillington had won one of the most impor- 
tant victories of the war. They had saved North 
Carolina from conquest, and probably Virginia, South 
Carolina, and Georgia. The patriots were overjoyed at 
their success. Nearly ten thousand men sprang to 
arms, and when Clinton and Cornwallis came with their 
great army they did not dare to land. So they sailed 
away to Charleston, South Carolina, where they were 
badly beaten. The Highlanders did not try to help the 
King again. They were glad enough to remain at home 
quietly. The North Carolina Congress thanked Caswell 
and his brave men for their great victory, and soon after- 
wards made Caswell a general. 

Caswell Is Elected Governor. — The victory at 
Moore's Creek Bridge, as we have already seen, caused 
the Congress on April 12 to declare in favor of a 
Declaration of Independence. In December, 1776, the 
new Constitution of North Carolina was adopted. Con- 
gress then elected the first officers of the independent 
State. When the members came to choose a governor, 
all eyes turned to the victor of Moore's Creek Bridge. 
So December 20, 1776, Richard Caswell was elected the 
first governor of North Carolina independent of Great 
Britain. He was to serve only until the Legislature 
could meet and elect a governor for the regular term. 



The Legislature met in April, 1777, and at once elected 
Caswell governor. No other man has ever been chosen 
governor of North Carolina as often as Caswell. At 
that time the governor served only one year unless he 
was re-elected. Caswell was first elected in 1776, and 
afterwards was re-elected six times. From 1777 to 1780 

his attention was given 
chiefly to the war. He had 
to raise men for the army, 
to see that they were sup- 
plied with arms, ammu- 
nition, food, and clothes. 
While he was governor he 
had gun factories estab- 
lished, and powder mills 
erected. He sent out ships 
to the West Indies to pur- 
chase supplies for the sol- 

Governor Caswell not only 
worked hard to keep a good 
army in the field, but he also 
worked to keep up the spirits 
of the people during the dark days of the Revolution. 
His own son was a soldier. To him Caswell wrote that 
he must " put up with hardships, fatigues, and incon- 
veniences which others may shudder at." " Let 
virtue, honor, and prudence conduct you." The Con- 
stitution provided that no man could be governor 
more than three years in succession. When Caswell 
retired in 1780, the Assembly thanked him for his great 
services to the State. 

Cannon Purchased by Governor 
Caswell during Revolution 

(Now in Capitol Square at Raleigh) 

Inscription on the Tablet 

Bought in France by Richard Caswell 

Mounted at Edenton, 1778 

Re-mounted 1871. Captured by U.S. Force 

1862. Trunnion broken off 

Presented by Edenton to the 

State of North Carolina, 1903 


The Dark Days of the Revolution. — In 1779 a 
large British army was sent to conquer the South- 
ern States. The patriots of Georgia, South Caro- 
lina, and North Carolina made great exertions to meet 
the enemy. The Legislature gave General Caswell 
command of all the North Carolina militia, with the 
rank of major-general. When General Gates came 
to take command of all the American armies in the 
South, General Caswell marched to join him. At 
Camden, South Carolina, the Americans were badly 
beaten because Gates would not follow Caswell's 

The next year the British invaded North Carolina. 
Everything looked dark and gloomy for the patriots. 
The British captured Wilmington, Charlotte, and Hills- 
boro. The American army under General Greene was 
forced to retreat with the British under Cornwallis right 
on its heels. Then the Legislature again turned to 
Caswell to defend the State. 

Never did a man work harder for his country. Caswell 
collected men and supplies and sent them to General 
Greene's assistance. After a time Greene was strong 
enough to turn on Cornwallis. At Guilford Court- 
house the two armies met in one of the hardest fought 
battles of the war. General Greene was driven from the 
field but his army was ready the next day for another 
trial with the British. Cornwallis claimed the victory, 
but his army was so badly damaged that he did not dare 
attack Greene again. He retreated hurriedly to Wilming- 
ton, and then marched to Yorktown, Virginia, where 
Washington pounced down upon him and captured his 
whole army. 



Caswell Elected Governor Again. — Caswell's skill 
and bravery, and his willingness to make sacrifices 
for the good of the country, had made him one of the 
most popular men in the State. He was frequently 

Monument to Richard Caswell at Kinston 


[North Side] 
The people of 
North Carolina 
have erected this 
monument in grate- 
ful remembrance of 
the eminent service 
of Richard Caswell, 
the first Governor 
under a free Con- 

[West Side] 
He was called to 
the head of affairs 
in North Carolina 
in the darkest hour 
of the struggle with 
Great Britain for 
independence. He 
gave his service 
without stint and 
without compensa- 

[East Side] 
Born August 3, 
1729, died Novem- 
ber 10, 1789. An 
able lawyer, pro- 
found statesman, a 
worthj- grand mas- 
ter, a devoted pa- 
triot, and an honest 

[South Side] 
Member of Pro- 
vincial Congress. 
Four times elected 
Governor. 1 Dele- 
gate elect to the 
Convention to 
frame the federal 
Constitution — one 
of the commanding 
officers at Moore's 
Creek, and a suc- 
cessful general of 
the American Revo- 

elected a member of the Legislature, and was also elected 
speaker. In 1784, he was again elected governor and 
served three years. While he was governor, North 
Carolina was asked to send delegates to a convention in 
Philadelphia, in 1787, to form a better government for 
the United States. Caswell was chosen one of the 
delegates for North Carolina. 

x An error. He was elected sevea times. 


Caswell thought some changes ought to be made in 
the Articles of Confederation and was in favor of a con- 
vention. But he did not think that he ought to leave 
the State for such a long time while he was governor. 
So he appointed William Blount to go in his place. 
After the new Constitution of the United States was 
prepared by the Convention, he urged that it should be 
adopted by North Carolina. But at first, in 1788, 
North Carolina rejected it, and it was not adopted in 
this State until after Caswell's death. 

Caswell's Death. — In 1789 Caswell was elected 
speaker of the North Carolina Senate. But the days 
of his public services were now about over. Soon after 
the Assembly met, he was taken sick, and a few days 
later died (November 10, 1789). The news of his death 
was received with great sorrow throughout the State. 
The Assembly appointed a special committee to arrange 
for the funeral, and then adjourned in honor to his mem- 
ory. His body was taken to his home near Kinston, 
and buried. At Kinston a monument has been erected 
to his memory, and one of the counties of the State was 
named in his honor. 


1. On his journey to the first Continental Congress Caswell took 
the following route: Kinston to Nahunta (near the present town of 
Snow Hill), Enfield, Halifax, Petersburg, Va., Richmond, Hanover 
Court-house, Port Tobacco, Baltimore, Md., Wilmington, Del., to 
Philadelphia. Trace his route on your maps, naming the counties 
that he passed through in North Carolina, and the rivers in all the 

2. Dobbs county was what is now Lenoir and Greene. Describe 
their situation. 


3. What part of North Carolina was settled by the Scotch High- 
landers? Describe the situation of Moore's Creek with reference to 
Cross Creek (Fayetteville) and Wilmington. 

4. Trace the line of Gates's retreat from Camden, S. C, to Char- 
lotte, Salisbury, Hillsboro. 

5. What part of North Carolina was settled principally between 
1746 and 1776? (In answering this question consider the new coun- 
ties formed during those years and their location). 


1. When and where was Richard Caswell born? Why did he come 
to North Carolina? 

2. What was his profession? To what office did Governor John- 
ston appoint him? Describe his work as deputy-surveyor. Why was 
it good training for him? 

3. Describe his work in the Assembly. 

4. How did he help Governor Tryon preserve law and order? 

5. Which side did he take in the quarrel between the colonies and 
the King? To what important places was he chosen by the Assembly? 

6. Describe Caswell's first journey to the Continental Congress. 

7. Describe the journey of Caswell and Hewes to the Continental 

8. What did Caswell write to his son about the war? To what 
military position did the Assembly choose him? 

9. Describe the march of the Highlanders. 

10. Give an accouno of the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. What 
were the chief results of this battle? 

11. Who was the first governor of North Carolina independent of 
Great Britain? When was he elected? How many times was he 

12. What were Caswell's principal duties as governor? 

13. Describe Caswell's services during the dark days of the Revolu- 

14. What did Caswell think about adopting a new Constitution 
for the United States? 

15. Tell of his last services and death. 

16. Write on the blackboard a brief summary of his life. 



1. How long was Caswell in the General Assembly? 

2. What improvements in the courts favored by him do we now 

3. By what right did the Continental Congress exercise authority 
over the colonists? Did all the people recognize its authority? 

4. Why did the Scotch Highlanders take the King's side in the 
Revolution? So did most of the Regulators. Why? 

5. Why was Cape Fear the bqst place for Governor Martin to 
make his first attack on North Carolina? 

6. How much would £15,000 amount to in United States money? 

7. Describe the effects of the victory at Moore's Creek Bridge 
in North Carolina and the other Southern colonies. 


Life on the Carolina Frontier. — The boy who grew 
up on the frontier of North' Carolina before the Revo- 
lution became used to hardships and dangers. His 
home was surrounded by great forests. If he went out 
to chase a rabbit or to shoot a squirrel, he never knew 
but that he might run into the den of a savage old bear, or 
look up suddenly into the glaring eyes of a fierce panther. 
When he lay down at night to sleep, he never knew but 
that he might soon be waked by the glare of his burn- 
ing cabin or the wild war-whoops of painted savages. 
His life was full of excitement and narrow escapes. 

Such a life called for steady nerves, quick sight, pres- 
ence of mind, and strength of limbs and body. The 
man who would live on the frontier must be keen on the 
trail of man and beast. He must know how to trap, to 
hunt, and to fight, and he must be able to do these things 
well. He may have learned but little out of books, but 
he learned much about the woods and the streams, the 
birds and the beasts, and he knew all the tricks of the 
Indians. To keep silence, to shoot straight, and to hit 
hard were among his first lessons. Such was the early 
training of Benjamin Cleveland, Isaac Shelby, John 
Sevier, and the other " Heroes of King's Mountain." 

Benjamin Cleveland. — Benjamin Cleveland was born 



in Virginia, May 26, 1738. He grew to manhood in the 
backwoods of Virginia and North Carolina. When, he 
was thirty-one years old he came to North Carolina to 
make his home. He selected a beautiful spot in what is 
now Wilkes county. There he farmed, raised stock, 
and fought Indians. His favorite amusements were 
horse-racing, hunting, and fishing. 

During the Revolution Cleveland was an ardent Whig. 
There were many Tories on the frontier and the fight- 
ing between them and the Whigs was bitter and bloody. 
Many cruel deeds were done by both. Colonel Cleve- 
land was one of the most active Whig leaders on the 
border. His soldiers were proud of him. They admired 
his good humor, his hearty greeting, and his reckless 
courage. He weighed over three hundred pounds and 
his men called him " Old Roundabout.' 5 They called 
themselves " Cleveland's Bulldogs;" but the Tories 
called them " Cleveland's Devils." 

In 1776 General Griffith Rutherford led an army across 
the mountains to attack the Cherokee Indians who 
were murdering the people and burning their homes. 
Cleveland was a captain in Rutherford's army. For 
his skill and bravery he was made a colonel. He 
rendered good service to the American cause by break- 
ing up the Tory bands that scoured the frontier, burning 
and plundering. He even marched as far south as 
Georgia and took part in some battles against the regular 
British army. 

Isaac Shelby. — One of Cleveland's companions was 
Colonel Isaac Shelby. He was born in Maryland, De- 
cember 11, 1750. He was so constantly engaged in the 
Indian wars of that period that, like Cleveland, he did 



not receive much of an education. When he became 
twenty-one years of age his father sent him across the 
Allegheny Mountains to engage in stock-raising on the 

frontier. In 1774 he was appointed a 
lieutenant in the militia and took part 
in several battles with the Indians. 
During the years 1775 and 1776 
Shelby explored the wilds of Ken- 
tucky, then a part of Virginia. 

While he was engaged in this work 
the Revolution broke out. Governor 
Patrick Henry, of Virginia, appointed 
him a captain in the Virginia militia. 
Later Shelby was appointed to run 
the boundary line between North 
Carolina and Virginia. He ran the 
line westward between what is now 
Kentucky and Tennessee. At that time Kentucky was 
part of Virginia, and Tennessee was part of North 
Carolina. After running the line, Shelby found that his 
home was on the North Carolina side. So Governor 
Caswell appointed him a colonel in the North Carolina 

John Sevier. — Another bold frontiersman of the 
Revolution was John Sevier. He also lived in that part 
of North Carolina which is now in Tennessee. Sevier 
was born September 23, 1745, in Virginia. When he 
was only ten years old, his home was burned by the 
Indians. For several years there was war all the time 
with the Indians, and Sevier became one of the most 
famous Indian fighters on the frontier. It is said that 
he defeated the Indians in thirty-five battles. 

Isaac Shelby 



John Sevier 

When he was twenty-seven years old, he moved into 
the western settlements of North Carolina. His plan- 
tation was in what was called the Dis- 
trict of Washington, on the Watauga 
and Nolichucky rivers. Sevier soon 
became the leading man in the settle- 
ment. His friends called him " Noli- 
chucky Jack." In 1776 he was elected 
a member of the Congress of North 
Carolina that met at Halifax. 

"Nolichucky Jack" and "Bonnie 
Kate." — During one of the Indian 
wars on the frontier the whites were compelled to take 
refuge in a fort. A large number of women and children 
were among them. For several days nothing was seen 
of any Indians, and everybody began to hope that they 
had gone away. One day some of the girls slipped out 
of the fort to gather wild flowers. As they laughed and 
talked and enjoyed their freedom they strayed farther 
and farther from the fort. 

Suddenly they heard a cry that sent them scamper- 
ing back to the fort for their very lives. " The Indians! 
The Indians! Run, run for your lives!" Crack! crack! 
went the rifles of the men on guard. The frightened 
girls flew over the ground, and all but one got safely 
through the gate. When this girl saw that she could not 
reach the gate safely, she ran for another part of the fort. 
There stood a tall backwoodsman, rifle in hand, and 
every time his rifle cracked, an Indian tumbled over. 
The girl sprang to the wall, scrambled over, and fell 
safely into this frontiersman's brawny arms. 

This girl's name was Catherine Sherrill, but her friends 


called her " Bonnie Kate." The tall backwoodsman 
was " Nolichucky Jack." Afterward there was great 
rejoicing and dancing in the settlement when " Bonnie 
Kate " and " Nolichucky Jack " were married. 

The Rising of the Backwoodsmen. — One day a mes- 
senger reached the backwoods settlements with news 
that a British army was marching in that direction. 
This army was composed of 1200 British and Tories. 
Its commander was Major Patrick Ferguson, who was 
one of Lord Cornwallis's best officers. Major Ferguson 
sent word to the backwoodsmen that if they did not stop 
sending aid to the rebels of North Carolina and South 
Carolina, he would cross the mountains and destroy 
their settlements. But he little knew what sort of men 
Benjamin Cleveland, Isaac Shelby, John Sevier, and 
their followers were. As soon as they heard that Fergu- 
son was near them, they decided not to wait for his 
arrival, but to go out and meet him. 

So the leaders sent scouts all through the mountains 
calling on the people to rise up in defense of their homes. 
Old men and young boys, hunters and farmers, snatched 
their long rifles from their racks and hurried to the 
meeting place. Their only fear was that all the fighting 
might be over before they got there. At Sycamore 
Shoals, on the Watauga River, about 1000 of these fear- 
less woodsmen gathered. There were 400 Virginians 
under Colonel William Campbell ; 500 North Carolinians 
under Colonel Shelby and Colonel Sevier; and 160 North 
Carolinians under Colonel Joseph McDowell. After- 
ward they were joined on the march by Colonel Cleve- 
land with 400 men from North Carolina, and Colonel 
James Williams with 400 from South Carolina. 


" A Crowd of Dirty Mongrels." — It was a queer- 
looking army. The men had no bright uniforms. There 
were no flying flags. No drum beat step for them as 
they marched. Their only uniforms were coonskin 
caps, buckskin shirts, fringed leggings, and Indian moc- 
casins. They were burdened with no tents or baggage. 
Their only cover at night was the starry sky, their chief 
food a pocketful of parched corn for each man. But 
every man rode a good horse, and carried a sharp hunt- 
ing-knife, a tomahawk, and his trusty rifle. There was 
scarcely a man in that little army who could not send 
a rifle-ball through the head of a squirrel perched on the 
highest limb. They were as fleet as deer, as bold as 
bears, and as keen as Indians on the trail. Nearly every 
man of them had been in battles with the Indians and 
knew how to fight " Indian fashion.' 5 At first Fergu- 
son made much fun of this queer army and called it 
"a crowd of dirty mongrels." 

Ferguson Flees to King's Mountain. — But when he 
learned that this " crowd of dirty mongrels" was getting 
nearer and nearer, Ferguson began to think that he had 
better get out of the way. So he turned and fled in 
haste to the top of King's Mountain. There he took 
a strong position and declared that all the rebels in the 
world could not drive him off. But he forgot that he 
was dealing with men who were used to climbing moun- 

Cleveland's Speech. — Just before the patriots were 
ready to go into battle, the leaders drew their men up 
in line to tell them their plans. Then " Old Round- 
about ' Cleveland, raising his coonskin cap, rode up in 
front and said: 


"Now, my brave fellows, I have come to tell you the 
news. The enemy is close at hand. We must go for 
him. Now is the time for every man to show what kind 
of a man he is. When the pinch comes, your leaders 
will be right with you. But we don't want anybody to 
go into this battle who wants to turn back. We have 
no place for cowards. If any man is afraid to go into 
this fight and win his share of the glory, now is the 
time for him to back out. So when I give the signal, 
all who want to back out can take three steps to the 

That would, indeed, have been " backing out." 
But " Old Roundabout ' knew his men. Not a one 
" backed out," but all cried out for him to lead them 
against the enemy. 

Shelby's Speech. — Then up rode Colonel Shelby. 
"I am proud of you, my fine fellows," he said. " I am 
glad to see you so determined to meet your enemy and 
beat him. When we meet the British, don't wait for 
your officers to give the command. Let each man be 
his own officer, and do the best he can. If we meet them 
in the woods, give them Indian play. Advance from 
tree to tree, and pour your shots into them. Your 
officers will shrink from no danger, but will be in the 
foremost of the fight. Come on, then, my gallant boys, 
and let us go after Ferguson." 

The Battle on the Mountain-top. — The men cheered 
their leaders, and they went boldly after Ferguson. 
It was October 7, 1780. Up the sides of King's Moun- 
tain the bold pioneers rushed. As they advanced from 
behind trees and rocks they poured a deadly fire into 
the British. Ferguson and his men fought bravely, but 



they were no match for the backwoodsmen. They fell 
thick and fast before the sure aim of the hunters and 
Indian lighters. Ferguson himself, struck by several 
balls, fell from his horse, dead. Then the British raised 
the white flag and surrendered to the " crowd of dirty 

Battle of King's Mountain 

mongrels." The patriots had killed nearly 400 of their 
enemies and captured more than 700. Of their own 
men 28 were killed and 60 wounded. 

A Glorious Victory. — Such a glorious victory had 
not been won in the South since Caswell had beaten the 
Highlanders at Moore's Creek. Lord Cornwallis was 
at Charlotte when he heard the gloomy news. He saw 
at once that North Carolina was not a safe place for him, 
so he turned and fled to South Carolina. He was ter- 
ribly afraid that the King's Mountain boys were coming 
after him. 


But the King's Mountain boys were not thinking of 
Cornwallis. After their victory they returned to their 
mountain homes, hung their rifles again in the racks 
over the great fireplaces, and went quietly to work. 
They had merely done what they had set out to do, and 
had done it well. They had beaten their haughty 
enemy. They had won an important victory. They 
had saved the State. And yet it never occurred to them 
that they were heroes! 

Cleveland's Last Days. — After the Revolution 
Colonel Cleveland spent the rest of his life quietly. He 
grew so fat that he weighed over 450 pounds and could 
not get about easily. Full of wit and good humor, he 
loved a good story and always welcomed a good fellow 
to his house. He amused himself in his last days by 
sitting on his porch cracking jokes with those who 
passed by. In October, 1806, he suddenly died while 
eating his breakfast. 

Shelby Moves to Kentucky. — At the close of the war 
Shelby moved to the settlements founded by Daniel 
Boone in Kentucky. He took an important part in 
founding the new State of Kentucky. After the Con- 
stitution was adopted, he was chosen the first governor. 
He served as governor for four years. During the War 
of 1812 he was again elected governor and bent all his 
energies toward helping the United States win the vic- 
tory. In 1813 he led the Kentucky troops on an expe- 
dition against the British in Canada, and took part in 
the battle of the Thames. For this service the Congress 
of the United States voted him a gold medal. 

In 1818 President Monroe appointed Governor Shel- 
by secretary of war for the United States, but on ac- 


count of his age Shelby declined. He died July 18, 

The State of Franklin. — After the Revolution the 
people of the District of Washington became discon- 
tented with the government of North Carolina. So 
they set up a new State which they called the " State of 
Franklin," and elected John Sevier governor. But North 
Carolina declared that Sevier and his followers were 
rebels against her. Officers who were sent to arrest him 
brought him to Morganton to be tried for rebellion. 

A Bold Adventure. — But we may be sure that " Bon- 
nie Kate " would not rest quietly at home and let " Noli- 
chucky Jack ' be punished. She called together a few 
of his best friends and they agreed on a plan to rescue 
their leader. A small party rode all the way from the 
" State of Franklin ' to Morganton. They carried 
Sevier's fleet horse, ready bridled and saddled. At 
Morganton a large crowd gathered to hear the trial of 
the hero of King's Mountain. The little court-house 
was packed. Sevier's friends entered quietly, and gave 
him a secret sign. Nobody else knew who they were or 
what they had come for. 

Suddenly the leader stepped out in front of the judge 
and, pointing to Sevier, exclaimed in a loud voice: 

" When are you going to let that man go?" 

Everybody sprang up in surprise and confusion. 
Before the sheriff realized what had occurred, Sevier was 
out of the door, on his horse, and away to the mountains 
as fast as the wind. It was needless to try to catch him. 1 
Perhaps the people, who had not. forgotten his services 

1 This is the traditional account. Historically it may be inaccurate 
in some of its details, but it is doubtless true in its main features. 


at King's Mountain, did not want him to be caught. 
Anyhow " Nolichucky Jack ' was soon over the moun- 
tains kissing his brave little wife, " Bonnie Kate/' who 
was glad enough to see him. He was never tried for 
rebellion because the Legislature of North Carolina 
passed a law that he should be pardoned and permitted 
to go free. 

Sevier's Last Days. — The ''State of Franklin' did 
not last long, for the people had to yield to the authority 
of North Carolina. But afterward North Carolina gave 
all that great territory, now the State of Tennessee, to 
the United States. Then the State of Tennessee was 
formed, and Sevier was elected governor. The people 
elected him governor six times. They also elected him 
to Congress three times, once before Tennessee became a 
State, and twice afterwards. When he died, at seventy 
years of age, he had been the leader of the Tennessee 
pioneers for more than forty years. 


1. Describe the situation of Wilkes county. Of King's Mountain. 
Of Morganton. Of Jonesboro, Tenn. 

2. Trace and describe the course of the Watauga and Nolichucky 

3. Where is Cleveland county? What is its county seat? 

4. Describe the character of the country through which the "King's 
Mountain Boys" had to march. 


1. Describe life on the frontier before the Revolution. 

2. What kind of education was needed on the frontier? 

3. When and where was Benjamin Cleveland born? Where in 
North Carolina did he settle? What were his chief occupations and 
amusements? • 


4. Which side was he on in the Revolution? What kind of war- 
fare did he wage? What did his soldiers think of him? What was 
his nickname? 

5. When and where was Isaac Shelby born? Describe his early 
life. What service did he perform for North Carolina and Virginia? 
To what military positions was he appointed? 

6. When and where was John Sevier born? What is said of him 
as an Indian fighter? Where did he make his home? What did his 
friends call him? 

7. Tell the story of "Nolichueky Jack" and "Bonnie Kate." 

8. Who was Patrick Ferguson? What message did he send the 
backwoodsmen? How did they prepare to answer it? 

9. Describe the rising of the backwoodsmen. 

10. What kind of an army did they make? What did Ferguson 
call them? 

11. Where did he seek refuge? Why? 

12. Repeat by heart Cleveland's speech to his men. Shelby's 

13. Describe the battle of King's Mountain. 

14. What effect did this battle have on Lord Cornwallis? What 
did the frontiersmen do after the battle? 

15. Describe Cleveland's last days. 

16. What services did Shelby render the State of Kentucky? The 
United States? 

17. What was the " State of Franklin " ? What part did Sevier take 
in it? What did North Carolina say and do about it? 

18. Describe the rescue of Sevier. 

19. What services did he render the State of Tennessee? 



How an English Boy Became an American. — One 
day in 1763 a tall stranger rode into the Waxhaw settle- 
ment of South Carolina and asked the way to the home 
of Rev. William Richardson. With him was a handsome 
little fellow who seemed to be about seven years old. 
The stranger gave his name as Archibald Davie, and said 
that Mr. Richardson was his brother-in-law. He had 
come all the way from England to bring his little son, 
William, to see his uncle. 

How glad Mr. Richardson must have been to see his 
brother-in-law and his handsome little nephew. As he 
had no children of his own, he wished to adopt his 
nephew as his son and heir. So when Archibald Davie 
left, the lad remained behind with his uncle. Thus the 
little English boy became an American. 

His Education. — His name was William Richardson 
Davie. He was born in England, June 20, 1756. His 
uncle, William Richardson, was a Presbyterian clergy- 
man. He desired that his adopted son should be well 
educated. When the boy was about ten years old he 
was sent to Queen's Museum, a school at Charlotte, 
North Carolina. A few years later he entered the 
famous college in New Jersey, then called Nassau Hall, 
but now known as Princeton University. 




William Richardson 

While young Davie was at Princeton his uncle died, 
leaving him a good estate. Davie was now alone in the 
world and free to follow his own desires. He was an 
ambitious boy and determined to make a name for him- 
self. In 1776 he was graduated at Princeton with the 
highest honors. Then he returned 
to North Carolina and began the 
study of the law at Salisbury. From 
that time till near the close of his life 
he made his home in North Carolina. 

The Student Becomes a Soldier. 
— While Davie was at Princeton the 
Revolution broke out. New Jersey 
soon became the scene of some hard 
fighting, and a party of Princeton 
students offered to serve against the 
British. Davie was one of these young patriots. 
Though born in England, he had become an ardent 
American and was eager to fight for American inde- 
pendence. In New Jersey, therefore, in the summer of 
1776, while he was a college student, he saw his first 

But it was not long before he entered the war in ear- 
nest. While he was studying law at Salisbury, the war 
reached that part of North Carolina, and in a little while 
was raging all around him. In such times patriots 
think not of their own welfare, but of their country. 
So in 1777 Davie laid aside his law books and buckled 
on his sword. Joining the North Carolina troops under 
General Allen Jones, he started to the defense of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina. But on the way General Jones 
received word that the British had given up the attack, 


and for a little while Davie returned to Salisbury to his 

Davie Becomes a Cavalry Officer. — But he was soon 
called to the field again. The British had sent a large 
force to conquer the Southern States. Davie helped 
to raise a troop of cavalry in Rowan and Mecklenburg 
counties, and was at once elected lieutenant. In 1779 
his company joined the American army under General 
Benjamin Lincoln in South Carolina. A few weeks 
later Davie was elected captain, and soon afterward was 
promoted to the rank of major. 

A Narrow Escape. — On June 20, 1779, Davie led 
his men at the battle of Stono Ferry, near Charleston. 
The Americans were beaten and driven from the field. 
While leading his men Davie was shot in the leg and 
fell from his horse. He was so badly wounded that 
he could not re-mount, and the British were sweep- 
ing right down upon him. In a minute they would 
have ridden over him. But just then a private soldier, 
regardless of his own danger, stopped in the retreat, 
placed Major Davie on his horse, and led him safely 
from the field. 

The man then disappeared without even telling his 
name. Two years later, the night before the battle of 
Ninety-six, while Davie was sitting in his tent, a stranger 
entered. He said that he was the man who had saved 
Davie at Stono Ferry. Davie of course was delighted 
to see him again and, grasping his hand, thanked him 
warmly for his brave deed. The man left, saying that 
he would come again to see Davie. But the next day, 
after the battle, the gallant soldier's body was found on 
the battle-field among the slain. 


Davie Becomes a Lawyer. — Davie's wound was so 
serious that after the battle of Stono Ferry he could not 
serve in the army again for nearly a year. So he returned 
to his studies and in September, 1779, was given his 
license to practise law. 

A Patriot's Sacrifices. — As we have already seen, the 
year 1780 was a gloomy time for the patriots in the 
South. The British, having conquered Georgia and 
South Carolina, prepared to set out in the fall upon 
the conquest of North Carolina. The North Carolina 
patriots aroused themselves to meet this danger. 

Davie sent word to the governor that his wound was 
healed enough for him to take the field again. The 
North Carolina Assembly promptly gave him authority 
to raise a troop of cavalry. But the State had no 
money to give him for the expenses. What then was 
Davie to do? He must have money to equip his 
soldiers. He did not hesitate a moment. He sold 
part of the property his uncle had left him, and with 
the money purchased arms, ammunition, horses, and 
clothes for his men. 

Davie's Battles. — It would take too long to tell you 
about all the battles that Davie fought for his country. 
He helped to crush the Tories after their defeat at 
Ramsauer's Mill. At Hanging Rock, in South Carolina, 
he surprised a British force, cut it to pieces, captured 
many horses, rifles, and muskets, without losing a single 
man. When General Gates was defeated at Camden, 
Davie threw his horsemen between the retreating Amer- 
icans and the victorious British. He saved from capture 
a large number of wagons loaded with clothes and 
medicines, and saved the life of many a brave fellow 


who afterward did good fighting for American inde- 

How Davie Fought. — Davie led his men from place 
to place so swiftly and secretly that the British could 
not keep up with him. When they were expecting him 
at one place, he would suddenly attack them at another. 
He taught his men to ride fast, to strike hard and to 
shoot straight. 

One of Davie's soldiers at the battle of Hanging Rock 
was a boy thirteen years old. He afterward became 
the most famous American soldier of his day, and was 
twice elected President of the United States. This boy 
was Andrew Jackson. In his old age Jackson often said 
that Davie was the best soldier he ever knew, and that 
he learned his best lessons in war from him. 

The Hornets' Nest. — Davie's skill and boldness won 
praises from everybody. In September, 1780, he was 
appointed colonel of all the cavalry in the western part 
of North Carolina. When Lord Cornwallis started on 
his march for North Carolina, the only force between 
him and Charlotte was Colonel Davie's cavalry. The 
British numbered ten times as many men as were in 
Davie's force, and Davie knew, of course, that he could 
not beat them. But he hoped to worry them and delay 
their march as much as possible in order to give the 
Americans time to collect a force at Salisbury. 

So Davie hovered about the flanks of the British army. 
His men shot down the British soldiers at every chance. 
They cut off their messengers, captured their scouts, 
and broke up their foraging parties. It seemed to Lord 
Cornwallis that an American soldier was hidden behind 
every rock and tree and fence. 


At Charlotte Davie stationed his men under the court- 
house which stood just at the crossing of two streets. 
When the British came in sight, his men opened fire. 
The attack was so bold that Cornwallis thought the 
whole American army must be before him. Three times 
the British charged and three times they were driven 
back. For four hours Davie's little band of 150 men held 
the entire British army at bay. Then he coolly and skil- 
fully withdrew and retreated toward Salisbury. Can 
you wonder that Lord Cornwallis said that "the counties 
of Mecklenburg and Rowan are more hostile to England 
than any in America?" Can you wonder that his officers 
called Charlotte the " Hornets' Nest of the Revolution " ? 

Davie Equips Greene's Army. — After the battle of 
Camden, Washington sent General Nathanael Greene 
to take command of the American army in North Caro- 
lina. Greene took command in December, 1780, at 
Charlotte. He found an army of good soldiers who 
were badly in need of arms, ammunition, food, and 
clothes. Of course no army can fight without these 
things, no matter how brave the men may be. Greene's 
first thought was to find a man upon whom he could 
depend to equip his army. He had never met Davie, 
but he knew about his services, and he decided that 
Davie was just the man for that important work. 

Davie preferred to remain at the head of his brave 
horsemen. He loved the excitement of battle, and was 
ambitious for military glory. But he told General 
Greene that he was willing to serve wherever he could do 
the greatest good. So Greene appointed him quarter- 
master-general. His duty was to find equipment for 
the army. This was a most difficult task. Davie often 



had to pledge his own fortune before he could secure 
supplies for the soldiers. But with Governor Caswell's 
help he succeeded in equipping Greene's army well 
enough for him to fight the battles of Guilford Court- 
house, Hobkirk's Hill, and Eutaw Springs. These 

Home of Davie at Halifax 

battles forced the British to abandon North Carolina 
and South Carolina. 

Davie as a Lawyer. — At the close of the war Davie 
moved to Halifax to practise law. He was a tall, hand- 
some man. His manners were graceful and impressive. 
He was a hard student, and always prepared his work 
with great care. His voice was so mellow, his eloquence 
so impressive, that the court-house was sure to be crowded 
whenever he rose to speak. His clients came from all 
parts of the State, and he attended the coufts as far 
east as Edenton and New Bern and as far west as Salis- 
bury. Some of our most eminent lawyers studied law 
under Davie. One of them, a judge of the Supreme, 


Court, said that Davie was the best lawyer he ever 
knew. Archibald D. Murphey, a judge and a fine 
scholar, who often heard Davie speak, declared: "He 
is certainly to be ranked among the first orators whom 
the American nation has produced." 

Davie Saves the Constitution. — In 1787 Davie was a 
member of the convention at Philadelphia that framed 
the Constitution of the United States. The other dele- 
gates from North Carolina were Alexander Martin, 
Richard Dobbs Spaight, William Blount, and Hugh 
Williamson. Had it not been for Davie's patriotism 
and wisdom this convention would probably have broken 
up without adopting any constitution. It had been 
decided that the laws for the United States should be 
made by a Congress. This Congress was to be com- 
posed of a Senate and a House of Representatives. 
Before any measure could become a law, it must be 
passed by both of these bodies. 

But how many representatives should each State have 
in Congress? This important question was debated for 
several days. The large States said that each State 
should send a number of members according to its popu- 
lation. But the smaller States replied that the large 
States would then have too much power in Congress. 
They thought that each State ought to have the same 
number of members, at least in the Senate, and they de- 
clared that they would not go into any union unless such 
a plan was adopted. When the vote was taken it was 
found to be a tie. There was great excitement in the 
convention. For a while neither side would give way, 
and it looked as if the convention would break up in 
confusion without forming any constitution. 


Then in the midst of the excitement Davie rose to 
his feet. Everybody bent forward eagerly to hear what 
he was going to say. North Carolina, he said, was one 
of the larger States and had voted against the plan sug- 
gested by the smaller States. But he thought the time 
had now come when the larger States ought to yield. 
So he and his colleagues were ready to vote that 
each State should have the same number of members 
in the Senate. His speech was greeted with great 
applause. The tie was broken, and the Constitution 
was saved. 

North Carolina Rejects the Constitution. — After the 
convention had finished its work a copy of the Consti- 
tution was sent to every State. Those which accepted it, 
if there were as many as nine, would become members, 
of the Union; the others would no longer be mem- 
bers of the United States. Should North Carolina 
accept the Constitution? On this important question 
the people were divided. A convention to decide the 
matter was held at Hillsboro in July, 1738. 

The leaders of those opposed to the Constitution 
were Willie Jones, who had been a prominent patriot 
of the Revolution, Samuel Spencer, who became a judge, 
Thomas Person, who had been a Revolutionary general, 
and Timothy Bloodworth, who afterward became 
United States senator. On the other side were Samuel 
Johnston, who was then governor, James Iredell, whom 
Washington afterward appointed a judge of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, and William R. Davie. 
These three great men worked hard and spoke eloquently 
for the Constitution and the Union, but when the vote 
was taken the other side had the majority. 



North Carolina Adopts the Constitution. — So when 
Washington was first elected President of the United 
States, North Carolina was not a member of the Union. 
But the friends of the Constitution did not give up the 

University of North Carolina, Old East Building 

(The oldest building at the University. The corner-stone was laid 

by Davie, October 12, 1793) 

fight. Iredell and Davie continued to write and speak 
in favor of the Constitution, and in 1789 they persuaded 
the Legislature to call another convention. This con- 
vention met at Fayetteville in November, 1789. This 
time the friends of the Constitution had a majority of 
the members, and when the vote was taken it was in 
favor of the Constitution. So on November 21, 1789, 
North Carolina again became one of the United States. 
Founding of the University. — In the meantime Davie 
had rendered other important services to the State. 
The people of Halifax elected him a member of the 
Legislature eight times. " In the House of Commons," 1 

1 Now called House of Representatives. 



says Judge Murphey, " he had no rival, and on all ques- 
tions before that body his eloquence was irresistible." 
It was in 1789 that Davie made his great speech in 
favor of establishing a university. Among those who 
heard it was Judge Murphey. Says he: " Although 

more than thirty years have 
elapsed, I have the most 
vivid recollection of the 
greatness of his manner and 
the power of his eloquence 
on that occasion." There 
was much strong opposition 
to the University, but 
Davie's great speech over- 
came it. No other man did 
as much as he to establish 
the University He wrote 
the law creating it; his elo- 
quence persuaded the Leg- 
islature to pass it; he was 

The Davie Poplar 0ne ° f the first trustees; he 

(A giant poplar standing in the center laid the COmer-stone of the 

of University (N. C.) Campus under r> > r -i v i i 

which Davie and his party rested for hrst building; and he Was 

lunch when locating the site of the 1 c '±. i. 

University in 1792) always one ot its warmest 

friends. For these reasons he 
is called "The Father of the University/' and no other 
man in the history of the State has won a prouder title. 
Governor of North Carolina. — In 1798 Davie was 
elected a member of the Legislature. A few days after 
the Legislature met he was elected governor of North 
Carolina, and began his duties December 4, 1798. As 
governor he was interested in education, agriculture, 


and other matters for the improvement of the State. 
But he did not remain governor long enough to accom- 
plish much. The United States needed him for an 
important work and in September, 1799, he resigned 
his office as governor. 

Davie is Sent to France. — During the Revolution 
France had been friendly to the United States and 
helped them to win their independence. But after the 
war several matters arose which caused disputes between 
the two countries, and in 1794 it looked as if they would 
go to war. Troops were raised and warlike preparations 
were made. Davie was appointed general of the North 
Carolina troops. Fortunately war was avoided. Again, 
in 1798, the quarrel broke out afresh. Congress raised 
an army, placed Washington at its head, and voted 
money for war. Washington at once appointed Davie 
a general in the United States Army. 

But the president, John Adams, was anxious to pre- 
vent war. So he decided to send three men to France to 
try to settle the disputes peaceably. He selected Oliver 
Ellsworth, chief justice of the United States Supreme 
Court, William R. Davie, governor of North Carolina, 
and William Vans Murray, United States minister to 
Holland. A war vessel, the United States, carried Ells- 
worth and Davie to Europe where they met Murray. 
The ruler of France at that time was Napoleon Bona- 
parte. He appointed three men to meet the Americans. 
After a long discussion an agreement was reached, a 
treaty adopted, and war was prevented. In the fall of 
1800 Davie brought the treaty to the United States 
and delivered it to President Adams. 


Davie's Last Days. — Soon after Davie returned from 
France his wife died. He had grown tired of office and pub- 
lic life, and was anxious to devote himself to agriculture. 
So in November, 1805, he left North Carolina and moved 
to his plantation in South Carolina. When the War of 
1812 began, President Madison appointed Davie a major- 
general in the United States Army. But Davie declared 
that he was too old for military service, and declined. 

On his great plantation he passed his last days in 
ease and comfort. His home was always open to his 
friends and his hospitality was unbounded. Many of 
his old Revolutionary companions came to visit him. 
Under an immense oak in his yard they would sit for 
hours talking over their battles for the independence 
of their country. Davie died November 18, 1820, and 
was buried at W^axhaw Church, Lancaster county, 
South Carolina. Of him Judge William Gaston wrote: 
" He was a great man in an age of great men, admired 
and beloved by the virtuous and the wise." 


1. Locate the following places in North Carolina: Waxhaw, 
Charlotte, Salisbury, Chapel Hill. Ramsauer's Mill was in Lincoln 
county, near Lincolnton. Describe the situation of Lincolnton. 
Guilford Court-house was near Greensboro. Describe its situation. 

2. Describe the situation of the following places in South Carolina: 
Charleston, Stono Ferry, Ninety-Six, Camden, Hanging Rock, 
Hobkirk's Hill, Eutaw Springs. 


Give an account of — 

1. When and where Davie was born. Why he came to North 

2. His education. His profession. 

3. His first military service. 


4. His law studies. How the war interrupted them. 

5. Battle of Stono Ferry. 

6. How Davie raised a regiment of cavalry. 

7. The principal battles in which he fought. 

8. His method of fighting. 

9. What Andrew Jackson said of Davie. 

10. How Davie defended Charlotte. 

11. The condition of the American army in North Carolina when 
General Greene took command. 

12. How Davie helped Greene with the army. 

13. Davie as a lawyer and orator. 

14. How Davie saved the Constitution of the United States. 

15. What North Carolina did about the Constitution. 

16. The leaders for and against the Constitution. 

17. How the Constitution was finally adopted. 

18. The founding of the University. 

19. Davie's work as governor. 

20. How Davie helped to prevent war with France. 

21. Davie's last days. 


1. Give an account of the following battles: Stono Ferry, Ninety- 
Six, Ramsauer's Mill, Hanging Rock, Camden, Guilford Court-house, 
Hobkirk's Hill, Eutaw Springs. 

2. What changes in the government of the United States did the 
Constitution make? How many members does each State elect to 
the United States Senate? How many does North Carolina now have 
in the House of Representatives? New York? Delaware? Ohio? 
Rhode Island? 

3. In 1787 North Carolina was fourth in population among the 
States. What is it now? How many people in the State now? 

4. What other State besides North Carolina at first refused to 
adopt the Constitution? How many States were in the Union when 
Washington was first elected President? 

5. How was- the governor of North Carolina elected in 1798 ? How 
long did he serve then? How elected now? How long does he serve now? 

6. Who has the authority to make treaties between the United 
States and foreign nations? 


Warren County. — In 1764 the General Assembly cut 
off the northeast corner of Granville county and formed 
a new county, called Bute. It was named in honor of 
an English nobleman, the Earl of Bute, who was a close 
friend of the King. When the Revolution broke out, 
Lord Bute was, of course hostile to the Americans. So, 
in 1779, the Legislature changed the name of the county 
to Warren, r m nfeior of the American patriot, General 
Joseph Warren, who was killed at the battle of Bunker 

Nathaniel Macon. — It was in this part of old Gran- 
ville that Nathaniel Macon was born, December 17, 
1758. His father was Gideon Macon, and his mother 
was Priscilla Jones. It is said that his grandmother, 
Abigail Sugan, was the first white woman to settle in 
that section of North Carolina. Nathaniel was the 
youngest of eight children. When he was five years 
old, his father died, leaving his widow with a large 
family and very little property. 

Nathaniel was such a bright, thoughtful boy that all 
the family agreed that he ought to be given a good edu- 
cation. His first teacher was Charles Pettigrew who 
taught an " old-field " school in the neighborhood. 
When Macon was fifteen he entered Princeton College, 
in New Jersey. The breaking out of the Revolution 



interrupted his studies there, and in 1776 he returned to 
North Carolina. For a little while he studied law, but 
did not like it and never received his license to practise. 
There was no good library near his home, but Macon 
read eagerly such books as he could obtain. He was 
fond of history and became familiar with the histories of 
Rome, England, and Scotland. In those days it was 
very difficult to get good candles, and most of Macon's 
studying and reading was done by a lightwood fire. 

Macon Takes Up Arms. — While Macon was at 
Princeton the Declaration of Independence was adopted. 
Young Macon had been raised in a patriotic community. 
It had become a common saying in North Carolina, 
" There are no Tories in Bute." Macon was eager to 
join in the fight for independence, and when the war 
came near Princeton, he promptly dropped his books 
and shouldered his musket. He joined a party of stu- 
dents who entered upon a short campaign in New Jer- 
sey. At the end of the campaign they went back to 
their studies. A few weeks later Macon returned 

The war then seemed to be going against the patriots 
in the South. Macon thought it his duty to defend his 
country, so he enlisted in the army as a private. His 
comrades elected him as their captain, but he declined. 
During the years 1779 and 1780 he saw much hard fight- 
ing. He was at the fall of Fort Moultrie, the surrender 
of Charleston, the defeat at Camden, and with Greene 
during his terrible retreat across North Carolina in 

Macon in the Legislature. — While he was in the army, 
Macon was elected a member of the State Senate from 



Warren county. The first he heard of his election was 
a message from the Governor summoning him to attend 
the Legislature. Most men would have welcomed such 
a good excuse for leaving the army. But Macon was 
not like other men. He refused to leave. General 
Greene soon heard about the stanch young soldier who 

preferred a place full of dan- 
ger and hardship to one of 
safety and ease. Why, he 
thought, I must learn some- 
thing more about this young 
fellow. So he sent for 
Macon and asked him why 
he had refused to obey the 
Governor's summons. 

" Sir," replied the young 
soldier, " I have often seen 
the faces of the British sol- 
diers, but I have never seen 
their backs. I am determined to remain in the army 
until I do see them." 

General Greene was much pleased at this spirited reply. 
But he told Macon that he could do the American cause 
more good as a member of the Legislature than as a 
soldier. In the army he was but one man; in the Legis- 
lature he might persuade the members to send hundreds 
of men to the army. And he could also tell the Legis- 
lature from his own experience how badly the army 
needed supplies and equipment. 

Macon then saw that it was his duty to attend the 
meeting of the Legislature, and he no longer hesitated. 
It proved to be just as General Greene predicted. 

General Greene 


Macon's services in the Legislature were very useful 
in obtaining men and supplies for the army. He him- 
self never entered the army again. He refused to accept 
any pay for his services as a soldier, for he declared that 
it was the patriot's duty to serve his country without 
being paid for it. 

'Buck Spring." — After the war Macon returned to his 
farm in Warren county. He called his plantation " Buck 
Spring," on account of a fine spring where the deer, 
which roamed his woods in great numbers, were accus- 
tomed to drink. In the midst of a splendid grove of 
oaks Macon built a small, simple house. Grouped around 
the house were several smaller buildings, called " offices," 
which were really rooms for his guests. On one side was 
the kitchen with its great fireplace tall enough for a 
man to stand erect in. The cooking was done in huge 
pots hung from hooks over the fire. In the distance 
were the cabins for the slaves, called the " quarters," 
and near them were the barns and stables. 

Macon loved the country. He used to say that he 
did not want to live near enough to any man to see the 
smoke from his chimney or to hear his dog bark. His 
nearest neighbor lived five miles away. Macon was 
fond of the work of the farm. Even after he had become 
a distinguished statesman, he would take his hoe, or 
plow, and work in the field at the head of his negroes. 
He cared nothing for riches. His fields, his flocks, and 
his herds gave him enough for his simple wants, and he 
desired no more. 

In his habits he was one of the simplest of men. He 
never changed his style of dressing. His clothes were 
made of plain, blue cloth in the style worn during the 



Revolution. He wore the best linen, a fine cambric 
stock, a fur hat with a brim, and top-boots into which 
he tucked his trousers. He was always neat in his 

Macon's Amusements. — Macon's favorite amuse- 
ments were horse-racing and hunting. The fox chases 

Farmers of North Carolina on a Fox Hunt 

at Buck Spring became famous. In his stables Macon 
kept the fleetest thoroughbreds for his friends to ride 
when they came to Buck Spring. One of his most 
frequent visitors was the famous John Randolph, of 
Virginia, who was Macon's life-long friend and com- 
panion. In 1819, when President Monroe made a 
tour of the Southern States, he made a special visit to 
Buck Spring to take part in one of Macon's famous fox 
chases. Macon was fond of company. He kept open 
house at Buck Spring and many guests came to share 
in his well-known hospitality. 


Macon's Political Career. — Macon's public career 
began when he was elected to the State Senate in 1781; 
it lasted forty-two years. He was five times elected to 
the Legislature, twelve times to Congress, three times 
to the United States Senate, and once a delegate to the 
Convention to amend the State constitution. In Con- 
gress he was elected speaker of the House of Represen- 
tatives three times and president of the Senate three 
times. He was also elected president of the North 
Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1835. And yet 
it is said that he never asked any person to vote for 
him, and never told any one that he desired to be 
elected to any office. 

Macon as a Public Official. — In public office, though 
he held high and important places, Macon was as simple 
and plain as in his own home. He was a real democrat. 
Whenever the people understand any public question, 
he declared, they will decide it right. He would accept 
no offices except those to which he was elected by the 
people or by their representatives. Thomas Jefferson 
twice offered him a place in the President's cabinet, but 
both times he refused because it was not an office on 
which the people could vote. 

Macon was as punctual in attending to his public 
duties as he was in attending to his private affairs. He 
thought that public officers who wasted their time were 
robbing the people. He was too honest to take credit 
for any act which was due to some one else. Once he 
presented a very able report to the United States Sen- 
ate. Another senator, thinking that Macon wrote it, 
praised it very highly. " Yes/ 5 said Macon, " it is a 
good report; Senator Tazewell wrote it." Though he 



was as true as steel to his friends, he would not violate 
his public duty to please them. When he was speaker 
of the House of Representatives, he removed his dear- 
est friend, John Randolph, from an important position 
because he thought another man could perform its 
duties better. Nor would he ever appoint any of his 
own relatives to public office. 

Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Va. 
(Named after the two friends, John Randolph and Nathaniel Macon) 

Macon was not an orator. Indeed, he had but little 
patience with speech-making. A few plain, simple words, 
to explain any subject, were all he cared to hear. His 
own speeches were short and plain-spoken. The famous 
Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri, said that Macon "spoke 
more good sense while he was getting up out of his chair, 
and getting back into it, than many others did in long 


Macon's Work in Congress. — While in Congress, 
Macon took a leading part in many of the most impor- 
tant events in the history of the United States. He 
opposed the famous Alien and Sedition laws, because 
they were against the liberty of the people and the free- 
dom of the press. Aided by Randolph, he persuaded 
Congress to vote the money that enabled President 
Jefferson to purchase the Louisiana territory. He 
always voted against measures for internal improve- 
ments because, he said, the Constitution gave Congress 
no power to pass such measures. For the same reason 
he spoke and voted against a protective tariff. 

In 1809 Macon was chairman of the Committee on 
Foreign Relations in the House of Representatives. 
This committee had charge of all measures relating to 
foreign countries. At that time, on account of our 
quarrels with England and France, it was the most 
important committee in Congress. Macon was strongly 
opposed to war with either country. 

"This nation," he said, " in my opinion, must take 
her choice of two alternatives : to be happy and contented 
without war and without internal taxes, or to be war- 
like and glorious, abounding in what is called honor and 
dignity, or, in other words, taxes and blood. Public 
force and liberty can not dwell in the same country." 
What wise words these are! But, though desiring peace, 
Macon would not have his country submit to injustice. 
When war with England became necessary in 1812, he 
voted for it and gave it his support. 

While Thomas Jefferson was President, some of the 
judges of the Supreme Court severely criticized him 
and his party. Jefferson and his friends were very 


angry. They planned to impeach one of the judges, 
remove him from office, and put one of the President's 
friends in his place. But they could not carry out this 
plan without Macon's help. He belonged to the same 
political party as the President, so the President's friends 
thought of course Macon would help them. 

But Macon thought that it was a wicked scheme and 
he would have nothing to do with it. " Suppose," he 
said, " the judges had flattered the President. Would 
he then threaten them with punishment? Certainly 
not. And yet flattery is worse than abuse, and is more 
dangerous. If you would not punish them for the greater 
offense, why for the lesser? Besides, if the judges speak 
falsely they will soon lose the confidence of the people; 
if truly, it is best for the country to hear them." As 
nothing could be done without Macon's aid, the plan 
to impeach the judges failed. 

Macon Retires from Congress. — Macon was a close 
reader of the Bible. In the Bible he read: " The days 
of our years are three score years and ten; and if by 
reason of strength they be four score years, yet is their 
strength labor and sorrow; for it is soon cut off, and 
we fly away." He resolved that, when he became three 
score and ten years of age, he would retire from public 
office and spend the remaining years of his life quietly 
at home. 

When his seventieth birthday came he was a member 
of the United States Senate, and had two more years to 
serve before his term would come to its close. His 
friends urged him to remain in the Senate at least those 
two years. " Your health," they said, " is still good 
and your mind is as strong and clear as ever." " Yes," 



he replied, " my mind is clear enough for me to know 
that I ought to quit office before my mind quits me." 
So he wrote to the Legislature and resigned his office 
as senator, thanking the Legislature for its long confi- 
dence in him. At the same time he resigned as justice 
of the peace and as trustee of the University. 

The Convention of 1835. — But Macon's services 
were needed in one more important event in North 
Carolina. The time had come when some changes were 

Capitol at Washington 

needed in the State constitution. It was decided, there- 
fore, to hold a convention at Raleigh, in 1835, to con- 
sider what changes should be made. Many distinguished 
men were elected members of this convention. But 
when the convention met, all eyes turned at once to 
Nathaniel Macon for president, and he was unanimously 

Several important changes were made in the consti- 
tution. The people of Western North Carolina had 


long complained that the eastern part of the State had 
more than its share of members in the Legislature. 
Each county had two members without regard to its 
population. The West wished that the number of mem- 
bers for each county should depend upon its population. 
After a long debate this change was adopted. Before 
this time, seven towns — Edenton, New Bern, Wilming- 
ton, Halifax, Fayetteville, Hillsboro, and Salisbury — 
had each the right to send a member to the Legislature. 
The convention took away this right. Since 1776 the 
Legislature had met once every year; the convention 
changed the time of its meeting to once every two years. 
The right to vote was taken away from free negroes. In 
the future the governor was not to be elected by the 
Legislature, but by the people, and his term of office 
was changed from one to two years. 

During this convention the members from the West 
and those from the East had many warm debates. They 
said many harsh things about each other. More than 
once it looked as if the convention would break up in a 
quarrel. Then the aged Macon would rise from his 
seat, and with a few calm, patriotic words quiet the 
raging storm. 

Macon's Death. — Macon died June 29, 1837, at 
Buck Spring. He himself selected the place for his 
grave. It was a barren ridge near the center of his plan- 
tation, and he selected it because he said it was too poor 
for any other use. He wished his grave to be marked 
by a pile of rough stones, which, he said, were good for 
nothing else. He himself directed the carpenter how 
to make his coffin, and paid him for it, because he wished 
to leave no debts to be paid after his death. The last 


few hours of his life were spent in conversation with his 
friends and relatives. 

Many tributes have been paid to Macon's memory. 
President John Tyler said of him: " Nothing sordid ever 
entered into his imagination. He was a devoted patriot 
whose whole heart — and every corner of it — was filled 
with love of country." John Randolph said, in his will, 
Nathaniel Macon was " the best, wisest, and purest 
man I ever knew." 



1. Where was Macon born? When? 

2. Give an account of his education. 

3. What military service did he perform during the Revolution? 

4. Tell how Macon's political career began. 

5. Describe "Buck Spring." Macon's habits. 

6. What were Macon's favorite amusements? 

7. How long was Macon in public life? What important public 
offices did he hold? 

8. Describe him as a public officer. What did Benton say of him? 

9. Give an account of Macon's work in Congress. What did he 
say about the United States and war? 

10. Give an account of the plan to impeach the judges, and what 
Macon said about it. 

11. When and why did Macon retire from Congress? Did he ever 
hold any other office? 

12. What important changes were made in the Constitution of 
North Carolina in 1835? 

13. Describe Macon's death. 

14. What tributes were paid to him? 


1. Name the counties in North Carolina whose names were changed 
on account of the part that the men for whom they were named took 
in the Revolution. 


2. Name the counties which were named in honor of Revolutionary 
leaders. Of Revolutionary leaders of other States. Of British states- 
men who were friendly to the Americans. 

3. For how long a term is a United States senator elected? A 
representative? Explain the difference in the way in which they 
are elected. Why was this difference adopted? 

4. How are the members of the President's Cabinet selected? 

5. What were the Alien and Sedition laws? 

6. What is a protective tariff? 

7. Explain what is meant by "impeaching" a public official. 

8. In what way can the Constitution of North Carolina be changed? 
What is the difference between a convention and the General 

9. How is it decided how many members each county shall have 
in the Legislature? How many does your county have? How many 
members all told in the North Carolina House of Representatives? 
In the Senate? 

10. How often does the Legislature meet? When and where? 
How is the governor now elected? For how long? Does he have 
anything to do with making laws? 



Our Second War with England. — For many years 
after the Revolution England acted toward the United 
States in a very unfriendly manner. She felt humiliated 
at being beaten by her colonies, and 
treated the Americans with great 
contempt. She refused to remove 
her soldiers from the forts on our 
frontier as she had agreed to do. The 
British Parliament passed acts to 
injure the commerce of the United 
States. But worst of all was what 
was called the " impressment of 
American seamen." 

The British Government declared 
that many sailors ran away from the 
British navy and entered the American navy or went 
into the service of American merchant vessels. So 
Great Britain claimed the right of stopping Ameri- 
can vessels on the Atlantic, arresting any seamen 
whom she claimed to be British subjects, and forcing 
or impressing them into the British service. The United 
States tried hard in a peaceful manner to put a stop to 
such outrages. But England would listen to no protests. 
So at length, in 1812, the United States declared war. 


Johnston Blakely 


In that war a young North Carolina captain won great 
fame by his skill and daring as a naval commander. 

Johnston Blakely. — This officer was Captain John- 
ston Blakely. He was born in Ireland in 1781. Soon 
after his birth his mother died, and his father brought 
his infant son to Wilmington, North Carolina. When 
they landed from the vessel they were met at the wharf 
by a fellow countryman, Edward Jones, a distinguished 
lawyer of Wilmington. 

Mr. Jones gave the strangers a warm welcome. 
Taking the little motherless boy in his arms, he led the 
way to his own home. There his kind-hearted wife 
made the strangers feel as if they were really at home. 
From that day she became as a mother to little Johnston. 
The elder Blakely was a pleasant, agreeable man. He 
soon made many friends in his new home. He became 
a merchant in Wilmington, and when he died left his 
son a small fortune. 

Johnston Blakely at the University. — Johnston 
Blakely was sent to school on Long Island, New York. 
But when he was sixteen years old he entered the 
University of North Carolina. He was a good student. 
The subjects that he liked best were mathematics, sur- 
veying, and navigation. At that time the students at 
the University were often disorderly, and sometimes 
engaged in riots and rebellions. Young Blakely refused 
to join in these disorders. Still he lost none of his popu- 
larity with his fellow students, for everybody liked the 
genial young Irishman. In the Philanthropic Literary 
Society he was elected to every office. 

Blakely Enters the Navy. — Two years after he entered 
the University Blakely suffered a serious misfortune. 


A fire at Wilmington destroyed a large portion of his 
property. This loss compelled him to leave the Uni- 
versity in 1799. He then had to decide what profession 
he would follow, and determined to enter the United 
States Navy. In 1800 he was appointed a midshipman, 
and placed on board the President, under Commodore 
Richard Dale. In her he sailed on a cruise to the Med- 
iterranean Sea. Dale was a splendid officer. During 
the Revolution he had sailed on board the Bonhomme 
Richard, under that famous seaman, John Paul Jones. 
Under Dale, therefore, Blakely had a fine opportunity 
to study, and he was quick to take advantage of it. 

War with the Pirates. — Along the northern shore of 
Africa were four States which made a business of piracy. 
Their rulers sent out war vessels on the Mediterranean 
to rob and plunder. They captured many travelers, 
and either held them for large ransoms, or sold them 
into slavery. Such nations as England and France paid 
the rulers of those robber states large sums not to plun- 
der their ships. 

The pirates thought of course that the United States, 
which was a small, weak nation, would do the same thing. 
But when they demanded a bribe for being good to 
American vessels, the United States sent a fleet of war 
vessels to punish them. A war which lasted two years 
followed. In that war Johnston Blakely saw his first 
fighting. He was ordered on board the ship of Commo- 
dore Preble who commanded the American fleet. This 
little fleet of four vessels was engaged in some hard 
fighting with the pirates. They thoroughly humbled 
the robbers, who were glad to make peace. 

Though this war was a small affair, it served a good 


purpose in training American seamen for the war which 
soon followed with England. One of the best officers 
trained in this war was Johnston Blakely. He learned 
how to handle a ship in battle and how to fire his guns 
rapidly and accurately. 

Blakely Commands the " Enterprise." — Blakely was 
twice promoted on account of his skill and bravery. 
Soon after the war began with England he was given 
command of the Enterprise. He worked hard to fit her 
for the sea and to train her crew. When everything was 
ready she sailed out in search of the enemy. A few days 
after leaving port she caught sight of the Fly, sl British 
ship, and after a chase of eight hours overtook and cap- 
tured her. 

A Vessel with a Sting. — As a reward for this success, 
Blakely was given command of a larger and better ship 
than the Enterprise. This was the Wasp, one of the 
new ships which Congress had ordered to be built. The 
Wasp was to be one of the finest vessels in the Ameri- 
can navy. Blakely was delighted with his good luck. 
'In the Wasp" he thought, "I shall win fame and 
glory." And oh! what a sting this Wasp had. She 
sailed out of the harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
May 1, 1814. Her crew numbered 173 men. Captain 
Blakely was impatient to meet the enemy, and steered 
straight for the English Channel. 

The "Wasp" Meets the " Reindeer. " — Blakely was 
not disappointed. For several days he met nothing 
except merchant vessels, which he captured. But on 
June 28, 1814, a war vessel came in sight. Blakely 
promptly hailed her. He found that she was the British 
ship Reindeer. Both vessels at once prepared for battle. 



The Reindeer was ready first and opened fire before the 
Wasp could get into a position to fire. But this did not 
disturb Captain Blakely. He coolly waited until every- 
thing was in readiness and then gave the command. 

The two vessels were about twenty yards apart and 
were gradually getting closer. The fighting was terrific. 

Wasp and Reindeer 

Blakely stood in the thick of it, giving his orders and 
cheering his men as calmly as if he had been sailing on 
a pleasure trip. After a few minutes the Reindeer ran 
alongside the Wasp, and her men tried to get aboard the 
American vessel. But after a sharp fight they were 
driven back. Their captain fell dead. Then Blakely 
sprang forward and commanded his men to board the 
Reindeer. With shouts of triumph they scrambled on 
her deck. A furious hand-to-hand fight followed, but 


in a few minutes it was all over. The British sailors 
threw down their arms and surrendered. 

Captain Blakely placed all the survivors on board 
the Wasp and set fire to the Reindeer. Soon a tremen- 
dous explosion was heard. When the smoke cleared 
away nothing was seen of the Reindeer but a few pieces 
of smoking timbers floating on the water. 

The French Welcome Blakely. — The victorious Wasp 
sailed into a French port to repair her damages. The 
French were overjoyed at the victory of the Ameri- 
can vessel, for France was also at war with England. 
They gave the Wasp and her crew a royal welcome. 
The British newspapers declared that "the American 
crew were hailed as victors, tapped on the back, shaken 
by the hand, and complimented on their superior 

A Battle in the Dark. — As soon as he had repaired 
his damages, Captain Blakely steered again for the 
English Channel. On September 1, 1814, he fought 
one of the most remarkable battles in our history. 
While cruising about after nightfall, he caught sight of 
a vessel a short distance away. The night was so dark 
that neither vessel could make out what kind of ship the 
other was. All that the men could see were two huge 
black objects looming up in the darkness. But each 
knew that the other was an enemy, and they opened 
fire on each other at about half past nine o'clock at 

In spite of the darkness the American gunners fired 
so accurately that in half an hour the other vessel gave 
the signal of surrender. But before Captain Blakely 
could board her to take possession, three other British 



vessels, attracted by the firing, came up. Blakely 
thought it would be unsafe for him to meet these three 
together. He sailed away, therefore, without even 
finding out the name of the vessel he had beaten. 
Afterward it was learned that she was the Avon. 

A Bold Challenge. — Blakely's spirits rose with his 
success. He had shown himself to be one of the most 

Wasp Sinking the Avon 

skilful captains in the American navy. The name of 
the Wasp had become famous in Europe as well as in 
the United States. Blakely had so much confidence in 
himself, his crew, and his ship, that he sent a messenger 
into the harbor of Plymouth, England, "with a challenge 
to engage any two brigs in his Majesty's service." But 
the British seamen had learned what a sharp sting this 
American Wasp had, and they would not accept her 
bold challenge. 

The " Wasp's" Sharp Work. — Captain Blakely 
cruised about the English Channel for sixty days. 
During that time the saucy little Wasp captured or 


destroyed thirteen British merchant vessels and sunk 
two men-of-war. And all the time thirty-five British 
war vessels, carrying one thousand cannon, were guard- 
ing the channel! 

Honors for Blakely. — In the United States the whole 
country rang with praises of Blakely. The Secretary 
of the Navy declared that Blakely had done "all that 
skill and valor could do." Congress voted to give him 
a gold medal, and asked the President of the United 
States to present it to him in the name of the American 

North Carolina of course was proud of her famous 
son. The Legislature declared that his victories had 
" thrown around the national flag a blaze of glory." It 
was voted unanimously to present to him "a superb 
sword" in the name of his fellow-citizens. But the 
brave young hero was never to learn what honors awaited 
his return to his country. 

The "Wasp" Disappears. — After his victory over the 
Avon, Blakely captured three merchant vessels. On 
October 6, 1814, he met with a Swedish ship, the Adonis, 
which had on board two American officers. They had 
been prisoners of the British and only a few days before 
had been exchanged. When they met the Wasp they 
boarded her, and the Adonis sailed on her way. 

From that day to this nobody has ever known what 
became of Johnston Blakely and his brave crew. 
Whether the Wasp was sunk in battle, or wrecked in a 
storm, or blown up by an explosion of some of her own 
guns, nobody has ever known. She was never heard of 
again. The Wasp sailed the seas only five months, but 
in that time she won a fame that will endure as long as 


the American navy exists. Theodore Roosevelt has 
declared that she was "as ably commanded as any 
vessel in our little navy." 

Blakely's Personality. — Captain Blakely was a small 
man, but very strong and active. He had a bright, 
kindly face, with black eyes and hair. Though as brave 
as a lion in battle, he was shy and retiring among 
strangers. When a boy he would sit for hours reading 
in the library while the other children were playing out- 
side. He had good manners, was full of fun and good 
humor, and was liked by all who knew him. 

The Captain's Daughter. — In 1814, while waiting 
for the Wasp to be finished, Captain Blakely was married 
to Miss Jane Ann Hoope, of Boston. Soon after his 
marriage the daring captain sailed away in search of 
glory. Little did his bride dream, as she waved good-by 
to him, that she would never see him again. While 
everybody was guessing what had been his fate, his 
little daughter was born. Her mother named her Udney 
Maria. Perhaps no child in the United States excited 
so much interest and sympathy as little Udney Maria 

North Carolina's Adopted Daughter. — As Captain 
Blakely did not return to receive his sword, the Legis- 
lature decided to make some gift to his daughter. So 
the Governor was asked to send to Mrs. Blakely a hand- 
some silver tea-set "to be kept by her and presented to 
the infant daughter of Johnston Blakely when she shall 
arrive at the age of fifteen years." At the same time the 
Legislature determined to adopt the little girl as the 
daughter of North Carolina, and to have her educated at 
the expense of the State. 


When the Governor wrote to Mrs. Blakely about this 
action, she replied that it was "an act of such noble 
and unexpected generosity, that it deprives me of all 
power to express what I feel." As soon as Udney Maria 
was old enough she was placed in school in Philadelphia, 
and twice every year, until 1829, the governor of North 
Carolina sent to her guardian the money to pay her 

Five years after Captain Blakely's death Mrs. Blakely 
was married again and moved to the island of St. Croix, 
in the West Indies. Upon leaving school Udney Maria 
Blakely joined her mother in her new home, where she 
died in 1842. 

Since that time North Carolina has established schools 
at the public expense for all of her children; but the 
only child ever adopted by the State was the little 
daughter of our most famous naval hero. 


1. What were the four African States with which the United States 
went to war? Describe their situation. 

2. Where is the English Channel? Plymouth (England)? 


1. What was the cause of the War of 1812? 

2. Describe Johnston Blakely's childhood. 

3. Where was he educated? Give an account of his career at the 

4. Why did he leave the University? What profession did he 
adopt? What kind of training did he obtain? 

5. Give an account of the war with the pirates. 

6. What vessel did Blakely first command in the War of 1812? 
What success did he have? How was he rewarded? 

7. Describe the battle between the Wasp and the Reindeer. 


8. How was Blakely received in France? 

9. Give an account of the battle between the Wasp and the Avon. 

10. What challenge did Blakely send to the British navy? 

11. Give a summary of the Wasp's work in the British Channel. 

12. What honors were prepared for Blakely at home? Why did he 
never receive them? 

13. Describe Johnston Blakely's character. 

14. Tell the story of his daughter. 


1. What acts did England pass to injure American trade? 

2. England claimed that a man who was once a British subject 
could never become a citizen of any other country. Do nations still 
hold to that claim? What is meant by "naturalization"? 

3. How does the United States now train her naval officers? 

4. Why did Blakely sail for the English Channel? What do you 
suppose became of the Wasp f 



Carolina! Carolina! — Perhaps every boy and girl in 
school in North Carolina to-day has sung our State song 
"The Old North State/' and has been thrilled with 
patriotic pride at the opening line, 

" Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend her! " 
The man who wrote this song was one of the Old North 
State's truly great men, and every North Carolina boy 
and girl should know something about him. 

The Gastons. — William Gaston was a son of Dr. 
Alexander Gaston, a physician of New Bern. Dr. Gas- 
ton was a native of Ireland. His ancestors were French 
Huguenots who fled from religious persecution in 
France. They went first to Scotland, and afterward to 
Ireland. Alexander Gaston studied medicine at the 
University of Edinburgh. After leaving the University 
he served as a surgeon in the British navy. A few 
years later he resigned, came to North Carolina, and 
settled at New Bern. 

At New Bern Dr. Gaston met Margaret Sharpe, a 
bright, intelligent young Englishwoman, who had been 
educated in a convent in France. He promptly fell in 
love with her, courted her, and won her for his wife. 
They were married at New Bern in May, 1775. There, 
September 19, 1778, their son William was born. 




Alexander Gaston, the American Patriot. — When 
the Revolution broke out, Dr. Gaston became an ardent 
patriot. He was selected as a member of the Committee 
of Safety at New Bern. In June, 1775, he was one of the 
patriots who drove the royal 
governor, Josiah Martin, out 
of the " Palace," and com- 
pelled him to seek refuge 
on board the Cruizer, below 
Wilmington. During the 
next six years he worked 
steadily in support of the 
cause of independence. 

On account of Dr. Gaston's 
activity for the American 
cause the Tories bitterly 
hated him. When they cap- 
tured New Bern, in 1781, Dr. 
Gaston was one of the first 
men they wanted to take. 
He was compelled to leave 
his home and seek refuge in 
the country. But one day 
he ventured into town to see 

his wife and children. The next morning Mrs. Gaston 
begged him to return to the country before the Tories 
found out that he was in New Bern. He had already 
started across the river in an open boat, when a band 
of Tories galloped into town and rode straight to the 

Many years later Judge Gaston told the story of what 
happened at the wharf. " I have so often heard it re- 

William Gaston 


peated by my weeping mother," he said, "that I can 
never forget it. Mrs. Gaston, fearful that her husband 
might not have crossed the ferry, rushed down the 
street to the old county wharf, and found them firing 
at him. He was in the ferry boat, a short distance 
from the shore, and alone. She threw herself between 
him and the Tories, and on her knees, with all a woman's 
eloquence, implored them to spare the life of her hus- 
band. The captain of the savage band answered these 
cries by damning him for a rebel, called for a rifle, leveled 
it over her shoulder, and stretched him a corpse." l 

Margaret Gaston. — Margaret Gaston was left alone 
in the world with two children to rear and educate. She 
was a woman of strong character and deep religious 
faith. She was to be seen at all hours with her Bible 
on her knees. The great object of her life was to teach 
her son high and noble ideals and the same religious 
faith which she herself had. Her income was small, 
and she had to make sacrifices in order to give to him 
a complete education. 

William Gaston's Education. — Until he was thirteen 
years old, Gaston attended school at the New Bern 
Academy. In 1791 he was sent to Georgetown College, 
a Roman Catholic college near Washington City. It 
is now one of the best known colleges in the United 
States. But in 1791 it had just been established and 
Gaston was its first student. Its finest building bears 
the name of " Gaston Hall," in his honor. Gaston was 
a good student in all his classes, but his favorite studies 

1 When William Gaston, while a member of Congress, opposed the War 
of 1812, one of his opponents called him an unpatriotic American. In 
reply, Gaston said: "I was baptized an American in the blood of a 
murdered father." 


were Latin and Greek. He pored so closely over his 
books that he injured his health, and in 1793 was com- 
pelled to return home. The next year he entered Prince- 
ton College, and in 1796 was graduated at the head of 
his class with the highest honors. 

Gaston Becomes a Lawyer. — Leaving Princeton, 
Gaston returned to New Bern to study law. His teacher 
was Francis Xavier Martin, afterward chief justice of 
Louisiana. When Gaston was twenty years old he was 
given his license to practise. At the same time his 
brother-in-law, John Louis Taylor, was appointed a 
judge, and turned all of his practise over to Gaston. 
From that time until he himself became a judge, Gaston 
had a large practise. His reputation as a lawyer soon 
reached beyond North Carolina, and he came to be 
regarded as one of America's greatest lawyers. 

Gaston in the Legislature. — Gaston's courtesy and 
kindness soon made him very popular in his native 
town. His learning and eloquence won for him many 
admirers. He was only twenty-five when they elected 
him a member of the State Senate. He was elected a 
member of the Senate four times and of the House of 
Commons six times. In the Legislature he was as popu- 
lar as he was at home. At his first session in the House 
of Commons he was chosen speaker. The next year he 
was elected speaker a second time. 

Measures Which Gaston Advocated. — Many men 
are elected to public offices who never do anything 
worthy to be remembered. But William Gaston was 
not such a man. Any measure that he thought would 
promote the welfare of North Carolina was sure to 
receive his support. He favored plans for establishing 


public schools. He spoke in favor of internal improve- 
ments. He advocated a better system of courts. Upon 
the courts depend men's property and often their lives 
and liberty. But at that time the courts were so poorly 
arranged that the judges could not do their work prop- 
erly. Often people found it difficult to get their cases 
tried at all. 

Gaston gave this matter much thought, and proposed 
a plan to make the necessary improvements. His plan 
was to establish a Supreme Court, to be composed of 
three judges who were to be the best lawyers that could 
be found in the State. Whenever a man thought that 
he did not get justice in the lower courts, he could go 
before the Supreme Court, which would give him another 
hearing. But what the Supreme Court said about a 
case was to be final. There was much opposition to 
this plan, but Gaston spoke so earnestly and eloquently 
in its favor that the Legislature passed the law. That 
was in 1818, and the Supreme Court as Gaston planned it 
(except that we now have five judges) has been in exist- 
ence ever since. We now wonder how the people ever 
managed to get along without it. 

Gaston Saves the State Banks. — In 1828 Gaston 
saved the State from a great calamity. A powerful 
party of men were trying to destroy the banks of the 
State. They declared that the banks had disobeyed 
the law and dealt unjustly with the people. So they 
proposed to close their doors and seize their money and 
property. At first a majority of the Legislature was in 
favor of this scheme. But among those who opposed 
it was William Gaston. To destroy the banks, he said, 
would ruin thousands of people who had put their money 



in them, and would cause great suffering. He spoke 
eloquently against this scheme and showed that the 
charges against the banks were not true. 

The debate lasted several days. A member of the 
Legislature, who heard it, said: "Mr. Gaston stood up 
day after day, and though sneered at and reviled, day 
after day did he labor and toil against that furious major- 
ity; day after day did he take captive some of his oppo- 
nents by the mere force of his arguments; until at last 
he succeeded in bringing the vote to a tie, thus saving 
the banks from destruction and the State from disgrace." 

The Burning of the Capitol. — The last year that 
Gaston served in the Legislature was in 1831. Just 
before the Legislature met, the State Capitol was burned. 
One of the most im- 
p o r t a n t questions 
which that Legisla- 
ture had to decide 
was this: "Shall the 
capitol be rebuilt at 
Raleigh, or shall it 
be moved to Fayette- 
ville ? " A long de- 
bate took place, for 
many members were 
in favor of moving it. 
Gaston's speech in favor of Raleigh, says one who 
heard it, "was a masterpiece of brilliant, elaborate and 
finished oratory." But the Legislature refused to vote 
any money for a new building and North Carolina was 
left without a capitol. The next year, however, the 
money was voted and the capitol was rebuilt at Raleigh. 

Capitol of North Carolina. Burned 
in 1831 



Gaston in Congress. — In 1813, and again in 1815, 
Gaston was elected to the Congress of the United States. 
He did not like the work in Congress and declined to 
accept another election. 

In one of the debates in 1816 Gaston was matched 
against Henry Clay, and most of those who heard the 
debate thought Gaston got the better of Clay. Clay 
was " somewhat soured/' and for some time he and 

Capitol of North Carolina as it Looks To-day 
(East front showing statue of Z. B. Vance in foreground) 

Gaston were not very friendly. But William Seaton, 
who admired both, wished them to make up their quarrel. 
So he invited them to dine at his home. When they met, 
they bowed to each other coldly. Then Mr. Seaton, 
looking straight at them, said, " Friendship in marble, 
enmities in dust." They both smiled, clasped hands 
warmly, and were ever afterward good friends. When 


Clay spoke in Raleigh, in 1844, after Gaston's death, he 
paid a beautiful tribute to Gaston's memory. 

Gaston Becomes "Judge Gaston." — In 1833 Judge 
Henderson, one of the judges of the Supreme Court, 
died. All eyes at once turned toward Gaston to take 
his place. He was recognized as one of the State's 
ablest lawyers, and in learning, character, and ability 
fitted for the highest judicial office in the State. The 
Legislature elected him by a large majority. Many of 
his political opponents voted for him. Soon afterward 
he took his seat on the Supreme Court bench, and served 
on it until the day of his death, eleven years later. He 
was a great judge, learned, upright, and just. 

When Gaston became judge, some people declared 
that he had done a great wrong. At that time the con- 
stitution of North Carolina declared that no person who 
denied "the truth of the Protestant religion" could 
hold office in North Carolina. This clause, it was said, 
was intended to keep Roman Catholics out of office, 
and as Gaston was a Roman Catholic he had done 
wrong to accept an office. When he swore to support 
the constitution, said his opponents, he swore to a 

But Gaston's friends did not think so. They said 
Roman Catholics did not deny any " truth" of the 
Protestant religion. Besides, Roman Catholics had held 
office in North Carolina before Gaston. Many of the 
men who wrote the constitution had elected Thomas 
Burke governor in 1781, and Burke was a Roman 
Catholic. So it was plain that they did not mean for 
the constitution to keep Roman Catholics out of office. 

Gaston in the Convention of 1835. — Still many peo- 


pie wished to have that clause of the constitution changed. 
Gaston wished for this to be done. So when it was 
decided to hold a convention in 1835, Gaston became 
a member. He took part in many of the most impor- 
tant debates, but his greatest speech was in favor of 
changing that clause which was supposed to be against 
Roman Catholics. 

At first several members spoke against making any 
change at all. Most of the members seemed to be 
against the change. Then Gaston arose. People had 
come to Raleigh from all parts of the State to hear him 
speak. The convention hall was crowded. Not a sound, 
not a whisper, was heard when Gaston began to speak. 
Members and visitors leaned forward eager to catch 
every word that he uttered. He spoke for two days. 
So eloquent and so powerful was his speech that every- 
body knew, long before he closed, that he had won a 
great victory. When the vote was taken it stood 74 for 
the change, 52 against it. 

Gaston's Popularity. — Gaston had now become one 
of the most popular men in North Carolina. In 1840 
the Legislature had to elect a United States senator. 
The Whigs, who had a majority of the members, wished 
Gaston to accept the place. But he declined. In his 
letter he said: "I find my heart yet throbbing at any 
indication of the favorable opinion of my fellow-citizens; 
and that heart will have wholly ceased to beat before I 
cease to take an interest in the happiness of this glorious 
Union, and especially in our part of it, the good Old 
North State." 

He thought that his duties as judge were "as impor- 
tant to the public welfare" as the duties of a senator. 


To explain the laws, to settle disputes between men 
peaceably, to administer justice "with a steady hand 
and upright purpose, appear to me/ 5 said he, "to be 
among the highest civil duties. And so long as God 
spares me health and understanding to perform these 
faithfully, how can I better serve my country?" So he 
declined to accept an election to the United States Sen- 
ate, and when the Legislature met it elected Gaston's 
young friend, William A. Graham. 

Gaston as an Orator. — Among the orators of his day, 
Gaston took high rank. He was always a modest man, 
and when he arose to speak he would seem at first to be 
frightened. His limbs would tremble and his voice 
quaver. But after speaking a few minutes he would 
gain control of himself. Then his voice became calm 
and steady, and his low, quiet tones would command 
perfect silence and attention. When he spoke, said one 
who often heard him, "the grandeur of his expression 
seemed to increase," and "his whole person seemed 

Two Notable Orations. — Such a speaker was of course 
often invited to make public addresses. In 1832 Gaston 
delivered a notable address at the University Com- 
mencement. The largest crowd that had ever attended 
a commencement gathered to hear him. "No other 
address ever delivered at the University," it has been 
said, "has been so much admired or so often referred to." 
Three years later he delivered an important address at 
the Commencement of Princeton University. 

In these two speeches Gaston spoke on the duties of 
citizenship. He urged the students to prepare them- 
selves for those duties. In the first he pointed out the 


evils of slavery in the South, and told the students that 
one of their first duties would be to find some remedy 
for those evils. In eloquent words he spoke of the 
blessings of the Union, and warned the people against the 
men who were trying to destroy it. He spoke also of 
the liberty, the prosperity, and the happiness which they 
enjoyed under the Constitution of the United States. 

" Surely," he said, "such a country and such a Consti- 
tution have claims upon you which cannot be disre- 
garded. I entreat and adjure you, then, preserve that 
country, uphold that Constitution. Resolve that they 
shall not be lost while in your keeping, and may God 
Almighty strengthen you to fulfil that vow." 

Gaston's Honors. — None of the men whom we have 
read about received as many honors from other states 
as Gaston. He was made a Doctor of Laws by the 
University of Pennsylvania, by Columbia University 
in New York, by Princeton University in New Jersey, 
and by Harvard University in Massachusetts. His name 
was presented at Harvard by the distinguished judge 
of the Supreme Court of the United States, Judge Story. 

"My reason," said Judge Story, "for naming Mr. 
Gaston was because he is one of the most distinguished 
of American lawyers in the highest sense of the phrase; 
and because, as a private gentleman, he is all that one 
could wish or desire. I consider our appointment as 
conferring honor upon ourselves, not on Mr. Gaston. I 
am proud that he should stand on our catalogue as truly 
a Doctor of Laws, whom to know is to respect." Gaston 
always took a deep interest in the welfare of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, and for forty-two years served 
as a trustee. 


Gaston's Death. — Judge Gaston died at Raleigh, 
January 23, 1844. In the morning he took his seat as 
usual in the Supreme Court. Soon afterward he was 
taken sick and carried to his room. Later in the day 
he felt better, and his friends called to see him. They 
talked and laughed gaily. Judge Gaston told several 
interesting anecdotes. He told of meeting in Washing- 
ton, many years before, a man who did not believe in 

"From that day," said Judge Gaston, "I always 
looked on that man with distrust. An infidel may be 
an honorable man, but I dare not trust him. A belief 
in an All-ruling Divinity, who shapes our ends, whose 
eye is upon us, and who will reward us according to our 
deeds, is necessary. We must believe and feel that there 
is a God — All-wise and Almighty." As he spoke these 
words he fell back, dead. 

Gaston was buried at New Bern. Over his grave is 
a large massive tomb on which is carved the single word 
" Gaston." Edward Everett, the great orator of Boston, 
standing uncovered by this tomb, declared: "This 
eminent man had few equals and no superiors." 


Give an account of — 

1. Dr. Alexander Gaston's early life and marriage. 

2. His services to American independence. 

3. His death. 

4. Margaret Gaston. 

5. William Gaston's education. 

6. Gaston as a lawver. 


7. His elections to the Legislature. 

8. Measures which he favored. 


9. How he saved the state banks. 

10. The burning and rebuilding of the capitol. 

11. Gaston's service in Congress. 

12. His election as judge of the Supreme Court. What his oppo- 
nents said about his election. What his friends said. 

13. His work in the Convention of 1835. 

14. What he said about the duties of a judge. 

15. Gaston as an orator. 

16. His addresses at the University and at Princeton. What he 
said about the Constitution of the United States. 

17. His honors. What Judge Story said of him. 

18. His death. 


1. Who were the French "Huguenots"? Why were they persecuted 
in France ? 

2. What men have we read about who were educated at Princeton 

3. What is meant by "internal improvements" ? 

4. How many members do we now have on the Supreme Court 
of North Carolina ? How are they chosen? For how long? What 
are their duties? 

5. Explain what Mr. Seaton meant by "Friendship in marble, 
enmities in dust." 

6. Gaston was a judge and member of the Convention of 1835 at 
the same time. He could not have been a judge and a member of the 
Legislature at the same time. Explain the reason for this difference. 

7. What is meant by such terms as "Doctor of Laws"? "Doctor 
of Divinity"? Why are such titles given to men? 



James C. Dobbin 

Dobbin's Early Education. — James Cochrane Dobbin 
was born at Fayetteville, January 17, 1814. He was 
a son of John Dobbin, a merchant, 
and Agnes Cochrane Dobbin. When 
James was about six years old he 
was sent to school in Fayetteville. 
A few years later he entered the 
famous William Bingham School at 
Hillsboro, where he was prepared for 
the University. 

At the University. — Dobbin en- 
tered the University when he was 
only fourteen years old. Soon after- 
ward he became a member of the Philanthropic Literary 
Society. He always took an active part in the work of 
the society. The training that he received there in debate 
made him one of the most eloquent orators of his time. 
He was elected to the highest offices of the society. 

At the University, Dobbin was one of the best students 
in his class. He was known for his prompt, faithful 
attendance to his duties and ready, cheerful obedience 
to the rules of the University. He was gentle in his 
manners, kind in his actions, and correct in his conduct. 
There was no more popular student at the University. 








* ■•/ 

k # 


1 iv 











I— I 





Dr. Caldwell, president of the 
University, was often heard to 
say: " It would gladden my 
heart to be father to such a 
son as James C. Dobbin." 
When he was graduated in 
1832 Dobbin ranked fourth in 
his class. 

Dobbin Studies Law. — 
Leaving the University, Dob- 
bin returned to Fayetteville to 
study law under Judge Robert 
Strange. Judge Strange was 
an able lawyer and his training 
had no little to do with Dob- 
bin's success. In 1835 Dobbin 
received his license to practise 
law and settled at Fayetteville. 
Dobbin was not impatient to 
become famous as a lawyer all 
at once. He continued to study 
hard and paid close attention 
to his profession. Though the 
people of the county wished 
to elect him to the Legislature, 
he would not consent, for he 
was not ambitious for political 

Elected to Congress. — But 
in 1845 the Democratic Party 
decided that it could get along 
without him no longer. So 


without his knowledge that party nominated him for 
Congress. This time he yielded to the people's wishes. 
But he wrote: "Had my personal wishes been con- 
sulted, the Convention would certainly have nomi- 
nated some other gentleman." He saw, however, that 
" discord and division' would result if he declined, so 
he accepted and was elected by a large majority. He 
served in Congress only two years and then declined to 
accept a second election. 

Dobbin in the Legislature. — Dobbin wished to remain 
in private life, but the people of Cumberland county 
needed his services. So they elected him, in 1848, a 
member of the General Assembly. The Democrats in 
the Legislature selected him as their leader. In the 
Legislature he favored the measures which he thought 
would advance the happiness and prosperity of the 
people, though he often had to oppose his own party. 
He voted for internal improvements, and for the build- 
ing of the North Carolina Railroad. 

The Work of Dorothea L. Dix. — It was in 1848 that 
Dobbin rendered his greatest service to North Carolina. 
At that time the State had no hospital for the care of 
insane persons. There were more than a thousand such 
persons in North Carolina and no suitable place to care 
for them. The rich sent their insane to the hospitals of 
other states, but the poor could not do this. Large 
numbers of them were chained down in cold rooms, cells, 
and cages of poorhouses and jails. They were often mis- 
treated and suffered cruel tortures. Many of these 
poor creatures could have been cured if they had been 
cared for properly. 

Finally their condition attracted the attention of a 


noble woman of Massachusetts. Her name was Dor- 
othea Lynde Dix. She had given up her life to work 
for the insane. In 1848 she came to North Carolina to 
study the condition of the insane in this State. After 
traveling all over the State she wrote an account of what 
she saw and sent it to the Legislature. She asked the 
Legislature to build a hospital to cost $100,000, in which 
the insane might be properly treated. But the members 
of the Legislature were afraid that the people would not 
approve of such action. Many of them thought they 
would not be reelected to the Legislature if they voted 
for this hospital. So Miss Dix's bill was defeated by a 
large majority. 

Dobbin's Great Triumph. — But Miss Dix did not 
give up. On the day the vote was taken Dobbin was 
absent from the Legislature. His wife was very ill and 
he was at her bedside. Miss Dix had been nursing Mrs. 
Dobbin and the two had become good friends. One day 
Mrs. Dobbin said that she would like to do something 
to show how much she appreciated Miss Dix's kindness. 
"You can do something," replied Miss Dix. "Ask 
your husband to speak in favor of the asylum for the 
insane." So just before her death, Mrs. Dobbin asked 
her husband, and he promised. 

As soon as possible after his wife's death, Dobbin 
returned to the Legislature and asked that the asylum 
bill be voted on again. His request was granted and 
he arose from his seat to speak in its favor. 

As he spoke he seemed to forget himself in his eloquent 
plea for the insane. He scarcely realized that he was 
effecting anything until he noticed the stillness in the 
hall and saw tears in the eyes of the Speaker. He won 


a great triumph. The bill was voted on again and passed 
by a vote of 91 to 10. 

The next day Miss Dix wrote in great joy to a friend: 
" Rejoice, rejoice with me. Through toil, anxiety, and 
tribulation my bill has passed. ... I am not well, 
though perfectly happy. I leave North Carolina com- 
pensated a thousand-fold for all my labors by this great 
success. " Work was soon begun on the hospital. A 
beautiful site was selected for it near Raleigh. The site 
is called "Dix Hill." A large, handsome building stands 
in the midst of a splendid grove of oaks. Thousands 
of unfortunate insane persons have been cared for 
there, and many of them have been cured. Since then 
the State has erected another hospital for insane white 
persons at Morganton, and one for insane negroes at 

Dobbin Becomes Speaker. — If Dobbin had rendered 
no other service to North Carolina, the passage of the 
asylum bill alone would entitle him to our gratitude. 
But he did render many other services. In 1850 he 
was again a member of the Legislature, and was elected 
speaker of the House of Commons. At this session a 
great debate occurred on the question whether a State 
had a right to withdraw from the Union. Dobbin made 
one of the greatest speeches of his life. He declared 
that a State did have a right to secede if it was necessary, 
but he hoped that it would never become necessary. 
The day that this Union is destroyed, he exclaimed, 
"will be the darkest day for human liberty the world 
has ever seen." And he made a strong plea for good 
will between the North and the South and loyalty to the 
United States. 


Dobbin as Secretary of the Navy. — Dobbin was again 
a member of the Legislature in 1852, and the Democrats 
again chose him as their leader. They also nominated 
him for the United States Senate. But there were three 
candidates and the parties were so evenly divided that 
no senator could be elected. For two years North Caro- 
lina had only one senator. In 1854 the Democrats had 
a majority of the Legislature. They offered to elect 
Dobbin senator, but at that time he was a member of 
the President's Cabinet and declined. 

In 1852 Franklin Pierce was elected President of the 
United States. Dobbin had given important aid in 
electing him, so Pierce appointed Dobbin secretary of 
the navy. Dobbin went to Washington and entered 
upon his duties March 7, 1853. He served until March 
6, 1857. As secretary of the navy he won a wide repu- 
tation throughout the Union. "He is," said a distin- 
guished statesman, "the most truthful public man I 
have ever known." 

Dobbin's services as secretary of the navy were of 
the greatest importance. He destroyed many old abuses. 
He abolished corporal punishment in the navy. Before 
he entered the office, the United States had found great 
difficulty in getting good men to serve on our vessels. 
Dobbin declared that the troubles were low wages, ill 
treatment, and lack of rewards for long and faithful 
services. He, therefore, suggested plans for changing 
these conditions, and Congress adopted them. After 
these plans were put into operation, more and better 
seamen were easily secured. Dobbin believed that the 
United States ought to have a large and powerful navy. 
Said he: "I regard the steady increase of naval 



strength not as a war, but as a peace measure." So he 
suggested to Congress the building of six new first-class 
war vessels. Congress adopted his plans and voted the 
money. Dobbin gave the closest attention to. the build- 
ing of these ships. They 
were regarded as the finest 
in the American navy. 

The Return of the Perry 
Expedition. — Just before 
Dobbin became secretary of 
the navy another North 
Carolinian, William A. Gra- 
ham, had held that office. 
Graham had sent out an ex- 
pedition, under Commodore 
M. C. Perry, to make a treaty 
of peace between the United 
States and the Emperor of 
Japan. But Graham resigned before Perry returned 
to the United States. When Perry reached this country 
Dobbin was the secretary of the navy. Perry brought 
back an important treaty which, as we shall see later, 
has had a wonderful effect on the history of the world. 
This important work was begun while one North Caro- 
linian was at the head of the navy department, and 
completed while another was its head. 

Dobbin's Return to North Carolina. — Dobbin did his 
great work in spite of very poor health. He realized that 
his work in the cabinet was slowly pulling him down to 
the grave. At one time he thought of resigning, but 
the President begged him not to do so. He therefore 
remained at his post until the end. On March 6, 1857, his 

Franklin Pierce 


term of office came to an end, and he prepared at once to 
return to North Carolina. 

The people all along the route in the State prepared to 
give him a royal welcome. At Weldon Matt W. Ransom, 
who was afterward for many years a United States sen- 
ator, was appointed to deliver the address welcoming 
Dobbin back to North Carolina. But Dobbin was too 
ill to leave the train, and the ceremonies were omitted. 
At Wilmington, too, similar preparations were made but 
could not be carried out. All the flags on the vessels in 
the harbor were displayed in honor of the distinguished 
secretary. A great reception had been planned at Fay- 
etteville; but it, too, had to be given up. The committee 
addressed to Mr. Dobbin a beautiful letter welcoming 
him back to his native town. To this he replied feelingly 
and eloquently. 

Dobbin's Death. — Dobbin and his friends all realized 
that he had returned home to die. His death occurred 
at his home in Fayetteville, August 4, 1857. His last 
words were: " Praise the Lord, oh, my soul!" The 
news of his death was everywhere received with great 
sorrow. Many eloquent tributes were paid to his mem- 
ory. Probably no other man in the history of North 
Carolina ever attained such eminence, or rendered such 
great services to the State and Nation, at so early an age, 
as James C. Dobbin. 


1. When and where was Dobbin born? Where did he receive his 
early education? 

2. How old was he when he entered the University? Give an 
account of his career at the University. 


3. What is said about Dobbin as a lawyer? 

4. Tell about his election to Congress. 

5. What measures did he support in the Legislature? 

6. Describe the work of Dorothea Dix in North Carolina. 

7. How did Dobbin help her? What did Miss Dix say about her 

8. What other services did Dobbin render in the Legislature? 

9. Give an account of his services as secretary of the navy. 
10. Tell of his return to North Carolina. His death. 


1. What other North Carolinians have been at the head of the Navy 
Department? Who were the Presidents at the time? 

2. Explain what Dobbin meant by saying that a large navy was 
"not a war, but a peace measure"? 

3. For what purposes are war vessels used besides for fighting? 



Two Officers of the Revolution. — Two of the officers 
under William R. Davie who helped to win for Charlotte 

the name of " Hornets' Nest" 
were Major Joseph Graham 
and Major John Davidson. 
During the war they fought 
side by side for American 
independence and became 
close friends. After the Rev- 
olution their friendship was 
made still closer when Major 
Graham married Major Da- 
vidson's beautiful daughter, 
Isabella. The young couple 
made their home in Lincoln 
county. They had twelve 
children. Their eleventh 
child was William Alexander Graham. 

William A. Graham's School Days. — William A. 
Graham was born in Lincoln county, September 5, 1804. 
His mother died when he was only three and a half years 
old. Until he was old enough to go to school, William 
ran about the farm and enjoyed the free and happy life 
of a country boy. His older brothers must have told 


William Alexander Graham 


him some dreadful tales about the things that happened 
at school, for when the day came for William to start to 
school he could not be found. After a long search he 
was discovered hiding under the bed, and kicking and 
screaming he was dragged out by the heels. 

His first school was near his home, but when he was 
a little older he was sent to a school in Mecklenburg 
county. There he lived with an uncle three miles from 
the schoolhouse. Every day William rode horseback 
to school with his little friend James W. Osborne riding 
behind. Afterward he attended schools at Lincolnton, 
States ville, and Hillsboro. His teachers declared that 
he was one of their best pupils, and praised him for his 
sense of honor and truthfulness. One of his classmates 
said: "He was the only boy I ever knew who would 
spend his Saturdays in reviewing the studies of the week." 

Graham at the University. — At fifteen Graham 
entered the University of North Carolina. He was 
noted for his careful observance of the rules of the college 
and for his courtesy to members of the faculty. He was 
popular, too, with the students. Although he was a 
hard student, he found time to give to reading, and to 
pay close attention to the work of the Dialectic Literary 
Society. There he received the training that made him 
one of North Carolina's greatest orators. In 1824 he 
was graduated with the highest honors and was selected 
to be one of the speakers at commencement. 

Admission to the Bar. — Leaving the University, 
Graham went to Hillsboro to study law under the great 
lawyer, Chief Justice Ruffin. In 1827 he received his 
license and settled at Hillsboro. At that time no other 
town in the State was the home of so many eminent 


men. Among them were Chief Justice Ruffin, Fred- 
erick Nash, who afterward became chief justice, Archi- 
bald D. Murphey, and Willie P. Mangum, who became 
a United States senator. Other great lawyers attended 
the courts at Hillsboro. 

It was not long before William A. Graham showed 
himself able to stand among the greatest of them. One 
of his first cases attracted a large crowd to the court- 
house. He spoke so well that the older lawyers present 
were surprised. William H. Haywood, of Raleigh, 
asked somebody who had prepared young Graham's 
speech. When told that Graham had prepared it him- 
self, Haywood exclaimed, " William Gaston could have 
done it no better." 

Graham as an Orator. — Graham was well fitted to 
be a great orator. He had read a great deal and re- 
membered what he read. All of his speeches were pre- 
pared with great care. Besides, he looked like an orator. 
Six feet in height, straight as an arrow, with broad, high 
forehead and flashing eyes, he was the very picture of 
an orator. His manners were easy and graceful, and 
his voice, though full and strong, was soft and musical. 
He spoke with much force and feeling, but he was careful 
to treat his opponents with fairness and courtesy. 

His Work in the Legislature. — In 1833 Graham was 
elected a member of the Legislature, and was reelected 
seven times. In 1838 he was elected speaker, and two 
years later was again elected unanimously. Whenever 
he rose to speak, the other members listened attentively 
to his words. He served on many of the most important 
committees of the Assembly. 

The two things that interested Graham most were 


education and internal improvements. He advocated 
laws for the building of good roads, the digging of canals, 
and the widening and deepening of channels of rivers. 
These things he declared were necessary in order that 
farmers and manufacturers might get their products to 
market easily and cheaply. 

But Graham's best work was done in behalf of schools 
and railroads. He was one of those statesmen, very 
rare in those days, who thought that all the children of 
the State ought to be educated in schools supported by 
public taxation. While traveling through New England 
in 1831 he wrote that of all the interesting things that 
he had seen he liked best the public schools. He called 
them "the glory of New England." In the Legislature 
he spoke eloquently in favor of public schools for North 
Carolina, and he always served on the committee on 
education. He wrote a large part of the first law to 
provide public schools in North Carolina. 

Graham was also greatly interested in the building 
of railroads. The first two railroads built in North 
Carolina were the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad 
and the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad. Graham advo- 
cated the law for building the former and wrote the law 
for building the latter. For building these two rail- 
roads the Legislature voted large sums. Many members 
of the Legislature opposed these measures because they 
said railroads would ruin the State! But Graham and 
other leading men spoke eloquently for them and pointed 
out their benefits so plainly that the laws were passed 
and work was soon begun on the roads. We cannot see 
now how we could get along without them. 

Graham in the United States Senate. — Graham's 


work in the Legislature was so wise, that in 1840 he was 
elected United States senator. In the Senate he served 
on several important committees and took part in some of 
the Senate's most important business. Two of his speeches 
in the Senate attracted much attention in the country. 

At that time John Tyler was President. Tyler was 
elected by the Whig Party, of which Graham was also a 
member, but he and the Whigs had quarreled. Many 
of the leading Whigs, therefore, refused to vote money 
to enable him to carry on the business of the government. 
But Graham declared such action was unpatriotic. He 
would not cripple the whole government in order to 
spite the President. 'I will not," he exclaimed, "stop 
the action of the government by denying it the means 
of going on, no matter who may be in power." All 
patriotic people applauded this sentiment. 

On another occasion, during a heated debate, a New 
England senator declared that the States would not 
obey a certain law which the Senate was about to pass. 
" What then will you do? " he asked. " Will the govern- 
ment send armed troops to compel the States to obey?" 
But Graham sharply rebuked the Northern senator for 
such unpatriotic words. The States, he said, would 
obey the Constitution and the laws, not from fear of 
punishment, but because it was their duty to do so. 
'It is faith, honor, conscience," he exclaimed, "and not 
the hangman's whip' upon which rest the blessings of 
our government. 

Such patriotic words won for Graham many friends 
and admirers. He was in the Senate only two years, 
but in that time he took a leading place among the states- 
men of the Union. 


Four Years as Governor. — Upon leaving the Senate 
in 1842 Graham returned to Hillsboro to practise law. 
But the people would not permit him to remain in pri- 
vate life. In 1844 they elected him governor, and in 
1846 they elected him a second time. In the first election 
he defeated his opponent by a majority of 3,153, but in 
the second election his majority was twice that number. 
He declared that if he were to consult his own wishes, he 
would decline the high honor, but, if the people wanted 
him to serve them, he thought it his duty to obey. So 
he began his work as governor, January 1, 1845. 

The new Governor's inaugural address was heard by 
a large crowd. In it he urged the people to love and 
honor their native State. " If," said he, " we glory in the 
name of American citizens, it should be with feelings 
akin to filial affection and gratitude that we remember 
we are North Carolinians. In our past history we have 
gained a high character for the virtues of honesty and 
fidelity. In the future let us fervently unite our prayers 
that our beloved North Carolina may still be permitted to 
walk in her integrity, the object of our loyalty and pride, 
as she is the home of our hearts and affections." 

As governor Graham devoted his energies to the im- 
provement of agriculture, commerce, and education in the 
State. He formed wise plans to increase the revenue 
of the State so that great works of internal improvements 
might be carried on. He urged the building of railroads, 
canals, and public highways. He advocated an agricul- 
tural survey of the State so as to find out what products 
were best suited to each section. He earnestly sup- 
ported the plans for a school for the deaf and dumb, 
and for an asylum for the insane. 


In him the public schools found one of their best 
friends. He thought that their greatest need was a 
general head, called the superintendent, who should 
"devote his whole time and attention in imparting to 
them vigor and usefulness.' 5 This was a subject, he 
declared, which ought to " engage the best talents and 
most exalted patriotism of the country." Afterward, 
in 1852, the Legislature appointed a superintendent as 
Graham had suggested. 

The North Carolina Railroad. — We have already 
seen how Graham while a, member of the Legislature 
advocated the building of the Wilmington and Weldon 
and the Raleigh and Gaston railroads. As governor he 
urged the building of another railroad from Raleigh to 
Charlotte. The plan was for the road afterward to be 
extended to Goldsboro. At Raleigh it would connect 
with the railroads of the North, at Charlotte with those 
of the South, and at Goldsboro with both. It was to be 
called the North Carolina Railroad. Governor Graham 
worked hard to get the law passed to vote money for 
building this railroad. But as the Democrats were 
opposed to it, there was a hard struggle. The bill was 
passed in the House of Commons, but when the vote 
was taken in the Senate it was a tie. 

Then occurred one of the bravest and most patriotic 
acts in our history. It was the duty of the Speaker to 
break the tie. The speaker was Calvin Graves, a Demo- 
crat. He knew that his party was opposed to the bill. 
If he voted for it, the Democrats would never again elect 
him to a public office. Yet he believed that the railroad 
would be a great blessing to the State. What then 
should he do? Should he sacrifice all his hopes of high 


public office, and vote for the bill? Or should he vote 
against it and win the applause of his party? He did 
not hesitate. He loved his State better than he did his 
party, and gave his vote for the railroad. 

So the bill became a law. Calvin Graves was never 
again elected to a public office. But he had done his 
State a great service, for the North Carolina Railroad 
has proved to be a great blessing to the State. The 
work was begun in July, 1851. In the presence of a 
great crowd at Greensboro, Calvin Graves threw the 
first shovel of dirt which began this great work. The 
North Carolina Railroad now runs from Goldsboro to 
Charlotte and is a part of the Southern Railway system. 

War with Mexico. — While Graham was governor, 
war broke out between the United States and Mexico. 
The Whigs were opposed to this war. They thought 
that the United States was wrong in her claims and that 
the war was unnecessary. This was also Governor 
Graham's opinion. But he thought also that, after the 
war was begun, it was the duty of patriotic citizens to 
support their own country. 

So when the President called on North Carolina for 
troops, Governor Graham responded promptly. He 
issued his call for volunteers, and more than three times 
the required number offered their services. The United 
States army officer in charge of these troops said: " Pub- 
lic men may differ about the justice of the war, but 
the good people of the Old North State have shown that, 
in a foreign war, they know no party but their country, 
and no country but their own." 

Graham Becomes a Member of the President's Cabi- 
net. — Under the Constitution of North Carolina no 



man could be governor for more than two terms, or four 
years. So in 1849 Governor Graham retired from that 
office. His reputation as a wise statesman had now 
spread throughout the Union. President Taylor offered 
to appoint him United States minister either to Russia 
or to Spain, but he declined to accept either place. The 
next year President Fillmore asked him to become a 
member of his cabinet as secretary of the navy. This 

office Graham accepted. As 
secretary of the navy he per- 
formed several important ser- 
vices for the United States, but 
here we can mention only one 
of them. 

The Opening of Japan. — 
In 1852 Graham sent a naval 
expedition to Japan that has 
had a wonderful influence on 
the history of the whole world. 
At that time the Japanese 
were only a half-civilized people. They lived entirely 
to themselves. They carried on no commerce with 
foreign people and would not even permit foreigners to 
enter their country. 

But since 1852 a great change has taken place. To-day 
Japan carries on commerce with all parts of the world, 
and is one of the great and powerful nations of the earth. 
Her people are industrious, enlightened, and highly 
civilized. This wonderful change began with the expe- 
dition which William A. Graham sent to Japan. 

Several events had occurred which made it important 
for the United States to be on friendly terms with Japan. 

President Fillmore 



California had just been added to the United States, so 
that the Union stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 
Thousands of people were moving into that State every 
year. A railroad had just been built across the Isthmus 
of Panama. Some American seamen who had been 

Perry Delivering President's Letter to Emperor of Japan 

shipwrecked on the coast of Japan had been thrown 
into prison and cruelly treated. 

So Secretary Graham decided to send a naval expedi- 
tion to Japan to try to make a treaty of peace with the 
Emperor. He placed the expedition under the command 
of Commodore M. C. Perry. Perry carried, sealed in 
a costly gold box, a letter from the President of the 
L T nited States to the Emperor of Japan. The Japanese 
were very reluctant to have any dealings with the for- 
eigners, but Perry was wise and careful. He finally 
succeeded in getting the Emperor to sign a treaty 
which permitted the Japanese and the Americans to 


carry on trade with each other. As we have already 
seen, this treaty was completed while James C. Dobbin 
was secretary of the navy. Since then Japan has made 
similar treaties with other nations and has become one 
of the great commercial nations of the world. 

Graham Nominated for Vice-President. — In 1852 
the Whig Party nominated Graham for the Vice-Presi- 
dency of the United States. Accordingly he resigned 
his position in the Cabinet. In the election the Whigs 
were defeated. Graham then returned to the practise 
of the law at Hillsboro. 

The Slavery Question. — During the next few years 
the whole country became deeply stirred over the slavery 
question. When the Union was formed, all of the States 
permitted slaves to be held within their limits. But 
after a few years, finding that slavery did not pay in the 
cold North, most of the Northern States abolished it. 
Little by little the Northern people began to think that 
slavery was a great moral wrong. They had many 
discussions about it and formed many plans to have it 
abolished throughout the Union. 

But the Southern people did not think it wrong to 
hold slaves. They declared that the negroes were better 
off than if they had remained in Africa. In the South, 
they said, the slaves were treated kindly, cared for in 
sickness and old age, and taught the Christian religion. 
Both the whites and the negroes in the South were 
satisfied, so the Northern people had no right to interfere 
with them. 

Congress had no power to abolish slavery in any of the 
States. But Congress could declare that slaves should 
not be held in any of the new States which should be 


admitted to the Union. The North, therefore, insisted 
that this should be done. The South opposed it. The 
Southern people declared that the territory from which 
these States were formed belonged to all the people of 
the United States. Therefore the Southern people ought 
to have the same right to carry their slaves into such 
States as the Northern people had to carry their horses 
and cattle. Great disputes grew out of these questions. 
Both sides became angry and said many harsh things 
about each other. 

Secession. — Finally some of the Southern States 
declared that if they could not get equal rights in the 
Union, they would withdraw from the Union. Such 
withdrawal was called " secession." But the North 
declared that no State had a right to secede from 
the Union. For a while the two sections forgot their 
quarrel over slavery, and quarreled about the right of 

In 1860 Abraham Lincoln, a Northern man who was 
bitterly opposed to slavery, was elected President. 
Thereupon South Carolina declared him to be such an 
enemy to the South that she would no longer remain in 
the Union. In 1860 she seceded. Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas soon did like- 
wise. These seven States then formed a new government 
called "The Confederate States of America," and invited 
the other Southern States to join them. 

Shall North Carolina Secede. — Should North Caro- 
lina accept this invitation? On this question the people 
were divided. William A. Graham was among those 
who answered, "No!" He loved the old Union for 
which his father had fought so bravely and which he 


himself had served so well. So he worked hard to 
prevent North Carolina from seceding. He spoke 
powerfully and eloquently in favor of the Union and 
against secession. When the people, in February, 1861, 
came to vote on the question, they followed Graham's 
advice, and voted against secession. 

North Carolina tried to preserve peace between the 
North .and the South. But in April, 1861, war began 
in spite of her efforts. President Lincoln then demanded 
that North Carolina send troops to fight the other South- 
ern States. But the Governor, John W. Ellis, replied, 
"You can get no troops from North Carolina." Even 
Governor Graham and others who had opposed secession 
now declared that North Carolina must take her stand 
with the South. So a Convention was called to meet at 
Raleigh, May 20, 1861, to decide what should be done. 
Graham was elected a member of that Convention. On 
May 20, the Convention adopted the ordinance of 
secession, which separated North Carolina from the 
United States. Graham voted for this ordinance. 
North Carolina then joined the Confederate States. 

Graham in the Confederate States Senate. — In 1863 
Graham was elected a member of the Confederate States 
Senate. He at once became one of the leaders in that 
body, and was elected president, pro tern. 1 He gave 
loyal support to the Confederate government. When he 
saw that the South could not win, he urged President 
Davis to makepeace. President Davis declared that he 
had no power to make peace, but, if the States wished 

1 The Vice-President (/Alexander H. Stephens) was President of the 
Senate. But the Senate elected a President pro tern to preside whenever 
the Vice-President of the Confederate States was absent. 



to do so, each one could make peace for herself. So in 
April, 1865 Graham went to Raleigh to urge Governor 
Vance to make peace for North Carolina and put a stop 
to further bloodshed. But Vance was not willing to do 

The Capitol at Richmond, Va., in which the Confederate Congress Met 

so. Besides, it was too late, for while they were dis- 
cussing the matter, General Lee surrendered to General 
Grant, and soon the war was at an end. 

Reconstruction. — After the war, sad times followed 
for the South. Union soldiers were stationed in various 
places to overawe the people. Northern adventurers, 
called ' carpet-baggers," roamed from place to place, 
protected by the soldiers while they robbed and plundered 
at will. Ignorant negroes were placed in high and impor- 
tant offices, but such men as Graham and Vance were 
not allowed even to vote. Men who remained true to 


the South were denied their rights, deprived of their 
liberties, and often treated with great cruelty. 

During those terrible days the people of North Caro- 
lina looked to Governor Graham as their wisest leader. 
In 1868 a great meeting of the leading men of the State 
was held at Raleigh. They were to decide on plans for 
rescuing the State from the carpet-baggers and negroes. 
Governor Graham was selected as the leader of this 
convention. He opened the session with a speech which 
aroused the members from their despair and planted 
in them a determination to rescue the State. 

How a Governor was Punished. — This Convention 
formed a new party made up of men who had been Demo- 
crats and men who had been Whigs before the war. All 
forgot their old differences in trying to save the State 
from the new dangers. They called their new party the 
Conservative Party. In 1870 Graham led this party to 
victory. He then advised the Legislature to impeach 
the governor, William W. Holden. Holden had been 
elected by the carpet-baggers and negroes, and was 
accused of committing crimes against the State. 

Graham's advice was taken, and Holden was brought 
before the Senate to be tried. Graham made a powerful 
speech against him. He showed that Governor Holden 
had disobeyed the Constitution and broken the laws of 
the State. The Senate found him guilty of the charges, 
and removed him from office. Thus the rule of the carpet- 
baggers and negroes was overthrown in North Carolina. 

Graham's Work for Education. — Governor Graham 
always took a deep interest in education. In 1834 he 
was chosen a member of the Board of Trustees of the 
University and served until his death. 


One of the greatest calamities of the war in North 
Carolina was the destruction of the public schools. The 
people of the South were too poor immediately after the 
war to reopen their schools. In 1867 George Peabody, 
a wealthy merchant of New England, gave $3,500,000 
to be used in helping to reestablish the schools of the 
South. He appointed a board, called "The Peabody 
Education Board," to manage this fund. It was com- 
posed of some of the best known men in the United 
States. One of them was Governor Graham. He 
served on the board until his death and was deeply inter- 
ested in its work. Through the work of this board 
hundreds of schools in the South were reopened, and 
thousands of Southern boys and girls were educated. 

Graham's Last Service and Death. — The last service 
Graham was called on to render was for the State of 
Virginia. For many years Virginia and Maryland had 
had a dispute about their boundary line. In 1874 they 
agreed to select three men to decide the dispute. Vir- 
ginia selected Governor Graham. Maryland selected 
Governor Black of Pennsylvania. The third man was 
Governor Winston of Alabama. In the summer of 1875 
they met at Saratoga Springs, New York, to begin their 
work. But soon after meeting, Governor Graham was 
taken seriously ill, and on August 11, 1875, he died. 

Great honor was paid to his memory by the two 
States whose dispute he was trying to settle, and by 
his native State. His body was placed in the Capitol 
at Raleigh, where thousands of people came to see their 
great leader for the last time. Then, escorted by the 
soldiers of the State, it was taken to Hillsboro and 
buried in the Presbyterian Churchyard. Of him Gov- 


ernor Stuart of Virginia, who knew him well, said: 'I 
have rarely met a wiser man, and never a better man 
than William A. Graham." 


1. Trace the course of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. 

2. The Raleigh and Gaston Railroad ran between the two towns of 
those names. It is now part of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad. 
Trace its course. 

3. What towns and counties do these two railroads pass through? 


1. When and where was Graham born? Tell about his school 

2. What is said about his work at the University? 

3. What profession did he choose? Where did he make his home? 
Who were some of the lawyers there at the time? What success did 
Graham have? 

4. How was he fitted to be an orator? 

5. Give an account of his services in the Legislature. 

6. What is said of his services in the United States Senate? 

7. Tell about Graham's election as governor. What did he say 
about North Carolina in his inaugural address? 

8. Give an account of his services as governor. 

9. Tell the story of the fight for the North Carolina Railroad. 

10. What did Graham think about the war with Mexico? How did 
he help the United States? 

11. To what office was he appointed by President Fillmore? 

12. Give an account of the expedition he sent to Japan. 

13. Explain what the North and the South each thought about 

14. What power did Congress have over slavery? How did this 
lead to disputes between the North and the South? 

15. What remedy did the South suggest? What did the North 
say about secession? 

16. Tell about the formation of the Confederate States. 


17. What did the people of North Carolina say and do about seces- 
sion? What was Graham's position? 

18. What event occurred in April, 1861, that changed the ideas of 
such men as Graham? What did the State then do? What was the 
date of the secession of North Carolina? 

19. Give an account of Graham's services as Confederate States 

20. What is meant by "Reconstruction"? What services did 
Graham render to the State during those days ? 

21. What new party was formed in 1868? What was its object? 
Who was its leader? What success did it have? 

22. Give an account of Graham's work for education. 

23. What service did Graham render the State of Virginia? 

24. W T rite a summary of his life. 


1. Explain how good roads and other internal improvements help 
the people of any community. 

2. What is the difference between a "bill" and a "law" ? 

3. What were the causes of the war with Mexico? Why were the 
Whigs opposed to this war? 

4. Make a list of the members of President Fillmore's Cabinet. 

5. Explain how the adding of California to the United States 
affected our relations with Japan. 

6. Explain fully the difference between the ideas of the North and 
the South on slavery. On secession. 

7. W T hy did North Carolina refuse to secede in February, 1861, 
and then secede in May, 1861 ? 

8. Who were the carpet-baggers and why were they called that? 

9. Many schools in North Carolina have received aid from the 
Peabody Education Fund. Is yours one of them? 



The Founding of Colleges. — We have seen how 
William R. Davie and others worked to establish the 
University. After the year 1800 several other colleges 
were built. Among them were colleges for girls at 
Salem, Greensboro and Raleigh, and such colleges for 
boys as Wake Forest, Davidson, Trinity, and Guilford. 
All of these colleges, except the University, were under 
the control of the various churches of the State. The 
University was a great public school, controlled by the 
State. But it was intended only for well-advanced boys. 
Many years passed after the founding of the University 
before any public schools for little folk were opened. 

Common Schools. — The three men who took the 
leading part in the founding of public schools for beginners 
were Bartlett Yancey, Joseph Caldwell, and Archibald 
D. Murphey. Yancey was for many years one of the 
leading members of the Legislature. Caldwell was pres- 
ident of the University. Murphey was a learned lawyer, 
a fine scholar and an eminent judge. 

In 1816 Murphey prepared a plan for public schools 

which he presented in 1817 to the Legislature. Such 

schools then were called " common schools.' 7 Murphey's 

plan was considered so good that he is often called the 

' Father of the Common Schools." Yancey and Cald- 



well supported Murphey's plan and all three spoke and 
wrote strongly for the common schools. 

The Literary Board. — But nearly ten years passed 
before they could get the Legislature to do anything. 
In 1825 the Legislature passed a law to lay aside certain 
money to be used for the support of common schools. 
This was to be called the " Literary Fund/' and was 
to be managed by five men who were called the ' Liter- 
ary Board." At first the fund was small, and ten more 
years passed before any of it was used for education. 
In 1837 North Carolina received more than one million 
dollars as her share of some money which the United 
States Government distributed to the States. The 
Legislature passed a law to add most of this money to 
the Literary Fund, and the fund soon amounted to 
about two million dollars. 

Opening of the Common Schools. — In 1840, therefore, 
the common schools were opened. But for several 
years they did not do very well and the people were not 
satisfied with them. The members of the Literary 
Board all had other work to do and of course could 
not give much attention to the schools. Many people 
thought that the schools ought to have one man at their 
head whose duty it should be to look after them and 
nothing else. Such an officer would be called the super- 
intendent of common schools. So in 1852 the Legis- 
lature passed a law to place a superintendent in charge of 
the schools, and elected to that important office Calvin 
Henderson Wiley. 

Calvin Henderson Wiley. — None of the men that 
we have read about did a more important work for 
North Carolina than Calvin H. Wiley, He was elected 



superintendent of common schools six times, and re- 
mained at their head for thirteen years. The people had 
great confidence in him and became very proud of their 
schools. In these schools thousands of children received 
the only education they ever had. 

Calvin H. Wiley was born on a farm in Guilford 

county, February 3, 1819. 
The first member of his 
family in North Carolina 
came from Pennsylvania 
some time before the Revo- 
lution. His grandfather, 
David Wiley, when a small 
boy, was present at the bat- 
tle of Alamance. When the 
Revolution broke out David 
Wiley entered the American 
army and fought bravely for 
American independence. 
Calvin H. Wiley's father 
was David L. Wiley and his 
mother was Anne Woodburn. 
His mother hoped that he 
would become a Presbyterian preacher, so she selected 
for him the names of two Presbyterian ministers, that 
of the great John Calvin and that of her old pastor, 
Rev. Dr. Henderson. 

Wiley's Early Life. — At an early age young Wiley 
was sent to Caldwell Institute at Greensboro, where he 
was prepared for college. In 1836 he entered the Uni- 
versity, where he was graduated in 1840. Instead of 
entering the ministry, he decided to study law. In 1841 

Calvin H. Wiley 


he settled at Oxford to practise his profession. But 
clients were few in number and the young attorney 
found more time than cases on his hands. But he made 
good use of his spare time by reading and writing. From 
1841 to 1843 he was editor of a paper called the Oxford 
Mercury. In 1847 he published a novel called " Ala- 
mance," and two years later a second novel called 

Wiley Discovers Two Great Evils. — But Wiley soon 
found more important work to do than writing novels. 
He had noticed two evils in North' Carolina that gave 
him much anxiety. 

First, he noticed that North Carolina was regarded by 
publishing companies as one of the best states in the 
Union for the sale of trashy books, and that every year 
thousands of such books were sold in the State. 

Secondly, he noticed that every year thousands of 
people were leaving North Carolina and moving to the 
South and West. North Carolina, he declared, seemed 
to be " regarded by its own citizens as a mere nursery 
to grow up in." The sign "For Sale' seemed to be 
posted all over the State. "The ruinous effects," he 
wrote, " are eloquently recorded in deserted farms, . . . 
in the absence of improvements, and in the hardships, 
sacrifices and sorrows of constant emigration." 

Wiley Proposes a Remedy. — Wiley set himself the 
task of finding a remedy for these evils. After carefully 
studying the situation he decided that the only remedy 
was education. The children of North Carolina, he 
declared, must be taught to love their own State, to take 
a pride in her welfare, and to understand the opportu- 
nities which she offered to them. They must also be 


trained how to make use of those opportunities. This 
great work could be done only by the common schools, 
and the great need of the common schools was a superin- 
tendent to direct them in their work. 

To this work Wiley decided to devote his life. In 
1849 he left Oxford and returned to Guilford county. 
There he told the people what he wanted to do. In 
order to do it he must become a member of the Legisla- 
ture. So he asked the people of Guilford county to 


elect him their representative in the Legislature of 1850. 
The people had great confidence in him and chose him 
to represent them in the General Assembly. When the 
Legislature met, Wiley worked hard to get a law passed 
to provide a superintendent for the common schools. 
He spoke eloquently in favor of his plan. 

" These schools," he said, "have been open for seven 
or eight years. ... In that time they have shed on 
thirty thousand darkened souls the strengthening and 
healthful light of knowledge. . . . But perhaps there 
are those who believe the book of knowledge should be a 
sealed book to the millions. I have heard such opinions 
expressed. ... I can only say, in answer to those 
who may think so, that in all my observation I have 
found happiness, comfort, and intelligence dwelling to- 
gether. . . . Let the laborer as well as the politician 
be educated, and our ships and fields and farms will 
then take rank with our sermons and speeches. You 
have doubtless seen magicians taking any amount of 
stores from a bag of plenty which appeared to be 
empty: the free schoolhouses, the dirty log houses . . . 
are filled with untold treasures if we but only knew how 
to draw them out." 



But the Legislature, in spite of his powerful appeal, 
refused to pass his bill. However, he did not give up 
the fight. In 1852 he returned to the Legislature and 
again went to work for the common schools. He was so 
much in earnest, he worked so hard, and he spoke so 
eloquently in favor of his plan, that this time he suc- 
ceeded. A law was passed providing for a superintendent 
of the common schools, and when the time came to elect 
a man to the office all eyes turned at once toward Wiley 
himself. So he was elected and began his work January 
1, 1853. 

Wiley's Task. — Wiley found a hard task before him. 
The schools were in a wretched condition. Most of the 
school-houses were mere log hovels. Teachers were 
scarce and generally very poor. They cared but little 
about their work. The money for the schools was 
being wasted. The people did not understand how to 
manage their schools. Many thought they were charity 
schools intended only for poor children. Others had 
no confidence in their 
work. They were 
poorly attended, and 
thousands of children 
were growing up in 
ignorance because 
they had no one to 
direct their educa- 

First of all the su- 
perintendent had to teach the people what common 
schools really were. He rode nearly all over the State, 
from the mountains to the sea, in an old-fashioned buggy, 

The Old Type of a School 


talking to the people about education and trying to get 
them interested in their schools. He wrote about the 
schools in the newspapers, in hundreds of letters, in 
messages to the governor, and he spoke about them 
in eloquent speeches. 

Two of his hardest tasks were to teach the officers 
their duties and to teach the teachers how to teach. To 
aid in this important work he established in every school 
district a Teachers' Library Association to supply the 
teachers with good books. He began the publication 
of a teachers' magazine called the North Carolina School 
Journal. He organized the teachers of the State into 
a State Teachers' Association. Others had tried several 
times to organize a teachers' association, but where they 
failed Wiley succeeded. 

What Wiley Accomplished. — His work was slow and 
discouraging. But Wiley had patience and determina- 
tion. He resolved to succeed, and he did not know the 
meaning of the word " give-up." And in the end he did 
succeed. Old friends of the schools were discovered 
and put to work. Many new friends were made. 
Enemies were met and routed. Better school-houses 
were built. The school term was made longer than 
ever before. Incompetent officers were removed, and 
the good ones were spurred on to better work. Poor 
teachers were dismissed, and better ones put in their 
places. The colleges began to take an interest in the 
common schools, and the people were proud of them. 

When Wiley began his work there were only 800 
public school teachers in the State. He increased this 
number to more than 2,000. The number of schools was 
increased from less than 2,000 to nearly 3,000. He 



increased the amount of money spent each year from 
$130,000 to $400,000. When he took charge he found 
only 83,000 children enrolled; this number was increased 
to 116,000. And those 116,000 children had better 

A Modern Rural Elementary School-house 
(Many are found in North Carolina) 

school-houses, better books, better teachers, and longer 
terms than the 83,000 had had. 

Besides these improvements, the people were no 
longer leaving North Carolina in such large numbers. 
The spirit of education was bringing about industrial 
progress and agricultural improvement. The people 
were becoming aware of the opportunities offered 
in North Carolina and were more attached to their 
homes than ever before. Everybody admitted that 
the success of the common schools was due to 
Calvin H. Wiley. 


Shall the Common Schools be Closed? — But suddenly 
everything was changed. In 1861, just as the common 
schools were beginning to do their best work, the great 
war between the North and the South broke out. North 
Carolina needed large sums of money to buy arms, 
ammunition, food, and clothes for her soldiers. Some 
persons suggested that the common schools be closed 
and the school money used for the purposes of war. 
Wiley was strongly opposed to this. "No people," he 
exclaimed, "can, or ought to be free, who are not willing 
to educate their children." The schools, he said, must 
be kept open in spite of the war. 

He first went to see the Governor. The Governor 
heard him gladly and promised to help him. Then 
Wiley went before the Legislature and spoke for the 
schools. Here he had his hardest fight, for many of the 
members were in favor of closing the schools until after 
the war. But Wiley was just as determined to fight the 
battles of the children as the soldiers were to fight 
the battles of their country. He fought hard and won a 
great victory. The Legislature declared that the school 
money must not be used for war purposes and that the 
schools must be kept open. 

The Schools are Kept Open. — So in spite of war 
and poverty and suffering Wiley kept the doors of the 
common schools open. But of course they suffered from 
the war just as everything else did. Wiley's difficulties 
were greater than ever. He found it hard to get text- 
books. He found it hard to get teachers. But in spite 
of all these troubles, and a hundred others, in 1863 the 
common schools enrolled more than 50,000 children. 
Nothing, declared Wiley, reflected greater honor on 



North Carolina, or showed her spirit better, than this 

The Schools are Closed. — But when the war came to 
a close and the South was defeated, everything was 
thrown into confusion. Men from 
the North who cared nothing for 
North Carolina gained control of 
the State. They turned Governor 
Vance and the other officers out of 
their offices. Men who had been 
true to the South were not allowed 
either to hold office or to vote. 
Their places were taken by North- 
ern " carpet-baggers " and ignorant 

Wiley, too, was dismissed from 
office. Then the common schools, 
which he had kept open during 
all the terrible days of war, were 
closed. But he had done a great 
work for the State. Many thou- 
sand children who could never have 
gone to any other schools had been 
taught in the common schools and 
become educated men and women. 

Wiley Enters the Ministry. — 
While he was superintendent of com- 
mon schools Wiley studied theology 
and became a Presbyterian minister. Many honors were 
bestowed on him. He was frequently asked to make 
educational addresses both in North Carolina and in 
other states. The Legislature of Georgia invited him 

Monument to Calvin H. 
Wiley at West End 
School, Winston, N. C. 


Erected by the pupils of 

The Graded Schools of 

Winston to the Memory of 

Rev. Calvin H. Wiley, D. D. 

As one of the Founders of 

The Schools of this City 

And as the Father of the 

Public School System of N. C. 

Feb. 3, 1819-Jan. 11, 1887 

Supt. Public Instruction 



to address them on the subject of common schools and 
to help them organize in Georgia such a system as he 
had organized in North Carolina. In 1881 the Uni- 
versity conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of 

Wiley's Last Years. — After the war Dr. Wiley moved 
for a short time to Tennessee, but in 1874 returned to 
North Carolina. From then till his death his home 
was in Winston. In that city he became the leader in 
establishing the Winston graded schools, and for many 
years was the chairman of the board of trustees. He 
died in Winston, January 11, 1887. The school children 
of Winston have erected, on their playground, a monu- 
ment to his memory. 


Give an account of — 

1. The founding of colleges in North Carolina. 

2. The leaders in the founding of common schools. 

3. The Literary Board. 

4. The opening of the common schools. 

5. The early life of Calvin H. Wiley. His education. 

6. The two great evils that Wiley discovered in North Carolina. 

7. The remedy that he proposed. 

8. His plan for obtaining this remedy. 

9. What he said about the common schools. 

10. Educational conditions in North Carolina when Wiley took 
charge of the common schools. 

11. His plans to interest the people in education. 

12. Results of his work. 

13. Effect of the Civil War on the common schools. 

14. The closing of the schools. 

15. Wiley's career after the war. 



1. What schools were founded for girls at Salem, Greensboro, and 
Raleigh before 1840 ? When and where were Wake Forest, Trinity, 
Davidson, Elon, and Guilford colleges founded ? 

2. What official is now at the head of the public school system of 
North Carolina? Make a list with the dates of their terms of all the 
men who have held this office in North Carolina. 

3. How is money raised in North Carolina for the support of public 



The Vances and the Bairds. — Zebulon Baird Vance 
was born about ten miles from Asheville, May 13, 1830. 
His father's name was David Vance, his mother's Mar- 
garet Baird. They named 
their boy after his mother's 
father, Zebulon Baird. 

The Vances and the Bairds 
were among the earliest 
settlers in the mountainous 
section of North Carolina. 
During the Revolution both 
families sent sturdy patri- 
ots to the American army. 
Some of them were among 
the heroes of King's Moun- 
tain. From them young 
Zebulon B. Vance inherited 
a strong mind, a vigorous 
body, and an intense love of 
The house in which Zebulon B. Vance was born, was 
a small, simple farmhouse. But it stood amid some 
of the grandest scenery on the American continent. 
Near by the beautiful French Broad river flowed through 
a green valley. The loftiest peaks of the Blue Ridge 


Z. B. Vance 


Mountains threw their shadows on the little cottage. 
Within plain view was Mt. Mitchell, the highest moun- 
tain east of the Rocky Mountains. Forests of giant 
oaks and hickory and laurel covered the mountain sides. 
The valley was bright with flowers and musical with the 
songs of birds. 

All this beauty and grandeur had a strong effect on 
the lad who grew up in its midst. It kindled his imagi- 
nation; it planted in him an intense love of nature; it 
filled him with a deep pride in his native land; and it 
aroused in him an ambition to be of some great service 
to his country. 

Vance at School. — There were no good schools near 
young "Zeb" Vance's home. The poorest boy in 
North Carolina to-day can find a better school right at 
his door than "Zeb' Vance could have found in many 
a mile of the French Broad. When he was twelve years 
old his father sent him across the mountains to a school 
in Tennessee. He also sent him some good advice. "Do 
mind your books/' he wrote, "and be careful of giving 
offense to your school mates." "Zeb' seems to have 
minded his books well, for his mother wrote to him: " We 
are very glad to hear that you are learning so fast. We 
hope that you will improve your time so as to make a 
great and good man." 

Vance and his Mother. — Many years afterward, 
while he was governor of his State and was great and 
famous, he remembered those words; and it made him 
happy to think that he had not disappointed his mother. 
Her last words to him were, "God bless you, my dear 
boy! You have been a good and loving son to me." 
"How happy it made me feel!" he wrote to one of his 


friends. " Believe me, ... I would not exchange 
the feeling those blessed assurances of my Mother's love 
and approbation inspire for all the honors I ever have 
received or may receive in this world." 

Vance had been at school but a short time when he 
was called home by the death of his father. For the 
next seven or eight years he had to work to help his 
mother support the family. It was a hard task, but 
"Zeb" never grumbled. 

Vance at the University. — When he became twenty- 
one Vance decided to study law. He wanted to go to 
the University, but had no money. What then should 
he do? At that time the president of the University 
was David L. Swain. Swain was a native of Buncombe 
County and knew the Vances well. So "Zeb" decided 
to write to him for help. 

The manly tone of young Vance's letter pleased Presi- 
dent Swain. He replied at once that Vance should have 
the necessary money. So Vance mounted his horse 
and rode over the mountains, down to Chapel Hill, and 
began his studies. He and President Swain soon became 
warm friends, and their friendship continued until 
Swain's death. 

Vance remained at the University only one year. 
But he studied hard, read good books, and became a 
well-educated man. His favorite books were the Bible, 
the works of Shakespere, and the stories of Sir Walter 
Scott. It would certainly be a difficult task to select 
a better library than this mountain boy selected for 
himself. He read but few books, but those few he knew 
thoroughly. Better still, he made many friends at the 
University who remained true to him throughout his life. 




The Young Lawyer. — After leaving the University- 
Vance went to Asheville to practise law. He soon had 
a good practice. But he was not too busy with his law 
to practice love at the same time. On August 3, 1853, 
he was married to Miss Harriet N. Espy. 

Vance in the Legislature and in Congress. — Vance 
was such a good speaker and knew so many good stories 
that he was always welcome into any company. His 
lively spirits, his ready wit, and his good humor made 
him very popular. In 1854, when he was only twenty- 
four years old, the Whigs elected him a member of the 
Legislature. Four years later they elected him a member 
of Congress. He was the youngest member of that body. 
In 1860 he was elected a second time, but did not remain 
in Congress much longer. 

Vance Pleads for the Union. — When the dispute 
arose between the North and South about secession, 
Vance w^s a strong Union man. During the years 1860 
and 1861 he spoke frequently in different parts of the 
State against secession. His greatest speech for the 
Union was at Salisbury, October 11, 1860. Thousands 
of people had gathered there to hold a great Union 
meeting. They marched about the streets in long 
Union processions. The bands played Union tunes. 
The people carried Union flags and banners. Many of 
the most distinguished men in the State were to speak 
for the Union. There were Governor Graham, Governor 
John M. Morehead, and George E. Badger, who had 
been a United States senator. 

The speaking began in the morning and lasted all day. 
Vance spoke first. For two hours 5,000 people stood in 
a cold, drizzling rain and listened to him. When he 


proposed to stop they cried out, "Go on! Go on!" 
Not a single person left while he was speaking. When 
night came, after the others had spoken, the crowd 
went for Vance, bore him on their shoulders through 
the streets, and called for another speech. 

"In a minute," says a writer who was present, "he 
was up and at it, and for nearly two hours swayed the 
throng at his will, now with eloquence and argument, 
and now with uncontrollable mirth. Such a store of 
amusing and appropriate anecdotes as this ' Mountain 
Boy' has, is not possessed by any other man living." 
When one of Badger's friends complimented him on his 
speech, that great man replied: "You ought to have 
heard young Vance. He is the greatest stump speaker 
that ever was — the greatest that ever was!" 

Vance Goes to War. — Vance worked hard for the 
Union. But when war began in spite of his efforts, 
Vance declared that he would stand by the South. "If," 
he said, "war must come, I prefer to be with my own 
people. If we have to shed blood, I prefer to shed 
Northern rather than Southern blood. If I have to 
slay, I had rather slay strangers than my own kindred 
and neighbors." 

So in 1861 he left Congress and came home to get 
ready for the war. He returned at once to Buncombe 
county, where he raised a company of sturdy mountain 
men. They promptly elected him their captain. He 
called his company the "Rough and Ready Guards." 
In May, 1861, he led them down to Raleigh, where they 
joined other North Carolina troops. During the summer 
Captain Vance was sent to help defend New Bern against 
an attack by the United States troops. Soon afterward 


he was elected colonel of the Twenty-sixth North Caro- 
lina Regiment. 

The Battle of New Bern. — The Confederate army at 
New Bern was commanded by General L. O'B. Branch, 
of North Carolina. On March 14, 1862, a strong Union 
force attacked the Confederates and beat them. General 
Branch was driven out of New Bern and forced to retreat 
to Kinston. 

How Vance Saved his Regiment. — In this battle 
Colonel Vance showed himself to be a brave and skilful 
officer. Nothing but his courage and skill saved his 
regiment from destruction. During the battle Colonel 
Vance was stationed between a swamp in front and the 
Trent river behind him. The Union soldiers drove the 
other Confederates back and got between Colonel Vance 
and New Bern. They were marching right down on 
him when he was warned of his danger. All the other 
Confederate regiments had crossed the Trent on a bridge, 
but when Colonel Vance reached the river he found the 
bridge in flames. 

He hurried up the river to a creek called Brice's Creek. 
This creek was almost as deep and wide as the river, 
but it must be crossed. Colonel Vance could find but 
one small boat, and it could carry only three men at 
a time. The enemy was about half a mile away with 
ten times his own numbers. What was he to do? He 
decided in a flash. 

"I jumped my horse in to swim him over," he wrote 
to his wife, "but when a little way in he refused to swim, 
sank two or three times with me, and I had to jump off 
and swim across with my sword, pistols, and cartridge 
box on. Once over I rode half a mile to a house and 



John R. Lane Harry K. Burgwyn, Jr. Z. B. Vance 
Colonels of the 26th North Carolina Regiment 


got three boats, which we carried on our shoulders to the 
creek, and after four hours of hard labor got all my men 
over but three poor fellows who were drowned. 

"I can not now speak of the thousand dangers which 
I passed through. Balls struck all around me. Men 
were hit right at my feet. My men fought gloriously. 
We feel quite proud of the good name we have obtained 
and are determined to maintain it. I should like to 
dwell upon the many instances of love and affection 
exhibited by the regiment toward me during the fight 
and the retreat. I believe they would every one follow 
me into the jaws of certain death if I led the way." 

Vance Ordered to Virginia. — Soon after the battle 
of New Bern, Colonel Vance was ordered to join the 
Confederate army in Virginia. In the great battles 
around Richmond he led his men with much skill and 
courage. He was so daring in battle that his men were 
afraid he would be killed. They begged him not to 
expose his life so recklessly. North Carolina, they said, 
could not afford for him to be killed, for in August the 
people were going to elect him governor. 

But Vance refused to shun any danger to which his 
men were exposed. Every time they went into battle, 
he rode at their head, cheering and encouraging them. 
After one of his battles he wrote to his wife: "I was 
surprised at my feelings. Excitement and pleasure 
removed every other feeling and I could not resist cheer- 
ing with might and main." Can we wonder that the 
soldiers were proud of their gallant young colonel? 

Thoughts of Home. — But this brave soldier, who 
took such delight at riding into battle where danger was 
thickest, could be as tender and loving as a little child. 


"I am again officer of the day," he wrote to his wife, 
"and shall have to tramp all night around our lines and 
pickets. The moon is at the full, though, and the nights 
are beautiful. I shall cast many a thought to-night 
toward my dear home and many a prayer for my lonely 
wife and sweet little children. Dear little children! Of 
such indeed must be the kingdom of heaven!" 

A Soldier's Letter. — Would you not like to read a 
letter which this young soldier, sitting in his tent after 
the battle, wrote to his little six-year-old son? 

" My Dear Son Charlie, 

Pa received your letter, and 
was very happy to read it. I was mighty sorry to 
lose poor Todd. I wanted to keep him for my children 
to ride when this war is over. I want you and Brother 
David to be very good boys, obey your Mother, be kind 
to each other and to Brother Zebbie. You are getting 
old enough now to be of great assistance as well as com- 
pany to Mother, and whilst Pa is away you ought to try 
hard to take care of her and protect her in her lonely 
home. You write me that the yard and grass are mighty 
green and nice. Pa is glad to hear his dear ones have 
such a beautiful home, and you and Brother will always 
remember not to break or injure the shrubs and flowers, 
but always to play in the walks or on the grass away 
from the shrubbery. Goodbye, son. Kiss Mother and 
Brother and Cousin for me, and tell the servants howdye 
for me. Your affectionate Father, 

Z. B. Vance." 

Vance is Elected Governor. — In August 1862, while 
Colonel Vance was in Virginia fighting at the head of 


his regiment, he was elected governor of North Carolina. 
He did not ask for this office, but when the people had 
chosen him he felt that it was his duty to accept. Every 
soldier in his regiment voted for him. He received 
twice as many votes from the other North Carolina 
soldiers as his opponent received. The soldiers believed 
that he could do more good for the State and for the 
South as governor than as a soldier. So Vance left the 
army, went to Raleigh, and on September 8, 1862, began 
his duties as governor. 

The Great War Governor. — Not since the days of 
Governor Caswell had any governor of North Carolina 
had a harder task before him, and never did any gov- 
ernor serve the people better. Vance kept the ranks of 
the North Carolina regiments full. He caused North 
Carolina to send more soldiers to the Confederate army 
than there were voters in the State, and he kept her 
soldiers better clothed and better fed than the soldiers 
of any other Southern State. 

It would take too long to tell you all the things that 
Governor Vance sent to the soldiers. But a few of the 
things that he bought for them in Europe can be men- 
tioned. Among them were 2000 fine rifles with 200,000 
rounds of ammunition, 12,000 overcoats, 50,000 blankets, 
250,000 pairs of shoes, gray cloth for 250,000 uniforms, 
100,000 pounds of bacon, $50,000 worth of medicine, 
and many other things for use in the hospitals. 

Most of these things of course went to the North 
Carolina soldiers, but some were also sent to the soldiers 
of other states. After the great battle of Chickamauga, 
General Longstreet's soldiers were nearly all in rags. 
Governor Vance sent them 14,000 suits of uniforms. 


Many a poor, ragged soldier had shoes on his feet, a 
blanket to cover him from the snow, and a piece of bacon 
once a week because Zebulon Baird Vance was governor 
of North Carolina. For the comfort of soldiers travel- 
ing to and fro he had inns and hospitals established at 
several places in the State. In them the wearied, the 
sick and the wounded were cared for and their wants 
attended to. Is it any wonder that the soldiers called 
Governor Vance "Our Zeb," and said that he was the 
" Great War Governor of the South." 

Suffering in the South. — The war brought great suf- 
fering to the people of the South. They found it hard 
to get enough food and clothes. A gallon of molasses 
cost $8. It took $50 to buy a bushel of corn, and $100 
to buy a barrel of flour. A pair of boy's boots cost $150. 
Carpets were torn up from the floors and cut into 
blankets. In order to relieve the suffering of the poor 
as much as possible, Governor Vance had granaries 
established at certain places and corn distributed from 
them. He also had committees appointed in each 
county to look after the suffering of the needy. Even 
the richest people had to do without many common 
necessities which the poorest now have. 

Vance's Great Speeches. — When the soldiers learned 
how their families were suffering at home they of course 
became dissatisfied, and many of them deserted. No 
other man did so much as Governor Vance to keep up 
the spirits of the soldiers and the people. He made 
eloquent speeches at several places in the State. He 
visited the army in Virginia and made some stirring 
speeches to the soldiers. These speeches filled their 
hearts with new hope and courage. General Lee said 


Vance's visit to the army was worth 50,000 soldiers 
to him. 

Blockade-Runners. — But Vance did more than make 
speeches. The chief cause of the suffering in the South 
was the blockade. The United States, which had a 
large navy, placed armed vessels at the Southern ports 
to prevent ships from going out or coming in. The 
South, whose navy was very small, could not ship out 

Blockade-Runner Advance 

her cotton, tobacco, and other products to Europe. 
And but few clothes or food or military supplies could 
be brought in from European countries. But some- 
times, in spite of the watchful war vessels, fast-sailing 
little ships would slip out of or into the ports. Such 
vessels were called blockade-runners. The most famous 
of these blockade-runners was the Advance. 

The Advance was a swift little steamer that Gov- 
ernor Vance bought in Scotland. She was sent to the 
West Indies, where she took on a cargo and then slipped 


through the Federal fleet into the harbor of Wilmington. 
There she was protected by a powerful fort called Fort 
Fisher. Then loaded with cotton, she would again slip 
by the war vessels and make a trip to Nassau (Bermuda) 
or Halifax (Nova Scotia), sell her cotton, and buy another 
cargo for North Carolina. 

The Advance made eleven trips before the United 
States war vessels could catch her. On these trips she 
carried out thousands of bales of cotton, and brought 
back tools for farmers, medicines for the hospitals, uni- 
forms, blankets, shoes, clothes, and arms and ammunition 
for the army. 

Vance in Prison. — In 1864 Vance was elected governor 
a second time. But before his term was out the war 
came to a close and he was removed from office by the 
United States Government. On his thirty-fifth birth- 
day he was arrested at his home in Statesville by United 
States soldiers. They carried him to Washington and 
locked him up in a cell of the Old Capitol Prison. In 
the same cell with him was John Letcher, governor of 

Though a prisoner, uncertain of what punishment was 
intended for him, Vance never lost his good spirits. 
He soon became very popular even with the officers 
who had to guard him. The United States army officer 
who was in charge of the prison learned to respect and 
to love his genial, good-humored prisoner. He did for 
Vance many acts of kindness and courtesy, and a few 
years later, when Vance was a member of the United 
States Senate, he had several opportunities to show his 
gratitude. Vance's enemies tried hard to find some 
acts of his that would give them a good excuse to punish 


him. But they could find nothing. When the Secretary 
of War of the United States learned how kind Vance 
had been to the Union soldiers who were prisoners 
during the war, he promptly ordered that he be set at 

After the War. — Vance was then permitted to return to 
his home. During the terrible days that followed the war, 
he was one of the leaders who rescued the State from 
the carpet-baggers and negroes. After the Conservatives 
won their great victory over the carpet-baggers, they elec- 
ted Vance to represent North Carolina in the United 
States Senate. This was in 1870. But when Vance went 
to Washington to take his seat in the Senate, the northern 
men who controlled Congress refused to admit him. 

Vance Becomes Governor a Third Time. — Then in 
1876 the people of North Carolina again turned to him 
to be their governor. He was elected a third time, and 
entered upon his duties January 1, 1877. 

Vance won for himself a place among North Carolina's 
greatest statesmen. He worked hard to improve the 
schools for both the whites and the negroes. He urged 
that normal schools for the training of teachers be estab- 
lished. He improved the charitable institutions of the 
State. He aided in the building of railroads. While 
he was governor peace and order were again enjoyed; 
the lives and property of the people were protected; 
schools and colleges were opened. The hum of mills, the 
shriek of factory whistles, the roar of trains proclaimed 
that industry had taken the place of war and strife. 
Trade began to flourish, farmers plowed their fields in 
safety, and the State grew stronger and richer and 
happier than ever before. 


While he was thus making the people of the State 
happy, Governor Vance himself suffered two great 
sorrows. Soon after he became governor his mother 
died, and within less than a month he lost his wife also. 
These sorrows made the people of the State love him all 
the more. 

Vance Becomes Senator. — In 1879, after he had 
been governor two years, Vance was again elected to 
the United States senate. This time he was permitted 
to take his seat. Vance remained in the Senate fifteen 
years and became one of the strongest leaders of the 
"New South." He was so eloquent, so generous, so 
kindly, and so honest that many who had been his 
enemies became his friends. He defended the South 
without offending the North. 

No man did more than he to make the two sections 
friends again. 

In one of his great speeches in the Senate he said: " If 
I were permitted to say but one word as to what my 
country most needed, that word would be, Rest! Rest 
from strife, rest from sectional conflict, rest from sec- 
tional bitterness. . . . Can we not give rest to our peo- 
ple? I know that those from whom I come desire it 
above their chief joy. The excitement through which 
we have passed for the last twenty years, the suffering 
and the sorrow, the calamity, public and private, which 
they have undergone, have filled their hearts with 
indescribable yearnings for national peace." 

Vance was often invited to speak in different parts 
of the Union. In the North he defended the South and 
urged the Northern people to be friendly toward the 
Southern people. In an address before the Union 


soldiers of Boston he spoke eloquently against distrust 
and hatred between the North and South. Let us, he 
said, adopt "that wiser and nobler policy which seeks 
to make every spark of genius, every arm of strength, 
every heart of integrity," contribute " to the strengthen- 
ing and upbuilding of freedom, and the glory of the great 
Republic." In the South he spoke for the Union, urged 
the Southern people to be good Americans, and to love 
and honor the American flag. 

Gombroon. — In 1880, while he was in the Senate, 
Vance was married to Mrs. Florence Steele Martin, of 
Kentucky. In the winter they made their home in 
Washington. But their summer home was a beautiful 
place in the mountains near Asheville. They called it 
"Gombroon." It was a large, comfortable house in 
the midst of dense forests and lofty mountain peaks. 
There Senator Vance planted his vineyards, orchards, 
and garden, and rested from his hard work in the Senate. 

"'Zeb' Vance is Dead." — His hard work injured 
his health. He pored so closely over his studies that he 
became blind in one eye. His physicians sent him to 
the mountains of North Carolina, to Florida, and to 
Europe in search of health. How anxiously the people 
of North Carolina waited for the news that their great 
senator was well again. But this good news never came. 
Instead, April 15, 1894, the sad message came, "'Zeb' 
Vance is dead." 

Never before had the people of North Carolina so 
mourned the death of any man. His body was carried 
from Washington, where he died, to Raleigh, and from 
Raleigh to Asheville. At every station, and in the 
valleys and on the hillsides along the railroad, thousands 


crowded to catch a glimpse of the train that bore 
his body. Great crowds gathered at Raleigh and at 
Asheville to see his face for the last time. 

The people of the State at once took steps to honor 
his memory. While he was still living, the Legislature 
had named a county for him. After his death the 
State erected a monument to his memory in the Capitol 
Square at Raleigh. This is the only monument which 
the State has ever erected with public money to any of 
her sons. Another monument, a tall, straight shaft of 
granite, has been erected to him in the heart of the city 
of Asheville. 


1. Describe the section of North Carolina in which Vance was 
born. What is the height of Mt. Mitchell? Name other prominent 
mountains near Asheville. 

2. What river is Asheville on? 

3. Describe the West Indies with reference to Wilmington. Find 
on the map Nassau. Halifax (N. S.). 


1. When and where was Vance born? Describe his birthplace. 

2. Give an account of his early schooldays. What advice did his 
father send him? 

3. Tell about Vance and his mother. 

4. What profession did Vance choose? How did he get his pro- 
fessional education? What were Vance's favorite books? Where did 
he make his home? 

5. What were his early political services? 

6. What did he think and say about secession? Describe the great 
Union meeting in Salisbury. 

7. After the war began, what position did he take in regard to it ? 

8. Describe how he saved his regiment at the battle of New Bern. 

9. Give an account of his military career in Virginia. 


10. Tell about Vance's election as governor. 

11. What is said about his work for the soldiers during his term as 

12. Describe the suffering in the South. 

13. How did Vance keep up the spirit of the people? 

14. What was the blockade? How did it injure the South? 

15. What did Vance do to break the blockade? 

16. How was Vance punished for his part in the war? 

17. Give an account of his prison life. 

18. What part did Vance take in rescuing North Carolina from the 

19. Give an account of his work during his third term as governor. 

20. What service did he render to the South in the United States 
Senate? How did he help to make the North and South friends 

21. Repeat what he said about the country's greatest need. 

22. Give an account of his death. 

23. Write a summary of the chief events in his career. 


1. Have you ever read any of the plays of Shakespere? Any of 
the stories of Sir Walter Scott? 

2. Name the principal battles fought around Richmond in 1862. 

3. Make a list of the men mentioned in this book who were 
governors of North Carolina. 

4. How many soldiers did North Carolina send to the Confederate 

5. Explain fully how the blockade was managed, and how it 
injured the Confederacy. Why could not the South manufacture the 
supplies that were needed in the war? 

6. What is meant by the "New South"? 


Getting Ready for War. —April and May, 1861, 
were busy months in North Carolina. In every house 
women were hard at work knitting socks, making 
shirts, underwear, and other articles of clothing. Fac- 
tories were busily making guns, cannon, powder, swords, 
and bayonets. Bugles were blowing, drums were beat- 
ing, flags were flying, soldiers were marching. In every 
town and village crowds cheered the soldiers as they 
marched down the street and boarded the train; and 
pretty girls waved at them and urged them to fight 
bravely for their homes and country. 

All this was because war had begun between the 
North and the South, and North Carolina was getting 
ready for it. President Lincoln had demanded that 
North Carolina send soldiers to fight the other Southern 
States, and Governor Ellis had telegraphed to him, 
"You can get no troops from North Carolina." But 
the Governor had sent out a call for North Carolina to 
rally to the South, and soon every train was filled with 
soldiers hurrying to Raleigh to be armed and drilled 
for battle. As fast as they could be taught the duties 
of war they marched away to join the Confederate 
armies in Eastern North Carolina, in Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia, and other States. 



North Carolina in the Civil War. — North Carolina 
sent to the Confederate armies during the war more 
than 125,000 soldiers. Some of them were kept in 
North Carolina to defend the forts along the coast. 
A large number were sent across the mountains to the 
defense of Tennessee, Georgia, and other States. But 
the largest number were sent to Virginia. They took 
part in every important battle of the war. More than 
40,000 were either killed or died of disease. No other 
Southern State lost so many soldiers. 

Several North Carolina officers won fame. Among 
them were two lieutenant-generals, seven major-generals, 
and twenty-six brigadier-generals. Major-Generals W. 
D. Pender, Stephen D. Ramseur, and W. H. C. Whiting 
were killed. General D. H. Hill commanded the 
North Carolina soldiers in the first regular battle of 
the war; General James Johnston Pettigrew led the 
soldiers who charged farthest in the great charge at 
Gettysburg; and General Bryan Grimes planned and 
fought the last battle of the Confederate army in 

Daniel Harvey Hill. — At the opening of the war the 
soldiers were first sent to Raleigh to be trained for war. 
There they were placed in a camp of instruction under 
the command of Colonel Daniel H. Hill. Colonel Hill 
was educated at the United States Military Academy, 
at West Point. For several years he was an officer in 
the United States Army and served in the war with 
Mexico. In that war he won a reputation as one of 
the best soldiers in the American army, and was pro- 
moted three times. Many years afterward, General 
Joseph E. Johnston, the famous Confederate general, 



wrote to General Hill: "Do you know that in Mexico 
the young officers called you the bravest man in the 

The Beginning of Civil War. — After the Mexican 
War, Hill left the army to become a teacher. He 
taught first in Washington 
College, at Lexington, Vir- 
ginia, and then in Davidson 
College in North Carolina. 
During these years he 
watched closely the dispute 
between the North and the 
South. He clearly foresaw 
that it must end in war, and 
he urged the South to get 
ready for it. In 1859 he left 
Davidson College to take 
charge of a military school at 
Charlotte in order to train 
Southern boys in military 
affairs. He was teaching 
there when, in 1861, Gov- d. h. Hill 

ernor Ellis called him to Raleigh to take charge of 
the camp of instruction. The Governor appointed him 
to the rank of colonel. 

In a few weeks Colonel Hill had a regiment ready for 
the field. It was the First North Carolina Regiment. 
The men had learned to have great confidence in Colonel 
Hill, and when they were ordered to the front, were 
anxious for him to lead them. So he was placed in com- 
mand, and in June led them into Virginia, where a large 
and powerful Union army was preparing to march 


against Richmond. Colonel Hill reached the front in 
time to win the first regular battle of the war. 

First at Bethel. — This battle was fought at Big 
Bethel near Yorktown, Virginia. The Confederate 
army numbered only 1200 men. Of these, 800 were 
the North Carolina troops under Colonel Hill. The 
other 400 were Virginians. They were attacked by 
about three times their number, but Colonel Hill had 
trained his men so well that they stood their ground, 
and together with the Virginians, drove the enemy back. 

During this battle several Union soldiers took shelter 
in a house between the two armies. Colonel Hill called 
for some of his men to set fire to the house, and five 
brave fellows sprang eagerly forward. A hot fire met 
them and one of their number fell dead. This soldier, 
Henry L. Wyatt, was the first Confederate soldier 
killed in open battle during the Civil War. 

The news that the Confederates had won a victory 
sent a thrill of joy throughout North Carolina. Every- 
body praised "the brave boys in gray." The Con- 
vention, in session at Raleigh, resolved that the First 
Regiment should be known as the " Bethel Regiment/ 5 
and gave it permission to inscribe the word " Bethel" on 
its flag. For his share in the victory Colonel Hill was 
appointed a brigadier-general. 

General Hill in Battle. — The war had now begun in 
earnest. In 1862 the United States sent a strong army 
to march up the peninsula between the York and James 
rivers to attack Richmond. The Confederate army 
opposed the Federals at every step. Before the Union 
troops were finally driven back, the battles of Williams- 
burg, Hanover Court House, Seven Pines, Fair Oaks, 


and the famous Seven Days' Battles around Richmond 
were fought. 

In these battles General Hill led his troops with great 
skill. He won promotion twice, first as major-general 
and then as lieutenant-general, the next highest rank 
in the army. It was said that his troops were never 
found in the rear during a battle nor in front during a 

At Williamsburg he led two of his regiments, one 
from North Carolina, the other from Virginia, with 
such daring that the Union general, Hancock, declared: 
" Those two regiments deserve to have ' Immortal' 
inscribed on their banners." President Davis said 
that the Confederate victory at Seven Pines was largely 
due to General Hill's " courage, vigilance, and daring." 
He led his men in a charge against the Union works, 
drove the enemy off, and turned their own cannon 
against them. Again at Gaines's Mill General Hill's 
charge decided the day for the Confederates and won 
high praise from Lee and Jackson. Three horses were 
killed under him at the bloody battle of Sharpsburg in 
Maryland. Under such a leader can you wonder that 
his men, as General Longstreet said, " fought like game 

" General," asked one of his friends, "why do you 
expose yourself so recklessly? Do you never feel any 

"Sir," replied General Hill, "I would never order 
my men to go where I would not go myself. I do not 
fear death if it comes w r hile I am doing my duty." 

Though General Hill was so brave, he was not reckless. 
He never risked his life or exposed his soldiers unless 



he thought it necessary. No officer in the army took 
better care of the health, happiness, and safety of his 
men. He taught them how to use the pick, the spade, 
and the shovel as well as the bayonet. 

General Hill Defends North Carolina. — In 1863, at 

*.■ ' ■f&? 1 ' 

* V • X 

Gaines's Mill as it Looks To-day 

the special request of Governor Vance, General Hill 
was sent to the defense of North Carolina. At that 
time New Bern, Washington, and other places in Eastern 
North Carolina were held by Union troops. From 
these towns they frequently made sudden marches out 
into the country to overawe the people and destroy 
their crops. These movements were very injurious to 
Lee's army in Virginia, because they cut off the supplies 
which were sent from Eastern North Carolina. So 
Governor Vance and General Lee were anxious to drive 



the Federal forces out of the State or to shut them up 
in the towns. 

This important task was entrusted to General Hill. 
His army was so small that he could not hope to drive 
the enemy out of North Carolina. But he acted with 
such great vigor and struck such hard blows that for 
a time he put a stop to their raids. His activity enabled 
the long wagon trains with supplies to get safely on 
their way to Lee's army in Virginia. After this cam- 
paign General Hill returned to Virginia and was put in 
command of the defense of Richmond when Lee marched 
northward into Pennsylvania. 

James Johnston Pettigrew. — Among the North Caro- 
lina officers who followed Lee into Pennsylvania was Gen- 
eral James Johnston Pettigrew. Though he had reached 
high rank in the army, General Petti- 
grew had not been trained as a soldier. 
Before the war he had won fame as a 
scholar, an author, and a lawyer. 
When the war began, he felt it his 
duty to give up fame and wealth at 
the bar and take up arms in defense 
of the South. 

Pettigrew Prepares for War. — 
After graduating from the L^niversity 
of North Carolina, Pettigrew studied 
law and made his home at Charleston, S. C. Like 
General Hill he foresaw that war was certain to come 
between the North and the South. He, too, wished the 
South to prepare herself for the struggle. In 1859, the 
same year that Hill took charge of the military school 
at Charlotte, Pettigrew sailed for Europe to study 

James J. Pettigrew 


military affairs. A war was being waged in Italy, and 
he applied for a place in the Italian army. His applica- 
tion was granted, but before he could reach Italy peace 
was declared, and he had to return to the United States 
without seeing a battle. At Charleston he studied 
books on military matters, served first as captain and 
then as colonel of the militia, and worked hard to pre- 
pare himself for high rank in the Southern army when 
war should come. 

The Private Soldier Becomes a General. — Petti- 
grew was ambitious. He knew that he would have to 
work hard for the rank that he wanted. So he did not 
sit still and wait until somebody should offer it to him. 
As soon as war began he entered the Confederate army 
as a private soldier, determined to fight his way upward. 
One day while he was serving as a private in Virginia 
a message was delivered to him. How his heart jumped 
with joy when he read it! The message informed him 
that he had been elected colonel of the Twelfth North 
Carolina Regiment, then at Raleigh, and ordered him 
to go and take command at once. 

Pettigrew needed no urging. As soon as possible he 
was at Raleigh, hard at work drilling his men and pre- 
paring them for the field. He was so full of enthusiasm 
that his men soon caught his spirit and worked as eagerly 
as he. They were proud of their brilliant young colonel, 
and he was proud of them. When they finally marched 
away to Virginia, there was no better regiment in the 
Confederate army. Pettigrew was offered the rank of 
brigadier-general, but he declined it because he did not 
want to be separated from his regiment. Afterwards 
it was arranged so that he could accept the appointment 
and still have his regiment under his command. 


Wounded and in Prison. — In 1862 General Petti- 
grew took part in the great battles around Richmond. 
At the battle of Seven Pines he led his men in one of 
the bravest charges of the war. While cheering them 
on, he was hit in the throat and fell from his horse. 
Thinking that he was killed his men swept on, leaving 
him on the field. He was captured and sent to prison 
at Fort Delaware. After remaining in prison for a few 
months he was exchanged and returned to the army in 
Virginia. A new brigade, consisting of five North Caro- 
lina regiments, was formed and placed under his command. 
One of these regiments was the famous Twenty-Sixth, 
which Vance had led at the battle of New Bern. . 

Farthest to the Front at Gettysburg. — With these 
regiments General Pettigrew followed Lee into Penn- 
sylvania. The Federal army took a strong position at 
Gettysburg. There, during the first three days of July, 
1863, was fought the greatest battle in American history. 

Lee's task was to drive the Union army from behind 
its breastworks. If he failed to do this he must retreat 
into Virginia. The first day's fighting resulted in a 
Confederate success. They drove the Union forces out 
of Gettysburg and captured the town. In this battle 
Pettigrew bore an important part. His men drove 
the enemy before them and won great honor. It was 
a splendid sight, said another Confederate officer, to 
see Pettigrew a as he galloped along the line in the 
hottest of the fight cheering on his men." 

Pettigrew was not in the battle of the second 

The third day found the two armies still facing each 
other. The center of the Union line was stationed 


behind a long stone wall on top of a high ridge, called 
Cemetery Ridge. In order to break through it the 
Confederates had to march across an open field, rush 
up Cemetery Ridge, and charge against the stone wall. 
If they failed the battle was lost; if they succeeded, 
they would win a great victory, which might end the 
war. Could they succeed? General Lee believed they 
could and he determined to try. Selecting 15,000 of 
his very best troops he ordered them to make the at- 
tempt. One column was led by Pettigrew, the other 
by General Pickett, of Virginia. With Pettigrew were 
fifteen regiments of North Carolinians, and some troops 
from other States. 

They were about to make the most daring charge 
ever made by American soldiers. As they marched 
across the open field to take their position, with drums 
beating and flags flying, both armies held their breath. 
Then came the order to advance, and they swept bravely 
forward. Sword in hand, Pettigrew rode before his 
men cheering them on and setting an example of bravery 
which they bravely followed. 

Suddenly, from Cemetery Ridge, the Union guns 
opened fire. Men fell by the hundreds. For a moment 
the Confederate line wavered and seemed about to 
break. But above the roar of the guns was heard the 
cool command of Pettigrew and his officers, " Close up! 
Forward!' The men rallied and swept onward. They 
reached the foot of Cemetery Ridge, they dashed right 
up to the stone wall, they sprang over it. For a mo- 
ment the Confederate flag waved from the Union 
breastworks. Around it raged a fierce, hand-to-hand 
struggle. But so few had lived to defend it that they 
were soon driven back in retreat and confusion. 


Again the Union lines had held firm, and the battle 
of Gettysburg was over. The Confederates had lost; 
but as long as men admire brave deeds, the Pickett- 
Pettigrew charge at Gettysburg will live in history. 

The Famous Twenty-Sixth at Gettysburg. — When 
the dead were counted, it was found that the Confed- 
erates who fell farthest within the Union lines were the 
North Carolinians led by Pettigrew. More than 1300 
North Carolina soldiers fell in that charge. Vance's 
old regiment, the famous Twenty-Sixth, lost at Gettys- 
burg the largest number of men lost by any regiment 
on either side during the entire war. Though sad at 
the death of so many brave men, Pettigrew was proud 
of their fine record. After the battle he wrote to Gov- 
ernor Vance: " Knowing that you would be anxious 
to hear from your old regiment, I embrace this oppor- 
tunity to write you a hasty note. It covered itself 
with glory. Their loss has been heavy, very heavy, but 
the missing are on the battle-field and in the hospital." 

The Death of Pettigrew. — The next day, July 4, 
Lee began his retreat into Virginia. The most important 
and dangerous post in a retreating army is the rear. 
The rear must guard the army against attacks from the 
pursuing enemy. During the retreat from Gettysburg, 
Pettigrew was in command of the rear of one division 
of Lee's army. On July 14, while his men were at 
breakfast, they were attacked by a small Union force. 
Pettigrew, rushing into the midst of the fight, fell mor- 
tally wounded. He died three days later. 

Bryan Grimes. — When the Confederates captured 
the town of Gettysburg, July 1, the first regiment to 
enter the town was the Fourth North Carolina Regi- 



Bryan Grimes 

ment. This regiment was commanded by Colonel Bryan 
Grimes. Colonel Grimes was born in Pitt county. After 
graduating from the University of North Carolina he 
traveled in Europe and then settled on his large plantation 

in Pitt county. There he lived quietly 
until the outbreak of the war. In 1861 
he was elected a member of the Con- 
vention and voted for the secession of 
North Carolina. "Our cause is just," 
he declared; '" for it I will fight, even 
for it I am willing to die." As soon, 
therefore, as North Carolina had 
seceded, Grimes resigned from the 
convention and entered the Confeder- 
ate army. Governor Ellis at once 
appointed him major of the Fourth 
North Carolina Regiment. Afterward he was made a 
lieutenant-colonel and ordered to Virginia. 

Colonel Grimes at Seven Pines. — Though not trained 
as a soldier, Colonel Grimes soon showed himself to be 
a born leader. At the battle of Seven Pines, near 
Richmond, he distinguished himself and his regiment. 
While riding at the head of his men in a charge, a cannon 
ball blew off his horse's head. The horse fell, catching 
Colonel Grimes's leg under his body. Thinking their 
colonel was killed, the soldiers wavered. But Colonel 
Grimes, waving his sword above the dead horse's body, 
cried, " Forward! forward!' When his men had re- 
leased him, he sprang to his feet, seized the flag of the 
regiment, rushed to the front, and called on his men to 
follow him. They dashed upon the Union breastworks 
and captured them. In this charge every officer of 



the regiment, except Colonel Grimes, was either killed 
or wounded. 

Colonel Grimes and His Regiment. — Lieutenant- 
Colonel Grimes's gallantry at Seven Pines won for him 

Seven Pines Battle-field as it Looks To-day 

promotion to the rank of colonel. His regiment soon 
became, under his leadership, one of the best in the 
Confederate army. He was strict with his men and 
required them to attend closely to their duties. But 
he soon won their respect and love, for he was careful 
of their health and comfort, and he always led, but 
never followed them into battle. Wherever the fight- 
ing was hottest, there Colonel Grimes was sure to be 
found. During the war seven horses were killed under 
him. No wonder his soldiers were so devoted to him 
and were ready to follow wherever he led. General 


Anderson, who commanded the brigade, declared that, 
" Though small in number, Colonel Grimes's regiment 
is the keystone of my brigade." 

Colonel Grimes Wins the Rank of General. — In 
several of the great battles of the war Colonel Grimes , 
and his regiment won high praise from the commanding 
generals. Though only a colonel, he was placed in 
command of a brigade at Fredericksburg, which he led 
with much skill and judgment. At Chancellors ville, 
while leading a charge, his sword was cut in two by a 
bullet, his clothing was torn in several places, a ball 
struck his sword-belt, and another wounded him in 
the foot. On the first day at Gettysburg, Colonel 
Grimes led his men into the town, and in a charge 
captured more prisoners than there were men in his 
regiment. During the bloody battle of the Wilder- 
ness, the brave General Ramseur, of North Carolina, 
was wounded. The brigade wavered. Colonel Grimes 
sprang to its head, ordered a charge, and captured the 
enemy's position. General Lee himself rode up and, 
thanking Colonel Grimes for his action, declared that 
he had saved the Confederate army and deserved the 
thanks of the country. A few days later Colonel Grimes 
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general to 
succeed General Junius Daniel, who had been killed at 

In the Shenandoah Valley. — General Grimes was 
then sent to join the Confederate army under General 
Jubal A. Early in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. 
Their plan was to march up the valley as if to make an 
attack on Washington City. It was hoped that Presi- 
dent Lincoln would think the capital in such danger 


that he would call back a part of Grant's army to defend 
it. Then Lee might attack the rest of Grant's force 
and defeat it. 

At first the Confederates swept everything before 
them. They marched into Pennsylvania, captured the 
town of Chambersburg, and approached so near to 
Washington that the men could see the dome of the 
Capitol. But Lincoln did not call back any of Grant's 
men. Instead he sent a powerful force under General 
Sheridan into the Shenandoah Valley. Two important 
battles were fought, at Winchester and at Cedar Creek. 
In both battles General Grimes led his men with great 
skill and daring. At Winchester he had one horse shot 
from under him, and at Cedar Creek two. His men 
fought with their usual bravery, but they could not 
succeed against such great numbers. After some of 
the hardest fighting of the war the Confederates were 
defeated and retreated down the valley. So important 
were General Grimes's services in, this campaign that he 
was promoted over several of his senior officers to the 
rank of major-general. 

In the Trenches at Petersburg. — Lee and Grant 
were now facing each other at Petersburg, Virginia. 
Grant had more than twice as many men as Lee. Lee 
needed every man he could get, so General Grimes was 
called back from the valley to help in the defense of 

The Confederates had thrown up great breastworks 
to protect the city. Behind these works they had dug 
long, deep trenches, in which the soldiers stood and 
fought. Often they had to stand for hours at a time 
knee-deep in cold mud and water. They suffered 


terribly from cold, hunger, and sickness. Yet they were 
compelled, day and night, to be always on the alert 
and ready for duty. Even when asleep they wore their 
clothes and slept on their arms. At any moment they 
might be awakened by a call to battle. For nearly a 
year, every day and night, the Union soldiers with great 
bravery kept up their attacks on the Confederate works. 
The Confederates, realizing that, if their works were 
lost, all would be over, fought desperately. During 
this long siege some of the most daring deeds in the 
history of warfare were performed by both armies. 

General Grimes held one of the most important posts 
in the Confederate lines. With about 2200 men he 
had to defend more than three miles of breastworks 
against a force several times as large as his own. He 
did it so well as to add greatly to his fame as a daring 
and skilful officer. One day General Lee ordered an 
attack on the Union lines. At Grimes's command his 
men sprang over their breastworks, surprised the enemy, 
captured a general and 500 prisoners, and took the 
enemy's position. General Grimes, riding a captured 
horse, was a perfect target for the enemy's sharpshooters. 
His coolness and courage under the thickest fire filled 
his men with confidence and determination. Though 
attacked by ten times their own number, they held the 
Union works for two hours before they were forced to 

Last at Appomattox. — After nine months of fighting 
Lee decided that he could no longer hold Petersburg, 
so he gave the order to retreat. His army turned 
westward, hoping to escape from Grant and join the 
Confederates under General Joseph E. Johnston in 


North Carolina. On this retreat General Grimes, com- 
manding his own division and other troops placed under 
him by General Lee, was assigned the duty of protecting 
the rear of the Confederate army from attacks by the 
pursuing enemy. When the Confederates reached Appo- 
mattox Court-house they found themselves surrounded 
by about four times their own number. What should 
be done? This question Lee put to his generals. After 
an anxious discussion Lee decided to make one attempt 
to break through the enemy's line and, if possible, to 
escape to the mountains. The attack was to be made 
on the morning of April 9, 1865. 

When morning came, the generals who were expected 
to order the attack could not agree how it should be made. 
While they were discussing it, General Grimes rode up 
and impatiently demanded the cause of the delay. 
"It is somebody's duty," he declared, 'to carry out 
General Lee's orders. If you do not want to do it, I 
will do it myself." The others then told him to go 

So he at once arranged his plans, placed his men in 
proper positions, and gave the command to advance. 
Cheered by their leader's example, the men rushed for- 
ward with a vim, and after a short, sharp fight drove the 
enemy back for nearly a mile. General Grimes then 
hurried off a message to General Gordon telling him that 
the way was open for the wagons to escape. To his 
great surprise he received in reply an order to withdraw 
his men. Thinking there must be some mistake, he did 
not obey. Finally a similar order came from General 
Lee himself. Then General Grimes gave the command 
for a retreat. The Union forces followed and made a 


sudden attack. A volley from General William R. 
Cox's North Carolina brigade drove them back, and 
Grimes's command retired safely. 

Riding up to General Gordon, Grimes asked where 
he should place his men. " Any where you choose," re- 
plied Gordon. Surprised at this strange answer, Grimes 
asked what he meant. Then he learned that General 
Lee had gone to meet General Grant, to surrender 
the Confederate army. All was now over, and General 
Grimes's men had fought the last battle and fired the 
last shot of the Confederate army in Virginia. 

General Hill's Last Battle. — Lee's surrender did 
not immediately end the war. There were other 
Confederate armies in the South, and they too had to 
be overcome before peace could be established. One 
of these armies was in North Carolina under the com- 
mand of General Joseph E. Johnston. His army of 
about 30,000 ragged, hungry men was retreating north- 
ward before General Sherman's army of about 60,000. 
At Bentonville, in North Carolina, March 19, 1865, the 
two armies fought their last battle. 

General D. H. Hill, who had borne such an important 
part in the first battle at Bethel, also bore an impor- 
tant part at Bentonville. In 1863 he had been promoted 
to the rank of lieutenant-general and sent to aid the 
Confederates in Tennessee. There he was welcomed 
as "a stern and dauntless soldier." He commanded 
part of the army at the great battle of Chickamauga, in 
which he added to his fame for skill and courage. After 
this battle he was recalled to Virginia, and later returned 
to North Carolina, where he joined General Johnston in 
time to take part in the battle of Bentonville. 



The fighting at Bentonville was severe, and both 
armies displayed great bravery. At first the Confeder- 
ates were successful, and their spirits were high in hopes 
of victory. But the numbers against them were too 
great. More Union troops came up and Johnston was 
forced to retreat. 

He retreated toward Raleigh hoping 
to join General Lee. But on April 10 
he heard of Lee's surrender, and he 
knew that the end had come. So, on 
April 26, he met General Sherman 
near Durham and surrendered to him. 

The Last Days of Hill and Grimes. 
— After the war Hill and Grimes 
returned to their homes in North 
Carolina. Their last years were 
spent in helping the South to re- 
cover her wealth and prosperity, 
one in education, the other in agriculture. 

For several years General Hill edited a magazine, 
published at Charlotte, called The Land We Love. It 
was devoted to the history, literature, and industries of 
the South. In 1877 he was elected president of the 
University of Arkansas. Seven years later (1885) he 
moved to Georgia, as president of the Georgia Military 
and Agricultural College, where he remained until his 
death. Thus the last twelve years of his life were spent 
in teaching the boys whose fathers he had so often led 
to battle in the great Civil War. He died at Charlotte, 
N. C, in 1889. 

General Grimes returned to his plantation in Pitt 
county. No work was more important for the South 

Confederate Monu- 
ment at Raleigh 

(State Capitol in back- 


than the rebuilding of her agricultural interests, which 
the war had nearly destroyed. To this work General 
Grimes devoted his closing years. He became one of 
the largest and most successful planters in the State. 
In his neighborhood was a band of bad men whose 
crimes kept peaceful people in constant terror. General 
Grimes made earnest effort to have them captured and 
punished. They determined to get rid of him. One 
evening about dark, in 1880, this brave soldier, who had 
faced death so often on the battle-field, was shot to death 
by a hired assassin hiding in ambush. 


1. Trace the courses of the York and James rivers in Virginia. 
Between these rivers several of the battles mentioned in this chapter 
were fought. Describe the location of each. 

2. Describe the location of Gettysburg with reference to Washing- 
ton, Philadelphia, Harrisburg. 

3. Describe the location of Chancellorsville with reference to 
Washington and Richmond. Petersburg with reference to North 
Carolina and Richmond. Appomattox with reference to Richmond, 
Petersburg, and North Carolina. 

4. General Sherman marched from Cheraw, S. C, to Fayetteville, 
N. C, thence to Bentonville, thence to Goldsboro, thence to Raleigh, 
Durham, and Greensboro. Trace the line of his march in North 


1. Describe North Carolina's preparations for war. 

2. How many troops did North Carolina send to the Confederate 
armies? In what States did they serve? How many were killed or 
died of disease? What North Carolina generals were killed? 

3. Tell the story of General Hill's life before the Civil War. 

4. Describe the battle of Big Bethel. 


5. What is said about General Hill's conduct in battle ? 

6. What services did he perform in North Carolina in 1863 ? 

7. Describe Pettigrew's preparations for war. 

8. How did Pettigrew become a general? 

9. Give an account of his action at the battle of Seven Pines. 

10. Describe Pettigrew's conduct in the first day's battle of 

11. Describe the Picket-Pettigrew charge on the third day at 

12. Give an account of North Carolina's losses at Gettysburg. 

13. Describe Pettigrew's death. 

14. What is said of Bryan Grimes's education and life before the 

15. Describe the charge of- his regiment at Seven Pines. 

16. What is said of his training of his regiment? What did General 
Anderson say of him? 

17. How did Grimes win the rank of general? 

18. Describe his campaign under Early. 

19. Give an account of the siege of Petersburg. 

20. How and why did General Grimes lead the last charge at 

21. What were General Hill's last services in the Confederate army? 

22. Describe the last years of Hill's life. 

23. Tell of the death of General Grimes. 



Charles D. McIver 

Education Since the War. — - One of the greatest evils 
that North Carolina suffered from the Civil War and 

Reconstruction was the closing of 
her public schools. During the war 
Calvin H. Wiley carefully protected 
the public school funds and kept 
the schools open. President Swain, 
with great difficulty, kept the doors 
of the University open. 

But when Reconstruction came, 
both the public schools and the 
University were closed. A few pri- 
vate schools and church colleges struggled bravely along 
and rendered important services to the State. But 
they could not provide education for all the children of 
North Carolina. Many thousands of them, therefore, 
never had any chance to go to school at all, and grew 
up in illiteracy. 

But when the " carpet-baggers ' were driven out of 
power, one of the first things the people did was to 
reopen their public schools and the University. Since 
that time more attention has been given to education 
than ever before. Public schools have been established 
both for the whites and for the negroes. More than 



twice as many children now attend these schools as 
attended them in the days of Calvin H. Wiley. More 
than five times as much money is spent for their educa- 
tion. The school-houses are better, the school terms 
are longer, the teachers are better trained, and there 
are fewer illiterate people in the State than ever before. 

Charles Duncan Mclver. — Many of the State's 
greatest men have taken part in this work, but perhaps 
none of them did so much as Charles Duncan Mclver. 
To-day thousands of children in North Carolina are at 
school in pretty school-houses, sitting in comfortable 
desks, reciting to good teachers, and looking forward 
to bright futures, because this man was their friend. 
They may never have seen him; he may never have 
seen them. But he was interested in them, worked 
for them, spoke for them, wrote for them, and fought 
and won battles for them. 

Charles D. Mclver was born on a farm in Moore 
county, September 27, 1860. The names of most of 
the people in that community, like his own, began with 
' Mac," for they were descendants of the brave old 
Scotch Highlanders. Mclver's own grandfather was 
born in the Highlands of Scotland, and came to North 
Carolina when he was a mere lad of eight years. 

Mclver's Early Training. — Two things Mclver's 
father always required his boys to do. First, they had 
to attend regularly the best school within their reach. 
When school opened in the fall, young Mclver was 
there' ready for work. And he was there on the last 
day when it closed in the spring. Whatever he might 
do, there was no shirking his school duties. Secondly, 
when school was not in session, the Mclver boys had to 


do regular work on the farm. Charles D. Mclver used 
to say: 

"I did all kinds of farm work from planting, har- 
vesting, splitting rails, minding the gap, log-rolling, 
corn-shucking, piling brush, and digging ditches, to 
plowing a deaf mule in a new ground with a bull- 
tongue plow." 

There were no loafers on the Mclver farm. Idleness 
was not permitted. So young Mclver learned to love 
work, whether it was work with his books or work with 
the plow. 'The hardest work I ever did," he said, 
"was resting." After he became a man, his friends 
often urged him to take a vacation and rest. But he 
would reply, 'I cannot rest until my work is done. 
My work is my joy." 

Mclver at the University. — When he was seventeen 
years old, Mclver entered the University. There he 
worked hard for four years. When he was graduated 
in 1881 he was one of the best scholars in his class. He 
stood first in Greek and French, and shared with three 
others the first place in Latin. 

He made many strong friends at the University. Two 
of his best friends were his teachers, Dr. Kemp P. 
Battle, president of the University, and Dr. George T. 
Winston, professor of Latin. 

"Dr. Battle," said Mclver, "regards the people of 
North Carolina as a great big family, each member of 
which owes to every other member affectionate sym- 
pathy and loyal support in any worthy undertaking. 
He loves the people of this State. Every sprig of grass 
and every bird that touches the soil of North Carolina 
is dear to him. He is proud of our history and is proud 


that he is proud of it. No man can come under his 
influence without wishing to be of service to so good a 
State and so great a poeple." 

Of Dr. Winston, Mclver said: 'Dr. Winston inspires 
in all young men with whom he comes in contact self- 
reliance and the audacity to undertake large tasks. 5 ' 

To these two men Mclver said he owed more than to 
any of his other teachers. From Dr. Battle he learned 
to love North Carolina and to desire to render some great 
service to the State. From Dr. Winston he gained 
self-confidence and a willingness to undertake difficult 
tasks. He was popular both with the faculty and the 
students. The students called him 'Mac/' and they 
all liked the big, genial Scotch boy who had such a 
catching laugh and told such good stories. 

Mclver's First Vote. — After graduating from the 
University, Mclver went to Durham to teach in a pri- 
vate school. Soon afterward an election was held there 
upon the question of a local tax for a public graded 
school. Mclver knew that if the people voted to estab- 
lish the graded school, his own school would soon be 
closed. But he also knew that there were many chil- 
dren in the town who could never get an education unless 
a graded school were established. What, then, should 
he do? Should he vote for the graded school and against 
his own school? Or should he vote against the graded 
school and for his own school? 

It did not take Mclver long to decide this question, 
for he was eager "to be of service' to the children. 
He was willing to close his own school if he might help 
to open a school in which all the children could be edu- 
cated. So he worked hard for the graded school and 


persuaded other men to work for it. On election day 
he went to the voting place and cast his vote for the 
graded school. It was his first vote, and he was always 
proud that he had cast it for a tax for public education. 

Mclver Begins Public School Work. — When the 
graded school was opened, Mclver's school was closed. 
The people of Durham at once called on him to teach 
in the graded school. After teaching in the Durham 
school for a little more than a year, he went to Winston 
to teach in the graded school started there by Calvin 
H. Wiley. In Winston he not only taught others, but 
he also learned at least one lesson himself that he had 
not known before. He learned what it was to fall in 
love, and in 1885 he was married to Miss Lula V. Martin. 
After nearly two years in Winston he became a teacher 
in Peace Institute at Raleigh, where he taught until 
June, 1889. 

North Carolina's Most Important Question. — Dur- 
ing all these years Mclver worked hard to improve 
himself as a teacher. He visited other schools, talked 
with other teachers about their work, and read many 
books about teaching. During the summer months 
he taught in summer schools and institutes for teachers. 
Everywhere he went he tried to impress upon the people 
the importance of education. 'The supreme question 
in civilization," he told them, "is education." 

In North Carolina he declared that two great needs 
were: better school-houses and longer school terms; 
but the greatest need of all was better school-teachers. 
No school can be better than its teachers. 'The school- 
teacher," said Mclver, "is our most important public 
official." North Carolina's most important question, 



therefore, was, How can the schools secure better 

Mclver Finds the Answer. - Mclver found the 
answer to this important question. The State, he 
declared, must establish a college where teachers can 
be taught and trained how to teach. Such a college is 
called a normal college. In 1886 Mclver attended 
the North Carolina 
Teachers' Assembly 
to speak in favor of 
a normal college. 
Hundreds of North 
Carolina teachers 
were there. When 
they had heard him, 
they declared in fa- 
vor of his plan, and 
appointed a commit- 
tee to urge the Leg- 
islature to establish 
such a college. Mclver was placed at the head of 
this committee. He worked hard with the members 
of the Legislature, but could not persuade them to do 
what he asked. 

A Campaign of Education. — Instead of establishing 
the normal college, the Legislature decided to send out 
two men to hold institutes for teachers and to speak to 
the people about education. The two men selected 
were Charles D. Mclver and Edwin A. Alderman. 
They began their work in September, 1889. In every 
count}^ in the State one or the other of them met the 
teachers and taught them how to teach. 

A Modern Rural High School Building 
in Wade County 

(Many are found in the State) 


But they had other work to do also. They were 
expected to speak to the people to get them interested 
in the education of their children. So everywhere they 
went, they held public meetings. Farmers, preachers, 
lawyers, doctors, merchants, editors, mechanics, and 
many others went out to hear them. They urged the 
people to vote local taxes to improve their schools. 
" Ignorance and illiteracy," said Mclver, "cost more than 
education." They spoke about the normal college and 
urged the people to demand that their legislators vote 
the money for it. 

Mclver's Victory. — When the Legislature met in 
1891, Mclver again went to Raleigh to work for the nor- 
mal college. He found it a hard task, for many of the 
members were too impatient to listen to him. But he 
never let slip a chance to talk about the college. He 
met men in the Capitol, on the streets, in the hotels, 
and wherever he could get them to listen he would talk. 
And many were glad to hear him, for he talked well. 

He declared that the only hope thousands of boys and 
girls in North Carolina had for an education was in the 
public schools. Most of the teachers in these schools 
were women. The men who wished to teach could 
study at the University, but the State had never estab- 
lished such a college for women. For the good of the 
children the State ought to establish a college for women, 
where they could be trained as teachers. "We can 
better afford to have five illiterate men," Mclver 
declared, "than one illiterate mother." 

Mclver was so deeply in earnest and worked so hard 
that he finally succeeded. The Legislature voted 
$10,000 for the establishment of the u State Normal and 



Industrial College" at Greensboro. Mclver was elected 
its first president and remained at its head for fourteen 

Mclver's Ideal of a College. Mclver had a noble 
ideal of what such a college ought to be. A 'great 

Buildings of North Carolina State Normal and Industrial College 

at Greensboro 
(View looking north down College Avenue) 

and useful college," he said, should teach "love of 
truth for truth's sake; . . . belief in fair play and the 
willingness to applaud an honest victor in any contest; 
. . . the habit of tolerance toward those with whom 
one does not entirely agree; . . . the recognition of 
authority; . . . the spirit of overlooking the blunders 
of others and of helping those who are weak; the con- 
tempt for idleness and shirkers; the love of one's fellow- 


workers, even though they be one's rivals; self-reliance; 
faith in human progress; confidence in right; and 
belief in God." This was the sort of college that he 
tried to make of the State Normal and Industrial College. 

While he was president, the college had a wonderful 
growth. The two or three buildings on ten acres of 
ground grew to eleven buildings on 130 acres. The 
number of teachers increased from fifteen to fifty. 
More than 3000 young women were students there. 
They were the daughters of rich men and poor men; 
of preachers, lawyers, and physicians; of merchants, 
manufacturers, and farmers; of mechanics, engineers, 
and day-laborers. They were from the country, the 
town, and the city. They came from every county in 
North Carolina. Students of the college have taught 
in the public schools of every county. More than 2000 
teachers were trained there under Dr. Mclver, and 
they have taught more than 200,000 North Carolina 

Our Great Educational Leader. — The teachers of 
North Carolina looked upon Dr. Mclver as their leader. 
Wherever there was a word to be spoken in the cause 
of education, his voice was sure to be heard. Invita- 
tions to speak on education came to him from all parts 
of North Carolina, and from more than half the States 
of the Union. But nothing gave him so much pleasure 
as to help some small rural district in North Carolina 
secure a better school than it had had before. 

The Southern Education Board. — In 1901 a group 
of patriotic men from various parts of the United States 
met at Salem, N. C, and formed the "Southern Educa- 
tion Board." Their purpose was to help improve the 


rural schools of the South. Dr. Mclver was one of the 
leading members of this board. When the board decided 
to send out speakers in all parts of the South to speak 
on education, it selected Dr. Mclver to take charge of 
that work. Proud of the fact that he had cast his first 
vote for local taxation, he now urged other people to do 
the same thing. He favored local taxation for longer 
school terms, better school-houses, and better school- 
teachers. Hundreds of communities followed his advice 
and are to-day enjoying good schools. 

Mclver's Honors. — Many honors came to Dr. Mc- 
lver. He did not seek them; they sought him. They 
sought him because he was always thinking, not of his 
own ambition, but of the welfare of others. He was 
president of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, 
and president of the Southern Educational Association. 
He held high and important places in the National 
Educational Association. For many years he was a 
member of the Board of Trustees of the University. 
Because of his work for education, the University and 
Davidson College conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Laws. 

Mclver's Death. — On October 17, 1906, while on 
the train returning from Raleigh to Greensboro, Dr. 
Mclver was suddenly attacked by a severe pain in the 
chest. Before a physician could reach him, he fell into 
the arms of a friend, dead. 

The news of his death was received with great grief 
in North Carolina and the South. In North Carolina 
the sorrow was universal. Not since the death of Vance 
had the people grieved so deeply at the death of any 
citizen. Men on the streets, women in the school-room, 


children in the backwoods, all felt as if they had lost a 

The Governor issued a proclamation in which he said: 
"The life-work of Charles D. Mclver is ended. For 
twenty-five years he served his State with fidelity, zeal, 
and efficiency not surpassed in her annals. No one 
has rendered the State a greater service. . . . Charles 
D. Mclver's entire life was given for the better educa- 
tion of all our women, the improvement of the edu- 
cational opportunities of all our children, the uplifting of 
all our citizenship, and the elevation of all our ideals of 
civic service." 


1. What effect did Reconstruction have on education in North 

2. What did the people do after the "carpet-baggers" were over- 

3. What part did Charles D. Mclver have in this work? 

4. When and where was he born? Tell about his life on the farm. 
What did he say was the hardest work he ever did? Repeat what he 

5. Give an account of his career at the University. 

6. Tell about his first vote. 

7. Where did Mclver begin his public school work? How did he 
prepare himself for his work? 

8. What did he say was North Carolina's most important public 

9. What answer did he give to it? 

10. What plan did he propose to the Legislature? What did the 
Legislature do about it? Describe Mclver's campaign for education. 

11. How did he finally win his victory? When and where was the 
State Normal and Industrial College established? W T ho was its first 

12. Repeat by heart Mclver's ideal of a college. 


13. Give an account of the work of the college while Mclver was 
president of it. 

14. Tell about him as our great educational leader. 

15. What is the Southern Education Board? What relation did 
Mclver have to it ? 

16. What honors came to him? 

17. Describe his death. 

18. What did the Governor say about him? 

19. Repeat what Mclver said was the supreme question in 


1. Find out the following facts about the public schools of North 
Carolina during the past year: (a) Number of schools for white 
children. (6) For negro children, (c) Number of white children en- 
rolled, (d) Number of negro children enrolled, (e) Number of white 
teachers. (/) Negro teachers, (g) Amount of money spent for white 
schools, (h) For negro schools, (i) Length of term in white schools. 
(j) In negro schools, (k) Number of white people in the State who 
could not read or write. (I) Number of negroes who could not read 
or write. 

2. Explain the influence that Dr. Battle and Dr. Winston had on 
Dr. Mclver. How did it show itself? 

3. What is a "local tax"? How many school districts in North 
Carolina have a local tax for schools? Is yours one of them? 

4. Explain what Mclver meant when he said, "Ignorance and 
illiteracy cost more than education." 

5. How many of the public school teachers of North Carolina last 
year were men? How many were women? 

6. Why can the State afford to have five illiterate men rather than 
one illiterate mother? How many illiterate men were there in the 
State in 1886 ? How many now? How many illiterate women in 1886 ? 
How many now? 



A Sad and Gloomy Picture. — After the surrender 
of the Confederate armies the North Carolina soldiers 
returned quietly to their homes. Everywhere they saw 
a sad and gloomy picture. Many of the comfortable 
homes they had left in 1861 were now piles of ashes or 
deserted ruins. Barns and stables were falling down 
from neglect. Farming tools were rusty from long 
idleness. So many thousand horses and mules had been 
destroyed that not enough were left to cultivate the 
farms. Fields were growing up in weeds. The farming 
lands of North Carolina had fallen more than $75,000,000 
in value since 1860. Country roads were cut to pieces 
and often impassable. Miles of railroad track were 
torn up, and hundreds of cars and locomotives were use- 
less. In 1861 there had been but few factories in the 
State: even of these few nearly all had been closed or 
destroyed. The school-houses were empty and falling 
into ruins. In the towns and cities the streets were 
deserted and desolate. 

As bad as were these calamities, there were others still 
worse. More than 40,000 of the State's brightest and 
bravest sons had fallen in the war. Other thousands had 
come home crippled for life, broken in health and ruined 
in fortune. They found their families in poverty and 



often suffering for food and clothes. The whole State 
seemed crushed by her misfortunes. " There was 
indeed," as Governor Vance said, "a cry and lament 
through all her borders." 

The Soldier's New Task. — But amid all this ruin 
the returning soldier did not despair. He determined 
to repair the damages done by war and went to work at 
his new task with a vim. He would build a new home 
on the ruins of the old. He would raise more cotton 
and corn and tobacco than he had raised before the war. 
He would build new and better factories. He would 
improve his country roads so they would be good at all 
seasons of the year. He would repair the old railroads 
and build new ones. He would place a school-house 
within reach of every child in the State. He would make 
his villages grow into towns and his towns into busy 
cities. And he would make North Carolina a richer and 
better State than it had been before the war. This was 
his new task; let us see how well he has performed it. 

Agriculture During the War. — Agriculture has always 
been the chief industry of North Carolina. When 
agriculture fails, the whole State suffers. The great 
suffering of the people during the war was due chiefly 
to the damage done to agriculture. In North Carolina 
more than a million acres of farm lands were left to lie 
idle. The corn crop fell from 30,000,000 bushels to less 
than 15,000,000; the tobacco crop from 32,000,000 
pounds to one-third that amount; while the cotton, 
wheat, and potato crops fell off in the same way. Cattle, 
hogs, sheep, and chickens were destroyed by the 
tens of thousands. The value of farm lands fell from 
$140,000,000 to less than $75,000,000. 


The State Department of Agriculture. — One of the 

most important things the State had to do after the war 
was to repair the damage done to agriculture. To aid 
in this task a State Department of Agriculture was 
created; and a college and public high schools for the 
teaching of agriculture were established. 

The Department of Agriculture was established in 
1877. The chief official of the department is the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture. The first Commissioner of 
Agriculture was Leonidas L. Polk. In 1862 he became 
a Confederate soldier in the regiment commanded by 
Colonel Z. B. Vance. After serving in the army two 
years he resigned because the soldiers had elected him 
a member of the Legislature. At the close of the war he 
returned to his farm and soon became one of the most 
progressive farmers in the State. He was interested in 
everything that would help to improve the agriculture of 
North Carolina. In 1877 he appeared before the Legisla- 
ture to urge the members to establish a Department of 
Agriculture. After the department was created Polk was 
chosen the first Commissioner of Agriculture, to organize it 
and begin its work. He served from 1877 to 1880 and laid 
the foundations for the work which the department has 
since done. 

Agricultural Education. — In order to supply trained 
and educated leaders in the work of agriculture the 
North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts was established. Two of the leading men in the 
founding of this college were Augustus Leazar, of Iredell 
County, and Richard Stanhope Pullen, of Raleigh. 

Mr. Leazar, like Polk, had been a Confederate soldier. 
He thought that North Carolina's greatest needs, after 


the war, were better schools and better farms. So he 
devoted himself to education and agriculture. In him 
the State University, the State Normal and Industrial 
College, and the public schools always found a strong 
friend. But he believed that the most important kind 
of education for North Carolina was education in agri- 
culture. A plan had been proposed for the establish- 
ment of a college to teach agriculture. Mr. Leazar was 
much interested in this plan, and in 1885, while he was a 
member of the Legislature, he wrote a bill for the found- 
ing of such a college. He worked hard and spoke ably 
for his bill, and it became a law. 

The college was erected at Raleigh on land given by 
Richard Stanhope Pullen, a wealthy business man who 
always took a deep interest in education and everything 
that helped to build up the State. He gave a large tract 
of land to the city of Raleigh for a beautiful park, which 
is known as " Pullen Park." When the State Normal 
and Industrial College was founded at Greensboro he 
gave one-half of the land on which it was built. So, too, 
when the agricultural college was established he gave 
land enough for the buildings and a large farm. 

The college was opened to students in 1889. Its first 
president was Colonel Alexander Q. Holladay who or- 
ganized the college and directed its affairs from 1889 to 
1899. He was succeeded by Dr. George T Winston, who 
had formerly been president of the University of North 
Carolina. Under his direction the faculty and equip- 
ment of the college were doubled and the number of 
students trebled. When he resigned, Dr. Daniel H. Hill, 
son of the famous Confederate general, D. H. Hill, was 
elected. Dr. Hill had been professor of English in the 



college for several years. He is author of several books 
on history and agriculture. Since he has been president, 
a number of excellent buildings have been erected and 
the work of the college has been greatly extended. 

The public schools of the State are also required by 
law to teach agriculture. In 1911 the Legislature pro- 

Agricultural Building at the Agricultural and Mechanical 

College, Raleigh, N. C. 

vided for agricultural high schools, called " Farm Life 
Schools," which train boys and girls for life on the farm. 
Agricultural Progress. — Under the direction of these 
agencies, agriculture has become a more important in- 
dustry in North Carolina than ever before. In 1910 
more people in the State were engaged in it than in all 
other occupations combined and nearly every crop that 
was grown in the United States was grown in North 
Carolina. But the principal crops were corn, cotton, 
tobacco, peanuts, potatoes, wheat, and other grains. 
All of these old crops had increased wonderfully through 
the new methods of agriculture. Many new crops, espe- 
cially fruits and vegetables, had been introduced. Truck 


farming had grown to be one of the most important indus- 
tries in the State. These improvements in agriculture 
meant that three-fourths of the people of North Carolina 
dwelt in better houses and lived more comfortably than 
ever before. 

Manufacturing. - - Before the war very little of the 
cotton and tobacco raised in North Carolina was manu- 
factured here. Most of it was sent to the mills and fac- 
tories of other States and of Europe. When the war 
began there were many factories in North Carolina, but 
they were very small and all together employed less 
than 15,000 persons. The value of their products did 
not reach $16,000,000 annually. Most of these factories 
were destroyed by the war. So when the United States 
fleets blockaded the Southern ports, and kept the people 
from importing goods from Europe, shoes, clothes, writ- 
ing paper, and all other manufactured articles became 
very scarce. 

After the war great changes were made. Men began 
to ask, Why should we not manufacture our own cotton 
and tobacco and lumber? We have great rivers with 
immense water-power. We have extensive forests which 
offer abundant fuel. Here are the cotton, the tobacco, 
the lumber, all right at our own doors. And here, too, 
are the railroads which will carry our goods to the great 
cities of the North and West. Let us then build mills 
and factories and make North Carolina as great a state 
in manufacturing as in agriculture. 

Founders of Cotton Mills. — The most important 
article manufactured in North Carolina is cotton. 
Among the men who founded this industry in the State 
were Michael Schenck, Joel Battle, Francis Fries, and 



Edwin M. Holt. Schenck built the first cotton mill in 
North Carolina. It was erected in 1813 on a small 
stream in Lincoln county. Joel Battle's mill was 
erected seven years later on the Tar River, in Nash 
county, near Rocky Mount. Francis Fries was one of 
the men who made Salem famous as a manufacturing 

The Old Alamance Mill, Burlington, N. C. 

(This mill was founded by Edwin M. Holt, and the first colored cotton 
fabric manufactured in the South was woven in this mill) 

center. He not only operated cotton mills, but in 1840 
he erected a woollen mill. Perhaps the man who did 
more to develop the manufacture of cotton goods in 
North Carolina than any other was Edwin M. Holt. 

Holt's First Mill. — Edwin M. Holt was born on a 
farm in Orange county. When not at school, he worked 
on his father's farm or in his shops. In these planta- 
tion shops, where all sorts of repair work was done, 
young Holt learned to like machinery and did his first 
manufacturing. He often visited a cotton mill operated 


by steam at Greensboro and became greatly interested 
in its work. After studying it carefully he decided that 
it should be better and cheaper to operate such mills 
by water than by steam. He determined to build one 
on Great Alamance Creek 
which ran through his 
father's farm. His father 
thought his plan would cer- 
tainly fail and advised 
against it. But young Holt's 
mind was made up, and in 
1837 he bought the machi- 
nery, erected his mill, and 
started it to work. The peo- 
ple in that section watched 
the experiment with great 
interest, and the wise ones 
shook their heads sadly. 
Edwin Holt, they predicted, 
would waste his time and 

How Holt Succeeded. — 
But Holt was determined 
not to fail. He worked hard, and was always ready to 
make improvements. One day in 1838 a Frenchman 
came to the mill, who offered for $100 and his board to 
teach Holt how to color cotton yarn. Holt at once 
accepted the offer, bought the machinery, and erected 
the dye-house. This was the first dyeing plant in the 

Holt's experiment proved so successful that he trained 
all of his sons in the business. After his death, in 1884, 

Edwin M. Holt 


they continued to operate the mills, which grew steadily. 
When the Civil War began, the Holt mills operated 1200 
spindles and 96 looms. Since the war the number of 
spindles has increased to more than 160,000 and the 
looms to more than 6000. 

Growth of Cotton Manufacturing. — Inspired by 
Holt's success, other progressive men followed his ex- 
ample. After his death cotton, woollen, silk, and knit- 
ting mills sprang up in every part of North Carolina. 
By 1910 the number had increased to more than four 
hundred, and in the manufacture of cotton North Caro- 
lina ranked third among the States. Thousands of 
people left their farms to seek work in the mills, and 
through them many sleepy little villages became thriving 
towns, while around the mills several new towns have 
grown into importance. 

Manufacture of Tobacco. — Since Sir Walter Raleigh's 
colonists landed on Roanoke Island in 1585 the tobacco 
plant has played an important part in the history of 
North Carolina. In colonial days, as you have already 
learned, it was so important that the people used it for 
money. Ever since then it has been one of the chief 
means of bringing wealth into North Carolina. When 
the Civil War began in 1861 there were nearly one 
hundred tobacco factories in North Carolina, but they 
were small and employed less than two thousand per- 
sons. Most of these factories were on the farms where 
the tobacco was raised. It was manufactured by hand 
and sold chiefly to the people of the surrounding country. 
Since the war the manufacture and sale of tobacco has 
become second in importance only to the manufacture 
and sale of cotton. Upon it depend the growth and 


prosperity of several of North Carolina's most impor- 
tant towns and cities, and in some parts of the State it 
has become the chief crop. 

"Durham Tobacco." — In 1865 General Sherman's 
army, after receiving the surrender of General Johnston's 

army, encamped near a 
railroad crossing in Orange 
county, called Durham's 
Crossing. The soldiers 
liked the tobacco which 
grew in that section and 

Washington Dukes First 
Tobacco Factory 

they called it " Durham 
tobacco." When they re- 
turned to their homes they 
carried supplies of this to- 
bacco with them, and after 
it had given out, many of 
them wrote back for more. 
In this way they spread the 
use of " Durham tobacco ' and unconsciously helped 
to lay the foundation of one of the greatest manufac- 
turing interests of North Carolina. 

The little town of Durham soon became the center of 
the tobacco trade. W. T. Blackwell, Julian S. Carr, 
Washington Duke, and others built factories there and 
by their energy and ability soon made the name of 
" Durham tobacco' famous throughout the world. 

The Present Duke Tobacco 
Factory at Durham 

These two factories are typical of the 
growth of manufactures in North 
Carolina, not only in tobacco, but 
in all products 


Durham grew rapidly from a railroad crossing to one 
of our most modern cities. 

" Uppowoc " in 1586 and To-day. — Of course many 
other men entered into the manufacture of tobacco. 
They soon made the names of Winston, Reidsville, and 
other towns and cities famous throughout the world 
for their tobacco factories. Tobacco became almost as 
important a crop as cotton, and such towns as Wilson, 
Kinston, Greenville, and Rocky Mount, as well as 
Winston and Durham, became great tobacco markets. 
In 1586 Ralph Lane carried the first " uppowoc ' from 
Roanoke Island to England, and showed Sir Walter 
Raleigh how to smoke. Three hundred years later 
Washington Duke and other manufacturers made North 
Carolina tobacco famous the world over. During all 
these years the tobacco plant was one of North Caro- 
lina's chief sources of wealth and prosperity. 

Railroads. — As North Carolina has no large rivers 
and harbors, most of her commerce must be carried on 
by railroads. No great progress could have been made 
in agriculture and manufacturing unless equal progress 
had been made in the building of railroads. When the 
war came to a close there were less than nine hundred 
miles of railroad in North Carolina. In 1910 there 
were nearly five thousand miles. The principal sys- 
tems were the Seaboard Air Line, the Southern, and the 
Atlantic Coast Line. In the development of these 
systems Major John Cox Winder, Colonel Alexander 
Boyd Andrews, and Robert Rufus Bridgers were among 
the leaders. Major Winder and Colonel Andrews were 
both Confederate soldiers, and Mr. Bridgers served for 
four years in the Confederate States Congress. 


Builders of Railroads. — Major John C. Winder 
rendered important service to the Confederate States 
by building strong fortifications along the coast of 
North Carolina. His chief work was Fort Fisher, on 
the Cape Fear river, the most important fort in the 
South. This fort guarded the port of Wilmington and 
protected the Advance and other blockade-runners sent 
out by Governor Vance. The United States attempted 
to destroy Fort Fisher, but Major Winder had done his 
work so well and the fort was so bravely defended that 
it held out longer than any other fort in the Confederacy. 
Finally in 1865, after the most terrific bombardment in 
our history, it was captured. 

After the war Major Winder turned his attention to 
the building of railroads. You will remember how, in 
1840, the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad was completed 
from Raleigh northward to Gaston. In 1861 a rail- 
road, running southward from Raleigh, called the Raleigh 
and Augusta Air Line, was begun. Major Winder's 
work was with these two railroads. He improved the 
track and the road-bed, put on better trains, added new 
lines, and greatly extended the system. Afterwards 
these roads became a part of the Seaboard Air Line 
system, which, in 1910, operated 3000 miles of road, 
about 600 of which were in North Carolina. 

Colonel A. B. Andrews began his railroad career at 
seventeen years of age. At twenty he gave up his 
work to enter the Confederate army. In the army he 
fought his way upward from a private to the rank of 
captain. During the war the railroad bridge over the 
Roanoke River at Gaston was destroyed. Passengers 
and freight had to be carried over with great difficulty 



and danger in ordinary flat-bottom boats. Colonel 
Andrews suggested a plan for ferry-boats which the 
railroad officials adopted. He operated the ferry while 
a bridge was being built, and was so successful that he 
was afterwards given a position with the Raleigh and 
Gaston Railroad. Later he helped to build the Raleigh 
and Augusta Air Line. When the Southern Railway 
Company was formed he was made one of the vice- 
presidents. This system has grown so rapidly that it is 
now the largest railway system in the South. In North 
Carolina alone it operates more than 1200 miles of 

The work of Robert R. Bridgers was done in Eastern 
North Carolina. He was not, like Major Winder and 

Colonel Andrews, a Confederate sol- 
dier. But he served in the Confederate 
Congress from 1861 till the close of 
the war. After the war he became 
president of the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad Company. When 
the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 
Company was formed he was chosen 
its president. Under his direction the 
system was extended into various' 
sections of Eastern North Carolina, 
as well as into other Southern States. WTien he became 
president the company operated less than 300 miles of 
railroad; in 1910 it owned altogether more than 4500 
miles, and operated 950 miles in North Carolina alone. 

The Western North Carolina Railroad. — Perhaps the 
greatest achievement in railroad building in North 
Carolina is the Western North Carolina Railroad. This 

R. R. Bridgers 


road, now part of the Southern Railway system, runs 
from Salisbury to Asheville. There it divides into two 
branches, one to Murphy, the other to Paint Rock, on 
the boundary line of North Carolina and Tennessee. 
It was begun by the State in 1854 in order to give a 
railroad to the people of the mountains. It reached 
Asheville in 1879. The cost of building the road over 
the mountains had been so great that the State decided 
not to go any further with it. It was turned over to a 
company of wealthy men who undertook to finish it, 
but they failed, and the people of the mountains were 
in despair. Finally, through the work of Governor 
Thomas J. Jarvis, Colonel A. B. Andrews, and Major 
James W. Wilson, work was begun again, all difficulties 
were mastered, and the road was completed and opened 
for trains. 

The building of this railroad was the greatest piece 
of engineering work ever done in North Carolina. Its 
success was due largely to the skill of Major James W. 
Wilson, the chief engineer. Under his direction rivers 
were bridged, mountains were tunneled, deep gorges 
were filled in. The track crosses the Catawba, the 
French Broad, the Pigeon, the Little Tennessee, and 
the Hiwassee rivers. It spans great gorges. It climbs 
to the tops of mountains. It runs through dark tunnels, 
one of which, the Swannanoa, is nearly a third of a mile 

The success of this undertaking has made Western 
North Carolina one of the most prosperous parts of the 
State. Thousands of people go there every year for 
their health, or to escape the heat of summer. Manu- 
facturing plants have been established, and several 



mountains towns, once straggling little villages, have 
become famous resorts. Asheville has grown into one 
of the State's largest and prettiest cities. 

Educational Leaders Since the War. — Our educa- 
tional development has kept pace with our industrial 

Davie Hall, University of North Carolina 

development. After the war came to an end the doors 
of the University of North Carolina and of the public 
schools were closed. But as soon as the white people 
of the State had regained control of affairs they turned 
their attention again to their schools and colleges. The 
public school system was reestablished and the doors 
of the University were again opened to students. 

As William R. Davie founded the University after 
the Revolution, so Kemp P. Battle saved it after the 
Civil War. He was a graduate of the University, and 
for a few years before the war was a member of its 
faculty. No son of the University loved it more than 
he. After its doors were closed he undertook the 


difficult task of having them reopened. The State was 
then very poor, but Dr. Battle's earnest efforts suc- 
ceeded in raising $20,000 for his purpose. Then he 
appealed to the Legislature, which appropriated 87500 
a year to the University. As soon as it became certain 
that the doors would be reopened the trustees met and 
elected Dr. Battle president. 

In September, 1875, the doors were thrown open to 
students. Dr. Battle found the campus grown up in 
weeds, the buildings greatly damaged, the libraries 
scattered, and the recitation rooms empty. But these 
difficulties did not daunt him. He went to work with 
great energy and wisdom. He remained at the head 
of the University for fifteen years, and under his leader- 
ship it regained the place in the State which it had held 
in the days of President Swain before the Civil War. 

At the University were educated such men as Charles 
B. Aycock, James Y. Joyner, and many others who, 
together with Sidney M. Finger and John C. Scar- 
borough, were the leaders in reestablishing the public 
school system of the State. Mr. Finger and Mr. Scar- 
borough were both Confederate soldiers. After the war 
they devoted themselves to work in education, and each 
became superintendent of public instruction. Their 
great work was to reorganize the public schools, and 
restore them to the confidence of the people. It was 
under their direction that Charles D. Mclver and 
Edwin A. Alderman made their famous campaign for 
education which you have already read about. One 
of the most important results of the work of these 
leaders was the establishment of excellent graded school 
systems in the leading towns and cities of the State. 



In 1900 another great educational campaign for the 
improvement of the public schools was started in North 
Carolina in which the leader was the governor, Charles 
B. Ay cock. By his eloquent speeches in all parts of the 
State and by his efforts to increase the public school fund, 

A Modern City Public School at Asheville 

he won the title of the " Educational Governor of North 
Carolina." In 1902 Governor Aycock appointed James 
Y. Joyner superintendent of public instruction. From 
1902 to 1910, under Superintendent Joyner's direction, 
the public school fund increased from less than $1,500,000 
to more than $3,500,000 annually. During the same 
time nearly 3500 school-houses were built and the value 
of public school property increased from less than 
$2,000,000 to about $6,000,000. The number of pupils 
increased from 400,000 to 500,000, and the school term 


from eighty to one hundred days annually. As a result 
of these changes there are fewer people in the State who 
cannot read and write than ever before. 

Temperance Movement. - - As Governor Aycock be- 
came known as the " Educational Governor of North 
Carolina " so Governor Robert B. Glenn became known 
as the " Prohibition Governor." Along with the educa- 
tional movement sprang up, soon after the war, a demand 
that the sale of whisky and other alcoholic liquors be 
forbidden in North Carolina. The movement at first 
grew slowly. As the years passed, a town here and a 
town there, and sometimes a rural community, had laws 
passed forbidding the sale of such liquors in its territory, 
Then the advocates of prohibition demanded that the 
sale of alcoholic liquor should be" forbidden throughout 
the State. In 1903 a law was passed forbidding its 
sale except in towns. Two years later another law was 
passed forbidding its sale except in towns which had 
as many as one thousand people. Finally in 1908 the 
General Assembly passed a law which required that the 
people of the whole State should vote on the question 
whether alcoholic liquor should be sold at all in the 

A great campaign followed for prohibition. Speakers 
went into all sections of the State speaking for tem- 
perance as, a few years before, they had done for 
education. As Governor Aycock led the campaign 
for education, so Governor Glenn led the prohibition 
campaign. The election was held in May, 1908, and 
resulted in a victory for prohibition. Since then it has 
been unlawful to sell or manufacture whisky or other 
alcoholic liquors in North Carolina. 


Forty Years of Progress. — With the progress of 
North Carolina in agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, 
and education, has gone equal progress in numerous 
other ways. 

Since the close of the war, the value of farming land 
in North Carolina has trebled. The corn crop has 
become three times, the cotton crop five times, and the 
tobacco crop more than ten times, as large as they were 
in 1870. 

Mills and factories have been built that manufacture 
cotton, tobacco, furniture, wagons, carriages, and numer- 
ous other articles. Ten times as many persons are 
employed in them, and fourteen times as much money 
used in their work, as in 1865. 

In every part of the State miles upon miles of good 
roads have been built. Over these good roads hundreds 
of rural free mail delivery routes carry daily thousands 
of letters, papers, and magazines to the people of all 
sections of the State. The number of newspapers has 
increased from 64 to more than 300, and their circula- 
tion from about 70,000 to 1,250,000. More than two 
thousand rural schools have good libraries, and many of 
our towns and cities have erected beautiful public 
library buildings, containing thousands of the world's 
best books, which are free to all the people. 

In no way has more progress been made than in the 
growth of the churches of the State. Since the war the 
number of churches has increased from 2,500, to 8,500, 
and the value of church buildings from $2,000,000 to 

The improvement of our towns and cities has been 
marked. Such old towns as Wilmington, Charlotte, 


Raleigh, and New Bern, and such old villages as Greens- 
boro, Asheville, and Winston-Salem have grown into 
busy cities. Several new towns and cities, such as 
Gastonia, High Point, and Durham, have sprung up. 
The population of the State has increased from about 
1,000,000 to more than 2,200,000, and its wealth from 
$125,000,000 to more than $600,000,000. 

These great changes are the results of much toil, 
sacrifice, and suffering. From the days of Sir Walter 
Raleigh down to our own time, thousands of brave men 
and women, many of whom have been forgotten, have 
worked and struggled in order that they might help to 
make North Carolina a better and happier place for 
their children. If the boys and girls who read this book 
will learn to love the Old North State as those men and 
women loved her, they too will some day enroll their 
names among the " Makers of North Carolina History." 


1. What is the chief cotton section of North Carolina? Tobacco 
section? Corn section? Trucking section? 

2. In what sections of North Carolina are most of the cotton mills? 
Have these sections any natural advantage over other sections for 

3. Locate Alamance Creek, Haw River, Graham, Spray, Gastonia. 

4. Locate the towns mentioned in the lesson as being centers of the 
tobacco trade. 

5. Trace the main lines of the Seaboard Air Line railroad. The 
Southern. The Atlantic Coast Line. Name the chief towns on these 


1. Describe the conditions in North Carolina at the close of the 

2. What were the chief features of the soldiers' new task? 


3. What effect did the war have on agriculture? 

4. Give an account of the work of L. L. Polk in the development 
of agriculture. Of Augustus Leazar. Of Richard Stanhope Pullen. 
Of the presidents of the State A. & M. College. 

5. Describe the influence of these agencies on agriculture. 

6. What effect did the war have on manufacturing in North 
Carolina? What lessons did the people learn from this? 

7. Give an account of the founding of cotton mills in North 

8. Who was Edwin M. Holt? Give an account of his first 
cotton mill. 

9. How did Holt succeed? 

10. Describe the progress made in cotton manufacturing. 

11. In what way has the tobacco plant been important in our 

12. How did " Durham tobacco " become famous? 

13. Tell the history of tobacco in North Carolina since 1586. 

14. How many miles of railroad were in North Carolina in 1865? 
In 1910? What were the chief sj^stems in 1910? 

15. Give an account of John C. Winder's services to the Con- 
federacy. Of his railroad career. 

16. Tell the stor}^ of A. B. Andrew's railroad career. 

17. Describe Robert R. Bridgers's services as president of the 
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad and the Atlantic Coast Line. 

18. Tell the story of the building of the Western North Carolina 
railroad. What effect has it had on Western North Carolina? 

19. What effect did the Civil War have on the schools and 
colleges of North Carolina? 

20. Tell the story of the re-opening of the University. 

21. Give an account of the leaders in the reestablishment of our 
public school system. 

22. What has been the result of their work. 

23. What has been the history of Prohibition in North Carolina? 

24. Describe the progress made in North Carolina since the war. 



Alamance. Formed in 1849 from Orange. The name of the county 
is derived from Alamance Creek, on the banks of which was fought 
the battle between Governor Tryon and the Regulators. It is 
the name of an Indian tribe which dwelt in that locality. 

Alexander. Formed in 1847 from Iredell, Caldwell, and Wilkes. 
Named in honor of William J. Alexander of Mecklenburg county, 
several times a member of the Legislature and speaker of the 
House of Commons. 

Alleghany. Formed in 1859 from Ashe. Name derived from an 
Indian tribe in the limits of North Carolina. 

Anson. Formed in 1749 from Bladen. Named in honor of George, 
Lord Anson, a celebrated English admiral who circumnavigated 
the globe. He lived for awhile on the Pedee in South Carolina. 
In 1761 he was given the honor of bringing to her marriage with 
King George III, Charlotte, Princess of Mecklenburg, for whom 
Mecklenburg county was named. 

Ashe. Formed in 1799 from Wilkes. Named in honor of Samuel 
Ashe of New Hanover, brother of General John Ashe. Samuel 
Ashe was a Revolutionary patriot, one of the first judges of the 
State, and afterwards governor. 

Avery. Formed in 1911 from Mitchell, Watauga, and Caldwell. 
Named in honor of Colonel Waightstill Avery " of Revolutionary 
fame," Attorney-General of North Carolina, 1777-1779. 

Beaufort. Formed in 1705 from Bath. 1 Named in honor of Henry, 

1 Bath county was formed in 1696 out of territory bordering on 
Pamlico Sound and extending southward to the Cape Fear river. It 
was at first divided into "precincts," which in 1738 became "counties." 



Duke of Beaufort, who in 1728 was one of the Lords Proprietors 
of Carolina. He purchased the share of the Duke of Albemarle. 

Bertie. Formed in 1722 from Bath. Named in honor of James and 
Henry Bertie, Lords Proprietors, who in 1728 owned the share of 
Lord Clarendon. 

Bladen. Formed in 1734 from Bath. Named in honor of Martin 
Bladen, one of the members of the board of trade which had charge 
of colonial affairs. 

Brunswick. Formed in 1764 from New Hanover and Bladen. Named 
in honor of the famous House of Brunswick, of which the four 
Georges, Kings of England, were members. It was named at the 
time of the marriage of Princess Augusta, daughter of King 
George II, to Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick. 

Buncombe. Formed in 1791 from Burke and Rutherford. Named 
in honor of Colonel Edward Buncombe, a Revolutionary soldier 
who was killed at the battle of Germantown, near Philadelphia. 
Colonel Buncombe lived in Tyrrell county. He was noted for 
his hospitality. Over the door of his house were these lines, 
" To Buncombe Hall, 

Welcome All." 

Burke. Formed in 1777 from Rowan. Named in honor of Dr. 
Thomas Burke, member of the Continental Congress and gov- 
ernor of North Carolina. 

Cabarrus. Formed in 1792 from Mecklenburg. Named in honor of 
Stephen Cabarrus, of Edenton, several times a member of the 
Legislature and often speaker of the House of Commons. 

Caldwell. Formed in 1841 from Burke and Wilkes. Named in 
honor of Joseph Caldwell, the first president of the University 
of North Carolina. He was one of the first and strongest advo- 
cates of the public school system and of the railroad through the 
center of the state from Morehead City to Tennessee. 

Camden. Formed in 1777 from Pasquotank. Named in honor of 
the learned Englishman, Charles Pratt, Earl of Camden, who was 
one of the strongest friends of the Americans in the British Par- 
liament. He took their side in the dispute over taxation with- 
out representation. 

Carteret. Formed in 1722 from Bath. Named in honor of Sir John 
Carteret, afterwards Earl Granville, one of the Lords Proprietors. 


When the other Lords Proprietors sold their shares to the king in 
1728, Carteret refused to sell, and an immense tract of land in 
North Carolina was laid off as his share in 1744. It was called 
the Granville District and was the cause of a great deal of trouble. 
He lost it when the Revolution freed North Carolina from British 

Caswell. Formed in 1777 from Orange and named in honor of Richard 
Caswell. (See Biography of Caswell, p. 105.) 

Catawba. Formed in 1842 from Lincoln. Named after a tribe of 
Indians which dwelt in that section of the State. 

Chatham. Formed in 1770 from Orange. Named in honor of the 
great Englishman who won for England all of French America 
and was the most eloquent defender of the American cause in the 
British Parliament during the Revolution — William Pitt, Earl 
of Chatham. 

Cherokee. Formed in 1839 from Macon. Named after an Indian 
tribe which still dwells in that section of the State. 

Chowan. Formed in 1672 from Albemarle. 1 Named for an Indian 
tribe dwelling in the northeastern part of the State when the 
English first came to North Carolina. 

Clay. Formed in 1861 from Cherokee. Named in honor of the great 
orator and statesman, Henry Clay. 

Cleveland. Formed in 1841 from Rutherford and Lincoln. Named 
in honor of Colonel Benjamin Cleveland. (See Biography of 
Cleveland, p. 120.) 

Columbus. Formed in 1808 from Bladen and Brunswick. Named in 
honor of the Discoverer of the New World. 

Craven. Formed in 1712 from Bath. Named in honor of William, 
Lord Craven, one of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina. 

Cumberland. Formed in 1754 from Bladen. Named in honor of 
William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, second son of King 
George II. Cumberland was the commander of the English 
army at the battle of Culloden, in which the Scotch Highlanders 
were so badly defeated. Many of them came to America, and 

1 Albemarle county was the first county in North Carolina. It was 
divided into " precincts," which in 1738 became u counties," and "Albe- 
marle county " disappeared from the map. For a long time the 
governors of North Carolina were called "governors of Albemarle." 


their principal settlement was at Cross Creek in Cumberland 

Currituck. Formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Named after an Indian 

Dare. Formed in 1870 from Currituck, Tyrrell, and Hyde. Named 
in honor of Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America. 

Davidson. Formed in 1822 from Rowan. Named in honor of General 
William L. Davidson, a soldier of the Revolution who was killed 
at the battle of Cowan's Ford. When General Greene retreated 
across North Carolina before Cornwallis in 1781, he stationed 
some troops under General Davidson at Cowan's Ford over the 
Catawba river to delay the British army. The British attacked 
the Americans, killed General Davidson, and forced the passage. 
The United States has erected a monument in his honor on Guil- 
ford battle-ground. 

Davie. Formed in 1836 from Rowan. Named in honor of William 
R. Davie. (See Biography of Davie, p. 132.) 

Duplin. Formed in 1749 from New Hanover. Named in honor of 
George Henry, Lord Duplin, an English nobleman. 

Durham. Formed in 1881 from Orange and Wake. Named after 
the town of Durham, a thriving manufacturing city. 

Edgecombe. Formed in 1732 from Bath. Named in honor of Sir 
Richard, Baron Edgecombe, an English nobleman, and a lord of 
the treasury. 

Forsyth. Formed in 1849 from Stokes. Named in honor of Captain 
Benjamin Forsyth, of Stokes county, who in the War of 1812 
raised a company of riflemen and marched to Canada, where he 
was killed in battle. 

Franklin. Formed in 1779 from Bute. (See p. 146.) Named in 
honor of the great philosopher and statesman, Benjamin Franklin. 

Gaston. Formed in 1846 from Lincoln. Named in honor of Judge 
William Gaston. (See Biography of Gaston, p. 170.) 

Gates. Formed in 1779 from Hertford. Named in honor of General 
Horatio Gates, who commanded the American army at the battle 
of Saratoga. At this battle an entire British army was captured, 
but General Gates contributed nothing to that success. It is 
regarded as one of the most important battles in the history of 
the world. 


Graham. Formed in 1872 from Cherokee. Named in honor of 
Governor William A. Graham. (See Biography of Graham, 
p. 192.) 

Granville. Formed in 1746 from Edgecombe. Named in honor of 
Carteret, Earl Granville, who owned the Granville District. He 
was Prime Minister under King George II, and a very brilliant 

Greene. Formed in 1799 from Glasgow 1 and Craven. Named in 
honor of General Nathaniel Greene, Washington's "right-hand 
man." Next to Washington, General Greene is regarded as the 
greatest soldier of the Revolution. He fought the battle of Guil- 
ford Court House and saved North Carolina from the British. 

Guilford. Formed in 1770 from Rowan and Orange. Named in 
honor of Francis, Earl of Guilford, an English nobleman. He was 
the father of Lord North, who was Prime Minister under King 
George III. during the Revolution. Lord North afterwards 
became Earl of Guilford. 

Halifax. Formed in 1758 from Edgecombe. Named in honor of 
George, Earl of Halifax, president of the board of trade, which 
had control of the colonies before the Revolution. 

Harnett. Formed in 1855 from Cumberland. Named in honor of 
Cornelius Harnett. (See Biography of Harnett, p. 76.) 

Haywood. Formed in 1808 from Buncombe. Named in honor of 
John Haywood, who for forty years was the popular treasurer 
of the State. 

Henderson. Formed in 1838 from Buncombe. Named in honor of 
Leonard Henderson, chief justice of the Supreme Court of North 
Carolina, and his brother, Archibald Henderson, a member of 
Congress and a very able lawyer. 

Hertford. Formed in. 1759 from Chowan, Bertie, and Northampton. 
Named in honor of Francis Seymour Conway, Earl of Hertford, 
an English nobleman. He was a brother of General Conway, a 
distinguished British soldier and member of Parliament, who 

1 Glasgow county was named in honor of James Glasgow, the first, 
secretary of state after 1776. He had been a prominent patriot during 
the Revolution, and while secretary of state was convicted of fraud in 
issuing land grants in Tennessee, and his name was expunged from the 


favored the repeal of the Stamp Act. The word Hertford is said 
to mean "Red Ford." 

Hoke. Formed in 1911 from Cumberland and Robeson. Named 
in honor of Robert F. Hoke, of North Carolina, Major-General 
in the Confederate States Army. 

Hyde. Formed in 1705 from Bath. Called Wickham until about 
1712. Named Hyde in honor of Edward Hyde, Earl of 
Clarendon, one of the Lords Proprietors. 

Iredell. Formed in 1788 from Rowan. Named in honor of James 
Iredell, of Edenton. James Iredell was one of the foremost 
lawyers of the State. In 1788 and 1789 he was one of the 
leaders in the State in advocating the adoption of the Consti- 
tution of the United States. His speeches in the Convention 
of 1788 at Hillsboro were among the ablest delivered by 
any of the advocates of the Constitution. Washington ap- 
pointed him in 1790 a judge of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

Jackson. Formed in 1851 from Haywood and Macon. Named 
in honor of Andrew Jackson, who was born in Mecklenburg 
county (the site of his birthplace is now in Union), won the 
brilliant victory over the British at New Orleans, in 1815, 
and was twice elected President of the United States. 

Johnston. Formed in 1746 from Craven. Afterwards parts of 
Duplin and Orange were added. Named in honor of Gabriel 
Johnston, governor of North Carolina from 1734 to 1752. 

Jones. Formed in 1779 from Craven. Named in honor of Willie 
Jones, of Halifax. He was one of the leading patriots of the 
Revolution, was president of the Council of Safety, and was 
opposed to the adoption of the Constitution of the United 
States. It was due to his influence that the Convention of 
1788 rejected it. 

Lee. Formed in 1907 from Chatham and Moore. Named in 
honor of Robert E. Lee, the Confederate General. 

Lenoir. Formed in 1791 from Dobbs 1 and Craven. Named in 

1 Dobbs county was named in honor of Arthur Dobbs, one of the 
royal governors of North Carolina. In 1791 the county was divided 
into Lenoir and Glasgow, and the name of Dobbs was erased from the 


honor of General William Lenoir, one of the heroes of King's 

Lincoln. Formed in 1779 from Tryon. 1 Named in honor of 
General Benjamin Lincoln, a distinguished general of the 
Revolution, whom Washington appointed to receive the sword 
of Lord Cornwallis at the surrender at Yorktown. 

Macon. Formed in 1828 from Haywood. Named in honor of 
Nathaniel Macon. (See Biography of Macon, p. 146.) 

Madison. Formed in 1851 from Buncombe and Yancey. Named 
in honor of James Madison, fourth President of the United 

Martin. Formed in 1774 from Halifax and Tyrrell. Named in 
honor of Josiah Martin, the last royal governor of North 
Carolina. It is probable that this name would have been 
changed like that of Dobbs and Tryon but for the popularity of 
Alexander Martin, who was governor in 1782 and again in 

McDowell. Formed in 1842 from Rutherford and Burke. Named 
in honor of Colonel Joseph McDowell an active officer of the 

Mecklenburg. Formed in 1762 from Anson. Named in honor 
of Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg, Queen of George III, 
King of England. The county seat, Charlotte, one of the 
prettiest cities in the State, was also named in her honor. 
Mecklenburg county was the scene of some of the most 
stirring events of the Revolution. 

Mitchell. Formed in 1861 from Yancey, Watauga, Caldwell, 
Burke, and McDowell. Named in honor of Dr. Elisha 
Mitchell, a professor in the University of North Carolina. 
While on an exploring expedition on Mt. Mitchell, the highest 
peak east of the Rocky Mountains, which was named in his 
honor, Dr. Mitchell fell from a high peak and was killed. 
His body is buried on the top of this lofty mountain. 

Montgomery. Formed in 1779 from Anson. Named in honor of 
the brave General Richard Montgomery, who lost his life at 
the battle of Quebec in 1775 while trying to conquer Canada. 
1 Named for Governor William Tryon, who defeated the Regulators. 

Afterwards abolished. 


Moore. Formed in 1784 from Cumberland. Named in honor of 
Captain Alfred Moore, of Brunswick, a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, and afterwards a judge of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

Nash. Formed in 1777 from Edgecombe. Named in honor of 
General Francis Nash, a soldier of the Revolution, who was 
killed while fighting under Washington at Germantown. The 
United States has erected a monument in his honor at the 
Guilford battle-ground near Greensboro. 

New Hanover. Formed in 1729 from Bath. Named after Han- 
over, a country in Europe whose ruler became King of England 
with the title of George I. 

Northampton. Formed in 1741 from Bertie. Named in honor 
of George, Earl of Northampton, an English nobleman. His 
son, Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, was high in 
office when Gabriel Johnston was governor of North Carolina 
who had the town of Wilmington named in his honor. 

Onslow. Formed in 1734 from Bath. Named in honor of Arthur 
Onslow, for more than thirty years speaker of the House of 
Commons in the British Parliament. 

Orange. Formed in 1752 from Granville, Johnston, and Bladen. 
Named in honor of William of Orange, who became King 
William III of England. He was one of the greatest of the 
kings of England and saved the English people from the 
tyranny of James II His name is held in honor wherever 
English liberty is enjoyed. 

Pamlico. Formed in 1872 from Craven and Beaufort. Named 
after the sound of the same name, which was the name of a 
tribe of Indians in eastern North Carolina. 

Pasquotank. Formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Named for a 
tribe of Indians in eastern Carolina. 

Pender. Formed in 1875 from New Hanover. Named in honor 
of General William D. Pender, of Edgecombe county, a 
brave Confederate soldier who was killed at the battle of 
Gettysburg. The last order ever given by the famous " Stone- 
wall " Jackson on the battle-field was given to General Pender: 
" You must hold your ground, General Pender, you must hold 


your ground," he cried as he was carried off the field to die. 
General Pender held his ground. 

Perquimans. Formed in 1672 from Albemarle. Named after a 
tribe of Indians. 

Person. Formed in 1791 from Caswell. Named in honor of 
General Thomas Person, Revolutionary patriot, member of 
the Council of Safety, and trustee of the University. He gave 
a large sum of money to the University, and a building was 
erected in his honor called Person Hall. 

Pitt. Formed in 1760 from Beaufort. Named in honor of Wil- 
liam Pitt. (See Chatham.) 

Polk. Formed in 1855 from Rutherford and Henderson. Named 
in honor of Colonel William Polk, " who rendered distinguished 
services in the battles of Germantown, Brandywine, and 
Eutaw, in all of which he was wounded." 

Randolph. Formed in 1779 from Guilford. Named in honor of 
Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, the president of the first Con- 
tinental Congress. 

Richmond. Formed in 1779 from Anson. Named in honor of 
Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond, principal secretary of 
state in William Pitt's second administration. He was a 
strong friend of the American colonies and made the motion 
in the House of Lords that they be granted their independence. 

Robeson. Formed in 1786 from Bladen. Named in honor of 
Colonel Thomas Robeson, a soldier of the Revolution. He 
was one of the leaders at the battle of Elizabethtown, which 
was fought in September, 1781. By this battle the Tories 
in the southeastern part of the State were crushed forever. 
The commander of the Whigs was Colonel Thomas Brown. 

Rockingham. Formed in 1785 from Guilford. Named in honor 
of Charles Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham, who was 
the leader of the party in the British Parliament that advo- 
cated American independence. He was Prime Minister when 
the Stamp Act was repealed. 

Rowan. Formed in 1753 from Anson. Named in honor of 
Matthew Rowan, a prominent leader before the Revolution, 
and for a short time after the death of Governor Gabriel 
Johnston, acting governor. 


Rutherford. Formed in 1779 from Tryon and Burke. Named in 
honor of General Griffith Rutherford, one of the most promi- 
nent of the Revolutionary patriots. He led the expedition 
that crushed the Cherokees in 1776, and rendered other im- 
portant services both in the Legislature and on the battle-field. 
Sampson. Formed in 1784 from Duplin and New Hanover. 
Named in honor of Colonel John Sampson, who was a member 
of Governor Martin's Council. 
Scotland. Formed in 1899 from Richmond. Named after the 
country of Scotland, the northern part of the island of Great 
Britain. Most of the people of this county are descendants 
of Scotch Highlanders. 
Stanly. Formed in 1841 from Montgomery. Named in honor 
of John Stanly, for many years a member of the Legislature, 
and several times speaker of the House of Commons. 
Stokes. Formed in 1789 from Surry. Named in honor of Colonel 
John Stokes, a brave soldier of the Revolution, who was 
desperately wounded at the Waxhaw massacre, when Colonel 
Buford's regiment was cut to pieces by Tarleton. After the 
war Washington appointed him a judge of the United States 
Court in North Carolina. 
Surry. Formed in 1771 from Rowan. Named in honor of Lord 
Surrey, a prominent member of Parliament who opposed the 
taxation of the American colonies by Parliament. 
Swain. Formed in 1871 from Jackson and Macon. Named in 
honor of David L. Swain, governor of North Carolina and 
president of the University. 
Transylvania. Formed in 1861 from Henderson and Jackson. 
The name is derived from two Latin words, " trans," across, 
" sylva," woods. 
Tyrrell. Formed in 1729 from Albemarle. Named in honor of 
Sir John Tyrrell, who at one time was one of the Lords Pro- 
Union. Formed in 1842 from Anson and Mecklenburg. 
Vance. Formed in 1881 from Granville, Warren, and Franklin. 
Named in honor of Zebulon B. Vance, " the Great War 
Governor." (See Biography of Vance, p. 222.) 
Wake. Formed in 1770 from Johnston, Cumberland, and Orange. 


Named in honor of Governor Tryon's wife, whose maiden 
name was Wake. Some historians say that the county was 
named for " Esther Wake, the popular sister of Tryon's 
wife," but there is no reason to suppose that any such person 
ever existed. She is purely a creature of the imagination. 

Warren. Formed in 1779 from Bute and Granville. Named in 
honor of General Joseph Warren, a brave Massachusetts 
soldier who fell while fighting at the battle of Bunker Hill. 

Washington. Formed in 1799 from Tyrrell. Named in honor of 
George Washington. 

Watauga. Formed in 1849 from Ashe, Wilkes, Caldwell, and 
Yancey. Named after an Indian tribe. 

Wayne. Formed in 1779 from Dobbs and Craven. Named in 
honor of General Anthony Wayne, one of Washington's most 
trusted soldiers. His courage was so great as to amount 
almost to rashness, and his soldiers called him " Mad Anthony 

Wilkes. Formed in 1777 from Surry and Burke. Named in 
honor of John Wilkes. Wilkes was a violent opponent of 
the Tory party in England, who would not let him take his 
seat in Parliament to which he had been elected. The Ameri- 
cans imagined he was suffering in the cause of liberty and 
named the county in his honor. 

Wilson. Formed in 1855 from Edgecombe, Nash, Johnston, and 
Wayne. Named in honor of Louis D. Wilson, many times a 
member of the Legislature from Edgcombe county, a soldier 
of the Mexican War, and the benefactor of the poor of his 
native county. 

Yadkin. Formed in 1850 from Surry. Name derived from the 
name of the Yadkin river which runs through it. It is sup- 
posed to be an Indian name. 

Yancey. Formed in 1833 from Burke and Buncombe. Named in 
honor of Bartlett Yancey, an eloquent orator, many times a 
member of the Legislature, speaker of the State Senate, and a 
member of Congress. He was one of the earliest advocates 
of the public school system of North Carolina. 


Governors of Colonial North Carolina 

Governors of " Virginia " 

April 1585 — June 1586 .... Ralph Lane ' Appointed by Walter Raleigh 

April 1587 — Aug. 1587 . . . .John White 2 Appointed by Walter Raleigh 

Governors, Deputies, and Presidents of the Council under the Proprietors 

Oct. 1663 — Oct. 1667 . . . .William Drummond 3 . . .Appointed by the Proprietors 

Oct. 1667 — Dec. 1669 . . . .Samuel Stephens Appointed by the Proprietors 

Oct. 1670 — May 1673 .... Peter Carteret Appointed by the Proprietors 

May 1673 — Nov. 1676 . . . .John Jenkins President of Council 

Nov. 1676 — Nov. 1678 . . . .Thomas Eastchurch 4 . . .Appointed by the Proprietors 

1677 — ... .Thomas Miller 4 Eastchurch's Deputy 

1677 — 1678 John Culpepper * Elected by Rebels 

1678 — ... .Seth Sothel ° Appointed by the Proprietors 

Feb. 1679 — Aug. 1679 . . . .John Harvey Deputy appointed by Proprietors 

Nov. 1679 — 1681 . . . .John Jenkins President of Council 

1682 — 1689 Seth Sothel 5 Appointed by the Proprietors 

Dec. 1689 — 1691 . . . .Philip Ludwell Appointed by the Proprietors 

1691 — 1694 . . . .Philip Ludwell Governor of all Carolina 

1691 — 1694 . . . .Thomas Jarvis Lud well's Deputy 

1694 — 1696 . . . .John Archdale Governor of all Carolina 

1694 — 1699 . . . .John Harvey Deputy-Governor 

1699 — 1704 . . . .Henderson Walker President of Council 

1704 — 1705 . . . .Robert Daniel Deputy-Governor 

1705 — 1706 . . . .Thomas Cary 6 Deputy-Governor 

1706 — Aug. 1708 William - Clover" 7 President of Council 

1708 — Jan. 1711 . . . .Thomas Cary 7 . .President of Council 

Jan. 1711 — Sept. 1712 . . . .Edward Hyde 7 Appointed by the Proprietors 

Sept. 1712 — May 1714 Thomas Pollock 7 President of the Council 

May 1714 — Mar. 1722 . . . .Charles Eden Appointed by the Proprietors 

May 1722 — Aug. 1722 Thomas Pollock 8 President of Council 

Sept. 1722 — 1724 William Reed President of Council 

1724 — July 1725 . . . .George Burrington Appointed by the Proprietors 

July 1725 — May 1728 . . . .Richard Everard Appointed by the Proprietors 

i See p. 5. 2 See p. 7. 3 See p. 17. * See pp. 19-22. 5 See p. 23. 

6 See p. 41. 7 See p. 34. 8 See p. 36. 




Governors under the Crown 

. . Richard Everard Filled interval 

. . George Burrington Appointed by the Crown 

. . Gabriel Johnston Appointed by the Crown 

. . Matthew Rowan President of the Council 

. . Arthur Dobb3 Appointed by the Crown 

. . William Tryon Appointed by the Crown 

. . James Hasell President of Council 

. . Josiah Martin Appointed by the Crown 

Presidents of the Council under the Revolutionary Government 

Oct. 18, 1775 — Aug. 21, 1776 Cornelius Harnett New Hanover 

Aug. 21, 1776 — Sept. 27, 1776 Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

Sept. 27, 1776 — Oct. 25, 1776 Willie Jones Halifax 

May 1728- 

— Feb. 1731 ... 

Feb. 1731- 

— Nov. 1734 . . . 

Nov. 1734- 

— July 1752 . . . 

July 1752- 

— Nov. 1754 . . 

Nov. 1754- 

— May 1765 . . . 

May 1765- 

— June 1771 . . . 

June 1771- 

— Aug. 1771 . . . 

Aug. 1771- 

— May 1775 . . . 





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— June 





— April 





— Nov. 





— Dec. 





— Dec. 





— Dec. 





— Nov. 





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Dec. 31, 1836 — Jan. 
Jan. 1, 1841 — Jan. 

1 See p. 82. 

of North Carolina Since Independence 

Elected by the Legislature 2 

1780 Richard Caswell Lenoir 

1781 Abner Nash Craven 

1782 Thomas Burke Orange 

1784 Alexander Martin Guilford 

1787 Richard Caswell Lenoir 

1789 Samuel Johnston Chowan 

1792 Alexander Martin Guilford . 

1795 Richard Dobbs Spaight Craven 

1798 Samuel Ashe New Hanover 

1799 William R. Davie Halifax 

1802 Benjamin Williams Moore 

1805 James Turner Warren 

1807 Nathaniel Alexander Mecklenburg 

1808 Benjamin Williams Moore 

1810 David Stone Bertie 

1811 Benjamin Smith Brunswick 

1814 William Hawkins Warren 

1817 William Miller Warren 

1820 John Branch Halifax 

1821 Jesse Franklin Surry 

1824 Gabriel Holmes Sampson 

1827 Hutchins G. Burton Halifax 

1828 James Iredell Chowan 

1830 John Owen Bladen 

1832 Montford Stokes Wilkes 

1835 David L. Swain Buncombe 

1836 Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr Craven 

Elected by the People 3 

1, 1841 Edward B. Dudley New Hanover 

1, 1845 John M. Morehead Guilford 

2 Term of office one year. 
3 Term of office changed to two years in 1835. 






— Jan. 





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— July 





— Sept. 





— May 





— Dec. 





— July 





— Mar. 





— July 





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1849 William A. Graham Orange 

1851 Charles Manly Wake 

1854 David S. Reid Rockingham 

1855 Warren Winslow Cumberland 

1859 Thomas Bragg Northampton 

1861 John W. Ellis Rowan 

1862 Henry T. Clark Edgecombe 

1865 Zebulon B. Vance Buncombe 

1865 William W. Holden Wake 

1868 Jonathan Worth Randolph 

1871 William W. Holden » Wake 

1874 Tod R. Caldwell Burke 

1877 Curtis H. Brogden Wayne 

1879 Zebulon B. Vance Mecklenburg 

1885 Thomas J. Jarvis Pitt 

1889 Alfred M. Scales Rockingham 

1891 Daniel G. Fowle Wake 

1893 Thomas M. Holt Alamance 

1897 Elias Carr Edgecombe 

1901 Daniel L. Russell Brunswick 

1905 Charles B. Aycock Wayne 

1909 Robert B. Glenn Forsyth 

William W. Kitchin Person 

1 Term of office changed to four years in 1868. 


Advance, the, 234-235 

Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege, the, 277 

Agriculture, in colonial times, 27-28; 
effect of the Civil War on, 274- 
275; State Department of, 276; 
progress in since 1865, 278 

Alamance, battle of, 60, 107 

Albemarle Sound, settlements on 
shores of, 14 

Alderman, Edwin A., conducts edu- 
cational campaign, 267 

Amadas, Philip, explores Roanoke 
Island, 3-4 

Andrews, Alexander Boyd, a rail- 
road builder, 284 

Appomattox, last charge at, 257- 

Articles of Confederation, 101-102 

Ashe, John, on Committee of Cor- 
respondence, 68; burns Fort 
Johnston, 83-84; proscribed by 
Governor Martin, 84 

Aycock, Charles Brantley, governor 
of North Carolina leads educa- 
tional campaign, 290 

Badger, George E. 226-227 
ntrtt s Tt by Gast , on ' 17 t" 175 , 

Barlow Arthur, explores Roanoke | Board of War, 102 

Bethel Regiment, 244 

Blackbeard, the pirate, 43; defeated 

and killed, 44 
Blackwell, W. T., builds tobacco 

factory, 283 
Blakely, Johnston, birth, 160; is 
brought to North Carolina, 160; 
at the University, 160; enters 
the United States Navy, 160; 
in the war with the Algerine 
pirates, 161-162; in command of 
the Enterprise, 162; of the Wasp, 
162-166; captures the Reindeer, 
162-164; sinks the Avon, 164-165; 
welcome in France, 164; sends 
challenge to British navy, 165; 
career on the Wasp, 165-166; 
honors at home, 166; death, 166; 
his personality, 167; marriage, 167 

Blakely, Udney Maria, daughter of 
Johnston Blakely, adopted and 
educated by the State of North 
Carolina, 167 

Blockade running, 234-235 

Blount, William, delegate to the 
Convention of 1787, 117, 139 

Bloodworth, Timothy, opposes Fed- 
eral Constitution, 140 

Blunt, Tom, Indian chief, 35 

Island, 3-4 
Bath, oldest town in North Carolina, 

Battle, Joel, builds cotton mill, 279. 
Battle, Kemp Plummer, president 

of the University, 264, 288 
Benton, Thomas, tribute to Macon, 

Bentonville, battle of, 259 
Bethel, battle of, 243-244 


Boston, aided by North Carolina 

patriots, 70 
Branch, General L. O'B., 228 
Bridgers, Robert Rufus, railroad 

builder, 286 
Buck Spring, 149 
Burke, Thomas, 85 
Bute County, abolished, 146 
Byrd, commissioner to run Virginia- 
Carolina boundary, 45-46 



Cabot, John, 3 

Cabot, Sebastian,3 

Caldwell, Joseph, favors common 
schools, 210 

Camden, battle of, 135 

Campbell, William, at battle of 
King's Mt., 124 

Cape Fear Section, settlement of, 
46; famous homes in, 47 

Capitol, burned, 175; rebuilt at 
Raleigh, 175 

Carolina, named for Charles I, 16; 
retained for Charles II, 16; gov- 
ernment of, 17 

Carpet-baggers, 205-207 

Carr, Julian S., 283 

Cary, Thomas, 31, 40-42 

Cary's rebellion, 33, 40-42 

Caswell, Richard, inspects Fort 
Dobbs, 53; birth, 105; moves to 
North Carolina, 105; appointed 
deputy-surveyor, 106; elected to 
the Assembly, 106; work in the 
Assembly, 106-107; serves against 
the Regulators, 107; on the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, 68, 108; 
elected to the Continental Con- 
gress, 70, 95, 108; journey to 
Philadelphia, 108-110; describes 
situation at Philadelphia, 110; 
appointed colonel of North Caro- 
lina troops, 110-111; defeats the 
Highlanders at Moore's Creek, 
111-113; elected governor, 113- 
114, 116; services as governor, 
114; at battle of Camden, 115; 
defends North Carolina against 
invasion, 115; speaker of House 
of Ccmmons, 116; declines elec- 
tion to Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1787, 117; death, 117 

Charles II., grants Carolina to Lords 
Proprietors, 16 

Charlotte, defence of by Davie, 136- 

Churches in North Carolina, 292 

Cities of North Carolina, 292 

Civil War, preparations for, 241; 
North Carolina troops in, 232-233, 

Cleveland, Benjamin, early life, 120- 
121; services in Revolution, 121; 

in King's Mountain campaign, 
124-128; speech to his men, 126; 
last days, 128 

Clinton, Sir Henrv, at Cape Fear, 
87, 113 

Confederate States of America, 203- 

Congress of 1774, meets at New 
Bern, 69; measures of, 70; elects 
delegates to Continental Congress, 

Commerce, in colonial days, 27-28 

Committees of Correspondence, 67- 

Committees of Safety, 81-82 

Common Schools, 210-220 

Corn, carried to England, 7 

Cornwallis, Lord, at Cape Fear, 113; 
retreats from Charlotte, 127; 
invades North Carolina, 136-137 

Conservative Party, 206 

Constitution of North Carolina, 
1776, 113; amended by Conven- 
tion of 1835, 156, 177-178 

Constitution of the United States, 
139-140; rejected by North Caro- 
lina, 140; adopted, 141 

Continental Congress, 68 

Convention of 1787 at Philadelphia, 
116-117, 139-140 

Convention of 1788 at Hillsboro, 140 
of 1789 at Fayetteville, 141 

Convention of 1835, amendments to 
Constitution, 156 

Cotton manufactures, 282 

Council of Safety, 82 

Cox, General William R., 258 

Croatan, 9-10 

Culpepper, John, appointed collec- 
tor, 22 

Culpepper's Rebellion, 18-23 

Dale, Richard, 161 

Dare, Eleanor, mother of Virginia 

Dare, 8 
Dare, Virginia, first white child born 

in " Virginia," 8 
Davidson, John, 192 
Davidson College, 210, 243 
Davie, Archibald, 132 
Davie, William Richardson, birth 

and education, 132-133; volun- 



teers in Revolutionary army, 133; 
major of cavalry, 134; narrow 
escape at Stono Ferry, 134; ad- 
mitted to bar, 135; pledges for- 
tune to equip his company, 135; 
his battles, 135-136; as a soldier, 
136; defence of Charlotte, 136- 
137; appointed quartermaster, 
137; equips Greene's army, 137- 
138; as a lawyer, 138; as an 
orator, 139; member of Conven- 
tion of 1787, 139-140; of Conven- 
tion of 1788, 140; of Convention 
of 1789, 141; supports the Fed- 
eral Constitution, 140-141; in 
the House of Commons, 141; 
founds the University, 142; elected 
governor, 142-143; United States 
commissioner to France, 143; de- 
clines appointment as major- 
general in United States army, 
144; last days, 144; Gaston's 
tribute to, 144 

Davis, Jefferson, 205 

De Graffenried, Christopher, founds 
New Bern, 32 

Deputies of the Lords Proprietors, 

Dix, Dorothea, work for an asylum 
for the insane, 185-187 

Dobbin, James Cochran, birth, 183; 
education, 183; admitted to the 
bar, 184; elected to Congress, 
184-185; in the General Assembly 
185; speech on insane asylum 
bill, 186-187; speaker of House 
of Commons, 187; on secession, 
187-188; Secretary of the Navy, 
188-190; death, 190 

Dobbs, Arthur, appointed governor, 

Drake, Sir Francis, carries Lane's 
colony to England, 6 

Drummond, first governor of Caro- 
lina, 17 

Duke, Washington, 283 

Durant, George, birth, 14; moves 
to Carolina, 15; selects site for 
his home 15; buys land from 
Indian chief, 15; leads resistance 
to navigation laws, 19; threatens 
to rebel against Eastchurch, 20; 

arrives in Carolina from England, 
21; leads rebellion, 21; in con- 
trol of government, 22; resists 
Seth Sothel, 23; a justice of the 
peace, 23; death, 23 
Durant's Neck, 15 

Eastchurch, Thomas, in England, 
19; appointed governor of Albe- 
marle, 20; stops in West Indies, 
21; sends Miller to administer 
government, 21; arrives in Vir- 

^ ginia, 22; death, 22 

Eden, Charles, governor of North 
Carolina, 36; suspected of friend- 
ship for Blackbeard, 43 

Education, in colonial days, 29, 38- 
39; before 1860, 194, 197-198, 210- 
220,262-271; progress since 1902, 

Elizabeth, Queen, confers knight- 
hood on Raleigh, 2; gives him 
permission to send colony to 
America, 3; names new country 
" Virginia," 5; banishes Raleigh 
from her court, 11 

Ellis, John W., governor of North 
Carolina, refuses troops to Presi- 
dent Lincoln, 204, 241 

Ellsworth, Oliver, 143 

Enterprise, the, commanded by 
Blakely, 162 

Established Church in Carolina, 30- 
31, 39 

Eutaw Springs, battle of, 138 

Farm Life Schools, 278 

Ferguson, Patrick, threatens fron- 
tiersmen, 124; flees to King's 
Mountain, 125; killed, 127 

Fort Dobbs, description of, 53-54; 
attacked, 56 

Fort Duquesne, 54-56 

Fort Johnston, 83-84 

Fort Nohoroco, 35 

Fort Raleigh, built by Lane, 5; in 
ruins, 8 

France, hostility of, to the United 
States, 143; treaty with, 143 

Franklin, State of, 129 

French and Indian War, 51-56 

Fries, Francis, 280 



Frontier Life before the Revolution 

Gaston, Alexander, 170-172 

Gaston, Margaret Sharpe, 170-172 

Gaston, William, birth, 170; edu- 
cation, 172-173; admitted to bar, 
173; in the Legislature, 173-175; 
speaker, 173; supports plan for a 
supreme court, 174; saves the 
State Bank, 174-175; opposes 
removal of the capitol, 175; 
elected to Congress, 175; ap- 
pointed judge of the Supreme 
Court, 177; work in the Conven- 
tion of 1835, 177-178; popu- 
larity, 178-179; as an orator, 179; 
orations at the University and at 
Princeton, 179-180; honors, 180; 
death 181; mentioned, 194 

Gaston Hall, 172 

Gates, General Horatio, defeated at 
Camden, 115, 135 

Gettysburg, battle of, 249-251 

Glenn, Robert Broadnax, governor 
of North Carolina, leads fight for 
prohibition, 291 

Glover, William, 31, 40-42 

Gombroon, home of Z. B. Vance, 238 

Graham, Joseph, 192 

Graham, William Alexander, men- 
tioned, 189; birth, 192; educa- 
tion, 192-193; at the University, 
193; admitted to the bar, 193; 
as an orator, 194; work in the 
Legislature, 194-195; in the 
United States Senate, 195-196; 
as governor, 197-198; favors 
North Carolina Railroad, 198; 
raises troops for Mexican War, 
199; Secretary of the Navy, 199- 
200; sends Perry expedition to 
Japan, 200-201 ; opinion on seces- 
sion, 203-204; member of Con- 
vention of 1861, 204; Confederate 
States senator, 204-205; favors 
peace, 205; leads fight against 
reconstruction in North Carolina, 
206; favors impeachment of Gov- 
ernor Holden, 206; member of 
Peabody Education Board, 207; 
represents Virginia in Virginia- 

Maryland boundary controversy, 
207; death, 207-208 

Grand Model, sent to Carolina by 
Lords Proprietors, 17; resisted by 
the people, 18 

Graves, Calvin, votes for North 
Carolina Railroad, 198-99 

Greene, General Nathaniel, in com- 
mand of Southern army, 137; 
appoints Davie quarter-master, 
137; fights battles of Guilford 
Court House, Hobkirk's Hill, 
Eutaw Springs, 138; urges Macon 
to go to the Legislature, 148 

Grimes, Major-General Bryan, 
favors secession, 242; at battle of 
Seven Pines, 252-253; as a sol- 
dier, 253-254; appointed briga- 
dier-general, 254-255; service in 
Shenandoah Valley, 255; ap- 
pointed major-general, 255; at 
siege of Petersburg, 255-257; 
plans last battle of Lee's army, 
257-258; last days, 259-260 

Guilford Court House, battle of, 
115, 138 

Guilford College, 210 

Hancock, Indian chief, 33; insti- 
gates attack on whites, 34; de- 
feated, 35 
Hanging Rock, battle of, 135 
Harnett, Cornelius, birth, 76; moves 
to Wilmington, 76; appearance, 
76; in the Assembly, 77; resists 
Stamp Act, 77-80; enforces non- 
importation association, 80; plans 
committees of correspondence, 
80-81; member of Committee of 
Correspondence, 68; visits New 
England, 81; member Provincial 
Congress, 81; president Provin- 
cial Council, 82; receives news of 
battle of Lexington, 82; burns 
Fort Johnston, 83-84; proscribed 
by Governor Martin, 84; leads 
way to independence, 84-86; 
proscribed by Sir Henry Clinton, 
87; reads Declaration of Inde- 
pendence to people at Halifax, 87; 
elected delegate to Continental 
Congress, 88; his sacrifices in 



cause of independence, 88; death, 
89; signs Articles of Confedera- 
tion, 102 

Harvey, John, birth, 63; education, 
63; wealth, 63; elected to the 
Assembly, 64; speaker, 64-65; op- 
poses taxation by Parliament, 66; 
moderator of convention of 1769, 
67; rewarded for services, 67; on 
Committee of Correspondence, 68; 
calls Congress of 1774, 69; thanked 
for service by Congress, 70-71; 
sends aid to Boston, 71-72; speaker 
of last colonial Assembly, 72-73; 
moderator of Congress of 1775, 
72-73; death, 73; tributes to, 73 

Harvey, Thomas, 22 

Harvey's Neck, 63 

Haywood, William H., 194 

Hewes, Joseph, member of Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, 68; 
elected a delegate to Continental 
Congress, 70, 95; sends aid to 
Boston, 72, 94; lays Resolution 
of April 12, 1776, before Conti- 
nental Congress, 86; birth, 92; 
education, 92; moves to Edenton, 
93; in the Assembly, 93; mem- 
ber of Provincial Congress, 95; 
head of naval committee of Con- 
tinental Congress, 96-97; urges 
resistance to the King, 98; sends 
supplies to Washington's army, 
101; death, 101; journey to Con- 
tinental Congress, 109 

Hill, General Daniel Harvey, mili- 
tary training, 242-243; trains 
North Carolina troops, 243; at 
battle of Bethel, 243-244; his 
bearing in battle, 244-246; placed 
in defence of North Carolina, 246- 
247; service in Tennessee, 258- 
259; at battle of Bentonville. 259; 
last days, 259-260 

Hill, Daniel Harvey, Jr., president 
of A. & M. College, 277 

Hobkirk's Hill, battle of, 138 

Holden, William W., governor of 
North Carolina, impeachment of, 

Holladay, Alexander Q., president 
of A. &M. College, 277 

Holt, Edwin M., 280; erects cotton 
mill, 281; erects first dye plant 
in South, 281; the Holt mills, 282 

Hooper, William, member of the 
Committee of Correspondence, 
68; birth, 91; education, 91- 
92; moves to Wilmington, 92; 
in Assembly, 93; sends aid to 
Boston, 94; advocates a Provincial 
Congress, 94-95; member of Pro- 
vincial Congress, 95; elected dele- 
gate to Continental Congress, 70, 
95; as an orator, 96; urges re- 
sistance to King, 97; predicts 
independence of colonies, 98; 
last days and death, 100; monu- 
ment, 103 

Hornet's Nest, 136 

Houston, William, forced to resign 
office of stamp agent, 78 

Howe, Robert, on Committee of 
Correspondence, 68; proscribed 
by Martin, 84; by Clinton, 87 

Huguenots, settle in North Caro- 
lina, 46 

Hyde, Edward, appointed governor 
of North Carolina, 31, 41; seeks 
help against Indians from South 
Carolina and Virginia, 34; death, 
34; sides with Pollock against 
Moseley, 42 

Independence, 84-86, 99 

Indians, plan attack on whites, 33; 

in French and Indian War, 52-58 
Innes, Colonel James, commands 

North Carolina troops, 52 
Insane Asylum, 185-187 
Internal Improvements, 194-195, 

Invincible Armada, 8-9 
Iredell, James, supports Federal 

Constitution, 140-141 

Jackson, Andrew, opinion of Davie, 

Jamestown, founding of, 12 
Japan, treaty with, 189-190, 200- 

Jarvis, Thomas J., governor of North 

Carolina, 287 
Jenkins, John, acting governor of 

North Carolina, 22 



Johnston, Gabriel, governor of North 
Carolina, 105-106 

Johnston, General Joseph E., sur- 
renders to General Sherman near 
Durham, 259 

Johnston, Samuel, member of Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, 68; 
supports Federal Constitution, 140 

Jones, General Allen, 85, 133 

Jones, John Paul, 96, 161 

Jones, Thomas, 85 

Jones, Willie, opposes Federal Con- 
stitution, 140 

Joyner, James Yadkin, superin- 
tendent of public instruction, 
289; progress in education under, 

Kilcocanen, sells land to George 

Durant, 15 
Kinchen, John, 85 
King's Mountain, battle of, 125-128 

Lane, Ralph, governor of first 

colony; 5; abandons Roanoke, 6 
Leazar, Augustus, author of bill to 

establish A. & M. College, 277 
Lexington, battle of, 82-83 
Libraries in North Carolina, 292 
Lillington, Colonel Alexander, at 

battle of Moore's Creek, 112 
Lincoln, Abraham, President of the 

United States, 203 
Literary Board, the, 211 
Lords Proprietors, receive grant 

from the King, 16; formulate 

government for Carolina, 17; 

appoint Eastchurch governor, 20; 
Lost Colony, the, 10-11 

McDowell, Joseph, in King's Moun- 
tain campaign, 124 

Mclver, Charles Duncan, birth, 263; 
education, 263-264; at the Uni- 
versity, 264-265; first vote, 265- 
266; as a teacher, 266; needs of 
public schools, 266-267; founds 
State Normal and Industrial Col- 
lege, 267-70; as an educational 
leader, 270; member of Southern 
Educational Board; 270-271; 
honors, 271; death, 270-271 

Macon, Nathaniel, birth, 146; edu- 
cation, 146-147; volunteers in 
patriot army, 147; elected to 
Legislature, 147-149; builds Buck 
Spring, 149; habits, 149; amuse- 
ments, 150; political offices, 151; 
as a public official, 151; his work 
in Congress, 153-154; on war, 
153; retires from Congress, 154- 
156; president of Convention of 
1835, 156; death, 157 

Manteo, Indian warrior, goes to 
England, 4; returns to Roanoke, 
5; sends food to Lane's colony, 6 

Manufacturing, 279 

Martin, Alexander, member of Con- 
vention of 1787, 139 

Martin, Josiah, governor of North 
Carolina, refuses to convene the 
Assembly, 69; denounces the 
committees of safety, 81; plans 
uprising of the Tories, 111 

Mecklenburg County, organizes an 
independent government, 99 

Mexican War, North Carolina troops 
in, 199 

Miller, Thomas, in England, 19; 
appointed collector, 20; tyranny 
of, 21 ; arrested and imprisoned 21 

Moore, Colonel James, defeats Han- 
cock, 35 

Moore, General James, resists Stamp 
Act; commands North Carolina 
troops in Moore's Creek cam- 
paign, 112 

Moore's Creek Bridge, battle of, 85, 

Morehead, John M., governor of 
North Carolina, 226 

Moseley, Edward, rival of Thomas 
Pollock, 31; moves to North Caro- 
lina, 38; his plantations and 
wealth, 38; library, 39; political 
career, 39; member of governor's 
council, 40; in the Cary Rebellion, 
40-41; declares against taxation 
without representation, 42; de- 
nounces governor Eden for failure 
to punish pirates, 43-44; im- 
prisoned, 44; boundary line com- 
missioner, 45-46; moves to Cape 
Fear, 46; builds Moseley Hall, 



47; last services to colony, 48; 

death 49 
Murphey, Archibald D., 139, 142, 

194, 210 
Murray, William Vans, 143 

Nash, Frederick, 194 

Nash, Abner, governor of North 

Carolina, proscribed by Governor 

Martin, 84; mentioned, 85 
Navigation Laws, resisted by the 

people, 19 
New Bern, founding of, 32; battle 

of, 228 
Newspapers in North Carolina, 

Non-Importation Association, 66- 

67, 80 
North Carolina Railroad, 198-199 
North Carolina-Virginia Boundary 

Line, 44-46 

Peabody Education Board, 207 

Pender, Major-General William D., 

Penn, John, birth, 93; education, 
93; moves to North Carolina, 93; 
in the Assembly, 95; elected dele- 
gate to the Continental Congress, 
95-97; urges resistance to the 
King, 98; signs Articles of Con- 
federation, 101 ; member of Board 
of War, 102; death, 102-103; 
monument to, 103 

Perry, Commodore M. C, com- 
mands expedition to Japan, 189|f 
•iW, 201-202 

Person, Thomas, 85; opposes Fed- 
eral Constitution, 140 

Pettigrew, James Johnston, pre- 
pares for war, 247-248; enters 
Confederate army, 248; in prison, 
249; at the battle of Gettysburg, 
249-251; death, 251-252 

Pirates, 43-44 

Polk, Leonidas L., commissioner of 
agriculture, 276 

Pollock, Thomas, arrested by Sothel, 
26; birth, 26; comes to North 
Carolina as deputy of Lord Car- 
teret, 26; as a planter, 27; rival 
of Moseley, 31; president of the 

Council, 34; defends settlers, 
against Indians, 35; makes treaty 
with Tom Blunt, 35; establishes 
peace in the colony, 36; death, 36 

Population of North Carolina, 1870- 
1910, 293 

Potato, the, taken to England, 7 

Prohibition in North Carolina, 291 

Provincial Council, 82 

Pullen, Richard Stanhope, donates 
land for college, 277 

Quakers, in the colony, 30; refuse 
to take Oath of Allegiance, 40-41 
Quincy, Josiah, visits Harnett, 80 

Railroads, 195; since 1865, 285 
Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, 195 
Raleigh, City of, name, 1 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, birth, 1; early 
life, 1-2; knighted by the Queen 
2; sends expedition to America, 3 
send a colony to Roanoke, 5 
plants the potato in Ireland, 7 
learns to smoke, 7; sends a second 
colony to Roanoke, 7; busy 
against the Spanish Armada, 9; 
loses the Queen's favor, 11; 
thrown into prison by King 
James, 11; death, 11-12 
Ramsauer's Mill, battle of, 135 
Ramseur, Major-General Stephen 

D., 242, 254 
Randolph, John, of Roanoke, 150, 

152; tribute to Macon, 157 
Ransom, Matt W., 190 
Reconstruction, 205-206, 262 
Regulators, the, 107 
Religion, in colonial days, 30 
Resolution of April 12, 1776, declar- 
ing for independence, 85-86; effect 
on other colonies, 100 
Richardson, Rev. William, 132 
Roanoke Island, explored by Ama- 
das and Barlow, 3; selected for 
colony, 4; Lane's colony, 5; 
White's colony on, 7 
Rogers, Sergeant John, on expedi- 
tion to Fort Duquesne, 55-56 
Roosevelt, Theodore, tribute to 

Blakely, 167 
Rough and Ready Guards, raised 
by Vance, 227-228 



Ruffin, Chief Justice Thomas, 193, 
utherford, General Griffith, 121 

St. Paul's Church, 31 

Schenck, Michael, erects first cotton 
mill in North Carolina, 280 

Secession, 187-188, 203-204 

Sevier, John, early life, 122; moves 
to North Carolina, 123; marriage 
123-124; raises troops against 
• Ferguson, 124-128; governor of 
the State of Franklin, 129; 
arrested, 129; escape, 129-130; 
last days, 130 

Shelby, Isaac, early life, 121-122; 
colonel of North Carolina militia, 
122; in King's Mountain cam- 
paign, 124-128; moves to Ken- 
tucky, 128; governor of Kentucky 
128; in the War of 1812, 128-129; 
death, 129 

Slaves and slavery, 27, 202-203 

Social life in the colony, 28-29 

Sothel, Seth, governor of North 
Carolina, 22-23, 26 

South Carolina, sends aid against the 
Indians, 34-35; secession of, 203 

Southern Education Board, 270-271 

Spaight, Richard Dobbs, governor 
of North Carolina, member of 
Convention of 1787, 139 

Spencer, Samuel, opposes Federal 
Constitution, 140 

Stamp Act, the, 59, 65, 77-80 

State Normal and Industrial Col- 
lege, 268-270 

Stono Ferry, battle of, 134 

Supreme Court of North Carolina, 
created, 174 

Swain, David Lowrie, governor of 
North Carolina, 224 

Tea tax, 65 

Tobacco, carried to England, 7; 

used for money, 18; manufacture 

of, 282 
Trinity College, 210 
Tryon, William, governor of North 

Carolina, defeats the Regulators, 

60; resists the Assembly, 68; 

fails to enforce Stamp Act, 79-80 

Twenty-sixth North Carolina Regi- 
ment, 228, 151 

Tyler, John, tribute to Macon 157, 
mentioned, 196 

University of North Carolina, found- 
ing of, 141-142; customs at in 
early days, 160; 141-142, 155, 
160, 179-180, 183, 193, 210, 213, 
220, 224, 242, 247, 262, 264; re- 
opened after Civil War, 289 

Vail, Edward, member of Committee 
of Correspondence, 68 

Vance, Zebulon Baird, governor of 
North Carolina, 205; birth, 222; 
education, 223; his mother, 223- 
224; at the University, 224; 
admitted to the bar, 226; in the 
Legislature and in Congress, 226; 
opposes secession, 226-227; as an 
orator, 226-227; goes to war, 227; 
at battle of New Bern, 228-230; 
in battles around Richmond, 230; 
elected governor, 231-232, 236- 
237; services as governor, 232, 
236; speeches to army in Vir- 
ginia, 233-234; sends out block- 
ade runners, 234-235; in prison, 
235-236; elected United States 
senator, 237-238; death, 238 

" Virginia," named by Elizabeth, 4-5. 

Virginia, settlers from, come to 
North Carolina, 14 

Virginia-North Carolina boundary 
line, 44-46 

Waddell, Hugh, the elder, comes to 
America, 51 

Waddell, Hugh, his son, birth, 51; 
comes to North Carolina, 52; 
appointed captain of North Caro- 
lina troops, 52-53; sent to western 
frontier, 53; builds Fort Dobbs, 
53; makes treaty with Indians. 
54; relieves Fort Loudon, 54; 
joins expedition against Fort 
Duquesne, 54-56; defends Fort 
Dobbs, 56-57; forces Indians to 
make peace, 57; as an Indian 
fighter, 58; in the General As- 
sembly, 58; marriage, 58; poli- 
tical honors, 59; resists the 



Stamp Act, 59; serves against the 
Regulators, 60; death, 60 
Wake Forest College, 210 
Wanchese, Indian warrior, goes to 
England; 4; returns to Roanoke 
5; plans destruction of Lane's 
colony, 6 
War of 1812, 159, 162-167, 176 
Warren County, formed, 146 
Washington, George, 55-56, 109-110 
Wasp, the, commanded by Blakely, 

162-166; loss of, 166 
Western North Carolina, 222-223 
Western North Carolina Railroad, 

White, John, governor of "Virginia," 
7; returns to England, 8; returns 
to Roanoke, 9; searches for his 
colony, 10-11 
Whiting, Major-General W. H. C, 

Wiley, Calvin Henderson, superin- 
tendent of common schools, 211- 
212; birth, 212; education, 212- 
213; author, 213; proposes crea- 
tion of office of superintendent of 

common schools, 213-214; elected 

to the General Assembly, 214-215; 

elected superintendent of common 

schools, 215; his work for education, 

215-217; keeps schools open during 

Civil War, 218; enters the Ministry, 

219; death, 220. 
Williams, James, in King's Mountain 

campaign, 124 
Williams, John, signs Articles of 

Confederation, 102 
Williamson, Hugh, member of the 

Convention of 1787, 139 
Wilmington, 46 
Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, 

Wilson, James W., builds Western 

North Carolina Railroad, 287 
Winder, John Cox, railroad builder, 

Winston, George Tayloe, president 

University, 264; president of A. 

and M. College, 277 
Wyatt, Henry, L., 244 

Yancey, Bartlett, 201