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Л/|м1_АС0Ь061А 



International Journal of Malacology 

Г: I 



Classification ancfFTbmënclator 
of Gastropod Families 



Philippe Bouchet & Jean-Pierre Rocroi 




/" "'I'Hi^ 





CorrcnUooks 




Vol. 47(1-2) 




MALACOLOGIA 
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Copyright © 2005 by the Institute of Malacology 
ISSN: 0076-2997 ISBN 3-925919-72-4 



2005 
EDITORIAL BOARD 



J.A.ALLEN 

Marine Biological Station 

Millport. United Kingdom 

E.E.BINDER 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle 

Geneve, Switzerland 

P. BOUCHET 

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 

Paris. France 

P. CALOW 

University of Sheffield 
Stieffield, United Kingdom 

RA. D.CAMERON 
University of Sheffield 
Sheffield. United Kingdom 

J. G. CARTER 

University of North Carolina 

Chapel Hill. NC 

M. CHARRIER 
Université de Rennes 
Rennes. France 

R. H.COWIE 
University of Hawaii 
Honolulu. HI 

A, H. CLARKE, Jr. 
Portland. ТХ 

B. С. CLARKE 
University of Nottingham 
Nottingham. United Kingdom 

R.T DILLON, Jr. 
College of Charleston 
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University of Liverpool 
Liverpool. United Kingdom 

D.J.EERNISSE 

California State University Fullerton 

Fullerton. CA 

E. GITTENBERGER 

Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie 

Leiden. Netherlands 

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Université di Siena 
Siena. Italy 



A. N. GOLIKOV 
Zoological Institute 
St. Petersburg. Russia 

A. V. GROSSU 
Universitatea Bucaresti 
Romania 

T HABE 

Tokai University 

Shimizu, Japan 

R. T HANLON 

Marine Biological Laboratory 

Woods Hole. MA 

G HASZPRUNAR 

Zoologische Staatssammlung München 

München. Germany 

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Queensland Museum 
South Brisbane. Australia 

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University of Texas 
Austin. TX 

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B. HUBENDICK 
Naturhistoriska Museet 
Göteborg. Sweden 

S.HUNT 

University of Central Lancashire 

Lancashire. United Kingdom 

R. JANSSEN 

Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 
Frankfurt am Main. Germany 

M.S.JOHNSON 

University of Western Australia 

Crawley. Australia 

R. N.KILBURN 
Natal Museum 
Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 



M. A. KLAPPENBACH 
Museum of Natural History 
Montevideo, Uruguay 



J.KNUDSEN 
Zoologisk Museum 
K0benhavn, Denmark 



C.MEIER-BROOK 
Tübingen, Germany 

С. LYDEARD 
University of Alabama 
Tuscaloosa, AL 

H.K. MIENIS 

Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

Jerusalem. Israel 

J. E. MORTON 
Auckland University 
Auckland, New Zealand 

J. J. MURRAY, Jr. 
University of Virginia 
Charlottesville, VA 

R. NATARAJAN 
Marine Biological Station 
Porto Novo, India 

D.ÓFOIGHIL 
University of i\/lichiigan 
Ann Arbor, Ml 

J. 0KLAND 
University of Oslo 
Oslo, Norway 

T. OKUTANI 
University of Fisheries 
Tokyo, Japan 

W. L. PARAENSE 
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

J.J.PARODIZ 

Carnegie Museum of Natural History 

Pittsburgh, PA 

R. PIPE 

Plymouth Marine Laboratory 

Devon, United Kingdom 

J. R POINTIER 

Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes 

Perpignan Cedex, France 

W. F. PONDER 
Australian Museum 
Sydney, Australia 

01 Z. Y 

Academia Sínica 

Qingdao, People's Republic of China 



D.G. REID 

The Natural History Museum 

London. United Kingdom 

S. G. SEGERSTRÄLE 
Institute of Marine Research 
Helsinki. Finland 

A. STANCYKOWSKA 
Siedlce, Poland 

RSTARMÜHLNER 

Zoologisches Institut der Universität Wien 

Wien, Austria 



YI.STAROBOGATOV 
Zoological Institute 
St. Petersburg, Russia 



J. STUARDO 

Universidad de Concepción 

Valparaiso, Chile 

C.THIRIOT 

University Pierre et Marie Curie 

Paris, France 

STILLER 

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 

Paris. France 

J. A. M. VAN DEN BIGGELAAR 
State University of Utrecht 
Utrecht, Netherlands 

N.H. VERDONK 
Rijksuniversiteit 
Utrecht, Netherlands 

H. WÄGELE 

Ruhr-Universität Bochum 
Bochum, Germany 

A. WAREN 

Museum of Natural History 
Stockholm, Sweden 

B. R.WILSON 

Conservation and Land Management 
Kallaroo, Western Australia 

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Naturkundemuseum 
Leipzig, Germany 

A. ZILCH 

Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 

Frankfurt am Main, Germany 



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MALACOLOGIA, 2005, 47(1-2): 1-397 



CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



Researched and edited by 

Philippe Bouchet & Jean-Pierre Rocroi 

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 
55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France: fDbouchet@mnhn.fr 



With classification by 

Jiri Fryda 

Czech Geological Survey 
Praha, Czech Republic 



Bernhard Hausdorf 

Zoologisches Institut 
Universität Hamburg, Germany 



Winston Ponder 

The Australian Museum 
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 



Ángel Valdés 

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 
Los Angeles, California, USA 



Anders Waren 

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet 
Stockholm, Sweden 



2 BOUCHET&ROCROI 

CONTENTS 

Abstract 4 

Introduction 4 

Part 1. Nomenclátor of Gastropod Family-Group Names 

[Bouchet & Rocroi] 5 

A Summary of the Rules of Nomenclature Applying to Family-Group Names 5 

Availability of Names 5 

Formation of Names 8 

Validity 10 

Principle of Coordination 11 

Status of Names in the Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology 12 

Cases to be Submitted to the Commission 12 

Nomenclátor 12 

Epidemiology of Gastropod Family-Group Names 12 

Format of the List 16 

Nomenclátor of Gastropod Family-Group Names 17 

List of Gastropod Names Above the Family Group 1 87 

Part 2. Working Classification of the Gastropoda 

[Bouchet, Fiyda, Hausdorf, Ponder, Valdés & Waren] 239 

Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain systematic position, Neritimorpha, 
fossil "archaeogastropods"', fossil lower caenogastropods and fossil 
lower Heterobranchia [Fryda & Bouchef] 

Modern "archaeogastropods" [Waren & Bouchef] 

Modern Caenogastropoda, modern lower Heterobranchia [Ponder & Bouchef] 

Cephalaspidea, Thecosomata, Gymnosomata, Aplysiomorpha, Umbraculida, 
Acochlidiacea, Sacoglossa, Cylindobullida, Nudipleura [Valdés & Bouchef] 

Pulmonata [Hausdorf & Bouchef] 

Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain systematic position 241 

Basal taxa that are certainly Gastropoda 242 

Clade Patellogastropoda 242 

Clade Vetigastropoda 243 

Clade Cocculiniformia 245 

Clade Neritimorpha 245 

Paleozoic Neritimorpha of uncertain position 245 

Clade Cyrtoneritimorpha 246 

Clade Cycloneritimorpha 246 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Clade Caenogastropoda 247 

Caenogastropoda of uncertain systematic position 247 

Informal Group Architaenioglossa 247 

Clade Sorbeoconcha 248 

Clade Hypsogastropoda 249 

Clade Littohnimorpha 250 

Informai Group Ptenoglossa 254 

Clade Neogastropoda 254 

Clade Heterobranchia 257 

Informai Group Lower Heterobranchia 257 

Informai Group Opisthobranchia 258 

Clade Cephalaspidea 258 

Clade Thecosomata 259 

Clade Gymnosomata 259 

Clade Aplysiomorpha 260 

"Group" Acochlidiacea 260 

Clade Sacoglossa 260 

"Group" Cylindrobullida 261 

Clade Umbraculida 261 

Clade Nudipleura 261 

Clade Pleurobranchomorpha 261 

Clade Nudibranchia 261 

Clade Euctenidiacea 261 

Clade Dexiarchia 262 

Clade Pseudoeuctenidiacea 262 

Clade Cladobranchia 262 

Clade Euarminida 262 

Clade Dendronotida 262 

Clade Aeolidida 263 

Informai Group Pulmonata 263 

Informai Group Basommatophora 263 

Clade Eupulmonata 264 

Clade Systellommatophora 264 

Clade Stylommatophora 264 

Clade Elasmognatha 264 

Clade Orthurethra 265 

Informai Group Sigmurethra 266 

Acknowledgements 284 

References [Bouchet & Rocroi] 284 

Index 369 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 

ABSTRACT 

About 2,400 names at the rank of subtribe, tribe, subfamily, family and superfamily have 
been proposed for Recent and fossil gastropods. All names are listed in a nomenclátor 
giving full bibliographical reference, date of publication, type genus, and their nomencla- 
tura! availability and validity under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 
Another 730 names, established for categories above the family-group, and not regulated 
by the Code, are listed separately. A working classification attempts to reconcile recent 
advances in the phylogeny of the Gastropoda, using unranked clades above superfami- 
lies, and the more traditional approach, using hierarchical ranking below superfamily. Alto- 
gether, the classification recognizes as valid a total of 61 1 families, of which 202 are known 
exclusively as fossils and 409 occur in the Recent with or without a fossil record. The 
nomenclátor and classification will be updated in forthcoming editions to be published 
electronically. 



INTRODUCTION 

Molluscan taxonomists routinely use a num- 
ber of species- and genus-level nomenclators 
that either are shared with the rest of zoology 
(Sherborn 1902, 1922-1932; Neave 1939- 
1 950, continued by Edwards at al. 1 966-1 996) 
or are specific to the Mollusca (Ruhoff 1 980). 
Regrettably, however, there is no universal 
nomenclátor of molluscan family-group 
names, and as a consequence of the difficulty 
in establishing their authors and dates, tax- 
onomists do not always cite them in classifi- 
cations. Even when these are cited, a proper 
bibliographical reference is often lacking. This, 
in addition to an incomplete understanding or 
application of the rules of nomenclature above 
genus level, contributes to nomenclatural 
unstability. The purpose of the present paper 
is to provide accurate bibliographical and no- 
menclatural data for gastropod family-group 
names. The paper is organized in two parts: 
Part 1 is a nomenclátor of 2,400 names that 
have been proposed for Recent and fossil 
gastropods at the rank of subtribe, tribe, sub- 
family, family and superfamily; Part 2 places 
these names in a classification. In the currently 
very active phase of réévaluation of the phy- 
logeny of the gastropods, the classification is 
bound to become outdated. It will also elicit 
controversy, as different taxonomists have dif- 
ferent approaches to classification. However, 
a mere alphabetical listing of gastropod fam- 
ily-group names would be insufficient to bring 
to the attention of systematists the names they 
need to consider when they are reassessing 
the classification of selected parts of the Gas- 
tropoda. Although Part 2 attempts to reflect 
the current state-of-the-art of gastropod clas- 
sification, it should therefore essentially be 
viewed as a guide to nomenclaturally avail- 
able names, as the purpose of this paper is 



not to address the debate on classification 
methodologies or hierarchical vs non-hierar- 
chical classifications. Conversely, we hope that 
the nomenclatural part has the potential to 
remain a reference source for a longer time, 
as it will become outdated mainly by newly 
established names. 

The present publication is the result of bib- 
liographical work started in 1 987 to compile a 
nomenclátor of supraspecific names covering 
all molluscan taxa. Recent and fossil, other 
than Cephalopoda. All primary literature has 
been checked and copied from the original 
sources (Bouchet & Rocroi 1992). A total of 
25,000 genus-group (believed to be 97% com- 
plete), 3,700 family-group names, and 1,150 
names above the family-group (both believed 
to be more than 99% complete) have been 
captured. The result is a loose-leaf paper ver- 
sion and an electronic database. The present 
paper reports on our results on the 
supraspecific names that have been proposed 
for the Gastropoda, which alone account for 
70% of the names in our nomenclátor. 

The International Code on Zoological No- 
menclature (4"' edition) has set the conditions 
for the approval of a "List of Available Names" 
(Art. 79). Names entered in the List are 
deemed to have the date, availability, and 
other nomenclatural attributes given in the List. 
In addition, the List would be closed, that is 
names not entered in the List would be un- 
available under the Code. The List would be 
approved in parts, and gastropod family-group 
names could constitute one such "Part of the 
List". We encourage users of the present pub- 
lication to notify us with any omission and er- 
ror they would notice, so that the present 
nomenclátor, after amendments and correc- 
tions, could be submitted to ICZN to become 
an official Part of the List of Available Names 
in Zoology. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 
Part 1. NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILY-GROUP NAMES 



A Summary of the Rules of Nomenclature 
Applying to Family-Group Names 

The International Code of Zoological Nomen- 
clature (ICZN) defines the family group as in- 
cluding the taxa "at the ranks of superfamily, 
family, subfamily, tribe, subthbe, and any other 
rank below superfamily and above genus that 
may be desired" (Art. 35.1). The Code does 
not regulate the names of taxa above the fam- 
ily group (sometimes termed the class group), 
but family-group names are fully subject to the 
provisions of the Code, which determine 
among others how the names shall be formed, 
their availability, and nomenclatural validity. 
Whereas some rules apply to all names in the 
species, genus and family groups, other rules 
apply specifically to family-group names. As 
these rules are sometimes little known or mis- 
understood, it may be appropriate to summa- 
rize how they affect family-group names. 

Availability of Names 

Articles 10-20 determine the conditions of 
availability of scientific names. Of specific rel- 
evance to this nomenclátor of family-group 
names are Arts. 11.7 and 13.2, which state 
that: 

(1 ) "A family-group name when first published 
[...] must be a noun in the nominative plural 
formed from the stem of an available generic 
name [...]; the generic name must be a name 
then used as valid in the new family-group 
taxon"[Art. 11.7.1.1]. 
Examples: 

Because Phobalea is not an available ge- 
neric name, the name Priobaleinae A. J. 
Wagner, 1922, is not an available name. 
The name Gymnosomata Blainville, 1824, 
established as a family, is not available as a 
family-group name because it is not formed 
from a genus name. (This does not affect its 
availability by those who want to use it above 
superfamily, as such names are not regu- 
lated by the Code). 

Da Motta (1995) established the name 
Textiliinae, based on "Cylindrus [sic! = Cyl- 
inder] Montfort, 1810 as the type genus" and 
treated Textilia Swainson, 1840, as a syn- 
onym and thus not as a valid name. Under 
Art. 11.7.1.1 of the Code, Textiliinae is not 
an available name. 



(2) "A family-group name when first published 
must [...] be clearly used as a scientific name 
to denote a suprageneric taxon and not 
merely as a plural noun or adjective refer- 
ring to the members of a genus" [Art. 
11.7.1.2]. 

Two cases need to be discussed here: da 
Costa's family names and Troschel's names 
established as plurals. 
Da Costa (1776) appears to have been the 
first author who used the word "family" in a 
classification of the molluscs, and these 
names require specific discussion. Da Costa 
subdivided the shelled molluscs into three 
divisions: Univalves, Bivalves and Multi- 
valves. Each division was further subdivided 
into orders, sections (in one order of bivalves 
only), and families. Shelled molluscs {sensu 
da Costa) consisted of 32 families, of which 
16 families are "Univalves" (i.e., gastropods, 
scaphopods and cephalopods). Some of the 
family names (Patella, Haliotis, Cylindri, 
Voluta, Cassides, Trochi, Buccina and 
Murex) are Latin names, apparently formed 
on a stem-genus, and it is necessary to dis- 
cuss their availability under the Code. First, 
it should be noted that da Costa uses cer- 
tain generic names with a meaning radically 
different from that of his contemporaries. For 
instance, da Costa uses "Voluta or Volute" 
for species of Conus, but the only species 
of Volutidae illustrated by him is identified 
as the "Melon Tun" of the family Globosa. 
Da Costa's Strombus is a fasciolariid, 
whereas he illustrates a species of Strombus 
as "A Murex of the Alata genus". Second, da 
Costa's family names are most frequently 
formed by the first word of polynominal ge- 
neric names. For instance, the family Cylindri 
contains two genera, Cylindri emarginati and 
Cylindri marginati. The family Buccina con- 
tains six genera: Buccina Canaliculata, 
Buccina Recurvirostra, Buccina Rostrata, 
Buccina Umbilicata, Buccina Columella 
dentata vel plicata, and Strombus [a 
fasciolariid, see above]. Other names, such 
as Turbinata involuta, Auris Cochlea, 
Globosa, Cochleae, and even Voluta, are 
plurals not based on a genus. In conclusion, 
even in the context of his time, da Costa's 
usage of family and genus names is incon- 
sistent with the principles of Articles 4.1 and 
11.7.1 .2 of the Code. It seems best to inter- 
pret Da Costa's family names as plural 



BOUCHET&ROCRO! 



nouns that do not qualify under Art. 11.7.1.2. 
Troschel (1857 [in 1856-1891]) used the 
names Bithyniae, Lithoglyphi, Hydrobiae, 
Ancyloti, Thiarae and Pachychili in headings 
that have usually been considered to denote 
family-group rank. However, Troschel's 
(1857: 95-129) treatment of these names 
contrasts with the rest of his work (Troschel 
1856-1863 [in 1856-1891]), in which he 
stated the ranks of the categories he used 
and formed the names with the endings 
-idea, -ina, or -acea. Troschel's intentions 
with regard to the names formed as plurals 
are explained on pp. 94-95: 
"J. E. Gray, in the system summarized above 
[Gray, 1853], characterized each family, and 
grouped them according to the constitution 
of the operculum. I would have liked to fol- 
low his subdivision in our description of the 
dentition, if the resulting differentiations 
would have agreed with Gray's families. In 
the Cyclostomacea in the older sense the 
constitution of the operculum provided an 
excellent guide to the differentiation of fami- 
lies, and the dentition confirmed this. Here 
clarification is not easy. I studied and drew a 
large number of opercula, usually of just the 
same species of which I studied the denti- 
tion. I did not gain a clear-cut correspon- 
dence from this, and therefore I cannot 
decide to assume families on the basis of 
opercular differences. Likewise I would not 
like to base families based on certain pecu- 
liarities of the dentition, because I cannot 
foresee the consequences despite my rather 
rich material, and because genera which 
hitherto were [considered to be] distant, 
would become closely related, and vice 
versa. Therefore, no other way is left for me 
but to discuss the genera in small groups, 
without wishing to assign to them the value 



TABLE 1. Authorship of family-group names 
when Troschers 1857 plurals are treated as 
unavailable. 



Spelling in Troschel, 
1857 



First availability after 
Troschel 



Ancyloti not used after Troschel 

Bithyniae Gray, 1857 

Hydrobiae Stimpson, 1865 

Lithoglyphi Tryon, 1866 

Pachychili P. Fischer & Crosse, 1892 

Thiarae Gill, 1871 



of families" [translated from German by 
D. Kadolsky]. 

Such names could perhaps be considered 
to be "means of temporary reference" in the 
sense of Art. 1 .3.5 (Kadolsky, pers. comm.), 
which would exclude them from the provi- 
sions of the Code. However, the names 
Bithyniidae (Opinions 475 and 1664) and 
Hydrobiidae (Opinion 2034) have been 
placed on the Official List with Troschel, 1 857 
as author. We see two alternatives on how 
to treat Troschel's (1857) names: (a) either 
be inconsistent and treat Bithyniae and 
Hydrobiae as available and Lithoglyphi, 
Ancyloti, Thiarae and Pachychili as unavail- 
able; (b) or be consistent and treat them all 
as available (contrary to Art. 11.7.1.2) or 
unavailable (contrary to Opinions 1664 and 
2034). Because there are no negative no- 
menclatural consequences (no displacement 
of accepted valid names), and because no- 
menclature becomes impenetrable when its 
application requires reference to too many 
specific decisions, we have decided to be 
consistent and treat all of Troschel's 1857 
as unavailable. This has also the positive 
consequence of eliminating Ancyloti which, 
if considered an available name, would have 
to be treated as an incorrect original spell- 
ing of "Anculosinae", based on Anculosa Say, 
1821; "Anculosinae Troschel, 1857" would 
then be a senior synonym of Pleuroceridae 
P. Fischer, 1865(1863). 

(3) "A family-group name when first published 
must [...] not be based on certain names 
applied only to fossils and ending in the suf- 
fix -ites, -ytes, or -ithes [Art. 20]" [Art. 
11.7.1.4]. 

Example: 

Cypraeacitinae Schilder, 1930, is notan avail- 
able name because its type genus 
Cypraeac//es Schlotheim, 1820, is not avail- 
able under Art. 20. 

(4) "If a family-group name was published be- 
fore 1900, [...] but not in latinized form, it is 
available with its original author and date only 
if it has been latinized by later authors and 
has been generally accepted as valid by 
authors interested in the group concerned 
and as dating from that first publication in 
vernacular form" [Art. 11.7.2]. 
Examples. 

"Styliolacées" (French vernacular) of Fol, 
1875 [published before 1900 but never 
latinized], is not an available name. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



The author of Scurriini is Lindberg, 1 988, and 
not Thiem, 1 91 7, who established "Scurrilden" 
a German vernacular name published after 
1900, and thus not an available name. 
The author of the name Facelininae is not 
Vayssière, 1888, because when Bergh es- 
tablished it in the Latin form, he did not refer 
to the French vernacular "Facelinidés" of 
Vayssière, and the name is now universally 
attributed to Bergh, 1889. 
The name Titiscaniidae is universally attrib- 
uted to Bergh, 1890, who established it as 
the German vernacular "Die Titiscanien, eine 
Familie der rhipidoglossen Gasteropoden", 
although it was first latinized by Thiele, 1 891 . 
The major difficulty in the application of this 
paragraph concerns names introduced 
mostly by French authors between 1800 and 
1830. For example, Lamarck, Férussac, and 
Latreille, created numerous names in ver- 
nacular form that were often latinized by their 
translators and/or followers, notably Menke, 
Children, and Bowdich. Although many of 
these names are now accepted as valid in 
current classifications, there is no "generally 
accepted" usage regarding their authorship. 
One of the reasons contributing to this lack 
of established consensus is that many trea- 
tises and textbooks of malacology deliber- 
ately omit authorship for family-group names. 
For that reason, different authors have in- 
terpreted Article 11.7.2 of the Code differ- 
ently, a situation that perpetuated the lack 
of consensus. 

(5) Description/Diagnosis. 
Since the 1960editionof the Code, Art. 13.1 
requires that: 

"To be available, every new name published 
after 1 930 [...] must 

1 3. 1 . 1 . be accompanied by a description or 
definition that states in words characters that 
are purported to differentiate the taxon, or 

13.1.2. be accompanied by a bibliographic 
reference to such a published statement [...]". 
Applicability of this rule to family-group 
names established after 1960 is unambigu- 
ous. Conversely, its application to names 
published after 1930 and before 1961 was, 
under the 1 ''', 2"'^ and 3'^* editions of the Code, 
controversial (Bock, 1994). To leave some 
flexibility on this issue, the 4th edition of the 
Code now allows that: "A family-group name 
first published after 1930 and before 1961 
which does not satisfy the provisions of Ar- 
ticle 13.1 is available from its original publi- 
cation only if it was used as valid before 



2000, and also was not rejected by an au- 
thor who, after 1960 and before 2000, ex- 
pressly applied Article 13 of the current 
editions of the Code" [Art. 13.2.1]. 
To summarize: 

- before 1931: description or definition not 
necessary; 

- after 1 930 and before 1 961 : description or 
definition necessary, with exceptions ruled 
by Art. 13.2.1; 

- after 1960: description or definition neces- 
sary, without exception. 

Examples: 

Knight (1956) introduced numerous family 
group names without a description and jus- 
tified his action by the following sentence: 
"Since the full systematic treatment and full 
diagnoses of these taxa will appear within 
the year and since diagnoses are not requi- 
site for validity of familial names, though rec- 
ommended, they are omitted here". Thus, it 
was not by oversight or deliberate ignorance 
of the rules of nomenclature that Knight de- 
cided not to give any description. The name 
Euphemitinae Knight, 1 956, established with- 
out a description or definition, is now in cur- 
rent use and aftributed to Knight, 1956, and 
not to Knight, Batten & Yochelson, 1 960, who 
ftrst gave a diagnosis. Euphemitinae Knight, 
1956, is available under Art. 13.2.1. 
Because the name Bertheliniinae was estab- 
lished by Beets, 1949, without a description 
or definition, it was regarded as unavailable 
from this original publication by Le Renard 
étal. (1996) under Art. 13a of the 3rd edition 
of the Code then in force. Bertheliniinae 
Beets, 1949, is not an available name, but 
Bertheliniinae Keen & Smith, 1961, is avail- 
able because these authors provided a di- 
agnosis. 

The name Microdisculidae was established 
by Iredale & McMichael, 1962, without a 
description or definition, and a description 
or definition has not been published subse- 
quently by any author. Microdisculidae is not 
an available name. 

Because the name Distorsioninae was es- 
tablished by Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1 971 , 
without a description or definition, it is un- 
available from that publication. Distorsi- 
oninae is available from Beu, 1981, who 
published a diagnosis. 

(6) Conditional proposal. 
"A new name or nomenclatural act proposed 
conditionally and published after 1960 is not 
thereby made available" [Art. 15.1]. 



8 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Example: 

When establishing the new genus Lapinura, 
Er. & Ev. Marcus (1970) wrote: "[Metaruncina 
setoensis Baba] is certainly different from 
[lldica nana Bergh], so that the systematic 
position of the latter according to its exter- 
nal or internal shell can only be settled by 
new material of lldica nana. If this species 
had an inner shell, Lapinura would be the 
only runcinacean with an outer shell, and the 
family would have to be called Lapinuridae". 
Under Art. 15.1, Lapinuridae Er. & Ev. Marcus, 
1970, is not available name. 

Formation of Names 

Articles 25-34 determine the formation and 
treatment of names. Of specific relevance to 
family-group names are Articles 29 [Forma- 
tion of family-group names] and 32 [Original 
spellings]. 

Article 32.5.3 states that: 

"A family-group name is an incorrect origi- 
nal spelling and must be corrected if it 

32.5.3.1. has an incorrectly formed suffix 
[Art. 29.2], or 

32.5.3.2. is formed from an unjustified emen- 
dation of a generic name (unless the unjusti- 
fied emendation has become a replacement 
name), or 

32.5.3.3. is formed from an incorrect subse- 
quent spelling of a generic name [Art. 35.4.1]; 
or 

32.5.3.4. is formed from one of two or more 
original spellings of a genus-group name not 
selected by the First Reviser [Art. 24.2.3]". 

"An incorrect original spelling has no sepa- 
rate availability in the original form and can- 
not, in that form, enter into homonymy or be 
used as a replacement name" [Art. 32.4]. 
Examples: 

The tribe rank name Glabrocingulides Gor- 
don & Yochelson, 1987, has an incorrectly 
formed suffix and must be corrected to 
Glabrocingulini. 

Homalaxinae Cossmann, 1916, is formed 
from Homalaxis P. Fischer, 1885, an unjus- 
tified emendation of Omalaxis Deshayes, 
1832. Homalaxinae is an incorrect original 
spelling that must be corrected to Omalaxinae. 
Ferrussacia [note double r] is an incorrect 
subsequent spelling of Ferussacia Risso, 
1826, [single r] (stem Ferussaci-) and 
Ferrussacidae Bourguignat, 1883, is an in- 
correct original spelling that must be cor- 
rected to Ferussaciidae. 



Laiocochliinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987, 
is formed from Laiocochlis Dunker & 
Metzger, 1 874, one of several original spell- 
ings. Opinion 1700 selected Laeocochlis as 
the correct original spelling and 
Laiocochliinae must be corrected to 
Laeocochlidinae. 

Article 29 states that: "A family-group name 
is formed by adding to the stem of the name 
of the type genus [Art. 29.3], or to the entire 
name of the type genus [Art. 55.3], a suffix as 
specified in Article 29.2" [Art. 29.1]. 

The stem of the names of type genera is 
determined by Art. 29.3 in accordance with the 
rules of Latin grammar. The first, second and 
third editions of the Code ruled that a family- 
group name with a wrongly formed stem was 
an incorrect original spelling that must be cor- 
rected. However, the 4"^ edition of the Code 
now rules that: 

"If a spelling of a family-group name was not 
formed in accordance with Article 9.3 but is in 
prevailing usage, that spelling is to be main- 
tained, whether or not it is the original spelling 
and whether or not its derivation from the name 
of the type genus is in accordance with the 
grammatical procedures in Articles 29.3.1 and 
29.3.2" [Art. 29.5]. 

The purpose of Art. 29.5 is to avoid destabi- 
lizing family-group names in current use by 
requiring mandatory changes for purely gram- 
matical reasons. In the discussion preceding 
the publication of the 4th edition of the Code, 
the issue of adherence to the rules of the Latin 
grammar has seen the scientific community 
split. Some scientists see this adherence as 
part of the scholarship of their profession, oth- 
ers see it as an outdated remnant of the ep- 
och when zoologists had training in Latin and 
Greek. Although we have ourselves had that 
training, we do not want to impose our vision 
to the community of gastropod systematists, 
and we have followed the spirit of Art. 29. Ulti- 
mately, the question is whether we have sta- 
bility in the spelling of gastropod family-group 
names, and whether following the "grammati- 
cal niceties" (Wheeler, 1990) in Article 29.3 
would do more harm than good. It seems that 
the spelling of gastropod family-group names 
is an issue that has attracted little attention so 
far and, after conferring with a number of col- 
leagues, we have concluded that for a vast 
majority of the names there is no such thing 
as a "prevailing usage" that should eventually 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



be maintained against the rules of Latin gram- 
mar. Many colleagues in fact suggested that 
the present nomenclátor would probably be- 
come the standard reference for gastropod 
family-group names and that one of its conse- 
quences would be precisely to settle such 
nomenclatural issues. In this nomenclátor, we 
have been guided principally by adherence to 
the rules of Latin grammar [Art. 29.3], except 
where such adherence would contravene with 
the spirit of Art. 29.5. 

We have also been guided by consistency. 
We believe that consistently deriving family- 
group names formed on genera with similar 
endings offers advantages in memorizing the 
names. For instance, it is easier to memorize 
that the family-group names formed on 
Choanopoma and Rhytidopoma are Choano- 
poMATiNi and Rhytidopomatinae, rather than 
Choanopomatini (correctly formed original spell- 
ing) and Rhytidopominae (incorrectly formed 
original spelling). Similarly, Alcithoinae, 
Nectophyllirhoidae and Phylliroidae are gram- 
matically correctly formed on Alcithoe, 
Nectophyllirhoe and Phylliroe. As a conse- 
quence, we have corrected Lysinoeinae and 
OxYNOEiDAE, formod 0П Lysinoe and Oxynoe, 
to Lysinoinae and Oxynoidae. 

We have tabulated the fonnation of family-group 
names derived from the most commonly en- 
countered endings of a generic name (Table 2). 



Conversely, the rules of Latin and Greek 
grammar appear to have consistently been 
ignored in the formation of family-group names 
deriving from genera with the suffix -opsis and 
-ptyx (or -ptyxis). Although the rules would 
recommend family name endings in -opseidae 
and -ptychidae, respectively, the prevailing 
usage are endings in -opsidae and -ptyxidae, 
and we have not attempted to correct this. 

A special difficulty was encountered with 
names ending in -on, or -ion, and that cannot 
always easily be attributed to a recognizable 
Greek or Latin root. The original spellings of 
the family-group names formed on, e.g., 
Bothriembryon, Cerion, Coelocion, Sem perdón, 
and Sinumelon were Bothriembryontidae, 
Cerionidae, Coelociontidae, Semperdoninae, and 
SiNUMELONiNAE, respectively. There are good, but 
disputable, grammatical reasons to argue that 
the correctly formed spellings under Art. 29.3.1 
would be BoTHRiEMBRYiDAE, Ceriidae (and this 
spelling was indeed used by H. B. Baker, 1 957, 
and H. Nordsieck, 1986b), Coelociidae (and this 
spelling was used by Nordsieck, 1986), 
Semperdontinae, and Sinumelinae, but this would 
sometimes run against Art. 29.5, which rules to 
maintain current spellings in prevailing usage. 
Cerionidae is in prevailing usage with that spell- 
ing, but the other names have had only very 
limited usage, and we have chosen to main- 
tain the original spellings. 



TABLE 2. Most common gastropod generic suffixes and the formation of derived family-group names. 







Derived family 


Example 


Generic ending 


Meaning 


name ending 


Genus 


Family 


-axis 


axis (Latin) 


-AXIDAE 


Planaxis 


Planaxidae 


-ceras 


horn (Greek) 


-CERATIDAE 


IHaloceras 


Haloceratidae 


-ctilamys 


mantle (Greek) 


-CHLAMYDIDAE 


Trigonoclilamys 


Trigonochlamydidae 


-dens 


tooth (Latin) 


-DENTIDAE 


Rastodens 


Rastodentidae 


-derma 


skin (Greek) 


-DERMATIDAE 


Papilloderma 


Papillodermatidae 


-doma 


house (Greek) 


-DOMATIDAE 


Microdoma 


Microdomatidae 


-io 




-lONIDAE 


Obtortio 


Obtortionidae 


-loma 


mantle edge 


-LOMATIDAE 


Campeloma 


Campelomatinae 


-nema 


thread (Greek) 


-NEMATIDAE 


Gyronema 


Gyronematidae 


-odon 


tooth (Greek) 


-ODONTIDAE 


Trissexodon 


Trissexodontini 


-oe 




-OIDAE 


Phylliroe 


Phylliroidae 


-poma 


lid (Greek) 


-POMATIDAE 


Homalopoma 


HOMALOPOMATINAE 


-ptoma 




-PTOMATIDAE 


Metoptoma 


Metoptomatidae 


-ptygma 


fold (Greek) 


-PTYGMATIDAE 


Pleioptygma 


Pleioptygmatidae 


-ptyxis 




-PTYXIDAE 


Phaneroptyxis 


Phaneroptyxidae 


-soma 


body (Greek) 


-SOMATIDAE 


Helisoma 


Helisomatinae 


-stoma 


mouth (Greek) 


-STOMATIDAE 


Raphistoma 


Raphistomatidae 


-toma 


slit (Greek) 


-TOMIDAE 


Trochotoma 


Trochotomidae 


-trema 


hole (Greek) 


-TREMATIDAE 


Haplotrema 


Haplotrematidae 



10 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Examples: 

The stem of the genus Petropoma Gabb, 
1877, is Petropomat- [Code, 3^*^ edition. Ap- 
pendix D, Table 2], and Petropominae Cox, 
1 960, was, under the first, second and third 
editions of the Code, an incorrect original 
spelling that was to be corrected to 
Petropomatinae. It was so corrected by 
Hickman & McLean, 1990, and this is here 
considered the correct spelling. 
Semisinusinae p. Fischer & Crosse, 1891, is 
formed on Semisinus P. Fischer, 1885, an 
unjustified emendation [Art. 32.5.3] of 
Hemisinus Swainson, 1840. Semisinusinae is 
an incorrect original spelling that was cor- 
rected to Hemisinuinae by Thiele, 1928. How- 
ever, the stem of Hemisinus is Hemisin-, not 
Hemisinu-, and under Art. 29.3 the family- 
group name formed from Hemisinus is 
Hemisininae. There are very few works that 
deal with the taxonomy of this group of gas- 
tropods, and there is no "prevailing usage" 
that would justify maintaining the spellings 
Hemisinusinae or Hemisinuinae; we have thus 
considered Hemisininae to be the correct 
spelling. The author of Hemisininae is P. 
Fischer & Crosse, 1 891 . 
The stem of the genus Morum Röding, 1 798, 
is Mor- and the derived family-group name 
should be Morinae. However, as there was 
already a family Moridae Goode & Bean, 
1896, based on the fish genus Mora Risso, 
1826, Hughes & Emerson (1987) established 
MoRUMiNAE from Morum. This was the right 
approach under Art. 29.6, and Moruminae is 
a correct spelling under Art. 29.1. 
However, under Art. 55.3.1, changing the 
stem of an existing family-group name to 
avoid homonymy can be done only by the 
Commission. Schileyko (1998 [in 1998- 
2003]) emended Buliminidae Kobelt, 1880 
(based on Buliminus Beck, 1837), to 
BuLiMiNuiDAE to avoid homonymy with 
Buliminidae Jones, 1875 (based on Bulimina 
d'Orbigny, 1826). This was not permissible 
under the Code, and the case had to be 
brought to the Commission for a ruling. 
Hausdorf (2001 ) petitioned the Commission 
to that effect, and Opinion 2018 ruled 
BuLiMiNusiDAE to be the correct spelling. 

Validity 

The taxonomical validity of a nominal taxon 
is determined subjectively by the opinion of 
individual taxonomists. An author may con- 



sider that two nominal family-group names are 
valid when another author may consider them 
the same taxon, with one name a junior syn- 
onym of the other. Taxonomical validity is not 
determined by the Code and is not considered 
in this nomenclátor. 

Nomenclatural validity is a different issue that 
is determined objectively by the application of 
the Code. Validity is determined by Art. 23 
[Principle of Priority] and 24 [Principle of the 
First Reviser], as well as parts of Arts. 35-41 
[Family-Group Taxa and Names]. Of particu- 
lar relevance to this nomenclátor are the fol- 
lowing Articles. 

(1) "The name of a family-group taxon is in- 
valid if the name of its type genus is a junior 
homonym or has been suppressed by the 
Commission" [Art. 39]. 

Examples: 

The name Polytropidae Koken, 1925, is in- 
valid because its type genus Polytropis de 
Koninck, 1881, is a junior homonym of 
Po/yirop/s Sandberger, 1875. 
The name Xerophilidae Mörch, 1864, is in- 
valid because its type genus Xerophila Held, 
1838, has been placed by Opinion 431 on 
the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid 
Generic Names in Zoology. 

(2) "When the name of a type genus of a nomi- 
nal family-group taxon is considered to be a 
junior synonym of the name of another nomi- 
nal genus, the family group name is not to 
be replaced on that account alone" [Art. 
40.1]. 

Example: 

Hinoide & Habe (1978) placed Pedumicra 
Iredale & Laseron, 1957, in synonymy of 
Parastrophia de Folin, 1869, and replaced 
Pedumicrinae Iredale & Laseron, 1957, with 
the new name Parastrophiinae. This replace- 
ment is unjustified under the Code and the 
nomenclaturally valid name of the family- 
group taxon containing Pedumicra and 
Parastropfiia is Pedumicrinae. 

(3) "If, however, a family-group name was re- 
placed before 1961 because of the syn- 
onymy of the type genus, the replacement 
name is to be maintained if it is in prevailing 
usage. A name maintained by virtue of this 
Article retains its own author but takes the 
precedence of the replaced name of which 
it is deemed to be the senior synonym" [Art. 
40.2]. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



11 



Examples where Art. 40.2 does not apply: 
Suter (1909) placed Columbella Lamarck, 
1 799, and Pyrene Röding, 1 798, in the same 
family. He did not treat them as synonyms 
but, because Pyrene was the senior name, 
he used the new name Pyrenidae instead of 
CoLUMBELLiDAE Swainson, 1840. Pyrenidae is 
not a replacement name in the sense of Art. 
40.2, and it does not take the precedence of 

COLUMBELLIDAE. 

Dall (1866) established Pompholiginae based 
on Pompholyx Lea, 1856. However, the type 
genus is a junior homonym of Pompholyx 
Gosse, 1851 [Rotifera]. Lindholm (1927b) 
replaced Pompholyx and Pompholiginae with 
the names Pompholycodea and Pompholy- 
codeinae respectively. The replacement was 
not a consequence of synonymy of the type 
genus and Art. 40.2 does not apply. 
Examples where Art. 40.2 applies: 
Suter (1913) placed Dolium Lamarck, 1 801 , 
in synonymy of Tonna Brünnich, 1772, and 
replaced Doliidae Latreille, 1825, with the 
new name Tonnidae. Tonnidae is in prevail- 
ing usage and is to be maintained, with the 
precedence of Doliidae. It should be cited 
Tonnidae Suter, 1913(1825). 
Beyond such cases that fit literally to the 
wording of the Code, there is a broader ar- 
ray of cases in which the author establish- 
ing the younger family-group name did not 
explicitly state that he did so "because of the 
synonymy of the type genus". 
For instance, when he established the name 
DisciNAE, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]) did 
not state that he was replacing Patulinae 
Tryon, 1866, because of the synonymy of 
Patula Held, 1 837, nor did he even mention 
the name Patulinae, but he cited Patula as a 
synonym oWiscus Fitzinger, 1833. We have 
treated this as a situation covered by Art. 
40.2. DisciDAE is in prevailing usage and is 
to be maintained, with the precedence of 
Patulinae. It should be cited Discidae Thiele, 
1931 (1866). 

Departing still a little further from the letter 
of Art. 40.2, there are cases in which the 
author establishing the younger family-group 
name not only did not explicitly stated that 
he was doing so "because of the synonymy 
of the type genus" but not even mentioned 
the synonymy of the genera involved. 
For instance, when he established 
Melampidae, Stimpson (1851) did not state 
he was replacing Conovulidae W. Clark, 



1850, because of the synonymy of 
Conovulus Bowdich, 1822, nor did he men- 
tioned the names Conovulidae or Conovulus. 
However, Melampus Montfort, 1810, and 
Conovulus are (objective) synonyms, and 
Melampinae is in prevailing usage. We have 
also treated this as a situation covered by 
Art. 40.2, and we have maintained 
Melampinae Stimpson, 1851 (1850), as the 
valid name. 

Names that are invalid under Art. 39, or be- 
cause they have been placed on the Offi- 
cial Index, are permanently invalid, and 
cannot be used as valid in any classifica- 
tion. Taxonomical synonyms are also invalid, 
but only within the frame of a classification, 
and these may be resurrected by another 
author who has a different opinion about 
classification. 
Example: 

Our classification recognizes a family 
Phenacolepadidae with three synonyms, two 
of which are invalid under Art. 39. 
Family Phenacolepadidae Pilsbry, 1895 
[= Scutellidae Angas, 1871 (inv.); 
= Scutellinidae Dall, 1889 (inv.); 
= Shinkailepadidae Okutani, Saito & 
Hashimoto, 1989] 
A hypothetical author considering that the 
family necessitates more ranks between 
family and genus could come with another 
classification, e.g.: 
Family Phenacolepadidae Pilsbry, 1895 
SF Phenacolepadinae Pilsbry, 1895 
[= Scutellidae Angas, 1871 (inv.); 
= Scutellinidae Dall, 1889 (inv.)] 
SF Shinkailepadinae Okutani, Saito & 
Hashimoto, 1989 

Principle of Coordination 

Article 36 states that: "A name established 
for a taxon at any rank in the family group is 
deemed to be simultaneously established with 
the same author and date for taxa based upon 
the same name-bearing type (type genus) at 
other ranks in the family group, with appropri- 
ate mandatory change of suffix". 
Example: 

Ellis (1926) established the name Milacidae 
at family rank. He is deemed to have estab- 
lished that name at any other rank in the fam- 
ily group. The author and date of Milacinae 
is Ellis, 1926, despite that it was declared a 
new subfamily by Germain (1931). 



12 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Status of Names in the Officiai List of Family- 
Group Names in Zoology 

A number of family-group names have been 
placed on the Official List by the Commission 
of Nomenclature. The Code rules that: "The 
status of a name entered in an Official List is 
subject to the ruling(s) in any relevant 
Opinion(s) [...]; all other aspects of its status 
derive from the normal application of the Code" 
(Art. 80.6.2) and also that: "A name may be 
placed in an Official List without any additional 
qualification" (Art. 80.6.3). 

We have found a number of instances in 
which the authorship and/or date of publica- 
tion of a name entered on the Official List are 
erroneous, that is that name has been estab- 
lished earlier by the same or another author. 
For convenience, the corrections were pub- 
lished in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomencla- 
ture (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2001), but they did 
not require any action from the Commission. 
Since then, we have discovered another such 
erroneous entry: Opinion 1470 placed the 
name Eugmphalidae on the Official List and 
attributed it to de Koninck, 1 881 , when it was 
in fact first established by White, 1 877. 

Cases to be Submitted to the Commission 

Inevitably, a review of family-group names 
such as the present one has made apparent a 



number of nomenclatural cases that cannot 
be solved without a decision of the Commis- 
sion. The problems are simply discussed un- 
der the appropriate headings in the 
Nomenclátor or in the Appendices. It was felt 
inappropriate to prepare applications for pub- 
lication in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomen- 
clature before publication of the present work: 
first, because it is precisely the purpose of the 
present work to highlight the problems, elicit 
discussion and seek a consensus among 
malacologists; second, because it is not pos- 
sible to monopolize several issues of the Bul- 
letin of Zoological Nomenclature just to deal 
with the many cases involved. A solution to all 
these problems will probably take several 
years. Ultimately, the present Nomenclátor 
could, after amendments, become a Part of 
the List of Available Names in Zoology, as 
regulated by Article 79 of the Code. 

Nomenclátor 

Epidemiology of Gastropod Family-Group 
Names 

A total of 2,396 names at the rank of subtribe, 
tribe, subfamily, family, and superfamily have 
been proposed for Recent and fossil gastro- 
pods, or have, at one time or another, been 
used at these ranks. Of these, 336 are not 
available names, mainly because they are not 



potentially valid 
1947 



611 

taxonomically valid 
at family rank 



available 2060 



All names 
2396 



invalid 113 



1336 

synonyms or used 
at subfamily/tribe 
rank 



not available 336 



FIG. 1. How the nomenclatural and taxonomical filters operate on the 2,396 names established or 
used for gastropod families, subfamilies, tribes, or subtribes. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



13 



based on a genus name. This leaves 2,060 
names that meet the criteria of availability. Of 
these, 113 are permanently invalid, mainly 
because the type genus is a junior homonym; 
when these are eliminated, there are 1,947 
names that are potentially valid (Fig. 1 ). 

An analysis of the year of publication of the 
2,060 available names shows (Fig. 2) that, on 
average, 12.3 names have been established 
yearly since 1850. Three periods are above 
average: a brief, low peak in the 1850's; a 
second, much higher, sustained peak in the 
1920's-1930's, when a record total of 377 
names where established in just 20 years; and 
a third one, broader and regularly rising since 
the 1950's, marks modern times. 

The first peak corresponds to Gray's prolific 
writing, notably his Figures of molluscous ani- 
mals (1850b), Catalogue of Phaneropneu- 
mona (in L. Pfeiffer, 1853a), Division of 
ctenobranchous gasteropodous Mollusca 
(1853a), Catalogue of Pulmonata (1855), 
Guide to the systematic distribution of Mol- 



lusca in the British Museum (1857a); to H. & 

A. Adams' Genera of Recent Mollusca 
(1 8531 858); and to Troschel's Das Gebiss der 
Schnecken (1857-1858). The intervening 
years saw the publication of Paul Fischer's 
Manuel de conchyliologie et de paléontologie 
conchyliologique (1880-1887); Cossmann's 
Essais de paléoconchologie comparée (1 895- 
1924); and Pilsbry's prolific writing, including 
the second series of the Manual of conchol- 
ogy (1892-1926). The second peak is the re- 
sult of many more authors and publications, 
but particularly active in these years were H. 

B. Baker, Iredale, Odhner, Pilsbry, Thiele, and 
Wenz, with landmark works by Thiele, the 
Mollusca part of Kükenthal & Krumbach's 
Handbuch der Zoologie (1925-1926), leading 
to the Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde (1929-1931); and by Wenz, 
the land snail parts of Fossilium Catalogus 
(1 923-1 930) and the "Prosobranchia" part of 
Schindewolf's Handbuch der Paläozoologie 
(1938-1944). After World War II, which bites 



250 П 



200 



150- 




100- 



50- 



O■^CNC0•^ЮCDI^00CDOт-C^J0r)■^ЮCD^-CX)a5 1 

oooooooooooooocnoooocncncDcnaîCDOîaiCTja) I 

oooooooooooo ooooooooo 
От-сдсо'^юсо^-сюспот- с\1сО'!а-юсог^ооа>о 

ООООООСЙООСЮСЙООСЮСХЭСПСП aJCDCDCDCDCDCnOO 
^т-т-т-т-т-т-т-т-т-т-т- T-r-T-T--^-^T-T-CM 



FIG. 2. Number of available names (total 2,060) published during 
each decade since 1800. 



14 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



a deep dent in the histogram, the naming of 
gastropod families has been steady and in- 
volves still more researchers. To be singled 
out are the almost simultaneous works by 
Knight, Batten and Cox in preparation for the 
"archeogastropod" part of the Treatise on in- 
vertebrate paleontology {^960), Pchelintsev & 
Korobkov's Osnovy paleóntologa {^960), and 
Zilch's pulmonate part of the Handbuch der 
Paläozoologie (1959-1960). In the last two 
decades, the two main sources of new names 
have been Russian zoologists (Golikov, 
Schileyko, Starobogatov) and the "Mittel- 
europa" school of paleontologists (Bändel, 
Fryda, Gründel), which account respectively 
for 101 and 88 of the 451 new names pub- 
lished since 1980. 

The 2,060 available names involve a total 
of 491 authors or co-authors, and there are 
2,373 author-name pairs (as a name can have 
more than one author). 51% of authors ap- 
pear only once, 90% of the authors are re- 
sponsible for 41% of the pairs, and 10% of 
the authors are responsible for 59% of the 
names (Fig. 3; Table 3). 



TABLE 3. The ten authors responsible for estab- 
lishing the largest number of family-group names. 



Author 


Number of new family-group names 


Gray 


129 


Starobogatov 


76 


Thiele 


72 


Pilsbry 


69 


Wenz 


69 


Iredale 


62 


Bändel 


56 


Schileyko 


56 


Cossmann 


45 


Odhner 


42 



470 available names (23%) are based on 
genera with a fossil type species [for this ex- 
ercise, the five names based on a Pleistocene 
type species have been counted as Recent]. 
This can be viewed as a low overall propor- 
tion considering that the duration of the Cam- 
brian-Cretaceous interval represents 88% of 
the 570 million years of gastropod fossil record. 



150-1 



120- 



90- 




60- 



30- 



FIG. 3. Ranking of author-name pairs (total 2,373) by number of names published by 
author. To the left of the histogram, many authors are responsible for single author- 
name pairs; to the right, J. E. Gray alone is responsible for 129 names (Table 3). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



15 



100 n 




FIG. 4. Number of available family-group names (total 470) based on 
genera with a fossil type species, ranked by geological age of the type 
species. 



In fact, the vast majority of gastropod species 
that ever lived on the planet are now fossils. 
However, nearly one-fourth (24.6%) of all valid 
families occuring in the Recent are slugs, that 
do not leave a fossil record, and a still higher 
percentage of the modern diversity of Recent 
gastropods is not traceable in the fossil record 
when one considers the many families with 
featureless shells that can only be recognized 
anatomically (e.g., the hydrobioid families, 
numerous helicoid families, etc.). In the Pa- 



leozoic, there is a steady increase in the num- 
ber of gastropod families from Cambrian to 
Carboniferous, then a crash in the Permian 
(Fig. 4). In the Mesozoic, there are more 
names with a Jurassic type species than for 
any other pre-Tertiary period. 

Altogether, the classification recognizes as 
valid a total of 611 families, that is 31% of all 
1 ,947 potentially valid family-group names, are 
currently treated as taxonomically valid. The 
other 69% are either synonyms or used as 



TABLE 4. Number of Recent and fossil gastropod treated as valid in selected 
standard references. 



Work 


Author(s) 


No 


. of families 


Manuel de conchyliologie 


P. Fischer (1880-1887) 




157 




Taylors Sohl (1962) 




401 


Traité de Zoologie 


Franc (1968a, b, c) 
Termier & Termier (1968) 




323 


The Fossil Record 


Tracey, Todd & Erwin (1993) 




476 


Present work 






611 



16 BOUCHET&ROCROI 

TABLE 5. Numbers of Recent species and accepted families for selected animal taxa. 



Taxon No. of Recent species 



No. of Average no. of 

families species per family 



Source 



Gastropoda 


approximately 80,000 


409 


196 


this paper 


Odonata 


5,600 


28 


200 


Bridges (1991) 


Pisces 


27,683 


518 


53 


Froese & Pauly (2003) 


Mammalia 


4,629 


136 


34 


Wilsons Reeder (1992) 



valid at lower ranks (subfamilies, tribes). There 
are few standard works that have covered all 
gastropod clades. Recent and fossil. With 611 
families, the present classification has the 
highest number ever considered valid (Table 
4): this is nearly 4 times as many as in 
Fischer's Manuel de conchyliologie, 120 years 
ago. This is also still significantly more than in 
The fossil record; and the difference probably 
reflects a better coverage of slugs in the 
present classification, as well as progress in 
knowledge in the intervening years. Of the 611 
valid families, 202 are known exclusively as 
fossil and 409 occur in the Recent with or with- 
out a fossil record. If we suppose that there 
are 80,000 valid Recent named gastropod 
species, this is on average 196 species per 
family (Table 5). Compared to other major 
animal groups, gastropod classification uses 
proportionately about the same number of 
families as insects, but 4-6 times fewer than 
vertebrates. 

Format of the List 

The nomenclátor of gastropod family-group 
names presents the following information: 

(1 ) Name author, year [day, month] 

(2) Reference 

(3) Type genus 

(4) Remarks 

(1 ) In the case of authors with identical family 
names (e.g., Adams, Baker, Fischer, Miller, 
Smith), we have added initials. In the case 
of Chinese authors, we give under "Refer- 
ence" their full name as recommended by 
Xu & Nicolson (1 992). For German authors, 
we have followed German usage and have 
omitted the nobiliary particles from the 
author's name, for example Martens rather 
than von Martens (alphabetized under Mar- 
tens, von). This usage does not apply to 



Dutch names, which retain their nobiliary 
particles, for example van der Spoel (alpha- 
betized under van der Spoel). For French 
authors, we have followed prevailing usage, 
for example de Folin and de Boury, and 
Lamarck and Blainville, rather than de 
Lamarck and de Blainville (alphabetized 
under Folin, de, Boury, de, Lamarck, and 
Blainville, respectively). 
Precise dates of publication, to the month 
and day, have been searched in available 
published sources (often bio-bibliographies 
of authors) or obtained from the covers of 
journals. In the case of Soviet era materials, 
we have taken the "podpisano" as the earli- 
est possible date of publication, and we have 
indicated this as "after ["podpisano"] date". 
(The "podpisano" is the approval for printing 
by political authorities; it appears on the last 
printed page of a book, together with other 
information such as number of print copies). 
Russian colleagues (Y. Kantor, A. Sysoev, 
pers. comm.) indicate that publications were 
usually printed within weeks after the 
"podpisano" date. 

When a name takes its precedence from a 
senior unused synonym under Art. 40 of the 
Code, the inherited date of precedence ap- 
pears in parenthesis (Recommendation 40A 
of the Code). 

(2) Bibliographical references. We give in full 
the title of the journal or the series; in the 
case of series with complex volume number- 
ing, we indicate explicitly the name of parts 
(for example, Theil, Band, Heft). To standard- 
ize, the expression "new ser." (new series) is 
used also for journals in languages other than 
English in place of, for example, "Neue Folge" 
(German), "nouvelle série" (French). 

(3) Type genus. A dagger (t) before the name 
of a type genus indicates that its type spe- 
cies is a fossil. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



17 



(4) The "Remarks" contains such information 
as: original spelling [if an incorrect original 
spelling under Art. 32] and history of the 
name [if originally published as a vernacular 
name]; nomenclatural availability and valid- 
ity; references to changes of rank. 

Changes of Rank: Notwithstanding the Prin- 
ciple of Coordination [Art. 36], we have at- 
tempted to trace the changes in rank that each 
family-group name underwent. This is the con- 
cept of nomen translatum (abbreviated n.t.) 
that was consistently used in the Treatise on 
invertebrate paleontology. Under Art. 36, a 
change of rank in the family group does not 
affect the author and date of the name with 
modified suffix. 

The literature containing changes of rank is 
much larger than the primary literature con- 
taining new family-group names, and we have 
probably missed a good number of changes. 
We would like to stress, however, that this does 
not affect the nomenclature of taxa, but merely 
their subsequent taxonomical use. 

The rank of a family-group name is that at- 
tributed to it by an author in a classification or 
in a heading. However, when the author has 
used ranks in a meaning different from cur- 
rent usage, we have considered the rank that 
was intended rather than the rank nominally 
attributed by the author. A few specific cases 
need to be singled out: 

(a) Jousseaume (1894) has used "tribu" [= 
tribe] immediately below family rank and 
above genus, with the suffix -inae, and ex- 
plained rather confusingly (1894: 268): "I 
here consider as tribes the divisions that 
malacologists have elevated to family rank; 
all names ending in -inae are thus for me 
only tribes". We have considered such 
names as used at subfamily rank. Casey 
(1904) divided the family Pleurotomidae in 
eight tribes, with the suffix -ini, without any 
subfamily. We have considered Casey's 
"tribes" to be subfamilies. Conversely, 
Odhner (1939) used the word "tribe" to de- 
note categories above the family, his tribes 
containing several families. We have con- 
sidered such names as the names of subor- 
ders. 

(b) Cossmann (1905, 1906) used the word 
"cénacle" in reaction to the usage of 
"superfamille", which he disliked on vocabu- 
lary grounds (he ridiculed the word 
"superfamille" which he compared to 
"superprésident"!). We have naturally re- 



garded Cossmann's cénacles as equivalent 
to superfamilies. 
(c) Thiele (1 925-1 926) used the word "Sippe" 
and (1929-1935) the word "Stirps" for taxa 
at a rank above family and below order. Many 
of these, but not all, are formed on a genus 
name and have a suffix in -acea. Thiele's 
Sippe and Stirps have generally (for ex- 
ample, Bieler & Mikkelsen, 1992) been re- 
garded as equivalent to superfamilies and 
we have followed this interpretation here. 



Nomenclátor of Gastropod 
Family-Group Names 

ABYSsocHRYSiDAETomlin, 1927 [May] 
Reference: Annals of the South African Mu- 
seum, 25(1): 77 
Type genus: /Abyssoc/?rysos Tomlin, 1927 
Remarks: -inae [as Abyssochrysidinae], Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov (1987: 27). 

AcAMPTOGENOTiiNAE Powoll, 1969 [9 September] 
Reference: Indo-Pacific Mollusca, 2(10): 218 
Type genus: -\Acamptogenotia Rovereto, 1899 
Remarks: Not available under Art. 15.1: name 
proposed conditionally after 1 960. 

AcANTHARiONiNi Schlleyko, 2002 [September] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs, Part 9: 1274 
Type genus: Acantharion Binder & Tillier, 1985 

AcANTHiNULiNAE Steenberg, 1917 [5 October] 
Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
Dansk Naturhistohsk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 
69:14 
Type genus: Acanthinula Beck, 1847 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 483), but credited in error to 
Pilsbry (1926 [in 1922-1926]: 186). -idae, 
Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 53-54). 

AcANTHODORiDiNAE P. Fischor, 1 883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 523 
Type genus: Acanthodoris Cray, 1850 

AcANTHONEMATiNAE Wenz, 1938 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch der Paläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

389 
Type genus: -\Acanthonema Grabau [in Sherz- 

er&Grabau], 1909 
Remarks: -idae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson 

(in Moore, ed., 1960: 317). 



18 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



AcAviNAE Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxxii, xxxiv 
Type genus: Acavus Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: -idae, Möllendorff (1898: 80); -oidea 

[as -acea], Thiele (1926: 144). 

AcELLiNAE Hannibal, 1912 [29 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 10(2): 138 
Type genus: /Ace//a Haldeman, 1841 

Acera / AcERiDAE Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Aceres" (vernacu- 
lar). Latinized [as Acera] by Latreille (1825: 
177), and [asAceridae] by de Kay (1843: 14). 
Established as a family containing the gen- 
era "Bullée", "Bulle", "Sormet" and "Doridie". 
"Aceres" appears to be a descriptive term 
opposed to "Dicères" and "Tétracères". Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). See also Akeridae. 

AcHATiNELLiNAE Guück, 1873 [June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, (1873[1]): 89 
Type genus: Achatinella Swainson, 1828 
Remarks: -idae, Kobelt (1880 [in 1876-1881]: 
292); -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1926 [in 
1925-1926]: 138); -ini, Cooke & Kondo 
(1961: 271). Placed on the Official List by 
Opinion 2017 (2003: 61). 

AcHATiNiNAE Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology, 1 61 : 334 
Type genus: Achatina Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Acha- 
tinae. -idae [as -ida], Clessin (in L. Pfeiffer, 
1880 [in 1878-1881]: 260, 420); -oidea [as 
-acea], Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 140). 
See also Ampullidae. 

AcicuLiDAE Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 1 21 
Type genus: /Ac/cu/a Hartmann, 1821 
Remarks: Original spelling Aciculadae. Placed 
on the Official List by Opinion 344 (1955: 
317), but credited in error to S. P. Woodward 
(1854 [in 1851-1856]: 178). -oidea, Golikov 
& Starobogatov (1975: 211,217). 

AciDAE Gray, 1853 [February] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 129 
Type genus: Acus Gray, 1847 



Remarks: Original spelling Acusidae. Invalid: 
Type genus a junior homonym of Acus 
Müller, 1774 [Pisces], and Acus Swainson, 
1839 [Pisces]. 

AciRsiNAE Cossmann, 1912 [August] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 9: 19 
Type genus: Acirsa Mörch, 1857a 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1975:215). 

AcLEiopROCTAOdhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 50, 52 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" [below sub- 
order, above family]. Treated as superfami- 
ly by Baba (1955: 5) and by Higo & Goto 
(1993:439[asAcleioproctoidea]). Not avail- 
able as a family-group name (not based on 
a genus). 

AclididaeG. O. Sars, 1878 

Reference: Mollusca regionis arcticae Norve- 
giae: 1 95 

Type genus: Aclis Lovén, 1846 

Remarks: Original spelling Aclidae. Spelling 
Aclisidae also encountered, e.g., in Coss- 
mann (1912: 102). -oidea, Golikov & Star- 
obogatov (1975: 214). 

AcMAEiDAE Forbes, 1850 

Reference: Report of the 19th meeting of the 

British Association for the Advancement of 

Science {Birmingham, 1849). Notices and 

abstracts of communications, 76 
Type genus: Acmaea Eschscholtz, 1 833 
Remarks: Original spelling Acmaeadae. Placed 

on the OfHcial List by Opinion 344 (1955: 317), 

but credited in error to Carpenter (1 857: 202). 

-inae, Pilsbry (1891 [in 1891-1892]: 6, 7); 

-oidea, Angerer & Haszprunar (1 995: 1 75). 

AcMEiDAE Pollonera, 1905 [4 December] 
Reference: Bollettino del Musei di Zoología ed 

Anatomía Comparata délia Reale Università 

di Torino, 20{5^7)■.^ 
Type genus: Acme Hartmann, 1821 
Remarks: Spelled Acmidae by Kobelt (1908: 

156). Both Acmeidae and Acmidae placed 

on the Official Index by Opinion 344 (1955: 

317). -inae, Thiele (1925: 80). 

AcocHLiDiiDAE Küthe, 1935 [7 June] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 

Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der 

Thiere, 66(6): 539 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



19 



Type genus: Acochlidium Strubell, 1892 
Remarks: Original spelling Acochlididae. -inae, 

Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 37); -oidea, Star- 

obogatov (1970b: 58). 

AcREMODONTiNAE МагзЬэП, 1 983 [8 July] 
Reference: Records of the National Museum 

of New Zealand, 2{Щ- 127 
Type genus: Acremodonta Marshall, 1983 

AcRiLLiNAE Jousseaume, 1912 [14 August] 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société 

Zoologique de France, 24(3-4): 233, 244 
Type genus: Acrilla H. Adams, 1860 
Remarks: Published almost simultaneously by 

Cossmann (1912 [August; hence deemed to 

be 31 August]: 19). 

AcROLoxiNAE Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 484 
Type genus: Acroloxus Beck, 1838 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 41 (1 956: 433). -idae, Zilch ( 1 959: 1 28); 
-oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl (1962: 11). 

AcRORBiNi Starobogatov, 1 958 [after 25 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Biulleten' Moskovskogo Obsh- 
chestva Ispytatelei Prirody, Otdel Biolog- 
icheskii, new ser., 63(6): 47, 49, 52 

Type genus: Acrorbis Odhner, 1937 

Remarks: -idae, Hylton Scott (1960: 67). 

AcROREiiDAE Cossmann, 1893 [August] 
Reference: Annales de la Société Royale 

Malacologique de Belgique, 28: 16 
Type genus: ^Acroreia Cossmann, 1885 
Remarks: Original spelling Acroriidae, based 

on Acroria Cossmann, 1889, an unjustified 

emendation oí Acroreia. 

AcROTOMiNi H. Nordsieck, 1979 [9 March] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 109 

(4-6): 260 
Type genus: Acrotoma O. Boettger, 1881 

AcTAEONiDAE АИтап, 1 845 [after September] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, 16: 161 

Type genus: yActeeon Rang, 1829 

Remarks: The type genus was first established 
by Oken (1815) in a work rejected by Opin- 
ion 417 (1956: 1-42), but subsequently 
made available by Rang. 



AcTEociNiDAE Dall, 1913 
Reference: [in Eastman] Textbook of paleon- 
tology, ed. 2, 1:521 
Type genus: Acteocina Gray, 1847 

AcTEONELLiDAE Gill, 1871 [February] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 15 
Type genus: -tActeonella d'Orbigny, 1843 
Remarks: Original spelling Actaeonellidae, 
based on Actaeonella Herrmannsen, 1846, 
an incorrect subsequent spelling of /Acteone/- 
/a. -inae, Cossmann (1895a: 44); -oidea, 
Kollmann (2002: 53). 

AcTEONiDAE d'Orbigny, 1843 

Reference: Paléontologie française. Terrains 
crétacés, 2: 106 

Type genus: Acteon Montfort, 1810 

Remarks: -inae [as Actaeoninae, based on 
Actaeon, an incorrect subsequent spelling of 
Acteon and homonym of /Acfaeo/i Rang, 1829 
(Sacoglossa)], Meek (1863: 87, 89); 
-oidea [as -acea], Cossmann (1906: 2). See 
also Pupidae Kuroda, 1941. Under Art. 23.9 
of the Code, Tornatellidae Fleming, 1828, is 
here declared a nomen oblitum and Ac- 
teonidae d'Orbigny, 1842, a nomen protec- 
tum, based on usage in at least the following 
publications: Perry & Schwengel (1 955: 191), 
Powell (1958: 103), Macpherson & Gabriel 
(1962: 241), Castellanos (1967: 142), 
Warmke & Abbott (1961: 140), Andrews 
(1971: 133), Keen (1971b: 322), F. Nordsieck 
(1972: 7), Morris (1973: 261), Abbott (1974: 
311), Humfrey (1975: 187), Emerson & Ja- 
cobson (1976: 185), Thompson & Brown 
(1976: 17), d'Angelo & Gargiullo (1978: 156), 
Kay (1979: 417), Powell (1979: 268), Garcia- 
Cubas (1981: 78), Bosch & Bosch (1982: 
134), Smythe (1982: 73), Vokes & Vokes 
(1984: 33), Rios (1985: 167), Cosel (1986: 
283, 346), De Jong &Coomans (1988: 132), 
Bosch & Bosch (1989: 73), Sabelli et al. 
(1990:228), Poppe & Goto (1991: 192), Diaz 
& Puyana (1994: 240), Dance (1995: 178), 
Hu & Tao (1995: 146), Spencer & Willan 
(1 996: 33), Burn & Thompson (in Beesley et 
al., 1998: 943), Jarrett (2000: 112). To our 
knowledge, the name Tornatellidae has not 
been used as valid after 1899. 

AcTEONiNiNAE Соззтапп, 1895 [February] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 1 : 43 



20 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: ^Acteonina d'Orbigny, 1850 
Remarks: Original spelling Actaeoninae. Coss- 
nnann placed Actaeon in a different subfam- 
ily Tornatellinae, based on Tornatella, treated 
by Cossmann as a synonym oí Actaeon, so 
there is no doubt that Actaeoninae was a 
misspelling for a new family-group name 
containing Actaeonina (incorrect subsequent 
spelling of Acteonina). -idae [declared fam. 
nov.], Pchelintsev (in Pchelintsev & Korobk- 
ov, 1960: 242); -oidea, Bouchet, herein [in 
place of Soleniscoidea, over which it has 
priority]. 

AcTEOPHiLA Dall, 1885 [24 July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, 8(18): 274 

Remarks: Original spelling Akteophila. Taxon 
of unspecified rank containing the families 
Auriculidae and Otinidae. Spelling emend- 
ed to Acteophila and used as "Sippe" [= su- 
perfamily] by Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 
135); emended to Actophila and used as 
"Stirps" [= superfamily] by Thiele (1931 [in 
1929-1935]: 463). Not available as a fami- 
ly-group name (not based on a genus). 

AcTiNOCYCLiDAE O'Donoghue, 1929 [January] 
Reference: Transactions of the Zoological 

Society of London, 22(6): 727 
Type genus: Actinocyclus Ehrenberg, 1831 
Remarks: Declared again nov. by Pruvot-Fol 

(1934:69). 

AcusiDAE. SeeAcidae. 

Adamsiellinae Henderson & Bartsch, 1920 [8 

July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the United States 

National Museum, 58: 70 
Type genus: Adamsiella L. Pfeiffer, 1851 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Thiele (1 929 [in 1 929- 

1935]: 133). 

Addisoniidae Dall, 1882 [5 May] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, 4: 404 

Type genus: Addisonia Dall, 1882 

Remarks: -oidea, Moskalev (1971 : 59); -inae, 
Sasaki (1998: 220). Earlier, Marshall (1996: 
250) had established the new subfamily 
Helicopeltinae within Addisoniidae, thus im- 
plicitly, but not explicitly, using Addisoniidae 
also at subfamily rank. 

Adelacerithiinae Marshall, 1984 [20 December] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 
50(2): 78 



Type genus: -fAdelacerithium Ludbrook, 1941 

Adelobranchei Duméril, 1807 

Reference: Traité élémentaire d'histoire na- 
turelle, eö. 2, 2: 122 

Remarks: Original spelling "Adélobranches" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Link (1807: 130). 
Established as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). See also higher 
category list. 

Adelomeloninae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [7 
September] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^52)■. 19 [289] 

Type genus: Adelomelon Dall, 1906 

Remarks: According to Clench & Turner (1 964: 
1 70), Pilsbry & Olsson misidentified Adelom- 
elon and, under Art. 41 , the case should be 
referred to the Commission. See Odonto- 
cymbiolinae. -ini. Bail & Poppe (2001 : 8, 18). 
Precedence of Adelomeloninae over simul- 
taneously published Pachycymbiolini deter- 
mined by Art. 24 (subfamily vs. family). 

Adelomorphinae Kobelt, 1 906 [after September] 

Reference: Jahrbücher des Nassauischen 
Vereins für Naturkunde in Wiesbaden, 59: 
49,121 

Type genus: Adelomorpha Tapparone Cane- 
fri, 1886 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym oí Adelomorpha Snellen, 1885 [Lepi- 
doptera]. 

Adeorbidae Monterosato, 1884 

Reference: Nomenclatura genérica e specifi- 

ca di alcune conchiglie mediterráneo: 1 08 
Type genus: Adeorbis S. Wood, 1842 
Remarks: SeeTornidae. 

Adeorbisininae Monari, Conti & Szabo, 1995 

[10 December] 
Reference: Origin and evolutionary radiation 

of the Mollusca: 202 
Type genus: ^Adeorbisina Greco, 1899 
Remarks: -ini, Bouchet, herein. 

Adiozoptyxinae Hayami & Kase, 1977 
Reference: The University Museum, The Uni- 
versity of Tokyo, Bulletin, 13: 72 
Type genus: -tAdiozoptyxis Dietrich, 1925 
Remarks: Original spelling Adiozoptyxisinae. 
Not available (no diagnosis). Credited by 
Hayami & Kase to "Pchelintsev (1 931 )", and 
[as Adiozoptyxinae] by Kase (1 984: 1 74) to 
Pchelintsev (1960). Pchelintsev (in Pchelint- 
sev & Korobkov, 1960: 120-121), introduced 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



21 



DIozoptyxisinae and did not mention Adio- 
zoptyxis. 

Admetidae Troschel, 1865 [December] 

Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(1 ): 
46 

Type genus: Admete Möller, 1842 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Admeta- 
cea. -inae, Cossmann (1899: 5). Senior hom- 
onym of Admetinae Pocock, 1897, based on 
/\d/?ieit/sKoch, 1850 [Arachnida]. 

Adustinae Steadman & Cotton, 1946 [30 June] 
Reference: Records of the South Australian 

Museum, 8(3): 504, 508 
Type genus: Adusta Jousseaume, 1 884 

Advenidae Iredale, 1945 [11 June] 

Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 11(1): 65 

Type genus: Advena Gude, 1913 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Not avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1, unless discovery of 
an author who used the name before 2000. 

Aegiretinae p. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 525 
Type genus: Aegires Lovén, 1844 
Remarks: Original spelling Aegirinae. -idae, 

Iredale & O'Donoghue (1923: 225). 

Aegistinae Kuroda & Habe, 1949 [1 Septem- 
ber] 
Reference: Helicacea: 62 
Type genus: Лед /'sía Albers, 1850 
Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (2002b: 43). 



Aeolidiellidés Vayssière, Il 
Reference: Annales du Musée d'Histoire Na- 
turelle de Marseille. Zoologie, 3(4): 107 
Type genus: Aeolidiella Bergh, 1867 
Remarks: Not available (vernacular only). 

Aeolidiidae Gray, 1827 

Reference: Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, vol- 
ume 7. Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca 
[= plate 3] 

Type genus: Aeolidia Cuvier, 1797 

Remarks: Original spelling Eolidae, based on 
Eolis [Cuvier, 1805], an incorrect subsequent 
spelling (Opinion 779) of Aeolidia. Name 
placed on the Official List by Opinion 779 
(1 966: 1 00), but credited in error to d'Orbigny 
(1834 [sic! should be 1839]: 42 [as Eolid- 
idae]). -inae [as Eolidinae], Alder & Hancock 
(1845 [in 1845-1855]: 3); -oidea, MacFar- 
land(1909:6, 10,89). 



Afropominae Berthold, 1991 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, new ser., 
29:206,209 

Type genus: Afropomus Pilsbry & Bequaert, 
1927 

Agaroniinae Olsson, 1956 [3 October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 108: 169 
Type genus: Agaronia Gray, 1 839 

Aglajidae Pilsbry, 1895 [20 August] (1847) 

Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 1, 
16(61): 43 

Type genus: Aglaja Renier, 1807 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List and ruled 
by Opinion 1079 (1977: 16), to take the pre- 
cedence of Doridiidae (1847). 

Aglossa p. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 585 

Remarks: Fischer used repeatedly the name 
Aglossa to designate seven unrelated taxa 
of gastropods without a radula. One of these, 
of unspecified rank in Fischer, is treated by 
Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 85) asa "Sippe" 
[= superfamily] containing the families 
Melanellidae and Stiliferidae. Not available as 
a family-group name (not based on a genus). 

Agnatha Mörch, 1859 

Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109 

Remarks: Established as a family (containing 

Oleacina and Testacella), and not available 

as such (not based on a genus). 

Agnathomorpha Pilsbry, 1900 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 52: 563 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily con- 
taining the families Glandinidae, Rhytididae, 
Streptaxidae and Circinahidae. Not available 
as a family-group name (not based on a ge- 
nus). 

Agnesiinae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 

Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 

Type genus: ^Agnesia de Koninck, 1883 

Remarks: Name only. Diagnosed by Knight, 
Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 206). 

Agriolimacinae H. Wagner, 1935 [3 June] 
Reference: Annales Histohco-Naturales Musei 
Nationalis Hungarici, Pars Zoológica, 29: 174 



22 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Agriolimax Mörch, 1865 
Remarks: -idae, Schileyko (1979a: 58). 

AiLLYiDAE H. B. Baker, 1955 [28 April] 

Reference: The Nautilus, 68(4): 109 

Type genus: Aillya Odhner, 1927 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. First di- 
agnosed and -oidea, Franc (1968b: 555). 
The name Aillyidae is generally credited in 
error (including by Baker himself, 1956a: 
129, without reference) to H. B. Baker 
(1930). 

AiPTOSPiRiNAE Wang, 1980 

Reference: [in Wang & Xi] Stratigraphy and 
paleontology of Upper Permian coal-bear- 
ing formation in western Guizhou and east- 
ern Yunnan, China: 209 

Type genus: -\Aiptospira Wang, 1980 

Akeridae Mazzarelli, 1891 [20 July] 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 14: 243 
Type genus: Akera O. F. Müller, 1776 
Remarks: Original spelling Aceridae, based on 
Acera, an incorrect subsequent spelling of 
Akera. Placed on the Official List by Opinion 
539 (1 959: 68), but attributed in error to Pils- 
bry (1893 sic!), -inae, Pilsbry (1895a: 351 ); 
-oidea, Hoffmann (1 996: 81 ). See also Acera/ 
Aceridae. 

Alabinidae Dall, 1927 [20 April] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 

National Museum, 70: 87 
Type genus: tAlabina Dall, 1902 
Remarks: -inae. Ponder & Waren (1 988: 294). 

Alariidae Koken, 1889 

Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, 
Geologie und Palaeontologie, Beilage Band, 
6:457 

Type genus: ■[ Alaria Morris & Lycett, 1851 

Remarks: Original spelling "Alariaceen" and 
"Alanen" (vernacular). Latinized by Donald 
(1895: 212). Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym oí Alaria Schrank, 1788 [Vermes], and 
Л/аг/а Duncan, 1841 [Lepidoptera]. 

Alata/Alatidae Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1: 322 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Ailées" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized [as Alata] by Children 
(1823 [in 1822-1824]: 51); [as Alatidae] by 
de Gregorio (1880: 8). Established as a fam- 
ily-group name (containing the genera "Ros- 
tellaire", "Ptérocère" and "Strombe") and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 
See also Pteridae. 



Albeidae Pallary, 1910 

Reference: Mémoires présentés à l'Institut 

Egyptien, 6(2): 178 
Type genus: Albea Pallary, 1910 
Remarks: Nom. nov. pro Calcarinidae, which 

is invalid because its type genus is a junior 

homonym; Art. 40.2 does not apply. See also 

Sphincterochilinae. 

Alcithoinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [7 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^ 52): M [287] 

Type genus: Alcithoe H . Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 

Remarks: -ini [as -ides], same reference. 

Aldanellidae Linsley & Kier, 1984 [29 March] 
Reference: Malacologia, 25(1): 250 
Type genus: ■\Aldanella Vostokova, 1962 

Alderiidae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 196 
Type genus: /A/der/a Allmann, 1845 

Aldisinae Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 26-27 
Type genus: /\/c//saBergh, 1878 
Remarks: -idae, Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 868). 

Alectrionidae Dall, 1908 [October] 
Reference: Bulletin of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, 43(6): 306 
Type genus: Alectrion Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Name attributed to Gray (1847) by 
Ponder & Waren (1988: 305). It seems that 
Ponder & Waren have been mislead by an 
entry, in the index to Gray's work (1847b: 
207), for the genus (sic!) "Alectrionidae Fis- 
cher", which in fact refers to the bivalve ge- 
nus /\/ecf/yon/a. In 1847, Gray (1847b: 139) 
placed the gastropod genus Alectrion in Buc- 
cinidae. See also Arculariidae. 

Aliptinae Marshall, 1978 [20 April] 
Reference: New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 

5:61 
Type genus: Alipta Finlay, 1926 

Allognathidae Westerlund, 1902 [after 1 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Acta Academiae Scientiarum et 
Artium Slavorum Meridionalium, 1 51 : 88 

Type genus: Allognathus Pilsbry, 1 888 

Allogonini Emberton, 1995 [13 November] 
Reference: Malacologia, 37(1 ): 87 
Type genus: Allogona Pilsbry, 1 939 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



23 



Allostrophiinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 
Type genus: ^Aliostrophia Kitt!, 1894 

Alopiinae a. J. Wagner, 1913 [July] 
Reference: Iconographie der Land- und Süss- 

wasser Mollusken, new ser., 21:5 
Type genus: Alopia H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1855 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], H. Nordsieck (1969: 

255). 

Alvaniinae F. Nordsieck, 1972 [October] 

Reference: Die Europäischen Meeres- 
schnecken: 178 

Type genus: Alvania Risso, 1826 

Remarks: Established in the same year as 
Alvaniidae by Golikov & Starobogatov (1 972: 
95). Precedence of authorship uncertain, 
-oidea, and family again declared nov., by 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 211). 

Alycaeinae W. Blanford, 1864 [June] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 3, 13:465 
Type genus: /A/ycaeusBaird, 1850 
Remarks: -idae, Kobelt & Möllendorff (1897 

[in 1897-1899]: 146). 

Amaltheidae Dall, 1889 [June] 

Reference: Bulletin of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, 18: 26, 289 

Type genus: Amalthea Schumacher, 1817 

Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1925: 87). 
Homonym of Amaltheidae Hyatt, 1867 
[based on Amaltheus Montfort, 1808 (Ceph- 
alopoda)] placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 575 (1 959: 1 34-1 37). Invalid: type genus 
a junior homonym of Amalthea Rafinesque, 
1815[Hymenoptera]. 

Amastridae Pilsbry, 1910 [23 March] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 

20(80): viii 
Type genus: Amastra H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1855 
Remarks: -inae, Hyatt & Pilsbry (1911 [in 

1910-1911]: XX). 

Amathinidae Ponder, 1987 

Reference: Asian Marine Biology, 4: 29 

Type genus: Amathina Gray, 1842 

Amaurellinidae Eames, 1952 [2 January] 
Reference: Philosophical Transactions of the 
Royal Society of London, ser. В, 236: 79 



Type genus: -tAmaurellina Bayle [in P. Fi- 
scher], 1885 

Remarks: Not available: introduced in synon- 
ymy of Ampullospiridae and apparently not 
used as a valid name before 1960. 

Amberleyidae Wenz, 1938 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch derf^aläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

262 
Type genus: -\Amberleya Morris & Lycett, 1851 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea]. Cox (in Moore, 
1960: 302), and Vostokova & Pchelintsev (in 
Pchelintsev & Korobkov, 1960: 93); -inae, 
McLean (1 981 : 335); -ini, McLean (1 982: 1 1 ). 

Amecanautini D. W. Taylor, 2003 [March] 
Reference: Revista de Biología Tropical, 51, 

Suppl. 1:72 
Type genus: Amecanauta D. W. Taylor, 2003 

Ameriannini Zilch, 1 959 [1 7 July] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(2): 

106 
Type genus: Amehanna Strand, 1928 
Remarks: Original spelling Amerianneae. 

Name only, no diagnosis, -inae [as Ameri- 

annae]. Franc (1968b: 531 ). 

Ammonitellinae Pilsbry, 1930 [13 December] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 82: 303 
Type genus: Ammonitella Cooper, 1869 
Remarks: -idae, Pilsbry (1939 [in 1939-1948]: 

411). 

Amnicolidae Tryon, 1863 [before 12 January] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 14: 452 

Type genus: Amnícola Gould & Haldeman, 
1840 

Remarks: Kabat & Hershler (1993: 6), listed 
"Amnicolae Martens, 1858" (p. 192) as a 
family-group name. However, Martens treat- 
ed Amnícola as a section of Hydrobia, and 
"Amnicolae" is a plural. Placed on the Offi- 
cial List by Opinion 1108 (1978: 94). -inae. 
Gill (1863: 34); -ini [as -eae], Thiele (1928a: 
379). 

Amoriinae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:35 

Type genus: Amoria Gray, 1855 

Remarks: Original spelling Amoriana. -ini [as 
-ides], Pilsbry & Olsson (1954: 18 [288]). 
Amoriinae declared again nov. by Darragh 
(1989:224). 



24 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Ampezzanildidae Bändel, 1994 [September] 
Reference: Palaeontographica, (A)233: 147 
Type genus: ■\Ampezzaniida Bändel, 1994 
Remarks: Not declared new but made avail- 
able by short diagnosis. Declared new, with 
formal description, by Bändel (1995: 32, 39). 

Ampezzopleurinae Nützel, 1998 [before 20 

April] 
Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 26: 152 
Type genus: -\Ampezzopleura Bändel, 1991 

Amphibolidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 128, 149 
Type genus: Amphibola Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 479 (1957: 375), but credited in error to 
H. Adams & A. Adams (1855 [in 1853-1858]: 
268). -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1926 [in 
1925-1926]: 136). 

Amphibuliminae R Fischer, 1873 [24 October] 
Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 21 (4): 325 
Type genus: Amphibulima Lamarck, 1805 
Remarks: -idae, Zilch (1960 [in 1959-1960]: 
518). 

Amphicyclotinae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1897 [17 
October] 

Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 
Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 29(9-10): 
139 

Type genus: Amphicyclotus Crosse & R Fi- 
scher, 1879 

Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Kobelt (1902: 248); 
-idae, Morrison (1955: 149, 159). 

Amphidoxinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 575 
Type genus: /\mp/?/doxa Albers, 1850 

Amphidrominae Kobelt, 1902 

Reference: Systematisches Conchylien-Cab- 

inet, ed. 2, Bd. 1,Abt. 13,Theil2: 1033 
Type genus: Amphidromus А\Ьег5, 1850 

Amphimelaniinae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1891 [23 

July] 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 

et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches 

zoologiques (7), 2{^2)■. 312 
Type genus: Amphimelania P. Fischer, 1885 
Remarks: -idae, Voikova et al. (in Pchelintsev 

& Korobkov, 1960: 166, 169). 



Amphipepleinae Pini, 1877 [before 5 May] 
Reference: Bullettino délia Società Malacolog- 

ica Italiana, 2{2): 174 
Type genus: Amphipeplea Niisson, 1822 
Remarks: Original spelling "Farn. Amphi- 
peplea", but the context indicates that sub- 
family rank was meant within the family 
Lymnaeidae. Spelling corrected to Amphi- 
pepleinae by Clessin (1887 [in 1887-1890]: 
15). Again declared nov. by F. С Baker 
(1908: 943). -idae, W. Dybowski (1903: 139). 

Amphiperatidae Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 130 
Type genus: Amphiperas Gray, 1 847 
Remarks: Original spelling Amphiperasidae. 

-inae, Schilder (1924: 182, 185); -ini, Schilder 

(1927:70,76,80). 

Amphipneustea Wiegmann & Ruthe, 1832 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie: 527 
Remarks: Taxon containing the genus Onchid- 
ium only. Established as a family but not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Amphisphyridae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 
Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:194 
Type genus: Amphisphyra Leven, 1846 
Remarks: Original spelling Amphisphyradae. 
See Diaphanidae. 

Amphithalamidae 

Type genus: Amphithalamus Carpenter, 1865 

Remarks: Used by Voorwinde (1 966: 41 ), and 

attributed by him to "Ponder, 1965". Not 

available: no diagnosis. 

Amphitomariidae Bändel, 1994 [September] 
Reference: Palaeontographica, (A)233: 149 
Type genus: ^Amphitomaha Koken, 1897 
Remarks: Not declared new but made avail- 
able by short diagnosis. Declared new, with 
formal description, by Bändel (1996a: 344). 

Amphorininae Martynov, 1998 

Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 77(7): 774 

Type genus: Amphorina de Quatrefages, 1844 

Ampullaceridae Troschel, 1845 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 11(1): 

210 
Type genus: Ampullacera Quoy & Gaimard, 1 832 
Remarks: Herrmannsen (1846 [in 1846-1852]: 

43), listed "Ampullacerae Desh. 1838" as a 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



25 



family-group name, but Deshayes & Milne- 
Edwards (1838: 538), merely stated the ne- 
cessity to place Ampullacera in a family of 
its own, without naming it. 

Ampullariidae Gray, 1824 [30 April] 
Reference: The Philosophical Magazine and 

Journal, 63: 276 
Type genus: Ampullaha Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Ampullariadae. 
-inae, Swainson (1840: 339); -oidea [as Su- 
perf. Ampullariidae (sic)], H. B. Baker (1956b: 
28); -ini. Berthold (1991 : 212). Placed on the 
Official List by Opinion 1913 (1 999: 74). See 
also Pilidae. 

Ampullidae Winckworth, 1 945 [25 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 26(4-5): 146 
Type genus: Ampulla Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Achatinidae, based on Achatlna Lama- 
rck, 1799, by Winckworth considered a syn- 
onym of Ampulla. However, Pilsbry (1908b: 
83), designated Ampulla priamus [now in 
Volutidae] as type species of Ampulla; this 
fixation of type species was followed by Re- 
hder (1970: 42) when he cited Ampullinae 
as a synonym of Haliinae [Volutidae]. Under 
Art. 41, the case should be referred to the 
Commission, but this would have strictly 
academic interest: Ampullidae has not "won 
general acceptance" over Achatinidae in the 
sense of Art. 40.2, and Haliinae is both in 
current use and a senior objective synonym. 

Ampullininae Cossmann, 1919 [15 March] 
Reference: [in Cossmann & Peyrot] Actes de 

la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 70(3): 

181 
Type genus: -\AmpulHna Bowdich, 1822 
Remarks: -idae, Korobkov (1955: 229); -oidea, 

Lozouetetal. (2001: 21). 

Ampullospiridae Сох, 1 930 [22 August] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Survey 

of India. Palaeontologia Indica, new ser., 

15(8): 170 
Type genus: -\Ampullospira Harris, 1897 
Remarks: -inae, Marincovich (1977: 213). 

Amuropaludinidae Starobogatov, Prozorova, 

Bogatov & Sayenko, 2004 
Reference: Mollluski, in: Opredelitel Presno- 

vodnykh bespozvonochnykh Rossli i sopre- 

delnykh territorii, 6: 261 , 269 
Type genus: Amuropaludina Moskvicheva, 1979 



Remarks: Not available under Art. 16.1: name 
not explicitly indicated as intentionally new. 

Anabathrinae Keen, 1971 [1 September] 
Reference: Sea shells of tropical West Amer- 
ica, ed. 2: 370 
Type genus: /\nabaf/7ron Frauenfeld, 1867 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 
Coan (1964: 165, 167 [as Anabathroninae]). 
-idae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 211). 

Anachidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1972 
Reference: Opredeliteli Fauny Chernogo i 

Azovskogo Morel, 3: 122 
Type genus: Anachis H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1853 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Golikov & Kusakin (1 971 : 28). Declared again 

nov. by Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 213). 

Anadenia Simroth, 1913 

Reference: [In Voeltzkow] Reise in Ostafrika 
in den Jahren 1903-1905. Wissenschaftli- 
che Ergebnisse. Band 3, Systematische Ar- 
beiten: 202 

Remarks: Established as a subfamily of 
Vaginulidae, parallel to the "subfamily" Euad- 
enia. Not available: not based on a genus. 

Anadeninae Pilsbry, 1948 [19 March] 
Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 

{north of Mexico), Vol. 11(2): 665, 676 
Type genus: Anadenus Heynemann, 1863 
Remarks: -idae, Wiktor, Chen & Ming (2000: 6). 

Anadoridoidea Odhner, 1968 
Reference: ArkivforZoologi, 20(13): 254 
Remarks: Established as suborder Anadorida- 
cea; treated by Vaught (1989: 69), as a su- 
perfamily. Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Anadromidae Wenz, 1940 [15 November] 
Reference: Archiv fijr Molluskenkunde, 72(5- 

6): 137 
Type genus: -\Anadromus Sandberger, 1870 
Remarks: -inae, H. Nordsieck (1986b: 109). 

Anaplocamidae Dall, 1921 [24 February] 
Reference: Bulletin of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, 112: 160 
Type genus: Anaplocamus Dall, 1896 
Remarks: Rehder (1 942: 49) established that 
Anaplocamus borealis Dall, 1896, the type 
species of Anaplocamus, is a synonym of 
the North American freshwater snail Ancu- 
losa dilatata Conrad; the type material of Л. 



26 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



borealis had been mislabelled with an Alas- 
kan marine locality. 

Anaspidea p. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 550, 566 

Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified rank 
above family containing the families Aplysi- 
idae and Oxynoidae. Treated by Thiele (1 931 
[in 1929-1935]: 396) as a "Stirps" [= super- 
family]. Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). 

Anastomopsidae H. Nordsieck, 1986 [7 Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 117(1- 
3):112 

Type genus: t/Anastomops/s Sandberger, 1871 

Remarks: Original spelling Anostomopsidae, 
based on Anostomopsis, an incorrect sub- 
sequent spelling of Anastomopsis. 

Anatominae McLean, 1989 [14 August] 
Reference: Contributions in Science, Natu- 
ral History Museum of Los Angeles Coun- 
ty, 407: 4 
Type genus: Anatoma S. R Woodward, 1859 
Remarks: -idae, Geiger & Jansen (2004: 3). 

Ancillariinae Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 322 
Type genus: Ancillaria Lamarck, 1811 
Remarks: Original spelling Ancillarinae. Swain- 
son (1825: 272), used the name Ancillariae, 
but this is only a generic plural. 

Ancillinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 [Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:147 

Type genus: Ancilla Lamarck, 1799 

Remarks: -idae, Iredale & McMichael (1962: 
64). 

Ancistrolepidinae Habe & Sato, 1973 [15 No- 
vember] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Japanese So- 
ciety of Systematic Zoology, 8: 3 [Japanese 
text], 6 [English text] 

Type genus: Ancistrolepis Dall, 1895 

Remarks: Original spelling Ancistrolepisinae. 
Diagnosis in Japanese, no diagnosis in the 
English text, -ini, Bouchet & Kantor, herein. 

Anculinae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 311 
Type genus: Ancula Lovén, 1846 



Ancylastrinae Walker, 1923 
Reference: The Ancylidae of South Africa: 23 
Type genus: Ancylastrum Bourguignat, 1853 
Remarks: Original spelling Ancylastruminae. 

-idae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 50-51); 

-ini, Starobogatov (1970b: 53). 

Ancylinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 143 
Type genus: Ancylus O. F. Müller, 1773 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Ancy- 
lidia. -idae [as family Ancylea], Menke (1830: 
11); -oidea, H. B. Baker (1956a: 129); -ini, 
Hubendick (in Fretter & Peake, 1978: 44). 
Placed on the Official List by Direction 41 
(1956: 433). Starobogatov (1967: 293) act- 
ed as First Reviser and gave relative prece- 
dence to the name Planorbidae Rafinesque, 
1 81 5 over Ancylidae. 

Ancylodorididae Thiele, 1926 [20 February] 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 111 

Type genus: Ancylodoris\N. Dybowski, 1900 

Remarks: Boss (1973: 12) has shown that 

Ancylodoris baicalensisW. Dybowski, 1900, 

type species of the genus, is a synonym of 

Onchidoris bilamellata Linnaeus, 1767, a 

marine species. The type locality (Lake 

Baikal) was erroneous. 

Ancyloplanorbidae Hubendick, 1978 
Reference: [in Fretter & Peake, eds.] Pulmo- 
nales, volume 2A: 30, table 1 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Ancyloti Troschel, 1857 [before 30 October] 
Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 1(2): 109 
Remarks: A plural of/Ancy/oiusHerrmannsen, 
1846, an unjustified emendation of Anculo- 
tus Say, 1825, itself an unjustified emenda- 
tion of /Anci7/osa Say, 1821. Not available: a 
plural not equivalent to a family-group name. 

Andoniinae Vera-Pelaez, 2002 [29 November] 
Reference: Pliocenica, 2: 236 
Type genus: tAndonia Harris & Burrows, 1891 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from Vera- 
Pelaez, Martinen & Lozano-Francisco (1999: 9). 

Andronakiinae Schileyko, 1998 [November] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs, Part 2: 214 
Type genus: Andronakia Lindholm, 1913 

Aneiteidae Gray, 1860 [September] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 3,6: 195 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



27 



Type genus: Aneitea Gray, 1 860 

Remarks: Original spelling Aneiteadae. -inae, 

Grimpe & Hoffmann (1925: 454). See Atho- 

racophorldae. 

Angariinae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:156 

Type genus: Angaria Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Original spelling Angahna. -idae, 
Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 40, 324). 

Anguispiridae MacMillan, 1955 [July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Nova Scotian 

Institute of Science, 23(4): 397 
Type genus: Anguispira Morse, 1864 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Not avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1, unless discovery of 
an author who used the name before 2000. 

ANGYOSTOMATABIainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, ^0■. ^ 85 

Remarks: Original spelling "angyostomes" 
(vernacular). Latinized as "division" [above 
genus] by Bowdich (1822: 41). Treated asa 
family, spelling emended to "Argyostomes", 
by Risso (1 826: 226). Not available as a fam- 
ily-group name (not based on a genus). 

Anisocyclidae van Aartsen, 1995 [30 Septem- 
ber] 
Reference: Bollettino Malacologico. 31(1-4): 67 
Type genus: tAnisocycIa Monterosato, 1880 
Remarks: Established as a replacement name 
for Ebalidae, based on Ebala Gray, 1847, 
regarded by van Aartsen as invalid because 
it is a junior homonym of Ebala Leach in 
Gray, 1847. 

Anisomyonidae Kanie, 1975 

Reference: Science Report of the Yokosuka 

City Museum, 21: 15 
Type genus: -fAnisomyon Meek & Hayden, 1860 
Remarks: Introduced independently by Star- 

obogatov(1976: 12). 

Annulariidae Henderson & Bartsch, 1920 [8 
July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, 58: 54 

Type genus: Annularia Schumacher, 1817 

Remarks: -inae, same reference. Precedence 
of Annulariidae over simultaneously pub- 
lished Chondropomatinae determined by Art. 
24 (family vs. subfamily). 



Anochetinae Cossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 4: 138 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Anoglyptidae Iredale, 1937 [12 November] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9(1): 14 
Type genus: Anoglypta Martens, 1860 
Remarks: Name only, no description, but avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1 because it was sub- 
sequently used as valid by Allan (1950: 375). 

Anomphalidae Wenz, 1938 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

249 
Type genus: -\Anomphalus Meek & Worthen, 

1866 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea]. Cox & Knight 

(1960:263). 

Anoperculatae Haller, 1892 [15 July] 
Reference: Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 18(3): 

534, 538 
Remarks: Introduced as a subfamily of Nati- 

cidae. Not available: not based on a genus. 

Anopsiidae Pruvot-Fol, 1922 [after 6 March] 

Reference: Comptes-Rendus des Séances de 
lAcadémie des Sciences, Paris, 174: 698 

Type genus: Anopsia Giste!, 1848 

Remarks: Original spelling Anopsidae. Anop- 
sia is a senior objective synonym of Halop- 
syche, and Pruvot-Fol probably (but did not 
explicitly) established Anopsiidae as a sub- 
stitute name for Halopsychidae. See also 
Hydromylidae. 

Anoptychiidae Bändel, 1994 [September] 
Reference: Palaeontographica, (A)233: 148 
Type genus: -fAnoptychia Koken, 1892 

Anostomopsidae. See Anastomopsidae. 

Anozygidae Bändel, 2002 [October] 

Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut, Universität Ham- 
burg, 8Q: 158 

Type genus: -\Anozyga Hoare, 1980 

Remarks: -inae, same reference. 

Ansolidae Slavoshevskaya, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 120 
Type genus: Ansola Slavoshevskaya, 1975 

ANTHOBRANCHIAGoldfuSS, 1820 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 1 : xliii, 627 



28 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as a family comprising 
Doris, Polycera, Onchidium, and Onchidoris. 
Not available (not based on a genus). 

Anthracopupinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

52 
Type genus: -\Anthracopupa Whitfield, 1881 
Remarks: No diagnosis. Diagnosed by Zilch 
(1959 [in 1959-1960]: 63). -idae / -oidea, 
Bändel (2002b: 178). Precedence of Den- 
dropupidae over Anthracopupinae deter- 
mined by Art. 24 (family vs. subfamily). 

Antiopellidae Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 
Reference: British Antarctic {"Terra Nova') 
Expedition, 1910. Natural ¡History Report, 
Zoo/ogy, 7(5): 231, 271 
Type genus: Antiopella Hoyle, 1902 
Remarks: No diagnosis, but introduced as a 
replacement name as "Antiopellidae 
(= Janolidae, Zephyrinidae)". Odhner's rea- 
sons for establishing the new name are not 
clear. The type genus, Antiopella, is a re- 
placement name for Antiopa Alder & Han- 
cock, 1848 [invalid], butAntiopidae Locard, 
1886, had remained virtually unused after 
its establishment and Odhner cannot be tak- 
en to have established Antiopellidae to re- 
place Antiopidae; besides, Antiopella is a 
younger name than both Janolus and Zephy- 
rina. For these reasons, Art. 40.2 does not 
apply. 

Antiopidae Locard, 1886 

Reference: Prodrome de malacologie fran- 
çaise. Catalogue général des mollusques 
vivants de France. Mollusques marins: 52 

Type genus: /\ní/opa Alder & Hancock, 1848 

Remarks: -inae, Norman (1890: 89). Invalid: 
type genus a junior homonym of Antiopa 
Meigen, 1800 [Diptera]. See also Antiopelli- 
dae. 

Antlipneumata Berthold, 1991 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, new ser., 
29:207,210 

Remarks: Taxon below tribe containing Pila and 
the "neotropical genera". Not available as a 
family-group name: not based on a genus. 

Antonellini Cooke & Kondo, 1961 [15 Febru- 
ary] 

Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulle- 
tin, 22^■.^^6 

Type genus: Antonella Cooke & Kondo, 1961 



Aperidae Möllendorff, 1903 

Reference: Systematisches Conchylien-Cab- 

inet,eó.2, Bd. 1,Abt. 12B:5 
Type genus: Apera Heynemann, 1885 
Remarks: See Chlamydephoridae. 

Aperostomatinae H. B. Baker, 1922 [24 July] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 36(1): 14 
Type genus: Aperostoma Troschel, 1 847 
Remarks: Declared again new by de la Torre 

& Bartsch (1942: 38). -idae, H. B. Baker 

(1956b: 28). 

Apiopomatinae a. J. Wagner, 1905 [before 25 
May] 

Reference: Denkschriften der Mathematisch- 
Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse der Kaiser- 
lichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 77: 
362 

Remarks: Established as a subfamily of Heli- 
cinidae containing only the genus Waldemar- 
ia. Not available: not based on a genus. 

Aplexinae Starobogatov, 1967 [after 25 Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 
42: 289 

Type genus: Aplexa Fleming, 1820 

Remarks: -ini, D. W. Taylor (2003: 49). 

Aplodontidae Kuroda, 1933 [18 June] 
Reference: The Venus, 4(1): 50 
Type genus: Aplodon Rafinesque, 1819 
Remarks: Original spelling Aplodonidae. Kuro- 
da's name as author of the paper appears in 
Japanese (kanji) print only. Name only, no 
description, but available under Art. 13.2.1 
because it was used as valid by Kuroda 
(1941: 88) and Hirase & Taki (1954: 64). 

Aplustrinae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 162 
Type genus: yAp/usfrum Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Original spelling Amplustrina, based 

on Amplustrum, an incorrect subsequent 

spelling of Aplustrum. -idae, H. Adams & A. 

Adams (1854 [in 1853-1858]: 6). 

Aplysiidae Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1 : 320 
Type genus: Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "les 
Laplysiens". First latinized [as Laplysiana, 
based on Laplysia, an incorrect original spell- 
ing of Aplysia; see Opinion 200 (1954: 242)] 
with reference to Lamarck by Children (1823 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



29 



[in 1 822-1 824]: 232). Rafinesque (1 81 5: 1 42) 
independently introduced (family) Laplysinia. 
Placed on the Official List by Opinion 1182 
(1981:174). Attribution of Aplysiidae to La- 
marck (1809) was advocated by Bouchet & 
Rocroi (2001: 172). -inae, Swainson (1840: 
359); -oidea, MacFarland (1909: 6, 8, 12). 

Apomatinae Paul, 1982 [November] 
Reference: Journal of Conchology, 31(2): 105 
Type genus: Apoma Beck, 1 837 
Remarks: Original spelling Apominae. 

Aporrhaidae Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 

66 
Type genus: Aporrhais da Costa, 1778 
Remarks: -inae, Stoliczka (1867 [in 1867- 

1871]: 17). 

Aptyxiellidae Hacobjan, 1973 [after 29 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk Armjan- 
skoi SSR, Nauki о Zemie, 26(6): 1 3 

Type genus: -tAptyxiella P. Fischer, 1885 

Remarks: Again declared nov. by Hacobjan 
(1976:108). 

Aquebaninae H. B. Baker, 1940 [2 November] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 54(2): 55 
Type genus: Aquebana Pilsbry, 1926 

Aquillidae Pilsbry, 1904 [10 February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 56: 21 
Type genus: Aquillus Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Established as a replacement name 
for Tritonidae, Lampusiidae, Lotoriidae and 
Septidae, based on genera that were all in- 
cluded by Pilsbry in synonymy of Aquillus. 
None of these names, including Aquillidae, is 
in current use and Art. 40.2 does not apply. 

Aranucidae Odhner, 1936 

Reference: Mémoires du Musée Royal d'Histoire 

Naturelle de Belgique, ser. 2, 3: 1090 
Type genus: /Aranucus Odhner, 1936 

Archaeopragidae Horny, 1963 [10 October] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 37(5): 

1071 
Type genus: t^rchaeopraga Horny, 1963 

Archaeospiridae Yu, 1979 

Reference: Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 18(3): 

254, 265 
Type genus: -\Archaeospira Yu, 1979 



Archaeozonitinae Pfeffer, 1930 [2 January] 
Reference: Geologische und Palaeontolo- 

gische Abhandlungen, newser., 17(3): 17 
Type genus: ■\Archaeozonites Sandberger, 1 873 

Archaicinae Schileyko, 1978 [after 1 March] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, Molliuski, 3(6): 256 
Type genus: Archaica Schileyko, 1970 
Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (1993b: 5). 

ARCHASCHENiiNiZhgenti, 1991 

Reference: [in Taktakishvili, ed.] Flora i Fauna 

mezo-kainozoia Gruzii: 1 38 
Type genus: -tArchaschenia Zhgenti, 1981 

Archicypraeinae Schilder, 1927 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91 

(Abt. A, 10): 84 
Type genus: ■\Archicypraea Schilder, 1926 

Archidorididae Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 
Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 
T"Ä7/ere,6:127 
Type genus: Archidoris Bergh, 1878 
Remarks: Established at subfamily rank de- 
spite suffix -idae. -idae, Pruvot-Fol (1930b: 
295). 

Archimediellidae Starobogatov, 1982 [after 20 

May] 
Reference: [in Sitnikova & Starobogatov] Zoo- 

logicheskiiZhurnal, 61(6): 841 
Type genus: tArchimediella Sacco, 1895 
Remarks: -oidea, same reference. 

Archinacellidae Knight, 1952 [29 October] 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 117(13): 47 

Type genus: -[Archinacella Ulrich & Scofield, 
1897 

Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Knight, Batten & 
Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 81). 

Architaenioglossa Haller, 1892 [15 July] 
Reference: Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 18(3): 

538 
Remarks: Original spelling Architaenioglossae. 
Established as an "Untergruppe" above fami- 
ly. Treated by Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 78), 
as a "Sippe" [= superfamily]. Not available as 
a family-group name (not based on a genus). 

Architectonicidae Gray, 1 850 [after 1 2 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 

79 
Type genus: Architectonica Röding, 1798 



30 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Original spelling Architectomidae, 
based on Architectoma, an incorrect subse- 
quent spelling oí Architectonica. -oidea [as 
-acea], Korobkov (1955: 136); -inae, Abbott 
(1974:97). 

Arconidae. SeeArionidae. 

Arculariidae Iredale, 1915 [1 July] 

Reference: Journal of Conchology, 14(11): 345 

Type genus: Arcularia Link, 1807 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Alectrionidae, on the basis that Arcularia 
is an older generic name than Alectrion Mont- 
fort, 1810. However, Iredale did not treat the 
two genera as synonyms and Art. 40.2 does 
not apply. 

Areneinae McLean, 2001 [19 August] 
Reference: World Congress of Malacology 

2001, Vienna, Austria. Abstracts: 418 
Remarks: Not available under Art. 16.1 [not 

explicitly indicated as new] and 16.2 [type 

genus (inferred to be Arene H. Adams & A. 

Adams, 1854) not cited]. 

Arginae Odhner, 1926 

Reference: Further zoological results of the 

Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901-1903, 

2(1): 54 
Type genus: /Argus Bohadsch, 1761 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus placed on the 

Official Index by Opinion 429 (1956: 323- 

338). 

Argnidae Hudec, 1965 [30 September] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 94(3- 

4): 162 
Type genus: f/Argna Cossmann, 1889 
Remarks: -inae, Schileyko (1979b: 16). 

Argobuccininae Kilias, 1973 [August] 

Reference: Das Tierreich, 92: 12 

Type genus: Argobuccinum Herrmannsen, 

1846 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Kuroda, Habe & Oyama (1 971 : 1 24 [English 

text; not in Japanese text]). 

Argyostomes. SeeAngyostomata. 

Ariantidae Mörch, 1864 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 

den Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 

17-22 {for 1863): 284 
Type genus: /Ar/aniaTurton, 1831 
Remarks: -inae, H. B. Baker (1956a: 132). 



Ariolimacinae Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1 898 [13 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 50: 227 
Type genus: Ariolimax Mörch, 1 859 
Remarks: -idae, Wiktor, Chen & Ming (2000: 6). 

Arionidae Gray, 1 840 [between March and June] 
Reference: [A new edition of] A manual of the 
land and freshwater shells of the British is- 
lands by W. Turton: 101, 104 
Type genus: /Ar/on Férussac, 1819 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 483). -inae, Morse (1864: 5, 
7); -oidea, H. B. Baker (1956a: 134). Ar- 
conidae [Gray, 1 850c: 1 64, and Gray, 1 851 : 
64] appears to be a misspelling. 

Ariopeltinae Sirgel, 1985 [June] 

Reference: Annals of the Natal Museum, 26(2): 

473 
Type genus: Ariopelta Sirgel, 1985 

Ariophantinae Godwin-Austen, 1888 [April] 
Reference: Land and freshwater Mollusca of 

India, ^ (6): 253 
Type genus: Ariophanta Desmoulins, 1829 
Remarks: -idae, Germain (1921 : 103); -oidea 
[as -acea], Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 
149); -ini [asAriophanti], Solem (1966: 26). 

Arminidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 [March] 
(1841) 

Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 
Society of London, 15(4): 216 

Type genus: Armina Rafinesque, 1814 

Remarks: Although Iredale & O'Donoghue 
placed Pleurophyllidia and Diphyllidia in syn- 
onymy of Armina, they did not explicitly stated 
that Arminidae was introduced as a substitute 
name for Pleurophyllidiidae and Diphyllidiidae. 
Arminidae was also declared nom. nov. by 
Pruvot-Fol (1927: 46). The name Arminidae is 
now in prevailing usage; it is conserved under 
Art. 40.2 with its precedence from Diphyllidi- 
idae. -inae, Thiele (1 931 [in 1 929-1 935]: 441 ); 
-oidea [as -acea], Abbott (1974: 372) [the un- 
available name Euarminoidea had been used 
earlier with the same taxonomical content]. 

Arrhoginae Popenoe, 1983 [3 August] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 57(4): 761 
Type genus: Arrhoges Gabb, 1 868 

Artachaeinae Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de Zoologie, 5(3): 

869 
Type genus: Artachaea Bergh, 1882 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



31 



Artemonidae Bourguignat, 1889 [March] 
Reference: Mollusques de l'Afrique équatoh- 
ale de Moguedouchou à Bagamoyo (...): 36 
Type genus: Artemon Beck, 1 837 

Arthessidae g. Boettger, 1963 

Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, Supple- 
mentband 26: 429 

Type genus: Arthessa Evans, 1950 

Remarks: Not available from Taylor & Sohl 
(1 962: 12, 1 7); Taylor & Sohl included Arthes- 
sa and Volvatella, but gave no diagnosis; 
they refered to Evans (1950) and Morton 
(1958), none of whom provided a diagnosis 
for a family-group taxon containing these two 
genera, -oidea, same reference. 

AscoBULLiDAE НаЬо, Okutani & Nishiwaki, 1994 

Reference: Handbook of Malacology, 1 : 60 

Type genus: Ascobulla Ev. Marcus, 1972 

Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from K. 

B. Glark, Jensen & Stirts (1990: 339). Also 

used, but not made available, by K. B. Glark 

(1 992: 520). -oidea [as -acea], same reference. 

AsHMUNELLiNAE Wobb, 1 954 [4 June] 

Reference: Gastropodia, 1(2): 18 

Type genus: Ashmunella Pilsbry & Gockerell, 

1899 
Remarks: -ini, Emberton (1995: 87). 

AsiPHONOBRANCHiA Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 222 

Remarks: Established by Blainville as an or- 
der. Treated by Gravenhorst (1 845: 34) as a 
family Asiphonobranchia containing Paludi- 
na. Nerita and Trochus. Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 

AsPAsiTiNAE Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 
Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
Dansk Naturhistohsk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 
80: 202 
Type genus: Aspasita Westerlund, 1889 
Remarks: Not available under Art. 11.5: intro- 
duced in synonymy of Spelaeodiscinae, and 
not used as the valid name of a taxon be- 
fore 1960. 

AsPELLiNAE Keen, 1971 [1 January] 
Reference: The Veliger, 13(3): 296 
Type genus: Aspella Mörch, 1877 

AsPERSPiNiDAE Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 102 
Type genus: Asperspina Rankin, 1979 



AspiDOBRANCHiA Schweigger, 1820 

Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 
skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 720 

Remarks: Established at unspecified rank 
above genus. Treated as a family by Graven- 
horst (1845: 34). Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

AssiMiNEiDAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1856 
[March] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:314 

Type genus: Assiminea Fleming, 1828 

Remarks: Original spelling Assiminiidae, based 
on Assiminia, an incorrect original spelling 
[used in the index only] oí Assiminea [used in 
the description]. Assemaniidae is an incorrect 
subsequent spelling [by Germain (1931b: 
594)] based on Assemania Dollfus, 1912, an 
unjustified emendation, -inae, Nevill (1880: 
161 ); -oidea, Starobogatov (1970b: 25). See 
also Synceratidae. 

AsTERONOTiNAE Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 438 
Type genus: Asteronotus Ehrenberg, 1831 
Remarks: -idae, Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 

872). 

AsTEROPHiLiDAE Thiele, 1925[1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 86 
Type genus: Asterophila Randall & Heath, 
1912 

AsTHELYsiNAE Marshall, 1991 [20 March] 
Reference: Mémoires du Muséum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle [Paris], ser. A, 150: 44 
Type genus: Asthelys Quinn, 1987 

AsTRAEiNAE Davlos, 1935 (1854) 

Reference: Tertiary faunas. Volume 1, The 
composition of Tertiary faunas: 223 

Type genus: Astraea Röding, 1 798 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Astraliinae, based on Astralium, consid- 
ered by Davies to be a synonym of Astraea. 
For those who consider that Astraea and 
Turbo do not belong to the same subfamily, 
Astraeinae has won general acceptance in 
the sense of Art. 40.2, and takes the prece- 
dence of Astraliinae (1 854). 

Astraliinae H.Adams & A. Adams, 1854 [May] 
Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 

1:397 
Type genus: Astralium Link, 1807 
Remarks: See Astraeinae. 



32 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



AsTYLACEACossmann, 1918 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 11:305 
Rerлarks: Established as a family-group name 
of superfamily rank, containing the families 
Stomatiidae, Haliotidae and Velainellidae. 
Not available: not based on a genus. 

AsTYLOPHTHALMA Мепке, 1845 [April] 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Malakozoologie, 

(1845): 37 
Remarks: Established as an alternative name 

for Turbinidae. Not available: not based on 

a genus name. 

Ataeniae Mörch, 1864 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 

den Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 

17-22 {for 1863): 277 
Remarks: Established as a family containing 

Discus and Vallonia. Not available: not based 

on a genus. 

Ataphridae Cossmann, 1915 [31 December] 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Géologique 

de Normandie, 33: 131 
Type genus: -\Ataptirus Gabb, 1869 
Remarks: Again declared fam. nov. by Coss- 
mann (1918: 38). -inae, Monari, Conti & Sza- 
bo (1995: 200-201). 

Ataxocerithiinae Ludbrook, 1957 [May] 
Reference: Transactions of the Royal Society 

of South Australia, 80: 25 
Type genus: Ataxocerithium Tate, 1894 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Not avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1, unless discovery of 
an author who used the name before 2000. 

Athletinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [7 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^ 52): ^ 5 [285] 

Type genus: tAthleta Conrad, 1853 

Remarks: -idae, Riedel (2000: 195). 

Athoracophoridae R Fischer, 1883 [21 Feb- 
ruary] (1860) 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 492 

Type genus: Athoracophorus Gould, 1852 

Remarks: -inae [as -idae (sic! in error)]. Grimpe 
& Hoffmann (1925: 452); -oidea [as -acea], 
Ziich (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 203), Fischer 
treated Janella and Aneitea as synonyms of 
Athoracophorus, but did not state his reasons 



for establishing the name Athoracophoridae. 
Janellidae is invalid and Aneiteidae was es- 
tablished as a distinct family. Athoracoph- 
oridae is in prevailing usage; it is here 
conserved under Art. 40.2 with the prece- 
dence of Aneiteidae. 

Atiliinae Cossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 4: 229 
Type genus: Afilia H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 
Remarks: Original spelling Atilinae. 

Atlantidae Rang, 1829 [May] 

Reference: Manuel de l'histoire naturelle des 
mollusques: 123 

Type genus: /Aí/aDía Lesueur, 1817 

Remarks: Original spelling "Atlantides" (ver- 
nacular). First latinised by Wiegmann & Ru- 
the (1832: 518); name generally attributed 
to Rang, including by Wiegmann & Ruthe. 
-oidea [as -acea], Wenz (1938 [in 1938- 
1944]: 47, 67). 

Atoxonini Schileyko, 2002 [September] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs. Part 9: 1219 
Type genus: /A toxoA7 Simroth, 1888 

Atracurinae Horny, 1964 [November] 
Reference: Casopis Narodniho Muzea, Oddil 

Prirodovedny, 133(4): 214 
Type genus: -\Atracura Horny, 1964 

Atthilidae Bergh, 1899 

Reference: Den Danske Ingolf-Expedition, 

2(3): 21 [Danish text; English text, published 

1900, p. 22] 
Type genus: Atthila Bergh, 1899 

Atydidae Thiele, 1925 [before 10 November] 

Reference: Deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition 
1898-1 899, ^7 (2): 23^ [265] 

Type genus: Atys Montfort, 1810 

Remarks: Original spelling Atyidae. Corrected 
to Atydidae by Opinion 1553 (1989: 201) in 
order to remove homonymy with Atyidae De 
Haan, 1849 [Crustacea], -inae, Thiele (1926 
[in 1925-1926]: 106); -oidea, Piani (1980: 160). 

AuLACOGNATHA МогсЬ, 1859 
Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109 
Remarks: Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 
Spelling emended to Aulocognatha by Hut- 
ton (1884: 188, 190). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



33 



AuLACopoDA Pilsbry, 1896 
Reference: The Nautilus, 9(10): 110 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

AuLACospiRiNAE Zilch, 1 959 [1 7 July] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(2): 

164 
Type genus: Aulacospira Möllendorff, 1890 
Remarks: See also Hypselostomatinae. 

AuLOBRANCHiATA van der Hoeven, 1850 [after 
20 May] 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie (Dutch 
edition, ed. 2), 1:762 

Remarks: Established as a family, containing 
Siliquaria, Magilus and Vermetus. Not avail- 
able (not based on a genus). 

AuLOPOMATiNAE Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
I: viii 

Type genus: Aulopoma Troschel, 1 847 

Remarks: Original spelling Aulopomina. 

AuRicuLELLiDAE Odhner, 1921 

Reference: The natural history of Juan Fernan- 
dez and Easter Island, 3(22): 234 

Type genus: Auriculella L. Pfeiffer, 1854 

Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 
496). 

AuRicuLiDAE Férussac, 1822 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxiii 
Type genus: Auricula Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Auriculae. First 
established as "Auriculacées" (vernacular) 
by Lamarck (1809: 321), but not generally 
attributed to that author, -inae [as Auriculea], 
L. Pfeiffer (1 853b: 9); -oidea [as -acea], Dall 
(1885:274). See Ellobiidae. 

AuRiFORMEs Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Auri- 
formes". Latinized with the same spelling by 
Latreille (1825: 201). Established as a fam- 
ily containing the genera "Haliotide", "Sto- 
mate" and "Stomatelle", and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 

AuRiNiiNAE M. Smith, 1942 

Reference: A review of the Volutidae: 55 



Type genus: Aurinia H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1853 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Scaphellinae, based on Scaphella Swain- 
son, 1 832, erroneously treated by Smith as a 
synonym ofAuhnia, despite Scaphella being 
an older name. Article 40.2 does not apply. 

AuRORAELLiDAE Pchelintsov, 1965 [after 3 Fe- 
bruary] 

Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozoia Gornogo 
Kryma: 108 

Type genus: -f Auroraella Pchelintsev, 1965 

AusTRiNAUTiNi D. W. Taylor, 2003 [March] 
Reference: Revista de Biología Tropical, 51, 

Suppl. 1:43 
Type genus: Austrinauta D. W. Taylor, 2003 

AusTRocYPRAEiNAE Irodale, 1935 [10 July] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 8(2): 106, 

132 
Type genus: -fAustrocypraea Cossmann, 1903 
Remarks: -ini, Schilder (1968: 269). 

AusTRODiAPHANiDAE Biolor & Bradford, 1991 [30 

July] 
Reference: Nemouria, Occasional Papers of the 

Delaware Museum of Natural History, 36: 33 
Type genus: Austrodiaphana Pilsbry, 1896 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

AusTROGiNELLiNi G. A. Coovort & H. K. Coovert, 

1995 [12 October] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 109(2-3): 80 
Type genus: Austroginella Laseron, 1957 

AusTRONEMATiNAE Bandol, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut, Universität Ham- 
burg, 86: 132 
Type genus: -\Austronema Bändel, 2002 
Remarks: Not formally placed in a family. In- 
valid: type genus a junior homonym of Aus- 
tronema Cobb, 1914 [Nematoda]. 

AusTRosELENiTiNAE H. B. Ваког, 1941 [5 May] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 54(4): 134 
Type genus: Austroselenites Kobelt, 1905 

AusTROsiPHONiDAE Cotton & Godfrey, 1938 
Reference: Malacological Society of South 

Australia, Publication 1 : 24 
Type genus: t^í7Sfras/p/?o Cossmann, 1906 
Remarks: Name only, no description, but avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1 because it has been 



34 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



used as valid by Macpherson & Chappie (1 951 : 
132) and Iredale & McMichael (1962: 69). 

AvELARiACEA Рапк1п, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 105 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily con- 
taining the family Ganitidae only. Not avail- 
able: not based on a genus. 

AvELLANiNAE Hacobjan, 1976 [after 12 Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: [Gastropods from the Upper Cre- 
taceous of Armenia]: 286 

Type genus: -\ Avellana d'Orbigny, 1843 

Aylacostomatinae Parodiz, 1969 [30 June] 
Reference: Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 

40:141 
Type genus: Aylacostoma Spix, 1827 
Remarks: Original spelling Aylacostominae. 
Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.2, as a re- 
placement name for Hemisininae, presum- 
ably on the grounds that Aylacostoma is a 
senior synonym of Hemisinus Swainson, 
1840. Again declared nom. nov. by Golikov 
& Starobogatov (1 987: 25). 

AzEciNAE H. Watson, 1920 [2 May] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 
Society of London, 14(1): 24 

Type genus: Azeca Fleming, 1828 

Remarks: Name placed on the Official List by 
Direction 27 (1955: 483, 488), but credited 
In error to Kennard & B. B. Woodward (1 926: 
xvi, 144). -idae, Kennard & B. B. Woodward 
(1926, ibid.). 

AzYGOBRANCHiASpengel, 1881 

Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 
Zoologie, 35(3): 372 

Remarks: Established as a suborder. Treated 
by Wenz (1 923 [in 1 923-1 930]: 1 735) as a 
superfamily containing Neritidae, Helicinidae 
and Proserpinidae. Not available as a fami- 
ly-group name (not based on a genus). 

Babainidae Roller, 1972 [1 April] 
Reference: The Veliger, 14(4): 416 
Type genus: Babaina Roller, 1972 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior homonym 
of Babaina Odhner [in Franc], 1968 [Gas- 
tropoda Chromodorididae]; see Babakinidae. 

Babakinidae Roller, 1973 [1 July] 
Reference: The Veliger, 16(1): 118 
Type genus: Babakina Roller, 1973 



Remarks: Replacement name for Babainidae, 
invalid because its type genus is a junior 
homonym, -inae, Bouchet & Valdés, herein. 

Babyloniinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971 

[27 September] 
Reference: The sea shells of Sagami Bay: 250 

[Japanese text], 164 [English text] 
Type genus: Babylonia Schlüter, 1838 
Remarks: Diagnosis in the Japanese text only, 

name only in the English text, -idae, Gory- 

achev (1987b: 33, 35). See also Eburninae. 

Bactroptyxidae Pchelintsev, 1965 [after 3 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozoia Gornogo 
Kryma: 96 

Type genus: ^Bactroptyxis Cossmann, 1896 

Remarks: Original spelling Bactroptyxisidae. 

Baicaliinae p. Fischer, 1885 [29 January] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (8): 724 
Type genus: Baicalia Martens, 1876 
Remarks: -idae, B. Dybowski (1911: 962). 

Baicalohydrobiidae b. Dybowski & Grochmal- 

icki, 1925 
Reference: Kosmos, 50(2-3): 873 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Baicalovalvatidae B. Dybowski & Groch- 

malicki, 1925 
Reference: Kosmos, 50(2-3): 873 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Baleinae A. J. Wagner, 1913 [July] 
Reference: Iconographie der Land- & Süss- 

wasser-Mollusken, new ser., 21 : 9 
Type genus: Balea Gray, 1824 

Bankiviini Hickman & McLean, 1990 [26 No- 
vember] 

Reference: Natural History Museum of Los 
Angeles County, Science Series, 35: 129 

Type genus: Bankivia Krauss, 1848 

Baptodoridinae Odhner, 1926 

Reference: Further zoological results of the 

Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901-1903, 

2(1): 54 
Type genus: Baptodoris Bergh, 1884 
Remarks: -idae, Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 870). 

Barleeiidae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 
Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 
of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part /: 1 1 1 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



35 



Type genus: Barleeia Clark, 1853 

Remarks: Original spelling Barleeiadae. -inae, 
Thiele (1929 [in 1929-1935]: 166); -oidea, 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 211). 

Bathanaliidae Ancey, 1906 [30 June] 
Reference: Bulletin Scientifique de la France 

et de la Belgique, 40: 245 
Type genus: Bathanalia J. E. S. Moore, 1898 

Bathyberthellini Garcia, Troncóse, Cervera & 

Garcia-Gomez, 1996 [January] 
Reference: Polar Biology, 16: 84 
Type genus: BathyberthellaW\\\an, 1983 

Bathydoridinae Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 

Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 

Thiere,6: 126 
Type genus: Bathydoris Bergh, 1884 
Remarks: Established as subfamily despite 

suffix -idae. -idae, Thiele (1926 [in 1925- 

1 926]: 111); -oidea, Wägele & Willan (2000: 

95). 

Bathypeltidae Moskalev, 1971 [after 11 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 4: 59 

Type genus: Bathypelta Moskalev, 1971 

Remarks: -oidea, same reference. 

Bathyphytophilidae Moskalev, 1978 [after 18 

December] 
Reference: Trudy Instituía Okeanologii, 113: 

139 
Type genus: Bathyphytophilus Moskalev, 1978 

Bathysciadiidae Dautzenberg & H. Fischer, 

1900 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 24: 207 
Type genus: Bathysciadium Dautzenberg & H. 

Fischer, 1900 
Remarks: Original spelling Bathysciadidae. 

-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 207). 

Batillariinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 207 
Type genus: Batillaria Benson, 1842 
Remarks: -idae, Houbrick (1991b: 333). 

Bayardellini Starobogatov & Prozorova, 1990 

[after 20 March] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 69(4): 34 
Type genus: Bayardella J. Burch, 1977 



Belgrandiellinae Radoman, 1983 [February] 
Reference: Serbian Academy of Sciences and 
Arts, Monographs, 547 [Department of Sci- 
ences, 57]: 89 
Type genus: BelgrandiellaA. J. Wagner, 1927 
Remarks: -idae, Izzatullaev, Sitnikova & Star- 
obogatov (1985: 57). 

Belgrandiinae de Stefani, 1877 

Reference: Atti della Società Toscana di Sci- 
enze Naturali Residente in Pisa, 3(2): 323 

Type genus: Belgrandia Bourguignat, 1869 

Remarks: Original spelling "[sotto famiglia 
delle] Belgrandiae". It could be argued that 
this is only a plural, but colleagues we have 
consulted (Kadolsky, Falkner, Kabat) regard 
it as an available family-group name. 

BelinaeA. Bellardi, 1875 [before 14 April] 
Reference: Bullettino della Società Malaco- 

logica Italiana, 1(1): 18 
Type genus: Bela Gray, 1847 [ex Leach MS] 
Remarks: When he established the name Beli- 
nae, Bellardi cited Bela septangularis (Mon- 
tagu, 1803) as type species of the genus. 
This is an originally included species, but 
Gray (1 847b: 1 34) had earlier validly desig- 
nated Murex nebula Montagu, 1 803, as type 
species of Bela. Murex septangularis and 
Murex nebula are currently not considered 
congeneric, nor even confamilial: Murex sep- 
tangularis is the type species of Haedro- 
pleura Monterosato, 1883, a genus of 
Crassispirinae, v\/hereas Murex nebula is a 
species of Mangeliinae. Under Art. 65.2, the 
case should be brought to the Commission. 
Homonym of Belidae Schoenherr, 1826, 
based on Belus Schoenherr, 1826 [Co- 
leóptera]. 

Bellamyinae Rohrbach, 1937 [1 November] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 69(5- 

6):215 
Type genus: Bellamya Jousseaume, 1886 
Remarks: -idae, Sitnikova & Starobogatov 

(1983:25). 

Bellerophinidae Destombes, 1984 [31 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Bulletin trimestriel de la Société 
Géologique de Normandie et des Amis du 
Musée du Havre, 70(4): 44 

Type genus: -\Bellerophina d'Orbigny, 1843 

Bellerophontidae McCoy, 1 852 
Reference: A synopsis of the classification of 
the British Palaeozoic rocks, with a system- 



36 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



atic description oftlie Britisli Palaeozoic fos- 
sils..:. 307 
Type genus: ■\Bellerophon Montfort, 1808 
Remarks: Dated 1851 by Knight, Batten & 
Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 179). However, 
only part 1 of the reference cited was pub- 
lished in 1 851 , part 2 was published in 1 852. 
Established simultaneously by Giebel (1 852: 
466), precedence not established, -oidea [as 
-acea], Gill (1871: 11);-inae, Knight, Batten 
& Yochelson (in Moore, 1 960: 1 82). 

Belogona Pilsbry, 1893 [14 February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Pfiiladelphia, 44: 390, 
392 
Remarks: Latinization of "belogenen Formen" 
[vernacular] of Ihering (1892b: 402). Estab- 
lished as "Group" above genus. Treated by 
Pilsbry (1895b: xxi) as a "tribe", immediate- 
ly below family [Helicidae], the author hav- 
ing "purposely abstained from assigning 
subfamily rank to the natural tribes of Heli- 
ces", but Helicinae given as an alternative 
name; treated as subfamily by J. W. Taylor 
(1914: 199). Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Bembiciidae Finlay, 1928 [10 August] 
Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 59: 241 
Type genus: Bembicium Philippi, 1846 
Remarks: -inae, Reid (1989: 88). 

Benedictiinae Clessin, 1880 

Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, ser. 2, 

2:194 
Type genus: Benedictia W. Dybowski, 1875 
Remarks: -idae, Lindholm (1909: 30); -ini [as 

-eae], Thiele (1928a: 379). 

Benthovolutidae 

Type genus: Benthovoluta Kuroda & Habe, 
1950 

Remarks: "Benthovolutidae Oyama, 1979", is 
cited by Ponder & Waren (1988: 305) in the 
synonymy of Ptychatractinae. We could not 
trace this name, which is not cited in Oya- 
ma's collected works nor in the list of his taxa. 

Berendtiinae p. Fischer & Crosse, 1872 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 

et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches 

zoologiques {7), 1(2): 300 
Type genus: Berendtia Crosse & P. Fischer, 

1869 
Remarks: Original spelling Berendtinae. 



Beringiidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 [18 

December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 213 
Type genus: Beringius Dali, 1887 
Remarks: -oidea, same reference; -inae, Gory- 

achev (1987b: 34). 

Bernayini Schilder, 1927 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91 
(Abt. A, 10): 88 

Type genus: tße^'^aya Jousseaume, 1884 

Remarks: Precedence of Gisortiinae over si- 
multaneously published Bernayini deter- 
mined by Art. 24 (subfamily vs. tribe). 
Cypraeorbini given precedence over Bernay- 
ini by First Reviser's choice by Schilder 
(1939:176). 

Bertheliniinae Keen & A. G. Smith, 1961 [20 
March] 

Reference: Proceedings of the California 
Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 30(2): 50 

Type genus: -\Berthelinia Crosse, 1875 

Remarks: -idae, Iredale & McMichael (1962: 
91). First published without diagnosis by 
Beets (1949: 24) and rejected under Art. 13a 
by Le Renard, Sabelli & Taviani (1 996: 230); 
this had the unforeseen consequence to dis- 
place the availability of Bertheliniinae to 
Keen & A. G. Smith (1961), who first provid- 
ed a description, two years later than 
Tamanovalvidae Kawaguti & Baba, 1959. 

Berthellinae Burn, 1962 [May] 

Reference: Memoirs of the National Museum 

[Melbourne], 25: 130 
Type genus: Berthella Blainville, 1824 
Remarks: -ini, Willan (1987: 238). 

Bertiniidae Jousseaume, 1883 [after 1 April] 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 8: 194 
Type genus: Bertinia Jousseaume, 1883 
Remarks: Original spelling Bertinidae. Kase & 
Valdés (1997: 233) have demonstrated that 
Bertinia bertinia Jousseaume, 1 883, the type 
species of Bertinia, is a synonym of Cellana 
nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), and Bertiniidae 
is thus a senior subjective synonym of Na- 
cellinae. However, the name Bertiniidae has 
never been used as valid, nor even listed in 
a nomenclátor, since Jousseaume, whereas 
Nacellinae is in prevailing usage and quali- 
fies as a nomen protectum under Art. 23.9. 
We here declare Bertiniidae a nomen obli- 
tum under Art. 23.9, and Nacellidae (see that 
name) a nomen protectum. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



37 



BiELziiNAE I. M. Likharev & Wiktor, 1980 [atter 

10 November] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, Molliuski, 3(5): 287 
Type genus: Bielzia Clessin, 1887 
Remarks: -idae, Muratov (1999: 24). 

BiFARiBRANCHiATA Latreüle, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Bifaribranches" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 
175). Established as a family containing the 
genera "Phyllidie" and "Diphyllide". Not avail- 
able (not based on a genus). 

BiNNEYiNAECockerell, 1891 [August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 1891(2): 216, 222 
Type genus: Binneya Cooper, 1863 
Remarks: -idae, Wiktor, Chen & Ming (2000: 
6); Wiktor et al. wrote: "The superfamily 
[Arionoidea] discussed includes the follow- 
ing families (many authors regard them as 
subfamilies): Philomycidae, Arionidae, 
Anadenidae, Ariolimacidae, Oopeltidae 
and semi-slugs Binneyinae"; "Binneyinae" 
is obviously a typographical error for Bin- 
neyidae. 

BiOMPHALARiiNAE H. Watson, 1954 [14 August] 
Reference: Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique 

Africaines, 49{3-4)■.2^ 5 
Type genus: Biompfialaria Preston, 1910 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae]. Zilch (1959 [in 1959- 

1960]: 117). 

BisTOLiDiNi С Meyer, 2003 

Reference: Biological Journal of the Linnean 

Society, 79: 459 
Type genus: Bistolida Cossmann, 1920 

BiTHYNiiDAE Gray, 1857 

Reference: [New edition ofTurton] Manual of 
the land and fresh-water shells of the British 
Islands: 24 

Type genus: Bithynia Leach, 1818 

Remarks: Original spelling Bithiniadae. Not 
available from Troschel (1857 [in 1856- 
1851]: 101 [as Bythiniae; a plural not equiv- 
alent to a family-group name]). Placed on 
the Official List, with attribution to Gray 
(1857), by Opinion 475 (1957: 312); author- 
ship amended to Troschel (1857) by Opin- 
ion 1664 (1992: 78). -inae [as Bythininae], 
Gill (1863: 34); -oidea, Starobogatov & Sit- 
nikova(1983:21). 



BiTTiiNAE Cossmann, 1906 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée,?: Q4, 137 
Type genus: Bittium Gray, 1847 [ex Leach MS] 
Remarks: -idae, Korobkov (1955: 214). 

BoETTGERiiNi H. Nordsieck, 1979 [9 March] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 109(4- 

6): 262 
Type genus: Boettgeria Heynemann [in O. 

Boettger], 1863 

BoETTGERiLLiDAE Wiktor & I. M. Likharev, 1979 

[18 May] 
Reference: Malacologia, 18: 124, 126 
Type genus: Boettgerilla Simroth, 1910 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Van Goethem (1972: 14). 

BoHAispiRiDAE Youluo, 1978 [June] 
Reference: Early Tertiary gastropod fossils 

from the coastal region of Boh ai: 101 
Type genus: tßo^a/sp/ra Youluo, 1978 

BoLANiiDAE Wenz, 1915 

Reference: [in K. Fischer & Wenz] Jahrbücher 
des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 
in Wiesbaden, 67: 122 

Type genus: -fBolania УУепг, 1914 

Remarks: Although Bolania Gray, 1840, re- 
ferred to by Wenz, is a nomen nudum, its 
usage by Wenz makes it an available name, 
-inae [as subfam. Bolaniidae], Wenz (1923 
[in 1923-1930]: 1764). 

BoLMiDAE Delpey, 1941 [February] 

Reference: Mémoires de la Société Géo- 
logique de France, new ser., 19(3-4) [Mém- 
oire 43]: 32 

Type genus: Bolma Risso, 1826 

Remarks: Declared again fam. nov. by Delpey 
(1942: 181). 

BoRNELLiDAE ВегдЬ, 1874 

Reference: Journal des Museum Godeffroy, 

2(6): 95 
Type genus: Bornella Gray, 1850 

BoRsoNiiNAE A. Bellardi, 1875 [before 14 April] 
Reference: Bulletino délia Société Malacolog- 

ica Italiana, 1(1): 20 
Type genus: -tBorsonia Bellardi, 1839 
Remarks: Original spelling Borsoninae. 

BoRYSTHENiiNAE Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 
February] 



38 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Reference: [in Sitnikova] Zoologicheskii Zhur- 

A?a/, 62(1):34 
Type genus: Borysthenia Lindholm, 1914 

BosELLiiDAE Ev. Mafcus, 1982 

Reference: The Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

Suppl. 10: 18 
Type genus: Bosellia Trinchese, 1891 
Remarks: Published the same year by 

Schmekel & Portmann (1982: 283); priority 

not established. 

BoTHRiEMBRYONTiDAE Irodale, 1937 [12 March] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 8(4): 309 
Type genus: Bothriembryon Pilsbry, 1894 

BoTHROPOMATiNAE Thiele, 1924 [February] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Zoo- 
logischen Museum in Berlin, 11 (1 ): 71 
Type genus: ßof/?ropoma Thiele, 1924 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym oi Bothropoma l\. J. Wagner, 1908. 

BoucoTONOTiNi Fryda, 1999 

Reference: Journal of the Czech Geological 

Soc/eíy, 44(3-4): 310 
Type genus: ■\Boucotonotus Fryda & Manda, 

1997 

BouRCiERiNAE Paotel, 1890 

Reference: Catalog der Conchylien-Samm- 

lung von Fr Paetel. Ed. 4, Abt. 2: 487 
Type genus: Bourciera L. Pfeiffer, 1852 

Brachypodellidae H. B. Baker, 1956 [10 May] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 69(4): 130 
Type genus: Brachypodella Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Baker considered Cylindrella a jun- 
ior synonym of Brachypodella (but not of 
Urocoptis) and introduced Brachypodellidae 
as the name to be used in place of Cylin- 
drellidae (with Urocoptidae as a subjective 
synonym) if the rules of nomenclature, which 
he rejected, were to be followed. We regard 
Brachypodellidae as a name introduced con- 
ditionally, and thereby available under Art. 
15.1. However, Brachypodellidae did not 
come into prevailing usage (and thus Art. 
40.2 does not apply) until erected again as 
a new subfamily, distinct from Urocoptinae, 
by Jaume & de la Torre (1972b: 1556). 

Brachytominae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 362 

Type genus: Brachytoma Swainson, 1840 



Remarks: Because there is no type material 
extant of Pleurotoma stromboides J. So- 
werby, 1832 [type species of Brachytoma], 
and there are doubts on the interpretation of 
the names, Kilburn (1989: 185-186) treated 
Pleurotoma stromboides, Brachytoma and 
Brachytominae as nomina dubia. 

Brachytrematidae Cossmann, 1906 [July] 

Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 7: 15 

Type genus: -fBrachytrema Morris & Lycett, 
1851 

Remarks: Original spelling Brachytremidae. 
-inae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1987: 25). 

Bradybaeninae Pilsbry, 1934 [17 April] (1898) 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 86: 7 
Type genus: Bradybaena Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Pilsbry pointed out the subjective 
synonymy of Eulota Hartmann, 1840, with 
Bradybaena and probably intended (but did 
not explicitly so state) Bradybaeninae as a 
replacement name for Eulotidae; this was the 
view of Nordsieck (1987: 17, footnote 10). 
This view is accepted here and, under Art. 
40.2, Bradybaeninae takes the precedence 
of Eulotidae. -idae, Pilsbry (1939: 15); -ini, 
H. Nordsieck (2002b: 43). 

Branchifera Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 290 

Remarks: Established as a family containing 
the genera Fissurella, Emarginula and Par- 
maphorus. Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Brevicommisuratae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 101 
Remarks: Established as a "section" of sub- 
family rank, in synonymy of Notarchinae. Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). 

Brevisiphoniinae Lus, 1973 [after 17 May] 
Reference: Trudy Instituta Okeanologii, 91 : 203 
Type genus: Brevisiphonia Lus, 1973 
Remarks: Original spelling Brevisiphoninae. 

Brochidiinae Yochelson, 1956 [18 June] 
Reference: Bulletin of the American Museum 

of Natural History, 110(3): 207 
Type genus: ■\Brochidium Koken, 1889 
Remarks: Original spelling Brochidinae. -idae, 

Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 209). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



39 



Brookulidae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum. Sydney. 

Memoir, 11: 35 
Type genus: Brookula Iredale, 1912 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Brotiinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1 987 [after 

23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshclianie po 

izucfieniiu molliusl<ov, 8: 25 
Type genus: Brotia H.Adams, 1866 

Brunoniinae Dieni, 1990 
Reference: Bollettino della Società Paleonto- 
lógica Italiana, 29{^)■. 44 
Type genus: -[Brunonia G. Müller, 1898 

Bucanellinae Koken, 1925 

Reference: Zapiskii Rossiskoi Akademil Nauk, 

ser. 8, Otdel Fiziko-Matematicheskikh Nauk, 

37(1): 1 
Type genus: tBucanella Meek, 1871 
Remarks: Original spelling Bucaniellinae, 

based on Bucanlella P. Fischer, 1885, an 

unjustified emendation oi Bucanella. 

Bucaniidae Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 [before 20 
March] 

Reference: The Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Minnesota, vol. 3(2) [Paleon- 
tology]: 849 

Type genus: -fBucania Hall, 1847 

Remarks: -inae / -ini [as -ides]. Knight, Batten 
& Yochelson (in Moore, 1 960: 1 79). 

Bucanopsinae Wahlman, 1992 

Reference: United States Geological Survey 

Professional Paper, 1066-O: 161 
Type genus: fBucanopsis Ulrich, 1897 

BucANospiRiNAE Wenz, 1938[March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

236 
Type genus: -\Bucanospira Ulrich, 1897 
Remarks: Precedence of simultaneously pub- 
lished Craspedostomatidae determined by 
Art. 24 (family vs. subfamily). 

BucciNiNAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 145 
Type genus: Buccinum Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Buc- 
cinidia. -idae, Fleming (1822: 491); -oidea 
[as -acea], Cossmann (1906: 2); -ini, 
Bouchet, herein [for consistency of ranking]. 



BucciNOPSiDAE G. O. Sars, 1878 

Reference: Mollusca regionis arcticae Norve- 
giae: 265 

Type genus: Buccinopsis Jeffreys, 1867 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Buccinopsis Conrad, 1857, and 
ßucc/nops/s Deshayes, 1865. 

BucciNOPSiDAE Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
l'Avancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Paris, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. Nicolas established the "series" Bucci- 
nopsidae within his family Tanganyikidae, to 
include gastropods from Lake Tanganyika re- 
sembling Buccinidae, and the name appears 
to have been descriptive (see also Cancel- 
lopsidae, Littoridinopsidae, Muhcidopsidae, 
etc.), rather than based on the genus Bucci- 
nopsis, which Nicolas did not cite. 

BucciNULiDAE Finlay, 1928 [10 August] 
Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 59: 251 
Type genus: Buccinulum Deshayes, 1830 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opinion 
479 (1 957: 375). -inae, Wenz (1 941 [in 1 938- 
1 944]: 1 051 ); -ini, Bouchet & Kantor, herein. 

BucHARAMNicoLiNAE Izzatullaov, Sitnikova & 
Starobogatov, 1985 [after 11 September] 

Reference: Biulleten' Moskovskogo Obsh- 
chestva Ispytatelei Prirody, Otdel Biolog- 
icheskii, new ser., 90(5): 56 

Type genus: Bucharamnicola Izzatullaev, Sit- 
nikova & Starobogatov, 1985 

BuETTNERiiNi Schileyko, 2002 [September] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs, Part 9: 1225 
Type genus: Buettneria Simroth, 1888 

BuLiMiDAE Guilding, 1828 
Reference: The Zoological Journal, 4: 168 
Type genus: Bulimus Bruguière, 1789 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus placed on the Offi- 
cial Index by Opinion 475. Guilding established 
Bulimidae for "Bulimulus Leach. Bulimus, Auc- 
torum", i.e. a group of pulmonates, for which 
the names "Bulimus Scopoli, 1786", and Buli- 
mus Bruguière, 1789, have sometimes been 
considered to be applicable. These are misap- 
plications of Bulimus Scopoli, 1777, or junior 
homonyms, and all these names have been 
placed on the Official Index by Opinion 475. 



40 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



BuLiMiDAE Hannibal, 1912 [October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 10(3): 183 
Type genus: Bulimus Scopoli, 1777 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Bithyniinae, because Hannibal regarded 
Bulimus Scopoli, 1777 (with Helix tentacu- 
lata Linnaeus, 1758 as type species), as a 
senior synonym of Bittiynia. Invalid: type 
genus placed on the Official Index by Opin- 
ion 475. -inae, Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927: 
213). 

BuLiMiNiDAE L. Pfeiffer, 1879 

Reference: Nomenclátor heliceorum viven- 
tium: 282 

Type genus: Bulimina Ehrenberg, 1831 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of ßa//'m/'na d'Orbigny, 1826 [Foramin- 
ifera], which is also the type of the family 
Buliminidae Jones, 1875. Placed on the Of- 
ficial Index by Opinion 2018 (2003). See also 
Buliminusidae. 

Buliminidae Kobelt, 1880. See Buliminusidae. 

BuLiMiNOPsiNAE Hoffmann, 1928 

Reference: Dr H.G. Bronns Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tier-Reichs, Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Buch 
2:1239 

Type genus: Buliminopsis Heude, 1890 

Buliminusidae Kobelt, 1880 
Reference: lllustrirtes Conchylienbuch, 2: 272 
Type genus: Buliminus Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Original spelling Buliminidae. To 
avoid homonymy with Buliminidae Jones, 
1875 [Foraminifera], Schileyko (1998 [in 
1998-2003]: 183) emended the name Bu- 
limininae to Buliminuinae. However, under 
Art. 55.3.1 , such a change in spelling could 
not be made by Schileyko alone and the case 
had to be brought to the Commission. Opin- 
ion 2018 (2003: 63) emended Buliminidae 
to Buliminusidae, placed Buliminusidae Ko- 
belt, 1880, on the Official List, gave prece- 
dence to Enidae over Buliminusidae, and 
placed Buliminidae Kobelt, 1880 and Bu- 
liminuinae Schileyko, 1998 on the Official 
Index, -inae, O. Boettger (1886: 296); -oidea, 
Schileyko (1984: 5). 

BuLiMORPHiDAE S. A. МШог, 1889 [after Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: North American geology and 
palaeontology: 395 

Type genus: tBulimorpha Whitfield, 1882 



BuLiMULiNAE Tryon, 1867 [5 September] 
Reference: American Journal of Conchology, 

3(2): 164, 166 
Type genus: Bulimulus Leach, 1814 
Remarks: -idae, Crosse & P. Fischer (1873, in 

Fischer & Crosse, 1 872-1 891 : 461 ); -oidea 

[as-acea], Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 145); 

-ini, Schileyko (1999 [in 1998-2003]: 275). 

BuLiNiNAE P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 
et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches 
zoologiques (7), 2(8): 32 
Type genus: Bulinus O. F. Müller, 1781 
Remarks: Name sometimes (e.g., Staroboga- 
tov 1967: 289-290) credited to Herrmanns- 
en (1846). However, Herrmannsen (1846 [in 
1846-1852]: 147) merely listed "Bullinea 
Oken 1815" [published in a rejected work] 
as a "familia Gasteropodum" and considered 
it a synonym of "Limnaeacea Lamarck". This 
does not qualify as an available introduction 
under the Code, -idae [as Bullinidae, based 
on Bulimus, an incorrect subsequent spell- 
ing of Bulinus], Germain (1919: 121); -ini, 
Hubendick(1978:39). 

BuLLACTiNAE Thiele, 1926 [20 February] 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 106 

Type genus: Bullada Bergh, 1901 

Remarks: -idae, Burn & Thompson (in Bees- 
ley et al., 1998: 955). Bullactininae is a mis- 
spelling by Wenz (1 938 [in 1 938-1 944]: 48). 

BuLLAEiDAE Rafinosquo, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 142 
Type genus: Bullaea Lamarck, 1801 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Bullin- 
itia. Rafinesque introduced the type genus 
as: "7. Bullinia R[afinesque] Bullea Lam.", 
suggesting that Bullinia is an unjustified 
emendation for Bullea Lam. [= Bullaea]. 
Under Art. 35.4.2, the family-group name is 
to be corrected to Bullaeidae. Lamarck 
(1819: 298) independently introduced the 
vernacular family "les Bulléens", which was 
latinized [as Bullaeana] by Children (1823 
[in 1 822-1 824]: 231 ), with explicit reference 
to Lamarck. See also Philinidae. 

BuLLARiiDAE Dall, 1908 [October] 

Reference: Bulletin of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, 43(6): 243 

Type genus: Bullaria Rafinesque, 1815 

Remarks: Dall argued that Bulla Linnaeus, 
1758, was not available for a mollusc, and 
introduced Bullariidae as a new replacement 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



41 



name for Bullidae. However, Bulla Linnae- 
us, 1758, has subsequently been placed on 
the Official List by Opinion 196 with Bulla 
ampulla Linnaeus, 1758, as type species. 
Bullaria Rafinesque is a substitute name for 
Bulla, and Bullariidae is an objective syn- 
onym of Bullidae. 

Bullidae Gray, 1827 

Reference: Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 

Vol. 7. Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca III 

[= plate 4] 
Type genus: Bulla Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: -inae, Swainson (1840: 359); -oidea 

[as -acea], Cossmann (1906: 2). See also 

Bullariidae and Vesicidae. 

BuLLiiNAE Alimón, 1990 [12 December] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 99{335y. П6 

Type genus: Bullía Gray, 1834 

Remarks: Ponder & Waren (1 988: 305) listed 
in error "Bulliinae Thiele, 1929", in the syn- 
onymy of Nassahinae; Thiele placed Bullia 
in the family Nassidae. 

BuLLiNiDAE Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 95 
Type genus: Bullina Férussac, 1822 
Remarks: Original spelling Bullinadae. Also 
declared new by Rudman (1972: 117). 

BuNNYiNi H. Nordsieck, 1987 [15 October] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 

3):23 
Type genus: Bunnya H. B. Baker, 1942 
Remarks: -inae, W. B. Miller & Naranjo-Gar- 

cia(1991: 150). 

BuRSATELLiNAE Eales, 1984 
Reference: Opisthobranch, 16(3): 26 
Type genus: Bursatella Blainville, 1817 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. Used, 

but not made available, by Vaught (1989: 67) 

and Higo & Goto (1993: 417). 

BuRsiDAE Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 90 
Type genus: Bursa Röding, 1798 
Remarks: -inae, Kuroda, Habe & Oyama 
(1971: 133 [English text]). 

BUSIRIDAE Risso, 1826 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des principales 
productions de l'Europe méridionale, 4: 33 

Type genus: Busiris Risso, 1826 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "les 
Busirides". Latinized by Herrmannsen (1846 



[in 1846-1852]: 148) and Tiberi (1880 [in 
1880-1881]: 184). 

BusYCONiDAE Wade, 1917 [April] (1867) 
Reference: American Journal of Science, ser. 

4,43:294 
Type genus: Busycon Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Fulguridae, based on Fulgur Montfort, 
1810, treated by Wade as a synonym of 
Busycon. Busyconidae has won general ac- 
ceptance and is conserved under Art. 40.2, 
with the precedence of Fulguridae. -inae, 
Abbott (1974: 222); -ini, Bouchet, herein [for 
consistency of ranking]. 

BusYCOTYPiNAE Potuch, 1994 
Reference: Atlas of Florida fossil shells: 317 
Type genus: Busycotypus\J\Jenz, 1943 
Remarks: -ini, Bouchet & Kantor, herein [for 
consistency of ranking]. 

Byssiferia Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1: 317 
Remarks: Original spelling "Les byssifères" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Rafinesque (1815: 
147). Established as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

Bythinellinae Kobelt, 1878 [May] 
Reference: lllustrirtes Conchylienbuch, 1: 131 
Type genus: Bythinella Moquin-Tandon, 1856 
Remarks: Established in synonymy (of Hydro- 
biinae), but available because it was used as 
valid before 1961. -idae, Locard (1893: 71). 

Cadlinellinae Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 
Reference: British Antarctic {"Terra Nova") Ex- 
pedition, 1910. Natural history report, zool- 
ogy, 7(5): 248 
Type genus: СасУ//пе//а Thiele, 1931 

Cadlininae Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 

Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 

Thiere,6: 134 
Type genus: Cadlina Bergh, 1878 
Remarks: Established as subfamily despite 

suffix -idae. -idae, Odhner (in Franc, 1 968c: 

866 [in synonymy of Echinochilidae]). 

Caecidae Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 85 
Type genus: Caecum Fleming, 1813 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1968: 7); -inae, Bändel (1996b: 54, 58). 

Caecilianellinae. See Cecilioididae. 



42 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Calcarellidae Schaufuss, 1869 

Reference: Molluscorum systema et cata- 
logus. System und Aufzählung sämmtlicher 
Conchylien der Sammlung von Fr. Paetel: 2 

Type genus: Ca/care//a Souleyet, 1850 

Calcarinidae Pallary, 1909 [November] 
Reference: Mémoires Présentés à I Institut 

Egyptien, 6{^)■. 12 
Type genus: Са/сагша Moquin-Tandon, 1848 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Calcarina d'Orbigny, 1 826 [Foramin- 
ifera]. See Albeidae and Sphincterochilinae. 

Caledoniellidae Rosewater, 1969 [1 April] 

Reference: The Veliger, 11(4): 345 

Type genus: Caledoniella Souverbie, 1869 

Caliphyllidae Tiberi, 1881 [before 14 Febru- 
ary] 

Reference: Bullettino délia Société Malacolog- 
ica Italiana, 6{^5-^ 8): 239 

Type genus: CaliphyllaA. Costa, 1867 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Caliphyl- 
lacea. 

Calliostomatinae Thiele, 1924 [February] 
(1847) 

Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologi- 
schen Museum in Berlin, 1 1 (1 ): 67 

Type genus: Calliostoma Swainson, 1840 

Remarks: -idae, Finlay (1926: 371); -ini. 
Beuchet, herein [forconsistency of ranking]. 
When he established the name Callio- 
stomatinae, Thiele did not cite Ziziphininae; 
however, Calliostoma and Ziziphinus are 
considered synonyms, and Calliostomatinae 
is conserved under Art. 40.2, with the pre- 
cedence of Ziziphininae. 

Calliotectinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [7 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^ 52): ^ 9 [2Q9] 

Type genus: Calliotectum Dall, 1890 

Calliotropini Hickman & McLean, 1990 [26 

November] 
Reference: Natural History Museum of Los 

Angeles County Science Series, 35: 79 
Type genus: "[Calliotropis Seguenza, 1903 
Remarks: -inae, Waren & Bouchet (1 993: 11 ). 

Callistoplepinae Mead, 1994 [23 June] 
Reference: Bulletin of the Natural History Mu- 
seum, Zoology ser., 60(1): 3 
Type genus: Callistoplepa Ancey, 1888 
Remarks: Original spelling Callistopeplinae, 
based on Callistopepla, an incorrect subse- 



quent spelling [by Ancey (1898: 92)] of Cal- 
listoplepa. 

Callomphalidae Iredale & McMichael, 1 962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Memoir 1 1 : 35 
Type genus: Callomphala A. Adams & Angas, 

1864 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Calmidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 [March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 15: 200 
Type genus: Calma Alder & Hancock, 1 855 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 780 (1966: 102). 

Calopiidae Ponder, 1999 [16 June] 
Reference: Molluscan Research, 20(1): 18 
Type genus: Calopia Ponder, 1999 

Caloplocaminae. See Kaloplocaminae. 

Caloriidae Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 882 

Type genus: Ca/or/a Trínchese, 1888 

Calycidorididae Roginskaya, 1972 [after 3 May] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal , 51(6): 916 
Type genus: Ca/yc/dor/s Abraham, 1876 

Calyciidae Iredale, 1941 [19 December] 
Reference: Australian Zoologist, 10(1 ): 71 
Type genus: Calycia H.Adams, 1865 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Not avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1, unless discovery of 
an author who used the name before 2000. 

Calyptraeidae Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1: 321 
Type genus: Calyptraea Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Calyptracées" 
(vernacular); also Lamarck ( 1 81 2: 1 1 4, as "les 
Calyptraciens"). First latinized [as Calyptra- 
ta] by Schumacher (1817: 56, 1 80). -inae [as 
Calyptraina], Gray (1857a: 119); -oidea [as 
-acea], Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 88). 

Camaeninae Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxxii 
Type genus: Camaena Albers, 1850 
Remarks: -idae, Möllendorff (1898: 90); -oidea, 

Solem(1978:92). 

Campanilidae Douvillé, 1904 
Reference: Mission Scientifique en Perse par 
J. de Morgan, tome 3, partie IV: 311, 379 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



43 



Type genus: "[Campanile Bayle [in R Fischer], 

1884 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele(1929 [in 1929-1935]: 

215); -oidea, Haszprunar (1988: 429). 

Campelomatinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 116 
Type genus: Campeloma Rafinesque, 1819 
Remarks: Original spelling Campelominae. 

Camptoceratinae Dall, 1870 [June] 
Reference: Annals of the Lyceum of Natural 

History of New York, 9: 352 
Type genus: Camptoceras Benson, 1843 
Remarks: Original spelling Camptocerinae. 

Declared again new by Brandt (1974: 236). 

-ini [as -eae]. Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 

107). 

Campylaeinae Kobelt, 1904 [October] 
Reference: Iconographie der Land- & Süss- 

wasser-Mollusken, newser., 11: 71, 131 
Type genus: Campylaea Beck, 1837 

Campyloconques Fol, 1875 

Reference: Archives de Zoologie Expérimen- 
tale et Générale, 4: 178 

Remarks: Taxon containing Limacina, Cymbu- 
lia, and Tiedemannia. Established as a fam- 
ily and not available as such (vernacular only, 
and not based on a genus). 

Canaliferidae Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologigue, 1: 321 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Canalifères" 
(vernacular). Latinized [as Canalifera] by 
Rafinesque (1815: 144) and [as Canalifer- 
idae] by Broderip (1 839: 321 ). Not available: 
not based on a genus. 

Canariellini Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 227 
Type genus: Canariella Hesse, 1918 

Cancellariidae Forbes & Hanley, 1851 [1 Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: A history of British Mollusca and 
their shells, 3:360 

Type genus: Cancellaria Lamarck, 1799 

Remarks: Original spelling Cancellariadae. 
-inae [as Cancellinae], Cossmann (1899: 4); 
-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1968: 7). 

Cancellopsidae Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
LAvancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Paris, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 



Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. Nicolas established the "series" Can- 
cellopsidae within his family Tanganyikidae, 
to include gastropods from Lake Tanganyi- 
ka resembling Cancellariidae, and the name 
appears to have been descriptive. 

Canterburyellidae Bändel, Gründel & Maxwell, 
2000 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungshefte, ser. 
С, 490: 91 

Type genus: -tCanterburyella Bändel, Grün- 
del & Maxwell, 2000 

Cantharidinae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 
Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 

of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 1: 1 57 
Type genus: Cantharidus Montfori, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling Canthiridina, based 

on Canthiridus, an incorrect subsequent 

spelling of Cantharidus. -ini, Hickman & 

McLean (1990: 101). 

Cantharinae Higo & Goto, 1993 [1 February] 
Reference: A systematic list of molluscan 
shells from the Japanese islands and the 
adjacent area: 228 
Type genus: Canf/iarus Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. Hom- 
onym of Cantharidae Imhoff, 1856, based 
on Cantharis Linné, 1758 [Coleóptera]. 

Capulacmaeinae Golikov & Gulbin, 1990 [after 

25 April] 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

218: 108,115 
Type genus: Capulacmaea M. Sars, 1859 

Capulidae Fleming, 1822 [June] 
Reference: The philosophy of zoology, 2: 494 
Type genus: Capulus Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling Capulusidae. -oidea 

[as-acea], Cossmann (1921: 1); -inae, Thiele 

(1929 [in 1929-1935]: 245). 

Caracolinae Cuezzo, 2003 

Reference: Zoological Journal of the Linnean 

Society, 138:471 
Type genus: Caraco/us Montfort, 1810 

Caracollinini H. Nordsieck, 1 987 [1 5 October] 
Reference: Archiv fijr Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 

3):30 
Type genus: Caracollina Beck, 1837 

Caricellinae Dall, 1907 [4 February] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 48: 34:, 344 
Type genus: tCar/ce//a Conrad, 1835 



44 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Carinariidae Blainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 10:214 

Type genus: Carinaría Lamarck, 1801 

Remarks: Original spelling "Carinacées" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized [as Cahnariana] by Reeve 
(1842a: 74). -inae, Dieni (1990: 45); -oidea 
[as -acea], Abbott (1974: 133). 

Carinaropsidae Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 [before 
20 March] 

Reference: The Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Minnesota, vol. 3(2) [Paleon- 
tology]: 857 

Type genus: ■\Carínaropsis Hall, 1847 

Remarks: -inae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson 
(in Moore, 1960: 180). 

Carthusianini Kobelt, 1904 [October] 
Reference: Iconographie der Land- &. Süss- 

wasser-Mollusken, newser., 11: 133 
Type genus: Carthusiana Kobelt, 1871 
Remarks: Original spelling Carthusianea. See 

Thebini and Monachini. 

Carychiidae Jeffreys, 1830 

Reference: Transactions of the Linnean Soci- 
ety of London, 16(2): 324, 362 

Type genus: Carychium O. F. Müller, 1773 

Remarks: Original spelling Carychiadae, and 
credited by Jeffreys to Leach, -inae, Crosse 
& Fischer ( 1 880 [in Fischer & Crosse 1 872- 
1891]: 5). Placed on the Official List by Di- 
rection 27 (1955: 483). 

Caryodinae Connolly, 1915 [8 April] 
Reference: Annals of the South Afncan Mu- 
seum, 13: 126 
Type genus: CaAyodes Albers, 1850 
Remarks: -idae, Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 
145). 

Caspicyclotini Wenz, 1938 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

462 
Type genus: Caspicyclotus Forcart, 1935 
Remarks: Original spelling Caspicycloteae. 

Caspiidae B. Dybowski, 1913 [15 November] 
Reference: Izvestiia Imperatorskoi Akademii 

Nauk,ser.6, 16:906 
Type genus: Caspia \N. Dybowski, 1888 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 

50-51:1939:604). 

Cassianaxidae Bändel, 1996 [November] 
Reference: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 70(3- 
4): 342 



Type genus: -fCassianaxis Bändel, 1994 
Remarks: Not available (type genus then not 
available)from Bändel (1994b: 149). 

Cassianebalidae Bändel, 1996 [November] 
Reference: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 70(3- 

4): 330 
Type genus: -fCassianebala Bändel, 1996 
Remarks: Not available (type genus then not 

available) from Bändel (1994a: 87). 

Cassianocirrinae Bändel, 1993 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungsheft, ser. С, 

450: 63 
Type genus: -fCassianocirrus Bändel, 1993 

Cassidae Latreille, 1825 

Reference: Families naturelles du règne ani- 
mal: 194 

Type genus: Cassis Scopoli, 1777 

Remarks: Original spelling Cassidites [Latin]. 
First published as a French vernacular name 
"Cassidites" by Latreille (1824: table), but not 
generally considered as dating from that first 
publication. Placed on the Official List by 
Opinion 1023 (1974: 127). -inae, Swainson 
(1835: 17); -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1 968: 7). Wenz (1 941 [in 1 938-1 944]: 1 045) 
acted as First Reviser and gave Tonnidae 
precedence over Cassidae. 

Cassidulidae Gray, 1854 [25 July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 21 : 35 

Type genus: Cassidulus Gray, 1854 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Cassidulus Lamarck, 1801 [Echin- 
odermata], which is itself the type genus of 
Cassidulidae L. Agassiz & Desor, 1847. 
-inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 52, 54). 
See Melongenidae. 

Cassidulinae Odhner, 1925 [22 May] 
Reference: Л r/(/VförZoo/og/, 17A(6): 14 
Type genus: Cassidula Gray, 1847 
Remarks: The type genus is usually, but in- 
correctly, cited as "Cassidula Férussac, 
1 821 ". Férussac used "Les Cassidules" (ver- 
nacular), a name first latinized as Cassidu- 
lus Berthold, 1827, but then a junior 
homonym of Cassidulus Lamarck, 1801 
[Echinodermata]. The spelling Cassidula was 
first used by Gray (1847b: 119), and can be 
considered a replacement name or an emen- 
dation of Cassidulus Berthold. Cassidula 
Gray, 1847, is not preoccupied (Art. 33.3) 
by Cassidula [Blainville, 1830], an incorrect 
subsequent spelling of Cassidulus Lamarck. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



45 



However, because of the homonymy with 
Cassidulidae L. Agassiz & Desor, 1847, the 
name Cassidulinae Odhner, 1 925, should be 
emended (Art. 55.3), e.g. to Cassidulainae, 
if it is necessary to have a family-group name 
based on Cassidula Gray, but this action can 
be done only by the Commission. 

Cassiopinae Beurlen, 1967 

Reference: Arquivos de Geología [Uni- 
versidade do Recife], 5: 3, 10 

Type genus: -fCassiope Coquand, 1865 

Remarks: Kollmann (1979: 35) independently 
introduced Cassiopidae as a nom. nov. pro 
Glauconiidae, invalid because its type ge- 
nus is a junior homonym. 

Cataeginae McLean & Quinn, 1987 [31 July] 

Reference: The Nautilus, 101(3): 111 

Type genus: Cateeg/s McLean &Ouinn, 1987 

Catantostomatinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

158 
Type genus: -tCatantostoma Sandberger, 1842 
Remarks: -idae, Knight, Batten & Yochelson 

(in Moore, 1960:213). 

Catillinae Gray, 1868 [April] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, (1867[3]): 994-995 

Type genus: Catillus Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Established as "tribe" Catillina, si- 
multaneously at two successive ranks be- 
low family. 

Catinellinae Odhner, 1950 [18 December] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 28(4-5): 200 
Type genus: Catinella Pease, 1870 

Cavoliniidae d'Orblgny, 1842 

Reference: Paléontologie française. Terrains 

crétacés, 2:21 
Type genus: Cavolinia Bruguière, 1791 
Remarks: Invalid: Placed on the Official Index 

by Opinion 883 (1969: 28). 

Cavoliniidae Gray, 1850 [9 February] (1815) 
Reference: Catalogue of the Mollusca in the 
collection of the British Museum. Part II, 
Pteropoda: 3-4 
Type genus: Саио/ш/'а Abildgaard, 1791 
Remarks: -inae, van der Spool (1967: 81); 
-oidea, Bouchet, herein [in place of Euthe- 
cosomata, which is not available as a fami- 
ly-group name]. Placed on the Official List 
by Opinion 883 (1969: 28). When he estab- 



lished Cavoliniidae, Gray did not cite Hy- 
alaeidae; however, Hyalaea and Cavolinia 
are synonyms, and Cavoliniidae is main- 
tained under Art. 40.2, with the precedence 
of Hyalaeidae. 

Caymanabyssiinae Marshall, 1986 [2 July] 
Reference: New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 

12(4): 537 
Type genus: Caymanabyssia Moskalev, 1976 

Cecilioididae Mörch, 1864 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
den Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjöbenhavn, 
17-22 (for 1863): 291 

Type genus: Сес/У/о/сУез Férussac, 1814 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Caeciliae, 
based on Caecilioides, an unjustified emen- 
dation of Cecilioides, the latter placed on the 
Official List by Opinion 335 (1955: 56). -inae 
[as Caecilianellea], based on Caecilianella 
Bourguignat, 1856 [an unjustified emenda- 
tion of Cecilioides], Krelinger (1870: 228). 
Under Art. 23.9 of the Code, Cecilioididae 
Mörch, 1864, is here declared a nomen obli- 
tum and Ferussaciidae a nomen protectum: 
see under Ferussaciidae. 

Cecininae Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 Febru- 
ary] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
liuskov, 7: 22 

Type genus: Cecina A. Adams, 1861 

Remarks: Incorrect original spelling Caecininae. 

Cepaeini Pfeffer, 1930 [2 January] 
Reference: Geologische und Palaeon- 

tologische Abhandlungen, newser., 17(3): 

136 
Type genus: Cepaea Held, 1837 
Remarks: Original spelling Cepaeae. 

Cephalaspidea p. Fischer, 1 883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 550 
Remarks: Established by Fischer as a taxon 
above family rank. Treated as a "Stirps" 
[= superfamily] by Thiele (1931 [in 1929- 
1935]: 377). Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Cephalobrachiinae Pruvot-Fol, 1926 [1 July] 
Reference: Résultats des Campagnes Scien- 
tifiques du Prince Albert 1er de Monaco, 70: 
20 
Type genus: Cephalobrachia Bonnevie, 1912 
Remarks: Original spelling Cephalobrachinae. 



46 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Cepolinae Ihering, 1909 

Reference; Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Ge- 
sellschañin Wien, 59: 429 

Type genus: Cepolis Montfort, 1810 

Remarks: -idae, Pilsbry (1934b: 7). Homonym 
of Cepolidae Rafinesque, 1815, based on 
Cepola Linné, 1766 [Pisces]. 

Cerastinae Wenz, 1 923 [2 August] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogas. /, Pars 21: 

1072 
Type genus: Cerastus Martens, 1860 
Remarks: The name Cerastinae has for some 
time been considered invalid because its 
type genus was believed to be a junior hom- 
onym of Cerastus Dejean, 1821 [Co- 
leóptera]. However, the latter is a name 
without description or included species, list- 
ed by Dejean in synonymy, or as a subge- 
nus, of Polydrusus Germar, 1817; "Cerastus 
Dejean" is not an available name, and has 
not subsequently been made available, 
which leaves Cerastus Albers and Cerasti- 
nae potentially valid names, -idae, Hausdorf 
(1999: 152). See also Cerastuinae. 

Cerastuinae Wenz, 1930 [10 April] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, /, Pars 46: 

3034 
Type genus: Cerastua Strand, 1928 
Remarks: Replacement name for Cerastinae, 

erroneously considered to be invalid, -idae, 

H.Nordsieck (1986b: 97). 

Ceratodiscinae Pilsbry, 1927 [27 October] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 41(2): 62 
Type genus: Ceratodiscus Simpson & Hen- 
derson, 1901 

Ceratopeidae Yochelson & Bridge, 1957 
Reference: United States Geological Survey 

Professional Paper, 294-H: 296 
Type genus: tCeratopea Ulrich, 1911 

Ceratosomatidae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:215 

Type genus: Ceratosoma A. Adams & Reeve, 
1850 

Remarks: Original spelling Ceratosomidae. 
Under Art. 23.9 of the Code, Ceratosoma- 
tidae Gray, 1857, is here declared a nomen 
oblitum and Chromodorididae a nomen pro- 
tectum: see under Chromodorididae. 



Ceresinae Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 78 
Type genus: Ceres Gray, 1856 
Remarks: Original spelling Cererinae. -idae 
[declared new], F. G. Thompson (1980: 13). 

Cerionidae Pilsbry, 1901 [29 November] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 

14(55): 174 
Type genus: Cerion Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Sometimes attributed to "Fleming, 
1818", an error that may have its origin from 
Pupidae Fleming, 1828, based on Pupa 
Lamarck, 1801 [a synonym of Cerion]. 
-oidea, H. B. Baker (1956a: 130). 

Ceriphasiinae Gill, 1863 [before 3 April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 15: 34 
Type genus: Ceriphasia Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Ceraphasiinae. 

-idae. Meek (1876: 560). See Pleuroceridae. 

Ceritellidae Wenz, 1938 [March] (1895) 
Reference: Handbuch der Palàozoologie, 6(1 ): 

64, 66; 817 [1940] 
Type genus: iCeritella Morris & Lycett, 1850 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Tubiferidae, based on Tubifer Piette, 
1856, which Wenz treated as a synonym of 
Centella, and also regarded as a junior hom- 
onym of "Tubifer Lamarck, 1816" (in fact, 
Lamarck had established Tubifex [Oligocha- 
eta], leaving Tubifera potentially valid name). 
Ceritellidae is in prevailing usage and is con- 
served under Art. 40.2, with the precedence 
of Tubiferidae (1895). 

Cerithiarida Glaubrecht, 1995 

Reference: 12th International Malacological 
Congress [Vigo, 1995], Abstracts: 309 

Remarks: Established as a family-group name 
between superfamily and family, containing 
the families Cerithiidae, Diastomatidae, 
Planaxidae and Thiaridae. Not available: not 
based on a genus. 

Cerithideidae Houbrick, 1988 [20 December] 
Reference: Malacological Review, Suppl. 4: 

118 
Type genus: Ce/'/'i/?/dea Swainson, 1840 

Cerithiellidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 

[18 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 1 5(1 ): 21 3 
Type genus: Cerithiella Verrill, 1882 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



47 



Remarks: Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.2, 
as a replacement for Newtoniellinae, based 
on Newtoniella Cossmann, 1893, a junior 
objective synonym of Cerithiella. -inae, Mar- 
shall (1980: 87). 

Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822 [June] 
Reference: The philosophy of zoology, 2: 491 
Type genus: Cerithium Bruguière, 1789 
Remarks: Original spelling Cerithiadae. First 
introduced as the vernacular family "les 
Cérites" by Férussac (1822 [13 April] [in 
1821-1822]: xxxv). -inae, Swainson (1840: 
315); -oidea [as -acea], Dall (1892: 267). 

Cerithiodermatidae Hacobjan, 1976 [after 12 
November] 

Reference: [Gastropods from the Upper Cre- 
taceous of the Armenian SSR]: 231 

Type genus: -\Cerithioderma Conrad, 1860 

Remarks: Original spelling Cerithiodermidae. 
Ponder & Waren (1988: 300) attributed this 
name to "Akopyan, 1973". Akopyan is an- 
other transliteration of Hacobjan, but we 
have not been able to confirm the date 
"1973", which appears to be a misprint. 

Cerithiopsidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 

[December] 
Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 

1:240 
Type genus: Cehthiopsis Forbes & Hanley, 1850 
Remarks: -inae, Korobkov (1 955: 216); -oidea, 

Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 213); -ini, 

Lindner (1999: 94). 

Cerithiopsidellinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 

1987 [after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 
Type genus: -\Cerithiopsidella Bartsch, 1911 

Cernuellini Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 229 
Type genus: Cernuella Schlüter, 1838 

Ceryciidae van der Hoeven, 1850 [after 20 
May] 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie (Dutch 
edition, ed. 2), 1:772 

Type genus: Cerycium Philippi, 1841 

Remarks: Original spelling (phalanx [below 
family]) Cerycoidea. Van der Hoeven did not 
explicitly cite Cerycium under this family, but 
when Philippi established that name he gave 



an etymology referring to the buccinum of 
the Romans. It is not certain however that 
van der Hoeven knew Philippi's genus, and 
he may simply have corrected Buccinidae 
on linguistic grounds, in which case Ceryci- 
idae would not be available. 

Chamaeariontales Roth, 1996 [2 January] 
Reference: The Veliger, 39(1): 30, 34, 41 
Type genus: Chamaearionta Berry, 1930 
Remarks: Roth established the name Chamae- 
ariontales in a phylogenetic classification re- 
jecting formal categorical ranks; he suggested 
that it could be considered equivalent to 
Chamaeariontini by a "hypothetical system- 
atist concerned with expressing [his] results 
within the Linnean hierarchy". 

Charcotiidae Odhner, 1926 

Reference: Further zoological results of the 

Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901-1903, 

2(1): 25 
Type genus: Charcotia \/ayss\ère, 1906 

Charoniinae Powell, 1933 [28 February] 
Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 63: 155 
Type genus: Charonia Gistel, 1847 
Remarks: -idae / -oidea [as -acea], Korobkov 

(1955: 281-282). See also Nyctilochidae. 

Charopidae Hutton, 1884 [May] 

Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 16: 188, 190 
Type genus: C/iaropa Albers, 1860 
Remarks: -inae, Solem (1983: 70, 72). 

Chauvetmnae F. Nordsieck, 1968 

Reference: Die europäischen Meeres-Ge- 
häuseschnecken: viii 

Type genus: Chauvetia Monterosato, 1884 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Nordsieck 
may have intended to propose a replace- 
ment name for Lachesinae, an invalid name 
based on Lachesis, which Nordsieck treat- 
ed as a synonym of Chauvetia. However, 
because of the lack of diagnosis and lack of 
reference to Lachesinae, we regard Chau- 
vetiinae as unavailable. 

Cheeneetnukiidae Blodgett & Cook, 2002 [31 

May] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Queensland /Wu- 

se¿/m,48(1): 18 
Type genus: ^Cheeneetnukia Blodgett & Cook, 

2002 



48 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Cheileidae Macpherson & Chappie, 1951 
[March] 

Reference: Memoirs of the National Museum 
of Victoria, 17: 126-127 

Type genus: Cheilea Modeer, 1793 

Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], same reference. 
Macpherson & Chappie probably established 
Cheileidae because Cheilea is the oldest ge- 
neric name in the family comprising also Hip- 
ponix and Amalthea; Art. 40.2 does not apply. 

Chelidonuridae Habe, 1961 [10 May] 
Reference: Coloured illustrations of the shells 

of Japan, 2: 92 
Type genus: Chelidonura A. Aäams, 1850 

Chelinoti 

Remarks: Cited by Ponder & Waren (1988: 
301) as a family-group name "Chelinoti 
Swainson, 1840". However, Swainson (1840: 
234, 355) erected Chelinotus as a genus, 
and included it in the family Haliotidae. 

Chemnitziinae Stoliczka, 1868 [1 July] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Survey 
of India. Palaeontologia Indica. Cretaceous 
Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Part 6: 283 
Type genus: Chemnitzia d'Orbigny, 1839 
Remarks: -idae, de Polin (1870: 10). 

Chenopidae Deshayes, 1865 

Reference: Description des animaux sans 

vertèbres ..., 3: 436 
Type genus: Cbenopus Philippi, 1836 

Chicoracea 

Remarks: Cited by Ponder & Waren (1988: 
304) as a family-group name "Chicoracea 
Latreille, 1825". In fact, Latreille (1825: 193) 
used "Chicoracé" (vernacular: latinized as 
Chicoracea Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834, an 
emendation of Cb/coreus Montfort, 1810) as 
a genus placed in his family Varicosa. 

Chilinidae Dall, 1870 [June] 

Reference: Annals of the Lyceum of Natural 

History of New York, 9: 357 
Type genus: Chilina Gray, 1828 
Remarks: -oidea, H. B. Baker (1964: 152); 

-inae, Harbeck (1996: 19, 22). 

Chilodontinae Wenz, 1938 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

296 
Type genus: ■\Chilodonta Etallon, 1859 
Remarks: -ini, McLean (1982: 11); -idae, 

Waren, herein. 



Chilopyrgulinae Radoman, 1973 [31 May] 
Reference: Prirodnjacki Muzej и Beogradu, 

Posebnalzdanja, 32: 12 
Type genus: Chilopyrgula Brusina, 1896 

Chioraeridae 

Remarks: O'Donoghue (1921: 192, 194) used 
a heading "Genus Chioraeridae gen. nov." 
under the family Tethymelibidae. Chioraera 
Gould, 1852, is a genus name, and 
O'Donoghue's intentions are not clear. 

Chlamydephoridae Cockerell, 1935 [24 April] 

(1903) 
Reference: The Nautilus, 48(4): 143 
Type genus: Chlamydephorus B\nney, 1879 
Remarks: The type genus is occasionally said 
to be a junior homonym of Chlamydephorus 
Lenz, 1831 . However, Lenz merely suggest- 
ed that Chlamydephorus would have been 
grammatically more correct than Chlamy- 
phorus Harlan, 1 825 [Mammalia], but he did 
not use it as a valid name. This leaves 
Chlamydephorus Binney and Chlamyde- 
phoridae Cockerell as potentially valid 
names. Chlamydephoridae was established 
as a substitute name for Aperidae, because 
Cockerell considered Apera Heynemann, 
1885, a synonym of Chlamydephorus. Her- 
bert (1997: 208) has advocated the conser- 
vation of Chlamydephoridae over Aperidae; 
it is here maintained and under Art. 40.2 it 
takes the precedence of Aperidae. -inae, Tilli- 
er(1989:72). 

CHLORmoAE Iredale, 1938 [30 November] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9(2): 93 
Type genus: Chloritis Beck, 1837 

Choanomphalinae p. Fischer & Crosse, 1880 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 

et dans lAmérique Centrale. Recherches 

zoologiques (7), 2(8): 32 
Type genus: C/7oanoAT?p/7a/(JS Gerstfeldt, 1859 
Remarks: -idae, B. Dybowski (1911: 962). 

Choanopomatini Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 133 
Type genus: Choanopoma L. Pfeiffer, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Choanopomateae. 

-inae, Abbott (1989: 210). 

Chondrinidae Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 
Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 

Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 

80:201 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



49 



Type genus: C/?ondr/>?a Reichenbach, 1828 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 
511); -oidea, Schileyko (1984: 5). 

Chondropomatinae Henderson & Bartsch, 1920 
[8 July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, 58: 55, 59 

Type genus: Chondropoma L. Pfeiffer, 1847 

Remarks: Original spelling Chondropominae 
-ini [as -eae], Thiele (1929 [in 1929-1935] 
130); -idae, Wenz (1939 [in 1938-1944] 
536). Precedence of Annulariidae over simul- 
taneously published Chondropomatinae de- 
termined by Art. 24 (family vs. subfamily). 

Chondrulinae Wenz, 1923 [2 August] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 21: 

1081 
Type genus: Ctiondrula Beck, 1837 
Remarks: -idae, A. J. Wagner (1928: 308); 

-ini, Hausdorf (1999: 153). 

Chondrulopsininae Schileyko, 1978 [after 19 

May] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 57(6): 845 
Type genus: C/iondm/ops/na Lindholm, 1925 

Choristellidae Bouchet & Waren, 1979 [31 

May] 
Reference: Sarsia, 64(3): 225 
Type genus: Chohstella Bush, 1897 
Remarks: -inae, Waren, herein. 

CHORisTiDAEVerrill, 1882 [July] 

Reference: Transactions of the Connecticut 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, 5(2): 540 

Type genus: -tChoristes Carpenter in Dawson, 
1872 

Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Kuroda, Habe & 
Oyama (1971: 62). Kabat (1989: 156) has 
petitioned the ICZN to emend the name to 
Choristeidae to remove homonymy with 
Choristidae Esben-Petersen, 1915, based 
on Chorista, Klug, 1836 [Mecoptera]; this 
application had not been voted upon at the 
time of writing [23.02.03]. 

Chromodoridinae Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 

Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 

Thiere,6: 126,137 
Type genus: Chromodoris Aider & Hancock, 

1855 
Remarks: Established as subfamily despite 

suffix -idae. Placed on the Official List by 



Opinion 1375 (1986: 27), but dated in error 
to Bergh (1892). -idae, Pruvot-Fol (1930a: 
229). See also Glossodorididae. Under Art. 
23.9 of the Code, Ceratosomatidae and 
Doriprismaticinae are here declared nomina 
oblita and Chromodorididae a nomen protec- 
tum, based on usage in at least the following 
publications: Franc (1968c: 867), Abbott 
(1974: 354), Keen & Coan (1974: 140), T E. 
Thompson (1976: 21), Behrens (1980: 106), 
Bertsch & Johnson (1 981 : 5), Orr (1 981 : 22- 
35, 79), Schmekel & Portmann (1982: 56), 
WillanS Coleman (1984: 52), Gosliner (1987: 
74), Coleman, (1989: 27^4), Cattaneo-Vietti 
et al. (1990: 19), Behrens (1991: 57), Higo & 
Goto (1993: 11, 427), Wells & Bryce (1993: 
113), Picton & Morrow (1 994: 80), Rios (1 994: 
211), Spencer & Willan (1996: 36), Ortea et 
al. (1996: 1), Rudman (in Beesleyetal. 1998: 
999), Marshall & Willan (1 999: 87, 1 74), Ono 
(1999: 78-103), Forcelli (2000: 123), Jensen 
(2000: 435), Suzuki (2000: 68-91), Costello 
et al. (2001 : 202), Kaiser & Bryce (2001 : 30), 
Kwon et al. (2001 : 1 83), Redfern (2001 : 1 75), 
Garcia-Gomez (2002: 108, 250). To our 
knowledge the names Ceratosomidae and 
Doriprismaticinae have not been used as valid 
after 1899. 

Chroninae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 626 
Type genus: Chronos Robson, 1914 
Remarks: -idae, Hausdorf (1998: 57); -ini, 
Schileyko (2002 [in 1998-2003]: 1185). 
Hausdorf (ibid.) also determined, as First 
Reviser, the relative precedence of Chroni- 
nae over Kaliellinae. 

Chrysallidinae Saurin, 1958 

Reference: Annales de la Faculté des Scienc- 
es de Saigon, (1958): 64 

Type genus: C/7/ysa///cía Carpenter, 1856 

Remarks: Established independently by F. 
Nordsieck (1972: 89). Given precedence 
over Menesthinae by First Reviser's action 
by Schänder, van Aartsen & Corgan (1999: 
149). -ini, Bouchet, herein [for consistency 
of ranking]. 

Chrysodominae Dall, 1870 [April] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Boston Soci- 
ety of Natural History, 13: 242 

Type genus: C/?Aysocyomtys Swainson, 1840 

Remarks: -idae [declared new], Cossmann 
(1901:95). 



50 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Chuchlinidae Fryda & Bändel, 1997 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 80: 38 
Type genus: -[Chuchlina Fryda & Manda, 1997 

CiLiELLiNi Schileyko, 1 970 [after 7 September] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 49(9); 

1307 
Type genus: Ciliella Mousson, 1872 
Remarks: -inae, Schileyko (1 972: 41 ). 

CiMiDAE Waren, 1993 [30 December] 
Reference: Sarsia, 78(3-4): 192 
Type genus: Cima Chaster, 1896 

CiNGULiNAE Keen, 1971 [1 September] 
Reference: Sea shells of tropical West Amer- 
ica, ed. 2: 371 
Type genus: Cingula Fleming, 1818 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 
Coan(1964: 165, 167). 

CiNGULiNiNAE Saurin, 1959 

Reference: Annales de la Faculté des Scienc- 
es de Saigon, (1959): 273 

Type genus: Cingulina A. Adams, 1860 

Remarks: -ini, Bouchet, herein [for consisten- 
cy of ranking]. 

CiNGULOPsiDAE Fretter & Patil, 1958 [Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 
Society of London, 33(3): 124 

Type genus: Cingulopsis Fretter & Patil, 1958 

Remarks: -oidea, Ponder (1988: 136). See 
alsoCoriandriidae. 

CioNELLiDAE L. Pfeiffer, 1879 

Reference: Nomenclátor heliceorum viven- 

tium: 329 
Type genus: Cionella Jeffreys, 1830 
Remarks: Ohginal spelling (family) Cionellida. 

-oidea, H. B. Baker (1956a: 131). See Co- 

chlicopidae. 

CiRCiNARiiDAE Pilsbry, 1896 [8 December] 
Reference: [in Pilsbry & Rhoads] Proceedings 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phil- 
adelphia, 48: 488 
Type genus: Circinaria Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Pilsbry and his contemporaries used 
Circinaria in the sense of Haplotrema, and Cir- 
cinariidae was introduced to replace Seleniti- 
dae, invalid because its type genus is a junior 
homonym. However, H. B. Baker (1930d: 405) 
noted that an overlooked designation 



(by Herrmannsen) of Helix pulchella Müller, 
1 774, as type species of Circinaria, made it a 
synonym of Vallonia Risso, 1 826, and thus Cir- 
cinahidae a synonym of Valloniidae. Formally, 
the case should be referred to the Commis- 
sion under Art. 41, but Circinariidae is not in 
current use and the classification has now been 
stabilized with the name Haplotrematidae used 
instead of Circinariidae sensu Pilsbry. 

CiRcuLiDAE Fretter & Graham, 1962 
Reference: British prosobranch molluscs: 642 
Type genus: C/rcu/L/s Jeffreys, 1865 
Remarks: Available through reference to Fret- 
ter (1 956: 381 ), who provided a diagnosis, 
-inae, Waren, herein. 

CiRRiDAE Cossmann, 1916 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 10: 197 
Type genus: -fCirrus J. de С Sowerby, 1816 
Remarks: -inae / -oidea, Bändel (1 993a: 41 , 44). 

CiRSOTREMATiNAE Joussoaumo, 1912 [14 Au- 
gust] 

Reference: Mémoires de la Société Zoologique 
de France, 24(3-4): 234, 244 

Type genus: Cirsotrema Mörch, 1852 

Remarks: Original spelling Cirsotreminae. 

CisTULiNAE L. Pfeiffer, 1858 [after May] 

Reference: Monographia pneumonoporum 
viventium, Suppl. 1: 130 

Type genus: Cistula Gray, 1850 

Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Cis- 
tulea. -idae, Kobelt & Möllendorff (1898 [in 
1897-1899]: 185). H. B. Baker (1956b: 30) 
demonstrated that Pfeiffer used Cistula in a 
sense different from Gray, and Art. 41 should 
probably be applied. 

CiSTULOPSiNAE H. B. Baker, 1924 [15 January] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 37(3): 89 
Type genus: Cistulops H. B. Baker, 1924 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Thiele (1 929 [in 1 929- 
1935]: 130). 

Cladohepatica Bergh, 1884 

Reference: Report on the scientific results of 
the voyage ofH. M. S. Challenger Zoology, 
10:2 

Remarks: Original spelling Kladohepatica, 
emended to Cladohepatica by Bergh (1892: 
169). Established as an order. Treated by 
Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 112) as a 
"Sippe" [= superfamily] and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



51 



CLATHROSCALiNAECossmann, 1912 [August] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 9: 19 
Type genus: ■\Clathroscala de Boury, 1890 

Clathurellinae h. Adams & A. Adams, 1 858 
[November] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:654 

Type genus: C/ai/?t/re//a Carpenter, 1857 

Remarks: Established as a replacement name 
for Defranciinae, invalid because its type ge- 
nus is a junior homonym. Although Clathurella 
was introduced as a replacement name for 
Defrancia, Opinion 666 (1963: 267) has ruled 
them to have different type species. Clathurel- 
la not being a synonym of Defrancia, Art. 40.2 
does not apply. Subfamily declared again nov. 
by McLean (1971: 127). See also Lorinae. 

Clausiliinae Gray, 1855 [14 April] 

Reference: Catalogue of Pulmonata or air- 
breathing Mollusca in the collection of the 
British Museum, Part I: 1 56 

Type genus: Clausula Draparnaud, 1805 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Clausiliana. 
-idae [as family Clausilieae], Mörch (1864: 
291 ); -oidea [as -acea], Kuroda (1 941 : 1 39); 
-ini[as-eae], H. Nordsieck (1963: 101). 

Clavatoridae Thiele, 1926 [20 February] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 144 
Type genus: C/a\/a tor Martens, 1860 
Remarks: -inae, H. B. Baker (1956a: 129). 

Clavatulinae Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 128 
Type genus: Clavatula Lamarck, 1801 
Remarks: Original spelling Clavatulina. Prece- 
dence over Pusionellinae determined by First 
Reviser's action by Ponder & Waren (1988: 
307). -idae. Ponder & Bouchet, herein. 

Clavinae Casey, 1904 [19 May] 

Reference: Transactions of the Academy of 
Science of St Louis, 14: 125, 158 

Type genus: Clavus Montfort, 1810 

Remarks: Original spelling Clavini, as "tribe" 
of Pleurotomidae, immediately below family 
rank, -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 
214). Invalid: junior homonym of Clavidae 
McCrady, 1859 [Cnidaha], based on Clava 
Gmelin, 1791. Cernohorsky, Cornelius & 
Sysoev (1991: 192) petitioned the ICZN to 
emend the mollusc name to Clavusinae to 
remove homonymy. This petition was reject- 



ed by Opinion 2031 (2003: 147) because the 
name Drilliinae was available to designate 
the same taxon. 

Cleioprocta Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videns- 

kabers Selskabs Skrifter, 1 939(1 ): 50, 53 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" [= below 
suborder]. Treated as superfamily by Baba 
(1 955: 5) and by Higo & Goto (1 993: 441 [as 
Cleioproctoidea]). Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Clenchiellini D. W. Taylor, 1966 [1 October] 
Reference: The Veliger, 9(2): 181 
Type genus: Clenchiella Abbott, 1948 
Remarks: -inae, Starobogatov (1970b: 34); 

-idae, loganzen & Starobogatov (1982: 

1144). 

Cleodoridae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 144, 151 
Type genus: Cleodora Péron & Lesueur, 1810 
Remarks: Under Art. 23.9 of the Code, Cle- 
odoridae Gray, 1840, is here declared a 
nomen oblitum and Clioidae Jeffreys, 1869, 
a nomen protectum: see under Clioidae. 

Cleopatrinae Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927 
Reference: Bulletin of the American Museum 

of Natural History, 53: 249 
Type genus: C/eopaira Troschel, 1857 
Remarks: -idae, Germain (1933: 30). 

Clioidae Jeffreys, 1869 [after May] 

Reference: British Conchology, 5: 118 

Type genus: C//o Linnaeus, 1767 

Remarks: Original spelling Cliidae. Jeffreys 
based Cliidae on '^Clio Browne", a pre-Lin- 
nean name validated as Clio Linnaeus, 1 767, 
for a group of Thecosomata. There are sev- 
eral earlier family-group names based on a 
genus ''Clio", but the context indicates that 
they were meant to be based on the gymno- 
some genus Clione: see Clioninae. -inae, van 
derSpoel (1967: 57). Under Art. 23.9 of the 
Code, Cleodoridae Gray, 1840, is here de- 
clared a nomen oblitum and Clioidae Jeffreys, 
1869, a nomen protectum, based on usage 
in at least the following publications: Van der 
Spoel (1967: 31, 56; 1968: 185; 1976: 16), 
Piani (1980: 167), Pavia & Robba (1979: 557), 
Boss (1 982: 1 085), Bruschi et al. (1 985: 39), 
Vaught (1989: 68), Lalli & Gilmer (1989: 151 ), 
Janssen (1989a: 40; 1989b: 124), Beu & 
Maxwell (1990: 424), Janssen (1990: 86), S. 



52 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



M. Smith & Heppell (1991 : 45), Hodgkinson, 
Garvie & Be (1992: 24), Cavallo & Repetto 
(1992: 170), Higo & Goto (1993: 420), Jans- 
sen & Zorn (1 993: 1 95), Janssen (1 995a: 58; 
1995b: 91), IVlillard (1996: 230), Spencer & 
Willan (1 996: 34), Janssen (1 998: 101), New- 
man (in Beesley et a!., 1998: 982), Janssen 
(1999a: 115), Higo, Callomon & Goto (1999: 
401 ), Redfern (2001 : 1 70). To our knowledge, 
the name Cleodoridae has not been used as 
valid after 1899. 

Clionellidae Stimpson, 1865 [25 February] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

1(1): 62 
Type genus: Clionella Gray, 1847 
Remarks: See Melatomidae. 

Clioninae Rafinesque, 1815 

Reference: Analyse de la nature: 141 

Type genus: Clione Pallas, 1774 

Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Clion- 
idia, based on "Clione R. Clio Brown". There 
is considerable confusion in the early usag- 
es of the names Clio and Clione. Clio Browne 
is pre-Linnean and was validated as Clio Lin- 
naeus, 1767. However, Rafinesque placed 
Clionidia in a family Oligopteria, character- 
ized by a naked body, as opposed to a fam- 
ily Hyaleina, characterized by an external 
shell. This context indicates that Clionidia is 
based on the gymnosome genus Clione 
Pallas, 1 774, rather than on the thecosome 
genus Clio Linnaeus, 1767. -idae [as fam. 
Cliodinae], Menke (1828: 5); -oidea [as Ch- 
acea], Salisbury (1940: 97). Homonym of 
Clionidaed'Orbigny, 1851, based on Cliona 
Grant, 1826 [Porifera]. Bouchet & Rützier 
(2003) petitioned the ICZN to remove the 
homonym by emending the name of the 
sponge family to Clionaidae. 

Cliopsidae O. G. Costa, 1873 [27 December] 
Reference: Fauna del regno di Napoli, 3a 
parte, Animali molli, fase. 1, Pteropodi: 24 
Type genus: C//ops/s Troschel, 1854 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) "Clionop- 
sidei" (vernacular), based on Clionopsis, an 
incorrect subsequent spelling [by Keferstein 
(1862 [in 1862-1866]: 645)] oWliopsis. First 
latinized [as Clionopsidae] by Pelseneer 
(1886:220). 

Clisospiridae S. a. Miller, 1 889 [after October] 
Reference: North American geology and 

palaeontology: 395 
Type genus: tClisospira Billings, 1865 



Remarks: -inae / -oidea [as -acea]. Knight, 
Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 296). 

Clivunellidae Kochansky-Devidé & Sliskovic, 

1972 
Reference: Geoloski Glasnik Sarajevo, 16: 53 

[Serbo-Croatian], 65 [German] 
Type genus: tClivunella Katzer, 1918 

Clypeaceae Blainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 10:214 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) "Cly- 
peacées" (vernacular), containing the gen- 
era "Patelle", "Fissurelle", "Emarginule", 
"Parmophore", "Septaire" and "Ancyle?". 
Latinized and treated as "Division" [above 
genus] by Bowdich (1 822: 24). Not available 
as a family-group name (not based on a 
genus). 

Clypeosectidae McLean, 1989 [14 August] 
Reference: Contributions in Science, Natural 

History Museum of Los Angeles County, 407: 

15 
Type genus: C/ypeosecius McLean, 1989 

Clypidinidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instltuta, 

187:71 
Type genus: Clypidina Gray, 1847 

CoccuLiNELLiDAE Moskalev, 1971 [after 11 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 4: 59 

Type genus: Сосси//ле//а Thiele, 1909 

CoccuLiNiDAE Dali, 1882 [5 May] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 

National Museum, 4: 401 
Type genus: Cocculina Dall, 1882 
Remarks: -oidea [as "tribe" = above family 

rank], Thiele (1904: 156). 

Cochleae Férussac, 1821 [6 April] 

Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: 18 

Remarks: Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 
Also spelled Cochleadae by Fleming (1828: 
255). 

CocHLEOPHORA Gray, 1855 [14 April] 
Reference: Catalogue of Pulmonata or air- 
breathing Mollusca in the collection of the 
British Museum. Part I: 155, 179 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



53 



Remarks: Taxon containing the eight shelled 
"tribes" [= subfamilies] of Helicidae, as op- 
posed to the shell-less "tribes" (= Scutifera). 
Established as a family-group name and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

CocHLESPiRiNAE Powoll, 1 942 [1 5 July] 
Reference: Bulletin of the Auckland Institute 

and Museum, 2: 29-30 
Type genus: ■\Cochlespira Conrad, 1865 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1975:214). 

CocHLicELLiNAE Schileyko, 1972 [after 30 Au- 
gust] 

Reference: Nekotorye aspekty izucheniia 
sovremennykh kontinental'nykh briukho- 
nogikh molliuskov: 39 

Type genus: Cochlicella Férussac, 1821 

Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (1993b: 4); -idae, 
Schileyko & Menkhorst (1997: 55). 

CocHLicopiDAE Pilsbry, 1900 [10 November] 
(1879) 

Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 52: 564 

Type genus: Cochlicopa Férussac, 1821 

Remarks: When he established Cochlicopidae, 
Pilsbry did not justify his action. Later, he (Pils- 
bry, 1908a: 309) treated Cionella Jeffreys, 
1830, as a synonym of Cochlicopa and Co- 
chlicopidae and Cionellidae as synonyms of 
Ferussaciidae. Although Cionellidae is still 
occasionally used, especially in North Amer- 
ica, Cochlicopidae is in prevailing usage and 
is conserved under Art. 40.2, with the prece- 
dence of Cionellidae. -inae, Watson (1920: 
24); -oidea, Schileyko (1984: 5). 

CocHLiopiNAETryon, 1866 [1 April] 

Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 
2(2): 156 

Type genus: Coc/?//opa Stimpson, 1865 

Remarks: Cochliopinae and -ini, again de- 
clared new by D. W. Taylor (1966b: 173); 
-idae. Ponder, herein. 

CocHLODiNiNAE Lindholm, 1925 [30 November] 
(1923) 

Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 
Society of London, 16(6): 262 

Type genus: Cochlodina Férussac, 1821 

Remarks: Replacement name for Marpessi- 
nae, based on Marpessa Gray, 1840, con- 
sidered by Lindholm a junior synonym of 
Cochlodina. Cochlodininae is in prevailing us- 
age and under Art. 40.2 takes the precedence 



of Marpessinae. -ini [as -eae], H. Nordsieck 
(1969:257). 

CocHLOSTOMATiNAE Kobolt, 1902 [July] 
Reference: Das Tierreich, 16: 488 
Type genus: Cochlostoma Jan, 1830 
Remarks: -idae, Germain (1931a: 60; 572). 

CocHLOsTYLiDAE Möllendorff, 1890 [between 

June and 3 Nov.] 
Reference: Bericht die Senckenbergischen 

Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt 

a./W., (1889-1890): 226 
Type genus: Cochlostyla Férussac, 1821 
Remarks: -inae, Ihering (1929: 222). 

CocHLOsYRiNGiDAE Mitchell, 1890 

Reference: The Zoological Record for 1889, 
Mollusca: 66 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 
The name Cochlosyhngidae appears in an 
entry to the "genus" Cochlosyringia, which 
was in fact established as a suborder by Voi- 
gt, 1888 (see higher category list). 

CoDONOCHEiLiDAE S. A. МШог, 1 889 [after Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: North American geology and 
palaeontology: 395 

Type genus: tCodonoc/?e//us Whiteaves, 1884 

Remarks: Original spelling Codonochilidae, 
based on Codonochilus Lindström, 1884, an 
unjustified emendation of Codonocheilus. 
-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 209). 

CoELiAxiNAE Pilsbry, 1907 [25 January] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

18(72): 330 
Type genus: Coeliaxis H. Adams & Angas, 

1865 
Remarks: -idae (as Caeliaxidae [based on 

Caeliaxis, an incorrect subsequent spelling 

of Coe//ax/s]), Germain (1916: 299). 

CoELOcioNTiDAE iredalo, 1937 [12 March] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 8(4): 306 
Type genus: Coelocion Pilsbry, 1904 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Diagnosed 
and declared again new [as Coelociidae] by 
H. Nordsieck (1986b: 111). -inae, Schileyko 
(1999 [in 1998-2003]: 428). 

CoELOSTYLiNiDAE Cossmann, 1908 [after March] 
Reference: Revue Critique de Paléozoologie, 

12(2): 95 
Type genus: ■\Coelostylina KittI, 1894 
Remarks: -oidea, Termier & Termier (1 968: 919). 



54 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



CoELOzoNiNAE Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: tCoelozone Ferner, 1907 
Remarks: -ini [as -ides], same reference. 
Name only. Diagnosed by Knight, Batten & 
Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 210-211). See 
also Euryzoninae. 

CoLiMACEA / CoLiMAciDAE Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1 : 320 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Colymacées" 
(vernacular), also in Lamarck (1822: 61). Lat- 
inized [as Colimacea] by d'Orbigny (1837 [in 
1834-1847]: 223) and [as Colimacidae] by 
d'Orbigny (1 841 [in 1 841 -1 853]: 1 37, 140). Not 
available: not based on a genus. 

CoLiNAE Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 

of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part I: 1 2 
Type genus: Colus Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Original spelling Colusina. -idae, 

Cotton & Godfrey (1932: 71); -ini, Bouchet 

& Kantor, herein. 

CoLiNiNAE Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 [after 

23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molli uskov, 8: 26 
Type genus: Co//na H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 
Remarks: Original spelling Collininae. 

CoLLisELLiDEN Thiem, 1917 [30 March] 

Reference: Jenaische Zeitschrift fíjr Naturwis- 
senscÄ7aft, 54(3-4): 616 

Type genus: Collisella Dall, 1871 

Remarks: Not available: introduced as a ver- 
nacular name after 1900 (Art. 11.7.2). 

CoLLONiiDAE Cossmann, 1917 [15 August] 
Reference: [in Cossmann & Peyrot] Actes de 

la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 69(4): 354 
Type genus: Collonia Gray, 1850 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 

343); -ini, Bouchet, herein. 

CoLOMBELLiNiDAE R Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 657 
Type genus: -\Colombellina d'Orbigny, 1843 
Remarks: Original spelling Columbellinidae, 
based on Columbellina Geinitz, 1846, an un- 
justified emendation of Colombellina. 

CoLUBRARiiDAE Dali, 1904 [6 August] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 47: 135 



Type genus: Co/ubrar/a Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: -inae, Abboft (1974: 218). 

CoLUMBARiiDAE ТотИп, 1928 [December] 
Reference: Annals of the South African Mu- 
seum, 25(2): 330 
Type genus: Columbarium Martens, 1881 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1941 [in 1938-1944]: 
1085). 

CoLUMBELLARiiDAE Zittel, 1895 [after February] 
Reference: Grundzüge der Paläontologie 

{Paläozoologie), Abt. I, Invertebrate: 346 
Type genus: -[Columbellaria Rolle, 1861 
Remarks: The name was credited by Zittel to 

P. Fischer who, however, placed (P. Fischer, 

1884 [in 1880-1887]: 657) Columbellaria in 

Colombellinidae. 

CoLUMBELLiNAE Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 312 
Type genus: Columbella Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: -idae, Stoliczka (1867 [in 1867- 

1871]: 138); -oidea, Riedel (2000: 195). See 

also Pyrenidae. 

CoLUMELLiDAE / CoLUMELLARiA Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1: 322 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Columellaires" 
(vernacular). Latinized [as Columellaria] by 
Latreille (1825: 197) and [as Columellidae] 
by H. С Lea (1843: 273). Established as a 
family and not available as such (not based 
on a genus). 

CoLUMELLiNAE Schileyko, 1998 [November] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 2: 162 
Type genus: Co/t/me//a Westerlund, 1878 

CoMiNELLiNAE Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 
of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part /: 1 5 

Type genus: Cominella Gray, 1850 

Remarks: Original spelling Cominellina. 
Placed on the Official List by Opinion 479 
(1957: 375), but credited in error to P. Fi- 
scher (1884 [in 1880-1887]: 624). -idae [de- 
clared new], Powell (1929: 59); -ini, Bouchet 
& Kantor, herein. 

CoNCHAE Lamarck, 1812 [October] 
Reference: Extrait du cours de zoologie: 107 
Remarks: Original spelling "Les Conques" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Children (1823 [in 
1822-1824]: 309). Established as a family 
and not available as such (not based on a 
genus). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



55 



CoNCHOLEPADiDAE Perrier, 1897 

Reference: Traité de Zoologie, fase. 4: 2101 

Type genus: CoA7c/?o/epas Lamarck, 1801 

CoNEUPLECTiNAE НэЬе, 1946 [December] 

Reference: Venus, 14(5-8): 206 

Type genus: Coneuplecta Möllendorff, 1893 

CoNiDAE Fleming, 1822 [June] 
Reference: Ttie philosopliy of zoology, 2: 490 
Type genus: Conus Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling Conusidae. A junior 
objective synonym of Conulinae Rafinesque, 
1815, which however is invalid; see Kohn 
(1992: 5). -inae [as Conianae], Swainson 
(1831 [in 1820-1833]: pi. 68); -oidea [as 
-acea], Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 48). 

CoNOBAiCALiiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 
1914 [April] 

Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 
l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 
Petersbourg, 18:277 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. 

CoNocASPiiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 
1914 [Apnl] 

Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 
Г Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 
Petersbourg, 18:278 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. 

CoNOCYPRAEiNi Schllder, 1936 [15 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 22(2): 107 
Type genus: -[Conocypraea Oppenheim, 1901 

CoNORBiDAE de Gregorio, 1880 [November] 
Reference: Fauna di S. Giovanni llarione [Pa- 

risiano). Parte 1(1): xxviii 
Type genus: fConorb/s Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: -inae, de Gregorio (1890: 22). 

CoNovuLiDAE W. Clark, 1850 [December] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 6: 444 
Type genus: Conovula Schweigger, 1820 
Remarks: -inae, H. B. Baker (1956: 130). See 

Melampidae. 

CoNRADiiNAE Goükov & Starobogatov, 1987 [af- 
ter 23 October] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 26 

Type genus: Con radia A. Adams, 1860 



CoNSTRicTiNAE H. Nordsieck, 1981 [20 March] 
Reference: Arctiiv für Molluskenkunde, 111(1- 

3):101 
Type genus: ^Constricta O. Boettger, 1877 

CoNTORTELLiDAE Lyssenko & Korotkov, 1992 

[after 11 November] 
Reference: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 

1992(4): 21-22 
Type genus: -\Contortella Pchelintsev, 1965 
Remarks: Name attributed by the authors to 

"Lyssenko & Aliev, 1989", but without any 

bibliographical reference. 

CoNUALEviiNAE ColNer & Farmer, 1 964 [December] 
Reference: Transactions of the San Diego 

Society of Natural History, 1 3(1 9): 381 
Type genus: Conualevia Collier & Farmer, 1 964 
Remarks: Original spelling Conualevinae. 

-idae, Vaught(1989:ix, 70). 

Conulinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 145 
Type genus: Conu/us Rafinesque, 1815 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Conulia, 
based on Conulus, an unjustified emendation 
of, or a substitute name for, Conus Linnaeus. 
Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of 
Conulus Leske, 1778 [Echinodermata]. 

Conulinae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1879 [November] 
Reference: Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Fauna 
mexikanischer Land- und Süsswasser-Con- 
chylien, 4: 23 
Type genus: Conulus Fitzinger, 1833 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus placed on the Of- 
ficial Index by Opinion 335; see Euconulinae. 

Conulinae Cossmann, 1917 [15 April] 
Reference: [in Cossmann & Peyrot] Actes de 
la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux, 69(3): 236 
Type genus: Conulus Nardo, 1841 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior homonym 
of Conulus Leske, 1778 [Echinodermata], and 
Conulus Rafinesque, 1815 [Gastropoda]. 

Convexinae Clessin, 1909 [15 April] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 
Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 41(2): 79 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Convolutidae Broderip, 1839 
Reference: Penny cyclopaedia, 14: 320 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. Latinisation of "les Enroulés" (vernacu- 
lar), established by Lamarck (1809: 322). 
See also Involvea. 



56 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



CoRALLioPHiLiDAE Chenu, 1859 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (1): 172 

Type genus: Coralliophila H. Adams & A. Ad- 
ams, 1853 

Remarks: -inae, Dali (1889a: 19, 217). 

CoRAMBiDAE Bergh, 1871 [November] 
Reference: Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Ge- 
sellschaft in Wien, Abhandlungen, 21: 1293 
Type genus: Corambe Bergh, 1869 
Remarks: Original spelling Corambiadae. 
-inae, Martynov (1994: 4). 

CoREospiRiDAE Knight, 1947 [3 January] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 106(17): 3 
Type genus: -\Coreospira Saito, 1936 
Remarks: No diagnosis. Diagnosed by Knight, 
Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 172). 

CoRETiNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 180 
Type genus: Coretus Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Coretina. -Ini, 

Hausdorf & Bouchet, herein. 

CoRiANDRiiDAE R Nordsiock, 1972 [October] 
Reference: Die europäischen Meeres- 
schnecken: 150 
Type genus: Cor/andr/a Tomlin, 1917 
Remarks: Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.1 , 
as a replacement name for Cingulopsidae 
Fretter & Patil, 1958, based on Cingulopsis 
Fretter & Patil, 1958, by Nordsieck consid- 
ered to be a junior synonym of Coriandha. 

CoRiLLiNAE Pilsbry, 1905 [27 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 6(5): 289 
Type genus: Corilla hi. Adams & A. Adams, 

1855 
Remarks: -idae, Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 

148); -oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl (1 962: 

11). 

CORIOCELLIDAETrOSChel, 1848 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, ed. 3: 545 
Type genus: Cohocella Blainville, 1824 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Coriocel- 
lacea. 

CoRNiRosTRiDAE Pondor, 1990 [Novomber] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

56(4): 554 
Type genus: Cornirostra Ponder, 1990 



CoRONATAE Férussac, 1822 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxvi 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Couronnés" 
(vernacular). First latinised by Menke (1828: 
51). Taxen containing the genus Cymbium. 
Established as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 

CoRTiNELLiDAE Bandol, 2000 [July] 
Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und 

Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 217(1): 113 
Type genus: -\Cotiinella Bändel, 1988 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Cortinellidae / -oidea, Bändel (1997: 64). 

CoRYPHELLiNAE ВвгдЬ, 1889 

Reference: [in Carus] Prodromus Faunae 
Mediterraneae, 2: 211 

Type genus: Coryphella Gray, 1850 

Remarks: Vayssière (1888: 73) had used the 
vernacular "Coryphellidés", and this was re- 
corded by Mitchell (1892: 40) as "Coryphillidae 
Vayssière", but the family-group name is not 
generally considered established by Vayssière 
under Art. 11.7.2 ofthe Code. -idae, Hoffmann 
(1 939 [in 1 932-1 939]: 1 1 55); -oidea [as -acea], 
Abbott (1974: 373). Placed on the Official List 
by Opinion 781 (1966: 104), v\/hich stated in 
error that Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 451) 
had acted as First Reviser and given Flabel- 
linidae Bergh, 1889, precedence over Cory- 
phellidae; in fact, Thiele used Flabellinidae as 
the valid name of the family in which he in- 
cluded Coryphella, but he did not cite Cory- 
phellidae at all. This ruling of the Commission, 
however, had the effect of giving relative pre- 
cedence to Flabellinidae over Coryphellidae. 

CosTAsiELLiDAE K. B. Clark, 1984 [27 April] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 98(2): 91 
Type genus: Costasiella Pruvot-Fol, 1951 

CosTELLARiiDAE MacDonald, 1860 [after 16 
February] 

Reference: Transactions ofthe Linnean Soci- 
ety of London, 23{^):8^ 

Type genus: Costellaria Swainson, 1840 

Couronnés (Les). See Coronatae. 

CoxiELLiDAE Irodalo, 1943 [30 April] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 10(2): 209 
Type genus: Coxiella E. A. Smith, 1894 
Remarks: Name only, no description, but avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1 through usage by Cot- 
ton (1 943 [ca. 30 July]: 145) and Allan (1 950: 
408). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



57 



Craspedopomatidae Kobelt& Möllendorff, 1898 

[20 September] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 30(9-10): 143 
Type genus: Craspedopoma L. Pfeiffer, 1847 
Remarks: -Inae, Kobelt (1902: 484); -oldea, 

Gollkov & Starobogatov (1968: 7). 

Craspedostomatidae Wenz, 1938 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

252 
Type genus: -fCraspedostoma Lindström, 1884 
Remarks: -oldea [as -acea]. Cox & Knight (In 
Moore, 1960: 298). Precedence over simul- 
taneously published Bucanosplrlnae deter- 
mined by Art. 24 (family vs. subfamily). 

Crassimarginatidae Fryda, Blodgett & Lenz, 

2002 [March] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 76(2): 247 
Type genus: -\Crassimarginata Jhaveri, 1969 

Crassispirinae McLean, 1971 [1 July] 
Reference: The Veliger, 14(1): 119 
Type genus: Crass/sp/ra Swain son, 1840 
Remarks: Morrison (1965: 2) diagnosed to- 
gether "the subfamily Lophiotomlnae or 
Crassispirinae", but this does not qualify as 
an available introduction under Art. 13.1. 
McLean appears to have first made Cras- 
sispirinae available. 

Crateninae Bergh, 1889 

Reference: [in Carus] Prodromus Faunae 

Mediterraneae, 2: 209 
Type genus: Cratena Bergh, 1864 
Remarks: -idae, Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 

886). See also Trinchesildae. 

Cremnoconchinae Preston, 1915 
Reference: The fauna of British India. Mollus- 
ca {Freshwater Gastropoda: Pelecypoda): 64 
Type genus: Cremnoconc/?us Blanford, 1869 

Creneini Pfeffer, 1930 [2 January] 

Reference: Geologische und Palaeontolo- 
gische Abhandlungen, newser., 17(3): 188 

Type genus: Crenea Albers, 1850 

Remarks: Original spelling Crenae, based on 
"Crena Sandberger", an incorrect subse- 
quent spelling of Crenea AI bers. However, 
Sandberger used Crenea in a sense differ- 
ent from Albers, and Zilch (1960 [in 1959- 
1960]: 717) replaced ^'Crenea Sandberger" 
with the substitute name Creneatachea. In- 
valid: type genus a junior homonym of Cre- 
nea Risso, 1826 [Gastropoda]. 



Crepidulidae Fleming, 1822 [June] 
Reference: The philosophy of zoology, 2: 494 
Type genus: Crepidula Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Crepiduladae. 
-inae. Gray (1857a: 115); -oldea [as -acea], 
Abbott (1 974: 1 38). Schumacher (181 7: 26, 
57) had established a division "les crépld- 
ules" (vernacular)/crepidula (Latin), above 
genus, and containing the genera Sandali- 
um and Trochita [and, by inference, Crepid- 
ula]; this could perhaps be considered an 
earlier introduction of the name Crepidul- 
idae. 

Creseidae Curry, 1982 [after February] 

Reference: Cahiers de Micropaléontologie, 4: 
42 

Type genus: Creseis Rang, 1828 

Remarks: Attributed by Curry to Rampai 
(1975), who introduced the name in a no- 
menclaturally unavailable thesis [1975: 127]. 
Fol (1875: 177) had used the vernacular 
"Créséidées", but the name is not generally 
accepted as dating from that first publica- 
tion, -inae, Janssen (1995a: 15, 29). 

Cricostomata Blainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 10: 185 and table between pp. 214-215 

Remarks: Original spelling "Cricostomes" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Bowdich (1822: 33) 
as a "division" [above genus]. Treated by 
Blainville (1824: 224) as a family, containing 
the genera Turbo, Delphinula, Turritella, Fro- 
to, Scalaria, Valvata, Cyclostoma, and Palu- 
dina. Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). 

Cristovalinae Schileyko, 2003 

Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs. Part 11:1 620 
Type genus: Cr/stov/a/a Clench, 1958 

Crocidopomatinae F. G. Thompson, 1967 [24 
March] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Biological So- 
ciety of Washington, 80: 14 

Type genus: Croc/c/opoma Shuttleworth, 1856 

Remarks: Original spelling Crocidopominae. 
-idae, Gollkov & Starobogatov (1975: 210). 

Crosseolidae Iredale & McMlchael, 1962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Memoir 1 1 : 48 
Type genus: Crosseola Iredale, 1924 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 



58 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Crossostomatidae Cox, 1960 [about 15 August] 

Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 1: 301 

Type genus: -\Crossostonna Morris & Lycett, 
1851 

Remarks: -inae, Monari, Conti & Szabo (1995: 
200-201); -ini, Bouchet, herein. 

Crucibranchaeidae Tanaka, 1971 [August] 
Reference: Kaiyo Report, 3: 30 
Type genus: Сшс/Ьгапс/?аеа Pruvot-Fol, 1942 
Remarks: Listed as "family Crucibranchaeinae". 
Not available: no diagnosis. 

Cryptaulacinae Gründel, 1976 [18 November] 
Reference: Malakologische Abhandlungen, 

5(3): 44 
Type genus: f Cryp te tv/ax Tate, 1869 
Remarks: Original spelling Cryptaulinae. 

Cryptazecinae Schileyko, 1999 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs, Part 4: 554 
Type genus: Cryptazeca de Polin & Berillon, 

1878 

Cryptelasminae Germain, 1916 [30 November] 
Reference: Annali del Museo Cívico di Storia 

Naturale di Genova, ser. 3,7: 299 
Type genus: Cryptelasmus Pilsbry, 1907 
Remarks: Credited by Germain to himself with 
the date 1915, but we have not traced this 
name in any of Germain's 1915 papers. 
Cryptelasminae declared again new by 
Jaume & Sanchez de Fuentes (1943: 42). 

Cryptellidae Gray, 1855 [14 April] 
Reference: Catalogue of Pulmonata or air- 
breathing Mollusca in the collection of the 
British Museum. Part /: 3, 7 
Type genus: Cryptella Webb & Berthelot, 1 833 
Remarks: Original spelling Cryptelladae. Cryp- 
tellidae was declared nomen oblitum and 
Parmacellidae declared nomen protectum 
under Art. 23.9 by Schileyko (2003: 167). 
See Parmacellidae. 

Cryptinae Gray, 1868 [April] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, (1867[3]): 736 
Type genus: Crypta Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Cryptaina. Invalid: 

type genus a junior homonym of Crypta 

Stephens, 1830 [Coleóptera]. 

Cryptobranchiata Macdonald, 1880 [3 Sep- 
tember] 



Reference: Journal of the Linnean Society, 
Zoology, 15: 164 

Remarks: Taxon containing the genera Phyl- 
lirhoe, Limapontia and Elysia, established at 
a rank between suborder and genus. Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). 

Cryptobranchiata P. Fischer, 1883 [20 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 519 

Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank contain- 
ing the family Dorididae. Treated by Iredale 
& O'Donoghue (1923: 226) as superfamily 
Cryptobranchiatae. Not available as a fami- 
ly-group name (not based on a genus). See 
also higher catagory list. 

Cryptocephala Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Cryptocéphales" 
(vernacular). First latinized by Latreille (1 825: 
169). Established as a family containing the 
genus "Hyale" (vernacular). Not available as 
a family-group name (not based on a genus). 

Cryptochordidae Korobkov, 1955 [after 17 

August] 
Reference: Spravochnik i metodicheskoe ruk- 

ovodstvo po tretichnym molliuskam. Bhukho- 

nogie: 336 
Type genus: -[Cryptochorda Mörch, 1858 

Cryptoconinae Cossmann, 1896 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 2: 142 
Type genus: tCryptoconus Koenen, 1867 

Cryptophthalminae Thiele, 1926 [20 February] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 106 
Type genus: Cryptophthalmus Ehrenberg, 

1828 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Cryptophthalmus Rafinesque, 1814 
[Crustacea], -idae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938- 
1944]: 48). See Lathophthalminae. 

Cryptoplocinae Pchelintsev, 1960 [after 29 June] 

Reference: [in Pchelintsev & Korobkov, eds.] 
Osnovy Paleóntologa, Molliuski. Briukhono- 
gie: 121 

Type genus: tCryptoplocus Pictet & Campiche, 
1861 

Remarks: -idae [as Cryptoplocusidae], Pche- 
lintsev (1965: 69). Ptygmatidinae given 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



59 



precedence over simultaneously published 
Cryptoplocinae by First Reviser's choice by 
Kollmann (pers. comm., herein). 

Cryptostomidae Gray, 1827 
Reference: Encyclopaedia metropolitana, vol. 7. 
Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca IV [= plate 6] 
Type genus: Cryptosfomus Blainville, 1818 

Cryptothyra 

Remarks: Cited by Ponder & Waren (1988: 
301) as a family-group name "Cryptothyra 
Menke, 1830", but Menke (1830: 87) used 
this name as a genus of Sigaretidae. 

Ctenobranchia Schweigger, 1820 

Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 
skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 723 

Remarks: Original spelling Ctenobranchiata. 
Established at rank between order and ge- 
nus; treated by Wenz (1 923 [in 1 923-1 930]: 
1735) as a superfamily containing Hydrobi- 
idae, Bithyniidae, Lithoglyphidae, Vivipahdae, 
Valvatidae, Truncatellidae, Ampullarlidae, 
and Melaniidae. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). See also 
higher category list. 

Ctenosculidae Thiele, 1925[1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 86 
Type genus: Ctenosculum Hea\h, 1910 
Remarks: The type species of Ctenosculum 
was described as a gastropod, but Waren 
(1981: 312) demonstrated that it is an asco- 
thoracid crustacean. 

Ctiloceratidae Iredale & Laseron, 1957 [8 May] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Royal Zoolog- 
ical Society of New South Wales, (1955- 
1956): 98 
Type genus: CWoceras Watson, 1886 
Remarks: Precedence over simultaneously 
published Pedumicrinae and Watsoniinae 
determined by Art. 24 (family vs. subfamily), 
-inae, Bändel (1996b: 70). 

CuMANOTiNAE Odhner, 1907 

Reference: Kungliga Svenska Vetens- 

kapakademiens Handlingar, 41 (4): 26 
Type genus: Cumanotus Oöhner, 1907 
Remarks: Declared again nov. in Franc (1968c: 

882). -idae, T E. Thompson (1976: 22). 

CuTHONELLiNAE M. С МШог, 1977 [4 March] 
Reference: ZoologicalJournalofthe Linnean 

Society, 60(3): 200 
Type genus: Cuthonella Bergh, 1884 



Remarks: Introduced presumably (and thus in 
violation of Art. 40. 1 ) as a replacement name 
for Precuthoninae, because Cuthonella has 
precedence over Precuthona Odhner, 1929. 

CuTHONiDAE Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 
Reference: British Antarctic {'Terra Nova') 

Expedition, 1910. Natural history report, 

Zoology, 7(5): 278 
Type genus: Cuthona A\äer &. Hancock, 1855 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 

Odhner (1 939: 53). Placed on the Official List 

by Opinion 773 (1966: 85). -inae, Odhner 

(in Franc, 1968c: 885). 

CuviERiiDAE Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 144, 151 
Type genus: Cuvieria Rang, 1827 
Remarks: Original spelling Cuviehdae. Invalid: 

type genus a junior homonym of Cuvieria 

Lesueur & Petit, 1807 and several others. 

See Tripteridae and Cuvierininae. 

CuviERiNiNAE van dor Spool, 1 967 [6 December] 
Reference: Euthecosomata, a group with re- 
markable development stages: 56, 105 
Type genus: Cuvierina Boas, 1886 
Remarks: Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.1, 
as a replacement name for Cuvieriidae al- 
though the name Tripteridae Gray, 1 850, was 
available, -idae, Beu & Maxwell (1990: 424). 
Under Art. 23.9 of the Code, Tripteridae is 
here declared a nomen oblitum and Cuvier- 
ininae a nomen protectum, based on usage 
in at least the following publications: Van der 
Spoel (1 976: 1 7), Pavia & Robba (1 979: 558), 
Plan! (1980: 168), Ambrosiano & Gaglini 
(1982: 16), Boss (1982: 1035), Janssen 
(1989a: 41), Lalli & Gilmer (1989: 151), 
Vaught (1 989: 68), Beu & Maxwell (1 990: 238, 
424), Sabelli et al. (1990: 56, 258), Smith & 
Heppell (1991: 46), Cavallo & Repetto (1992: 
172), Hodgkinson et al. (1992: 31), Higo & 
Goto (1993: 420), Janssen (1995a: 31), Mill- 
ard (1996: 230), Spencers Willan (1996: 34), 
Zorn (1997: 35), Newman (in Beesley et al. 
1998: 982), Higo, Callomon & Goto (1999: 
401), Janssen (1999a: 115), Janssen (1999b: 
19), Macedo et al. (1999: 365), Okutani (ed.) 
(2000: 775), Redfern (2001: 171). To our 
knowledge the name Tripteridae has not been 
used as valid after 1899. 

Cyathermiidae McLean, 1990 [11 October] 

Reference: The Nautilus, 104(3): 78 

Type genus: Cyathermia Waren & Bouchet, 1 989 



60 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Cyathopomatinae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1897 

[23 July] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 29(7-8): 119 
Type genus: Cyathopoma W. & H. Blanford, 

1861 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Kobelt (1902: 218). 

Cyclobranchia Blainville, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1814): 180 
Remarks: Established as an order "Cyclo- 
branches" (vernacular), containing dorids 
and onchidiids, and also used by Cuvier 
(1817: 388) as an order "Les Cyclobranch- 
es" containing patellids and chitons. Lati- 
nized by Goldfuss (1820: xliii) as a family 
containing Patella, Phyllidia and Diphyllidia. 
Not available as a family-group name (not 
based on a genus). 

Cyclomyaria Haller, 1892 [15 July] 
Reference: Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 18(3): 

538 
Remarks: Established as a family containing 

the "subfam." Capulidae and Hipponicidae. 

Not available: not based on a genus. 

Cyclonassinae Gill, 1871 [February] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 5 
Type genus: Cyclonassa Swainson, 1840 

Cyclonematinae R Fischer, 1885 [31 August] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (9): 809 
Type genus: -fCyclonema Hall, 1852 
Remarks: -idae [declared nov. fam.], Coss- 

mann(1916:8,23). 

Cyclophoridae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 181 
Type genus: Cyclophorus Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: -inae, H. Adams & A. Adams (1855: 

278); -ini [as -eae], Kobelt (1902: 3); -oidea 

[as -acea], Wenz (1 938 [in 1 938-1 944]: 63, 

451). 

Cyclopsidae Chenu, 1859 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (1): 164 

Type genus: Cyclops Montfort, 1810 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Cyclops О. F. Müller, 1776 [Crusta- 
cea]. See also Cyclonassinae. 



Cycloridae S. A. Miller, 1889 [after October] 
Reference: North American geology and 

palaeontology: 395 
Type genus: tCyclora Hall, 1845 

Cyclostomatidae Menke, 1828 

Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 
22 

Type genus: Cyclostoma Lamarck, 1799 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Cyclosto- 
miatae. H. 8. Baker (1956b: 29) suggested 
that the name was based on Cyclostoma 
Draparnaud, 1 801 , not Lamarck, 1 799; how- 
ever, Menke explicitly based "Cyclostomia- 
tae" on "Cyclostoma, Lam.". Ponder & Waren 
(1988: 296) attributed the family name to 
Férussac, 1822, who, however (1822 [in 
1821-1822]: xxxii), placed Cyclostoma in his 
family "les Turbicines" (vernacular), -inae [as 
Cyclostomea], Kobelt (1879 [in 1876-1881]: 
189); -oidea [as -acea], Godwin-Austen 
(1897 [in 1882-1920]: 25). See Pomatiidae. 

Cyclostrematidae p. Fischer, 1885 [31 August] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (9): 833 
Type genus: Cyclostrema Marryatt, 1818 
Remarks: -inae, Cossmann (1918: 69). 

Cyclostremellidae D.R. Moore, 1966 [Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Bulletin of Marine Science, 16(3): 
481 

Type genus: Cyclostremella Bush, 1897 

Remarks: -inae, Abbott (1974: 309); -ini, 
Bouchot, herein [for consistency of ranking]. 

Cyclotinae L. Pfeiffer, 1853 [12 February] 

Reference: [in Gray] Catalogue of Phanerop- 
neumona or terrestrial operculated Mollus- 
ca in the collection of the British Museum: 6 

Type genus: Cyclotus Guilding [in Swainson], 
1840 

Remarks: Original spelling Cyclotina. -idae [as 
"family Cyclotacea"], Troschel (1856: 66); 
-ini [as -eae], Kobelt (1902: 179). 

Cyclotopsinae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1898 [20 

September] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 30(9-10): 156 
Type genus: Cyclotopsis Blanford, 1864 

Cyclotropidae Iredale, 1941 [19 December] 
Reference: Australian Zoologist, 1 0(1 ): 58 
Type genus: Cyclotropis Tapparone-Canefri, 
1883 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



61 



Cyclozygidae B. K. Likharev, 1970 [after 5 June] 
Reference: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 

1970(3): 54 
Type genus: -\Cyclozyga Knight, 1930 

Cylichnidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 [Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:9 

Type genus: Cylichna Lovén, 1846 

Remarks: Established independently by Rud- 
man (1978: 105). -inae, Stoliczka (1868 [in 
1867-1871]: 427); -oidea [as -acea], Abbott 
(1974:314). 

CYLINDRELLIDAETryon, 1868 [2 April] 

Reference: American Journal of Conchology, 

3(4): 311 
Type genus: Cylindrella L. Pfeiffer, 1840 
Remarks: Cylindrella Pfeiffer, 1840 has gen- 
erally been regarded as a junior homonym 
of Cylindrella Swainson, 1840 [May] (and 
Distaectria Cossmann, 1891 was proposed 
as a replacement name), and on this ground 
Cylindrellidae has been treated as an invalid 
name. However Cylindrella Swainson has 
been suppressed for the purpose of the Law 
of Homonymy by Opinion 1 030 (1 974: 1 90). 
This leaves Cylindrella Pfeiffer and Cylindrel- 
lidae available names. See also Urocoptidae 
and Brachypodellinae. 

Cylindrellininae Zilch, 1959 [25 November] 
Reference: Handbucfi derPaläozoologie, 6(2): 

360 
Type genus: -\CylindrelHna Munier-Chalmas, 

1884 
Remarks: -idae, H. Nordsieck (1986b: 109). 

Cylindrinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbucfi der systematischen 

Weicfitierkunde, 1(1): 341 
Type genus: Cylindra Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Cylindra llliger, 1802 [Coleóptera]. 

Cylindrobullinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 388 

Type genus: Cylindrobulla P. Fischer, 1857 

Remarks: -idae, Marcus & Marcus (1956: 126); 
-oidea [as -acea], Taylors Sohl (1962: 11, 17). 

Cylindrobullininae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 
40 



Type genus: -^ Cylindrobullina Ammon, 1878 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 

Zilch (1 959 [in 1 959-1 960]: 1 3). -idae / -oidea, 

Bändel (1994a: 80, 87). 

Cylindromitrinae Cossmann, 1899 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 3: 152 
Type genus: Cylindromitra P. Fischer, 1884 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1975:214). 

Cylindrovertillidae Iredale, 1940 [30 May] 
Reference: The Australian Naturalist, 10: 234 
Type genus: CylindrovertillaO. Boettger, 1881 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Not avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1, unless discovery of 
an author who used the name before 2000. 

Cylleninae L. Bellardi, 1882 [after 1 December] 
Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 

Piemonte e della Liguria, parte 3: 159 
Type genus: Cyllene Gray, 1834 

Cymatiidae Iredale, 1 91 3 [9 September] (1 854) 
Reference: The Nautilus, 27(5): 56 
Type genus: Cymatium Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Established as "the family name to 
be used for the Tritons" on the grounds that 
Cymatium is the oldest genus name in the 
family. See discussion in Beu & Cernohorsky 
(1986: 242). Placed on the Official List by 
Opinion 1650 (1991: 258), with precedence 
from 1854, i.e. from establishment of Ranel- 
lidae Gray, 1854. -inae, Kilias (1973: 56); 
-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 212). 

Cymbiinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 [Sep- 
tember] (1847) 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:158 

Type genus: Cymbium Röding, 1798 

Remarks: -ini [as -ides], Pilsbry & Olsson 
(1954: 16 [286]). When they established 
Cymbiinae, H. Adams & A. Adams did not 
cite Yetinae but listed "VeiusAdanson" in the 
synonymy of Cymbium. Cymbiinae is in pre- 
vailing usage and is conserved under Art. 
40.2, with the precedence of Yetinae. 

Cymbiolinae Bondarev, 1 995 [1 August] 
Reference: La Conchiglia, 27(276): 37 
Type genus: Cymbiola Swainson, 1831 

Cymbulariinae Horny, 1963 [3 March] 
Reference: S born i к Geologickych ved, Pale- 
ontologie, ser. P, 2: 129 



62 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: -tCymbularia Koken, 1896 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1975:207). 

Cymbuliidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 144, 151 
Type genus: Cymbulia Péron & Lesueur, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling Cymbuliadae. 

-oidea [as -acea], Salisbury (1940: 97); -inae, 

vanderSpoel(1976:35). 

Cymouoceidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 145, 151 
Type genus: Cymodocea d'Orbigny, 1834 
Remarks: Original spelling Cymodoceadae. 
Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of 
Cymodocea Rafinesque, 1814 [Crustacea], 
Lamouroux, 1816 [Cnidaria], and Leach, 
1818 [Crustacea]. See Pterocymodoceidae. 

Cynodontidae MacDonald, 1860 [after 16 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Transactions of the Linnean Soci- 
ety of London, 23{^)■.8^ 

Type genus: Cynodonta Schumacher, 1817 

Remarks: -inae, Tryon (1880: 70). 

CYPRAEAcmNAE Schilder, 1930 [14 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 19(3): 120 
Type genus: tCypraeacites Schlotheim, 1820 
Remarks: Not available under Art. 11.7.1.4: 

type genus not available under Art. 20. -ini, 

Schilder & Schilder (1 971 : 80). 

Cypraediinae Schilder, 1927 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91 

(Abt. A, 10): 67 
Type genus: tCypraedia Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: -ini, Schilder (1932b: 250-251). 

Cypraeinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 145 
Type genus: Cypraea Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Cyp- 
ridia. -idae [as Cypreadae], Fleming (1822: 
490); -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1925 [in 
1925-1926]: 88); -ini, Schilder (1927: 87, 
92). 

Cypraeogemmulinae Fehse, 2001 [December] 

Reference: Acta Conchyliorum, 5: 19 

Type genus: -\Cypraeogemmula Vredenburg, 

1920 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis, -ini. 

Ibid.: 35. 



Cypraeorbini Schilder, 1927 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91 
(Abt. A, 10): 97 

Type genus: -[СургаеогЫз Conrad, 1865 

Remarks: -inae, Schilder (1939: 175). Given 
precedence over Bernayini by First Revis- 
er's choice by Schilder (1 939: 1 75-1 76). Pre- 
cedence of Gisortiinae over simultaneously 
published Cypraeorbini determined by Art. 
24 (subfamily vs. tribe). 

Cypraeovulidae Schilder, 1927 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91 
(Abt. A, 10): 68 

Type genus: Cypraeovula Gray, 1824 

Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1929 [in 1929-1935]: 
272); -ini, Schilder (1929: 990). Precedence 
of Cypraeovulidae over simultaneously pub- 
lished Erroneini determined by Art. 24 (fam- 
ily vs. tribe). 

Cyproglobinini Schilder, 1932 [20 October] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 55: 1 92 
Type genus: -\Cyproglobina de Gregorio, 1880 
Remarks: Name only. Diagnosed by Schilder 
(1936:106). 

Cyrtulidae MacDonald, 1869 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 4,3: 115 
Type genus: Cyrtulus Hinds, 1843 

Cystiscidae Stimpson, 1865 [25 February] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

1(1): 55 
Type genus: Cystiscus Stimpson, 1865 
Remarks: -inae, Coan (1965: 190). 

Cystopeltinae Cockerell, 1891 [August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, (1891 [2]): 216, 225 
Type genus: Cystope/ia Tate, 1881 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale (1937c: 10). 

Cytharinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 365 
Type genus: Cynara Schumacher, 1817 

Cytoridae Climo, 1969 [23 May] 

Reference: Records of the Dominion Muse- 
um, Q{^4):227 

Type genus: Cytora Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1897 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. Climo 
refers to a paper in press in Rec. Auckland 
Inst. Mus., which was apparently never pub- 
lished. He subsequently (Climo, 1970: 215) 
synonymized Cytoridae with Liareidae. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



63 



Dabrianidae Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
li и skov, 7: 21 

Type genus: Dabriana Radoman, 1974 

Dactylidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 [Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:139 

Type genus: Dactylus H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1853 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Dactylus Schumacher, 1817 [Gas- 
tropoda Acteonidae]. -inae, H. Adams & A. 
Adams (1853 [in 1853-1858]: 140). 

Dactylopodidae Bonnevie, 1931 [1 October] 
Reference: Report on the scientific results of 
the "Michael Sars" North Atlantic Deep-Sea 
Expedition 1910,5(3): 8 
Type genus: Dactylopus Bonnevie, 1921 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Daciy/opus Gill, 1859 [Pisces], and 
Dactylopus Glaus, 1862 [Crustacea]. See 
Nectophyllirhoidae. 

Dalmateidae Djalilov, 1977 

Reference: [Cretaceous gastropods from the 

south-east of central Asia]: 35 
Type genus: -fDalmatea Pchelintsev, 1965 

Damilinidae Horny, 1961 [after 4 April] 
Reference: Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geo- 

logickeho, 36(4): 301 
Type genus: -\Damilina Horny, 1961 

Daphnellinae Casey, 1904 [19 May] 
Reference: Transactions of the Academy of 

Sciences of St Louis, 14: 126, 164 
Type genus: Daphnella Hinds, 1844 
Remarks: Original spelling Daphnellini, as 
"tribe" of Pleurotomidae, immediately below 
family rank. Ponder & Waren (1988: 307), 
followed by Taylor, Kantor & Sysoev (1993: 
167), attributed the name to "Deshayes, 
1863", but we have not been able to trace it 
in any of Deshayes' papers, and Waren (pers. 
comm.) believes that this was probably an 
error. 

Daudebardiidae Kobelt, 1906 [30 August] 
Reference: Systematisches Conchylien-Cab- 

inet,eä.2, Bd. 1,Abt. 12B,Theil2: 178 
Type genus: Daudebardia Hartmann, 1821 
Remarks: -inae, Pilsbry (1908a: viii). 



Davisianidae Egorova, 1972 [after 29 April] 
Reference: Issledovaniia Fauny Morel, 11(19): 

392 
Type genus: Davisiana Egorova, 1972 
Remarks: -inae, Waren & Bouchet, herein. 

Dawsonellidae Wenz, 1938 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

434 
Type genus: -[Dawsonella Bradley, 1874 
Remarks: -inae, Solem (1979: 233). 

Decorospirinae Blodgett & Fryda, 1999 
Reference: Journal of the Czech Geological 

Society, 44(3-4): 302 
Type genus: -\Decorospira Blodgett & John- 
son, 1992 

Defranciinae Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 128 
Type genus: ^Defrancia Millet, 1827 
Remarks: Original spelling Defrancianina. In- 
valid: type genus placed on the Official Index 
by Opinion 666 (1963: 267). See Clathurelli- 
naeand Lorinae. 

Deianiridae Wenz, 1 938 [October] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 
434 

Type genus: -fDeianira Stoliczka, 1860 

Remarks: Original spelling Dejaniridae, based 
on Dejanira, an incorrect subsequent spelling 
(byTryon, 1888 [in 1888-1889]: 9)oWeianira. 

Delavayidae Annandale, 1924 [29 September] 
Reference: Journal and Proceedings, Asiatic 

Society of Bengal, new ser., 19(9): 403 
Type genus: Delavaya Heude, 1889 

Delimini Brandt, 1956 [1 November] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 85(4- 

6): 121 
Type genus: Delima Hartmann, 1842 
Remarks: Original spelling Delimeae. Name only, 

no diagnosis, but made available under Art. 

13.2.1 by usage as a valid name before 2000. 

First diagnosed by H. Nordsieck (1969: 259). 

Delphinoideinae Thiele, 1924 [February] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Zoolo- 
gischen Museum in Berlin, 11(1): 60, 70 
Type genus: Delphinoidea T. Brown, 1827 

Delphinulinae Stoliczka, 1868 [1 October] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Sun/ey 
of India. Paleontología Indica. Cretaceous 



64 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Parts 7-10: 

343, 368 
Type genus: -[Delphinula Lamarck, 1804 
Remarks: -idae, R Fischer (1885 [in 1880- 

1887]: 828). 

Delphinulopsidae Blodgett, Fryda & Stanley, 

2001 
Reference: Journal of the Czech Geological 

Society, 46(3-4): 3^0 
Type genus: -fDelphinulopsis Laube, 1868 

Dendrodorididae O'Donoghue, 1924 [14 Feb- 
ruary] (1864) 

Reference: Journal of the Linnean Society of 
London, Zoology, 35: 560 

Type genus: Dendrodoris Ehrenberg, 1831 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Doriopsidae, based on Doriopsis Pease, 
1860, considered by O'Donoghue a syn- 
onym oi Dendrodoris. Dendrodorididae has 
won general acceptance and, under Art. 
40.2, takes the precedence of "Doriopsidae" 
[= Doridopsidae; see that name], -inae, 
Thiele (1 931 [in 1 929-1 935]: 440); -oidea [as 
-acea], Abbott (1974: 365). 

Dendrolimacini Van Goethem, 1977 [July] 
Reference: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Cen- 
trale, Annales, Sciences Zoologiques, 218: 
100 
Type genus: Dendrolimax Heynemann, 1868 

Dendronotinae Allman, 1845 [after September] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, 16: 161 
Type genus: Dendronotus Alder & Hancock, 

1845 
Remarks: -idae. Alder & Hancock (1855 [in 

1845-1855]: 40); -oidea [as -acea]. Zilch 

(1959:62). 

Dendropomatinae Bändel & Kowaike, 1997 [31 

August] 
Reference: Geológica etPalaeontologica, 31: 

260 
Type genus: Dendropoma Mörch, 1861 
Remarks: Original spelling Dendropominae. 

Dendropupidae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

52 
Type genus: -\Dendropupa Owen, 1860 
Remarks: Name only, -inae. Ibid.: 54 [name 
only]; 470 [October; diagnosed]; -oidea, 
Bouchet, herein [in place of Anthracop- 
upoidea, over which it has precedence]. Pre- 
cedence over simultaneously published 



Anthracopupinae determined by Art. 24 (fam- 
ily vs. subfamily). 

Depressizoninae Geiger, 2003 
Reference: Molluscan Research, 23: 50 
Type genus: Depressizona Geiger, 2003 

Deridobranchinae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 146 
Type genus: Deridobranchus Ehrenberg, 1831 
Remarks: Original spelling Deridobranchina. 

Dermatobranchidae p. Fischer, 1883 [20 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 532 

Type genus: Dermatobranchus van Hasselt, 
1824 

Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 
441). 

Dermobranchea Duméril, 1807 

Reference: Traité élémentaire d'histoire na- 
turelle, éd. 2, 2: 122 

Remarks: Original spelling "Dermobranches" 
(vernacular), established as a family contain- 
ing "doris, tritonies, scyllées, éolides, phyllidies, 
patelles, ormiers [Haliotis], chitons". Latinized 
by Link (1807: 143). Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Dermobranchiata de Quatrefages, 1844 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

ser. 3, Zoologie, 1 : 170 
Remarks: Taxen containing the genera Pelta 
and Chalidis. Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Deroceratinae Magne, 1952 

Reference: Procés-verbaux des Séances de 
la Société des Sciences Physiques et Na- 
turelles de Bordeaux, for 1946-1949: 30 

Type genus: Dereceras Rafinesque, 1820 

Deseretospirini Gordon & Yochelson, 1987 

Reference: United States Geological Survey 
Professional Paper, 1368: 55 

Type genus: -fDeseretospira Gordon & Yoch- 
elson, 1987 

Remarks: Original spelling Deseretospirides. 

Desmopteridae Chun, 1889 

Reference: Sitzungsberichte der Königlich 
Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschanen 
zu Berlin, Physikalisch-Mathematischen 
Classe, 30(2): 544 

Type genus: Desmopíems Chun, 1889 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



65 



Despoenidae Newton, 1891 [22 August] 
Reference: Systematic list of the F. E. Edwards 
collection of British Oligocène and Eocene 
Mollusca in the British Museum {Natural His- 
tory): 255 
Type genus: Despoena Newton, 1891 
Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Proserpinidae, on the erroneous assump- 
tion that its type genus Proserpina G.B. Sow- 
erby 11,1 839, was preoccupied by Proserpinus 
Hübner, 1819. 

DiALiDAEKay, 1979 

Reference: Hawaiian marine shells: 114 

Type genus: D/'a/a A. Adams, 1861 

Remarks: Under Art. 13.2.1, not available from 
Ludbrook (1941: 92), who established Dial- 
idae without a diagnosis; "Dialidae Ludbrook, 
1941", was rejected under Art. 13b of the З'"^ 
edition of the Code by Ponder & de Keyzer 
(1992: 1019). Kay did not declare Dialidae 
new, nor cited an author, but provided a short 
description that satisfies Art. 1 3 of the Code. 

DiAPHANiDAE Odhner, 1914 [22 May] (1857) 
Reference: ArkivförZoologi, 8(25): 15 
Type genus: Diaphana T Brown, 1827 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl 
(1962: 11); -inae, Waren (1989: 20). When 
he established Diaphanidae, Odhner did not 
cite Amphisphyridae; however, Amphisphyra 
and Diaphana are synonyms, and Di- 
aphanidae is conserved under Art. 40.2, with 
the precedence of Amphisphyridae. 

DiASTOMATiDAE Cossmann, 1894 [28 July] 
Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 41(4): 

322 
Type genus: -[Diastoma Deshayes, 1850 
Remarks: Original spelling Diastomidae. 

DiATRiiDAE Simroth, 1885 [18 August] 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 

Zoologie, 42(2): 290 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. 

DiAULULiNAE Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 

Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 

Thiere,6: 132 
Type genus: Diaulula Bergh, 1878 
Remarks: Established as subfamily of "Dorid- 

idae cryptobranchiatae" despite suffix -idae. 

Discodorididae given precedence over Di- 

aululinae by First Reviser's action by Valdés 

(2002: 630). 



DicERATABIainville, 1816 

Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1816): 52 

Remarks: Original spelling "les Dicères" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Blainville (1825: 487). 
Taxon containing the genera Scyllaea, Tri- 
tonia and Thethys [sic]. Established as a fam- 
ily and not available as such (not based on 
a genus). 

Dicera(e) Menke, 1828 

Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 
19 

Remarks: Established as a division of the fam- 
ily "Heliceae", containing the genera Vertigo 
and Partula. Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

DiCHOSTASiiNAE Yochelson, 1956 [18 June] 
Reference: Bulletin of the American Museum 

of Natural History, 110(3): 208 
Type genus: tD'c/?ostes/a Yochelson, 1956 
Remarks: Original spelling Dichostasinae. 

DicRisTiDAE Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 [18 

December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 210 
Type genus: Dicrista F. G. Thompson, 1969 

DicROLOMATiDAE Korotkov, 1992 [after 10 August] 
Reference: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 

1992(3): 98 
Type genus: -\Dicroloma Gabb, 1868 
Remarks: Original spelling Dicrolomidae. 

DiMORPHOPTYCHiiNAE Wonz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPalaozoologie, 6(1 ): 

53-54 
Type genus: -\Dimorphoptychia Sandberger, 

1871 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (October 1938 [in 

1938-1944]: 435). 

DioDORiNAE Odhner, 1932 
Reference: Jenaische Zeitschrift für Natur- 
wissenschaft, 67: 308 
Type genus: Diodora Gray, 1821 
Remarks: -ini, McLean (1984: 22). 

DiozoPTYxiNAE Pchelintsev, 1 960 [after 29 June] 
Reference: [in Pchelintsev & Korobkov, eds.] 

Osnovy paleóntologa, molliuski, briukhono- 

gie: 121 
Type genus: tD/bzopfyx/s Cossmann, 1896 
Remarks: Original spelling Diozoptyxisinae. 

-idae, Pchelintsev (1965: 84). 



66 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



DiPHYLLiDiiDAE d'Orbigny, 1841 

Reference: Histoire, physique, politique et natu- 
relle de l'Ile de Cuba. Mollusques, 1 : 93, 108 

Type genus: Diphyllidia Blainville, 1819 

Remarks: Original spelling Diphyllidlae. See 
Pleurophyllidiidae and Arminidae. 

DiPLOMMATiNiDAE L. Pfeiffer, 1856 [September] 
Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 3: 118 
Type genus: Diplommatina Benson, 1849 
Remarks: Original spelling Diplommatinacea. 
-inae, Blanford (1864: 465). 

DiPNELiciDAE Iredale, 1937 [30 September] 
Reference: The South Australian Naturalist, 

18(2): 22 
Type genus: Dipnelix Iredale, 1937 

DiPSAcciNAE R Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 624 
Type genus: D/psacct/s H.Adams & A. Adams, 

1853 

DiPTYCHOMiTRiNAE L. Bellardi, 1888 [before 12 

December] 
Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 

Piemonte e delta Liguria, parte V(c): 10 
Type genus: -\Diptychomitra L. Bellardi, 1888 
Remarks: See Mitrolumnidae. 

DiPTYxiNAE Pchelintsev, 1960 [after 29 June] 
Reference: [in Pchelintsev & Korobkov, eds] 

Osnovy paleóntologa, molli uski, briukhono- 

gie: 123 
Type genus: "[Diptyxis Oppenheim, 1889 
Remarks: Original spelling Diptyxisinae. -idae, 

Pchelintsev (1965: 79). 

DiRONiDAE Eliot, 1910 

Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 

branchiate Mollusca, Part 8: 69 
Type genus: Dirona MacFarland in Eliot, 1905 
Remarks: Independently declared fam. nov. by 

MacFarland (1912: 516). 

DisciNAE Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
(1866) 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 578 

Type genus: Discus Fitzinger, 1833 

Remarks: When he established Piscinae, 
Thiele did not discuss or cite Patulinae, but 
he treated Patula as a synonym of Gonyo- 
discus, itself a subgenus of Discus. Disci- 
nae is in prevailing usage, and it is conserved 
under Art. 40.2, with the precedence of Pat- 



ulinae. Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 484). -idae, Kuroda & Habe 
(1949:31). 

DiscoDORiDiNAE Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 
Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 
Thiere,6: 129 
Type genus: Discodoris Bergh, 1877 
Remarks: Established as subfamily despite 
suffix -idae. -idae, Iredale & McMichael 
(1 962: 94). Given precedence over Diaululi- 
nae, Platydoridinae, and Kentrodoridinae by 
First Reviser's action by Valdés (2002: 630). 

DiscoHELiciDAE Schrödor, 1995 [December] 
Reference: Palaeontographica, АЫ. A, 238(1- 

4): 10 
Type genus: -[Discohelix Dunker, 1847 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Bändel (1993a: 63). 

DispoTAEiNAE Gray, 1868 [April] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, (1867[3]): 743 

Type genus: -fDispotaea Say, 1824 

Remarks: Original spelling Dispoteana, based 
on Dispotea, an incorrect subsequent spell- 
ing of D/spoteea. 

DisTORsioNiNAE Bou, 1981 [January] 
Reference: Records of the Australian Muse- 
um, 33{5): 253 
Type genus: Distorsio Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 
Kuroda, Habe &Oyama (1971: 128[asDis- 
torsiinae]). 

DiTREMARiiNAE НаЬог, 1934 [20 June] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 65: 

320 
Type genus: -[Ditremaria d'Orbigny, 1843 
Remarks: No diagnosis, but available under 
Art. 13.2.1 through usage by Wenz (1938 
[in 1938-1944]: 156), who also gave a de- 
scription. Trochotomidae was proposed as 
a replacement name because of the synon- 
ymy of Ditremaria with Trochotoma; Trochot- 
omidae is maintained over Ditremariinae 
under Art. 40.2. 

DocoGLOssATroschel, 1865 

Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(1): 
10 

Remarks: Established at unspecified rank 
above family. Treated by Dall (1892: 381) as 
a superfamily, and by Thiele (1 925 [in 1 925- 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



67 



1926]: 75) as a "Sippe" [= superfamily] (in 
synonymy of Patellacea). Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 

DoLABELLiNAE Pllsbry, 1895 [26 Novomber] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 1, 

16(62): 65; 16(63): 150 [13 March 1896] 
Type genus: Dolabella Lamarck, 1801 
Remarks: -idae, Franc (1968c: 849). 

DoLABRiFERiNAE Pilsbry, 1895 [26 Novomber] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 1, 

16(62): 64; 16(63): 116 [13 March 1896] 
Type genus: Dolabrifera Gray, 1847 
Remarks: -idae. Franc (1968c: 849). 

DoLiiDAE Latreille, 1825 

Reference: Families naturelles du règne ani- 
mal: 1 96 

Type genus: Dolium Lamarck, 1801 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Doliaria. La- 
treille (1824: table) had already established the 
vernacular "Doliaires", but the name Doliidae 
is not generally accepted as dating from that 
first publication, -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1 925 
[in 1 925-1 926]: 90). See also Tonnidae. 

DoLOMiTELLiDAE Bändel, 1994 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungsfieft, ser. С, 

452:83,88 
Type genus: -f Dolomitella Bändel, 1994 

DoNALDiNiDAE Bändel, 1994 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungsheñ, ser. С, 

452: 87 
Type genus: ^Donaldina Knight, 1933 
Remarks: Made available by short diagnosis. 

Declared new, with formal description, in 

Bändel (1996a: 332). 

DoNovANiiNAE Casoy, 1904 [19 May] 

Reference: Transactions of the Academy of 
Science of St Louis, 14: 126, 163 

Type genus: Donovania Bucquoy, Dautzen- 
berg & Dollfus, 1883 

Remarks: Original spelling Donovaniini, as "tribe" 
of Pleurotomidae, immediately below family 
rank. Casey used Donovania as the valid name 
for Lachesis Risso, 1826 [invalid], but did not 
explicitly introduce Donovaniini as a replace- 
ment name for Lachesinae. Invalid: type ge- 
nus a junior homonym of Donovania Leach, 
1814 [Crustacea]. See also Chauvetiinae. 

DoRCASiiNAE Connolly, 1 91 5 [8 April] 
Reference: Annals of the South African Mu- 
seum, 13: 120 



Type genus: Dorcasia Gray, 1838 
Remarks: -idae, Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 

144); -ini [as -eae]. Zilch (1960 [in 1959- 

1960]: 463). 

DoRiDiGiTATiDAE Irodale & O'Donoghue, 1923 
[March] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 
Society of London, 15(4): 226 

Type genus: Doridigitata d'Orbigny, 1839 

Remarks: Placed on the Official Index by Opin- 
ion 1980 (2001: 237). 

DoRiDiiNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 161 
Type genus: Doridium Meckel, 1809 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Doridi- 
ina. -idae, P Fischer (1883 [in 1880-1887]: 
565). Placed on the Official Index by Opin- 
ion 1079 (1977: 16). F. Nordsieck (1972: 23) 
established again Doridiidae in a form ["Do- 
ridiidae nov. nom. (Aglajidae Renieri, 1804 
non validum (Opinion 427)"] suggesting that 
he had mistaken the implications of Opinion 
1079. See Aglajidae. 

DoRiDiNAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 142 
Type genus: Doris Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Doridia. 
-idae [as Doridea], Menke (1828: 5); -oidea 
[as -acea], MacFarland (1909: 6, 9, 65). Placed 
on the Official List by Opinion 1 980 (2001 : 237). 

DoRiDOEiDiDAE Eliot & Evans, 1908 [March] 
Reference: Quarterly Journal of Microscopi- 
cal Science, new ser., 52(2): 289 
Type genus: Doridoeides Eliot & Evans, 1908 
Remarks: See Doridomorphidae. 

DoRiDOMORPHiDAE Ег. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 
1960 [March] (1908) 

Reference: Abhandlungen der Mathematisch- 
Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse, Akademie 
der Wissenschaftliche und der Literatur in 
/Wa/nz, (1959[12]):874 

Type genus: Doridomorpha Eliot, 1903 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Doridoeididae, based on Doridoeides, 
which itself had been erected on the assump- 
tion that Doridomorpha was preoccupied by 
"Doridomorphe". However, Dorimorphe Au- 
douin & Milne-Edwards, 1832, and its emen- 
dation Dorimorpha Herrmannsen, 1852, do 
not preoccupy Doridomorpha. Treated by 
Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 878), as a valid 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



name; maintained under Art. 40.2, with the 
precedence of Doridoeididae. 

DoRiDOPSiDAE Alder & Hancock, 1864 [28 April] 

Reference: Transactions of the Zoological 
Society of London, 5: 124 

Type genus: Doridopsis Alder & Hancock, 
1864 

Remarks: Bergh (1876: 384) used Dohopsidae 
with the diagnosis "mandibulis et lingua des- 
titutus ut in Phyllidiis" [jaw and radula ab- 
sent as in Phyllidia], but Dohopsis granulosa 
Pease, 1860, type species of Doriopsis 
Pease, 1860, by monotypy, has a radula and 
belongs in Dorididae (see Kay & Young 
1969). Bergh [in Carus (1889)] treated Dori- 
opsis and Doridopsis as synonyms, which 
suggests that Doriopsidae was a misspell- 
ing of Doridopsidae, diagnosed by Alder & 
Hancock "without tongue, jaws". All usages 
of Doriopsidae refer to dorids without a rad- 
ula, i.e. to Doridopsidae. The confusion be- 
tween Doriopsis and Doridopsis is discussed 
by Pruvot-Fol (1930b: 291-297). See also 
Dendrodohdidae. 

DoRiDoxiDAE Bergh, 1899 

Reference: Den Danske Ingolf-Expedition, 
2(3): 14 

Type genus: Doridoxa Bergh, 1899 

Remarks: -oidea, Bouchet, herein [for consis- 
tency of ranking]. 

Doriopsidae. See Doridopsidae. 

DoRiPRisMATiciNAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1858 

[November] 
Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 

2:657 
Type genus: Doriphsmatica d'Orbigny, 1839 
Remarks: We here declare Doriprismaticinae 

a nomen oblitum under Art. 23.9, and Chro- 

modorididae (see that name) a nomen pro- 

tectum. 

DoRSANiNAECossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 4: 197 
Type genus: Dorsanum Gray, 1847 

DoTiDAE Gray, 1853 [March] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11:220 
Type genus: Dofo Oken, 1815 
Remarks: Original spelling Dotonidae. Placed 

on the Official List, with the spelling Dotidae, 

by Opinion 697 (1964: 97). 



Draparnaudiinae Solem, 1962 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin of the British Museum 

{Natural History), Zoology, 9(5): 219 
Type genus: Draparnaudia Montrouzier, 1859 
Remarks: -idae, Schileyko (1999 [in 1998- 

2003]: 437). 

Drepanostomatini Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 226 
Type genus: Drepanostoma Pono, 1836 
Remarks: Original spelling Drepanostomini. 

Drepanotrematini Zilch, 1959 [17 July] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(2): 
116 

Type genus: Drepanotrema Crosse & P. Fi- 
scher, 1880 

Remarks: Original spelling Drepanotremeae. 
Name only, no diagnosis, but made avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1 by usage as a valid 
name before 2000. -inae, Harry (1962: 38). 
First diagnosed by Harry & Hubendick (1 964: 
19). 

Drilliinae Olsson, 1964 [28 October] 

Reference: Neogene mollusks from northwest- 
ern Ecuador. 95 

Type genus: Drillia Gray, 1838 

Remarks: Original spelling Drillinae. -idae, 
Taylor, Kantor & Sysoev (1 993: 1 57-1 58). 

Drupinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

42,47; 1112[1941] 
Type genus: Drupa Röding, 1 798 

Dungina Martynov, 1998 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 77(7): 767 
Type genus: Dunga Eliot, 1902 
Remarks: Original spelling [subtribe] Dungi- 
nini. 

DuPLiCATiNAE Muskhelishvili, 1967 
Reference: Soobshcheniia Akademii Nauk 

Gruzinskoi SSR, 46(2): 392 
Type genus: -[Duplicata Korobokov, 1955 
Remarks: Muskhelishvili attributed Duplicata 

to "Kolesnikov, 1939", but it was not made 

available until Korobkov, 1955. 

DuRGELLiNAE Godwin-Austen, 1888 [April] 
Reference: Land and freshwater Mollusca of 

India, 1(6): 253 
Type genus: Durgella Blanford, 1863 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale (1937c: 11); -ini [as 

Durgelli], Solem (1966: 23). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



69 



DuRGELLiNiDAE Iredale, 1941 [19 December] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 10(1): 66 
Type genus: Durge///na Thiele, 1928 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Subse- 
quently used, but not diagnosed by Iredale 
(1942:33). 

DuvAUCELiiDAE Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 

[March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 15(4): 229 
Type genus: Duvaucelia Risso, 1826 

Dyakiinae Gude & B. B. Woodward, 1921 [24 

October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 14(5-6): 185 
Type genus: Dyakia Godwin-Austen, 1891 
Remarks: Original spelling Dyakinae. -idae. Van 

Mol (1973: 232); -oidea, Hausdorf (1998: 56); 

-ini, Schileyko (2003 [in 1998-2003]: 1355). 

Eatoniellidae Ponder, 1965 [15 October] 
Reference: Records of the Auckland Institute 

and Museum, 6(2): 50 
Type genus: Eatoniella Dall, 1876 
Remarks: See also Paludestrinidae. 

Eatoninidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1 975 [1 8 

December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 211 
Type genus: Eafon/na Thiele, 1912 

Eatoniopsinae Ponder, 1965 [15 October] 
Reference: Records of the Auckland Institute 

and Museum, 6(2): 123 
Type genus: Eaion/ops/s Thiele, 1912 

Ebalidae Waren, 1995 [January] 

Reference: Bollettino Malacologico, 30(5-9): 205 

Type genus: Ebala Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Bändel (1994a: 87; 1994b: 148). See also 

Anisocyclidae. 

EeuRNiNAESwainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 305 
Type genus: Eburna Lamarck, 1801 
Remarks: Swainson used Eburna in the sense 
of Babylonia, so that the name Eburninae is 
based on a misidentified type genus; under 
Art. 41, the case should be referred to the 
Commission for a ruling. 

EccuLioMPHALiNAE Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

188 
Type genus: ■\Ecculiomphalus Portlock, 1843 



EcHiNiNiNAE Rosewater, 1972 [15 January] 
Reference: Indo-Pacific Mollusca, 2(12): 510 
Type genus: Echininus Clench & Abbott, 1942 

EcHiNocHiLiDAEOdhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 

866 
Type genus: Echinochila Mörch, 1869 
Remarks: -inae, same reference. Invalid: type 

genus placed on Official Index by Opinion 

812(1967:91). 

EcHiNOFULGURiNAE Petuch, 1994 
Reference: Atlas of Florida fossil shells: 305 
Type genus: -[Echinofulgur Olsson & Harbi- 
son, 1953 

EcPHORiNAE Petuch, 1988 [15 February] 
Reference: Bulletin of Paleomalacology, 1 (1 ): 4 
Type genus: tEcp/?ora Conrad, 1843 

EcTOPHTHALMiDAE Jousseaume, 1894 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société 

Zoologique de France, 7: 301 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Egalvininae Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 883 

Type genus: Egalvina Odhner, 1929 

Egeidae MacDonald, 1860 [after 16 February] 
Reference: Transactions of the Linnean Soci- 
ety of London, 23{^):8^ 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Ekadantinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 149 
Type genus: Ekadanta Rao, 1928 

Elachisinidae Ponder, 1985 [16 September] 
Reference: The Journal of Molluscen Studies, 

51(1): 28 
Type genus: Elachisina Dall, 1918 

Elasmatinidae Iredale, 1937 [12 March] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 8(4): 299 
Type genus: Elasmatina Petit de la Saussaye, 

1843 
Remarks: -inae / -ini, Bouchet, herein [in place 

of Pitysinae / -ini, over which it has priority]. 

Elasmiatidae Kuroda & Habe, 1949 [1 Septem- 
ber] 
Reference: Helicacea: 27 
Type genus: Elasmias Pilsbry, 1910 
Remarks: Original spelling Elasmatinidae. -ini, 
Cooke &Kondo (1961: 218). 



70 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Elasmonematidae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washinton Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -fElasmonema P. Fischer, 1885 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1 960: 
243). 

Elatioriellidae Pchelintsev, 1965 [after 3 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozoia Gornogo 
Kryma: 94 

Type genus: tElatioriella Pchelintsev, 1965 

Elegantellidae Pchelintsev, 1965 [after 3 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozoia Gornogo 
Kryma: 97 

Type genus: -\EleganteHa Pchelintsev, 1965 

Eleutherobranchiatae Bergh, 1879 
Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 45(1 ): 

354 
Remarks: Established as family "Dorididae 
eleutherobranchiatae". Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 

Ellipsostomata Blainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, ^0: ^85 

Remarks: Original spelling "Ellipsostomes" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Blainville (1819: 
353). Treated as a "Division" [above genus] 
by Bowdich (1822: 27), and as a family by 
Blainville (1 824: 231 ). Not available as a fam- 
ily-group name (not based on a genus). 

Ellipstomatidae Hannibal, 1912 [30 October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 10(3): 168 
Type genus: Ellipstoma Rafinesque, 1818 
Remarks: Original spelling Ellipstomidae. 

Ellobiidae L. Pfeiffer, 1854 [August] (1822) 
Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 1: 146 
Type genus: Ellobium Röding, 1798 
Remarks: First introduced in synonymy, but 
available under Art. 11.6. Authorship deter- 
mined by Art. 50.7. Ellobiidae was introduced 
as an alternative name for Auriculidae, be- 
cause Auricula Lamarck, 1799, was consid- 
ered a synonym of Ellobium; Ellobiidae Is in 
prevailing usage (Martins, 1996: 174) and it 
is maintained under Art. 40.2, with the pre- 
cedence of Auriculidae. -inae, same refer- 
ence; -oidea [as -acea], Salisbury (1 940: 98). 



Elonidae GiUenberger, 1977 

Reference: Sixth European Malacological 

Congress [Amsterdam, 1 977], Abstracts: 51 
Type genus: Elona H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1855 
Remarks: Established again as new by Gitten- 

berger(1979: 143). -inae/-ini, H. Nordsieck 

(1987:23). 

Elysiidae Forbes & Hanley, 1851 [1 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: A history of British Mollusca and 
their shells, 3:6^3 

Type genus: Elysia Risso, 1818 

Remarks: Original spelling Elysiadae. -oidea 
[as -acea], Salisbury (1940: 97). 

Emarginulidae Children, 1834 

Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 28: 112 
Type genus: Emarginula Lamarck, 1801 
Remarks: -inae, Pilsbry (1890 [in 1890-1891]: 

141). 

Emblandidae Ponder, 1985 [23 December] 
Reference: Records of the Australian Muse- 
um, 37(6): 350 
Type genus: Emblanda Iredale, 1955 

Embletoniinae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 410 
Type genus: Embletonia Alder & Hancock, 

1851 
Remarks: Original spelling Embletoninae. 

-idae, Schmekel (1970: 136, 171). 

Emmericiinae Brusina, 1870 [after 2 November] 
Reference: Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Ge- 
sellschaft in Wien, Abhandlungen, 20: 936 
Type genus: Emmericia Brusina, 1870 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Thiele (1928a: 379); 
-idae, Starobogatov (1970b: 32). Under Art. 
23.9 of the Code, Pyrgidiidae Neumayr, 1 869, 
is here declared a nomen oblitum and Emm- 
ericiinae Brusina, 1870, a nomen protectum, 
based on usage in at least the following pub- 
lications: Franc (1968a: 267), Starobogatov 
(1970b: 32), Radoman (1973a: 13), Golikov 
& Starobogatov (1 975: 210), lljina et al. (1 976: 
215), Giusti & Pezzoli (1980: 63), Boss (1982: 
1092), Giusti & Pezzoli (1982: 466-467), Ra- 
doman (1983: 157), Starobogatov & Sitniko- 
va (1983: 21), Zilch (1983: 93), Boeters & 
Heuss (1985: 105), Mouthon (1986: 181), 
Ponder & Waren (1 988: 297), Vaught (1 989: 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



71 



23), Hershler & Holsinger (1990: 6, 8), J. B. 
Burch(1993:4), Kabat&Hershler(1993:7), 
Kadolsky (1993: 345), Cosslgnani & Cossig- 
nani (1995: 11), Millard (1996: 71), Boeters 
(1998: 19), Bank et al. (2001: 25), Esu, Gi- 
rotti & True (2001 : 1 23), Glöer (2002: 1 78). 
To our knowledge, the name Pyrgidiidae has 
not been used as valid after 1899. 

Endodontidae Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a):xxi 
Type genus: En docfon ia AI be rs, 1850 
Remarks: -inae, Suter (1913: 684); -oidea [as 

-acea]. Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 203). 

Engininae Habe, 1973 

Reference: Venus, 32(3): 97 

Type genus: Engina Gray, 1839 

Remarks: Availability doubtful: no explicit di- 
agnosis. Not available (no diagnosis) from 
Higo & Goto (1993: 226). 

Enidae B. B. Woodward, 1903 [1 October] 

(1880) 
Reference: Journal of Conchology, 10(12): 

354, 358 
Type genus: Ena Turton, 1831 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 

519); -oidea, Starobogatov et al. (1971: 8); 

-ini, Hausdorf (1999: 152). Placed on the 

Official List, with precedence from 1880, and 

given precedence over Buliminusidae, by 

Opinion 2018 (2003: 63). 

Enigmaconidae MacKinnon, 1985 

Reference: Alctieringa, 9(1-2): 72 

Type genus: ■\Enigmaconus MacKinnon, 1985 

Enneidae Bourguignat, 1883 [before July] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

Zoologie, ser. 6, 15 (Art. 2): 74 
Type genus: Ennea H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1855 
Remarks: -inae, Möllendorff (1904 [in 1903- 

1905]: 92). 

Enroulés (Les). See Involvea and Convo- 
lutidae. 

Enterobranchiata de Quatrefages, 1844 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

Zoologie, ser. 3, 1: 170 
Remarks: Established as a family containing 
a mixture of nudibranch genera and saco- 
glossans. Not available (not based on a ge- 
nus). 



Enteroxeninae Schwanwitsch, 1917 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Vestnik, 2: 135 
Type genus: Enteroxenos Bonnevie, 1902 
Remarks: Established as subfamily of Ento- 

conchidae despite suffix -ini. -idae, Heding 

& Mandahl-Barth (1938: 36, 38). 

Entocolacidae Voigt, 1888 [31 December] 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftlicfie 

Zoologie, 47(4): 684 
Type genus: Entoco/ax Voigt, 1888 

Entoconchidae Keferstein, 1864 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen der Weichthiere, Bd. 3(2): 1031, 
1057 

Type genus: Entoconctia J. Müller, 1852 

Remarks: -inae [as subfamily Entoconchini], 
Schwanwitsch (1917: 135). 

Entomostomata Blainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 10: 185 and table between pp. 214-215 

Remarks: Original spelling "Entomostomes" 
(vernacular); first latinized by Bowdich (1822: 
38). Unranked taxon in Blainville (1818), 
treated by Blainville (1824: 203) as a family, 
and not available as such (not based on a 
genus). 

EocYPRAEiNAE Schildor, 1924 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 90 

(Abt. A, 4): 182,205 
Type genus: tEocypraea Cossmann, 1903 
Remarks: -ini, Schilder (1966b: 269); -idae, 

Fehse(2001: 10, 19-20). 

EoLiDAE / EoLiDiDAE. Soe Aeoüdüdae. 

EOLIDININAE PrUVOt-Fol, 1951 [July] 

Reference: Archives de Zoologie Expérimen- 
tale et Générale, 88(1 ): 54 
Type genus: Eolidina Quatrefages, 1843 
Remarks: Invalid: Placed on the Official Index 
by Opinion 780 (1966: 102). 

EoPTYCHiiDAE Golikov & starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 25 
Type genus: tEoptychia Longstaff, 1930 

EoTOMARiiNAE Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

137 
Type genus: tEotomaria Ulrich & Scoffield, 

1897 



72 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: -oidea [as Eotomacea, in synony- 
my of Euomphalacea], Cossmann (1916: 
116); -ini [as -ides] / -idae, Knight, Batten & 
Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 202, 204). 

Epiglyptidae Iredale, 1944 [10 May] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 10(3): 328 
Type genus: Epiglypta Pilsbry, 1893 

Epigridae Ponder, 1985 [12 February] 
Reference: Records of the Australian Muse- 
um, Supplement 4: 101 
Type genus: Epigrus Hedley, 1903 

Epiphallogona Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxxiii, xxxv 
Remarks: Emendation of the name Epiphallo- 
phora. Treated as a "tribe" immediately be- 
low family [Helicidae], the author having 
"purposely abstained from assigning sub- 
family rank to the natural tribes of Helices", 
but Camaeninae given as an alternative 
name; treated as subfamily by J. W. Taylor 
(1914: 199). Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Epiphallophora Pilsbry, 1893 [14 February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia, 44: 391 , 397 
Remarks: Established as a "Group" above ge- 
nus. Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). See Epiphallogona. 

Epiphragmophorinae Hoffmann, 1928 
Reference: DrH. G. Bronns Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tier-Reichs, Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Buch 
2:1239 
Type genus: Epiphragmophora Döring, 1874 
Remarks: -idae, Schileyko (1991: 197-198). 

Epitoniidae Berry, 1910 [8 March] (1812) 
Reference: The Nautilus, 23(10): 131 
Type genus: Epitonium Röding, 1798 
Remarks: In a review of a paperby Dall (1909), 
Berry introduced Epitoniidae implicitly, but 
not explicitly, as a replacement name for 
Scalidae. Epitoniidae was again declared by 
Dall (in Eastman, 1913: 538) to be a new 
replacement name for Scalahidae, based on 
Scalaria Lamarck, 1801 , by Dall considered 
a synonym of Epitonium. Epitoniidae has 
won general acceptance and is conserved 
under Art. 40.2, with the precedence of the 
replaced name. We here regard the replaced 
name to be Scalariidae (1812) rather than 
Scalidae (1853). -inae, Woodring (1928: 
394); -oidea [as -acea], Salisbury (1 940: 88). 



Eratoinae Gill, 1871 [February] 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 9 

Type genus: -[Erato Risso, 1826 

Remarks: -idae, Schilder (1 931 : 87); -ini, Schil- 
der (1936: 106); -oidea, Schilder (1941: 72). 

Eratotriviini Schilder, 1 936 [1 5 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 22(2): 106 
Type genus: tEratotrivia Sacco, 1894 

Ercolaniinae Schmekel & Portmann, 1982 
Reference: Opisthobranchia des Mittelmeeres. 

Nudibranchia und Saccoglossa: 292 
Type genus: Ercolania Trínchese, 1872 

Eremariontinae Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 223 
Type genus: Eremarionta Pilsbry, 1913 
Remarks: Roth (1996: 32) established the 
name Eremariontaphim in a phylogenetic 
classification rejecting formal categorical 
ranks; transposed to the Linnean hierarchy, 
Roth's usage of this family-group name 
would correspond to the rank of a subtribe. 

Ereptinae Godwin-Austen, 1908 [November] 
Reference: The Annals and Magazine of Nat- 
ural History, ser. 8, 2: 432 
Type genus: Erepia Albers, 1850 

Ergalataxinae Kuroda, Habe & uyama, 1971 

[27 September] 
Reference: The sea shells ofSagami Bay: 229 

[Japanese text], 149 [English text] 
Type genus: Ergalatax Iredale, 1931 

Ergeinae Gray, 1868 [April] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, (1867[3]): 739 
Type genus: Ergea H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1854 
Remarks: Original spelling Ergaeina. 

Erhaiini Davis & Kuo, 1985 [31 December] 
Reference: [in Davis et al.] Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia, 137:69 
Type genus: Erhaia Davis & Kuo, 1985 

Ericiidae Wenz, 1915 

Reference: [in K. Fischer & Wenz] Jahrbücher 

des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 

in Wiesbaden, 67: 121 
Type genus: Ericia Partiot, 1848 [ex Moquin- 

Tandon, MS] 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



73 



Erosariinae Schilder, 1924 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 90 

(Abt. A, 4): 182, 184,207 
Type genus: Erosar/a Troschel, 1863 
Remarks: -ini, Schilder (1927: 102). 

Erroneini Schilder, 1927 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91 (Abt. 

A, 10): 109 
Type genus: Errónea Troschel, 1863 
Remarks: -inae, Iredale (1935: 106, 120). See 

also under Cypraeovulidae. 

EuAcocHLiDioiDEA Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 

842 
Remarks: Established as suborder Euacoch- 

lidiacea. Treated by Vaught (1989: 66) as a 

superfamily. Not available as a family-group 

name (not based on a genus). 

EuADENiA Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxi, xxxvi 
Remarks: Established as a "division" of the 
"tribe" Belogona, itself immediately be\o\N 
family. Treated as a "section" of "subfamily 
Belogona" by J. W. Taylor (1914: 199). Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). 

EuADENiASimroth, 1913 

Reference: [in A. Voeltzkow] Reise in Ostafri- 
ka... 1903-1905. Wissenschaftliche Ergeb- 
nisse, 3: 202 

Remarks: Established as a subfamily of 
Vaginulidae, parallel to the "subfamily" Anad- 
enia. Not available: not based on a genus. 

EuALOPiiNAE H. Nordsieck, 1978 [16 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 109(1- 

3):104 
Type genus: tEualopia O. Boettger, 1877 
Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (2000: 4). 

EuARMiNACEA Odhner, 1939 

Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 
ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 48 

Remarks: Established at unspecified rank 
above family, containing the families Hetero- 
dorididae and Arminidae. Treated by Franc 
(1968c: 877) as a superfamily Euarminoidea 
and not available as such (not based on a 
genus). See Remarks under Arminidae. 

EuBRANCHiDAE Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 
Reference: British Antarctic {"Terra Nova") 



Expedition, 1910. Natural history report, zo- 
ology, 7(5): 278, 282 
Type genus: Eubranchus Forbes, 1838 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 774 (1966: 88). -inae, Odhner (in Franc, 
1968c: 883); -ini, Martynov (1998: 765). 

EucALODiiNAE P. Flscher & Crosse, 1873 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 

et dans TAmérique Centrale. Recherches 

zoologiques (7), 1(3): 318 
Type genus: Eucalodium Crosse & P. Fischer, 

1868 
Remarks: Original spelling Eucalodinae. -idae, 

Strebel& Pfeffer (1879 [in 1873-1882]: 53). 

EucHONDRiNAE Schlloyko, 1998 [November] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs. Part 2: 235 
Type genus: Euchondrus O. Boettger, 1883 
Remarks: Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.1 , 
as a replacement name for Multidentulinae, 
based on Multidentula Lindholm, 1925, by 
Schileyko considered a synonym of Euchon- 
drus. 

EucocHLiDAE Bändel, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut, Universität Ham- 
burg, 86: 141 
Type genus: ■\Eucochlis Knight, 1933 

EucoNULiNAE H. В. Вакег, 1928 [16 May] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 80: 4 
Type genus: Euconulus Reinhardt, 1883 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 484). Euconulus is a replace- 
ment name for Conulus Fitzinger, 1833, non 
Leske, 1 778, but Euconulinae is not a replace- 
ment name for Conulinae, and Art. 40 does 
not apply, -idae. Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 
277); -ini [as Euconuli], Solem (1966: 23). 

EucYCLiDAE Koken, 1896 

Reference: Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königli- 
chen Geologischen Reichanstalt, 46(1 ): 96 

Type genus: -[Eucyclus Eudes-Deslong- 
champs, 1860 

Remarks: -inae, Cossmann (1916: 42-43); 
-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 209); 
-ini, Hickman & McLean (1990: 75). 

EuDORiDoiDEA Odhner, 1934 

Reference: British Antarctic {'Terra Nova") 
Expedition, 1910. Natural history report, zo- 
ology, 7(5): 230-233 



74 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as a name above the 
family group. Treated by Vaught (1 989: 69), 
as a superfamily. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

EuEOLiDOiDEA Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 
881 

Remarks: Established as a superfamily and 
not available as such (not based on a ge- 
nus). 

EuGLANDiNiNi H. B. Вакег, 1941 [24 October] 

Reference: Г/?е Nautilus, 55(2): 54 

Type genus: Euglandina Crosse & P. Fischer, 

1870 
Remarks: Original spelling Euglandinarum. 

-inae. Franc (1968b: 562). 

EuHADRiNAE НаЬо, Okutani & Nishiwaki, 1994 
Reference: Handbook of malacology, 1: 81 
Type genus: Euhadra Pilsbry, 1890 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Minato (1988: 174). -ini, H. Nordsieck 

(2002b: 43). 

EuLiMELLiNAE Saurin, 1958 

Reference: Annales de la Faculté des Scienc- 
es de Saigon, (1958): 65 

Type genus: Eulimella Forbes & M'Andrew, 
1846 

Remarks: Established independently by F. 
Nordsieck (1972: 116). -ini, Bouchet, herein 
[for consistency of ranking]. 

EuLiMiDAE Philippi, 1853 [before 1 May] 

Reference: Handbuch der Conchyliologie und 
Malacozoologie: 194 

Type genus: Eulima Risso, 1826 

Remarks: Original spelling Eulimacea. Also 
credited by Ponder & Waren to "Troschel, 
1 853", without reference [not found], -inae, 
Stoliczka (1868 [in 1867-1871]: 287); 
-oidea [as -acea], Is. Taki & Oyama (1954: 
12). 

EuLOTiDAE Möllendorff, 1898 
Reference: Abhandlungen der Naturfor- 
schenden Gesellschaft zu Görlitz, 22: 97 
Type genus: Eulota Hartmann, 1840 
Remarks: -inae. Hoffmann (1928: 1239). 

EuMETULiDAE Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 [18 

December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 213 
Type genus: Eumetula Jh\e\e, 1912 
Remarks: -inae, Marshall (1978: 72). 



EuMiLACiNAE I. M. Likharev & Wiktor, 1980 [af- 
ter 10 November] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, Molljuskii, 3(5): 290 
Type genus: EumilaxO. Boettger, 1881 

EuNATiciNiNi Oyama, 1969 [30 September] 
Reference: Venus, 28(2): 79 
Type genus: Eunaticina P. Fischer, 1885 
Remarks: Original spelling Eunaticinl. 

EuoMPHALiDAE White, 1877 

Reference: Report upon United States geo- 
graphical surveys west of the one hundredth 
meridian. Vol. 4, Paleontology: 158 

Type genus: -\Euomphalus J. de С. Sowerby, 
1814 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 1470 (1 988: 64), where it is attributed to 
de Koninck (1881). -inae, Tryon (1887: 5); 
-oidea [as -acea], Cossmann (1916: 116). 

EuoMPHALiiNAE Schlleyko, 1978 [after 1 March] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, Molliuski, 3(6): 261 
Type genus: Euomphalia Westerlund, 1889 
Remarks: -inl, H. Nordsleck (1993b: 4). 

EuoMPHALOPTERiDAE Кокоп, 1896 [after Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Die Leitfossilien: 163 

Type genus: -[Euomphalopterus Römer, 1876 

Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 
39,43,115). 

EuPARYPHiNAE Perrot, 1939 [after March] 
Reference: Compte-Rendu des Séances de 
la Société de Physique et d'Histoire naturel- 
le de Genève, 56{^): 35 
Type genus: Euparypha Hartmann, 1843 
Remarks: Established independently by Lupu 
(1982: 9). -Ini, H. Nordsieck (1987: 38). In- 
valid: type genus placed on the Official In- 
dex by Opinion 431 . See also Thebini. 

EuPHEMiTiNAE Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the i/Vashington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: tEtyp/7em/'tes Warthin, 1930 
Remarks: Name only. Diagnosed by Knight, 
Batten & Yochelson (In Moore, 1960: 177). 
-idae. Horny (1962: 475). 

EuPHURiDAE Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 [March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 15(4): 223 
Type genus: Euphurus Raflnesque, 1815 
Remarks: Declared again nov. by Odhner (in 

Franc, 1968c: 863). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



75 



EuRiBiiDAETroschel, 1856 

Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 1 (1 ): 54 

Type genus: Euribla Rang, 1827 

Remarks: Original spelling Euribiacea. Rang 
& Souleyet (1852: 32, 71) had used the ver- 
nacular family name "Euribies". Invalid: type 
genus a junior homonym of Euribia Meigen, 
1800 [Diptera]. See Hydromylidae (objective 
synonym), Halopsychidae, and Anopsiidae 
(subjective synonyms). 

EuRYzoNiNAE R J. Wagner, 2002 

Reference: Smithsonian Contributions to Pa- 
leobiology, 88: 85 

Type genus: -fEuryíone Koken, 1896 

Remarks: Established, in violation of Art. 40.1 , 
as a substitute name for Coelozoninae, 
based on Coelozone, by Wagner treated as 
a junior synonym of Euryzone. 

EuscALiNAE Cossmann, 1912 [August] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 9: 19 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

EusEiLiNAE Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 [af- 
ter 23 October] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 

Type genus: Euseila Cotton, 1951 

EuspiRiDAE Cossmann, 1907 

Reference: Mémoires de la Société Géologique 

de France, Paléontologie, 15(1), Mémoire 

37:21 
Type genus: tE't/sp/raAgassiz, 1838 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1 938 [in 1 938-1 944]: 

40,47). 

EusTOMATiDAE Cossmann, 1906 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 7: 10 
Type genus: tEustoma Piette, 1855 
Remarks: Original spelling Eustomidae. 

EuTHECosoMATAMeisenheimer, 1905 
Reference: Deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition, 9(1): 

37,107 
Remarks: Taxon containing the families Lima- 
cinidae and Cavoliniidae. Established at 
unspecified rank above family, and treated 
by Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 107) as a 
"Sippe" [= superfamily]. Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 

EuTROPiiNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 15: 144 



Type genus: Eutropia Gray, 1847 [ex Hum- 
phrey, 1797, unavailable] 

Remarks: Original spelling Eutropina. -idae, 
Finlay (1926: 373). 

EuxiNELLiNi Neubert, 2002 [20 September] 
Reference: Collectanea malacologica. 

Festschrift für G. Falkner. 270 
Type genus: Euxinella H. Nordsieck, 1973 

EuxiNiNAE I. M. Likharev, 1962 [after 20 June] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, new ser., 83: 139 
Type genus: Euxina O. Boettger, 1877 

EwEKOROiiDAE Adegoke, 1977 [29 March] 
Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 7 ^ (295): ^ 00 
Type genus: t£^i^e/<oro/'a Adegoke, 1977 
Remarks: Original spelling Ewekoroidae. 

ExocEPHALA Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Exocéphales" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 200). 
Not available: not based on a genus. 

Facalaninae Er. Marcus, 1958 [August] 
Reference: American Museum Novitates, 

1906:59-60 
Type genus: Facalana Bergh, 1888 

Facelininae Bergh, 1889 

Reference: [in Carus] Prodromus Faunae 
Mediterraneae, 2: 216 

Type genus: FaceZ/na Alder & Hancock, 1855 

Remarks: First introduced as the vernacular 
"Facelinidés" by Vayssière (1888: 33). Lati- 
nized without reference to Vayssière and not 
generally accepted as dating from that first 
publication, -idae, Bergh (1896: 385). Placed 
on the Official List by Opinion 775 (1 966: 91 ). 

Fagotiinae Starobogatov, 1992 [after 11 June] 
Reference: [in Starobogatov, Alexenko & Lev- 
ina] Biulleten' Moskovskogo Obshchestva 
Ispytatelei Prirody Otdel Biologicheskii, new 
ser., 97(3): 58 
Type genus: Fagotia Bourguignat, 1884 

Fairbankiinae Thiele, 1928 [12 September] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbíjcher Abt. für 

Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der 

Tiere, 55: 354, 381 
Type genus: Fairbankia Blanford, 1868 
Remarks: -idae, Starobogatov (1970b: 26). Brandt 

(1968: 266) acted as First Reviser and gave 

Iravadiinae precedence over Fairbankiinae. 



76 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Falsicingulidae Slavoshevskaya, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 1 20 
Type genus: Falsicingula Habe, 1958 

Falsipyrgulinae Radoman, 1983 [February] 
Reference: Serbian Academy of Sciences and 
Arts, Monograptis, 547 [Department of Sci- 
ences, 57]: 156 
Type genus: Falsipyrgula Radoman, 1973 

Fanulidae Iredale, 1945 [11 June] 
Reference: Tfie Australian Zoologist, 11(1): 62 
Type genus: Fanulum Iredale, 1913 

Fasciolariidae Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 127 
Type genus: Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Fasciolariadae. 

-inae [as -ana]. Gray (1857a: 28); -oidea [as 

-acea], Korobkov (1 955: 369). 

Fauninae Cossmann, 1909 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 8: 156 
Type genus: Faunas Montfort, 1810 

Fautricini Marshall, 1995 [22 December] 
Reference: Mémoires du Muséum National 

d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 167: 430 
Type genus: Fautrix Marshall, 1995 

Favorininae Bergh, 1889 

Reference: [in Carus] Prodromus Faunae 

Mediterraneae, 2: 212 
Type genus: Favorinus Gray, 1850 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opinion 

783 (1966: 108). -idae, Schmekel (1968: 122). 

Faxiidae Ravn, 1933 

Reference: Mémoires de l'Académie Royale 
des Sciences et des Lettres du Danemark, 
Section Sciences, ser. 9, 5(2): 42 

Type genus: tFaxia Ravn, 1933 

Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 
50-51; 1939 [ibid.]: 697). 

Ferrissiinae Walker, 1917 [14 July] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 31 (1 ): 2 
Type genus: Ferhssia Walker, 1903 
Remarks: Original spelling Ferhssinae. -idae, 

Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 51); -ini, Star- 

obogatov (1970b: 53). 

Ferussaciidae Bourguignat, 1883 [before July] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
Zoologie, ser. 6, 15 (Art. 2): 120 



Type genus: Ferussacla Risse, 1826 
Remarks: Original spelling Ferrussacidae. 
-inae, Kennard & Woodward (1926: xx, 280). 
Under Art. 23.9 of the Code, Cecilioididae 
Mörch, 1864, is here declared a nomen obli- 
tum and Ferussaciidae a nomen protectum, 
based on usage in at least the following pub- 
lications: Frömming (1954: 70), Grossu (1955: 
337), Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 337), J. B. 
Burch (1962b: 197), Franc (1968b: 559), Git- 
tenbergeret al. (1970: 86), Giusti (1973: 216; 
1976: 231), Klemm (1973: 271), Jungbluth 
(1 975: 31 ), Grossu (1 981 : 239), Kerney, Cam- 
ereon & Jungbluth (1983: 295), Gittenberger 
et al. (1 984: 31,11 7), van Bruggen & Meredith 
(1 984: 1 60), Wilde, Marquet & Van Goethem 
(1986: pi. 90), Van Goethem (1988: 21), Tilli- 
er (1 989: 1 82, 284), Bech (1 990: 1 34), Bogon 
(1990: 250), Falkner (in Fechter & Falkner 
1990: 168), Frank (1990: 45), Falkner (1991: 
1 52), Lisicky (1 991 : 1 54), Grossu (1 993: 270), 
Schutt (1993: 7, 320), Altonaga et al. (1994: 
49, 120), de Bruyne et al. (1994: 64), Giusti 
et al. (1 995: 294), T Cossignani & V. Cossig- 
nani (1995: 20, 86), Bössneck & von Knorre 
(1997: 118), Turner et al. (1998: 237-238), 
Kerney (1999: 168). To our knowledge, the 
name Cecilioididae has not been used as 
valid after 1899. 

Ferussininae Wenz, 1 923 [20 November] (1 91 5) 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 23: 1838 
Type genus: -fFerussina Grateloup, 1827 
Remarks: Original spelling Ferussinae. Name 
only. Diagnosed by Wenz (1939 [in 1938- 
1944]: 486). Wenz treated Strophostoma 
Deshayes, 1 828, as a junior synonym of Fer- 
ussina, and Ferussininae is implicitly a sub- 
stitute name for Strophostomatidae. 
Ferussininae is conserved under Art. 40.2 with 
the precedence from Strophostomatidae. 
-idae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 210). 

FiBULOPTYGMATiDiDAE Hacobjan, 1973 [after 29 

December] 
Reference: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk Armian- 

skoi SSR, Nauki о Zemie, 26(6): 1 3 
Type genus: -\Fibuloptygmatis Pchelintsev, 

1965 
Remarks: Original spelling Fibuloptygmatidae. 

Again declared nov. by Hacobjan (1976: 80). 

FiBULOPTYxiDAE Pcholintsev, 1965 [after 3 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozoia Gornogo 
Kryma: 20 

Type genus: t/^'bu/opiyx/s Cossmann, 1898 

Remarks: Original spelling Fibuloptyxisidae. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



77 



FiciDAE Meek, 1864 [November] (1840) 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections ,1{^ЪЪ): 19 

Type genus: Ficus Röding, 1798 

Remarks; -oidea, R Riedel (1995a: 457). Al- 
though Meek did not state explicitly his rea- 
sons for establishing the name Ficidae, he 
used it in place of Pyrulidae, based on Pyru- 
la Lamarck, 1799. Ficidae is now in prevail- 
ing usage and it is conserved under Art. 40.2, 
with the precedence of Pyrulidae. 

FicuLiDAE Carpenter, 1857 [1 August] 
Reference: Catalogue of the collection of 
Mazatlan shells in the British Museum: 453 
Type genus: Ficula Swainson, 1835 

FiLHOLiiDAE Wenz, 1923 [5 June] 

Reference: Fossilium catalogus, /, Pars 20: 
744 

Type genus: ■\Filholia Bourguignat, 1877 

Remarks: H. Nordsieck (1998a: 167-168) in- 
tended to act as First Reviser under Art. 24.2, 
and to give Triptychiidae Wenz, 1923, pre- 
cedence over Filholiidae. However, Filholi- 
idae was originally proposed at a higher rank 
(family vs. subfamily), and its precedence 
over Triptychiinae is determined automati- 
cally by Art. 24. 

FiLOsiNi H. Nordsieck, 1979 [9 March] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 109(4- 

6): 261 
Type genus: Filosa О. Boettger, 1877 

FiMBRiiDAE O'Donoghue, 1926 [May] 

Reference: Transactions of the Royal Cana- 
dian Institute, 15(2): 226 

Type genus: Fimbria O'Donoghue, 1926 [ex 
Bohadsch, 1761] 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus described in a 
work [Bohadsch, 1761] suppressed by Opin- 
ion 185 (1954: 409). O'Donoghue used Fim- 
bria as a valid name and thus made it 
available; as such, however, it is a junior hom- 
onym of Fimbria Mühlfeld, 1811 [Bivalvia], 
which makes Fimbhidae O'Donoghue, 1926, 
invalid. 

FiNELLiDAE Thielo, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1); 208 
Type genus: F/ne//a A. Adams, 1860 

FiONiDAE Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
1:227 



Type genus: Fiona Alder & Hancock [in Forbes 
&Hanley], 1853 

Remarks: -inae, Bergh (in Carus, 1889; 215); 
-oidea, Bouchet, herein [in place of Acleio- 
procta, which is not available as a family- 
group name]. 

FiROLiNAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 141 
Type genus; Firola Bruguière, 1791 
Remarks: Original spelling Firolinia. -idae, 
Wiegmann & Ruthe (1832: 518). 

FissiPEDiA Dall, 1921 [24 February] 

Reference; Bulletin of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, 112: 85 

Remarks; Taxon containing the family Olividae 
only. Established as a family-group name 
[between superfamily and family] and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

FissuRACEA Reeve, 1842 [March] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 9: 75 

Remarks: Taxon containing the genera Lottia, 
Siphonaha, Parmophorus, Emarginula, and 
Fissurella. Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

FissuRELLiDAE Fleming, 1822 [June] 
Reference; The philosophy of zoology, 2: 495 
Type genus; Fissurella Bruguière, 1789 
Remarks; Original spelling Fissurelladae. 

-oidea [as -acea]. Gill (1871: 11); -inae, Pils- 

bry (1890 [in 1890-1891]: 141). 

FissuRELLiDEiNAE РИзЬгу, 1890 [16 December] 
Reference; Manual of conchology, ser. 1, 

12(47): 141, 178 
Type genus: F/sst/re///cyea d 'Orbig ny, 1839 
Remarks; Original spelling Fissurellidinae. -ini, 

McLean (1984; 22). 

Flabellininae Bergh, 1889 

Reference: [in Carus] Prodromus Faunae 
Mediterraneae, 2; 215 

Type genus; Flabellina Voigt, 1834 

Remarks; Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 781 (1966; 104). -idae, Thiele (1931 [in 
1929-1935]: 451); -oidea, Starobogatov 
(1970b: 58). Given relative precedence over 
Coryphellidae Bergh, 1889 by First Reviser's 
action by Opinion 781 : see under that name. 

Flammoconchinae Schileyko, 2001 [June] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 7: 1024 
Type genus: Flammoconcha Dell, 1952 



78 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Flammulinidae Crosse, 1895 [23 October] 
Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 42: 210 
Type genus: Flammulina Martens, 1873 
Remarks: -inae, Climo (1969a: 151). 

Fluminicolinae Clessin, 1880 

Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, ser. 2, 

2:194 
Type genus: Fluminicola Stimpson, 1865 
Remarks: -idae, Hannibal (1912b: 33). 

Fluxinellini Marshall, 1991 [20 March] 
Reference: Mémoires du Muséum National 

d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, ser. A, 150: 45 
Type genus: Fluxinella Marshall, 1983 

Foliniinae F. Nordsieck, 1972 [October] 
Reference: Die europäischen Meeres- 
schnecken: 172 
Type genus: Folinia Crosse, 1868 

Fontigentinae D. W. Taylor, 1966 [1 October] 
Reference: The Veliger, 9(2): 182 
Type genus: Fontigens Pilsbry, 1933 

FossARiDAE A. Adams, 1 860 [May] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
H/sfor/, ser. 3,5:410 

Type genus: Fossarus Philippi, 1841 

Remarks: When he established the name Fos- 
saridae, A. Adams cited the type genus as 
Fossar. Fossar Gray, 1847 is an unjustified 
emendation o^ Fossarus Philippi, 1841. 

FossARiiNAE B. Dybowski, 1913 [March] 
Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 

l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 

Petersbourg, 17: 178 
Type genus: Fossaria Westerlund, 1885 
Remarks: Original spelling Fossarianinae. 

FossARULiNAE Wenz, 1926 [26 February] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 32: 

2157 
Type genus: -fFossarulus Neumayr, 1869 

FowLERiNiNAE Pruvot-Fol, 1926 [1 July] 
Reference: Résultats des Campagnes Scien- 
tifiques du Prince Albert 1er de Monaco, 70: 
20 
Type genus: Fowlerina Pelseneer, 1906 
Remarks: Original spelling Fowlerinae. 

Fruticicolinae Kobelt, 1904 [October] 
Reference: Iconographie der Land- & Süss- 

wasser-Mollusken, newser., 11: 65, 131 
Type genus: Fruticicola Held, 1837 



Remarks: When he established the name Fru- 
ticicolinae, Kobelt used Fruticicola with Helix 
hispida Linnaeus, 1758, as type species, by 
subsequent designation by Martens (in Albers, 
1 860: 1 03). Lindholm (1 927a: 1 1 9) discovered 
thatHerrmannsen (1847:450) had earlier val- 
idly designated Helix fruticum O. F. Müller as 
type species. He then transfered the name 
Fruticicolidae to what had earlier been called 
Eulotidae, and established Trochulinae for 
what had until then been called Fruticicolinae. 
-idae, Lindholm (1927a: 120); -ini [as -eae], 
Thiele (1931 [1929-1935]: 691). 

Fryeriidae Baranetz& Minichev, 1994 [after 14 

October] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 73(11 ): 34 
Type genus: Fryeria Gray, 1853 

FucoLiDAE Pruvot-Fol, 1933 [June] 
Reference: Bulletin du Muséum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle [Paris], ser. 2, 5(5): 401 
Type genus: Fucola Quoy & Gaimard, 1833 

Fulgorariinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [7 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^52): 16 [286] 

Type genus: Fa/gorar/a Schumacher, 1817 

Remarks: Original spelling Fulgorarinae. 

Fulgurinae Stoliczka, 1867 [1 April] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Survey 
of India. Paleontología Indica. Cretaceous 
Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Parts 1^: 112 
Type genus: Fa/gtvr Mo ntf ort, 1810 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Cassidulidae Gray, 1 854, based on Cas- 
sidulus, a name which Stoliczka stated to be 
"not traceable with certainty". However, 
Stoliczka treated Cassidulus as a synonym 
of Melongena, and generically different from 
Fulgur; Art. 40.2 does not apply, -idae [de- 
clared new], Grabau & Shimer (1909: 764). 
See Busyconidae. 

Fusiformia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Fusiformes" (ver- 
nacular). Latinised by Latreille (1825: 192). Es- 
tablished as a family containing the genera 
"Potámide", "Cérite", "Cancellaire", "Fasci- 
oiaire", "Carreau", "Pleurotome", "Turbinelle", 
"Fuseau", "Latiré", "Clavatule" and "Pyrule". 
Not available as a family-group name (not 
based on a genus). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



79 



FusiNAE Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 308 
Type genus: Fusus Bruguière, 1789 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior homonym 
of Fusus Helbling, 1779 [Gastropoda]; see 
Opinion 1765 (1994: 159). -idae, d'Orbigny 
(1 843 [in 1 842-1 843]: 330); -oidea [as -acea], 
Cossmann (1906: 2). See Fusinidae. 

FusiDAE Iredale, 1915 [12 July] 

Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 47: 465 
Type genus: Fusus Helbling, 1779 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus placed on the 

Official Index by Opinion 1765 (1994: 159). 

Fusinidae Wrigley, 1927 [30 December] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 17(5-6): 216 
Type genus: Fus/nus Rafinesque, 1815 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Fusidae Swainson, 1840, invalid because 
its type genus is a junior homonym, -inae, 
Wenz (1943 [in 1938-1944]: 1256). 

FusispiRiDAE S.A. Miller, 1889 [after October] 
Reference: North American geology and 

palaeontology: 395 
Type genus: -fFusispira Hall, 1871 

FusuLiNAE Lindholm, 1924 [19 April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 16(1): 67, 74 
Type genus: Fusulus Fitzinger, 1833 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], H. Nordsieck (1963: 

101). 

Gabrieloninae Hickman & McLean, 1990 [26 

November] 
Reference: Natural History Museum of Los 

Angeles County Science Series, 35: 60 
Type genus: Gabrielona Iredale, 1917 

Gadiniidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 

Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 
British Museum, ed. 42: 129, 149 

Type genus: Gadinia Gray, 1824 

Remarks: Original spelling Gadiniadae. -oidea, 
H. B. Baker (1964: 152); -inae [in synonymy 
of Trimusculinae], Harbeck (1996: 28). See 
Trimusculidae, which is conserved over Ga- 
diniidae under Art. 40.2. 

Galeodidae Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 91 
Type genus: Ga/eodes Röding, 1798 



Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
forTurbinellidae, based on Turbinella, listed 
by Thiele as a synonym of Xancus. Invalid: 
type genus a junior homonym of Galeodes 
Olivier, 1791 [Arachnida]. 

Galeodoliidae Sacco, 1891 [25 March] 
Reference: Memorie delta Reale Accademia 

delle Scienze di Tohno, ser. 2, 41 : 1 [reprint]; 

225 0ournal] 
Type genus: -fGaleodolium Sacco, 1891 
Remarks: Galeodoliidae is not available from 

Sacco (1890: 21 ), because Galeodolium was 

then not an available name. 

Galerinae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:117 

Type genus: Galerus H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1854 [ex Humphrey, 1797, unavailable] 

Remarks: Original spelling Galerina. -idae, 
Macpherson& Chappie (1951: 127). 

Ganitidae Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 105 
Type genus: Ganitus Er. Marcus, 1953 
Remarks: -oidea, Starobogatov (1983: 31). 

Garnieriinae C. Boettger, 1926 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Abt. A, 

91(5): 5 
Type genus: Gam/er/a Bourguignat, 1877 
Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (2002a: 5). 

Garrettiinae Kobelt, 1906 [after September] 
Reference: Jahrbijcher des Nassauischen 
Vereins für Naturkunde in Wiesbaden, 59: 
49,138 
Type genus: Garrettia Paetel, 1890 
Remarks: Opinion 973 (1971: 149-150) ruled 
that Omphalotropidinae is to be given pre- 
cedence over Garrettiinae. -ini [as -eae], 
Thiele (1929 [in 1929-1935]: 173). 

Gascoignellidae K. R. Jensen, 1985 
Reference: [in Morton & Dudgeon, eds.] Pro- 
ceedings of the 2nd International Workshop 
on the Malacofauna of Hong Kong and 
Southern China, 2{^): 99 
Type genus: Gascoignella K. R. Jensen, 1985 

Gastrocoptinae Pilsbry, 1918 [24 April] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 
24(96): X 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Gasírocopía Wollaston, 1878 
Remarks: -idae, Schileyko (1998: 129). 

Gastrodontinae Tryon, 1866 [1 July] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

2(3): 242, 254 
Type genus: Gastrodonta A\bers, 1850 
Remarks: -idae, Akramovski (1976: 84); 

-oidea, Schileyko (1979a: 57). 

Gastropterinae Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 360 
Type genus: Gastropteron Kosse, 1813 
Remarks: Original spelling Gasteroptehdae, 
based on Gasteropteron, an incorrect sub- 
sequent spelling of the name of the type 
genus; established as subfamily despite suf- 
fix -idae. -idae, Agassiz( 1846: 37); Gastropte- 
roidae [Agassiz, 1847: 160] is an unjustified 
emendation based on G a stropte rum Agassiz, 
1847, also an unjustified emendation. 

Gazini Hickman & McLean, 1990 [26 Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: Natural History Museum of Los 
Angeles County, Science Series, 35: 90 

Type genus: Gaza Watson, 1879 

GEITODORIDIDAEOdhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de Zoologie, 5(3): 

870 
Type genus: Geitodoris Bergh, 1891 

Geocochlides Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "geocochlides" 
(vernacular); latinized by Latreille (1825: 
179). Established as a family containing es- 
sentially the Stylommatophora. Not available 
as a family-group name (not based on a 
genus). 

Geomelaniidae Kobelt& Möllendorff, 1897 [15 

June] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 

Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 29(5-6): 

74 
Type genus: Geomelania L. Pfeiffer, 1845 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 

80). 

Geomitrinae C. Boettger, 1909 [20 January] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 
Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 41 (1 ): 4 
Type genus: Geomitra Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (1993b: 4). 



Georissinae W. Blanford, 1864 [June?] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 3, 13:465 
Type genus: Geohssa Blanford, 1864 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale (1944: 300). 

Geotrochinae Schileyko, 2002 [September] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 9: 1183 
Type genus: Geoiroc/?tys van Hasselt, 1823 
Remarks: Not available (no description; not 
used as valid before 2000; Art. 13.2.1) from 
Iredale (1941b: 72 [as Geotrochidae]). 

Gibbinae Steenberg, 1936 [30 March] 
Reference: Mémoires du Musée Royal 
d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, ser. 2, 3: 
146 
Type genus: G/bbt/s Mon tfort, 1810 
Remarks: Steenberg gave a diagnosis for the 
subfamily "Gonidominae or Gibbinae", thus 
suggesting synonymy of the two names al- 
though their type genera are not objective 
synonyms. 

GiBBULiNAE Stoliczka, 1868 [1 October] 

Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Survey 
of India. Palaeontologia Indica. Cretaceous 
Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Parts 7-10: 
361 

Type genus: Gibbula Risso, 1826 

Remarks: -ini, Hickman & McLean (1990: 97). 

GiRAsiiDAE Collinge, 1902 [29 September] 
Reference: The Journal of Malacology, 9(3): 

71,73 
Type genus: Girasia Gray, 1855 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 

640); -ini [as Girasii], Solem (1966: 76). 

GiRAUDiiDAE Bourguignat, 1885 [August] 
Reference: Notice prodromique sur les mol- 
lusques terrestres et ftuviatiles (...) dans la 
région méridionale du lac Tanganika: 11,61 
Type genus: Giraudia Bourguignat, 1885 
Remarks: Original spelling Giraudidae. Invalid: 
type genus a junior homonym of Giraudia 
Foerster, 1868 [Hymenoptera]. 

GisoRTiiNAE Schilder, 1927 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91 

(Abt. A, 10): 85 
Type genus: -[Gisortia Jousseaume, 1884 
Remarks: -idae, Schilder (1930: 126); -ini, 

Schilder (1 932b: 250-251 ). Precedence over 

Cypraeorbini and Bernayini determined by 

Art. 24 (subfamily vs. tribe). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



81 



GiTTENBERGERiiNAESchileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 225 
Type genus: Gittenbergeria Schileyko, 1991 

Glabrocingulini Gordon & Yochelson, 1987 
Reference: United States Geological Survey 

Professional Paper, 1368: 57 
Type genus: -^Glabrocingulum Thomas, 1940 
Remarks: Original spelling Glabrocingulides. 

Glacidorbidae Ponder, 1986 [13 May] 
Reference: ZoologicalJournalofthe Linnean 

Society, 87 {^)■.8^ 
Type genus: Glacidorbis Iredale, 1943 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], same reference. 

Glandinidae Bourguignat, 1877 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société des Scienc- 
es Physiques et Naturelles de Toulouse, 
3(1): 76 

Type genus: G/anci/na Schumacher, 1817 

Remarks: -inae [as "Unterfamilie Glan- 
dinidae"], Strebel (1878 [in 1873-1882]: 5). 

Glaucidae Gray, 1827(1815) 

Reference: Encyclopaedia metropolitana. Vol. 
7. Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca 
[= plate 3] 

Type genus: Glaucus Förster, Mil 

Remarks: First introduced as "les Glauques" 
(vernacular) by Férussac (1822: xxviij); how- 
ever, the name Glaucidae is not generally 
accepted as dating from that first publication, 
-inae, Gray (1 850b: 1 07). Glaucus is a senior 
synonym of Pleuropus Rafinesque, 1815 (see 
under Pleuropinae), and it could be argued 
that Glaucidae is to be maintained under Art. 
40.2, with the precedence of Pleuropinae, i.e. 
1815. However, this would have the unwant- 
ed consequence of giving Glaucidae prece- 
dence over Aeolidiidae Gray, 1827, i.e. the 
name of the superfamily would be Glaucoidea 
instead of Aeolidioidea. To achieve stability, 
under Art. 23.9 of the Code, Pleuropinae 
Rafinesque, 1815, is here declared a nomen 
oblitum and Glaucidae Gray, 1827, a nomen 
protectum, based on usage in at least the fol- 
lowing publications: Pruvot-Fol (1954: 436), 
Thompson & McFarlane (1967: 107), Marcus 
& Marcus (1967: 7), F. Nordsieck (1972: 82), 
Abbott (1974: 381), Barnard (1974: 738), M. 
С Milier (1974: 31), Porter (1974: 300), Fez 
Sanchez (1 974: 97), Thompson (1 976: 22, 33, 
35), Powell (1979: 290), Rudman (1980: 139), 
Bertsch & Johnson (1981 : 5), Orr (1981 : 80), 
Schmekel & Portmann (1982: 198), Jensen & 



Clark (in Sterrer 1 985: 455), Rios (1 985: 1 93), 
Gosliner(1987: 127), Coleman (1989: 53), Lain 
& Gilmer (1989: 214, 224), Vaught (1989: 72), 
Cattaneo-Vietti et al. (1990: 26), Sabelli et al. 
(1990: 72, 267), Wells & Bryce (1993: 156), 
Millard (1996: 244), Spencer & Willan (1996: 
36), Rudman (in Beesley et al. 1998: 1013). 
To our knowledge, the name Pleuropinae has 
not been used as valid after 1899. 

Glauconiidae Pchelintsev, 1953 [after 9 April] 
Reference: Fauna Briukhonogikh verkhne- 
melovykh otiozhenii Zakavkaz'ia i Srednei 
Azii [Geologicheskii Muzei Karpinskogo, 
Seriia Monograficheskaia, 1]: 90 
Type genus: tGlauconia Stoliczka, 1868 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Glauconia Gray, 1845 [Reptilia]. See 
Cassiopidae. 

Glebinae van der Spoel, 1976 

Reference: Pseudothecosomata, Gymnoso- 

mata and Heteropoda (Gastropoda): 40 
Type genus: Gleba Forskal, 1776 

Glessulidae Godwin-Austen, 1920 [November] 
Reference: Land and freshwater Mollusca of 

/nd/a, 3(1):6 
Type genus: 6/essu/a Martens, 1860 
Remarks: -inae, established independently by 

Schileyko (in Schileyko & Kuznetsov, 1996: 

159). 

Globactaeoninae Cossmann, 1895 [February] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 1 : 43 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Globisininae Powell, 1933 [28 February] 
Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 63: 167 
Type genus: -\Globisinum Marwick, 1924 

Globulariinae Wenz, 1941 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

1019 
Type genus: ^Globularia Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1975:212). 

Glossodorididae O'Donoghue, 1924 [14 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Journal of the Linnean Society of 
London, Zoology, 35: 552 

Type genus: G/ossodor/s Ehren berg, 1831 

Remarks: Proposed as replacement name for 
Chromodoridinae, based on Chromodoris 



82 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Alder & Hancock, 1855, considered by 
O'Donoghue to be a junior subjective syn- 
onym of Glossodoris. The name Glossodor- 
ididae has not won general acceptance and 
Art. 40.2 does not apply, -inae, Thiele (1931 
[in 1929-1935]: 430). 

Gnathodoridacea Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 
Reference: British Antarctic {"Terra Nova') 
Expedition. 1910. Natural history report, zo- 
ology, 7(5): 233 
Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified rank 
below suborder, containing the genera Bathy- 
doris and Doridoxa. Treated as superfamily 
Gnathodoridoidea by Schmekel & Portmann 
(1982: 5, 10,46,56). Not available as a fam- 
ily-group name (not based on a genus). 

GoDwiNiiNAE Cooke, 1921 

Reference: Occasional Papers of the Bernice 

P. Bishop Museum, 7(12): 263 
Type genus: Godwinia Sykes, 1900 

GoNiAEOLiDiDAE Odhner, 1907 

Reference: Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps- 

akademiens Handlingar, 41 (4): 8, 18 
Type genus: Goniaeolis M. Sars, 1861 

GoNiASMATiDAE Nützel & Bändel, 2000 [Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und 
Paläontologie, Monatshefte, 2000(9): 560- 
561 

Type genus: tGon/asma Tomlin, 1930 

Remarks: Original spelling Goniasmidae. 

GoNiDOMiNAE Steenberg, 1936 [30 March] 
Reference: Mémoires du Musée Royal 
d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, ser. 2, 3: 146 
Type genus: Gonidomus Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Steenberg gave a diagnosis for the 
subfamily "Gonidominae or Gibbinae", thus 
suggesting synonymy of the two names al- 
though their type genera are not objective 
synonyms. 

GONIOBASIA 

Remarks: Ponder & Waren (1 988: 294) listed 
a family-group name "Goniobasia Tryon, 
1865". However, Tryon( 1865: 124) only used 
the expression "Goniobasic Section" and did 
not establish a family-group name. 

GoNioDisciNAE. See Gonyodiscinae. 

GoNiODORiDiNAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 
[October] 



Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 

2:52 
Type genus: Goniodoris Forbes & Goodsir, 

1839 
Remarks: -idae. Gray (1857a: 211). 

GoNioGNATHA Mörch, 1859 

Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109, 

112 
Remarks: Taxon containing the genera Orthal- 

icus and Pseudostrombus. Established as a 

family and not available as such (not based 

on a genus). 

GoNiospiRiDAE Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 28 
Type genus: ■\Goniospira Cossmann, 1896 

GoNOSTOMATiNAE Kobolt, 1904 [October] 
Reference: Iconographie der Land- & Süss- 

wasser-Mollusken, new ser., 11 : 62 
Type genus: Gonostoma Held, 1837 
Remarks: Original spelling Gonostominae. 
Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of 
Gonostoma Rafinesque, 1810 [Pisces], and 
Gonostoma yan Hasselt, 1823 [Pisces]. 

Gonyodiscinae A. J. Wagner, 1928 [May] 
Reference: Annales Zoologicae Musei Polonici 

Historiae Naturalis, 6(4): 305 
Type genus: Gonyodiscus Fitzinger, 1833 
Remarks: Original spelling Goniodiscinae, 
based on Goniodiscus, an incorrect subse- 
quent spelling (and homonym of Goniodis- 
cus Müller & Troschel, 1842 [Echinoder- 
mata]). -idae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 
53,55,69). 

GoNYOSTOMATABowdich, 1822 [February] 
Reference: Elements of conchology f^art 1, 

Univalves: 35 
Remarks: Original spelling "Goniostomes" 
(vernacular) by Blainville (1818a: 185, 214- 
215). Latinized as the name of a "division" 
[above genus], containing the genera Tro- 
chus, Cirrites, Solarium, Euomphalites and 
lanthina. Treated as a family, spelling 
emended to Goniostomata, by Blainville 
(1 824: 222). Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Gordenellidae Gründel, 2000 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 34: 256 
Type genus: tGordenella Gründel, 1990 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



83 



GoRGOLEPTiDAE McLean, 1988 [4 May] 
Reference: Philosophical Transactions of the 

Royal Society of London, ser. В, 319: 19 
Type genus: Gorgo/epi/s McLean, 1988 

GossELETiNiNAE Wenz, 1938 [March] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 
39,43,131 

Type genus: ^Gosseletina Bayle [in P. Fi- 
scher], 1885 

Remarks: -idae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson 
(in Moore, 1960:210). 

GouGEROTiiNAE Le Renard, 1980 [17 July] 
Reference: Bulletin d'Information des Géo- 
logues du Bassin de Paris, 1 7(2): 23 
Type genus: -fGougerotia Le Renard, 1980 

Graciliariini h. Nordsieck, 1979 [9 March] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 109(4- 

6): 263 
Type genus: Graciliaria E. A. Bielz, 1867 

Graecoanatolicinae Radoman, 1973 [31 May] 
Reference: Phrodnjacki Muzej и Beogradu, 

Posebna Izdanja, 32: 11 
Type genus: Graecoanato//'ca Radoman, 1973 

Grandipatulinae Pfeffer, 1930 [2 January] 
Reference: Geologische und Palaeontolo- 

gische Abhandlungen, newser., 17(3): 10 
Type genus: -fGrandipatula Cossmann, 1889 

Grandostomatinae Horny, 1962 [after 3 August] 
Reference: Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geo- 

logickeho, 37(6): 473 
Type genus: ■\Grandostoma Horny, 1962 
Remarks: Available under Art. 1 3.5 [combined 

description of family and genus], -idae, Golik- 

ov & Starobogatov (1975: 207). 

Grangerellidae Russell, 1931 [4 November] 
Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, Щ<оА)\ 25 
Type genus: -\Grangerella Cockerell, 1915 

Granulininae G. a. Coovert & H. K. Coovert, 

1995 [12 October] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 109(2-3): 73 
Type genus: Grant/Z/na Jousseaume, 1888 

Graphidulidae Stephenson, 1941 

Reference: The University of Texas, Publica- 
tion, 4^0^■. 345 

Type genus: -\Graphidula Stephenson, 1941 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Not avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1, unless discovery of 
an author who used the name before 2000. 



Greveniellinae Gründel & Kowaike, 2002 [Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und 
Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 226(1 ): 51 

Type genus: fGrei/en/e/Za Harzhauser & Kow- 
aike, 2001 

Gruveliinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 433 
Type genus: Gruvelia Risbec, 1928 
Remarks: Not available (Art. 1 1 .7.2) from "Gru- 

velinidés", a vernacular name proposed by 

Risbec (1928: 171). 

Gudeoconchidae Iredale, 1944 [10 May] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 10(3): 

326 
Type genus: Gudeoconcha Iredale, 1944 

Gundlachiinae Starobogatov, 1967 [after 25 
October] 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 
42: 290 

Type genus: Gundlachia L. Pfeiffer, 1850 

Remarks: J. B. Burch (1984: 265) established 
that the type species of Gundlachia, G. an- 
cyliformis Pfeiffer, 1850, is a growth variant 
of Ancylus havanensis Pfeiffer, 1839; 
= A. radiatus Guilding, 1829. It would thus 
appear that Gundlachiinae is based on a mis- 
identified type genus, and under Art. 41 the 
case should be referred to the Commission 
for a ruling, if it is found necessary to have a 
family-group name based on Gundlachia. 

GuTTULiDAE Goryachev, 1987 [after 23 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molli uskov, 8: 23 

Type genus: Guttula Schepman, 1908 

Remarks: -inae, Marshall (1991a: 44). 

Gymnarioninae Van Mol, 1970 [October] 
Reference: Annales du Musée Royal de 

l'Afrique Centrale, Sciences Zoologiques, 

180:29 
Type genus: Gymnarion Pilsbry, 1919 
Remarks: -idae, Schileyko (2002: 1230). 

Gymnobranchiata Schweigger, 1820 
Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 

skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 746 
Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified rank 
between order [Gastropoda] and genus. Treat- 
ed as a family (not available as such: not 
based on a genus), spelling emended to Gym- 
nobranchia, by Burmeister (1837: v, 497). 



84 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Gymnocerithiidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 

1987 [añer 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 
Type genus: -fGymnocerithium Cossmann, 

1906 

Gymnodorididae Odhner, 1941 

Reference: Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps- 

och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar, ser. 6, 

ser. В, 1(11): 15 
Type genus: Gymnodohs SWmpson, 1855 
Remarks: Declared again nov. by Odhner (in 

Franc, 1968c: 865). 

Gymnoglossa Gray, 1853 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 2, 11: 129, 130 

Remarks: Name used by Gray for two differ- 
ent taxa of gastropods, one containing the 
families Acusidae, Pyramidellidae, and Ar- 
chitectonicidae; the other containing the 
family Cancellariidae only. Treated by Dai! 
(1890: 159) as a superfamily (containing 
Eulimidae and Pyramidellidae). Not avail- 
able as a family-group name (not based on 
a genus). 

Gymnosomata Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 32: 273 

Remarks: Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Gyrineinae Higo & Goto, 1993 [1 February] 
Reference: A systematic list of molluscan 

shells from the Japanese islands and the 

adjacent area: 157 
Type genus: Gyrineum Link, 1807 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Gyrodinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 
40,47 

Type genus: -{Gyrodes Conrad, 1 860 

Remarks: Name only. Diagnosed by Wenz 
(1941 [in 1938-1944]: 1017). -idae [as Gy- 
rodeidae], Pchelintsev & Korobkov (1960: 
180); -oidea [as Gyrodesacea], Pchelintsev 
(1963:51). 

Gyronematinae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -[Gyronema Ulrich [in Ulrich & 
Scoffield], 1897 



Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 
239). 

Gyroscalinae Jousseaume, 1912 [14 August] 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 24(3-4): 230, 244 
Type genus: Gyroscala de Boury, 1887 

Gyrotominae Hannibal, 1912 [30 October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 10(3): 167 
Type genus: Gyrotoma Shuttleworth, 1845 

Hadridae Iredale, 1937 [12 November] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9{^)^. 19 
Type genus: НасУла Albers, 1860 

Hainesiinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 103 
Type genus: Hainesia L. Pfeiffer, 1856 
Remarks: -idae, Götting (1974: 124). 

Haitiini D. W. Taylor, 2003 [March] 
Reference: Revista de Biología Tropical, 51, 

Suppl. 1: 128 
Type genus: Haitia Clench & Aguayo, 1932 

Halgerdinae Odhner, 1926 

Reference: Further zoological results of the 

Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901-1903, 

2(1): 54 
Type genus: Halgerda Bergh, 1880 
Remarks: -idae, Odhner (1934: 232, 269). 

Haliidae Kobelt, 1888 [after June] 

Reference: Iconographie der schalentragen- 
den europäischen Meeresconchylien, Heft 
8[=Bd.2, Lief. 1]: 5 

Type genus: t Halla Risse, 1826 

Remarks: Established independently by Sac- 
co (1893: 64). -inae, Casey (1904: 124); -Ini 
[as -ides], Pilsbry & Olsson (1 954: 1 8 [288]). 
See also Ampullidae. 

Haliotinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 142 
Type genus: Haliotis Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Hali- 

otidia. -idae, Fleming (1822: 492); -oidea [as 

-acea]. Gill (1871: 11). 

Halistylinae Keen, 1958 [5 December] 
Reference: Sea shells of tropical West Amer- 
ica, eä. 1:260 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



85 



Type genus: Halistylus Dall, 1890 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Keen (in Moore, 1960:262). 

Haloceratidae Waren & Bouchet, 1991 [20 

March] 
Reference: Mémoires du Muséum National 

d'lHistoire Naturelle, Paris, ser. A, 150: 133 
Type genus: Haloceras Dall, 1889 

Halolimnohelicinae H. Nordsieck, 1986 [Sep- 
tember] 
Reference: Heldia, 1(4): 116 
Type genus: Halolimnohelix Germain, 1913 
Remarks: -idae. Prieto et al. (1993: 71 ). 

Halopsychidae Pelseneer, 1887 
Reference: Challenger reports, 58: 52 
Type genus: Halopsyche Keferstein, 1862 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Euribiidae (invalid). Invalid: type genus a 
junior homonym of Halopsyche de Saussure, 
1857 [Crustacea]. See Anopsiidae and Hy- 
dromylidae. 

Haminoeinae Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 1, 

15(60): 351 
Type genus: /-/am/noea Tu rton, 1830 
Remarks: Original spelling Hamineinae. 
Placed on the Official List, and spelling ruled 
to be Haminoeinae, by Opinion 1942 (2000: 
52). -idae [as Haminoeidae], Starobogatov 
(1970b: 57); -oidea, Sabelli et al. (1990: 54, 
231). 

Hampilininae Kobayashi, 1958 

Reference: Japanese Journal of Geology and 

Geography, Transactions, 29(1-3): 115 
Type genus: ■\Hampilina Kobayashi, 1958 
Remarks: Original spelling Hamplininae. 

Hancockiidae MacFarland, 1923 [September] 
Reference: Journal of Morphology, 38(1): 90 
Type genus: Hancockia Gosse, 1877 
Remarks: Original spelling Hancockidae. 

Haplogona Pilsbry, 1893 [14 February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 44: 391, 
400 
Remarks: Latinization of "haplogonen Gattun- 
gen" [vernacular] of Ihering (1892b: 402). 
Established as a "Group" above genus. 
Treated by Pilsbry (1895b: xxi, xxix), at a 
rank below family [Endodontidae], contain- 



ing the genera Flammulina, Phasis, Amphi- 
doxa, Endodonta, and Pyramidula; by J. W. 
Taylor (1914: 169) as subfamily [of Endo- 
dontidae]. Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

HaplotrematidaeH. B. Baker, 1925 [19 January] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 38(3): 88 
Type genus: Haplotrema Ancey, 1881 
Remarks: See also Circinariidae. -inae, H. B. 
Baker(1941a:134). 

Harpagodidae Pchelintsev, 1963 

Reference: Briukhonogie Mezozoia Gornogo 

Kryma [Geologicheskii Muzei Karpinskogo, 

Seriia Monograficheskaia, 4]: 51 
Type genus: -fHarpagodes GiW, 1870 
Remarks: Original spelling Harpagodesidae. 

Harpidae Bronn, 1849 

Reference: Index palaeontologicus, II, Abt. В, 
Enumerator palaeontologicus: 469 

Type genus: Harpa Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Harpina. 
Placed on the Official List by Opinion 1436 
(1987: 137). -inae. Gray (1853a: 127). 

Haurakiidae Slavoshevskaya, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 120 
Type genus: Haurakia Iredale, 1915 

Haustrinae Tan, 2003 

Reference: Journal of Natural History, 37: 981 

Type genus: Haustrum Perry, 1811 

Hauttecoeuriidae Bourguignat, 1885 [August] 
Reference: Notice prodromique sur les Mol- 
lusques terrestres et fluviátiles (...) dans la 
région méridionale du lac Tanganika: 10,41 
Type genus: Hauttecoeuha Bourguignat, 1885 
Remarks: Original spelling Hauttecoeuridae. 
-inae / -ini, Bouchet & Strong, herein. 

Hedleyellidae Iredale, 1937 [12 November] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9(1): 17 
Type genus: Hedleyella Iredale, 1914 
Remarks: -oidea, Iredale (1942: 35). 

Hedleyoconchidae Iredale, 1942 [June] 
Reference: The Australian Naturalist, 11(2): 34 
Type genus: Hedleyoconcha Pilsbry, 1893 
Remarks: Salisbury (1942 [December]: 53) 
listed Hedleyoconchidae fam. nov. with ref- 
erence to Iredale (1941a: 265). However, in 
that paper, Iredale merely "removed [Hed- 



86 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



leyoconcha] to the neighbourhood of the 
family Durgellidae with family rank", but did 
not explicitly introduce Hedleyoconchidae. 

Hedylidae Bergh, 1895 [January] 

Reference: Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Ge- 
sellschaft in Wien, 45: 4 

Type genus: Hedyle Bergh, 1895 

Remarks: Introduced as the vernacular (fam- 
ily) "die Hedyliden". First latinized by Eliot 
(1910:69-70). -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929- 
1 935]: 443). Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym oí Hedyle Guenée, 1857 [Lepidoptera] 
and Hedyle Malmgren, 1865 [Polychaeta]. 

Hedylopsidae Odhner, 1952 
Reference: Vie et Milieu, 3(2): 144 
Type genus: Hec/y/ops/s Thiele, 1931 
Remarks: -inae. Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 
37); -oidea, Starobogatov (1983: 30). 

Helcionellinae Wenz, 1938 

Reference: Handbuch der Paläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

43,88 
Type genus: ^Helcionella Grabau & Shimer, 

1909 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea] / -idae, Knight, 

Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 172). 

Heleobiini Bernasconi, 1991 [June] 
Reference: Mémoires de Biospéologie, 18: 

238 
Type genus: Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 
Remarks: F. G. Thompson (1968: 19-20) had 
used the expression "the Heleobia tribe", 
providing a diagnosis but not formally pro- 
posing the name Heleobiini. 

Heliacidae Cotton & Godfrey, 1933 [May] 
Reference: The South Australian Naturalist, 

14:73 
Type genus: Heliacus d'Orbigny, 1842 
Remarks: -inae, Abbott (1 974: 98). 

Helicarionidae Bourguignat, 1877 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société des Scienc- 
es Physiques et Naturelles de Toulouse, 
3(1): 64 

Type genus: Helicarion Férussac, 1821 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 1678 (1992: 160), but attributed in error 
to Bourguignat (1883: 9, as Helixarionidae 
[based on Helixahon, an incorrect original 
spelling of the type genus]); authorship cor- 
rected to Godwin-Austen (1882) by Anony- 
mous (1993b: 313). -inae, Godwin-Austen 



(1888: 253); -oidea, [as -acea], Kuroda 
(1941: 142); -ini,Schileyko (2002: 1188). 

Helicellinae hi. Adams & A. Adams, 1 855 [Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:112 

Type genus: Helicella Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Placed on the Official Index by Opin- 
ion 431 (1 956: 351 ), but attributed in error to 
Chenu (1859: 421 ). -idae, Tryon (1 866b: 222). 

Helicellinae Ihering, 1909 

Reference: Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesell- 
schaft in Wien, 59:429 

Type genus: Helicella Férussac, 1821 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 431 (1956: 351), but attributed in error 
to Hesse (1926b: 115). -idae, Pilsbry (1939 
[in 1939-1948]: 14); -ini, Mandahl-Barth 
(1950:54). 

Helicidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference; Analyse de la nature: 143 
Type genus: /-/e//x Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling Helicinia. Although 
the name Helicidae is sometimes attributed 
to Lamarck (1 809: 320), that author used the 
vernacular "Colymacées" (spelled "Coli- 
macées" in later works), -inae, Swainson 
(1840: 330); -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1926 
[in 1925-1926]: 148); -ini, Mandahl-Barth 
(1950:54). 

Helicigoninae Wenz, 1915 

Reference: [in K. Fischer & Wenz] Jahrbücher 

des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde in 

Wiesbaden, 67: 65 
Type genus: Helicigona Férussac, 1821 
Remarks: -ini, Mandahl-Barth (1950: 54). 

Helicinidae Férussac, 1822 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxiii 
Type genus: Helicina Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Hélicines" (ver- 
nacular). First latinized (as Helicinides) by 
Latreille (1825: 183). -inae [as "Trib. Heli- 
cinidae"], Mörch (1 852: 42); -oidea [as -acea], 
F. G. Thompson (1980: 11). 

Helicocryptinae Сох, 1960 [about 15 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 1: 267 
Type genus: -[Helicocryptus d'Orbigny, 1850 
Remarks: -ini, Bouchet, herein. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



87 



Helicodiscinae Pilsbry, 1927 [5 July] 
Reference: [in H. B. Baker] Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia, 79: 230 
Type genus: Helicodiscus Morse, 1864 
Remarks: -idae, Solem (1975: 85). 

Helicodontinae Kobelt, 1904 [October] 
Reference: Iconographie der Land- & Süss- 

wasser-Mollusken, newser., 11: 131 
Type genus: Helicodonta Férussac, 1821 
Remarks: -ini, Mandahl-Barth (1950: 54); 

-idae, Schileyko (1972: 41 ); -oidea, Schiley- 

ko (1979a: 57). 

Helicopeltinae Marshall, 1996 [1 July] 
Reference: The Veliger, 39(3): 250 
Type genus: Helicopelta Marshall, 1996 

Helicophantidae 

Remarks: Probably a lapsus for Ariophantidae 
by Germain (1931a: 13). 

Helicopsini H. Nordsieck, 1987 [15 October] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 1 1 8(1 - 

3):28 
Type genus: Helicopsis Fitzinger, 1833 

Helicostoidae Pruvot-Fol, 1937 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 62: 257 
Type genus: Helicostoa Lamy, 1926 

Helicostylinae Ihering, 1909 

Reference: Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesell- 
schaft in Wien, 59:430 

Type genus: Helicostyla Férussac, 1821 

Helicotominae Wenz, 1 938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch der Paläozoologie , 6(1 ): 

117 
Type genus: "^Helicotoma Salter, 1859 
Remarks: -idae, Knight, Batten & Yochelson 

(in Moore, 1960: 189). 

Helicterinae Pease, 1870 [30 April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, (1869[3]): 645 
Type genus: Helicteres Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Pease based Helicterinae on He- 
//cter Pease, 1862, an unjustified emenda- 
tion of Helicteres. -idae, Kobelt (1880 [in 
1876-1881]: 292). Invalid: placed on the 
Official Index by Opinion 2017 (2003: 61). 
SeeAchatinellinae. 



Heligmotomidae Adegoke, 1977 [29 March] 
Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 7^{295)■. 169 
Type genus: \Heligmotoma Mayer-Eymar, 1896 

Helisomatinae F. C. Baker, 1928 [after 20 August] 
Reference: Wisconsin Geological and Natu- 
ral History Survey Bulletin 70(1 ): 309 
Type genus: Helisoma Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Helisominae. -ini 
[as -ae]. Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 120). 

Helminthoglyptidae Pilsbry, 1939 [6 December] 
Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 

{North of Mexico), Vol. 1(1): 24, 31 
Type genus: Helminthoglypta Ancey, 1887 
Remarks: -inae, same reference; -ini / -Ina, 
Bouchet & Hausdorf, herein [for consisten- 
cy of ranking]. Roth (1996: 32) established 
the names Helminthoglyptaina, Helm- 
inthoglyptales, Helminthoglyptamorpha, Hel- 
minthoglyptaniki, Helminthoglyptaphim, and 
Helminthoglyptotes in a phylogenetic clas- 
sification rejecting formal categorical ranks; 
he suggested that the name Helminthoglyp- 
tales could be considered equivalent to Hel- 
minthoglyptini by a "hypothetical systematist 
concerned with expressing [his] results within 
the Linnean hierarchy". 

Hemibiinae Heude, 1890 

Reference: Mémoires concernant l'histoire 
naturelle de l'empire chinois, Tome 1 , Cahier 
4:167 

Type genus: Hemibia Heude, 1890 

Remarks: Original spelling Hemibiae. This 
could be considered a mere plural of Hemi- 
bia, but has been treated as a subfamily by 
Kobelt (1895: 353). 

Hemicyclostoma Blainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 10: 185, and table between pp. 214-215 

Remarks: Original spelling "Hémicyclostomes" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Bowdich (1822: 
32) as the name of a "division" [above ge- 
nus], containing the genera Nerita, Natica 
and Neritina. Treated a family by Blainville 
(1824: 237). Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Hemiplectinae Gude & B. B. Woodward, 1921 

[October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 14(5-6): 186 
Type genus: Hem/p/ecia Albers, 1850 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Hemisininae p. Fischers Crosse, 1891 [23 July] 
Reference: Mission scientifique au IVIexique 
et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches 
zoologiques (7), 2i^2)■.3^2 
Type genus: Hemisinus Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Semisinusinae, 
based on Semisinus P. Fischer, 1885, an 
unjustified emendation of Hemisinus; spell- 
ing corrected under Art. 32.5.3.2. -ini [as 
Hemisinuseae], Thiele (1928a: 399, 401). 
See Aylacostomatinae. 

Hemistomiinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 168 
Type genus: Hemistomla Crosse, 1872 
Remarks: -idae. Cotton (1959: 354). 

Hemitominae Kuroda, Habe&Oyama, 1971 [27 

September] 
Reference: The sea shells of Sagami Bay: 16 

[Japanese text], 10 [English text] 
Type genus: Hemitoma Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1975:207,216). 

Hendersoniinae H. B. Baker, 1926 [29 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 78: 35 
Type genus: HendersoniaA. J. Wagner, 1905 

Hermaeidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 [No- 
vember] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:78 

Type genus: Hermaea Lovén, 1844 

Remarks: -inae, С Boettger (1963: 433). 

Heroidae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:221 

Type genus: Hero Lovén [in Alder & Hancock], 
1855 

Remarks: -inae, Bergh (in Carus, 1889: 216); 
-oidea [as -acea], S. Smith & Heppell (1 991 : 
51). 

Herviellinae Burn, 1967 [31 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 6(1-2): 228 
Type genus: Herviella Baba, 1949 
Remarks: -idae, Odhner(in Franc, 1968c: 887). 

Hesperocirrinae O. Haas, 1953 [8 June] 
Reference: Bulletin of the American Museum 

of Natural History, 101: 39 
Type genus: -fHesperocirrus О. Haas, 1953 



Hesseolinae Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv fijr Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 230 
Type genus: Hesseola Lindholm, 1927 

Heterodorididae Verrill & Emerton, 1882 [July] 

Reference: [in Verrill] Transactions of the Con- 
necticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 5(2): 
549 

Type genus: Heterodoris Verrill & Emerton, 
1882 

Remarks: Original spelling Heterodoridae. 

Heteroneritidae Gründel, 1998 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungshefte, ser. 

С, 474(6): 16 
Type genus: -\Heteronerita Gründel, 1998 

Heterophrosynidae W. Clark, 1855 

Reference: A history of the British marine testa- 
ceous Mollusca: 7, 387 

Remarks: Family containing the genera Jef- 
freysia and Barleeia. Not available: not 
based on a genus. 

Heteropoda Lamarck, 1812 [October] 
Reference: Extrait du cours de zoologie: 112, 

124 
Remarks: Original spelling "Hétéropodes" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Mörch (1852: 49). 
Established as a "section", equivalent in rank 
to Gastropoda and Cephalopoda, subse- 
quently treated by Mörch as a family, and by 
Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 88) as "Sippe" 
[= superfamily]. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Heterostropha Berthold, 1991 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, new ser., 
29:207,210 

Remarks: Taxen containing the genera 
Lanistes and Pseudoceratodes, established 
at rank between tribe and genus. Not avail- 
able as a family-group name (not based on 
a genus). 

Heterosubulitidae Bändel, 2002 

Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut, Universität Ham- 
burg, 86: 68 

Type genus: -[Heterosubulites Bändel, 2002 

Hexabranchinae Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 

Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 

Thiere,6: 126 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



Type genus: Hexabranchus Ehrenberg, 1828 
Remarks: Established as subfamily despite 

suffix -idae. -idae, Thiele (1926 [in 1925 

1926]: 111). 

HiLACANTHiDAE Bourguignat, 1890 

Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles. 
Zoologie, ser. 7, 10(Art. 1): 125 

Type genus: Hilacanth a /\г\сеу, 1886 

Remarks: Original spelling Hylacanthidae, 
based on Hylacantha, an incorrect subse- 
quent spelling of Hllacantha. Introduced as 
a replacement name for Tiphobiidae, based 
on Tiphobia E. A. Smith, 1880, by Bourguig- 
nat treated as a homonym of Typhobia Pas- 
coe, 1869 [Coleóptera]. 

HippoNiciDAETroschel, 1861 

Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 1(4): 

162 
Type genus: -\Hipponix Defrance, 1819 
Remarks: -inae [as Hipponycinae], Tryon (1886: 

1 02); -oidea [as -acea], Kuroda (1 933b: 1 84). 

HisPANosiNuiTiNAE Fryda & Gutierrez-Marco, 

1996 [28 June] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology , 70(4): 603 
Type genus: -\Hispanosinuites Fryda & Guti- 
errez-Marco, 1996 

HoFFMANNOLiDAE Starobogatov, 1976 
Reference: Biologiia Moria, 4: 14 
Type genus: Hoffmannola Strand, 1932 
Remarks: -oidea, same reference. 

HOLOGYRIDAEKittI, 1899 

Reference: Annalen des Kaiserlich-Königli- 
chen Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums Wien, 
14(1): 28, 34 

Type genus: fHo/ogyra Koken, 1892 

HoLOHEPATicABergh, 1884 

Reference: Report on the scientific results of 
the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger Zoology, 
10:52 

Remarks: Taxon containing the families Dorid- 
idae and Dohopsidae. Established as an "or- 
der". Treated by Thiele (1 926 [in 1 925-1 926]: 
1 1 1 ) as a "Sippe" [= superfamily] and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

HoLOPEiDAE Cossmann, 1908 [after March] 
Reference: Revue Critique de Paléozoologie, 

12(2): 95 
Type genus: -\Holopea Hall, 1847 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 

232). 



HoLOPELLiDAE Кокеп, 1896 

Reference: Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königlichen 

Geologischen Reichanstalt, 46(1): 47, 108 
Type genus: -[Holopella M'Coy, 1851 

HoLOPELMATA Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1897 [15 
June] 

Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 
Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 29: 78 

Remarks: Established at rank between "sub- 
tribus" [above family group] and family. Treat- 
ed by Kobelt (1902: 1) as a synonym of 
Cyclophoridae. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

HoLOPODA Pilsbry, 1896 
Reference: The Nautilus, 9(10): 110 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily and 
not available as such (not based on a ge- 
nus). See also higher category list. 

HoLospiRiNAE Pilsbry, 1946 [6 December] 
Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 

{north of Mexico), Уо\. 11(1): 103, 111 
Type genus: Holospira Martens, 1860 

HoMALAxiNAE. Soo Omalaxlnao. 

HoMALOGYRiDAE. Soo Omalogyhdae. 

HoMALOPOMATiNAE Кееп, 1960 [about 15 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 1: 270 
Type genus: Homa/opoma Carpenter, 1864 

HoMOEOPLOCiNAE Cossmann, 1899 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 3: 103 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

HoMoioDORiDiNAE Odhner, 1926 

Reference: Further zoological results of the 

Sv\/edish Antarctic Expedition 1901-1903, 

2(1): 54 
Type genus: Homoiodohs Bergh, 1882 
Remarks: -idae [as Homoeodorididae, based 

on Homoeodorls, an incorrect subsequent 

spelling], Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 870). 

HoPKiNSiiNAE Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 860 

Type genus: Hopkinsia MacFarland, 1905 

HoPLODORiDiNAE Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 

872 
Type genus: Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880 



90 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



HoRATiiNi D. W. Taylor, 1966 [1 October] 
Reference: The Veliger, 9(2): 179 
Type genus: Horatia Bourguignat, 1887 
Remarks: -inae, declared new by Radoman 

(1973a: 8); -Idae, Starobogatov & Sitnikova 

(1983:21). 

HoRiosTOMiDAE. See Ohostomatidae. 

HoRMOTOMiNAE Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

39,43,163 
Type genus: ^Hormotoma Salter, 1859 
Remarks: -idae, Vostokova (in Pchelintsev & 

Korobkov, 1960: 118). Given precedence 

over Plethospirinae by First Reviser choice 

by P. J. Wagner (2002: 81-82). 

HuMBOLDTiANiNAE Pilsbry, 1939 [6 December] 
Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 

{north of Mexico), Volume 1(1): 26, 395 
Type genus: Humboldtiana Ihering, 1892 
Remarks: -idae, Schileyko (1979a: 57). 

Hyalaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 140 
Type genus: Hyalaea Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Hyalinea. Established 
independently [as Hyalidae] by d'Orbigny 
(1 841 [in 1 841-1 853]: 71 ). See Cavoliniidae. 

Hyalidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 [18 

December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 210 
Type genus: Hya/a H.Adams & A. Adams, 1852 
Remarks: Homonym of Hyalidae Bulycheva, 

1957, based on Hyale Rathke, 1837 [Am- 

phipoda]. 

Hyalimacinae Godwin-Austen, 1882 [July] 
Reference: Land and freshwater Mollusca of 

India, 1(2): 59 
Type genus: Hyallmax H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1855 
Remarks: -idae, Germain (1921: 209). 

Hyaliniinae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1879 [November] 
Reference: Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Fauna 
mexikanischer Land- und Süsswasser-Con- 
chylien, 4: 17 
Type genus: Hyalinia Agass\z, 1837 
Remarks: -idae [as Fam. Hyalinoidea], Sim- 
roth (1891: 268). 

Hyalininae Clessin, 1876 

Reference: Deutsche Excursions-Mollusken- 

Fauna: 19,62 
Type genus: Hyalina Férussac, 1821 



Remarks: When he established Hyalininae, 
Clessin cited the type genus as "Hyalina Gray" 
(p. 62) and (p. 64) as "Hyalina Férussac" as 
emended by Gray (1840a: 165), which cites 
"Hyallnae Férussac" as a section of Zonites. 
Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of Hy- 
alina Schumacher, 1817 [Marginellidae] and 
Hyalina Studer, 1820 [Vitrinidae]. 

Hyalogyrinidae Waren & Bouchet, 1993 [4 Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: [in Waren, Gofas & Schander] The 
Veliger, 36{^)■. 10 

Type genus: Hyalogyhna Marshall, 1988 

Remarks: Original spelling Hyalogryinidae. In- 
advertently made available by short diagno- 
sis. Full description in Waren & Bouchet, 1993 
[26 February], Zoológica Scripta, 22(1 ): 48. 

Hydatinidae Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 1 , 

15(60): 385 
Type genus: Hydatina Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Homonym of Hydatinidae Ehren- 
berg, 1838, based on Hydatina Ehrenberg, 
1828 [Rotifera]; Hydatinidae Ehrenberg is 
invalid because its type genus is a junior 
homonym but it remains an available name. 

Hydrobiinae Stimpson, 1865 [August] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 20^■. 4 
Type genus: Hydrobia Hartmann, 1821 
Remarks: Not available from Troschel (1 857 [in 
1856-1891]: 106 [as Hydrobiae; a plural not 
equivalent to a family-group name]), -idae, P. 
Fischer (1885 [in 1880-1887]: 723-724); -ini 
[as -ae], Thiele (1 928a: 378); -oidea, Giusti & 
Pezzoli (1 982: 466). Placed on the Official List 
by Opinion 2034 (2003: 1 52-1 53), which also 
emended the family-group name Hydrobiina 
Mulsant, 1844, type genus Hydrobius Leach, 
1815 [Coleóptera], to Hydrobiusina to remove 
homonymy. See also Paludestrinidae. 

Hydrocenidae Troschel, 1857 [before 30 October] 
Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 1 (2): 83 
Type genus: Hydrocena Küster, 1844 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Hydrocae- 
nacea, based on Hydrocaena, an incorrect 
subsequent spelling of Hydrocena. -inae, 
Stoliczka (1 871 : 1 57); -oidea, Golikov & Star- 
obogatov (1975: 209). 

Hydrococcinae Thiele, 1928 [12 September] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 

Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der 

Tiere, 55: 375, 380 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



91 



Type genus: HydrococcusTh\e\e, 1928 
Remarks: -idae, Wenz (1939 [in 1938-1944]: 
587). 

Hydromylidae Pruvot-Fol, 1942 [20 March] 

(1862) 
Reference: Dana Report, 20: 7 
Type genus: Hydromyles Gistel, 1848 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Halopsychidae and Anopsiidae, based on 
Halopsyche and Anopsia, both treated by 
Pruvot-Fol as junior synonyms of Hy- 
dromyles. However, Hydromyles is also a 
senior synonym of Pterocymodocea, and 
although Pruvot-Fol cited neither Pterocymo- 
docea nor Pterocymodoceidae when she 
established the name Hydromylidae, the lat- 
ter can be treated as a substitute name for 
the former. Hydromylidae is in prevailing us- 
age; it is conserved under Art. 40.2, with the 
precedence of Pterocymodoceidae. -oidea, 
Bouchet, herein [in place of Gymnoptera, 
which is not available as a family-group 
name]. 

Hygromiinae Tryon, 1866 [6 October] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

2(4): 306 
Type genus: Hygromia Risso, 1826 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1 955: 484), but attributed in error to 
D. Geyer (1909: 11). -idae, Möllendorff 
(1898: 147); -ini, Mandahl-Barth (1950: 54); 
-oidea, Schileyko (1979a: 57). 

Hygrophila Férussac, 1822 [16 February] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxiij 
Remarks: Original spelling "Hygrophiles" (ver- 
nacular); latinized by Herrmannsen (1847 [in 
1846-1852]: 547). Established as a subor- 
der. Treated by Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 
136) as a "Sippe" [= superfamily] and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Hylacanthidae. See Hilacanthidae. 

Hyperstropheminae Horny, 1964 [November] 
Reference: Casopis Narodniho Muzea, Oddil 

Phrodovedny, 133(4): 212 
Type genus: tHyperstrophema Horny, 1964 

Hypobranchiaeidae p. Fischer, 1883 [20 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 530 

Type genus: Hypobranchiaea A. Adams, 1847 



Remarks: Hypobranchiaea has traditionally 
been treated as a synonym of Corambe, in 
which case Hypobranchiaeidae has priority 
over Corambidae (but Art. 23.9 may apply). 
However, this view was challenged by Mar- 
tynov (1994: 13), who concluded that Hypo- 
branchiaea is unrecognizable and certainly 
nota Corambidae. 

Hypobranchiata Schweigger, 1820 

Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 
skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 746, 776 

Remarks: Latinization of "les inférobranches" 
(vernacular) by Cuvier. Taxon including the 
genera Diphyllidia and Phyllidia, established 
at rank between "order Gastropoda" and ge- 
nus. Treated as a family (not available as such: 
not based on a genus), spelling emended to 
Hypobranchia, by Burmeister (1837: v, 497). 

Hypselostomatinae Zilch, 1959 [17 July] 
Reference: Handbuch der Paläozoologie, 6(2): 

162 
Type genus: Hypselostoma Benson, 1856 
Remarks: -idae. Azuma (1982: 95). Given pre- 
cedence over Aulacospihnae by First Revis- 
er's choice by Schileyko (1 998 [in 1 998-2003]: 
136). 

Ianthinidae. See Janthinidae. 

Icarinae Gray, 1847 [November] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 15: 163 

Type genus: Icarus Forbes, 1844 

Remarks: Original spelling Icarina. -idae [in 
synonymy of Oxynoeidae], Stoliczka (1868 
[in 1867-1871]: 431). See Oxynoeidae. 

Iduliidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 [March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 15(4): 210 
Type genus: Idulia Leach in Gray, 1852 

Igarkiellidae Parkhaev, 2001 

Reference: Transactions of the Paleontológi- 
ca! Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 
282: 161 

Type genus: -tigarkiella Vassiljeva, 1998 

Remarks: Also declared new by Parkhaev 
(2002: 35). 

Ilbiinae Burn, 1963 [September] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 13(1): 22 
Type genus: libia Burn, 1963 
Remarks: -idae. Burn & Thompson (in Bees- 
ley et al., 1998:959). 



92 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Ildicidae Burn, 1963 [September] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 13(1): 21 
Type genus: lldica Berg h , 1889 

Imbricarmnae Troschel, 1867 [December] 
Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(2): 86 
Type genus: Imbricana Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Original spelling Imbricarina. 

Imeriniinae Hoffmann, 1928 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronns Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tier-Reichs, Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Buch 
2:1230 

Type genus: Imerinia Cockerell, 1891 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Sarasinulinae Hoffmann, 1 925, based on 
Sarasinula Grimpe & Hoffmann, 1924, 
placed by Hoffmann in the synonymy of Im- 
erinia. Article 40.2 of the Code might apply; 
however, subfamily names are hardly ever 
used in taxonomical works dealing with 
Veronicellidae, and there is no "prevailing 
usage" to support application of Art. 40.2. 
We believe that priority should apply, i.e. 
Sarasinulinae is the valid name. 

Imoglobidae Nützel, Erwin & Mapes, 2000 [23 

June] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 74(4): 

579, 589 
Type genus: -[Imogloba Nützel, Erwin & 

Mapes, 2000 

Imperatorinae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 144 
Type genus: /mperator Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling Imperatorina. 

iNCRisPELLiDAETasch, 1963 [November] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 37(6): 

1246 
Type genus: -[Incrispella Tasch, 1963 
Remarks: Silicified open coiled tubes de- 
scribed as freshwater Gastropoda, but there 
is no feature to suggest its gastropod, or 
even mollusc, nature. 

Iniforinae Kosuge, 1966 [31 August] 
Reference: Malacologia, 4(2): 314 
Type genus: /n/Tor/s Jousseaume, 1884 

Inudinae Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1967 [De- 
cember] 

Reference: Studies in Tropical Oceanography, 
6:143,182 

Type genus: Inuda Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1 967 



Involvea Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1 : 322 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Enroulées" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Rafinesque(1815: 
145). Spelling emended by Menke (1828: 44) 
to Involutae, and by Burmeister (1837: 506) 
to Involuta. Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 
See also Convolutidae. 

Iodeidae Leach, 1847 [October] 

Reference: [in Gray, ed.] Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History, 20: 269 

Type genus: lodes "Leach MS" 

Remarks: Not available: the type genus was 
not an available name (nomen nudum) when 
Gray established Iodeidae. lodes was later 
made available by Mörch (1860: 273), who 
however did not cite Iodeidae. 

Iravadiinae Thiele, 1928 [25 April] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbijcher, Abt. für 

Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der 

Tiere, 55: 355, 380 
Type genus: Iravadia Blanford, 1867 
Remarks: -idae, Volkova & Pchelintsev (in 

Pchelintsev & Korobkov, 1960: 144, 150). 

Brandt (1968: 266) acted as First Reviser to 

establish precedence of Iravadiinae over 

Fairbankiinae. 

IsANDiNi Hickman, 2003 

Reference: The marine flora and fauna of 

Dampier, Western Australia, 1: 71 
Type genus: /sanc/a H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 

IscHNOPTYGMATiDAE Епл/1п, 1988 [January] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 62(1 ): 66 
Type genus: -\lschnoptygma Erwin, 1988 
Remarks: Original spelling Ischnoptygmidae. 

Isidorinae Annandale, 1922 [August] 
Reference: Records of the Indian Museum, 

24(3): 363 
Type genus: Isidora Ehrenberg, 1831 
Remarks: Introduced in synonymy, but avail- 
able under Art. 11.6.1 because it has been 
treated as an available name, e.g. by Wenz 
(1923 [in 1923-1930]: 1673). -idae, van Ben- 
them Jutting (1927: 15). 

IsLAMiiNAE Radoman, 1973 [31 May] 
Reference: Prirodnjacki Muzej и Beogradu, 

Posebna Izdanja, 32: 10 
Type genus: Islamia Radoman, 1973 
Remarks: -idae, Starobogatov & Sitnikova 

(1983:21). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



93 



IsospiRiDAE Wangberg-Eriksson, 1964 [15 No- 
vember] 

Reference: Geologiska Föreningens i Stock- 
holm Förhandlingar, 86(3): 229 

Type genus: tisospira Koken, 1897 

Remarks: -oidea, Starobogatov & Moskalev 
(1987:8). 

IsTRiANiDAE Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
liuskov, 7: 22 

Type genus: /sírána Velkovrh, 1971 

Remarks: Climo (1974: 255, 267) had recog- 
nized an "lstriana-tr\be within Hydrobiinae", 
which he did not formally name. 

Itieriidae Cossmann, 1896 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 2: 16 
Type genus: ■\itiena Matheron, 1842 
Remarks: -oidea [as-acea], Pchelintsev(1965: 
126); -inae, J. C. Fischer & Kollmann (in J. 
С Fischer, 1997). 

Itruviidae Lyssenko & Aliev, 1990 [after 5 No- 
vember] 

Reference: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 
1990(4): 107 

Type genus: -fltruvia Stoliczka, 1867 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. Name 
attributed to Lyssenko (1 984), which is a dis- 
sertation abstract, not available for nomen- 
clatural purposes. 

Jacostidae Pilsbry, 1948 [19 March] 

Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 
{north of Mexico), Vol. 11(2): 1091 

Type genus: Jacosta Gray, 1821 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Helicellidae Ihering because Pilsbry treat- 
ed Jacosta as a senior synonym of Helicella 
Férussac, 1821 . Jacosta has been placed on 
the Official Index by Opinion 431 (1956: 349, 
351 ), hence rendering Jacostidae invalid. 

Jaminiinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 517 
Type genus: Jaminia Risse, 1826 

Janellidae Gray, 1853 [December] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 12:415 
Type genus: Janella Gray, 1850 
Remarks: -inae, Cockerell (1891: 216). Invalid: 

type genus a junior homonym of Janella 



Grateloup, 1838 [Mollusca]. See also Atho- 
racophoridae. 

Janinae Gray, 1847 [November] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 15: 165 

Type genus: Janus Verany, 1844 

Remarks: Original spelling Janina. Established 
independently by Bergh (in Carus, 1889: 
216). -idae [as "Tribu des Janides (Jan- 
idae)"], Blanchard (1849: 76). Invalid: type 
genus a junior homonym of Janus Stephens, 
1835 [Hymenoptera]. 

Janolidae Pruvot-Fol, 1933 

Reference: Mémoires de l'Institut d'Egypte, 21 : 
137 

Type genus: Janolus Bergh, 1884 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Zephyrinidae. Janolus is not a senior syn- 
onym oíZephyrina Quatrefages, 1843, and Art. 
40.2 does not apply. See also Antiopellidae. 

Janthinidae Lamarck, 1822 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertèbres, 6(2): 204 

Type genus: Janthina Röding, 1798 

Remarks: The name Janthinidae is sometimes 
attributed to Lamarck (1812:117), who keyed 
"Janthine [Genre unique de sa famille]" [= only 
genus of its family]; we do not regard this as 
a valid establishment of the name under the 
Code. Original spelling (1 822) "les Janthines" 
(vernacular). First latinized [as lanthinea, 
based on lanthina, an incorrect subsequent 
spelling] by Children (1823 [in 1822-1824]: 
248), with explicit reference to Lamarck, -inae, 
Swainson (1840: 195, 210); -oidea, Golikov 
& Starobogatov (1968: 7). 

Janulinae Wenz, 1923 [20 March] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 1 7: 300 
Type genus: Janulus Lowe, 1852 

Japeuthriinae Higo & Goto, 1993 [1 February] 
Reference: A systematic list of molluscan 
shells from the Japanese islands and adja- 
cent area: 228 
Type genus: Japeuthria Iredale, 1918 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

JeffreysiidaeH. Adams & A. Adams, 1852 [No- 
vember] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 2, 10:359 

Type genus: Jeffreysia fWóex [in Forbes & Han- 
ley], 1850 

Remarks: Original spelling Jeffresiidae. 



m 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Jenneriinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 269 
Type genus: Jenneria Jousseaume, 1884 

JiNONICELLIDAE РокОГПу, 1978 

Reference: Vestnil< Ustredniho Ustavu Geo- 

/og/c/<e/?o, 53(1): 41 
Type genus: -\Jinonicella Pokorny, 1978 
Remarks: Placed in Archaeogastropoda by 

Pokorny, but position as a mollusc rejected 

byFryda(1999:27). 

JocuLATORiNAE GoNkov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 
Type genus: Jocu/aforHedley, 1909 

JoHANicERAMiNAE Jaume & de la Torre, 1972 

[after 9 October] 
Reference: Circulares del Museo у Biblioteca 

de Zoología de la Habana: 1647 
Type genus: Johaniceramus Jaume & de la 

Torre, 1972 

JoHNSTRUPiiNi Schilder, 1939 [1 November] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 71(5- 

6): 170 
Type genus: -\Johnstrupia Ravn, 1933 

JoHNWYATTiDAE Зогпа, 1979 [September] 
Reference: Boletín de Geología [Universidad 
Industrial de Santander Colombia], 13(27): 32 
Type genus: -fJohnwyattia Serna, 1979 

JuGiDAE Starobogatov, Prozorova, Bogatov & 
Sayenko, 2004 

Reference: Molliuski, in: Opredelitel Presno- 
vodnykh bespozvonochnykh Rossil i sopre- 
delnykh territorii, 6: 262, 280 

Remarks: Not available under Art. 16.1 and 16.2: 
name not explicitly indicated as intentionally 
new, and name of the type genus [inferred to 
be Juga H. & A. Adams, 1 854] not cited. 

JuLiiDAE E. A. Smith, 1885 [after September] 
Reference: Report on the scientific results of 

the voyage ofH. M. S. Challenger Zoology, 

13(1): 269 
Type genus: Julia Gould, 1862 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl 

(1962: 12); -inae, С Boettger (1963: 433). 

JuLLiENiiNi Davis, 1979 [6 June] 

Reference: Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia, Monograph 20: 23 
Type genus: Jullienia Crosse & P. Fischer, 1 876 



Remarks: -idae, loganzen & Starobogatov 
(1982:1145). 

Kaiparathinini Marshall, 1993 [1 April] 
Reference: The Veliger, 36(2): 185 
Type genus: tKaiparathlna Laws, 1941 

Kaliellinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 612 
Type genus: Kaliella Blanford, 1863 
Remarks: Hausdorf (1998: 57) determined, as 

First Reviser, the relative precedence of 

Chroninae over Kaliellinae. 

Kalinginae Pruvot-Fol, 1956 [March] 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 80: 356 
Type genus: Kalinga Alder & Hancock, 1 864 
Remarks: Declared again nov. by Odhner (in 

Franc, 1968c: 862). 

Kaloplocaminae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 323 
Type genus: Kaloplocamus Bergh, 1892 
Remarks: Original spelling Caloplocaminae, 
based on Caloplocamus Thiele, 1931, an 
unjustified emendation of Kaloplocamus. 

Kanamaruidae Higo & Goto, 1993 [1 February] 
Reference: A systematic list of molluscan 

shells from the Japanese Islands and the 

adjacent area: 237 
Type genus: Kanamarua Kuroda, 1951 
Remarks: Original spelling Kanamariidae. Not 

available: no diagnosis. 

Kentrodoridinae Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 
Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 
Thiere,6: 135 
Type genus: Kentrodoris Bergh, 1874 
Remarks: Established as a subfamily despite 
suffix -idae. -idae, Pruvot-Fol (1954: 273). 
Discodoridinae given precedence over Ken- 
trodoridinae by First Reviser's action by 
Valdés (2002: 630). 

Khairkhaniidae Missarzhevsky, 1 989 [after 1 July] 
Reference: Trudy Geologicheskogo Institute, 

Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 443: 180 
Type genus: Khairkhania Missarzhevsky, 1981 

KiNisHBiiNAE Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 [af- 
ter 23 October] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 25 

Type genus: ■\Kinishbia Winters, 1956 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



95 



KiRELiiNAE Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
liuskov, 7: 21 

Type genus: Kirelia Radoman, 1983 

KiTTLiDisciDAE Cox, 1960 [about 15 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on Inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 7: 217 
Type genus: +Klttlidlscus O. Haas, 1953 

Klikiini H. Nordsieck, 1986 [September] 
Reference: Heldia, 1(4): 116 
Type genus: -tKlikia Pilsbry, 1895 
Remarks: -inae, Hausdorf & Bouchet, herein 
[for consistency of ranking]. 

Knightitinae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -\Knightites Moore, 1941 
Remarks: Name only. Diagnosed by Knight, 
Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1 960: 1 83). 
-idae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 207). 

KoLHYMAMNicoLiDAE Starobogatov, 1983 [after 
22 February] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
li и skov, 7: 21 

Type genus: Kolhymamnicola Starobogatov & 
Budnikova, 1976 

KosMOPLEURiNAE Gründol, 2003 [30 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Natur- 
kunde, ser. В {Geologie und Paläontologie), 
340:21 

Type genus: -\Kosmopleura Gríjndel, 2003 

KosoviiNAE Atanackovic, 1959 

Reference: Geoloshki Glasnik, 3: 352 [Serbo- 
Croatian text], 373 [French text] 

Type genus: -fKosovia "Pavlovic, 1931" 

Remarks: Name only, no description. Not avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1 because it was ap- 
parently not used as valid before 2000. And 
also the type genus was not available from 
Pavlovic, 1931 (but was subsequently made 
available by Zilch, 1960). 

Krameriellinae Fryda & Heidelberger, 2003 
Reference: Bulletin of Czech Geological Sur- 
vey, 78{^)■. 38 
Type genus: -fKrameriella Fryda & Heidel- 
berger, 2003 



Kuskokwimiidae Fryda & Blodgett, 2001 
Reference: Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho 

L/sfay/tv, 76(1): 41 
Type genus: ^Kuskokwimia Fryda & Blodgett, 

2001 

Lachesinae L. Bellardi, 1877 [after May] 
Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 

Plemonte e delta Liguria, parte 2: 1 50 
Type genus: Lachesis Risso, 1826 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Lachesis Daudin, 1803 [Reptilia]. 
See Donovaniinae. 

Laciniariini H. Nordsieck, 1963 [30 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 92(3- 

4): 114 
Type genus: Laciniaria Hartmann, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Laciniarieae. 

Lacunidae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:92 

Type genus: Lact/na Tu rton, 1827 

Remarks: -inae, Stoliczka (1868 [in 1867- 
1871]: 261); -oidea, Starobogatov & Sitniko- 
va (1983: 21). 

Lacunopsini Davis, 1979 [6 June] 

Reference: Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, Monograph 20: 23 

Type genus: Lacunopsis Deshayes, 1876 

Remarks: -idae, loganzen & Starobogatov 
(1982: 1145); -oidea, Starobogatov & Sitnik- 
ova (1983: 22). 

Ladamarekiidae Fryda, 1998 

Reference: Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho 

Ustavu, 73{^y. 46 
Type genus: -tLadamarekia Horny, 1992 

Ladinulidae Bändel, 1992 [December] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 73: 39 
Type genus: ■\Ladinula Bändel, 1992 

Laeocochlidinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 28 
Type genus: Laeocochlis Dunker & Metzger, 

1874 
Remarks: Original spelling Laiocochliinae, 

based on Laiocochlis, an incorrect original 

spelling; see Opinion 1700(1993: 61). 



96 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Laevapicinae Hannibal, 1912 [29 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 10(2): 147 
Type genus: Laei/apex Walker, 1903 
Remarks: Original spelling Laevapecinae. -idae, 

Hannibal (1914: 24). 

Laevilitorininae Reid, 1989 [28 July] 
Reference: Philosoptiical Transactions of the 

Royal Society of London, ser. В, 324(1220): 

91 
Type genus: Laevilitorina Pfeffer [in Martens 

& Pfeffer], 1886 

Laginiopsidae Pruvot-Fol, 1922 [after 6 March] 
Reference: Comptes-Rendus des Séances 

de l'Académie des Sciences [Paris], 174: 

698 
Type genus: Laginiopsis Pruvot-Fol, 1922 

LAGocHEiLiDAEStoliczka, 1872 [after 6 August] 
Reference: Journal of the Asiatic Society of 

Bengal, 4^ {2): 2Q9 
Type genus: Lagocheilus Blanford, 1864 

Lailinae Burn, 1967 [August] 

Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 14(2): 

213 
Type genus: La/7a MacFarland, 1 905 

Lamarckiellinae Schileyko, 2003 [April] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs. Part 10: 1350 
Type genus: Lamarckiella Möllendorff, 1898 

Lamellariidae d'Orbigny, 1841 

Reference: Histoire physique, politique et na- 
turelle de Tile de Cuba. Mollusques, 1 : 200 

Type genus: Lamellaria Montagu, 1815 

Remarks: Original spelling Lamellaridae. 
-inae,Stoliczka (1868 [in 1867-1871]: 311); 
-oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1925 [in 1925- 
1926]: 87). 

Lamellata Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Lamelles" (vernac- 
ular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 202). Es- 
tablished as a family and not available as 
such (not based on existing genus). 

Lamellideinae Cooke & Kondo, 1961 [15 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulle- 
tin, 22^■. 162 

Type genus: Lamellidea Pilsbry, 1910 

Remarks: -ini, same reference. 



Lamellidorididae Pruvot-Fol, 1933 

Reference: Mémoires de LInstitut d'Egypte, 21 : 
138 

Type genus: Lamellidoris A\áer&. Hancock, 1855 

Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Onchidorididae because, in violation of 
the Principle of Priority, Pruvot-Fol treated 
Lamellidoris as a valid genus name and 
Onchidohs Blainville, 1816, as a synonym, 
-inae, Pruvot-Fol (1954: 295). 

Lamelliphoridae Korobkov, 1960 [after 29 June] 
Reference: [in Pchelintsev & Korobkov, eds.j 

Osnovy Paleóntologa, Molliuski, Briukhono- 

gie: 1 78 
Type genus: t'-a/r7e///)3/?omsCossmann, 1916 
Remarks: Attributed to "Korobkov, 1955", but 

we have not been able to find it in any of 

Korobkov's 1955 papers. 

Laminiferinae Wenz, 1923 [5 June] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 20: 794 
Type genus: -fLaminifera О. Boettger, 1863 

Lampadiidae Winckworth, 1945 [25 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 26(4-5): 146 
Type genus: Lampadion Röding, 1798 

Lampusiidae Newton, 1891 [22 August] 
Reference: Systematic list of the F. E. Edwards 
collection of British Oligocène and Eocene 
Mollusca in the British Museum {Natural His- 
tory): 145 
Type genus: Lampusia Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Original spelling Lampusidae. Intro- 
duced as a replacement name for Tritonidae, 
based on Tr/to/i Montfort, 1810, a junior hom- 
onym of Thton Linnaeus, 1758. Lampusiidae 
is not in current use and Art. 40.2 does not 
apply. See also Aquillidae and Lotohidae. 

Lanascalidae Bändel, 1992 [December] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 73: 48 
Type genus: -\Lanascala Bändel, 1992 

Lancinae Hannibal, 1914 [13 June] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 28(2): 24 
Type genus: Lanx Clessin, 1880 
Remarks: -idae, Pilsbry (1925: 73-74). 

Lanistinae Starobogatov, 1 983 [after 22 February] 
Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 

soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 

liuskov, 7: 22 
Type genus: Lanistes Montfort, 1810 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



97 



Lanzaiidae Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
li uskov, 7: 21 

Type genus: Lánzala Brusina, 1906 

Laocaiini Schileyko, 2002 [September] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs. Part 9: 1219 
Type genus: Laocaia Kuzminykh, 1999 
Remarks: Original spelling Laocaini. 

Laominae Suter, 1913 [December] 
Reference: Manual of tiie New Zealand Mol- 
lusca: 732 
Type genus: Laoma Gray, 1850 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale (1937a: 313). 

Laoninae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 71 
Type genus: Laona A. Adams, 1 865 

Lapinuridae Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1970 
[August] 

Reference: Studies on the fauna of Curaçao 
and other Caribbean Islands, 33: 19 

Type genus: Lapinura Er. Marcus & Ev. Mar- 
cus, 1970 

Remarks: Not available under Art. 15: pro- 
posed conditionally. 

Laplyshdae. SeeAplyslidae. 

Larocheidae Finlay, 1927 [19 January] 
Reference: Transactions and Proceedings of 

the New Zealand Institute, 57: 486 
Type genus: Larochea Finlay, 1927 
Remarks: -inae, Marshall (1993b: 285). 

Laskeyinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 [af- 
ter 23 October] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 

Type genus: Laskeya Iredale, 1918 

Lathophthalminae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 75 
Type genus: Lathophthalmus Pruvot-Fol, 1932 
Remarks: Introduced as a substitute name for 
Cryptophthalminae, invalid because its type 
genus is a junior homonym. Art. 40.2 does 
not apply. 

Latiidae Hutton, 1882 [May] 
Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 
Institute, 14: 156 



Type genus: Latia Gray, 1850 
Remarks: -inae [declared nov.], Hannibal (1912: 
147); -oidea, Starobogatov (1970b: 46). 

Latiridae Iredale, 1929 [23 or 24 March] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 5(4): 346 
Type genus: Lai/rus Montfort, 1810 

Latouchellidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:70 
Type genus: -tLatouchella Cobbold, 1921 

Latrunculinae Cossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 4: 139 
Type genus: Latrunculus Gray, 1847 

Laubellidae Сох, 1960 [about 15 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 7: 217 
Type genus: t Laubella Kiül, 1891 

Laubierinidae Waren & Beuchet, 1990 [2 Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: The Veliger, 33(1 ): 69 

Type genus: Laubierlna Waren & Bouchet, 1 990 

Remarks: -oidea [as -ioidea], Bändel & Riedel 
(1994a: 347). 

Lauriinae Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 
80:201 

Type genus: Lauria Gray, 1840 

Remarks: Name placed on the Official List by 
Direction 27 (1955: 484), but credited in error 
to Thiele, 1 931 . -ini [as -eae], Thiele (1 931 [in 
1 929-1 935]: 509); -idae. Bank et al. (2001 : 86). 

Lavigeriidae Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 79 
Type genus: Lavigeria Bourguignat, 1888 
Remarks: -inae, Morrison (1954: 358). 

Leachiae 

Remarks: "Leachiae Martens, 1858" (p. 193) 
is listed by Kabat & Hershler (1993: 6) as a 
family-group name, based on Leachia Ris- 
se, 1826. However, Martens indicates that 
he treated Leachia as a section of Hydro- 
bia, and Leachiae is merely a plural. 

Ledoulxiinae Pilsbry, 1919 [16 December] 
Reference: Bulletin of the American Museum 

of Natural History, 40: 245 
Type genus: Ledoulxia Bourguignat, 1885 



98 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Lemindidae Griffiths, 1 985 [June] 
Reference: Annals of the South African Mu- 
seum, 95(7): 270 
Type genus: Leminda Griffiths, 1985 

Lepetellinae Dal!, 1882 [5 IVlay] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 

National Museum, 4: 408 
Type genus: Lepetella Verrill, 1880 
Remarl<s: -idae, Thiele (1908: 89); -oidea, 

Golikov & Starobogatov (1968: 6). 

Lepetidae Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 

93 
Type genus: Lepeta Gray, 1842 
Remarks: -inae, Pilsbry (1891: 66); -oidea, 

Golikov & Starobogatov (1 968: 6). 

Lepetodrilidae McLean, 1988 [4 May] 
Reference: Philosophical Transactions of the 

Royal Society of London, ser. В, 319: 5 
Type genus: Lepetodrilus McLean, 1988 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], same reference. 

Lepetopsidae McLean, 1990 [7 November] 
Reference: Journal of Zoology, London, 

222(3): 489 
Type genus: ILepetops/s Whitfield, 1882 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], same reference. 

Leptachatinini Cockerell, 1913 [14 February] 
Reference: Science, new ser., 37(946): 256 
Type genus: Leptachatina Gould, 1848 
Remarks: -inae, Pilsbry & Cooke (1915 [in 
1914-1916]: 65). 

Leptariontini H. Nordsieck, 1987 [15 October] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 

3):22 
Type genus: Leptarionta Crosse & P. Fischer, 

1872 

Leptaxinae C. Boettger, 1909 [20 January] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 

Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 41 (1 ): 4 
Type genus: Leptaxis Lowe, 1852 
Remarks: Original spelling Leptaxidinae. -ini, 

H. Nordsieck (1993b: 5). 

Leptichnini Van Goethem, 1977 [July] 
Reference: Musée Royal de LAfrique Centrale, 

Annales, Sciences Zoologiques, 218: 91 
Type genus: Leptichnus Simroth, 1896 
Remarks: Original spelling Leptichneini. 



Leptoglossae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 294, 314 
Remarks: Established as a division of the "su- 
perfamily" Pseudodorididae. Not available as 
a family-group name (not based on a genus). 

Lepyriidae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1951 [4 April] 
Reference: Notulae Naturae of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 233: 5 
Type genus: Lepyrium Dall, 1896 
Remarks: -inae, F. G. Thompson (1981: 38). 

Lesueurillidae P. J. Wagner, 2002 
Reference: Smithsonian Contributions to Pa- 
leobiology, 88: 75 
Type genus: -\Lesueurilla Koken, 1898 

Leucochroidae Westerlund, 1886 

Reference: Fauna der in der paläarctischen 
Region lebenden Binnenconchylien: title 
page 

Type genus: Leucochroa Beck, 1837 

Remarks: -ini [as Leucochroea], Wenz (1923 
[in 1923-1930]: 383); -inae [in the sense of 
Helicellinae], H. B. Baker (1956a: 132). 
When he established Leucochroidae, West- 
erlund considered Helix candidissima 
Draparnaud, 1801, to be the type-species 
of Leucochroa. However, Herrmannsen 
(1846 [in 1846-1852]: 585-586) had earlier 
validly designated Helix albella Linnaeus, 
1758 [= Theba pisana (Müller, 1774)]; see 
Forcart (1965b: 255). The case has been 
submitted (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2004) to the 
ICZN to place Leucochroidae on the Official 
Index. 

Leuconopsidae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Memoir 1 1 : 82 
Type genus: Leuconopsis Hutton, 1884 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Leucophytiidae Starobogatov, 1976 

Reference: Biologiia Moria, 4: 10 

Type genus: Leucophytia Winckworth, 1949 

Leucozonidae Mörch, 1864 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
den Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 
17-22 (for 1863): 279 

Remarks: Original spelling Leucozonae. Es- 
tablished as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



99 



LiARDETiiNi H. B. Baker, 1938 [10 October] 
Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulle- 
tin, 158: 11 
Type genus: Liardetia Gude, 1913 
Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Liardetiae. 

LiAREiDAE Powell, 1946 [after 19 July] 
Reference: The shellfish of New Zealand, ed. 

2:70 
Type genus: Liarea L. Pfeiffer, 1853 
Remarks: -inae. Ponder & Waren (1 988: 292). 

LiciNiNAE Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:82 

Type genus: Licina Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Original spelling Licinina. -idae, Ko- 
belt & Möllendorff ( 1 898 [in 1 897-1 899]: 1 80). 
Homonym of Licininae Bonelli, 1810, based 
on Licinus Fabricius, 1802 [Coleóptera]. 

LiGuiDAE Pilsbry, 1891 [25 August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 43: 317 
Type genus: L/gut/s Montfort, 1810 

LiLJEVALLOspiRiDAE GoNkov & Starobogatov, 

1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

187:70 
Type genus: iLiljevallospira Knight, 1945 

LiMAciDAE Lamarck, 1801 

Reference: Systeme des animaux sans 
vertèbres: 62 

Type genus: L/max Linnaeus, 1758 

Remarks: Original spelling "les Limaciers" (ver- 
nacular). Becomes "les Limaces" in Férus- 
sac (1807: 36) and "les Limaclens" In 
Lamarck (1 809: 320, and later works). First 
latinized [as (family) Limaxia and (subfami- 
ly) Limacidia] by Rafinesque(1815); also [as 
Limacinia] by Children (1 823 [in 1 822-1 824]: 
234). -oidea, H. В. Baker (1956а: 132). 

LiMACiiDAE Winckworth, 1951 [5 March] 
Reference: Journal of Conchology, 23(5): 132 
Type genus: Limada О. F. Müller, 1781 
Remarks: -ini, Bouchet & Valdés, herein [for 
consistency of ranking]. 

LiMAciNiDAE Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 144, 151 
Type genus: Limacina Bosc, 1817 



Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], S. M. Smith & 
Heppell(1991:45). 

LiMAcopsiDAE Gerhardt, 1935 [16 July] 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Morphologie und 

Ökologie der Tiere, 30(2): 329 
Type genus: Limacopsis Simroth, 1i 



LiMAPONTiiDAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 167 
Type genus: Limapontia Johnston, 1836 
Remarks: Original spelling Limapontiadae. 
Name sometimes attributed in error to 
Johnston (1836: 79), who suggested that 
Limapontia, [Elysia] viridis and others might 
form a "separate order of their class", which 
he did not name, -oidea, Jensen (1996: 
118). 

LiMicoLARiiNAE Schileyko, 1999 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs. Part 4: 473 
Type genus: Limicolaha Schumacher, 1817 

LiMNOCocHLiDEs Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Limnocochlides" 
(vernacular). Latinized, with identical spell- 
ing, by Latreille (1 825: 181). Established as 
a family and not available as such (not based 
on a genus). 

LiMNOPHiLiDAE Jousseaume, 1894 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société 

Zoologique de France, 7: 297 
Remarks: Taxon containing the tribes (sic) 
Auriculinae, Lymnaeinae and Planorbinae. 
Limnophila treated as superfamily by F. С 
Baker (1928: 187). Not available as a fami- 
ly-group name (not based on a genus). 

LiMNOPHYsiDAE W. Dybowski, 1903 [19 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 
Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 35(9-10): 
139 

Type genus: Limnophysa Fitzinger, 1833 

LiMNOREiDAE B. Dybowskl, 1911 

Reference: Kosmos, 36: 961 

Type genus: Limnorea W. Dybowski, 1875 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym o^ Limnorea Goldfuss, 1826 [Porifera], 
and Limnorea Agass\z, 1846 [Coleóptera]. 



100 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



LiMNOSTREAE. See Lymnostreae. 

LiMNOTROCHiDAE Апсву, 1906 [30 June] 
Reference: Bulletin Scientifique de la France 

et de la Belgique, 40; 245 
Type genus: Limnotrochus E. A. Smith, 1880 

LiNDHOLMioLiNAE Schileyko, 1978 [after 1 March] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, Molliuski, 3(6): 116 
Type genus: Lindholmiola Hesse, 1931 
Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (1993b: 4). 

LioATLANTiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 
1920 

Reference: Kosmos, 45: 99, 114 

Type genus: Lioatlanta B. Dybowski & Grochmal- 
icki, 1920 

LiOBAicALiiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 

1914 [April] 
Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 

l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 

Petersbourg, 18:277 
Type genus: Liobaicalia Martens, 1876 

LiocARENiNAE Wenz, 1938[МагсЬ] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

42,48 
Type genus: -\Liocarenus Harris & Burrows, 

1891 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Diagnosed 

byZilch(1959[in 1959-1960]: 11). 

LiocASPiiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 1914 

[April] 
Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 

l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 

Petersbourg, 18:277 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

LiocoNCHAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 1920 

Reference: Kosmos, 45: 89, 103 

Remarks: Not available: a plural noun (Art. 
11.7.1.2) for certain loosely coiled gastro- 
pods and not based on a genus. 

LiOMESiNAE P. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 624 
Type genus: Liomesus Stimpson, 1865 
Remarks: -idae, Goryachev (1987b: 35); -ini, 

Bouchot & Kantor, herein. 

LioPLACiNAE Gill, 1863 [before 3 April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 15: 36, 38 
Type genus: L/op/ax Troschel, 1857 



Remarks: Original spelling Lioplaces. -idae, 
Hannibal (1912: 195). 

LiosARMATiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 
1920 

Reference: Kosmos, 45: 114 

Type genus: -\Liosarmata B. Dybowski & Gro- 
chmalicki, 1920 

Remarks: Original spelling Liosarmatae. Liosa- 
rmata and Microliopalaeina have the same 
type species, and Microliopalaeinae is a jun- 
ior objective synonym of Liosarmatinae. 

LiospiRiNAE Knight, 1956 [8 March] 

Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 

Type genus: -\Liospira Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 

Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1 960: 
201). 

LiosTOMiiNi Schänder, Halanych, Dahlgren & 

Sundberg, 2003 [May] 
Reference: Zoológica Scripta, 32(3): 249 
Type genus: Liostomia G. O. Sars, 1878 
Remarks: Not available: established as "node- 
based informal name Liostomini", defined as 
"the least inclusive clade comprising Liosto- 
mia clavula (Lovén 1846) and Spiralinella 
pellucida {D\\\wyn 1817)". 

LioTiiDAE Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 

64,88 
Type genus: Liotia Gray, 1842 
Remarks: Original spelling Liotiadae. -inae, H. 

Adams & A. Adams (1854: 403). 

LippisTiDAE Iredale, 1924 [24 October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Linnean Soci- 
ety of New South Wales, 49(3): 251 
Type genus: Lippistes Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Introduced as a substitute name for 
Trichotropidae on the grounds that Lippistes 
has precedence over Trichotropis Broderip 
& G. B. Sowerby I, 1829. However, Iredale 
did not consider Trichotropis a synonym of 
Lippistes, and Art. 40.2 does not apply. 

LiRiOLiDAE Golikov & Kusakin, 1978 [after 16 

February] 
Reference: Opredeliteli po Faune SSSR, 1 1 6: 220 
Type genus: Liriola Dall, 1870 

LiRONOBiNAE Ponder, 1967 [29 September] 
Reference: Transactions of the Royal Society 
of New Zealand, Zoology, 9(17): 219 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



101 



Type genus: L/ronoba Iredale, 1915 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1975:211). 

LiRULARiiNAE HickiTian & McLean, 1990 [26 

November] 
Reference: Natural History Museum of Los 

Angeles County, Science Series, 35: 122 
Type genus: Lirularia Dal!, 1909 

LissoDORiDiNAE Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de Zoologie, 5(3): 

866 
Type genus: Lissodoris Odhner, 1934 

LiTHOGLYPHiNAE Тгуоп, 1866 [1 April] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

2(2): 156 
Type genus: Lithoglyphus С Pfeiffer, 1828 
Remarks: Not available from Troschel (1857 [in 
1856-1891]: 104 [as Lithoglyphi: a plural not 
equivalent to a family-group name], -idae, Ko- 
belt (1878 [in 1876-1881]: 133); -ini [as 
-eae], Thiele (1 928a: 379). Declared new sub- 
family, despite reference to Troschel, Wenz 
and others, by D. W. Taylor (1966b: 182). 

LiTHOGLYPHULiDAE Radoman, 1973 [31 May] 
Reference: Prirodnjacki Muzej и Beogradu, 

Posebna Izdanja, 32: 14 
Type genus: Lithoglyphulus Schlickum & 

Schutt, 1971 
Remarks: See also Tanousiidae. 

LmopiNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 155 
Type genus: Litiopa Rang, 1829 
Remarks: Original spelling Litiopina. -idae, P. 

Fischer(1885[in 1880-1887]: 718). 

LiTTORiDiNiNi Thiele, 1 928 [1 2 September] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 
Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der 
Tiere, 55: 372, 378 
Type genus: Littoridina Souleyet, 1852 
Remarks: Original spelling Littoridineae. Au- 
thorship discussed by Thompson & Her- 
schier (1991: 669). -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 
1938-1944]: 50-51); -idae, Starobogatov 
(1970b: 33); -oidea, loganzen & Starobo- 
gatov (1982: 1145). 

LiTTORiDiNOPsiDAE Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
l'Avancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Pans, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 



Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. Nicolas established the "series" Littori- 
dinopsidae within his family Tanganyikidae, 
to include gastropods from Lake Tanganyi- 
ka resembling Littorinidae, and the name ap- 
pears to have been descriptive. 

Littorinidae Children, 1834 

Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 28: 110 
Type genus: Littorina Férussac, 1822 
Remarks: -inae [as Llttorinae], Troschel (1858 

[in 1856-1891]: 129); -oidea [as -acea], 

Cossmann(1916: 5-7). 

LivoNiiNi Bail & Poppe, 2001 [September] 
Reference: A taxonomic introduction to the 

Recent Volutidae: 22 
Type genus: Livonia Gray, 1855 

LivoRNiELLiDAE Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 107 
Type genus: Livorniella Rankin, 1979 
Remarks: -oidea, Starobogatov (1983: 31). 

LoBiFERiDAE Pruvot-Fol, 1947 [14 June] 
Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 87: 101 
Type genus: Lobifera Pease, 1860 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Caliphyllidae because Lobifera is the old- 
est genus-group name in the family. 

LoBiGERiDAE Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 173 
Type genus: Lob/gerKrohn, 1847 

LoMANOTiDAE Bergh, 1890 [May] 

Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 

Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 

Thiere, 5: 49 
Type genus: Lomanotus Уегапу, 1844 

LoNGicoMMissuRATA Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 95 
Remarks: Taxen containing the genus Aplysia 
only, established at subfamily rank. Not avail- 
able as a family-group name (not based on 
a genus). 

LoPHioTOMiNAE Morrison, 1965 [1 December] 
Reference: The American Malacological 

Union, Annual Reports for 1965: 2 
Type genus: Lophiotoma Casey, 1904 
Remarks: Not available: Morrison diagnosed 
together "the subfamily Lophiotominae or 
Crassispirinae" without giving any charac- 



102 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



ter specific to Lophiotominae. Lophiotoma 
and Crassispira are not considered consub- 
familial by Taylor et a!. (1 993: 1 25). 

LoPHocERCiNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 163 
Type genus: Lophocercus Krohn, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Lephocercina, 

based on the incorrect spelling Lephocercus. 

-idae, Gray (1850b: 98). See Oxynoeidae. 

LoPHOSPiRiNAE Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

124 
Type genus: -\Lophospira Whitfield, 1886 
Remarks: -idae, Knight, Batten & Yochelson 

(in Moore, 1960: 207); -oidea, P. J. Wagner 

(1999:30). 

LoRiNAE Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 92 

Type genus: Lora Gistel, 1848 

Remarks: Thiele used Lora for the boreal spe- 
cies now called Oenopota, and Lorinae 
would then be a senior synonym of Oenop- 
otinae. However, Lora is a replacement 
name for Defranc/a Millet, 1827, non Bronn, 
1825, and its type-species has been ruled 
by Opinion 666 (1963: 267) to be Defrancia 
pagoda Millet, 1826: it would then be a jun- 
ior synonym of Defranciinae and Clathurel- 
linae. Under Art. 41 the case needs to be 
referred to the Commission. Not a homonym 
of Loridae Gray, 1821, based on Loris Geof- 
froy Saint-Hilaire, 1796 [Mammalia], which 
was emended to Lorisidae by Opinion 1995 
(2002; Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 
59: 65-67). 

LoTORiiDAE Harris, 1897 [after 25 March] 
Reference: Catalogue of Tertiary Mollusca in 
the Department of Geology. British Museum 
{Natural History), Part 7: 185 
Type genus: Loior/t/m Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Replacement name for Thtonidae, 
invalid because its type genus Triton Montfort, 
1 81 0, is a junior homonym of Triton Linnaeus, 
1758. See also Aquillidae and Lampusiidae. 

LoTTiiDAE Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 115 
Type genus: Lottia Gray, 1833 
Remarks: Original spelling Lottiadae. -inae / 

-ini, Lindberg (1988b: 388); -oidea. Bouchet, 

herein [in place of Acmaeoidea over which it 

has priority]. 



LoxoNEMATiDAE Кокоп, 1889 

Reference: Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, 

Geologie und Paléontologie, Beilage Band, 

6:440 
Type genus: -fLoxonema Phillips, 1841 
Remarks: Original spelling "Loxonematiden" 

(vernacular). Latinized by Böhm (1895: 262). 

-oidea [as -acea], Cossmann (1909; 11); 

-inae, Wenz (1938; 39, 45, 377). 

LoxoPLociNAE Cossmann, 1899 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 3: 105 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus [Loxoplocus P. Fischer, 1885, is unre- 
lated: it was introduced as a subgenus of 
Murchisonia and placed in Pleurotomariidae, 
whereas Cossmann established Loxoploci- 
nae for a group of Volutidae]. 

LoYiNAE Martynov, 1994 [after 22 September] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 73(10): 7 
Type genus: Loy Martynov, 1 994 

LucERNiNAE Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 1 62, 328 
Type genus: Lucerna Röding, 1798 
Remarks: The genus name Lucerna was first 
published by Humphrey (1797) in a work 
placed on the Official Index. It was subse- 
quently used as valid, with or without refer- 
ence to Humphrey, by several authors, with 
different taxonomic extensions. When he es- 
tablished Lucerninae, Swainson used Lucer- 
na in the sense of Dentellarla Schumacher, 
1817, i.e. for species of Pleurodontidae, and 
not in the sense of Röding, 1798 (type spe- 
cies designated by Kennard, 1942: 117, Helix 
hngens Gmelin; i.e. a species of the orthalicid 
subfamily Bulimulidae, tribe Odontostomini). 
Under Art. 41 , the case should be brought to 
the Commission. The name Lucerninae has 
priority over OrthalicidaeAlbers, 1860, Bulim- 
ulidae Tryon, 1867, Odontostomidae Pilsbry 
&Vanatta, 1898, and Pleurodontidae Ihering, 
1912, but it has never been used as a valid 
name. -idae, H. B. Baker (1956: 132). 

LuciELLiDAE Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: •\Luciella de Koninck, 1883 
Remarks; No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 
209). 

LuRiiNi Schilder, 1932 [20 October] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 55: 145 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



103 



Type genus: Luria Jousseaume, 1884 
Remarks: Name only. Diagnosed by Schilder 
(1939: 178). -inae, С Meyer (2003: 421). 

Lymnaeinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 144 
Type genus: Lymnaea Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Lymnid- 
ia. First established as "les Lymnéens" (ver- 
nacular) by Lamarck (1812: 116), but not 
generally credited to this author (see Bouchet 
& Rocroi, 2001: 173). Placed on the Official 
List by Opinion 495 (1957: 293). -idae [as 
"Fam. Limnacea"], Blainville (1824: 242); 
-oidea, Hannibal (1912a: 137). See also Lym- 
nostreae. 

Lymnostreae Férussac, 1819 [10 July] 
Reference: Histoire naturelle générale et par- 
ticulière des mollusques terrestres et fluviá- 
tiles: 20 
Remarks: Established as the Latin name 
equivalent to the family "les Lymnéens", with 
a diagnosis but no included taxon. Spelling 
emended to Limnostreae by Férussac (1822 
[in 1821-1822]: xxxiij), there including the 
genera Espiphylla, Planorbis, Physa, Lym- 
neus, Leptoxis, Lomastoma, Ancylus, and 
Eutrema. Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Lyocyclidae Thiele, 1925 [before 10 Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: Deutsche Tiefsee Expedition 
1898-1899, 17(2): 82 [116] 

Type genus: Lyocyc/ivs Thiele, 1925 

Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1 929 [in 1929-1935]: 
245). 

Lyogyrinae Pilsbry, 1916 [4 December] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 30(7): 84 
Type genus: Lyogyrus Gill, 1863 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Thiele (1928a: 378). 

Lyriinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [7 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^ 52): ^ 5 [285] 

Type genus: Lyha Gray, 1847 

Remarks: -ini, Bail & Poppe (2001: 7, 11). 

Lysinoinae Hoffmann, 1928 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronns Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tier-Reichs, Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Buch 
2:1239 

Type genus: Lysinoe H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1855 



Remarks: Original spelling Lysinoeinae. -ini, 
H.Nordsieck(1987:22). 

Macgillivrayiidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 

[November] 
Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 

2:88 
Type genus: MacgilHvrayia Forbes, 1852 

Macluritidae Carpenter, 1861 

Reference: Annual Report of the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 
1860:216 

Type genus: -fMaclurites Lesueur, 1818 

Remarks: Original spelling Maclureadae, 
based on Maclurea Emmons, 1842, an un- 
justified emendation of Macluhtes. Placed on 
the Official List by Opinion 1470 (1988: 64). 
-oidea [as-aeacea]. Gill (1871: 11). 

Macroceraminae Jaume & de la Torre, 1972 
Reference: Circulares del Museo y Biblioteca 

de Zoología de La Habana: 1528 
Type genus: /Wacroceramtvs Guilding, 1829 

Macrocheilidae White, 1877 

Reference: Report upon United States geo- 
graphical surveys west of the one hundredth 
meridian. Vol. 4, Paleontology: 160 

Type genus: -\Macrocheilus Phillips, 1841 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior homonym 
oi Macrocheilus Kirby, 1838 [Coleóptera]. 



Macrochlamydinae Godwin-Austen, 11 

[April] 
Reference: Land and freshwater Mollusca of 

India, 1(6): 254 
Type genus: Macrochlamys Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Macrochlaminae. 

-idae, Wenz (1923 [in 1923-1930]: 321); 

-ini [as Macrochlamydi], Solem (1966: 27). 

Macrocyclidae Thiele, 1926 [20 February] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 145 
Type genus: Macrocyclis Beck, 1837 

Macroogona Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxxii, xxxiv 
Remarks: Emendation of the name Macroon. 
Alternative original spelling Macroogona. Es- 
tablished as a "tribe", immediately below fam- 
ily [Helicidae], the author having "purposely 
abstained from assigning subfamily rank to the 
natural tribes of Helices", but Acavinae given 
as an alternative name. Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 



104 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Macroon Pilsbry, 1893 [14 February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelptiia, 44: 390- 
391 
Remarks: Established as a "group" above ge- 
nus. Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). See Macroogona. 

Macrostoma Lamarck, 1812 [October] 
Reference: Extrait du cours de zoologie: 1 1 8 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Macrostomes" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 
199). Spelling emended to Macrostomidae 
by Broderip (1839: 320). Taxon containing 
the genera Stomatia and Stomatella, estab- 
lished as a family and not available as such 
(not based on a genus). 

Madrellidae Preston, 1911 [January] 
Reference: Zoological Record, 46(N): 76 
Type genus: MadrellaA\der &. Hancock, 1864 
Remarks: Not available from Vayssière (1 909: 
636), who had established "Madrellidés" 
(vernacular name published after 1900). 

Magilidae Thiele, 1925 [before 10 November] 
Reference: Deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition 

1898-1899, 17(2): 138 [172] 
Type genus: Magilus Montfort, 1810 

Maikhanellidae Missarzhevsky, 1989 [after 10 
July] 

Reference: Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituía, 
Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 443: 179 

Type genus: ■\Maikhanella Zhegallo, 1982 

Remarks: Original spelling Majkhanellidae, 
based on Majkhanella, an incorrect subse- 
quent spelling of Maikhanella. -inae, Feng, 
Sun & Qian (2001 : 197 [Chinese], 206 [Eng- 
lish]). 

Maizaniidae Tielecke, 1 940 [1 5 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, new 

ser., 9(3): 365 
Type genus: Maizania Bourguignat, 1889 

Mammillinae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Memoir 1 1 : 57 
Type genus: Mammilla Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Mancohedylidae Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 99 
Type genus: Mancohedyle Rankin, 1979 



Remarks: Type genus not available (no type 
species designated) from Salvini-Plawen, 
1973. See Pontohedylidae. 

Mandeliidae Valdés & Gosliner, 1999 
Reference: Zoológica Scripta, 28(3-4): 315 
Type genus: Mandelia Valdés & Gosliner, 1 999 

Mandolininae Schilder, 1932 [15 March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 20(1): 47 
Type genus: ^Mandolina Bayle [in Jous- 

seaume], 1884 
Remarks: -ini, Schilder (1936: 107). 

Mangeliinae p. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 587 
Type genus: Mangelia Risso, 1826 
Remarks: Original spelling Mangiliinae, based 
on Mangilia Lovén, 1846, an unjustified emen- 
dation oí Mangelia. 

Mangonuiidae Iredale, 1936 [7 April] 
Reference: Records of the Australian Muse- 
um, ^9{5)■. 326 
Type genus: Mangonuia Mestayer, 1930 
Remarks: Original spelling Mangonuidae. 

Maoraxidae Bändel, Gründel & Maxwell, 2000 
Reference: Freiberger Forschungshefte, ser. 

С, 490: 89 
Type genus: ^Maoraxis Bändel, Gründel & 

Maxwell, 2000 

Marconiinae Schileyko, 2000 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 6: 828 
Type genus: Márcenla Bourguignat, 1889 

MARGARmNAE StoNczka, 1868 [1 October] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Survey 
of India. Palaeontologia Indica. Cretaceous 
Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Parts 7-10: 
367 
Type genus: Margarita Leach, 1819 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Margarita Leach, 1814 [Bivalvia]. 

MARGARmNAE Thiele, 1924 [February] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Zoolo- 
gischen Museum in Berlin, 1 1 (1 ): 67 
Type genus: Margantes Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Homonym and synonym of Marga- 
ritinae Stoliczka, 1868, and homonym of 
Margaritidae Blainville, 1824, based on Mar- 
garita Leach, 1814 [Bivalvia]. Thiele was the 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



105 



first author to explicitly base Margaritinae on 
Margantes, rather than Margarita Leach, 1819. 
Under Art. 55.3, the case should be referred 
to the Commission to remove homonymy; as 
neither Margaritidae Blainville nor Margariti- 
nae Stoliczka is in current use, we think they 
should be suppressed, leaving Margaritinae 
Thiele valid. -ini, McLean (1982: 11). 

Marginellidae Fleming, 1828 [March] 
Reference: A history of British animals: 328, 

335 
Type genus: Marginella Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Marginelladae. 

-inae, Swainson (1840: 99); -oidea, Staro- 

bogatov (1 970b: 44); -ini, G. A. Coovert & H. 

K. Coovert(1995:94). 

Marginelloninae Coan, 1965 [1 January] 

Reference: The Veliger, 7(3): 186 

Type genus: Marginellona Martens, 1904 

Marianinidae Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 

874 
Type genus: Marianina Pruvot-Fol, 1931 

Marpessinae Wenz, 1923 [5 June] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogas, I, Pars 20: 

757 
Type genus: Marpessa Gray, 1840 
Remarks: See Cochlodininae. 

Marseniidae Leach, 1847 [October] 
Reference: [in Gray, ed.] Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History, 20: 268 
Type genus: Marsenia Oken, 1823 
Remarks: Original spelling Marseniadae. 

Marsenininae Odhner, 1913 [25 July] 
Reference: Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps- 

akademiens Handllngar, 50(5): 9 
Type genus: Marsenina Gray, 1850 

Marseniopsidae Bändel, 1993 [December] 
Reference: Scripta Geológica, Special Issue 

2:38 
Type genus: Marseniopsis Bergh, 1886 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Martensamnicolinae Izzatullaev, Sitnikova & 
Starobogatov, 1985 [after 11 September] 

Reference: Biulleten' Moskovskogo Obsh- 
chestva Ispytatelei Prirody, Otdel Biolog- 
icheskii, new ser., 90(5): 53 

Type genus: Martensamnicola Izzatullaev, Sit- 
nikova & Starobogatov, 1985 



Mastigophallini Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv fijr Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 225 
Type genus: Mastigophallus Hesse, 1918 

Mastoniinae Kosuge, 1966 [31 August] 
Reference: Malacologia, 4(2): 315 
Type genus: Mastonia Hinds, 1843 

Mathildidae Dall, 1889 [June] 

Reference: Bulletin of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, 18: 23, 266 

Type genus: -[Mathilda Semper, 1865 

Remarks: Original spelling Mathildiidae. Intro- 
duced independently by Sacco (1892: 27). 
-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1968: 7). 

Maturifusidae Gründel, 2001 
Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Ab- 
handlungen, ser. E, 36: 74 
Type genus: -[Maturifusus Szabo, 1983 

Mauritiinae Steadman & Cotton, 1946 [30 

June] 
Reference: Records of the South Australian 

Museum, 8(3): 504, 509 
Type genus: /Watyr/i/'aTroschel, 1863 
Remarks: -ini, Schilder (1968: 266). 

Medorini H. Nordsieck, 1997 [September] 

Reference: Heldia, 4, Suppl. 5: 54 

Type genus: Medora H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1855 

Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 
Brandt (1961: 14 [as Medoreae]). H. Nord- 
sieck did not give a formal diagnosis but pro- 
vided a table of character states that are 
diagnostic for Medorini, which satisfies Art. 
13.1 of the Code. 

Meekospiridae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 

Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 

Type genus: -[Meekospira Ulrich [in Ulrich & 
Scofield], 1897 

Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1 960: 
321). -inae, Nützel, herein. 

Megalobulimidae Leme, 1973 
Reference: Arqulvos de Zoología, 23(5): 333 
Type genus: Megalobulimus K. Miller, 1878 
Remarks: -inae, Hausdorf & Bouchet, herein. 

Megalomastomatinae W. Blanford, 1864 [June] 
Reference: The Annals and Magazine of Nat- 
ural History, ser. 3, 13: 465 



106 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Megalomastoma Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Megalomastomi- 

nae. -ini [as -eae], Kobelt (1902: 231 , 261 ); 

-idae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 210). 

Megalophaedusini Zilch, 1 954 [1 5 April] 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 83(1- 
3):3 

Type genus: Megalophaedusa O. Boettger, 
1877 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Megalophae- 
duseae. Name only, no diagnosis. First di- 
agnosed by Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 
379). -inae,Abbott (1989: 215). 

Megalostominae Jousseaume, 1894 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société 

Zoologique de France, 7: 309 
Remarks: Taxon containing the genera Cat- 

aulus and Nicida. Not available (not based 

on a genus). 

Megaspiridae Pilsbry, 1904 [8 January] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 

16(63): 175 
Type genus: Megaspira Lea, 1838 

MEGASYSTROPHINAETryOn, 1871 

Reference: A monograph of the fresh-water 
univalve Mollusca of the United States, part 
2: 83-84 
Type genus: Megasystropha I. Lea, 1864 
Remarks: Original spelling Megasistrophinae. 
Invalid: type genus placed on the Official 
Index by Opinion 432 (1956: 373). 

Megomphicinae H. B. Baker, 1 930 [1 5 January] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 43{3у. 100 
Type genus: Megomphix H. B. Baker, 1930 
Remarks: -idae, H. Nordsieck (1986b: 99). See 
Polygyrellinae. 

Meisenheimeriinae Hoffmann, 1925 

Reference: Jenaische Zeitschrift für Natur- 
wissenschaft, 61(1-2): 220 

Type genus: Meisenheimeria Grimpe & Hoff- 
mann, 1924 

Remarks: See Pseudoveronicellinae. 

Melampidae Stimpson, 1851 (1850) 
Reference: Shells of New England. A revision 
of the synonymy of the testaceous mollusks 
of New England: 51 
Type genus: Melampus Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Cowie (1998: 41) gave reasons for 
using the spelling Melampodinae, and not- 
ed that "the issue may require a ruling from 



the ICZN"; his suggestion is not followed here, 
as the matter is controversial and Melampi- 
nae appears to be in prevailing usage, -inae, 
Pfeiffer (1853b: 8); -oidea [as -acea], Abbott 
(1974: 331). When he established Melam- 
pidae, Stimpson did not cite Conovulidae; 
however, Melampus and Conovulus are ob- 
jective synonyms, and Melampidae is main- 
tained under Art. 40.2, with the precedence 
of Conovulidae. 

Melanatriinae Thiele, 1921 [12 July] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 53(3): 

142 
Type genus: -tMelanatria Bowdich, 1822 
Remarks: -idae, Volkova et al. (in Pchelintsev 
& Korobkov, 1960: 166); -oidea, Staro- 
bogatov (in Starobogatov & Izzatullaev, 
1980:25). 

Melanellidae Iredale, 1915 [1 July] 
Reference: Journal of Conchology, 14(11): 344 
Type genus: Melanella Bowdich, 1822 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Eulimidae, because Melanella is an old- 
er name than, and according to Iredale per- 
haps a synonym of, Eullma Risso, 1826. 
Melanellidae has not gained general accep- 
tance over Eulimidae and Art. 40.2 does not 
apply, -oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl (1 962: 
10,20). 

Melaniidae Children, 1823 [July] 

Reference: Quarterly Journal of Science, Lit- 
erature & Arts, 15:243 

Type genus: Melania Lamarck, 1799 

Remarks: Original spelling Melaniana; latini- 
zation of "les Mélaniens" (vernacular), first 
established by Lamarck (1812: 116). -inae 
[as Melanianae], Swainson (1840: 340); 
-oidea [as -acea], Cossmann (1909: 121). 
Melaniidae has been replaced by Thiaridae 
and, under Art. 40.2, gives its precedence 
to the replacement name. If the name Mela- 
niidae was attributed to Lamarck (1812), 
Thiaridae would then have precedence over 
Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822, and this would 
change the name of the superfamily. Nomen- 
clature is best stabilized by attributing Mela- 
niidae to Children (1823) who was 
responsible for its first publication as a Latin 
name. 

Melanioptyxinae Lyssenko, 1984 
Reference: lurskle i melovye Nerinei luga 
SSSR i ikh stratigraficheskoe znachenie: 1 6 
Type genus: t/We/an/opiyx/s Cossmann, 1896 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



107 



Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis and 
published in a dissertation abstract, not avail- 
able for nomenclatural purposes. 

Melanodrymiidae Salvini-Plawen & Steiner, 

1995 [10 December] 
Reference: Origin and evolutionary radiation 

of ttie Mollusca: 36-37 
Type genus: Melanodrymia Hickman, 1984 

Melanoididae Ihering, 1909 [31 December] 
Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 57(4): 

296 
Type genus: Melanoides Olivier, 1804 
Remarks: Established independently by Star- 
obogatov (in Starobogatov & Izzatullaev, 
1980: 25). -inae / -oidea, Golikov & Staro- 
bogatov (1987: 25). 

Melanopsinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 
[February] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:309 

Type genus: Melanopsis Férussac, 1807 

Remarks: -idae [as Melanopidae, an incorrect 
spelling]. Gill (1863: 34); -oidea, Staro- 
bogatov (1970: 42). 

Melapiidae Kantor, 1991 [November] 
Reference: Ruthenica, 1(1-2): 50 
Type genus: /We/ap/um H.Adams & A. Adams, 
1853 

Melaraphidae Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 1983 

[after 22 February] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 21 
Type genus: Melaraphe Menke, 1828 

MelatomidaeGíII, 1871 [February] 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 4 

Type genus: Melatoma Swainson, 1840 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Clionellidae, possibly on the basis that 
Melatoma has precedence over Clionella 
Gray, 1847. However, Melatoma is a nomen 
dubium: see Powell (1966: 143). 

Melibidae Forbes, 1844 

Reference: Report of the 13th meeting of the 
British Association for the Advancement of 
Science {Cork, 1843). Reports of Research- 
es in Science: 186 

Type genus: Melibe Rang, 1829 

Remarks: Original spelling Meliboeadae, 
based on Meliboea, ruled by Opinion 697 



(1964: 97) to be an incorrect subsequent 
spelling of Melibe. Family Melibidae again 
declared new by Ihering (1876: 145). -inae. 
Alder & Hancock (1845 [in 1845-1855]: 2). 

Mellopegmidae Missarzhevsky, 1 989 [after 1 July] 
Reference: Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituía, 

Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 443: 179 
Type genus: -\Mellopegma Runnegar & Jell, 1 976 

Meloini Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [7 September] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^ 52): : 6 [286] 

Type genus: Melo J. Sowerby & G. B. Sower- 
byl,1826 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Meloides. 

MelongenidaeGíII, 1871 [February] (1854) 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 5 
Type genus: Melongena Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Established as a replacement name 
for "Cassidulina, Tr." [Troschel], based on 
Cassidulus Gray, 1854, which Gill treated as 
a synonym of Melongena. Melongenidae has 
won general acceptance and is conserved 
under Art. 40.2, with the precedence of Cas- 
sidulidae. -inae, P. Fischer (1884 [in 1880- 
1887]: 618). 

Menesthinae Saurin, 1958 

Reference: Annales de la Faculté des Scienc- 
es de Saigon, (1958): 65 

Type genus: Menestho Möller, 1842 

Remarks: Chrysallidinae given precedence over 
Menesthinae by First Reviser's action by 
Schander, van Aartsen & Corgan ( 1 999: 1 49). 

Mentissoideinae Lindholm, 1924 [19 April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 16(1): 67 
Type genus: Mentissoidea O. Boettger, 1877 
Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (1979: 261). 

Merdigerinae Schileyko, 1984 [after 14 June] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, Molliuski, 3(3): 328 
Type genus: Merdigera Held, 1837 

Merelinidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 [18 

December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 211 
Type genus: Merelina Iredale, 1915 

Merriidae Hedley, 1918 [19 June] 

Reference: Journal and Proceedings of the 
Royal Society of New South Wales, 51 , Sup- 
plement: M62 



108 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus; Merria Gray, 1839 
Remarks: Invalid: placed on the Official Index 
by Opinion 1009(1974: 160). 

Mesocochliopidae Yu, 1987 

Reference: [Yu Xihan] Mesozoic stratigraphy 

and paleontology from western Liaoning 

Province, volume 3: 59, 93 
Type genus: -\MesocochHopa Yen & Reeside, 

1946 

Mesodontinae Tryon, 1866 [6 October] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

2(4): 306 
Type genus: Mesodon Férussac, 1821 
Remarks: -idae, H. B. Baker (1963: 241); 
-oidea, H. B. Baker (in Franc, 1968b; 589); 
-ini, Emberton (1991a: 152); -Ina, Hausdorf & 
Bouchet, herein [for consistency of ranking]. 
Placed on the Official List by Opinion 1691 
(1992; 240), with the endorsement that it is 
not to be given precedence over Polygyridae. 

Mesglimacinae Hausdorf, 1998 [12 February] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

64(1): 62 
Type genus: Mesolimax Pollonera, 1888 

Mesotremata Wenz, 1 923 

Reference: Fossilium catalogus, /, Pars 17: 206 

Remarks; Taxon containing the family Vaginul- 

idae only. Established as a superfamily and 

not available as such (not based on a genus). 

Metabaleinae A. J. Wagner, 1913 [July] 
Reference: Iconographie der Land- und Süss- 

wasser-Mollusken, new ser., 21:7 
Remarks: Not available; not based on a genus. 

Metacerithiinae Cossmann, 1906 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 7: 20, 22 
Type genus: -\Metacerithium Cossmann, 1906 
Remarks; Original spelling Metacerithinae. 
-idae, Kollmann, herein. 

Metachloraeini Pfeffer, 1930 [2 January] 
Reference: Geologische und Palaeontolo- 

gische Abhandlungen, newser., 17(3); 190 
Type genus; -tMetachloraea Pfeffer, 1930 
Remarks; Original spelling (tribe) Metachlorae- 

ae. 

Metaclausiliinae Kennard & B. B. Woodward, 

1923 [October] 
Reference; Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 15(6): 303 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 



Metafruticicolinae Schileyko, 1972 [after 30 

August] 
Reference; Nekotorye aspekty izucheniia 

sovremennykh kontinental'nykh briukho- 

nogikh molliuskov: 38, 41 
Type genus; Metafruticicola Ihering, 1892 
Remarks; -ini, H. Nordsieck (1993b: 5). 

Metajapelioninae Goryachev, 1987 [after 23 

October] 
Reference; Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 33, 35 
Type genus; Metajapelion Goryachev, 1987 
Remarks; Type genus not available (no type 

species) from Tiba & Kosuge, 1980. 

Metarminoidea Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 
878 

Remarks; Taxon containing the families Ma- 
drellidae, Dironidae, and Zephyrinidae. Es- 
tablished as a superfamily and not available 
as a family-group name (not based on a 
genus). 

Metaxiinae Marshall, 1977 [8 September] 
Reference: A/ew Zealand Journal of Zoology, 

4(2): 111 
Type genus: Metaxia Monterosato, 1884 

Metoptomatidae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference; Handbuch der Paläozoologie, 6(1): 

38,43,92 
Type genus; -\Metoptoma Phillips, 1836 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1968:6). 

Metostracinae H. Nordsieck, 1987 [15 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 
3):22 

Type genus; Metostracon Pilsbry, 1900 

Remarks: -idae, Hausdorf (1998; 56). 

Mexithaumatinae D. W. Taylor, 1966 [1 Octo- 
ber] 
Reference: The Veliger, 9(2); 204 
Type genus: Mexithauma D. W. Taylor, 1966 
Remarks; -idae, Starobogatov (1970b; 36). 

MiAMiRiNAE Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 

Systematik. Geographie und Biologie der 

Thiere,6: 143 
Type genus: Miamira Bergh, 1874 
Remarks: Established as a subfamily despite 

suffix -idae. -idae, Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 

867). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



109 



MiCRACTAEONiDAE Schileyko, 1999 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pui- 

monate molluscs, Part 4: 541 
Type genus: Micractaeon Verdcourt, 1 993 

MicRARioNTiNAE Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 223 
Type genus: Micrarionta Ancey, 1880 
Remarks: -ina, Hausdorf & Bouchet, herein [for 

consistency of ranking]. 

MiCROCERAMiNAE Pilsbry, 1904 [8 January] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 

16(63): 151 
Type genus: Microceramus Pilsbry & Vanatta, 

1898 
Remarks: -idae, Vaught (1989: 88). 

MiCROCONOMANDSHURiNAE B. Dybowski & Gro- 
chmalicki, 1914 [April] 

Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 
Г Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 
Petersbourg, 18:278 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. 

MicRocoNOPALAEiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmal- 

icki, 1914 [April] 
Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 

l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 

Petersbourg, 18:278 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

MiCRocYSTiNAE Thiolo, 1931 [before 31 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 618 

Type genus: Microcystis Beck, 1837 

Remarks: -idae, Iredale (1937b: 27); -ini [as 
Microcysti], Solem (1966: 23). 

MicRODiscuLiDAE Iredalo & McMichael, 1962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum. Sydney. 

Memoir 1 1 : 36 
Type genus: /W/crod/scu/a Thiele, 1912 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

MicRODOMATiNAE Wonz, 1938 [МагсЬ] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1): 

44, 230 
Type genus: tMicrodoma Meek & Worthen, 

1866 
Remarks: Original spelling Microdominae. 

-idae / -oidea [as -acea], Cox & Knight (1 960: 

263). 



MicROHEDYLiDAE Odhnor, 1937 [October] 

Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 120(3-4): 62 

Type genus: Microhedyle Hertling, 1930 

Remarks: When he established Microhedyle, 

Hertling suggested that the new genus might 

justify the erection of a new family, but did not 

formally name it. -inae, С Boettger (1 955: 260). 

MicROLioPALAEiNiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmal- 

icki, 1914 [April] 
Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 

Г Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 

Petersbourg, 18:278 
Type genus: tMicroliopalaeina B. Dybowski & 

Grochmalicki, 1914 
Remarks: Original spelling Microliopalaeinae. 

Microliopalaeina and Liosarmata have the 

same type species and Microliopalaeinae is 

a senior objective synonym of Liosarmatinae. 

MiCROMELANiiDAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 

1914 [April] 
Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 

l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 

Petersbourg, 18:276 
Type genus: ^Micromelania Brusina, 1874 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1 925 [in 1 925-1 926]: 80). 

MicROMENiNAE Schiloyko, 2000 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs, Part 6: 843 
Type genus: Micromena H. B. Baker, 1939 

MicROPARMARioNiNi Schileyko, 2003 [April] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs. Part 10: 1337 
Type genus: Microparmahon Simroth, 1893 

MiCROPYRGULiDAE Radoman, 1973 [31 May] 
Reference: Prirodnjacki Muzej и Beogradu, 

Posebna Izdanja, 32: 12 
Type genus: Micropyrgula Polinski, 1929 
Remarks: -inae, Starobogatov & Sitnikova 

(1983:21). 

MicRORissoiDEA F. Nordsiock, 1972 [October] 
Reference: Die europäischen Meeres- 
schnecken: 145 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

MicROTURRiMANDSHURiNAE B. Dybowski & Gro- 
chmalicki, 1914 [April] 

Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 
l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 
Petersbourg, 18:278 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 



110 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



MicROTURRiPALAEiNAE В. Dybowski & Grochmal- 

icki, 1914 [April] 
Reference: Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de 

l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St 

Petersbourg, 18:278 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

MiCROvoLUTiDAE Iredale & McMichael, 1962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Memoir ^^■. 62 
Type genus: M icrovol uta Ar\gas, 1877 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

MiLACiDAE Ellis, 1926 

Reference: British snails: 252 

Type genus: Milax Gray, 1855 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 484). -inae [declared nov.], 
Hesse (in Germain, 1931a: 106). Again de- 
clared new by H. Wagner (1935: 189) and 
Cockerel! (1935: 143). 

MiNicHEviELLiDAE Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 

February] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 30 
Type genus: Minicheviella Starobogatov, 1983 
Remarks: -oidea, same reference. 

MiNOLiiNAE Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971 [27 

September] 
Reference: The sea shells ofSagami Bay: 38 

[Japanese text], 26 [English text] 
Type genus: MinoliaA. Adams, 1860 

MiRATESTiDAE R Sarasin & F. Sarasin, 1897 [19 

July] 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 20(536): 242 
Type genus: Miratesta P. Sarasin & F. Sarasin, 

1897 
Remarks: -ini / -inae, Starobogatov (1 970b: 49). 

MiRAVERELLiiNi Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 222 
Type genus: Miraverellia H. B. Baker, 1922 

MisuRiNELLiDAE Bändel, 1994 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungsheft, ser. С, 

452: 85 
Type genus: -\Misurinella Bändel, 1994 

MiTCHELLiiNAE Fryda, Blodgett & Lenz, 2002 

[March] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 76(2): 250 
Type genus: -\Mitchellia de Koninck, 1877 



MiTRARiiDAE Carcelles& Williamson, 1951 [De- 
cember] 

Reference: Revista del Instituto Nacional de 
Investigación de las Ciencias Naturales [Mu- 
seo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales], Cien- 
cias Zoológicas, 2(5): 301 

Type genus: Mitrarla Rafinesque, 1815 

Remarks: -inae, same reference. 

MiTRELLiNAE Gray, 1868 [April] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, (1867[3]): 740 

Type genus: Mitrella Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Original spelling Mitrellina. Invalid: 
type genus a junior homonym of Mitrella Ris- 
se, 1826 [Gastropoda]. 

MiTRiNAE Swainson, 1829 

Reference: Zoological illustrations, ser. 2,2: 

text of plates 4-6 
Type genus: Mitra Lamarck, 1798 
Remarks: Original spellings (subfamily) Mitri- 

ana and Mitrianae. -idae [as Mitriadae], de 

Kay (1 843: 151); -oidea [as -acea], Taylor & 

Sohl (1962: 10). 

MiTROLUMNiDAE Sacco, 1904 [31 August] 

Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 
Piemonte e delta Liguna, Parte 30: 88 

Type genus: Mitrolumna Bucquoy, Dautzen- 
berg & Dollfus, 1883 

Remarks: Substitute name for Diptychomithnae, 
based on Diptychomitra Bellardi, 1888, by Sac- 
co considered a synonym of Mitrolumna. -inae, 
Abbott (1974: 269). Diptychomitrinae is not 
used at all, but Mitrolumninae has only rarely 
been used, e.g. by Sabelli & Spada (1977: 1- 
2), and it is doubtful whether Art. 40.2 applies. 

MiTROMORPHiNAE Casey, 1904 [19 May] 
Reference: Transactions of the Academy of 

Science of St Louis, 14: 126, 169 
Type genus: Mitromorpha Carpenter, 1865 
Remarks: Original spelling Mitromorphini, as 

"tribe" of Pleurotomidae, immediately below 

family rank. 

MoDULiDAE P. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 686 
Type genus: Modulus Gray, 1842 

MoELLERiiNAE Hickman & McLean, 1990 [26 

November] 
Reference: Natural History Museum of Los 

Angeles County, Science Series, 35: 43 
Type genus: Moelleria Jeffreys, 1865 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



111 



MoHNiiNAE Higo & Goto, 1993 [1 February] 
Reference: A systematic list of molluscan 

sliells from the Japanese islands and the 

adjacent area: 214 
Type genus: Mohnia Friele, 1879 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

MoHRENSTERNiiNAE Korobkov, 1955 [after 17 

August] 
Reference: Spravochnik i metodicheskoe ruk- 

ovodstvo po tretichnym molliuskam. Briukho- 

nogie: 1 75 
Type genus: -fMohrensternia Stoliczka, 1868 

MoiTEssiERiiDAE Bourgulgnat, 1863 [December] 
Reference: Monographie du nouveau genre 

français Moitessieria: 8 
Type genus: Moitessieria Bourguignat, 1863 
Remarks: Original spelling Moitessieridae. 

-oidea,Starobogatov&Sitnikova(1983:21); 

-inae, Ponder & Waren (1 988: 297). 

MoNACHiNi Wenz, 1930 [10 April] (1904) 
Reference: Fossil ium catalogus, I, Pars 46: 

3027 
Type genus: Monacha Fitzinger, 1833 
Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Monachea. 
Wenz regarded Monacha as a senior syn- 
onym of Carthusiana, and established Mo- 
nachini as a replacement name for Thebini 
(see that name) and thus, indirectly, for 
Carthusianini. Monachini is conserved un- 
der Art. 40.2 and takes the precedence of 
Carthusianini. -inae, Schileyko (1972: 41). 
Homonym of Monachinae Gray, 1 869, based 
on Monachus Fleming, 1 822 [Mammalia]. An 
application has been submitted (Bouchet & 
Rocroi, 2004) to ICZN to emend the mollus- 
can family name to Monachaini. 

MoNADENiiNAE H. Nordsieck, 1 987 [1 5 October] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 

3):19 
Type genus: Monadenia Pilsbry, 1895 
Remarks: -idae, Schileyko (1997: 405). 

MoNATRiiDAE Simroth, 1885 [18 August] 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 

Zoologie, 42(2): 290 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

MoNiLEiNi Hickman & McLean, 1990 [26 No- 
vember] 

Reference: Natural History Museum of Los 
Angeles County, Science Series, 35: 126 

Type genus: Monilea Swainson, 1840 



MoNODONTiNAE Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part 
/:155 

Type genus: Monodonta Lamarck, 1799 

Remarks: Original spelling Monodontina. Estab- 
lished independently by Cossmann (in Coss- 
mann & Peyrot, 1917 [in 1917-1919]: 235). 

MoNTENEGRiNiNi H. Nordsiock, 1972 [14 July] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 102(1- 

3):39 
Type genus: Montenegrina O. Boettger, 1877 

MoREANELLiNAE J. С Fischer & Weber, 1997 
Reference: [in J. С Fischer, ed.] Révision cri- 
tique de la Paléontologie Française dAlcide 
d'Orbigny. Volume 2, Gastéropodes juras- 
siques: 1 1 9 
Type genus: -\Moreanellus J. С Fischer & 
Weber, 1997 

MoREiDAE Stephenson, 1941 

Reference: The University of Texas, Publica- 
tion 4^0^: 326 

Type genus: ^Morea Conrad, 1860 

Remarks: -inae, Bändel & Dockery (2001: 
347). 

MoRULiNAE Kool, 1989 [August] 
Reference: 10th International Malacological 
Congress [Tübingen 1989], Abstracts: 136 
Type genus: Л//ош/а Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

MoRUMiNAE Hughes & Emerson, 1987 [1 April] 
Reference: The Veliger, 29(4): 357 
Type genus: Morum Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Spelling Moruminae used to avoid 
homonymy with the family-group name 
Moridae Goode & Bean, 1896, based on 
Mora Risso, 1826 [Pisces]. 

MouRLONiiNi Yochelson & Dutro, 1960 [before 
9 August] 

Reference: United States Geological Survey 
Professional Paper, 334-D: 136 

Type genus: ^Mourlonia de Koninck, 1883 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Mourlonides. 
No diagnosis, but made available under Art. 
13.2.1 by usage as a valid name before 
2000. First diagnosed by Gordon & Yochel- 
son (1987: 50). 

MuLTiDENTULiNAE Schileyko, 1978 [after 19 May] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 57(6): 846 



112 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Multidentula Lindholm, 1925 
Remarks: -ini, Bank et al. (2001 : 88). See also 
Euchondrinae. 

MuLTispiRiDA Glaubrecht, 1995 

Reference: 12th International Malacological 
Congress [Vigo, 1995], Abstracts: 309 

Remarks: Taxon containing the families Batil- 
lariidae, Potamididae, Cerithideidae, and 
Modulidae. Established as a family-group 
name (between superfamily and family) and 
not available as such (not based on a ge- 
nus). 

MuRCHisoNELLiNAE Casoy, 1904 [19 May] 
Reference: Transactions of the Academy of 

Science of St Louis, 14: 125 
Type genus: Murchisonella Mörch, 1875 
Remarks: Original spelling Murchisonellini, 

used at rank immediately below family, -idae, 

Waren & Bouchet, herein. 

MuRCHisoNiiDAE Кокеп, 1896 

Reference: Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-König- 
lichen Geologischen Reichanstalt, 46(1 ): 43, 
62,80 

Type genus: \(\/lurchisonia d'Archiac & Ver- 
neuil, 1841 

Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 
43, 159); -oidea [as -acea], Pchelintsev (in 
Pchelintsev & Korobkov, 1 960: 1 1 7) and Сох 
& Knight (1960: 264). 

MuRELLiNAE Hesso, 1918 [19 February] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen 

Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 50(1 ): 35 
Type genus: Murella L. Pfeiffer, 1877 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Zilch (1960 [in 1959- 

1960]: 708). 

MuRiciDOPSiDAE Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
l'Avancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Paris, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 
Nicolas established the "series" Muricidop- 
sidae within his family Tanganyikidae, to in- 
clude gastropods from Lake Tanganyika 
resembling Muricidae, and the name appears 
to have been descriptive. 

MuRiciNAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 144 
Type genus: Murex Linnaeus, 1 758 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Murexia. 

-idae [as Muhcedae], Fleming (1822: 491); 

-oidea [as -acea], Cossmann (1906: 2). 



MuRicopsiNAE Radwin & d'Attilio, 1971 [27 De- 
cember] 

Reference: The Echo, 4: 64 

Type genus: Muricopsis Bucquoy & Dautzen- 
berg, 1882 

Myotestidae Collinge, 1 902 [10 April] 
Reference: The Journal of Malacology, 9: 11 
Type genus: Myoteste Collinge, 1901 

Myrrhinidae Bergh, 1905 [October] 
Reference: Siboga Expeditie Monographie, 

50: 226 
Type genus: Myrrhine Bergh, 1905 

Mysorellinae Annandale, 1920 

Reference: Records of the Indian Museum, 1 9: 

41,46 
Type genus: Mysorella Godwin-Austen, 1919 

Nacellinae Thiele, 1891 

Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(7): 
327 

Type genus: Nacella Schumacher, 1817 

Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 
207); -oidea, Sabelli et al. (1990: 9, 121 ). Un- 
der Art. 23.9 of the Code, Bertiniidae Jous- 
seaume, 1883, is here declared a nomen 
oblitum and Nacellidae a nomen protectum, 
based on usage in at least the following pub- 
lications: Hirase & Taki (1954: 51), Cotton 
(1 959: 287, 291 ), Azuma (1 960: 4), Knight et 
al. (1960: 1235), Franc (1968a: 240), Kuroda, 
Habe & Oyama (1971: 22 [Japanese text], 
14 [English text]), Powell (1973: 147), Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov (1975: 207), Powell (1979; 
42), Inaba (1 982: 75), Kilburn & Rippey (1 982: 
32), Rios (1985; 17), Vaught (1989: 7), Beu 
& Maxwell (1990: 402), Sabelli et al. (1990: 
9, 21), Fukuda (1993: 14), Higo & Goto (1993; 
21 ), Gianuzzi-Savelli et al. (1994: 1 1 ), Dance 
(1995:32), Spencer &Willan (1996: 12), Mill- 
ard (1996: 18), Kilias (1997; 210), Lindberg 
(in Beesley et al., 1998: 647), Sasaki (1998; 
208), Higo, Callomon & Goto (1999: 6, 31), 
Jansen (2000: 10), Kilburn (2000: 597), Sasa- 
ki in Okutani (2000; xl, 25), Higo, Callomon & 
Goto (2001: 11), Hylleberg & Kilburn (2002; 
21 ). To our knowledge, the name Bertiniidae 
has not been used as valid after 1899. 

Naninidae Pfeffer, 1878 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 5: 251 

Type genus: Nanina Gray, 1834 

Remarks: Original spelling "Naniniden" (ver- 
nacular). First latinized by Martens (1880: 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



113 



61 ), who credited the name to Pfeffer, -inae 
[as "Nanininen" (vernacular)], Pfeffer (1883: 
1); latinized by Martens (1884: 64). Invalid: 
type genus a junior homonym of Nanina Ris- 
se, 1826 [Gastropoda Nassariidae]. 

Napaeinae A. J. Wagner, 1928 [May] 
Reference: Annales Zoologicae Musei Polonia 

Historiae Naturalis, 6(4): 322 
Type genus: /Vapaeas Albers, 1850 

Naricidae Récluz, 1845 [October] 
Reference: Magasin de Zoologie, ser. 2, 7: 6 
Type genus: Marica d'Orbigny, 1842 
Remarks: -inae, Crosse (1886: 106). Invalid: 
Placed on the Official Index by Opinion 1009 
(1974: 160), where it is dated in error 1846. 

Naricopsinidae Gründet, 2001 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 36: 61 
Type genus: tNaricopsina Chelot, 1886 

Nariini Schilder, 1932 [20 October] 

Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 55: 1 59 

Type genus: Naria Gray, 1837 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis, but made 
available under Art. 13.2.1 by usage as a 
valid name before 2000. -inae, Schilder 
(1932c: 167). 

Nassariidae Iredale, 1916 [28 November] (1835) 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 12(2-3): 82 
Type genus: Nassarius Duméril, 1806 
Remarks: Replacement name for Nassidae, 
based on Nassa Lamarck, 1799, non Röding, 
1798. Heppell (1983: 237) had petitioned the 
ICZN to place Nassariidae on the Official List 
with precedence from Nassidae (1835); the 
case has been voted upon (ICZN Secretari- 
at, pers. comm.), but an Opinion has not been 
published, -inae, Cernohorsky (1984: 32). 

Nassinae Swainson, 1835 

Reference: The elements of modern conchol- 
ogy: 18,20 

Type genus: Nassa Lamarck, 1799 

Remarks: -idae [as -ina], Mörch (1852: 76). 
Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of 
Nassa Röding, 1798 [Gastropoda]. See Nas- 
sariidae. 

Nassopsidae Kesteven, 1903 [9 April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Linnean Soci- 
ety of New South Wales, 27(4): 621, 634 
Type genus: Nassopsis E. A. Smith, 1890 



Remarks: -ini, Bouchet & Strong, herein. Nico- 
las (1898: 519) had a "series" Nassopsidae 
within his family Tanganyikidae; this was 
meant to include gastropods from Lake Tang- 
anyika resembling "Nassidae" [= Nassariidae]; 
the name appears to have been descriptive 
(see also Buccinopsidae, Cancellopsidae, Lit- 
toridinopsidae, etc.), and we do not regard 
Nassopsidae as available from Nicolas. 

Nastiinae A. Riedel, 1989 [31 May] 
Reference: Annales Zoologici, 42: 366 
Type genus: NastiaA. Riedel, 1989 

Naticidae Guilding, 1834 

Reference: Transactions of the Linnean Soci- 
ety of London, ^7■. 29 

Type genus: Natica Scopoli, 1777 

Remarks: Published the same year by Chil- 
dren (1834: 109); relative priority of Children 
and Guilding not researched, -inae, Swain- 
son (1840: 345); -oidea [as -acea], Thiele 
(1925 [in 1925-1926]: 87). 

Naticidopsidae Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
l'Avancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Paris, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. Nicolas established the "series" Natici- 
dopsidae within his family Tanganyikidae, to 
include gastropods from Lake Tanganyika 
resembling Naticidae, and the name appears 
to have been descriptive. 

Naticopsidae Waagen, 1880 

Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Survey 

of India. Palaeontologia Indica, ser. 13, Part 

1(2): 106 
Type genus: -fNaticopsis M'Coy, 1842 
Remarks: Established again independently by 

Cossmann (1895b: 169) and Grabau & 

Shimer (1909: 673). -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 

1938-1944]: 45, 402). 

Nectophyllirhoidae Hoffmann, 1922 [9 May] 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 54(11-13): 

304 
Type genus: Nectophyllirhoe Hoffmann, 1922 

NECTOPODABIainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 282 

Remarks: Taxen containing the genera 
Pterotrachea and Carinaría. Established as 
a family-group name and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 



114 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Neilsoniinae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference; Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: "[Neilsonia Thomas, 1940 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1 960: 
207). -ini, Waterhouse (2001 : 1 56). 

Nembrothinae Burn, 1967 [August] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 14(2): 213 
Type genus: Nembrotha Bergh, 1877 

Neniastrinae H. B. Baker, 1930 [14 February] 
Reference: Occasional Papers of the Museum 

of Zoology, University of Michigan, 210: 81 
Type genus: Neniastrum Bourguignat, 1876 
Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Neniinae, on the erroneous assumption 
that the name of the type genus is invalid 
because it is a junior homonym of Naenia 
Stephens, 1829 [Lepidoptera]. 

Neniinae Wenz, 1923 [5 June] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 20: 757 
Type genus: Nenia H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 855 
Remarks: See also Neniastrinae. 

Neocyclotidae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1 897 [1 7 

October] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 29(9-10): 137 
Type genus: Neocyclotus P. Fischer & Crosse, 

1886 
Remarks: -inae, same reference; -ini [as -eae], 

Kobelt (1902: 231 ); -oidea, Sitnikova & Star- 

obogatov (1982: 841). 

Neodoridinae Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 

871 
Type genus: Neodons Baba, 1938 

Neolepetopsidae McLean, 1990 [7 November] 
Reference: Journal of Zoology, London, 

222(3): 490 
Type genus: Neolepetopsis McLean, 1990 
Remarks: -oidea, Ponder & Lindberg (1997: 214). 

Neomphalidae McLean, 1981 [8 December] 
Reference: Malacologie, 21(1-2): 294 
Type genus: Neomphalus McLean, 1981 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], same reference. 

Neoplanorbinae Hannibal, 1912 [29 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 
Society of London, 10(2): 147 



Type genus: Neoplanorbis Pilsbry, 1906 
Remarks: -idae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 
51). 

NEOPOMATABerthold, 1991 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, new ser., 
29:208,211 

Remarks: Established at a rank between tribe 
and genus. Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Neoptyxidae Lyssenko, 1984 

Reference: lurskie i melovye Nerinei luga SSSR 
i ikh stratigraficheskoe znachenie: 15,17 

Type genus: f Л /eopíyx/s Wenz, 1940 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis and 
published in a dissertation abstract, not avail- 
able for nomenclatural purposes. 

Neopupininae Kobelt, 1902 [July] 
Reference: Das Tierreich, 16: 261 
Type genus: Neopupina Kobelt, 1902 
Remarks: Original spelling Neopupinae. Attrib- 
uted by Kobelt to "Kobelt & Möllendorff, 
1897", but there is no subfamily Neopupi- 
nae in reference indicated. Introduced in 
synonymy [of Megalostomatini], but available 
because it was used as valid before 1960, 
e.g. by Morrison (1955: 152), who used 
"Neopupinae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1898". 

Neozonitinae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1879 [Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Fauna 
mexicanischer Land- und Süsswasser Con- 
ch y lien, 4: 1 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Neptuneinae Stimpson, 1865 [25 February] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

1(1): 59 
Type genus: Neptúnea Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Original spelling Neptuniinae. -idae, 

Golikov&Kusakin(1971:28). 

Neptunellinae Gray, 1854 [25 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 21 : 38 
Type genus: Neptunella Gray, 1854 
Remarks: Original spelling Neptunellina. 

Nerineidae Zittel, 1873 [after October] 
Reference: Palaeontographica, Suppl., 2(3): 

210,218 
Type genus: ■\Nerinea Deshayes, 1827 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



115 



Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Wenz (1938 [in 
1938-1944]: 41, 46, 62, 64; 1940 [ibid.]: 
816); -inae, Pchelintsev (in Pchelintsev & 
Korobkov, 1960:120). 

Nerinellidae Pchelintsev, 1960 [after 29 June] 
Reference: [in Pchelintsev & Korobkov, eds.] 
Osnovy Paleóntologa, Molliuski. Briukhono- 
gie: 124 
Type genus: -[Nerinella Sharpe, 1850 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Pchelintsev (1 965: 
87); -inae, J. С Fischer& Kollmann (in J. С 
Fischer, 1 997: 296). Precedence over simul- 
taneously published Diptyxinae determined 
by Art. 24 (family vs. subfamily). 

Nerinoidinae Kase, 1984 [30 March] 
Reference: Early Cretaceous marine and 
brackish-water Gastropoda from Japan: 1 75 
Type genus: -fNei'inoidesWenz, 1940 
Remarks: Name attributed by Kase to Pche- 
lintsev (1960), who however introduced 
Nerinellidae. Kase used Nerinoides as a val- 
id name and Nerinella as an objective syn- 
onym, and he may simply have changed the 
family-group name accordingly, to comply 
with Art. 39. In doing so, Kase overlooked 
Opinion 316 (1954: 93), which placed 
Nerinella Sharpe, 1850, on the Official List 
and Nerinoides on the Official Index (and 
thus rendering Nerinoidinae invalid). Earli- 
er, Hayami & Kase (1977: 72) had cited 
"Nerinoidinae Pcelincev, 1931", without a di- 
agnosis and without an indication that this 
was a replacement name for Nerinellinae. 

Neritariinae Wenz, 1938 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1): 

413 
Type genus: tNeritaha Koken, 1892 

Neritellinae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 148 
Type genus: Neritella Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Neritellina. 

Neritidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 144 
Type genus: Nerita Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Neritinia 
and (subfamily) Neritacea. First established 
as "les Néritacé[e]s" (vernacular) by Lama- 
rck (1 809: 321 ), but not generally aUributed 
to that author, -oidea [as -acea]. Gill (1871: 
10);-ini[as-ae], H.B. Baker (1923b: 117). 



Neritiliidae Schepman, 1908 [July] 
Reference: Siboga Expeditie. Monographie 

49a: 13 
Type genus: Neritilia Martens, 1879 
Remarks: Original spelling Neritilidae. -inae, 

H.B. Baker (1923b: 130). 

NERmNiDAE Poey, 1852 [April] 

Reference: Memorias sobre la Historia Natu- 
ral de Cuba, 8: 87 

Type genus: Neritina Lamarck, 1816 

Remarks: Original spelling Neritinacea. Gray 
(1 850b: 90) had earlier used the family name 
"Neritinidae" including the genera Nerita, 
Neritella, and Catillus: it appears to be an 
incorrectly formed name based on Nerita 
rather than a name based on Neritina. -inae 
[as -ina], Gray (1868b: 994). Neritinidae and 
-inae again declared new by Bändel (2001 : 
70-71); -ini, Bouchet, herein [for consisten- 
cy of ranking]. 

Neritopomata Berthold, 1991 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, new ser., 
29:207,211 

Remarks: Established at a rank between tribe 
and genus. Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Neritopsidae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 150 
Type genus: fA/er/tops/s Grateloup, 1832 
Remarks: -inae. Knight (1933: 369); -oidea, 

Bändel (1997: 63). 

Nerrhenidae Bändel & Heidelberger, 2001 

Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und 
Paläontologie, Monatshefte, 2001(12): 708 

Type genus: -\Nerrhena Heidelberger & Ban- 
del, 1999 

Remarks: -oidea, same reference. 

Nesopupinae Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 
Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 

Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 

80:201 
Type genus: Nesopupa Pilsbry, 1900 
Remarks: -ini, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 

505). 

Neurobranchia Keferstein, 1864 

Reference: Dr H. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen der Weichthiere, Bd. 3(2): 1031, 
1061 



116 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Cyclostomidae, Helicinidae, 
and Aciculidae. Treated by Haller (1 892; 538) 
as a family, and by Wenz (1 923: 1 735) as a 
superfamily containing Cyclophoridae, 
Pomatiasidae, Acmidae, and Assimineidae. 
Not available as a family-group name (not 
based on a genus). 

NEVEmriNAE Gray, 1857 [9 May] 
Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 
of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part I: 48 
Type genus: Neverita Risso, 1826 
Remarks: Original spelling Neveritina. 

Newtoniellinae Korobkov, 1955 

Reference: Spravochnik i metodicheskoe ruk- 

ovodstvo po tretichnym molliuskam. Bhukho- 

nogie:2M 
Type genus: Newtoniella Cossmann, 1893 
Remarks: -idae, Gründel (1980: 235). 

NiTORiDAE Iredale, 1937 [12 November] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9(1): 2 
Type genus: /V/torGude, 1911 

NoDODELPHiNULiDAE Cox, 1960 [about 15 Au- 
gust] 

Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 1: 308 

Type genus: ■\Nododelphinula Cossmann, 1916 

Non Suctoriae Bergh, 1892 

Reference: System der Nudibranchiaten Gas- 
teropoden: 141 

Remarks: Established as "division" of Dorid- 
idae. Not available as a family-group name 
(not uninominal; Art. 4.1). Treated by Odh- 
ner (in Franc, 1 968c: 861 ) as a "tribe" within 
"suborder" Anadoridacea. 

NoNACTEONiNiDAE Bändel, 1994 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungsheft, ser. С, 

452: 88 
Type genus: t/Vonacteon/'na Stephenson, 1941 

NossiDAE Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de Zoologie, 5(3): 
882 

Type genus: Nossis Bergh, 1902 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of A/oss/s Kindberg, 1865 [Vermes]. 

NOTAEOLIDIIDAE Eliot, 1910 

Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 

branchiate Mollusca, Part 8: 69 
Type genus: Notaeolidia Eliot, 1905 



NoTARCHiNAE Mazzarelli, 1893 

Reference: Memorie delta Società Italiana 

délie Scienze, 9(4): 39 
Type genus: /Voiarc/ius Cuvier, 1817 
Remarks: Established as subfamily despite 

ending -inae. -idae, Bergh (1902 [in 1870- 

1908]: 343). 

NoTOBRANCHAEiDAE Polseneer, 1886 [June] 
Reference: Bulletin Scientifique du Départe- 
ment du Nord et des Pays Voisins, 1 7(6): 224 
Type genus: Notobranchaea Pelseneer, 1886 
Remarks: -inae, Pruvot-Fol (1926: 20, 32). 

NoTODiAPHANiDAE Thiole, 1931 [before 31 Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 383 

Type genus: /Voíod/ap/iana Thiele, 1917 

NOTODORIDIDAE ENot, 1910 

Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 

branchiate Mollusca, Part 8: 63, 65, 151 
Type genus: Notodoris Bergh, 1875 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 
423). 

NoTOvoLUTiNi Bail & Poppe, 2001 [September] 
Reference: A taxonomic introduction to the 

Recent Volutidae: 26 
Type genus: Notovoluta Cotton, 1946 
Remarks: Not available (introduced "provision- 
ally" and without a diagnosis) from Bail (in 
Poppe & Goto, 1 992: 1 3, 36 [as Notovolutinae]). 

NucELLiDAE Salisbury, 1940 
Reference: The Zoological Record, 76(9): 90 
Type genus: Nucella Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis, but made 
available under Art. 13.2.1 by usage as a valid 
name by Kozloff & Price (in Kozloff, 1987: 221). 

NucLEOBRANCHiDAE d'Orbigny, 1835 
Reference: Voyage dans l'Améhque méridio- 
nale. Tome 5, Partie 3, Mollusques: 139 
Remarks: Original spelling Nucleobranchide- 
ae. Not available: not based on a genus. 

NucLEOPsiNAE Cossmann, 1895 [February] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 1 : 43 
Type genus: -fNucleopsis Conrad, 1865 

NuDiBRANCHiNi Martynov, 1998 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 77(7): 765 
Type genus: Nudibranchus Martynov, 1998 
Remarks: -ina [as -inini], same reference. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



117 



NuDiLiMACES Latrellle, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Nu-limaces" and 
"Nulimaces" (vernacular). Latinized by La- 
treille (1 825: 1 78). Established as a family and 
not available as such (not based on a genus). 

Nyctilochidae Dall, 1912 [September] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 26(5): 59 
Type genus: /\/ycf/7oc/?as Gistel, 1848 
Remarks: When Dall established Nyctilochidae, 
he considered Nyctilochus to be typified by 
Murex tritonis Linné, 1 758 [i.e. Charonia] and 
he meant to replace Tritonidae / Tritoniidae 
with Nyctilochidae. However, Beu (1970: 206) 
demonstrated that Murex tritonis was not one 
of the originally included species, and desig- 
nated Triton tigrinum Broderip, 1833, as type 
species; Nyctilochus is then a subjective syn- 
onym of Cymatium. This is an Art. 41 situa- 
tion, but Charonia and Cymatium are currently 
considered consubfamilial, so that the prob- 
lem has a purely academic interest. 

Nymphophilinae D. W. Taylor, 1966 [1 October] 

Reference: The Veliger, 9(2): 199 

Type genus: Nymphophilus D. W. Taylor, 1966 

Nystiellinae Clench & Turner, 1952 [23 July] 
Reference: Johnsonia, 2(31): 336 
Type genus: Nystiella Clench & Turner, 1952 
Remarks: -idae. Nütze! (1998: 89). 

Obeliscinae a. Adams, 1863 [April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, (1862): 231 
Type genus: Obeliscus H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1853 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale (1929b: 291). Invalid: 

type genus a junior homonym of Obeliscus 

Beck, 1837[Subulinidae]. 

Obeliscinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 554 
Type genus: Obeliscus Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Junior homonym of Obeliscinae A. 

Adams, 1863. 

Obtortionidae Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 84 
Type genus: Obtortio Hedley, 1899 

OcciRHENEiDAE irodalo, 1939 [1 August] 
Reference: Records of the Western Australian 
Museum, 2(1): 73 



Type genus: Occirhenea Iredale, 1933 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Repub- 
lished by Iredale (1939 [21 August]: 73), 
which makes Occirheneidae available under 
Art. 13.2.1. 

OcENEBRiNAE Cossmann, 1903 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 5: 10 
Type genus: Ocenebra Gray, 1847 
Remarks: SeeTritonaliinae. 

OcHETOPSiNAE Cossmann, 1909 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 8: 156, 157 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

OcHTHEPHiLiNAE Zilch, 1960 [15 August] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(2): 

675 
Type genus: Ochthephila Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Not available: introduced in synony- 
my and not used as a valid name before 1 961 . 

OcuLiMETiDAE Jousseaume, 1894 

Reference: Mémoires de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 7: 268 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Odontartemoninae Schileyko, 2000 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 6: 830 
Type genus: Odontartemon L. Pfeiffer, 1856 

Odontocycladinae Hausdorf, 1 996 [1 5 January] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 125(1- 

2): 10 
Type genus: Odontocyc/as Schlüter, 1838 

Odontocymbiolinae Clench & Turner, 1 964 [1 3 
February] 

Reference: Johnsonia, 4(43): 170 

Type genus: Odontocymbiola Clench & Turn- 
er, 1964 

Remarks: Clench & Turner stated that Odon- 
tocymbiolinae was a new name for Adelom- 
eloninae, based on a misidentification of the 
type genus by Pilsbry & Olsson (see Ade- 
lomeloninae). Adelomelon and Odontocym- 
biola are not synonyms, and Art. 40 does 
not apply, -ini, Bail & Poppe (2001: 8, 20). 

Odontognatha Mörch, 1859 

Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109- 

110 
Remarks: Established as a family and not 

available as such (not based on a genus). 



118 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Odontostominae Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1898 [12 

July] 
Reference; Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelpiiia, 50: 283 
Type genus: Odontostomus Beck, 1837 
Remarks: -idae, Wenz (1923 [in 1923-1930]: 

729); -ini, Schileyko (1999 [in 1998-2003]: 

329). 

Odostomellinae Saurín, 1959 

Reference: Annales de la Faculté des Scienc- 
es de Saigon. {^959)■. 240 

Type genus: Odostomella Bucquoy, Dautzen- 
berg&Dollfus, 1883 

Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Saurin (1 961 : 240). -ini, Bouchet, herein [for 
consistency of ranking]. 

Odostomiidae Pelseneer, 1928 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 
de France, 53: 172 

Type genus: Odosíom/a Fleming, 1813 

Remarks: -inae, Casey (1904: 125 [as Odos- 
tomiini, at rank immediately below 
family]), and Odostomiinae established in- 
dependently by F. Nordsieck (1972: 102); 
-ini, Bouchet, herein [for consistency of 
ranking]. 

Oenopotinae Bogdanov, 1987 [after 23 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Vsesoluznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 35 

Type genus: Oenopota Mörch, 1852 

Remarks: See Lorinae. 

Oestophorini H. Nordsieck, 1987 [15 October] 
Reference: Archiv fiJr Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 

3):30 
Type genus: Oestophora Hesse, 1907 

Ohridopyrgulinae Radoman, 1983 [February] 
Reference: Serbian Acadenny of Sciences and 
Arts, Monographs, 547 [Department of Sci- 
ences, 57]: 146 
Type genus: Ohridopyrgula Radoman, 1983 
Remarks: Not available (type genus then not 
available) from Radoman (1973a: 12 [as 
Ochridopyrgulinae]). 

Okadaiidae Baba, 1930 [10 August] 

Reference: The Venus, 2(2): 48 

Type genus: Okadaia Baba, 1930 

Remarks: Full description, and declared "nov. 
fam.", in Baba (1931: 64). Baba (1937: 150) 
cited Okadaiidae as from the latter publica- 
tion, and treated it as a junior synonym of 



Vayssiereidae. The latter, although the jun- 
ior synonym, is prevailingly used over Oka- 
daiidae; however, as this is a rarely used 
family name, which includes only four de- 
scribed species, priority should apply. 

Okeniidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 [March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 15(4): 217 
Type genus: Okenia Menke, 1830 
Remarks: -inae, Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 

859). 

Oleacinidae H. Adams & a. Adams, 1855 [Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:103 

Type genus: Oleacina Röding, 1798 

Remarks: -inae, ibid.; -oidea [as -acea], Thiele 
(1926 [in 1925-1926]: 141). 

Oleidae O'Donoghue, 1926 [May] 
Reference: Transactions of the Royal Cana- 
dian Institute, 15(2): 227 
Type genus: 0/ea Agersborg, 1923 

Oligomeriinae Egorov, 2000 

Reference: Treasure of Russian shells, vol. 4: 

37 
Type genus: Oligomeria Galkin & Golikov, 

1985 

Oligolimacini Schileyko, 2003 

Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs, Part 11 : 1483 
Type genus: 0//go//max Schileyko, 2003 

Oligopteria Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 15 
Remarks: Established as a family, including 
the subfamilies Firolininae and Clioninae, 
and not available as such (not based on a 
genus). 

Oligoptyxidae Lyssenko, 1984 

Reference: lurskie i melovye Nerinei luga 
SS SR i ikh stratigraficheskoe znachenie: 1 5, 
17 

Type genus: -\Oligoptyxis Pchelintsev, 1953 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis and 
published in a dissertation abstract, not avail- 
able for nomenclatural purposes. 

Olivancillariidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 

[18 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 213 
Type genus: 0//Vanc/7/ar/'ad' Orbig ny, 1839 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



119 



OLIVELLINAETrOSChel, 1869 

Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(3): 

110 
Type genus: Olivella Swainson, 1831 
Remarks: Original spelling Olivellina. Estab- 
lished independently by Olsson (1956: 169). 
-idae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1989: 73). 

Olividae Latreille, 1825 

Reference: Families naturelles du règne ani- 
mal: 198 

Type genus: Oliva Bruguière, 1789 

Remarks: Original spelling Olivarla. Latreille 
(1824: table) had used the vernacular 
"Olivaires", but Olividae is not generally ac- 
cepted as dating from that publication, -inae, 
Swainson (1835: 14); -oidea, Golikov & Star- 
obogatov (1975: 213, 221). 

Olygyridae Gray, 1847 [November] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 15: 182 

Type genus: Olygyra Say, 1818 

Remarks: Original spelling Oligyradae, based 
on Oligyra, an incorrect subsequent spell- 
ing or an emendation of Olygyra. 

Olympicolini Neubert, 2002 [20 September] 
Reference: Collectanea malacologica. 

Festschrift für G. Falkner. 270 
Type genus: Olympicola Hesse, 1916 

Omalaxinae Cossmann, 1916 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 10: 123 
Type genus: -fOmalaxis Deshayes, 1832 
Remarks: Original spelling Homalaxinae 
[based on Homalaxis P. Fischer, 1885, an 
unjustified emendation of Omalaxis], to be 
corrected to Omalaxinae under Art. 35.4.1. 
-idae, and spelling corrected, Wenz (1938 
[in 1938-1944]: 41, 45; 1939 [ibid.]: 665); 
-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 211 ). 

Omalogyridae G. O. Sars, 1878 

Reference: Mollusca regionis arcticae Norve- 
giae: 215 

Type genus: Oma/ogyra Jeffreys, 1860 

Remarks: Original spelling Homalogyridae 
[based on Homalogyra Jeffreys, 1867, an 
unjustified emendation of Omalogyra], to be 
corrected to Omalogyridae under Art. 35.4.1 . 
-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1968: 7). 

Omospirinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 
39,42,166 



Type genus: -fOmospira Ulrich [in Ulrich & 

Scofield], 1897 
Remarks: -idae, Vostokova (in Pchelintsev & 

Korobkov, 1960: 119). 

Omphalocirridae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

39,43,201 
Type genus: fOmphalocirrus Ryckholt, 1860 
Remarks: Again declared new family by Lins- 

ley(1978:34). 

Omphalotrochidae Knight, 1945 [November] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 19(6): 

573, 586 
Type genus: -\Omphalotrochus Meek, 1864 
Remarks: Established as (superfamily) Omph- 

alotrochacea. No diagnosis, -idae, and first 

diagnosed. Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 

Moore, 1960:196). 

Omphalotropidinae Thiele, 1927 [17 February] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 
Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der 
Tiere, 53: 126 
Type genus: Omphalotropis L. Pfeiffer, 1851 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List and giv- 
en precedence over Garrettiinae by Opinion 
973 (1971 : 149). -ini [as -eae], Thiele (1929 
[in 1 929-1 935]: 171 ); -idae [as Omphalotro- 
pidae], Habe(1990:5). 

Onchidellidae Labbé, 1934 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 
de France, 59: 2М 

Type genus: Onchidella Gray, 1850 

Remarks: Original spelling Oncidiellidae, 
based on Oncidiella Crosse & P. Fischer, 
1878, an unjustified emendation of Onchidel- 
la. -o\dea, Starobogatov (1976: 13). 

Onchidiinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 142 
Type genus: Onchidium Buchanan, 1800 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) On- 
chidia. -idae. Gray (1824b: 108); -oidea [as 
Oncidiacea], Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 
138). Oncidiidae [Carpenter, 1861 : 227, as 
Oncidiadae] is based on the incorrect sub- 
sequent spelling Oncidium. Onchodoridae 
[O'Donoghue, 1929: 832] is used in the 
sense of Onchidiidae and appears to be a 
lapsus. 

Onchidinidae Starobogatov, 1976 
Reference: Biologiia Moria, 4: 13 
Type genus: Onchidina Semper, 1882 



120 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Onchidiopsinae Golikov & Gulbin, 1990 [after 

25 April] 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

218:109 
Type genus: Onctiidiopsis Bergh, 1853 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. Used, but 

not diagnosed by Gulbin & Golikov (1 997: 44). 

Onchidorididae Gray, 1827 

Reference: Encyclopaedia metropolitana, Vol. 
7. Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca 
[= plate 3] 

Type genus: Onc/7/dor/s Blainville, 1816 

Remarks: Original spelling Onchidoridae. The 
original spelling of the type genus is Onchi- 
dorus (and this is also the spelling used by 
Gray when he established Onchidoridae), 
which has been consistently treated as an 
incorrect original spelling. The spelling On- 
chidoris, which dates from Blainville (1825: 
489), has been universally used for more 
than 1 50 years, -inae, Kobelt ( 1 879 [in 1 876- 
1881]: 181 ); -oidea [as -acea], Abbott (1974: 
361 ). See also Lamellidorididae. 

Oncidiidae / Oncidiellidae. See Onchidiidae / 
Onchidiellidae. 

Oncomelaniidae Salisbury & Edwards, 1961 
Reference: The Zoological Record, 95(9): 110 
Type genus: Oncomelania Gredler, 1881 
Remarks: Salisbury & Edwards cited the name 
from a paper by Kang et al. (1 958), who how- 
ever merely use the expression "oncomela- 
niid snails". Not available: no diagnosis. 

Onobidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1972 
Reference: Opredeliteli Fauny Chernogo i 

Azovskogo Morel, 3: 96 
Type genus: Onoba H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1852 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Golikov & Scarlato (1 967: 33). Again declared 

fam. nov. by Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 

211). 

Onustidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 [April] 
Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 

1:361 
Type genus: Onustus Swainson, 1840 

Onychochilidae Koken, 1925 

Reference: Zaplskii Rossiskoi Akademii Nauk, 

ser. 8, Otdel Fiziko-Mathematicheskikh 

Nauk, 37 (^)■. 233 
Type genus: -\Onychochilus Lindström, 1884 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 

43,367). 



OocoRYTHiDAE R Fischer, 1885 [29 January] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (8): 769 
Type genus: Oocorys P. Fischer, 1884 
Remarks: -inae. Turner (1948: 181). 

OoPELTiNAE Cockerell, 1891 [August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London ^on89^ (2): 216, 222 
Type genus: Oopelta Mörch [in Heynemann], 

1867 
Remarks: -idae, H. Nordsieck (1986b: 99). 

Opaliinae Cossmann, 1912 [August] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 9: 19 
Type genus: Opalia H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1853 

Opeatinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 552 
Type genus: Opeas Albers, 1850 

Operculaceae Hinds, 1845 

Reference: The zoology of the voyage of H. 
M. S. Sulphur, Vol. 2, Mollusca: 59 

Remarks: Taxon including Pupina on\y. Estab- 
lished as a family and not available as such 
(not based on a genus). 

Operculata Wiegmann & Ruthe, 1832 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie: 527 
Remarks: Taxon containing Cyclostoma and 
Helicina. Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Operculatinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 

[October] 
Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 

2:41 
Type genus: Operculatum Mörch, 1852 

Ophiletinae Koken, 1907 [after June] 
Reference: [in Perner] Systeme Silurien du 
Centre de la Bohême. Recherches Paléon- 
tologiques, Vol. 4 [Gastéropodes] (2): 153 
Type genus: -[Ophileta Vanuxem, 1842 
Remarks: Established as subfamily of Eu- 
omphalidae despite suffix -idae. Established 
independently by Knight (1956: 42). 
-idae, Morris & Cleevely (1981 : 207); -oidea, 
R J. Wagner (2002: 70). 

Ophthalmidae Bergh, 1905 [October] 
Reference: Siboga Expeditie Monographie, 

50:35 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



121 



Opisthonematidae Yu, 1976 [December] 
Reference: [Yu Wen, in Lu et al.] Memoirs of 
Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeon- 
tology, 7: 40 
Type genus: tOpisthonema Yu, 1 974 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Opisthonema Gill, 1862 [Pisces]. 

Opisthophthalmidae Jousseaume, 1894 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société Zoologique 

de France,! -.2^2 
Remarks: Family containing the genus Trun- 
catella (see Opisthophthalma in higher cat- 
egory list). Not available as a family-group 
name: not based on a genus. 

Opisthotremata Wenz, 1923 [20 March] 
Reference: Fossilum catalogus, I, Pars 17: 206 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily, contain- 
ing the family Onchidiidae. Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 

Orbacea Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1: 320 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Orbacées" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Herrmannsen 
(1847 [in 1846-1852]: 154). Established as 
a family (including the genera Cyclostoma, 
Planorbis, Vivípara, and Ampullaha), and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Orbitestellidae Iredale, 1917 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 12(6): 327 
Type genus: Orbitestella Iredale, 1917 

Orculinae Pilsbry, 1918 [24 April] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 

24(96): X 
Type genus: Orcula Held, 1837 
Remarks: -idae, Steenberg (1925: 201); 

-oidea,Schileyko(1984:5). 

Orectospirinae Habe, 1955 [May] 
Reference: Minutes. Conchological Club of 

Southern California, 147: 4 
Type genus: Orectospira Dall, 1925 
Remarks: -idae. Habe (1 961 : 24). 

Oreohelicinae Pilsbry, 1939 [6 December] 
Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 

(north of Mexico), Уо\. 1(1): 412 
Type genus: Oreo/?e//x Pilsbry, 1904 
Remarks: -idae, same reference. 

Orientaliidae Radoman, 1973 [31 May] 
Reference: Prirodnjacki Muzej и Beogradu. 
Posebna Izdanja, 32: 6 



Type genus: Orientalia Radoman, 1972 
Remarks: -inae, same reference. Invalid: type 
genus a junior homonym of Orientalia Byko- 
va, 1947 [Foraminifera]. See Orientalinidae. 

Orientalinidae Radoman, 1978 [16 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 109(1- 

3):27 
Type genus: Orientalina Radoman, 1978 
Remarks: -inae, same reference. Norn. nov. 
pro Orientalidae, invalid because its type 
genus is a junior homonym. However, Ori- 
entalina is itself a junior homonym of Orien- 
talina Kolosnitsyna, 1973 [Crustacea], which 
makes Orientalinidae invalid. 

Oriostomatidae Koken, 1896 

Reference: Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königlichen 
Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 46(1 ): 47, 106 

Type genus: -tOrlostoma Munier-Chalmas, 
1876 

Remarks; Original spelling Horiostomidae, 
based on Horiostoma P. Fischer, 1885, an 
unjustified emendation of Orlostoma. -oidea 
[as -acea], Cox & Knight (1960: 263). 

Orthalicidae Albers, 1860 
Reference: Die Heliceen, ed. 2: 209 
Type genus: Orthalicus Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Original spelling Orthalicea. -inae. 

Carpenter (1864: 672); -oidea [as "SuperF. 

Orthalicidae"], H. B. Baker (1956a: 133). 

Orthoconcha Fol, 1875 
Reference: Archives de Zoologie Expérimen- 
tale et Générale, 4: 1 76 
Remarks: See higher category list. 

Orthogibbidae Germain, 1921 [March] 
Reference: Faune malacologique terrestre et 

fluviatile des iles Mascareignes: 41 5, 461 
Type genus: Ori/7og/bbas Germain, 1919 
Remarks: -inae, Bouchet, herein [in place of 

Gibbinae and Gonidominae over which it has 

priority]. 

Orthomitrinae L. Bellardi, 1887 [before 18 

April] 
Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 

Piemonte e delta Liguria, parte V: 3 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Orthonematidae Nütze! & Bande!, 2000 [Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und 
Paläontologie. Monatshefte, 2000(9): 560- 
561 

Type genus: -\Orthonema Meek & Worthen, 1 862 



122 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Original spelling Orthonemidae. 
-oidea, Bändel (2002b: 90). 

Orthonychiidae Bande! & Fryda, 1999 [30 Sep- 
tember] 
Reference: Geológica etPalaeontologica, 33: 224 
Type genus: tOrthonychia Hall, 1843 

Orthopomatini Gray, 1868 [April] 
Reference: Proceedings of ttie Zoological 

Society of London, (1867[3]): 999 
Type genus: Orthopoma Gray, 1868 
Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Orthopomina. 

Orthostomatidae Delpey, 1940 

Reference: Notes et Mémoires de la Section 
d'Etudes Géologiques du Haut-Commissar- 
iat de la République Française en Syrie et 
au Liban, y. 22^ 

Type genus: -fOrthostoma Deshayes, 1850 

Remarks: Original spelling Orthostomidae. 
Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of 
Orthostoma Ehrenberg, 1831 [Platyhelm- 
inthes], and several others, -oidea, Termier 
&Termier (1968: 923). 

Orygoceratidae Brusina, 1882 [1 January] 
Reference: Beiträge zur Paläontologie Oes- 

terreich-Ungarns, 2(2): 41 
Type genus: tOrygoceras Brusina, 1882 

OsTEOPELTiDAE Marshall, 1987 [10 August] 
Reference: The Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

53(2): 121 
Type genus: Osteopelta Marshall, 1987 

OsTRAcoLETHiDAESimroth, 1901 [30 December] 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 25(660): 64 
Type genus: Osíraco/eíhe Sim roth, 1901 
Remarks: -inae, Hausdorf (1998: 61). 

Otalini Pfeffer, 1930 [2 January] 
Reference: Geologische und Palaeontolo- 
gische Abhandlungen, 17(3): 139, 185, 229 
Type genus: Oia/a Schumacher, 1817 

Otidea Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 32: 292 

Remarks: Taxen containing Haliotis and An- 
cylus. Established as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

Otininae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1855 [Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:249 



Type genus: Otina Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 484), where it is erroneously 
credited to Chenu (1859). -idae. Gray (1858: 
407); -oidea, Tillier & Ponder (1 992: 1 55). 

Otoconchinae Cockerell, 1893 [31 October] 
Reference: [in Cockerell & Collinge] The Con- 

chologist, 2{8): 188,205 
Type genus: Otoconcha Hutton, 1884 
Remarks: -idae, H. B. Baker (1938a: 85). 

OvATA Latreille, 1824 [November] 

Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
3: table between pp. 334-335 

Remarks: Original spelling "Ovoïdes" (vernac- 
ular); latinized by Latreille (1825: 198). Tax- 
on including the genera Cypraea and Ovula. 
Established as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 

OvuLiDAE Fleming, 1822 [June] 
Reference: The philosophy of zoology, 2: 490 
Type genus: Ovula Bruguière, 1789 
Remarks: Original spelling Ovuladae. -inae, 
Swainson (1840: 325); -oidea, Sitnikova & 
Starobogatov (1 982: 841 ); -ini, Fehse (2001 : 
24). 

OxYCHiLiNAE Hesse, 1927 (1879) 

Reference: [in D. Geyer] Unsere land- und 
Süsswasser-Mollusken, ed. 3: 47 

Type genus: Oxychllus Fitzinger, 1833 

Remarks: When he established Oxychilinae, 
Hesse did not discuss or cite Hyaliniinae, but 
listed Hyalinia in the synonymy of Oxychllus. 
Oxychilinae is in prevailing use and is con- 
served under Art. 40.2 with the precedence 
of Hyaliniinae. -idae. Bank et al. (2001 : 94). 

OxYGNATHA Mörch, 1859 
Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109 
Remarks: Taxon including the genera Umax, 
Vitrina, Succinea, Helicella, Zonites, Leuco- 
chroa, Ryssota, Obba, Carocolla, Otala, and 
Pleurodonta. Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

OxYLOMATiNAESchileyko& I. M. Likharev, 1986 
Reference: Sbornik Trudov Zoologicheskogo 

Muzeia, 24: 223 
Type genus: Oxy/oma Westerlund, 1885 
Remarks: Original spelling Oxylominae. 

OxYNoiDAE Stoliczka, 1868 [1 October] (1847) 

Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Survey 

of India. Palaeontologia Indica. Cretaceous 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



123 



Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Parts 7-10: 
433 
Type genus: Oxynoe Rafinesque, 1814 
Remarks: Original spelling Oxynoeidae. Intro- 
duced as a replacement name for Lopho- 
cercidae and Icaridae, because their type 
genera were considered by Stoliczka to be 
junior synonyms of Oxynoe. Oxynoe is in 
prevailing usage; it is conserved under Art. 
40.2 and takes the precedence of the re- 
placed names, -oidea [as -acea], Wenz 
(1938 [in 1938-1944]: 49). 

OxYSTOMATABIainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 32■.24^ 

Remarks: Taxon containing the genus Janthi- 
na only. Established as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

Pachnodidae Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 
Reference: VIdenskabelige Meddelelser fra 

Dansk Naturhistorisk Foren i ng i Kjobenhavn, 

80: 189,202 
Type genus: PachnodusA\be<rs, 1860 
Remarks: -inae, same reference. 

Pachychilinae p. Fischer & Crosse, 1892 [19 

November] 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 

et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches 

zoologiques, Partie 7, 2(13): 313 
Type genus: Pachychilus I. Lea & H. С Lea, 

1851 
Remarks: Not available from Troschel (1858 

[in 1856-1891]: 113 [as Pachychili; a plural 

not equivalent to a family-group name]). 

-idae, Starobogatov (1 970b: 39). 

Pachycymbiolini Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [7 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, ЪЪ{'\Ъ2): 17 [287] 

Type genus: Pachycymbiola Ihering, 1907 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Pachycym- 
biolides. Precedence of Adelomeloninae 
over simultaneously published Pachycymbi- 
olini determined by Art. 24 (family vs. sub- 
family). 

Pachydrobiini Davis & Kang, 1990 [19 Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 142: 138 

Type genus: Pachydrobia Crosse & P. Fischer, 
1876 



Pachygnatha Odhner, 1939 

Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 48 
Remarks: Established at unspecified rank 

above family, containing the family Antiopel- 

lidae. Not available as a family-group name 

(not based on a genus). 

Pachymelaniidae Bande! & Kowaike, 1999 
Reference: Helgoland Marine Research, 53: 133 
Type genus: Pachymelania E. A. Smith, 1893 

Pacificellidae Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 
Reference: VIdenskabelige Meddelelser fra 
Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 
80: 195,202 
Type genus: Pacificella Odhner, 1921 
Remarks: Steenberg attributed the name to 
Odhner (1921: 235), but Odhner only sug- 
gested that Pacificella "may perhaps be 
made the type of a distinct family", -inae, 
Cowie, Evenhuis & Christensen (1995: 78); 
-ini, Bouchet, herein [in place of Tornatelli- 
noptini, over which it has priority]. 

Paedhoputinae Schileyko, 1978 [after 1 March] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, Molliuski, 3(6): 291 
Type genus: Paedhoplita Lindholm, 1927 
Remarks: -ini, H. Nordsieck (1993b: 4). 

Paedophoropodidae a. V. Ivanov, 1933 [1 Oc- 
tober] 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 104(5-6): 165 
Type genus: PaedophoropusA. V. Ivanov, 1933 

Paffrathiinae Heidelberger, 2001 
Reference: Geologische Abhandlungen Hes- 
sen, 106: 190 
Type genus: -^Raffrathia Fryda, 2000 
Remarks: Original spelling Paffrathinae. 

Pagodininae Pilsbry, 1918 [24 April] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

24(96): X 
Type genus: Pagodina Stabile, 1864 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym oí Pagodina yan Beneden, 1853 [Crus- 
tacea]. See Pagodulininae. 

Pagodulininae Pilsbry, 1924 [16 July] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

27(107): 166 
Type genus: Pagodulina Clessin, 1876 
Remarks: Nom. nov. pro Pagodininae, invalid 

because its type genus is a junior homonym. 

-idae,Alzona(1971:70). 



124 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Paladmetidae Stephenson, 1941 

Reference; The University of Texas, Publica- 
tion 4: 01 .366 

Type genus: fPa/admefe Gardner, 1916 

Remarks: Name only, but made available un- 
der Art. 13.2.1 by usage as a valid name 
before 2000. Diagnosed by Sohl (1 964: 271 ). 

Palaeocapulidae Grabau, 1936 

Reference: Palaeontologia Sinica, ser. В, 8(4): 

311 
Type genus: -fPalaeocapulus Grabau & Shim- 

er, 1909 

Palaeocyclophoridae Bändel, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut, Universität Ham- 
burg, 86: 180 
Remarks: Not available under Art. 16.2: no 
citation of the name of the type genus. (There 
exists a genus Palaeocyclophorus Wenz, 
1923, but Bändel cited only Bernicia Cox, 
1927, and Solemella Bändel, 2002, as in- 
cluded genera). 

Palaeonustidae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

39,44,236 
Type genus: -fPalaeonustus Pernor, 1903 

Palaeorissoinidae Gründe! & Kowaike, 2002 

[October] 
Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und 

Palaeontologie, Abhandlungen, 226(1 ): 44 
Type genus: ^Palaeorissoina Gründel, 1999 
Remarks: Not available (nomen nudum) from 

Gründel (2001 : 53). -inae, same reference. 

Palaeostoidae H. Nordsieck, 1986 [7 Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde , 117(1- 
3):112 

Type genus: fPa/aeosfoa Andreae, 1884 

Palaeostylinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

40,45 
Type genus: ■\Palaeostylus Mansuy, 1914 
Remarks: Name only. Diagnosed, Ibid.: 381 

[October 1938]. -idae, Bändel (2002b: 112); 

-oidea, Bouchet, herein [in place of Ortho- 

nematoidea over which it has priority]. 

Palaeotrochidae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2); 42 
Type genus: \Palaeotrochus Hall, 1879 



Remarks; No diagnosis, but made available 
under Art. 13.2.1 by usage as a valid name 
before 2000. First diagnosed and -oidea [as 
-acea]. Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 
Moore, 1960: 302). Gurich (1896: 309) had 
already used the name Palaeotrochidae to 
group the "ancient trochids", but did not im- 
plicitly or explicitly include Palaeotrochus, 
and the name appears to have been descrip- 
tive. 

Palaeoxestininae Pfeffer, 1930 [2 January] 
Reference; Geologische und Palaeontolo- 

gische Abhandlungen, new ser., 17(3): 14 
Type genus; -\Palaeoxestina Wenz, 1919 

Palaeozygopleuridae Horny, 1955 
Reference: Sbornik Ustredniho Ustavu Geo- 

logickeho, Oddil Paleontologicky, 21: 104, 

120 
Type genus: -f Palaeozygopleura Horny, 1955 
Remarks: -inae, same reference. 

Paleuphemitinae Fryda, 1999 

Reference: Journal of the Czech Geological 

Soc/efy, 44(3-4); 319 
Type genus: -fPaleuphemites Horny, 1962 

Palliohedylidae Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum. Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 85 
Type genus: Palliohedyle Rankin, 1979 
Remarks: -oidea, Bouchet, herein [for consis- 
tency of ranking]. 

Paludestrinidae Newton, 1891 [22 August] 
Reference; Systematic list of the F. E. Edwards 
collection of British Oligocène and Eocene 
Mollusca in the British Museum {Natural His- 
tory): 226 
Type genus: Paludestrina d'Orbigny, 1840 
Remarks; There is an earliest and hitherto 
overlooked type species designation for 
Paludestrina, by subsequent designation by 
Nevill (1885; 46); Paludina nigra d'Orbigny 
1 840, which is a species of Eatoniella. This 
would render Paludestrinidae a senior syn- 
onym of Eatoniellidae Ponder, 1965. The 
case will be presented under Art. 41 to the 
ICZN by D. Kadolsky (pers. comm. pers.) 
to conserve the name Eatoniellidae. 
Paludestrinidae was introduced as a sub- 
stitute name for Hydrobiidae, based on the 
erroneous assumption that its type genus 
Hydrobia Hartmann, 1821, was a junior 
homonym of Hydrobius Leach, 1817 [Co- 
leóptera], -inae, Preston (1915; 167). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



125 



Paludinellinae Kobelt, 1878 [May] 
Reference: lllustrirtes Conchylienbuch, 1: 131 
Type genus: Paludinella L. Pfeiffer, 1841 
Remarks: When he established the name 
Paludinellinae, Kobelt used Paludinella in the 
sense of F. J. Schmidt (1847), i.e. for spe- 
cies of the amnicolid genus Bythinella. If 
Paludinellinae was an available name, the 
case would have to be brought to the Com- 
mission under Art. 41 (Family-group names 
based on misidentified type genera). How- 
ever, Paludinellinae was established in syn- 
onymy and not used as valid before 1961, 
i.e. it is not an available name. It was not 
made available (no diagnosis) by Habe 
(1976b: 215), who declared Paludinellidae 
new, and attributed to Paludinella Japanese 
species of Paludinellassiminea (Fukuda & 
Ponder, 2003:2018). 

Paludinidae Fitzinger, 1833 

Reference: Beiträge zur Landeskunde Oes- 
terreich's unter der Enns, Bd. 3: 116 

Type genus: Paludina Férussac, 1812 

Remarks: Original spelling ("Gruppe") Palu- 
dinoidea. First established as "les Palu- 
dinides" (vernacular) by Risso (1826: 100). 
-inae [as Paludinae], Troschel (1857 [in 
1856-1891]: 97). Invalid: Placed on the Of- 
ficial Index by Opinion 573 (1959: 118), but 
attributed in error to Gray (1840b: 1 52). See 
also Viviparidae. 

Paludiscalinae D. W. Taylor, 1966 [1 October] 

Reference: The Veliger, 9(2): 207 

Type genus: Paludiscala D. W. Taylor, 1966 

Paludominae Stoliczka, 1868 [1 April] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Sur- 
vey of India. Palaeontologia Indica. Creta- 
ceous Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Part 
5:207 
Type genus: Paludomus Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: -idae, Pilsbry & Bequaert (1927: 
248); -ini [as -eae], Wenz (1939 [in 1938- 
1944]: 703). 

Papillia Glaubrecht, 1995 

Reference: 12th International Malacological 
Congress [Vigo, 1995], Abstracts: 309 

Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Cerithioidea. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Papilliferini Brandt, 1961 [17 July] 
Reference: Archiv fijr Molluskenkunde, 90(1- 

3):12 
Type genus: Papillifera Hartmann, 1842 



Remarks: Original spelling Papillifereae. Not 
available: no diagnosis. 

Papillodermatidae Wiktor, Martin & Castillejo, 

1990 [15 October] 
Reference: Malakologische Abhandlungen, 

15(1): 1 
Type genus: Papilloderma Wiktor, Martin & 

Castillejo, 1990 
Remarks: Original spelling Papillodermidae. 

-oidea. Bank et al. (2001: 93). 

Papuarioninae Schileyko, 2002 [September] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 9: 1217-1218 
Type genus: Papuarion Van Mol, 1973 
Remarks: -ini, same reference. 

Papuinidae Iredale, 1938 [30 November] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9(2): 91 
Type genus: Papuina Martens, 1860 
Remarks: -inae, Abbott (1 989: 226). 

Papyriscalinae Jousseaume, 1912 [14 August] 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 24(3-4): 209, 243 
Type genus: Papyriscala de Boury, 1909 

Parabythinellinae Radoman, 1976 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Zoologische Syste- 
matik und Evolutionsforschung, 14(2): 147 
Type genus: Parabythinella Radoman, 1973 

Paracerithiinae Cossmann, 1906 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 7: 20, 22 
Type genus: -[Paracerithium Cossmann, 1902 
Remarks: Original spelling Paracerithinae. 
Precedence of simultaneously published 
Procerithiidae determined by Art. 24 (family 
vs. subfamily). 

Paracoryphellidae M. C. Miller, 1971 [1 No- 
vember] 

Reference: ZoologicalJournal of the Linnean 
Soc/efy, 50(4): 315 

Type genus: Paracoryphella M. С Miller, 1971 

Parafossarulinae Starobogatov, 1 983 [after 22 
February] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
li uskov, 7: 21 

Type genus: Parafossaru/us Annandale, 1924 

Paralaomidae Iredale, 1941 [16 April] 
Reference: The Australian Naturalist, 10:263 
Type genus: Paralaoma Iredale, 1913 



126 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Paramelaniidae J. E. S. Moore, 1898 [June] 
Reference: Quarterly Journal of Microscopi- 
cal Science, new ser, 41 : 315 
Type genus: Paramelania E. A. Smith, 1 881 
Remarks: Original spelling Paramelanidae. 
-inae, Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 83); -ini 
[as -eae], Thiele (1928: 400). 

Parancistrolepidinae Habe, 1972[1 December] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 86(2-4): 51 
Type genus: Parancistrolepis Azuvna, 1965 
Remarks: Original spelling Parancistrolepisi- 

nae. -idae, Goryachev (1987b: 35); -ini, 

Bouchet & Kantor, herein. 

PARAsmcA Reeve, 1842 

Reference: Conchologia systematica, 2: 173 

Remarks: Taxon containing the genus Stilifer, 

established as a family and not available as 

such (not based on a genus). 

Parastrophiinae Hinoide & Habe, 1978 [31 
July] 

Reference: Venus, 37(2): 56 

Type genus: Parastrophia de Polin, 1869 

Remarks: No diagnosis, but introduced, in vi- 
olation of Art. 40.1 , as a replacement name 
for Pedumichnae, because Hinoide & Habe 
considered Pedumicra Iredale & Laseron, 
1957, a junior synonym of Parastrophia. 
Pedumichnae Iredale & Laseron, 1957, is not 
in current use, but Parastrophiinae is little 
used; priority should apply. 

Parataphrinae Calzada, 1989 [November] 

Reference; Batalleria, 2: 4 

Type genus: tParataphrus Chavan, 1954 

Paraturbinidae Cossmann, 1916 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 10:8,33 
Type genus: -fParaturbo Cossmann, 1 907 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1975:209). 

Pareoridae Finlay & Marwick, 1937 [20 May] 
Reference: New Zealand Geological Survey 

Palaeontological Bulletin, 15: 42 
Type genus: -\Pareora Marwick, 1931 
Remarks: -inae. Franc (1968a: 274). 

Parhedylinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 443 
Type genus: Parhedyle Thiele, 1 931 
Remarks: -idae / -oidea, Starobogatov (1 983: 

31). 



Parmacellidae P. Fischer, 1856 [January] 
(1855) 

Reference: Actes de la Société Linnéenne de 
Bordeaux, 20: 390 

Type genus: Parmacella Cuvier, 1805 

Remarks: Fischer did not explicitly establish 
Parmacellidae as a replacement name for 
Cryptellidae (which he did not cite), but he list- 
ed Cryptella Webb & Berthelot, 1833, as a 
synonym of Parmacella (although they are 
currently both treated as valid). Cryptellidae 
was declared nomen oblitum and Parmacelli- 
dae declared nomen protectum under Art. 23.9 
by Schileyko (2003 [in 1998-2003]: 167). How- 
ever, as Parmacellidae is in prevailing usage, 
it is conserved under Art. 40.2, with the prece- 
dence of Cryptellidae, and there was no need 
to apply Art. 23.9. -inae, Cockerell (1 891 : 21 6, 
224); -oidea, Schileyko (1979a: 57). 

Parmacellillinae Hesse, 1926 [after March] 
Reference: Abhandlungen des Archiv für Mol- 
luskenkunde, 2(1 ): 47, 54 
Type genus: Parmacelliila Simroth, 1910 

Parmarioninae Godwin-Austen, 1908 [after May] 
Reference: [in Blanford & Godwin-Austen] The 

fauna of British India. Mollusca. Testacellidae 

and Zonitidae: 180 
Type genus: Parmarion P. Fischer, 1855 
Remarks: -ini, Solem (1966: 24). 

Partulidae Pilsbry, 1900 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 52: 564 
Type genus: Partula Férussac, 1821 
Remarks: -oidea, H. B. Baker (1963: 204). 

Paryphantinae Godwin-Austen, 1893 [October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 1: 8 
Type genus: Pa /ypA/ania AI be rs, 1850 
Remarks: -idae / -oidea [as -acea], Thiele 

(1926 [in 1925-1926]: 150). 

Patelliconidae Fryda, 1998 

Reference: Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho 

Ustavu,73{^y. 46 
Type genus: -\Patelliconus Horny, 1961 

Patellidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 142 
Type genus: Patella Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Patellaria. 
-oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1925 [in 1925- 
1926]: 75); -inae, Thiele (1929 [in 1929- 
1935]: 40). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



127 



Patelliformia Thiele, 1921 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 53(3): 
147 

Remarks: Introduced as a "Sippe" (later "Stirps"), 
considered to be equivalent to superfamily. 
Treated as superfamily Patelliformia by Kuro- 
da (1934b: 324). Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Patelloideae Menke, 1828 

Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 
52 

Remarks: Probably a latinization of "les Pa- 
telloïdes"ofFérussac (1822 [in 1821-1822]: 
xxxvii). Taxon containing the genera Scutus, 
Fissurella, etc., but not the genus Patella, 
placed (p. 53) in a separate family Patellace- 
ae. Established as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

Patelloididae Chapman & Gabriel, 1923 [13 

December] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Royal Society 

of Victoria, new ser., 36: 24 
Type genus: Patelloida Quoy & Gaimard, 1834 
Remarks: -inae, Golikov & Kusakin (1 972: 292). 

Patelloplanorbidae Franc, 1968 
Reference: Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 534 
Type genus: Patelloplanorbis Hubendick, 1957 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 
Harry & Hubendick (1964: 18). 

Patulastridae Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 
Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 
80: 202 
Type genus: Patulastra L. Pfeiffer, 1879 
Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Pleurodiscidae, based on Pleurodiscus 
Wenz, 1919, which Steenberg treated (erro- 
neously) as a synonym of Patulastra. Patu- 
lastridae has not won general acceptance 
and Art. 40.2 does not apply. 

Patulinae Tryon, 1866 [1 July] 

Reference: American Journal of Conchology, 

2(3): 243, 259 
Type genus: Patula Held, 1837 
Remarks: -idae, Clessin (1887 [in 1887-1890]: 

14, 103); -oidea [as -acea], Pfeffer (1930: 

38). See also Discinae. 

Paurotaeniae Westerlund, 1902 [after 1 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Acta Academiae Scientiarum et 
Artium Slavorum Meridionalium, 1 51 : 92 



Remarks: Introduced as a family-group name 
within the subfamily Helicinae and not avail- 
able as such: not based on a genus. 

Pavlodiscidae Fryda, 1998 

Reference: Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho 

Ustavu, 7 3{^)■. 42 
Type genus: -tPavlodiscus Fryda, 1998 

Payettiinae Dall, 1924 [10 November] 
Reference: United States Geological Survey 

Professional Paper, 132-G: 112 
Type genus: tPayettia Dall, 1924 
Remarks: Original spelling Payettinae. -idae, 

Starobogatov (1970b: 18). 

Pectinibranchia Cuvier, 1814 [December] 
Reference: [in Blainville] Bulletin des Scienc- 
es par la Société Philomatique de Paris, 
Zoo/og/e, (1814): 178 
Remarks: Established as order "Pectini- 
branches" (vernacular). Latinized as a fam- 
ily [but not available as such (not based on 
a genus)] by Goldfuss (1820: xliv, 644). 

Pectinodontinae Pilsbry, 1891 [3 August] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 1, 

13(49): 6 
Type genus: Pectinodonta Dall, 1882 
Remarks: Established independently the same 
year [but deemed to be 31 December under 
Art. 21.3.2] by Thiele (1891 [in 1891-1893]: 
307). -idae, Moskalev (1968: 10). 

Peculatoridae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Memoir 1 1 : 64 
Type genus: Pecu/afor Iredale, 1924 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Pedasiolinae Wahlman, 1992 

Reference: United States Geological Survey 

Professional Paper, 1066-O: 175 
Type genus: -\Pedasiola Spriesterbach, 1919 

Pediculariidae Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 131 
Type genus: Pedicularia Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Pediculariadae. 

-inae, Stoliczka (1867 [in 1867-1871]: 45); 

-ini, Schilder (1936: 106); -oidea, Golikov & 

Starobogatov (1975: 212). 

Pedinogyridae Iredale, 1937 [12 November] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9(1): 15 



128 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Pedinogyra A\bers, 1860 
Remarks: -oidea, Iredale (1942: 35). 

Pedipedinae p. Fischer & Crosse, 1880 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 

et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches 

zoologiques (7), 2(8): 5 
Type genus: Pedipes Férussac, 1821 

Pedumicrinae Iredale & Laseron, 1957 [8 May] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Royal Zoolog- 
ical Society of New South Wales, 1955- 
1956:98, 104 

Type genus: Pedumicra Iredale & Laseron, 
1957 

Remarks: Precedence of simultaneously pub- 
lished Ctiloceratidae determined by Art. 24 
(family vs. subfamily). See also Parastrophi- 
inae. 

Pelagiellidae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: tPelagiella Matthew, 1895 
Remarks: No diagnosis. Diagnosed and -oidea 
[as -acea]. Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 
Moore, 1960: 323); also diagnosed by Pch- 
elintsev & Korobkov (1960: 65). 

Peloridae W. Clark, 1851 [June] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 2, 7: 472 

Remarks: Established as a family including the 
genera Scalaria, lanthina, Natica, Lamellar- 
ia, and Velutina. Not available: not based on 
a genus [Pelons Poli, 1791 is a bivalve]. 
Again declared new by Clark (1853: 45). 

Pelseneeriidae Schwanwitsch, 1917 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Vestnik, 2: 140 
Type genus: Pelseneeria Koehler & Vaney, 

1908 
Remarks: Original spelling Pelseneeridae. 

Peltatinae Godwin-Austen, 1912 [January] 
Reference: The Annals and Magazine of Nat- 
ural History, ser. 8, 9: 124 
Type genus: Pe/íaíüs Godwin-Austen, 1908 
Remarks: See Sheldoniinae. 

Peltellinae Gray, 1855 [14 April] 

Reference: Catalogue of Pulmonata or air- 
breathing Mollusca in the collection of the 
British Museum. Parti: 155, 179 

Type genus: Peltella Gray, 1855 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Peltellina. 
The name of the type genus is generally at- 



tributed to Webb & van Beneden (1 836), but 
these authors introduced it as a nomen nu- 
dum, for the American species of Parmacel- 
la, without a diagnosis, and without any 
included species cited by name. Gray first 
established it as an available name. 

Peltidae Vayssière, 1885 

Reference: Annales du Musée d'Histoire Na- 
turelle de Marseille. Zoologie, 2(3): 104 

Type genus: Pelta Quatrefages, 1844 

Remarks: Invalid: placed on the Official Index 
by Opinion 811 (1967: 89), but credited in 
error to Winckworth (1 931 : 267). 

Peltospiridae McLean, 1989 [3 January] 
Reference: Zoológica Scripta, 18(1): 50 
Type genus: Peltospira McLean, 1989 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], same reference. 

Pelycidiidae Ponder & S. Hall, 1983 [31 Janu- 
ar/] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 97(1): 30 
Type genus: Pelycidion P. Fischer, 1873 
Remarks: -inae, Bouchet & Le Renard, herein. 

Pendromidae Waren, 1991 [7 July] 
Reference: Sarsia, 76(1-2): 68 
Type genus: Pendroma Dali, 1927 

Pentaptyxidae Lyssenko, 1981 [after 21 May] 
Reference: Paleontologicheskii Sbornik, 18: 23 
Type genus: -\Pentaptyxis Pchelintsev, 1965 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. Not 
available from Lyssenko (1984: 16; no diag- 
nosis), nor from Lyssenko & Aliev (1 990: 1 07; 
no diagnosis). 

Pentataeniidae Mörch, 1864 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
den Naturhistorisk Foren i ng i Kjöbenhavn, 
17-22 (for 1863): 286 

Type genus: Pentataenia Schmidt, 1855 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Pentatae- 
niae. -inae, Gottschick (1920: 49). Schmidt 
(1855: 11, 18) is generally credited as author 
of this family-group name; however, he only 
mentions a "Gruppe Pentataenia" (for various 
species of Helix), in the same way as he 
mentions a "Gruppe Campylaea", a "Gruppe 
Fruticicola" , etc., thus indicating genus-group. 

PERACLiDAETesch, 1913 [June] 
Reference: Das Tierreich, 36: 71 
Type genus: Peracle Forbes, 1844 
Remarks: Original spelling Peraclididae. -oidea 
[as -acea], Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 49). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



129 



Given precedence over simultaneously pub- 
lished Procymbuliidae by First Reviser's ac- 
tion by Vaught (1 989: 68). 

Perissityidae Popenoe & Saul, 1987 [12 May] 
Reference: Contributions in Science, Natural His- 
tory Museum of Los Angeles County, 380: 11 
Type genus: f /^©"ss/fys Stewart, 1927 

Perissopteridae Korotkov, 1992 [after 10 Au- 
gust] 

Reference: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 
1992(3): 97 

Type genus: f /^e^'/ssoptera Tate, 1865 

PERisTERNiiNAETryon, 1880 [31 ОосеплЬег] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 1, 3: 

47^8 
Type genus: Peristernia Mörch, 1852 

Peristomacea Lamarck, 1812 [October] 
Reference: Extrait du cours de zoologie: 1 1 7 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Péristomiens" 
(vernacular). Latinized [as Peristomania] by 
Children (1823 [in 1822-1824]: 245) and [as 
Peristomidae] by Broderip (1839: 320). Estab- 
lished as a family containing the genera Valva- 
ta, Paludina, and Ampullaha. Not available as 
a family-group name (not based on a genus). 

Peristomatidae Cossmann, 1918 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 1 1 : 29 
Remarks: Established as a family containing 
the genera Craspedostoma, Codonochilus, 
Crossostoma, Pycnotrochus, and Scoliosto- 
ma, thus a concept different from Lamarck's 
Peristomacea. -oidea [as -acea], Cossmann, 
ibid.: 1. Not available as a family-group 
name: not based on a genus. 

Peroniidae Keferstein, 1865 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen derWeichthiere, Bd. 3(2): 1246 

Type genus: Peronia Fleming, 1822 

Remarks: Original spelling Peroniadae. Fam- 
ily declared again nov. by Labbé (1 934: 217). 

Peroninidae Starobogatov, 1976 
Reference: Biologiia Moria, 4: 14 
Type genus: Peronina Plate, 1893 

Perrieriinae Schileyko, 1999 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs, Part 4: 540 
Type genus: Pemena Tappa rone Ca nef h , 1878 



Persiculinae g. a. Coovert & H. К. Coovert, 

1995 [12 October] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 109(2-3): 70 
Type genus: Persicula Schumacher, 1817 

Personinae Gray, 1854 [25 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 21: 37 
Type genus: Persona Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling Personina. -idae, 

Beu(1988:89). 

Perunelidae Fryda & Bändel, 1997 

Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 80: 26 

Type genus: ■\Ре''ипе1а Fryda & Bändel, 1997 

Remarks: -oidea, same reference. 

Pervicaciidae Rudman, 1969 [1 July] 
Reference: The Veliger, 12(1): 63 
Type genus: Pen/icacia Iredale, 1924 
Remarks: -inae, Taylor, Kantor & Sysoev 
(1993:157-158). 

Petriolinae Schileyko, 1999 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 4: 520 
Type genus: Patrióla Dali, 1905 

Petrophila Gill, 1871 [February] 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 13 

Remarks: Taxon containing the families Gadi- 
niidae and Siphonariidae, established at a 
rank between "suborder" and family. Treat- 
ed by Grant & Gale (1931 : 462) as a super- 
family. Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). 

Petropomatinae Cox, 1960 [about 15 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 1 : 268 
Type genus: tP^t^opoma Gabb, 1877 
Remarks: Original spelling Petropominae. 

Pfeifferiinae Gray, 1855 [14 April] 

Reference: Catalogue of Pulmonata or air- 
breathing Mollusca in the collection of the 
British Museum. Part I: 1 56 

Type genus: Pfeifferia Gray, 1853 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Pfeifferiana. 

Phaedusinae a. J. Wagner, 1922 [1 September] 
Reference: Annales Zoologicae Musei Polonici 
Historiae Naturalis, 1(2-3): 98 



130 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Phaedusa H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1855 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Zilch (1959 [in 1959- 

1960]: 389). 

Phaliinae Beu, 1981 [January] 
Reference: Records of the Australian Muse- 
um, 33(5): 252 
Type genus: Phalium Link, 1807 

Phanerobranchiatae Bergh, 1880 

Reference: Exploration of Alaska, Scientific 
results, 1,Art. 6(2):201 

Remarks: Established as Dorididae Phanero- 
branchiatae, as a substitute name for Dorid- 
idae eleutherobranchiatae. Later ranked 
explicitly as a subfamily by Bergh (1892: 52). 
Treated as a superfamily by Iredale & 
O'Donoghue (1923: 217). Not available as 
a family-group name (not based on a genus). 
See also Phanerobranchiata in higher cate- 
gory list. 

Phaneroptyxidae Pchelintsev, 1965 [after 3 

February] 
Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozoia Gornogo 

Kryma: 126 
Type genus: -tPfianeroptyxis Cossmann, 1896 
Remarks: Original spelling Phaneroptyxisidae. 

Phanerotrematidae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: ^Phanerotrema P. Fischer, 1885 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 
209). 

Phasianellinae Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 354 
Type genus: Phasianella Lamarck, 1804 
Remarks: -idae. Koken (1896b: 163). Placed on 
the Official List by Opinion 630 (1962: 140). 

Phenacohelicidae Suter, 1892 [May] 
Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 24: 270 
Type genus: Phenacohelix Suier, 1892 
Remarks: -inae, H. B. Baker (1956a: 134). 

Phenacolepadidae Pilsbry, 1895 [10 September] 
Reference: Catalogue of the marine mollusks 

of Japan: 110 
Type genus: Phenacolepas Pilsbry, 1891 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name for 
Scutellinidae, invalid because its type genus 
is a junior homonym; Art. 40.2 does not apply. 



Phenacolimacinae Schileyko, 1986 [after 25 

July] 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

148:125 
Type genus: P/?enaco//max Stabile, 1859 

Pherusidae Locard, 1886 

Reference: Prodrome de malacologie 
française. Catalogue général des mol- 
lusques vivants de France. Mollusques 
mahn s: 572 

Type genus: Pherusa Jeffreys, 1869 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior homonym 
of Pherusa Oken, 1807, and several others. 

Phidianidae Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 

886 
Type genus: Phidiana Gray, 1850 

Philinidae Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] (1815) 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 

m 

Type genus: P/?///neAscanius, 1772 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl 
(1962: 11). When he established Philinidae, 
Gray cited "Bullaea aperta" in the synonymy 
of ^'Philine aperta", thus implicitly treating 
Philinidae as a substitute name for Bul- 
laeidae. Philinidae is conserved under Art. 
40.2, with the precedence of Bullaeidae. 

Philinoglossidae Hertling, 1932 [December] 
Reference: Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersu- 
chungen, Abt. Helgoland, newser., 19(1): 9 
Type genus: Philinoglossa Hertling, 1932 
Remarks: -inae, Salvini-Plawen (1973: 119); 
-oidea, Vaught (1989: ix, 66). 

Philippiinae Melone & Taviani, 1 985 [February] 

Reference: Lavon della Società Italiana di 
Malacologia, 21: 165 

Type genus: Philippia Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis, only 
joint diagnosis for Architectonicinae and 
Philippiinae) from Boss (1982: 997). 

Philomycinae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 170 
Type genus: Philomycus Rafinesque, 1820 
Remarks: Original spelling Philomycina. -idae, 

Gray (1860b: 269). 

Philonesiini H. B. Baker, 1938 [10 October] 
Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulle- 
tin, 158: ^^ 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



131 



Type genus: Philonesia Sykes, 1900 
Remarks: Original spelling Philonesiae. 

Philopotamidinae Stäche, 1889 [1 December] 
Reference: Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 
13(1): 107 
Type genus: Philopotamis Layard, 1855 
Remarks: Established [as Philopotamldae] as a 
subfamily of Melaniidae, despite use of suffix 
-idae. Philopotamidae [Trichoptera] is based 
on the genus Philopotamus Curtis, 1834. 

Pholidotominae Cossmann, 1896 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 2: Q^, 112 
Type genus: -\Pholidotoma Cossmann, 1896 
Remarks: -idae, Bouchet, herein [in place of 
Pyrifusidae, over which it has priority]. 

Phoridae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 119 
Type genus: P/7oms Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Homonym of Phoridae Newman, 

1835, based on Phora Latreille, 1796 

[Díptera]. See Xenophoridae. 

Phosinellinae Coan, 1964 [1 January] 
Reference: The Veliger, 6(3): 165, 169 
Type genus: Phosinella Mörch, 1876 

Photinae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 

of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part I: 17 
Type genus: P/70S Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling Phosina. -idae, 

Kobelt(1881 [in 1881-1883]: 1). 

Phyllidiidae Rafinesque, 1814 

Reference: Précis des découvertes et travaux 
somiologiques de Mr С. S. Rafinesque- 
Schmalz entre 1800 et 1814: 42 

Type genus: Phyllidia Cuvier, 1797 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Phyllidia. 
First established by Lamarck (1801: 64; 
1809: 320), as "Les Phyllidiens" and "Les 
phyllidéens" (vernacular), which was lati- 
nized [as Phyllidiana] by Children (1823 [in 
1822-1824]: 223). The name Phyllidiidae is 
now prevailingly attributed to Rafinesque, 
and not to Lamarck, -inae, Swainson (1840: 
358); -oidea, Vaught (1989: ix, 70). 

Phylliroidae Menke, 1830 
Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum, 
ed.2:9 



Type genus: Phylliroe Péron & Lesueur, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling Phyllirrhoëa, based 
on Phyllirhoe, an incorrect subsequent spell- 
ing of Phylliroe. First established as "les 
Phyllirhoées" (vernacular) by Férussac 
(1822 [in 1821-1822]: XXV). 

Phyllobranchia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Phyllobranches" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 
175). Established as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

Phyllobranchidae Bergh, 1871 [10 July] 

Reference: Malakologische Untersuchungen, 
[in Semper] Reisen im Archipel der Phi- 
lippinen, Theil 2, Wissenschaftliche Resul- 
tate, Band 2, Theil 1 , Heft 2: 49 

Type genus: Phyllobranchus A\der & Hancock, 
1864 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Phyllobranchus Girard, 1851 [An- 
nelida]. See Phyllobranchillidae. 

Phyllobranchillidae Risbec, 1953 

Reference: Faune de l'Union Française, 15: 
165 

Type genus: Phyllobranchillus Pruvot-Fol, 
1933 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Phyllobranchidae, which is invalid be- 
cause of its type genus is a junior homonym. 

Phyllodesmiinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 459 

Type genus: Phyllodesmium Ehrenberg, 1831 

Remarks: -idae / -oidea [as -acea], Risso- 
Dominguez (1964: 227). 

Phymatopleuridae Batten, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -tPhymatopleura Girty, 1939 

Physastrinae Starobogatov, 1958 [after 25 

December] 
Reference: Biulleten' Moskovskogo Obsh- 

chestva Ispytatelei Prirody, Otdel Blolog- 

icheskii, new ser., 63(6): 50, 52 
Type genus: Physastra Tapparone Canefri, 

1883 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Zilch (1959 [in 1959- 

1960]: 107). 



132 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Physellini D. W. Taylor, 2003 [March] 
Reference: Revista de Biología Tropical, 51, 

Suppl. 1: 167 
Type genus: Physella Haldeman, 1843 

Physidae Fitzinger, 1833 

Reference: Beiträge zur Landesl<unde Oes- 

terreich's unter der Enns, Bd. 3: 110 
Type genus: Physa Draparnaud, 1801 
Remarks: Original spelling ("Gruppe") Phys- 

oidea. -inae [as Physina], Gray (1840a: 251 ); 

-oidea [as -acea], Dall (1870c: 355); 

-ini, D.W. Taylor (2003: 152). 

PicKwoRTHiiDAE Iredale, 1917 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 12(6): 332 
Type genus: Pickwortliia Iredale, 1917 
Remarks: -inae, Bouchet & Le Renard, here- 
in. Precedence over simultaneously pub- 
lished Reynellonidae determined by First 
Reviser's choice by Ponder & Waren (1988: 
299); over simultaneously published Sher- 
borniidae determined by First Reviser's 
choice by Bouchet & Le Renard (in Beesley 
etal., 1998:740). 

PiLEiFORMEs Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Piléiformes" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 201). 
Established as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 

PiLEOLiDAE Bändel, Gründel & Maxwell, 2000 
Reference: Freiberger Forschungshefte, ser. 

С, 490: 85 
Type genus: -[Pileolus J. de С. Sowerby, 1823 
Remarks: Not available from Bande! (2000a: 
122, 124 [introduced as a branch in a cla- 
dogram without defining autapomorphy]). 

PiLEOPSiDAE Chenu, 1859 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (1 ): 328 
Type genus: Pileopsis Lamarck, 1822 

PiLiDAE Preston, 1915 

Reference: The Fauna of British India. Mol- 
lusca {Freshwater Gastropoda: Pelecypoda): 
96 

Type genus: Pila Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Ampullariidae, based on Ampullaria 
Lamarck, 1 799, treated by Preston as a syn- 
onym of Pila, -inae, same reference; -oidea, 



Starobogatov & Sitnikova (1 983: 22). Invalid: 
placed on the Official Index by Opinion 1913 
(1999:74). 

PiNUFiiDAE Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1960 
[March] 

Reference: Abhandlungen der Mathematisch- 
Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse. Akademie 
der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in 
Mainz, 1959(12): 874 

Type genus: Pinufius Er. Marcus & Ev. Mar- 
cus, 1960 

PiRENINAE 

Remarks: Cited by Ponder & Waren (1988: 
295) as "Pireninae Savigny, 1827, as Pire- 
nae". Their source (Waren, pers. comm.) is 
Herrmannsen who listed Pirenae with the 
reference Descr. Egypt. ХХ1Г [*= not seen 
by Herrmanssen], probably based on Agas- 
siz' Nomenclátor. Savigny was the author of 
the mollusc atlas of Description de l'Egypte; 
the text was by Audouin (1826). We deter- 
mined that he used neither Pirena (as a ge- 
nus) nor Pirenae (as a family). 

PiSANiANURiNAE Waren & Bouchet, 1 990 [2 Jan- 
uary] 
Reference: The Veliger, 33(1): 63 
Type genus: ^Pisanianura Rovereto, 1899 
Remarks: -idae, Beu (in Beesley et al., 1998: 
799). 

PisANiiNAE Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 

of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part I: 13 
Type genus: Pisania Bivona Bernardi, 1832 
Remarks: Original spelling Pisaniana. -idae, 

Locard (1897: 320). 

PiSEiNOTECiDAE Edmunds, 1970 [April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 39(1): 39 
Type genus: Piseinotecus Er. Marcus, 1955 

PiTHODEiNAE Wenz, 1938[МагсЬ] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

39,43,167 
Type genus: -\Pithodea de Koninck, 1881 
Remarks: -idae, Vostokova (in Pchelintsev & 

Korobkov, 1960: 119). 

PiTYSiNAE Cooke & Kondo, 1 961 [1 5 February] 
Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bul- 
letin 22V. 5^ 
Type genus: Pitys Mörch, 1852 
Remarks: -ini, same reference. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



133 



Placobranchidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 121, 148 
Type genus: Placobranchus van Hasselt, 1824 
Remarks: Franc (1968c: 848) and Jensen 
(1996: 92) attributed the name to Rang 
(1829: 134), who used the vernacular "les 
Placobranches". -oidea, Jensen (1996: 118). 
Plal<obranchus appears to have been the 
spelling originally used by van Hasselt, in a 
very rare publication that we have not seen; 
Van Hasselt's work is usually cited from its 
translation in Férussac (1824), who used the 
spelling Placobranchus. Jensen (1997: 180- 
181 ) argued for the restoration of the spell- 
ing Plakobranchidae, and she has been 
followed by Wägele & Willan (2000; 91). 
However, the spellings Placobranchus and 
Placobranchidae are in prevailing usage and 
are here conserved under Art. 33.3.1. 

Placostylinae Pilsbry, 1946 
Reference: Notulae Naturae, 168: 3 
Type genus: Placostylus Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Not available from Iredale (1944: 
309, as -idae [name only, no diagnosis; re- 
jected under Art. 13.2bySchileyko, 1999 [in 
1998-2003]: 343]). 

Plagiothyridae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -\Plagiothyra Whidborne, 1892 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 
275). 

Plakobranchidae. See Placobranchidae. 



Type genus: -\Planitrochus Ferner, 1903 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 

Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 

297). -inae, Abbott (1974: 39). 

Planorbariini Starobogatov, 1990 [after 20 

March] 
Reference: [in Starobogatov & Prozorova] 

Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 69(4): 34 
Type genus: Planorbarius Duméril, 1806 

Planorbinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 143 
Type genus: Planorbis O. F. Müller, 1774 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Planor- 
bia. Placed on the Official List by Direction 
27 (1955: 484), which attributed the name to 
Gray (1840a: 256). Rafinesque based his 
name on "Planorbis Geof." [= Geoffroy 
(1767)], a work placed on the Official Index 
by Opinion 362. Planorbis was first made 
available by O. F. Müller (1 774), who refered 
explicitly to Geoffroy, so that the reference by 
Rafinesque to "Planorbis Geof." unambigu- 
ously designates the taxon now attributed 
to Müller, -idae, Hannibal (1912: 152); -ini 
[as -eae]. Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 108); 
-oidea [as -acea], Harry (1962: 34). Staroboga- 
tov (1967: 293) acted as First Reviser and 
gave relative precedence to the name Plan- 
orbidaeoverAncylidae Rafinesque, 1815. 

Planorbulinae Pilsbry, 1934 [17 April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 86: 47 
Type genus: Planorbula Haldeman, 1843 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Harry & Huben- 

dick (1964: 17); -ini, Hubendick (1978: 41). 



Planaxinae Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 

70 
Type genus: Planaxis Lamarck, 1822 
Remarks: Original spelling Planaxina. -idae, 
H. Adams & A. Adams (1854 [in 1853-1858]: 
321); -oidea, Starobogatov (1970b: 37). Pi- 
anaridae [Pchelintsev, 1965: 6] is an incor- 
rect subsequent spelling. 

Planispiridae Iredale, 1941 [19 December] 
Reference: Australian Zoologist, 10(1 ): 89 
Type genus: Planispira Beck, 1837 

Planitrochidae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 



Planozonini Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference; Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2); 42 
Type genus: ^Planozone Ferner, 1907 
Remarks: Original spelling Planozonides. No 
diagnosis. First diagnosed by Knight, Bat- 
ten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 211). 

Platevindecidae Starobogatov, 1976 

Reference: Biologiia Moria, 4: 14 

Type genus: Platevindex H. B. Baker, 1938 

Platyacridae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference; Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1); 

40,43,60,202 
Type genus; tPlatyacra Z\[te\, 1882 
Remarks; -inae, herein. 



134 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Platyceratidae J. Hall, 1879 [after 15 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Natural history of New York. Geo- 
logical Survey of New York. Palaeontology, 
Vol. 5, Part 2: title of plates 1-8 

Type genus: -fPlatyceras Conrad, 1840 

Remarks: Original spelling Platyceridae. 
Knight (1 934: 1 45) stated that the name dat- 
ed from "Hall, 1 859". This is the date of pub- 
lication of vol. 3, part 1 (text) of the work cited 
above, and it does not contain Platyceridae. 
-oidea [as -acea]. Cox & Knight (1960: 263). 

Platyconchinae Bändel, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut, Universität Ham- 
burg, 8Q: 116 
Type genus: -fPlatyconcha Longstaff, 1933 

Platydoridinae Bergh, 1891 [October] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 
Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 
Thiere,6: 135 
Type genus: Platydohs Bergh, 1877 
Remarks: Established as a subfamily of Dori- 
didae, despite use of suffix -idae. -idae, Pru- 
vot-Fol (1934: 66). Discodoridinae given 
precedence over Platydoridinae by First Re- 
viser's action by Valdés (2002: 630). 

Platyglossae Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 229 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily, as a 
substitute name for the Phanerobranchiata 
dorids of Bergh. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Platyhedylidae Salvini-Plawen, 1973 [June] 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Zoologische System- 
atik und Evolutionsforschung, 11(2): 128 
Type genus: Platyhedyle Salvini-Plawen, 1973 
Remarks: -oidea, Sabelli et al. (1 990: 60, 245). 

Platyostomatidae S. A. Miller, 1889 [after Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: North American geology and 
palaeontology: 395 

Type genus: -fPlatycstoma Conrad, 1842 

Remarks: Original spelling Platystomidae, based 
on Platystoma Dalton, 1882, an unjustified 
emendation of Platyostoma and a junior hom- 
onym oí Platystoma Meigen, 1803 [Diptera]. 

Platyschismatinae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: ■\Platyschisma M'Coy, 1844 



Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 
198). 

Platysuccineinae H. B. Baker, 1940 [2 Novem- 
ber] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 54(2): 55 
Type genus: Platysuccinea Ancey, 1881 

Plectonotinae Boucot & Yochelson, 1966 
Reference: United States Geological Survey 

Professional Paper, 503-A: 7 
Type genus: -\Plectonotus J. M. Clarke, 1899 
Remarks: -ini, Fryda (1999b: 312). 

Plectopylidae Möllendorff, 1898 
Reference: Abhandlungen der Naturfor- 
schenden Gesellschaft zu Görlitz, 22: 147 
Type genus: Plectopylis Benson, 1860 
Remarks: -oidea, Н. Nordsieck (1986b: 99). 

Pleioptygmatidae Quinn, 1989 [28 June] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 103(1): 13 
Type genus: -tPleioptygma Conrad, 1863 

Plesiocystiscinae G. A. Coovert & H. K. Coovert, 

1995 [12 October] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 109(2-3): 66 
Type genus: Plesiocystiscus G. A. Coovert & 

H.K. Coovert, 1995 

Plesiomitrinae L. Bellardi, 1887 [before 8 Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 
Piemonte e delta Liguha, parte V: 23 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. 

Plesiophysinae Bequaert & Clench, 1939 [21 

September] 
Reference: Journal of Conchology, 21(6): 175 
Type genus: Plesiophysa P. Fischer, 1883 
Remarks: -ini, Starobogatov (1970b: 53). 

Plesioplocidae Lyssenko, 1984 

Reference: lurskie imelovye Nerinei luga SSSR 
i ikh stratigraficheskoe znachenie: 15, 17 

Type genus: -[Plesioplocus Pchelintsev, 1953 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis and 
published in a dissertation abstract, not avail- 
able for nomenclatural purposes. 

Plesiotritoninae Beu & Maxwell, 1987 [1 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: New Zealand Geological Survey 
Paleontological Bulletin, 54: 17 

Type genus: ^Plesiotriton P. Fischer, 1884 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



135 



Plesiotrochidae Houbrick, 1990 [31 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: The marine flora and fauna of Al- 
bany, 1 : 248 

Type genus: Plesiotrochus P. Fischer, 1878 

Plethospirinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 
39,43,129 

Type genus: -[Plethospira Ulrich [in Ulrich & 
Scofield], 1897 

Remarks: -idae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 
Moore, 1960: 295). Hormotominae given pre- 
cedence over Plethospirinae by First Revis- 
er's choice by P J. Wagner (2002: 81-82). 

Pleurobranchaeinae Pilsbry, 1896 [23 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 1, 
16(64): 191 

Type genus: Pleurobranchaea Meckel, 1813 

Remarks: Menke (1828: 6) established a fam- 
ily Pleurobrancheae, including Pleurobran- 
chaea, Pleurobranchus, and Linguella. 
Although Pleurobranchaea is listed first, 
Pleurobrancheae seems to be derived from 
Pleurobranchus rather than Pleurobran- 
chaea. -idae, Iredale & McMichael (1962: 92). 

Pleurobranchidae Gray, 1827 

Reference: Encyclopaedia metropolitana. Vol. 
7. Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca III [= plate 
4] 

Type genus: Pleurobranchus Cuvier, 1804 

Remarks: Earlier introduced as the vernacu- 
lar family "les Pleurobranches" by Férussac 
(1822 [in 1821-1822]: xxix). -inae, Swain- 
son (1840: 361 ); -oidea, MacFarland (1909: 
6,9, 58);-ini,Willan(1987:238). 

Pleuroceridae p. Fischer, 1885 [29 January] 
(1863) 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (8): 705 

Type genus: Pleurocera Rafinesque, 1818 

Remarks: Fischer considered Ceriphasia 
Swainson, 1840, as a probable junior synonym 
oí Pleurocera and established Pleuroceridae 
to replace Ceriphasiinae. Pleuroceridae has 
won general acceptance and under Art. 40.2 
takes the precedence of the replaced name, 
-inae, Hannibal (1912a: 167). 

Pleurodiscidae Wenz, 1923 [2 August] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 21: 

1069 
Type genus: P/eurod/scus Wenz, 1919 



Remarks: -inae, С Boettger (1 955: 270). See 
Patulastridae. 

Pleurodontidae Ihering, 1912 [12 December] 

Reference: Journal of the Academy of Natu- 
ral Sciences of Philadelphia, ser. 2, 15: 478 

Type genus: Pleurodonte Fischer von Wald- 
heim, 1807 

Remarks: -inae, Solem (1993: 1269). 

Pleuroleuridae Bergh, 1874 [10 June] 
Reference: Malakologlsche Untersuchungen, 
[in Semper] Reisen im Archipel der Philip- 
pinen, Theil 2, Wissenschaftliche Resultate, 
Bd.2,Theil 1, Heft 6: 276 
Type genus: Pleuroleura Bergh, 1874 

Pleurolidiidae Burn, 1966 [16 November] 
Reference: Journal of the Malacological Soci- 
ety of Australia, 1(10): 21 
Type genus: Pleurolidia Burn, 1966 

Pleurophyllidiidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 
[October] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:44 

Type genus: Pleurophyllidia Meckel, 1823 

Remarks: H. Adams & A. Adams placed Di- 
phyllidia in synonymy of Pleurophyllidia but 
did not explicitly establish Pleurophyllidiidae 
as a substitute name for Diphyllidiidae. See 
Arminidae, which is conserved over Pleuro- 
phyllidiidae under Art. 40.2. 

Pleuropinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 141 
Type genus: P/europas Rafinesque, 1815 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Pleu- 
ropia. Not available (not based on an avail- 
able genus name) from Rafinesque (1814: 
155 [as family Pleuropodia]). Pleuropus is 
to be treated as a replacement name for 
Scyllaea Linnaeus, 1758, and Glaucus För- 
ster, 1777, apparently considered synonyms 
by Rafinesque. Pleuropinae is older than 
both Scyllaeidae Alder & Hancock, 1 855 and 
Glaucidae Gray, 1827, but neither Pleuropi- 
nae nor Pleuropus have ever been used as 
valid names. As First Revisers, we here se- 
lect Glaucus atlanticus Forster, 1 777, as type 
species of Pleuropus Rafinesque, 1815, 
which then becomes a junior objective syn- 
onym of Glaucus Forster, 1777. Under Art. 
23.9 of the Code, Pleuropinae Rafinesque, 
181 5, is here declared a nomen oblitum and 
Glaucidae Gray, 1827, a nomen protectum: 
see under Glaucidae. 



136 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Pleuroprocta Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 50, 52 
Remarks: Established as a "Tribe" [= below 

suborder]. Treated as a superfamily, and not 

available as such (not based on a genus), 

by Baba (1955: 5). 

Pleuropteria Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 16 
Remarks: Taxon containing the subfamilies 
Lerneidia [- Lerneidae; Crustacea] and Pleu- 
ropia [see Pleuropinae]. Established as a 
family and not available as such (not based 
on a genus). 

Pleurotomariinae Swainson, 1840 [May] 

Reference: A treatise on malacology: 353 

Type genus: -tPleurotomaria Defrance, 1826 

Remarks: Original spelling Pleurotomariae. 

Placed on the Official List by Opinion 582 

(1960:276). -idae,d'Orbigny (1841 [in 1841- 

1853]: 199); -oidea [as -acea]. Gill (1871: 11). 

Pleurotomellinae F. Nordsieck, 1968 [Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Die europäischen Meeres-Ge- 
häuseschnecken: 180 

Type genus: Pleurotomella Verrill, 1873 

PLEUROTOMiNAEGray, 1838 [March] 
Reference: Annals of Natural History, 1(1): 28 
Type genus: Pleurotoma Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Pleurotomina. -idae 

[as family -aceae]. Hinds (1844 [in 1844- 

1 845]: 1 5). See also Turhdae. 

Plicacidae Lamarck, 1812 [October] 
Reference: Extrait du cours de zoologie: 1 1 7 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Plicacés" (ver- 
nacular). First latinised [as (family) Pli- 
catarum] by Menke (1828: 32). -oidea [as 
-acea], Cossmann (1906: 2). Not available: 
not based on a genus. 

Plicatusidae Pan & Erwin, 2002 
Reference: The Paleontological Society Mem- 
oir, 56: 38 
Type genus: ^Plicatus Pan & Erwin, 2002 

Plicolivinae Bouchet, 1990 [14 September] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(1- 

3):9 
Type genus: Plicoliva Petuch, 1979 

Pliopholygidae D. W. Taylor, 1966 [18 August] 
Reference: Malacologia, 4(1): 128 
Type genus: -fPliopholyx Yen, 1944 



Plotiidae Forcart, 1951 [1 April] 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 80(1- 

3):85 
Type genus: Plotia Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Invalid: Placed on the Official Index 

by Direction 54 (1956: 465). 

Plusculidae Franc, 1968 
Reference: Traité de Zoologie, 5(3): 612 
Type genus: Pluscula Er. Marcus, 1953 
Remarks: -inae, Salvini-Plawen (1973: 119). 

PLUTONiiNAECockerell, 1893 [31 October] 
Reference: [in Cockerell & Collinge] The Con- 

chologist, 2(8): 204 
Type genus: Plutonia Morelet [in Stabile], 1864 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 1 880 (1 997: 1 97). -idae, Möllendorff (1 903 
[in 1903-1905]: 5). Vithplutoniinae is an ob- 
jective synonym. Shelley & Backeljau (1995: 
150) had proposed to emend the name to 
Plutoniainae to avoid homonymy with the tri- 
lobite family Plutoniinae Bollman, 1 893 [Myr- 
iapoda]; in fact, the gastropod name was 
found to be the senior homonym, and Pluto- 
niinae Cockerell, 1893, was placed on the 
Official List without emendation. The ruling 
of Opinion 1880 was overlooked by Schiley- 
ko (2003 [in 1998-2003]: 1476), who regard- 
ed Plutoniainae as the correct spelling. 

Pneumodermatidae Latreille, 1825 

Reference: Families naturelles du règne ani- 
mal: MO 

Type genus: Pneumoderma de Roissy, 1805 

Remarks: Original spelling Pneumodermites 
(Latin). Latreille (1824: table) had used 
"Pneumodermites" (vernacular). The spell- 
ings Pneumodermonidae (e.g.. Carpenter, 
1861: 243), Pneumonodermoidae (e.g., 
Agassiz, 1847 [in 1842-1847]), and Pneu- 
monodermatidae (e.g., Pelseneer, 1887: 38) 
are based on the unjustified emendations 
Pneumodermon, Pneumonoderma, and 
Pneumonodermon. 

PoECiLozoNiTiNAE Pilsbry, 1924 [9 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 76: 1 
Type genus: PoecilozonitesO. Boettger, 1884 

PoLEUMiTiDAE Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch der Paläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

43,60,208 
Type genus: -\Poleumita J. M. Clarke & Rue- 

demann, 1903 
Remarks: Poleumita is a replacement name 

for Polytropis de Koninck, 1881, non Sand- 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



137 



berger, 1875; Art. 40 does not apply and 
Poleumitidae does not take the precedence 
of Polytropidae. 

PoLiNiciNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 149 
Type genus: Polinices Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling Polinicina. Erect- 
ed again, as Poliniceinae, by Finlay & Mar- 
wick (1937: 47). -idae [as Polynicidae], 
Golikov&Kusakin(1971:28). 

PoLLicARiiNi Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 106 
Type genus: Pollicaria Gould, 1856 
Remarks: Original spelling Pollicarieae. 

PoLLiciNiDAE Рогпег, 1925 

Reference: [in Koken] Zapiskii Rossiskoi Aka- 
demii Nauk, ser. 8, Otdel Fiziko-Mathemat- 
icheskikh Nauk,2>l{^)■.221 

Type genus: -\Pollicina Koken, 1895 

Remarks: Declared again nov. by Starobo- 
gatov (1 974: 1 1 ). The family Pollicinidae has 
usually been treated as gastropod, but this 
view has recently been rejected by Evans & 
Cope (2003: 139-149). 

PoLYBRANCHiA Blainvillo, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1814): 177 
Remarks: Original spelling "Polybranches" 
(vernacular). Established as an order but 
latinized as a family [and not available as 
such (not based on a genus)] by Goldfuss 
(1820: xlv, 653). 

PoLYBRANCHiiDAE O'Donoghue, 1929 [January] 
Reference: Transactions of the Zoological 

Society of London, 22(6): 737 
Type genus: Polybranchia Pease, 1860 
Remarks: Original spelling Polybranchidae. 
-inae, С Boettger (1963: 433); -oidea, Odh- 
ner(in Franc, 1968c: 613, 846, 1062). 

PoLYCERiNAE Alder & Hancock, 1845 
Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 

branchiate Mollusca, 1 : 2 
Type genus: Polycera Cuvier, 1817 
Remarks: -idae. Gray (1857a: 213); -oidea [as 

-acea],Abbott (1974: 358). 

PoLYGYRELLiNAE H. B. Вакег, 1955 [28 April] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 68(4): 111 
Type genus: Polygyrella Bland, 1869 



Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Megomphicinae, presumably because 
Polygyrella was the oldest of the three ge- 
nus-group names included by Baker in the 
subfamily; however. Baker did not treat them 
as synonyms, and Art. 40.2 does not apply. 

PoLYGYRiNAE Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 

Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 
9(33a): xxxii-xxxiii 

Type genus: Polygyra Say, 1818 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List, and giv- 
en precedence over Mesodontidae by Opin- 
ion 1691 (1992: 240). -idae, Ihering (1912: 
488); -oidea [as -acea]. Zilch (1 960 [in 1959- 
1960]: 578); -ini and -inai [as "infrafamily" 
between subfamily and tribe], Emberton 
(1994:251); -ina, Hausdorf & Bouchet, here- 
in [for consistency of ranking]. 

PoLYGYRiNiDAE Bandol, 1993 [December] 
Reference: Scripta Geológica, Special Issue 

2:22 
Type genus: -fPolygyrina Koken, 1892 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 
Bändel (1991b: 264 [as Polygyridae (sic!), 
apparently based on Polygyrina]). 

PoLYODONTiNAE Cossmann, 1918 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 11: 171, 193 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. The gastropod genera Polyodonte Fi- 
scher, 1807, and Polyodonta Megerle, 1811, 
are unrelated to Trochoidea where Coss- 
mann placed the subfamily. The name ap- 
pears to be descriptive [multi-toothed 
aperture] as opposed to Monodontinae [sin- 
gle-toothed aperture]. 

PoLYPHEMiDAE Gistel, 1868 

Reference: Blicke in das Leben der Natur und 
des Menschen: 169 

Type genus: Polyphemus Montfort, 1810 

Remarks: Original spelling [section der] Poly- 
phemida. Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Polyphemus Müller, 1776 
[Crustacea]. 

PoLYPLACOGNATHA Pilsbry, 1893 [14 February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia, 44: 391 , 403 
Remarks: Established as a "Group" containing 
the genera Punctum and Laoma. Treated by 
Pilsbry (1895b: xxix) at a rank below family 
[Endondontidae]; treated as subfamily by J. 
W.Taylor (1914: 155). Not available as a fam- 
ily-group name (not based on a genus). 



138 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



PoLYPTYxiDAE Pchelintsev, 1965 [after 3 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozola Gornogo 
Kryma: 121 

Type genus: -[Polyptyxis Pchelintsev, 1924 

Remarks: Original spelling Polyptyxisidae. 

POLYTREMARIINAE WenZ, 1938 [МЭГСЬ] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

40,43,155 
Type genus: -tPolytremaha d'Orbigny, 1850 
Remarks: -idae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson 

(in Moore, 1960:217). 

PoLYTROPiDAE Ulrich, 1897 

Reference: [in Ulrich & Scofteld] The Geolog- 
ical and Natural History Survey of Minneso- 
ta, vol. 3(2) [Paleontology]: 1043 

Type genus: -fPolytropIs de Koninck, 1881 

Remarks: Original spelling Polytrophidae, an 
incorrect spelling as indicated by the index 
which refers to Polytrophis in place of Poly- 
tropls. Invalid: type genus a junior homonym 
of Polytropis Sandberger, 1875. See Po- 
leumitidae. 

PoMACEiNAE Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanle po Izuchenilu mol- 
liuskov, 7: 22 

Type genus: Pomacea Репу, 1810 

PoMATiiNAE Gray, 1853 [12 February] 

Reference: [in L. Pfeiffer] Catalogue of Phan- 
eropneumona or terrestrial operculated Mol- 
lusca in the collection of the British Museum: 
211 

Type genus: Pomatlas [see Remarks for au- 
thorship] 

Remarks: Original spelling Pomatiaina. -idae 
[as -acea], Troschel (1856 [in 1856-1891]: 
65). Pfeiffer [in Gray, same reference] cited 
the type genus of the family as Pomatlas Stud- 
er, 1789, but he used it in the sense of Hart- 
mann (1821) (for species of Cochlostoma) 
and placed the type species of Pomatlas {Ner- 
ita elegans Müller, by monotypy) in Cyclosto- 
ma. Some authors have considered that 
Pomatlas sensu Cochlostoma was a differ- 
ent name, "Pomatlas Hartmann, 1821". 
When this interpretation is followed, Pomati- 
inae Pfeiffer is invalid because its type ge- 
nus, "Pomatlas Hartmann, 1821", is a junior 
homonym oí Pomatlas Studer, 1 789. See also 
Pomatiidae Newton, 1 891 . 



PoMATiiDAE Newton, 1891 [April] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 6, 7: 347 

Type genus: Pomai/as Studer, 1789 

Remarks: Prior to Newton, Pomatlas Studer, 
1 789, was treated as a synonym of Cyclostoma 
"Draparnaud, 1801", and Pomatiidae Gray was 
based on Pomatlas sensu Hartmann, 1821, 
i.e. in the sense of Cochlostomatidae. New- 
ton re-established Pomatiidae explicitly based 
on Pomatlas Studer. -oidea, H. B. Baker (1 964: 
169); -inae, Parkinson, Hemmen & Groh 
(1987:66). 

PoMATiopsiNAE Stimpson, 1865 [August] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 20^: 4 
Type genus: Pomaf/ops/s Tryon, 1862 
Remarks: -idae, F. С Baker (1926: 197); -ini, 
Davis & Kuo (in Davis et al., 1985: 69). 

PoMATOBRANCHiATA Schweigger, 1820 
Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 

skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 744 
Remarks: Taxon containing the genera Akera, 
Notarchus, Apiysia, Pleurobranchus, and 
Pleurobranchaea. Established at unspecified 
rank between (order) Gastropoda and ge- 
nus. Treated as a family (not available as 
such: not based on a genus) by Gravenhorst 
(1845:34). 

PoMMEROzYGiiDAE Gründol, 1999 [December] 
Reference: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 73(3- 

4): 251 
Type genus: -fPommerozygia Gründe!, 1998 

PoMPHOLiciNAE Dalí, 1866 [August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the California 

Academy of Natural Sciences, 3: 264 
Type genus: Pompholyx Lea, 1856 
Remarks: Original spelling Pompholinae. Spelled 
Pompholiginae by Dal! (1870c: 352). -idae, 
Hannibal (1912a: 161). Invalid: type genus a 
junior homonym of Pompholyx Gosse, 1851 
[Rotifera]. See Pompholycodeinae. 

PoMPHOLYCODEiNAE Lindholm, 1927 [August] 
Reference: Trudy Komissli po Izuchenilu Oz- 
era Balkala [Travaux de la Commission pour 
l'Etude du Lac Bajkal], 2: 1 80 
Type genus: Pompholycodea Lindholm, 1927 
Remarks: Replacement name for Pompholy- 
cinae [spelling Pompholyginae used by Lind- 
holm], invalid because its type genus is a 
junior homonym. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



139 



PoNENTiNiNAE Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 228 
Type genus: Ponentina Hesse, 1921 
Remarks: Original spelling Ponentiniinae. 

PoNTOHEDYLiDAE Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 
February] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 7:31 

Type genus: Pontohedyle Golikov & Starobo- 
gatov, 1972 

Remarks: Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.1 , 
as a replacement name for Mancohedylidae, 
based on Mancohedyle Rankin, 1979 [not 
available from Salvini-Plawen, 1973: 125], 
which Starobogatov regarded as a synonym 
oi Pontohedyle. Both names have had limit- 
ed usage and Mancohedylidae is the valid 
name under the Principle of Priority. 

PoNTOLiMACiDAE Keferstein, 1863 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen der Weichthiere, Bd. 3(2): 795 

Type genus: Pontolimax Creplin [in F. Müller], 
1848 

PoPENELLiDAE Bändel, 1992 [December] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 73: 58 
Type genus: -\Popenella Bändel, 1992 

PoRCELLANiNAE Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 128 
Type genus: Porcellana Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Porcellanina. In- 
valid: type genus a junior homonym of Por- 
cellana Lamarck, 1801 [Crustacea]. 

PoRCELLANiDAE Roberts, 1870 [3 February] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

5(3[appendix]): 189 
Type genus: Porcellana da Costa, 1776 
Remarks: Roberts used Porcellana for 
Cypraea, therefore in a sense different from 
that of Gray, 1853. Porcellanidae Roberts, 
1870, and Porcellaninae Gray, 1853, are 
therefore homonyms but not synonyms. Por- 
cellana da Costa, 1776, was established in 
synonymy (of Cypraea) but used as valid 
before 1961 (e.g., by Roberts, 1870 [attribut- 
ed to Rumphius]; Jousseaume, 1884: 91 [at- 
tributed to Klein]), and is therefore available 
under Art. 11.6.1. Porce//a/?a da Costa, 1776, 



is a senior homonym of Porcellana Lamarck, 
1801 [Crustacea]; however, under Art. 23.9 
of the Code, Porcellana da Costa, 1776, is 
here declared a nomen oblitum and Porcel- 
lana Lamarck, 1801, a nomen protectum, 
based on usage in at least the following pub- 
lications: Haig (1956: 31; 1957: 13), Baiss 
(1957: 1597); Haig (1959: 329), Forest & 
Gantes (1960: 350), Haig (1962: 185; 1965: 
107), Bourdon (1965: 22), Haig (1966a: 55; 
1966b: 354), Zariquiey Alvarez (1968: 289), 
Haig (1978: 107), Rodriguez (1980: 218), 
Miyake (1982: 237), Takeda (1982: 54), 
Crothers & Crothers (1983 [1988]: 760, 
783), Williams (1984: 245), Abele & Kim 
(1986: 413, 422), Noel (1992: 97), Branch, 
Griffiths, Branch & Beckley, 1994: 86), Gonza- 
lez Perez (1995: 165), d'Udekem d'Acoz 
(1 996: 55), Garcia Raso, Lopez de la Rosa & 
Rosales (1996: 156), d'Udekem d'Acoz 
(1999: 171), Debelius (2001: 67), Costello, 
Emblow & White (2001: 290), Davie (2002: 
107). 

PoRCELLiiDAE Кокоп, 1895 [after February] 
Reference: [in Zittel] Grundzüge der Paläon- 
tologie (Paläozoologie), I Abteilung, Inver- 
tebrata: 322 
Type genus: -fPorcellia Léveillé, 1835 
Remarks: -inae, Bändel (1993a: 49); -oidea, 
Bouchet, herein [in place of Cirroidea over 
which it has priority]. 

PoRODORiDACEA Odhner, 1968 
Reference: ArkivförZoologi, 20(13): 254 
Remarks: Established as a suborder. Treated 
by T. E. Thompson (1976: 21) as superfam- 
ily Porodoridoidea. Not available as a fami- 
ly-group name (not based on a genus). 

PoROSTOMATABergh, 1876 

Reference: Malacologische Untersuchungen. 
[in Semper] Reisen im Archipel der Philip- 
pinen, Theil 2, Wissenschaftliche Resultate, 
Bd.2,Theil 1, Heft 10: title 

Remarks: Established at unspecifted rank un- 
der Nudibranchia holohepatica. Treated by 
Bergh (1892: 1113) as a "family" (itself con- 
taining two families) and by Pruvot-Fol (1934: 
58) as a superfamily. Not available as a fam- 
ily-group name (not based on a genus). 

PoRTLOCKiELLiDAE Batten, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -[Portlockielia Knight, 1945 



140 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



PoTADOMATiNAE РПзЬгу & Bequaert, 1927 [9 

May] 
Reference: Bulletin of the American Museum 

of Natural History, 53: 248, 272 
Type genus: Potadoma Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Potadominae. 

-idae, same reference. 

PoTAMiDiNAE H.Adams & A. Adams, 1854 [Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:286 

Type genus: fPoiam/des Brongniart, 1810 

Remarks: -idae, Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 
84). 

PoTAMOPHiLA Wiegmann & Ruthe, 1832 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie: 528 
Remarks: Taxen containing the genera Valva- 
ta, Paludina, Melania, Melanopsis, and Lit- 
torina. Established as a family-group name 
and not available as such (not based on a 
genus). 

PoTAMOPYRGiDAE F. С Вакбг, 1928 [after 20 
August] 

Reference: Wisconsin Geological and Natu- 
ral History Survey Bulletin 70(1 ): 144 

Type genus: Potamopyrgus Stimpson, 1865 

Remarks: -inae [declared new], Boeters (1984: 
13). 

PoTERiiNAE Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 102 
Type genus: Potería Gray, 1850 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], same reference; -idae, 

Tielecke (1940: 366). 

Praematuratropidae Rollins, 1968 [June] 
Reference: Dissertation Abstracts, В {Scienc- 
es and Engineering), 28(12), Part I: 5084 
Type genus: -\Praematuratropis Rollins, 1968 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Praenaticinae Cossmann, 1924 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 13:98 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus [Praenatica Barrando, 1907, is in the 
family Platyceratidae and was not cited by 
Cossmann in the context of Praenaticinae]. 

Pragoscutulidae Fryda, 1998 [December] 
Reference: Vest ni к Ceskeho Geologiceskeho 

Ustavu, 73(4): 357 
Type genus: -fPragoscutula Fryda, 1998 



Pragoserpulinidae Fryda, 1998 

Reference: Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho 

Ustavu, 73i^)■. 45 
Type genus: ■\PragoserpuHna Fryda, 1998 

Prasinidae Stoliczka, 1871 [1 March] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Survey 
of India. Palaeontologia Indica. Cretaceous 
Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 3, Parts 5-8: 
359 
Type genus: Prasina Deshayes, 1863 

Precuthoninae Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 

885 
Type genus: Precuthona Odhner, 1929 

Prestonellidae van Bruggen, 1978 [before 13 

March] 
Reference: Biogeography and ecology of 

Southern Africa: 893 
Type genus: Prestonella Connolly, 1929 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Priamidae Sismonda, 1842 [after 19 February] 

Reference: Synopsis methodica animalium 
invertebratorum Pedemontii fossilium: 39 

Type genus: Priamus Deshayes, 1838 [ex 
Beck, MS] 

Remarks: Original spelling Pryamea, based on 
Pryamus, an incorrect subsequent spelling of 
Priamus. Established as a "section" at un- 
specified rank between (order) Gastropoda 
and genus. Under Art. 23.9 of the Code, Pri- 
amidae Sismonda, 1842, is here declared a 
nomen oblitum and Scaphellinae Gray, 1857, 
a nomen protectum: see under Scaphellinae. 

Priobaleinae a. J. Wagner, 1922 [1 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Annales Zoologicae Musei Polonici 
Historiae Naturalis, 1 (2-3): 98 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Prionoglossinae Zhang, 1964 

Reference: [Zhang Fusui] Studia Marina Sínica, 

5: 182 [Chinese text], 226 [English abstract] 
Type genus: Pr/'o/iog/ossa Tesch, 1950 

Prisciphoridae Bändel, Gründel & Maxwell, 
2000 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungshefte, ser. 
С, 490: 92 

Type genus: -\Prisciphora Schröder, 1992 

Remarks: Original spelling Prisciophoridae, 
based on Prisciophora, an incorrect subse- 
quent spelling of Prisciphora. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



141 



Prisogastrinae Hickman & McLean, 1990 [26 

November] 
Reference: Natural History Museum of Los 

Angeles County, Science Series, 35: 52 
Type genus: Prisogaster March, 1850 
Remarks: Original spelling Prisogasterinae. 

Pristilomatinae Cockerell, 1891 [August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, for 1891(2): 216 
Type genus: Pristiloma Ancey, 1887 
Remarks: Original spelling Pristilominae. -idae, 

Bank et a!. (2001 : 94); -ini, Schileyko (2003 

[in 1998-2003]: 1378). 

Procarinariidae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

39,43,111 
Type genus: -^Procarinaria Ferner, 1911 
Remarks: Placed by Wenz in the Bellero- 
phontoidea. Horny (1 963a: 69) declared Pro- 
carinaria to be a pelecypod (but did not 
placed it in any family or superfamily); and 
Runnegar & Jell (1976: 117) classified it as 
a Monoplacophora. 

Procephala Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Procéphales" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 169). 
Established as a family containing the genera 
"Limacine", "Atlante", "Clio", "Cléodore", and 
"Cymbulie" (all vernacular). Not available as 
a family-group name (not based on a genus). 

PRocERiTHiiDAECossmann, 1906 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 7: 3, 20 
Type genus: ^Procerithium Cossmann, 1902 
Remarks: Original spelling Procerithidae. 
-inae, same reference; -oidea [as -acea], 
Pchelintsev & Korobkov (1960: 152). Pre- 
cedence over simultaneously published 
Paracerithiinae determined by Art. 24 (fam- 
ily vs. subfamily). 

Proconulinae Cox, 1960 [about 15 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 1: 247 
Type genus: -fProconulus Cossmann, 1918 

Proctonotidae Gray, 1853 [March] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11:220 
Type genus: ProctonotusA\der, 1844 
Remarks: -inae [in synonymy of Veniliinae], 

Chenu (1859: 408). 



Procymbuliidae Tesch, 1913 [June] 
Reference: Das Tierreich, 36: 71 , 77 
Type genus: Procymbulia Meisenheimer, 1905 
Remarks: Simultaneously published Peracli- 

dae given precedence by First Reviser's 

choice by Vaught (1 989: 68). 

Prodorididae Baranetz & Minichev, 1995 
Reference: 12"' International Malacological 

Congress [Vigo]. Proceedings: 299 
Type genus: Prodoris Baranetz & Minichev, 

1995 

Produngina Martynov, 1998 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 77(7): 767 
Type genus: Produnga Martynov, 1998 
Remarks: Original spelling [subtribe] Produngi- 
nini. 

Proeccyliopteridae Kobayashi, 1962 [20 
March] 

Reference: Journal of the Faculty of Science, 
University of Tokyo, section 2 {Geology Min- 
eralogy, Geography Geophysics), 14(1): 17 

Type genus: -^Proeccyliopterus Kobayashi, 
1939 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Progalerinae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -\Progalerus Holzapfel, 1895 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 
297). 

Prokopiconchinae Fryda, 2001 

Reference: Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho 

Ustavu, 76{^)■. 30 
Type genus: -\Prokopiconcha Fryda, 2001 

Prolixodentinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1 987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 
Type genus: Pra//xodens Marshall, 1978 

Propilidiinae Thiele, 1891 

Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(7): 

307 
Type genus: Propilidium Forbes & Hanley, 1849 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1975:207,215). 

Propupaspiridae Nütze!, Pan & Erwin, 2002 [25 

September] 
Reference: Documenta Naturae, 145: 4 
Type genus: -\Propupaspira Pan & Erwin, 2002 



142 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Proserpinellidae H. B. Baker, 1923 [22 Janu- 
ary] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 36(3): 85 
Type genus: Proserpinella Bland, 1865 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Proserpinidae when Proserpina Sower- 
by, 1839, is considered to be invalid because 
of Proserp/nus Hübner, 1816. However, Bak- 
er did not treat Proserpina and Proserpinel- 
la as synonyms, and they are currently not 
considered to be confamilial. -inae, H. B. 
Baker (in Moore, 1960: 288). 

Proserpinidae Gray, 1847 [November] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 15: 182 

Type genus: Proserpina G. B. Sowerby II, 
1839 

Remarks: When Gray established Proserpin- 
idae, he cited as type genus "Proserpina 
Gray, 1840", a name listed by Neave as dis- 
tinct from Proserpina Sowerby, 1839. How- 
ever, in 1840 (1840b: 125, 149), Gray used 
Proserpina only as a name in a list, without 
associated species and without a descrip- 
tion, and it is not an available name. Gray 
(1847b: 182) treated "Odontostoma d'Orb. 
1842" as a synonym and cited P. Unguífera 
as an included species. This indicates that 
Gray's Proserpina is the same as Sowerby's. 
Proserpina Sowerby, 1839, is correctly cit- 
ed as the type genus of Proserpinidae by H. 
B. Baker (in Moore, 1 960: 287). -inae, Thiele 
(1929 [in 1929-1935]: 90). See also Des- 
poenidae and Proserpinellidae. 

Prosiphoninae Powell, 1951 [March] 
Reference: Discovery Reports, 26: 132, 146 
Type genus: Pros/p/io Thiele, 1912 
Remarks: Original spelling Prosiphiinae. -ini, 
Bouchet & Kantor, herein. 

Prosostheniinae Pana, 1989 

Reference: Revue Roumaine de Géologie, 

Géophysique et Géographie, ser Géologie, 

33:70 
Type genus: ^Prososthenia Neumayr, 1869 

Prostyliferidae Bändel, 1992 [December] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 73: 50 
Type genus: tProstylifer Koken, 1889 

PROTAEOLIDIELLIDAEOdhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 

882 
Type genus: Protaeolidiella Baba, 1955 



Protancylinae Walker, 1 923 

Reference: The Ancylidae of South Africa: 22 

Type genus: Protancylus P. Sarasin & F. Sa- 

rasin, 1897 
Remarks: -idae, Franc (1968b: 534). 

Proteolidioidea Odhner, 1968 
Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 881 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Protoconchoididae G. Geyer, 1994 

Reference: New York State Museum, Geolog- 
ical Survey Bulletin, 481 : 81 

Type genus: ^¡Protoconchoides Shaw, 1962 

Remarks: Original spelling Protoconchioid- 
idae, based on Protoconchioides, an incor- 
rect subsequent spelling of Protoconchoides. 

Protogona Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxxii-xxxiii 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe", immediately 
below family [Helicidae], the author having 
"purposely abstained from assigning sub- 
family rank to the natural tribes of Helices", 
but Polygyrinae given as an alternative 
name. Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). 

Protominae ManA^ick, 1957 [March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 32(4): 161 
Type genus: Protoma Baird, 1870 

Protoneritidae KittI, 1899 

Reference: Annalen des Kaiserlich-König- 
lichen Naturhistohschen Hofmuseums Wien, 
14(1): 28, 55 

Type genus: -fProtonerita KittI, 1894 

Protorculidae Bändel, 1991 [December] 
Reference: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 65(3- 

4): 254 
Type genus: ■\Protorcula KittI, 1892 

Protoscaevogyridae Kobayashi, 1962 [20 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Faculty of Science, 
University of Tokyo, section 2 {Geology Min- 
eralogy, Geography, Geophysics), 14(1): 17 
Type genus: -fProtoscaevogyra Kobayashi, 1939 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Protowarthiidae Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 [be- 
fore 20 March] 

Reference: The Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Minnesota, Vol. 3(2) [Paleon- 
tology]: 847 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



143 



Type genus: -fProtowarthia Ulrich & Scofleld, 
1897 

Remarks: Placed on the Official Index by Opin- 
ion 1470 (1988: 64). 

Provalvatidae Bändel, 1991 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. A, 134: 21 
Type genus: tProvalvata Bändel, 1991 

Provannidae Waren & Ponder, 1991 [22 March] 
Reference: Zoológica Scripta, 20(1): 50 
Type genus: Provanna Dali, 1918 

Prunini g. a. Coovert & H. K. Coovert, 1995 

[12 October] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 109(2-3): 89 
Type genus: Prunum H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1853 

Pruvotfoliinae Tardy, 1970 [March] 
Reference: Vie et Milieu, ser. A, 20(2): 344 
Type genus: Pruvotfolia Tardy, 1970 

Pryamea. See Priamidae. 

PsEUDAMAURiDAE Kowaike & Bändel, 1996 [15 
December] 

Reference: Mitteilungen der Bayerischen 
Staatsammlung für Paläontologie und His- 
torische Geologie, 36: 41 

Type genus: -\Pseudamaura P. Fischer, 1885 

Remarks: Original spelling Pseudamaurinidae. 

PsEUDAMNicoLiNAE Radoman, 1977 [4 March] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 107(4- 

6): 212 
Type genus: Pseudamnicola Paulucci, 1878 

PsEUDANCYLiNAE Walker, 1923 
Reference: The Ancylidae of South Africa: 11 
Type genus: Pseudancylus\Na\ker, 1921 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus placed on the 
Official Index by Opinion 363. 

PsEUDECPHORiNAE Bändel & Dockery, 2001 
Reference: Journal of the Czech Geological 

Society, 46(3-4): 343 
Type genus: -fPseudecphora Bändel & Dock- 
ery, 2001 

PsEUDOBYTHiNELLiNi DavIs & Chen, 1992 [9 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: [in Davis et al.] Malacologia, 34: 
154 

Type genus: Pseudobythinella Liu & Zhang, 
1979 



Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Pseudobythinella Melville, 1956 
[Gastropoda]. 

PsEUDocASPiiDAE Sltnikova & StaroboQatov, 

1983 [after 22 February] 
Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sltnikova] Vse- 

soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 

liuskov, 7: 22 
Type genus: Pseudocaspia Starobogatov, 

1972 

PsEUDocHAROPiDAE Iredale, 1944 [10 May] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 10(3): 

312 
Type genus: Pseudocharopa Peile, 1929 

PsEUDOcoccuLiNiDAE Шсктап, 1983 [3 Octo- 
ber] 
Reference: The Veliger, 26(2): 83 
Type genus: Pseudococculina Schepman, 
1908 

PsEUDocYCLOTiNi Thiele, 1929 [before 21 Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 173 

Type genus: Pseí/docyc/oítvs Thiele, 1894 

Remarks: Original spelling Pseudocycloteae. 
-idae, Iredale (1941b: 57). 

PsEUDOCYPRAEiNAE Stoadman & Cotton, 1943 
[30 November] 

Reference: Records of the South Australian 
Museum, 7(4): 332 

Type genus: Pseudocypraea Schilder, 1927 

Remarks: Established as subfamily "Pseudo- 
cypraea". Name only, no diagnosis, but made 
available under Art. 13.2.1 by usage as a 
valid name before 2000. -ini, Schilder & 
Schilder (1971: 66). 

PSEUDODORIDIDAE ENot, 1910 

Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 
branchiate Mollusca, Part 8: 63, 65, 154 

Remarks: By Eliot used indiscriminately as 
family and subfamily, despite suffix -idae. 
-oidea [as -acea], Abbott (1974: 358). Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). 

PsEUDOEucTENiDiACEA Tardy, 1970 

Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
Zoologie et Biologie Animale, ser. 12, 12: 365 

Remarks: Established as a superfamily (con- 
taining the genus Doridoxa), and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 



144 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



PsEUDOHELiciDAE Suter, 1892 [May] 
Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 24: 270 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus; also not used as the valid name of a 
taxon when proposed ("In my collection I 
used for several years the name of Pseudo- 
helicidae for this family; [...] I propose now 
the name of Phenacohelicidae"). 

PsEUDOHORATiiNAE Radoman, 1973 [31 May] 
Reference: Prirodnjacki Muzej и Beogradu, 

Posebna Izdanja, 32: 10 
Type genus: Pseudohoratia Radoman, 1967 

PsEUDOLEPTAxiNAE H. Nordsieck, 1986 [Septem- 
ber] 
Reference: Heldia, 1(4): 116 
Type genus: Pseudoleptaxis Pilsbry, 1895 

PsEUDOLiviNAE de Gregorio, 1880 [November] 
Reference: Fauna di S. Giovanni llarione (Pa- 

risiano). Parte 1(1): 104 
Type genus: Pseudollva Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: -idae, Delpey (1941: pi. XVIII); 

-oidea, Bouchet, herein [for consistency of 

ranking]. 

PsEUDOMALAxiNAE Garrard, 1977 
Reference: Records of the Australian Muse- 
um, 31(13): 562 
Type genus: ■\Pseudomalaxis P. Fischer, 1885 
Remarks: -idae, Kikuchi et al. (1997: 32). 

PsEUDOMELANiiDAE R. Hoemes, 1884 
Reference: Elemente der Palaeontologie 

(Palaeozoologie): 268 
Type genus: -\Pseudomelania Pictet & 

Campiche, 1862 
Remarks: Original spelling Pseudomela- 

niadae. -oidea [as -acea], Pchelintsev (in 

Pchelintsev & Korobkov, 1960: 130); -inae, 

Hayami&Kase(1977:44). 

PsEUDOMELATOMiNAE Morrison, 1965 [1 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: The American Malacological 
Union, Annual Reports for 1 965: 2 

Type genus: Pseudomelatoma Dall, 1918 

Remarks: -idae, Kantor (1995: 225). 

PsEUDOMERELiNiNAE Starobogatov, 1989 [after 

21 August] 
Reference: [in Starobogatov, Sitnikova & 

Zatravkin] Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 68(9): 36 
Type genus: Pseudomerelina Ponder, 1984 



PsEUDOMESALiiDAE Mahmoud, 1955 

Reference: Publications de l'Institut du Désert 
d'Egypte, 8: 130 

Type genus: ^Pseudomesalia Douvillé, 1916 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Invalid: 
type genus a junior homonym of Pseudome- 
sa//a Ganglbauer, 1900 [Coleóptera]. 

PsEUDOMiTRiNAE Cossmann, 1899 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 3: 151 
Remarks: Not available; not based on a ge- 
nus. 

PsEUDONAPAEiNAE Schiloyko, 1978 [after 19 

May] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 57(6): 843 
Type genus: Pseudonapaeus Westerlund, 

1887 

PsEUDONERiNEiDAE PcheNntsev, 1965 [after 3 

February] 
Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozoia Gornogo 

Kryma: 14 
Type genus: -\Pseudonerinea de Loriol, 1890 

PsEUDONiNiNAE Bortolaso & Palazzi, 1994 
Reference: Bollettino Malacologico, 29(9-12): 

297 
Type genus: -[Pseudonina Sacco, 1896 

PsEUDOPHORiDAE S. A. МШог, 1889 [after Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: North American geology <S palae- 
ontology: 395 

Type genus; -\Pseudophorus Meek, 1873 

Remarks; -oidea [as -acea], Yochelson (1 956; 
250). 

PsEUDOPLECTiNAE Thiele, 1934 [before 19 Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 2(3); 1007 

Type genus: Pseudoplecta Laidlaw, 1932 

PsEUDORAPiNAE Bändel & Dockery, 2001 
Reference: Journal of the Czech Geological 

Society, 46(3-4): 349 
Type genus: -fPseudorapa Holzapfel, 1888 

PsEUDORTHONYCHiiDAE Bande! & Fryda, 1999 [30 

September] 
Reference: Geológica et Palaeontologica, 33; 

221 
Type genus: -\Pseudofihonychia Bändel & 

Fryda, 1999 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



145 



PsEUDosAccuLiNAE Kufoda, 1933 [30 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: \/em/s, 4(3): 186 

Type genus: Pseudosacculus Hirase, 1928 

Remarks: Implicitly, but not explicitly, estab- 
lished as a replacement name for Saccul- 
idae, invalid because its type genus is a 
junior homonym, -idae, Wenz (1938 [in 
1938-1944]: 47; 1940 [ibid.]: 957). 

PsEUDOsETiiNAE V. V. Anistratenko & Staro- 
bogatov, 1992 

Reference: [in Sitnikova, Starobogatov & Anis- 
tratenko] Vestnik Zoologii, 6: 8 

Type genus: Pseudosetia Monterosato, 1884 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym o^ Pseudosetia Boisduval, 1874 [Lep- 
idoptera]. 

PsEUDOTHECosoMATA Meisenhelmor, 1905 [22 
January] 

Reference: Deutsche Tief see Expedition, 9(1 ): 
4,174 

Remarks: Taxon containing the families Cym- 
buliidae and Desmopteridae, established at 
unspecified rank above family. Treated by 
Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 108) as a 
"Sippe" [= superfamily] and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 

PsEUDOTOMiNAE A. Bollardi, 1875 [before 14 
April] 

Reference: Bullettino delta Société Maiacolog- 
ica italiana, 1(1): 19 

Type genus: -fPseudotomaA. Bellardi, 1875 

Remarks: Pseudotoma Bellardi, 1875, is list- 
ed in Nomenclátor Zoologicus as a junior 
homonym of Pseudotoma Gray, 1 825 [Mam- 
malia]. However, Gray merely used an in- 
correct subsequent spelling of Pseudostoma 
Say, 1823, and "Pseudotoma Gray, 1825", 
is not an available name. 

PsEUDOTRiTONiiNAE Goljkov & Starobogatov, 

1987 [after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu mollluskov, 8: 26 
Type genus: ■\Pseudotntonium Wenz, 1 940 

PsEUDOTROCHATELLiNAE A. J. \Л/адпег, 1905 [be- 
fore 25 May] 

Reference: Denkschriften der Mathematisch- 
Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse der Kaiser- 
lichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 77: 
365 

Type genus: Pseudotrochatella G. Nevill, 1881 



PsEUDovERMiDAE Thiele, 1931 [before 31 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 453 

Type genus: Pseudovermis Periaslavzeff, 
1891 

PsEUDovERONicELLiNAE Hoffmann, 1928 

Reference: Dr H. G. Bronns Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tier-Reichs, Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Buch 
2:1230 

Type genus: Pseudoveronicella Germain, 
1908 

Remarks: Established as a replacement name 
for Meisenheimehinae, presumably because 
Pseudoveronicella is the oldest name among 
the nominal genera included by Hoffmann 
in the subfamily. However, he did not treat 
Pseudoveronicella and Meisenheimeria as 
synonyms, and Art. 40.2 does not apply. 

PsEUDozYGOPLEURiNAE Knight, 1930 [December] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 4 (Suppl. 

1):11 
Type genus: -fPseudozygopleura Knight, 1930 
Remarks: -idae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson 

(in Moore, 1960: 312); -oidea, Bändel (1997: 

67). 

PsEUDUNELiDAE Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 89 
Type genus: Pset/dune/a Salvini-Plawen, 1973 
Remarks: -oidea [as Pseudunelloidea], Staro- 
bogatov (1983: 32). 

PsiLOSOMATA Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 32: 275 

Remarks: Taxon containing the genus Phyl- 
liroe only. Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Ptenoglossa Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 129 
Remarks: Taxon containing the families 
Cassidae, Scalariidae, and Actaeonidae. 
Established at unspecified rank above fam- 
ily, and subsequently generally treated as 
suborder. Treated by Dall (1890: 157) as a 
superfamily [containing Scalidae only], and 
by Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 85) as 
"Sippe" [superfamily, containing Janthinidae, 
Scalidae and Aclididae]. Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 



146 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Pteraeolidiinae Risbec, 1953 
Reference: Faune de l'Union Française, 15: 161 
Type genus: Pteraeolidla Bergh, 1875 
Remarks: Original spelling Pteraeolidinae. 
-idae, Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 887). 

Pteridae Broderip, 1839 
Reference: The penny cyclopaedia, 14: 321 
Remarks: Latinization of the vernacular name 
"les Ailées", established by Lamarck (1809: 
322). Not available: not based on a genus. 
See also Alata / Alatidae. 

Pteroceanidae Meisenheimer, 1902 [8 Decem- 
ber] 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 26: 93 
Type genus: Pteroceanis Meisenheimer, 1902 
Remarks: SeeThliptodontidae. 

Pterocyclinae Kobalt & Möllendorff, 1897 [23 

July] 
Reference: Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 29(7-8): 113 
Type genus: Pterocyclos Benson, 1832 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Kobelt (1902: 159). 

Pterocymodoceidae Keferstein, 1862 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen der Weichthiere, Bd. 3(2): 645 

Type genus: Pterocymodocea Keferstein, 
1862 

Remarks: Established implicitly, but not explic- 
itly as a substitute name for Cymodoceidae, 
invalid because its type genus is a junior 
homonym. Pterocymodocea is a nom. nov. 
pro Cymodocea d'Orbigny, 1 834; Art. 40.2.1 
does not apply. See also Hydromylidae and 
Halopsychidae. 

Pteropoda Cuvier, 1804 

Reference: Annales du Muséum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, 4: 232 

Remarks: Original spelling "ptéropodes" (ver- 
nacular). Established as an order; latinized 
by Blainville (1825: 493) at the rank of fam- 
ily containing the genera Atlanta, Spiratella, 
and Argonauta. Also treated as family, spell- 
ing emended to Pteropodidae, by W. Clark 
(1851 : 472). Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

Pterosomatidae Rang, 1829 [May] 
Reference: Manuel de l'histoire naturelle des 

mollusques: 124 
Type genus: Pterosoma Lesson, 1827 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Ptérosomes" 

(vernacular). Latinized [as Pterosomae] by 



Herrmannsen (1847 [in 1846-1852]: 351); and 
[as Pterosomadae] by Chenu (1859: 129). 

Pterothecidae p. Fischer, 1883 [21 February] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 432 
Type genus: -^Pterotheca Salter, 1852 
Remarks: -inae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson 

(in Moore, 1960: 181). 

Pterotracheidae Rafinesque, 1814 
Reference: Précis des découvertes et travaux 

somiologiques ...: 29 
Type genus: Pterotrachea Forskal, 1775 
Remarks: Original spelling Ptrachidia. "Les 
Ptérotrachées" (vernacular: Férussac, 1822 
[in 1821-1822]: xxxvij) appears to have been 
established independently, and was subse- 
quently first latinized by Gray (1840: 148). 
-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1968: 7). 

Pterygiinae Kuroda, 1934 [20 March] 
Reference: Venus, 4(4): 261 
Type genus: Pterygia Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Not avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1, unless discovery of 
an author who used the name before 2000. 

Ptychatractidae Stimpson, 1865 [25 February] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

1(1): 59 
Type genus: Píyc/?afracíus Stimpson, 1865 
Remarks: -inae, R Fischer (1884 [in 1880- 

1887]: 618). 

Ptychomphalinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch der Palàozoologie, 6(1 ): 

43,152 
Type genus: t Ptychomphalus Agassiz, 1837 
Remarks: -ini [as -ides]. Knight, Batten & Yoch- 
elson (in Moore, 1960: 202). 

Ptychomphalininae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch der Palàozoologie, 6(1 ): 

39,43,143 
Type genus: -[Ptychomphalina Bayle, 1885 
Remarks: -ini, herein. 

Ptychostomonidae Locard, 1886 

Reference: Prodrome de malacologie 
française. Catalogue général des Mol- 
lusques vivants de France. Mollusques 
mar/ns: 221, 569 

Type genus: Ptychostomon Locard, 1886 

Remarks: Original spelling Ptychostomidae. 
-inae, Schänder, van Aartsen & Corgan 
(1999:147). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



147 



Ptychotrematinae Pilsbry, 1919 [16 December] 
Reference: Bulletin of the American Museum 

of Natural History, 40: 180 
Type genus: Ptychotrema L. Pfeiffer, 1853 

Ptygmatidinae Pchelintsev, 1960 [after 29 June] 
Reference: [in Pchelintsev & Korobkov, eds.] 
Osnovy Paleóntologa, Molliuski, Briukhono- 
gie: 121 
Type genus: -fPtygmatis Sharpe, 1850 
Remarks: Original spelling Ptygmatisinae. 
-Idae, Pchelintsev (1965: 51). -oidea, Lys- 
senko (1981: 24). Ptygmatidinae given pre- 
cedence over simultaneously published 
Cryptoplocinae by First Reviser's choice by 
Kollmann (pers. comm., herein). 

Ptygmatiellidae Lyssenko, 1984 
Reference: lurskie i melovye Nerinei luga 

SSSR i ikh stratlgraficheskoe znachenie: 1 6 
Type genus: -tPtygmatiella Lyssenko, 1984 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis, type 

genus a nomen nudum, and published in a 

dissertation abstract, not available for no- 

menclatural purpose. 

PuGNELLiDAE Kiel & Bändel, 1999 [May] 
Reference: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 73(1- 

2): 48 
Type genus: -[Pugnellus Conrad, 1860 

PuLMOBRANCHiA Blalnvllle, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1814): 178 
Remarks: Original spelling "Pulmo-branches" 
(vernacular), established as an order. Lati- 
nized by Goldfuss (1820: xlv, 656) as a family 
containing the genera Pyramidella, Tornatel- 
la, Conovulus, Clausula, Auricula, Achatina, 
Physa, Lymnaea, etc. Not available as a fam- 
ily-group name (not based on a genus). 

PuNCTiNAE Morse, 1864 [17 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Portland Society of 

Natural History, 1:5,27 
Type genus: Punctum Morse, 1864 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 484). -idae, Pilsbry (1895b: 
xxxi); -oidea, Schileyko (1979: 57). 

PuPILLIDAETurtOn, 1831 

Reference: A manual of the land and fresh- 
water shells of the British Islands: 8, 97 
Type genus: Pupilla Fleming, 1828 [ex Leach MS] 
Remarks: Original spelling Pupilladae. Placed 
on the Official List by Direction 27 (1955: 



484). -inae, Pilsbry (1918: x); -ini [as -eae], 
Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 508); -oidea, 
H.B.Baker (1955: 109). 

PupiNAE Fleming, 1828 [March] 

Reference: A history of British animals: 255 

Type genus: Pupa Lamarck, 1801 

Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Pu- 
padae. -idae, Guilding (1828: 532). Invalid: 
type genus a junior homonym of Pupa 
Röding, 1798 [Acteonidae]. 

PupiDAE Kuroda, 1941 [February] 

Reference: Memoirs of the Faculty of Science 
and Agriculture, Taihoku Imperial Universi- 
ty, 22(4), Geology ^7: 132 

Type genus: Pupa Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Established as a replacement name 
for Acteonidae, probably on the basis that 
Pupa is an older name than Acteon Mont- 
fort, 1810. Kuroda did not treat /Acfeon as a 
synonym of Pupa, and Art. 40.2 does not 
apply, -oidea [as -acea], same reference. 

PupiNELLiNi Kobelt, 1902 [July] 
Reference: Das Tierreich, 16: 272 
Type genus: Pupinella Gray [in Baird], 1850 
Remarks: Original spelling (section) Pupinel- 
leae. -inae [as subfam. Pupinellidae], Wenz 
(1923 [in 1923-1930]: 1742); -idae, Iredale 
(1941b: 60). 

PupiNiNi L. Pfeiffer, 1853 [12 February] 
Reference: Catalogue of Phaneropneumona 

or terrestrial operculated Mollusca in the 

collection of the British Museum: 98 
Type genus: Pupina Vignard, 1829 
Remarks: Original spelling Pupiniana. -inae, 

H. Adams & A. Adams (1855 [in 1853-1858]: 

284); -idae, Gill (1871: 6). 

PupisoMATiDAE Iredale, 1940 [30 May] 
Reference: The Australian Naturalist, 10:236 
Type genus: Pupisoma Stoliczka, 1873 
Remarks: Original spelling Pupisomidae. 

PupoiDiDAE Iredale, 1939 [1 August] 
Reference: Records of the Western Australian 

Museum, 2(1): 6, 9 
Type genus: Pupoides L. Pfeiffer, 1854 
Remarks: -inae, Schileyko (1998 [in 1998- 

2003]: 112). 

PuRPURELLiNAE L. Bellardl, 1882 [after 10 De- 
cember] 

Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 
Piemonte e della Liguria, parte 3: 193 



148 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: -[Purpurella L. Bellardi, 1882 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Purpurella Robineau-Desvoidy, 
1853 [Diptera]. SeeTaurasiinae. 

PuRPURiDAE Children, 1823 [October] 
Reference: Quarterly Journal of Science, Lit- 
erature & Arts, 16: 54 
Type genus: Purpura Bruguière, 1789 
Remarks: Original spelling Purpurifera; latini- 
zation of "les Purpuracées" (vernacular), first 
established by Lamarck (1 809: 322), and lat- 
er (1822: 59, 213 [as "Les Purpurifères"]). 
Placed on the Official List by Opinion 886 
(1 969: 1 28), with the requirement that it shall 
not be given precedence over Thaididae. 
Bouchet & Rocroi (2001 : 175) noted that at- 
tributing Purpuhdaeto Lamarck (1809) would 
cause nomenclatural instability, because 
Purpuridae would then have precedence 
over Muricidae Rafinesque, 1815. -inae, 
Swainson(1835: 17). 

PuRPURiNiDAE Zlttol, 1895 [after February] 
Reference: Grundzüge der Paläontologie 

(Paläozoologle). I Abteilung. Invertebrata: 

332 
Type genus: -f Purpurina d'Orbigny, 1850 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1968: 7); -inae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1987:26). 

PusiiNAE Habe, 1961 [10 May] 

Reference: Coloured illustrations of the shells 

of Japan, 2: 69 
Type genus: Pusia Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Pusinae. 

PusiLLiNiNAE V.V. Anistratonko & Starobogatov, 
1992 [after 17 June] 

Reference: [in Sitnikova, Starobogatov &Anis- 
tratenko] Vestnik Zoologii, 6: 4 

Type genus: Pusillina Monterosato, 1884 

Remarks: Not available from Anistratenko 
(1990: 12) [Dissertation abstract; not avail- 
able for nomenclatural purposes], 

PusiONELLiNAE Сгэу, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 126 
Type genus: Pusionella Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Pusionellina. -idae 
[as Pusionelladae], Gray (1857a: 22). Pre- 
cedence of Clavatulinae over Pusionellinae 
determined by First Reviser's action by Pon- 
der & Waren (1988: 307). 



PusiosTOMATiDAE Iredale, 1940 [9 December] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9(4): 434 
Type genus: Pusiostoma Swainson, 1840 

PusTULARiiNAE Gill, 1871 [February] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 9 
Type genus: Pustularia Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: -ini, Schilder (1932b: 149). 

PusuLiNi Schilder, 1 936 [1 5 July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 22(2): 106 
Type genus: Pusula Jousseaume, 1884 

PuTiLLiNAE F. Nordsieck, 1972 [October] 
Reference: Die europäischen Meeres- 
schnecken: 154 
Type genus: Putilla A. Aäams, 1867 

Pyramidellidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 117, 148 
Type genus: Pyramidella Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 54 (1956:457). Published the same year 
by d'Orbigny (1840 [in 1834-1847]: 396), 
priority not established, -oidea, Wenz (1938 
[in 1 938-1 944]: 46, 62, 63; 1 940 [ibid.]: 831 ); 
-inae. Gray (1853a: 130), and again declared 
nov. by F. Nordsieck (1972: 133); -ini, 
Bouchet, herein [for consistency of ranking]. 

Pyramidellopsidae Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
l'Avancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Paris, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a 
genus. Nicolas established the "series" Pyra- 
midellopsidae within his family Tangany- 
ikidae, to include gastropods from Lake 
Tanganyika resembling Pyramidellidae, and 
the name appears to have been descriptive. 

Pyramidinae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 144 
Type genus: Pyram/s Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Original spelling Pyramidina. Invalid: 

type genus a junior homonym of Pyramis 

Röding, 1798[Strombidae]. 

Pyramidulidae Kennard & B. B. Woodward, 

1914 [27 March] 
Reference: Notes on the changes necessary in 

the "List of British non-marine Mollusca": 1 , 6 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



149 



Type genus: Pyramidula Fitzinger, 1833 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 484). -inae, Gude (1914 [No- 
vember]: 41); -Ini [as -eae], Thiele (1931 [in 
1929-1935]: 503). 

Pyramimitridae Cossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 4: 124 
Type genus: ^Pyramimitra Conrad, 1865 

Pyrazidae Hacobjan, 1972 

Reference: Izvestiia Akademil Nauk Armian- 

skoi SSR, Nauki о Zemie, 25(1 ): 6 
Type genus: Pyrazus Montfort, 1810 

Pyrenidae Suter, 1909 [30 July] 

Reference: Records of the Canterbury Muse- 
um, ^{2y. 128 

Type genus: Pyrene Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Established implicitly [explicitly in 
Suter (1 91 3)] as a substitute name for Colum- 
bellidae because Pyrene has precedence 
over Columbella Lamarck, 1799; however, 
Suter did not treat Columbella as a synonym 
of Pyrene, and Art. 40.2 does not apply, -inae, 
Fernandez & Castellanos (1 973: 1 35); -oidea, 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 213). 

Pyrgidiidae Neumayr, 1869 [after June] 
Reference: Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Königli- 
chen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 19(3): 359 
Type genus: tPyrgidium Toumouèr, 1869 
Remarks: Under Art. 23.9 of the Code, Pyrgi- 
diidae is here declared a nomen oblitum and 
Emmericiinae a nomen protectum: see un- 
der Emmericiinae. 

Pyrgininae Germain, 1916 [30 November] 

Reference: Annali del Museo Cívico di Storia 
Naturale di Genova, ser. 3, 7: 300-301 

Type genus: Pyrgina Greef, 1882 

Remarks: Original spelling Pyrginae, but the 
context indicates that the name is based on 
Pyrgina Greeff, 1882, not on Pyrgus Albers, 
1850 [Bulimulidae] (non Pyrgus Hijbner, 
1819 [Lepidoptera], type genus of Pyrgidae 
Burmeister, 1878). Germain attributed the 
name to himself with the date "1915", but 
we have not been able to trace Pyrginae in 
any of Germain's 1915 papers. 

Pyrgorientaliinae Radoman, 1977 [4 March] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 107(4- 

6):213 
Type genus: Pyrgorientalia Radoman, 1973 



Remarks: Not available from Radoman (1973a 
[31 May]: 5) (type genus then not an avail- 
able name). Radoman later in 1973 (1973b: 
84) made Pyrgohentalia an available name 
but at that occasion Pyrgorientaliinae was 
not mentioned. 

Pyrguliferidae Delpey, 1941 

Reference: Mémoires de la Société Géologique 
de France, new ser., 19(3-4) [Mémoire 43]: 
pi. 18 

Type genus: -[Pyrgulifera Meek, 1871 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Not 
available under Art. 13.2.1, unless discov- 
ery of an author who used the name be- 
fore 2000. 

Pyrgulinae Brusina, 1882 [before 8 February] 
(1869) 

Reference: Bullettino della Società Malacolog- 
ica Italiana, 7{^3-^9)■. 230 

Type genus: Pyrgula de Cristofori & Jan, 1 832 

Remarks: Not available from Martens (1858: 
192 [as"Pyrgulae", plural]), -idae, Staroboga- 
tov (1970b: 30); -oidea, Giusti & Pezzoli 
(1982:466). 

Pyrgulininae Saurin, 1959 
Reference: Annales de la Faculté des Scienc- 
es de Saigon, (1959): 242 
Type genus: Pyrgulina A. Adams, 1 864 

Pyrifusidae Bändel & Dockery, 2001 [after 30 

August] 
Reference: Journal of the Czech Geological 

Society, 46(3-4): 336 
Type genus: ^Pyrifusus Conrad, 1858 
Remarks: Original spelling (superfamily) Pyri- 

fusoidea. -idae / -inae, same reference: 349. 

Not available (no diagnosis) from Bändel 

(2000b: 88 [as Pyrifusidae]). 

Pyropeltidae McLean & Haszprunar, 1987 [1 

October] 
Reference: The Veliger, 30(2): 197 
Type genus: Pyropelta McLean & Haszprunar, 

1987 

Pyropsidae Stephenson, 1941 

Reference: The University of Texas, Publica- 
tion 4^0^■.3^5 

Type genus: fPyrops/s Conrad, 1860 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Available 
under Art. 13.2.1 because it was used as 
valid before 2000, e.g. by Richards & Rams- 
dell (1962: 47). -inae, Bändel (2000b: 99). 



150 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



PvRULiNAESwainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 307 
Type genus: Pyrula Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: -idae, Hinds (1843: 257). See also 
Ficidae. 

Pythmnae Odhner, 1925 [22 May] (1880) 

Reference: /\r/(/VförZoo/og/, 17A(6): 14 

Type genus: Pythia Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Odhner treated Pythia as a senior 
synonym of Scarabus Montfort, 1810. Pythi- 
inae is in prevailing usage; it is conserved 
under Art. 40.2, and it takes the precedence 
of Scarabinae. -Idae, Iredale & McMichael 
(1962:82). 

QuoYELLiDAE Starobogatov, 1976 

Reference: Biologiia Moria, 4: 14 

Type genus: Quoyella Starobogatov, 1976 

Ranellinae Gray, 1854 [25 July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 21 : 37 

Type genus: Ranella Lamarck, 1816 

Remarks: Original spelling Ranellina. -idae [as 
family -acea], Troschel (1 863 [in 1 856-1 891 ]: 
227). See also Cymatiinae. When he estab- 
lished Ranellinae, Gray's taxonomic exten- 
sion of Ranella corresponded to what is now 
called Bursidae [Gray (1847b: 1 32) had cited 
Murex gyrinus Linn, as type species of Ranel- 
la], and what is today called Ranellidae was 
placed by Gray in Tritoninae and Neptunelli- 
nae. Cernohorsky & Beu (1 971 : 59-61 ) had 
petitioned the ICZN to give Cymatiidae pre- 
cedence over Ranellidae. Several complica- 
tions came to light and Beu & Cernohorsky 
(1 986: 241 ) subsequently adopted Ranellidae 
as the name for the family containing Cyma- 
tium. 

Ranfurlyinae Schileyko, 2001 [June] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 7: 1027 
Type genus: Ranfurlya Suter, 1903 

Rapaninae Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 126 
Type genus: Rapana Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Original spelling Rapananina. -idae, 

Grabau& King (1928: 201). 

Raphistomatidae Koken, 1896 [after Septem- 
ber] 
Reference: Die Leitfossilien: 162 
Type genus: -fRaphistoma Hall, 1847 



Remarks: Original spelling Raphistomidae, 
corrected by Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 
Moore, 1960: 198). Declared again nov. by 
Ulrich & Scofield (1897: 930). -inae, Wenz 
(1938 [in 1938-1944]: 43, 113); -oidea [as 
-acea], Pchelintsev (in Pchelintsev & Ko- 
robkov, 1960:76). 

Raphitominae A. Bellardi, 1875 [before 14 April] 
Reference: Bullettino delta Società Malacolog- 

Ica Italiana, 1(1): 22 
Type genus: -fRaphitoma L. Bellardi, 1848 
Remarks: Again declared new by F. Nordsieck 

(1968: 174). -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1975:214). 

Rapidae Kuroda, 1941 [28 February] 

Reference: Memoirs of the Faculty of Science 
and Agriculture, Taihoku Imperial Universi- 
ty, 22{4) [Geology, 17]: 112 

Type genus: Rapa Röding, 1 798 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Available 
under Art. 13.2.1 because it was used as 
valid before 2000, e.g. by Kira (1962: 66), 
who also provided a description. 

Rastodentidae Ponder, 1966 [28 January] 
Reference: Records of the Dominion Muse- 
um, 5{Щ: 177 
Type genus: Rastodens Ponder, 1966 
Remarks: Original spelling Rastodenidae. 
-oidea, Golikov& Starobogatov (1975: 211). 

Rathouisiidae Heude, 1885 

Reference: Mémoires concernant Thistoire na- 
turelle de l'empire chinois. 3, Notes sur les 
Mollusques terrestres de la vallée du Fleuve 
Bleu: 99 

Type genus: Rathouisia Heude, 1884 

Remarks: Originial spelling Rathouisiadae. 

Realiinae L. Pfeiffer, 1853 [12 February] 
Reference: Catalogue of Phaneropneumona 
or terrestrial operculated Mollusca in the 
collection of the British Museum: 217 
Type genus: Realia Gray [in Baird], 1850 
Remarks: Original spelling Realiana. Placed 
on the Official Index by Opinion 973 (1971 : 
149), but attributed in error to Pfeiffer (1858: 
153). -idae, Möllendorff (1893: 135); -ini [as 
-eae], Thiele (1929 [in 1929-1935]: 104). 

Recluziidae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 [30 May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum, Sydney 

Memoir 1 1 : 49 
Type genus: Recluzia Petit de la Saussaye, 1 853 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



151 



Rehderiellinae Brandt, 1974 [18 November] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 105(1- 

4): 70 
Type genus: Rehderiella Brandt, 1974 
Remarks: -idae / -oidea, loganzen & Staro- 

bogatov(1982: 1145). 

Remibranchiata de Quatrefages, 1844 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

ser. 3, Zoologie, 1: 170 
Remarks: A division of the family Phlebenter- 
ata, established at a rank between family and 
genus, including Acteon [- Elysia] "and re- 
lated genera". Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Retirera Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 288 

Remarks: Taxon containing Patella only. Es- 
tablished as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 

Retowskiinae Schileyko, 1978 [after 19 May] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 57(6): 849 
Type genus: Retowskia O. Boettger, 1881 

Retusidae Thiele, 1925 [before 10 November] 
Reference: Deutsche Tief see-Expedition 

1898-1899, 17(2): 234 [268] 
Type genus: Retusa T. Brown, 1827 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 568 (1959: 409), but attributed in error 
to Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 189 [sic! er- 
ror pro 389]). -oidea, Piani(1980: 159). 

Reymondiinae Bändel, 1998 
Reference: Zentralblatt für Geologie und Palä- 
ontologie, Teil 1, Heft 1-2: 273 
Type genus: Reymondia Bourguignat, 1885 

Reynellonidae Iredale, 1917 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 12(6): 333 
Type genus: Reynellona Iredale, 1917 
Remarks: Precedence of simultaneously pub- 
lished Pickworthiidae over Reynellonidae 
determined by First Reviser's choice by Pon- 
der & Waren (1 988: 299). 

Rhachiglossidae 

Remarks: De Stefani & Pantanelli (1879: 114) 
used Rachiglossa [originally established by 
Gray (1853a: 127) above the family-group] 
as a "Fam. Rhachiglossidae Trosch.", includ- 
ing the genera Volvahna, Gibberula, and 
Granula. Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 



Rhagadidae Iredale, 1938 [30 November] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 9(2): 112 
Type genus: R/iagada AI be rs, 1860 
Remarks: -inae, Cuezzo (2003: 469). 

Rhaphischismatidae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: ■\Rhaphischisma Knight, 1936 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. First di- 
agnosed by Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 
Moore, 1960:214). 

Rhinoclavinae GrCindel, 1982 [25 November] 
Reference: Malakologische Abhandlungen, 

8(1): 46 
Type genus: Rhinoclavis Swa\r[Sor\, 1840 

RHiPiDOGLOSsATroschel, 1848 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, ed. 3: 553 

Remarks: Established as a suborder. Treated 

by Dall (1892: 381) as a superfamily. Not 

available as a family-group name (not based 

on a genus). 

Rhizoridae Dell, 1952 [May] 

Reference: Dominion Museum Records in 

Zoology, 1(8): 83 
Type genus: Rhizorus Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Available 

under Art. 13.2.1 because it was used as 

valid before 2000, e.g. by Dell (1956: 145, 

also without diagnosis). 

Rhodacmeinae Walker, 1 91 7 [1 4 July] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 31(1 ): 5 
Type genus: RhodacmeaV\Ja\ker, 1917 
Remarks: -idae, Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 125). 

Rhodopetalinae Lindberg, 1981 [17 June] 
Reference: Malacologia, 20(2): 302 
Type genus: Rhodopetala Dall, 1921 

Rhodopidae Ihering, 1876 [around May] 
Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 144 
Type genus: Rhodope Koelliker, 1847 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1931 [in 

1929-1935]: 461). 

Rhysotinidae Schileyko, 2002 [September] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 9: 1233 
Type genus: Rhysotina Ancey, 1887 

Rhytididae Pilsbry, 1893 [25 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 
8(31): 135 



152 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus; RhytidaA\bers, 1860 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl 
(1962:11). 

Rhytidopilidae Starobogatov, 1 976 

Reference: Biologiia Moña, 4: 12 

Type genus: -\Rhytidopilus Cossmann, 1895 

Remarks: Original spelling Rhytidophilidae, 
based on Rhytidophilus, an incorrect sub- 
sequent spelling. 

Rhytidopomatinae Henderson & Bartsch, 1920 

[8 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the United States 

National Museum, 58: 64 
Type genus: Rhytidopoma Sykes, 1901 
Remarks: Original spelling Rhytidopominae. -ini 

[as -eae], Thiele (1 929 [in 1 929-1 935]: 131). 

RiLLYiNi H. Nordsieck, 1985 [October] 
Reference: Heldia, 1(3): 83 
Type genus: -fRillya Munier-Chalmas [in R 
Fischer], 1883 

RiMELLiNAE Stewart, 1927 [3 January] 
Reference: Proceedings of tfie Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 78: 366 
Type genus: fR/me/ZaAgassiz, 1841 

RiMULiDAE Anton, 1838 

Reference: Verzeichniss der Conchylien 
welche sich in der Sammlung von H. E. An- 
ton befinden: 27 

Type genus: -\Rimula Defrance, 1827 

Remarks: Original spelling Rimulacea. Latini- 
zation of the vernacular "les Rimulaires" in- 
troduced by Deshayes (1832 [in 1830-1832]: 
533). 

RiNGicuLiDAE Philippi, 1853 [before 1 May] 
Reference: Handbuch der Conchyliologie und 

Malacozoologle: 190 
Type genus: -\Ringicula Deshayes, 1838 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Ringicula- 

cea. -inae. Meek (1863: 87, 92); -oidea, Piani 

(1980:160). 

RisELLiDAE Kesteven, 1903 [9 April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Linnean Soci- 
ety of New South Wales, 27(4): 621 , 623 
Type genus: Risella Gray, 1842 
Remarks: -inae, Reid (1989: 88). 

RiSHETiiNAE Schileyko, 1999 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 4: 532 
Type genus: Rishetia Godwin-Austen, 1920 



RissoELLiDAE Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 86 
Type genus: Rissoella Gray, 1847 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1968:7). 

RissoiNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 15: 152 

Type genus: Rissoa Desmarets, 1814 

Remarks: Original spelling Rissoaina. -idae, 
Mörch (1852: 44); -oidea, Hannibal (1912a: 
183). Placed on the Official List and given 
precedence over Truncatellidae Gray, 1 840 
by Opinion 1664(1992:78). 

RissoiNiNAE Stimpson, 1865 [August] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 20^ Л 
Type genus: Rissoina d'Orbigny, 1840 
Remarks: -idae, Cossmann & Peyrot (1919 [in 
1917-1919]: 332). 

RissoLiNiDAE Voorwinde, 1966 [16 November] 
Reference: Journal of the Malacological Soci- 
ety of Australia, 10:42 
Type genus: Rissolina Gould, 1861 
Remarks: Attributed by Voorwinde to "Gould, 
1861". Not available: no diagnosis. 

RissopsiDAE Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
lAvancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Pahs, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. Nicolas established the "series" Rissop- 
sidae within his family Tanganyikidae, to 
include gastropods from Lake Tanganyika re- 
sembling Rissoidae, and the name appears 
to have been descriptive (see also Cancel- 
lopsidae, Littoridinopsidae, Muricidopsidae, 
etc.), rather than based on the genus Ris- 
sopsis, which Nicolas did not cite. 

RizzoLiiNAE Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 77 
Type genus: /?/zzo//a Trínchese, 1877 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus placed on the 

Official Index by Opinion 776 (1966: 93). 

RosENiiDAE Nierstrasz, 1913 

Reference: Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der 

Zoologie, 3(5): 565 
Type genus: Rósenla Nierstrasz, 1913 
Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 

for Turtoniidae Rosen, 1910 (see that name). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



153 



Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of 
Rosenia Waagen & Wentzel, 1886 [Proto- 
zoa]. 

ROSTANGIDAE PrUVOt-Fol, 1951 [July] 

Reference: Archives de Zoologie Expérimen- 
tale et Générale, 88{^y. 11 
Type genus: Rostanga Bergh, 1879 
Remarks: -inae, Schmekel & Portmann (1982: 
6,73). 

RosTELLARiiNAE СэЬЬ, 1868 [3 November] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

4(3): 141 
Type genus: Rostellaria Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Rostellarinae. 

-idae, Delpey (1 941 : 50). See also Tibiidae. 

RoTADisciNAE H. B. Ваког, 1927 [5 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 79: 228 
Type genus: Rotadiscus Pilsbry, 1926 

RoTELLiNAE Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 353 
Type genus: Rotella Lamarck, 1822 
Remarks: -idae [as Rotelladae], Gray (1857a: 
139). See Umboniinae. 

RuEDEMANNiiNAE Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -\Ruedemannia Foerste, 1914 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. First di- 
agnosed by Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 
Moore, 1960:209). 

RuMELLiDAE Апсеу, 1 906 [30 June] 
Reference: Bulletin Scientifique de la France 

et de la Belgique, 40: 245 
Type genus: Rumella Bourguignat, 1885 
Remarks: -ini. Bouchot & Strong, herein. 

RuMiNiDAE Wenz, 1923 [5 June] 

Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 20: 875 

Type genus: Rumina Risso, 1826 

Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 
554). Placed on the Official List by Direction 
27 (1955: 484), but attributed in error to 
Thiele (1931). 

RuNciNiDAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 [Oc- 
tober] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:42 

Type genus: Runcina Forbes, 1851 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 811 (1967: 89), but attributed in error to 



Gray (1 857a: 204). -inae. Franc (1 968c: 842); 
-oidea, Vaught(1989:ix, 65). 

Ryssotidae Schileyko, 2003 [April] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul - 

monate molluscs. Part 10: 1343 
Type genus: Ryssofa A I be rs, 1850 
Remarks: -inae, same reference. 

Sabulincolidae Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 97 
Type genus: Sabulincola Rankin, 1979 

Sacculidae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1 : 266 
Type genus: Sacculus Mirase, 1927 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Sacculus Gosse, 1851 [Rotifera]. 
See Pseudosacculinae. 

Sacoglossa Ihering, 1876 [around May] 
Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 148 
Remarks: Established as an order. Treated by 
Bergh (1885: 1) as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

Sadlerianinae Radoman, 1973 [31 May] 
Reference: Prirodnjacki Muzej и Beogradu, 

Posebna Izdanja, 32: 9 
Type genus: Sad/enana Clessin, 1887 
Remarks: -idae, Starobogatov & Sitnikova 

(1983:21). 

Sagdinae Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxxii, xxxv 
Type genus: Sagda Beck, 1837 
Remarks: -idae, Wenz (1923 [in 1923-1930]: 

358); -oidea. Franc (1968b: 414). 

Salinatoridae starobogatov, 1970 [after 15 

October] 
Reference: Fauna molliuskov i zoogeografiches- 

koe raionirovanie kontinental'nykh vodoemov 

zemnogo shara: 46 
Type genus: Sa//nator Medley, 1900 

Salpingostomatinae Koken, 1925 
Reference: Zapiskii Rossiskoi Akademii Nauk, 

ser. 8, Otdel Fiziko-Mathematicheskikh Nauk, 

37(1): 1 
Type genus: -\Salpingostoma Roemer, 1876 
Remarks: Original spelling Salpingostominae. 

-ini [as -ides]. Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 

Moore, 1960: 180); -idae, Morny (1962: 474). 



154 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Sarasinulinae Hoffmann, 1925 [25 February] 
Reference: Jenaische Zeitschrift für Natur- 
wissenschaft, 61(1-2): 245 
Type genus: Sarasinula Grimpe & Hoffmann, 1 924 
Remarks: See Imeriniinae. 

Sarganidae Stephenson, 1923 

Reference: North Carolina Geological and 
Economic Sun/ey, 5. The Cretaceous forma- 
tions of North Carolina, 1 : 377 

Type genus: -^Sargana Stephenson, 1923 

Remarks: -inae, Saul (1996: 129). 

Sasakininae B. Rensch, 1930 [15 December] 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 92(7-8): 186 
Type genus: Sasakina B. Rensch, 1930 
Remarks: Original spelling Sasakinae. Ren- 
sch replaced Sasakia Rensch, 1930, a jun- 
ior homonym of Sasakia Moore, 1896, by 
Sasakina and explicitly cited that genus in 
the context of the new subfamily. We there- 
fore regard Sasakinae as an incorrect origi- 
nal spelling for Sasakininae, rather than an 
invalid family-group name based on the jun- 
ior homonym Sasakia. 

Satiellini Schileyko, 2003 [April] 

Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs, Part 10: 1319 
Type genus: Satiella Godwin-Austen, 1908 

Sauleini Berthold, 1991 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, new ser., 
29:206,209 

Type genus: Saulea Gray, 1868 

Sayellinae Wise, 1996 [8 March] 
Reference: Malacologia, 37(2): 493 
Type genus: Sayella Dall, 1885 
Remarks: -ini, Bouchet, herein [for consisten- 
cy of ranking]. 

Scaevogyridae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch der Palàozoologie , 6(1): 

39,44,238 
Type genus: -\Scae\/ogyra Whitfield, 1878 
Remarks: -inae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson 

(in Moore, 1960: 187). 

Scalariidae Lamarck, 1812 [October] 
Reference: Extrait du cours de zoologie: 1 1 7 
Type genus: Scalaria Lamarck, 1801 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Scalahens" (ver- 
nacular). First latinized [as Scalariana] by 
Children (1823 [in 1822-1824]: 251), with ex- 
plicit reference to Lamarck. See Epitoniidae. 



Scalaxinae Zilch, 1959 [25 November] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(2): 

360 
Type genus: fSca/ax/s Pilsbry, 1909 

ScALiDAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 [Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:220 

Type genus: Scala Mörch, 1852 [ex Klein] 

Remarks: When they used Scalidae, H. Ad- 
ams & A. Adams treated Scalaha and Scala 
as synonyms, but Bouchet & Waren (1986: 
499) have shown that these names have dif- 
ferent taxonomical extensions and suggest- 
ed that ICZN should be petitioned to place 
Scala on the Official Index, -oidea [as -acea], 
Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 41, 46). See 
also Scalariidae and Epitoniidae. 

ScALioLiNAE Jousseaume, 1912 [14 August] 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 24(3-4): 228 
Type genus: ScaliolaA. Adams, 1860 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale & McMichael (1962: 

43);-ini,Gründel(1976b:87). 

ScAPHANDRiDAE G. O. Sars, 1878 

Reference: Mollusca regionis arcticae Norve- 

giae: 291 
Type genus: Scap/7ander Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: -oidea, Starobogatov (1987: 15). 

ScAPHELLiNAE Огэу, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 
of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part I: vi 

Type genus: Scaphella Swainson, 1832 

Remarks: Introduced as subfamily Scaphelli- 
na, in synonymy of Amoriana; available un- 
der Art. 11.6.1. -ini [as -ides], Pilsbry &Olsson 
(1954: 18 [288]). Under Art. 23.9 of the Code, 
Phamidae Sismonda, 1842, is here declared 
a nomen oblitum and Scaphellinae Gray, 
1857, a nomen protectum, based on usage 
in at least the following publications: Abbott 
(1954: 250), Pilsbry & Olsson (1954: 17), 
Korobkov (1955: 315), Gilbert (1960: 61), 
Pchelintsev & Korobkov (1960: 223, 227), 
Shikama & Honkoshi (1963: 97), Sohl (1964: 
264), Franc (1968a: 312), Weaver &duPont 
(1 970: 1 39), Bayer (1 971 : 209) Gilbert (1 973: 
78), Perrilliat (1 973: 1 4), Abbott (1 974: 244), 
Emerson & Old (1979: 11), MacNeil & Dock- 
ery (1984: 151), Abdel-Gawad (1986: 124), 
Garcia & Emerson (1987: 1), Vaught (1989: 
52), Darragh (1989: 202), Petuch (1991 : 44), 
Stilwell & Zinsmeister (1992: 142), Poppe & 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



155 



Goto (1992: 12-13), Ward (1992: 135), Mill- 
ard (1996: 167), Kilias (1997: 276), Darragh 
& Ponder (in Beesley et al., 1998: 834). To 
our knowledge, the name Priamidae has not 
been used as valid after 1899. 

ScAPHiDAE Labbé, 1934 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 59: 2М 
Type genus: Scaphis Labbé, 1934 

ScAPHocoNCHoiDEA Bandol, 1993 [December] 
Reference: Scripta Geológica, Special Issue 

2:30 
Remarks: Taxon containing the families Tri- 
chotropidae, Sarganidae, and Capulidae. 
Established as a superfamily and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

ScARABiNAE P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 
et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches 
zoologiques (7), 2(8): 5 
Type genus: Scarabus Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: The type genus is not preoccupied 
by Scarabaeus Linnaeus, 1758 [Coleóptera]. 
Scarabus has been synonymized with 
Pythia, and because Pythiinae is in prevail- 
ing usage it is conserved under Art. 40.2. 

ScENELLiDAE S. A. МШог, 1889 [after October] 
Reference: North American geology and 

palaeontology: 389 
Type genus: tScenella Billings, 1872 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 
43, 86); -oidea, Bouchet, herein [in place of 
Helcionelloidea over which it has priority]. 

ScHisMATOBRANCHiA Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 
233 

Remarks: Established at the rank of order. 
Treated as a family containing "sigaret- 
schnecken" [= Sigaretus] by Gravenhorst 
(1845: 34). Not available as a family-group 
name (not based on a genus). 

ScHizoBAsiNAE Bändel & Dockery, 2001 
Reference: Journal of the Czech Geological 

Society, 46(3-4): 346 
Type genus: tSc/?/zobas/s Wade, 1916 

ScHizoGONiiDAE Cox, 1 960 [about 1 5 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca Í: 217 
Type genus: ■\Schizogonium Koken, 1889 



ScHizosTOMATiDAE Вгопп, 1849 

Reference: Index Palaeontologicus, II, Abt. В, 

Enumerator Paleontologicus: 421 
Type genus: -tSchizostoma Bronn, 1835 
Remarks: Original spelling Schizostomica. 

Placed on the Official Index by Opinion 1470 

(1988: 64), but attributed in error to Eich- 

wald (1871: 119). 

ScHizoTAENiAE Westorlund, 1902 [after 1 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Acta Academiae Scientiarum et 
Artium Slavorum Meridionalium, 151: 100 

Remarks: Established at rank between sub- 
family and genus. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

ScHizoTRocHiDAE Iredale & McMichael, 1962 [30 

May] 
Reference: The Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Memoir 1 1 : 30 
Type genus: Sc/7/zoiroc/7as Monterosato, 1877 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

ScHWARTziELLiDAE Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 

1983 [after 22 February] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 7:21 
Type genus: Schwartziella G. Nevill, 1885 

ScissuRELLiNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 146 
Type genus: Sc/ssure //a d 'Orbig ny, 1824 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Scis- 

surellina. -idae. Gray (1857a: 160); -oidea, 

Sabellietal. (1990: 12, 126). 

ScoLiosTOMATiDAE Fryda, Blodgeft & Lenz, 2002 

[March] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 76(2): 249 
Type genus: tScoliostoma Braun, 1838 
Remarks: -inae, same reference. 

ScoLODENTiDAE H. B. Ваког, 1956 [10 May] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 69(4): 134 
Type genus: Scolodens H. B. Baker, 1956 
Remarks: Scolodens is a nom. nov. pro Steno- 
pas Guilding, 1828, non Latreille, 1819, and 
Scolodentidae is a substitute name for 
Stenopidae, but Art. 40 does not apply, and 
Scolodentidae does not take the precedence 
of Stenopidae. 

ScoLODONTiDAE H. B. Ваког, 1 925 [1 9 January] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 38(3): 88 



156 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Scolodonta Doering, 1875 
Remarks: -inae, Hausdorf (2003: 179). 

ScoLYMiNAE Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 304 
Type genus: Scolymus Swainson, 1835 
Remarks: See Vasidae. 

ScuLPTARiiNAE Оедпег, 1923 [1 September] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 55(4): 

157 
Type genus: Sculptaria L. Pfeiffer, 1855 
Remarks: -idae, H. Nordsieck (1986b: 99). 

ScuRRiiNi Lindberg, 1988 [1 April] 
Reference: The Veliger, 30(4): 388 
Type genus: Scurria Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Under Art. 11.7.2, not available from 

the vernacular "Scurriiden" established by 

Thiem (1917: 613). 

ScuTATi Férussac, 1819 [10 July] 

Reference: Histoire naturelle générale et par- 
ticulière des mollusques terrestres et fluviá- 
tiles: 20 

Remarks: Established, with diagnosis, as a fam- 
ily, without included taxon. Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 

ScuTELLiDAE Angas, 1871 [June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 1871(1): 97 
Type genus: Scutella Broderip, 1834 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior homonym 

of Scutella Lamarck, 1816 [Echinodermata]. 

See Scutellinidae and Phenacolepadidae. 

ScuTELLiNiDAE Dall, 1889 [June] 

Reference: Bulletin of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, 18: 29, 342 

Type genus: Scutellina Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Established as a substitute name for 
Scutellidae, invalid because its type genus is 
a junior homonym. Invalid: type genus a jun- 
ior homonym of Scutellina Agassiz, 1841 
[Echinodermata]. See Phenacolepadidae. 

ScuTiFERA Gray, 1855 [14 April] 

Reference: Catalogue of Pulmonata or air- 
breathing Mollusca in the collection of the 
British Museum. Part I: 1 55-1 56 

Remarks: Taxon containing the two shell-less 
"tribes" [= subfamilies] of Helicidae, as op- 
posed to the shelled tribes (= Cochleopho- 
ra). Established as a family-group name and 
not available as such (not based on a genus). 



ScuTiFORMiA Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Scutiformes" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 202). 
Established as a family containing the gen- 
era Umbraculum and Patella. Not available 
as a family-group name (not based on a 
genus). 

ScuTiNAE Christiaens, 1973 [January] 
Reference: Informations de la Société Belge 

de Malacologie, ser. 2, 1 : 16 
Type genus: Scutus Montfort, 1810 

ScYLLAEiDAE Aider & Hancock, 1855 
Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 

branchiate Mollusca: Appendix, xx 
Type genus: Scyllaea Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: See also Pleuropinae. 

ScYTOTYPiDAE. See Sycotypidae. 

Sebadoridinae Soliman, 1980 [2 November] 
Reference: The Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

46(2): 237 
Type genus: Sebadoris Er. Marcus & Ev. Mar- 
cus, 1960 

Securiconidae Missarzhevsky, 1989 [after 10 

July] 
Reference: Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta, 

Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 443: 1 74 
Type genus: tSecur/conus Jiang, 1980 

Segmentininae F. C. Baker, 1945 

Reference: The molluscan family Planorbidae: 

96 
Type genus: Segmentina Fleming, 1818 
Remarks: -ini [as -eae], Zilch (1959 [in 1959- 

1960]: 113). 

SEGUENZiiDAEVerrill, 1884 [July] 

Reference: Transactions of the Connecticut 

Academy of Arts and Sciences, 6(1 ): 186 
Type genus: Seguenz/a Jeffreys, 1876 
Remarks: Original spelling Seguenzldae. 

-oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov (1968: 7); 

-inae /-ini, Marshall (1991a: 44). 

Seilidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 [18 

December] 
Reference: Malacologie, 15(1): 212 
Type genus: Se/'/a A. Adams, 1861 
Remarks: -inae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1987:26). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



157 



Selenitidae p. Fischer, 1883 [21 February] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 456 
Type genus: Selenites P. Fischer, 1878 
Remarks: -inae, Cockerell (1891 : 216). Invalid: 
type genus a junior homonym of Selenites 
Hope, 1840 [Coleóptera]. See Circinariidae. 

Selenochlamydinae I. M. Likharev & Wiktor, 

1980 [after 10 November] 
Reference: Fauna SSSR, Molliuski, 3(5): 327 
Type genus: SelenochlamysO. Boettger, 1883 

Semilimacinae Schileyko, 1986 [after 25 July] 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

148:131 
Type genus: Semilimax Stabile, 1859 
Remarks: -ini, Schileyko (2003 [in 1998-2003]: 

1484). 

SEMiMiTRiNAECossmann, 1899 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 3: 151 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Semiphyllididae Lamarck, 1819 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertèbres, 6(1 ): 298 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) "Semiphyl- 
lidiens" (vernacular). Latinized by Broderip 
(1839: 320). Spelling emended to Hemiphyl- 
lidae by de Kay (1843: 12-13). Not avail- 
able as a family-group name (not based on 
a genus). See also Hemiphyllidinae in high- 
er category list. 

Semisalsinae Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980 
Reference: Guide per il riconoscimento delle 

specie animali delle acque interne italiano, 

8, Gasteropodi 2: 26 
Type genus: Semisalsa Radoman, 1974 

Semisinusinae. See Hemisininae. 

Semisulcospirinae Morrison, 1952 [28 January] 
Reference: The American Malacological Union. 

News Bulletin and Annual Report, 1 951 : 8 
Type genus: SemisulcospiraO. Boettger, 1886 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Available 
under Art. 13.2.1 because it has been used 
as valid, e.g. by Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1987: 25-26), who also provided a descrip- 
tion. 

Semperdoninae Solem, 1983 [7 January] 
Reference: Endodontoid land snails from Pa- 
cific Islands. Part II: 235 
Type genus: Semperdon Solem, 1983 



Semperulinae Hoffmann, 1925 [25 February] 
Reference: Jenaische Zeitschrift für Natur- 
wissenschaft, 61(1-2): 254 
Type genus: Semperula Grimpe & Hoffmann, 
1925 

Senectinae Swainson, 1840 [May] 
Reference: A treatise on malacology: 348 
Type genus: Senecius Sv\/ainson, 1840 

Septarhnae Jousseaume, 1894 

Reference: Mémoires de la Société Zoologique 
de France, 7: 320 

Type genus: Septaria J. Férussac, 1807 

Remarks: Original spelling "tribe" Septariidae, 
established at rank between family and ge- 
nus, -ini [as -ae], H. B. Baker (1923b: 117); 
-idae [declared fam. nov.], Golikov & Star- 
obogatov (1975: 209, 216-217). 

Septidae Dall & Simpson, 1901 [November] 
Reference: United States Fish Commission 

Bulletin, 20{^):4^6 
Type genus: Septa Perry, 1810 
Remarks: See also Aquillidae. 

Seraphsinae Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11:131 
Type genus: -fSeraphs Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) 
Seraphina, based on Seraphys, an incorrect 
subsequent spelling or an unjustified emen- 
dation of Seraphs. Spelling Seraphyinae 
used by Gill (1871: 9). Seraphsidae intro- 
duced independently as a replacement name 
forTerebellidae by Jung (1974: 12). 

Seribranchia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Sérobranches" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 174). 
Established as a family containing the genera 
Tritonia, Tethys, and Scyllaea. Not available as 
a family-group name (not based on a genus). 

Serratae Eliot, 1910 

Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 

branchiate Molluscs, 8: 74-75 
Remarks: Established as a subfamily [of Aeo- 

lidiidae] and not available as such (not based 

on a genus). 

Serrulininae Ehrmann, 1927 [February?] 
Reference: Sitzungsberichte der Naturfor- 
schenden Gesellschaft zu Leipzig, 49-52 (for 
1922-1925), Abhandlungen: 48 



158 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Serrulina Mousson, 1873 
Remarks: -ini [as -ineae], Zilch (1954: 49). 

Sesarinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 620 
Type genus: Sesara Albers, 1860 

Setiinae v. V. Anistratenko & Starobogatov, 

1994 [after May] 
Reference: La Conchiglia, 26(271 ): 45 
Type genus: Sei/a H.Adams & A. Adams, 1852 
Remarks: Not available from Anistratenko 
(1990: 12 [Dissertation abstract; not avail- 
able for nomenclatural purpose]), nor from 
Anistratenko (1992: 298 [no diagnosis]), nor 
from Sitnikova et al. (1992: 7). 

Settsassiidae Bändel, 1992 [December] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 73: 63 
Type genus: -fSettsassia Bändel, 1992 

Sheldoniinae Connolly, 1925(1912) 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 9, 15:467 
Type genus: Sheldonia Ancey, 1887 
Remarks: Established as a replacement name 
for Peltatinae, because Connolly treated 
Peltatus as a synonym of Sheldonia. Pelta- 
tinae has not been used since its original 
description and Sheldoniinae is conserved 
under Art. 40.2, with the precedence of Pelta- 
tinae (January 1912). -ini, Schileyko (2002 
[in 1998-2003]: 1260). 

Sherborniidae Iredale, 1917 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 12(6): 331 
Type genus: Sherbornia Iredale, 1917 
Remarks: -inae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1987: 
28). Precedence of simultaneously published 
Pickv\/orthiidae over Sherborniidae deter- 
mined by First Reviser's choice by Bouchet 
& Le Renard (in Beesley et al., 1998: 740). 

Shinkailepadidae Okutani, Saito & Hashimoto, 

1989 [December] 
Reference: Venus, 48(4): 224 
Type genus: Shinkailepas Okutani, Saito & 

Hashimoto, 1989 

SiGARETiDAE Gray, 1827 

Reference: Encyclopaedia metropolitana. Vol. 

7. Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca IV [= plate 

6] 



Type genus: Sigaretus Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Earlier than Gray, Cuvier (1817: 
445) had used the vernacular "les Sigarets" 
[not the Latin "Sigaretina", as cited by Pon- 
der & Waren (1988: 301), who attributed Si- 
garetinae to Cuvier]. -inae, Stoliczka (1868 
[in 1867-1871]: 292, 298). See Sininae. 

SiLIQUARIIDAE Anton, 1838 

Reference: Verzeichniss der Conchylien welche 
sich in der Sammlung von H. E. Anton befin- 
den: xiii 
Type genus: Siliquaria Bruguière, 1789 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Siliquaria- 
cea. -inae [as Siliquahana], Gray (1857a: 128). 
The pnority of Siliquariidae over Tenagodidae 
Gill, 1871, is discussed by Bieler (1992: 15). 

SiMNiiNi Schilder, 1927 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 91 

(Abt. A, 10): 76 
Type genus: Simnia Risso, 1826 
Remarks: -inae, Abbott ( 1 974: 1 51 ). See Volvini. 

SiMPLOPTYxiNAE Hacobjan, 1973 [after 29 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk Armian- 
skoi SSR, NaukioZemle, 26(6): 9 

Type genus: -fSimploptyxisTleät, 1958 

Remarks: Again declared nov. by Hacobjan 
(1976:52). 

SiMPULiDAE Dautzenberg, 1900 

Reference: Mémoires de la Société 
Zoologique de France, 13: 1 89 

Type genus: Simpulum Mörch, 1852 

Remarks: Established as a replacement name 
forTritonidae, based on Triton Montfort, 1810 
[invalid]. Dautzenberg credited the name 
Simpulum to "Klein, 1753", but this pre-Lin- 
nean name was first made available under 
the Code by Mörch (1852). It is not a junior 
homonym of Simpulum Fabricius, 1823, 
which was published in a work placed on the 
Official Index by Opinion 521 . Dautzenberg 
did not treat Simpulum and Triton as syn- 
onyms, and Art. 40.2 does not apply. 

SiMPULOPSiNi Schileyko, 1999 [April] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs. Part 3: 324 
Type genus: Simpulopsis Beck, 1837 

Sininae Woodring, 1928 [28 November] 
Reference: Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton, Publication 385: 387 
Type genus: Sinum Röding, 1798 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



159 



Remarks: Introduced to replace Sigaretidae 
because Sinum has precedence over Siga- 
retus Lamarck, 1 799. -idae, Korobkov (1 955: 
236). 

SiNisTROBRANCHiDAE d'Orbigny, 1 841 
Reference: Histoire physique, politique et na- 
turelle de File de Cuba. Mollusques, 1 : 93, 11 5 
Remarks: First established by d'Orbigny (1837 
[in 1834-1847]: 201) as a "division" Sinis- 
trobranchia of the Tectibranchia, including 
the genus Posterobranchaea only. Not avail- 
able: not based on a genus. 

SiNumoAEDail, 1913 

Reference: [in Eastman] Textbook of palae- 
ontology, eó. 2, 1:521 

Type genus: -tSinultes Koken, 1896 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 1470 (1988: 64). -inae. Knight, Batten & 
Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 175); -oidea, 
Starobogatov & Moskalev (1987: 8). 

SiNUMELONiNAE Solem, 1992 

Reference: Records of the South Australian 

Museum, Monograph series, 2: 161 
Type genus: Sinumelon I rédale, 1930 

SiNuoPEiNAE Wenz, 1938 [March] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 
43,122 

Type genus: -[Sinuopea Ulrich, 1911 

Remarks: -idae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson 
(in Moore, 1960: 198) and Vostokova (in 
Pchelintsev & Korobkov, 1960: 76, 78). 

SiPHONACMEiDAE Starobogatov, 1976 
Reference: Biologiia Moria, 4: 12 
Type genus: Siphonacmea Habe, 1958 
Remarks: Original spelling Siphonacmaeidae. 

Not available (no diagnosis) from Golikov & 

Kusakin(1971:28). 

SiPHONADENiA Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxi, xxxvi 
Remarks: Established as a "division" of the "tribe" 
Belogona, itself immediately below family. 
Treated as a "section" of "subfamily Belogo- 
na" by Taylor (1914: 199). Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 

SiPHONALiiNAE Finlay, 1928 [10 August] 
Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 

Institute, 59: 250 
Type genus: Siphonalia A. Adams, 1863 
Remarks: -idae, Goryachev (1987b: 33, 35). 



SiPHONARiiDAE Gray, 1827 

Reference: Encyclopaedia metropolitana. Vol. 7. 
Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca IV [= plate 6] 

Type genus: Siphonaria Sowerby, 1823 

Remarks: Original spelling Siphonariadae. 
-oidea [as -acea], Wenz (1938 [in 1938- 
1944]: 67); -inae, Harbeck (1996: 19, 29). 

SiPHONOBRANCHiA Duméril, 1806 
Reference: Zoologie analytique: 160 
Remarks: Established as family "les Siphono- 
branches" (vernacular), Tubispirantia given as 
Latin equivalent, including the genera Turbinel- 
la, Pleurotoma, Cerithium, Murex, Buccinum, 
Conus, Purpura, Columbella, Oliva, Nassa, 
Cypraea, Terebra, and Voluta. Latinized, with- 
out indication of rank, as Siphonobranchei, by 
Link (1807: 85); as Siphonobranchiata, by 
Schweigger (1820: 719, 724); and as "Fami- 
lie Siphonobranchia" in Goldfuss (1820: xliv, 
635). Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). 

SiPHONOSTOwiATABIainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 10: 185, table between pp. 214-215 

Remarks: Original spellings "Siphonostomes" 
and "Syphonostomes" (vernacular), estab- 
lished as unranked taxon. Latinised as "divi- 
sion" [above genus] Syphonostomata by 
Bowdich (1822: 36). Treated as family (not 
available as such: not based on a genus) 
and spelling emended to Siphonostomata, 
byBlainville(1824: 195). 

SiPHOPsiNAE Le Renard, 1995 [May] 
Reference: Cossmanniana, 3(3): 59 
Type genus: ^Siphopsis Le Renard, 1995 

SiRiiDAE Iredale, 1931 [29 June] 

Reference: Records of the Australian Muse- 
um, ^8{4)■.2^^ 

Type genus: Sirius Hedley, 1900 

Remarks: Name only, no description, but avail- 
able under Art. 13.2.1 because it has been 
used as valid before 2000, e.g. by Iredale & 
McMichael(1962:48). 

SiTALiNAE Godwin-Austen, 1900 [19 May] 
Reference: [in Sykes] Mollusca, [in Sharp, ed.] 

Fauna Hawaiiensis, 2(4): 283 
Type genus: Sítala H. Adams, 1 865 
Remarks: -idae, Germain (1921 : 433). 

Skeneidae W. Clark, 1851 [June] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 2, 7: 472 



160 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Type genus: Skenea Fleming, 1825 
Remarks: Original spelling Skeneadae. -inae, 
Stimpson(1865b:4,5). 

Skeneopsidae Iredale, 1915 [17 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 11 (5): 292 
Type genus: Si<eneopsis Iredale, 1915 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1968:7). 

Smaragdiinae H. B. Baker, 1923 [15 May] 
Reference: Proceedings of tfie Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Pfiiladelptiia, 75: 130 
Type genus: Smaragdia Issel, 1869 
Remarks: Original spelling Smaragdinae. 

-idae, Bändel (2001: 66). 

Smaragdinellinae Thiele, 1925 [before 10 No- 
vember] 

Reference: Deutscfie Tiefsee-Expedition 
1898-1899, 17(2): 231 [265] 

Type genus: Smaragdinella A. Adams, 1848 

Remarks: -idae, Pruvot-Fol (1934: 29). 

Smeagolidae Climo, 1980 [10 December] 
Reference: New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 

7(4): 515 
Type genus: Smeago/ Climo, 1980 

SOLARIELLINAE POWOII, 1951 [МаГСИ] 

Reference: Discovery Reports, 26: 102 
Type genus: ^Solariella S. Wood, 1842 

SoLARiiDAE Carpenter, 1857 [1 August] 
Reference: Catalogue of the collection of 
Mazatlan shells in the British Museum: 407 
Type genus: Solarium Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Solariadae. Estab- 
lished independently by Deshayes (1863 [in 
1 856-1 865]: 657) as a replacement name for 
Architectonicidae, based on Architectonica 
Röding, 1798, by Deshayes considered to be 
unavailable, -inae, Tryon (1887: 4); -oidea [as 
-acea], Pchelintsev & Korobkov (1 960: 1 37). 

SoLAROPsiDAE H. Nordsieck, 1986 [7 November] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 117(1- 

3):111 
Type genus: So/a rops/s Beck, 1837 

SoLENisciNAE Knight, 1931 [September] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 5(3): 204 
Type genus: tSoleniscus Meek & Worthen, 1 860 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed, as 
-idae, by Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 39, 
368); -oidea, Bändel (2002b: 145). 



SoLEOLiFERA Thiele, 1926 [20 February] 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 138 

Remarks: Taxen containing the families Rathou- 

isiidae and Veronicellidae. Established as 

"Sippe" [= Superfamily]. Not available as a 

family-group name (not based on a genus). 

SoLiDiPEDiA Dal!, 1921 [24 February] 
Reference: Bulletin of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, 112: 85 
Remarks: Established as a family-group name, 
below "superfamily" Rachiglossa, including 
the families Marginellidae, Volutidae, Mi- 
tridae, Fasciolariidae, Chrysodomidae, Buc- 
cinidae, Colubrariidae, Alectrionidae, 
Columbellidae, Muricidae, and Coralliophil- 
idae. Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). 

SoLiDULiDAE Meek & Hayden, 1860 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 12: 424 
Type genus: So//dtv/a Fischer von Waldheim, 1807 

SoNORELiciNi Roth, 1996 [2 January] 
Reference: The Veliger, 39(1): 31 
Type genus: Sonorelix Berry, 1943 
Remarks: Not available: not treated as valid 
when proposed. In a phylogenetic classifica- 
tion rejecting formal categorical ranks. Roth 
suggested that a "hypothetical systematist 
concerned with expressing [his] results within 
the Linnaean hierarchy" might interpose a tax- 
on named "Sonorelicini" hierarchically between 
Sonorelix and Helminthoglyptinae; Roth not- 
ed that this would run "counter to the conven- 
tion of no redundant names: "Sonorelicini" and 
Sonore//x would have identical membership". 

SoNORELLiNAE Püsbry, 1939 [6 December] 
Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 

{north of Mexico), Vol. 1(1 ): 25, 267 
Type genus: Sonorella Pilsbry, 1900 
Remarks: -ini, H. B. Baker (1963: 244). Roth 
(1996: 32) established the names Sonorel- 
lamorpha and Sonorellales in a phylogenet- 
ic classification rejecting formal categorical 
ranks; he suggested that Sonorellamorpha 
could be considered equivalent to Sonorel- 
lidae or Sonorellinae by a "hypothetical sys- 
tematist concerned with expressing [his] 
results within the Linnean hierarchy". 

SoPHiNiNAE W. Blanford & Godwin-Austen, 
1908 [after May] 

Reference: The fauna of British India. Mollus- 
ca. Testacellidae and Zonitidae: 283 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



161 



Type genus: Sophina Benson, 1859 
Remarks: -ini, Schileyko (2003 [in 1998-2003]: 
1309). 

Spanionematidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 25 
Type genus: '\Spanionema Whidborne, 1891 
Remarks: -oidea, same reference. 

Speightiidae Powell, 1942 [15 July] 
Reference: Bulletin of the Auckland Institute 

and Museum, 2: 166 
Type genus: -fSpeightia Finlay, 1926 

Spekiidae Ancey, 1 906 [30 June] 

Reference: Bulletin Scientifique de la France 

et de la Belgique, 40: 246 
Type genus: Spekia Bourguignat, 1879 
Remarks: -inae [declared new], Bändel (1998: 

265); -ini, Bouchot & Strong, herein. 

Spelaeoconchinae a. J. Wagner, 1928 [May] 
Reference: Annales Zoologicae Musei Polonici 

Historiae Naturalis, 6(4): 318 
Type genus: Spelaeoconcha Sturany, 1901 
Remarks: -idae, Hausdorf & Bouchot, herein. 

Spelaeodiscinae Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 
Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 

Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 

80: 202 
Type genus: Spe/aeod/scus Brusina, 1886 
Remarks: Established independently by Hu- 

dec (1970: 35). -idae, Schileyko (1984: 5). 

Sphaerocinidae Janssen & Maxwell, 1995 [af- 
ter 30 October] 

Reference: [in Janssen] Museo Regionale di 
Scienze Naturali. Torino, Monografie 17: 158 

Type genus: -fSphaerocina Jung, 1971 

Sphaerodomidae Bändel, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut, Universität Ham- 
burg, 86: 166 
Type genus: -\Sphaerodoma Keyes, 1889 

Sphaerostomatidae Locard, 1886 

Reference: Prodrome de malacologie 
française. Catalogue général des mollusques 
vivants de France. Mollusques marins: 39 

Type genus: Sphaerostoma Macgillivray, 1843 

Remarks: Original spelling Sphaerostomidae. 
Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of 
Sphaerostoma Rudolphi, 1809 [Vermes]. 



Sphincterochilinae Zilch, 1960 [15 August] (1910) 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(2): 

663 
Type genus: Sphincterochila Ancey, 1887 
Remarks: Established implicitly, but not explic- 
itly, as a substitute name for Albeidae, based 
on Albea Pallary, 1910, by Zilch treated asa 
subgenus of Sphincterochila. Sphincterochil- 
idae is conserved under Art. 40.2 and takes 
the precedence of Albeidae. -idae, Forcart 
(1965a: 124); -oidea [as -acea], Forcart 
(1972: 161). See also Leucochroidae. 

Spinigeridae Korotkov, 1992 [after 10 August] 
Reference: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 

1992(3): 98 
Type genus: -[Spinigera d'Orbigny, 1850 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior homonym 

oiSpinigera Lesson, 1842 [Mammalia]. 

Spiratellidae Dall, 1921 [24 February] 
Reference: United States National Museum 

Bulletin, 112:58 
Type genus: Splratella Blainville, 1817 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Wenz (1938 [in 

1938-1944]: 49). 

Spiraxinae H. B. Baker, 1939 [21 July] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 53(1): 9 
Type genus: Spiraxis С В. Adams, 1850 
Remarks: -idae, H. B. Baker (1955: 111). 

Spirialidae Chenu, 1859 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (1 ): 113 
Type genus: Spinalis Eydoux & Souleyet, 1840 

Spiropeniata Berthold, 1991 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, new ser., 
29:207,210 

Remarks: Family-group name established at 
rank below tribe. Not available: not based 
on a genus. 

Spirostomatinae Tielecke, 1940 [15 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, new 

ser., 9(3): 365 
Type genus: Spirostoma Heude, 1885 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1975:210). 

Spirostylidae Cossmann, 1909 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 8: 72 
Type genus: tSpirostylus KittI, 1894 
Remarks: Original spelling Spirostylinidae. 



162 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Spirovallini Waterhouse, 2001 [1 July] 
Reference: Late Paleozoic Brachiopoda and 

Mollusca chiefly from Wairaki Downs. New 

Zealand: 1 56 
Type genus: tSp/V-ova/Zam Waterhouse, 1963 

Spurillidae Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Vldenskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 54 
Type genus: Spurilla Bergh, 1864 
Remarks: -inae, Schmekel & Portmann (1982: 

8,223). 

Staffordiinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 632 
Type genus: Staffordia Godwin-Austen, 1907 
Remarks: -idae / -oidea, Hausdorf (1 998: 56). 

Staphylaeinae Iredale, 1935 [10 July] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 8(2): 106, 

118 
Type genus: Staphylaea Jousseaume, 1884 

Stegocoeliidae Bändel, 1992 [December] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 73: 66 
Type genus: -fStegocoelia Donald, 1889 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. Attrib- 
uted by Bändel to Yoo (1 989 [thesis; nomen- 
claturally unavailable]). Yoo (1994: 83) 
classified Stegocoelia under "Family Uncer- 
tain". 

Stenacmidae Pilsbry, 1945 [20 June] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 58(4): 114 
Type genus: Stenacme Pilsbry, 1945 

Stenelicidae Locard, 1894 

Reference: Conchyliologie française. Les co- 

guilles terrestres de France: 238 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Spelling Stenhelicidae used by Ancey (1 906: 

236). 

Stenogyridae p. Fischer & Crosse, 1877 
Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 

et dans l'Amérique Centrale. Recherches 

zoologiques (7), 1(6): 581 
Type genus: Stenogyra Shuttleworth, 1854 
Remarks: -inae, P. Fischer (1883 [in 1880- 

1887]: 486). 

Stenophysini D. W. Taylor, 2003 [March] 
Reference: Revista de Biología Tropical, 51, 

Suppl. 1: 111 
Type genus: Stenophysa Martens, 1898 



Stenopidae hi. Adams & A. Adams, 1 855 [June] 
Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 

2:220 
Type genus: Stenopus Guilding, 1828 
Remarks: -inae, Jousseaume (1894: 269). In- 
valid: type genus a junior homonym of Steno- 
pus Latreille, 1819, type genus of Stenopo- 
didae Claus, 1872 [Crustacea Decapoda]; 
see Scolodentidae. 

Stenopomatini Gray, 1868 [April] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, (1867[3]): 997 
Type genus: Stenopoma Gray, 1868 
Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Stenopomina. 

Stenopylinae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 569 
Type genus: Stenopylis Fulton, 1914 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale (1 937c: 1 ). 

Stenothecidae Runnegar & Jell, 1980 
Reference: Alcheringa, 4(2): 111 
Type genus: -[Stenotheca Salter [in Hicks], 1 872 
Remarks: -inae, Parkhaev (2002: 36 [Russian 
edition]; 34 [English edition]). 

Stenothyrinae Tryon, 1866 [1 April] 
Reference: American Journal ofConchology, 

2(2): 155 
Type genus: Stenothyra Benson, 1856 
Remarks: -idae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 

50-51,63; 1939 [ibid.]: 588). 

Stenotrematini Emberton, 1995 [13 November] 
Reference: Malacologia, 37(1): 88 
Type genus: Stenotrema Rafinesque, 1819 
Remarks: Original spelling Stenotremini. -ina, 

Hausdorf & Bouchet, herein [for consistency 

of ranking]. 

Stephanozygidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 25 
Type genus: -[Stephanozyga Knight, 1930 
Remarks: -inae, same reference. 

Stephopomatinae Bändel & Kowaike, 1997 [31 

August] 
Reference: Geológica etPalaeontologica, 31 : 262 
Type genus: Stephopoma Mörch, 1860 

Stiliferidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 [De- 
cember] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:238 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



163 



Type genus: Sf///fer Broderip, 1832 
Remarks: Original spelling Styliferidae, based 
on Stylifer, an incorrect subsequent spelling 
of Stilifer. -inae, Stoliczka (1868 [in 1867- 
1871]: 290). 

Stiligeridae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 

[March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 15(4): 199 
Type genus: SW/ger Ehren berg, 1828 
Remarks: -inae / -oidea, С Boettger (1 963: 433). 

Stoastomatidae C. B.Adams, 1849 [September] 
Reference: Monograpli of Stoastoma: 4 
Type genus: Stoastoma С В. Adams, 1849 
Remarks: Original spelling Stoastomidae. 
-inae, L. Pfeiffer (1865: 184). 

Stomatellidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museunrt, ed. 42: 114, 147 
Type genus: Stomatella Bowdich, 1822 
Remarks: Established independently by Fin- 
lay (1926: 371). -inae. Gray (1847b: 146). 

Stomatiidae Carpenter, 1861 

Reference: Annual Report of the Board of Re- 
gents of the Smithsonian Institution for 1860: 
215 

Type genus: Stomatia Helbling, 1779 

Remarks: Original spelling Stomatidae. Lama- 
rck (1809: 321) had previously used the ver- 
nacular family name "les stomatacées", but 
the name Stomatiidae is not generally attrib- 
uted to Lamarck. Established independent- 
ly by Stoliczka (1868 [in 1867-1871]: 378). 
-inae, Cossmann (1918: 309). 

Stomatopsinae Stäche, 1889 [1 December] 
Reference: Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 
13(1): 90 
Type genus: tStomatopsis Stäche, 1871 
Remarks: Established as subfamily of Mela- 
niidae despite suffix -idae. -idae, Wenz (1 939 
[in 1938-1944]: 706). 

Straparollinae Cossmann, 1916 [July] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 10: 120, 123 
Type genus: tStraparollus Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: -idae, Grabau (1936: 301). 

Straparollinidae p. J. Wagner, 2002 
Reference: Smithsonian Contributions to Pa- 
leobiology, 88: 90 



Type genus: ■\Straparollina Billings, 1865 
Remarks: -oidea, same reference. 

Strebloceratinae Bändel, 1996 

Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 79: 57 

Type genus: fSíreb/oceras Carpenter, 1859 

Remarks: Original spelling Streblocerinae. 

Strepomatidae Haldeman, 1864 [before 27 

January] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1 5: 273 
Type genus: Strepoma Haldeman, 1863 
Remarks: -inae, Stoliczka (1868 [in 1867- 

1871]: 207). 

Strepsiduridae Cossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée. Л: 130 
Type genus: -[Strepsidura Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Strepturidae. Coss- 
mann used Strepsidura as a valid generic 
name, but explicitly based the family name 
on Streptura, an unjustified emendation [first 
proposed by Herrmannsen, 1849 [in 1846- 
1852]: 507-508, but not used by him as val- 
id]. Under Art. 35.4.1 , the name Strepturidae 
must be corrected. 

Streptacididae Knight, 1931 [March] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 5(1 ): 5, 8 
Type genus: tStreptacis Meek, 1871 
Remarks: -oidea, Bändel (1996a: 327). 

Streptaxidae Gray, 1860 [October] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 3, 6: 268 
Type genus: Streptaxis Gray, 1837 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1926 [in 

1925-1926]: 151); -inae. Zilch (1960 [in 

1959-1960]: 555). 

Streptochetinae Cossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 4: 6 
Type genus: -tStreptochetus Cossmann, 1889 

Streptocionidae Dohrn, 1866 [4 October] 
Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 13: 129 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Streptostelidae Bourguignat, 1889 [March] 
Reference: Mollusques de lAfhque équatoriale 
de Moguedouchou à Bagamoyo (...): 1 1 8, 205 
Type genus: Streptostele Dohrn, 1866 



164 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Streptostylini H. B. Baker, 1941 [24 October] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 55(2); 53 
Type genus: Streptostyla Shuttleworth, 1852 
Remarks; Original spelling Streptostylarum. 
-inae, Franc (1968b; 562). 

Strepturidae. See Strepsiduridae. 

Strictispirinae McLean, 1971 [1 July] 
Reference: The Veliger, 14(1): 123 
Type genus: Strictispira McLean, 1971 
Remarks: -idae, Kantor (1995: 225). 

Strigatellidae Troschel, 1869 

Reference; Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(3): 

102 
Type genus: Strigatella Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Sthgatel- 

lacea. -oidea [as -acea], Abbott (1 974: 236). 

Strigileuxinini H. Nordsieck, 1994 [4 September] 
Reference: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 

ser.A(Biologie), 513:4, 6 
Type genus: Strigileuxina H. Nordsieck, 1975 

Strobilidae Jooss, 1911 

Reference: Jahrbücher des Nassauischen 
Vereins für Naturkunde, 64(2). Abhand- 
lungen: 61 

Type genus: Strobila Morse, 1864 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Strobila M. Sars, 1829 [Cnidaria]. 
Jooss based Strobilidae on "Strobilus Mor- 
se", and this might be construed to be an 
emendation of Strobila, but even then it is a 
junior homonym of Strobilus Anton, 1838. 
See Strobilopsidae. 

Strobilidae Zilch, 1 959 [1 7 July] 

Reference: Handbuch der Paläozoologie , 6(2): 
131,133 

Type genus: Strobilus Anion, 1838 

Remarks: -inae, same reference. Established 
as substitute name, but in synonymy, of Tor- 
natellinidae, based on Tornatellina L. Pfe- 
iffer, 1842, treated by Zilch as a subgenus 
of Strobilus. Because it has not been adopt- 
ed as the name of a taxon before 1 961 , Stro- 
bilidae is not available (Art. 1 1 .6). It is also a 
junior homonym of Strobilidae Jooss, 1911. 

Strobilopsidae Wenz, 1915 

Reference: [in K. Fischer & Wenz] Jahrbücher 

des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 

in Wiesbaden, 67: 105 
Type genus: Strobilops Pilsbry, 1893 



Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Strobilidae Jooss, 1911. Strobilops is a 
replacement name for Strobila Morse, 1 864, 
non M. Sars, 1 835; Art. 40.2 does not apply, 
-inae, Pilsbry (1918; x). 

Strombiformidae Iredale, 1915 [1 July] 
Reference; Journal of Conchology, 14: 344 
Type genus: Strombiformis da Costa, 1778 
Remarks; Established as a substitute name 
for Eulimidae because Strombiformis is an 
older name than Eulima Risso, 1826. Invalid; 
type genus suppressed and placed on the 
Official Index by Opinion 1718 (1993; 155). 

Strombinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 145 
Type genus; Sirombus Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Strom- 
bia. -idae [as Strombeae], Menke (1 828: 41 ) 
and [as Strombusidae] Fleming (1828; 329, 
359); -oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1925 [in 
1925-1926]; 89). 

Strophocheilinae Pilsbry, 1902 [28 October] 
Reference; Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 

14(56a):iv 
Type genus; Strophocheilus Spix, 1827 
Remarks: Original spelling Strophochilinae, 
based on Strophochilus Agassiz, 1846, an 
unjustified emendation of Strophocheilus 
-idae, Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]; 145) 
-ini [as -eae]. Zilch (1960 [in 1959-1960] 
465); -oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl (1962 
11). 

Strophostomatidae Wenz, 1915 

Reference; [in K. Fischer & Wenz] Jahrbücher 

des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 

in Wiesbaden, 67: 123 
Type genus: -f Strophostoma Deshayes, 1828 
Remarks; -inae, Peyrot (1932: 454-455). See 

also Ferussininae. 

Strophostylidae Grabau & Shimer, 1909 
Reference; North American index fossils, In- 
vertebrates, 1 : 676 
Type genus: -fStrophostylus Hall, 1859 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 
44). 

Strubelliidae Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 86 
Type genus; Strubellia Odhner, 1937 
Remarks; -oidea, Starobogatov (1983; 32). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



165 



Strumosini H. Nordsieck, 1994 [4 September] 
Reference: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 

ser.A(B/o/og/e), 513:4, 6 
Type genus: Strumosa O. Boettger, 1877 

Struthiolarellinae Zinsmeister & Camacho, 

1980 [12 February] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 54(1): 5 
Type genus: tStruthiolarella Steinman & Wil- 

ckens, 1908 

Struthiolariinae Gabb, 1868 [3 November] 
Reference: American Journal of Conchology , 

4(3): 147 
Type genus: Struthiolaria Bowdich, 1822 
Remarks: Original spelling Struthiolarinae. 
-idae, P. Fischer (1884: 677). Placed on the 
Official List by Opinion 479 (1957: 375), but 
attributed in error to P. Fischer (1 884). 

Struthiopterinae Zinsmeister & Griffin, 1995 

[July] 
Reference: Journal of Paleontology, 69(4): 693 
Type genus: -\Struthloptera Finlay & Marwick, 

1937 

Stuoraxidae Bändel, 1994 [September] 
Reference: Palaeontographica, (A)233: 149 
Type genus: -fStuoraxis Bande!, 1994 
Remarks: Made available by short diagnosis. 

Declared new, with formal description, in 

Bändel (1996a: 346). 

Stuorellidae [Anonymous], 1993 [December] 

Reference: Zoological Record, 129(9): 308 

Type genus; -fStuorella KittI, 1891 

Remarks: Latinization of (vernacular) "Stuorel- 
liden" of Bändel (1991d: 29). Not available: 
authorship anonymous after 1950 (Art. 14). 

Styliferidae. See Stiliferidae. 

Styliferinidae Bändel, 1992 [December] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 73: 68 
Type genus: Styliferina A. Aóavns, 1860 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis ("Styl- 
iferinidae with Styliferina A. Adams, 1860, 
and related taxa have epipodial tentacles 
(Kosuge 1964, own observations) like the 
Litiopidae, and differ from the rest of the 
Cerithioidea" [translated from German]). 

Stylinidae Philippi, 1853 [before 1 May] 
Reference: Handbuch der Conchyliologie und 
Malacozoologie: 128, 179 



Type genus: Stylina Fleming, 1828 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Stylinacea. 
Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of Styl- 
ina Lamarck, 1816 [Cnidaria]. 

Styliolacés Fol, 1875 

Reference: Archives de Zoologie Expérimen- 
tale et Générale, 4: 1 77 

Type genus: Styliola Gray, 1847 

Remarks: Introduced as a tribe of the family 
"Orthoconques" [later latinized as Orthoc- 
oncha]. Not available: apparently never lat- 
inized. 

Stylocheilinae Eales, 1984 
Reference: Opisthobranch, 16(3): 26 
Type genus: Siy/oc/7e//<7S Gould, 1852 
Remarks: Original spelling Stylochiniae. Not 
available (no diagnosis). Used, but not made 
available, by Vaught (1989: 67) and Higo & 
Goto (1993: 417). 

SuBAPLYSiACEA Blainville, 1825 

Reference: Manuel de malacologie et de con- 
chyliologie: 469 

Remarks: Taxon including the genera Berthel- 
la, Pleurobranchus, and Pleurobranchidium. 
Established as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 

SuBULATA Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Subulés" (vernac- 
ular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 196). The 
context indicates that Subulata is not to be 
regarded as a family name based on Subu- 
la Schumacher, 1817 (in which case it would 
be an available name to be emended to Sub- 
ulidae). Not available as a family-group name 
(not based on a genus). 

SuBULiNiNAE P. Fischer & Crosse, 1877 

Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 
et dans Г Amérique Centrale. Recherches 
zoologiques {7), 1(6): 592 

Type genus: Subulina Beck, 1837 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 484), but authorship attribut- 
ed in error to Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 
549). -idae, Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 
140); -oidea, Schileyko (1979a; 56). 

SuBULiTiDAE Lindström, 1884 [after March] 
Reference; Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps- 

Akademiens Handlingar, 19(6); 192 
Type genus: -\SubuHtes Emmons, 1842 



166 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: -inae, Knight (1 931 b: 203); -oidea [as 
-acea], Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 44, 69, 
364-365). 

SucciNEiDAE Beck, 1837 

Reference: Index molluscorum praesentis aevi 
musei principis augustissimi Christiani Fre- 
der/c/, (1):98 

Type genus: Succinea Draparnaud, 1801 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Succinida, 
established at rank between family and ge- 
nus, -inae, H. Adams & A. Adams (1855 [in 
1853-1858]: 127); -idae [as Succineae], 
Mörch (1864: 294); -oidea [as -acea], Thiele 
(1926 [in 1925-1926]: 138). 

SucTORiAEBergh, 1892 

Reference: System der nudibranchiaten Gas- 
teropoden: 1 55 

Remarks: Established as subfamily "Dorididae 
Phanerobranchiatae Suctoriae s. Goniodo- 
rididae". Franc (1968c: 858) used Suctoria 
Bergh 1892, as a "tribe" [= superfamily] with- 
in the suborder Anadoridacea. Not available 
as a family-group name (not based on a ge- 
nus). 

SuLCOACTAEONiDAE G rundel, 1997 
Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 25: 185 
Type genus: tSulcoactaeon Cossmann, 1895 

SuLcocYPRAEiNi Schilder, 1932 [20 October] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogas, I, Pars 55: 

191 
Type genus: -fSulcocypraea Conrad, 1865 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis, but made 
available under Art. 13.2.1 by usage as a 
valid name before 2000. -inae, and diagno- 
sis, Schilder (1936: 106). 

SuTiLizoNiNAE McLean, 1989 [14 August] 
Reference: Contributions in Science, Natural 

History Museum of Los Angeles County, 407: 

11 
Type genus: Sutilizona McLean, 1989 
Remarks: -idae, Waren & Bouchet (2001 : 141 ). 

Given precedence over Temnocinclinae by 

First Reviser's choice by Waren & Bouchet, 

herein. 

Sycotypidae Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 128 
Type genus: Sycotypus Gray, 1847 
Remarks: Original spelling Scytotypidae, 
based on Scytotypus, an incorrect subse- 
quent spelling of Sycotypus. 



Symmetrocapulinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

212 
Type genus: ■\Symmetrocapulus Dacqué, 1 934 
Remarks: Original spelling Symetrocapulinae, 
based on Symetrocapulus, an incorrect sub- 
sequent spelling of Symmetrocapulus. -idae, 
Moskalev (1968: 10); -oidea, Tracey, Todd 
& Erwin (1993: 140). 

Synceratidae Bartsch, 1920 [8 July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, 58: 159 

Type genus: Syncera Gray, 1821 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Assimineidae, based on Assiminea Flem- 
ing, 1828, which Bartsch considered a syn- 
onym of Syncera. The nomenclature of 
Syncera and Synceratidae was discussed by 
Abbott (1958: 232). Although Synceratidae 
(also spelled Synceridae) occasionally was 
used in the 1920-50's, it has not won gener- 
al acceptance and Art. 40.2 does not apply. 

Synthopsinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 
Type genus: Synthopsis Laseron, 1956 

Syringobranchia Gravenhorst, 1845 
Reference: Das Thierreich nach den Verwandt- 
schaften und Übergängen in den Klassen und 
Ordnungen desselben dargestellt: 34 
Remarks: Established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 

Syrnolinae Saurin, 1958 

Reference: Annales de la Faculté des Scienc- 
es de Saigon, (1958): 64 

Type genus; Syrno/a A. Adams, 1860 

Remarks: -idae, Schänder, van Aartsen & 
Corgan (1999: 152); -ini, Bouchet, herein [for 
consistency of ranking]. 

Syrnolopsidae Bourguignat, 1890 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

Zoologie, ser. 7, 10 (Art. 1): 139 
Type genus: Syrnolopsis E. A. Smith, 1880 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1928a: 380); -oidea, 

Golikov & Starobogatov (1987: 27); -ini, 

Bouchet & Strong, herein. 

Systrophiidae Thiele, 1926 [20 February] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 143 
Type genus: Systrophia L. Pfeiffer, 1855 
Remarks: Not available from Thiele (1 921 : 1 57), 
who used the vernacular name "Systrophiiden". 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



167 



Tacheocampylaeinae Germain, 1928 [15 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Archives du Muséum d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Lyon, 13: 128 

Type genus: Tacheocampylaea L. Pfeiffer, 1877 

Remarks: Original spelling Tacheocampylinae. 

Tachyrhynchinae Golikov, 1986 [after 22 July] 

Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 65(8): 1142 

Type genus: Tachyrhynchus Mörch, 1868 

Remarks: Original spelling Tachyrhynchiinae. 

No formai diagnosis, but an identification key 

(p. 1145) to the "subfamilies, genera and 

species of the family Turritellidae" separates 

Turritellinae and Tachyrhynchus, which is the 

only genus included in Tachyrhynchinae. 

Diagnosed byTitova (1994: 63). 

TAENIOGLOSSATrOSChel, 1848 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, ed. 3: 541 
Remarks: Established as a "Gruppe" equivalent 
in ranking to suborder. Treated by Dall (1890: 
161 ) as a superfamily containing Tritoniidae, 
Cassididae, Doliidae, Ovulidae, Cypraeidae, 
and Strombidae. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Taiomidae Finlay & Мапл /ick, 1937 [20 May] 
Reference: New Zealand Geological Survey, 

Palaeontological Bulletin, 15: 72 
Type genus: -fTaioma Finlay & Мапл /ick, 1937 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1943 [in 1938-1944]: 

1256). 

Talopiidae Finlay, 1928 [10 August] 

Reference: Transactions of the New Zealand 
Institute, 59: 238 

Type genus: 7a /op /a Gray, 1842 

Remarks: -ini, Bouchet, herein [in place of 
Monileini, over which it has priority]. Hick- 
man & McLean (1990: 128) rejected Talopi- 
idae as a nomen nudum, but the Code does 
not require descriptions for family-group 
names published before 1930. 

Talpariinae Iredale, 1935 [10 July] 
Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 8(2): 106 
Type genus: Га/раг/а Troschel, 1863 
Remarks: -ini, Schilder (1936: 107). 

Tamanovalvidae Kawaguti & Baba, 1959 [30 
September] 

Reference: Biological Journal of Okayama 
L/n/Vers/iy, 5(3-4): 178, 179 

Type genus: Tamanovalva Kawaguti & Baba, 
1959 

Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Salisbury & Ed- 
wards (1962: 73). 



Tamayoini Tillier, 1980 [November] 
Reference: Mémoires du Muséum National 

d'Histoire Naturelle [Paris], ser. A, 118: 93 
Type genus: Tamayoa H. B. Baker, 1925 
Remarks: -inae, Hausdorf (2003: 179). 

Tanganyiciinae Bändel, 1998 
Reference: Zentralblatt für Geologie und Palä- 
ontologie, Teil 1, Heff 1-2: 277 
Type genus: Tanganyicia Crosse, 1881 

Tanganyikidae Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
l'Avancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Paris, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 
Nicolas established the family Tanganyikidae 
to include all the caenogastropods from Lake 
Tanganyika, and the name appears to have 
been geographically descriptive, rather than 
based on the genus Tanganyicia, which Nico- 
las cited alongside 24 other genera. 

Tanousiidae Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
liuskov, 7: 21 

Type genus: Tanousia Bourguignat [in Ser- 
vain], 1881 

Remarks: Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.1 , 
to replace Lithoglyphulidae, presumably on 
the grounds that Tanousia is a senior objec- 
tive synonym of Lithoglyphulus Schlickum & 
Schutt, 1971. Both names have had limited 
usage and priority should apply, i.e. Lithogly- 
phulidae is the valid name. 

Tantulidae Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 6 
Type genus: Taniu/um Rankin, 1979 
Remarks: -oidea, Starobogatov (1983: 31). 

Tanychlamydinae H. B. Baker, 1928 [16 May] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 80: 6 
Type genus: Гапус/7 /amys Benson, 1834 

Taphiinae Harry & Hubendick, 1964 
Reference: Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps- 

och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar, ser. 6, 

ser. В, 9(5): 41 
Type genus: Taphius H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1855 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 

Harry (1962: 34). Гар/7 /us Rafinesque, 1815 

[Crustacea] is not an available name (no 



168 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



description or indication) and tlnus does not 
preoccupy Taphius H. Adams & A. Adams. 
Opinion 735 (1965: 94) has ruled that 
Biomphalaha is to be given precedence over 
Taphius when they are considered synonyms. 

Taraninae Casey, 1904 [19 May] 
Reference: Transactions of the Academy of 

Science of St Louis, 14: 126, 168 
Type genus; Га лап /s Jeffreys, 1870 
Remarks: Original spelling Taranini, as "tribe" 

of Pleurotomidae, immediately below family 

rank. 

Taringinae Odhner, 1968 

Reference: [in Franc] Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 871 

Type genus: Taringa Er. Marcus, 1955 

Tateinae Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 80 
Type genus: Tatea Tenison-Woods, 1879 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale & McMichael (1962: 43); 
-oidea, loganzen & Starobogatov (1982: 10). 

Taurasiinae Sacco, 1904 [31 August] 
Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 

Piemonte e della Liguria, Parte 30: 74 
Type genus: -fTaurasia L. Bellardi, 1882 
Remarks: Original spelling Taurasinae. Intro- 
duced as a substitute name for Purpurelli- 
nae, invalid because its type genus is a junior 
homonym. 

Tebennophorinae Morse, 1864 [17 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Portland Society of 

Natural History, 1(1): 5, 7 
Type genus: 7ebennop/?oms Binney, 1842 
Remarks: -idae, Crosse & P. Fischer (in P. 

Fischer & Crosse, 1 872 [in 1 872-1 891 ]: 1 83). 

Tectariinae Rosewater, 1972 [15 January] 
Reference: Indo-Paclfic Mollusca, 2(12): 510 
Type genus: Tecfar/us Valenciennes, 1832 

Tecturidae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 158 
Type genus: Tectura Gray, 1847 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1968: 6); -inae, O. Anistratenko (2000: 37). 

Tegulinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971 [27 

September] 
Reference: The sea shells ofSagami Bay: 57 

[Japanese text], 38 [English text] 
Type genus: Tegula Lesson, 1832 
Remarks: -ini, McLean (1982: 11). 



Teinostomatinae Cossmann, 1917 [December] 

Reference: [in Cossmann & Peyrot] Conchol- 
ogie néogénique de l'Aquitaine, 3(1 ): 210 

Type genus: Teinostoma H. Adams & A. Ad- 
ams, 1853 

Remarks: Original spelling Tinostomatinae, 
based on Tinostoma P. Fischer, 1885, an 
unjustified emendation of Teinostoma. 

Tekoulininae Solem, 1972 [August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 40(2): 97 
Type genus: Tekoulina So\err), 1972 

Teleophalla Pilsbry, 1893 [14 February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 44: 390, 
396 
Remarks: Established as a "Group" above 
genus, including the genera Sagda and Cys- 
ticopsis, and "perhaps" Pararhytida. Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). See Teleophallogona. 

Teleophallogona Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 2, 

9(33a): xxxii, xxxv 
Remarks: Emendation of Teleophalla. Treat- 
ed as a "tribe", immediately below family 
[Helicidae], the author having "purposely 
abstained from assigning subfamily rank to 
the natural tribes of Helices", but Sagdinae 
given as an alternative name. Treated as 
subfamily by J. W. Taylor (1914: 199). Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). 

Telescopiidae Allan, 1950 

Reference: Australian shells: 86 

Type genus: Ге /escop/um Montfort, 1810 

Temnocinclinae McLean, 1989 [14 August] 
Reference: Contributions in Science, Natural 

History Museum of Los Angeles County, 

407:5 
Type genus: Гешлос/пс//5 McLean, 1989 
Remarks: Sutilizoninae given precedence over 

Temnocinclinae by First Reviser's choice by 

Waren & Bouchet, herein. 

Temnodiscinae Horny, 1963 [3 March] 
Reference: Sbornik Geologickych Ved, sen 

Paléontologie, 2: 87 
Type genus: -tTemnodiscus Koken, 1896 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 
Horny (1962: 473). -idae, Golikov & Star- 
obogatov (1975: 207). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



169 



Temnotropidae Cox, 1960 [about 15 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 7: 219 
Type genus: ^Temnotropis Laube, 1868 

Tenagodidae Gill, 1871 [February] 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 221 -.Q 

Type genus: Tenagodus Guettard, 1770 

Remarks: Described again as new by Malat- 
esta (1974: 200). Gill did not give reasons 
for the establishment of the name Tenago- 
didae, but it is likely that he introduced it to 
replace Siliquariidae Anton, 1838, because 
Tenagodus is a senior synonym of Siliquar- 
ia Bruguière, 1789. However, Tenagodidae 
has not won general acceptance over Siliq- 
uariidae, and Art. 40.2 does not apply. The 
priority of Siliquariidae over Tenagodidae is 
discussed by Bieler (1 992: 1 5). 

Tentaculata Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Tentacules" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 176). 
Established as a family of the order Tecti- 
branchia, containing the genera Phyllirhoe, 
Notarchus, Aplysia, Dolabella, and Bullina. 
Not available as a family-group name (not 
based on a genus). 

Terebellinae H. Adams & a. Adams, 1854 [Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:262 

Type genus: 7егеЬе//и/г) Lamarck, 1798 

Remarks: -idae, Sacco (1893: 64). Homonym of 
Terebellidae Grube, 1850, based on Terebella 
Linné, 1767 [Polychaeta]; see Seraphsinae. 

Terebrellidae Delpey, 1941 [February] 
Reference: Mémoires de la Société Géologique 
de France, new ser., 1 9(3-4) [Mémoire 43]: 58 
Type genus: fTerebre/Za Andreae, 1887 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Terebrella Maitzan, 1886. 

Terebridae Mörch, 1852 [after July] 
Reference: Catalogus conchyliorum quae rel- 

iquit D. Alphonso d'Aguirra et Gadea Comes 

de Yoldi,{^)■. 74 
Type genus: Terebra Bruguière, 1789 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Terebrina. 

-inae, H. Adams &A. Adams (1853 [in 1853- 

1858]: 224); -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1968:7). 



Teretropomatinae Rochebrune, 1881 [after 28 

May] 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Philo- 

mathique de Pahs, ser. 7, 5: 110 
Type genus: Teretropoma Rochebrune, 1881 
Remarks: Original spelling Teretropomidae. 

Established as subfamily of "Cyclostomace- 

ae" despite suffix -idae. 

Tergipedinae Bergh, 1889 

Reference: [in Carus] Prodromus faunae med- 
iterraneae, 2: 209 

Type genus: 7erg/pes Cuvier, 1805 

Remarks: Not available (vernacular, and not 
generally dated from that first publication) 
from Vayssière (1888: 93 [as "Tergipidés"]). 
-idae, Bergh (1896: 389); -oidea [as -acea], 
Abbott (1974: 374). Placed on the Official 
List by Opinion 773 (1966: 85). 

Terrestribythinellidae Sitnikova, Starobogatov 
& Anistratenko, 1992 [after 17 June] 

Reference: Vestnik Zoologii, 6: 10 

Type genus: Terresthbythinella Sitnikova, Star- 
obogatov & Anistratenko, 1992 

Testacellinae Gray, 1840 [between March and 
June] 

Reference: [A new edition of] A manual of the 
land and fresh-water shells of the British Isles 
byW. Turton: 109 

Type genus: Tesiace/Za Draparnaud, 1801 

Remarks: Original spelling Testacellina. -idae, 
Forbes & Hanley (1852 [in 1850-1853]: 26); 
-oidea, H. B. Baker (1956a: 135). Testacel- 
lacidae [Carpenter, 1861: 227] is an incor- 
rect subsequent spelling. 

Tethydinae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 141 
Type genus: Teibys Linnaeus, 1767 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Tethy- 
dia. Placed on the Official List by Opinion 1182 
(1 981 : 1 74), which also ruled that the name 
should be corrected to Tethydidae. -idae [as 
Tethyadae], Gray (1857a: 219). 

Tethymelibidae Bergh, 1890 [May] 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher Abt. für 

Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der 

Thiere, 5: 44 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Tetracea Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 142 
Remarks: Established as a subfamily of the fam- 
ily Aplysiidae, including the genera Laplysia, 



170 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Sympterus, and Dolabella. Established per- 
haps independently by Blainville (1816a: 52) 
as family "les Tétracères" (vernacular) [lati- 
nized as Tetracerata by Blainville (1825: 
484), including the genera Glaucus, Lan- 
iogerus, Tergipes, Cavolina, and Eolida]. Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). 

Tetraspididae Hagenmüller, 1885 [December] 
Reference: Bulletins de la Société Mala- 

cologique de France, 2: 303 
Type genus: reirasp/s Hagenmuller, 1885 

Tetrentodontinae Bartsch, 1943 [25 February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Biological So- 
ciety of Washington, 56: 31 
Type genus: Tetrentodon PWsbry, 1903 
Remarks: Original spelling Tetrentodoninae. 
Name only, no diagnosis. Short diagnosis, 
but name not treated as valid, by Zilch (1960 
[in 1959-1960]: 539). Diagnosed and de- 
clared again nov. subfam. by Jaume & de la 
Torre (1972a: 1528). 

Textiliinae da Motta, 1995 [after May] 
Reference: World shells, 13: 23 
Type genus: Textilia Swainson, 1840 
Remarks: Original spelling Textilinae. Da Mot- 
ta "designated Cylindrus [sic! = Cylinder] 
Montfort, 1810, as the type genus" of the new 
subfamily, with Textilia being implicitly treat- 
ed as a synonym. This is in violation of Art. 
11.7.1.1 stating that a family-group name must 
be based on a generic name then used as 
valid in the new family-group taxon, and Tex- 
tiliinae is thus not an available name. 

Thaanumellinae Clench, 1946 [12 June] 
Reference: Occasional Papers of Bernice P. 

Bishop Museum, 18(13): 199 
Type genus: Thaanumella C\er\ch, 1946 

Thaididae Jousseaume, 1888 

Reference: Mémoires de la Société Zoologique 
de France, 1 : 1 79 

Type genus: T"/7a/s Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Original spelling Thaisidae. Placed 
on the Official List by Opinion 886 (1 969: 128), 
but attributed in error to Suter (1913: 420). 
Opinion 886 also ruled that the name Purpu- 
ridae is not to be given precedence over Thai- 
didae. Senior homonym of Thaidinae Kirby, 
1896, invalid because it is based on Thais 
Fabricius, 1807 [Lepidoptera], a junior hom- 
onym of Thais Röding, 1798. -inae, Sabelli et 
al. (1990: 39, 204). See also Nucellidae. 



Thalassocyonidae F. Riedel, 1995 [before Au- 
gust] 

Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 
Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der 
Tiere, ^2^ (4): 457, 469 

Type genus: T/?a/assocyon Barnard, 1960 

Remarks: Original spelling Thalassocynidae. 

Thapsiinae C. Boettger, 1963 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, Supple- 
mentband 26: 436 
Type genus: Thapsia A\bers, 1860 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Thatcheriidae Powell, 1942 [15 July] 
Reference: Bulletin of the Auckland Institute 

and Museum, 2: 167 
Type genus: Thatcheria Angas, 1877 
Remarks: -inae, Ponder & Waren (1 988: 307). 

Thebini Wenz, 1 923 [27 April] 

Reference: Fossilium Catalogus, I, Pars 18: 381 

Type genus: Theba Risso, 1826 

Remarks: Original spelling (tribe) Thebea. 
Wenz treated Helix cartusiana Müller as the 
type species of Theba, but Lindholm (1 927a: 
119) showed Helix pisana O. F. Müller, 1774, 
to be an earlier type designation. This 
changed the concept of Theba and, as a con- 
sequence, Wenz (1 930 [in 1 923-1 930]: 3027) 
substituted Thebini with Monachini (see that 
name), -inae, Germain (1928: 268), is based 
on the concept of Theba with Helix cartusi- 
ana as type species. Opinion 431 (1956: 347) 
placed Theba on the Official List with Helix 
pisana as type species. Accepting this, Schi- 
leyko (1972: 41) used Thebinae as a valid 
subfamily, attributing it to Wenz. This view was 
rejected by Nordsieck (1987: 38, footnote 20), 
who treated Euparyphini as the valid name 
for the family-group containing Theba. An 
application to place Thebini on the Official List, 
with the ruling that the type species of the 
type genus is Helix pisana, has been submit- 
ted to the ICZN (Bouchet & Rocroi, 2004). 

Thecosomata Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32:27 ^ 

Remarks: Established as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). See 
higher category list. 

Theodoxinae Bändel, 2001 

Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 85: 70 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



171 



Type genus: Theodoxus Montfou, 1810 
Remarks: -ini, Bouchet, herein [for consisten- 
cy of ranking]. 

Therasiinae Schileyko, 2001 [June] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs, Part 7: 1012 
Type genus: Therasia Hutton. 1883 

Thersiteidae Savornin, 1915 [21 April] 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Géologique 

de France, ser. 4, 14: 313 
Type genus: -[Thersitea Coquand, 1862 

ThiarinaeGíII, 1871 [February] (1823) 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 8 

Type genus: Thiara Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Original spelling Tiarinae. Not avail- 
able from Troschel (1857 [in 1856-1891]: 
1 1 2 [as Thiarae; a plural not equivalent to a 
family-group name]). Although Gill treated 
Melaniinae and Thiarinae as two subfami- 
lies of Melaniidae, Thiara and Melania Lama- 
rck, 1 799, are objective synonyms; Thiaridae 
is in prevailing usage, and is conserved un- 
der Art. 40.2, with the precedence of Mela- 
niidae. -idae, Suter (1 91 3: 235): -ini [as -eae]. 
Wenz (1939 [in 1938-1944]: 712). 

Thliptodontidae Kwietniewski, 1902 [Decem- 
ber] (8 Dec. 1902) 

Reference: Atti della Società Veneto-Trentina 
di Scienze Naturali Residente in Padova, ser. 
2, 4(2): 54 

Type genus: Thiiptodon Boas, 1886 

Remarks: Original spelling Thiiptodonidae. 
Publication dated December 1902, to be tak- 
en as 31 December 1902, and effectively 
probably later. Thiiptodon and Pteroceanis are 
synonyms, and Pteroceanidae Meisenheimer, 
1 902 [8 December] is a senior synonym: how- 
ever, Thliptodontidae is maintained under Art. 
40.2, with the precedence of Pteroceanidae. 
-inae, Pruvot-Fol (1926: 20). 

THORUNNiNAEOdhner, 1926 

Reference: Further zoological results of the 

Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901-1903, 

2(1): 53 
Type genus: Thorunna Bergh, 1878 

Thycinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 246 
Type genus: Г/?уса H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 
Remarks: -idae, Kikuchi et al. (1 996: 1 7). 



Thyrophorellidae Girard, 1 895 [December] 
Reference: Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas. 
Physicas e Naturaes [Lisboa], ser. 2, 4: 31 
Type genus: Thyrophorella Greef, 1882 
Remarks: -oidea, Schileyko (1979a: 57). 

Thysanodontinae Marshall. 1988 [14 June] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

54(2): 215 
Type genus: Thysanodonta MarshaW, 1988 
Remarks: -idae, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1989:74). 

Thysanophorinae Pilsbry. 1926 [5 August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 78: 107 
Type genus: Thysanophora Strebel & Pfeffer, 1 879 
Remarks: -idae. Franc (1968b: 589). 

Thysanotinae Godwin-Austen, 1907 [April] 
Reference: Land and freshwater Mollusca of 

/nd/a, 2(10): 188 
Type genus: r/?ysanoia Albers. 1860 

TiARACERlTHIINAE Bouniol, 1981 [JunO] 

Reference: Bulletin d'Information des Géo- 
logues du Bassin de Paris, 18(2): 26 
Type genus: -tTiaracerithium Sacco, 1895 

TiBERiiNAE Saurin, 1958 

Reference: Annales de la Faculté des Scienc- 
es de Saigon, (1958): 64 

Type genus: Г/Ьег/а Jeffreys, 1884 

Remarks: -ini, Bouchet, herein [for consisten- 
cy of ranking]. 

TiBiiDAE Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 [18 
December] 

Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 211 

Type genus: Tibia Röding, 1798 

Remarks: Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.1 , 
as a replacement name for Rostellariidae 
Gabb, 1868, based on Rostellaria Lamarck, 
1799, a junior synonym of 7"/b/a. Both Tibi- 
idae and Rostellariidae have had limited us- 
age, and Rostellariidae is the valid name 
under the Principle of Priority. 

TiNOSTOMATiNAE. See Teinostomatinae. 

TiPHOBiiDAE Bourguignat, 1886 [July] 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Malacologique 

de France, 3: 143 
Type genus: Tiphobia E. A. Smith, 1880 
Remarks: Original spelling Tiphobidae. Typho- 
biidae [used by J. E. S. Moore, 1898: 202] is 
an incorrect subsequent spelling based on 



172 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Typhobia, an incorrect subsequent spelling 
of Tiphobia. -inae, Morrison (1954: 373); 
again declared new by Bändel (1998: 262). 
-ini, Bouchet & Strong, herein. 

TmscANiiDAE Bergh, 1890 [17 June] 
Reference: Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 16: 1 
Type genus: r/i/sca/i/a Bergh, 1890 
Remarks: Original spelling "Die Titiscanien" 
(vernacular). First latinized by Thiele (1891 
[in 1891-1893]: 264) and generally attribut- 
ed to Bergh (1890). -oidea, Golikov & Star- 
obogatov (1975: 209). 

Tjaernoeiidae Waren, 1991 [7 July] 
Reference: Sarsia, 76(1-2): 88 
Type genus: Tjaernoeia Waren & Bouchet, 1988 
Remarks: Original spelling Tjaernoeidae. 

Tmetoneminae Bändel, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut, Universität Ham- 
burg, 86: 161 
Type genus: -fTmetonema Longstaff, 1912 

Tofanellidae Bändel, 1995 [November] 
Reference: Scripta Geológica, 111: 21, 39 
Type genus: -tTofanella Bändel, 1995 
Remarks: Not available (type genus then not 

an available name) from Bändel (1994b: 

147). -inae. Gründe! (1998:3). 

Toledoniinae Waren, 1989 [17 March] 
Reference: Sarsia, 74(1): 20 
Type genus: Toledonia Dall, 1902 
Remarks: Original spelling Toledoninae. 

ToMicHiiNAE Wenz, 1938 [March] 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

51,63 
Type genus: Tomichia Benson, 1851 
Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis. Diagnosed 

by Wenz (1 939 [in 1 938-1 944]: 582). 

ToMOGERiDAE Jousseaume, 1877 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 2: 3^^ 
Type genus: Tomogeres Montfort, 1810 

ToNNiDAE Suter, 1913 [December] (1825) 
Reference: Manual of the New Zealand Mol- 
lusca: 3^3 
Type genus: Гоппа Brünnich, 1772 
Remarks: Suter placed Dolium Lamarck, 1801 , 
in synonymy of Tonna. Although he did not 
explicitly said that he introduced Tonnidae to 
replace Doliidae, Tonnidae is in prevailing 
usage and it is conserved under Art. 40.2 with 



the precedence of Doliidae. -oidea [as -acea], 
Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 47, 65); -inae, 
F. Riedel (1995b: 99). Wenz (1941 [in 1938- 
1 944]: 1 045) acted as First Reviser and gave 
Tonnidae precedence over Cassidae. 

ToRiNiiDAE Troschel, 1875 
Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(4): 1 58 
Type genus: Torinia Gray, 1842 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Toriniacea. 
-inae, Tryon (1887: 4). 

ToRNATELLAEiNAE Cossmann, 1895 [February] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 1 : 43 
Type genus: -fTornatellaea Conrad, 1860 
Remarks: Original spelling Tornatellinae. 

ToRNATELLARiiNi Cooke & Kondo, 1961 [15 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bul- 
letin 22^: 262 

Type genus: Tornatellaria PWsbry, 1910 

ToRNATELLiDAE Fleming, 1828 [March] 
Reference: A history of British animals: 328, 336 
Type genus: Tornatella Lamarck, 1816 
Remarks: Original spelling Tornatelladae. Un- 
der Art. 23.9 of the Code, Tornatellidae Flem- 
ing, 1828, is here declared a nomen oblitum 
and Acteonidae d'Orbigny, 1842, a nomen 
protectum: see under Acteonidae. 

ToRNATELLiDiNAE Cooko & Kondo, 1961 [15 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bul- 
letin 22^: 242 

Type genus: Tornatellides PWsbry, 1910 

Remarks: -ini, same reference. 

ToRNATELLiNiDAE Sykos, 1 900 [19 May] 
Reference: Mollusca. Fauna Hawaiiensis, 2(4): 

380 
Type genus: Tornatellina L. Pfeiffer, 1842 
Remarks: -inae. Zilch (1959 [In 1959-1960]: 
133); -ini, Cooke & Kondo (1961: 50, 217, 
233). See Strobilidae Zilch, 1959. 

ToRNATELLiNOPTiNi Cooko & Kondo, 1961 [15 
February] 

Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bul- 
letin 22^:^62 

Type genus: Tomate/Z/nops Pilsbry & Cooke, 1915 

ToRNATiNiDAE R Flscher, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 555 
Type genus: Tornatina A. Adams, 1850 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



173 



ToRNiDAE Sacco, 1896 [30 September] (1884) 

Reference: / Molluschi del terreni terziarii del 
Piemonte e della Liguria, Parte 21 : 55 

Type genus: Tornus Turton [in Turton & King- 
ston], 1830 

Remarks: Introduced as a substitute name for 
Adeorbidae, because Adeorbis S. Wood, 
1842, is a junior synonym of Tornus. This 
synonymy has not always been recognized, 
and both Tornidae and Adeorbidae have re- 
mained in use. Tornidae is here conserved 
under Art. 40.2, with the precedence of Ade- 
orbidae. -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1968: 7); -inae, Waren, herein. 

ToxoGLOSSATroschel, 1848 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, ed. 3: 547 
Remarks: Taxen containing the families 
Conidae and Pleurotomidae, established as 
a "Gruppe" of unspecified rank. Treated by 
Dall (1890: 24) as a superfamily, and by 
Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 92) as a "Sippe" 
[- superfamily]. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

Tracheopulmonata Plate, 1898 

Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 

Anatomie und Ontogenie der Thiere, 1 1 : 272 
Remarks: Established as unranked taxon 

above family. Treated by Thiele (1926: 138) 

as a "Sippe" [= superfamily]. Not available as 

a family-group name. 

Trachoecidae Bändel, 1994 [September] 
Reference: Palaeontographica , (A)233: 147 
Type genus: -fTrachoecus KittI, 1894 

Trachycystidae Schileyko, 1986 

Reference: Sbornik Trudov Zoologicheskogo 

M uze la, 24: 195 
Type genus: 7rac/?ycysi/s Pilsbry, 1893 
Remarks: -oidea, ibid. 

Trachysmatidae Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 79 
Type genus: Trachysma G. O. Sars, 1878 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1975: 211). Name based on an erroneous- 
ly identified genus (Waren, 1991 : 68). 

Trajanellidae Pchelintsev, 1951 

Reference: Sbornik Trudov Instituía Geologii I 

Mineralogii Akademli Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, 

(1951): 270 
Type genus: -tTrajanella Popovici-Hatzeg, 1899 
Remarks: Again declared nov. by Pchelintsev 

(1953: 46). -inae, Hayami & Kase (1977: 44). 



Transovulini Fehse, 2001 [December] 
Reference: Acta Conchyliorum, 5: 37 
Type genus: -fTransovula de Gregorio, 1880 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

Tremanotidae Naef, 1913 

Reference: Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der 
Zoologie, Ъ{2): 157 

Type genus: -\Tremanotus Hall, 1867 

Remarks: Original spelling Trematonotidae, 
based on Trematonotus P. Fischer, 1885, an 
unjustified emendation of Tremanotus. -inae 
[declared new], Peel (1972: 419). 

Trenellidae Parkhaev, 2001 

Reference: Transactions of the Paleontologi- 
cal Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 
282: 166 

Type genus: ■\Trenella Parkhaev, 2001 

Remarks: Again declared new by Parkhaev 
(2002: 35 [Russian edition], 33 [English edi- 
tion]). 

Triangulariinae Vostokova, 1960 [after 29 

June] 
Reference: [in Pchelintsev & Korobkov, eds.] 

Osnovy Paleóntologa, Molliuski, Briukhono- 

gie: 66, 73 
Type genus: ^Triangularla Frech, 1894 

Trichiinae Lozek, 1956 

Reference: Klic Ceskoslovenskych Mekkysu: 
200 

Type genus: Trichia Hartmann, 1841 

Remarks: Name only, no diagnosis, but sat- 
isfying Art. 13.2.1. First diagnosed by Schi- 
leyko (1970: 1307). -ini, H. Nordsieck 
(1993b: 5). Type genus a junior homonym 
of Trichia de Haan, 1839, type genus of Tri- 
chiidae de Haan, 1839 [Crustacea]. Invalid: 
Placed on the Official Index by Opinion 2079 
(2004: 178). 

Trichodiscininae H. Nordsieck, 1987 [15 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 
3):21 

Type genus: Гг/с/?осУ/5с/>7а Martens, 1892 

Remarks: -ini, Schileyko (1991: 217). 

Trichotropidae Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 

72 
Type genus: Trichotropis Broderip & G. B. 

Sowerbyl, 1829 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1929 [in 1929-1935]: 

243). See also Lippistidae. 



174 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



TmcLiDAEWinckworth, 1932 [June] 
Reference: Journal of Conchology, 19(7): 232 
Type genus: Trida Philipsson, 1788 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus placed on Offi- 
cial Index by Opinion 287 (1 954: 51 ). 

Tricoliidae Woodring, 1928 [28 November] 
Reference: Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton, Publication 385: 418 
Type genus: Tricolia Risso, 1826 
Remarks: -inae, Robertson (1958: 256). 

Triculinae Annandale, 1924 

Reference: American Journal of Hygiene, 
Monographic Series, 3: 276 

Type genus: Tricula Benson, 1843 

Remarks: -ini, Davis (1979: 21); -idae, logan- 
zen&Starobogatov(1982: 1141, 1145 [Rus- 
sian], 1147 [English]. 

Triforidae. SeeTriphoridae. 

Trigonochlamydinae Hesse, 1882 [before August] 
Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 9: 32 
Type genus: ThgonochlamysO. Boettger, 1881 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Trigo- 
nochlamydina. -idae, H. B. Baker (1963: 
239); -oidea, Schileyko (1979a: 58). 

Trigonostomatinae Cossmann, 1899 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 3: 5 
Type genus: Trigonostoma Blainville, 1825 
Remarks: Original spelling Trigonostominae. 

Trimusculidae J. 0. Burch, 1 945 [May] (1 840) 
Reference: Minutes of the Conchological Club 

of Southern California, 48: 14 
Type genus: Trimusculus Schmói, 1818 
Remarks: Introduced as a substitute name for 
Gadlniidae, based on Gadinia Gray, 1824, 
considered by Burch to be a synonym of Tri- 
musculus. Trismusculidae is in prevailing us- 
age; it is conserved under Art. 40.2 and takes 
the precedence of the replaced name, -inae, 
Harbeck(1996:28);-oidea, Higo et al. (1999: 
406). 

Trinchesiidae F. Nordsieck, 1972 [October] 
Reference: Die europäischen Meeres- 
schnecken: 80 
Type genus: 7r/nc/?es/'a I hering, 1879 
Remarks: Introduced, in violation of Art. 40.1 , 
as a substitute name for Cratenidae, based 
on Cratena, erroneously considered by Nor- 
dsieck to be invalid. 



Triodopsinae Pilsbry, 1940 [1 August] 
Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 

{north of Mexico), Vol. 1(2): 789 
Type genus: Tr/oc/ops/s Rafinesque, 1819 
Remarks: -ini, Emberton (1994: 251). 

Triophidae Odhner, 1941 

Reference: Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps 
och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar, ser. 6, 
ser. В, 1(11): 12 

Type genus: Tnopha Bergh, 1880 

Remarks: Again declared nov. and -inae, Odh- 
ner (in Franc, 1968c: 861); -ini, Bouchet & 
Valdés, herein [for consistency of ranking]. 

Triopinae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 165 
Type genus: Tr/opa Johnston, 1838 
Remarks: Original spelling Triopina. -idae. 

Gray (1853b: 219). Homonym of Triopidae 

Keilhack, 1909, based on Triops Schranck, 

1803 [Crustacea Branchiopoda]. 

Tripartellidae Gründel, 2001 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 36: 65 
Type genus: -[Trlpartella Gründel, 1998 

Triphorinae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological So- 
ciety of London, 15: 154 
Type genus: Triphora Blainville, 1828 
Remarks: Original spelling Triphohna, based on 
Thphoris, an incorrect subsequent spelling [by 
Deshayes (1830)] of Thphora. -idae [as Tri- 
foridae], Jousseaume (1884a: 234), based on 
Triforis, an incorrect subsequent spelling [by 
Deshayes, 1834] of Thphora; -oidea, Golikov 
& Starobogatov (1 968: 7). Marshall (1 980: 85) 
has defended the view that Triphoridae Gray, 
1 847, and Triforidae Jousseaume, 1 884, are 
not confamilial. Bouchet & Marshall have pe- 
titioned the ICZN to place Triforidae on the 
Official Index. 

Trippinae Kay & Young, 1969 [April] 
Reference: Pacific Science, 23(2): 189 
Type genus: Trippa Bergh, 1877 

Tripteridae Gray, 1850 [9 February] 
Reference: Catalogue of the Mollusca in the 

collection of the British Museum. Part II, 

Pteropoda: 3, 23 
Type genus: Triplera Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 
Remarks: Introduced as a substitute name for 

Cuvieriidae, because Cuvieria Rang, 1827, 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



175 



was considered a junior synonym of Trlptera; 
furthermore Cuvleha is preoccupied. Trip- 
teridae is a senior synonym of Cuvierininae. 
However, the name Triptera has not been 
used since 1887, whereas Cuvleria /Cuvie- 
rina has been and still is in general use. We 
here declare Tripteridae a nomen oblitum 
under Art. 23.9, and Cuvierininae (see that 
name) a nomen protectum. 

Tripterotyphinae d'Attilio & Hertz, 1988 [10 

November] 
Reference: The Festivus, 20, Suppl.: 6 
Type genus: Tripterotyphis Pilsbry & Lowe, 1 932 

Triptychiinae Wenz, 1923 [5 June] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 20: 801 
Type genus: tTriptychia Sandberger, 1874 
Remarks: H. Nordsieck (1998a: 167-168) in- 
tended to act as First Reviser under Art. 24.2, 
and to give Triptychiidae precedence over 
Filholiidae Wenz, 1923. However, Filholiidae 
was proposed at a higher rank (family vs. 
subfamily), so that its precedence is deter- 
mined automatically by Art. 24. -idae, H. Nor- 
dsieck (1976: 74). 

Triptyxidae Pchelintsev, 1 965 [after 3 February] 
Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozola Gornogo 

Kryma: 1 24 
Type genus: -fTriptyxis Pchelintsev, 1924 
Remarks: Original spelling Triptyxisidae. 

Triseriatae Eliot, 1910 

Reference: A monograph of British nudibran- 

chiate Mollusca, Part 8: 75 
Remarks: Established as a subfamily [of Aeo- 

lidiidae]. Not available as a family-group 

name (not based on a genus). 

Trissexodontini H. Nordsieck, 1987 [15 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 
3):30 

Type genus: Trissexodon Pilsbry, 1895 

Remarks: -idae, Prieto et al. (1993: 73). 

Tristaniinae Schileyko, 1999 [December] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pui- 

monate molluscs, Part 4: 534 
Type genus: Tristania O. Boettger, 1878 

Tritonaliinae Korobkov, 1955 

Reference: Spravochnik I metodicheskoe ruk- 

ovodstvo po tretichnym mollluskam. Briukho- 

nogle: 295 
Type genus: 7r/tona//a Fleming, 1828 



Remarks: Introduced as a substitute name for 
Ocenebrinae, based on Ocenebra Leach in 
Gray, 1 847, by Korobkov treated as a junior 
synonym of Tritonalla. Often erroneously at- 
tributed to "Broderip 1839". Invalid: type ge- 
nus placed on the Official Index by Opinion 



Tritoniidae Lamarck, 1809 

Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1 : 320 

Type genus: rr/ton/a Cuvier, 1797 

Remarks: Original spelling "Les tritoniens" 
(vernacular); also "Les Tritonies" in Férussac 
(1 822 [in 1 821 -1 822]: xxviij). Latinised [as Tri- 
toniana] by Children (1823 [in 1822-1824]: 
222). Placed on the Official List by Opinion 
668 (1963: 272). Attribution of the name Tri- 
toniidae to Lamarck (1809) was advocated 
by Bouchet & Rocroi (2001: 176). -inae, Н. 
Adams & A. Adams (1854 [in 1853-1858]: 
63); -oidea, McFarland (1909: 9). 

Tritoniidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 [Au- 
gust] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:101 

Type genus: Tr/ion/ivm Röding, 1798 

Remarks: -oidea [as-acea], Cossmann (1906: 
2). Invalid: type genus a junior homonym of 
Tritonlum O. F. Müller, 1776. Also homonym 
of Tritoniidae Lamarck, 1809, based on Tri- 
fonía Cuvier, 1797 [Opisthobranchia]. 

Tritoninae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 132 
Type genus: Гг /ton Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus placed on the 
Official Index by Opinion 886 [junior hom- 
onym of Triton Linnaeus, 1758]. -idae. Gray 
(1853a: 128). Not the same name as Trito- 
niidae, based on Tritonlum. See Lampusi- 
idae, Lotohidae, and Nyctilochidae. 

Triviellini Schilder, 1939 [1 November] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 71(5- 

6): 172 
Type genus: Tr/V/e/Za Jousseaume, 1884 

Triviidae Troschel, 1863 

Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 1(5): 
214 

Type genus: Trivia Gray, 1837 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Triviacea. 
-inae, Thiele (1925 [in 1925-1926]: 88); -ini, 
Schilder (1936: 106); -oidea [as -acea], 
Schilder& Schilder (1971: 6, 10). 



176 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Trochaclididae Thiele, 1928 [September] 
Reference: Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche 

Zoologie, 132:85 
Type genus: TrochaclisTh\e\e, 1912 
Remarks: -oidea, Golikov & Starobogatov 

(1975: 214); -inae, Hickman & McLean (1990: 

137). 

Trochactaeoninae Hacobjan, 1963 
Reference: Doklady Akademil Nauk Armian- 

skoiSSR, Paleontologiia, 36(3): 183 
Type genus: ■\Trochactaeon Meek, 1863 
Remarks: -idae, published the same year by 

Pchelintsev (1963: 69), priority not established. 

Trochaliidae Lyssenko, 1984 

Reference: lurskie i melovye Nerinei luga 
SSSR i ikh stratigraftcheskoe znachenie: 1 5 

Type genus: tTrochalia Sharpe, 1850 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis and 
published in a dissertation abstract, not avail- 
able for nomenclatural purpose. 

Trochidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 143 
Type genus: Ггос/?(75 Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Trochinia and 
(subfamily) Trochidia. Subfamily misspelled 
Trochininae by R Fischer (1885 [in 1880- 
1 887]: 817). -oidea [as -acea]. Gill (1 871 : 1 0); 
-ini, Hickman & McLean (1990: 95). 

Trochitinae Gray, 1868 [April] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, (1867[3]): 734 
Type genus: Ггос/7 /ía Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Original spelling Trochitina. 

Trochoclisinae Horny, 1964 [November] 
Reference: Casopis Narodniho Muzea, Oddil 

Prirodovedny, 133(4): 213 
Type genus: -\Trochoclisa Horny, 1964 

Trochodopsidae Nicolas, 1898 

Reference: Association Française pour 
l'Avancement des Sciences, Congrès de 
Paris, Compte-Rendu, 1898(2): 519 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. Nicolas established the "series" Tro- 
chodopsidae within his family Tanganyikidae, 
to include gastropods from Lake Tanganyi- 
ka resembling Trochidae, and the name ap- 
pears to have been descriptive. 

Trochoideini H. Nordsieck, 1987 [15 Octo- 
ber] 



Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 118(1- 

3):31 
Type genus: Trochoideal. Brown, 1827 

Trochomorphidae Möllendorff, 1890 [between 

June and 3 Nov] 
Reference: Bericht der Senckenbergischen 

Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt 

a.M., (1889-1890): 210 
Type genus: Trochomorpha fWbers, 1850 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 

622). 

Trochonanininae Connolly, 1912 [24 October] 
Reference: Annals of the South African Mu- 
seum, 11(3): 101 
Type genus: Ггос/70паг)ша Mousson, 1869 
Remarks: -idae, Germain (1921: 92). 

Trochonematidae Zittel, 1895 [after February] 
Reference: Grundzüge der Paläontologie 

(Paläozoologie), Abt. I, Invertebrata: 326 
Type genus: ■\Trochonema Salter, 1859 
Remarks: Also declared new by Ulrich & Scofield 
(1 897: 1 043). -inae / -oidea [as -acea], Wenz 
(1938 [in 1938-1944]: 39, 44, 227). 

Trochotomidae Сох, 1960 [about 15 August] 
(1934) 

Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology. Mollusca 1: 220 

Type genus: "[Trochotoma Eudes-Deslong- 
champs, 1842 

Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Ditremariinae because Cox treated Di- 
tremaria as a junior synonym of Trochoto- 
ma. Maintained under Art. 40.2, with the 
precedence of Ditremariinae. 

Trocho-Turbinidae Koken, 1896 [after Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Die Leitfossilien: 163 

Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus. Also published by Koken (1896: 88). 

Trochozonitinae Iredale, 1914 [24 June] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 11(2): 122 
Type genus: Trochozon/ies Pfeffer, 1883 
Remarks: -ini, Schileyko (2002 [in 1998-2003]: 

1242). 

Trochulinae Lindholm, 1927 [1 March] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 59(2): 

122 
Type genus: rroc/?u/us Chemnitz, 1786 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



177 



Remarks: Substitute name for Fruticicolinae, 
because Lindholm regarded Trochulus as a 
senior synonym of Trichia, by him included 
in Fruticicolinae. -ini, n.t., Bouchet & Haus- 
dorf, herein [in place of Trichiini, placed on 
the Official Index]. Placed on the Official List 
by Opinion 2079 (2004: 177). 

Trophoninae Cossmann, 1903 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 5: 10 
Type genus: 7rop/ion Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale & McMichael (1962: 72). 

Tropidaucheniini H. Nordsieck, 2002 [20 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Natur- 
/funcíe, ser. A, 640: 5, 10 

Type genus: 7'rap/dat/c/7en/a Lindholm, 1924 

Tropidodiscinae Knight, 1956 [8 March] 

Reference: Journal of tlie Wasliington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46{2y. 42 

Type genus: ^Tropidodiscus Meek & Worth- 
en, 1866 

Remarks: Name only. Diagnosed by Knight, 
Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 179). 
-idae, Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 207). 

Trukcharopinae Solem, 1983 [7 January] 
Reference: Endodontoid land snails from Pa- 
cific Islands, Part II: 205 
Type genus: Гшкс^агора Solem, 1983 

Truncariinae Cossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 4: 197 
Type genus: Truncarla /\. Adams & Reeve, 1850 

Truncatellidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 117, 148 
Type genus: Truncatetia Risso, 1826 
Remarks: -inae, Stimpson (1865b: 4-5); -oidea, 
H. B. Baker (1964: 171). Placed on the Offi- 
cial List by Opinion 344 (1 955: 317). Opinion 
1664 (1992: 78) ruled that Truncatellidae is 
not to be given precedence over Rissoidae. 

Truncatellininae Steenberg, 1925 [18 June] 
Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 

Dansk Naturhistohsk Forening i Kjobenhavn, 

80:201 
Type genus: Truncateltlna Lowe, 1852 
Remarks: -ini, Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 

503); -idae, Schileyko (1 998 [in 1 998-2003]: 

162). 



Tryonigentinae Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 219 
Type genus: Г/уоп /'gens Pilsbry, 1927 
Remarks: Original spelling Tryonigeninae. 

Trypanaxinae Gougerot & Le Renard, 1987 [23 

January] 
Reference: Cahiers des Naturalistes, new ser., 

42(3): 65 
Type genus: f Т/урапах /s Cossmann, 1889 

Trypanostomia 

Remarks: Cited by Ponder & Waren (1988: 294) 
as a family-group name "Trypanostomia Try- 
on, 1865". However, Tryon (1865: 124) only 
used the expression "Trypanostomoid Section". 

TuBiDAE Finlay & Мапл /ick, 1937 [20 May] 
Reference: New Zealand Geological Survey, 

Palaeontological Bulletin, 15: 40, 43 
Type genus: |7иЬа Lea, 1833 

TuBiFERiDAE Соззтапп, 1895 [February] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 1: 42, 77 
Type genus: -[Tubif er P\et{e, 1856 
Remarks: -oidea [as-acea], Pchellntsev(1965: 
4). SeeCeritellidae, 

TuBiNiDAE Knight, 1956 [8 March] 

Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 

Type genus: ^Tubina Owen, 1860 

Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 
245). 

TuBispiRACEA Deshayes, 1832 

Reference: Encyclopédie méthodique. Histoire 
naturelle des vers, 2: table facing p. 553 

Remarks: Original spelling "les Tubispirés" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Reeve (1842b: 
43). Also spelled Tubispirata by Deshayes 
(1861 [in 1856-1865]: 279). Not available: 
not based on a genus. 

TuBispiRANTiA Duméril, 1806 
Reference: Zoologie analytique: 160 
Remarks: Given as the Latin equivalent of 
"Siphonobranches" (vernacular); see also 
Siphonobranchia. Taxon including the genera 
Turbinella, Pieu retoma, Cerithium, Murex, 
Buccinum, Conus, Purpura, Columbella, Oli- 
va, Nassa, Cypraea, Terebra, and Voluta. 
Established as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 



178 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



TuBUAiiNi Cooke & Kondo, 1 961 [15 February] 
Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bul- 
letin 22^■. ^3^ 
Type genus: Tubuaia Cooke & Kondo, 1961 

TuBULiBRANCHiA Burmeister, 1837 

Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, 2: 
495 

Remarks: Established by Cuvier (1830: 108) 
as an order and suborder "les Tubulibranch- 
es". Treated by Burmeister and by de Stefani 
& Pantanelli (1879: 144 [as Tubulibran- 
chidae]) as a family-group name and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

TuDicLiNAE Cossmann, 1901 [October] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 4: 60 
Type genus: Tudicla Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Original spelling Tudiculinae, based 
on Tudicula Cossmann, 1901 , an unjustified 
emendation of Tudicla. Spelling corrected (Art. 
35.4.2) to Tudiclidae by Finlay & Marwick 
(1937: 69). For a discussion of the nomen- 
clature of Tudicla/Tudicula, see Rosenberg & 
Petit (1987: 59). 

TuRBiciNA Férussac, 1 822 [1 3 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxii 
Remarks: Original spelling "les Turbicines" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 
183); also, as Turbineae, by Menke (1828: 
22). Established as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). See 
also CycJostomatidae. 

TURBINELLIDAE SwainSOn, 1835 

Reference: The elements of modern conchol- 

ogy: 13,20 
Type genus: Turbinella Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Opin- 
ion 489 (1957: 158), but attributed in error 
to Swainson (1840). -inae, same reference; 
-oidea, Riedel (2000: 195). See also Galeo- 
didae. 

TuRBiNiNAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 144 
Type genus: Turbo Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Turbina- 
cea, based on "Turbonus T. [sic = Turbonus 
Rafinesque] Turbo L.". First established as 
(family) "les Turbinacé[e]s" (vernacular) by 
Lamarck (1809: 321 ), but not generally attrib- 
uted to that author, -oidea [as -acea], Coss- 
mann (1918: 102). 



TuRBONELLiNiNAE Knight, 1956 [8 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Washington Acade- 
my of Sciences, 46(2): 42 
Type genus: -fTurbonellina de Koninck, 1881 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 
Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in Moore, 1960: 
198). 

TuRBONiDAE Gray, 1847 [October] 
Reference: The Annals and Magazine of Nat- 
ural History, 20:27 ^ 
Type genus: Turbona Leach [in Gray], 1847 

TURBONILLINAE ВГОПП, 1849 

Reference: Index Palaeontologicus, II, Abt. В, 

Enumerator Paleontologicus: 432 
Type genus: Turbonilla Risso, 1826 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Turbonillina. 
Established independently by F. Nordsieck 
(1972: 121). -idae, Locard (1886: 211); -ini, 
Bouchet, herein [for consistency of ranking]. 

TuRciciNAE Habe, 1976 

Reference: Venus, 35(2): 94 

Type genus: Turcica H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1854 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. Used 

but not made available (no diagnosis) by 

Higo & Goto (1993: 36). 

TuRKMENAMNicoLiNAE Izzatullaev, Sitnikova & 

Starobogatov, 1985 [after 11 September] 
Reference: Biulleten' Moskovskogo Obsh- 

chestva Ispytatelei Prirody, Otdel Biolog- 

icheskii, new ser., 90(5): 57 
Type genus: Turkmenamnicola Izzatullaev, 

Sitnikova & Starobogatov, 1985 

TuRRiBAicALiiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 
1917 

Reference: Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich- 
Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesell- 
schaft in Wien, 9(3): 26, 37, 50 

Type genus: Turribaicalia B. Dybowski & Gro- 
chmalicki, 1917 

Remarks: Not available (type genus then un- 
available) from В. Dybowski (1913b: 906); 
nor from Dybowski & Grochmalicki (1914: 
277, 280). 

TuRRicASPiiNAE B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 
1915 

Reference: Über kaspische Schnecken aus der 
Abteilung "Turhcaspiinae" subfam. nova zum 
Vergleich mit den Turribaicaliinae nobis: [103] 

Type genus: Turricaspia B. Dybowski & Gro- 
chmalicki, 1915 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



179 



Remarks: Not available (type genus then un- 
available) from B. Dybowski (1913b: 906); 
nor from B. Dybowski &Grochmalicki (1914: 
277). -idae, Radoman (1985: 137, 157). 

TuRRicuLiDAE Carpenter, 1861 

Reference: Annual Report of the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for 
1860:178 

Type genus: Turricula Fabricius, 1823 

Remarks: Invalid: judging from the context, 
Carpenter based Turriculidae on Turricula 
Fabricius, 1823, which is a junior homonym 
of Turricula Schumacher, 1817 [see Turricu- 
linae Powell, 1942] and was published in a 
rejected work (Opinion 521 [1958: 201]). 

TuRRicuLiNAE Powoll, 1942 [15 July] 
Reference: Bulletin of the Auckland Institute 

and Museum, 2: 29 
Type genus: Turr/cu/a Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Turricula Hermann, 1783. Ponder 
& Waren (1988: 307) believed that "Turricu- 
lidae Blainville, 1 824 (as Turriculacea), is an 
earlier name which may be able to be used" 
forTurridae. However, Blainville (1824: 186) 
used Turriculacea for cephalopods, based 
on the fossil genus Turrilites Lamarck, 1801 . 

TuRRiDAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 [June] 
(1838) 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:87 

Type genus: Tivm's Rod i ng, 1798 

Remarks: Original spelling Turritidae. -inae, H. 
Adams & A. Adams (1853 [in 1853-1858]: 
87); -ini, Oyama (1966: 1-2); -oidea, Chang 
[Chen-Kwoh] (2001: 1). Pleurotoma Lama- 
rck, 1799, is an objective synonym of Turris, 
and was listed in its synonymy 1эу H. Adams 
& A. Adams, although they did not explicitly 
stated that they rejected Pleurotomidae be- 
cause of the synonymy of its type genus. 
Turridae is in prevailing usage and is con- 
served under Art. 40.2, with the precedence 
of Pleurotomidae. 

TuRRiTELLiDAE Lovén, 1847 [9 June] 
Reference: Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens 

Förhandlingar, (1847): 194 
Type genus: Tumfe/Za Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: Original spelling Turritellea, estab- 
lished at unspecified rank above genus, -inae 
[asTurritellae], Troschel (1858 [in 1856-1891]: 
1 52); -oidea [as -acea], Korobkov (1 955: 220). 



TuRRiTELLOPSiNAE Marwick, 1957 [March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 32(4): 164 
Type genus: Turritellopsis G. O. Sars, 1878 
Remarks: -idae / -oidea [declared new], Staro- 

bogatov [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] (1 983: 

20). 

TuRTONiiDAE Rosen, 1910 

Reference: Lunds Universitets Arsskrift, new 
ser., Afd. 2, 6: 63-64 

Type genus: Tu rtonia Rosen, 1910 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of TurtoniaA\óer, 1848 [Bivalvia]. See 
Roseniidae. 

TuTUFiNAE Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971 [27 

September] 
Reference: The sea shells of Sagami Bay: 134 

[English text only] 
Type genus: Tufa/a Jousseaume, 1881 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 

TuTuiLANiDAE Hubondick, 1952 [13 June] 
Reference: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Oc- 
casional Papers, 20(18): 304 
Type genus: TL/fu/Vana Hubendick, 1952 

Tychobraheidae Horny, 1992 [June] 
Reference: Casopis Narodniho Muzea, Rada 

Prirodovedna, 159(1-4): 104 
Type genus: -fTychobrahea Horny, 1992 

Tylodininae Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 163 
Type genus: Tylodina Rafinesque, 1814 
Remarks: Original spelling Tylodinana. -idae, 

Gray (1857a: 63, 203); -oidea [as -acea], 

Abbott (1974: 346). 

Tylostomatinae Stoliczka, 1868 [1 October] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Sur- 
vey of India. Palaeontologia Indica. Creta- 
ceous Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Parts 
7-10:292 
Type genus: tTylostoma Sharpe, 1849 
Remarks: Original spelling Tylostominae. 
-idae, Pchelintsev (1951: 256); again de- 
clared fam. nov. by Pchelintsev (1963: 
38). 

Typhinae Cossmann, 1903 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 5: 11 
Type genus: t Typhis Montfort, 1810 



180 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: -idae, Iredale & McMichael (1962: 
72). Invalid: junior homonym of Typhidae 
Burmeister, 1834, based on Typhis Risso, 
1816 [Crustacea]. 

Umbiliini Schilder, 1932 [20 October] 
Reference: Fossilium catalogus, I, Pars 55: 182 
Type genus: Umbilia Jousseaume, 1884 
Remarks: No diagnosis, -idae, Iredale (1935: 
105);-inae, Franc (1968a: 298). 

Umboneidae Lyssenko & Aliev, 1987 [after 4 Feb- 
ruary] 

Reference: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 
1987(1): 117 

Type genus: tUmbonea Pchelintsev, 1965 

Remarks: Not available from Lyssenko (1984: 
16) (no diagnosis and published in a disser- 
tation abstract, not available for nomencla- 
tural purpose). 

Umboniinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 [May] 
(1840) 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:407 

Type genus: Umbonium Link, 1807 

Remarks: -idae, A. Adams (1863: 264); -ini, 
Kiel & Bändel (2001 : 1 51 ). Rotella Lamarck, 
1822, is an objective synonym of Umbonium, 
and was listed in its synonymy by H. Adams 
& A. Adams when they established Umbonii- 
nae. Although Umboniinae was not explicitly 
introduced as a substitute name for Rotelli- 
nae, it is now in prevailing usage and is con- 
served under Art. 40.2 with precedence from 
Rotellinae. 

Umbraculidae Dall, 1889 [June] (1827) 
Reference: Bulletin of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, 1 8: 59 
Type genus: L/mbracu/t/m Schumacher, 1817 
Remarks: -oidea [as -acea], Wenz (1938 [in 
1938-1944]: 49); -inae, Abbott (1974: 346). 
Umbrella Lamarck, 1819, is an objective syn- 
onym of Umbraculum and was listed in its 
synonymy by Dall when he established Um- 
braculidae; Umbraculidae is in prevailing us- 
age and, under Art. 40.2, it must be conserved 
with the precedence of Umbrellidae. 

Umbrellidae Gray, 1827 

Reference: Encyclopaedia metropolitana, Vol. 7. 

Plates to zoology: plate Mollusca III [= plate 4] 
Type genus: Umbrella Lamarck, 1819 
Remarks: Férussac (1 822 [in 1 821 -1 822]: xxix) 

earlier used the family name "les Ombrelles" 

(vernacular), -inae. Gray (1847b: 163). See 

also Umbraculidae. 



Unabranchia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, and table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Unabranches" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 
176). Established as a family and not avail- 
able as such (not based on a genus). 

Undulabucaniinae Wahlman, 1992 
Reference: United States Geological Survey 

Professional Paper, 1066-O: 141 
Type genus: t^ndtv/abacan/a Wahlman, 1992 

Unelidae Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 98 
Type genus: Unela Er. Marcus, 1953 

Uniplocidae Lyssenko, 1984 

Reference: lurskie i melovye Nerinei luga 
SSSR i ikh stratigraficheskoe znachenie: 1 6 

Type genus: -\Uniplocus Lyssenko, 1984 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis and 
published in a dissertation abstract, not avail- 
able for nomenclatural purpose. 

Uniseriatae Eliot, 1910 

Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 

branchiate Mollusca, Part 8: 74-75, 170 
Remarks: Established as a subfamily [of Aeo- 

lidiidae]. Not available as a family-group 

name: not based on a genus. 

Upellidae Pchelintsev, 1965 

Reference: Murchisoniata Mezozoia Gornogo 

Kryma: 113 
Type genus: tUpella Pchelintsev, 1965 

Upembellini Van Goethem, 1977 [July] 
Reference: Musée Royal de ÍAfhque Centrale, 

Annales, Sciences Zoologiques, 218: 121 
Type genus: Upembella Van Goethem, 1969 

Urceidae Chaper, 1884 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de 
France, 9, [Extrait des Procés-verbaux]: xiii 

Type genus: Urceus Mörch, 1857a [ex Klein] 

Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
forAchatinidae, because Chaper considered 
Achatina a junior synonym of "Urceus Klein". 

Urobranchia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Urobranches" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 173). 
Established as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



181 



Urocoptidae Pilsbry, 1898 [3 January] (1868) 
Reference: The Nautilus, 11(9): 107 
Type genus: Urocoptis Beck, 1837 
Remarks: Although Pilsbry did not give reasons 
when he established Urocoptidae, he (Pilsb- 
ry & Vanatta, 1898b [12 July]: 268) treated 
Urocoptis as a senior synonym of Cylindrella 
Pfeiffer, and apparently intended to introduce 
Urocoptidae as a substitutre name for Cylin- 
drellidae. Urocoptidae is in prevailing usage. 
However, the type species designation of 
Cylindrella by Pilsbry (1926b: 70) makes it a 
synonym of Brachypodella, and not of Uro- 
coptis. This is an Art. 41 situation that should 
be brought to the ICZN. -inae, Pilsbry (1 902 
[in 1902-1903]: 105). 

Urocyclidae Simroth, 1889 

Reference: Nova Acta, Kaiserlich Leopol- 

dinish-Carolinische Deutsche Akademie der 

Naturforschen 54{^)■. 62 
Type genus: Urocyclus Gray, 1864 
Remarks: -inae (Thiele, 1931 [in 1929-1935]: 

643); -ini, Schileyko (2002 [in 1998-2003]: 

1219). 

Urotrematidae Torres Minguez, 1925 
Reference: Buttleti de la Institución Catalana 

de Historia Natural, ser. 2, 5: 149 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Usedomellinae Gründel, 1998 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungshefte, ser. 

С, 474(6): 4 
Type genus: ■\Usedomella Gründel, 1998 

Vaginulidae Martens, 1866 

Reference: The Record of Zoological Litera- 
ture [Zoological Record], 2: 269 

Type genus: Vaginulus Féxussac, 1821 

Remarks: -inae, Cockerell (1891: 216, 220); 
-oidea [as -acea], Wenz (1938 [in 1938- 
1944]: 68). 

Valencienniinae Kramberger-Gorjanovic, 1923 
Reference: Glasnik Hrvatskoga Prirodoslov- 

noga Drustva, 35(1-2): 94, 98 
Type genus: ^Valenciennius Rousseau, 1842 
Remarks: Original spelling Valenciennesildae, 
based on Valenciennesia P. Fischer, 1859, 
an unjustified emendation of Valenciennius. 
Introduced explicitly as a subfamily, despite 
the suffix -idae. -idae, Korobkov (1 955: 438). 

Valloniinae Morse, 1864 [17 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Portland Society of 

Natural History, 1:5,21 
Type genus: Vallonia Risso, 1826 



Remarks: Original spelling Valloninae. Name 
placed on the Official List by Direction 27 
(1955: 484), but attributed in error to Pilsbry 
(1900: 564). -idae, Pilsbry (1900, ibid.). See 
alsoCircinariidae. 

Valvatidae Gray, 1840 [between March and 
June] 

Reference: [A new edition of] A manual of the 
land and fresh-water shells of the British Is- 
lands by W. Turton: 79 

Type genus: Valvata O. F. Müller, 1774 

Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 484). Authorship sometimes 
attributed to W. Thompson ( 1 840 [Sept.]: 1 6 
[as Valvatadae]), which is later, -oidea [as 
-oideae], Hannibal (1912a: 196); -inae, Pre- 
ston (1915: 95). 

Vanikoridae Gray, 1840 [4 November] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the Brit- 
ish Museum, ed. 42, 2"^ printing: 121, 152 
Type genus: Vanikoro Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 
Remarks: Original spelling Vanicoroidae, 
based on Vanlcoro Gray, 1840, an unjusti- 
fied emendation of Vanikoro. Placed on the 
Official List by Opinion 1009 (1974: 159). 
-inae [as "subfamily Vanikoridae"], Tryon 
(1886: 5); -oidea, Starobogatov (1970: 37). 

Vanpalmeriidae Adegoke, 1977 [29 March] 
Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 7 ^ (295): 204 
Type genus: f Vanpa/mer/a Adegoke, 1977 

Varicellini H. B. Baker, 1941 [24 October] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 55(2): 52 
Type genus: Varicella L. Pfeiffer, 1854 
Remarks: Original spelling Varicellarum. -inae, 
Abbott (1989: 224). 

Varicosa Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Variqueux" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 193). 
Established as a family and not available as 
such (not based on a genus). 

VasidaeH. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 [Septem- 
ber] (1840) 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:155 

Type genus: Vasum Rod i ng, 1798 

Remarks: H. Adams & A. Adams considered 
Vasum to be a senior synonym of Scolymus 
Swainson, 1835, but did not give reasons 
why they established Vasidae. Vasidae is 



182 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



now in prevailing usage. It is maintained 
under Art. 40.2, with the precedence of Sco- 
lymidae. -inae, Abbott (1954: 245). 

Vayssiereidae Thiele, 1931 [before 31 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 430 
Type genus: Vayssierea Risbec, 1928 
Remarks: See also Okadaiidae. 

Velainellidae Vasseur, 1880 [3 June] 
Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 28(2): 182 
Type genus: ■\Velainella Vasseur, 1880 
Remarks: -inae, Wenz (1938 [in 1938-1944]: 
42, 44, 324); -oidea [as Vellainelloidea], 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1 975: 215). 

Velariacea Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 

Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 92 

Remarks: Established as a superfamily con- 
taining the families Microhedylidae, Sabu- 
lincolidae, Unelidae, Mancohedylidae and 
Asperspinidae. Not available as a family- 
group name: not based on a genus. 

Velatinae Bändel, 2001 

Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 85: 144 

Type genus: t\/e/atesMontfort, 1810 

Velutinidae Gray, 1840 [4 November] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the Brit- 
ish Museum, ed. 42, 2nd printing: 120, 152 
Type genus: Velutina Fleming, 1820 
Remarks: -inae, Thiele (1929 [in 1929-1935]: 
263); -oidea, Wilson (in Beesley et al., 1 998: 
786). 

Veniliinae Chenu, 1859 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (1 ): 408 

Type genus: \/en///a Alder & Hancock, 1844 

Remarks: Original spelling Venilinae. Chenu 
treated Proctonotus [and Zephynna] as syn- 
onym of Venilla and established Veniliinae 
to replace Proctonotinae. Invalid: type ge- 
nus a junior homonym of Venilla Rafinesque, 
1815 [Crustacea] and Venilla Morton, 1833 
[Bivalvia]. 

Ventriculidae Wenz, 1915 

Reference: [in K. Fischer & Wenz] Jahrbücher 

der Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde 

in Wiesbaden, 67: 124 
Type genus: tVentriculus VMenz, 1914 



Verenaticinae Cossmann, 1924 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 13:98 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

Verenidae Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 

of Mollusca in the British Museum. Part I: 43 
Type genus: Verena Gray, 1857 
Remarks: Original spelling Verenadae. Invalid: 

type genus a junior homonym of Verena H. 

Adams & A. Adams, 1854. 

Vermetidae Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 144 
Type genus: Vermetus Dauäln, 1800 
Remarks: Original spelling (family) Vermetin- 
ia. Established independently by Gray (1 828: 
3). -inae [as Vermetina], Gray (1857a: 126); 
-oidea, H.B.Baker (1964: 179). 

Vermiculariidae Dail, 1913 
Reference: [in Eastman] Textbook of palae- 
ontology, ed. 2, 1: 546 
Type genus: Vermicularia Lamarck, 1799 
Remarks: -inae. Franc (1 968a: 274). 

Veronicellidae Gray, 1840 [16 October] 
Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 126, 149 
Type genus: \/eron/ce//a Blainville, 1817 
Remarks: -inae. Cockerel! (1891: 216, 218); 

-oidea [as -acea], Taylor & Sohl (1962: 13). 

Vertiginidae Fitzinger, 1833 

Reference: Beiträge zur Landeskunde Oes- 
terreich's unter der Enns, Bd. 3: 109 

Type genus: Vertigo O. F. Müller, 1774 

Remarks: Original spelling ("Gruppe") Vertigi- 
noidea, between genus and family. Placed on 
the Official List by Direction 27 (1955: 485), 
but attributed in error to Stimpson (1 851 : 53). 
-inae, Morse (1864: 5, 38); -oidea [as -acea], 
Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 139); -ini [as 
-eae], Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 505). 

Vesicidae J. 0. Burch, 1945 [May] 

Reference: Minutes of the Conchological Club 
of Southern California, 48: 2 

Type genus: Ves/ca Swainson, 1840 

Remarks: Introduced as a replacement name 
for Bullidae, based on Bulla Linnaeus, 1 758, 
which Burch considered to be a senior syn- 
onym of /\fysMontfort, 1810, due to the over- 
looked designation [by Linnean tautonymy] 
of Bulla naucum Linnaeus, 1758, as type 
species. However, Opinion 196 subsequent- 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



183 



ly placed Bulla Linnaeus, 1758, on the Offi- 
cial List with Bulla ampulla Linnaeus, 1758, 
as type species. Vesica has the same type 
species (by subsequent designation by Gray, 
1847b: 161), and Vesicidae is thus an ob- 
jective synonym of Bullidae. 

Vespericolini Emberton, 1995 [13 November] 
Reference: Malacologia, 37(1 ): 86 
Type genus: Vespericola Pilsbry, 1939 

Vexillinae Thiele, 1929 [before 21 October] 
Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 

Weichtierkunde, 1(1): 337 
Type genus: \/ex/7/am Röding, 1798 
Remarks: -idae, Abbott (1 974: 236). 

ViANiNAE H. B. Baker, 1922 [8 August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 74: 38 
Type genus: Viana H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1856 

VicARiiHELiciNAE Schileyko, 1991 [31 August] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 120(4- 

6): 227 
Type genus: \//сал/7/?е//х Pilsbry, 1919 

ViDALiELLiNAE H. Nordsleck, 1986 [7 November] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 1 1 7( 1 - 

3):112 
Type genus: -^Vidaliella Wenz, 1940 

ViLLiERSiiDAE Abbott, 1974 [October] 
Reference: American seashells, ed. 2: 361 
Type genus: \//7//ers/a d'Orbigny, 1837 
Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis and list- 
ed in synonymy of Onchidorididae. 

ViTREiNAE H. B. Baker, 1930 [24 April] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 43(4): 122 
Type genus: Vitrea Fitzinger, 1833 
Remarks: Placed on the Official List by Direc- 
tion 27 (1955: 485), but attributed in error to 
Thiele (1931 [in 1929-1935]: 587). -ini, A. 
Riedel (1966: 16); -idae, Hausdorf (1998: 56). 

VlTRINELLIDAE Bush, 1897 [July] 

Reference: Transactions of the Connecticut 

Academy of Arts and Sciences, 10: 107 
Type genus: Vitrinella С. В. Adams, 1850 
Remarks: -inae, Abbott (1974: 82). 

ViTRiNiDAE Fitzinger, 1833 

Reference: Beiträge zur Landeskunde Oes- 

terreich's unter der Enns, Bd. 3: 91 
Type genus: \//fr/na Draparnaud, 1801 



Remarks: Original spelling ("Gruppe") Vit- 
rinoidea, between genus and family, -inae. 
Gray (1840a: 109); -oidea [as-acea], Pfeffer 
(1878:251). 

ViTRiNULiNi Schileyko, 2003 [April] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 10: 1354 
Type genus: Vitrinula Gray, 1857 

ViTRiPLUTONiiNAE Collinge, 1893 [31 October] 
Reference: [in Cockerell & Collinge] The Con- 

chologist, 2(8): 204 
Type genus: Vitriplutoni a CoW'mqe, 1893 
Remarks: Replacement name for Plutoniinae, 
based on the erroneous assumption that its 
type genus Plutonia Morelet, 1864, was pre- 
occupied by Plutonia Hicks, 1871 [Thlobita]. 
Vitrinoplutoniinae is an incorrect subsequent 
spelling by Thiele (1926 [in 1925-1926]: 143). 

ViviPARiDAE Gray, 1847 [November] (1833) 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 155 
Type genus: V/V/pams Mon tfort, 1810 
Remarks: -inae. Gill (1871: 7); -oidea [as 
-oideae], Hannibal (1912a: 192). When he 
established Viviparidae, Gray listed Paludina 
in synonymy of Viviparus, and Viviparidae is 
implicitly a substitute name for Paludinidae, 
earlier employed by Gray (e.g., 1840c: 152). 
Under Art. 40.2, Viviparidae takes the prece- 
dence of Paludinidae. Placed on the Official 
List by Opinion 573 (1959: 118). 

Vltaviellidae Bändel & Fryda, 1999 [30 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Geológica et Palaeontologica, 33: 
224 

Type genus: ^Vltaviella Fryda & Manda, 1997 

Remarks: -inae, Fryda & Heidelberger (2003: 
36). 

VoLEMiDAE Winckworth, 1945 [25 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacoiogical 

Society of London, 26(4-5): 146 
Type genus: Volema Röding, 1798 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 

Eames [in Davies] (1971 : 362). 

VoLUTHARPiNAE Higo & Goto, 1993 [1 Febru- 
ary] 

Reference: A systematic list of molluscan 
shells from the Japanese islands and the 
adjacent area: 236 

Type genus: Volutharpa P. Fischer, 1856 

Remarks: Not available: no diagnosis. 



184 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



VoLUTiLiTHiNAE Pilsbry & OlssoD, 1954 [7 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^ 52): ^ 4 [284] 

Type genus: -fVolutilithes Swainson, 1831 

VoLUTiNAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 145 
Type genus: \/o/üte Linnaeus, 1758 
Remarks: Original spelling (subfamily) Volutid- 
ia.-iclae[asVolutadae], Fleming (1822: 490); 
-oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1925 [in 1925- 
1926]: 92); -ini, Bail & Poppe (2001: 7, 10). 

VoLUTOBULBiNAE Cossmann, 1899 [April] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 3: 104 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a genus. 

VOLUTODERMATINAE Pilsbry & OlSSOn, 1954 [7 

September] 
Reference: Bulletins of American Paleontolo- 
gy, 35{^ 52): ^ 9 [289] 
Type genus: -fVolutoderma Gabb, 1876 
Remarks: Original spelling Volutoderminae. 

VoLUTOMiTRiNAE Gray, 1854 [25 July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London, 21 : 36 

Type genus: Volutomitra H. Adams & A. Ad- 
ams, 1853 

Remarks: Original spelling Volutomitrina. 
-idae, Cernohorsky (1970: 95, 103). 

VoLUTOMORPHiNAE Djalilov, 1977 

Reference: [Cretaceous gastropods from the 

south-east of central Asia]: 93 
Type genus: -[Volutomorpha Gabb, 1877 

VoLUTOPSiiNAE Habe & Sato, 1973 [15 Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Japanese So- 
ciety of Systematic Zoology, 8: 4 

Type genus: Volutopsius March, 1857a 

Remarks: -ini, Bouchet & Kantor, herein. 

VoLVATELLiNAE Pilsbry, 1895 [2 February] 
Reference: Manual of Conchology, ser. 1, 

15(60): 351 
Type genus: Volvatella Pease, 1860 
Remarks: -idae / -oidea. Baba (1966:201). 

VoLviNi Schilder, 1932 [15 March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 20(1): 48, 54 
Type genus: Vo/va Röding, 1798 



Remarks: Introduced as a substitute name for 
Simniini, probably based on the fact that 
Volva is the oldest genus-group name in the 
tribe; Art. 40.2 does not apply, -inae. Franc 
(1968a: 299). 

VoLvuLELLiDAE Chaban, 2000 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological Insti- 
tute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 286: 27 

Type genus: Volvulella Newton, 1891 

Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
forVolvulidae Locard, 1886, invalid because 
its type genus is a junior homonym. Abbott 
(1974: 662) has an index entry Volvulellidae, 
which refers to page 322; the latter contains 
the family Volvatellidae and the genus Vol- 
vulella; Volvulellidae is obviously a lapsus. 

VoLvuLiDAE Locard, 1886 

Reference: Prodrome de malacologie française. 
Catalogue général des mollusques vivants de 
France. Mollusques marins: 69 

Type genus: Uo/vu/a A. Adams, 1850 

Remarks: Invalid: type genus a junior hom- 
onym of Volvula GistI, 1848 [Diptera]. 

Watsonellinae Parkhaev, 2001 

Reference: Transactions of the Paleontologi- 
cal Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 
282:187 

Type genus: -[Watsonella Grabau, 1900 

Remarks: Again declared new by Parkhaev 
(2002: 36 [Russian edition], 34 [English edi- 
tion]). 

Watsoniinae I rédale & Laseron, 1957 [8 May] 
Reference: Procedings of the Royal Zoologi- 
cal Society of New South Wales, (1955- 
1956): 98, 105 
Type genus: Watsonia de Folin, 1880 
Remarks: Precedence of simultaneously pub- 
lished Ctiloceratidae determined by Art. 24 
(family vs. subfamily). 

Weeksiidae Sohl, 1961 [10 February] 
Reference: United States Geological Survey 

Professional Paper, 331 -A: 50 
Type genus: -[Weeksia Stephenson, 1941 

Wladislaviidae B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 1925 
Reference: Kosmos, 50(2-3): 821, 867, 877 
Remarks: Not available: not based on a ge- 
nus; WladislaviaA. Wagner, 1927, was pub- 
lished later and is taxonomically unrelated 
[Helicidae] (the genera included in Wladisla- 
viidae are now placed in Planorbidae). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



185 



Xancidae Pilsbry, 1922 [4 January] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences ofPhiladelpiiia, 73: 342 
Type genus: Xancus Röding, 1798 
Remarks: Established as substitute name for 
Turbinellidae, based on Turbinella Lamarck, 
1799, treated by Pilsbry as a synonym of 
Xancus. Placed on the Official Index by Opin- 
ion 489 (1957: 158), but attributed in error 
to Woodring (1 928: 250). -inae, Abbott (1 954: 
244). 

Xanthomelontidae Iredale, 1 937 [30 September] 
Reference: The South Australian Naturalist, 

18(2): 40 
Type genus: Xanthomelon Martens, 1860 
Remarks: -inae, Schileyko (2003 [in 1998- 

2003]: 1574). 

Xanthonychidae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1879 [No- 
vember] 

Reference: Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Fauna 
mexicanischer Land- und Süsswasser Con- 
ch y lien, 4: 25 

Type genus: Xanthonyx Crosse & P. Fischer, 
1867 

Remarks: Original spelling Xanthonycidae. 
-inae. Zilch (1960 [in 1959-1960]: 649). 

Xenophoridae Troschel, 1852 (1840) 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 18(2): 
280 

Type genus: Xenophora Fischer von Wald- 
heim, 1807 

Remarks: Original spelling (family) Xenophora- 
cea. -oidea [as -acea], Korobkov (1955: 240). 
Placed on the Official List by Opinion 715 
(1964: 417), but credited in error to Philippi 
(1853: 185). Although Troschel did not men- 
tion Phorus and Phoridae when he established 
Xenophoridae, Xenophora Fischer von Wald- 
heim, 1807, is a senior synonym of Phorus 
Montfort, 1810; Xenophoridae is in prevailing 
usage and, under Art. 40.2, it must be con- 
served and takes the precedence of Phoridae. 

Xerariontales Roth, 1996 [2 January] 
Reference: The Veliger, 39(1): 34, 41 
Type genus: Xerarionta Pilsbry, 1913 
Remarks: Roth established the name Xerari- 
ontales in a phylogenetic classification re- 
jecting formal categorical ranks; he 
suggested that it could be considered equiv- 
alent to Xerariontini by a "hypothetical sys- 
tematist concerned with expressing [his] 
results within the Linnaean hierarchy". 



Xerophilidae Mörch, 1864 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
den Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjöbenhavn, 
17-22 (for 1863): 281 

Type genus: Xerophila Held, 1837 

Remarks: Type genus not mentionned, but 
infered to be Xerophila. -inae, Kobelt 
(1 904: 67, 1 32). Invalid: type genus placed 
on the Official Index by Opinion 431 (1956: 
351). 

Xestinae Gude & B. B. Woodward, 1921 [24 

October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 14(5-6): 185 
Type genus: XesteAlbers, 1850 
Remarks: -idae, Iredale (1941b: 67). 

Xylodisculidae Waren, 1992 [25 February] 
Reference: Bollettino Malacologico, 27(10- 

12): 180 
Type genus: Xylodiscula Marshall, 1988 

Yangtzespirinae Yu, 1984 [July?] 

Reference: [Yu Wen] Developments in Geo- 
science [Contribution to 27th International 
Geological Congress, 1984, Moscow]: 28 

Type genus: -fYangtzespiraYu, 1979 

Remarks: -idae, Yu (1987: 208). 

Yetinae Gray, 1847 [November] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 141 
Type genus: Yeius Bowdich, 1822 
Remarks: Original spelling Yetina. See also Cym- 

biinae. 

Yochelcionellidae Runnegar& Jell, 1976 

Reference: /\/c/?er/nga, 1(2): 129 

Type genus: -\Yochelcionella Runnegar & Ro- 
jeta, 1974 

Remarks: Again declared new by Golikov & 
Starobogatov (1989: 70). -oidea, Parkhaev 
(2001:166). 

Yunqueinae Schileyko, 1998 [November] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 
monale molluscs. Part 2: 254 
Type genus: Yunquea H. B. Baker, 1940 
Remarks: Not available (no diagnosis) from 
H. B. Baker (1961: 166); nor from Franc 
(1968b: 592, as Yunqueneinae). 

Zaggleinae Webb, 1959 [14 February] 
Reference: Gastropodia, 1(3): 22 
Type genus: Zacoleus Pilsbry, 1903 



186 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Zaptychiinae Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

52,54 
Type genus: tZaptychius Walcott, 1 883 
Remarks: No diagnosis. First diagnosed by 

Zilch (1959 [in 1959-1960]: 70). 

Zaptyxini Zilch, 1954 [15 April] 

Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 83(1- 
3):48 

Type genus: Zaptyx Pilsbry, 1900 

Remarks: Original spelling Zaptycheae. Name 
only, no diagnosis. Diagnosed by Zilch (1959 
[in 1 959-1 960]: 391 ). -inae, Abbott (1 989: 216). 

Zardinellidae Bändel, 1994 

Reference: Freiberger Forschungsheft, ser. С, 

452: 84 
Type genus: -fZardinella Bändel, 1994 

Zariinae Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 81 
Type genus: Zaria Gray, 1842 
Remarks: Original spelling Zariana. 

Zeacolpini Marwick, 1971 [April] 

Reference: New Zealand Geological Survey 

Paleontological Bulletin, 44: 10 
Type genus: Zeacolpus Finlay, 1926 

Zebininae Coan, 1964 [1 January] 
Reference: Veliger, 6(3): 165, 169 
Type genus: Zebina H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 
Remarks: -idae. Poppe & Goto (1 991 : 352). 

Zeidoridae Naef, 1913 

Reference: Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der 

Zoologie, Ъ{2): 157 
Type genus: Ze/dora A. Adams, 1860 
Remarks: Original spelling Zidoridae, based 

on Zidora P. Fischer, 1885, an unjustified 

emendation of Zeidora. 

Zemaciinae a. Sysoev, 2003 [June] 
Reference: Ruthenica, 13(1): 86 
Type genus: -fZemacies Finlay, 1926 

Zemiridae Iredale, 1924 [24 October] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Linnean Soci- 
ety of New South Wales, 49(3): 252 
Type genus: Zemira H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 

Zephyrinidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1 923 [March] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 15(4): 213 
Type genus: Zephyrina Quatrefages, 1844 
Remarks: When they established the name 

Zephyrinidae, Iredale & O'Donoghue includ- 



ed in it Janolus Bergh, 1884 [with Janus, An- 
tiopa, and Antiopella as synonyms] and 
Zephyrina. They probably established the 
family name based on the oldest generic 
name by them considered valid, rather than 
as a substitute name for Janidae and Antiop- 
idae, invalid. Art. 40.2 does not apply, -oidea, 
Pruvot-Fol (1954: 371). See also Antiopellidae 
and Janolidae. 

Zerotulidae Waren & Hain, 1996 [1 October] 
Reference: The Veliger, 39(4): 278 
Type genus: Zerotula Finlay, 1926 

Zeugobranchia Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbijcher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 139 

Remarks: Established as an order comprising 
the families Fissurellidae, Haliotidae and 
Pleurotomahidae. Treated by Dall (1892: 423) 
as superfamily Zygobranchia, and by Thiele 
(1925 [in 1925-1926]: 75) as "Sippe" [= su- 
perfamily] Zeugobranchia. Not available as a 
family-group name (not based on a genus). 

ZiDONiNAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 [Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:161 

Type genus: Zidona H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 

Remarks: -ini [as -ides], Pilsbry & Olsson 
(1954: 17 [287]). 

ZiTTELiiDAE Schilder, 1 936 [1 5 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 22(2): 79, 86 
Type genus: ■\Zittelia Gemmellaro, 1869 

ZiziPHiNiNAE Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, ^Ъ■.^4Ъ 
Type genus: Ziziphinus Gray, 1843 
Remarks: Original spelling Ziziphina. See also 

Calliostomatinae. 

ZoiLiNAE Iredale, 1935 [10 July] 

Reference: The Australian Zoologist, 8(2): 

105-106 
Type genus: Zoila Jousseaume, 1884 

ZoNABRANCHiATAE Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 
[March] 

Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 
Society of London, 15(4): 229 

Remarks: Established as a superfamily con- 
taining the family Duvauceliidae only. Not 
available as a family-group name (not based 
on a genus). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



187 



ZoNARiiNi Schilder, 1932 [20 October] 
Reference: Fossilium Catalogas, I, Pars 55: 172 
Type genus: Zonaria Jousseaume, 1884 
Remarks: No diagnosis. Diagnosed by Schilder 
(1939:184). 

ZoNiTARioNiNi Schileyko, 2002 [September] 
Reference: Treatise on Recent terrestrial pul- 

monate molluscs, Part 9: 1267 
Type genus: Zonitarion Pfeffer, 1883 

ZoNmoAE Mörch, 1864 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 

den Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjöbenhavn, 

17-22 (for 1863): 274 
Type genus: Zonites Montfort, 1810 
Remarks: -inae, Binney & Bland (1869: 281 ); 

-oidea [as -acea], Thiele (1926 [in 1925- 

1926]: 141). 

ZoNULispiRiNAE McLean, 1971 [1 July] 
Reference: The Veliger, 14(1): 123 
Type genus: Zonulispira Bartsch, 1950 

ZoPHiNAE H. B. Baker, 1956 [10 May] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 69(4): 135 
Type genus: Zop/ios Gude, 1911 
Remarks: No diagnosis. Diagnosed by H. B. 
Baker (in Franc, 1968b: 563). 



ZosPEiDAE Brusina, II 

Reference: Mittheilungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereins für Steiermark, Abhan- 
dlungen, 22: 48 

Type genus: Zospeum Bourguignat, 1856 

Remarks: H. В. Baker (1960: 117) attributed 
the name to "Bourguignat, 1856", but gave 
no reference. We could not find it in any of 
Bourguignat's 1856 papers, where the type 
genus is named and discussed. 

ZuiDAE Bourguignat, 1884 

Reference: [in Simon] Anales de la Sociedad 

Española de Historia Natural, 13: 127 
Type genus: Zúa Turton, 1831 

Zygitidae Сох, 1 960 [about 1 5 August] 
Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca 7: 217 
Type genus: -fZygites KittI, 1891 

Zygopleurinae Wenz, 1938 [October] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

383 
Type genus: -\Zygopleura Koken, 1892 
Remarks: -idae. Knight, Batten & Yochelson (in 

Moore, 1960: 315); -oidea, Bändel (1991b: 

264). 



List of Gastropod Names 
Above the Family Group 

Abranchia p. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 529 
Remarks: A division of Opisthobranchia Infer- 

obranchiata containing the family Dermato- 

branchidaeonly. 

Abranchia P. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 532 
Remarks: A division of Opisthobranchia Poly- 

branchiata containing the family Phyllirhoid- 

ae only. 

Abranchiata Gill, 1870 [April] 

Reference: [in Dali] Proceedings of the Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History, 13: 245 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Rhip- 
idoglossa containing the family Lepetidae. 
Spelling emended to Abranchia by P. Fischer 
(1885 [in 1880-1887]: 864). 

Abranchiata P. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 519 
Remarks: A division of Opisthobranchia An- 

thobranchiata containing the family Hetero- 

dorididaeonly. 

Abranchiatae Labbé, 1934 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 

de France, 59:217 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order "Silicodermés", containing the families 

Oncidiidae and Oncidiellidae. 

Acanthobranchiata Alder & Hancock, 1864 [28 

April] 
Reference: Transactions of the Zoological 

Society of London, 5: 115 
Remarks: Emendation of Anthobranchia. 

Treated as a suborder of Nudibranchiata 

containing the families Dorididae, Doridop- 

sidae, and Polyceridae. 

Acera Latreille, 1824. See family list. 

Achatinina Schileyko, 1979 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 
80:55 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamilies Achatinoidea, Subuli- 
noidea, Clausilioidea and Partuloidea. 
Spelling and rank emended to infraorder 
Achatinoinei by H. Nordsieck (1993: 48). 



188 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



AcLEiopROCTAOdhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 52 
Remarks: Established as a "Tribe" [= subor- 
der] containing the families Eubranchidae, 
Cuthonidae and Calmidae. 

AcocHLiDiACEAOdhner, 1937 [October] 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 120(3-4): 

52,62 
Remarks: Established as a "Sippe" contain- 
ing the families Microhedylidae and Acoch- 
lidiidae. Treated as an order by Odhner 
(1939: 5). Spelling emended to (order) Aco- 
chlidioidea by Rankin (1979: 83); toAcochli- 
diida by Anderson (1992: 37). 

AcoELA Thiele, 1 926 [20 February] 
Reference: ¡Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 110 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the suborders Notaspidea and Nudibranchia. 

AcoNCHOiDEA Gascoigne, 1985 [16 September] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

51(1): 11-12 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Asco- 
glossa containing the families Elysiidae, 
Polybranchiidae, and Stiligeridae. 

AcROLoxoiNEi H. Nordsieck, 1993 [31 January] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 121: 

48 
Remarks: Established as an infraorder of Bran- 

chiopulmonata. 

AcROPHTHALMA P. Fischor, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 586 
Remarks: Division of the Toxoglossa contain- 
ing the family Terebridae only. 

AcROPHTHALMA P. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 652-653 
Remarks: Established as a division of Taenio- 

glossa containing the family Assimineidae. 

AcTAEONACEA Minichov, 1967 [after 25 Febru- 
ary] 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 
44:163 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing Actaeonidae, Retusidae, Hydatinidae, 
and ?Diaphanidae. Spelling and rank 
emended to order Acteoniformes by Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov (1 989: 67). 



AcTENiDiACEA Tardy, 1970 

Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
Zoologie, ser. 12, 12(3): 301, 363 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing all the Nudibranchia except the super- 
family Doridacea, i.e. the superfamilies 
Pseudoeuctenidiacea, Dendronotacea, Ae- 
olidiacea, and Arminacea. 

AcTEOBRANCHiA Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 11 
Remarks: Established as a superorder con- 

tainig the orders Acteonida, Pleurobranchi- 

da, Doridida, and Aeolidida. 

AcTOPHiLA Dal!, 1885 [24 July] 

Reference: Proceedings of the United States 
National Museum, 8(18): 274 

Remarks: Original spelling Akteophila. Taxon 
of unspecified rank containing Auhculidae and 
Otinidae. Spelling emended to ["Sippe"] Ac- 
teophila by Thiele (1 926 [in 1 925-1 926]: 1 35) 
and ["Stirps"] Actophila by Thiele (1931 [in 
1929-1935]: 463). Ranked as order Actophi- 
la by Starobogatov (1 970b: 45). See also Ello- 
biida. 

Adelobranchia Duméril, 1807 

Reference: Traité élémentaire d'histoire na- 
turelle, ed. 2, 2: 122 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Adélo- 
branches". Latinized by Link (1807: 130, as 
Adelobranchei). Established as a family. 
Spelling and rank emended to suborder Ade- 
lobranchia by Rafinesque (1815: 17). 

Adeloderma Férussac, 1822 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxvj 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Adélodermes". Latinized by Menke (1830: 
87). Established as a suborder containing 
the family Sigaretidae. 

Adelopneumona Gray, 1821 
Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 230 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the genera Umax, Onchidium, Plectophorus, 
Testacella, Vitrina, Helix, Achatina, Clausu- 
la, Auricula, Carychium, Phytia, Lymnaea, 
Planorbis, and Ancylus. 

Aeolidioidea Eliot, 1910 
Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 
branchiate Mollusca, Part 8: 70 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



189 



Remarks: Established as a "sub-tribe" [above 
family level] containing the families Aeolidiidae, 
Glaucidae, Fionidae, Heroidae, Dotonidae, 
and Myrrhinidae. Treated by Thiele (1931 [in 
1929-1935]: 441) as a "Stirps" [= superfami- 
ly] Aeolidiacea with broader contents. 

AEROPNEusTASalvini-Plawen, 1991 [7 June] 
Reference: Malacologia, 32(2): 309 
Remarks: Unranked taxon containing Gymno- 
morpha and Pulmonata. 

Agama Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Introduced as the vernacular "section 

Agames". Latinized by Latreille (1825: 199). 

Taxon containing a mixture of gastropod, poly- 

placophoran, bivalve, and brachiopod taxa. 

Aglossa p. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 519, 

529, 532, 544, 551 ; (6): 585, 597 
Remarks: Name used by Fischer to designate 

seven unrelated taxa of gastropods without 

a radula. 

AcNATHAMörch, 1859 

Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109 
Remarks: Established as a family containing 
Oleacina and Testacella. Used by P. Fischer 
(1883 [in 1880-1887]: 447) as the name of 
a taxon above the family group containing 
the family Testacellidae; by Hutton (1884: 
1 88) as a taxon containing Streptaxidae and 
Testacellidae; by Tryon (1885: 6) as a taxon 
containing Testacellidae, Oleacinidae, 
Streptaxidae, and Helicoidea. 

Agnatha p. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 533 
Remarks: Established as a taxon of unspeci- 
fied rank containing the family Hermaeidae. 

Agnathomorpha Pilsbry, 1900 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 52: 563 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily con- 
taining the families Glandinidae, Rhytididae, 
Streptaxidae, and Circinariidae. 

AiLLYiDA Minichev & Slavoshevskaja, 1971 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 50(3): 359 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the family Aillyidae. 



AioLOBRANCHiATA H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 
[November] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:62 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Tritoniidae, Proctonotidae, 
Dotidae, Aeolidiidae, Hermaeidae, Elysiidae, 
and Limapontiidae. 

Alata N.Wagner, 1885 

Reference: Die Wirbellosen des Weissen 

Meeres: 118, 120 
Remarks: Established as an order of Pteropo- 

da containg the genera Cymbulia and Tiede- 

mannia. 

Allogastropoda Haszprunar, 1985 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Zoologisches Syste- 
matik und Evolutionsforschung, 23(1 ): 25 
Remarks: Established as a superorder con- 
taining the superfamilies Nerinoidea, Archi- 
tectonicoidea, and Pyramidelloidea. 

Amberleyata Pchelintsev, 1963 

Reference: Briukhonogie Mezozoia Gornogo 

Kryma■.4^ 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 

the superfamilies Amberleyoidea and Tro- 

choidea. 

Amphibiae Menke, 1828 

Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 
19 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Auriculidae. 

Amphibolacea Van Mol, 1967 

Reference: Académie Royale de Belgique, 
Classe des Sciences, Mémoires, 37(5): 11 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ва- 
sommatophora containing the family Am- 
phibolidae only. Spelling and rank emended 
to order Amphibolida [name credited to Gray, 
1840; see family list] by Starobogatov 
(1970b: 46); to superorder Amphiboliformii 
and order Amphiboliformes [names credit- 
ed to Starobogatov, 1 970] by Amitrov (1 984: 
39). 

Amphigastropoda Simroth, 1906 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronns Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tier-Reichs, Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Buch 
1:839 

Remarks: Also published in Simroth (1 906: 8). 
Established as a class containing the family 
Bellerophontidae only. See also Galerocon- 
cha. 



190 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Anaclodonta Macdonald, 1881 [25 March] 
Reference: Journal of the Linnean Society, 

Zoology, 15:243-244 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Probos- 
cidifera containing the families Velutinidae, 
Naticidae, Tritonidae, Ranellidae, Doliidae, 
Cassididae, and Strombidae; and also as a 
suborder of Rosthfera containing Cypraeidae, 
Vermetidae, Calyptraeidae, Planaxidae, Lit- 
torinidae, Rissoidae, Truncatellidae, Cerithi- 
idae, Melaniidae, Paludinidae, Valvatidae, 
Cyclostomidae, Cyclophoridae, and Diplom- 
matinidae. 

ANADORIDACEAOdhner, 1968 

Reference: ArkivförZoologi, 20(13): 254 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Corambidae, Okeniidae, On- 
chldorididae [= "Tribe" Suctoha], Thophidae, 
Aegiretidae, Polyceridae, Gymnodohdidae, 
Vayssiereidae, and Rhodopidae [= "Tribe" 
Non Suctoha]. 

Anandria Stimpson, 1864 

Reference: American Journal of Science and 
Arts, ser. 2, 38: 47 

Remarks: Established as a "Tribe" [above fam- 
ily level] of Ctenobranchiata containing "the 
(American) Melaniae and the Vermetf, "and 
it is not improbable that the Turritellidae and 
some of the Cerithia must be referred to the 
same tribe". 

Anangia Kölliker, 1847 

Reference: Giornale dell'lmperiale Reale Isti- 
tuto Lombardo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 
16:248 

Remarks: Subdivision of Limaces Gasteropo- 
da Apneusta, supposedly without circulato- 
ry system, containing the genera Flabellina, 
Zephyrina, Amphorina, Acteon, Acteonia, 
and fkhodope. 

Anaspidea p. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 550, 566 
Remarks: Taxon of Tectibranchiata, estab- 
lished at unspecified rank above family, con- 
taining the families Aplysiidae and 
Oxynoidae. Treated by Thiele (1925: 108) 
as suborder. 



Ancistroglossata Mörch, 1857a 

Reference: [in Rink] Grönland geografisk og 

statistisk beskrivet: 84 
Remarks: Established as an order including the 

genera Tritonium, Fusus, Murex, Purpura, 

Columbella, and Mitra. 

Androgyna Mörch, 1865 [5 October] 

Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 13: 398 

Remarks: Established as a "class" of the 

Monotocardia containing the Pulmonata, the 

Opisthobranchia and the Gymnosomata; see 

also Musioglossata. 

Anentomostomata Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834 
Reference: The animal kingdom [by Cuvier] 

... with supplementary additions, 12: 177 
Remarks: A taxon of unspecified rank contain- 
ing Trochus, Turbo, and the nerites. 

Angiophora Kölliker, 1847 

Reference: Giornale dell'lmperiale Reale Isti- 
tuto Lombardo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 
16:248 

Remarks: A subdivision of Limaces Gasteropo- 
da Apneusta with circulatory system [as op- 
posed to the subdivision Anangia], containing 
the genera Eolis, Eolidina, and Calliopaea. 

ANGYOSTOMATABIainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 10:185 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "angy- 
ostomes" as a descriptive term to character- 
ize the narrow aperture of cowries. Latinized 
as "division" [above genus] by Bowdich (1 822: 
41), to contain Cassis, Cypraea, Oliva, etc. 
See also family list. 

Anisobranchia Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschafí, 3: 139 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
Patelloidea (= Docoglossa), Rhipidoglossa 
and Taenioglossa. Treated by P. Fischer (1885 
[in 1880-1887]: 792) as a subdivision of the 
Rhipidoglossa including the families Tur- 
binidae, Trochidae, Delphinulidae, Cyclos- 
trematidae, Stomatiidae, Cocculinidae, and 
Velainiellidae. See also Trochiformii under 
Trochiones. 



Anaspidea P. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 652-653 
Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank contain- 
ing the family Lamellariidae only. 



Anisopleura Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:633,641 
Remarks: Established as a subclass of the Gas- 
tropoda, including in fact all the gastropods 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



191 



sensu stricto, the other subclass (Isopleura) 
including Polyplacophora and aplacophorans, 
by Ray Lankester also included in the class 
Gastropoda. 

Anthobranchia Goldfuss, 1820 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 1 : xliii, 627 
Remarks: Established as a family containing 
Doris, Polycera, Onchidium, and Onchidoris. 
Used by Wägele & Willan (2000: 91) for a 
clade of nudibranchs "that share a more re- 
cent common ancestor with Doris than with 
Armina (i.e. the 'dorids')"- See also Acantho- 
branchiata. 

Antrobranchia Leach in Gray, 1847 [October] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, 20: 271 
Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank contain- 
ing the family Cyclostomatidae. Treated as 
an order by Gray (1852: 202), with the same 
content. 

Anurethra Ihering, 1929 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Archiv Wr Mol- 
luskenkunde, 2(2): 156, 195 

Remarks: A subdivision of Nephropneusta of 
unspecified rank, containing the Aulacopo- 
da and the Holopoda. 

Aplysiacea Zilch, 1959 

Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(2): 
55 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the families Aplysiidae and Akeridae. Spell- 
ing and ranked emended by Minichev & Star- 
obogatov (1979b: 20)toorderAplysiida and 
suborder Aplysiina [which they attributed to 
Franc (1968c: 848), who himself refered to 
Eales (1944); the latter author does not ap- 
pear to have used a name formed from Apl- 
ysia at a rank higher than family]. 

Aplysiomorpha Pelseneer, 1906 
Reference: A treatise on zoology, 5:171 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" of Tectibran- 

chia, containing Aplysiidae and six families 

of Gymnosomata. 

Apneumonophora Macdonald, 1880 [3 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Journal of the Linnean Society 
Zoology, 15: 164 

Remarks: Established as an order of Gas- 
tropoda containing Nudibranchiata and Tecti- 
branchiata. 



Apneusta Kölliker, 1847 

Reference: Giornale dell'lmperiale Reale Isti- 
tuto Lombardo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 
16:248 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the genus Rhodope. 

Apogastropoda Salvini-Plawen & Haszprunar, 
1987 

Reference: Journal of Zoology, London, 
211(4): 762 

Remarks: A paraphyletic taxon, established as 
an order of Streptoneura containing Caeno- 
gastropoda and Allogastropoda. Used by 
Ponder & Lindberg (1997: 185) for a mono- 
phyletic taxon containing Caenogastropoda 
and Heterobranchia. 

Apomatostoma Férussac, 1822 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxvj 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Apo- 
mastomes". Latinized by Menke (1830: 75). 
Established as a suborder containing the 
families "Enroulés" [Involuta], "Volutes", and 
"Couronnés" [Coronata]. 



Aponotoneura Lacaze-Duthiers, ^^ 
Reference: Comptes-Rendus des Séances de 

l'Académie des Sciences, 106: 723-724 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Aponotoneurés", cited in latinized form by 
Ponder & Waren (1988). Established as an 
order of Strepsineura, containing the Pec- 
tinibranchia plus Cyclostoma. 

ApoROBRANCHiATABIainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 32: 271 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the families Thecosomata, Gymnosomata, 
and Psilosomata. 

Áptera P. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 544 
Remarks: Division of Pellibranchiata of unspec- 
ified rank comprising the families Limaponti- 
idae and Rhodopidae. 

Apterygia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Aptéry- 
giens". Latinized by Latreille (1825: 170). A 
taxon equivalent in contents to Gastropoda. 



192 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Archaeobranchia Parkhaev, 2001 

Reference: Transactions of the Paleontológi- 
ca! Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 
282: 134-135 

Remarks: Established as a subclass of Gastropo- 
da containing the orders Helcionelliformes, 
Pelagielliformes, and Khairkhaniiformes. 
Again declared new by Parkhaev (2002: 34 
[Russian edition]; 31 [English edition]). 

Archaeogastropoda Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbucti der Zoologie, 5(1): 74 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the "Sippe" [= superfamilies] Zeugobranchia, 
Patellacea, Trochacea, Neritacea and Coc- 
culinacea. Spelling emended to Archeogas- 
tropodida by Anderson (1992: 36). 

Archaeopulmonata J. Morton, 1955 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 125(1): 163 
Remarks: Established as an order of Basom- 

matophora containing the families Ellobiidae, 

Otinidae, Chilinidae, Latiidae, Amphibolidae, 

Gadiniidae, and Siphonariidae. 

Archinacelloidea Knight & Yochelson, 1958 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 33(1): 39, 43 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
Archinacellidae and Hypseloconidae. Spell- 
ing emended to Archinacellida by Horny 
(1965: 10). Ranked as suborder, spelling 
emended to Archinacellina by Salvini-Plawen 
(1980:255). 

Architaenioglossa Malier, 1892 [15 July] 
Reference: Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 18(3): 

538 
Remarks: Original spelling Architaenioglossae. 
Established as an "Untergruppe" above fam- 
ily, containing Cyclophoridae, Paludinidae, 
and Cypraeidae. Treated as an order by 
Ponder & Waren (1988: 289). 

Architectibranchia Haszprunar, 1985 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Systematik und Evo- 
lutionsforschung, 23(1): 30, 32 
Remarks: Established as a superorder con- 
taining the superfamilies Acteonoidea, Rin- 
giculoidea, and Diaphanoidea. 

Architectonicoida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1 979 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 58(3): 297 
Remarks: Established as a superorder contain- 
ing the orders Architectonicida and Epitoniida. 



Arionidea Hoffmann, 1924 

Reference: Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwis- 
senschaft, 60: 385 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Phylomicidae and, by in- 
ference, Arionidae. Spelling and rank 
emended to order Arioniformes (in synon- 
ymy of Stylommatophora), suborder Arion- 
oidei (in synonymy of Sigmurethra), and 
infraorder Arionoinei by H. Nordsieck 
(1993a: 48). 

Aristerobranchia Deshayes, 1832 
Reference: Encyclopédie méthodique. Histoire 

naturelle des vers, 2: 552-553, table 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Aristérobranches". Latinized by Herrmann- 
sen (1 846 [in 1 846-1 852]: 81 ); spelled Aris- 
tobranchia by Ponder & Waren (1 988: 311). 
Established as a suborder containing the 
family "Macrostomes", itself containing the 
genera "Haliotide", "Stomate", and "Stoma- 
telle". 

Arminacea Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 

Reference: British Antarctic {"Terra Nova') Ex- 
pedition. 1910. Natural history report. Zoolo- 
gy, 7 (5): 230, 27 ^ 

Remarks: Established as a "division" of Nudi- 
branchia comprising the families Heterodo- 
rididae, Doridoididae, Arminidae, Goniaeo- 
lididae, Charcotiidae, and Heroidae. 

Arthrocochlides Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 138 
Remarks: "Phylum" of Gastropoda, equivalent 

to Prosobranchia, containing the "classes" 

Chiastoneura and Orthoneura. 

ARTHROGLOSSATAMÖrch, 1857 

Reference: Catalogus conchyliorum quae rel- 

iquit III. M. N. Suenson: 13 
Remarks: Unranked taxon including the Tae- 

nioglossata, Ancistroglossata, and Toxoglo- 

ssata. Spelling emended to Arthioglossata 

byMörch(1867:243). 

AscoGLOSSA Bergh, 1876 

Reference: [in Ihering] Jahrbücher der Deut- 
schen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 
148 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "As- 
coglossen". First latinized, in synonymy of 
Sacoglossa, by Bergh (1885: 1). See also 
Sacoglossa. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



193 



AsiPHONATA Macgillivray, 1843 

Reference: A history of the molluscous ani- 
mals: 5^, 122 

Remarks: A "section" of the order Pectinibran- 
chiata containing the families Paludinidae, 
Naticidae, Turbinidae, Tornatellidae, and Sig- 
aretidae. 

AsiPHONOBRANCHiATA Blalnvjlle, 1824 
Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 222 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the families Goniostomata, Cricostomata, El- 
lipsostomata, Hemicyclostoma, and Oxysto- 
mata. 



Atlantacea Ray Lankester, 1883 

Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 
16:653 

Remarks: Established as a suborder includ- 
ing the genera Atlanta and Oxygyrus. Spell- 
ing and rank emended by Golikov & 
Starobogatov (1 981 : 1 69) to order Atlantida, 
as a substitute name for Heteropoda. 

AtyaceaT. E. Thompson, 1976 

Reference: Biology of opisthobranch molluscs, 
1:18 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Atyidae, itself containing Atys 
and Haminea. 



Aspidobranchia Schweigger, 1820 

Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 
skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 720 

Remarks: A taxon of unspecified rank, equiva- 
lent to Cuvier's "Scutibranches", containing 
Calyptraea, Carinarla, Navicella, Cimber, 
Emarginula, Fissurella, Umbrella, Crepidula, 
Capulus, and Haliotis. Treated as an order by 
Menke (1 828: 51 ), and as a family (not avail- 
able as such: not based on a genus) by Bur- 
meister (1837: 498). See also Pseudophallia. 

AspiDocEPHALA P. Fischer, 1883 [20 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 550 

Remarks: An alternative name for Cephalaspi- 
dea. 

AspiDOPHORA P. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 652-653 
Remarks: A subdivision of Taenioglossa con- 
taining the family Naticidae only. 



AsTREPSiNEURÉs Lacaze-Duthiers, Il 
Reference: Comptes Rendus des Séances de 

l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 106: 724 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established 
as a subclass containing the orders "Noto- 
neurés", "Gastroneurés", and "Pleuroneurés". 

Athoracophorida Minichev & Starobogatov, 
1975 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
uzucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 10 

Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as a 
substitute name forTracheopulmonata. Spell- 
ing emended to Athoracophoriformes [de- 
clared nom. nov.] by Starobogatov (in Amitrov, 
1984:39). 



AtypoglossaGíII, 1871 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 6 

Remarks: A division of the suborder Rachiglos- 
sa containing the family Columbellidae only. 

AuLACOGNATHA Mörch, 1859 
Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109 
Remarks: Established as a family containing 
Euryomphala, Bradybaena, Sagda, Cochlicel- 
la. Rumina, Pupa, and Clausilia. Spelling 
emended to Aulocognatha by Hutton (1884: 
1 88, 1 90), as a "sub-section" containing Heli- 
cidae and Charopidae. 

AuLACopoDA Pilsbry, 1896 [3 February] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 9(10): 110 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily. Pils- 
bry (1900: 563) listed Zonitidae, Limacidae, 
Endodontidae, Arionidae, and Philomycidae 
in the contents. Treated by Boss (1982: 
1 074, 1 094) as an infra-order containing the 
superfamiliesArionoidea, Limacoidea, "and 
probably Testacelloidea". 

Aulobranchiata van der Hoeven, 1850. See 
family list. 

Auxogastropoda Salvini-Plawen, 2001 
Reference: [in Mizzaro-Wimmer & Salvini-Pla- 
wen] Praktische Malakologie: 65, 71 
Remarks: Established as a superorder contain- 
ing the orders Archaeogastropoda and Apo- 
gastropoda. 

Azygobranchia Spengel, 1881 

Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 

Zoologie, 35(3): 372 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Strep- 

toneura. Rank emended to order by Ray 

Lankester (1883: 648). 



194 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Basiophthalma p. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 652 
Remarks: Division of Taenioglossa containing 

the families Cyclophoridae, Cyclostomidae, 

Aciculidae, and Truncatellidae. 

BAsoMMATOPHORAKeferstein, 1865 

Reference: Dr H. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen der Weichthiere, Bd. 3(2): 1246, 1258 

Remarks: Established as a suborder containing 
the families Lymnaeidae and Auriculidae. Spell- 
ing emended to Basommatophorida by Ander- 
son (1992: 37). See also Branchiopneusta. 

Bathydoridina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1 979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established at the rank of suborder 

of Doridida, as a substitute name for Gna- 

thodoridacea. 

Bathysciadioidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Institute, 

187:70 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Bathysciadiidae and Bathy- 
peltidae. 

Belleromorpha Naef, 1911 

Reference: Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der 

Zoologie, Ъ{2): 156-159 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 

the families Bellerophontidae, Tremanotidae, 

Zidohdae, and Cyrtolitidae. 

Bellerophontacea Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 [be- 
fore 20 March] 

Reference: The Geological and Natural Histo- 
ry Survey of Minnesota, vol. 3(2) [Paleontol- 
ogy]: 844 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Cyrtolitidae, Protow/arthiidae, 
Bucaniidae, Bellerophontidae, and Cahnarop- 
sidae. Spelling emended to Bellerophontina 
and (order) Bellerophontida by Salvini-Plawen 
(1980:255). 

Berthelleina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Pleu- 

robranchida. No contents given. 

Berthellinina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 



Remarks: Established as a suborder of Pleu- 
robranchida. No contents given. 

BRACHYNEPHRATillier, 1989 

Reference: Malacologia, 30(1-2): 91 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Stylom- 
matophora containing the superfamilies Clau- 
silioidea, Endodontoidea, and Acavoidea. 

Branchifera Fleming, 1822 
Reference: The philosophy of zoology, 2: 466 
Remarks: Established as a "class" of Gaster- 
opoda containing genera now classified in 
"Opisthobranchia", Patellogastropoda and 
Polyplacophora, as well as the families of 
marine shelled gastropods. 

Branchifera P. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique: 532 [1883], 
653 [30 June 1884], 793 [31 August 1885] 

Remarks: Name used several times to desig- 
nate a division of Polybranchiata containing 
the families Tritoniidae, Dendronotidae, Scyl- 
laeidae, and Bornellidae (p. 532); a division 
of Taenioglossa (p. 653); and a division of 
Rhipidoglossa (p. 793). 

Branchiopneusta Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 147 
Remarks: Established as an order, equivalent 

to Basommatophora, containing the families 

Amphibolidae, Gadiniidae, Lymnaeidae, and 

Auriculidae. 

Branchiopulmonata J. Morton, 1955 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 125(1): 163 
Remarks: Established as an order of the Ba- 
sommatophora containing the families Lym- 
naeidae, Physidae, Planorbidae, andAncyl- 
idae. Ranked as suborder by H. Nordsieck 
(1993a: 48). 

Brevicommisurata Haller, 1892 [15 July] 
Reference: Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 18(3): 538 
Remarks: A division of the Neotaenioglossa 
containing the families Littorinidae, "Neuro- 
branchia", Valvatidae, Ampullahidae, Melani- 
idae, Cerithiidae, Pyramidellidae, Turritellidae, 
Vermetidae, Entoconchidae, Onustidae, Nat- 
icidae, Calyptraeidae, and "Cyclomyaria". 

Bucciniformes Amitrov, 1984 
Reference: Spravochnik po sistematike isko- 
paemykh organismov: 38 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



195 



Remarks: Established as superorder Buccini- 
formii and order Bucciniformes, and attrib- 
uted to "Férussac, 1822", who treated "Les 
Buccinoides" as a family. This classification 
was repeated by Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1989: 66), who also included a suborder 
Buccinoidei. F. Riedel (2000: 190) used Buc- 
cinina containing the superfamilies Buccino- 
idea and Columbelloidea. 

BuLLARiACEA Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1 939(1 ): 6 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ceph- 

alaspidea containing the families Acteonidae, 

Diaphanidae, and Retusidae. 

BuLLiFORMES Amitrov, 1 984 

Reference: Spravochnik po sistematike isko- 
paemykh organismov. 38 

Remarks: Established as superorder Bulliformii, 
order Bulliformes [as a substitute name for 
Cephalaspidea] and suborder Bulloidei. Name 
attributed by Amitrov to Férussac (1822 [in 
1821-1822]: xxx), who cited "Gast. Bulléens 
et Laplysiens Lamarck" (vernacular) in the 
synonymy of the order "Tectibranches". 

BuLLiONES Minichev & Starobogatov, 1984 
Reference: [in Amitrov] Spravochnik po 

sistematike iskopaemykh organismov: 38 
Remarks: Established as a nom. nov. equiva- 
lent to the subclass Opisthobranchia. Again 
listed as new by Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1989:67). 

BuLLOMORPHA Pelseneer, 1906 
Reference: A treatise on zoology, 5: 167 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" of the sub- 
order Tectibranchia, containing the families 
later or today classified as Cephalaspidea 
and Thecosomata, and the Lophocercidae. 

Cadlinina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe sovesiichanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Dorid- 

ida. No contents given. 

Caecoidei Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 1 983 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe sovesiichanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 22 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamilies Barleeoidea, Assimine- 
oidea, Caecoidea, Littoridinoidea, Rehderiel- 
loidea, and Lacunopsoidea. 



Caenogastropoda Cox, 1960 

Reference: [in Moore, ed.] Treatise on inver- 
tebrate paleontology, Mollusca Í: 311 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the Mesogastropoda and Stenoglossa of 
Thiele's classification. 

Caliphyllina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Stiligerida. No contents given. 

Calliostomatoidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 
1989 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Institute, 
187:72 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamily Calliostomatoidea. 

Calyptraeiformi Férussac, 1822 

Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxvij 

Remarks: Original spelling "Calyptraciens" (ver- 
nacular), established as a suborder. Spelling 
and rank emended by Amitrov (1984: 38) and 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1989: 66) to super- 
order Calyptraeiformii, order Calyptaeiformes, 
and suborder Calyptraeoidei. 

Campanilimorpha Haszprunar, 1988 [14 De- 
cember] 

Reference: The Journal of Molluscan Studies, 
54(4): 415-416 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Campanilidae. 

Campylodonta MacDonald, 1869 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 4,3: 113 
Remarks: A "group" of gastropods character- 
ized by a taenioglossate radula. 

Cancellarioidei Golikov, 1987 

Reference: Opredelitell po faune SSSR, 151 : 

119 
Remarks: Established as a nom. nov. for Nem- 

atoglossa, ranked as suborder. 

Carinariacea Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:654 
Remarks: Established as a suborder including 
the genera Carinarla and Cardiopoda. Spell- 
ing emended by Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1989: 72) to Carinarioidei (declared new). 



196 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



CARYOBRANCHiATAMenke, 1828 

Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 5 

Remarks: Established as an order, equivalent 

to "Nucléobranches", containing the genera 

Carinaría, Firola, Firoloida, Pterosoma, and 

Atlanta. 

Cassidida Golikov & Starobogatov, 1981 
Reference: [in Scarlato] Venus, 40(3): 169 
Remarks: Established as an order, as a sub- 
stitute name for Canalífera. Authorship at- 
tributed to Golikov & Starobogatov in errata 
published by Scarlato (1982: 82). Riedel 
(2000: 190, 195) used Cassina containing 
the superfamily Cassoidea only. 

Cavoliniida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 11 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as 
a substitute name for Euthecosomata. Spell- 
ing emended to Cavoliniiformes by Staro- 
bogatov & Naumov (1987: 203). 

Cephalaea Lamarck, 1801 

Reference: Système des animaux sans 
vertèbres: 56 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Céphalés". Latinized by Herrmannsen (1846 
[in 1846-1852]: 200). Established as an "or- 
der" containing gastropods and cephalopods. 

Cephalaspidea R Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 550 
Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified 
rank above family, containing the families Ac- 
taeonidae, Tornatinidae, Scaphandridae, 
Bullidae, Aplustridae, Ringiculidae, Gastrop- 
teridae, Philinidae, and Doridiidae. Treated 
by Franc (1968c: 609) as an order. See also 
Bulliformes. 

Cephalophora Blainville, 1816 

Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1816): 122 

Remarks: Established as a "class" "Céphalo- 
phores" (vernacular). Latinized by Blainville 
(1824:171). 

Cerabranchia Gray, 1857 [9 May] 
Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 

of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 7:219 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Gym- 

nobranchiata containing the families Den- 



dronotidae, Proctonotidae, Heroidae, Dot- 
onidae, Glaucidae, Eolididae, Fionidae, and 
Hermaeidae. Spelling emended to Cerato- 
branchia, ranked as division of suborder Po- 
lybranchia, by Gill (1871: 16). 

Ceratobranchia Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 82 
Remarks: Established as a subclass contain- 
ing the orders Acochlidioidea and Platyhedy- 
loidea. 

Ceratonota Ray Lankester, 1883 

Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 
16:656 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Opisthobranchia, including the fami- 
lies Tritoniidae and Aeolidiidae. 

Cerebroneura Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 92 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Aco- 
chlidioidea containing the superfamilies Ve- 
lariacea and Avelariacea. 

Ceritellina Lyssenko & Korotkov, 1992 
Reference: Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 

(1992[4]):18 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Neri- 

neida containing the superfamily Ceritel- 

loideaonly. 

Cerithiiformes Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 
Reference: [in Golikov] Molliuski belogo mo- 
na: 100 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order (and 
attributed to Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975; 
see Cerithiimorpha), as a substitute name 
for Entomostoma (see family list), which in 
Golikov & Starobogatov's classification con- 
tained the superfamilies Planaxoidea, Mel- 
anopsoidea and Cerithioidea. 

Cerithiimorpha Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 

[18 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 212 
Remarks: Established as a superorder con- 
taining the orders Entomostoma, Hamiglos- 
sa, and Toxoglossa. 

Cerithiopsoidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 26 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



197 



Remarks: Established as a suborder of Cer- 
ithiiformes containing the superfamilies 
Melanatrioidea, Syrnolopsoidea, and Cerithi- 
opsoidea. 

Cervicibranchia Fleming, 1820 [November] 
Reference: Brewster's Edinburgh encyclopae- 
dia, ^4{2): 624 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the genus Valvata only. 

Cervicobranchiata Blainville, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1814): 178 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Cer- 
vicobranches", established as an order con- 
taining the genera "Fissurelle", "Emarginule", 
and "Scutifère". Latinized by Blainville (1824: 
288). 

Chalazaeata Haszprunar, 1988 [14 December] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

54(4): 430 
Remarks: Taxon containing Campanilimorpha 

and Heterobranchia. 

Chiastoneura Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 138 
Remarks: Established as a class containing 

the orders Zeugobranchia and Anisobran- 

chia. Ranked as order by Ihering (1891: 

243). 

Chilinoidei H. Nordsieck, 1993 [31 January] 
Reference: Archiv Юг Molluskenkunde, 121: 

48^9 
Remarks: Established as a suborder. 

Chismobranchiata Blainville, 1816 

Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1816): 122 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Chis- 
mobranches". Latinized by Blainville (1824: 
258) as the name of an order containing the 
genera Coriocella, Sigaretus, Cryptostoma, 
Oxinoe, Stomatella, and Velutina. 

Choristelloidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:72 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Lepe- 

telliformes containing the families Choristel- 

lidae and Cocculinellidae. 



CiLiiPEDATAStoliczka, 1868 [1 October] 
Reference: Memoirs of the Geological Sun/ey of 
India. Palaeontologica Indica. Cretaceous fau- 
na of southern India, Vol. 2, Parts 7-10: 342 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" [above the 
family group] containing the families Umbo- 
niidae, Liotiidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae, and 
Stomatiidae. 

CiLioBRANCHiATA Lesueur, 1817 

Reference: Journal de Physique, de Chimie, 
d'Histoire Naturelle et des Arts, 85: 393 

Remarks: Original spelling "Ciliobranches" 
(vernacular), established as order. Latinized 
by Herrmannsen (1 847 [in 1 846-1 852]: 235) 
and attributed by him to Blainville [editor of 
Journal de Physique]. Taxon containing the 
genus "Atlas" only. 

CiLioTRACTA Haszprunar, 1988 [14 December] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

54(4): 430 
Remarks: Taxon containing Architectonicoidea 

and Dextrotracta. 

CiNGULOPsoiDEi Slavoshovskaja, 1983 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanle po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 18 
Remarks: Established as a suborder containing 

the families Cingulopsidae and Eatoninidae. 

CiRcuLoiDEi Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 1983 
[after 22 February] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanle po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 22 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Circulidae and, with question 
mark, Omalaxidae. 

CiRROBRANCHES Vayssière, 1888 

Reference: Annales du Musée d'Histoire Na- 
turelle de Marseille, Zoologie, 3. Mémoire 
4(2): 17 

Remarks: Vernacular name only. A group of 
nudibranchs corresponding to the eolids. 

Cladobranchia Willan & Morton, 1984 
Reference: Cape Rodney to Okakari Point 

Marine Reserve Marine molluscs, Part 2. 

Opisthobranchia: 7, 60 
Remarks: Used as suborder and attributed (in 

error; Willan, pers. comm.) to Odhner. 

Cladohepatica Bergh, 1884 
Reference: Reporten the scientific results of the 
voyage ofH. M. S. Challenger, Zoology, 10: 2 



198 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Original spelling Kladohepatica, 
emended to Cladohepatica by Bergh (1892: 
1 69). Established as an order containing the 
families Phylliroidae, Tritoniidae and Aeoli- 
diidae. 

Clausilioinei H. Nordsieck, 1993 [31 January] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 121: 

48^9 
Remarks: Established as infraorder. 

CLEiopROCTAOdhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 53 
Remarks: Established as a "Tribe" [= Subor- 
der] containing the families Facelinidae, Ae- 
olidiidae, and Spurillidae. 

Clypidinoidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Institute, 

187:71 
Remarks: Established as suborder containing 

the family Clypidinidae. 

CoccuLiNiDA Thiele, 1909 

Reference: Systematisches Conchylien Cab- 
inet, ed. 2, 2{^^ a): 3 

Remarks: Original spelling Cocculinoidea, for 
a "Gruppe" above family level. Ranked as 
order Cocculinida by Golikov & Staroboga- 
tov (1968: 6), and spelling emended to Coc- 
culinina [unranked] by Haszprunar (1986: 
34). 

CoccuLiNiFORMiA Haszprunar, 1987 
Reference: Zoológica Scripta, 16(4): 322-323 
Remarks: Established as suborder containing 

the superfamilies Cocculinoidea and Lepe- 

telloidea. 

CocHLiosTRACA Shimor & Shrock, 1944 
Reference: Index fossils of North America: 

366, 439 
Remarks: Established as an order of the sub- 
class Protogastropoda containing the gen- 
era Pelagiella, Scaevogyra, Matherella, and 
Cllslosplra. 

CocHLOSOLENiA Voigt, 1888 

Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 
Zoologie, 47(4): 685 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the genus Entoconcha only. 

CocHLOSYRiNGiA Voigt, 1888 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 
Zoologie, 47(4): 685 



Remarks: Established as a suborder of proso- 
branchs containing the genus Entocolax only. 

CoELOPNEUMONATA Menke, 1828 

Reference: Synopsis method lea molluscorum: 

7 
Remarks: Taxon containing the orders Coelop- 

neumonata gymnostoma and Coelopneumo- 

nata operculata. Spelling emended to 

Coelopnoa in Menke (1830: 13). 

CoELOPNOA Schweigger, 1820 

Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 
skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 738 

Remarks: Unranked taxon containing the pul- 
monales. Cilopnoa is an alternative original 
spelling. See also Coelopneumonata. 

CoNCHoiDEA Gascoigne, 1985 [16 September] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

51(1): 11-12 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Asco- 
glossa containing the families Volvatellidae, 
Oxynoidae, and Tamanovalvidae. 

CoNiDA Golikov & Starobogatov, 1981 
Reference: [in Scarlato] Venus, 40(3): 169 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as a 
substitute name for Toxoglossa. Authorship 
attributed to Golikov & Starobogatov in erra- 
ta published by Scarlato (1982: 82). Spelling 
and rank emended to suborder Conoidei, or- 
der Coniformes and superorder Coniformii by 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1989: 66-67). 

CoNivALViA Cuvier, 1800 

Reference: Leçons d'anatomie comparée, 1 : 
table 5 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Coni- 
valvos". Latinized by Herrmannsen (1847 [in 
1846-1852]: 294). Taxon containing the gen- 
era Fissurella, Patella, Crepidula, and Ca- 
lyptraea. 

CoRAMBiNA Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanle po 

izuchenilu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as suborder, no contents 
given. Spelling and rank emended to Coram- 
bida by Baranetz & Minichev (1995: 298). 

CoREospiROiDEi GoNkov & starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

187:70 
Remarks: Established as suborder of Helcionel- 

liformes containing the families Coreospiridae 

and Latouchellidae. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



199 



CoRYPHELLiNA Mifiichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as suborder of the or- 
der Aeolidiida. No contents given. 

Crypsibranchia Menke, 1844 

Reference: Zeitschrift für l\/lalal<ozoologie, 

(1844): 149 
Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank, used in 

a heading above Bulla obtusa Montagu. 

Cryptobranchia Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 
231 

Remarks: Established as a subclass of Gas- 
tropodophora, also containing Polyplacoph- 
ora beside many groups of gastropods. 
Ranked by Deshayes (1830: 32; 1832: 552- 
553) as a suborder containing the families 
"Les Ptéropodes" and "Les Atlantes". 

Cryptobranchiata p. Fischer, 1 883 [20 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 519 

Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank contain- 
ing the family Dorididae. Spelling emended 
to Cryptobranchia by Odhner (1 934: 232), for 
a division of Doridacea containing the fami- 
lies Chromodorididae, Dorididae, and Halg- 
erdidae; ranked as suborder (in synonymy of 
Eudoridacea), by Franc (1968c: 865). Con- 
tents emended by Pruvot-Fol (1954: 294) to 
include Dorididae and the Porostomata. See 
also family list. 

Cryptocochlides Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Cryp- 
tocochlides". Latinized with the same spell- 
ing by Latreille (1 825: 1 99). A section of the 
order Pectinibranchia containing the family 
Macrostoma, itself containing Sigaretus. 

Ctenidiacea Schmekel & Portmann, 1982 
Reference: Opisthobranchia des Mittelmeeres: 

46 
Remarks: Used at rank between order Nudi- 
branchia and suborder Doridacea, and con- 
taining only that suborder. Schmekel (1985: 
251) stated "Schmekel & Portmann (1982) 
changed Tardy's term Euctenidiacea to 
Ctenidiacea and used it only deschptively, not 
as a suborder". 



Ctenidiobranchia Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:645,655 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Zygobranchia, including the families 
Haliotidae and Fissurellidae (p. 645); also 
as a suborder of the order Opisthobranchia, 
including the families Tornatellidae, Bullidae, 
Aplysiidae, and Pleurobranchidae (p. 655). 

Ctenobranchiata Schweigger, 1820 
Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 

skeleftlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 723 
Remarks: Taxon equivalent to Cuvier's "Les 
Pectinibranches", established at rank be- 
tween order and genus, and containing the 
genera Sigaretus, Strombus, Murex, Cerithi- 
um, etc. Ranked as order by Gray (1821: 
231). Spelling emended by Burmeister (1837: 
500) to Ctenobranchia. Ptenobranchiata 
[Gray, 1840a: 77] is an incorrect subsequent 
spelling. 

Ctenoglossa Gray, 1854 [25 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 21 : 38 
Remarks: Taxon containing the families 

Cassidae, Scalariidae, and Actaeonidae. 

See also Ptenoglossa. 

Cyclobranchia Blainville, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la Société 
Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, (1814): 180 
Remarks: Original spelling "Cyclobranches" 
(vernacular), established as order contain- 
ing the genera "doris" and "onchidies". Cu- 
vier (1817: 388) also used an order "Les 
Cyclobranches" containing Patella and chi- 
tons. Latinized by Blainville (1818: 284) as 
an order including the genera Doris, "Onchi- 
dore" [= Onchidohs], and Peronium. See also 
Pygobranchia and Patelliones. 

Cycloneritimorpha Fryda, 1998 

Reference: 13th International Malacological 
Congress [Washington DC], Abstracts: 108 

Remarks: A "group" in the subclass Neritimor- 
pha. Diagnosed by Bändel & Fryda (1999: 
220) as a new order containing the super- 
families Platyceratoidea, Neritopsoidea, Ner- 
itoidea, Hydrocenoidea, "and probably also 
Helicinoidea". 

Cyclophoroidei Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 1983 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 22 



200 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as suborder containing 
tiie superfamilies Cyclophoroidea, Piloidea, 
andAciculoidea. 

Cylindrobulloidea Baba, 1966 

Reference: Publications of the Seto Marine 
Biological Laboratory, 14(3): 201 

Remarks: Rank not stated, but the context in- 
dicates suborder, containing the family Cy- 
lindrobullidae only. Spelling emended to 
Cylindrobullacea by Franc (1968c: 844); to 
Cylindrobullina by Minichev & Starobogatov 
(1 979b: 1 9, 20). Ranked as order Cylindrob- 
ullacea by Jensen (1996: 111). 

Cymbulioidei Starobogatov, 1989 

Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 

Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 187: 75 
Remarks: Established as suborder containing 

the families Cymbuliidae and Desmopteridae. 

Cynostraca Shimer & Shrock, 1 944 
Reference: Index fossils of North America: 

366, 437 
Remarks: Established as an order of the sub- 
class Protogastropoda, containing the genera 
Proplina, Tryblidium, Scenella, Palaeacmaea, 
Hypseloconus, and Helcionella. 

Cypraeiformes Sitnikova & Starobogatov, 1982 

Reference: Zoologlcheskii Zhurnal, 61(6): 841 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 

the superfamilies Ovuloidea and Cypraeoidea. 

Cyrtoneritimorpha Fryda, 1998 

Reference: 13th International Malacological Con- 
gress [Washington DC]. Abstracts: 1 07-1 08 

Remarks: A "group" in the subclass Neritimor- 
pha, containing the "Ordovician-Permian 
platyceratids". Diagnosed by Bändel & Fry- 
da (1999: 223) as new order containing the 
families Orthonychiidae and Vltaviellidae. 

Dactyliobranchia Gray, 1821 
Reference: London Medical Repository, 1 5: 235 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the genus Hyalaea only. 

Dactyloglossa Gray, 1854 [25 July] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 21 : 40 
Remarks: Taxon containing the family Amphip- 

eratidae only; see also Digitiglossa. 

Davisianoidei Starobogatov, 1 989 
Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 
Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 187: 74 



Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Davisianidae, Toriniidae, and 
Thysanodontidae. 

Dendrobranches Vayssière, 1888 

Reference: Annales du Musée d'Histoire Na- 
turelle de Marseille, Zoologie, 3 (Mémoire 
4[2]):17 

Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established 
as a division of Nudibranchia containing es- 
sentially the tritoniids. 

Dendrobranchiatae Labbé, 1934 
Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologigue 

de France, 59: 2M 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of "Sili- 

codermés" containing the families Peroni- 

idaeand Scaphidae. 

Dendrogastraea p. Fischer, 1883 [20 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 532 

Remarks: Division of nudibrnnchs containing 
the families Dendronotidae, Scyllaeidae, and 
Bornellidae. Treated by E. Perrier (1897: 
2114) as a subdivision of Nudibranchiata in- 
cluding Gnathophora [including Proctonotidae 
only] and Agnatha [including Elysiidae, 
Limapontiidae, and Hermaeidae]. 

Dendronotacea Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 
Reference: British Antarctic {"Terra Nova') 
Expedition, 1910. Natural history report, 
Zoo/ogy, 7(5): 231, 285 
Remarks: Established as a division of Nudi- 
branchia containing the Duvauceliidae 
[= Tritoniidae] and the Dendronotoidea of Eli- 
ot. Odhner considered that his Dendronota- 
cea had the same extension as "Pelseneer's 
Tritonioidea" [= Tritoniomorpha]. 

Dendronotoidea Eliot, 1910 

Reference: A monograph of the British nudi- 
branchiate Mollusca, part 8: 70 

Remarks: Established as a "sub-tribe" of Cla- 
dohepatica, containing the families Den- 
dronotidae, Scyllaeidae, Bornellidae, 
Tethymelibidae. Lomanotidae, and Phylli- 
roidae. 

Dermobranchea Duméril, 1807. See family 
list. 

Deutocephala N. Wagner, 1885 
Reference: Die Wirbellosen des Weissen 
Meeres, ^: 119-120 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



201 



Remarks: Established as an order of Pteropoda 
containing the genera Clio, Pneumodermon, 
and "Spongobranchus" [= Spongiobranchia]. 

Dexiarchia Schrödl, Wägele & Willan, 2001 
Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, 240: 94, 96 
Remarks: Clade of Opisthobranchia comprising 

the Cladobranchia and the genus Doridoxa. 

Spelled Archidexia by Schrödl (2003: 19). 

Dexioprocta E. Perrier, 1897 
Reference: Traité de Zoologie, 4: 2112 
Remarks: Established as a division of the sub- 
order Nudibranchiata containing families of 
arminids, dendronotoids and aeolids but not 
thedorids. 

Dextrobranchia Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 10 
Remarks: Established as a subclass, equiva- 
lent in content to Opisthobranchia + Opis- 
thopneumona. See also Peracliones. 

Dextrotracta Haszprunar, 1988 [14 December] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

54(4): 430 
Remarks: Clade containing Rissoelloidea, Gla- 

cidorboidea, and the Rhinophoralia. 

Diaphanida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 11 
Remarks: Established as an order of Ceph- 

alaspidea; contents not given. Spelling and 

rank emended to suborder Diaphanacea by 

TE. Thompson (1976: 17). 

Dicranobranchia Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 1 5: 233 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 

the genera Fissurella, Scutus, Diodora, and 

Emarginula. 

DiGmcLossA Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser 2, 11: 130 
Remarks: Taxon containing the family Amphip- 

eratidae only. An objective senior synonym 

of Dactyloglossa. 

Digonopora Suter, 1913 [December] 
Reference: Manual of New Zealand Mollus- 
ca: 6^8, 808 
Remarks: Introduced as a "tribe" of the subor- 
der Stylommatophora containing the family 
Onchidiidae. 



DioecaGíII, 1871 [February] 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 4 

Remarks: Established as a subclass of Gas- 
teropoda containing the orders Pectinibran- 
chia, Heteropoda, Rhipidoglossa, Docoglo- 
ssa, and Polyplacophora. 

Dioecia Macdonald, 1881 

Reference: Journal of the Linnean Society, 
Zoology, ^ 5: 243-244 

Remarks: Established as a division of gastro- 
pods containing the caenogastropod fami- 
lies, plus Pyramidellidae and Solariidae. 

Dioica Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Di- 

oïques". Latinized by Latreille (1825: 182). 

Treated by Blainville (1 824: 1 94) as subclass 

including the orders Siphonobranchiata and 

Asiphonobranchiata. 

Diotocardia Mörch, 1865 [5 October] 

Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 13: 399 

Remarks: Established as an unranked taxon 

containing Rhipidoglossata, Cyclobranchia 

[Patella, Chiton], and Cirribranchia [Denta- 

lium]. 

Dipleurobranchia Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 

234 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 

the genus Phyllidia. 

Dipleurobranchia P. Fischer, 1883 [20 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 529 

Remarks: Division of opisthobranchs contain- 
ing the family Pleurophyllidiidae [= Arminidae]. 

DipneustaP. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (5-6): 512; 
(7)[1 884]: 652-653 

Remarks: Division of pulmonates containing 
the family Gadiniidae only [1883]. Also divi- 
sion of Taenioglossa containing the family 
Ampullariidae[1884]. 

DiscopoDA P. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 652- 

653 



202 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Division of Taenioglossa containing 
various basal groups of Caenogastropoda, 
plus Solariidae, Homalogyridae, Jeffreysi- 
idae, and Valvatidae. 

DisPATHOsTYLES Germain, 1931 
Reference: Faune de France, 21:17 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. Aterm used 
to designate those species of Stylommato- 
phora with a dart apparatus like that of He- 
licella. 

DiTREMATA P. Fischer & Crosse, 1878 [10 Au- 
gust] 

Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 
et dans l'Amérique centrale. Recherches 
zoologiques (7), 1(7): 698 

Remarks: Division of pulmonales containing 
the families Vaginulidae and Onchidiidae. 

DivAsiBRANCHiA Minlchov & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesojuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniju molljuskov, 5: 10 
Remarks: Established as a subclass contain- 
ing the order Siphonariida [itself containing 
the family Siphonahidae] only. 

DocoGLOssATroschel, 1865 [December] 
Reference: Das Gebiss der Schnecken, 2(1 ): 

10 
Remarks: Established at unspecified rank 
above family. Ranked as order by Dall 
(1870b: 561). See also Onychoglossa and 
Patellina, and Docoglossa in family list. 

DoLicHONEPHRATillier, 1989 
Reference: Malacologia, 30(1-2): 91 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Sty- 
lommatophora including the superfamilies 
Zonitoidea, Helicoidea and Achatinoidea. 

DoRiDACEA Thiele, 1931 

Reference: Handbuch der systematischen 
Weichtierkunde, 1(2): 420 

Remarks: Established as a "Stirps" [= super- 
family]. Unranked name above family in Odh- 
ner (1934: 230); spelling and rank emended 
to order Doridacea and suborder Doridida by 
Baranetz & Minichev (1 994: 34). 

DoRiDOMORPHA Pelseneer, 1906 
Reference: A treatise on zoology, 5: 177 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" above fam- 
ily level, containing the families Polyceridae, 
Goniodorididae, Heterodorididae, Dorididae, 
Doridopsidae, Corambidae, and Phyllidiidae. 



DoRiDOxiDA Baranetz & Minichev, 1 994 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 73(11): 34 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as 
a substitute name for Pseudoeuctenidiacea. 

DoRSALiA Lamarck, 1818 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertèbres, 5: 334 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Dor- 
salées". Latinized by Ponder & Waren (1 988: 
312). Established as a division of "Annélides 
sédentaires" containing the genera "Aréni- 
cole" and "Siliquaire" [= Siliquaria]. 

DuplohamataGíII, 1871 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 5 

Remarks: Established as a division of the sub- 
order Rachiglossa containing the families 
Melongenidae, Buccinidae, Nassidae, Cyn- 
odontidae, and ?Turbinellidae. 

Echinospiracea Fretter & Graham, 1 962 
Reference: British prosobranch molluscs: 635 
Remarks: Established at unspecified rank be- 
tween superfamily and order, containing the 
superfamilies Lamellarioidea and Calyptrae- 
oidea. Spelling and rank emended to order 
Echinospirida by Golikov & Starobogatov 
(1972:114). 

Ectobranchia p. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 652-653 
Remarks: Taxon containing the family Val- 
vatidae only. 

EcTocoNCHA P. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 551 , 566 
Remarks: Division of Cephalaspidea (p. 551 ), 
containing the families Tornatinidae, 
Scaphandridae, Bullidae, Aplustridae, and 
Ringiculidae. Also, division of Anaspidea (p. 
566), containing the family Oxynoidae only. 

EcTOPHTHALMA L. Pfeiffer, 1852 [after August] 
Reference: Monographia pneumonopomorum 

viventium: 14 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the "families" Cyclostomacea and Helic- 
inacea. 

Edriophthalma H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 
Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:444 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



203 



Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Fissurellidae, Dentaliidae, 
Tecturidae, Gadiniidae, Patellidae, etc. 

Elasmognatha Mörch, 1864 

Reference: Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra 
den Naturhistohske Forening i Kjöbenhavn, 
17-22:267 

Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified 
rank, containing the family Succineidae only. 
Ranked by Van Mol (1967: 12) as suborder 
containing the families Succineidae and Atho- 
racophoridae. See also Succineoidea. 

Eleutherobranchia Haszprunar, 1985 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Zoologisctie Syste- 
matik und Evolutionsforscliung, 23(1 ): 32-33 
Remarks: Established at the rank of super- 
order, as a replacement name for Acoela of 
Thiele, 1926 [preoccupied in the Turbellar- 
ia], containing the orders Notaspidea, Nudi- 
branchia, Anthobranchia, and ?Smeagolida. 

Ellobiacea Van Mol, 1967 

Reference: Académie Royale de Belgique. 
Classe des Sciences, Mémoires, 37(5): 11 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ва- 
sommatophora, containing the family Ello- 
biidae only. Spelling and rank emended to 
order Ellobiida, as a substitute name for Ac- 
tophila, by Minichev & Statobogatov (1975: 
11); to order Ellobiiformes (in synonymy of 
Actophila) by H. Nordsieck (1993: 48). 

Elysiacea Odhner, 1 939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1 939(1 ): 1 2 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Saco- 
glossa, containing the families Hermaeidae, 
Elysiidae, and Limapontiidae. The contents 
are the same as that of Pelseneer's "El- 
ysiens" (see under Elysiomorpha). 

Elysiomorpha Pelseneer, 1906 
Reference: A treatise on zoology, 5: 181 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" above fam- 
ily level, containing the families Hermaeidae, 
Phyllobranchidae, Plakobranchidae, Elysi- 
idae, and Limapontiidae. Pelseneer (1892: 
146) had earlier used the name "Elysiens" 
(vernacular), containing the families Her- 
maeidae, Elysiidae and Limapontiidae. 

ENDODONTiNiASchileyko, 1979 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 
80:57 



Remarks: Established as infraorder, contain- 
ing the superfamilies Punctoidea and Thy- 
rophorelloidea. 

Enhydrobia de Cristofori & Jan, 1832 
Reference: Catalogus in IV sectiones divisus 
rerum naturalium in Museo exstantium Jo- 
sephi de Cristofori et Georgii Jan ..., Sectio 
II, Pars I: 6 
Remarks: A division of the Cephala contain- 
ing the freshwater gastropods. 

Enterobranchiata de Quatrefages, 1844. See 
family list. 

Entobranchia p. Fischer, 1884 [30 June] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (7): 652-653 
Remarks: Established as a division of Taenio- 

glossa containing a mixture of families today 

placed in Caenogastropoda and Heterobran- 

chia. 

Entoconcha p. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 551 , 566 
Remarks: Division of Cephalaspidea contain- 
ing the families Gastropteridae, Philinidae, 
and Doridiidae [= Aglajidae] (p. 551); also 
division of Anaspidea containing the family 
Aplysiidae only (p. 566). 

Entomostomata Blainville, 1818. See family list. 

ENTOMOTAENiATACossmann, 1896 [December] 
Reference: Essais de paléoconchologie com- 
parée, 2: 5 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Tubiferidae, Itieriidae, and 
Nerineidae. 

EoGASTROPODA Pondor & Lindberg, 1995 [10 

December] 
Reference: Origin and evolutionary radiation 

of the Mollusca: 145 
Remarks: Taxon comprising Patellogastropo- 

da + possible coiled (sinistral?) ancestors. 

EoLiDOMORPHA Pelseneer, 1906 
Reference: A treatise on zoology, 5: 1 78 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" [above fam- 
ily level], equivalent in content to Cladohe- 
patica, and containing the families Aeolidiidae, 
Glaucidae, Hedylidae, Pseudovermidae, 
Proctonotidae, Dotidae, Fionidae, Pleurophyl- 
lidiidae, and Dermatobranchidae. 



204 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



EoTOMACEA Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 [before 20 
March] 

Reference: The Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Minnesota, vol. 3(2) [Paleon- 
tology]: 930 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Raphistomidae, Pleuroto- 
mariidae, Euomphalidae, Macluritidae, 
Trochonematidae, and Capulldae. 

Epinephridia E. Perrier, 1897 
Reference: Traité de Zoologie, 4: 2094 
Remarks: Original spelling "Epinéphridés" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Ponder & Waren (1 988: 
312). Established as a division of Taenioglo- 
ssa containing the families Choristidae, Nat- 
icidae, Lamellariidae, and Cypraeidae. 

Epipodoneurés Lacaze-Duthiers, 1888 [after 12 

March] 
Reference: Comptes Rendus des Séances de 

l'Académie des Sciences [Paris], 1 06: 723-724 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established 

as an order containing Trochus, fissurellids, 

and haliotids. 

Epitoniida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 58(3): 297 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the superfamily Epitonioidea. 

Eriophthalma Gray, 1840 

Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 
British Museum, ed. 42: 151 

Remarks: Established at rank below order, con- 
taining the families Naticidae, Melaniidae, 
Truncatellidae, Velutinidae, Paludinidae, 
Pyramidellidae, Tornatellidae, Valvatidae, 
Vermetidae, Vanikoridae, Capulidae, Calyp- 
traeidae, and Phoridae. 

Euacochlidiacea Odhner, 1968 
Reference: [in Franc] Traité de Zoologie, 5(3): 842 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Hedylopsidae, Microhedyl- 
idae, and Acochlidiidae. 

EuANURETHRA 1Ьег1пд, 1929 
Reference: Abhandlungen des Archiv für Mol- 
luskenkunde, 2{2): 156 
Remarks: Established as a division of Anurethra. 

EuARMiNACEA Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skhfter, 1939(1 ): 48 
Remarks: Established at unspecified rank 
above family, including the families Hetero- 
dorididae and Arminidae. Treated by Taylor 



& Sohl (1 962: 12) as infraorder of the subor- 
der Arminoidea. 

EucAENOGASTROPODA Haszprunar, 1988 [14 

December] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

54(4): 430 

Remarks: Glade of Gaenogastropoda contain- 
ing Gtenoglossa, Neotaenioglossa, and 
Stenoglossa. 

EucTENiDiACEA Tardy, 1970 

Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
Zoologie et Biologie Animale, ser. 12, 12(3): 
365 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamily Doridoidea. See also 
Gtenidiacea. 

EuDOPHiLES Férussac, 1819 [10 July] 
Reference: Histoire naturelle générale et par- 
ticulière des Mollusques terrestres et fluviá- 
tiles: 20 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established 
as a suborder, containing the freshwater 
gastropods. 

EuDORiDACEA Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 
Reference: British Antarctic {"Terra Nova") 
Expedition, 1910. Natural history report, 
Zoology, 7(5): 230-233 
Remarks: Established as a division of Dorida- 
cea of unspecified rank, containing all dorids 
except Bathydoris and Dohdoxa. Ranked as 
suborder by Franc (1968c: 865), extension 
restricted to the cryptobranch dorids. 

EuGASTROPODA Shimer & Shrock, 1944 
Reference: Index fossils of North America: 

366,439 
Remarks: Established as a subclass contain- 
ing the "superorder" Prosobranchia only. 

EuHELicoiDA Haszprunar, 1988 [14 December] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 

54(4): 430 
Remarks: Glade containing "Hot-Vent Group- 

A" [= Melanodrymia] and Skeletobranchia. 

EuoMPHALiNA McLean, 1981 [8 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 21(1-2): 325 
Remarks: Established as a suborder. Spelling 
emended to Euomphalioidei (declared new) 
by Golikov & Starogobatov (1 989: 71 ). Spell- 
ing and rank emended by Bändel (1997: 64, 
70) to subclass Euomphalomorpha, contain- 
ing the superfamily Euomphaloidea; again 
declared new by Bändel & Fryda (1 998: 1 1 8). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



205 



EuPTEROPODA Boas, 1886 

Reference: Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter, 

ser. 6, Naturvidenskabelig og Mathematisk, 

4(1): 14, 179 
Remarks: Substitute name for Thecosomata. 

EupuLMONATA J. Morton, 1955 

Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 125(1): 163 
Remarks: Established, at the rank of order, as 

a substitute name for Stylommatophora. 

EupuLMONATA Haszprunar & Huber, 1990 
Reference: Journal of Zoology, London, 

220(2): 196 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
Ellobiidae, Trimusculidae + Stylommatopho- 
ra. Ranked as superorder by H. Nordsieck 
(1993:48). 

EuTHEcosoMATA Meisenheimer, 1905 [22 Jan- 
uary] 

Reference: Deutsche Tief see-Expedition, 9(1): 
37,107 

Remarks: Taxon containing the families Lima- 
cinidae and Cavoliniidae. Established at un- 
specified rank above family. See also Cav- 
oliniida. 

EuTHYNEURA Spengel, 1881 

Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 

Zoologie, 35(3): 372 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 

Ichnopoda, Pulmonata, and Pteropoda. 

ExocEPHALA Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Exocéphales". Latinized by Latreille (1825: 
200). Established as a taxon containing the 
"class" Peltocochlides, itself containing var- 
ious limpet-shaped gastropods and the chi- 
tons. 

ExoPHALLiA Mörch, 1865 [5 October] 
Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 13: 398 
Remarks: Established as a "class" of Mono- 
tocardia, containing the Taenioglossata, 
Rhachiglossata, and Toxoglossata. 

ExoTENOBRANCHiA Deshayes, 1832 

Reference: Encyclopédie méthodique. His- 
toire naturelle des vers, 2: table pp. 552- 
553 

Remarks: Original spelling "Exoténobranches" 
(vernacular); latinized by Herrmannsen (1847 
[in 1846-1852]: 438). Established as a sub- 



order containing the families "Les Tritoniens" 
and "les Glauques". 

FiciNA Riedel, 2000 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 32: 190, 195 
Remarks: Taxon established above the family 

group, contains the superfamily Ficoidea only. 

FissoBRANCHiATA Stoliczka, 1868 [1 October] 
Reference: Palaeontologia Indica. Cretaceous 
Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Parts 7-10: 
379 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Pleurotomariidae, Haliotidae, 
and Fissurellidae. 

FissuRELLOiDEi Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

187:71 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Raphistomatidae, Gossele- 
tinidae, Portlockiellidae, Catantostomatidae, 
Porcelliidae, Polytremariidae, Zygitidae, 
Scissurellidae, Emarginulidae, Hemitomi- 
dae, and Fissurellidae. 

Flabellinina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Aeolidiida. No contents given. 

Flexoglossata Haszprunar, 1988 [14 December] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 
54(4): 430 

Remarks: Glade containing all gastropods 
except Docoglossa and "Hot-Vent Group-C" 
[= Cocculiniformia and Helicoida] 

Fornices Bellermann, 1816 

Reference: Gesellschaft naturforschender 
Freunde zu Berlin, Magazin für die neuesten 
Entdeckungen in der gesammten Natur- 
kunde, 7{2y. 92, ^^9 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the genera Haliotis and Patella. 

Fryeriina Baranetz & Minichev, 1994 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 73(11): 34 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Phylli- 
diida containing the family Fryeriidae only. 

GALERocoNCHASalvini-Plawen, 1980 
Reference: Malacologia, 19(2): 255 
Remarks: Established as a class, equivalent 

to Amphigastropoda, containing the orders 

Tryblidiida and Bellerophontida. 



206 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Gasteromelea Mayer, 1 849 

Reference: Verhandlungen des Naturhisto- 
rischen Vereins der Preussischen Rhein- 
lande und Westphalens, 6: 205 

Remarks: Established as a class, containing the 
orders Palmatopoda, Pelecypoda, Hetero- 
poda, Pteropoda, and Apoda [= Tunicata]. 

Gasteropoda Cuvier, 1795 
Reference: Magazin Encyclopédique, 2: 448 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Gastéropodes". Latinized by Rafinesque 
(1815: 13, as Gasteropodia). Established as 
an order containing "les limaces, les laply- 
sies, les doris, les thétys, les myxines, les 
douves, les planaires, les chitons, les pa- 
telles et toutes les coquilles univalves con- 
tournées en spirale". Spelling emended to 
(class) Gastropodea by Anderson (1992: 36). 
See also Pselaphocephala and Trochiodes 
(under Trochiones). 

Gasteropodophora Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 230 

Remarks: Established as a class, equivalent 

to Gasteropoda, containing the subclasses 

Pneumonobranchia, Cryptobranchia, and 

Gymnobranchia. 

Gasteropterophora Gray, 1821 
Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 235 
Remarks: Established as a class containing 
Pterotrachea, Carinaría, and Argonauta. 

Gastroneurés Lacaze-Duthiers, 1888 [after 12 

March] 
Reference: Comptes Rendus des Séances de 

l'Académie des Sciences [Paris], 1 06: 720, 724 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established 

as an order containing the pulmonates. 

Gehydrophila Férussac, 1822 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxj 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Géhy- 
drophyles"; latinized by Herrmannsenn (1847: 
469). Established as a suborder containing 
the family "les Limnéens" only. See also Hy- 
grogeophila. 

Geochares de Cristofori & Jan, 1832 
Reference: Catalogus in IV sectiones divisus 
rerum naturalium in Museo exstantium Jo- 
sephi de Crístoforí et Georgii Jan ... Section 
II, Pars I: 1 
Remarks: Established as a subdivision of Gas- 
tropoda containing the land snails. 



Geohydrobia de Cristofori & Jan, 1832 
Reference: Catalogus in IV sectiones divisus 

rerum naturalium in Museo exstantium Jo- 

sephi de Crístoforí et Georgii Jan ... Section 

II, Pars I: 6 
Remarks: Established as a subdivision of 

Gastropoda containing the family Auhculidae. 

Geophila Férussac, 1819 [10 July] 

Reference: Histoire naturelle générale et par- 
ticulière des Mollusques terrestres et fluviá- 
tiles: 1 9 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Géo- 
philes". Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Limaces and Cochleae. See 
also Helicida. 

Glacidorbiformes Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

187:83 
Remarks: Established as an order of the su- 

perorder Architectoniciformii containing the 

family Glacidorbidae only. 

Glandulifera Riedel, 2000 

Reference: Beríiner Geowissenschaftliche 
Abhandlungen, ser. E, 32: 192, 195 

Remarks: Taxon containing the Turrina, Volu- 
tina and Muricina. 

Glaucina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Aeolidiida. No contents given. 

Globularioidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:73 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Naticiformes containing the families 

Gyrodeidae and Globulariidae. 

Glossophora p. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 519, 
529, 532, 544, 551 [21 February]; (6): 585, 
597 [20 December] 

Remarks: Name used for seven different 
groups of Gastropoda, each time as opposed 
to another group Aglossa (without radula). 

Glossophora Koken, 1896 
Reference: Die Leitfossilien, 1 : 90 
Remarks: Established as a class, containing 

the subclasses Scaphopoda, Placophora, 

Gastropoda, and Pteropoda. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



207 



Glyptognatha Westerlund, 1902 

Reference; Acta Academia Scientiarum etAr- 

tium Slavorum meridionalium, 151 : 88 
Remarks: Established as a category below 

suborder, uniting Odontognatha (see family 

list) and Aulacognatha. 

Gnathodoridacea Odhner, 1934 [28 July] 
Reference: British Antarctic {"Terra Nova") 
Expedition, 1910. Natural history report. 
Zoology, 7(5): 230-233 
Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified 
rank below suborder. Subsequently some- 
times ranked as suborder (e.g. F. Nordsieck, 
1972: 51). See also Bathydoridina. 

Gnathophora L. Pfeiffer, 1878 

Reference: [in Clessin, ed.] Nomenclátor heli- 
ceorum viventium: 26 

Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank contain- 
ing the family Vitrinidae only. 

Gnathophora P. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 447 [21 
February]; (6): 532, 585 [20 December] 

Remarks: Name used for three different taxa 
of gastropods, as opposed to Agnatha (with- 
out jaws). 

Goniognatha Mörch, 1859 

Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109, 

112 
Remarks: Taxon of pulmonales containing the 

genera Orthalicus and Pseudostrombus. 

Gymnobranchiata Schweigger, 1820 
Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 

skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: 746 
Remarks: Established at unspecified rank be- 
tween order [Gastropoda] and genus. Spell- 
ing and rank emended to subclass 
Gymnobranchia, by Gray (1821 : 234). Con- 
tains the nudibranchs. 

Gymnocochlides Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Gymnocochlides". Latinized, with the same 
spelling, by Latreille (1825: 187). Estab- 
lished as a section of the order Pectinibran- 
chia containing the families "Péristomiens", 
"Scalariens", "Turbines", "Fusiformes", 
"Ailés", "Doliaires", "Buccinides", and many 
others. 



Gymnoglossa Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, ^^■. 129-130 
Remarks: Name used for two different taxa of 
gastropods, established at rank below subor- 
der, one containing the families Acusidae, 
Pyramidellidae, and Architectonicidae; the oth- 
er containing the family Cancellariidae only. 

GYMNOMORPHASalvini-Plawen, 1970 
Reference: Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abt. für 

Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der 

Tiere, 97(2): 296 
Remarks: Established as an order, equivalent 

to Soleolifera, containing Onchidiacea, 

Veronicellacea, and Rhodopacea. 

Gymnophila H. B. Baker, 1955 [28 April] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 68(4): 110 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 

Rathouisiidae, Veronicellidae, and Onchidi- 

Idae. 

Gymnopoda p. Fischer, 1885 [31 August] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (9): 792 
Remarks: Taxon of Rhipidoglossa, containing 

the families Proserpinidae, Helicinidae, Hy- 

drocenidae, Neritidae, Macluritidae, and 

Neritopsidae. 

Gymnoptera van der Spoel, 1972 [19 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Basteria, 36(2-5): 81 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Gym- 
nosomata containing the families Hydromyl- 
idae and Laginiopsidae. See also Laginiop- 
sina. 

Gymnosomata Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 273 

Remarks: Established as a family (see family 
list), but currently used as the name of an 
order. Spelling emended to Gymnosomida 
by Anderson (1992: 37). See also Pterota 
and Pneumodermatida. 

Gymnostoma Menke, 1828 
Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 7 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order as 
Coelopneumonata gymnostoma, containing 
the suborders Geophilae and Amphibiae. Is 
the same as the order "Pulmones sans oper- 
cule" of Férussac (1822 [in 1821-1822]: 
xxxj). 



208 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Haliotoideae Menke, 1828 

Reference: Synopsis method ica molluscorum: 
51 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Haliotidae, itself containing the 
genera Haliotis, Stomatella, and Stomatia. 
Haliotoidei again declared new suborder by 
Golikov&Starobogatov(1989: 71), contain- 
ing Raphischismatidae, Kittldiscidae, Tem- 
notropididae, and Haliotidae. 

Hamiglossa Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 126 
Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified 
rank, containing the families Muricidae, Buc- 
cinidae, Olividae, and Lamellariidae. Spell- 
ing emended to Haemiglossata by Mörch 
(1854:15). 

Hamineina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe sovestichanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 20 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Philinoglossida. No contents given. 

Haplomorpha Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:656 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Opisthobranchia, including the fami- 
lies Phyllirhoidae and Elysiidae. 

Haplostyles Germain, 1931 
Reference: Faune de France, 21:17 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. 

Hedylopsoidei Starobogatov, 1983 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 30 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Acochlidiiformes, containing the super- 
families Minichevielloidea, Hedylopsoidea, 
Tantuloidea, Parhedyloidea, Ganitoidea, and 
Livornielloidea. 

Helcionellida Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 

[18 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 207 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the superfamilies Helcionelloidea and Me- 
toptomatoidea. Spelling and rank emended 
to suborder Helcionellina by Salvini-Plawen 
(1980: 255); to class Helcionelloida by Peel 
(1 991 : 1 73). Again declared a new order by 
G.Geyer (1994: 77). 



Helicida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 10 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as 
a substitute name for Geophila with the con- 
tents given by Minichev & Slavoshevskaja 
(1971: 359). See also Limaciformes (under 
Limaciformii). 

Helicinina Bändel, 1992 

Reference: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 66(3- 
4): 238 

Remarks: Established as an order of the sub- 
class Neritimorpha, containing the superfam- 
ily Helicinoidea. 

Heliciones Starobogatov, 1984 

Reference: [in Amitrov] Spravochnik po 

sistematike iskopaemykh organismov. 39 
Remarks: Established as a nom. nov. for the 

subclass Pulmonata. 

Helicoida Haszprunar, 1988 [14 December] 
Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 
54(4): 430 

Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified rank, 
containing Neritimorpha and Euhelicoida. 

HELixiNASchileyko, 1979 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 
80:56 

Remarks: Established as suborder, contain- 
ing the infraorders Endodontinia, Helixinia, 
and Zonitinia. Spelling emended to Helicoi- 
dei by Muratov (1 999: 22). Also established 
by Schileyko (1979: 57) as infraorder Helix- 
inia, containing the superfamilies Gastrod- 
ontoidea, Rhytididoidea, Vitrinoidea, 
Arionoidea, Sphincterochiloidea, Helicodon- 
toidea, Helicoidea, and Hygromioidea. 

Hemiphyllidinae Menke, 1828 
Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 6 
Remarks: Latinization of "Semiphyllidiens" 
(see Semiphyllididae in family list). Estab- 
lished as a suborder containing the families 
Umbrellidae and Pleurobranchidae. 

Hemipomatostoma Férussac, 1821 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxv 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Hemi- 
Pomastomes". Latinized by Menke (1828: 32 
,as Hemipomastomae; 1830: 57, as Hemi- 
pomatostoma). Established as a suborder, 
equivalent to "Siphonobranches". 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



209 



Hermaeinina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Stiligerida. No contents given. 

HERMAPHRODiTABIainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 286 

Remarks: Established as a subclass contain- 
ing the orders Cirrhobranchiata [itself con- 
taining the genus Dentalium only], Cervico- 
branchiata, and Scutibranchiata. 

Heterobranchia Burmeister, 1837 

Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, 2: 
v,496 

Remarks: Established as a division of the 
Gastropoda containing the "families" Gym- 
nobranchia, Hypobranchia, Cyclobranchia, 
Aspidobranchia, Pomatobranchia, and Het- 
eropoda. Recent authors have resurrected 
the name and attribute it to Gray (1840: 
1 52), who used Heterobranchiata for an un- 
ranked taxon containing the orders Pleuro- 
branchiata, Gymnobranchiata, and 
Pneumobranchiata. Salvini-Plawen & Hasz- 
prunar (1987: 760) used Heterobranchia as 
a subclass containing the "cohors" Trigan- 
glionata, and Ponder & Lindberg (1997: 185) 
used Heterobranchia for a clade containing 
the Euthyneura, Architectonicoidea, and 
Valvatoidea. 



Heteroglossa Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 
7:135 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Scutibranchia, containing the Cirrho- 
branchia, Cervicobranchia, Cyclobranchia, 
and Polyplacophora. 

Heteroglossa Haszprunar, 1985 [10 January] 
Reference: Philosophical Transactions of the 

Royal Society of London, ser. В, 307: 487 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamilies Cerithiopsoidea, Triph- 
oroidea, Epitonioidea, and Eulimoidea. 

Heterohepatica Pruvot-Fol, 1954 
Reference: Faune de France, 58: 341 
Remarks: A subdivision of Cladohepatica con- 
taining the non-eolid families, i.e. Arminidae, 
Tritoniidae, Dendronotidae, Fimbhidae, Han- 
cockiidae, Lomanotidae, Scyllaeidae, Phyl- 
liroidae, Janolidae, and Madrellidae. 

Hétéronéphridés R. Perrier, 1889 

Reference: Recherches sur I'anatomie et 
l'histologie du rein des Gastéropodes Proso- 
branches: 278 

Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established 
at unspecified rank, but treated as a subor- 
der by Perrier (1893: 604). Taxon contain- 
ing the families Haliotidae, Turbinidae, and 
Trochidae. 



Heterocardia R. Perrier, 1889 

Reference: Recherches sur I'anatomie et 

l'histologie du rein des Gastéropodes Proso- 

branches: 277 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 

"Hétérocardes". Latinized by Zittel (1895: 

320). Established as an order containing the 

family Patellidae only. 

Heteroclita Lamarck, 1809 
Reference: Philosophie zoologique, 1 : 321 
Remarks: Original spelling "Hétéroclites" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Herrmannsen (1847 
[in 1846-1852]: 529). Taxon containing the 
genera "Volvaire", "Bulle", and "Janthine". 

Heterogastropoda Habe & Kosuge, 1966 [15 

January] 
Reference: Shells of the world in colour, 2:101 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the families Architectonicidae, Mathildidae, 
Epitoniidae, Janthinidae, and Triphoridae. 



Heteropoda Lamarck, 1812 [October] 
Reference: Extrait du cours de zoologie: 112, 

124 
Remarks: Original spelling "Hètéropodes" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Burmeister (1 837: 500). 
Established as a "section", equivalent in rank 
to Gastropoda and Cephalopoda, subse- 
quently treated by Burmeister as a family, and 
by Thiele (1 925 [in 1 925-1 926]: 88) as "Sippe" 
[= superfamily]. Not available as a family- 
group name (not based on a genus). 

HETEROPRocTASchmekel, 1970[1 October] 
Reference: Pubblicazioni delta Stazione Zoo- 
lógica di Na poli, 38: 1 21 , 1 35 
Remarks: Established as an infraorder of Ae- 
olidioidea, uniting Pleuroprocta and Cleio- 
procta. 

Heterospathostyles Germain, 1931 
Reference: Faune de France, 21: 17 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. 



210 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Heterostropha p. Fischer, 1885 [31 August] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (9): 793 
Remarks: Taxon of Gymnoglossa containing 

the family Pyramidellidae. 

Heterurethra Pilsbry, 1900 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 52: 564 
Remarl<s: Taxon established at unspecified 

rank, containing the family Succineidae. See 

alsoSuccineoidea. 

HoLocHLAMYDA Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:648 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Azygobranchia, including the families 

of Rhipidoglossa and Ptenoglossa and part 

oftheTaenioglossa. 

HoLOGASTRAEA P. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 532 
Remarks: Taxon of nudibranchs containing the 

family Tritoniidae only. 

HoLOGASTRAEA E. Регг1ег, 1897 
Reference: Traité de zoologie, 4: 2114 
Remarks: Subdivision of Nudibranchiata in- 
cluding the Anthobranchiata [containing Het- 
erodorididae, Polyceridae, Dorididae, and 
Doridopsidae] and Inferobranchiata [contain- 
ing Hypobranchaeidae and Phyllidiidae]. 

HolognathaGíII, 1871 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 12 

Remarks: Division of the suborder Geophila, 
containing the families Cylindrellidae, Pupi- 
dae, Helicidae, and Vitrinidae. 

HoLOHEPATiCA Bergh, 1884 

Reference: Report on the scientific results of 
the voyage ofH. M. S. Challenger Zoology, 
10:52 

Remarks: Established as an order of Nudibran- 
chiata, containing the families of dorids. See 
also Pigobranchiata. 

HoLONEPHRiDiA E. Регг1ег, 1897 
Reference: Traité de zoologie, 4: 2083 
Remarks: Original spelling "Holonéphridés" (ver- 
nacular). Latinizedby Ponder & Waren (1988: 
312). Established as a division of Taenioglos- 
sa containing the "Rostrifères platypodes" 
(containing Paludinidae, Cyclophoridae, Am- 



pullariidae, Littorinidae, Rissoidae, Truncatel- 
lidae, Calyptraeidae, Melaniidae, Cerithiidae, 
Janthinidae, Seguenziidae, Strombidae, and 
others), the Heteropoda, the "Proboscidifères 
holostomes" (containing the families Scalari- 
idae, Pyramidellidae, Eulimidae, Entocon- 
chidae, and Solariidae), and the "Proboscid- 
ifères siphonostomes" (containing the families 
Tritonidae, Cassidae, and Doliidae). 

HoLOPODA Pilsbry, 1896 [3 February] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 9(10): 110 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily con- 
taining the families Helicidae, Bulimulidae, 
Cylindrellidae, Pupidae, and Achatinidae. 
Treated by Boss (1982: 1078, 1095) as an 
infraorder containing the superfamilies Po- 
lygyroidea, Oleacinoidea, and Helicoidea. 

HoLOPODOPEs H. B. Baker, 1962 
Reference: The Nautilus, 75(3): 116 
Remarks: Established as an infraorder of the 
order Sigmurethra, containing "the achati- 
noids, Streptaxidae, rhytidoids, and orthali- 
coids". 

HoLOSTOMATA Fleming, 1828 [March] 
Reference: A history of British animals: 296 
Remarks: Established as a division of the 
Cryptobranchia, containing the Tectipeda 
[= Turbinidae, Neritidae, and Trochidae] and 
Nudipeda [= Janthina, Velutina]. 

HoLOSTOMATA Stoliczka, 1868 [1 April] 

Reference: Palaeontologia Indica. Cretaceous 

Fauna of Southern India, Vol. 2, Part 5: 205 

Remarks: Established as a "tribe" of the Cteno- 

branchiata, containing various families of 

caenogastropods and archeopulmonates. 

HoLOSTOMATA S. P. Woodward, 1851 

Reference: A manual of the Mollusca: viii, 1 22 

Remarks: Established as a "section' of the 

order Prosobranchiata, containing various 

families of gastropods, plus Dentaliidae and 

Chitonidae. 

HoMOEOSTROPHA P. Flschor, 1885 [31 August] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (9): 793 
Remarks: Taxon of Gymnoglossa containing 

the family Eulimidae only. 

HoMoioGLOssA Starobogatov, 1990 
Reference: Sbornik Trudov Zoologicheskogo 

Muzeia Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo 

Universiteta, 28: 42 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



211 



Remarks: Established as a superorder con- 
taining the Rhipidoglossa except the Pleu- 
rotomarioidei. 

HoMONÉPHRiDÉs R. Perrier, 1889 

Reference: Recherches sur l'anatomie et 
l'histologie du rein des Gastéropodes Proso- 
branches: 278 

Remarks: Vernacular name only. Taxen estab- 
lished at unspecified rank, containing the 
family Fissurellidae. Ranked as a suborder 
by Perrier (1893: 604). 

Hydrobranchia Lamarck, 1819 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertèbres, 6(1 ): 297 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Hydro- 
branches": latinized by T. Brown (1844? [in 
1837-1844]: 56, as Hydrobranchiae). Estab- 
lished as a division of the Gasteropoda con- 
taining the families "les Tritoniens", "les 
Phyllidiens", "les sémi-Phyllidiens", "les Ca- 
lyptraciens", "les Bulléens", and "les Lapl- 
ysiens". 

Hydrocenoidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:72 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Hydrocenidae and Chilodon- 
tidae. Spelling and rank emended to order 
Hydrocenina by Bändel (1992a: 238). 

Hydrophila Hartmann, 1840 

Reference: Erd- und Süsswasser-Gaster- 
opoden: (unnumbered table) 

Remarks: Division of Pectinibranchiata con- 
taining the genus Ancylus only. 

Hygrogeophila Menke, 1830 

Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum, 

ed.2:19 
Remarks: Latinization of (vernacular) "Géhy- 

drophiles" of Férussac. Established as a 

suborder containing the family Auriculidae. 

See also Gehydrophila. 

Hygrophila Férussac, 1822 [16 February] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des 

animaux mollusques: xxiij 
Remarks: Original spelling "Hygrophiles" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Herrmannsen (1846 
[in 1846-1852]: 547). Established as a sub- 
order containing the family Lymnaeidae. 
Ranked by Starobogatov (1970b: 46) as an 
order containing the superfamilies Chili- 
noidea, Latioidea, and Lymnaeoidea. See 
also Lymnaeida. 



Hyperstrophina Linsley & Kier, 1984 [29 March] 
Reference: Malacologia, 25(1): 250 
Remarks: Established as an order of Paragas- 

tropoda containing the superfamily Ony- 

chochiloidea. 

Hypsogastropoda Ponder & Lindberg, 1997 
Reference: Zoological Journal of the Linnean 

Soc/eiy, 119(2): 226 
Remarks: Established as unranked clade, con- 
taining all taxa sharing a more recent com- 
mon ancestor with Conus and Tonna than 
with Cerithium and Campanile. 

IcHNOPODA Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 144 

Remarks: Established as a class of the phy- 
lum Platycochlides, containing the orders 
Protocochlides, Phanerobranchia, Sacoglo- 
ssa, Steganobranchia, Branchiopneusta, 
and Nephropneusta. 

Inferobranchiata Blainville, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1814): 177 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "In- 
férobranches"; latinized [as Inferobranchi] by 
Bowdich (1822: 59). Established as an or- 
der containing the genera Phyllidia and Di- 
phyllidia [see also family Hypobranchiata]. 
Spelling emended by P. Fischer (1883 [in 
1880-1887]: 528) to Inferobranchiata, treat- 
ed as a division of the Nudibranchiata 
containing the families Phyllidiidae, Hypo- 
branchiaeidae, Pleurophyllidiidae, and Der- 
matobranchidae. 

Iniophthalma Gray, 1847 [November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 15: 159 
Remarks: Division of the order Phytophaga 

containing the families Truncatellidae, Pyra- 

midellidae, and Acteonidae. 

iNOPERCULATAGray, 1840 

Reference: [new edition of Turton] Manual of 
the land and fresh water shells of the British 
Islands: ^0^-^02 

Remarks: Division of the order Pneumonobran- 
chiata, containing the families Arionidae, He- 
licidae, Auriculidae, and Lymnaeidae. 

Inoperculata P. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 422, 
512; (6): 551 ; (7): 653 [1884]; (9): 793 [1885] 



212 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Name used for five different taxa of 
gastropods: (1 ) as a subdivision of Pteropo- 
da containing the families Pterothecidae, 
Conulariidae, and Cavoliniidae (p. 422); (2) 
as a division of Thalassophila containing the 
families Siphonariidae and Gadiniidae (p. 
51 ); (3) as a division of Cephalaspidea con- 
taining all the families other than Actaeonidae 
(p. 551); (4) as a subdivision of Taenioglos- 
sa containing the families Capulidae and Hip- 
ponicidae (p. 653); (5) as a subdivision of 
Rhipidoglossa containing the family Proser- 
pinidaeonly (p. 793). 

Intégrostomes Blainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 10: ^85 

Remarks: Vernacular name only, and perhaps 
only descriptive and not the name of a taxon. 

Janolina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Aeolidiida. No contents given. 

Janthinoidei Starobogatov, 1989 

Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 
Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 187: 74 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Janthinidae. Spelling and rank 
emended by Starobogatov (in Amitrov, 1984: 
38) to order Janthiniformes. 

JiNONICELLINA Pokorny, 1978 

Reference: Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geo- 
logickeho, 53{^)■. 4^ 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Archaeo- 
gastropoda containing the families Jinonicel- 
lidae and Janospiridae. Taxonomic position as 
a mollusc rejected by Fryda (1999d: 27). 

JuLiACEA Boettger, 1963 

Reference: Zoologischer Anzeiger, Suppl., 26: 

429 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of 

Sacoglossa containing the superfamilies 

Arthessoidea and Julioidea. 

Khairkhaniiformes Parkhaev, 2001 

Reference: Transactions of the Paleontological 
Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 
282:189 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the family Khairkhaniidae only. Again de- 
clared new by Parkhaev (2002: 37 [Russian 
edition]; 34 [English edition]). 



Labiostomata Valdés, 2002 

Reference: Zoological Journal of the Linnean 
Society, 136:628 

Remarks: Clade containing the cryptobranch 
dorids having a radula and labial armature, 
i.e. the families Actinocyclidae, Dorididae, 
Chromodorididae, and Discodohdidae. 

Laginiopsina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 20 
Remarks: Established at the rank of suborder, 

as a substitute name for Gymnoptera. 

Latrogastropoda F. Riedel, 2000 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 
Abhandlungen, ser. E, 32: 195 

Remarks: Established as a superorder con- 
taining the orders Neomesogastropoda and 
Neogastropoda. 

Lepadophora Gray, 1827 

Reference: Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, vol. 
7: 389, unnumbered plate 

Remarks: Established as the name of a class 
in the plate heading, but treated as a syn- 
onym of Gasteropoda p. 389. 

Lepetellida Moskalev, 1971 [after 11 February] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 4: 60 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the superfamilies Lepetelloidea, Addisonio- 
idea, and Bathypeltoidea. Spelling and rank 
emended by Marshall (1983b: 139) to sub- 
order Lepetellina. 

Lepetoidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:70 
Remarks: Established as suborder containing 

the family Lepetidae only. 

Lepetopsina McLean, 1990 [7 November] 
Reference: Journal of Zoology, 222: 489 
Remarks: Established as suborder of Patello- 

gastropoda containing the superfamily 

Neolepetopsoidea only. 

Leptognatha Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1 939(1 ): 48 
Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified 
rank above family, containing the families 
Goniaeolididae and Heroidae. Treated by 
Taylor & Sohl (1962: 12) as infraorder of 
suborder Arminoidea. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



213 



Leptopoda Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 
7:64,128 

Remarks: Division of the suborder Rostrifera, 
containing the families Strombidae and 
Phohdae. 

LiuEVALLospiROiDEi Golikov & Starobogatov, 

1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:70 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Belle- 

rophontiformes containing the family Liljeval- 

lospiridaeonly. 

Limaces Kölliker, 1847 

Reference: Giornale dell'Imperiale Reale Istitu- 
to lombardo di Scienze. Lettere edArti, 1 6: 247 

Remarks: One of three divisions (the other two 
being Cephalopoda and Conchífera) of the 
molluscs, containing the "orders" Pteropo- 
da, Heteropoda, and Gasteropoda. 

LiMACiFORMii Starobogatov, 1984 

Reference: [in Amitrov] Spravochnik po 
sistematike iskopaemykh organismov. 39 

Remarks: Substitute name for Stylommato- 
phora, established as a superorder of Pul- 
monata. Also (same reference) spelled and 
ranked as order Limaciformes, as a substi- 
tute name for Helicida. Spelling emended by 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1989: 69) to Lima- 
clones, substitute name for Pulmonata, 
ranked as subclass. 

LiMACiNoiDEi Starobogatov, 1989 

Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 
Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 187: 75 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Limacinidae only. 

LiMAxiNA Schileyko, 1979 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Institute, 
80:57 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Heli- 
cida, containing the infraorders Trigo- 
nochlamydina and Limaxinia, the latter 
containing the families Boettgerillidae, 
Limacidae, and Agriolimacidae. Spelling and 
rank emended by Muratov (1999: 22) to in- 
fraorder Limacoinei. 

LiMNAEiDA. See Lymnaeida. 

LiMNOPHiLA Menke, 1828 
Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 
20 



Remarks: Original spelling "Limneophilen" 
(vernacular) in Hartmann (1 821 : 32-33, 43). 
Established as suborder of Coelopneumo- 
nata Gymnostoma, containing the family 
Lymnaeidaeonly. 

LissoGNATHA Westerlund, 1902 [after 1 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Acta Academia Scientiarum etAr- 
tium Slave rum Mehdionalium, 1 51 : 84 

Remarks: Established as a subdivision of the 
Geophila containing the families Vitrinidae, 
Allognathidae, and Leucochroidae. 

LiTTORiNATA Pchelintsev, 1963 

Reference: Briukhonogie Mezozoia Gornogo 
Kryma: 47 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamilies Littorinoidea, Calyp- 
traeoidea, and Rissooidea. Spelling and rank 
emended by Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 
21 0) to superorder Littorinimorpha. 

LoBiGERiNA Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as suborder of the or- 
der Oxynoida. No contents given. 

LoNGicoMMisuRATA НвНег, 1892 [15 July] 
Reference: Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 18(3): 

538 
Remarks: Division of the Neotaenioglossa 

containing the families Tritoniidae, Doliidae, 

Strombidae, and Pteroceridae. 

Lymnaeida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 11 
Remarks: Original spelling Limnaeida. Estab- 
lished at the rank of order, as a substitute 
name for Hygrophila. Spelling and rank 
emended by Starobogatov (in Amitrov, 1 984: 
39) to order Lymnaeiformes and superorder 
Lymnaeiformii; by H. Nordsieck (1993a: 48) 
to suborder Lymnaeoidei (in synonymy of 
Branchiopulmonata) and infraorder Lymnae- 
oinei. 

Macluritina Cox & Knight, 1960 [February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 33(6): 262 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ar- 
chaeogastropoda containing the superfami- 
lies Macluritoidea and Euomphaloidea. Spell- 
ing and rank emended by Minichev & 
Starobogatov (in Amitrov, 1984: 38) to sub- 
class Maduritiones and order Macluritiformes. 



214 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Malacodermata p. Fischer, 1883 [21 February] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 422 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Gym- 

nosomata containing the family Clioidae only. 

Mathildoidei Starobogatov, 1989 

Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 

Zoologicheskogo Institute, 187: 74 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Archi- 

tectoniciformes containing the family Mathil- 

didae. 

Megapterygia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 326, table between pages 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Mé- 
gaptérygiens". Latinized by Latreille (1825: 
169). Established as an order of the class 
Pteropoda, containing the families Proceph- 
ala and Cryptocephala. 

MEGASTOMATABIainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 10: 184 and table between pp. 214-215 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Mé- 
gastomes". Latinized by Bowdich (1822: 25). 
Taxon containing the genera "Cabochon", 
"Crépidule", "Stomate", "Slgaret", "Haliotide", 
and "Patelle". 

Melanellida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 

[after 14 February] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 58(3): 298 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the superfamilies Pseudomelanioidea, Tro- 
chaclidoidea, Aclidoidea, and Melanelloidea; 
and (same paper) as a superorder Melanel- 
loida including the order Melanellida only. 

Meronephridia R. Perrier, 1889 

Reference: Recherches sur l'anatomle et 
l'histologie du rein des Gastéropodes Proso- 
branches: 281 

Remarks: Original spelling "Méronéphridiens" 
(vernacular); spelled "Méronéphridés" by E. 
Perrier (1897: 2095). Latinized by Ponder & 
Waren (1988: 313). Established as a division 
of Stenoglossa, containing Voluta, Oliva, 
Marginella, Harpa, Pleurotoma, Terebra, and 
Conus (contents in R. Perrier, 1893: 605). 

Mesogastropoda Thiele, 1925 [1 November] 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(1): 78 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the superfamilies Architaenioglossa, Valvata- 
cea, Rissoacea, Littorinacea, Cerithiacea, 
Ptenoglossa, Aglossa, Amaltheacea, Natica- 



cea, Lamellahacea, Cypraeacea, Calyptrae- 
acea, Heteropoda, Strombacea, and Dolia- 
cea. Spelling emended by Anderson (1992: 
36) to Mesogastropodida. 

Mesommatophora Simroth, 1889 

Reference: Nova Acta, Kaiserlich Leopoldin- 
ish-Carolinische Deutsche Akademie der 
Naturforscher, 5A{^):Q5 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Me- 
sommatophoren". Latinized by Simroth 
(1896: 44). Taxon containing the families 
Athoracophoridae, Vaginulidae, and Onchi- 
diidae. 

MesoproctaE. Perrier, 1897 
Reference: Traité de zoologie, 4: 2114 
Remarks: Division of the Nudibranchiata con- 
taining the Hologastraea and Dendrogas- 
traea. 

Mesurethra H. B. Baker, 1955 [28 April] 
Reference: The Nautilus, 68(4): 109 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Geo- 

phila including the superfamily Cerionoidea 

only 

Metamesogastropoda Bändel, 1991 
Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. A, 134: 38 
Remarks: Original spelling Meta-Mesogas- 
tropoda. Established as unranked division of 
the Caenogastropoda including Purpu- 
rinoidea, Stromboidea, Heteropoda, Pick- 
worthiidae, and Vanikoridae. Spelling and 
rank emended by Bändel (1993b: 24) to or- 
der Metamesogastropoda [now including the 
Rissooidea]. 

Metatrochina Naef, 1911 

Reference: Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der 
Zoologie, 3(2): 158-159 

Remarks: Original spelling Metatrochinae. Es- 
tablished as a division of Azygobranchia, as 
a substitute name for Monotocardia, conta- 
ing the Pectinibranchia and Heterobranchia. 

Meturethra Ihering, 1929 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Archiv für Mol- 
luskenkunde, 2{2): 156 

Remarks: Established as a division of Neph- 
ropneusta. 

MicROPTERYGiA Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Mi- 

croptérygiens". Latinized by Latreille (1825: 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



215 



170). Established as an order including the 
family Pneumodermatidae only. 

MiMospiRiNA Dzik, 1983 

Reference: Geologiska Föreningens i Stock- 
holm Förhandlingar, 104(3): 238 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Onychochilidae and Clisos- 
piridae. 

MiTRoiDEi Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

187:73 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Mitri- 
formes, containing the superfamilies Fasci- 
olarioidea and Mitroidea. Also spelled and 
ranked as order Mithformes, same reference. 

Monoica Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 242 

Remarks: Established as a subclass contain- 
ing the orders Pulmobranchiata, Chismo- 
branchiata, Monopleurobranchiata, Aporo- 
branchiata, Polybranchiata, Cyclobranchiata, 
Inferobranchiata, and Nucleobranchiata. 
Spelling emended by Mcdonald (1880: 163) 
to Monoecia. 

MoNONÉPHRiDÉs R. Регг1ег, 1889 

Reference: Recherches sur I'anatomie et 
l'histologie du rein des gastéropodes proso- 
branches: 279 

Remarks: Vernacular name only, introduced as 
a substitute name for "Orthoneuroides". Es- 
tablished as division of Diotocardia. Ranked 
by Perrier (1893: 604) as suborder including 
the genera Nerita, Navicella and Helicina. 

MoNOPLEUROBRANCHiA Blalnvilie, 1816 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la Société 
Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, (1816): 10 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Mono- 
pleurobranches". Latinized by Gray (1821: 
232). Established as an order, containing [in 
Gray] the genera Umbrella, Pleurobranchia, 
and Laminaria. 

MoNosTiCHOGLossATA Pagenstechor, 1877 
Reference: Verhandlungen des Naturhis- 
torisch-Medicinischen Vereins zu Heidel- 
berg, newser., 1: 74 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the families Pontolimacidae, Elysiidae, and 
Lophocercidae. 

MoNOTOCARDiA МогсЬ, 1865 [5 October] 
Reference: Journal do Conchyliologie, 13: 398 



Remarks: Established as a division of Gas- 
tropoda including the "classes" Androgyna 
[= Musioglossata] and Exophallia. See also 
Metatrochina. 

MoNOTREMATA P. Fischor & Crosse, 1878 [10 
August] 

Reference: Mission scientifique au Mexique 
et dans l'Amérique centrale. Recherches 
zoologiques, (7)1: 698 

Remarks: Established as a division of the sub- 
order Geophila containing the families Testa- 
cellidae, Limacidae, Tebennophoridae, 
Helicidae, Cylindrellidae, Orthalicidae, Bu- 
limulidae, Stenogyhdae, and Succineidae. In 
P Fischer (1883 [in 1880-1887]: 447) con- 
taining the families Testacellidae, Seleniti- 
dae, Limacidae, Philomycidae, Orthalicidae, 
Bulimulidae, Cylindrellidae, Pupidae, Sten- 
ogyridae, and Helicteridae. See also Soleif- 
erae. 

MuRCHisoNiiNA Cox & Knight, 1960 [February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 33(6): 264 
Remarks: Established as a suborder including 
the superfamily Murchisonioidea only. Spell- 
ing and rank emended by Pchelinsev (1965: 
4) to order Murchisoniata, containing the su- 
perfamilies Murchisonioidea, Tubiferoidea, 
Nerineoidea, Nerinelloidea, Itierioidea, Pro- 
cerithioidea, Cerithioidea, Turritelloidea, and 
Scaloidea. 

MuRicoiDEi Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

187:73 
Remarks: Established as a suborder includ- 
ing the superfamily Muricoidea only. Spell- 
ing emended by F. Riedel (2000: 190, 195) 
to Muricina. 

Musioglossata Mörch, 1857 

Reference: Catalogus conchyliorum quae rel- 
iquit III. M. N. Suenson: 1 

Remarks: Unranked taxon including the pul- 
monates, shelled ophisthobranchs, pyra- 
midellids, Eulima, Scalaria, and Janthina. 

Nacellina Lindberg, 1988 

Reference: Malacological Review, Suppl. 4: 55 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Patel- 

logastropoda containing the superfamilies 

Nacelloidea and Acmaeoidea. 

Natantia Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 
16:648,653 



216 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as a division of the order 
Azygobranchia, including the suborders Atlan- 
tacea, Carinariacea, and Pterotracheacea. 

Naticina F. Riedel, 2000 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 
Abhandlungen, ser. E, 32: 190, 195 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamily Naticoidea only. 

Nematoglossa Golikov & Starobogatov, 1968 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 3: 7 
Remarks: Established as a suborder includ- 
ing the superfamily Cancellarioidea only. 
Ranked by Olsson (1970: 19) as order and 
declared new. See also Cancellarioidei. 

Neogastropoda Wenz, 1938 [March] 
Reference: Handbuch derPaläozoologie, 6(1 ): 

41,65; 1082 [1941] 
Remarks: Established as an order, as a sub- 
stitute name for Stenoglossa. Spelling 
emended by Anderson (1992: 37) to Neo- 
gastropodida. 

Neomesogastropoda Bändel, 1991 [December] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 7 ^■. 453 
Remarks: Established as an order including 
the superfamilies Calyptraeoidea, Nati- 
coidea, Cypraeoidea, Tonnoidea, and Echi- 
nospirida. 

Neomphaloidei Sitnikova & Starobogatov, 1983 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 24 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Vivi- 

pariformes including the family Neomphal- 

idae only. 

Neopulmonata Kubo & Kurozumi, 1995 [10 

August] 
Reference: Molluscs of Okinawa: 5 
Remarks: Established as a major division of 

the Pulmonata, at a rank equal to Archae- 

opulmonata. 

Neotaenioglossa Malier, 1892 [15 July] 
Reference: Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 18(3): 

538 
Remarks: Original spelling Neotaenioglossae. 
Established as a division of the Taenioglos- 
sa, itself divided into the Neotaenioglossa 
brevicommisurata and the Neotaenioglossa 



longicommissurata (see these names). 
Ranked by Ponder & Waren (1 988: 289, 291 ) 
as an order including the suborders Disco- 
poda, Heteropoda, and Ptenoglossa. 

Nephropneusta Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 147 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as 

a substitute name for Stylommatophora. 

Nerineida Lyssenko, 1986 

Reference: [in Aliev & Lyssenko] Doklady Aka- 
demilNaukAzerbaidzhanskoiSSR, 42(5): 61 

Remarks: Established as order Nerineida and 
suborder Nerineina; no contents given. Not 
available from Lyssenko (1984: 15), where 
Nerineina contained the superfamilies 
Nerinelloidea, Nerinoidea, Polyptyxoidea, 
Ptygmatoidea, Cryptoplocoidea, Diptyx- 
oidea, Triptyxoidea, Plesioplocoidea, Neop- 
tyxoidea, and Oligoptyxoidea. 

Neritimorpha Koken, 1896 

Reference: Die Leitfossilien: 163 

Remarks: Original spelling Neritaemorphi. 
Established as suborder containing the fam- 
ily Neritidae. Spelling emended by Cox & 
Knight (1960: 263) to Neritopsina [declared 
new, including the superfamily Neritoidea 
only]. Spelling and rank emended by Mor- 
ton ¿Yonge (1964: 2)toorderNeritacea; by 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1975: 209) to su- 
perorder Neritimorpha, including the super- 
families Neritoidea, Hydrocenoidea, 
Titiscanioidea, and ?Cocculinoidea; by Ban- 
del (1992a: 238) to subclass Nehtomorpha, 
including the orders Neritoina, Platycerati- 
na, Helicinina, and Hydrocenina. 

NEUROBRANCHiAKeferstein, 1864 

Reference: Dr H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen der Weichthiere, Bd. 3(2): 1 031 , 1 061 

Remarks: Established as a suborder includ- 
ing the families Cyclostomidae, Helicinidae, 
and Aciculidae. 

Non-Palliata Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:648,655 
Remarks: Established as a division of the or- 
der Opisthobranchia, including the suborders 
Pygobranchia, Ceratonota, and Haplomor- 
pha. 

Non Suctoriae Bergh, 1892. See family list. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



217 



NoTASPiDEA P. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 550, 571 
Remarks: Established as a division of Tecti- 

branchiata including the genera Pleurobran- 

chus and Umbrella. 

NoTOBRANCHiA Gray, 1821 
Reference: London Medical Repository , 15: 232 
Remarks: Established as an order including 
the genera Aplysia and Bulla. 

NoTONEURÉs Lacaze-Duthiers, 1888 
Reference: Comptes Rendus des Séances de 
l'Académie des Sciences [Pans], 1 06: 721 , 724 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established 
as an order of "Gastéropodes As- 
trepsineurés", including the genera Tethys, 
Tritonia, Doris, Ombrella, the eolids, Aply- 
sia, Bulla, and Philine. 

NucLEOBRANCHiATABIainville, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la Société 
Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, (1814): 177 
Remarks: Established as order "Nucléobranch- 
es" (vernacular); latinized by Blainville (1824: 
282), containing the families Nectopoda and 
Pteropoda. See also Caryobranchiata. 

NuDiBRANCHiA Cuvier, 1814 [December] 
Reference: [in Blainville] Bulletin des Scienc- 
es par la Société Philomatique de Paris. 
Zoo/og/e, (1814): 177 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Nud- 
ibranches"; latinized (as Nudibranchi) by 
Bowdich (1822: 58). Established as an or- 
der, with the genera Doris, Polycera, Tethys, 
Scyllaea, Glaucus, Aeolis, and Tergipes giv- 
en as examples. Spelling emended by Ander- 
son (1992: 37) to Nudibranchida. 

NuDiPEDA Fleming, 1828 [March] 
Reference: A history of British animals: 296 
Remarks: Division of the Pectinibranchia 

Cryptobranchia containing the genera Jan- 

thina and Velutina. 

NuDiPLEURA Wägele & Willan, 2000 [14 Sep- 
tember] 
Reference: Zoological Journal of the Linnean 

Society, ^зo{^)■. ^ 67 

Remarks: Glade containing the Pleurobran- 
choidea and the Nudibranchia. 

Odontoglossa Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser 2, 11: 127 



Remarks: Division of the Proboscidifera con- 
taining the families Fasciolariidae and Tur- 
binellidae. 

Okadaiina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Doridida. No contents given. 

Oleacinina Schileyko, 1979 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

80:56 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Heli- 

cida containing the superfamilies Testacel- 

loidea and Streptaxoidea. 

Olivelloidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:73 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Olivellidae only. 

Onchidiida Starobogatov, 1 970 [after 1 5 October] 
Reference: Fauna molliuskov i zoogeografiches- 
koe raionirovanie kontinental'nykh vodoemov 
zemnogo shara: 45 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the superfamily Onchidioidea only. Spelling 
and rank emended by Minichev & Sla- 
voshevskaja (1971 : 360) to subclass Onchid- 
iacea; by Golikov & Starobogatov (1 989: 69) 
to superorder Onchidiiformii and order On- 
chidiiformes; by H. Nordsieck (1993: 48) to 
suborder Onchidioidei and infraorderOnchid- 
ioinei. 

Onchidoridina Minichev & Starobogatov, 1 979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Doridida. No contents given. 

Onychochilida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 58(3): 298 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the family Onychochilidae only. Spelling and 
rank emended by Starobogatov (in Amitrov, 
1984: 38) to order Onychochiliformes and 
superorder Onychochiliformii. 

Onychoglossa G. O. Sars, 1878 

Reference: Mollusca regionis arcticae Norve- 

giae: 1 1 8 
Remarks: Substitute name for Docoglossa, 

containing the families Patellidae, Tectu- 

ridae, and Lepetidae. 



218 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



OPERcuLATAMenke, 1828 
Reference: Synopsis methodica molluscorum: 22 
Remarks: Established as order Coelopneumo- 
nata operculata; latinization of "Pulmones 
operculés" of Férussac (1822). Férussac 
(1807: 37) had a family "Les Nériteins (sic) 
ou Operculés" for ail land and freshwater 
operculate gastropods. 

Operculata P. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conciiyliologigue, (5): 422, 
512; (6): 551; (7): 653 [1884]; (9): 793 [1885] 

Remarks: Name used for five different taxa of 
gastropods: (1 ) as a subdivision of Pteropo- 
da, including the family Hyollthidae only (p. 
422); (2) as a division of Thalassophila in- 
cluding the family Amphibolidae only (p. 
512); (3) as a division of Cephalaspidea, in- 
cluding the family Acteonidae only (p. 551 ); 
(4) as a subdivision of Taenioglossa includ- 
ing the families Xenophohdae and Naricidae 
(p. 653); (5) as a subdivision of Rhipidoglo- 
ssa including the families Helicinidae and 
Hydrocenidae (p. 793). 

Opisophthalma L. Pfeiffer, 1852 

Reference: Monographia pneumonopomorum 

viventium: 3 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Pneu- 

monopoma, including the family Aciculidae only. 

Opisthobranchiata Milne-Edwards, 1846 
Reference: Société Philomatique de Paris, 
Extraits des Procés-Verbaux des Séances, 
(1846): 116 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Opis- 
tobranches". Also published in Milne-Ed- 
wards (1846: 296). Latinized by Woodward 
(1 854 [in 1851-1 855]: 1 79) as Opistho-bran- 
chiata. Established as an order containing 
the "Aplysiens", "Phyllidiens", "Doridiens", 
and "Eolidiens". See also Bulliones. 

Opisthophthalma Paladiihe, 1877 

Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
ser. 6, Zoologie, 5: 1 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of oper- 
culate land snails, containing the genera 
Truncatella, Geomelania, Acme, and Tomi- 
chia. See also family Opisthophthalmidae. 

Opisthopneumona Starobogatov, 1 970 [after 1 5 

October] 
Reference: Fauna molliuskov i zoogeogra- 

ficheskoe raionirovanie kontinentarnykh vo- 

doemov zemnogo shara: 45 



Remarks: Established as a subclass contain- 
ing the orders Onchidiida, Rhodopida, and 
Soleolifera. 

OpiSTHOTREMATAWenz, 1923 

Reference: Fossilum Catalogus, I, Pars 17: 

206 
Remarks: Division of the suborder Ditremata. 

See family list. 

Oriostomatoidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 
1989 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 
187:71 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamily Oriostomatoidea only. 

Orthoconcha Fol, 1875 

Reference: Archives de Zoologie Expérimen- 
tale et Générale, 4: 1 76 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Or- 
thoconques"; established as a family and not 
available as such (not based on a genus). 
Latinized by RFischer(1883 [in 1880-1887]: 
422) as a subdivision of Pteropoda Theco- 
somata, containing the families Hyolithidae, 
Pterothecidae, Conulariidae, and Cavolini- 
idae. 

ORTHODONTAMörch, 1857a 

Reference: Fortegnelse over Grönlands Blod- 

dyr. 88 
Remarks: Established as an order including 

the genera Pilidium, Lepeta, Tectura, Cemo- 

ria, and Chiton. 

Orthodonta Macdonald, 1881 [25 March] 
Reference: The Journal of the Linnean Soci- 
ety Zoology, 15: 243-244 
Remarks: Name used for two different taxa of 
gastropods: (1) as a suborder of the order 
Proboscidifera, including the rachiglossan 
neogastropod families (p. 243); (2) as a sub- 
order of the order Rostrifera including the 
Heteropoda and the Phohdae (p. 244). 

Orthogastropoda Ponder & Lindberg, 1995 
[10 December] 

Reference: Origin and evolutionary radiation 
of the Mollusca: 145 

Remarks: Established as a division of the 
Gastropoda including all the gastropods ex- 
cept the Eogastropoda. 

Orthoneura Ihering, 1876 
Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologlschen Gesellschaft, 3: 140 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



219 



Remarks: Established as a class of the phy- 
lum Arthrocochlides, including the orders 
Rostrifera, Proboscidifera, and Heteropoda. 
Treated by Ihering (1891: 243) as an order 
of the class Cochlidae. 

Orthoneuroídes Bouvier, 1887 

Reference: Système nerveux, morphologie 
générale et classification des gastéropodes 
prosobranches: 460-461 

Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established 
as a section of the "Azygobranches", includ- 
ing the families Neritopsidae, ?Macluritidae, 
Neritidae, Hydrocaenidae, and Helicinidae. 
See also "Mononéphridés". 

Orthostrophina Linsley & Kier, 1984 [29 

March] 
Reference: Malacologia, 25(1): 250 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 

the superfamily Pelagielloidea only. 

Orthurethra Pilsbry, 1900 [10 November] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 52: 562 
Remarks: Established as a division of Vasop- 

ulmonata, containing the families Partulidae, 

Pupidae, ?Valloniidae, ?Cochlicopidae, and 

Achatinellidae. 

Otinoidei H. Nordsieck, 1993 [31 January] 
Reference: Archiv fijr Molluskenkunde, 121: 

48 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Sys- 

tellommatophora. No contents given. 

OvuLoiDEi Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Inst it и ta, 

187:72 
Remarks: Established as a suborder includ- 
ing the family Ovulidae only. 

OxYGNATHA Mörch, 1859 
Reference: Malakozoologische Blätter, 6: 109 
Remarks: Established as a family (see family 
list). Treated by Hutton (1884: 188, 204) as 
a "sub-section" of the "section" Holognatha 
containing the families Vitrinidae, Limacidae, 
and Zonitidae. 

OxYNOACEAOdhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1 939(1 ): 1 2 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
Sacoglossa, containing the family Oxynoidae 
only. Spelling and rank emended by Golikov 



& Starobogatov (1989: 68) to order Oxynoi- 
formes [attributed to Baba, 1966], contain- 
ing the suborders Lobigeroidei and Oxynoo- 
idei. 

Pachygnatha Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1 939(1 ): 48 
Remarks: Established at unspecified rank 
above family, containing the family Antiopel- 
lidae. Treated by Taylor & Sohl (1962: 12) 
as infraorder of the suborder Arminoidea. 

Palaeocaenogastropoda Bändel, 1993 [De- 
cember] 

Reference: Scripta Geológica, Special issue 
2:8 

Remarks: Original spelling Palaeo-Caenogas- 
tropoda. Established as a division of the Cae- 
nogastropoda containing the superfamilies 
Cerithioidea, Littorinoidea, Rissooidea, Sub- 
ulitoidea, Murchisonioidea, Loxonematoidea, 
Cyclophoroidea, and Ampullarioidea. 

Palliata Ray Lankester, 1883 

Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 
16:648,655 

Remarks: Established as a division of the or- 
der Opisthobranchia, as a substitute name 
forTectibranchiata, including the suborders 
Ctenidiobranchia and Phyllidiobranchia. 

Palliohedyloidei Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 
February] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 7:31 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Palliohedylidae only. 

Palmatopoda Mayer, 1849 

Reference: Verhandlungen des Naturhisto- 
rischen Vereines der Preussischen Rhein- 
lands und Westphalens, 6: 205 

Remarks: Established as an order of the class 
Gasteropoda, including all the gastropods 
other than Heteropoda and Pteropoda. 

Paludinimorpha Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 

[18 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 210 
Remarks: Established as a superorder con- 
taining the order Architaenioglossa only. 

Papillifera P Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 532 



220 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as a subdivision of the 
Polybranchiata, containing the families Proc- 
tonotidae, Aeolidiidae, Fionidae, Glaucidae, 
Dotidae, and Hermaeidae. 

Paracephala Gravenhorst, 1845 

Reference: Das Thierreich nach den Ver- 
wandtschaften & Übergängen in den Klassen 
und Ordnungen desselben dargestellt: 33 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the taxa Pteropoda and Gastropoda. 

Paracephalophora Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: :94 

Remarks: Established as a class of Malaco- 
zoaria, contents equivalent to Gastropoda, 
containing the subclasses Dioica, Hermaph- 
rodita, and Monoica. 

Paragastropoda Linsley & Kier, 1984 [29 March] 
Reference: Malacologia, 25(1): 249 
Remarks: Established as a class containing the 
orders Orthostrophina and Hyperstrophina. 

Parasita P. Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 517, 547 
Remarks: Established as a division of the 

Nudibranchiata containing the family Ento- 

conchidaeonly. 

Paratectibranchia Salvini-Plawen, 1988 
Reference: The Mollusca, volume 11: 326 
Remarks: Taxon including the Bullomorpha, 
Anaspidea, Saccoglossa, Thecosomata, 
Umbraculomorpha, ?Gymnosomata, and 
?Acochlidiomorpha. 

Partuloinei Schileyko & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 

Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 187: 75 
Remarks: Established as infraorder contain- 
ing the family Partulidae only. 

Patelliones Golikov & Starobogatov, 1984 
Reference: [in Amitrov] Spravochnik po 

sistematike iskopaemykh organismov: 37 
Remarks: Established, at the rank of subclass, 
as a substitute name for Cyclobranchia, con- 
taining the superorders Archinacelliformii and 
Patelliformii. 

Patellogastropoda Lindberg, 1986 [February] 
Reference: American Malacological Bulletin, 
4(1): 115 



Remarks: Unranked taxon including the fami- 
lies Patellidae, Acmaeidae, and Lepetidae. 
Ranked as order by Lindberg (1988: 55). 

Patelloidea Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 139 

Remarks: Established as suborder containing 
the families Tecturidae, Patellidae, and Lep- 
etidae. Spelling emended by Naef (1911: 
158159) to Patellinae, used at rank above 
order, as equivalent to Docoglossa. Spell- 
ing and rank emended by Golikov & Star- 
obogatov (in Amitrov, 1 984: 37) to superorder 
Patelliformii, order Patelliformes, and sub- 
order Patelloidei. Ranked by Salvini-Plawen 
(in Mizzaro-Wimmer & Salvini-Plawen, 2001 : 
67) as order Patellida, containing the family 
Patellidae only. 

Pectinibranchia Cuvier, 1814 [December] 
Reference: [in Blainville] Bulletin des Scienc- 
es par la Société Philomatique de Paris, 
Zoo/og/e, (1814): 178 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Pec- 
tinibranches". Latinized (as a family) by Gold- 
fuss (1820: xliv, 644). Established as an 
order including the families "les Trochoïdes", 
"les Buccinoides" and "les Sigarets". See 
also Ctenobranchiata and Trochiones. 

Pediculariiformes Golikov & Starobogatov, 
1984 

Reference: [in Amitrov] Spravochnik po 
sistematike iskopaemykh organismov: 38 

Remarks: Established as an order; no contents 
given. Spelling and rank emended by Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov (1989: 73) to suborder 
Pediculahoidei, containing the superfamilies 
Pediculahoidea, Trivioidea, and Lamellario- 
idea. 

Pedoneura Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 

Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 83 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Acochlidiidae, Palliohedyl- 
idae, and Strubelliidae. 

Pelagiellida Runnegar& Pojeta, 1985 
Reference: The Mollusca, volume 10: 28, 50 
Remarks: Established as an order of Mono- 
placophora containing the family Pelagiel- 
lidae only. Also declared new by MacKinnon 
(1985: 75). Spelling emended to Pelagielli- 
formes by Parkhaev (2001 : 1 34-1 35). 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



221 



Pellibranchiata Alder & Hancock, 1847 
Reference: The Athenaeum, Journal of Litera- 
ture, Science, and the Fine Arts, (1847): 748 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the genera Elysia, Placobranchus, Acteonia, 
Chalidis, Limapontia, and Ictis. 

Peltacea Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1 939(1 ): 6 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ceph- 

alaspidea, containing the genus Pelta. See 

also Runcinacea. 

Peltocochlides Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Originally introduced as a vernacu- 
lar name. Latinized, with the same spelling, 
by Latreille (1825: 200). Established as a 
class including the orders Scutibranchia and 
Cyclobranchia. 

Pentaganglionata Haszprunar, 1985 
Reference: Zeitschrift für Zoologische System- 
atik und Evolutionsforschung, 23(1 ): 32 
Remarks: Established as a "cohors" contain- 
ing the superorders Architectibranchia, Tecti- 
branchia, Eleutherobranchia, Gymnomor- 
pha, and Pulmonata. 

Peraclida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izuchenilu molliuskov, 5: 11 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as 
a substitute name for Pseudothecosomata. 
Spelling and rank emended by Golikov & 
Starobogatov (1989: 69) to superorder Per- 
acliformii, order Peracliformes and suborder 
Peracloidei. 

Peracliones Minichev & Starobogatov, 1984 
Reference: [in Amitrov] Spravochnik po 

sistematike iskopaemykh organismov. 38 
Remarks: Established, at the rank of subclass, 

as a substitute name for Dextrobranchia. 

Perunelomorpha Fryda, 1998 

Reference: 13th International Malacological 

Congress [Washington DC], Abstracts: 107- 

108 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 

the superfamily Peruneloidea only. 

PetrophilaGíII, 1871 [February] 
Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 13 



Remarks: Taxon established at a rank between 
"suborder" and family, containing the fami- 
lies Gadiniidae and Siphonahidae. 

Phanerobranchia Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 145 

Remarks: Established as an order of the class 
Ichnopoda, containing the families Tritoni- 
idae, Scyllaeidae, Dendronotidae, Bornel- 
lidae, Heroidae, Dotidae, Aeolidiidae, 
Phylliroidae, Dorididae, Onchidorididae, Tri- 
opidae, Corambidae, Doriopsidae, Phyllidi- 
idae, Pleurophyllidiidae, and Pleuroleuridae. 
See also Tergibranchiata. 

Phanerobranchiata p. Fischer, 1883 [20 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 519 

Remarks: Fischer most probably took the 
name Phanerobranchiata from Bergh, 
1880 (see family list), but he used it as a 
name above the family level, to contain the 
family Polyceridae. Spelling emended by 
Odhner (1926: 30) to Phanerobranchia, 
containing the families Notodorididae, 
Polyceridae, Goniodorididae, and Onchi- 
dorididae; ranked as suborder (in synony- 
my of Anadoridacea), by Franc (1968c: 
858). 

Phanerogama Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Phanérogames". Latinized by Latreille 
(1825: 157). A "section" of the Mollusca in- 
cluding the cephalopods, the pteropods, and 
the gastropods. 

Phaneropneumona Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 
231 

Remarks: Original spelling Phaneropneuma- 
na. Established as an order of Pneumono- 
branchia, containing the genera Cyclostoma 
and Helicina. Spelling emended by Gray 
(1857a: viii, 78) to Phaneropneumona, con- 
taining the families Cyclophoridae, Oligy- 
ridae, and Proserpinidae. 

Pharyngoneura Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 91 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Tantulidae only. 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Philinacea Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skrifter, 1939(1 ): 6 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ceph- 

alaspidea, containing the family Philinidae. 

Philinoglossacea Hoffmann, 1933 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronns Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tier-Reichs. Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Buch 
3:192 

Remarks: Established as a "Sippe". Ranked 
as a suborder by Franc (1 968c: 843). 

PHLEBENTERATAQuatrefages, 1844 

Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 
ser. 3, Zoologie, 1: 129, 171 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the families "Entérobranches" and "Dermo- 
branches", comprising essentially nudi- 
branchs, sacoglossans and Acteon. 

Phyllaplysiina Minichev & Starobogatov, 

1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19-20 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Aplysiida. No contents given. 

Phyllidiobranchia Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:645 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Zygobranchia, including the family 
Patellidae only. See also Phyllidioidei. 

Phyllidioidei Férussac, 1822 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxix 
Remarks: Established as a suborder "Les 
Phyllidiens Cuv. Lam.". Latinized [as subor- 
der Phyllidinae, containing the family Phyl- 
lidiidae only] by Menke (1828: 6). Spelling 
and rank emended by Ray Lankester (1 883: 
655) to suborder Phyllidiobranchia; by Am- 
itrov (1984: 38) and Golikov & Staroboga- 
tov (1989: 68) to superorder Phyllidiiformi, 
order Phyllidiiformes and suborder Phyllid- 
ioidei. 

Phyllobranchiacea Franc, 1968 
Reference: Traité de zoologie, 5(3): 845 
Remarks: Established by Latreille as a fami- 
ly-group name (see family list). Ranked by 
Franc as a suborder (in the synonymy of Po- 
lybranchiacea) containing the families Po- 
lybranchiidae and Hermaeidae. 



Phyllobranchopsina Minichev & Starobogatov, 

1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19-20 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Stiligehda. No contents given. 

Phyllovora Gray, 1860 [October] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 3, 6: 268 

Remarks: Established as a section of the Geo- 
phila, containing the families Helicidae, Arion- 
idae, Parmacellidae, Cryptellidae, Aneiteidae, 
Janellidae, Philomycidae, Veronicellidae, and 
Onchidiidae. 

Phytophaga Lamarck, 1822 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertèbres, 6(2): 57, 59 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Les 
Phytiphages". Latinized by Herrmannsen 
(1847 [in 1846-1852]: 266). Established as a 
section of the division "Trachélipodes", con- 
taining the families "Colimacés", "Lymnéens", 
"Mélaniens", "Péristomiens", "Néritacés", 
"Janthines", "Macrostomes", "Plicacés", "Sca- 
lariens", and "Turbinacés". 

Pigobranchiata. See under Pygobranchia. 

Placobranchacea Jensen, 1996 

Reference: Philosophical Transactions of the 

Royal Society of London, ser. В, 351: 117 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Sacoglossa, containing the superfam- 

ilies Placobranchoidea and Limapontioidea. 

See also Placobranchidae in family list. 

Planilabiata Stoliczka, 1868 [1 October] 

Reference: Cretaceous fauna of Southern India. 

Palaeontologia Indica, Vol. 2, Parts 7-10: 330 

Remarks: Established as a "tribe" (between 

suborder and family) of the Scutibranchiata, 

containing the family Neritidae only. 

Planktotrophica Haszprunar, 1988 [14 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 
54(4): 430 

Remarks: Glade containing the Caenogas- 
tropoda and the Chalazaeata. 

Planorboinei H. Nordsieck, 1993 [31 January] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 1 21 : 48 
Remarks: Established as infraorder of the sub- 
order Branchiopulmonata. No contents given. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



223 



Planspiralia Naef, 1911 

Reference: Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der 
Zoo/og/e, 3(2): 156-159 

Remarks: Established as a division of the Gas- 
tropoda containing the order Belleromorpha 
only. 

Platyceratina Bändel, 1992 

Reference: Paläontologisclie Zeitschrift, 66(3- 
4): 238 

Remarks: Established as an order of the sub- 
class Neritomorpha. No contents given. 

Platycochlides Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Maia- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 143 
Remarks: Established as a "phylum" of the 

Mollusca, containing the classes Ichnopoda, 

Pteropoda, and Cephalopoda. See also Platy- 

malakia. 

Platyhedyloidea Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontaho Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 108 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the family Platyhedylidae only. Spelling and 
rank emended by Ev. Marcus (1982: 26) to 
suborder Platyhedylacea. 

Platymalakia Ihering, 1877 

Reference: Vergleichende Anatomie des 
Nervensystemes und Phylogenie der Mol- 
lusken: 31 

Remarks: Established as a substitute name 
for Platycochlides. Ihering (1 891 : 240, 243) 
ranked Platymalakia as one of two "phylum" 
of the Mollusca, containing the classes Ich- 
nopoda and Pteropoda [but not the Cepha- 
lopoda, earlier included in Platycochlides]. 

Platypoda Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribution 
of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 1: 64 

Remarks: Established as a division of the or- 
der Rostrifera, containing the Podophthal- 
ma, Edriophthalma, and Opisophthalma. 

Platypoda P. Fischer, 1883 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de palé- 
ontologie conchyliologique, (5): 445; (6): 582 

Remarks: Established as a subdivision of the 
class Gastropoda containing the order Proso- 
branchiata. 

Pleurembolica F. Riedel, 2000 
Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 
Abhandlungen, ser. E, 32: 191, 195 



Remarks: Taxon containing the suborders 
Troschelina, Cassina, and Ficina of the 
Neomesogastropoda + the order Neogas- 
tropoda. 

Pleuroanthobranchia Grande, Templado, 
Cervera & Zardoya, 2004 

Reference: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evo- 
lution, 33: 384-385 

Remarks: Clade of Nudipleura defined by the 
presence of blood gland, calcareous spicules 
in the integument and a caecum directly 
opened into the stomach, containing the 
Pleurobranchoidea and Anthobranchia. 

Pleurobranchia Deshayes, 1832 

Reference: Encyclopédie méthodique. Histoire 
naturelle des vers, 2: table between pp. 552- 
553 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Les 
Pleurobranches". Latinized by Herrmanns- 
en (1847 [in 1846-1852]: 293). Established 
as a suborder containing the genera Umbrel- 
la, Siphonaria, Pleurobranchus and Pleuro- 
branchaea. Spelling and rank emended by 
Gray (1840b: 152) to order Pleurobranchia- 
ta, containing the families Bullidae, Aplysi- 
idae, Umbrellidae, Pleurobranchidae, and 
Pterotracheidae; by Pelseneer (1906: 173) 
to "tribe" Pleurobranchomorpha; by Golikov 
& Starobogatov (1989: 67) to order Pleuro- 
branchiformes and suborder Pleurobranchio- 
idei. 

Pleurocoela Thiele, 1926 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 105 

Remarks: Established as an order of Opistho- 

branchia, containing the suborders Ceph- 

alaspidea, Pteropoda Thecosomata, Anaspi- 

dea, and Pteropoda Gymnosomata. 

Pleurommatophoren Simroth, 1889 
Reference: Nova Acta, Kaiserlich Leopol- 
dinish-Carolinische Deutsche Akademie der 
Naturforscher, 54{^)■. 85 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. Taxon com- 
prising all the land pulmonates exclusive of 
Athoracophoridae. 

Pleuroneurés Lacaze-Duthiers, 1888 
Reference: Comptes Rendus des Séances de 

lAcadémie des Sciences [Paris], 106: 721, 

724 
Remarks: Vernacular name only. Established as 

an order of "Gastéropodes Astrepsineurés", 

defined by disposition of nervous system, 

but contents not explicit. 



224 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Pleurophthalma p. Fischer, 1 883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 586 
Remarks: Division of the Toxoglossa contain- 
ing the families Conidae and Cancellariidae. 

PLEUROPROCTAOdhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skhfter, 1939(1): 50, 52 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" [= suborder] 
of the suborder Eolidacea, containing the fam- 
ily Coryphellidae only. See also Pleuroprocta 
in family list. 

Pleurotomariina Cox & Knight, 1960 [February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 33(6): 263 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the Ar- 
chaeogastropoda, containing the superfami- 
lies Pleurotomarioidea, ?Trochonematoidea, 
and Fissurelloidea. Spelling and rank emend- 
ed by Pchelintsev (1 963: 39) to order Pleuro- 
tomariata; by Golikov & Starobogatov (in 
Amitrov, 1984: 38) to subclass Pleurotomari- 
iones [in synonymy of Scutibranchia] and or- 
der Pleurotomariiformes. 

Plocamobranchia Gray, 1857 [9 May] 
Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 
7:ix, 115 
Remarks: Taxon comprising the families Ca- 
lyptraeidae, Capulidae, and Vanikoroidae. 

Pneumatodocha Kölliker, 1847 

Reference: Giornale dell'lmperiale Reale Istituto 
Lombardo di Scienze, Lettere edArti, 16: 248 

Remarks: Taxon of "Limaces Gasteropoda" 
[= the Gastropoda without the Pteropoda and 
Heteropoda], containing the taxa with respi- 
ratory organs, as opposed to Apneusta, with- 
out them. 

Pneumobranchia Lamarck, 1819 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertèbres, 6(1 ): 298 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Pneu- 
mobranches". Latinized by T. Brown (1844? 
[in 1 837-1 844]: 54, as Pneumobranchiae). A 
section of the "Gastéropodes" containing the 
family "Limaciens". Spelling and rank emend- 
ed by Gray (1840c: 153) to order Pneumo- 
branchiata [containing the family Arionidae 
only]. See also Pneumonobranchia. 

Pneumodermatida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1 975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 11 



Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as 
a substitute name for Gymnosomata. Spell- 
ing emended by Starobogatov & Naumov 
(1987: 149) to Pneumodermatiformes. 

Pneumoneata Hartmann, 1821 

Reference: System der Erd- & Süsswasser 
Gasteropoden Europas: 32-33 

Remarks: Original spelling "Pneumoneen" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Hartmann (1844: 
table). Established as an order of the class 
Gastropoda, containing all the pulmonates 
and land operculates. 

Pneumonobranchia Gray, 1821 
Reference: London Medical Repository, 1 5: 230 
Remarks: Established as a subclass of Gas- 
teropodophora, containing the orders Ade- 
lopneumona and Phaneropneumona. 
Spelling and rank emended by Gray (1840a: 
1 01 ) to order Pneumonobranchiata, contain- 
ing the families Arionidae, Helicidae, Auri- 
culidae, Lymnaeidae, and Cyclostomatidae. 
See also under Pneumobranchia. 

Pneumonochlamyda Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:648 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the or- 
der Azygobranchia, including the families 
Cyclostomatidae, Helicinidae, and Aciculidae. 

Pneumonophora Macdonald, 1880 [3 September] 
Reference: Journal of the Linnean Society 

Zoology, 15: 163 
Remarks: Established as an order including 

the suborder Pulmonata only. 

Pneumonopoma L. Pfeiffer, 1852 

Reference: Monographia pneumonopomorum 

viventium: 1 
Remarks: Substitute name for Pneumopoma, 

ranked as order containing all land operculates. 

Pneumopoma Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Pneu- 
mopomes". Latinized by Latreille (1825: 
182). Established as an order, containing the 
families "Hélicinides", and "Turbicines". See 
also Pneumonopoma. 

PoDOPHTHALMA Gray, 1840 

Reference: Synopsis of the contents of the 

British Museum, ed. 42: 151 
Remarks: Established as a division of the 

order Phytophaga, containing the families 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



225 



Turbinidae, Trochidae, Stomatellidae, Hali- 
otldae, Fissurellidae, Neritidae, Ampullari- 
idae, Janthinidae, and Atlantidae. 

PoLYBRANCHiA Blainville, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Phylomatique de Paris, (1814): 177 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Po- 
lybranches". Latinized as a family (see fam- 
ily list). Established as an order containing 
the families "Tétracères" and "Dicères". 
Spelling and rank emended by Franc (1 968c: 
845) to suborder Polybranchiacea, contain- 
ing the families Polybranchiidae (= Caliphyl- 
lidae) and Hermaeidae. 

PoMASTOMA Férussac, 1822 [13 April] 
Reference: Tableaux systématiques des ani- 
maux mollusques: xxxiv 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "les 
Pomastomes". Latinized [as Pomastomae] 
by Menke (1828: 22) and [as Pomatostoma] 
by Menke (1830: 40). Established as subor- 
der containing the families "Turbines" and 
"Trochoides". 

PoMATOBRANCHiATA Schweigger, 1820 
Reference: Handbuch der Naturgeschichte der 

skelettlosen ungegliederten Thiere: IAA 
Remarks: Substitute name for "Les Tecti- 
branches". Division of the order Gasteropo- 
da, containing the genera Akera, Notarchus, 
Aplysia, Pleurobranchus, and Pleurobran- 
chaea. Spelling and rank emended by Bur- 
meister (1837: 498) to family Pomatobran- 
chia (not available as such: not based on a 
genus). 

PORODORIDACEAOdhner, 1968 

Reference: ArkivforZoologi, 20(13): 254 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Dori- 
dacea, "comprising those families that Bergh 
united in his 'Dorididae porostomata'". Also 
declared by Odhner (in Franc, 1968c: 872) 
a new suborder, containing the families Phyl- 
lidiidae and Dendrodorididae. See also Po- 
rodoridacea in family list. 

Porostomata Bergh, 1876 [4 May] 
Reference: Malacologische Untersuchungen, 
[in Semper] Reisen im Archipel der Philip- 
pinen, Theil 2. Wissenschaftliche Resultate, 
Bd.2,Theil 1, Heft 10: title 
Remarks: Established at unspecified rank un- 
der Nudibranchiata holohepatica, containing 
the families Doriopsidae and Phyllidiadae. 
See also family list. 



Prionoglossa G. O. Sars, 1878 

Reference: Mollusca regionis arcticae Non/e- 

giae: 214 
Remarks: Taxon containing the family Omalo- 

gyridaeonly. 

PROBOsciDEATroschel, 1847 

Reference: Archiv Wr Naturgeschichte, 13(2): 
383 

Remarks: Used in a heading only. Formally 
diagnosed in Troschel (1848: 548), there 
containing the families Volutacea, Canalífera, 
Muricea, Cassidea, and Buccinea. 

Proboscidifera Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 125 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Cteno- 
branchiata, containing families of Neogas- 
tropoda, some Neotaenioglossa, and some 
Heterostropha. Ranked by Ihering (1876: 
142) as an order, and declared nov. 

Procaenogastropoda Bändel, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 86: 145 
Remarks: Established as a subclass contain- 
ing the orders Solenisciformes and Perunelo- 
morpha. 

Procyclophorida Bändel, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 86: 178 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the superfamilies Anthracopupoidea and Pa- 
laeocyclophoroidea. 

ProdiotocardiaA. Meyer, 1913 [20 September] 
Reference: Biologisches Centralblatt, 33: 571 
Remarks: Hypothetical ancestor of the Dioto- 
cardia. 

Progastropoda A. Meyer, 1913 [20 September] 
Reference: Biologisches Centralblatt, 33: 571 , 

575 
Remarks: Hypothetical ancestral gastropods. 

Promonotocardia A. Meyer, 1 91 3 [20 September] 
Reference: Biologisches Centralblatt, 33: 571 
Remarks: Hypothetical ancestor of the Monoto- 
cardia. 

Proprioneura Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum. Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 87 



226 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Hedylopsidae and Pseudune- 
lidae. 

PRORHIPIDOGLOSSASimrOth, 1906 

Reference: Dr H.G. Bronns Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tier-Reichs, Bd. 3, Abt. 2, Buch 
1:838,1052 

Remarks: Taxon containing the family Belle- 
rophontidae only. 

Prosobranchia Milne-Edwards, 1846 [2 Sep- 
tember] 

Reference: Société Philomatique de Paris, Ex- 
trait des Procès-Verbaux des Séances, 
(1846): 116 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) 
"Prosobranches". Also published in Milne- 
Edwards (1846b: 296). Often credited to a 
later paper by Milne-Edwards (1848: 109, 
112). Established as one of four orders (with 
Pulmonata, Heteropoda, and Opisthobran- 
chia) of the class Gastropoda; no contents 
given. See also Eugastropoda. 

Prosophthalma H. Adams & A. Adams, 1856 
[March] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
2:313 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Assimineidae only. 

PROTEOBRANCHIATADall, 1870 

Reference: The American Naturalist, 4: 561 
Remarks: Original spelling Proteo-branchi- 
ata. Established as a suborder of the or- 
der Docoglossa containing the families 
Acmaeidae and Patellidae. Dall (1871 : 49, 
51) expanded his views on the classifica- 
tion of the Docoglossa and included only 
the family Acmaeidae in the Proteobran- 
chiata. 

Protocochlides Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 

kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 144 
Remarks: Established as an order of the class 

Ichnopoda, containing the families Rhodop- 

idae, Tethyidae, and Melibidae. See also 

Tergibranchiata. 

Protogastropoda Shimer & Shrock, 1 944 
Reference: Index fossils of North America: 

366, 437 
Remarks: Established as a subclass of the 

class Gastropoda, containing the orders Cy- 

nostraca and Cochliostraca. 



Protopoda Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 
7:64,126 

Remarks: Division of the suborder Rosthfera 
containing the family Vermetidae only. 

Protostreptoneura 

Remarks: Wenz (1938: 62) stated that B. B. 
Woodward had proposed Protostreptoneu- 
ra as a basal group of ancestral gastropods 
containing Subulites, Stenotheca, and 
Platyceras. We have not found this name in 
Woodward's work, and Wenz himself reject- 
ed this concept of Protostreptoneura. 

Protriaula Ihering, 1892 

Reference: Nova Acta, Kaiserlich Leopol- 

dinish-Carolinische Deutsche Akademie der 

Naturforscher, 58(5): 399 
Remarks: Established at the rank of order, as 

a substitute name for Triaula. 

Proturethra Ihering, 1929 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Archiv für Mol- 
luskenkunde, 2{2): 156, 194 

Remarks: Division of Nephropneusta, contain- 
ing the families Onchidiidae, Vaginulidae, 
Rathouisiidae, Janellidae, and Philomycidae. 

PsELAPHocEPHALA Koferstoin, 1862 

Reference: DrH. G. Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen derWeichthiere, Bd. 3(2): 522, 567 

Remarks: Established at the rank of class as 
a substitute name for Gastropoda. 

PsEUDOBRANCHiA Gray, 1856 [13 August] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Zoological 

Society of London, 24: 101 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Scutibranchia, containing the family 

Proserpinidaeonly. 

PsEUDOBRANCHiATA Hartmann, 1840 
Reference: Erd- und Süsswasser-Gastero- 

poden: (unnumbered table) 
Remarks: Division of the Gastropoda contain- 
ing the genera Choristoma, Pomatias, and 
Cyclostoma. 

PsEUDOEucTENiDiACEA Tardy, 1970 
Reference: Annales des Sciences naturelles, 

Zoologie et Biologie animale, ser. 12, 12(3): 365 
Remarks: Established as a superfamily (see 

family list). Ranked by Baranetz & Minichev 

(1995: 298) as an order in the synonymy of 

Doridoxida. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



227 



PsEUDOLivoiDEi Kantor, 1991 [November] 
Reference; Ruthenica, 1(1-2): 49 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Neogastropoda, containing the family 

Pseudolividaeonly. 

PsEUDOPHALLiA МогсЬ, 1865 [5 Octobor] 
Reference: Journal de Conchyliologie, 13: 399 
Remarks: Established as a "class" of the "se- 
ries" Diotocardia, as a substitute name for 
Aspidobranchia, containing the divisions 
Rhipidoglossata and Heteroglossata. 

PsEUDOPNEUMONA Сгэу, 1857 [9 May] 
Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 
7:viii, 86 
Remarks: Taxon containing the families Lit- 
torinidae, Lacunidae, and Truncatellidae. 

PsEUDOTHECosoMATA Moisenheimer, 1905 [22 

January] 
Reference: Deutsche Tiefsee Expedition, 9(1 ): 

4,174 
Remarks: Taxon established at unspecified 

rank above family, containing the families 

Cymbuliidae and Desmopteridae. See also 

Peraclida. 

Ptenobranchiata. See Ctenobranchiata. 

Ptenoglossa Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 129 
Remarks: Division of the Proboscidifera, con- 
taining the families Cassidae, Scalariidae, 
and Actaeonidae. Established at unspecified 
rank above family, and subsequently gener- 
ally treated as suborder. 

Pterabranchia Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 

235 
Remarks: Established as an order of the Sto- 

matopterophora, containing the genera 

Limacina, Cleodora, Cymbula, and 7Clio and 

Pneumoderma. 

Pterocephala N. Wagner, 1885 
Reference: Die Wirbellosen des Weissen 

Meeres, 1: 118, 120 
Remarks: Established as an order of the 

Pteropoda containing the genera Creseis, 

Hyalea, and Cavolinia. 

Pterodibranchia Blainville, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la Société 
Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, (1814): 177 



Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Ptérod- 
ibranches", alternative spelling for "Ptéro- 
branches". Latinized by Herrmannsen (1847 
[in 1846-1852]: 347). Established as an or- 
der, containing Pteropoda less the genus 
Hyalaea and "perhaps" Pneumoderma. 

Pteropoda Cuvier, 1804 

Reference: Annales du Muséum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle, 4: 232 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "ptérop- 
odes". Latinized by Blainville (1825: 493) at 
the rank of family (see family list). Established 
as an order including the genera "Clio", "Pneu- 
mo-derme", and "Hyale". See also Sto- 
matopterophora. 

Pterota Boas, 1 886 

Reference: Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrift- 

er ser 6, Naturvidenskabelig og Mathema- 

tisk Af deling, 4(1): 14 [Danish text], 179 

[French text] 
Remarks: Established at the rank of suborder 

as a substitute name for Gymnosomata. 

Pterotracheacea Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:654 
Remarks: Established as a suborder including 

the genera Pterotrachea and Firuloides (sic). 

Pterygia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling "Ptérygiens" (ver- 
nacular). Latinized by Latreille (1825: 157). 
Established as a division of the "Mollusques 
Phanérogames" containing the classes 
Cephalopoda and Pteropoda. 

Pterygia P Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 544 
Remarks: Established as a division of the Pel- 

libranchiata containing the family Elysiidae 

only 

PuLMOBRANCHiATA Blainvülo, 1814 [November] 
Reference: Bulletin des Sciences par la So- 
ciété Philomatique de Paris, Zoologie, 
(1814): 178 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Pul- 
mo-branches". Latinized by Goldfuss (1820) 
as a family (see family list). Spelling and rank 
emended by Blainville (1824: 242) to order 
Pulmobranchiata, containing the families 
"Limnacea", "Auriculacea", and "Limacinea". 
See also Pulmonata. 



228 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



PuLMONATA Cuvier, 1814 [December] 
Reference: [in Blainville] Bulletin des Scienc- 
es par la Société Philomatique de Paris, 
Zoo/og/e, (1814): 178 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "pul- 
mones". Established as an order, treated as 
a substitute name for "Pulmobranches" 
[= Pulmobranchiata]. Latinized as Pul- 
monifera, at the rank of class, by Fleming 
(1822: 448): as Pulmonea by Latreille (1825: 
178). See also Heliciones and Limaciones. 

Pupillina Schileyko, 1979 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 
80:56 

Remarks: Established as a suborder, contain- 
ing the superfamilies Cerionoidea, Achatinel- 
loidea, Cionelloidea, Pupilloidea, and 
Sagdoidea. Spelling and rank emended by 
H. Nordsieck (1993a: 48) to suborder Pupil- 
loidei (in synonymy of Orthurethra); by Schi- 
leyko (1 998 [in 1 998-2003]: 6) to infraorder 
Pupilloinei. 

PuRPURiNoiDEi Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 26 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Cerithiiformes, including the family 

Purpurinidaeonly. 

Pycnonephridia R. Perrier, 1889 

Reference: Recherches sur I'anatomie et 
l'histologie du rein des Gastéropodes Proso- 
branches: 281 

Remarks: Original spelling "Pycnonéphridiens" 
(vernacular); spelled "Pycnonéphridés" by E. 
Perrier(1897: 2098). Latinized by Ponder & 
Waren (1988: 314). Established as a divi- 
sion of Stenoglossa, containing Turbinella, 
Fusus, Mitra, Buccinum, Murex, and Purpu- 
ra (contents in R. Perrier, 1893: 605). 

Pygobranchia Gray, 1821 
Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 234 
Remarks: Established as an order, treated as 
a substitute name for Cephalophora cyclo- 
branchia, containing the genus Doris. 
Ranked as a suborder by Gray (1 857a: 206). 
Spelling emended by Misuri (1917: 9) to 
Pigobranchiata, treated as a substitute name 
for the Holohepatica of Bergh. 

Pyramidellimorpha Golikov & Starobogatov, 

1975 [18 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 214 



Remarks: Established as a superorder includ- 
ing the orders Heterostropha, Ptenoglossa, 
and Homoeostropha. Spelling and rank 
emended by Ros (1975: 347) to order Pyra- 
midellacea; by Minichev & Starobogatov 
(1979a: 298) to superorder Pyramidelloida 
and order Pyramidellida; by Minichev & Star- 
obogatov (in Amitrov, 1 984: 38) to subclass 
Pyramidelliones. 

Pyrenoidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:73 
Remarks: Established as suborder of the or- 
der Mitriformes, containing the superfamilies 
Beringioidea and Pyrenoidea. 

Rachiglossa Gray, 1853 [February] 
Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 

History, ser. 2, 11: 127 
Remarks: Taxon containing the family Volutidae. 
When he established the Stenoglossa (= Tox- 
oglossa + Rachiglossa), Bouvier (1887: 472) 
used Rachiglossa for a taxon containing the 
families Harpidae, Marginellidae, Volutidae, 
Mitridae, Olividae, Fasciolariidae, Turbinel- 
lidae, Buccinidae, Nassidae, Columbellidae, 
Muricidae, Purpuridae, and Coralliophilidae. 

Raphidoglossa Macdonald, 1880 [3 Septem- 
ber] 

Reference: Journal of the Linnean Society, 
Zoology, ^5:^ 65, 242 

Remarks: Established as an order of Gaster- 
opoda Monoecia, containing the suborders 
Dicranobranchia, Schismatobranchia, Scut- 
ibranchia, and Pseudobranchia. 

Remibranchiata Quatrefages, 1844. See fami- 
ly list. 

Reptantia Ray Lankester, 1883 

Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 
16:648 

Remarks: Established as a division of the or- 
der Azygobranchia, including the suborders 
Holochlamyda, Pneumonochlamyda, and 
Siphonochlamyda. 

Retirera Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32: 288 

Remarks: Taxon established by Blainville for 
a family (see family list). Ranked by Möller 
(1 832: 1 32) as suborder containing the fam- 
ily Patellidae, itself containing the genera 
Patella and Trimusculus. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



229 



RetusaceaT. E. Thompson, 1976 
Reference: Biology of opisthobranch molluscs, 

1:17 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Bullo- 

morpha containing the family Retusidae only. 

RHACopoDAHennig, 1980 

Reference: Taschenbuch der speziellen Zoo- 
logie, ed. 4. Wirbellose I: 320 

Remarks: Glade containing the Gephalopoda 
and Gastropoda. 

Rhinioglossa G. O. Sars, 1878 

Reference: Mollusca regionis arcticae Norve- 

giae: 448 
Remarks: Taxon containing the genus "Triforis" 

[in the sense of Marshallora] only. See also 

Triphoroidei. 

Rhinophoralia Haszprunar, 1988 [14 Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 
54(4): 430 

Remarks: Clade containing Pyramidelloidea 
and Euthyneura. 

RHiPiDOGLOSSATroschel, 1848 

Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, ed. 3: 
553 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Neritidae, Trochidae, Hali- 
otidae, and Fissurellidae. Riphidoglossa and 
Raphidoglossa [both Gray (1 856: 1 00-1 01 )] 
are incorrect subsequent spellings (but 
Raphidoglossa Macdonald, 1880 is a differ- 
ent name). 

Rhodopadae Poche, 1911 

Reference: Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 77(1), 
Suppl.: 105 

Remarks: Established as a "subsubphylum" 
containing the class Rhodopoidea, itself con- 
taining the family Rhodopidae only. Spelling 
and rank emended by Minichev (1971: 10) 
to order Rhodopida; by Golikov & Staro- 
bogatov (1 989: 69) to Rhodopiformes [attrib- 
uted to Minichev & Slavoshevskaja (1 971 )]. 

Rhytidoinei Schileyko & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 

Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 187: 75 
Remarks: Established as infraorder of Limac- 

iformes containing the superfamily Rhyti- 

doidea only. 

Ringiculida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 

[after 14 February] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 58(3): 298 



Remarks: Established as order of the super- 
order Pyramidelloida, containing the family 
Ringiculidaeonly. 

RissoELLiNA Golikov & Starobogatov, 1968 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 3: 7 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Discopoda, containing the superfami- 
lies Skeneopsoidea and Rissoelloidea. 

RissooiDEi Slavoshevskaja, 1983 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 17 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the superfamilies Rissooidea, Rissoi- 
noidea, and Truncatelloidea. 

RosTRiFERA Gray, 1853 [February] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 2, 11: 130 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Cteno- 
branchia containing the divisions Gymnoglo- 
ssa [for Canceilariidae], Toxoglossa [for 
Conidae], Dactyloglossa [forAmphiperatidae], 
and Taenioglossa [for Cypraeidae, Phoridae, 
Ampullariidae, Viviparidae, Rissoellidae, Cy- 
clophoridae, Capulidae, and many others]. 

RosTRiFERA Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 140 

Remarks: Established as an order of Ortho- 
neura containing the suborders Rhipidoglo- 
ssa [for Neritacea etc.], Ptenoglossa [for 
Janthinidae etc.], and Taenioglossa [for 
Ampullariaceaetc]. 

RuNciNiDEA Colosi, 191 5 [after 25 April] 
Reference: Memorie delta Reale Accademia 
delle Scienze di Torino, Classe di Scienze 
Fisiche, Mathematiche e Naturali, ser. 2, 
56(6): 33-34 
Remarks: Established as a "section" [above 
family level] of Tectibranchia containing the 
family Runcinidae only. Spelling and rank 
emended by Burn (1 963: 9) to suborder Runc- 
inacea, as a substitute name for Peltacea; 
ranked by Odhner (in Franc, 1 968c: 841 ) as 
order; spelling emended by Golikov & Staro- 
bogatov (1 989: 68) to order Runciniformes. 

Saccobranchia Leach, 1847 [October] 
Reference: [in Gray, ed.] Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History, 20: 268 
Remarks: Division of Gastropoda containing the 
families Limacidae, Helicidae, Carychiidae, 
Lymnaeidae, and Ancylidae. 



230 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Sacoglossa Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 146 

Remarks: Established as an order of Ichnop- 
oda, containing the families Limapontiidae, 
Elysiidae, Phyllobranchidae, Plakobran- 
chidae, Hermaeidae, and Lophocercidae. 
Spelling emended by Anderson (1992: 37) 
to Sacoglossida. See also Ascoglossa. Jens- 
en (1992: 541) has reviewed the usages of 
Sacoglossa and Ascoglossa, and advocat- 
ed usage of the former. 

Sagdoinei Schileyko & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 

Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 187: 75 
Remarks: Established as infraorder of Limaci- 

formes containing the superfamily Sag- 

doidea only. 

Scaphandracea Odhner, 1939 [26 August] 
Reference: Det Kongelige Norske Videnskab- 

ers Selskabs Skhfter, 1 939(1 ): 6 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ceph- 
alaspidea containing the families Scaphan- 
dridae and Akeridae. Spelling emended by 
Starobogatov (1 989: 74) to Scaphandroidei 
(declared new). 

Schismatobranchia Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 
233 

Remarks: Established as an order of Gas- 
tropoda Cryptobranchia containing the ge- 
nus Haliotis only. See also family list. 

ScHisTOPELMATA Thiele, 1921 [12 July] 
Reference: Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 53(3): 

144 
Remarks: Taxen containing the family Assimi- 

neidaeonly. 

ScHizopoDA R Fischer, 1883 [20 December] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (6): 597 
Remarks: Subdivision of the Rachiglossa con- 
taining the family Olividae only. 

ScLERODERMATA R Fischor, 1883 [21 Febru- 
ary] 

Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 422 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Pteropo- 
da containing the family Eurybiidae only. 

ScuTiBRANCHiA Cuvier, 1817 

Reference: Le règne animal ..., 2: 388, 445 



Remarks: Original spelling "les Scutibranch- 
es" (vernacular). Latinized [as Scutibranchi- 
ata Cuvier 1812] by Herrmannsen (1847 [in 
1846-1852]). Established as an order includ- 
ing the genera Haliotis, Capulus, Crepidula, 
Fissurella, etc. Rank emended by Minichev 
& Starobogatov (1979a: 299) to subclass 
Scutibranchia. 

Seguenziina Haszprunar, 1986 

Reference: 9'" International Malacological 
Congress, Abstracts: 34 

Remarks: Original spelling Seguenzinina; no 
contents given. Spelling and rank emended 
by Salvini-Plawen & Haszprunar (1 987: 762) 
to suborder Seguenziina; by Goryachev 
(1987a: 22) to order Seguenziiformes (de- 
clared new). 

Selenimorpha Bändel & Fryda, 1996 
Reference: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und 

Paläontologie. Monatshefte, (1996[6]): 331 
Remarks: Division of Vetigastropoda defined 

as "archaeogastropods with a slit and sele- 

nizone, contrasting with archaeogastropods 

without that feature". 

Semiphyllidiens. See Semiphyllididae (family 
list) and Hemiphyllidinae (present list). 

Semiproboscidifera Bouvier, 1887 

Reference: Système nerveux, morphologie 
générale et classification des gastéropodes 
prosobranches: 468 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Semi- 
Proboscidifères". Latinized by Ponder & 
Waren (1988: 314). Taxen containing the 
families Naticidae, Lamellariidae, ?Janthin- 
idae, and Cypraeidae. 

Seribranchia Latreille, 1824 [November] 
Reference: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 

3: 327, table between pp. 334-335 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Séro- 

branches". Latinized by Latreille (1 825: 1 74). 

Established as a family (see family list). 

Ranked by Deshayes (1832 [in 1830-1832]: 

553) as a suborder containing the family 

"Phyllidiens". 

SiGMURETHRA Püsbry, 1900 [10 Novomber] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 52: 563 
Remarks: Established as a division of Vasop- 

ulmonata containing the subdivisions Hol- 

opoda, Agnathomorpha, Agnatha, and 

Aulacopoda. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



231 



SiLicoDERMATAE Labbé, 1933 [after 28 Novem- 
ber] 

Reference: Bulletin de la Société Zoologique 
de France, 58: 365 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the family Oncidiidae. 

SiMROTHiNA Bändel & Riedel, 1994 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Ab- 
handlungen, ser. E, 13: 345 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of 
Neomesogastropoda containing the super- 
families Lamellarioidea, Cypraeoidea, and 
Naticoidea. 

SiNisTROBRANCHiA Mlnichov & Starobogatov, 

1979 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 58(3): 300 
Remarks: Established as a subclass contain- 
ing the orders Architectonicida, Epitoniida, 
and Melanellida. 

SiNUATA Koken, 1896 

Reference: Die Leitfossilien: 162 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Proso- 
branchia containing the families Raphisto- 
matidae, Euomphalidae, Pleurotomariidae, 
Haliotidae, Fissurellidae, Bellerophontidae, 
and Euomphaloptehdae. 

SiNuiTOPSiDA Starobogatov, 1970 

Reference: Paleontologlcheskil Zhurnal, 
1970(3): 14 

Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the families Cyclocyrtonellidae, Cyrtolitidae, 
and Bucanellidae. Spelling and rank emend- 
ed by Salvini-Plawen (1980: 255) to subor- 
der Sinuitopsina. 

SiNuoPEOiDEi Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:71 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Pleu- 

rotomariiformes containing the families Sin- 

uopeidae and ?Ophiletidae. 

SiPHONARiACEA Van Mol, 1967 

Reference: Académie Royale de Belgique. 
Classe des Sciences, Mémoires, 37(5): 11 

Remarks: Established as suborder of Basom- 
matophora containing the families Trimus- 
culidae and Siphonariidae. Spelling and rank 
emended by Minichev & Starobogatov (1 975: 
1 0) to order Siphonariida; by Golikov & Star- 
obogatov (1989: 67) to subclass Siphonari- 
iones, superorder Siphonariiformii and order 
Siphonariiformes: by H. Nordsieck (1993a: 
48) to suborder Siphonarioidei. 



SiPHONATAMacgillivray, 1843 

Reference: A history of the molluscous animals: 

61,162 
Remarks: Section of the order Pectinibranchia- 

ta containing the families Buccinidae, Fusidae 

and Cypraeidae. 

SiPHONOBRANCHiATA Duméril, 1806 
Reference: Zoologie analytique: 160 
Remarks: Established as family "Siphonobranch- 
es" (vernacular). Ranked by Blainville (1824: 
195) as order Siphonobranchiata, containing 
the families Siphonostomata, Entomostoma- 
ta, and Angyostomata. See also family list. 

SiPHONOCHLAMYDA Ray Lankester, 1883 
Reference: Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed. 9, 

16:648 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Azygobranchia, including the families 

of Toxoglossa, Rachiglossa and part of the 

Taenioglossa. 

Siphonostomata Blainville, 1818 
Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, 10: 185, table between pp. 214-215 
Remarks: See family list. 

Skeletobranchia Haszprunar, 1988 [14 De- 
cember] 

Reference: Journal of Molluscan Studies, 
54(4): 430 

Remarks: Taxon of gastropods containing 
Neomphaloidea, Vetigastropoda, and Pec- 
tinibranchia. 

Smeagolida Climo, 1980 [10 December] 
Reference: New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 

7:515 
Remarks: Established as an order of the sub- 
class Gymnomorpha, containing only the 
family Smeagolidae, itself containing only the 
species Smeagol manneringi. Spelling and 
rank emended by H. Nordsieck (1993a: 48) 
to infraorder Smeagoloinei. 

Soleiferae Ihering, 1929 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Archiv für Mol- 
luskenkunde, 2{2): 161, 194 

Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank above 
family, established as a substitute name for 
Monotremata, and containing the families 
Janellidaeand Philomycidae. 

Solenisciformes Bändel, 2002 [October] 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 86: 145 



232 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as an order of Procae- 
nogastropoda, containing the superfamily 
Soieniscoidea only. 

SoLENosTOMATA Fleming, 1828 [March] 
Reference: A history of British animals: 296 
Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank, contain- 
ing the families Conidae, Cypraeidae, Ovul- 
idae, Volutidae, Marginellidae, Olividae, 
Tornatellidae, Bellerophon, Buccinidae, Mu- 
ricidae, Cerithiidae, and Strombidae. 

SoLEOLiFERA Thiele, 1926 [20 February] 
Reference: ¡Handbuch der Zoologie, 5(2): 138 
Remarks: Taxon including the families Rathou- 
isiidae and Veronicellidae. Established as 
"Sippe" [= superfamily], and not available as 
a family-group name (see family list). See 
also Gymnomorpha. 

SoLiDiPEDiA Dall, 1921 [24 February] 
Reference: Bulletin of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, 112: 85 
Remarks: Taxon established at a rank below 
"superfamily" Rhachiglossa and containing 
the families Marginellidae, Volutidae, Mi- 
tridae, Fasciolariidae, Chrysodomidae, Buc- 
cinidae, Colubrariidae, Alectrionidae, 
Columbellidae, Muricidae, and Coralliophil- 
idae. 

SoRBEocoNCHA Pondor & Lindborg, 1997 
Reference: ZoologicalJournal of the Linnean 

Soc/efy, 119(2): 225 
Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank, compris- 
ing "all those taxa sharing a more recent 
common ancestor with Conus (and Tripho- 
ra and Tonna) than with Cyclophorus and 
Ampullaria", i.e. the Cerithioidea, Campa- 
niloidea, Ptenoglossa, and the Neogas- 
tropoda. 

Spartaebranchia Leach, 1852 

Reference: [in Gray, ed.] A synopsis of the 

Mollusca of Great Britain: 203 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 

the genera Valvata, Paludina, and Bithynia. 

Spiralia Bellermann, 1816 

Reference: Gesellschaft naturforschender 
Freunde zu Berlin, Magazin für die neuesten 
Entdeckungen in der gesammten Natur- 
kunde, 7{2): 92, 119 

Remarks: Established as an order of the "class" 
Cochleae, containing the genera Buccinum, 
Strombus, Murex, Trochus, Turbo, Helix, and 
Nerita. 



Spiriconcha p. Fischer, 1883 [21 February] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 422 
Remarks: Division of the suborder Testacea 

of the order Thecosomata, containing the 

family Limacinidae only. 

Spirivalvia Cuvier, 1800 

Reference: Leçons d'anatomie comparée, 1: 
table 5 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Spin- 
valves". Latinized by Herrmannsen (1848 [in 
1 846-1 852]: 491 ). Established as a division 
of the gastropods, to include all the genera 
with a spirally coiled shell. 

Spironotia Rafinesque, 1815 
Reference: Analyse de la nature: 143 
Remarks: Established as an order containing the 
suborders Adelobranchia and Siphobranchia. 

Steganobranchia Ihering, 1876 

Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 146 

Remarks: Established as an order, partly 
equivalent to Tectibranchia, containing the 
families Runcinidae, Siphonariidae, Pleuro- 
branchidae, Aplysiidae, Philinidae, Bullidae, 
Cylichnidae, Aplustridae, and Actaeonidae. 
See also Stegobranchia. 

Stegobranchia Risso, 1826 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des principales 
productions de l'Europe méridionale, 4: 40 

Remarks: Established as an order, equivalent 
to "Inférobranches", including the genus Pleu- 
robranchus only. Risso may have borrowed 
the name from Leach's unpublished MS, later 
edited by Gray (1847a: 268), where Stego- 
branchia includes the families Pleurobran- 
chidae, Aplysiidae, Marseniidae, and Bullidae. 

Stegognatha Tryon, 1 884 

Reference: Structural and systematic conchol- 
ogy, 3: 19 

Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank, estab- 
lished as a division of the Holognatha with a 
jaw as in Punctum and Bulimulus. 

Stenoglossa Bouvier, 1887 

Reference: Système nerveux, morphologie 

générale et classification des gastéropodes 

prosobranches: 471 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Sténo- 

glosses". Latinised by Franc (1968a: 304). 

Taxon containing the Toxoglossa and the 

Rachiglossa. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



233 



Stiliferoidei Starobogatov, 1989 

Reference: [In Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 

Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 187: 74 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Melanel- 

liformes containing the families Stiliferidae, 

Asterophilidae, Paedophoropodidae, Roseni- 

idae, and Entoconchidae. 

Stiligerida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1979 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 6: 19 
Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the suborders Caliphyllina, Phyllobranchop- 
sina, Stiligerina, and Hermaeinina. Also 
ranked as suborder Stiligerina, same refer- 
ence. 

Stomatopterophora Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 15: 
235 

Remarks: Established at the rank of class, as a 
substitute name for Pteropoda, containing the 
orders Pterabranchia and Dactyliobranchia. 



Strepsineura Lacaze-Duthiers, 1i 

Reference: Comptes Rendus des Séances de 
l'Académie des Sciences [Paris], 106: 722, 
724 

Remarks: Original spelling "Strepsineurés" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Ponder & Waren 
(1988: 290). Established as a subclass of 
gastropods including the "Aponotoneurés" 
and "Epipodoneurés". 

Streptobranchia Gray, 1857 [9 May] 
Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 
7:ix, 122 
Remarks: Taxon of unspecified rank contain- 
ing the family Valvatidae only. 

STREPTODONTADall, 1889 

Reference: Bulletin of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, 37: 122 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the "superfamilies" Ptenoglossa and Tae- 
nioglossa. Streptodontina [Ponder & Waren 
(1988: 304)] is an incorrect subsequent spell- 
ing. 

SiREPTONEURASpengel, 1881 

Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 
Zoologie, 35(3): 372 

Remarks: Established as an order of Gas- 
tropoda containing the suborders Zygobran- 
chia and Azygobranchia, and equivalent in 
rank to Euthyneura. 



Strubellioidei Starobogatov, 1983 [after 22 
February] 

Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 
izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 32 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Aco- 
chlidiiformes, containing the superfamilies 
Strubellioidea (itself including Strubellidae 
only) and Pseuduneloidea (itself including 
Pseudunelidaeonly). 

Stylogastropoda Fryda & Bändel, 1997 
Reference: Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- 
Paläontologischen Institut der Universität 
Hamburg, 80: 18,80 
Remarks: Established as an order of Archaeo- 
gastropoda defined by "slender high-spired 
shells of Loxonema- or Palaeozygopleura- 
type associated with a protoconch of Ar- 
chaeogastropoda-type", and containing the 
superfamily Loxonematoidea only. 

Stylommatophora Schmidt, 1855 

Reference: Abhandlungen des Naturwissen- 
schaftlichen Vereines für Sachsen und 
Thüringen in Halle, 1 : 7 

Remarks: Established as a division of "Gas- 
tropoda inoperculata" defined by "oculos in 
apice tentaculorum ferentia" [eyes at tip of 
tentacles], including the genera Daudebardia, 
Testacella, Glandina, Cylindrella, Arion, 
Umax, Cryptella, Vitrina, Zonites, Helix, Buli- 
mus, Sira, Cionella, Azeca, Pupa, Vertigo, 
Balea, Clausilia, and Succinea. Spelling 
emended by Anderson (1992: 37) to Stylom- 
matophorida. See also Nephropneusta, Va- 
sopulmonata, Eupulmonata, and Limaciformii. 

SuBAPLYSiACEA Blalnvjlle, 1 825. See family list. 

SubnudaGíII, 1871 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 13 

Remarks: A division of the suborder Geophila 
containing the families Cryptellidae, Parma- 
cellidae, Limacidae, and Arionidae. 

SuBTESTACEA P. Flschor, 1883 [21 February] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologique, (5): 422 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 

order Thecosomata, containing the family 

Cymbuliidaeonly. 

SuBULiTACEA Ulrich & Scofleld, 1897 [before 20 

March] 
Reference: The Geology of Minnesota, vol. 

3(2), Paleontology: 1069 



234 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Remarks: Established as a suborder of Pec- 
tinibranchia, containing the families Subu- 
litidae, Loxonematidae, Eulimidae, and 
Pseudomelaniidae. 

SucciNEOiDEA Butot & Kiauta, 1967 [31 Octo- 
ber] 

Reference: Beaufortia, 14: 163 

Remarks: Established as an order, and as a 
substitute name for Heterurethra and Elas- 
mognatha. Spelling and rank emended by 
Minichev & Slavoshevskaya (1971: 360) to 
Succineida; by Golikov & Starobogatov (1 989) 
to Succineiformes; by H. Nordsieck (1993a: 
48) to infraorder Succineoinei. 

SucTORiAE Bergh, 1892. See family list. 

SuPEROBRANCHiATA Misuri, 1917 [20 February] 
Reference: Archivio Zoológico Italiano, 9: 9 
Remarks: Taxon of opisthobranchs containing 
the families Rhodopidae, Tethydidae, Trito- 
niidae, Scyllaeidae, Dendronotidae, Dotidae, 
and Aeolidiidae. 

SYMPODAGistel, 1848 

Reference: Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs 

für höhere Schulen bearbeitet: 166 
Remarks: Established as an order including 

the "families" Crepipoda [= Polyplacophora], 

Gasteropoda, Pelecypoda and Apoda [= As- 

cidiacea]. 

Syncephala Fitzinger, 1833 

Reference: Beiträge zur Landeskunde Oes- 
terreich's unter der Enns, Bd. 3: 88 

Remarks: Established as an order of the class 
Mollusca, containing the "tribe" Gasteropo- 
da only. 

SyRiNGOBRANCHiAGravenhorst, 1845. See fam- 
ily list. 

Systellommatophora Pilsbry, 1948 [19 March] 
Reference: Land Mollusca of North America 

{north of Mexico), 11(2): 1062 
Remarks: Established as an order, containing 

the family Veronicellidae. 

TAENIOGLOSSATrOSChel, 1848 

Reference: Handbuch derZoologie, ed. 3: 541 
Remarks: Established as a "Gruppe" equiva- 
lent in rank to suborder, containing the fami- 
lies Potamophila, Littohnidae, Tubulibranchia, 
Capulidae, etc. See also Taenioglossa in fam- 
ily list. 



Tamanovalvacea Kawaguti & Baba, 1959 [30 
September] 

Reference: Biological Journal of Okayama 
University, 5(3-4): 178-179 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Saco- 
glossa, containing the family Tamanov- 
alvidae only. Spelling and rank emended by 
Golikov & Starobogatov (1 989: 68) to order 
Tamanovalviformes, containing the subor- 
ders Cylindrobulloidei, Volvatelloidei, and 
Tamanovalvoidei. 

Tectibranchia Cuvier, 1814 [December] 
Reference: [in Blainville] Bulletin des Scienc- 
es par la Société Philomatique de Pans, 
Zoo/og/e, (1814): 178 
Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Tecti- 
branches". See also Cuvier (1817: 87). Lati- 
nized [asTectibranchi] by Bowdich (1822: 60). 
Established as an order containing "les Pleu- 
robranches", "les Pleurobranchaea", "les 
Aplisiés ...". See also Pomatobranchiata. 

Tectipeda Fleming, 1828 [March] 
Reference: A history of British animals: 296 
Remarks: Taxon of Pectinibranchia Crypto- 

branchia, containing the families Turbinidae, 

Neritidae, and Trochidae. 

Teleobranchia Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 
i:viii,95 

Remarks: Taxon containing the families 
Planaxidae, Rissoidae, Caecidae, Melani- 
idae, Cerithiidae, Turritellidae, Barleeiidae, 
and Viviparidae. 

Teleogeophila Hartmann, 1821 

Reference: System der Erd- & Süsswasser 
Gasteropoden Europas: 32-34 

Remarks: Original spelling "Teleogrophilen" 
(sic!) (vernacular). Latinized by Hartmann 
(1844 [in 1840-1844]: table). Established as 
a "division" (below order, above family) con- 
taining the genera Pomatias and Cyclostoma. 

Teleohydrophila Hartmann, 1821 

Reference: System der Erd- & Sijsswasser 
Gasteropoden Europas: 32-33, 45 

Remarks: Original spelling "Teleohydrophilen" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Hartmann (1844 
[in 1 840-1 844]: table). Established as a "divi- 
sion" (below order, above family) containing 
the genera Nerita, Valvata, Paludina, Hydro- 
bia, Melania, and Rissoa. 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



235 



Teletremata Pllsbry, 1898 
Reference: The Nautilus, 11(12): 144 
Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the families Vaginulidae and Onchidiidae. 

TENTACULATAWilbrand, 1814 

Reference: Ueberdie Classification derThiere: 124 
Remarks: One of three orders (with Cephalopo- 
da and Acephala) of the class Mollusca, said 
to be equivalent to Gasteropoda, and includ- 
ing Chiton, Patella, Helix, etc. 

Tentaculata Latreille, 1824. See family list. 

Terebroidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:74 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the or- 
der Coniformes, containing the family Tere- 
bridaeonly. 

Tergibranchiata Misuri, 1917 [20 February] 
Reference: Archivio Zoológico Italiano, 9: 9 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of nudi- 
branchs containing the families Rhodopidae, 
Tethydidae, Tritoniidae, Scyllaeidae, Den- 
dronotidae, Dotidae, Aeolidiidae [= Supero- 
branchiata] and Pleurophyllidiidae [= Infero- 
branchiata]. Misuri did not refer to 
Tergobranchiata of Gistel, and explicitly es- 
tablished "Tergibranchiata mihi" as a substi- 
tute name for Protocochlides and Phanero- 
branchia Ihering. 

Tergobranchiata Gistel, 1848 

Reference: Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs 
für höhere Schulen bearbeitet: 1 66 

Remarks: Established as a division of the Sym- 
poda, itself an order of the "family" Gastropo- 
da, and containing the genera Glaucus, 
Tethys, Tritonia, and Doris. 

Testacea p. Fischer, 1883 [21 February] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologigue, (5): 422 
Remarks: A suborder of the order Thecoso- 
mata, containing the families Limacinidae 
[= Spiriconcha], and Hyolithidae, Pterothe- 
cidae, Conulariidae, and Cavoliniidae [= Or- 
thoconcha]. 

Testacelloinei Schileyko & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 

Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 187: 75 
Remarks: Established as an infraorder of 

Limaciformes, containing the family Testa- 

cellidaeonly. 



Tetracerata Blainville, 1816. See Tetracea in 
family list. 

Tetraspathostyles Germain, 1931 
Reference: Faune de France, 21: 17 
Remarks: Vernacular name only, established 
to designate Stylommatophora with a dart 
apparatus like that of Helix pomatia. 

Thalassophila Gray, 1850 [after 12 February] 
Reference: Figures of molluscous animals, 4: 

119 
Remarks: Established as a taxon of undefined 
rank, containing the families Siphonariidae 
and Amphibolidae. Ranked by H. Adams & 
A. Adams (1855 [in 1853-1858]: 102) as a 
suborder. 

Thecosomata Blainville, 1824 

Reference: Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturel- 
les, 32■.27^ 

Remarks: Established as a family of the order 
Aporobranchiata, containing the genera Hy- 
alaea, Cleodora, Cymbulia, and Pyrgo. Treat- 
ed by Gray (1 840b: 1 55) as an order including 
the families Cleodoridae, Limacinidae, Cu- 
vieriidae, and Cymbuliidae. Spelling emend- 
ed by Anderson (1992: 37) toThecosomida. 
See also Eupteropoda. 

Thysanopoda p. Fischer, 1885 [31 August] 
Reference: Manuel de conchyliologie et de 

paléontologie conchyliologigue, (9): 792 
Remarks: A division of Rhipidoglossa, contain- 
ing the Anisobranchia and the Zygobranchia. 

TogataGíII, 1871 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 13 

Remarks: A division of the suborder Geophila 
containing the family Philomycidae only. 

TOMOGLOSSATAStimpSOn, 1865 

Reference: American Journal of Conchology, 
1(1): 63 

Remarks: Established as a "group" for those 
species with radular type intermediate be- 
tween Odontoglossata and Toxoglossata, 
and containing the family Clionellidae, and 
"probably" the Clavatulinae. 

ToRNOiDEi Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 1983 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 7: 22 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Lit- 

toriniformes, containing the family Tornidae 

only. 



236 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



ToxiFERA H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 [Decem- 
ber] 

Reference: The genera of Recent Mollusca, 
1:245 

Remarks: Established as a suborder contain- 
ing the family Conidae, and "possibly" the 
Turridae. 



Triforidoidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987 

[after 23 October] 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 8: 27 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Cer- 

ithiiformes, containing the families Goniospir- 

idaeand Triforidae. 



ToxoGLOSSATroschel, 1848 
Reference: Handbuch der Zoologie, ed. 3: 547 
Remarks: Taxon established as a "Gruppe" 
of unspecified rank, containing the families 
Conidae and Pleurotomidae. See also Coni- 
da. 

Trachelipoda Lamarck, 1812 

Reference: Extrait du cours de zoologie ...: 
112,115 

Remarks: Original spelling "Trachélipodes" 
(vernacular). Latinized by Herrmannsen 
(1848 [in 1846-1852]: 585). Established as 
a "section" below order in 1812, ranked as 
an order in Lamarck (1822: 54). Adivision of 
the "Mollusques céphalés" including the gas- 
tropods with coiled shell. 

Trachelobranchia Gray, 1821 

Reference: London Medical Repository, 1 5: 232 

Remarks: Established as an order of the Pneu- 

monobranchia, containing the genera "Siga- 

ret", Cryptostoma, Velutina, Capulus, Stoma- 

tia, Crepidula, Calyptraea, and Mitrula. 

Tracheopulmonata Plate, 1898 

Reference: Zoologische Jahrbijcher, Abt. für 
Anatomie und Ontogenie der Thiere, 1 1 : 272 

Remarks: Established as taxon of undefined 
rank above family, containing the family Jan- 
ellidae. Ranked by Minichev & Slavoshevska- 
ja (1971: 359) as an order. See also Athora- 
cophohda. 

Trapezodonta Gray, 1857 [9 May] 

Reference: Guide to the systematic distribu- 
tion of Mollusca in the British Museum, Part 
1:27 

Remarks: Established as a division of the 
Hamiglossa containing the family Lamellari- 
idae only. 

Triaula Ihering, 1887 

Reference: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche 
Zoo/og/e, 45(3): 518, 525 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of the or- 
der Nudibranchia, containing the dorids and 
phyllidiids. See also Protriaula. 



Triganglionata Haszprunar, 1985 

Reference: Zeitschrift für Zoologische Syste- 
matik und Evolutionsforschung, 23(1 ): 25 

Remarks: Established as a "cohors" of the sub- 
class Heterobranchia, containing the super- 
order Allogastropoda. Used by Salvini-Plawen 
& Haszprunar (1987: 760) for a paraphyletic 
taxon containing the Valvatidae, Rissoellidae, 
Omalogyridae, and Allogastropoda. 

Trigonochlamydinia Schileyko, 1979 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

80:58 
Remarks: Established asan infraorder of the 

suborder Limaxina, containing the superfam- 

ily Trigonochlamydoidea only. 

Trimusculida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 11 
Remarks: Established as an order of the Ba- 

sommatophora, containing the family Tri- 

musculidae only. Spelling emended by H. 

Nordsieck (1 993a: 48) to Trimusculiformes. 

Triphoroidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:66 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Bucciniformes, and proposed as a 
substitute name for Rhinioglossa. 

Tritoniomorpha Pelseneer, 1906 
Reference: A treatise on zoology, 5: 175 
Remarks: Established as a "tribe" of the subor- 
der Nudibranchia, containing the families Tri- 
toniidae, Scyllaeidae, Phyllirhoidae, Tethyidae, 
Dendronotidae, Bornellidae, and Loman- 
otidae. Pelseneer (1892: 142) already had a 
division "Tritoniens" (vernacular) with the same 
first five families. Ranked by Minichev & Star- 
obogatov (1979b: 19) as suborder. 

Trochina Cox & Knight, 1960 [February] 
Reference: Proceedings of the Malacological 

Society of London, 33(6): 263 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ar- 

chaeogastropoda, as a substitute name for 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



237 



Trochomorpha Naef, 1911, and containing the 
superfamilies Platyceratoidea, Microdoma- 
toidea, Anomphaloidea, Oriostomatoidea, 
and Trochoidea. 

Trochiones Golikov & Starobogatov, 1984 
Reference: [in Amitrov] Spravochnik po 

sistematike iskopaemykh organismov: 38 
Remarks: Established at the rank of subclass, 
as a substitute name for Pectinibranchia, and 
also as superorder Trochiformii [substitute 
name for Anisobranchia] and order Trochi- 
formes. Spelling and rank emended by Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov (1989: 65) to class 
Trochiodes [substitute name for Gastropoda] 
and suborder Trochoidei. Name attributed by 
Golikov & Starobogatov to Férussac (1822 
[in 1821-1822]: xxxiv), who listed "Les Tro- 
cho'ides Guv." (vernacular) in the synonymy 
of the suborder "Les Pomastomes". 

Trochomorphi Koken, 1896 

Reference: Die Leitfossilien: 163 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of Proso- 
branchia, containing the families Phasianel- 
lidae, Trocho-Turbinidae, Delphinulidae, 
Cyclostrematidae, and Stomatiidae. Spelling 
and rankemended by Naef (1911: 156-159) 
to order Trochomorpha. See also Trochina. 

Trochonematata Pchelintsev, 1963 
Reference: Briukhonogie Mezozoia Gornogo 

Kryma:41 
Remarks: Established as an order, without 
contents or definition. Order Trochonemati- 
formes Starobogatov, declared nov. (no di- 
agnosis) by Amitrov (1984: 38); and again 
declared new order (with diagnosis) by Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov (1989: 70), with subor- 
der Trochonematoidei. 

Troschelina Bändel & Riedel, 1994 
Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 13: 345 
Remarks: Suborder of Neomesogastropoda 

containing the superfamilies Cassoidea, 

Laubierinoidea, Calyptraeoidea, and Capu- 

loidea. 

TuBULiBRANCHiATA Cuvier, 1830 

Reference: Le Règne animal, nouvelle édition 
revue et complétée, 3: 108 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "les 
Tubulibranches". Latinized by Griffith & Pid- 
geon (1 834: 83). Established as an order con- 
taining the genera Siliquaria, Vermetus, and 
Magilus. 



TuRBiNiMORPHA Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 

[18 December] 
Reference: Malacologia, 15(1): 208 
Remarks: Established as a superorder con- 
taining the orders Anisobranchia and Lepe- 
tellida. 

TuRBospiRALiA Naef, 1911 

Reference: Ergebnisse und Fortschritte der 
Zoologie, 3{2): 156-159 

Remarks: One of two principal divisions (with 
Planspiralia = Belleromorpha) of Gastropo- 
da, and itself subdivided in Zygobranchia and 
Azygobranchia. 

Turritelloidei Starobogatov, 1983 

Reference: [in Starobogatov & Sitnikova] Vse- 
soiuznoe soveshchanie po izucheniiu mol- 
liuskov, 7: 20 

Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Littoriniformes, containing the super- 
family Turritelloidea only. 

TuRROiDEi Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 

187:74 
Remarks: Established as a suborder, contain- 
ing the superfamily Turroidea only. Spelling 
emended by Riedel (2000: 1 90, 1 95) to Tur- 
rina (declared new), containing the super- 
family Conoidea only. 

Tylodinoidei Starobogatov, 1989 

Reference: [in Golikov & Starobogatov] Trudy 

Zoologicheskogo Instituía, 187: 74 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Um- 

braculiformes, containing the family Tylod- 

inidaeonly. 

TypicaGíII, 1871 

Reference: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, 227: 4 

Remarks: Adivision of the suborder Rachiglos- 
sa containing the families Cystiscidae, Mar- 
ginellidae, and Volutidae. 

Umbraculomorpha Schmekel, 1985 
Reference: The Mollusca, 10: 257 
Remarks: Established as an order, with full 
definition, and Umbraculum and Tylodina cit- 
ed as "representative genera". Not available 
(no definition nor contents) from Minichev & 
Starobogatov (1975: 11, as order Umbraculi- 
da). Spelling and rank emended by Golikov 
& Starobogatov (1989: 68) to superorder 
Umbraculiformii, order Umbraculiformes and 
suborder Umbraculoidei. 



238 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Urbasommatophora J. B. Burch, 1962 

Reference: Malacologia, 1(1): 67 

Remarks: Original spelling Ur-Basommato- 
phora. Spelling emended by Harry (1964: 
376), and defined as hypothetical taxon of 
the Pulmonata, "immediately ancestral to the 
Ellobiidae and Chilinidae". 

VAGiNACEABIainville, 1818 

Reference: Dictionnaire des sciences naturel- 
les, ^0■.2^4 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "Vagi- 
nacées". Latinized by Herrmannsen (1849 
[in 1 846-1 852]: 672). Established at unspec- 
ified rank, containing the genera "Vaginelle", 
"Ciéodore", "Cymbulie". 

Vaginuloidea Hoffmann, 1925 [25 February] 
Reference: Jenaische Zeitschrift Юг Naturwis- 
senschaft, 6^■.2^9 
Remarks: Established as a suborder, contain- 
ing the family Vaginulidae only. 

Valvatoidei Sitnikova & Starobogatov, 1982 
[after 20 May] 

Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 61(6): 
841 

Remarks: Established as a suborder, contain- 
ing the family Valvatidae only. 

Vasopulmonata Plate, 1898 

Reference: Zoologische Jahrbíjcher, Abt. Юг 

Anatomie und Ontogenie der Thiere, 1 1 : 272 
Remarks: Established as a substitute name 

for Stylommatophora. 

Velutino(dei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 

187:73 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ca- 

lyptraeiformes, containing the superfamily 

Velutinoidea only. 

Vermivora Gray, 1860 [October] 

Reference: Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, ser. 3, 6: 267 

Remarks: Established as a division of Pulmo- 
nata Geophila containing the families Olea- 
cinidae, Streptaxidae, and Testacellidae. 

Vermivora F. Riedel, 2000 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 32: 191, 195 
Remarks: Taxon containing the suborders Cas- 

sina and Ficina of the Neomesogastropoda 

+ the order Neogastropoda. 



Veronicellida Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 
Reference: Vsesoiuznoe soveshchanie po 

izucheniiu molliuskov, 5: 11 
Remarks: Established as an order of Systel- 

lommatophora; no contents given. Spelling 

emended by Golikov & Starobogatov (1989: 

69) to Veronicelliformes. 

Vesceroconcha Salvini-Plawen, 1985 
Reference: The Mollusca, 10: 136 
Remarks: Glade containing Bellerophontida, 
Gastropoda, and Siphonopoda. Spelling 
emended by Haszprunar (1 988: 405) to Vis- 
ceroconcha. 

Vetigastropoda Salvini-Plawen, 1980 
Reference: Malacologia, 19(2): 261 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the or- 
der Archaeogastropoda, containing the super- 
families Macluritoidea, Pleurotomarioidea, 
Cocculinoidea, Trochoidea, and ?Murchiso- 
nioidea. Used by Ponder & Lindberg (1997: 
185) for an unranked clade containing Fis- 
surelloidea, Seguenzioidea, Trochoidea, Lep- 
etelloidea, Bellerophontoidea, Pleurotomari- 
oidea, Haliotoidea, Scissurelloidea, and 
Lepetodriloidea (but not Peltospiridae, 
Neomphalidae, and Melanodrymia). 

ViscEROCONCHA. See Vesceroconcha. 

Visceroneura Rankin, 1979 [25 May] 
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sci- 
ences Contributions, 116: 107 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of the 
order Acochlidioidea, containing the family 
Livorniellidaeonly. 

ViviPARiFORMEs Sitnikova & Starobogatov, 1982 

[after 20 May] 
Reference: Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 61(6): 840 
Remarks: Established as an order of the su- 
perorder Vivipariformii, containing the sub- 
orders Viviparoidei and Valvatoidei. Also 
used as superorder Vivipariformii, contain- 
ing the orders Vivipariformes and Cypraei- 
formes; and suborder Viviparoidei, 
containing the superfamilies Archimediel- 
loidea, Pomatioidea, Neocyclotoidea, and 
Viviparoidea. 

Volumina Bellermann, 1816 

Reference: Gesellschaft naturforschender 
Freunde zu Berlin, Magazin für die neuesten 
Entdeckungen in der gesammten Natur- 
kunde, 7 {2): 92, 118 



NOMENCLÁTOR OF GASTROPOD FAMILIES 



239 



Remarks: Established as an order, containing the 
genera Conus, Cypraea, Bulla, and Voluta. 

Volutina F. Riedel, 2000 

Reference: Berliner Geowissenschaftliche 

Abhandlungen, ser. E, 32: 190, 195 
Remarks: Taxen containing the superfamilies 

Mitroidea, Turbinelloidea and Volutoidea. 

VoLVATELLACEA Odhner, 1968 
Reference: [in Franc] Traité de Zoologie, 5(3): 844 
Remarks: Established as suborder of Sacoglos- 
sa, containing the family Volvatellidae only. 
Spelling emended by Minichev & Staroboga- 
tov (1 979b: 1 9-20) to Volvatellina, and by Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov (1 989: 68) to Volvatelloidei. 

Xenophoroidei Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989 
Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Institute, 

187:72 
Remarks: Established as a suborder of Ca- 

lyptraeiformes, containing the families Gut- 

tulidae and Xenophoridae. 

Zeugobranchia Ihering, 1876 
Reference: Jahrbücher der Deutschen Mala- 
kozoologischen Gesellschaft, 3: 139 



Remarks: Established as an order containing 
the families Fissurellidae, Haliotidae, and 
Pleurotomariidae. Spelling emended by R 
Fischer (1885 [in 1880-1887]: 792) to Zygo- 
branchia, for a subdivision of Rhipidoglossa 
containing the families Haliotidae, Pleuroto- 
mariidae, Bellerophontidae, and Fissurellidae. 

ZoNiTiNiA Schileyko, 1979 

Reference: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Institute, 

80:57 
Remarks: Established as an infraorder of He- 

licida, containing the superfamilies Zoni- 

toidea, and Parmacelloidea. 

ZooPHAGA Lamarck, 1822 

Reference: Histoire naturelle des animaux 
sans vertèbres, 6(2): 57-58 

Remarks: Original spelling (vernacular) "les 
zoophages". Latinised by Herrmannsen (1848 
[in 1846-1852]: 716). A division of Tracheli- 
poda containing the families furnished v\/ith a 
siphon, including the families "Canalifères", 
"Ailées", "Purpurifères", "Columellaires", and 
"Enroulées". 

Zygobranchia. See Zeugobranchia. 



240 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 
Part 2. WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



Purpose, Rationale and Conventions 

Historically, the purpose of classifications 
had primarily been to organize the 1,000's, 
and later 1 0,000's and 1 00,000's names (fos- 
sils included), in a hierarchical system where 
they could be found and retrieved. Later, it 
has been accepted that classifications should 
reflect the evolutionary history of phyla, so that 
biological and ecological attributes and prop- 
erties could be predicted for a taxon from its 
position in the classification based on mor- 
phological and/or molecular characters. Clas- 
sifications currently used by malacologists are 
often hybrids of different schools and tradi- 
tions, with the working classification presented 
below no exception. 

There is currently much debate in the scien- 
tific community on biological classifications, 
with controversed issues on ranks and hierar- 
chy. The present work is not the place to enter 
this theoretical debate. In a very pragmatic 
approach, we have attempted to reconcile re- 
cent advances in the phylogeny of the Gas- 
tropoda, using unranked clades above 
superfamilies, and the more traditional ap- 
proach, using hierarchical ranking below su- 
perfamily. 



which may give an impression of a well-re- 
solved analysis of that family. This is often not 
the case, but the alternative would have been 
to treat all included names as synonyms. As it 
is easier to lump than to split, we have cho- 
sen to present highly dissected classifications 
when these represent a state-of-the-art that 
has not been recently re-evaluated. We want 
to emphasize that these should be seen as 
hypotheses to be tested, rather than a reftec- 
tion of detailed knowledge of the families in 
question. 

(c) Question Marks 

We have not used question marks in the clas- 
sification, even when allocation to a higher 
category (superfamily/family) is doubtful or 
when a synonymy is not absolutely certain. 
We decided to do so because there are vari- 
ous degrees of uncertainty in allocation and 
synonymy, and we did not want to give the 
impression that an allocation or a synonymy 
without a question mark was established be- 
yond doubt. Again, we wish to emphasize that 
the working classification represents a state- 
of-the-art and/or an educated guess to be 
tested. 



The following conventions have been used: (d) Entirely Extinct Taxa 



(a) Clade, Group, and Ranking 

For taxa above the level of superfamily, we 
have used the word "clade" when recent cla- 
distic analysis has resulted in recognizing a 
taxon as monophyletic. We have used the 
word "group" or "informal group" when mono- 
phyly has not been tested, or when the taxon 
is known to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic, 
but no other classification has been proposed. 
We have not used any category, such as sub- 
order, order, superorder, or subclass, for 
names above the superfamily. The indented 
table of contents serves the purpose of indi- 
cating the ranks of these higher taxa. 

(b) Lumping vs Splitting 

In many instances, the working classifica- 
tion of a family uses subfamilies and tribes, 



The sign t before a taxon denotes that all 
members of that taxon are fossils. 

(e) Ordering 

As the phylogeny of clades is usually poorly 
resolved or even unresolved below superfam- 
ily, the families included in a superfamily are 
listed as follows: first, the nominate family of 
the superfamily, then all other families by al- 
phabetical order; the same convention applies 
to subfamilies within family, and tribes within 
subfamily. After each valid family-group name, 
synonyms are presented in chronological or- 
der of their establishment, (n.a.) means "not 
available" and (inv.) means "permanently in- 
valid". Such names are included in the classi- 
fication only for the sake of completeness, 
although in a few instances there is no valid 
name to attach them to. 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



241 



Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain 
systematic position 

Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain position 
within Mollusca (Gastropoda or Monopla- 
cophora)^ 

Unassigned to superfamily 

t Family Khairkhaniidae Missarzhevsky, 1989 

t Family Ladamarekiidae Fryda, 1998 

t Family Metoptomatidae Wenz, 1938 

t Family Patelliconidae Fryda, 1998 

t Family Protoconchoididae Geyer, 1994^ 

SPP Archinacelloidea Knight, 1952 

t Family Archinacellidae Knight, 1952^ 

t Family Archaeopragidae Horny, 1963 

SPF Pelagielloidea Knight, 1956 [= Orthos- 
trophina]'* 

t Family Pelagiellidae Knight, 1956 [= Proec- 
cyliopteridae Kobayashi, 1962 (n.a.); = Pro- 
toscaevogyridae Kobayashi, 1962 (n.a.)] 

t Family Aldanellidae Linsley & Kier, 1984 

SPF Scenelloidea S. A. Miller, 1889 

t Family ScENELLiDAE S. A. Miller, 1 889 [= Helcionel- 
linae Wenz, 1938; = Hampilininae Kobayashi, 
1958; = Securiconidae Missarzhevsky, 1989] 

t Family Coreospiridae Knight, 1947 [= Archae- 
ospiridae Yu, 1979; = Yangtzespirinae Yu, 1984; 
= Latouchellidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1 989] 

t Family Igarkiellidae Parkhaev, 2001 

SPF YocHELCiONELLOiDEA Риппвдаг & Jell, 1 976 

t Family Yochelcionellidae Runnegar & Jell, 
1976 [= Enigmaconidae MacKinnon, 1985] 

t Family Stenothecidae Runnegar & Jell, 1 980 
SF Stenothecinae Runnegar & Jell, 1980 
[= Mellopegmidae Missarzhevsky, 1989] 
SF Watsonellinae Parkhaev, 2001 

t Family Trenellidae Parkhaev, 2001 



Paleozoic molluscs with isostrophically 
coiled shells of uncertain position within 
Mollusca (Gastropoda or Monoplacophora)^ 

SPF Bellerophontoidea McCoy, 1852*^ 

t Family Bellerophontidae McCoy, 1852 
SF Bellerophontinae McCoy, 1852 [= Liljeval- 

lospiridae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1989] 
SF Bucanopsinae Wahlman, 1992 
SF Cymbulariinae Horny, 1963 
SF Knightitinae Knight, 1956 

t Family Bucanellidae Koken, 1925 

t Family BucANiiDAE Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 
SF BucANiiNAE Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 

[= Grandostomatinae Horny, 1962] 
SF Plectonotinae Boucot & Yochelson, 1 966 

T Plectonotini Boucot & Yochelson, 1966 

T BoucoTONOTiNi Fryda, 1999 
SF Salpingostomatinae Koken, 1925 
SF Undulabucaniinae Wahlman, 1992 

t Family EuPHEMiTiDAE Knight, 1956 
SF EuPHEMiTiNAE Knight, 1956 
SF Paleuphemitinae Fryda, 1999 

t Family Pterothecidae P. Fischer, 1883 
SF Pterothecinae P. Fischer, 1883 
SF Carinaropsinae Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 
SF Pedasiolinae Wahlman, 1992 

t Family SiNuiTiDAE Dall, 191 3 
SF SiNuiTiNAE Dall, 1913 [= Protowarthiidae 

Ulrich & Scofield, 1897 (inv.)] 
SF AiPTOspiRiNAEWang, 1980 
SF HisPANOSiNuiTiNAE Fryda & Gutierrez-Marco, 

1996 

t Family Tremanotidae Naef, 1913 

t Family Tropidodiscidae Knight, 1 956 [= Tem- 
nodiscinae Horny, 1963] 



Paleozoic molluscs with anisostrophically 
coiled shells of uncertain position within 
Mollusca (Gastropoda?) 

SPF Euomphaloidea White, 1877^ 

t Family EuoMPHALiDAE White, 1877 [= Schizos- 
tomatidae Bronn, 1849 (inv.); = Euomphalop- 
teridae Koken, 1896; = Polytropidae Ulrich, 
1897 (inv.); = Straparollinae Cossmann, 
1916; = Poleumitidae Wenz, 1938] 



242 BOUCHET & ROCROI 

t Family Helicotomidae Wenz, 1938 
t Family Lesueurillidae P. J. Wagner, 2002 
t Family Omphalocirridae Wenz, 1938 
t Family Omphalotrochidae Knight, 1945 



SPF Clisospiroidea S. A. Miller, 1889 [= Mimo- 
spirina]'' 



SPF Macluritoidea Carpenter, 1861^ 

t Family Macluritidae Carpenter, 1861 

Basal taxa that are certainly Gastropoda 

Unassigned to superfamily 

t Family Anomphalidae Wenz, 1 938 

t Family CoDONocHEiLiDAE S. A. Miller, 1889 

t Family Crassimarginatidae Fryda, Blodgett & 
Lenz, 2002 

t Family HoLOPEiDAE Cossmann, 1908 [= Cy- 
cloridae S.A. Miller, 1889f 

t Family Isospiridae Wangberg-Eriksson, 1 964 

t Family Opisthonematidae Yu, 1976 (inv.) 

t Family Paraturbinidae Cossmann, 1916^° 

t Family Planitrochidae Knight, 1956 

t Family Pragoserpulinidae Fryda, 1998 

t Family PsEUDOPHORiDAE S. A. Miller, 1889 
[= Palaeonustidae Wenz, 1938] 

t Family Raphistomatidae Koken, 1896 [= Cer- 
atopeidae Yochelson & Bridge, 1957] 

t Family Rhytidopilidae Starobogatov, 1976 

t Family Scoliostomatidae Fryda, Blodgett & 
Lenz, 2002 

SF Scoliostomatinae Fryda, Blodgett & Lenz, 2002 
SF MiTCHELLiiNAE Fryda, Blodgett & Lenz, 2002 

t Family SiNuoPEiDAE Wenz, 1 938 
SF SiNuoPEiNAE Wenz, 1938 
SF Platyschismatinae Knight, 1956 
SF TuRBONELLiNiNAE Knight, 1956 



t Family Clisospiridae S. A. Miller, 1889 
SF Clisospirinae S. A. Miller, 1889 [= Pro- 

galerinae Knight, 1956] 
SF Atracurinae Horny, 1964 
SF Trochoclisinae Horny, 1964 



t Family Onychochilidae Koken, 1925 
SF Onychochilinae Koken, 1925 
SF Hyperstropheminae Horny, 1964 
SF Scaevogyrinae Wenz, 1938 



SPF LoxoNEMATOiDEA Кокеп, 1889^2 

t Family Loxonematidae Koken, 1889 [= Hol- 
opellidae Koken, 1 896; = Omospirinae Wenz, 
1938] 

t Family Palaeozygopleuridae Horny, 1955 



SPF Ophiletoidea Koken, 1907 

t Family QpHiLETiDAE Koken, 1907 [= Eccu- 
liomphalinaeWenz, 1938] 



SPF Straparollinoidea P. J. Wagner, 2002 

t Family Straparollinidae P. J. Wagner, 2002 

SPF Trochonematoidea Zittel, 1895" 

t Family Trochonematidae Zittel, 1895 

t Family LoPHOspiRiDAE Wenz, 1938 [= Gyrone- 
matinae Knight, 1956; = Ruedemanniinae 
Knight, 1956] 

Clade Patellogastropoda [= Docoglossa]^'* 
SPF Patelloidea Rafinesque, 1815 

Family Patellidae Rafinesque, 1815 

SPF Nacelloidea Thiele, 1891 

Family Nacellidae Thiele, 1891 [= Bertiniidae 
Jousseaume, 1883]^^ 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



243 



SPF LoTTioiDEA Gray, 1840 

Family LoTTiiDAE Gray, 1840 
SF LoTTiiNAE Gray, 1840 
T LoTTiiNi Gray, 1 840 [= Tecturidae Gray, 1 847] 
T ScuRRiiNi LIndberg, 1988 
SF Patelloidinae Chapman & Gabriel, 1923 

Family AcMAEiDAE Forbes, 1850 
SF AcMAEiNAE Forbes, 1850 
SF Pectinodontinae Pilsbry, 1891 
SF Rhodopetalinae Lindberg, 1981 

Family Lepetidae Gray, 1850 
SF Lepetinae Gray, 1850 
SF Propilidiinae Thiele, 1891 



SPF Neolepetopsoidea McLean, 1990^^ 

Family Neolepetopsidae McLean, 1990 
t Family Damilinidae Horny, 196V^ 
t Family Lepetopsidae McLean, 1990^^ 

Clade Vetigastropoda^^ 

Not assigned to superfamily 

Family Ataphridae Cossmann, 1 91 5 [= Trochacli- 
didae Thiele, 1928; = Acremodontinae Mar- 
shall, 1983; = Parataphnnae Calzada, 1989p 

Family Pendromidae Waren, 1991 [=Trachysma- 
tidae Thiele, 1 925, based on erroneously iden- 
tified genus] 

t Family ScHizoGONiiDAE Cox, 1960 

SPF Amberleyoidea Wenz, 1938 
t Family Amberleyidae Wenz, 1 938 
t Family NoDODELPHiNULiDAE Cox, 1960 

SPF EoTOMARioiDEAWenz, 1938 

t Family EoTOMARiiDAE Wenz, 1938^^ 
SF EoTOMARiiNAE Wenz, 1938 
T EoTOMARiiNi Wenz, 1938 [= Liospirinae 

Knight, 1956] 
T Deseretospirini Gordon & Yochelson, 1 987 



T Glabrocingulini Gordon & Yochelson, 1 987 
T Ptychomphalinini Wenz, 1938 

SF Ptychomphalinae Wenz, 1938 
T Ptychomphalini Wenz, 1938 
T Mourloniini Yochelson & Dutro, 1960 

SF Neilsoniinae Knight, 1956 
T Neilsoniini Knight, 1956 
T Spirovallini Waterhouse, 2001 

t Family GossELETiNiDAE Wenz, 1938 
SF GossELETiNiNAE Wenz, 1938 
SF CoELOzoNiNAE Knight, 1956 
T CoELozoNiNi Knight, 1 956 [= Euryzoninae 

P. J.Wagner, 2002] 
T Planozonini Knight, 1956 
SFTriangulariinae Vostokova, 1960 

t Family LuciELLiDAE Knight, 1956 

t Family Phanerotrematidae Knight, 1956 

SPF FissuRELLOiDEA Fleming, 1822 

Family Fissurellidae Fleming, 1822^^ 
SF FissuRELLiNAE Fleming, 1822 
SF Emarginulinae Children, 1 834 
T Emarginulini Children, 1834 [= Rimulidae 
Anton, 1838; = Zeidoridae Naef, 1913; 
= Hemitominae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 
1971 ; = Clypidinidae Golikov & Staroboga- 
tov, 1989] 
TDioDORiNiOdhner, 1932 

T FiSSURELLIDEINI Pilsbry, 1890 

T ScuTiNi Christiaens, 1973 

SPF Haliotoidea Rafinesque, 1815 

Family Haliotidae Rafinesque, 1815 
t Family Temnotropidae Cox, 1960^^ 

SPF Lepetelloidea Dall, 18822" 

Family Lepetellidae Dall, 1882 
SF Lepetellinae Dall, 1882 
SF Choristellinae Bouchet & Waren, 1979^^ 

Family Addisoniidae Dall, 1882 
SFADDisoNiiNAEDalt, 1882 
SF Helicopeltinae Marshall, 1996 

Family Bathyphytophilidae Moskalev, 1978 

Family Caymanabyssiidae Marshall, 1986 



244 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Family CoccuLiNELLiDAE Moskalev, 1971 

Family OsTEOPELTiDAE Marshall, 1987 

Family PsEUDOcoccuLiNiDAE Hickman, 1983 

Family Pyropeltidae McLean & Haszprunar, 
1987 

SPF Lepetodriloidea McLean, 1988 

Family Lepetodrilidae McLean, 1988 [= Gorgo- 
leptidae McLean, 1988P 

Family Clypeosectidae McLean, 1989^^ 

Family SuTiLizoNiDAE McLean, 1 989 [= Temnocin- 
clinae McLean, 1989P 

SPF MuRCHisoNioiDEA Коквп, 1896^9 

t Family Murchisoniidae Koken, 1896 

t Family Cheeneetnukiidae Blodgett & Cook, 
2002 

t Family Hormotomidae Wenz, 1938 [= Plethos- 
pirinaeWenz, 1938] 

SPF Neomphaloidea McLean, 1981^° 

Family Neomphalidae McLean, 1981 [= Cyather- 
miidae McLean, 1990] 

Family Melanodrymiidae Salvini-Plawen & 
Steiner, 1995 

Family Peltospiridae McLean, 1989 

SPF Pleurotomarioidea Swainson, 1840^^ 

Family Pleurotomariidae Swainson, 1840 
t Family Catantostomatidae Wenz, 1938 
t Family KiTTLiDisciDAE Cox, 1960 
t Family Phymatopleuridae Batten, 1956 
t Family PoLYTREMARiiDAE Wenz, 1938 
t Family PoRTLOCKiELLiDAE Batten, 1956 



t Family Rhaphischismatidae Knight, 1956 

t Family Trochotomidae Cox, 1960 (1934) 
[= Ditremariinae Haber, 1934] 

t Family Zygitidae Cox, 1 960 



SPF PoRCELLioiDEA Кокеп, 1895^2 

t Family PoRCELLiiDAE Koken, 1895 
SF PoRCELLiiNAE Кокбп, 1895 
SF Agnesiinae Knight, 1956 

t Family CiRRiDAE Cossmann, 1916 
SF CiRRiNAE Cossmann, 1916 
SF Platyacrinae Wenz, 1938 [= Hesperocirh- 

nae O.Haas, 1953] 
SF Cassianocirrinae Bändel, 1993 

t Family Discohelicidae Schröder, 1995 

t Family Pavlodiscidae Fryda, 1998 

SPF ScissuRELLOiDEA Gray, 1847" 

Family Scissurellidae Gray, 1847 
SF Scissurellinae Gray, 1847 [= Depressi- 

zoninae Geiger, 2003^4] 
SF Larocheinae Finlay, 1927 

Family Anatomidae McLean, 1989 [= Schizotro- 
chidae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 (n.a.)] 

SPF Seguenzioidea Verrill, 1884^5 

Family SEGUENziiDAEVerrill, 1884 
SFSeguenziinae Verrill, 1884 

TSeguenziini Verrill, 1884 

T Fluxinellini Marshall, 1991 
SFAsTHELYSiNAE Marshall, 1991 
SF Davisianinae Egorova, 1972 [= Putillinae 

F. Nordsieck, 1972; = Oligomeriinae Egor- 

ov, 2000]2s 
SF GuTTULiNAE Goryachev, 1987 

Family Chilodontidae Wenz, 1938^'' 
SF Chilodontinae Wenz, 1938 
SF Calliotropinae Hickman & McLean, 1990 
SF Cataeginae McLean & Quinn, 1987 

t Family EucYCLiDAE Koken, 18962^ 

t Family Laubellidae Cox, 1960 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



245 



SPF Trochoidea Rafinesque, 1815^^ 

Family Trochidae Rafinesque, 1815 
SF Trochinae Rafinesque, 1815 
T Trochini Rafinesque, 1 81 5 [= Pyramidinae 

Gray, 1847] 
T Cantharidini Gray, 1857 
T MoNODONTiNi Gray, 1857 [= Gibbulinae 
Stoliczka, 1868] 
SF Halistylinae Keen, 1958 
SF LiRULARiiNAE Шскшап & McLean, 1990 
SF Margaritinae Thiele, 1 924 
T Margaritini Thiele, 1 924 [= Margaritinae 

Stoliczka, 1868 (inv.)] 
T Gazini Hickman & McLean, 1990 
T Kaiparathinini Marshall, 1993 
SF Stomatellinae Gray, 1840 [= Stomatiidae 

Carpenter, 1861] 
SF Umboniinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 
(1840) 
T Umboniini H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 

(1840) [= Rotellinae Swainson, 1840] 
T Bankiviini Hickman & McLean, 1990 
T IsANDiNi Hickman, 2003 
TTalopiini Finlay, 1928 [= Monileini Hickman 
& McLean, 1990] 

Family Calliostomatidae Thiele, 1 924 (1 847)''° 
SFCalliostomatinae Thiele, 1924(1847) 
TCalliostomatini Thiele, 1924 (1847) [=Ziz- 

iphininaeGray, 1847] 
T Fautricini Marshall, 1995 
SF Thysanodontinae Marshall, 1988 

t Family Elasmonematidae Knight, 1956 

t Family EucocHLiDAE Bändel, 2002 

t Family Microdomatidae Wenz, 1938 
SF Microdomatinae Wenz, 1 938 
SF Decorospirinae Blodgett & Fryda, 1999 

t Family Proconulidae Cox, 1960"^ 

Family Solariellidae Powell, 1951 [= Minolii- 
nae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971]^^ 

t Family Tychobraheidae Horny, 1992 

t Family Velainellidae Vasseur, 1880"^ 



SPF TuRBiNoiDEA Rafinesque, 1815 

Family TuRBiNiDAE Rafinesque, 1815 
SF TuRBiNiNAE Rafinesque, 1815 [= Senecti- 
nae Swainson, 1840; = Imperatohnae Gray, 



1 847; = Astraliinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 

1854; = Astraeinae Davies, 1935; = Bolmi- 

daeDelpey, 1941] 
SF Angariinae Gray, 1857 [= Delphinulinae 

Stoliczka, 1868] 
SF CoLLONiiNAE Cossmann, 1917"" 

T CoLLONiiNi Cossmann, 1917 [= Bothropo- 
matinae Thiele, 1924 (inv.); = Homalopo- 
matinae Keen, 1960; = Petropomatinae 
Cox, 1960] 

t T Adeorbisinini Monari, Conti & Szabo, 
1995 

t T Crossostomatini Cox, 1960 

t T Helicocryptini Cox, 1960 
SF Moelleriinae Hickman & McLean, 1990 
t SF Moreanellinae J. C. Fischer & Weber, 

1997 
SF Prisogastrinae Hickman & McLean, 1990 
SF Skeneinae W. Clark, 1851 [= Delphinoi- 

deinae Thiele, 1924]"^ 
SF Tegulinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971"*^ 

Family LioTiiDAE Gray, 1850 
SF LiOTiiNAE Gray, 1850 [= Cyclostrematidae 

P. Fischer, 1885] 
t SF Brochidiinae Yochelson, 1956 
t SF DiCHOSTASiiNAE Yochelson, 1956 

Family Phasianellidae Swainson, 1840"^ 
SF Phasianellinae Swainson, 1840 [= Eutropi- 

inaeGray, 1847] 
SF Gabrieloninae Hickman & McLean, 1990"^ 
SFTricoliinae Woodring, 1928 



Clade Cocculiniformia"^ 
SPF CoccuLiNoiDEA Dall, 1882 

Family CoccuLiNiDAE Dall, 1882^° 

Family Bathysciadiidae Dautzenberg & H. Fis- 
cher, 1900[=BathypeltidaeMoskalev, 1971]^^ 

Clade Neritimorpha [= Neritopsina]^^ 

Paleozoic Neritimorpha of uncertain position 

Unassigned to superfamily 

t Family Craspedostomatidae Wenz, 1938 
SF Craspedostomatinae Wenz, 1938 
SF BucANospiRiNAE Wenz, 1938 

t Family Pragoscutulidae Fryda, 1998 



246 BOUCHET & ROCROI 

SPF Nerrhenoidea Bändel & Heidelberger, 2001 



t Family Nerrhenidae Bändel & Heidelberger, 
2001 



SPF Oriostomatoidea Koken, 1896" 

t Family Oriostomatidae Koken, 1896 
t Family TuBiNiDAE Knight, 1956 

SPF Palaeotrochoidea Knight, 1956 

t Family Palaeotrochidae Knight, 1956 

SPF Platyceratoidea Hall, 1879^^ 

t Family Pu\tyceratidae Hall, 1879 [= Cydonema- 
tidae P. Fischer, 1885; = Platyostomatidae S. 
A. Miller, 1889; = Strophostylidae Grabau & 
Shimer, 1909; = Palaeocapulidae Grabau, 
1936] 

Clade Cyrtoneritimorpha 

t Family Orthonychmdae Bändel & Fryda, 1999 

t Family Vltaviellidae Bändel & Fryda, 1999 
SF Vltaviellinae Bande! & Fryda, 1999 
SF Krameriellinae Fryda & Heidelberger, 
2003 

Clade Cycloneritimorpha" 

SPF Helicinoidea Férussac, 1822 

Family Helicinidae Férussac, 1822^^ 
SF Helicininae Férussac, 1822 [= Olygyridae 
Gray, 1847; = Bourcierinae Paetel, 1890] 
SF Ceratodiscinae Pilsbry, 1927 
t SF Dimorphoptychiinae Wenz, 1938 
SF Hendersoniinae H. B. Baker, 1926 
SF Stoastomatinae C. B. Adams, 1849 
SF ViANiNAE H. B. Baker, 1922 

t Family Dawsonellidae Wenz, 1938^'' 

t Family Deianiridae Wenz, 1938^^ 

Family Neritiliidae Schepman, 1908^^ 

Family Proserpinellidae H. B. Baker, 1923 
[=Ceresinae Thiele, 1925]^° 



Family Proserpinidae Gray, 1847 [= Des- 
poenidae Newton, 1891] 



SPF HYDROCENOIDEATrOSChel, 1857 

Family Hydrocenidae Troschel, 1857 [= Georis- 
sinae Blanford, 1864] 



SPF Neritoidea Rafinesque, 1815 

Family Neritidae Rafinesque, 1815 
SF Neritinae Rafinesque, 1 81 5 [= Nehtellinae 

Gray, 1847; = Protoneritidae KittI, 1899] 
t SF Neritariinae Wenz, 1 938 
SF Neritininae Poey, 1852 
T Neritinini Poey, 1852 [= Catillinae Gray, 
1 868; = Orthopomatini Gray, 1 868; = Ste- 
nopomatini Gray, 1868; = Septariini Jous- 
seaume, 1894] 
TTheodoxini Bändel, 2001 
SF Smaragdiinae H. B. Baker, 1923 
t SF Velatinae Bändel, 2001 

Family Phenacolepadidae Pilsbry, 1895 [= Scutel- 
lidae Angas, 1871 (inv.); = Scutellinidae Dall, 
1889 (inv.); = Shinkailepadidae Okutani, Sai- 
to& Hashimoto, 1989] 

t Family PiLEOLiDAE Bändel, Gründe! & IVIax- 
wel!, 2000 



SPF Neritopsoidea Gray, 1847^^ 

Family Neritopsidae Gray, 1847 
SF Neritopsinae Gray, 1847 
t SF Naticopsinae Waagen, 1880 [= Hology- 

ridae KittI, 1899] 
t SF Paffrathiinae Heidelberg, 2001 

t Family Cortinellidae Bande!, 2000 

t Family Delphinulopsidae Blodgett, Fryda & 
Stanley, 2001 

t Family Plagiothyridae Knight, 1956 

t Family PsEUDORTHONYCHiiDAE Bande! & Fryda, 
1999 

Family TmscANiiDAE Bergh, 1890 



SPF Symmetrocapuloidea Wenz, 1938 

t Family Symmetrocapulidae Wenz, 1938 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



247 



Clade Caenogastropoda 

Caenogastropoda of uncertain systematic 
position 

Unassigned to superfamily 

t Family Plicatusidae Pan & Erwin, 2002 

t Family Spanionematidae Golikov & Staroboga- 
tov, 1987^2 

t Family Spirostylidae Cossmann, 1909 

SPP AcTEONiNOiDEA Соззшапп, 1895^^ 

t Family AcTEONiNiDAE Cossmann, 1895^" 
SFAcTEONiNiNAE Cossmann, 1895 
SF Meekospirinae Knight, 1956 

t Family Soleniscidae Knight, 1931 
SF Soleniscinae Knight, 1931 
SF Prokopiconchinae Fryda, 2001 

t Family Anozygidae Bändel, 2002 
SF Anozyginae Bändel, 2002 
SF Tmetoneminae Bändel, 2002 

SPP Dendropupoidea Wenz, 1938^^ 

t Family Dendropupidae Wenz, 1938*^*^ 
t Family Anthracopupidae Wenz, 1938^'' 

SPP Palaeostyloidea Wenz, 1938^^ 

t Family Palaeostylidae Wenz, 1938 ^ 

SF Palaeostylinae Wenz, 1938 [= Kinishbii- 

nae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987^3] 
SF Austronematinae Bändel, 2002 (inv.) 
SF Orthonematinae Nützel & Bändel, 2000'° 
SF Platyconchinae Bändel, 2002 

t Family GoNiASMATiDAE Nützel & Bändel, 2000 

t Family PiTHODEiDAE Wenz, 1938 

SPP Peruneloidea Pryda & Bändel, 1997^' 

t Family Perunelidae Fryda & Bändel, 1997 
t Family Chuchlinidae Fryda & Bändel, 1997 
t Family Imoglobidae Nützel, Erwin & Mapes, 2000 



t Family Sphaerodomidae Bande!, 2002 

SPP PsEUDOMELANioiDEA R. Hoemes, 1884 

t Family PsEUDOMELANiiDAE R. Ноегпез, 1884 
t Family Trajanellidae Pchelintsev, 1951 

SPP SuBULiToiDEA Lindström, 1884 

t Family SuBULiTiDAE Lindström, 1884 [= Macro- 
cheilidae White, 1877 (inv.); = BulimorphidaeS. 
A. Miller, 1889; = FusispiridaeS. A. Miller, 1889] 

t Family IscHNOPTYGMATiDAE Erwin, 1988 

Zygopleuroid Group'^ 

t Family Zygopleuridae Wenz, 1938 
SF Zygopleurinae Wenz, 1938 [= Goniospir- 

idae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987] 
SF Allostrophiinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 

1987 
SF Ampezzopleurinae Nützel, 1998 
SF KosMOPLEURiNAE Gründol, 2003 

Family Abyssochrysidae Tomlin, 1 927''^ 

t Family PoLYGYRiNiDAE Bändel, 1993 

t Family Protorculidae Bändel, 1991 

Family Provannidae Waren & Ponder, 1991'" 
[= Pseudonininae Bertolaso & Palazzi, 1994]'^ 

t Family Pseudozygopleuridae Knight, 1930 
[= Cyclozygidae B. K. Likharev, 1970; = Eop- 
tychiidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987; 
= Stephanozygidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 
1987] 

Informal Group Architaenioglossa'^ 

SPP Ampullarioidea Gray, 1824 

Family Ampullariidae Gray, 1824'' 
SF Ampullariinae Gray, 1 824 
T Ampullariini Gray, 1824 [= Pilidae Preston, 
1915 (inv.); = Lanistinae Starobogatov, 
1983; = Pomaceinae Starobogatov, 1983] 
TSauleini Berthold, 1991 
SF Afropominae Berthold, 1991 

t Family Naricopsinidae Gründel, 2001 



248 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



SPF Cyclophoroidea Gray, 1847^^ 

Family Cyclophoridae Gray, 1847 
SF Cyclophorinae Gray, 1847'^ 
T Cyclophorini Gray, 1847 [= Aulopomati- 
nae Gray, 1857; = Lagocheilidae Stolic- 
zka, 1872] 
TCaspicyclotini Wenz, 1938 
T Cyathopomatinae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1 897 
TCyclotini L. Pfeiffer, 1853 
T Pterocyclini Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1897 
SF Alycaeinae Blanford, 1864 
SF SpiROSTOMATiNAETielecke, 1940 

Family AcicuLiDAE Gray, 1850 [= Acmeidae 
Pollonera, 1905 (inv.)] 

Family Craspedopomatidae Kobelt & Möllen- 
dorff, 1898 [= Bolaniidae Wenz, 1915] 

Family Diplommatinidae L. Pfeiffer, 1857 
SF DiPLOMMATiNiNAE L. Pfeiffer, 1857 
SF CocHLOsTOMATiNAE Kobelt, 1902 [Pomati- 
inae Gray, 1853 (inv.)] 

t Family Ferussinidae Wenz, 1923 (1915) 
[= Strophostomatidae Wenz, 1915] 

Family Maizaniidae Tielecke, 1940^° 

Family Megalomastomatidae Blanford, 1864 
[= Neopupininae Kobelt, 1902; = Hainesii- 
nae Thiele, 1929] 

Family Neocyclotidae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1897^^ 
SF Neocyclotinae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 
1897 [= Poteriinae Thiele, 1929; = Croci- 
dopomatinae F.G. Thompson, 1967; = Di- 
cristidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975] 
SF Amphicyclotinae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1 897 
[= Aperostomatinae H. B. Baker, 1922] 

Family Pupinidae L. Pfeiffer, 1853 
SF Pupininae L. Pfeiffer, 1853 
SF LiAREiNAE Powell, 1946 [= Cytoridae Cli- 

mo, 1969 (n. a.)] 
SF PupiNELLiNAE Kobelt, 1 902 [= Ventriculidae 
Wenz, 1915; = Pollicahini Thiele, 1929] 



SPF ViviPARoiDEA Gray, 1847^2 

Family ViviPARiDAE Gray, 1847^^ 
SF ViviPARiNAE Gray, 1847 (1833) [= Palu- 

dinidae Fitzinger, 1833 (inv.); = Kosoviinae 

Atanackovic, 1959 (n.a.)] 
SF Bellamyinae Rohrbach, 1937 [= Amuropalu- 

dinidae Starobogatov, Prozorova, Bogatov 

&Sayenko, 2004 (n.a.)] 



SF Lioplacinae Gill, 1863 [= Campelomati- 
nae Thiele, 1929] 

t Family Pliopholygidae Taylor, 1966 



Clade Sorbeoconcha 

Not allocated to superfamily 

t Family Acanthonematidae Wenz, 1938"" 

t Family Canterburyellidae Bändel, Gründel 
& Maxw/ell, 2000 

t Family Prisciphoridae Bändel, Gründel & Max- 
well, 2000 

SPF Cerithioidea Fleming, 182285 

Family Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822 
SF Cerithiinae Fleming, 1822 [= Rhinoclav- 

inae Gründel, 1982; = Colininae Golikov & 

Starobogatov, 1 987] 
SFAiABiNiNAEDall, 1927 
SF BiTTiiNAE Cossmann, 1906^^ 

Family Batillariidae Thiele, 1 929 [= Pyrazidae 
Hacobjan, 1 972; = Tiaracerithiinae Bouniol, 
1981]ö^ 

t Family Brachytrematidae Cossmann, 1906 

t Family Cassiopidae Beurlen, 1967 [= Glau- 
coniidae Pchelintsev, 1953 (inv.)] 

Family Dialidae Kay, 1979 

Family DiASTOMATiDAE Cossmann, 1 894 [= Ewe- 
koroiidaeAdegoke, 1977] 

t Family EusTOMATiDAE Cossmann, 1906 

t Family Ladinulidae Bändel, 1992 

t Family Lanascalidae Bändel, 1992 

Family LmopiDAE Gray, 1847 

t Family Maoraxidae Bändel, Gründel & Max- 
well, 200088 

Family Melanopsidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1 854 [= Stomatopsinae Stäche, 1 889; = Am- 
phimelaniinae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1891; 
= Fagotiinae Starobogatov, 1992] 

t Family Metacerithiidae Cossmann, 1906^^ 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



249 



Family MoDULiDAE R Fischer, 1 884 [= Aplodon- 
tidaeKuroda, 1933] 

Family Pachychilidae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1892 
[= Fauninae Cossmann, 1909^°; = Melanatri- 
inae Thiele, 1921; = Potadomatinae Pilsbry 
& Bequaert, 1 927; = Brotiinae Golikov & Star- 
obogatov, 1987] 

Family Paludomidae Stoliczka, 1868 
SF Paludominae Stoliczka, 1868 [= Philopot- 

amidinae Stäche, 1889] 
SF Cleopatrinae Pilsbry & Bequaert, 1927^^ 
SF Hauttecoeuriinae Bourguignat, 1885^^ 
T Hauttecoeuriini Bourguignat, 1 885 [= Tan- 

ganyiciinae Bändel, 1998] 
T Nassopsini Kesteven, 1903 [= Lavigeriidae 

Thiele, 1925] 
T Rumellini Ancey, 1906 
T Spekiini Ancey, 1 906 [= Giraudiidae Bour- 
guignat, 1885 (inv.); = Reymondiinae Ban- 
del, 1998] 
T Syrnolopsini Bourguignat, 1890 
T TiPHOBiiNi Bourguignat, 1886 [= Hila- 
canthidae Bourguignat, 1890; = Paramelani- 
idae J. E. S. Moore, 1898; = Bathanaliidae 
Ancey, 1906; = Limnotrochidae Ancey, 
1906] 

Family Planaxidae Gray, 1850 
SF Planaxinae Gray, 1850 
SF FossARiNAE A. Adams, 1860 

Family Pleuroceridae P. Fischer, 1885 (1863) 
SF Pleurocerinae P Fischer, 1885 (1863) 
[= Ceriphasiinae Gill, 1863; = Strepomatidae 
Haldeman, 1864; = Ellipstomatidae Hanni- 
bal, 1912; = Gyrotominae Hannibal, 1912; 
= AnaplocamidaeDall, 1921] 
SF Semisulcospirinae Morrison, 1952^^ [= Jug- 
idae Starobogatov, Prozorova, Bogatov & 
Sayenko, 2004 (n.a.)] 

t Family Popenellidae Bändel, 1992 

Family PoTAMiDiDAE H.Adams & A. Adams, 1854 
[=Telescopiidae Allan, 1950; = Cerithideidae 
Houbrick, 1988] 

t Family Procerithiidae Cossmann, 1906^'' 
SF Procerithiinae Cossmann, 1906 
SF Paracerithiinae Cossmann, 1906 
SF Cryptaulacinae Grijndel, 1976 

t Family Prostyliferidae Bändel, 1992^^ 

t Family Propupaspiridae Nützel, Pan & Erwin, 
2002 



Family Scaliolidae Jousseaume, 1912 [= Ob- 
tortionidae Thiele, 1925; = Finellidae Thiele, 
1929] 

Family Siliquariidae Anton, 1838 
SF Siliouariinae Anton, 1 838 [= Tenagodidae 

Gill, 1871] 
SF Stephopomatinae Bändel & Kowaike, 1997 

t Family Terebrellidae Delpey, 1941 (inv.) 

Family Thiaridae Gill, 1871 (1823) [= Melani- 
idae Children, 1823; = Hemisininae P. Fischer 
& Crosse, 1891; = Melanoididae Ihering, 
1909; = Pyrgulifehdae Delpey, 1941 (n.a.); 
= Aylacostomatinae Parodiz, 1969; = Pa- 
chymelaniidae Bändel & Kowaike, 1999^*^] 

Family Turritellidae Lovén, 1847 
SF Turritellinae Lovén, 1847 [= Zariinae 

Gray, 1850; = Zeacolpini Marwick, 1971; 

= Archimediellidae Starobogatov, 1982; 

= Tachyrhynchinae Golikov, 1986] 
SF Orectospirinae Habe, 1955 
SF Pareorinae Finlay & Marwick, 1937 
SF Protominae Marwick, 1957 
SF Vermiculariinae Dall, 1 91 3 [= Pseudome- 

saliidae Mahmoud, 1955 (inv.)] 



SPP Campaniloidea Douvillé, 1904 

Family Campanilidae Douvillé, 1904 [= Diozop- 
tyxinae Pchelintsev, 1960; = Gymnocerithi- 
idae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987^^] 

Family Ampullinidae Cossmann, 1919 [= Am- 
pullospihdae Cox, 1 930; = Gyrodinae Wenz, 
1938; = GlobulariinaeWenz, 1941; = Pseu- 
damauridae Kowaike & Bändel, 1996]зо 

Family Plesiotrochidae Houbrick, 1990 

t Family Trypanaxidae Gougerot & Le Renard, 
198753 



Clade Hypsogastropoda^°° 

Not allocated to superfamily 

t Family CoELosTYLiNiDAE Cossmann, 1908^°^ 

t Family Maturifusidae Gründel, 2001 

t Family Pommerozygiidae Gründel, 1999 

t Family Settsassiidae Bändel, 1992 



250 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Clade Littorinimorpha^°2 

SPF Calyptraeoidea Lamarck, 1809^°^ 

Family Calyptraeidae Lamarck, 1809 [= Crepid- 
ulidae Fleming, 1 822; = Galehnae Gray, 1 857; 
= Cryptinae Gray, 1868; = Dispotaeinae Gray, 
1868; = Ergeinae Gray, 1868; = Mitrellinae 
Gray, 1868 (inv.); = Trochitinae Gray, 1868] 

SPF Capuloidea Fleming, 1822'°^ 

Family Capulidae Fleming, 1822 [= Trichotropi- 
dae Gray, 1850; = Verenidae Gray, 1857 (inv.); 
= Pileopsidae Chenu, 1859; = Sihidae Iredale, 
1931; = Cerithiodermatidae Hacobjan, 1976] 

SPF CiNGULOPSoiDEA Frettor & Patil, 1958^°^ 

Family CiNGULOPsiDAE Fretter & Patil, 1958 
[= Eatoniopsinae Ponder, 1965; = Coriandri- 
idae F. Nordsieck, 1972; = Eatoninidae Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov, 1 975] 

Family Eatoniellidae Ponder, 1965 

Family Rastodentidae Ponder, 1966 

SPF Cypraeoidea Rafinesque, 1815 

Family Cypraeidae Rafinesque, 1815^°^ 
SF Cypraeinae Rafinesque, 1815 

T Cypraeini Rafinesque, 1815 [= Porcel- 
lanidae Roberts, 1870 (inv.)] 

T Mauritiini Steadman & Cotton, 1946 
SF Erosariinae Schilder, 1924 [= Cypraeaciti- 

nae Schilder, 1 930 (inv.); = Nariinae Schilder, 

1932; = Staphylaeinae Iredale, 1935] 
SF Erroneinae Schilder, 1927 

T Erroneini Schilder, 1927 [= Adustinae 
Steadman & Cotton, 1946] 

T BiSTOLiDiNi С Meyer, 2003 
SF Gisortiinae Schilder, 1927 [= Archicypraein- 

ae Schilder, 1927; = Bernayinae Schilder, 

1927; = Cypraeorbini Schilder, 1927; = Man- 

dolininae Schilder, 1932; = Umbiliini Schilder, 

1 932; = Zoilinae Iredale, 1 935] 
SFLuriinae Schilder, 1932 

T Luriini Schilder, 1932 [= Talpariinae Ire- 
dale, 1935] 

T Austrocypraeini Iredale, 1935 
SFPustulariinaeGíII, 1871 

TPustulariiniGIII, 1871 

T Cypraeovulini Schilder, 1927 

TZoNARiiNi Schilder, 1932 



Family Ovulidae Fleming, 1822^°' 
SF Ovulinae Fleming, 1822 
T OvuLiNi Fleming, 1822 [= Amphiperatidae 
Gray, 1853; = Simniini Schilder, 1927; 
= Volvini Schilder, 1932] 
t T EocYPRAEiNi Schilder, 1924 [= Sulco- 
cypraeini Schilder, 1932] 
t SF Cypraediinae Schilder, 1927 
SF Jenneriinae Thiele, 1929 [= Cyproglobinini 

Schilder, 1932] 
SF Pediculariinae Gray, 1853 
SF Pseudocypraeinae Steadman & Cotton, 
1943 



SPF FicoiDEA Meek, 1864 (1840) 

Family Ficidae Meek, 1864 (1840) [= Pyruli- 
nae Swainson, 1840; = Sycotypidae Gray, 
1 853; = Ficulidae Carpenter, 1 857; = Thalas- 
socyonidae F. Riedel, 1995] 



SPF LiTTORiNoiDEA Children, 1834 

Family LiTTORiNiDAE Children, 1834^°^ 
SF LiTTORiNiNAE Children, 1834 [= Echinini- 
nae Rosewater, 1972; = Tectariinae Rose- 
water, 1972; = Melaraphidae Starobogatov 
&Sitnikova, 1983] 
SF Lacuninae Gray, 1857 [= Risellidae 
Kesteven, 1903; = Cremnoconchinae Pre- 
ston, 1915; = Bembiciidae Finlay, 1928] 
SF Laevilitorininae Reid, 1989 

t Family Bohaispiridae YouIuo, 1978 

Family Pickworthiidae Iredale, 1917^°^ 
SF PicKwoRTHiiNAE Iredale, 1917 [= Reynel- 

lonidae Iredale, 1917] 
SF Pelycidiinae Ponder & Hall, 1983 
SF Sherborniinae Iredale, 1917 [= Faxiidae 

Ravn, 1933] 

Family Pomatiidae Newton, 1891 (1828)"° 
SF PoMATiiNAE Newton, 1891 (1828) [= Cy- 
clostomatidae Menke, 1828; = Cyclotopsi- 
nae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1 898; = Ericiidae 
Wenz, 1915] 
SF Annulariinae Henderson & Bartsch, 1920"^ 
TAnnulariini Henderson & Bartsch, 1920 
[= Licininae Gray, 1857"^; = Chondropo- 
matinae Henderson & Bartsch, 1920] 
T Adamsiellini Henderson & Bartsch, 1920 
TChoanopomatini Thiele, 1929 
TCisTULOPsiNi H. B. Baker, 1924 [= Cistuli- 

naeL. Pfeiffer, 1858] 
T Rhytidopomatini Henderson & Bartsch, 1 920 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



251 



t Family PuRPURiNiDAE Zittel, 1895 [= Pseudot- 
ritoniinae Gollkov & Starobogatov, 1 987^^^] 

Family Skeneopsidae Iredale, 1915 

t Family Tripartellidae Gründel, 2001 

Family Zerotulidae Waren & Hain, 1996 

SPF Naticoidea Guilding, 1834 

Family Naticidae Guilding, 1834^^'' 

SF Naticinae Guilding, 1 834 [= Polinicinae Gray, 
1847; = Nevehtinae Gray, 1857; = Chohsti- 
dae Verrill, 1882; = Euspiridae Cossmann, 
1907; = Mammillinae Iredale & McMichael, 
1962; = Eunaticinini Oyama, 1969] 

SF SiNiNAE Woodring, 1928"^ [= Sigaretidae 
Gray, 1827; = Cryptostomidae Gray, 1827] 

SF Globisininae Powell, 1933 



SPF Pterotracheoidea Rafinesque, 1814 

[= Heteropoda]^^*^ 

Family Pterotracheidae Rafinesque, 1814 
[= Firolinae Rafinesque, 1815] 

Family Atlantidae Rang, 1829 

t Family Bellerophinidae Destombes, 1984 

Family Carinariidae Blainville, 1818 
SF Carinariinae Blainville, 1818 [= Pteroso- 

matidaeRang, 1829] 
t SF Brunoniinae Dieni, 1990 

SPF RissooiDEA Gray, 1847"^ 

Family Rissoidae Gray, 1847"^ 

SF RissoiNAE Gray, 1847 [= Turbonidae Gray, 
1847; = Mohrensterniinae Korobkov, 1955; 
= Lironobinae Ponder, 1967; = Cingulinae 
Keen, 1971; = Onobidae Golikov & Star- 
obogatov, 1972; = Alvaniinae F. Nordsieck, 
1972; = Merelinidae Golikov & Staroboga- 
tov, 1975; = Haurakiidae Slavoshevskaya, 
1975; = Archascheniini Zhgenti, 1991; 
= Pseudosetiinae V. V. Anistratenko & Star- 
obogatov, 1992 (inv.); = Pusillininae V. V. 
Anistratenko & Starobogatov, 1992; = Setii- 
nae V. V. Anistratenko & Starobogatov, 1 994] 

SF RissoiNiNAE Stimpson, 1865 [= Phosinelli- 
nae Coan, 1964; = Zebininae Coan, 1964; 
= Rissolinidae Voorwinde, 1966 (n.a.); 
= Foliniinae F. Nordsieck, 1972; = Schwartz- 
iellidae Starobogatov & Sitnikova, 1983] 



Family AMNicoLiDAETryon, 1863^^^ 

SF Amnicolinae Tryon, 1863 [= Bythinellinae 
Kobelt, 1878; = Lyogyrinae Pilsbry, 1916; 
= Parabythinellinae Radoman, 1976; = Kol- 
hymamnicolidae Starobogatov, 1983; 
= Erhaiini Davis & Kuo, 1985^20. = pgeudo- 
bythinellini Davis & Chen, 1992; = Ter- 
restribythinellidae Sitnikova, Starobogatov 
& Anistratenko, 1992] 

SF Baicaliinae P. Fischer, 1885 [= Limnoreidae 

B. Dybovy/ski, 1911 (inv.); = Liobaicaliinae B. 

Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 1914; = Turhba- 

icaliinae B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 
1917]^2i 

SF Emmericiinae Brusina, 1870^^^ [= Pyrgidi- 
idae Neumayr, 1869^"; = Fontigentinae D. 
W.Taylor, 1966] 

Family Anabathridae Keen, 1971 [= Amphith- 
alamidae Voorwinde, 1966 (n.a.)] 

Family AssiMiNEiDAE H.Adams & A. Adams, 1856^^'' 
SF AssiMiNEiNAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1856 

[= Synceratidae Bartsch, 1920] 
SF Ekadantinae Thiele, 1929 [= Paludinel- 
lidae Kobelt, 1878 (n.a.); = Cyclotropidae 
Iredale, 1941] 
SF Omphalotropidinae Thiele, 1927 [= Realii- 
nae L. Pfeiffer, 1853 (inv.); = Adelomorphi- 
nae Kobelt, 1906 (inv.); = Garrettiinae 
Kobelt, 1906; = Pseudocyclotini Thiele, 
1929; = Thaanumellinae Clench, 1946; 
= Tutuilanidae Hubendick, 1952] 

Family Barleeiidae Gray, 1857 [= Ansolidae 
Slavoshevskaya, 1975] 

Family BiTHYNiiDAE Gray, 1857 [= Bulimidae 
Hannibal, 1912 (inv.); = Mysorellinae Annan- 
dale, 1920; = Fossarulinae Wenz, 1926; 
= Parafossarulinae Starobogatov, 1 983] 

Family Caecidae Gray, 1 850 
SF Caecinae Gray, 1850 
SF Ctiloceratinae Iredale & Laseron, 1957 

[= Pedumicrinae Iredale & Laseron, 1957; 

= Watsoniinae Iredale & Laseron, 1957; 

= Parastrophiinae Hinoide & Habe, 1978] 
SF Strebloceratinae Bändel, 1996 

Family Calopiidae Ponder, 1999 

Family CocHLiopiDAE Tryon, 1866^^^ 
SF CocHLiopiNAE Tryon, 1866 [= Mexithau- 

matinae D. W. Taylor, 1966; = Paludiscali- 

naeD. W.Taylor, 1966] 
SF LiTTORiDiNiNAE Thiele, 1928 
SF Semisalsinae Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980 

f= Heleobiini Bernasconi, 19911 



252 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Family Elachisinidae Ponder, 1985 

Family Emblandidae Ponder, 1985 

Family Epigridae Ponder, 1985 

Family Falsicingulidae Slavoshevskaya, 1975 

Family Helicostoidae Pruvot-Fol, 1937^^^ 

Family Hydrobiidae Stimpson, 1865^^^ 
SF Hydrobiinae Stimpson, 1865 [= Palude- 
strinidae Newton, 1891; = Pyrgohentaliinae 
Radoman, 1977; = Pseudocaspiidae Sitni- 
kova & Starobogatov, 1 983] 
SF Belgrandiinae de Stefani, 1877 [= Horatii- 
ni D. W. Taylor, 1966; = Graecoanatolici- 
nae Radoman, 1973; = Sadlerianinae 
Radoman, 1973; = Pseudohoratiinae Rado- 
man, 1973; = Orientaliidae Radoman, 1973 
(inv.); = Lithoglyphulidae Radoman, 1973; 
= Orientalinidae Radoman, 1978 (inv.); 
= Belgrandiellinae Radoman, 1983; = Dab- 
rianidae Starobogatov, 1983; = Istrianidae 
Starobogatov, 1983; = Kireliinae Staroboga- 
tov, 1983; = Lanzaiidae Starobogatov, 1983; 
= Tanousiidae Starobogatov, 1983; = Bu- 
charamnicolinae Izzatulaev, Sitnikova & 
Starobogatov, 1985; = Martensamnicolinae 
Izzatulaev, Sitnikova & Starobogatov, 1985; 
= Turkmenamnicolinae Izzatulaev, Sitniko- 
va & Starobogatov, 1985] 
SF Clenchiellinae D. W. Taylor, 1966 
SF IsLAMiiNAE Radoman, 1973 
SF Nymphophilinae D. W. Taylor, 1966^2« 
SF PsEUDAMNicoLiNAE Radoman, 1977 
SF Pyrgulinae Brusina, 1882 (1869) [= Caspi- 
idae B. Dybowski, 1913; = Microliopalaeinae 
B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 1914; 
= Micromelaniidae B. Dybowski & Grochmal- 
icki, 1914; = Turhcaspiinae B. Dybowski & 
Grochmalicki, 1915; = Liosarmatinae B. Dy- 
bowski & Grochmalicki, 1920; = Chilopyrguli- 
nae Radoman, 1973; = Micropyrgulidae 
Radoman, 1973; = Falsipyrgulinae Ra- 
doman, 1983; - Ohridopyrgulinae Radoman, 
1983; = Prosostheniinae Pana, ^989y^^ 
SFTateinae Thiele, 1925 [= Potamopyrgidae 
F. C. Baker, 1928; = Hemistomiinae Thiele, 
1929] 

Family Hydrococcidae Thiele, 1928 

Family Iravadiidae Thiele, 1 928 [= Fairbankiinae 
Thiele, 1928; = Rehdehellinae Brandt, 1974; 
= Hyalidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975; 
= Pseudomerelininae Starobogatov, 1989] 



Family LiTHOGLYPHiDAETryon, 1866^^° 
SF LiTHOGLYPHiNAETryon, 1866 [= Fluminicoli- 

nae Clessin, 1880; = Lepyhidae Pilsbry & 

Olsson, 1951] 
SF Benedictiinae Clessin, 1880"' 

t Family Mesocochliopidae Yu, 1987"^ 

Family MoiTEssiERiiDAE Bourguignat, 1863"^ 

t Family Palaeorissoinidae Gründe! & Kowaike, 
2002 

SF Pau^eorissoininae Gründel & Kowaike, 2002 
SF Greveniellinae Gründel & Kowaike, 2002 

Family PoMATiopsiDAE Stimpson, 1865"" 
SF PoMATiopsiNAE Stimpson, 1865 [= Hemibi- 
inae Heude, 1890; = Tomichiinae Wenz, 
1938; = Coxiellidae Iredale, 1943; = On- 
comelaniidae Salisbury & Edwards, 1961; 
= Cecininae Starobogatov, 1983] 
SF TRicuLiNAEAnnandale, 1924 
TTriculini Annandale, 1924 [= Delavayidae 

Annandale, 1924] 
T JuLLiENiiNi Davis, 1979 
TLacunopsini Davis, 1979 
T Pachydrobiini Davis & Kang, 1990 

Family SlENOTHYRIDAETryOn, 1866 

Family ToRNiDAE Sacco, 1896 (1884) 
SF ToRNiNAE Sacco, 1896 (1884) [= Adeor- 

bidae Monterosato, 1884] 
SF CiRcuLiNAE Fretter & Graham, 1962 
SF Teinostomatinae Cossmann, 1917 
SF ViTRiNELLiNAE Bush, 1897 

Family Truncatellidae Gray, 1840 
SF Truncatellinae Gray, 1840 
SF Geomelaniinae Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1897 



SPF Stromboidea Rafinesque, 1815"^ 

Family Strombidae Rafinesque, 1815 
SF Strombinae Rafinesque, 1815 
SF RosTELLARiiNAE Gabb, 1868 [= Rimellinae 
Stewart, 1927; = Tibiidae Golikov & Sta- 
robogatov, 1975] 

Family Aporrhaidae Gray, 1850"^ 
SF Aporrhainae Gray, 1850 [= Chenopidae 

Deshayes, 1865] 
SF Arrhoginae Popenoe, 1983 [= Alariidae 

Koken, 1889 (inv.); = Dicrolomatidae Ko- 

rotkov, 1 992] 
t SF Harpagodinae Pchelintsev, 1963 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



253 



t SF Perissopterinae Korotkov, 1992 
[= Struthiopterinae Zinsmeister & Griffin, 
1995] 

t SF Spinigerinae Korotkov, 1992 (inv.) 

t Family CoLOMBELLiNiDAE P. Fischer, 1884 
[= Columbellariidae Zittel, 1 895; = Zittelildae 
Schilder, 1936] 

t Family PuGNELLiDAE Kiel & Bande!, 1999 

Family Seraphsidae Gray, 1 853 [= Terebellinae 
H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854]'^^ 

Family Struthiolariidae Gabb, 1868 [= Struthi- 
olarellinae Zinsmeister & Camacho, 1 980] 

t Family Thersiteidae Savornin, 1915 

t Family Tylostomatidae Stoliczka, 1868"^ 

SPF ToNNoiDEA Suter, 1913 (1825)^39 

Family ToNNiDAESuter, 1913(1825) 
SF ToNNiNAE Suter, 1913 (1825) [= Doliidae 
Latreille, 1825; = Macgillivrayiidae H.Adams 
& A. Adams, 1 854; = Galeodoliidae Sacco, 
1891] 
SF Cassinae Latreille, 1825 
SF OocoRYTHiNAE P. Fischer, 1885 
SF Phaliinae Beu, 1981 

Family Bursidae Thiele, 1925 [= Tutufinae 
Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1971 (n.a.)] 

Family Laubierinidae Waren & Bouchet, 1990 

Family Personidae Gray, 1854 [= Calcarellidae 
Schaufuss, 1869; = Distorsioninae Beu, 
1981] 

Family Pisanianuridae Waren & Bouchet, 1990 

Family Ranellidae Gray, 1854 

SF Ranellinae Gray, 1854 [= Argobuccininae 
Kilias, 1973; = Simpulidae Dautzenberg, 
1 900; = Gyrineinae Higo & Goto, 1993 (n.a.)] 

SF Cymatiinae Iredale, 1913 (1854) [= Tri- 
tonidae Gray, 1847 (inv.); = Tritoniidae H. 
Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 (inv.); = Neptunel- 
linae Gray, 1854; = Lampusiidae Nev\/ton, 
1 891 ; = Lotohidae Harris, 1 897; = Septidae 
Dall& Simpson, 1901; =Aquillidae Pilsbry, 
1904; = Nyctilochidae Dall, 1912; = Charo- 
niinae Powell, 1933] 



SPF Vanikoroidea Gray, 1840^"° 

Family Vanikoridae Gray, 1840 [= Naricidae 
Récluz, 1845; = Merriidae Hedley, 1918; 
= Lyocyclinae Thiele, 1925; = Caledoniellidae 
Rosewater, 1969; = Conradiinae Golikov & 
Starobogatov, 1987] 

Family Haloceratidae Waren & Bouchet, 1 991 

Family HippoNiciDAETroschel, 1861 [=Amalth- 
eidae Dall, 1889 (inv.); = Lippistidae Iredale, 
1924; = Cheileidae Macpherson & Chappie, 
1951]^^^ 

t Family Omalaxidae Cossmann, 1916^''2 



SPF Velutinoidea Gray, 1840^^^ 

Family Velutinidae Gray, 1840 

SF Velutininae Gray, 1840 [= Marseniidae 
Leach in Gray, 1847; = Marsenininae Odh- 
ner, 1913; = Capulacmaeinae Golikov & 
Gulbin, 1990; = Onchidiopsinae Golikov & 
Gulbin, 1990 (n.a.); = Marseniopsidae Ban- 
del, 1993 (n.a.)] 

SF Lamellariinae d'Orbigny, 1841 [= Coriocel- 
lidae Troschel, 1848; = Sacculidae Thiele, 
1929 (inv.); = Pseudosacculidae Kuroda, 
1933] 

Family Triviidae Troschel, 1863 
SF Eratoinae Gill, 1871 

TEratoiniGíII, 1871 

tT Johnstrupiini Schilder, 1939 

t T Eratotriviini Schilder, 1 936 
SF Triviinae Troschel, 1863 [= Pusulini 

Schilder, 1936; = Triviellini Schilder, 1939] 



SPF Vermetoidea Rafinesque, 1815^'"' 

Family Vermetidae Rafinesque, 1815 
SF Vermetinae Rafinesque, 1815 
SF Dendropomatinae Bändel & Kowalke, 
1997 



SPF Xenophoroidea Troschel, 1852 (^840y^^ 

Family Xenophoridae Troschel, 1852 (1840) 
[= Phoridae Gray, 1840; = Onustidae H. Ad- 
ams & A. Adams, 1854] 

t Family Lamelliphoridae Korobkov, 1960 



254 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



"Group" Ptenoglossa^''^ 

SPF Epitonioidea Berry, 1910 (1812) 

Family Epitoniidae Berry, 1910 (1812) [= Sca- 
lariidae Lamarck, 1812; = Scalidae H.Adams 
& A. Adams, 1853; = Acrillinae Jousseaume, 
1912; = Cirsotrematinae Jousseaume, 1912; 
= Acirsinae Cossmann, 1912; = Clathroscali- 
nae Cossmann, 1912; = Gyroscalinae Jous- 
seaume, 1912; = Papyriscalinae Jousseaume, 
1912; = Opaliinae Cossmann, 1912; = Lioat- 
lantinae B. Dybowski & Grochmalicki, 1920; 
= Stenacmidae Pilsbry, 1945] 

Family Janthinidae Lamarck, 1822 [= lodeidae 
Leach, 1847 (n.a.); = Recluziidae Iredale & 
McMichael, 1962 (n.a.)] 

Family Nystiellidae Clench & Turner, 1952^''^ 

SPF EuLiMoiDEA Philippi, 1853 

Family EuLiMiDAE Philippi, 1853 [= Stylinidae 
Philippi, 1853 (inv.); = Stiliferidae H.Adams & 
A.Adams, 1853; = Entoconchidae Keferstein, 
1864; = Entocolacldae Voigt, 1888; =Turtoni- 
idae Rosen, 1910 (inv.); = Roseniidae Nier- 
strasz, 1913 (inv.); = Strombiformidae Iredale, 
1915; = Melanellidae Iredale, 1915; = Pelse- 
neehidae Schwanwitsch, 1917; = Enteroxen- 
inae Schwanwitsch, 1917; = Asterophilidae 
Thiele, 1 925; = Thycinae Thiele, 1 929; = Pae- 
dophoropodidaeA. V. Ivanov, 1933] 

Family AcLiDiDAE G. O. Sars, 1878 [= Pherusidae 
Locard, 1886 (inv. )]i48 

SPF Triphoroidea Gray, 1847^''^ 

Family Triphoridae Gray, 1847 
SF Triphorinae Gray, 1847 [= Mastoniinae Ko- 

suge, 1966] 
SF Iniforinae Kosuge, 1966 
SF Metaxiinae Marshall, 1977 

Family Cerithiopsidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 
SF Cerithiopsinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1853 [= Joculatorinae Golikov & Star- 
obogatov, 1987; = Prolixodentinae Golik- 
ov & Starobogatov, 1 987; = Synthopsinae 
Golikov &Starobogatov, 1987] 
SF Aliptinae Marshall, 1 978 [= Cerithiopsidel- 
linae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987; = Eu- 
seilinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987] 
SF Seilinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 



Family Newtoniellidae Korobkov, 1955 
SF Newtoniellinae Korobkov, 1955 [= Cer- 

ithiellidae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1 975]^^° 
SF Adelacerithiinae Marshall, 1984 
SF Ataxocerithiinae Ludbrook, 1957 (n.a.) 
SF Eumetulinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975 

[= Laskeyinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1987] 
SF Laeocochlidinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 

1987 



Clade Neogastropoda 

Unassigned to superfamily 

t Family Johnwyattiidae Serna, 1979^^^ 

t Family Perissityidae Popenoe & Saul, 1987^^^ 

t Family Sarganidae Stephenson, 1923^" 
SF Sarganinae Stephenson, 1923 
SF Pseudecphorinae Bändel & Dockery, 2001 
SF Schizobasinae Bändel & Dockery, 2001 

t Family Speightiidae Powell, 1942^^'' 

t Family Taiomidae Finlay & Marwick, 1937 

t Family Weeksiidae Sohl, 1961 

SPF BucciNoiDEA Rafinesque, 1815^^^ 

Family BucciNiDAE Rafinesque, 1815^^^ 
SF BucciNiNAE Rafinesque, 1815 
Т BucciNiNi Rafinesque, 1815 
T Ancistrolepidini Habe & Sato, 1973 
Т BucciNULiNi Finlay, 1928 
T CoLiNi Gray, 1857 [= Neptuneinae Stimp- 
son, 1865; = Chrysodominae Dall, 1870; 
= Pyramimitridae Cossmann, 1 901 ; = Trun- 
cariinae Cossmann, 1 901 ; = Metajapelion- 
inae Goryachev, 1987] 
TCoMiNELLiNi Gray, 1857 
T LioMEsiNi P. Fischer, 1884 [= Buccinop- 

sidaeG. O.Sars, 1878 (inv.)] 
T Parancistrolepidini Habe, 1972 [= Brevi- 

siphoniinae Lus, 1973] 
T Prosiphonini Powell, 1951 
T VoLUTOPSiiNi Habe & Sato, 1973 
SF Beringiinae Golikov & Starobogatov, 1 975 
SF Busyconinae Wade, 1917 (1867)^^^ 
T BusYCONiNi Wade, 1917 (1867) [= Fulguri- 

naeStoliczka, 1867] 
T BusYcoTYPiNi Petuch, 1994 
SF DoNovANiiNAE Casey, 1904 [= Lachesinae 
L. Bellardi, 1877 (inv.)] 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



255 



SF PisANiiNAE Gray, 1857 [= Photinae Gray, 
1857; = Pusiostomatldae Iredale, 1940] 

SF SiPHONALiiNAE Fipilay, 1928 [= Austrosi- 
phonidae Cotton & Godfrey, 1938] 



Family CoLUBRARiiDAE Dall, 1904 
Iredale, 1915 (inv.)] 



Fusidae 



Family CoLUMBELLiDAE Swainson, 1840'^^ 
SF CoLUMBELLiNAE Swaifison, 1840 
SF Atiliinae Cossmann, 1901 [= Pyrenidae 

Suter, 1909; = Anachidae Golikov & Star- 

obogatov, 1972] 

Family Fasciolariidae Gray, 1853^^^ 

SF Fasciolariinae Gray, 1853 

SF Fusininae Wrigley, 1927 [= Fusinae Swain- 
son, 1840 (inv.); = Cyrtulidae MacDonald, 
1869; = Streptochetinae Cossmann, 1901] 

SF Peristerniinae Tryon, 1880 [= Latiridae 
Iredale, 1929] 

Family Nassariidae Iredale, 1916 {^835У''° 

SF Nassariinae Iredale, 1916 (1835) [= Nas- 
sinae Swainson, 1835 (inv.); = Cyclopsidae 
Chenu, 1859 (inv.); = Cyclonassinae Gill, 
1871; = Alectrionidae Dall, 1908; = Arcu- 
larlidae Iredale, 1915] 

SFBuLLiiNAE Alimón, 1990 

SF Cylleninae L. Bellardi, 1882 

SF Dorsaninae Cossmann, 1901 [= Duplica- 
tinae Muskhelishvili, 1967] 

Family Melongenidae Gill, 1871 (1854) 
SF Melongeninae Gill, 1871 (1854) [= Cassid- 
ulidae Gray, 1854 (inv.); = Galeodidae 
Thiele, 1 925 (inv.); = Volemidae Winckworth, 
1945; = HeligmotomidaeAdegoke, 1977] 
SF Echinofulgurinae Petuch, 1994 



SPF MuRicoiDEA Rafinesque, 1815 

Family Muricidae Rafinesque, 1815 

SF MuRiciNAE Rafinesque, 1815 [= Aspelli- 
nae Keen, 1971] 

SF CoRALLioPHiLiNAE Chenu, 1859^*^^ [= Magil- 
idae Thiele, 1925; = RapidaeKuroda, 1941] 

SF Ergau\taxinae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 1 971 

SFHaustrinae Tan, 2003 

SF Muricopsinae Radwin & d'Attilio, 1971 

SF Ocenebrinae Cossmann, 1903 [= Nucel- 
lidae Salisbury, 1940; =Tritonaliinae Korobk- 
ov, 1955 (inv.); = Ecphohnae Petuch, 1988] 

SF Rapaninae Gray, 1853 [= Purpuhdae Chil- 
dren, 1823; = Purpurellinae L. Bellardi, 1882 
(inv.); = Thaididae Jousseaume, 11 



= Concholepadidae Perrier, 1897; = Taur- 
asiinae Sacco, 1904; = Drupinae Wenz, 
1938; = Morulinae Kool, 1989 (n.a.)] 
SF Tripterotyphinae d'Attilio & Hertz, 1988 
SF Trophoninae Cossmann, 1903 
SFTyphinae Cossmann, 1903 

Family Babyloniidae Kuroda, Habe & Oyama, 
1971 [= Eburninae Swainson, 1840; = Dip- 
saccinae P. Fischer, 1884; = Latrunculinae 
Cossmann, 1901]^^^ 

Family Costellariidae MacDonald, 1 860 [= Tur- 
riculidae Carpenter, 1861 (inv.); = Vexillinae 
Thiele, 1929; = Pusiinae Habe, 1961] 

Family Cystiscidae Stimpson, 1865^^^ 
SF Cystiscinae Stimpson, 1865 
SF Granulininae G A. & H. K. Coovert, 1995 
SF Persiculinae G A. & H. K. Coovert, 1995 
SF Plesiocystiscinae G A. & H. K. Coovert, 1995 

Family Harpidae Bronn, 1849 
SF Harpinae Bronn, 1849 
t SF Cryptochordinae Korobkov, 1955 
SF MoRUMiNAE Hughes & Emerson, 1987 

Family Marginellidae Fleming, 1828^*^'' 
SF Marginellinae Fleming, 1828 
T Marginellini Fleming, 1828 [= Porcel- 

lanidae Gray, 1853 (inv.)] 
T AusTROGiNELLiNi G A. & H. K. Coovort, 1 995 
T Prunini G. a. & H. K. Coovert, 1995 
SF Marginelloninae Coan, 1965 

Family Mitridae Swainson, 1829 

SF MiTRiNAE Swainson, 1829 [= Strigatellidae 
Troschel, 1869; = Mitrahidae Carcelles & 
Williamson, 1951] 

SF Cylindromitrinae Cossmann, 1899 [= Cy- 
lindrinae Thiele, 1929; = Pterygiinae Kuro- 
da, 1934 (n.a.)] 

SF Imbricariinae Troschel, 1867 

t Family Pholidotomidae Cossmann, 1896^^^ 
SF Pholidotominae Cossmann, 1896 
SF Moreinae Stephenson, 1941 
SF Pseudorapinae Bändel & Dockery, 2001 
SF Pyrifusinae Bändel & Dockery, 2001 
SF Pyropsinae Stephenson, 1941 
SF VoLUTODERMATiNAE Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 
[= Volutomorphinae Djalilov, 1977] 

Family Pleioptygmatidae Quinn, 1989 

Family Strepsiduridae Cossmann, 1901 
[= Melapiidae Kantor, 1991]i6e 



256 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Family TuRBiNELLiDAE Swainson, 1835'^^ 
SF TuRBiNELLiNAE Swainsop, 1835 [= Xan- 

cidae Pilsbry, 1922 (inv.)] 
SFCoLUMBARiiNAETomlin, 1928 
SFTuDicLiNAE Cossmann. 1901 
SF Vasinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 853 (1840) 

[= Scolyminae Swainson, 1840; = Cynodon- 

tidaeiVlacDonald, 1860] 

Family Volutidae Rafinesque, 1815'^^ 
SF VoLUTiNAE Rafinesque, 1815 

TVoLUTiNi Rafinesque, 1815 

T Lyriini Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 
SF Amoriinae Gray, 1 857 

TAmoriini Gray. 1857 

T Meloini Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 [= Cym- 
biolinae Bondarev, 1995] 

T NoTovoLUTiNi Bail & Poppe. 2001 
SF Athletinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1 954 [= Vo- 

lutilithinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954] 
SF Calliotectinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 
SF Cymbiinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 

(1847) 

T Cymbiini H. Adams & A. Adams. 1853 
(1847) [=Yetinae Gray. 1847] 

T Adelomelonini Pilsbry & Olsson. 1954 
[= Pachycymbiolini Pilsbry & Olsson. 1 954] 

T Alcithoini Pilsbry & Olsson. 1 954 

T LivoNiiNi Bail & Poppe. 2001 

T Odontocymbiolini Clench & Turner, 1 964 

TZiDONiNi H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853 
SF Fulgorariinae Pilsbry & Olsson, 1954 
SF Plicolivinae Bouchet, 1990 
SF ScAPHELLiNAE Gray, 1857 [= Priamidae Sis- 

monda, 1842^^5; = Haliinae Kobelt, 1888: 

= Caricellinae Dall. 1907: = Auriniinae M. 

Smith, 1942; = Ampullidae Winckworth, 

1945] 

Family VoLUTOMiTRiDAE Gray, 1854 [= Microvo- 
lutidae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 (n.a.); 
= Peculatoridae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 
(n.a.)] 



SPP Olivoidea Latreille, 1825 

Family Olividae Latreille, 1825 
SF Olivinae Latreille, 1825 [= Dactylidae H. 

Adams & A. Adams, 1853 (inv.); = Agaro- 

niinae Olsson, 1956; = Olivancillariidae 

Golikov&Starobogatov. 1975] 
SF Ancillariinae Swainson, 1840 [= Ancilli- 

nae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1853] 
t SF Vanpalmeriinae Adegoke, 1 977 

Family OiivELLiDAETroschel, 1869 



SPP PsEUDOLivoiDEA de Gregorio, 1880 

Family PsEUDOLiviDAE de Gregoho. 1 880 [= Zemir- 
idae Iredale. 1924] 

Family Ptychatractidae Stimpson. 1865 
[=Graphidulidae Stephenson. 1941 (n.a.)]''° 



SPP Conoidea Fleming, 1822''' 

Family CoNiDAE Fleming. 1822 

SF CoNiNAE Fleming. 1822 [= Conulinae 
Rafinesque. 1815 (inv.): = Textiliinae da 
Motta. 1995 (n.a.)] 

SF Clathurellinae H. Adams & A. Adams. 1 858 
[= Defranciinae Gray. 1853 (inv.): = Borsoni- 
inaeA. Bellardi. 1875: = Pseudotominae A. 
Bellardi. 1875; = Diptychomitnnae L. Bellar- 
di. 1888; = Mitrolumnidae Sacco. 1904; 
= Mitromorphinae Casey. 1904: = Lorinae 
Thiele, 1925, sensu Opinion 666] 

SF CoNORBiNAE de Gregorio, 1880 [= Cryp- 
toconinae Cossmann. 1896] 

SF Mangeliinae P. Fischer. 1883 [= Cythari- 
nae Thiele, 1929] 

SF Oenopotinae Bogdanov, 1987 [= Lorinae 
Thiele, 1925 sensu Thiele] 

SF Raphitominae A. Bellardi. 1875 [= Daph- 
nellinae Casey. 1904; = Taraninae Casey, 
1 904; = Thatchehidae Powell, 1 942; = Pleu- 
rotomellinae F. Nordsieck, 1968: = Andoni- 
inaeVera-Pelaez. 2002] 

t SF Siphopsinae Le Renard, 1995''^ 

Family Clavatulidae Gray, 1853 [= Pusionelli- 
nae Gray, 1853; = Clionellidae Stimpson, 
1865; = Melatomidae Gill, 1871; = Turriculi- 
nae Powell. 1942 (inv.)]"^ 

Family Drilliidae Olsson. 1964 [= Clavidae 
Casey. 1904 (inv.)] 

Family Pseudomelatomidae Morrison. 1965 

Family Strictispiridae McLean. 1971 

Family Terebridae Mörch. 1852 
SF Terebrinae Mörch, 1 852 [= Acidae Gray, 

1853 (inv.)] 
SF Pervicaciinae Rudman. 1969 

Family Turridae H. Adams & A. Adams. 1853 
(1838) 
SF TuRRiNAE H. Adams & A. Adams. 1853 

(1838) [= Pleurotominae Gray. 1838; 

= Lophiotominae Morrison. 1965 (n.a.)] 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



257 



SF CocHLESPiRiNAE PowgII, 1 942 

SF Crassispirinae McLean, 1971 [= Belinae 

A. Bellardi, 1875^^^] 
SF Zemaciinae Sysoev, 2003 

SF ZoNULispiRiNAE McLean, 1971^^^ 



SPF Cancellarioidea Forbes & Hanley, 1851 

Family Cancellariidae Forbes & Hanley, 1851 
SF Cancellariinae Forbes & Hanley, 1851 

[= Trigonostomatinae Cossmann, 1899] 
SF Admetinae Troschel, 1865 [= Paladmetidae 

Stephenson, 1941] 
SF Plesiotritoninae Beu & Maxwell, 1987 



Clade Heterobranchia 

Informal Group "Lower Heterobranchia"^^^ 

[=Allogastropoda] 

Unassigned to superfamily 

Family Cimidae Waren, 1993 

t Family Dolomitellidae Bändel, 1994 

t Family Heterosubulitidae Bändel, 2002 

t Family Kuskokwimiidae Fryda & Blodgett, 2001 

t Family MisuRiNELLiDAE Bändel, 1994'" 

Family Orbitestellidae Iredale, 1917 [= Micro- 
disculidae Iredale & McMichael, 1962 (n.a.)] 

Family Tjaernoeiidae Waren, 1991 

Family Xylodisculidae Waren, 1992 

SPF AcTEONOiDEA d'Orbigny, 1843^'« 

Family AcTEONiDAEd'Orbigny, 1843 
SF AcTEONiNAE d'Orbigny, 1843''9 [= Torna- 
tellidae Fleming, 1828; = Solidulidae Meek 
& Hayden, 1860; = Nucleopsinae Coss- 
mann, 1895; = Tornatellaeinae Cossmann, 
1895; = Pupidae Kuroda, 1941] 
t SF LiocARENiNAE Wonz, 1 938 

t Family ACTEONELLIDAE Gill, 1871 

SF AcTEONELLiNAE Gill, 1871 [= Orthostoma- 
tidae Delpey, 1940 (inv.); = Trochactaeon- 
inae Hacobjan, 1963] 

SF Cylindrobullininae Wenz, 1938 
SF Itieriinae Cossmann, 1896'«° 



Family Aplustridae Gray, 1 847 [= Hydatinidae 
Pilsbry, 1895 (inv.)] 

Family BuLLiNiDAE Gray, 1850 [= Nonacteo- 
ninidae Bändel, 1994; = Sulcoactaeonidae 
Gründel, 1997] 

t Family Zardinellidae Bändel, 1994 

SPF Architectonlcoidea Gray, 1850'S' 

Family Architectonicidae Gray, 1 850 [= Solariidae 
Carpenter, 1857; = Toriniidae Troschel, 1875; 
= Teretropomatinae Rochebrune, 1881; = He- 
liacidae Cotton & Godfrey, 1933; = Mangonui- 
idae Iredale, 1936; = Pseudomalaxinae Garrard, 
1977; = Philippiinae Melone &Tavlani, 1985] 

t Family Amphitomariidae Bändel, 1 994 

t Family Cassianaxidae Bändel, 1996 

SPF Glacidorboidea Ponder, 1986'^^ 

Family Glacidorbidae Ponder, 1986 

SPF Mathildoidea Dal!, 1889'8з 

Family Mathildidae Dall, 1 889 [= Tubidae Finlay 
& Marwick, 1937; = Turritellopsinae Marwick, 
1957] 

t Family Ampezzanildidae Bändel, 1 994 

t Family Anoptychiidae Bändel, 1994'^'' 

t Family GoRDENELLiDAE Gründel, 2000 

t Family ToFANELLiDAE Bändel, 1995 
SF ToFANELLiNAE Bandol, 1 995 
SF UsEDOMELLiNAE Gründel, 1998 

t Family Trachoecidae Bändel, 1994 

SPF Nerineoidea ZIttel, 1873'S5 

t Family Nerineidae ZIttel, 1873'«^ 
SF Nerineinae Zittel, 1873 [= Phaneroptyxi- 

dae Pchelintsev, 1965; = Fibuloptygmatid- 

idae Hacobjan, 1973] 
SF Ptygmatidinae Pchelintsev, 1960 [= Cryp- 

toplocinae Pchelintsev, 1960; = Fibuloptyx- 

idae Pchelintsev, 1965; = Umboneidae 

Lyssenko&Aliev, 1987] 



258 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



t Family Nerinellidae Pchelintsev, 1960 
SF Nerinellinae Pchelintsev, 1960 [= Aurorael- 
lidae Pchelintsev, 1965; = Bactroptyxidae 
Pchelintsev, 1965; = Elatioriellidae Pchelint- 
sev, 1965; = Elegantellidae Pchelintsev, 
1965; = Polyptyxidae Pchelintsev, 1965; 
= Triptyxidae Pchelintsev, 1965; - Upellidae 
Pchelintsev, 1965; = Aptyxiellidae Hacob- 
jan, 1973; = Dalmateidae Djalilov, 1977; 
= Nerinoidinae Kase, 1984 (inv.); = Contor- 
tellidae Lyssenko & Korotkov, 1992] 
SF DiPTYxiNAE Pchelintsev, 1960 [= Upellidae 
Pchelintsev, 1965; = Simploptyxinae Ha- 
cobjan, 1973] 

t Family Ceritellidae Wenz, 1938 (1895) 
[= Tubiferidae Cossmann, 1895; = Pseud- 
onerineidae Pchelintsev, 1965] 



SPP Omalogyroidea G. O. Sars, 1878 

Family Omalogyridae G. O. Sars, 1878 
t Family Stuoraxidae Bändel, 1 994 

SPP Pyramidelloidea Gray, 1840 

Family Pyramidellidae Gray, 1840^^^ 
SF Pyramidellinae Gray, 1840 
T Pyramidellini Gray, 1840 [= Obeliscinae 
A.Adams, 1863 (inv.); = Plotiidae Forcart, 
1951 (inv.)] 
TSayellini Wise, 1996 
SF Odostomiinae Pelseneer, 1928 
TOdostomiini Pelseneer, 1928 [= Ptychos- 
tomonidae Locard, 1886; = Liostomiini 
Schander, Halanych, Dahlgren & Sund- 
berg,2003(n.a.)] 
T Chrysallidini Saurin, 1 958 [= Menesthinae 
Saurin, 1958; = Pyrgulininae Saurin, 
1959] 
T Cyclostremellini D. R. Moore, 1966 
T Odostomellini Saurin, 1 959 
SF Syrnolinae Saurin, 1958 
T Syrnolini Saurin, 1958 
T Tiberiini Saurin, 1 958 

SF TURBONILLINAE Вгопп, 1849 

T TuRBONiLLiNi Bronn, 1849 [= Chemnitzii- 

nae Stoliczka, 1868] 
T CiNGULiNiNi Saurin, 1958 
T EuLiMELLiNi Saurin, 1958 

Family Amathinidae Ponder, 1987 

t Family Heteroneritidae Gründel, 1998 



Family MuRCHisoNELLiDAE Casey, 1904 [= Ebal- 
idae Waren, 1995; =AnisocyclidaeVanAart- 
sen, 1995] 



SPF RiNGicuLoiDEA Philippi, 1853 

Family RiNGicuLiDAE Philippi, 1853 [= Avellani- 
nae Hacobjan, 1976] 



SPP RissoELLOiDEA Gray, 1850 

Family RissoELLiDAE Gray, 1850 [= Het- 
erophrosynidae W. Clark, 1855 (n.a.); = Jef- 
freysiidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 852] 



SPF Streptacidoidea Knight, 1931 

t Family Streptacididae Knight, 1931 [= Donal- 
dinidae Bändel, 1994] 

t Family Cassianebalidae Bändel, 1996 



SPF Valvatoidea Gray, 1840 

Family Valvatidae Gray, 1840 [= Borysthenii- 
nae Starobogatov, 1983] 

Family CoRNiROSTRiDAE Ponder, 1990 

Family Hyalogyrinidae Waren & Bouchet, 
1993 

t Family Provalvatidae Bändel, 1991 



Informal Group Oplsthobranchia^^^ 

Clade Cephalaspidea^^^ 

SPF Bulloidea Gray, 1827 

Family BuLLiDAE Gray, 1827 [= Bullariidae Dall, 
1908; = Vesicidae J. Q. Burch, 1945] 

SPF DiAPHANOiDEA Odhner, 1914 (1857) 

Family DiAPHANiDAE Odhner, 1914 (1857) 
SF DiAPHANiNAE Odhner, 1914 (1857) [= Am- 

phisphyridae Gray, 1857] 
SF ToLEDONiiNAE Waren, 1989 

Family NoTODiAPHANiDAE Thiele, 1 931 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



259 



SPF Haminoeoidea Pilsbry, 1895 

Family Haminoeidae Pilsbry, 1895 
SF Haminoeinae Pilsbry, 1895 
SFAtydinae Thiele, 1925 

Family Bullactidae Thiele, 1926 

Family Smaragdinellidae Thiele, 1925 [= Oph- 
thalmidae Bergh, 1905 (n.a.); = Cryptophthalm- 
inae Thiele, 1926 (inv.); = Lathophthalminae 
Pruvot-Fol, 1954] 



SF Clioinae Jeffreys, 1869 [= Cleodoridae 
Gray, 1840^91] 

SF CuviERiNiNAE vaD der Spoel, 1967 [= Cu- 
viehidae Gray, 1840 (inv.); = Tripteridae 
Gray, 1850^32] 

SF Creseinae Curry, 1982 

Family Limacinidae Gray, 1840 [= Spirialidae 
Chenu, 1859; = Spiratellidae Dall, 1921] 

t Family Sphaerocinidae A. Janssen & Max- 
well, 1995 



SPF Philinoidea Gray, 1 850 (1815) 

Family Philinidae Gray, 1850 (1815) [= Bul- 
laeidae Rafinesque, 1815; = Laoninae Pru- 
vot-Fol, 1954] 

Family Aglajidae Pilsbry, 1895 (1847) [= Dori- 
diinae Gray, 1847 (inv.); = Chelidonuridae 
Habe, 1961] 

Family Cylichnidae H . Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 
[= Scaphandridae G О. Sars, 1878; = Torna- 
tinidae P. Fischer, 1883; = Acteocinidae Dall, 
1913; =Triclidae Winckworth, 1932] 

Family Gastropteridae Swainson, 1840 

Family Philinoglossidae Hertling, 1932 

Family Plusculidae Franc, 1968 

Family Retusidae Thiele, 1925 [= Volvulidae 
Locard, 1886 (inv.); = Rhizohdae Dell, 1952; 
= Volvulellidae Chaban, 2000] 

SPF Runcinoidea H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 

Family RuNciNiDAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 854 
[= Peltidae Vayssière, 1885 (inv.); = lldicidae 
Burn, 1963; = Lapinuridae Er. Marcus & Ev. 
Marcus, 1970 (n.a.)] 

Family Ilbiidae Burn, 1963 

Clade Thecosomata^^° 

SPF Cavolinioidea Gray, 1850 (1815) [= Euth- 
ecosomata] 

Family Cavoliniidae Gray, 1850 (1815) 
SF Cavoliniinae Gray, 1850 (1815) [= Hy- 
alaeidae Rafinesque, 1815] 



SPF Cymbulioidea Gray, 1840 [= Pseudothe- 
cosomata] 

Family Cymbuliidae Gray, 1840 
SF Cymbuliinae Gray, 1840 
SF Glebinae van der Spoel, 1 976 

Family Desmopteridae Chun, 1889 

Family Peraclidae Tesch, 1913 [= Procymbu- 
liidaeTesch, 1913] 



Clade Gymnosomata'^^ 

SPF Clionoidea Rafinesque, 1815 

Family Clionidae Rafinesque, 1815 
SF Clioninae Rafinesque, 1815 [= Fowlerin- 

inae Pruvot-Fol, 1926] 
SF Thliptodontinae Kwietniewski, 1902 

[= Pteroceanidae Meisenheimer, 1902; 

= Cephalobrachiinae Pruvot-Fol, 1926] 

Family Cliopsidae O.G. Costa, 1873 

Family Notobranchaeidae Pelseneer, 1886 
[= Prionoglossinae Zhang, 1964] 

Family Pneumodermatidae Latreille, 1825 
[= CrucibranchaeidaeTanaka, 1971 (n.a.)] 



SPF Hydromyloidea Pruvot-Fol, 1942 (1862) 

[= Gymnoptera] 

Family Hydromylidae Pruvot-Fol, 1942 (1862) 
[= Cymodoceidae Gray, 1840 (inv.); = Eu- 
ribiidae Troschel, 1856 (inv.); = Pterocymo- 
doceidae Keferstein, 1862; = Halopsychidae 
Pelseneer, 1887 (inv.); = Anopsiidae Pruv- 
ot-Fol, 1922] 

Family Laginiopsidae Pruvot-Fol, 1922 



260 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



CladeAplysiomorpha [=Anaspidea] 

SPF Aplysioidea Lamarck, 1809'з^ 

Family Aplysiidae Lamarck, 1809 
SF Aplysiinae Lamarck, 1809 
SF DoLABELLiNAE РНзЬгу, 1895 

SF DOLABRIFERINAE Pilsbry, 1895 

SF NoTARCHiNAE Mazzarelli, 1893 [= Busiridae 
Risso, 1826'^5] 

SPF Akeroidea Mazzarelli, 1891^^^ 

Family Akeridae Mazzarelli, 1891 

"Group" Acochlldlacea^3' 
SPF AcocHLiDioiDEA Küthc, 1935 

Family AcocHLiDiiDAE Küthe, 1935 



Clade Sacoglossa^^^ 

Subclade Oxynoacea 

SPF Oxynooidea Stollczka, 1868 (1847) 

Family OxYNoiDAE Stoliczka, 1 868 (1847) [= Icar- 
inae Gray, 1847; = Lophocercinae Gray, 1847; 
= Lobigeridae Pruvot-Fol, 1954] 

Family JuLiiDAE E. A. Smith, 1885 
SF JuLiiNAE E. A. Smith, 1885 [= Prasinidae 

Stoliczka, 1871]i93 
SF Bertheliniinae Keen & A. G. Smith, 1961 

[= Tamanovalvidae Kawaguti & Baba, 

1959]2o° 
t SF Gougerotiinae Le Renard, 1980 

Family VoLVATELLiDAE Pilsbry, 1895 
[= Arthessidae С R. Boettger, 1963; = As- 
cobullidae Habe, Okutani & Nishiwaki, 
1994] 



SPF Hedylopsoidea Odhner, 1952 

Family Hedylopsidae Odhner, 1952 [= Hedyl- 
idaeBergh, 1895 (inv.)] 

Family Ganitidae Rankin, 1979 

Family Livorniellidae Rankin, 1979 

Family MiNicHEviELLiDAE Starobogatov, 1983 

Family Parhedylidae Thiele, 1931 [= Micro- 
hedylidae Odhner, 1937; = Sabulincolidae 
Rankin, 1979; = Unelidae Rankin, 1979; 
= Mancohedylidae Rankin, 1979; = Ponto- 
hedylidae Starobogatov, 1983; = Asperspin- 
idae Rankin, 1979] 

Family Tantulidae Rankin, 1979 

SPF Palliohedyloidea Rankin, 1979 

Family Palliohedylidae Rankin, 1979 

SPF Strubellioidea Rankin, 1979 

Family Strubelliidae Rankin, 1979 
Family PsEUDUNELiDAE Rankin, 1979 



Subclade Placobranchacea 

SPF Placobranchoidea Gray, 1840 

Family Placobranchidae Gray, 1840 [= Actae- 
onidae Allman, 1845; = Elysiidae Forbes & 
Hanley, 1851]2o^ 

Family BosELLiiDAE Ev. Marcus, 1982 

Family Platyhedylidae Salvini-Plawen, 1973 
[= Gascoignellidae Jensen, 1985] 

SPF LiMAPONTioiDEA Gray, 1847 

Family LiMAPONTiiDAE Gray, 1847 [= Pontoli- 
macidae Keferstein, 1863; = Stiligeridae Ire- 
dale & O'Donoghue, 1923; = Oleidae 
O'Donoghue, 1926; = Aldehidae Pruvot-Fol, 
1954; = Ercolaniinae Schmekel & Portmann, 
1982; = Costasiellidae K. B. Clark, 1984] 

Family Caliphyllidae Tiberi, 1881 [= Phyllo- 
branchidae Bergh, 1871 (inv.); = Polybran- 
chiidae O'Donoghue, 1929; = Lobiferidae 
Pruvot-Fol, 1947; = Phyllobranchillidae Ris- 
bec, 1953] 

Family Hermaeidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1854 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



261 



"Group" Cylindrobullida2°2 
SPFCylindrobulloidea Thiele, 1931 

Family Cylindrobullidae Thiele, 1 931 

Clade Umbraculida2°3 

SPF Umbraculoidea Dall, 1889 (1827) 

Family Umbraculidae Dall, 1889 (1827) [= Um- 
brellidae Gray, 1827; = Operculatinae H. 
Adams & A. Adams, 1 854] 

Family Tylodinidae Gray, 1847 

Clade Nudipleura 

Subclade Pleurobranchomorpha 

SPF Pleurobranchoidea Gray, 1827 

Family Pleurobranchidae Gray, 1827 
SF Pleurobranchinae Gray, 1827 
T Pleurobranchini Gray, 1827 
T Bathyberthellini Garcia, Troncoso, 

Cervera & Garcia-Gomez, 1996 
TBerthellini Burn, 1962 
SF Pleurobranchaeinae Pilsbry, 1896 

Subclade Nudibranchia^«^ 

UnassignedtoSPF2°5 

Family Rhodopidae Ihering, 1876 

Clade Euctenidlacea [= Holohepaticap^ 

Subclade Gnathodorldacea 

SPF Bathydoridoidea Bergh, 1891 

Family Bathydorididae Bergh, 1891 [= Prodor- 
ididae Baranetz & Minichev, 1995] 

Subclade Doridacea 

SPF Doridoidea Raflnesque, 1815^°^ [= Cryp- 
tobranchia; = Eudoridoidea; = Labiostomata] 

Family DoRiDiDAE Rafinesque, 1 81 5 [= Archido- 
rididae Bergh, 1891 ; = Dohdigitatidae Iredale 
& O'Donoghue, 1923; = Aldisidae Odhner, 



1 939; = Conualeviinae Collier & Farmer, 1 964; 
= Neodoridinae Odhner, 1968] 

Family AcTiNocYCLiDAE O'Donoghue, 1 929 

Family Chromodorididae Bergh, ^89^^°^[= Cer- 
atosomatidae Gray, 1857; = Doriphsmaticinae 
H. Adams & A. Adams, 1858; = Cadlininae 
Bergh, 1891; = Miamirinae Bergh, 1891; 
= Glossodohdidae O'Donoghue, 1 924; = Tho- 
runninae Odhner, 1926; = Cadlinellinae Odh- 
ner, 1934; = Inudinae Er. Marcus & Ev. 
Marcus, 1967; = Echinochilidae Odhner, 1968; 
= Lissodoridinae Odhner, 1968] 

Family DiscoDORiDiDAE Bergh, 1891 [= Diaululi- 
nae Bergh, 1 891 ; = Kentrodoridinae Bergh, 
1891; = Platydoridinae Bergh, 1891; =Argi- 
nae Odhner, 1926 (inv.); = Baptodoridinae 
Odhner, 1926; = Halgerdinae Odhner, 1926; 
= Asteronotinae Thiele, 1 931 ; = Gruveliinae 
Thiele, 1931; = Rostangidae Pruvot-Fol, 
1 951 ; = Artachaeinae Odhner, 1 968; = Gei- 
todorididae Odhner, 1968; = Hoplodoridinae 
Odhner, 1968; = Taringinae Odhner, 1968; 
= Trippinae Kay & Young, 1 969; = Sebadorid- 
inae Soliman, 1980] 



SPF Phyllidioidea Rafinesque, 1814 [= Po- 

rostomata; = Porodoridoidea] 

Family Phyllidiidae Rafinesque, 1814 [= Fry- 
eriidae Baranetz & Minichev, 1994] 

Family Dendrodorididae O'Donoghue, 1924 
(1864) [= Doridopsidae Alder & Hancock, 1864] 

Family Mandeliidae Valdés & Gosliner, 1999 



SPF Onchidoridoidea Gray, 1827 [= Phanero- 
branchiata Suctoria] 

Family Onchidorididae Gray, 1 827 [= Acanthodo- 
ridinae P. Fischer, 1883; = Pseudodohdidae 
Eliot, 1910 (n.a.); = Ancylodorididae Thiele, 
1926; = Lamellidohdidae Pruvot-Fol, 1933; 
= Villiersiidae Abbott, 1974 (n.a.); = Calyci- 
dorididae Roginskaya, 1972] 

Family CoRAMBiDAE Bergh, 1871 [= Loyinae 
Martynov, 1994]2o^ 

Family GoNioDORiDiDAE H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1854 [= Okeniidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 
1923; = Anculinae Pruvot-Fol, 1954; = Hop- 
kinsiinae Odhner, 1968] 



262 



SPF PoLYCEROiDEA АШбГ & Нэпсоск, 1845 

[= Phanerobranchiata Non Suctoria] 

Family PoLYCERiDAE Alder & Hancock, 1845 
SF PoLYCERiNAE Alder & Hancock, 1 845 [= Tri- 
opinae Gray, 1847; = Euphuridae Iredale & 
O'Donoghue, 1923] 
SF Kalinginae Pruvot-Fol, 1956 
SF Nembrothinae Burn, 1967 
SFTRioPHiNAEOdhner, 1941 
T Triophini Odhner, 1941 [= Kaloplocami- 

nae Pruvot-Fol, 1954] 
T LiMACiiNi Winckworth, 1951 [= Lailinae 
Burn, 1967] 

Family Aegiretidae P. Fischer, 1883 [= Notodo- 
rididae Eliot, 1910] 

Family Gymnodorididae Odhner, 1941 [= Fu- 
colidae Pruvot-Fol, 19332^0] 

Family Hexabranchidae Bergh, 1891^^^ 

Family Okadaiidae Baba, 1930 [= Vayssiere- 
idae Thiele, 1931] 



Clade Nudibranchia Dexiarchia^^^ [= Actenid- 
iacea] 

Clade Pseudoeuctenidiacea [= Doridoxida] 

SPF DoRiDOxoiDEA ВбгдИ, 1899 

Family DoRiDoxiDAE Bergh, 1899 

Clade Cladobranchla [= Cladohepatica] 

Unassigned toSPF 

Family Charcotiidae Odhner, 1926 [= Lemind- 
idae Griffiths, 1985^" 

Family DiRONiDAE Eliot, 1910 

Family DoTiDAE Gray, 1853 [= Iduliidae Iredale 
& O'Donoghue, 19232^^] 

Family Embletoniidae Pruvot-Fol, 1954^^^ 

Family GoNiAEOLiDiDAE Odhner, 1907 

Family Heroidae Gray, 1857 

Family Madrellidae Preston, 1911 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 

Family PiNUFiiDAE Er. Marcus & Ev. Marcus, 1960 



Family Proctonotidae Gray, 1853 [= Janinae 
Gray, 1847 (inv.); = Veniliinae Chenu, 1859 
(inv.); = Antiopidae Locard, 1886 (inv.); 
= Zephyhnidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923; 
= Janolidae Pruvot-Fol, 1933; = Antiopellidae 
Odhner, 1934] 



Subclade Euarmlnida^^^ 

SPF Arminoidea Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 
(1841) 

Family Arminidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 
(1841) [= Diphyllidiidae d'Orbigny, 1841; 
= Pleurophyllidiidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 
1854; = Pleuroleuhdae Bergh, 1874; = Het- 
erodohdidae Verrill & Emerton, 1882; = Der- 
matobranchidae P. Fischer, 1883; =Atthilidae 
Bergh, 1899] 

Family Doridomorphidae Er. Marcus & Ev. Mar- 
cus, 1960 (1908) [= Doridoeididae Eliot & 
Evans, 1908] 



Subclade Dendronotida^^^ 

SPF Tritonioidea Lamarck, 1809 

Family Tritoniidae Lamarck, 1 809 [= Sphaero- 
stomatidae Locard, 1886 (inv.); = Duvauceli- 
idae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923] 

Family Aranucidae Odhner, 1936 [= Maria- 
ninidae Odhner, 1968] 

Family BoRNELLiDAE Bergh, 1874 

Family DENDRONOTiDAEAIIman, 1845 

Family Hancockiidae MacFarland, 1923 

Family LoMANOTiDAE Bergh, 1890 

Family Phylliroidae Menke, 1830 [= Nectophyl- 
lirhoidae Hoffmann, 1922; = Dactylopodidae 
Bonnevie, 1931] 

Family Scyllaeidae Alder & Hancock, 1 855 

Family Tethydidae Rafinesque, 1 81 5 [= Melibidae 
Forbes, 1844; = Fimbriidae O'Donoghue, 1926 
(inv.); = Tethymelibidae Bergh, 1890 (n.a.)] 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



263 



SubcladeAeolidida 

SPP Flabellinoidea Bergh, 1889 [= Pleuroprocta] 

Family Flabellinidae Bergh, 18892^^[= Cory- 
phellinae Bergh, 1889; = Cumanotinae Odh- 
ner, 1907; = Nossidae Odhner, 1968 (inv.); 
= Paracoryphellidae M. С Miller, 1971] 

Family NoTAEOLiDiiDAE Eliot, 1910 

SPP PioNoiDEA Gray, 1857 [= Acleioprocta] 

Family FioNiDAE Gray, 1857 

Family Calmidae Iredale & O'Donoghue, 1923 

Family Eubranchidae Odhner, 1934 [= Egalvininae 
Odhner, 1968; = Amphorininae Martynov, 1998; 
= Dungina Martynov, 1998; = Nudibranchini 
Martynov, 1998; = Produngina Martynov, 1998] 

Family Pseudovermidae Thiele, 1931 

Family Tergipedidae Bergh, 18892l^ 
SF Tergipedinae Bergh, 1889 
SF CuTHONiNAE Odhner, 1934 [= Trinchesi- 

idae F. Nordsieck, 1972] 
SF Precuthoninae Odhner, 1968 [= Cuthonel- 

linaeM.C. Miller, 1977] 

SPP Aeolidioidea Gray, 1827 [= Cleioprocta] 

Family Aeolidiidae Gray, 1827 [= Spurillidae 
Odhner, 1939; = Eolidininae Pruvot-Fol, 1951 
(inv.); = Pleurolidiidae Burn, 1966; = Protae- 
olidiellidae Odhner, 1968]22o 

Family Facelinidae Bergh, 1889 
SF Facelininae Bergh, 1889 [= Caloriidae 

Odhner, 1 968; = Phidianidae Odhner, 1968; 

= Pruvotfoliinae Tardy, 1970] 
SF Babakininae Roller, 1973 [= Babainidae 

Roller, 1972 (inv.)] 
SF Crateninae Bergh, 1889 [= Rizzoliinae 

Odhner, 1939 (inv.)] 
SF Favorininae Bergh, 1889 [= Myrrhinidae 

Bergh, 1905^21; = Phyllodesmiinae Thiele, 

1931; = Facalaninae Er. Marcus, 1958] 
SF Herviellinae Burn, 1967 
SF Pteraeolidiinae Risbec, 1953 

Family Glaucidae Gray, 1827 [= Pleuropinae 
Rafinesque, 1815]222 

Family PisEiNOTEciDAE Edmunds, 1970 



Informal Group Pulmonata^^^ 

Informal Group Basommatophora^^'' 

SPP Amphiboloidea Gray, 1840 

Family Amphibolidae Gray, 1840 [= Ampullac- 
eridae Troschel, 1845; = Salinatoridae Star- 
obogatov, 1970] 

SPP Siphonarioidea Gray, 1827 

Family SiPHONARiiDAE Gray, 1827 [= Anisomyo- 
nidae Kanie, 1975; = Siphonacmeidae Star- 
obogatov, 1976; = Liriolidae Golikov & 
Kussakin, 1978] 

t Family AcROREiiDAE Cossmann, 1 893^2^ 

CladeHygrophlla 

SPP Chilinoidea Dall, 1870 

Family Chilinidae Dall, 1870 
Family Latiidae Hutton, 1882 

SPP AcROLOXoiDEA Thiele, 1931 

Family AcROLoxiDAE Thiele, 1931 

SPP Lymnaeoidea Raflnesque, 1815 

Family Lymnaeidae Rafinesque, 1815 

SF Lymnaeinae Rafinesque, 1815 [= Am- 
phipepleinae Pini, 1877; = Limnophysidae 
W. Dybowski, 1903; = Acellinae Hannibal, 
1912; = Fossahinae B. Dybowski, 1913] 

SF Lancinae Hannibal, 1914 

t SF ScALAXiNAE Züch, 1959^2^ 

t SF Valencienniinae Kramberger-Gorjanovic, 
1923 [= Clivunellidae Kochansky-Devidé & 
Sliskovic, 1972] 

SPP Planorboidea Rafinesque, 1815 

Family Planorbidae Rafinesque, 1815^^^ 
SF Planorbinae Rafinesque, 1815 
T Planorbini Rafinesque, 1815 [= Choa- 
nomphalinae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1 880; 
= Orygoceratidae Brusina, 188222^] 
T Ancylini Rafinesque, 1815 [= Pseudan- 
cylinae Walker, 1923 (inv.)] 



264 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Т BioMPHALARiiNi H. Watson, 1954 [= Acror- 
bini Starobogatov, 1958; = Drepanotrem- 
atini Zilch, 1959; = Taphiinae Harry & 
Hubendick, 1964] 

TPlanorbulini Pilsbry, 1934 

T Segmentinini F. C. Baker, 1 945 
SF BuLiNiNAE P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880 

T BuLiNiNi Fischer & Crosse, 1880 [= Lae- 
vapicinae Hannibal, 1912; = Isidorinae 
Annandale, 1922; = "Gundlachiinae" Star- 
obogatov, 1967229] 

T CoRETiNi Gray, 1847 [= Pompholicinae 
Dall, 1866 (inv.); = Camptoceratinae Dall, 
1870; = Megasystrophinae Tryon, 1871 
(inv.); = Pompholycodeinae Lindholm, 
1927; = Helisomatinae F. С Baker, 1928; 
= Bayardellini Starobogatov & Prozorova, 
1990; = Planorbahini Starobogatov, 1990] 

T Miratestini P. & F. Sarasin, 1897 [= Fer- 
rissiinae Walker, 1917; = Ancylastrinae 
Walker, 1923; = Protancylinae Walker, 
1923; = Physastrinae Starobogatov, 
1958; = Ameriannini Zilch, 1959; = Pa- 
telloplanorbidae Franc, 1968] 

T Plesiophysini Bequaert & Clench, 1939 
SF Neoplanorbinae Hannibal, 1912 [= Pay- 

ettiinae Dall, 1924] 
SF Rhodacmeinae Walker, 1917 

Family Physidae Fitzinger, 1833^^° 

SF Physinae Fitzinger, 1833 
T Physini Fitzinger, 1833 
T Haitiini D. W. Taylor, 2003 
T Physellini D. W. Taylor, 2003 

SF Aplexinae Starobogatov, 1967 
T Aplexini Starobogatov, 1967 
T Amecanautini D. W. Taylor, 2003 
T AusTRiNAUTiNi D. W. Taylor, 2003 
T Stenophysini D. W. Taylor, 2003 



Clade Eupulmonata^^' 

SPFTrimusculoideaJ.Q. Burch, 1945(1840) 

Family Trimusculidae J. Q. Burch, 1945(1840) 
[=GadiniidaeGray, 1840] 

SPP Otinoidea H.Adams & A. Adams, 1855^2 

Family Otinidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 855 
Family Smeagolidae Climo, 1980^^^ 

SPF Ellobioidea L. Pfeiffer, 1854 (1822) 

Family Ellobiidae L. Pfeiffer, 1854 (1822)2^^ 



SF Ellobiinae L. Pfeiffer, 1854 (1822) 

[= Auriculidae Férussac, 1822; = Leuco- 

phytiidae Starobogatov, 1976] 
SF Carychiinae Jeffreys, 1830 [= Zospeidae 

Brusina, 1886] 
SF Melampinae Stimpson, 1851 (1850) [= Cono- 

vulidae W.Clark, 1850] 
SF Pedipedinae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880 
SF Pythiinae Odhner, 1925 (1880) [= Scara- 

binae P. Fischer & Crosse, 1880; = Cas- 

sidulinae Odhner, 1925] 
t SF Zaptychiinae Wenz, 19382^5 



Clade Systellommatophora [= Gymnomor- 
pha]236 

SPF Onchidioidea Rafinesque, 1815 

Family Onchidiidae Rafinesque, 1815 [= Peroni- 
idae Keferstein, 1865; = Onchidellidae Labbé, 
1934; = Scaphidae Labbé, 1934; = Hoffman- 
nolidae Starobogatov, 1976; = Onchidinidae 
Starobogatov, 1976; = Peroninidae Staroboga- 
tov, 1976; = Platevindecidae Starobogatov, 
1976; = Quoyellidae Starobogatov, 1976] 



SPF Veronicelloidea Gray, 1840 [= Soleolifera] 

Family Veronicellidae Gray, 1 8402^^ [= Vaginul- 
idae Martens, 1866; = Meisenheimeriinae 
Hoffmann, 1925; = Sarasinulinae Hoffmann, 
1925; = Semperulinae Hoffmann, 1925; = Im- 
eriniinae Hoffmann, 1928; = Pseudoveronicel- 
linae Hoffmann, 1928] 

Family Rathouisiidae Heude, 1885 



Clade Stylommatophora238 
Subclade Elasmognatha23s 
SPF SucciNEOiDEA Beck, 18372^° 

Family Succineidae Beck, 1837 

SF SucciNEiNAE Beck, 1837 [= Hyalimacinae 
Godwin-Austen, 1882; = Oxylomatinae 
Schileyko & I. M. Likharev, 1986] 

SF Catinellinae Odhner, 1950 

SPF A-moRACOPHOROiDEA P. Fischer, 1883 (1860)2^^ 

Family Athoracophoridae P. Fischer, 1883 (1860) 
SF Athoracophorinae P. Fischer, 1883 (I860) 
[= Janellidae Gray, 1853 (inv.)] 

SFANEITEINAEGray, 1860 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



265 



Subclade Orthurethra^^^ 

SPP Partuloidea Pilsbry, 1900^^3 

Family Partulidae Pilsbry, 1900 
Family Draparnaudiidae Solem, 1962^'"' 

SPF AcHATiNELLOiDEA Gulick, 18732^^ 

Family AcHATiNELLiDAE Gulick, 1873 
SF AcHATiNELLiNAE Gulick, 1873 [= Helicteh- 

nae Pease, 1870 (inv.)] 
SF AuRicuLELLiNAE ОсИппег, 1 921 
SF Elasmatininae Iredale, 1937 

T Elasmatinini Iredale, 1937 [= Strobilidae 
Zilch, 1959 (n.a.); = Pitysinae Cooke & 
Kondo, 1961] 

T Antonellini Cooke & Kondo, 1 961 

T TuBUAiiNi Cooke & Kondo, 1 961 
SF Pacificellinae Steenberg, 1925 

T Pacificellini Steenberg, 1925 [= Torna- 
tellinoptini Cooke & Kondo, 1961] 

T Lamellideini Cooke & Kondo, 1961 
SFTekoulininae Solem, 1972 
SF ToRNATELLiDiNAE Cooke & Kondo, 1961 

T ToRNATELLiDiNi Cooke & Kondo, 1 961 

T ToRNATELLARiiNi Cooke & Kondo, 1 961 
SF ToRNATELLiNiNAE Sykes, 1900 

TToRNATELLiNiNi Sykes, 1900 

T Elasmiatini Kuroda & Habe, 1949 

SPF CocHLicopoiDEA Pilsbry, 1900 (1879ps 

Family CocHLicopiDAE Pilsbry, 1900 (1879) 
SF CocHLicopiNAE Pilsbry, 1900 (1879) 

[= Cionellidae L. Pfeiffer, 1879; = Zuidae 

Bourguignat, 1884] 
SF AzEciNAE Watson, 1 920 [= Cryptazecinae 

Schileyko, 19992^n 

Family Amastridae Pilsbry, 1910 
SF Amastrinae Pilsbry, 1910 
SF Leptachatininae Cockerell, 1913 

SPF PUPILLOIDEA TurtOn, IBSI^'^S 

Family PupiLLiDAETurton, 1831 [= Pupinae Flem- 
ing, 1828 (inv.); = Pupoididae Iredale, 1939] 

Family Argnidae Hudec, 1965 

Family Chondrinidae Steenberg, 1925 

t Family Cylindrellinidae Zilch, 1959^"^ 



Family Lauriidae Steenberg, 1925 

Family Orculidae Pilsbry, 1918 
SF Odontocycladinae Hausdorf, 1996 
SF Orculinae Pilsbry, 1918 [= Pagodininae 
Pilsbry, 1918 (inv.); = Pagodulininae Pilsbry, 
1924] 

Family PiEURODisciDAEWenz, 1923 

Family Pyramidulidae Kennard & B. B. Wood- 
ward, 1914 

Family Spelaeoconchidae A. J. Wagner, 1928 

Family Spelaeodiscidae Steenberg, 1925 [= Asp- 
asitinae Steenberg, 1925] 

Family Strobilopsidae Wenz, 1915 [= Strobil- 
idae Jooss, 1911 (inv.)] 

Family Valloniidae Morse, 1864^^° [= Circi- 
nariidae Pilsbry, 1896; = Acanthinulinae 
Steenberg, 1917; = Pupisomatidae Iredale, 
1940] 

Family Vertiginidae Fitzinger, 1833 
SF Vertigininae Fitzinger, 1833 

T Vertiginini Fitzinger, 1833 

T Truncatellinini Steenberg, 1925 [= Col- 
umellinaeSchileyko, 1998] 
SF Gastrocoptinae Pilsbry, 1918 [= Hypselos- 

tomatinae Zilch, 1959; = Aulacospirinae 

Zilch, 1959] 
SF Nesopupinae Steenberg, 1925 [= Cylindrov- 

ertillidae Iredale, 1940 (n.a.)] 



SPF Enoidea B. B. Woodward, 1903^^^ 

Family Enidae B. B. Woodward, 1903 (1880) 
SF Eninae B. B. Woodward, 1903 (1880) 

T Enini B. B. Woodward, 1903 (1880) 
[= NapaeinaeA. J.Wagner, 1928; = Jami- 
niinae Thiele, 1931; = Pseudonapaein- 
ae Schileyko, 1978; = Retowskiinae 
Schileyko, 1978; = Andronakiinae Schil- 
eyko, 1998] 

T Chondrulini Wenz, 1 923 

T MuLTiDENTULiNi Schiloyko, 1978 [= Chon- 

drulopsininae Schileyko, 1978; = Merdi- 

gerinae Schileyko, 1984; = Euchondrinae 

Schileyko, 1998] 

SF BuLiMiNusiNAE Kobolt, 1880 [= Buliminidae 

L. Pfeiffer, 1879 (inv.)] 

Family Cerastidae Wenz, 1 923 [= Pachnodidae 
Steenberg, 1925; = Cerastuinae Wenz, 1930] 



266 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Informal Group Slgmurethra^^^ 

SPF Clausilioidea Gray, ISSS^" 

Family Clausiliidae Gray. 1855 
SF Clausiliinae Gray, 1855 

T Clausiliini Gray, 1855 [= Fusulinae Lind- 
holm, 1924] 

T Graciliariini H. Nordsieck, 1979 
SF AlopiinaeA. J.Wagner, 1913 

TAlopiiniA. J. Wagner, 1913 

T CocHLODiNiNi Lindholm, 1925 (1923) 
[= Marpessinae Wenz, 1923] 

TDelimini Brandt, 1956 [= Papilliferini Brandt, 
1961 (n.a.)] 

T Medorini H. Nordsieck, 1997 

T MoNTENEGRiNiNi H. Nordsieck, 1972 
SF Baleinae A. J. Wagner, 1913 [= Laciniah- 

ini H. Nordsieck, 1963; = Tristaniinae Schi- 

leyko, 1999] 
t SF Constrictinae H. Nordsieck, 1981 
SF Garnieriinae C. Boettger, 1926 

T Garnieriini C. Boettger, 1 926 

TTropidaucheniini H. Nordsieck, 2002 
t SF EuALOPiiNAE H. Nordsieck, 1978 

T EuALOPiiNi H. Nordsieck, 1978 

T RiLLYiNi H. Nordsieck. 1985 
SF Laminiferinae Wenz, 1 923 
SF Mentissoideinae Lindholm, 1924 

T Mentissoideini Lindholm, 1924 [= Euxini- 
nael. M. Likharev, 1962] 

TAcROTOMiNi H. Nordsieck, 1979 

T Boettgeriini H. Nordsieck, 1979 

T Euxinellini Neubert, 2002 

T FiLOSiNi H. Nordsieck, 1979 

TOlympicolini Neubert, 2002 

TStrigileuxinini H. Nordsieck, 1994 

TStrumosini H. Nordsieck, 1994 
SF Neniinae Wenz, 1923 [= Neniastrinae 

H.B.Baker, 1930] 
SF Phaedusinae A. J. Wagner, 1922 

T Phaedusini a. J. Wagner, 1 922 

T Megalophaedusini Zilch, 1954 [= Zaptyx- 
ini Zilch, 1954] 
SF Serrulininae Ehrmann, 1927 

t Family Anadromidae Wenz, 1940 
SF Anadrominae Wenz, 1 940 
SF ViDALiELLiNAE H. Nordsiock, 1986 

t Family FiLHOLiiDAE Wenz, 1923 [= Triptychii- 
naeWenz, 1923] 

t Family Palaeostoidae H. Nordsieck, 1986 



SPF Orthalicoidea Albers, ISeO^^^* 

Family ORTHALiciDAEAIbers, 1860 



SF Orthalicinae Albers, 1860 [= Liguidae 

Pilsbry, 1891] 
SF Amphibuliminae P. Fischer, 1873 [= Pel- 

tellinaeGray, 1855255] 
SF Bulimulinae Tryon, 1867 
T BuLiMULiNi Tryon, 1 867 [= Bulimidae Guild- 
ing, 1828 (inv.); = Berendtiinae P. Fischer 
& Crosse, 1872; = Bothriembryontidae 
Iredale, 1937] 
T Odontostomini Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1898 

[= Tomogeridae Jousseaume, 1 877-5"=] 
TSiMPULOPSiNi Schileyko, 1999 

Family Cerionidae Pilsbry, 1901 

Family CoELOcioNTiDAE Iredale, 1937 [= Perrieri- 
inae Schileyko, 1999]^" 



t Family Grangerellidae Russell, 1931 

Family Megaspiridae Pilsbry, 1904 

Family Placostylidae Pilsbry, 1946 

Family Urocoptidae Pilsbry. 1898 (1868) 
SF Urocoptinae Pilsbry, 1898 (1868) [= Cy- 

lindrellidae Tryon, 1868]258 
SF Apomatinae Paul, 1982 
SF Brachypodellinae H. B. Baker, 1956 
SF EucALODiiNAE P. Fischer & Crosse, 1873 
SF HoLOSPiRiNAE Pilsbry, 1946 
SF MicROCERAMiNAE РИзЬгу, 1904 [= Johanice- 

raminae Jaume & de la Torre, 1972; 

= Macroceraminae Jaume & de la Torre, 1 972] 
SF Tetrentodontinae Bartsch, 1943 

SPF AcHATiNOiDEA SwainsoH, 1840^^^ 

Family Achatinidae Swainson, 1840 
SF Achatininae Swainson, 1840 [= Urceidae 
Chaper, 1884; =Ampullidae Winckworth, 1945] 
SF Callistoplepinae Mead, 1994 
SF LiMicoLARiiNAE Schiloyko, 1999 

Family Ferussaciidae Bourguignat, 1883 [= Ce- 
cilioididae Mörch, ^8Q4f^^ 

Family Micractaeonidae Schileyko, 1999 

Family SuBULiNiDAE P. Fischer & Crosse, 1 877^^^ 
SF SuBULiNiNAE P. Fischer & Crosse, 1877 
SF CoELiAxiNAE Pilsbry, 1907 [= Cryptelasminae 
Germain, 1916; = Pyrgininae Germain, 1916] 
SF Glessulinae Godwin-Austen, 1920 
SFQpEATiNAE Thiele, 1931 
SF Petriolinae Schileyko, 1999 
SF RiSHETiiNAE Schileyko, 1999 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



267 



SF RuMiNiNAE Wenz, 1923 
SF Stenogyrinae R Fischer & Crosse, 1877 
[=Obeliscinae Thiele, 1931] 



SPP AiLLYOiDEA H. В. Baker, 1955 

Family AiLLYiDAE H. B. Baker, 1955[= Prestonel- 
lidae van Bruggen, 1978 (n.a.p^] 



SPF Testacelloidea Gray, 1840^" 

Family Testacellidae Gray, 1840 

Family Oleacinidae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 855 
SF Oleacininae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1 855 

[= Polyphemidae Gistel, 1868 (inv.); 

= Glandinidae Bourguignat, 1877; = Strep- 

tostyliniH. B. Baker, 1941] 
SF EuGLANDiNiNAE H. B. Ваквг, 1941 
SF Varicellinae H. B. Baker, 1941 

Family Spiraxidae H. B. Baker, 1939 
SF Spiraxinae H. B. Baker, 1939 
SF Micromeninae Schileyko, 2000 



SPF Papillodermatoidea Wiktor, Martin & 
Castillejo, 1990 

Family Papillodermatidae Wiktor, Martin & 
Castillejo, 1990 



Family Haplotrematidae H. B. Baker, 19252^6 
SF Haplotrematinae H. B. Baker, 1925 
SF Austroselenitinae H. B. Baker, 1941 

[= Selenitidae P. Fischer, 1883 (inv.); = Zophi- 

nae H. B. Baker, 1956] 

Family Scolodontidae H. B. Baker, 1925^^^ 
SF ScoLODONTiNAE H. B. Ваког, 1925 
[=StenopidaeH.Adams&A.Adams, 1855 
(inv.); = Systrophiidae Thiele, 1926; 
= Scolodontidae H. B. Baker, 1956] 
SF Tamayoinae Tillier, 1 980 



SPF Acavoidea Pilsbry, 18952^8 

Family Acavidae Pilsbry, 1895 [= Clavatoridae 
Thiele, 1926] 

Family Caryodidae Conolly, 1915 [= Anoglyp- 
tidae Iredale, 1937; = Hedleyellidae Iredale, 
1937; = Pedinogyridae Iredale, 1937] 

Family Dorcasiidae Connolly, 1915 

Family Macrocyclidae Thiele, 1926 

Family Megomphicidae H. B. Baker, 1930 
[= Ammonitellinae Pilsbry, 1930; = Polygy- 
relllnaeH. B. Baker, 1955] 

Family Strophocheilidae Pilsbry, 1902 
SF Strophocheilinae Pilsbry, 1902 
SF Megalobuliminae Leme, 1973 



SPF Streptaxoidea Gray, 1860^6'' 

Family Streptaxidae Gray, 1860 
SF Streptaxinae Gray, 1860 [= Artemonidae 

Bourguignat, 1889] 
SF Enneinae Bourguignat, 1883 [= Streptos- 

telidae Bourguignat, 1889] 
SF Marconiinae Schileyko, 2000 
SF Odontartemoninae Schileyko, 2000 
SFOrthogibbinae Germain, 1921 [= Gibbinae 

Steenberg, 1936; = Gonidominae Steenberg, 

1936] 
SF Ptychotrematinae Pilsbry, 1919 



SPF Rhytidoidea Pilsbry, 1893^^5 

Family Rhytididae Pilsbry, 1893 [= Paryphan- 
tinae Godwin-Austen, 1893; = Occirhe- 
neidae Iredale, 1939] 

Family Chlamydephoridae Cockerell, 1935 
(1903) [= Aperidae Möllendorff, 1903] 



SPF Plectopyloidea Möllendorff, 1898269 

Family Plectopylidae Möllendorff, 1898 
Family CoRiLLiDAE Pilsbry, 1905 
Family ScuLPTARiiDAE Degner, 1923 

SPF Punctoidea Morse, 1864^^° 

Family PuNCTiDAE Morse, 1864 [= Laominae 
Suter, 1913; - Patulastridae Steenberg, 
1925; = Paralaomidae Iredale, 1941] 

t Family Anastomopsidae H. Nordsieck, 1986 

Family Charopidae Hutton, 1884 

SF Charopinae Hutton, 1884 [= Phenacoheli- 

cidae Suter, 1892; = Flammulinidae Crosse, 

1 895; = Amphidoxinae Thiele, 1 931 ; = Dip- 

nelicidae Iredale, 1937; = Hedleyoconchidae 



268 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



Iredale, 1942; = Pseudocharopidae Iredale, 
1944; = Trachycystidae Schileyko, 1986; 
= Therasiinae Schileyko, 2001; = Flammo- 
conchinae Schileyko, 2001; = Ranfurlyinae 
Schileyko, 2001] 
SF Otoconchinae Cockerell, 1893 
SF RoTADisciNAE H. B. Вэкег, 1927 
SF Semperdoninae Solem, 1983 
SF Thysanotinae Godwin-Austen, 1 907 
SF Trukcharopinae Solem, 1983 

Family Cystopeltidae Cockerell, 1891 

Family DisciDAE Thiele, 1931 (1866) [= Patuli- 
nae Tryon, 1866; = Gonyodlscinae A. J. 
Wagner, 1928; = Anguispiridae MacMillan, 
1955 (n.a.)] 

Family Endodontidae Pilsbry, 1895 

Family Helicodiscidae H. B. Baker, 1927 
[=Stenopylinae Thiele, 1931] 

Family Oreohelicidae Pilsbry, 1939 

Family Thyrophorellidae Girard, 1895 



SPP Sagdoidea Pilsbry, 1895^^^ 

Family Sagdidae Pilsbry, 1895 
SF Sagdinae Pilsbry, 1895 
SF Aquebaninae H. B. Baker, 1940 
SF Platysuccineinae H. B. Baker, 1940 
SFYunqueinae Schileyko, 1998 



"Limacoid clade"^''^ 

SPP Staffordioidea Thiele, 1931 

Family Staffordiidae Thiele, 1931 



Family Chronidae Thiele, 1931 [= Kaliellinae 
Thiele, 1 931 ; = Ryssotidae Schileyko, 2003; 
= Lamarckiellinae Schileyko, 2003] 

Family Euconulidae H. B. Baker, 1928 
SF EucoNULiNAE H. B. Вэкег, 1928 [= Conuli- 
nae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1879 (inv.); = Durgel- 
linidae Iredale, 1941; = Coneuplectinae 
Habe, 1946; = Papuarioninae Schileyko, 
2002] 
SF Microcystinae Thiele, 1931 
TMicrocystini Thiele, 1931 
T LiARDETiiNi H. B. Baker, 1938 [= Fanul- 
idae Iredale, 1945; = Advenidae Iredale, 
1945 (n.a.)] 
T Philoneshni H. B. Baker, 1938 

Family OxYCHiLiDAE Hesse, 1927 (1879) 
SF OxYCHiLiNAE Hesse, 1927 (1879) [= Heli- 

cellinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1855 (inv.); 

= Hyalininae Clessin, 1876 (inv.); = Hyali- 

niinae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1879; = Nastiinae 

A. Riedel, 1989] 
SF Daudebardiinae Kobelt, 1906 
SF Godwiniinae Cooke, 1921 

Family Pristilomatidae Cockerell, 1891 [= Vit- 
reinaeH. B. Baker, 1930] 

Family Trochomorphidae Möllendorff, 1890 
[= Geotrochinae Schileyko, 2002] 

Fossil taxa probably belonging to the Gastro- 
dontoidea: 

t Archaeozonitinae Pfeffer, 1930 

t Grandipatulinae Pfeffer, 1930 

t Palaeoxestininae Pfeffer, 1930 



SPP Parmacelloidea p. Pischer, 1856 (1855) 

Family Parmacellidae P. Fischer, 1856 (1855) 
[= Cryptellidae Gray, 1855] 



SPPDvAKioiDEAGude&B. B.Woodward, 1921 Family Milacidae Ellis, 1926 



Family Dyakiidae Gude & B. B. Woodward, 
1921 [= Sasakininae B. Rensch, 1930; 
= Pseudoplectinae Thiele, 1934] 



SPP Gastrodontoidea Tryon, 1866 

Family Gastrodontidae Tryon, 1866 [= Januli- 
nae Wenz, 1923; = Poecilozonitinae Pilsbry, 
1924] 



Family Trigonochlamydidae Hesse, 1882 
SF Trigonochlamydinae Hesse, 1882 [= Se- 
lenochlamydinae I. M. Likharev & Wiktor, 
1980] 
SF Parmacellillinae Hesse, 1926 



SPP ZoNiToiDEA Mörch, 1864 

Family ZoNiTiDAE Mörch, 1864 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



269 



SPF Helicarionoidea Bourguignat, 1877 

Family Helicarionidae Bourguignat, 1877 
SF Helicarioninae Bourguignat, 1877 
[= PseudotrochatellinaeA. J. Wagner, 1905; 
= Ereptinae Godwin-Austen, 1908; = Xesti- 
nae Gude & B. B. Woodward, 1 921 ; = Sesari- 
nae Thiele, 1 931 ; = Nitohdae Iredale, 1 937; 
= Epiglyptidae Iredale, 1944; = Gudeocon- 
chidae Iredale, 1944] 
SF DuRGELLiNAE Godwin-Austen, 1888 
T DuRGELLiNi Godwin-Austen, 1888 [= Sitali- 
nae Godwin-Austen, 1900; = Sophininae 
Blanford & Godwin-Austen, 1908; = Satiel- 
lini Schileyko, 2003] 
TGiRASiiNiCollinge, 1902 

Family Ariophantidae Godwin-Austen, 1888 
SF Ariophantinae Godwin-Austen, 1888 
[= Naninidae Pfeffer, 1878 (inv.); = Hemi- 
plectinae Gude & B. B. Woodward, 1921] 
SF Macrochlamydinae Godwin-Austen, 1888 
[= Tanychlamydinae H. B. Baker, 1 928; = Vit- 
rinulini Schileyko, 2003] 
SF OsTRACOLETHiNAE Simroth, 1901 [= Myotes- 
tidae Collinge, 1902; = Parmahoninae God- 
win-Austen, 1908; = Laocaiini Schileyko, 
2002; = Microparmarionini Schileyko, 2003] 

Family Urocyclidae Simroth, 1889^" 

SF Urocyclinae Simroth, 1889 
T Urocyclini Simroth, 1889 [=Atoxonini Schi- 
leyko, 2002; = Buettneriini Schileyko, 2002] 
T Dendrolimacini Van Goethem, 1977 
T Leptichnini Van Goethem, 1977 
T Upembellini Van Goethem, 1977 

SF Sheldoniinae Connolly, 1925 (1912) 
[= Peltatinae Godwin-Austen, 1912; = Tro- 
chonanininae Connolly, 1912; = Trochozo- 
nitinae Iredale, 1914; = Ledoulxiinae Pilsbry, 
1919; = Gymnarioninae Van Mol, 1970; 
= Rhysotinidae Schileyko, 2002; = Zonitar- 
ionini Schileyko, 2002; = Acantharionini 
Schileyko, 2002] 



SPF LiMAcoiDEA Lamarck, 1801 

Family LiMACiDAE Lamarck, 1801 
SF LiMAciNAE Lamarck, 1801 [= Limacopsidae 
Gerhardt, 1935; = Bielziinae I. M. Likharev 
& Wiktor, 1980] 
SFEuMiLACiNAE I. M. Likharev & Wiktor, 1980 

Family Agriolimacidae H. Wagner, 1 935 
SF Agriolimacinae H. Wagner, 1935 [- Dero- 

ceratinae Magne, 1952] 
SF Mesolimacinae Hausdorf, 1998 



Family BoETTGERiLLiDAE Wiktor & I. M. Likharev, 
1979 

Family ViTRiNiDAEFitzinger, 1833[= Plutoniinae 
Cockerell, 1893; = Vitriplutoniinae Collinge, 
1893; = Phenacolimacinae Schileyko, 1986; 
= Semilimacinae Schileyko, 1986; = Oligoli- 
macini Schileyko, 2003]2^'' 



SPF Arionoidea Gray, 1840^^^ 

Family Arionidae Gray, 1840 [= Tetraspididae 
Hagenmüller, 1885] 

Family Anadenidae Pilsbry, 1948 

Family Ariolimacidae Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1898 
SF Ariolimacinae Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1 898 
SF Zaggleinae Webb, 1 959 

Family BiNNEYiDAE Cockerell, 1891 

Family OoPELTiDAE Cockerell, 1891 
SFOoPELTiNAE Cockerell, 1891 
SF Ariopeltinae Sirgel, 1985 

Family Philomycidae Gray, 1847 [= Tebenno- 
phorinae Morse, 1864] 



SPF Helicoidea Rafinesque, 1815^^^ 

Family Helicidae Rafinesque, 1815 
SF Helicinae Rafinesque, 1815 

THelicini Rafinesque, 1815[=Allognathidae 
Westerlund, 1902; = Cepaeini Pfeffer, 
1930; = Otalini Pfeffer, 1930; = Creneini 
Pfeffer, 1930 (inv.); = Metachloraeini Pfef- 
fer, 1930] 

T Murellini Hesse, 1 91 8 [= Tacheocampy- 
laeinae Germain, 1928] 

T Thebini Wenz, 1923 [= Xerophilidae 
Mörch, 1864 (inv.); = Leucochroidae 
Westerlund, 1886 (inv.)^"; = Euparyphi- 
naePerrot, 1939 (inv.)] 
SF Ariantinae Mörch, 1864 [= Campylaein- 

ae Kobelt, 1904; = Helicigoninae Wenz, 

1915] 

Family Bradybaenidae Pilsbry, 1934 (1898)2'« 
SF Bradybaeninae Pilsbry, 1934 (1898) 
T Bradybaenini Pilsbry, 1934 (1898) [= Eu- 
lotidae Möllendorff, 1898; = Fruticicolinae 
Kobelt, 1904; = Buliminopsinae Hoffmann, 
1928] 
T Aegistini Kuroda & Habe, 1949 
T EuHADRiNi Habe, Okutani & Nishiwaki, 1994 



270 



BOUCHET&ROCROI 



SF Helicostylinae Ihering, 19092'^ [= Pfeiffeh- 
inae Gray, 1855; = Cochlostylidae Möllen- 
dorff, 1890] 

Family Camaenidae Pilsbry, 1895^8° 

SF Camaeninae Pilsbry, 1895 [= Amphidromi- 
nae Kobelt, 1 902; = Hadridae Iredale, 1 937; 
= Xanthomelontidae Iredale, 1937; = Chlor- 
itidae Iredale, 1938; = Papuinidae Iredale, 
1 938; = Calyciidae Iredale, 1 941 ; = Planispir- 
idae Iredale, 1941; = Cristovalinae Schiley- 
ko, 2003] 

SF Rhagadinae Iredale, 1938 

SF SiNUMELONiNAE Solem, 1992 

Family Cepolidae Ihering, 1909^^^ 

Family Cochlicellidae Schileyko, 1972^^^ 

Family Elonidae Gittenberger, 1977 
SF Eloninae Gittenberger, 1977 
SF Klikiinae H. Nordsieck, 1986 

Family Epiphragmophoridae Hoffmann, 1928 

Family Halolimnohelicidae H. Nordsieck, 1986 
[= Vicariihelicinae Schileyko, 1991] 

Family Helicodontidae Kobelt, 1904 
SF Helicodontinae Kobelt, 1904 [= Gonosto- 

matinae Kobelt, 1904; = Drepanostomatini 

Schileyko, 1991] 
SF LiNDHOLMioLiNAE Schileyko, 1978 

Family Helminthoglyptidae Pilsbry, 1939^^^ 
SF Helminthoglyptinae Pilsbry, 1939 
THelminthoglyptini Pilsbry, 1939 
ST Helminthoglyptina Pilsbry, 1939 [incl. 
Chamaeariontales Roth, 1996 (n.a.), 
Xerariontales Roth, 1996 (n.a.); = Ere- 
mariontinae Schileyko, 1991] 
ST Micrariontina Schileyko, 1991 
T SoNORELiciNi Roth, 1 996 (n.a.) 
SF Sonorellinae Pilsbry, 1939 

Family HuMBOLDTiANiDAE Pilsbry, 1939 

SF HUMBOLDTIANINAE Pilsbry, 1939 

SF BuNNYiNAE H. Nordsieck, 1987 
Family HYGROMiiDAETryon, 1866^"'' 

SF HYGROMIINAETryOn, 1866 

T Hygromiini Tryon, 1866 [= Cernuellini 

Schileyko, 1991] 
T Archaicini Schileyko, 1978 
T Helicellini Ihering, 1909 [= Jacostidae 

Pilsbry, 1948 (inv.)] 
T Leptaxini C. Boettger, 1909 
TMetafruticicolini Schileyko, 1972 



T Trochulini Lindholm, 1927 [= Trichiinae 
Lozek, 1956; = Helicopsini H. Nordsieck, 
1987] 

SF Ciliellinae Schileyko, 1970 [= Canariellini 
Schileyko, 1991] 

SF Geomitrinae C. Boettger, 1909 
T Geomitrini C. Boettger, 1909 [= Ochthep- 

hilinae Zilch, 1960 (n.a.)] 
T Paedhoplitini Schileyko, 1978 
TTrochoideini H. Nordsieck, 1987 

SF Monachainae Wenz, 1930 (1904)^85 
[= Carthusianini Kobelt, 1904; = Euomphali- 
inae Schileyko, 1978; = Hesseolinae Schil- 
eyko, 1991] 

SF PoNENTiNiNAE Schiloyko, 1991 

Family MoNADENiiDAE H. Nordsieck, 1987 

Family Pleurodontidae Ihering, 191228*^ [= Luc- 
erninae Swainson, 1840^^^; = Lampadiidae 
Winckworth, 1945; = Solaropsidae H. Nord- 
sieck, 1986; = Caracolinae Cuezzo, 2003] 

Family Polygyridae Pilsbry, 1895^^^ 

SF POLYGYRINAE Pilsbry, 1895 
T POLYGYRINI Pilsbry, 1895 
ST POLYGYRINA PJJSbry, 1895 

ST Mesodontina Tryon, 1866 
ST Stenotrematina Emberton, 1995 
TAllogonini Emberton, 1995 
TAshmunellini Webb, 1954 
TVespericolini Emberton, 1995 
SF Triodopsinae Pilsbry, 1940 

Family Sphincterochilidae Zilch, 1960 (1910) 
SF Sphincterochilinae Zilch, 1960 (1910) 

[= Calcarinidae Pallary, 1909 (inv.); = Al- 

beidae Pallary, 1910] 
t SF PsEUDOLEPTAxiNAE H. Nordsleck, 1986 

Family Thysanophoridae Pilsbry, 1926^^^ 

Family Trissexodontidae hi. Nordsieck, 19872^° 
[= Caracollinini H. Nordsieck, 1987; = Oesto- 
phorini H. Nordsieck, 1987; = Mastigophalli- 
ni Schileyko, 1991; = Gittenbergeriinae 
Schileyko, 1991] 

Family Xanthonychidae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1879 
SF Xanthonychinae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1879 
SF Lysinoinae Hoffmann, 1928 

TLysinoini Hoffmann, 1928 

T Leptariontini H. Nordsieck, 1987 [= Try- 
onigentinae Schileyko, 1991] 
SF Metostracinae H. Nordsieck, 1987 
SF Trichodiscininae H. Nordsieck, 1987 

TTrichodiscinini H. Nordsieck, 1987 

TMiraverelliini Schileyko, 1991 



WORKING CLASSIFICATION OF THE GASTROPODA 



271 



1 Scenelloidea, Yochelcionelloidea, Khairkhaniidae, and 
Pelagiellidae included by Parkhaev (2002) in his sub- 
class Archaeobranchia of the Gastropoda Conversely, 
the families Maikhanellidae Missarzhevsky, 1989, and 
Purellidae Vassiljeva, 1990, are excluded from Gas- 
tropoda by Parkhaev. Contents and classification after 
Parkhaev (2002), with nomenclatural adjustments. 

2 Protoconchoididae treated as Gastropoda by Horny (1 997). 

3 Archinacellidae treated as Gastropoda by Horny ( 1 997) 
and Peel & Horny (1999), included in Patellogastropoda 
by Geyer ( 1 994), placed in Monoplacophora by Wahlman 
(1992) The archinacellid Barrandicella looks very simi- 
lar to modern thin-shelled Monoplacophora. The lack of 
visible lateral muscle scars is shared with most modern 
Monoplacophora. 

■* Linsley & Kier (1984) established a separate class 
Paragastropoda for mainly sinistral Early Paleozoic "gas- 
tropods", consisting of the orders Orthostrophina and 
Hyperstrophina [= Onychochiloidea + Macluritoidea + 
Euomphaloidea]. Ponder & Lindberg (1997) suggested 
that the Paragastropoda may include, at least in part, 
early eogastropods. Geyer (1994) expanded the con- 
tents of Pelagielloidea (which he treated as an order 
Pelagiellida) and classified them in a class Amphi- 
gastropoda together with the orders Bellerophontida, 
Cyrtolitida, and Tryblidiida. 

^ Assignment of Paleozoic symmetrical univalved mollusks 
("bellerophonts") either to Gastropoda or to 
Monoplacophora or Tergomya is controversial. The 
Bellerophontida were not considered gastropods by 
Geyer (1994). Bande! (1997) and Fryda (1999a) revived 
the concept of a separate class Amphigastropoda for 
the Bellerophontida. P J Wagner (2002) considered the 
bellerophonts to be polyphyletic, with "tropidodiscids" as 
ancestors of the "Archaeogastropods" and sinuitine 
bellerophonts as secondarily derived bellerophonts 
which would be the sister taxon of the murchisoniines. 

^ Content and classification of Bellerophontoidea follows 
Wahlman (1992), modified by Horny (1996) Sinuitidae, 
treated as Monoplacophora by Wahlman (1992), here 
placed in Bellerophontoidea after Horny (1992a). The 
family Coreospiridae Knight, 1947 may also belong in 
Bellerophontoidea. 

^ Euomphaloidea included in Linsley & Kier's class 
Paragastropoda (see Note 4 above). P. J. Wagner (1995) 
suggested that a clade "euomphalids" unites Euom- 
phalidae (part) + Euomphalopteridae + Helicotomatidae 
(part) + Pseudophoridae + Planitrochidae. Bändel & Fryda 
(1998) ranked Euomphaloidea as a separate class 
Euomphalomorpha, which is discussed by NiJtzel (2002a) 

^ The order Macluritina, established by Cox & Knight 
(1960), unites the Cambrian-Ordovician hyperstrophic 
gastropods with sinistrally coiled teleoconch and calcar- 
eous operculum. Macluritoidea included in Linsley & 
Kier's class Paragastropoda (see Note 4 above). 

^ The name Cycloridae has priority, but because the type 
species of Cyclora appears to be a juvenile, badly pre- 
served specimen, we do not want to displace the well- 
known name Holopeidae. 



'° Placed in Platyceratoidea by Tracey et al. (1993). 

^^ This concept unites the Cambrian-Devonian sinistrally 
coiled gastropods having sinistrally coiled, multiwhorled 
protoconchs (Dzik, 1983; Fryda & Rohr, 1999). Alterna- 
tive classifications were suggested by Knight et al. 
(1960), Golikov & Starobogatov (1975) and Linsley & 
Kier (1984) 

^2 Fryda & Bändel (1997) established the order Stylo- 
gastropoda to contain high-spired "loxonematoid" taxa 
with archaeogastropod-type protoconch. They excluded 
high-spired "loxonematoid " taxa with multispiral larval 
shells from Stylogastropoda and placed them in 
Caenogastropoda. The Stylogastropoda probably in- 
volves the majority of Ordovician to Devonian genera 
assigned by Knight et al. (1960) to Loxonematoidea. 

^3 Contents after P. J. Wagner (2002), who used Lopho- 
spiroidea as the name of the superfamily and noted that 
"due to the highly polyphyletic nature of the 
Trochonematoidea