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MALAY 
GRAMMAR 



BY 

R. O. WINSTEDT 

MALAY CIVIL SERVICE 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1913 



OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 
TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MILFORD 

PUBLISHER TO THE UXIVEESITV 



pLSh 

PREFACE .// , 

This grammar was commenced to supply the want of 
a text-book for the second or higher examination in the 
Malay language, prescribed for ofTicials. 

In English there are no books in print dealing with the 
subject except Maxwell's Malay Manual, which is not strictly 
a grammar, and Shellabear's Practical Malay Graviviar 
(printed in Singapore), which is quite elementary. This 
book will in no way supplant or interfere with those. Out 
of print ai'e Crawfurd's Grammar, which among scholars 
hardly counts, and Marsden's, which so far as it goes is 
excellent, but it is a century behind modern research. 

In Dutch there are several standard works, to which I owe 
a great debt, especially the grammars of Gerth van Wijk, 
Tendeloo, Spat, and van Ophuijsen; but Dutch is an in- 
superable obstacle for the casual student of Malay in the 
Peninsula. I too must ask forgiveness, if the refraction of 
an unfamiliar language has led me anywhere to distort the 
views of authorities I have quoted or criticized. 

Arrangement is a difficult problem in Malay grammar. 
Before the chapter on Affixation it is desirable to deal with 
the simple forms of such parts of speech as will recur in that 
chapter as derivatives ; and it is also important to deal with 
the radical form of the verb and then without a break to 

A 2 



30085 



Z 



>:.*:-:'•.':;; -• .-. "^ preface 

proceed to derivative verbal forms. Now the important 
derivatives are substantival, verbal, and adjectival. Hence 
the arrangement in this book. While considering all the 
theories that have obtained on that terribly moot point 
the Malay verb simple and derivative, I have not hesitated 
to advance opinions of my own. At the risk of being 
egotistical, I may perhaps explain that I formed my views 
originally in the ward of a tropical hospital during an inter- 
minable illness, cut off from access to all books of reference 
except a few Malay classics, which I found it an amusement 
to parse and analyse ; and subsequent acquaintance with the 
results of modern comparative study has seemed to me on 
several important points to give those views support. Some- 
times I found that I had unknowingly furbished up an old 
theory. The distinction I drew between the function of the 
simple and me forms of the verb, though based on a very 
different premise, viz. : that me (and he) derivatives are 
adjectival, would seem to underlie in a sense that un- 
fortunately put 'subjective passive' theory, which in the 
hands of many grammarians went so far as to deny that the 
simple verb could ever be active ! 

I count it an important point in support of the theories 
I have ventured to advance, that all the examples quoted in 
this grammar are extracts from the IMalay classics, notably 
the Sejarah Mclayu and the Hikayai Hang Tiiah. 

I give a short bibliography of the principal works con- 
sulted. References to chapter and page it was decided, 
after some hesitation, to omit passim, since those who are 
expert and interested enough to find their way about in 
Dutch grammars will have no difficulty in turning to the 



PREFACE 5 

passage required, while for others many and minute references 
are tiresome. 

The arrangement or ground-plan of this work was 
suggested to me originally by Mr. R. J. Wilkinson, C.M.G., 
who has also read most of it in manuscript. I am greatly 
indebted to Mr. C. O. Blagden, member of the Council of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, for ungrudging and invaluable assistance 
extended over many months : if he will allow me to say so, 
his research work in Talaing is (directly) a loss to IMalay 
scholarship. Above all, I must thank Dr. Fokker of Amster- 
dam, who read this book for my publishers with meticulous 
care, pointed out many inaccuracies, and suggested many 
improvements; I can only wish it were better worth the 
trouble he lavished upon it so generously. 

Mr. Blagden and my brother Mr. E. O. Winstedt have 
seen the book through the press. 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. 

Bibliography . 

I. Etymology 
IF. Phonetics 

III. Spelling 

IV. The Malay Word 
V. The Chief Parts of Speech 

(a) Substantive 

(b) Adjective 

(c) Verb . 

VI. The System of Affixation 
VII. Other Parts of Speech 

(a) Pronoun 

(b) Numeral 

(c) Adverb . 

(d) Preposition 

(e) Conjunction 

(f) Interjection 

VIII. Notes on Syntax 

(a) Emphasis 

(b) Balance . 

(c) Ellipsis . 

IX. Style . 

Appendix. Notes on Malay Leti 
By R. J. Wilkinson, C.M.G. 



er-writing 



page 

8 

II 
25 
33 
51 
65 

55 
56 
60 

73 

106 
107 
123 

131 
140 
148 
164 

166 
167 
i68 
173 
177 

183 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED 

I. Etymology 

Kern : * De Fidjitaal ', Verslage7i en Mededeelingen der Konink- 
lijken Akade?m'e va?i Wefenschappejt, Afd. Letterkunde, 
Amsterdam, 1889. 

Van der Tuuk : Outlines of a Grammar of the Malagasy 
Language (Second Series of Essays Rclaluig to Indo- 
Chi'tia, vol. i, printed for the Straits Branch of the Ro}-al 
Asiatic Society). 

Brandstetter, R. : Die Beziehungen des Malagasy zum 
MalaiischeUj Luzern, 1893. 

Wurzel und Wort in den indonesischen Sprachen, 19 10. 

Sprachvergleichendes Charakterbild eines indonesischen 
Idiomes, 191 1. 

Gemeinindonesisch und Urindonesisch, 191 1, 

Das Verbum, 191 2. 

Niemann : Bijdrage tot de Kennis van de Verhouding van het 
Tjam tot de Talen van Indonesie [Bijdrageti iol de 
Taal-, Land- en Volkenhinde van Ncderlandsch-Indie, 
Leyden, 1891). 

Skeat and Blagdek : Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, 
vol. ii. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 

Schmidt : ' Die Mon-Khmer-Volker, ein Bindeglied zvvischen 
Volkern Zentralasiens und Austronesiens,' Archiv fur 
Anthropologic, Neue Folge, Band v, Heft i und 2, 
Braunschweig, 1906 (translated as ' Les Peuples Mon- 
Khmer, trait d'union entre les peuples de I'Asie centrale 
et de I'Austronesie ' in the Bulletin de I'^cole Frangaise 
d' Extreme-Orient, tome vii, 3 and 4). 

II. Phonetics 

FoKKER, A. A.: INIalay Phonetics, Leiden, 1895 (in EngHsh). 

III. Spelling 

Shellabear : ' Evolution of Malay Spelling,' Journal of the 
R. Asiatic Society, Straits Branch, No. xxxvi, 51-135. 

Romanised Malay Spelling : F. M. S. Government Printing 
Office, Kuala Lumpor, 1904. 

IV. Grammar 

Marsden, W. : A Grammar of the Malayan Language, 1812. 

Van Wijk, Gerth : Spraakleer der INIaleische Taal, Derde 
Druk, G. Kolff & Co., Batavia, 1909. 

Tendeloo, Dr. H. J. E. : Maleische Grammatica, 2 vols.. 
Ley den, 1901, 

Spat, C.: Maleische Taal, 2nd ed., Breda, 1911. 

Ophuijsen, Ch. a. van : Maleische Spraakkunst, Leiden, 
1 9 10. 

V, Malay Texts 

Hikayat Sri Rama (early seventeenth-century IMS., Bodleian 
Library, Oxford). 

Sejarah Melayu or Malay Annals, ed. Shellabear, Singapore, 



lo BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Hika3'at Hang Tuah, 4 parts, ed. Shellabear, Singapore, 
1908-10. 

Bustanu's-salatin, 2 vols,, ed. R. J. Wilkinson, Singapore, 
1900. 

Awang Sulong Merah Muda, a folk-tale, ed. A. J. Sturrock 
and R. O. Winstedt, Singapore, 1907. 

Hikayat Abdullah, Singapore. 

Pelayaran Abdullah, Singapore. 

Hikayat Indera Mengindera, Penang (lith.) et alia. 

VI. Miscellaneous 

R. J. Wilkinson: A Malay-English Dictionary, 2 vols., 
Singapore, 190 1-2. 

R. J. Wilkinson: An Abridged Malay-English Dictionary 
(Romanised), Kuala Lumpor, 1908. 



CHAPTER I 

ETYMOLOGY 

§ 1. Malay is the longue of the Malay Peninsula, which 
embraces the Straits Settlements of Singapore, Malacca, and 
Penang; the Federated Malay States, Perak,Selangor, Pahang, 
and Negri Sembilan : the states of Kedah, Kelantan, and 
Trengganu and Johore ; and in the extreme north under 
Siamese protection Patani. It is also the tongue of the Riau 
Archipelago, of the East Coast of Sumatra, and of the West 
Coast of Borneo. It is as closely related to Menangkabau 
as Sundanese is akin to Javanese. 

The language belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian or Oceanic 
or Austronesian family, as it has been termed variously, 
which covers an area from Formosa to New Zealand, from 
Madagascar to Easter Island, and includes the languages of 
the Philippines, the Malay Archipelago, Micronesia, Melanesia 
excluding Papua, and Polynesia. To the easternmost branch 
belong the languages of Samoa, Tahiti, and Tonga. To the 
western or Indonesian branch belong Malay ; Malagasy ; 
Tagalog Bisaya and Bontok in the Philippines ; Batak and 
Menangkabau in Sumatra ; Sundanese, Javanese, and 
Madurese ; Balinese ; the Dayak dialects of Borneo ; 
Macassar and Bugis in the Celebes, and many other less- 
known tongues. 

This big Malayo-Polynesian family it has been attempted^ 
to connect with a family of Austro-Asiatic languages spread T 
over the south-east corner of Asia and embracing Munda 
of Central India ; Khasi of Assam ; Hon or Taking and 
Khmer or Cambojan &c, of Indo-China; Nicobarese; and in 



1 2 ETYMOLOGY 

the Malay Peninsula Sakai and Semang. This connection 
was first definitely asserted by Professor Schmidt of Modling, m^ A 
Austria, and is now generally accepted ; it establishes an 
ultimate prehistoric relationship between Malay and the 
languages of the aborigines in the Peninsula. 

In a mere introductory chapter to a grammar on one 
particular language, Malay, it is impossible to do more than 
summarize briefly the conclusions of philologists like Pro- 
fessors Kern, Brandstetter, Schmidt, Kuhn, Niemann, and 
other scholars, whose works may be found cited in the 
bibliography on pp. 8-10 ; referring especially to points 
concerning INIalay types of grammatical structure ; and 
suggesting problems and difficulties raised by a study of 
this particular language. 

§ 2. IMalay, which phonetically is well preserved, has 
become simplified morphologically. Under the modern 
system of affixation, which will be handled in the body of 
this grammar, comes a stratum, out of which it has developed, 
common to Indonesia. This stratum reveals : 
{a) Prefixes m, b, p, k, t. 
{b) Suffixes n and i. 
(f) Infixes in, m and less widely spread 1 and r. 

m appears as a prefix of the verb and of the adjective. 
Examples of the former are makan from a root kan cat, 
minum from inum drint:, and from the roots idar and 
aleh the Javanese forms midar revolve, maleh move^ that 
sometimes occur in IMalay literature in place of mengidar 
and mengaleh. Instances of the latter are masin salty from 
asin salt, masam acid from asam a sour fruit, masing- 
masing several from asing apart. 

As a verbal formative, m and the m compound forms 
generally denote the active, though there is uncertainty on 
the point. In modern IMalay, even as a verbal formative 
m alone or with infixes would appear to have, in a sense, an 



ETYMOLOGY 13 

adjectival or participial force ; adding an agent to an act, 
a verb to a subject (§38 note; §47). It is quite possible 
that substantival forms like mentua, merlimau are abbre- 
viations of orang mentua, buah merlimau : in the 
Bodleian Sri Rama (early seventeenth century) rumah. 
merderma occurs for ahnshouse. 

b is an Indonesian prefix widely spread in the language 
group and is said to form intransitive verbs, e.g. beli hi{y 
from root eli, belah to split from elah. Less widely found 
in the family, b occurs like m as an adjectival prefix. 

In modern Malay it occurs mostly as be(r), a prefix that 
may best be described as denoting reflexivity, reciprocity, 
addition, and possession. It would probably be safer to 
define the Indonesian b as having the same general functions 
rather than to define it as a formative of active or intransitive 
verbs. 

p serves everywhere as a causal prefix. Examples of its 
verbal use in Malay are pantul (also antul) caicse to rebound, 
pengap (also ngap) to mal<e a pant, to pant; and to form a 
substantive, pangkat promotion, rank from angkat raise, he 
raised. Professor Kern identifies it with the essential part of 
apa something} In modern IMalay it figures as pe, pe + nasal, 
pe + r (orl)(§§54-6). 

k, which is probably the preposition ka signifying place 
tvhither and so state into ivhich, is a prefix common to the 
Indonesian family and has a passive nuance, forming especially 
verbal adjectives and abstract nouns. It is also employed 
with numerals and e.g. in kini now as formative for adverbs 
of lime. In modern Malay (§ 57) it is used with numerals; 
forms many abstract nouns with the help of the suffix an ; and 
survives in a few stereotyped words to which may be added 
kapit supporters of a bridegroom from apit press on either 



' Mr. Blagden tells me that in Talaing pa = to do, to viatic. In view 
of Schmidt's synthesis, this seems worth recording. 



14 ETYMOLOGY 

side ; alah, kalah be ivors/ed ; aleh, kaleh /uni ; antil, 
kantil, anting, kanting swaying; apong, kapong drif/. 
A passage in the early seventeenth-century IMS. of Sri Ra7na 
in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, contains the verbal use, rare 
in I\Ialay, fakir miskin semua-nya keanugerah ayapan 
raja beggars and the religions poor 7vere all in receipt of food 
from the prince. 

t a prefix corresponding to the modern Malay te(r) (§ 52) 
is a formative of function clear and intelligible. It has even 
the same nuances in different languages of the Malayo- 
Polynesian family. * In Fiji ', says Professor Kern, ' words 
thus formed differ from adjectives and passive verbs generally 
in this respect, that they imply a thing has become so of 
itself. But it appears to be used also, when they do not 
wish to mention or when they do not know the agent by 
whom the thing has come into the state expressed by this or 
that form of the verb.' 

A sub-form ti has been detected. Kern sees it in tiba 
arrive, for which he suggests the same root as in rebah/^?//, 
and in the Javanese tilem sleep, which he contrasts with 
malam night (cp. tilam mattress) ; tiarap, tiada are other 
instances. In Malay one may compare unjok offer with 
tunjok,r//(?w outright; anggul pitch {of a (^c^i?/) with tanggul 
bob right np. 

n. The modern Malay suffix an (§ 58) conceals two old 
suffix formatives, one substantival as in labuhan anchorage 
from labuh to loiver {anchor or curtain, &jci); the other 
superlative or intensative, a use that may be traced in words 
like lautan ocean from laut ^^(7, sayuran the vegetable world 
from sayur v eg e table . 

i, which still survives as an intensative suffix for verbs (§62) 
was once also like n a substantival suffix, tui master in Fiji 
corresponds to the Malay tuan ; and the use may be seen in 
the Malay pelangi rainbow from pelang stripe; rambuti 
rough woollen cloth from rambut hair. Like prefix k, this 



ETYMOLOGY 15 

suffix i was originally a preposition. It signified place where 
and corresponds to the modern INIalay di. ' In Indonesian 
tongues article and preposition are often identical ' and i was 
also an Indonesian article.^ 

-in- is said to be a passive formative and is found in the 
Dayak kiuan ealeji from kan eai. It perhaps survives in the 
Malay word binatang, but it has no grammatical significance 
in Malay. Cp. also senantan milk ivhile {of game cocks) 
from santan coco-nut milk; chevLonut pope' s Jiose infoivl from 
chonet projecting. 

-m- occurs in several Indonesian languages in kuman. 
from the root kan eat. Professor Kern derives even the 
Malay word tempat place from the old Javanese tepet 
spacious, vast+\.h.\'i infix, which he calls a durative. Schmidt 
summarizes its use in Austronesian tongues generally as 
expressing ' manner, internal movement, happening '. It is 
fairly common in Malay as a crystallized relic and conveys 
the notion of duration and repetition : — 

kunchup closing {of a flower), kemunchup sensitive 
plant ; kuning yellow, kemuning a yelloiv-wood tree ; 
santan coco-nut milk ; nyiur semantan a coco-nut producing 
7nilk. It is commonest with reduplicated forms : — cherlang- 
chemerlang radiant ; gilang-gemilang repeated glittering ; 
gnroh-gemuroh prolonged roll of thunder; turun-temurun 
continuous descent; tabur-temabur all sprinkled; silir- 
semilir waving to and fro ; tali cord, tali-temali cordage. 

-r- and -1- are infixes, common enough in Malay in 
crystallized forms, but no longer living formatives. So far 
as can be judged from examples, they appear to denote 
duration, intensity, plurality, reciprocity, confusion and 

^ Like the other Indonesian articles a and ra, which are held to 
survive as prefixes and suffixes in such words as the Malay anu, bunga 
from O.J. bvmg, ratu (Malay date) from ra + tu master, so too i has 
been traced in Malay sigi from O. J. sig, tubi from tub, rugi from 
rug. 



1 6 ETYMOLOGY 

kindred ideas. They are employed mostly with reduplicated 
forms. Their derivatives are nouns and adjectives as well 
as verbs : 

-r-. jubong, jerubong a stretch of aivnhig over cargo ; 
chondong leaning, aslant, chonderong leanings [of the 
heart) ; kuping, keruping a scab ; gondong, gerondong 
per?nanent szvelling. goitre ; jongkah jagged, jerongkah 
Jagged {of a monthfiil of teeth) ; kedut, kerdut ivrinkled; 
kusut, kerusut entangled: sohxit fbre. ^eraibVLt fibrous ; 
kas (old Javanese), keras hard ; kibas shake, keribas 
shake thoroughly ; kelip, kerlip tivinkle; kuit, keruit wag; 
titek drop, teritek drop continually, sadong, seradong 
trip up ; kemut {normal) throb of the pulse, geremut {faster) 
throb of a boil ; sendeng, serendeng heel right over. 

-1-. biku zigzag, beliku a river bend ; kebak, kelebak 
gaping {of a deep cut) ; kembong ii^flated, kelembong a 
bubble, a blister ; tingkah conduct, telingkah line of conduct ; 
sirat, selirat mesh-rvork; kangkang a-sir addle, kelang- 
"^avi.^ the perineum ; k.edxit crun/pled, keledut much crumpled; 
getar tremble, geletar (also gemetar and gementar) pro- 
longed trembling ; gigit bite, geligit keep biting ; gosok rub, 
gelosok keep rubbing ; kupas peel, kelupas keep peeling ; 
ketak, ketok rap, keletak, keletok keep rapping ; sidek 
search, selidek keep searching, search thoroughly ; siseh, 
seliseh quarrel one with another. 

These single or simple affixes or ' affixes of the first 
degree ' may be traced in a few sets of words like adu contest, 
madu rival, padu iveld; alang across, cross, malang 
thwarting, vexatious, palang cross (kayu palang cross-bar), 
kalang or galang roller, tlnvarts ; elok curve, pelok embrace, 

^ Dr. Fokker remarks that all infixes seem to be nothing but shifted 
prefixes, found in words where the infixing conveys greater facility of 
pronunciation. So le and re interchanging with li and ri, are common 
prefixes : le-ng-kiang, re-ng-kiang rice-holder ; ri-mau {the roarer') 
tiger, -em- will be identical with me and -in- or -ing- with i + ng, 
i + n. 



ETYINFOLOGY 17 

kelok curve, arc, telok bay, jelok deep-curved [of a boivl), 
kelun (suffix n) spirals {0/ smoke)} 

§ 3. What has made it harder to solve the functions of 
prefixes even in the restricted Indonesian group is that a 
prefix and an infix frequently combine to form a compound 
prefix "^ or ' prefix of the second degree ' giving rise to a new 
and crystallized formative. The functions of the obsolete 
simple separate prefixes and infixes, it is then supposed, are 
obliterated. 

In INIalay we get 

{a) m + nasal infix, § 44, especially II. 

p + nasal infix, § 54. 
{b) m + r that is to be seen as a relic in certain nouns 
and adjectives, especially plant-names, and for example in 
the rare variants merawan and merapi where berawan 
and berapi are the ordinary modern forms. 

b + r,^ §49, which is said by Kern to be a fusion 

of adjectival mer and verbal b. 
t + r, §52. 
P + r, §§54-56. 

1 In addition to the ' simple ' affixes given above, there are a few 
others which occur in one and another of the Indonesian languages, but 
which in Malay, at any rate, need not trouble the grammarian. Two 
may be mentioned. In Fiji there is d-, Javanese j-, Malay j- or ch-, 
examples of which Kem detected in jebul (Malay chabul) rape from 
bill a hole and jebur (Malay chebiir) plunge into water from the 
onomatopoeic bur. Relics of such a formative are clear in such doublets 
as tengok, jengok see; pijak, jijak (read; kangkang, jangkang 
astraddle ; abu, jabu (cp. debu, lebu) dtist ; lotong, jelotong 
monkey ; alit, palit, chalit smear ; belah split, chelah crevice ; 
tegang, chekang taut ; kebek, sebek, chebek awry, s which in a 
few Bugis words betokens reciprocity and reflexive action may be seen 
in the Malay kepit, sepit pinch {one thing by another'); kilau, silau 

flash {flash after flash). 

^ Real ' compound prefixes ' are those given in § 43 (II). 

2 From ajar are formed belajar, pelajaran ; 1 taking the place of r. 
[With regard to the theory that the -ng and -r terminations of such 



i8 ETYMOLOGY 

This r is commonl}- wriilen in all cases in literary Malay, 
but it is often omitted in colloquial Malay. Dr. Fokker's 
analysis gives a widespread but not universal practice. ' A 
genuine Malay stem ending in r and having another initial 
than a never takes a prefix closed by r.' bakar forms 
tebakar; labur, pelabur ; layar forms belay ar, pelaya- 
ran; ehichir, bechichir-chicliiran; tengkar, betengkar. 
Similarly, ' JMalay stems with medial r and having another 
initial than a.' From kirim we get bekirim ; from serta, 
beserta, pesertakan ; from siram, besiram ; from do- 
rong, tedorong ; from peranjat, teperanjat ; from 
kerja, bekerja, pekerjaan; from permena, tepermenai. 
' Before a stem with initial s the prefix without r is pre- 
ferable ; thus besisek is better than bersisek.' From 
ribu we get mei'ibu, beribii not merribu, berribu ; from 
rangga, merangga ; from ragi, meragi ; from ragong, 
teragong-ragong ; from rajok, perajok and so on. 

In theKedah dialect to quote an example from the Peninsula, 
this r is never sounded at all. 

(c) A few crystallized survivals ^ like kendudok, sen- 
dudok, sekedudok a plant; diri, sendiri, kendiri self; 
sengkarut interlaced; sembelit costiveness; senjolong 
long-snouted gavial ; sembuang offering ; sembulu rough- 

prefixes as raeng- and ber-, &c., are mere phonetic links, it is to be 
noted that (i) it is not supported by the results of the comparative study 
of the Indonesian languages ; (2) it is in conflict with the data of the 
Kota Kapur inscription (probably of the seventh century a.d.), which 
contains such forms as mangujari to speak 7uith ; marjjahati to do harm 
to; parsumpahan curse, and the like. (See Part 67 of the Bijdragen 
tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkiindc van N'cdertandsch-Indi'e.^) It is more 
probable that ng and r were originally separate formatives. — C.O.B.'\ 

^ Dr. Fokker calls my attention to the fact that Kern considered any 
prefix to the name of animal, plant, thing, &c., an indefinite article ; he 
suggests, rightly to my mind, that such a prefix may more probably be 
defined as a definite article, and instances siakap, kakap name of 
^ fish with p'otruding (?j't'.r, with which one may compare kakap a spy, 
a mata-mata. 



ETYMOLOGY 19 

hewn ; buku, tembuku knoi ; gulong roll up, teng- 
gulong a inillipide ivhich rolls up. 

§ 4. Finally IMalay has a few instances of ' prefixation of 
the third degree ', where a prefix will be compounded with 
two infixes : dalu, mendalu and bendalu, kemendalu 
mistletoe ; from root lap Jlas/i, relap a flashing rope {iised in 
fishing), gerlap to flash, gemerlapan flashing. 

§ 5. Comparison of words even in INIalay alone shows 
below the above stratum a very old sjstem of suffixation, 
which has not yet been unravelled. 

(i) gigi tooth, gerigi, gerigis serrated, gigil, gigir chatter 
(of teeth), enggil-berenggil serrated (of hills), ringgit tooth- 
edged, milled. (2) iku zigzag, siku elhoiv, sigong rest on 
elboius, biku zigzag pattern, bengkok, chengkok, che- 
lengkok zigzag, tivisted. (3) kuku claiu, kokol cuired, 
kokot claw-shaped, kokong, kerukut very claw-shap(d, 
kukur rasp, rasper. (4) getu, getil pi)ich, ketit a pinch, 
pinched ofl^, ketip nip hctivecn the teeth. (5) kait hooking, 
kail fish with a hook, kais clutch, grab. 

To look for verbal or adjectival or other meaning referable 
to the scheme of our own grammar were futile considering 
how hard it is to discover such import in the clearly defined 
Indonesian aflfixes. It seems probable that words like gigir, 
gigil, enggil, kokol, kukur exhibit what are the prefixes 
and infixes of Indonesian grammar cropping up as suffixes. 
But the question belongs to the province of comparative 
philology rather than to that of Malay grammar. 

§ 6. Depending mainly, so far as it has been accepted, on 
identities in grammar, Schmidt's brilliant synthesis of Austro- 
nesian and Austro-Asiatic languages can appositely be re- 
capitulated here. His arguments are as follows : 

(a) The two families have an absolute identity of phonetic 
system. 

B 2 



20 ETYIMOLOGY 

{d) Both place the genitive after the noun. 

(c) Both use inclusive and exclusive forms for the pronoun 
of the first person plural. 

{d) There is absolute similarity in structure of words. The 
old view that Austronesian words were disyllabic had been 
dissolving for years. Professor Pijnappel a quarter of a 
century ago analysed words like keletek, keletak, keletok 
(and one may add belatek, jelatek sparroiv and belatok, 
jelatok woodpecker) through ketek, ketak, ketok, down 
to the onomatopoeic monosyllables tik, tak, tok imitating 
various notes in tapping. In English, Sir William Maxwell, 
folloAving Logan, ventured the suggestion, that in tangan 
hand, tangkap seize, tongkat walking-stick, there existed a 
monosyllabic root (found in Sakai and Taking) teng hand. 
Again scholars have shown that while Indonesian languages 
have many disyllables like langit sky, bulan moon, puteh 
white, ulu head, mata eye, they have running through all the 
group many monosyllabic roots kan eat, tut wiiid (Malay 
kentut break wind), num dritik, pas loose (Malay lepas), 
tong hang {as in gantong), lit (Malay kulit) ri7td, peel. 
And critical study of Austro-Asiatic languages on the other 
side has shown that they contain disyllabic as well as mono- 
syllabic words. 

ie) Both families exhibit a remarkable identity in their 
systems of affixation simple and compound. So they have 
prefixes k, p, m ; infixes m, n, r, 1 ; suffixes n and i. And 
so far as they can be defined, the functions of these affixes 
in both families are similar.' 

1 In this context may be cited some interesting points discovered by 
Mr. R. J. Wilkinson in his study of central Sakai, a Peninsular language 
representative of the Austro-Asiatic family, which in its vocabulary 
possesses old Indonesian words not known in Peninsular Malay to-day, 
and only to be paralleled in the vocabularies of languages in distant islands 
of the Archipelago. ' Tlie introduction of an infix (n, 'n, en, or on) 
in central Sakai makes the word substantival ; jis daylight, jenis a day, 
twelve hours ; pap fire-warmed, pSnap the thing warmed ; koh striking. 



ETYIMOLOGY 2t 

§ 7. Foreign loan-words.^ 

The oldest foreign loan-words in Indonesian languages are 
Sanskrit, which are found pre-eminently in Javanese, and 

kenoh club, striker; chok/;W, slab, chenok prodder, spike. A prefix 
per turns the root into a verb or a passive root into an active root 
dat die, perdat /'///; noyxg Journey, pernong to go; lot extinguished, 
perlot to put out (a fire') ; bet sleep, perbet close the eye. These two 
forms can be combined to form a verbal noun ; dat die, perendat 
murder; perenglot extinguisher; goi be married, pergoi zvcd, 
perenggoi marriage. In certain cases the final letter of a Sakai word 
changes to n, ng, or m. Sometimes this follows a law of euphony- 
owing to the coincidence of two consonants : chip bird, chimklak 
ha'tvk ; klak hawk, klang-blok roc ; cherok long, cherong-sok long- 
haired vampire. But there are cases where the alteration cannot be 
so explained ; vaa,i person, uu mam one person, dok house, nvi d'ngnon 
a house ; rok da>t, nar r'nguon two darts. The conjugation of verbs 
shows goi to be married, 'nggoi (/) am married, en 'nggoi / am 
married; bersop to feed, 'mbersop (/) ain feeding.^ This system has 
notable points of resemblance with the Indonesian. The euphonic nasal 
reminds one of such Malay forms as selang-seli, bengkang-bengkok, 
golang-golek. 

There is one other peculiarity of (Southern) Sakai word formation that 
is paralleled in Indonesian idiom, for the building of polite and 
honorific doublets to common words. ' Given a word in Javanese ', 
writes Mr. Blagden in The Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, ' with 
an open penultimate syllable (and a final syllable preferably open and 
generally ending in a), to turn it into a Krama or high form, close both 
syllables with a nasal (or the final one more rarely with a liquid), 
modify the initial consonant of the final syllable to suit the nasal which 
now closes the penultimate and change the vowel of the final syllable (as 
a rule e, or it may be a, i, or u).' Mr. Blagden quotes from the Javanese 
kira, kinten accounts; segara (Skt.), segantea ocean; sore, sonten 
evetiing ; kalapa, karambil (cp. Malay gelambir) coco-nut. And he 
points out how it occurs in other Malayan languages without ceremonial 
or specialized meaning : dara virgin (Malay), danten virgin, of 
buffalo or hen (Sundanese) ; jalu male (Sundanese), jantan (Malay) ; 
alu and antan, Malay variants iox pestle ; pemali and par; tang, Malay 
variants for taboo. Cp. piama, piantan due season, esp. for rice' 
planting. And again, how it occurs in the aboriginal dialects of the 
Peninsula: asu*, anjing, nyang rt'i?^; puteh, pentol ay^zVi.' ; serigala, 
segala', seranggil Jackal ; without definite evidence of ceremonial 
use, except that most big animals have honorific synonyms. 

1 Taken from Mr. R. J. Wilkinson's Malay-English Dictionary. 



2 2 ETYMOLOGY 

then in Malay, but also as far afield as the Celebes, the 
Philippines, and Madagascar. The borro\Ying includes not 
only words for religious, moral, and intellectual ideas but 
some astronomical, mathematical and botanical terms, a court 
vocabulary, and a large number of everyday words. A few 
examples only can be given here : 

agama religion ; alpa negligence ; anggota limbs ; ang- 
kara violence ; angkasa heavens ; angsa goose ; aniaya op- 
pression ; antara, I'e/rveen ; anugerah ^i,--//? ; atauf'r; baha- 
gia blessing; bahaya danger; bahasa language; bakti 
vurilorious sen'ice ; bangsa race ; benda filing ; bentara 
heralel; beta servant; biasa accustomed; bijaksana ivise; 
binasa ruin ; buta evil spirit ; budi intellect ; bumi earth ; 
chahaya lustre, gloxv ; chakerawala the revolving vault of 
heaven; cherana bo7vl; cheteria a kshatriya, icarrior ; 
chinta love, regret; chintamani a certain kind 0/ snake ; 
cl^^a vinegar ; diaksuia south; delima po?negranate; denda 
a fine; derma ahns; dina poor; dosa sin; dM.^a grief ; 
gaya conduct, ivalk ; gempita uproar ; genta bdl ; geta 
divan; harga /'r/n ; \\.ax\.a p7-operty ; hasta cubit; jaga to 
watch; jampi magic; jelma incarnation ; jentera wheel; 
jiwa life ; juta million ; karna because ; keranda three-plank 
coffin; kerja ivork; kesunaba red; ketika time; kosa 
goad; kuasa might; kurnia gift; maha great; makota 
cro7vn ; manek bead ; mangga mango ; mangsa carrion ; 
manteri rv's/f 7- ; manusia ;««■« ; mara danger; vaasa tifne; 
melati Jasmine ; merpati pigeon ; mulia illustrious ; mu- 
tiara pearl ; nadi the pulse ; nama name ; naraka hell ; 
-gala nutmeg; -ga^a poor ; -penjara prison ; jper'k.ara affiair; 
perkasa brave; -pertama first ; perwira warrior; puja 
prayer; puieva princeling ; •pxitQvi princess ; ra^a prince ; 
rajawali eagle, hawk ; rupa appearance ; saksi zcitness ; 
sakti supernatural poxver; segera quickly; se'ksa punish- 
ment; sem-puvna pcf^fect : semua all; sendi muscle; sen- 



ETYMOLOGY 23 

jata wcapoji ; singa lion ; surga heaven ; tSnggala plough ; 
upaya rcsoiuxiS. 

Arabic loan-words deal especially with the sphere of 
religion and law ; but as Marsden maintained not so many 
are so common in conversation that they can be considered 
Malay by adoption. Among the commonest are : 

alam world ; arif wise ; akal ingenuity ; adat custom ; 
dunia world; fikir think; kadar /^zcvr, ability; kubur 
a grave ; kuat strong ; shak douht ; sebab cause ; sujud 
kneel in prayer. 

A few Persian words occur, mainly in literature, and 
perhaps they came through a Hindustani channel : 

astana palace ; bandar seaport ; bedebah unlucky ; 
biadab discourtesy ; biaperi merchant ; darya sea ; diwau 
court of justice ; ganduro. corn ; jadah bastard; jam clock ; 
juadah cakes ; kawin marry ; kenduri /east ; lashkar 
soldiery ; mohor die-mark ; nafiri trumpet ; nakhoda master 
of a ship ; nesan grave-stone ; pahlawan champion ; peri 
fairy; sakar J/(;'(cr; sakhlat Ivoadcloth; s^rban turban; 
termasa shoiv. 

Hindustani are jori buggy ; lagam bit ; ras reins ; sardi 
glanders ; tan stable. 

Tamil supplies a small number of established loan-words : 

kapal steamer; katil bed; ketumbar coriander; kolam 
pond; maligai A'Zf'fr; vci.QXir^Q\2iS. liridegroom ; xciwXVi carat ; 
tandil overseer ; tirai curtain. 

Chinese loan-words are rare and apply to Chinese 
things : 

kongsi a {sec7'et) society ; loki Chinese courtesan ; loteng 
upstairs floor; \vl you; pekong y't^w ; tanglong /tzz/Ar//. 

Of Western languages Portuguese has left a great number 
of words describing articles of European culture : 

bangku (^t'«<;7/ ; beledu jv/zv/ ; bola*^^//; bomba ///?-'//' ; 
garfu fork ; kebaya goivn ; lelong auction ; meja table ; 



2 4 ETYMOLOGY 

merinyu snperinfendeni ; paderi priest ; peluru huUei ; 
peniti pin ; perada gold-leaf; pita ribbon ; renda lace ; 
rial dollar; sepatu shoe\- teratu torhire; terucgko prison ; 
tuala towel. 

The commonest Dutch loan-words are : 

engsel hinge; duit cent; ■pGlek.oX placard ; sekopong 
spade suit in cards ; seturup syrup ; ransum rations ; tong 
tub ; senapang rijle; bom carriage shaft and landing-place; 
sopi gin ; gelas glass ; botol bottle ; lampu lamp. 



CHAPTER II 

PHONETICS 

§ 8. In studying the Malay language which has for the 
vehicle of its expression an alien alphabet, it is necessary 
to remember that a language is built not of letters but of 
sounds. It were too elaborate here to deal with sounds 
so elusive that they have no graphic symbol. But Malay 
words are composed of the following sounds represented by 
letters. 

§ 9. Consonants. 

(a) Guttural class. 

A glottal check or abrupt closing of a final vowel made by 
stopping the breath. It is represented by * or j, romanized 
' or k, as in ^yJ poke' or fjSyi pokok (and in a few cases 
rendered confusingly by d e. g. dbl) baik, eLAJ tilek and so 
on). Whatever the symbol in Arabic or Roman script, 
there need be no difficulty, if it is remembered that final k, 
no matter how represented, in Peninsular Malay never indicates 
any other sound than this of the glottal check. 

h like the h in A/i Amy, Ah Isabel, Ah uncle; a semivowel 
rather than an aspirate. It is sounded distinctly only between 
two similar vowels a ... a, o ... o as in rahang, bohong, 
leher. [The Arabic a occurs like alif at the beginning of 
Malay words as a graphic prop for a vowel, which in Arabic 
cannot stand as part of the syllable but must be accompanied 
by a consonant; e.g. for u and i except when they are used 
as semivowels w and y — i_L>j1 or u_L.*^Ji isap, ^1^1 orjlj* ulu : 
and to indicate the presence of the indeterminate vowel e, 



2 6 PHONETICS 

for which there is no Arabic symbol, an initial alif or 4 
are both used, sometimes indififerenily : — ;_,.*^l emas, ^a 
helai, i^^'A ov t^^-;^^ embus. Its function as a semivowel 
may be seen in the spellings ^^y tuhan a variant of ^jly 
tuan, liiji' tuha, oaU pahit, where there is no aspirate sound 
at all.] 

g as geese, gaunt, good, e.g. gigi, gagah, gusi ; never as in 
germ. 

k, usually represented by S and occasionally by>, is iden- 
tical with k in kiss, Kaffir, Koran. 

ng as injiing, long, never as in tingle, sponging. 

r not the English cerebral (or lingual) but the Scotch 
guttural r, distinctly but not too emphatically enunciated. It 
differs in different parts of the Peninsula. In the south it is 
lingual, only more trilled than in English : in the north it is 
guttural. 

{b) Palatal class. 

y as in mayor, ratepayer; it exists unexpressed between 
words like he ambles, shc-ass. 

ny is the equivalent of the Spanish 2. or the individual 
consonant sound represented by n in neiv, nude, by ni in 
pinion, onion, by gn in vignette. 

(c) Dental class. 

ch. nearly as in ehat, chisel, channel, but really an affricate, 
where the tongue stops and then glides, while in English it is 
fricative, produced by a mere glide of the tongue. 

j nearly as \n Jenny, jump, but like Malay ch. a dental, and 
not a palatal as in English.' 

s a superdental as in sister or as in hiss rather than his. 

d a superdental as in plunder, binding, landing. 

t a hard superdental identical with the initial t in topple, 
tort, Tom. 

1 See Dr. Fokker's edition of Beech's Tidong Dialects Clarenrlon 
Press, 1908). 



PHONETICS 27 

n ' may be compared with the superdental represented in 
English by the same sign when written before a d tliough 
it is a little more distinctly pronounced, i.e. more with the 
top of the tongue '. 

1 not quite identical with the English sound. ' What the 
English write with the same sign seems very often to be a 
superpalatal (lingual or cerebral), i.e. a consonant formed 
at the higher part of the palate with the tongue turned back- 
ward, the top pressed with its full breadth against the roof 
of the palate. The Malay 1 is produced at the Joivcr part of 
the palate like what the Dutch write 1, when pronounced by 
well-bred people.' Elsewhere, Dr. Fokker compares it with 
1 in hill-top not in /;///. 

{d) Labial class. 

w (not expressed in the system of romanizing employed 
in this grammar) as in coivard^ poivcr, sozvcr ; the semi- 
vowel unexpressed between words like rue it or in a word 
like dual. 

b as in English : hoot, beau, tub. 

p as in English : pig, pup, paut. 

m as in English. 

§10. Vowels. 

Broadly the vowels in Malay are : 

a as in langit, api, kayu, ratus. 

e as in bela. 

i as in ingin. 

o as in gopoh. 

u as in kayu. 

e as in enam. 
and these are the only vowel sounds which will be distinguished 
in the body of this grammar, though a work on phonetics 
would make further distinctions and mark them by means of 
accents. The problem of definition is increased by the great 



28 PHONETICS 

differences in Malay dialects, of which for the Peninsula at 
least no exhaustive study has been made. Dr. Fokker, who 
wrote primarily of pronunciation in West Borneo and who 
moreover, I believe, has since modified his views, distinguished 
in each of the first five vowels three variations of sound : 

(a) Long and dear, a as in Ah : ragut, jadi, chabut, 
sahut, batu. e like ca in szvfar : beta, merah. i as 
re in ivcck : siram, kirim. o as in bore : oleh, orang, 
tolak. u like oo in n/oor : kurang, surut. 

(b) Short and char, a nearly equivalent to u in cup : ikat, 
isap, kerap. e as in padre or nearly like / in kitchen ; oleh, 
ekur, perentah. i as in German Sinn or almost like ce in 
Ijccn: pipi, manis, tapis, o as in pillow, taroh, jatoh, 
bongkar, pohon. u as input: pulang, siku. 

{c) Short and toneless surd, a as in canto or nearly like o 
in some : lenyap, kurap, lapis, banding, ganti. e as in 
German Brett or shorter than ai in said: oleng, chebek, 
ejek. i as in kitten, sing : sering, betis. o as in German 
Gott or nearly as o in lot : bohong, komeng, korek. u as 
in German Butter, dumni or the French pronunciation of 
ge'rattium, album : terus, takut, kapur, subur. 

Some of these examples at any rate do not fit with the 
pronunciation of the Peninsula. It is easy to exaggerate 
the long clear a ; and jadi, padi, padam, chabut, are 
not heard in the Peninsula. Again, the distinction between 
a {b) and a {/) would seem to be merely that in unaccented 
syllables the vowel is less definite than in accented : and this 
fact leads to the blending of the sounds represented by i and 
e, by o and u, § 20 {e); e.g. gesel or gesil, ekor or ekur, 
a blending never found in accented syllables. Moreover, 
elaborate as it is, Fokker's analysis certainly fails to exhaust 
all the sounds in Malay : the first o in bodoh is closer than 
in bore but longer than in pilloiv ; and merah has an e 
more open than that in beta. 



PHONETICS 29 

§ 11. Diphthongs. 

ai as in German Kaiser or like / in lighi, but sometimes 
shortened in unaccented syllables till it approximates to ai in 
7?iaid. 

au as ow in cow, but sometimes shortened in unaccented 
syllables till it approximates to ow in know. 

§ 12. In the Peninsula, there are great differences between 
Riau-Johor and Kedah pronunciation and even between the 
pronunciation of each separate state. And these differences 
require exhaustive treatment, before the pronunciation of the 
Peninsular Malay can be profitably discussed. Moreover 
such discussion would be beyond the scope of a grammar. 
The Peninsula is fortunate in that •' the language of Malacca 
(Riau-Johor) played a prominent part in fixing the Koivrj 
BidXiKTos of the golderi age ' and that its pronunciation is 
roughly in accord with classical spelling. 

§ 13. Foreign sounds. 

Malays have attempted in Arabic and other foreign words 
to imitate alien sounds, and they have incorporated Arabic 
letters representing rare sounds in their alphabet, though they 
have seldom conserved the right and original pronunciation. 
These are as follows : 

TM Cj th as in //lifi, but commonly corrupted by 
Malays into an s sound : thalatha pronounced as selasa, 
ithnain as isnain, 

Hd ^ a strong aspirate, but not distinguished by Malays 
from the soft 4, except that unlike the soft aspirate, it is never 
dropped out in speUing, e.g. huruf never uruf, hukum never 
ukum. 

KM ^ a hard guttural like eh in German or in the Scotch 
word loc/i, commonly corrupted by Malays to k. 

Bzai i pronounced by Malays as dz, z, or j. 



30 PPIONETICS 

Za j-=. English z, e.g. zaman. But it is often corrupted 
by Malays to j, e.g. pauh janggi for pauh zanggi. 

Shm ^ = sh, but often corrupted to s. 

Slid ^js a very strongly articulated s popularly pronounced 
as an ordinary s. But educated Malays pronounce this and 
the four following letters very gutturally, This habit gives a 
throaty sound to the accompanying vowel, while leaving the 
consonant practically unaflfected. 

Dlad \^ a sort of aspirated d pronounced something like 
the combination dth. Educated IMalays pronounce it as a soft 
th : retha, kathi, but the ignorant as 1 : rela. Sometimes it 
is pronounced as d : feduli. Its common romanized form dl 
as in redla, hadlir combines the Arabic d and the Malay 1. 

7a Jtf a strongly articulated palatal t, but Malays pro- 
nounce it as ordinary t. 

Tld Jfl a strongly articulated palatal z, but like dldd pro- 
nounced by Malays as 1 or dh : lohor, dhohor. 

'ain 9 a strong guttural commonly pronounced by Malays 
like an alif: adat. In the middle of a word its presence is 
often marked by doubling the vowel or by a pause : maana, 
ma'na, but not always, mana also being heard. 

Ghain d pronounced by Malays like r with a burr: e.g. 

ghaib as raib, mashghul as mashrul. 

Fa L_j = f , often pronounced by Malays as p, e.g. 
pah am, arip. 

Kdf J a deep faucal k, but commonly pronounced by 
Malays as ordinary k. The letter j is wrongly used (but 
not sounded as a j) in Sanskrit words, e. g. ^jJL! laksa. 

§ 14. Accent. 

The need to discuss accent tends to give an exaggerated 
idea of its importance in Malay. It is necessary to bear in 
mind that there is no strong accent on any syllable in a 



PHONETICS 31 

Malay word ; that words like perkataan, perbuatan, 
aluran, kedengaran, di-katakan, for example, are pro- 
nounced practically with the same stress on every syllable. 

Ordinarily in the Malay word, the accent falls on the 
penultimate except that 

(i) when the penultimate is e in an open syllable and 
rarely in a closed, then the accent falls on the last syllable, 
enam, tengah; 

(2) when a derivative is built up by prefixes from a mono- 
syllabic root, the accent sometimes remains on that root, 
namely, on the last syllable ; 

(3) in the vocative, the stress is sometimes thrown on the 
last syllable. 

The case of words built up of suffixes presents a special 
problem. The Arab system used the hiiruf saksi \ . and (S 
to indicate quantity, and in its application to Malay treated 
accent as the equivalent of quantity, putting the hicruf saksi 
in accented open syllables. The early spelling has left this 
mark of accent in the penultimate of derivatives ^X^^ per- 
kataan from euO kata, ^J5^•^♦> chemburiian from ,^-j*»- 
ehemburu, l?^4 :^ ketahui from sli' tahu, and even ^^5lua. 
jadikan from .ila. jadi, ^:S kata-nya from uy^ kata, 
{j\:S kuda-nya from ^S kuda, and so on — except in the case 
of the particles lah, tah, kah. The Indonesian rule is that 
the accent falls on the penultimate whether of simple or of 
derivative words. The general opinion of Dutch scholars, 
from Werndly down to Tendeloo and Fokker, has insisted 
on the same rule holding good of Malay. Two notable 
exceptions, however, are von de Wall and Gerth van Wijk. 
Only the scientific study of dialect throughout the Peninsula 
and Archipelago could explain fully how experts have come 
to differ. In the Peninsula I confess I had supposed in 
common with Europeans who have lived there a quarter 



32 PHONETICS 

of a century that the Malay had generally gone back on the 
old Indonesian rule. But special observation for the 
purposes of this work has led me to revise my opinion, 
and to think that while practically there is hardly any 
accent at all in the words in question, still the INIalay does 
say perkataan, ingatan, kuda-nya, nama-nya, and 
jadikan — though the suffix kan has not this shifting in- 
fluence when the stem ends in a consonant, and timbang- 
kan, tambatkan will be correct. 



CHAPTER III 



SPELLING 



§ 15. The following are the letters of the IMalayo-Arabic 
alphabet with their Roman equivalents. The writing, of 
course, runs from right to left. The form of the letters 
differs according to their position and their connection with 
other characters ; some letters never connect with others to 
the left of them, and therefore are found sometimes in isola- 
tion ; both of these points are shown in the table. 



Letter. 


Uncon- 
nected. 


Conven 
tional 
Roman 
Equiva- 
lent. 


Form in connection. 


Examples. 


With 
follow- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
preced- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
both. 


With 
follow- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
preced- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
both. 


Alif 

Ba 

Ta 

Tha 

Jim 

Cha 

Ha 

Kha 


\ 

C 
C 


b 

t 
th 

J 
ch 

h 

kh 


J 
.J 


L 

t 









34 



SPELLING 



Letter. 


1 

Uncon- 
nected. 


Conven- 
tional 
Roman 
Equiva- 
lent. 


Form 


in connection. 


Examples 




With 
follow- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
preced- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
both. 


With 
follow- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
preced- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
both. 


Dal 


J 


d 




X 




... 


x^\ 




Dzal 


i 


dz 




s. 


. . . 




>^ 


. . . 


Ra 


) 


r 




J- 


. . . 


. . . 


,^\ 




Za 


) 


z 




J 






^ji-3 




Sin 


u- 


s 


.**) 


LT" 


^ 


OaX^mt 


l;^*^ 


j-^. 


Shin 


LT 


sh 


^ 


\J- 


^ 


u^-H^ 


O^^so 


j-^*—' 


Sad 


U^ 


s 


.<0 


u^- 


wO. 


C;.A.jS^.a 


U^t^ 


J- 


Dlad 


O^ 


dl 


^ 


u^- 


wiO. 


t^JU-^ 


\A^ 


1 •• 


Ta 


\> 


t 


.w 


Ja. 


i*. 


^.,L 


jflii 


U^^^ 


Tla 


Ji 


tl 


.li 


Ji. 


.li. 


^ 


]attssj> 


curiae 


Ain 


t 


' 


.£ 


e- 


Jt. 


J^ 


e 


J« 


Ghain 


t 


gh 


.C 


t 


.i. 




^i, 


y^'O 


Nga 


t 


ng 


.£■ 


t 


.X. 


^/ 


A.X.5 


(_j«.Xx-l.) 


Fa 


> s 


f 


.9 


» a. 


.fi. 


J- 


I — 2J^ 


lOO^ 


Pa 


1 s 


P 


.9 


^ 


i. 


i^i 


i^.L^ 


Ok"a*) 


Kaf 


l5 


i>-q 


J 


J- 


.a. 


u:.-,-Vs 


jls 


.JL9 


Kaf 


d ^.r 


k 


5^ 


t^ j: 


.<: 


U^ 




c^X* 



SPELLING 



35 



Letter. 


Uncon- 
nected. 


Conven- 
tional 
Roman 
Equiva- 
lent. 


Form in connection. 


Examples. 


With 
follow- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
preced- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
both. 


With 
follow- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
preced- 
ing 
letter. 


With 
both. 


Ga 

Lam 

Mim 

Nun 

Wau 

Ha 

Ya 

Nya 


J 

r 

u 

-St 



cr 
O 

I 

m 

n 

u, w 

h 

y 

ny 


f 

J 

..0 

-j 

.4 

J 
-J 


r 

8- 




1 

-♦- 

•t- ■4- 


(Jk---^-' 

I) 


a 





Of these letters -. ch is borrowed not from the Arabic but 
from the Persian, as also is the form ^'^ ^ for which d simply 
is often written : wS p is not Arabic, c n or ng, ^ (or -j) 
n or ny appear to have been constructed from c and ^ 
respectively. The fourteen letters already dealt with (§ 13) 
represent Arabic sounds and occur only in Arabic loan-words, 
except that, as stated in the aforesaid section, guttural q J is 
employed as a symbol in Malay words, i {ta bersimpul, as 
Malays term it) is used often by Malays for final t, e.g. ajI 
////, i.^^ sural, that is, in accordance with Persian and Hindu- 
stani usage, but wrongly, of course, according to Arabic usage, 
since in that language it is a variant of » and called ha-ta, 
being pronounced like ta only when followed by a vowel. 
k_s fa is commonly used by Malays for ^' and pronounced 

c 2 



36 SPELLING 

as p. In Malayo-Javanese works i represents a palatal d 
found in Sanskrit and in Javanese, though not elsewhere in 
Malayo-Polynesian languages ; it is exotic and not employed 
now. y lajn alt/, a combination of two letters, is sometimes 
regarded as a separate letter of the alphabet. So too is 
hamzah *. 

§ 16. Besides the alphabet, I\Iala}'s have borrowed from 
the Arabs certain diacritical signs, most of which have 
become almost obsolete in their writing. These are : 

(i) The vowel points, in Arabic called harakal, in Malay 
haris or senjafa, which represent short vowels and when 
followed by 1, ^s, and j become long vowels. 

Fathah or laris di-alas -— = short a or if followed by 
alif long a. 

Kasrah or haris di-haivah -^ = short e or i or if followed 
by r<7, long e or i. 

DIaminah or haris di-hadapan — = short o or u, or if 
followed by wau long o or u. 

These vowel points have fallen into disuse, being replaced 
against Arabic usage by huruf saksi (§ i8 (</)). 

(2) Hamzah * is found in Arabic at the commencement of 
word or syllable with alif as a prop ; alif by itself having 
no sound except that after a consonant it serves to prolong 
the vowel fathah : this use of hamzah is not practised in 
Malay. For its Malay use see § 18 {i). 

(3) The jazm -^ which shows that the consonant over 
which it is placed closes the syllable and does not begin a 
fresh one : for example, placed over kh in bakhshish it 
signifies that the word is pronounced bakh-shish and not 
bakheshish. 

(4) The tashdid-^ : see § 18 [c). 

§ 17. From the evidence of the earliest Malay manuscripts 
extant, it is clear that there was a fixed standard for the 



SPELLING 37 

spelling of Malay in Arabic characters, at the very beginning 
of the seventeenth century, a standard obtaining in many 
different places in the Malayan Archipelago. The introduc- 
tion of this foreign alphabet was a direct consequence of the 
conversion of INIalays to Islam. The earliest and most 
important missionary centre was N. Sumatra, which strictly 
was not Malay in speech, though Malay was used for com- 
merce, literature, and religion; most of the old Malay MSS. 
were written there and von de Wall alludes to eja acheh 
Achinese speUing as the original style. A system of spelling 
there adopted naturally would spread with the spread of 
Islam to the rest of Sumatra, the coasts of Borneo, the 
Moluccas, to Malay settlements in Java and at Malacca. 
But it is possible that something more than repetition and 
imitation went to account for the uniformity of system. ' If 
the Arabs had attempted to make an adaptation of their 
own system of spelling to suit the peculiarities of the Malay 
language, the result would have been that in different parts 
of the Archipelago there would have been different modifica- 
tions of the Arabic spelling, and a variety of Malay spellings 
would have been unavoidable. The uniformity in the spelling 
of the earliest MSS. would lead us therefore to expect that 
the system of orthography according to which the Arabs 
originally began to write the INIalay language and which they 
taught subsequently to the Malays, was the same as they 
themselves used in writing their own language.' Certainly in 
the main they did attempt to apply Arabic principles. 

The notes of the early seventeenth-century system ' were : 
{a) The use of voivcl points : at any rate they were used 
on unusual words at their first occurrence in a work, so that 
jiio Badanul, a proper name, is fully vowelled on its first 
mention in the Bodleian Sri Rama but not subsequently. 

^ Cp. Shellabeai's ' Evolution of Malay Spelling ', y.A'..-l. ,3'., Straits 
Branch, xxxvi. 75-135- 



38 SPELLING 

{b) The idshdid is inserted to indicate that the letter over 
which it is placed, whether vowel or consonant, is sounded 
twice, e.g. u as uw, i as iy, s as ss, ng as ngng, and so on. 

cdIj buwat, jj duwa, Jj diyam, (J'l iya, iu-usiyang, 
sj^ suddah,^I!j bessar, ^k:i tengngah. 

But the use of the tashdid to double the consonant, i.e. 
when it follows a short vowel (as in our words better^ fellow, 
galant or gallant') is not generally observed in Malay I\ISS. 
and is not Arabic, nor does it represent any real phonetic 
doubling of the consonant. (One is tempted to compare 
with it the double kk in such words as ^^^^is^ilij pertun- 
jokkan, which are often said to be in imitation of Javanese 
double-letter forms and to exhibit a survival probably due to 
the existence of two forms of k ; but Javanese influence 
hardly existed at all in Acheen, and it is more probable that 
the first k j never represented anything but the mere glottal 
check (§9).) 

[c) The omission of final \ j and ^ : 

(j^ kayu, e)l aku, J^^j' terlalu, c:>.;i pintii, uj^J;-^ 
meribu, -yj bertemu, i-Jl api, oU jadi, ^L mati, d^ 
laki, ^.9 pergi, ^y bumi, e^U hati, JiC-. sa-kali, dj-- 
suka, y dua, s^i tuba. 

Exceptions : 

(i) A final vowel is inserted when required for the explana- 
tion of a foreign word. In the Bodleian Sn' Rama the 
Sanskrit puri is written sometimes .ys but oftener i^.f and 
pei'kasa is written \j6j. 

(2) It is inserted when 1 represents a uniform long a, and 
J , {J the diphthong sounds au, ai. 

\S kera, \\ bela, lb depa, ^S kilau, y^, risau, ^y 
tupai, f\jt helai. 

{d) The omission of an\' S}'mbol to represent the indeter- 
minate short vowel e unless the iashdid as used above {U) can 
be taken as an illegitimate symbol. 



SPELLING 39 

(e) The omission of 1, ^ and ij as medial vowels in closed 
syllables. 

cijyj berat, ^.b belum, c:*.*.*. sebut, c^^l orang, A-..»5 
kambing, oXc^ ringgit, A.^_ bimbang, !u*) tumboh. 

Exceptions : 

(i) When the spelling of Arabic words is retained (though 
Arabic pronunciation may not be followed), e.g. ^)kJ\ islam, 
^^i.9 fakir, t_>Uj kitab — in Arabic of course one would get 
kitabu, fakiru, &c., and the syllables would not be closed. 

(2) The monosyllables ^jb dan and ^ys pun. 

(/') 1, J and 1^ are inserted in an open syllable upon which 
the accent falls — in Malay usually the penultimate. 

^y ttian, ^_^j5. riias, A^.-ft.^ kepiting, UU.j telinga, 
j:>^jS^ sekedudok, ^c-\J larangan, ^^cLj tambangan, 
_i^».. raja-raja, J^.J1 apa-bila, klLU hulubalang. 

Exceptions : 

A few words like dL« maka, si pada,,j dari, 5j« siidah, 
JX^ segala, in which the vowel may have been omitted 
because it was short and had little stress on it. 

[In certain derivative words formed by the addition of 
suffixes, 1, . and ij are shifted to the penultimate of the derived 
word: oi;l ingat, ^jAiA ingatan, ,^*»a. chemburu, ^jj^-j*** 
ehemburuan, ili tahu, (j^^-4--^ ketahui, .>U jadi, ^^--Ja- 
jadikan, :,Ji kuda, j\jS kuda-nya, ui;0 kata, ^^U5 kata- 
nya. Many have thought that the accent does not now, in 
the Peninsula at any rale, fall on that syllable, but still remains 
on the penultimate of the root word. Consequently it has 
been suggested that this shifting arose from vicious analogy with 
Javanese forms and phonetics, which seems improbable con- 
sidering the small influence Java had in the north of Sumatra : 
or that it might have arisen from vicious analogy with the spell- 
ing of jMalay roots, but that again seems very improbable. 



40 SPELLING 

As I have slated on p. 32, it is really due to the prevalence even 
now of the old Indonesian system of accentuation (whereb}- the 
accent falls on the penultimate of simple and derivative words 
alike). Of course that accentuation may have been more 
pronounced at the time when the Arabic system of spelling 
Malay was introduced than it is now.] 

{g) Reduplication of words was commonly signified by 
the Arabic cipher r 2 angka dua after a word, a symbol 
not so used in its native tongue : r -.'^ raja-raja, r ^^a 
berkata-kata. 

§ 18. The modern spelling of Malay in Arabic characters 
differs from the script of three centuries ago in several 
ways. 

((?) It never uses vowel points except over words quoted 
from the Arabic or over foreign and ambiguous words. 

(//) It has dropped the iashdid. 

■(t) It employs 1, . and ^ as linals, even when these final 
vowels are neither long vowels nor diphthongs, y^ kayu, 
S\ aku, j)!lj terlalu, ^.ijii pintu, ^^^ meribu, ^ api, 
ijjiU. jadi, jl-e mati, ^^3 laki, \^:> dua, \y tua. 

Exceptions : 

(1) A few stereotyped common words preserve the old 
st)le : c:*il itu, ^J^ ini, ^\jm suatu, \^Ji^ seperti, jl ada, 
L_il apa, (jrl ia, (^.^ dia, ^^S kita, i^a. juga, Jj? pula, 
J.5 pada, ^j-u serta, ^J\* mana, ^* manusia — most of 
them finals in a. 

(2) The change in the use of a is not established, the old 
practice of omission being followed or neglected arbitrarily 
according to the will of the writer in the spelling of most 
words. 



SPELLING 41 

{d) I, J and ij are used more and more as medial vowels 
in closed syllables — except again in the case of some common 
stereotyped words like l^ji-o minta, LL. mulia, j-jI esok, 
f^j^y ratus. ' The use of these letters 1, j and ^j, the huruf 
saksi, as they are called, is opposed to Arabic alphabetical 
theory. The syllable should consist of two letters ; the 
introduction of a third,' started even in our earliest MSS. 
'must have been a bold innovation . . . The innovation 
may have been to some extent countenanced by the disuse 
of case-endings in Arabic words such as kitab, islam, &c., 
but it was certainly developed, if not introduced by European 
influence. It must be remembered that until recently the 
printing of Malay books has been entirely in the hands of 
Europeans, especially in those of missionaries, and that the 
influence so exercised must have been great. The power of 
public instruction under European direction has also to be 
reckoned with. ... It may be predicted that if nothing is 
done to check existing tendencies the use of the huruf saksi 
as English vowels will extend to all words. This solution 
of the present system would not be an unsatisfactory one. 
It would certainly make Malay spelling consistent and easy.' 
At present, the extended use of the huruf saksi is commoner 
among police and clerks trained on European lines than 
among pundits proud of a little Arabic learning. The latter 
propound three theories, which pretend to be practical rather 
than scientific but fail even of their limited object : 

(i) J and (^ should be inserted in closed syllables, except 
that when the vowel sounds of the two syllables are alike, 
the J or the [j should be inserted only in one of the two 
syllables : c^i^) bingong,^.^!y. butir, t_Lij^ kutip, p-y*^ 
kampong, cjsuJtanjong, i*^j bimbang: but ^i'tinggi, 
ioAo dinding, c.^y burong. Apply this theory to the 
case of tulang io/ics and tolong /u//> or tunggal solitary 
and tunggul Irce-slump ; either the spelling of each pair 



42 SPELLING 



must be identical, viz., AJji' and J^y or else the well-established 
and convenient use of the huruf saksi to represent the 
accented vowel, i. e. the penultimate, must be abandoned. 
The theory is artificial, arbitrary and impracticable. 

(2) Another theory would revert for guidance in the 
employment of the huruf saksi to the same system that 
determined the use of the voivd points in the seventeenth 
century ; namely, for the determination of vowel sound in 
rare words. It has historical basis, but what are rare words ? 
For the pundit, simple terms of husbandry ; for the peasant, 
the Sanskrit and Arabic loan-words of literature. 

(3) A third theory would employ huruf saksi to dis- 
tinguish words like tolong and tulang which otherwise 
would be spelt alike. This might be a serviceable empirical 
device, but strict scientific uniformity \vould entail encyclo- 
paedic knowledge of every word in the language. 

(t) Modern spelling has adoptetl hamzah *, which is rare 
in early MSS., to indicate : 

( 1 ) As in Arabic a break between two vowels, of which the 
first is a and the second begins with the spiriius lenis, or in 
other words when an a sound passes on to another vowel 
only by means of a gentle aspirate — it never marks a break 
between vowel and semivowel. For instance JjIS^ = kai- 
yil, ^ip ■= kail a diphthong ; JjIS^ with hamzah =. ka'il ; 
and so too \\ith lain ^^{3 and lavit ^y), though such words 
are conmionly written without hamzah. j^i-^ sa-ekur, 
c^^i— sa-orang, oX^^ sa-ikat, ^^ l^ kealatan, J^~SS 
kekayaan, jlS keenam, ojb ia itu, {j\^^ namai — it must 
be noted that when a word beginning with alif is preceded 
by sa the alif of that word is omitted. 

(2) As an alternative to (j, indicating the glottal check, 
j^-.) tirok, Jjb datokj J-svil inchek. 



SPELLING 43 

§ 19 . The following combinations of words are found : 
(a) sa is joined to the following word j-^h*» sa-ribu, 

((5) The prepositions di and ka are similarly joined i.^jji 
ka-rumah, sJcJj di»tengah. 

(c) And so too, the unemphatic short forms of the 
personal pronouns eJ ku and j5^ kau, c:*^^^ ku-lihat, IjLu.^ 
kau-bawa. 

((/) ^ mu, Q nya (and ku and kau \\hen they belong to 
a preceding word) are joined to the word preceding them ; 
also daku, dikau and dia after akan and dengan. ^\^\ 
oleh-mu, (jA^^>. bawah-nya, jX),?.i diri-ku, lss^^ akan 
dia, ^^a:^^ dengan dikau. 

{e) The particles lah, kah, tab, pun are joined to the 
jireceding word, sXiJl alang-kah, ^-^.sl apa-tah. 

( /) M yang ii'iay be joined with the preceding or following 
word, or with both. Ar^^.j' orang yang, c^-sl^.::.*-) yang 
terdapat, ^i\^skJ-j^\ orang yang di-dapati. 

(;') I'he component parts of compound words are joined 
J^sl apabila, iJLU hulubalang. 

The impossibility of formulating a logical system of spelling 
shows the inadaptability of Arabic characters for the expression 
of Malay phonetics. But the above general principles, such 
as they are, are better guides than merely empirical rules 
which are broken through and through by exceptions. 

§ 20. Romanized Malay. 

Two main systems of rendering Malay in Roman characters 
have been practised : 

(i) The old Dutch method of reproducing the Arabic 
letters in Roman equivalents; the indeterminate vowel repre- 
sented generally by e (and according to Dutch spelling, 
ancient and modern, u represented by oe, y by j, j by dj, 
ch by tj, kh by ch). 



44 SPELLING 

(2) The newer phonetic system, which disregards the fact 
that the language has been written in Arabic characters and 
seeks to reproduce the pronunciation of the educated Malay; 
a system which has been followed with varying degrees of 
failure and success by amateur native-born Chinese, by early 
voyagers, by the missionary press, by writers with an eye to 
popular needs and by scholars aiming at scientific phonetics. 

The old Dutch method has been abandoned even by the 
Dutch in favour of the later system, which alone demands 
attention. 

On the general principle of the modern system, there is 
nothing to add to what Dr. Snouck Hurgronje has written. 
' A purely phonetic system, to serve scientific purposes, 
must be bound to one dialect and give a perfectly true 
image of its phonetic peculiarities. The semi-phonetic 
system that will fulfil practical requirements ought to give 
the average pronunciation of educated genuine Malays. So 
the texts of the most famous literary productions of the 
golden age of IMalay civilization (sixteenth century a. d.), so 
far as they have not suffered from corruption, give us an 
image of the average pronunciation of Malay at that time. 
But this image is very imperfect, especially for the vowels, 
owing to the peculiar use of the Arabic alphabet; and besides 
that, the pronunciation of Malay has suffered many changes 
during the centuries which have elapsed since the gradual 
decay of Malay kingdoms. As political and literary centres 
lost their significance, dialects got increasing influence upon 
Malay style and orthography ; the spreading of Malay over 
parts of the Archipelago widely distant from each other and 
without frequent intercourse, was very disadvantageous to 
the conservation of the unity of the written language and 
made many dialects develop almost to separate languages. 
Our own period with its rapid means of communication 
makes the need of a certain uniformity in written Malay more 
deeply felt than before. We cannot content ourselves with 



SPELLING 45 

attempts to restore the orthographical principles of three 
centuries ago, as (a) we have to make use of the Roman 
alphabet which is more suitable for expressing Malay 
vocalism and more in accordance with actual requirements 
of conversation than the Arabic ; (3) the pronunciation of 
that time is very imperfectly known to us ; [c) it has every- 
where changed a good deal. So a mean will have to be 
sought between two extremes. The language of Malacca 
(Riau-Johor) having played a prominent part in fixing the 
KOLVT] StaAeKTos of the golden age, and so having left con- 
siderable traces in what has remained of the old uniformity 
of civilized speech, may be given more authority than most 
of its sister dialects, but these last nevertheless have to be 
taken very seriously imo account. The local diversity of 
vocalism must keep us from marking too fine distinctions 
of sound and from fixing in script nuances which in a con- 
siderable part of Malaya are not observed.' 

To put this general principle into practice : 

[a) How is the Malay indeterminate short vowel to be 
represented ? Some old writers used a : bassar grra/, 
marampas seize ; Crawfurd affected a — barcharai divorced', 
Marsden and older Dutch scholars e, besar. The missionary 
press in Singapore wavered between omitting it — bsar — and 
inserting ' or '' — b'sar, b'sar. Swettenham, van Wijk and 
modern continental scholars generally have preferred e — 
besar. Now a and e represent its sound neither to the 
Malay nor to the foreigner ; and e will be confused with e in 
words like beta and besan. Use no symbol and an agglo- 
meration of consonants — kbsaran — results. Use ' or ' and 
engkau becomes 'ngkau and keenam becomes k"nam ! 
Obviously e best represents its sound and is no harder to 
write than a dotted i or a French accent or the German 
diaeresis. 

(<5) How are ^ ng as in ^:> dengan, c^^i oi'ang, and q ny 

asin^^.«bnyamok, jib banyak to be written? The scientific 



46 SPELLING 

Orientalist, especially the student of Sanskrit and Arabic, 
will of course shudder at anything but a scientific symbol ; 
he will demand, for instance, n or n for p. and n for ^. 

But the student of Malay is in rather a different position. 
The great bulk of books on Malay, whether in the Straits 
Settlements or in the Netherlands Indies, have been printed 
by local presses, which have had no access to recondite 
symbols. Native readers of Romanized JMalay abound; 
they have become used to the more slipshod way and can- 
not take kindly to change. And the student of Malay 
has to consider not only the wants of the native reader 
but the practice of Dutch scholars of high repute who out- 
number the Englishman by twenty to one. The system 
adopted b}- the Dutch Government for the large literature 
of the Netherlands Indies and by Dutch scholars writing in 
Holland is not to be lightly regarded by other students. It 
is desirable that there shall be uniformity as far as possible ; 
and it is futile for the solitary writer on Malay to pit the 
international scientific system against the weight of past 
prejudice and the current usage of two governments — for 
after careful consideration the Government of the Eederated 
Malay States ^ decided to follow the Dutch line of expediency 
against scientific perfection. Considering that Malay is 
a living language of great vitality, area, and adaptability, read 
and written in Romanized form by children in village schools, 
by Straits-born Chinese, Tamils and Eurasians, by immi- 
grants Asiatic and European ; a language moreover with 
thousands of living Malays to guide one in pronunciation ; 
considering this, the use of symbols is certainly impracticable 
and perhaps not indispensable to scholarship, ng and ny 
never represent divided sounds in Romanized Malay but 
always the letters c and ^j, so that their use need lead to 

' See Ro»ianiscd Malay Spelling, F.M.S. Govt. Press, Kuala Lumpur, 
1904. 



SPELLING 47 

no difficulty. The Dutch Government, the English Govern- 
ment, and most Dutch ^ and English scholars have accepted 
this convention and it will be employed in this work. 

(c) The same argument of expediency has swayed the 
Government with regard to letters representing exotic 
Arabic sounds, it and _ are both represented by h, not by 
h and h ; <::j and ]o by t, not by t and t ; (_^ and ^ by s, 
not by s and s ; i (^ and ]b not by dz, dl and tl but all by 
dz ; J by z ; c and the hamzah both by an apostrophe ; 
i by gh ; o by th. Persian and Arabic words of established 
vogue in the IMalay language have lost their native pronun- 
ciation and are spoken in IMalay fashion, so that the Arabic 
double letters no longer represent differences in sound. 
Unusual literary and religious words anyhow require know- 
ledge of Arabic on the part of Malay and European, if they 
are to be pronounced at all : and such readers will recognize 
them readily even in simplified Roman dress — especially as 
they will otherwise observe the foreign spelling ; for example, 
khattu'l-istiwa. The spelling of exotic words is of very 
minor importance. The symbol for IMalay final ^_J repre- 
senting a glottal check is a more difficult matter. The q 
of scientific scholarship represents the Arabic j in cijjJ.9 
quderat, and distinguishes it from d k, but it does not 
represent the Malay final j as in (j,y, burok. Spat uses 
the other Malay convention (§ i8 (f)) the hamzah and 
prints buro' which has a strange hybrid appearance. The 
Dutch and English Government spelling uses k alike for e) 
and J. On the whole, this is as logical as any other method, 
seeing that the glottal check is represented in the IMalay 
convention now by ^ now by \^ and now by hamzah — 
j^iU', ciUi'lj, or j^ils. k used for final j need cause no 
difficulty, if it is remembered that k at the end of a Malay 
word always stands for the glottal check : j elsewhere in 

^ Dr. Tendeloo accepts ng for i but uses n for q . 



48 SPELLING 

a word occurs only in a few Sanskrit and Arabic words 
which will be easily recognized. 

{d) The representing of ij and j by i or iy and u or 
uw is debatable. Mr. Wilkinson ' has put the scholar's 
point of view succinctly : 'The popular spelling of tuwan as 
tuan and of iya as ia . . . suggests that the second syllable 
. . . commences with the spiritus Icnis when really it begins 
with a w or a y. It gives an incorrect idea of the value of alif 
by confusing the hamzated alif with the alif o^ prolongation. 
It is also faulty for etymological study ; for instance, watu 
is the Javanese form of batu, and the bearing of this fact 
on the derivation of suwatu is not suggested by the spelling 
suatu which implies that atu and not watu is the second 
portion of ihe word. These points may seem trivial; but 
the confusion imported into Malay spelling is in great measure 
due to the inadequate comprehension of the alphabet fostered 
by the belief that the spelling tuan is not a mere approxima- 
tion to the sound of a certain word but is an exact trans- 
literation of certain Arabic letters.' The popular spelling 
has been followed by Mr. Wilkinson in his smaller dictionary, 
and by the government committee. And it can be defended 
from the point of view of pure phonetics. No system of 
spelling derivatives can be formed solely with an eye to the 
requirements of etymology. Phonetically, a w slips in 
automatically when one says tuan, unless one deliberately 
makes the effort to say tu'an : and the spelling tuwan is 
calculated to suggest a more distinct w sound than Malays 
actually enunciate. 

{e) The most difficult problem of all is the choice of the 
Roman vowel, when the Malay sound lies between o and u, 
between e and i. The F.M.S. Government, after considera- 
tion of Peninsular dialects and of the Dutch system, has 

^ Wilkinson's Ma I ay- English Dictionary, vol. ii. p. 714. 



SPELLING 4(j 

accepted the following convention for tiie selection of the 
vowel in iinal syllables : 

(i) ong not ung ; oh not uh : ok not uk ; um not om ; 
un not on ; ul not ol ; up not op ; us not os ; ur not or ; 
ut not ot ; u not o. 

(-') eh not ih ; ek not ik; ing not eng; im not em; 
in not en; il not el; ip not ep; is not es; ir not er; it 
not et ; i not e, 

(3) But if the penultimate vowel is e or o, the final 
should contain e or o in preference to i or u — pohon not 
pohun, kotor not kotur, gesel not gesil, dongeng not 
donging, choket not chokit. 'The fact is that in the 
Riau-Johor dialect the two vowels in question approach the 
sound of o and e, while in the Kedah dialect they approach 
that of u and i. Consequently there is a certain aflinity 
between o and e and between u and i ; were the spelling other- 
wise, it would suggest that tlie Riau pronunciation was 
accepted for one half the word and the Kedah pronunciation 
for the rest.' 

§ 21. So much for general principles. The recommenda- 
tion of the Government committee on the special case of 
certain classes of word will also be observed in this grammar. 
That committee decided as follows : 

{a) Foreign words ' magistrate ' ' court ' khattu'l-istiwa 
shall J)c7ce the qualification in § 20 [e) supra be spelt as in 
their original language. 

{!)) Trisyllabic words where the first two syllables are 
separable by an h, U^w, ^l^w, .,14), and so on, shall always 
be written with h between two letters a — sahaya, sahaja, 
baharu. 

(c) In 'the case of words like kemudian, demikian, and 
arakian, which are often pronounced kemedian,deniekian, 
and arekian, we are of oi)inion that there is sullicient variety 

1651 U 



50 SPELLING 

in local practice to justify the adoption of that form which 
lends itself best to the explanation of the composition of a 
word, especially as such a decision will tend to bring British 
and Dutch methods of Romanizing more closely into harmony. 
In the case of derivatives of combinations such as the word 
menyabelah from sa-belah, we consider there is no 
sufficient reason for treating ordinary derivatives of sa as 
distinct words with distinct spellings of their own, and we 
recommend that the a of sa be retained' (i.e. menyabelah 
and not menyebelah), ' At the same time, a distinction 
may be fairly drawn between the words keluar lo go out and 
ka-luar outwards, though etymologically they are the same ; 
and we recommend that where a derivative form has become 
specialized in use, it be written as a separate word.' 

{d) ' The use of hyphens should be restricted as much as 
possible. Derivatives (such as menyakiti from sakit) 
should not be divided up. But prepositional and other 
particles may be separated by hyphens from the word to 
which they are accretions : thus sa-kali pun, ka-rumah, 
di'dalam-nya.' 



CHAPTER IV 

THE MALAY WORD 

§ 22. The INIalay word may be : 

I. Simple. 

api//r, besar big, chekek strangle, tiga /hrte, kurang less. 

II. Derivative, i. e. built up by 
{a) affixation (chapter vi) : 

berapiyzc/^y, terbesar very big, menchekek sir angling, 
ketiga third, terkurang luuch less. 

{b) reduplication (§ 63) : 

api-api mangrove, besar-besar fairly great, chechekek 
a 'yanking ' noose, tiga-tiga three together, kurang-kui'ang 

at the loivest. 

III. Compounded (§ 65) : where compounded the words 
acquire a conventional meaning that would not belong to 
them taken separately, kayu-api firewood, orang besar 
ehief, chSkek kedadak violent strangling, vomiting, tiga- 
ratus three hundred, kurang akal stupid, rumah tangga 
wi/e. 

Of course, not every simple word will undergo aftixation, 
reduplication, and compounding. Some that take affixation 
are not reduplicated; some that are reduplicated are never 
compounded ; some always remain simple. 

§ 23. Often the Malay word cannot be assigned definitely 
to any one of our parts of speech. No hard and fast line 
exists between the radical used as substantive and the radical 



52 THE MALAY WORD 

used as adjective,* for example : rumah besar a large 
house ; besar I'umah /he size of a house ; orang banyak 
many /oik, banyak orang ///<' nuviber of folk; orang pandai 
a clever person, pandai besi a blacksmith, sedikit yt'zc, 
beberapa several, sakalian, semua, segala all stand 
sometimes before, sometimes after the substantive ; in the 
first case they must be parsed as substantives, in the second 
as adjectives. Classical usage may tend to give a word 
currency rather as substantive than adjective, or as adjective 
than substantive, but often it cannot extinguish its essential 
versatility. In the conversational prose of Munshi AbdulLih 
we constantly find such examples as pergi main ka-panas 
go playing in the heat; menurut adat dan bodoh orang 
folloiving the customs and folly of men, where classical usage 
would prefer panas and bodoh to be parsed as adjectives, 
but where the clipped popular phrase of the writer has 
caught the historical as well as the living genius of the 
language. 

Similarly substantive and verb are not always rigidly 
distinguished : 

sapu to ivipe, sapu tangan, a pocket-handkerchief ; ikat 
to bind, ikat pinggang a waist-belt; kata a word or to speak 
— maka kata Sang Nila Utama semua-nya di-persem- 
bahkan ka-pada Permaisuri : maka kata Permaisuri 
' Baik-lah ' all the remarks of Sang Nila Utama are reported 
to the queen. And the queen remarks ' Very ivelV , a dual 
function of kata to be found everywhere in the Sejarah 
Melayu, that model of classical Malay. So, too, jalan^ 
a road, to travel; jala casting-net, to cast a net; pahat 
a chisel, to carve; kapak an axe, to cleave, are examples 
of words which without inflexion may be substantive or 
verb. 

1 ' Probably adjectives neither derived nor foreign are at bolloiii words 
denoting a subject, that is a quality, and su coming in time to denote the 
possession of that quality.' — Tendeloo. 



THE iAIALAY WORD 53 

§ 66 will show how many words are both noun and 
pronoun : § 8 1 how many are adverb and noun, adverb and 
adjective, adverb and verb, adverb and conjunction. And 
the table in § 43 shows succinctly how one and the same 
affix will attach to several parts of speech, so that it is 
probably unscientific to differentiate its derivatives as we 
are wont to do in accordance with the concepts of our 
own grammar. No copula is required in Malay, and 
words which in our grammar would be subject words, in 
Malay may be subject or predicate words according to con- 
text and order. 

penghulu-nya /lis chi^f; penghulu dia the chief is he ; 
orang baik itu ilmt good man ; orang itu baik that man 

is good. 

To sum up. Malay abounds in many such examples of the 
chameleon word as 

(sakit itu terok /haf sickness is severe 
orang sakit a sick man 
ia sakit he is sick. 

rum ah dekat a neighbouring house 
dekat rum ah near to a house 
dekat habis nearly done 
ia dekat he is near. 

/tengah hari mid-day 

orang tengah umpire 

potong tengah cut in halves 
( tengah tidur ivhilst sleeping. 

[dalam rumah interior 0/ a house 
J telaga dalam deep ivell 
[dalam pekan /;/ the town. 

and it is unscientific even to attempt to classify Malay words 
as subject words and predicate words as Dr. Tendeloo did. 
At the same time, this section must not induce the idea that 



54 THE MALAY WORD 

ordinarily a Malay word cannot for all practical purposes be 
defined as some one part of speech. 

§ 24. The Malay word undergoes no inflexion to denote 
gender — whether the word is noun, adjective, pronoun or 
numeral. 

§ 25. The Malay word undergoes no inflexion to denote 
number. 

§ 26. The Malay word undergoes no declension to 

denote case. 

§ 27. As verb, the Malay word undergoes inflexion for 
purposes which are often foreign to our ideas and require 
special definition. 



CHAPTER V 

THE CHIEF PARTS OF SPEECH 

(A) THE NOUN 

§ 28. If the gender of person or animal ' needs to be defined, 
then the substantive is qualified by the words laki-laki 
male and perSmpuan female in the case of persons, and 
jantan male and betina female in the case of animals (or 
coarsely of persons) : / |\ 

anak laki-laki a hoy-:, budak perempuan girl; ayam 
jantan cock; ayam betina Jicn; patek menampun'-lah 
beristerikan orang betina ; patek hSndak menchari 
orang perempuan I beg to be excused from wedding a 7nere 
female ; I want la search for a true ivoman. 

§ 29. The substantive whether simple or derivative stands 
without inflexion for singular and plural, as has been said 
above. ]Marsden, indeed, opined that ' the^noun in its simple 
state, without any accompanying term to limit or extend its 
signification, is more properly to be considered as plural 
than singular ; or that in order to the determining its 
number, the application of a term expressing singularity 

1 ' The absurdity of attributing difference of sex to things or to the 
names of things not organized by nature to reproduce their kind,' Marsden 
remarks, ' did not suggest itself to the framers of the Malay language ' — 
despite their animism. But there are a very few exceptions : bah jantan 
the male flood which is greater than bah bStina tlie female flood; busut 
jantan attt-Jii/l ; kokot jantan, kokot betina tlie parts of a pintle- 
rudder. 

2 menampun = minta ampun (Perak). 



r/y THE CMIF.F PARTS OF SPFECII 

is more commonly necessary than one of indefinite plurality. 
Thus, for example, in the phrase ada orang di-luar 
f/nre are persons zvilhouf, the word orang requires no plural 
sign, but on the contrary in the phrase ada sa-orang di-luar 
/here is a person ivithout, the numeral of imity is indis- 
pensable.' It is safer on the evidence to say that the 
indefinite rather than the plural is expressed. 

Number therefore is determined : 

(a) by context. 

(/y) by reduplication to form an indefinite plural with 
variety in it, § 63. 

(r) by the employment of words like banyak many, 
sedikit few, semua, segala all, and of numerals and 
their coefificients. 

§ 30. Without inflexion, the substantive can, and in con- 
versation commonly does, have its case determined by context 
alone ; though the prepositions indicated in brackets are 
employed in literary Malay : 

pukul budak heat a child ; baju budak Ihe coat of a 
child; beri (ka-pada) budak give {lo) a child; pulang 
(ka-) negeri return (to) one's country ; chawan (dari-pada) 
emas a cup ijnade) of gold ; jaga tidur aivah from sleep; 
sapu (dengan) kain ivipe with a cloth ; di-timpah (oleh) 
halilintar struck hy lightning ; dudok (di-) rumah sit in 
ones house ; datang (pada) hari esok come on the morrow. 

Derivative nouns may be traced in the table in § 4;,. and 
are dealt with under chapter vi. 

(B) THE ADJECTIVE 

§ 31. It may be noted that nouns denoting material and 
nouns denoting place may be used as adjectives : 

batil perak a boivl of silver ; lantai buloh a floor of 
hamhoo ; tenun Kelantan Kelantan weaving ; buatan 
China Chinese workmanship. 



THE ADJECTIVE 57 

The adjective may be reduplicated not to denote the plural 
but with the nuances described in §63. 

Derivative adjectives are handled in chapter vi, vide § 43. 
The syntax of the adjective is as follows : 

I. As attribute, the adjective follows the substantive it 
qualifies, the demonstrative pronoun, if used, coming after the 
adjective. 

rumah besar a house of some size, orang berbaagsa itn 
Ihaf iveU-horn person, hulu-balang ternama itu tliat dis- 
tinguished captain. 

II. (i) As predicate, it may come after the subject. Then, 
if the combination is merely substantive + adjective, rumah 
besar the house is large, only intonation distinguishes this use 
of the adjective from its use as attribute. But if demonstra- 
tive or possessive pronoun is employed, then the pronoun 
follows the substantive immediately and not as in (I) : 

rumah-nya besar his house is targe ; rumah itu besar 
that house is targe ; rumah-nya itu besar that house of his 
is large. 

(2) More emphatically and frequently the adjective as 
predicate comes first (often with the emphatic lah, § 87) and 
the substantive follows : iSfiiC 

besar-lah rumah itu large is *L' ho7/se ; termanis muka 
hamba ?nore gracious is jny face; berbangsa-lah raja 
Melayu 7vell born are Malay princes. 

Comparison of Adjectives 

§ 32. The comparison of adjectives is expressed not by 
change in form of the adjective but by various methods of 
circumlocution. 

I. Equality of degree. 

This is denoted by 

((?) order and accent : 

pinang tinggi nyiur a tietel palm as tall as a coco-nut 



5M THE CHIEF PARTS OF SPEECH 

palm ; pasir-nya serong bentok taji the aandy shore was 
cuToed like a cork's spur. 

{li) sama or sa-, with or without words like seperti like 
or dengan 7V///i conjoined. 

So a he I el palm is as fall as a coco-nul palm may be expressed 
pinang nyiur sama tinggi-nya ; pinang sama (or sa-) 
tinggi nyiur ; pinang sama (or sa-) tinggi dengan (or 
seperti) nyiur. The ^\ ord of comparison sama or sa may 
come not before the adjective Init before the thing with whicii 
the subject is compared : pinang sa-nyiur tinggi-nya like 
pinang seperti nyiur tinggi-nya. 

The second half of the comparison, viz. the object with 
which the subject is compared, must be expressed : belum 
pernah ada njriur sa-tinggi ini never were coco-nuis so tall : 
in Malay must be added as these. 

II. Comparative and Superlative. 

No real distinction is made between these two degrees. 
Both can be expressed by 

(a) order, accent and antithesis : 

pinang nyiur. tinggi pinang a betel palm is taller than 
a coco-nut palm; pinang nyiur pandan tinggi pinang ^^Z" 
betel, coco-77ut, and screw palms, the betel palm is the tallest. 

(b) dari or better dari-pada : 

tinggi pinang dari-pada nyiur the betel palm is taller 
than the coco-nut ; dari-pada pinang nyiur pandan, tinggi 
pinang oy betel, coco-nut, and screrv palms, the betel palm is the 
tallest: sa-orang manteri yang tua dari-pada manteri 
sakalian ///( oldest of all thi viziers; jika dari-pada pihak 
Melayu ia-lah alim on the Malay side he 7vas the most learned. 

Moreover lo either of these two constructions, emphasis 
can be given by the use of 

ic) yang: 

pinang nyiur, pinang yang tinggi or dari-pada 
nyiur, pinang yang tinggi tin bdel palm is taller than the 



THE ADJECTIVE 59 

coco-vut ; pinang nyiur pandan, pinang yang tinggi or 
dari-pada pinang nyiur pandan, yang tinggi pinang 

o/bc/el, coco-nu/, and scrav pahns, the hctd is the tallest. 

(d) intensive adverbs kurang tess, lebeh, lagi ?/iore, 
terlalu, terlampau, amat, sangat, sa-kali Te/y. 

pinang nyiur (yang) lebeh tinggi pinang; pinang 
nyiur pandan, yang terlalu tinggi pinang. keba- 
nyakan kaya dari-pada yang miskin there are ///on rich 
than poor; jikalau terlampau dari-pada adat besar- 
nya itu if it is bigger than ordinary ; kebanyakan tanah 
yang tinggi dari-pada tanah rendah there is more high 
land than low. 

III. The superlative absolute (as opposed to the relative 
where there is comparison) may be expressed by 

{a) reduplication : 

tinggi-tinggi pokok lembari very tall is the lejnbari tree ; 
jimat-jimat di-negeri orang be very careful in a strange 
land; kechil-kechil anak rimau although it is very tiny it 
is a tiger cub. 

{!)) sa + reduplication : 

dengan sa-besar-besar harap ivith the highest hopes ; 
dengan sa-boleh-boleh-nya with the best endeavours. 

(c) the aforesaid intensives — often more than one is used : 
sa-orang puteri teramat sangat elok sa-kali a princess 
of most exceedingly luautiful countenance. 

{d) by a few phrases : bukan kepalang literally 7iot 
middling, bukan olah-olah without shilly-shallying; bukan 
main 710 child's play. 

medan-nya elok bukan kepalang the field was vny 
fine; nyamok bukan main banyak-nya ///osquitocs very 
numerous. 



Go THE CFTIEF PARTS OF SPEECH 

(C) THE VERB 

§ 33. Even the voice of the Malay verb, simple as well as 
derivative, has been a subject of controversy. 

The earlier grammarians, Werndly, Marsden, Crawfurd, 
held that the verb in simple radical form was active. Then 
de Hollander borrowed the ' subjective-passive ' theory ^ as it 
is called, from the conclusions of Dutch scholars in Javanese 
grammar. The subjective passive was alleged to be formed 
by prefixing the unemphatic abbreviated forms of the personal 
pronouns aku and engkau to the simple verb : aku tutup 
I shut, engkau tutup rc^« shut, butku-tutup by mc is shui\ 
kau-tutup hy you is shut. ' The subjective passive points 
out the subject as if its expression were accidental ; it has 
a passive sense but is not a passive directly opposed to the 
active or subjective form as I was stain is opposed to / stay. 
It is only a passive form which expresses the accident as 
a deed or result of the subject but not necessarily as done 
to the object or undergone by the object.' Favre and Dutch 
scholars down to Gerth van Wijk carried this theory further 
still and saw the subjective passive in all contexts where the 
simple verb was found : Hassan tutup pintu by Hassan was 
shut the door, engkau tutup pintu by you -was shut the door. 
Derivatives in me (§ 44) form the active ; so the simple verb 
must be some sort of passive ! Against this theory it may 
be urged that it is a needless torturing of grammar and logic, 
based on a misunderstanding of the peculiar functions of the 
me derivative. Tendeloo returned to the older view that the 
simple root verb is active. 

Now on the whole, it is true to say that the simple verb 
does denote the active voice, but at bottom there are too 
many exceptions, too many cases where the verb simple and 

1 At bottom the theory w.is an unskilful parody of the dicluvi l.Tid 
down in § 38 and note, and overlooked the fact that the simple radical 
verb is often active. 



THE VERB 6i 

derivative can denote both active and passive for one to be 
able to discern any fundamental logical conception or dis- 
tinction of voice in the INIalay language. Context determines 
voice. One prefix will express generally the active, another 
the passive — but with exceptions (§§ 46, 49, 52, 60 el passim): 
the simple verb will express generally the active — but with 
exceptions : 

sorong io s/iovi , kereta sorong a push-car i {jvhuh is 
shoved); belali io split, batii belah a split roc/:, tiba-tiba 
belah papan pada tiang kemunchak khemah lalu 
gugur suddenly llie hoard at the top of the tent-pole teas split 
and fill down ; angkat to picl< up, to adopt, anak angkat an 
adopted child \ champak, buang /<? throiv, discard, champak 
buang j'aviliiis u'huh are east, sudah buang rupa-nya 
kami bagai ikan di-luar belat discarded am /, // seems, 
nice a fish rejected hy the trap ; pukul to heat, kena pukul 
incur heing healcn ; dapat to get ; barang yang dapat 
oleh-ku habis ku-makan whatever is obtained hy nu I 
eat up. 

§ 34. The Malay language has been said by van Ophuijsen 
to have no intransitive verbs, since according to him tran- 
sitive verbs can be conjugated in the ist, 2nd, and 3rd persons, 
kii-buat, kau-buat, di-buat, while words like pergi go, 
datang come, dudok sit, jatoh fall, tidur sleep, which we 
sliould call intransitive verbs, never appear in the conjugation 
ku-pergi, kau-pergi, di-pergi, and therefore (he thinks) 
are not verbs at all. But the forms ku-buat and kau-buat 
are devised with the object of laying less stress on the agent 
than the full forms aku and engkau (which alone can be used 
with words like pergi) and cannot properly be called conjuga- 
tion : his view of di is untenable and the whole question of 
conjugation very doubtful indeed (§ 37). It is safe to say that 
words like pergi, &c., which can never be passive (or appear 
in the di form, § 40), are intransitive. 



62 THE CHIEF PARTS OF SPEECH 

The Malay language no more distinguishes sharply between 
transitive and intransitive than it does between active and 
passive : the gradual adoption of the prepositions akan and 
i as suffixes shows the attempt to remedy this want. 

Anyhow, the difference between transitive and intransitive 
is not the same in Malay as it is in European languages. 
Words like jalan (darat) fravirsc, Iravd {over land), ttiju 
aim, in Malay are transitive and can be constructed in the 
passive as well as the active. 

§ 35, There is no inflexion in the Malay verb to mark mood. 

'ku dengai' I luar; supaya 'ku dengar Iha/ 1 may hair; 
mudah-mudahan 'ku dengar may I hear ; dengar listen ; 
dengar itu sedap to hear it is pleasant; orang dengar 
pun suka one hearing it is pleased. 

How far prefixes come indirectly and unconsciously to 
express mood in a rudimentary way may be seen in dis- 
cussing the syntax of the verb (§ 39 c, d). 

§ 36. There is no inflexion required in the Malay verb to 
denote tense, i.e. time relation. 

sahaya lari / run or a?n running; esok sahaya lari 
to-morrow I will run or shall be running ; kalmarin sahaya 
lari lately I ran or was running ; belum dapat khabar 
sahaya lari U/ore the nezvs came I had run. 

me derivatives are said generally to correspond to an 
imperfect; te(r) derivative to a perfect; and the simple un- 
inflected verb to an aorist, though such comparisons are 
confusing from the use of these terms to denote tense 
indicating ti/ne in other languages. 

Maharaja pun bertempek serta melompat may be 
translated there is the Maharaja shouting and leaping or there 
was the Maharaja shouting and leaping or there will (or would) 
he the Maharaja shouting and leaping, according to the 
context. To say me derivatives denote the imperfect means 
no more than that they denote a process or activity imperfect 



THE VERB 63 

in the sense that the activity or process is, was, or will be 
happening ; and similarly te(r) derivatives are perfect in the 
sense that they denote acts or conditions which are or will be 
or have been realized or perfected. 

To emphasize Present time/ a word like sekarang noiv 
will be used ; to emphasize Future, words like esok to-uiorroiv. 
kemudian af/envareis or mau, hendak, akan, kelak (and 
in the colloquial nanti); for Past time, telah, sudah, 
habis ; for the Imperfect lagi, tengah, sedang. Such 
words need not come next die verb they qualify but may 
stand in the emphatic forefront of the sentence. Such of 
them as are adverbial may stand anywhere, kelak, sudah, 
lagi often find their position of emphasis at the end of a clause. 

To denote the Imperative, when exhortation rather than 
command is to be expressed, hendak ihe wish is, harus // is 
proper: balk it ivere ivell, choba //;;', biar le/, silakan please, 
will be employed, hendak-lah Bendahara karang surat 
ka-benua Siam you, Benelahara, must compose a letter to 

^ ada, to be, exist, is often termed an auxiliary but this leads to con- 
fusion as it is neitlier a temporal word nor a copula. Malay dispenses 
with the copula, rumah besar itie Iwuse is big, belum elok it is not 
perfect, ada always emphasizes real existence, actual presence (whether 
in present, past, or future time), anak-ku yang tiada ada tara-nya my 
cliild who lias not tier peer in existence ; ada sekarang kota-nya di- 
tanah Binding t lie re exists cvoi now ti is fort at llie Bindings : ada sa- 
buah perahu datang dari negeri China tlicre is present a sliip come 
from China ; ada sa-orang raja di-tanah Hindi tliere tived a prince 
in Ilindostan ; pulau itu sudah ada the island was in existence ; apa- 
bila sudah ada kayu di-bawa bapa-nya lu/ienever wood was iJierc 
brought by his father; ada-nya // is so, sitch is tJie actual case; nyata- 
lah ada-nya seperti warta itir liear/y it actually ivas as report said; 
ada-lah the fact is ; jangan engkau berchinta ; ada-lah bunga 
yang di-kehendaki isteri-mu itu bukan-nya bunga melur yang 
sa-rupa ada dalam dunia ; ada-lah bunga melur berkembang sa- 
kali itu bertumboh di-kaki awan be not grieved ; for the truth is that 
the jasmine your bride desires is not jasmine like that luhich exists in 
this wo/-/d : the trutli is that jasmine which floivcrs but once, grows on the 
liorizon. 



64 THE CHIEF^ PARTS OF SPEECH 

Siam; hendak kedua kamu muafakat li'w hvo uins/ /Ian 
togelhcr ; biah-lah abang jalan sa-orang hi mc your dda- 
brother si/ out alone; choba bertanam mumbang try 
and plant young green coeo-nut seedlings ; silakan dudok 
please be seated. 

§ 37. As there is no conjugation for mood or tense, so too 
there is no conjugation to denote person or number. 

Van Ophuijsen, as has been said, and Spat consider that 
the Malay verb is conjugated, a view based on several idioms : 

((z) The shortened forms ku, kaii are said to be prefixes, 
indicating first and second persons. It has been shown above 
that they are merely unobtrusive forms due to the avoidance 
of egotism in the polite Malay. 

(b) Van Ophuijsen further holds the quite untenable view 
that di (see § 40) is a shortened form of dia and marks con- 
jugation in the third person. This involves an unparalleled 
contraction of dia; the use of dia, more usually accusative, 
where the nominative ia would be expected ; and an inex- 
plicable and redundant use of pronouns in the construction 
di(a) + simple verb + nya. 

{c) Further proof is alleged to exist in order. One may 
write aku beliim sakit / am not yet siek, Lut never ku (or 
aku) belum berikan, sahaya belum berikan, aku nanti 
berikan, always belum 'ku (or aku or sahaya or any other 
proper or improper personal pronoun) berikan not yet have 
I given) nanti aku berikan I ivill give. This order, how- 
ever, is easily explained by the usual syntax governing the 
use of adverbs and the rule that the position for an emphatic 
word is at the beginning of the clause. 

§ 38. Syntax of the simple uninflected verb. 

When the verb is intended to denote not the activity of an 
agent, or the state of a patiens, expressed or implied, but 
solely the activity, act, fact, event, state or condition as a 



THE VERB 65 

phenomenon, then the simple non-derivative form is used.^ 
This is the fundamental rule governing the (non-colloquial, 
§ 107) proper use of the simple verb, to which other rules are 
but corollaries. 

This rule may be illustrated by certain classified uses of 
the simple form of the verb : 

(a) No prefix attaches to intransitive words signifying 
spontaneous states of feeling and simple acts : 

kaseh, sayang, rindu /o7't' ; suka ytrl pleasure ; harap 
/io/>e; j emu _/(('/ sa/ic/y ; tidur sleep; tahu kuenv; diam 
keep silent ; jatoh fall ; lari run ; bangun rise ; turun 
deseend; terjuu leap doivn ; naik ascend; masok enter; 
datang cane ; ada be ; mau, hendak jvish ; pergi go ; 
terebangyT;)'; sampai arrive; sujud kneel; tunduk sloop 

^ In other words, one may say, when the simple form of the verb is 
used, the verb is the logical subject of the sentence and the noun or 
pronoun which our grammar would call subject is subordinate to it ; 
when a derivative me form is employed, the noun or pronoun is subject 
and the verb with the idea it expresses is subordinate or adjectival. 

Were it practicable, Malay grammar, to my mind, ought to be 
arranged and written in accordance with a system suggested by 
Mr. Blagden in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, October, 
1908, p. 1204, ' Is it not possible to conceive a language that should 
marshal its parts ot speech (i.e. represent the mental relation of its 
ideas) in quite another way ? Why should the verb necessarily fall into 
the predicative part of the sentence 1 Could it not just as well be the 
other way about ? . . , What I conceive as possible is the treatment of the 
verbal idea, the action, process or (if one may so style it) the dynamic 
element of the sentence, as the subject, making the words that we should 
take as subject, object, &c., subordinate to it, while the real predicate 
(which in an affirmative sentence of this sort would be merely an affirma- 
tion that the action expressed by the verb-subject is an actuality) would 
either be represented by a particle of affirmation or be already implicitly 
involved in the form of the verb-subject itself. To me such a syntactical 
system . . . seems quite conceivable, nay more, I believe it to exist some- 
times as a fact. Take as an example the following Malay sentence . . . 
di-chium-nya dan di-tangis-nya oleh bonda-nya akan anak-nya 
itu Ttiere-was-kissing-and-weeping-over-it by her — (Jy its motJier over 
her child). 

1554 E 



66 THE CHIEF PARTS OF SPEECH 

the head; tiada jemu mata baginda there-was-iw-satiety-in 
the prince s eyes; anjing kedua itu pun lari lalu tSrjun 
ka-dalam sungai as for the hvo hounds — there ivas a rtish 
and a hap — into the river; orang jadi raja muda itu 
bukan-nya mudah the post of crowji prince is no sinecure; 
pintu kota pun roboh as for the gate — down it fell; raja 
muda pun suka melihat there -was joy — in the crown pritice 
at the sight. 

The significance of the simple radical form can be seen by 
studying the change produced in such words by the addition 
of affixes. 

sangat rindu baginda akan anakanda great ivas the 
love of the prince^'or his son; burongpunggok merindu- 
kan bulan 7/!r the owl loves the moon ; tundok-lah tuan 
puteri downcast eyes — that was the princess's (perhaps un- 
conscious) attitude; orang menundokkan kepala/fi/^ bow 
their heads in conscious homage ; aku pun jadi-lah 7ny 
birth — took place ; Bukit Seguntang menjadi bandar 
besar-lah there was Bukit Seguntang — became a large toivn. 

{b) Verbs which would otherwise take prefixes under the 
condition of the general rule omit them : 

jikalau tuanku hendak bergagah juga mendekati 
anakda chunda, sahaja patek amok-lah if your highness 
persist in efforts to approach your grandchild, then there ivill be 
slaughter — done by us ; jikalau ada budak empat, ada- 
kah nakhoda kenal jf the four children are present, ivill there 
be recognition — on the captain's part?; chuchur-lah ayer 
mata-ny a tiada berasa there was no conscious process, Just 
the falling of tears ; jikalau ringgit ini, seperti ayer 
basoh tangan the dollars I mention were wasted like zvashing- 
ivater (membasoh would throw emphasis on ayer whereas 
the point is washing-water not water — which, one may add, 
is used for ivashing); baik-lah tuan pereksa 7 jvere ivell 
there should be e.xajnination — by you ; pergi-lah memereksa 



THE VERB 67 

go yon — and conduct an examination ; sahaya lihat sa-puloh 
dua-belas pondok orang laut membuat belat diam di- 
situ t/irre ivere visible (to me) ten or tivelve huts occupied by 
sea-folk engaged in fishing ; ia-lah melihat burong mem- 
bawa utusan // ivas he ivho was the conscious spectator 0/ the 
bird that brought the ?nessage ; pada ketika itu boleh Batin 
tunjokkan rumah ibu-nya then can his mother's house be 
shotvn me, Batin — there is no stress on Batin ; any one may 
show the house, the point is it must be shown. 

§39. The use of the simple non-derivative form of the 
verb is especially common in certain types of sentence : 

(a) Where the object is placed in the position of prominence 
at the commencement of the clause and before the subject.^ 
There is no attempt to emphasize whether the act, fact, event 
or condition was brought about by an agent ; the emphatic 
point is that the object has been somehow affected. 

titah patek junjong j/i?//r royal coinmands meet with our 
obedience (but sakalian alam menjunjong titah all the 
ivorld are your servants)\ apa kehendak-nya tiada pereksa 
hamba datok his purpose has not been the subject of my 
inquiry ; mana bichara mamak Bendahara, itu-lah 
kita turut your counsel, Bendahara, commands observance ; 
ada sa-buah lading maka kita turun dengan beras 
bekal there ivas a boat launched [by us) ivith provision 
of rice. 

Under this head fall relative sentences where the relative 
pronoun is the object and the emphasis is on the attribute or 
condition ascribed by the relative clause to its subject, which 
is the logical subject of the whole. 

ini-lah yang kita lihat sa-malam itu this ivas last 
night" s spectacle ; demi tuhan yang aku sembah ini by 
God the object of my ivorship. 

' Or, in other words, the object is the logical siibject of the clause. 
E 2 



68 THE CHIEF PARTS OF SPEECH 

Or the word emphasized need not necessarily be the object 
but may be what in our grammar would be some other 
subordinate part of the sentence. 

esok hari-lah kita panggil raja Melaka itu, tetekala 
itu-lah kita suroh Laksamana beriwayat io-morroiv ivill 
be the day for calling the Raja of ]\lalacca ami that ivill be the 
time to bid the Laksamana tell his stories. 

(b) In the case of direct and indirect commands, prohibi- 
tions, and requests, where the reahzation of a certain act or 
contlition and not the perhaps abortive activity of an agent 
towards it is contemplated and where often no particular 
agent is in view. Contrast § 48 (r). 

segera engkau datang bawa anak-ku go fetch my child 
quickly ; lihat oleh-mu hal-ku ini behold viy state ; bawa- 
lah oleh-mu^ beliong ini ka-Manjapahit let this axe be 
Jn- ought — hy you — to Manjapahit ; hendak-lah engkau 
turut wasiat-ku kt obedience be your attitude to my ivill ; 
jangan kamti tukarkan agama dengan dunia exchange 
not your religion for ivorldliness — a general maxim; Sultan 
minta sandari ka-pada dayang-dayang the Sultan begged 
to be propped up — he asked the Court damsels ; baik-lah kita 
suroh serang negeri-nya it were zvell our order issue for 
an attack on his land; di-suroh-nya bunch the mandate 
zvas death? 

1 This imperative form, which has puzzled some grammarians and 
excited the contempt of otliers, was probably designed to avoid confusion. 
bawa kamu might mean /i/r/^ you as well as you fetcli ; oleh. (lit. got^ 
is similarly used with the di construction or with the indicative radical " 
verb : sa-kali ini dapat-lah. oleli kita budak-budak ini this (inte 
lin'll see tlie capture of ttiese cliildren by us. 

* There are two exceptions to this section : 

(i) Where an affix has come to be invariably employed and the 
derivative form is crystallized, then even in these imperatives such a 
derivative must be used : bertitah baginda 'patek menari-lah pula, 
kita heudak melihat ' iJie tdng ordered ' Do you dance, for I would 
see you ' ; kata-uya ' segera-lah kita belayar ' said lie '■Let us quickly 



THE VERB 69 

(t ) In the case of final clauses where the end in view is an 
actual result and not the employment of any particular agent, 
then again the simple radical form of the verb is found : 

memohonkan anakanda baginda supaya kita rajakan 

U'c big your princely son for our ruler ; baik-lah baginda 
kita suroh panggil, kita dengar titah baginda the king 
should be called so that his commands may be heard; jikalau 
anak-ku hendak pergi bermain-main beri tahu aya- 
handa supaya boleh ayahanda kerahkan segala rayat 
mengiringkan tuan if you wish to go and play, let me know 
so that all your folloivers may attend you. 

id) Similarly in conditional and concessive clauses, where 
the hypothesis is an act, fact, event or condition and not the 
employment of a particular agent or subject : 

aku hendak serahkan dia mengaji, maalim pun tiada 

suppose his dispatch to school zcas ny desire, there ivas no 
teacher ; jikalau 'kau bunoh dia, bahwa negeri-mu 
binasa suppose his death result from your orders, assuredly it 
means destruction to your country ; lihat-lah kelak jikalau 
tiada aku langgarkan gajah-ku ini di-balairong raja 
Melaka see if in the future there be not a shattering of the 
palace ef the prince of I\lalacca by this elephant of mine (but 
peri raja Pahang hendak melanggar balairong Melaka 
itu pun di-persembahkan information icas laid that the 

sail'; ketahui oleh-mu be It Icnown by you; jaugan tertawa-lah 
don'i taiigti. 

(2) Where the verb of command denotes the activity of an agent and 
takes the prefix me, then by analogy the verb it governs also takes that 
prefix : baginda menyuroh memanggil anakda Raja Muda ihe 
prince ordered tJtat tlie crown prince be called; akan yang menyurohkan 
kami sakalian Batara Maojapahit menyurohkan merompak ka- 
tanah Palembang lalu naik ka-Bukit Seguntang ; di-suroh-nya 
rampas sa-kali the man ivtio gave us all our orders was the prince of 
Manjapahit ; he it was who bade us go to Palembang and rob and tlience 
ascend Mount Seguntang ; his order %vcis to take it by force. 



70 THE CHIEF PARTS OF SPEECH 

prince of Pahang intended to attack the Malacca palace — all 
the emphasis being on the prince of Pahang). 

§ 40. The use of di before the radical form of the verb. 

Not only is a passive sense inherent in the simple radical 
verb and evocable at the requirement of the context, but it 
is also evocable by the prefixing of di. It seems certain 
that di is only the locative preposition in an idiomatic 
context. Compare a sentence like segala raja dalam 
Imkuin-nya all rajas are under his rule with segala raja 
di-hukum-nya all rajas are ruled by him. Or take sen- 
tences like bunga di-naung batu Jlowers in the shadow 
of a rock, mati di-rahang buaya dead in the jaws 
of a crocodile, where even in foreign idiom di retains its 
character of preposition. Then take it in conjunction with 
nya : di-lihat-nya in his sight, seen hy him, di-dengar-nya 
in his hearing (where perhaps the verb is passive, and nya 
is a genitive). It is to be remarked that di as a preposition 
never refers to time but only to place, and that therefore its 
use as a prefix in no way does violence to the nature of the 
]\Ialay verb. 

be(r) or middle derivatives never take di. me derivatives, 
which are ' adjectival ' and attaching the act to an agent 
denote process and activity and not state or condition, never 
take di. Nor yet again do te'r) derivatives. Moreover 
unless their nature has been changed by the suffixes i or kan, 
di is superfluous and prefixed to none of the (intransitive) 
verbs in § 34, like pergi. 

§ 41. The use of di is governed by the same rule as that 
which governs the use of the simple form of the verb. It is 
an idiomatic sub-form when the construction is in the third 
person and there is no emphasis on the agent. 

The noun or pronoun, denoting the subject by whom an 
act is done or condition experienced, if expressed, follows the 
verb incidentally as it were and may be said to be in the 



THE VERB 71 

genitive ; or if it stands separate from the verb, its place in 
the sentence is made clear and confusion avoided by the use 
of oleh before it. 

muka yang di-benchi orang a hated face ; musoh 
sudah di-hambat-nya///(' cneniy had been chased by him ; ikan 
yang tiada boleh di-tangkap iincatchable fish ; tiada 
dapat di-katakan lagi indescribable; budak itu di-suroh 
bunoh oleh. baginda/Z/c boy s execution was ordered by the king 

oleh will often be pleonastic itself or introduce a pleonastic 
use of the noun or pronoun : di-perbuat oleh segala utus 
itu sa-buah peti kaeha there ivas made by the envoys a glass 
case; oleh orang dalam negeri itu akan Raja Suran 
itu di-bawa-nya by the folk in that country— Raja Suran 
ivas conducted by them. 

§ 42. The following illustrations of the general principle 
are notable : 

{a) The di construction will be used in command, entreaty, 
and prohibition instead of the simple form when the subject of 
the second verb is not the speaker but another and third 
person or thing. 

hamba minta anakanda di-kahwinkan / ask thai my 
daughter may be married ; titah baginda hendak-lah di- 
perbuat astana akan saudara kita bade the prince ' There 
must be made a palace for our relative ' ; biar di-lihat-nya 
negeri let the land be seen by him. 

It will naturally be often employed, whenthe wish, command, 
or prohibition is quite general and not addressed to any one in 
particular. 

jangan di-kenang yang hilang itu lei not loss abide in 
memory; apabila ada chap sa-rupa ini, maka terima- 
lah, jikalau tiada jangan di-terima ivhere there is a seal 
like this, accept it ; otherwise let it be refused; jangan di- 
beri bermain jauh-jauh dont let permission be given to play 
far aivay. 



72 THE CHIEF PARTS OF SPEECH 

{3) The construction is usual, when the subject is not 
expressed directly in that clause or part of the sentence 
where the verb stands but precedes it, i. e. in co-ordinate 
sentences where two verbs follow the same subject and 
the word for the subject is not repeated before the second 
verb but stands remote, stress falling on the act and not 
on the agent : 

raja Melaka pun berdiri di-tepi balairong itu me- 
nyambut adinda baginda di-bawa dudok bersama-sama 
the prince of Malacca stood at the edge 0/ the hall aitd received 
his younger brother; {/he latter) ivas escorted to share his throne. 

maharajabertempek serta melompat di-palu dengan 
gada-nya ka-pada Sang Hanuman the Maharaja shouted 
and leapt ; a bloiv ivas struck with his mace at Sang Hanuman ; 
baginda pun naik-lah ka-atas maligai itu lalu di- 
lihat-nya ada sa-orang puteri the prince mounted the toiver, 
when the spectacle (f a princess met his eyes. 



CHAPTER VI 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 



§43. (I) The following table will illustrate the Malay 
modern system of affixation and show how difficult and im- 
proper it is to make strict divorce between parts of speech : 
I. Simple prefixes 





Verbal : 


Substantival 


Adjectival 


me 


§ 44 




Obsolete §§ 2, 3 


be(r) 


§49 


. 


§51 (3) (4) (5) 


te(r) 


§52 




§ 53 (4) 


ke 


§2 


§57 


§57 


pe 


§55 


§56 


§56 




Suffixes 




an 


. 


§58 


§58 


i 


§62 


§2 




kau 


§6i 








11. Compound prefixes 




mempe(r) 


§45^? 


. . . 




berke 


§51(6) 




. . . 


di-pe(r) 


§55 






di-ke 


§57 








HI. Prefixes and Suffixes 




me . . . i 


§45^ 




. 


ke . . . i 


§57 






pe(r) . . . i 


§55 


. . . 


. . . 


me ^ 








^?/^),...kan 

te(r) 

pe(r;J 


Passim 












ber ... an 


§51(6) 


. . . 


. . . 


pe . . . an 


. 


§59 


§59 


ke . . . an 


§60 


§60 


§60 



74 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 



(II) The following table of the cominoner verbal forms 
which I borrow substantially from Spat is useful : 

I. (a) Simple root verbs. 

(3) Stems lengthened by suffix i or improper suffix kan. 

(c) Secondary stems formed by prefix pe(r). 

{d) Secondary stems lengthened e.g. peristerikan. 

II. me is prefixed to a, b, c, d of I. 

III. ■be(r) to a, b of I. 

IV. te(r) to a, b of I. 

V. di to a, b, c, d of I. 

(III) The following will be my paradigm for the Malay 
verb — explained below under the different forms. I avoid 
the use of tense terms not strictly applicable to Malay 
grammar : 

The Verb 

is 

Active and Passive'^ 



The radical ine(ng) ! be(r) pe(r) 
expresses the denotes forms a mid- forms 
phenomenon. activity or die, denoting causa- 
(The idiomatic process; a the reflexive, five 
di use comes kind of reciprocal, verbs 
under thishead- finite par- &c. (Active- and an 
ingbut may best ticiple. middle and 
be described as (Usually passive- 
only passive.) active.) middle.) 

me + nasal infix. 

§44. (I) The following are the rules for prefixing this 
formative to a ground word : 

[a) When the ground word begins with a nasal, or one of the 
semivowels w, y or with r and 1, then me simply is prefixed : 



impera- 
tive. 



te(r) 

denotes 
the realiz- 
ed act or 
condition 
and forms 
a (non- 
temporal) 
perfect. 



^ i.e. in this derivative as well as in its simple radical form. 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 75 

ngada, mengada hoasl ; nyanyi, menyanyi j///;' ; 
naungi, menaungi shelter; makan, memakan eat ; wakil, 
mewakilkan^/y^/or^vr of aitorney to ; yakin, meyakinkan 
assert \ rampas, merampas seize; lambong, melamlbong 
to surge. 

{b) When the ground word begins with h, alif, k, g, then 
me + ng is prefixed and ab/zw^ k are dropped: 

hela, menghela drag; ambil, mengambil take; iring, 
mengiring/t?/^zf' ; kepit, mengepit earry uneler the arm ; 
gigit, menggigit bite, 

(c) When the ground word begins with b and p, then 
me + m is prefixed and p is dropped': 

balut, membalut 7vra/> ; palu, memalu strike. 

(d) When* the ground word begins with eh, j, d, or t, then 
me + n is prefixed and t is dropped : 

chari, menchari search ; jadi, menjadi become; dengar, 
mendengar hear ; tarek, menarek drag. 

(e) When the ground word begins with s, then me + ny is 
prefixed and the s dropped : 

suroh, menyuroli order. 

(II) These rules are fixed only in literary or Riau-Johor 
Malay, and even there with some few vaiiants and exceptions ; 
e.g. from dengar, menengar also is formed ; from chukur 
and chinta, menyukur and menyinta; from pinta, 
pohon, pimpin we get minta, mohon, mimpin as well as 
meminta, memohon, memimpin.- 

§ 45. This formative is prefixed to 

(^7) Verbs, whether ground words, or stems lengthened by 
i and kan, or secondary stems having the prefix pe(r), or 

1 But this does not apply to secondary stems commencing with the 
prefix pe(r), e.g. memperisterikan never memeristerikan. 

2 Cp. Fokker's Malay riionctics. 



76 SYSTEIM OF AFFIXATION 

lengthened secondary stems with prefix pe(r) and suffix i or 
kan : 

pukul, memukul heat; tangis, menangis zf^t^/' ; nanti, 
menanti ivait ; lihat, melihat, melihati, melihatkan see ; 
memperisterikan take to rvi/c. 

(d) Certain ground words that without the prefix are not 
verbal : 

ikan ajis/i, vaengikanjis/ii/ig; burong 5ird, memburong 
catching birds ; getah rubber, lime, menggetah liming [birds) ; 
awan c/oud, mengawan ascending into clouds \ tepi edge, 
menepi going along the edge ; laut sea, melaut traversing 
sea ; titi bridge, meniti employing as a bridge ; rantau river 
reach, merantau traversing river reaches; kail a hook, 
vaengoil fishing tvith a hook ; jala cast-net, menjala throiving 
a cast-net; panah arroiv, memanah shooting arroivs ; batu 
stone, membatu becoming stone, petrifying ; jarum needle, 
menjarum shoot upto needle-like point; putehzt'/z/A',memuteh 
becoming white; sa-berang over-stream, menyaberang cross- 
ing a stream ; aku /, me, mengaku taking on oneself, 
acknoivledgiug. 

§ 46. Laying stress on activity, me derivatives will generally 
express the active voice, but there are exceptions, and the 
prefix has not entirely extinguished the dual nature of the 
root verb : 

baginda membawa teman the king was bringing a 
folloiver ; Pateh Kerma Wijaya pun sudah berlengkap 
akan persembahan tujoh-puloh orang membawa-nya 
Pateh Kerma Wijaya had prepared a present of seventy slaves 
who were being brought by him ; segala cheteria pun datang 
mengalu-ngalukan baginda all the ivarriors came welcoming 
the prince ; Raja Pahang pun hilir mengalu-ngalukan 
oleh Raja Ahmad //2^7?(7/a of Pahang came down stream being 
ivelcomed by Raja Ahmad; baik kita membacha hikayat 
perang it were well ive read a tale of war ; sa-telah. 'ku 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 77 

jawab maka oleh imam atau khatib pun membachakan 
doa selamat as soon as I ansivercd, prayers for my safe/y 
'cverc made by priests or readers. 

§ 47. As opposed to the simple ground form of the verb 
which lays stress on the act, fact, event or condition, deriva- 
tives in me always express the activity, the tendency, the 
direction, the movement towards an act, fact or event and 
condition to which endeavour goes. 

It may be said that the force of the prefix me is essentially 
adjectival (cp.§ 2), joining a word denoting activity or movement 
to an agent o\ pal mis expressed or implied ; or rather perhaps 
participial, its derivatives in modern IMalay being mostly 
verbaP; and at the same time often finite as deiiving person 
and number from the substantive — a finite participle if such 
can be conceived. 

Instances of the use of the derivative as a finite participle 
are common : telah Sri Bija 'di Raja memandang surat 
itu as soon as Sri Bija 'di Raja saiu the It iter; baginda pun 
menugerahi persalin ihe king gave a gift 0/ raiment. 

Its purely participial use, unless one include (a) below, is 
not very common but is quite normal : Laksamana me- 
marang itu tiada membunoh slashing, the Laksamana did 
not slay. 

So, too, its employment as a verbal noun, pulang dari 
menchari makanan return from searching for food ; mudah 
juga membunoh dia easy is the hilling of him ; mengambil 
kayu api juga 'k.Qv'^Si-nja, getting firewood zvas his ivork. 

§ 48. The idiomatic employment of the me derivative may 
be learnt best from its special usages. 

((?) It is very common after such words as pergi^f, datang 
cofne ; hendak desirous of; boleh he able, pandai clever at, 

' Similarly be(r) derivatives are both verbal and adjectival, according 
to onr idiom — a split in function evidently artificial and not real or 
evident to the Malay. 



78 SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

takut afraid of, hairan astonished at, tempat place for, 
and so on. 

dudok menangis sit iveeping ; hairan melihat astonished 
at seeing ; terlalu-lah suka hati baginda mendengar-nya 
very delighted ivas the heart of the prince at hearing it ; boleh- 
lah sudah menu lis Koran had the skill for ivnting the 
Koran ; tiada boleh hendak melalui dari-pada hukum 
you must not be desirous of transgressing the law ; tiada boleh 
membunoh dengan tiada bertanya lacks power of executing 
zvithout requesting permission. 

And so on, even in the imperative mood, pergi-lah mem- 
bawa ayer utama jiwa menghidnpkan Sang Sambah 
go and get the ivater of I fe for restoring Sang Sambah ; pergi- 
lah membuangkan Si Tuah go about the business 0/ 
banishing Si Tuah ; mari-lah kita melihat yang bernyala- 
nyala sa-malam come and see ivhat ivas blazing last night; 
kata Temenggong, ' ada pun di-tempat kayu Melaka 
ini-lah membangunkan astana dan balairong ' said the 
Temenggong 'At the place of this emblica tree— this is the place 
for building palace and hall'. 

{b) In co-ordinate sentences, the me form is employed as 
opposed to what has been laid down in § 42 if), where the two 
verbs denote one consecutive activity on the part of an agent : 

saudagar itu pun mengangkat tangan lalu menyem- 
bah the merchant If ted his hands and did obeisance (ivith theju) ; 
Hang Tuah pun segera mengambil kapak membelah 
kayu itu Hang Tuah quickly picked up an axe and split the 
billet ivith it. 

Similarly, when there is the same connection of one con- 
secutive activity between the actions in a subordinate and 
principal sentence : 

telah baginda santap, lalu memakai bau-bauan use 
of scent concluded the royal repast. 

{c) In orders, entreaties, and prohibitions, where the injunc- 



SYSTEIM OF AFFIXATION 



79 



tion is laid on a definite person expressed or understood — 
Contrast § 39 (/>). 

biar kita menghantarkan anakanda lei us he your sou's 
couvoy ; hendak-lah kamu kedua jangan mengubahkan 
setia dan jangan kamu menyembah rajayang lainj/^w 
Iwo, doiil you be men to break failh and follow another prince ; 
di-tangkapkan-nya baginda di-suroh-nya membawa 
imam he ivas captured by the prince and ordered {personally) 
to embrace the faith ; Seri Pakrama Raja di-titahkan 
baginda menjemput surat itu Sri Pakrama Raja ivas 
deputed to receive the letter formally. 

[d] Where the object comes at the beginning of the 
sentence and emphasis is required to fall equally on agent 
and act, then the object is repeated by means of a pronoun 
and the me derivative employed — Contrast § 39 (a). 

titah tuan-ku sakalian alam menjunjong dia your 
highness' s mandate — all the world proceeds to obey it ; baik-lah 
Laksamana ini aku suroh pengawitan yang tujoh ribu 
itu membunoh dia as for the Laksamana it were ivell I bid 
those 7,000 warriors proceed to slay him. 

be(r) 

§ 49. It has been said above that there is no sharp dis- 
tinction of voice in the verb simple or derivative. 

That distinction depends on context and on arbitrary usage. 
be(r), as will be explained below, forms broadly a middle 
voice, but this middle even often has the same dual nature as 
the simple verb and in many cases may be called active — 
middle and passive— middle, bersiap preparing, berkemas 
packing, bergantong hatiging, may be active or passive 
according to the context. Sentences show such dual uses 
clearly, baharu-lah Si Jebat beroleh lawan noiv only 
has febat got his peer; keris itu beroleh ka-tangan 'ku 
the dagger has got into my hands; bertumbok heraspound/'ng 
rice ; beras yang bertumbok pounded rice ; bergosok bau- 



8o SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

bauan mh scent on oneself; kuda itu tiada bergosok the 
horse has not been rubbed; bertemu dengan orang 7?ieet ivith 
folk ; segala harta itu telah bertemu balik all the property 
was met again ; apabila ia lari bunoh oleh 'mu, apabila 
ia bSrtahan, jangan sunggoh-sunggohi <<:'//£;/ he runs, slay; 
tvhen he halts, don t persist ; berapa di-tahani oleh Benda- 
hara, tiada luau makhdum bertahan however much the 
Bendahara sought to detain him, the Arab would not be detained. 

It is not necessary to reiterate here what has been said 
above generally of the inflexion of the INIalay verb, namely 
that inflexion denotes neither mood nor tense. 

Examples will show be(r) derivatives in all moods and in all 
tenses, past, present, and future. 

Tendeloo tried to discover that for the middle voice deriva- 
tives in pe(r) stand to those in be(r) as the simple verb 
stands to derivatives in me ; but he had to admit that the 
]\Ialay, when he wants the middle voice, nearly always uses 
a be(r) derivative whether he is speaking of a phenomenon 
or of a process. 

§ 50. be(r) forms a middle voice, ' The Greek middle is 
midway between the active voice, in which the subject does 
something to an object and the passive in which something 
is done to the subject. The subject is represented as acting 
on himself : berchukur shave oneself; 'for himself : ber- 
simpan pack up for oneself; mari-lah kita bersimpan 
segala perkakas kita come let us pack up our belongings ; 
' or with reference to himself : berpukul, bertumbok fight 
and take bloivs ; ' or for an object which belongs to himself :- 
berbuat astana raja make a palace for one's prince. The 
INIalay prefix expresses the closely allied ideas of reflexive 
and reciprocal action, of repetition where something is added 
to the original, of connection between one person or thing and 
another, and of possession by oneself. It is to be noted that 
the derivatives need not bear one only of these meanings, 



SYSTEM OF AFFIX A.TION Bi 

that berkata, for example, may mean /lave one's say, speak 
f/ian to man, speak all together according to context; tiada 
Iberlawan not fightmg one another or not having a peer, peerless ; 
bernyanyi singing one^s song, singing one to another, singing 
all together ; the division into classes is only an artificial way 
of viewing different aspects of the one central function. 

The prefix is reflexive and not necessarily verbal. It can 
attach nouns and adjectives as well as verbs to an entity ; and 
such of its derivatives correspond to adjectives. It is to be 
remembered that in Indonesian grammar the be system is 
parallel to the me system ; and me, as has been suggested, 
has an adjectival or participial meaning, even when its deriva- 
tives according to our grammar are finite verbs. 

§ 51. Its various nuances may be seen best under different 
heads : 

(i) Reflexive. 

berubah (muka) change one's {countenance) ; berdiri raise 
oneself, rise ; berbaring lay oneself down, lie doivn ; bergopoh 
hurry oneself; berlutut drop on one's knees ; beradu compose 
oneself to sleep; berpaling turn one's head aside; berhenti 
stop oneself; berbangkit raise oneself rise ; bersantap feed 
oneself; bersiram bathe oneself; berpindah remove oneself; 
berserabunyi conceal oneself; berjalan go on ones ivay, 
travel ; berbalik retrace ones course ; berpal tack {over one' s 
course), sunggoh pun tidur tetapi ia beringat he slept 
but he remembered himself; patek sudah berlengkap / have 
prepared my equipment ; penjurit yang dua ratus itu 
berbahagi tiga the two hundred robbers divided themselves 
into three parties; yang laki-laki berkabong lagi ber- 
chukur dan segala perempuan bertokong rambut di- 
kerat the men dressed themselves in mourning and shaved their 
heads and all the ivomen had their hair cut; berjalan seperti 
tiada berjijak di-bumi travelling on his 'way as if he never 
let himself touch the groutid ; empat lima orang China 

1B54 J- 



82 SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

tinggal ka-pada sahaya bertanam padi there are four or 
five Chinamen live with me and oceupy themselves iti rice 
planting; ia berfikir sa-bentar lalu kata-nya he thought 
to himself /or a moment and said. 

This reflexive usage is confirmed by the employment of 
the prefix in certain redundant constructions : bersiap or 
bersiapkan diri prepare oneself; berdiam or berdiamkan 
diri keep oneself silent. 

Where the action affects oneself viewed as something 
external (and if expressed by diri, in its primary sense of 
body, per soil) then the prefix me may be employed : melin- 
dongkan diri shelter ones person ; memaling muka turn 
aside the face. 

Comparison between me and be where they are prefixed 
to the same root is fruitful. vciev&SB. feel {a thing), hGVB.so, 
feel {oneself) — berasa mabok fel drunk ; menaung 
shelter another person or a thing, bernaung shelter oneself; 
mendiri erect a thing, berdiri hold oneself erect; memakai 
don (a coat), berpakai dress oneself; memalit smear (any- 
thing), berpalit smear oneself; mengangkat Ifl {an object), 
berangkat travel (lit. remove oneself); menjemur dry {an 
object) in the sim ; berjemur dry oneself in the sun. 

Sometimes the distinction has been nearly lost, as in the 
passage quoted by van Ophuijsen from the Sejarah Melayu : 
Sultan Mansur Shah memberi titah pada Bendahara 
menyuroh berbuat astana . . . maka orang Ungaran 
berbuat astana besar dan orang Tunggal membuat 
astana kechil, and so on, membuat and berbuat being 
used indifferently throughout a long paragraph; but even- 
here probably, a distinction should be marked in translation 
Sultan Mansur Shah commanded the Bejidahara to order a 
palace to he made for himself; the men of Ungaran built him 
his large palace and the men of Tutiggal built a small palace. 
Certainly berbuat negeri means make oneself a settlevmit; 
and berbuat jahat behave wickedly (lit. make oneself zvicked) 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 83 

can never be changed into membuat jahat : yang berbuat 
kebaktian ka-pada tuan-nya ivho did his service to his lord. 

(2) Reciprocal : 

bergomol tvrestle one ivith another ; berkait interlock ; 
bertukar exchange ; bersalin. change {one garment') for 
another; bergelut rival one another in ivrestling; berlaga 
fight one another ; berantok knock {one) against {another) ; 
bergurau sport one with another; berjanji contract; ber- 
pinang plight oneself to another ; berkelahi fighting together ; 
bersual, bertanya put one's gnestions to another ; bergadai 
pawn {a thing for a consideration) ; berengkau nsi//g ' thou ' 
in conversation with another ; berchinta love one another ; 
berbaik on good terms ivith one another ; bertidak making 
one's denial to a person ; bertitah issue one's commands to 
another ; bermohon take ones leave of another ; bertulis 
correspond. Hang Tuah berhikayat pelbagai cherita 
Hang Tuah gave them his repertory of tales ; raja Cbina 
tiada makan beras yang bertumbok the prince of China 
did not eat rice ivhich had been pounded {betiveen pestle and 
mortar) ; ada yang menjadi penchuri, ada yang ber- 
tikam some beca?ne thieves, others slabbers (lit. exchanging stabs 
ivith peoples^ or making themselves slabbers, practising as 
slabbers). 

This reciprocal usage also is expended in a pleonastic con- 
struction, ombak berpalu sendiri-nya zuaves beat one 
against another ; berbisek sama sendiri whispering to one 
another ; berbuat aniaya sama sendiri-nya oppress one 
another. 

Again, one may contrast derivatives in me and be(r). 
menaroh set {a thing) doivn, bertaroh stake, set one thitig 
against another ; menjual sell {a thing), berjual sell, barter 
{of one person to another) ; memegang hold, berpegang hold 
{a person or thing) to oneself hold one another ; menggosok 
rub {a thing), bergosok rub one thing ivith another ; menen- 

F 2 



84 SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

tang front, bertentang confronl ; menangkap seize, ber- 
tangkap seize and be seized \ memohon ask for (a thing) \ 
bermohon ask for ones leave of another ; menyimpan keep, 
bersimpan Jiave in one's keeping. Compare saudara-nya 
kedua pun datang berpelok berchium saudara-ber- 
saudara bertangis-tangisan the two relatives came and 
embraced each the other with jniitual tears with the sentence 
bonda-nya pun memelok menchium anak-nya the mother 
€7nbraced and kissed her child — where the child is a passive 
object. 

(3) Denoting repetition or addition to an original.^ 
bertindeh lying one on others ; bertingkat storey upon 

storey ; berbaris row upon roiv ; berlapis/b/d? on fold ; ber- 
susun in layers; berbanjar tier on tier ; bergantang measure 
by measure ; berlipat fold upon fold ; berganti /;/ turn, one 
after another; berlingkar coiled, coil upon coil; berpusing 
revolving {turn after turn') ; bergolek rolling {roll after roll) ; 
berpanjang long, length upon length, lain dari-pada anjing 
dua itu berpuloh anjing lain serta-nya besides these two 
dogs, tens of dogs accompanied. 

(4) Denoting connection. 

berdua two together ; bersama in company with ; ber- 
kampong, berhimpun assemble together ; bersaeng travel 
together ; berbichai'a, bermashuarat take counsel together ; 
bertemu, berjumpa encounter ; berchampur 7!iix together; 
berkahwin, bernikah many zvith ; bersanding sit together, 
cf bride a)id groom at a ivedding ; tiga beranak I and my ttvo 
children ; berapa hoiu many in all ; bermain kekaseh 
ovdiU^fondle another's darling. 

(5) Possession. 

berbini possessed of a wife, married ; berilmu possessed of 
magic ; berbulu hairy ; berguna useful ; berbudi tactful ; 

* Most of the derivatives under this and the next two heads are 
adjectives. 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 85 

berbangsa of good birth ; berperahu (a) possessing a boat, 
(b) using a boat, in a boat; berkereta (a) possessed of a 
carriage, (b) riding in a carriage; her savong zvea ring a cloth. 
Berahma Guru berguru ilmu kesaktian Brahma Guru 
zvas learning (lit. ivas possessed of a teacher of) magic. 

Here again derivatives in me and be(r)may be contrasted : 

menyarong placing in a sheath ; bersarong ensheathed ; 
menandok hutting ivith the horns ; bertandok horned ; 
menganak sungai making a streamlet; beranak bear 
(^possess) a child of one's oivn. 

(6) Prefixed to other derivatives be(r) has the same nuances 
as with the radical. 

berlarian running together ; berterbanganyfy/;/^ together ; 
berluroh.an falling {in numbers) ; berpandangan facing 
one another ; berputusan capable of being sundered {one from 
another); hev^'k.ivQ.ia. possessed of the thinkitig faculty ; bepe- 
kerjaan possessed of ivork ; berkenal-kenalan making one 
another s acquaintance ; bersahut-sahutan speaking in turn ; 
berkeliling encircling \ berkehendak/ewj^jj^^ ^a desire; 
berkesudahan having an end, barang siapa yang me- 
mandang dia tiada berkesudahan puji-nya ivhoever saiv 
him praised him tvithout end; berkeputusan endowed ivith 
ability to be broken. 

te(r) 

§ 52. This prefix has been held (properly of its primary 
sense) to form the passive voice, though there are exceptions. 

terchabut extracted, able to he extracted or able to extract ; 
bahu-nya terchabut his shoulder tvas pulled out ; pergi-lah 
mereka itu menchabut anak panah itu, sa-orang pun 
tiada terchabut they zcent to extract the arroiv but not one 
could extract it ; terangkat lifted, able to he lifted, able to lift ; 
sembah terangkat jari sa-puloh obeisance ivith ten fingers 
lifted ; mari-lah kita berkuat-kuatan mengangkat 
batu ini, barang siapa tiada terangkat alah-lah ia 



S6 SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

come hi us use all our strength to lift this rock, the man who 
cannot lift it is ivorstcd; terjalan alle to travel; Sultan 
Mahmud Shah pun tiada-lah terjalan lagi Sultan 
Mahmud Shah was unable to travel further \ these examples 
out of the classic Sejarah Melayu show that te(r) cannot be 
described with absolute correctness as a passive formative. 

§53. (i) The prefix te(r) denotes the perfected act, the 
realized condition.^ 

kamus yang terpakai di-dalam segala negeri Melayu 
a vocabulary of established use in all Malay countries; orang 
mengamok itu datang dengan keris sudah terhunus 
the frenzied man came with naked dra'vn dagger ; keris itu 
tiada terbawa oleh kita tinggal di-astana ///( dagger xvas 
not brought right aivay by us but is left in the palace ; di- 
dengar-nya oleh Hang Jebat suara Laksamana sayup- 
sayup, maka Laksamana berseru-seru pula, maka 
suara itu terdengar-lah ka-pada Hang Jebat the 
Laksamana s voice 7vas heard faintly by Hang febat; the 
Laksamana kept calling and his voice then was heard distinctly 
by Hang febat; terlupa-lah ia akan hal dunia berubah 
he clean forgot the changing fortunes of this ivorld ; demi aku 
terpandang bapa 'ku as soon as I caught sight of vy father. 

(2) It emphasizes not a process in which an agent takes 
part but a result — absolutely complete, sometimes sudden 
and due not to conscious activity on the part of the subject 
but to external compulsion or accident. 

di-tikam lalu terdudok tiada dapat bangkit lagi were 
stabbed and forced to collapse unable to rise; penchuri itu' 
pun tersepak-lah pada tuboh Laksamana, kata-nya 
'Sudah terjijak bangkai pula kaki chelaka ini' the 

thief stumbled against the L^aksamanas person, ejaculating 'These 
cursed feet of mine have trodden {accidentallf) on a corpse ' ; 

1 The phrase tersebut-lah perkataan, common in the exordium of 
tales, comes under this heading and means no7v the story is. 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 87 

Hang Jebat tergelincliir kaki-nya dari atas talam itu ; 
maka Hang Jebat pun tertelut hendak bangkit tiada 
sempat Hmig Jebafs feet slipped {aca'defifally) oji the tray ; he 
flopped down on his knees and had no time to rise. 

Accordingly words like terlupa_/or^^/; teringat remember ; 
tertawa laugh ; terlihat see ; tersedeh-sedeh uncontrollable 
sobbing denote not so much states the result of conscious 
effort as states induced by outside influences which ' come 
into a man's head '. suara-nya terdengar ka-pada Siti 
Dewa his voice reached Siti Deiva distinctly; sebab aku 
teringat pesanan itu because the commission came into my 
head] ada pun orang yang bijaksana itu apabila ia 
masok ka-dalam taman itu, maka terlihat-lah ia ka- 
pada segala pohon buah-buahan itu, maka teringin- 
lah ia all the fruit-trees of the garden arrest the attrition of 
intelligent visitors and a longing overtakes them ; ikan udang 
bernang-nang dan lompat-lompat seraya tertawa dan 
berpantun fish and pratvns swam about and gave repeated 
leaps while laughter overtook them and they sang verses to one 
another. 

(3) Seeing that in denoting the perfected act, the derivative 
in te(r) connotes ability to bring it about, te(r) has come to 
be used to denote the possible (or more commonly with the 
help of a negative, the impossible). 

tiga kali ia hendak melangkah pintu itu tiada ter- 
langkah juga thrice she ivished to cross the threshold but ivas 
unable; sedang sa-buah perahu tiada terlawan oleh 
kita since we ivere unable to fight even one boat to the finish \ 
aku tiada terlihat akan perbuatan-mu, geram rasa 
hati-ku / cannot bear the sight of your behaviour ; it angers 
me; usahkan ia terbelah, makin bertambah-tambah 
keras tunggul itu so far from being able to be split, the 
stump of wood greiv harder. 

This use may be seen clearly in derivatives from foreign 



88 SYSTEINI OF AFFIXATION 

words, like the Arabic hisab reckon', jawab answer \ hika- 
yat sfory ; tiada terhisab banyak-nya inmimcrahk; raja 
pun tiada terjawab kata Eangga itu the prince could not 
answer Rangga's argument; tiada terhikayatkan lagi 
impossible to relate to the end. 

(4) DenoLing completion beyond which one cannot go, 
te(r) derivatives connote the superlative in degree and serve 
as intensatives. In this connection te(r) is prefixed to nouns, 
adjectives, and adverbs, as well as verbs. 

dari-pada segala kerja itu apa kerja yang terbaik 
of all those works ivhich is pre-eminently good ? \ baik juga 
Hassan itu karna ia orang muda tetapi termanis 
hamba sedikit Hassan is handsome on acconnt of his youth, 
hut I exceed a little in charm ; hulubalang besar lagi ter- 
nama a great captain and of high fame. Common examples 
of this use of the prefix are the crystallized forms terkem- 
bangy}///}' hloivn; termashur greatly distinguished ; ter- 
chengang utterly astonished; terkadang very rarely ; ter- 
lalu, terlampaUjterlangsong surpassingly; tersangat very. 
In the Federated Malay States Government Gazette, His 
Excellency the High Commissioner is styled terutama pre- 
emitient, a Sultan maha mulia, a Raja ]\Iuda or Bendahara 
teramat mulia, and rajas without office amat mulia. 

Derivatives in te(r) preceded by the auxiliaries boleh, 
dapat able to, would appear to have the meaning indicated in 
this section and not that of (3) supra : 

siapa dapat terbilang ivho can completely count ; tiada 
dapat terkatakan impossible to relate to the end. 

pe 

§ 54. This prefix occurs as pe, peng, peny, pern, pen, 
and per on the same principles under which me undergoes 
similar changes except that before 1 either pe or peng may 
be used. 

The present absence of grammatical distinction between 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 89 

these two euphonic links, nasal or r, is borne out by such 
synonyms as perkhabaran,pemberitaan navs; pebuatan, 
perbuatan, pembuatan 7nakc, construction; perburuan, 
pemburuan giTinc; pemburu, perburu hunter; and by 
words analogous in grammatical import like pelayaran 
voyaging; pelihatan or ^hn^ihaX^Xi sight, seeing \ perta- 
paan asceticism ; perekat gun (lit. the sticker) ; pengayoh 
a paddle (lit. the paddlcr) ; pengaseh love-charm ; perindu 
promoter of tender feelings. 

The connection, therefore, which some grammarians have 
traced between per and ber will be illusory ; the only link 
between them being, that the same stems which take the 
prefix ber in one context, will in another natuially take per 
for euphony's sake rather than peng. It is to be noted that 
there are many pe(r) derivatives of which the original simple 
stems never take the prefix be(r) : pelontar missile ; per- 
sunting -wearing in the hair; pelalau hindering; pe!^r)- 
langkahanyi9//'/7;(y ; pelampongy7(V^(7;;/ ; perlenteh disso- 
lute ; perlihatkan see ; persembahkan to salute ; and 
so on. 

As may be seen from the examples of its use above, this 
prefix forms nouns and it is also prefixed to numerals. 
We will deal with it first as a verbal formative. 

§ 55. In all Indonesian languages pa or pe is a formative 
of causative and denominative verbs and in some, as in 
old Javanese and in a few languages of Sumatra, it is 
said to form an imperative. These usages are borne out 
in Malay.^ 

(I) The causative and denominative ^ force of the prefix 
may be seen in the following examples : 

memperbaiki cause to be repaired; menyuroh meng- 

^ Note pe+ nasal occurs probably only once as a verbal formative 
i.e. in di-pengapakan from mengapa. 

^ i.e. power to make verbs from noun and adjective stems. 



90 syste:^! of affixation 

himpunkan segala rayat dan perbaiki kota bade 
assemble all Ihe people and have Ihe fort put in repair ; jikalau 
dapat baginda membunoh ular, baginda-lah kita 
perfcuan if your highness can kill ihe serpent, then ive tvill 
make your highness ruler) baik-lah kepala-ku perche- 
raikan dengan badanku dari-pada hamba bercherai 
dengan hamba punya tuan better have my head parted 
from my body than that I be parted from my lord \ oleh. 
baginda tiada di-pasong dan sangat di-permulia-nya 
he prince did not imprison him, but had him held in high honour ; 
mari kita suroh perbuat lang come let us get a kite juade ; 
perhamba to ask to be made a slave, to offer oneself in mar- 
riage; minta pergunakan to make use of; peristerikan 
to take to wife; perhambakan to enslave; perhatikan to get 
by heart; pertetapkan to give fixity, security, &c. 

(II) It is also fairly common as a formative of the impera- 
tive.' perbuat-lah oleh engkau get it done ; jangan 
engkan peringankan ibadat-mu let not your service to God 
be counted a light matter; penaik pelita turn up the lamp- 
wick (a Perak phrase); and the Bodleian Sri Rama has mari- 
lah perjamti kamu dahulu dengan barang ada nemat 
dalam negeri Birusaprua perjamu-lah kamu dahulu 
come you entertain me first with ivhatever dainties exist in 
Birusaprua do you entertain me first. 

§ 56. According to Kern, in origin pe is the essential part 
of apa so?}iething, and this derivation is especially apparent in 
its noun derivatives, e.g. pemanis a thing-giving-chartn ; 
penabur something scattered, bullets ; pemburu something- 
that hunts, hunter; ■pevtelan something szuallo7i'ed ; persalin 
a change of raiment, a princely present, 

1 Here Kern's derivation of the prefix from apa (§ 56) is borne out by 
the use of apa as a modal word to soften the imperative ; the line of 
devohition would be jangan apa(-lah) buat, jangan 'pa biiat, jangan 
perbuat. 



SVSTEIM OF AFFIXATION 91 

Anyhow it forms nouns '(and adjectives) denoting (i) person 
or thing ; and (2) it expresses measures of time and space. 
The stem words from which the derivatives are built may be 
substantive, adjective or verb; if they are verbal, the derivative 
may be neuter, active or causal according to the stem, and in 
a few cases passive. 

A few of these derivatives generally take another substantive 
before them, as confusion would otherwise result — orang 
pengail a fishervian ; perahu pengail a fishing-boat. 

Of a few the root is obsolete ; pengantin hridegroom ; 
pemuras blunderbuss \ of others it bears an obsolete meaning, 
e.g. lima now^-r formerly hand m penglima chief lain. 

I. Denoting person or thing : 

pemadat opium-smoker from madat opium ; pemalas idler 
from malas idle; petengkar^;7/Wi5/<';-from XJqm^qx grumble \ 
penyengat ivasp from sengat sting; penyamun robber 
from samun rob ; pemburu hunter from buru ////;// ; pen- 
diam a silent person from diam be silent; penyuroh, pe- 
suroh (lit. one ordered) a messenger from suroh to order ; 
pengaseh a love-charm {causing love) from kaseh love ; 
penggali spade from gali dig ; pengayoh a paddle from 
kayoh lo paddle ; penyepit forceps from sepit pi7ich ; 
pemukul hammer from pukul //// ; pemimpin a guide 
from pimpin to guide ; penabur bullets (lit. thai which is 
scattered, a passive use) from tabur so7(j, scatter ; penyakit 
sicl<ness from sakit sicf;. 

Derivatives from a transitive verb sometimes retain the 
powers of a transitive verb : penebas lalang a knife for 
cutting grass ; penghalau itek a driver azcay of duchs ; 
penglipur lara a soother of cares; batu pelotar ayam 

^ A^ote. Tliere are a few words where per is a corruption of tlie 
Sanskrit pra : permata kwels ; perkasa valour ; perkara affair ; 
perwira warrior; pevn&iaa, fittt {of tlie moon). 



92 SYSTEI\I OF AFFIXATION 

stones for pelling fowls ; penyudah kaseh fnialHy in love 
(lit. that tvliich completes love). 

A few are adjectival, always being preceded by a substan- 
tive : gong pelaung the gong of call \ chanang pemanggil 
the drum of summons \ peluru petunang a bullet pledged to 
take effect from tunang betroth ; kayu penuju a guiding-post. 

2. Denoting measures of time and space : 

pemelok the space a man can encircle in his embrace ; kayu 
besar-nya tiga pemelok a tree of girth three tiines the space 
of a 7nan''s embrace ; pelangkah the length of a person's stride ; 
perunjong the length of a man ivith arms full stretch above 
his head. 

These derivatives are frequently prefixed by sa. sa-per- 
tanak nasi t/ie time a man takes to boil rice ; sa-penjulat 
peluru meriam the distance a cannon-ball carries ; rambut 
sa-pelempap panjang-nya her hair was only as long as a 
?nans hand is broad; sa-peludah the ti?fie it takes man to spit; 
sa-peninggal the time one leac'es a person ; sa-perpisang 
the time it takes to eat a plantain. 

ke^ 

§ 57. This prefix is of rare occurrence now in Malay, and 
except before numerals and semua-nya survives only in 
crystallized forms, so that both as a '"verb and a substantive 
formative it is obsolete. It denotes state or condition. It 
is found before substantival, adjectival, numeral and verbal 
roots : when the root word is verbal, the derivative will have 
an active, passive, or neuter nuance according to the nature 
of the verbal root. See § 2 for the Indonesian prefix k. 

('tok) ketampi {gaffer)-tvi?tnoiv-the-rice (active) ; kekaseh 
a mistress, one who is loved (passive) ; kechundang a ' con- 

1 I agree with Dr. Fokker that phonetically this should be written ka 
when the following syllable contains e : ketampi but kahendak, ka- 
terangan, &c. 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 93 

quest ' ; ketua an elder ; kemudi a rudder ; ketageh the 
condition of one ivho craves, a craving ; kehendak desire. 
ketiga /;/ the condition of being three ; ketiga orang itii all 
three men ; yang ketiga the third ; kesemua-nya a complete 
set, all. (ketahui from tahu in the condition of knoiving or 
of being knoivn ; kehendaki from hendak desiring ; di- 
kesopani being respected.) 



-an 

§ 58. This suffix is the Malay equivalent of the Indonesian 
-n, which formed substantives and sometimes gave the ideas 
of intensity, the superlative in degree and so on. 

Accordingly -an forms substantives too (and adjectives, 
which in Malay and Indonesian grammar are often not 
separated by any hard and fast line from substantives but 
mainly by context) ; and it also forms substantives signifying 
number and extent. Its derivatives when formed from a 
verbal root partake of the character of that root, and therefore 
may have a neuter, an active, an active and passive, or a 
causal sense and may sometimes denote possibility : these 
nuances not being derived from the suffix. 

(i) Substantival. 

pangkalan starting-place from pangkal beginning ; ko- 
toran dirt from kotor dirty ; hadapan position in front from 
hadap fronting ; buritan stern, position behind from burit 
rear. There is no need to multiply examples of these sub- 
stantival derivatives, as this function of the suffix will be 
illustrated under all heads. 

Adjectival derivatives are larangan forbidden, taman 
larangan the forbidden earth ; pilehan chosen, select ; lan- 
changan counterfeit; bantahan quarrelsome ; goyangan 
sivaying, pliant, pisang goyangan the sivaying plantain-tree ; 
junjong supporting, pinang junjongan the betel-palm prop ; 
sulongan tossing, main sulongan a game of pitch and toss ; 



94 SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

rautan cut ting, smoothing, pisau rautan a trimming-knife. 
These words may also be used as substantives. 

(2) Denoting collectively plurality, extent, &c.: 

lautan ocean from laut sea ; daratan a stretch of land {as 
opposed to sea) from darat /and ; sawahan a stretch of rice- 
fields from sawah a r ice field \ perkakasan an outfit of tools 
from perkakas tool) dagangan _/^r^2^« goods from dagang 
foreign; manisan jzrif^/wifa/j from manis JzctY/; hukuman 
laws from hukum (Ar.) order, decree; suratan writing in 
general from surat letter ; tanaman plants from tanam 
to plant. 

Probably under this head are to be classed certain words, 
which are often said to have got from the suffix the idea of 
likeness to that denoted by the root, since in them too plurality 
is connoted, e.g. rambutan a hairy fruit from rambut hair ; 
durian a thorny fruit from duri thorn. 

Reduplication is employed in some cases to strengthen the 
plural sense denoted by the suffix : buah-buahan fruits of 
all kinds from "buaih fruit ; bau-bauan all kinds of perfumery 
from bau smell; anak-anakan ///!/^/f/j- from anak child; 
orang-orangan images on the pupil of the eye from orang 
person. 

(3) -an derivatives from verbal roots : 

(a) Neuter, terusan channel from terus going through ; 
aduan a complaint from adu complain ; also (by abbreviation 
for orang aduan) complainant. 

if) Active, tutupan lid from tutup to shut; kukusan 
a sfea?nit2g pot from kukus to steam; kukuran a coco-jiut 
scraper from kukur scrape. 

{c) Passive, hamparan carpet from hampar to spread 
out; kelian, galian a mine from gali dig; jawatan under- 
taking, profession from jawat (jabat) to grasp, hold; kum- 
pulan a collection from kumpul collect; chagaran pledge 
from chagar to mortgage; (orang) surohan a messenger 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 95 

from suroh order \ pakaian clothes or worn, keris pakaian- 

ku a dagger worn by me, froni pakai io wear. 

(d) Active and passive, timbangan ( i ) scales, (2) considera- 
tion from timbang iveigh, consider ; ikatan (i) a binding, 
bond, (2) bound, joined, shaer ikatan a set of verses, from ikat 
bind; buatan (i) craftsmanship, (2) material, buatan baju 
material for a coat ; (3) capable of accomplishment, bukan 
buatan. 

{e) Causal, ingatan a reminder, surat ingatan a letter 
reminding from ingat reme??iber ; kenangan a keepsake from 
kenang to remember affectionately; sesalan a cause of repen- 
tance from sesal repent. 

(f) Denoting possibility. {iLain) hsisahan a zvashing-suit ; 
(kambing) perahan a milch goat ; harapan reliable ; 
bandingan/dvr, comparable: nyamok lurutan bukan-nya 
tamparan mosquitoes so many that they cannot be slapped but 
can be iviped off. 

pe an 

§ 59. Theseaffixes form, mostly from verbal root, ( i ) abstract 
nouns denoting qualities and faculties ; and more rarely nouns 
denoting (2) places, and (3) living things. 

(i) pelihatan, penglihatan y(z«///y of seeing, range of 
vision ; perasaan feeling ; pertapaan asceticism ; peman- 
dangan vieiv; pengetahuan knowledge \ penengaran se?ise, 
power of hearing ; peringatan remembrance ; perjanjian 
agreement ; pelayaran voyaging ; peperangan ivarfare ; 
perjalanan journeying ; pergadohan quarrelling ; per- 
himpunan an assemblitig, a meeting ; permulaan begin- 
ning, commencement ; pembunohan slaughter ; pengajaran 
teaching, instruction ; pelajaran teaching, lear?iing ; pen- 
charian source of livelihood ; itu-lah asal perawangan 
dan perdaraan that was the origin of the cojnmon names 
Aivang and Dara, 



96 SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

(2) peraduan sleeping-chamber; pebean customs' house', 
pelabuhan anchorage ; (balai) penghadapan a presence- 
hall. 

(3) perempuan zy^vwcz;/ ; peranakan ;/a//V^ ; pertemuan 
affinity ; perburuan game (Jinntcd). 

ke an 

§ 60. These affixes are found with substantival, adjectival, 
adverbial, and verbal root words. They denote state or con- 
dition of persons, things, events, places. The derivatives 
are substantives, adjectives, and sometimes verbal, predicating 
a condition of the subject ; and, even though their roots be 
not verbal, some can signify cause or possibility or have 
nuances both active and passive. 

1. Denote state or condition: 

kesenangan ease; kekayaan ivealth; kepandaian clever- 
ness ; kebodohan folly ; keelokan beauty ; kedatangan 
arrival; kesedapan fl^(?//V?'c//j-;;f jj ; kelengkapan equipment; 
keterangan evidence ; kebanyakan, kesangatan number ; 
kejadian c/-^a//(?« ; ketentuan (Ttv/a/^/y ; kesudahan ^;/(/; 
kenaikan that zvhich is ?iiountcd, a mount, carriage, vessel; 
kediaman a dwelling-place ; keinderaan a place where 
Indra is, heaven ; keyangan heaven ; keputusan limit, a 
breaking (t^— sampai mana keputusan sungai ini how far 
is the place zvhere this river breaks off i^ — these derivatives 
denoting place often follow a word like tempat, when they 
assume an adjectival character — tempat kediaman, kuda 
kenaikan, perahu kenaikan : and so tempat keadilan 
or simply keadilan the seat of justice, Justice {the ruler of a 
Menangkabau country) and orang keturunan or simply 
keturunan descendants. 

2. The derivatives may be verbal: 

ia pun keturunan diBxi-^aididiVa,^d,-Xdut^ he too is descended 
from rajas ; bulan pun kesiangan the moon ivas eclipsed by 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 97 

day; kematian-lah angin Ihe ivind died down ; segala gajah 
itu ketakutan all the elephants ivere afraid; kenaikan itu 
keayeran the boat was filled with water ; beberapa lama 
Sri Tribuana kerajaan di-Singapura all the years Sri 
2'ribiiana ruled at Singapore ; orang Melaka kekeringan 
seperti ikan jemur Malacca folk [fell into poverty) dried up 
like fish in the sun. This usage has been extended (being 
combined with the construction found in such a sentence as 
orang itu pun, mati anak-anak-nya as for those folk they 
have lost their children). So we get dia keputusan wang 
he has incurred loss of money ; sahaya kematian anak I have 
lost a child; sahaya kekurangan ayer lam short of -water; 
seperti orang buta yang kehilangan tongkat like a blind 
man who has lost his staff. 

In calling the derivative under this section verbal, one 
means no more than that the versatile Malay word here stands 
sometimes for predicate, as well as standing more usually for 
substantive or attribute. 

3. May haveacausal nuance — derived from the ground word: 
kemaluan the pudenda and that ivhich causes sha?ne; ke- 

'hidi\V£tQXi livelihood; kebinasaan that which causes destruction; 
kerugian occasion of loss; chandu mendatangkan bebe- 
rapa chelaka dan kebinasaan dan kerugian ivhat 
fatalities and occasions of destruction and loss come from opium ; 
k-e-papasin cause of poverty ; aniaya chelaka dan kepapaan 
oppression, ill-doing, and beggaring. 

4. Some denote possibility : 

(orang) keperehayaan, (orang) keharapan reliable 
(men); kedengaran audible; kelihatan visible; sebab 
lidah itu kekenalan bukan-nya Inggeris one could tell 
from their accent they ivere Jiot English. 

5. Some of these derivativeshave more than one significance: 
kerugian (i) occasion of loss, (2) actual loss; kemaluan 

(i) pudenda, (2) shame; kebinasaan (i) cause of destruction 



98 SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

(2) destruction \ kepapaan (i) cause of poverty, (2) poverty \ 
kebSsaran (i) greatness, (2) mark of greatness, regalia; 
kemuliaan (i) house, (2) mark of honour, ada suatu ke- 
muliaan ka-pada raja it is a mark of honour for a prince; 
kehinaan {i)loivliness, {2) an occasion of disgrace; kelihatan 
(i) is seen, kampongitu kelihatan penoh dengan pohon 
kelapa the compounds zvcrc seen to be full of coco-nut palms ; 
(2) can see, mata-nya tiada kelihatan lagi her eyes could 
no lo7tger see ; {3) visible, can be seen, pasir yang kelihatan 
itu tanah mana zvhat is the name of that country of which the 
sands can be seen ? 

'kan, -kan 
§ 61. 'kan can only be termed an affix in the later stage 
of its evolution. In origin, it is akan the preposition denoting 
direction toivards an object, or towards a moment and so ivith 
respect to, concerning, 

I. These three nuances may be seen in its use separate 
and away from the verb. 

(a) Direction towards an object : 

jika ada kaseh tuan akan kakanda if there is love in 
you toivards me ; di-chium di-pelok oleh baginda akan 
menantu-nya there vuas kissing aiid embracing by the prince 
directed towards his son-in-laiv, i. e. the prince kissed and em- 
braced his son-in-law ; di-chinehang-nya akan Sayid itu 
he hacked at the Sayid. 

(b) Direction towards a moment in time : 

menanti »kan musoh datang zuait for the coining of the 
enemy. 

if) Concerning : 

akan pendua-nya di-sungkap-nya as for his dagger it 
zvas loosened by him ; temenggong tiada sedar akan hal 
itu the chief was unaware concerning the matter. 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 99 

II. The next stage is where there occur such dual forms as 
sedar akan, sedarkan ; harap akan, harapkan ; rindu 
akan, rindukan ; khabar akan, khabarkan. 

III. Finally we get the sufiix -kan. 

((?) As a suffix it retains a trace of its prepositional force 
in so far as the indirect object, the object which would be 
governed by the preposition akan immediately, if it were 
employed, must follow the kan derivative immediately. 

hantarkan sahaya wang setid [to) me money ; buatkan 
dia rumah make {/or) him a house ; tinggalkan sahaya 
kasut leave {for) me shoes; aku hendak sediakan 
chichit-ku / ivill make ready for my grandchildren. 

{V) It forms causative and denominative verbs from nouns 
and adjectives. 

raj akan orang make a ruler of a person ; selimutkan 
cover, make a cover for ; pinangkan propose marriage to ; 
sarongkan (keris) give a sheath to, sheathe {a dagger) ; 
kandangkan make a pen for, pen ; haramkan make a sin of 
account a sin ; hesar^Sin enlarge ; penohkan _;?//. 

(c) Finally, the suffix may always be used with verbal stems 
wherever in English we have a direct object, the only criterion 
of its use being cadence or euphony. 

buat or buatkan rumah f?iake a house; panggil or 
panggilkan orang call a person ; pukul or pukulkan 
budak beat a boy; kirim or kirimkan surat dispatch a 
letter. 

[This suffix occurs also with a few conjunctions; conveying 
the nuances sometimes oi futurity or likelihood, sometimes of 
concerning, with respect to. 

jangankan ayer hujan, ayer perigi pun kering not to 
touch the topic of rain-ivater, even the well-water had dried up ; 
asalkan dapat provided it shall be got ; sabar-lah dahulu ; 
masakan ia tiada datang be patient ; is it likely he luill 710 1 
co?ne?^ 

G 2 



loo SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

-i 

§ 62. Stems ending in i or ai never take this suffix. With 
other words i and kan are sometimes used interchangeably. 
The form ke + stem + kan is never found, but ke + stem + i 
is not uncommon : ke + tahu + i, ke + hendak + i. 

The number of stems taking the suffix i is fewer than the 
number taking kan. 

The suffix i is almost certainly the Indonesian locative 
preposition i. 

(i) Derived from this locative preposition, the suffix 
frequently has for object a word denoting place, especially 
when the stem is verbal. 

diami negeri inhabit a coiiniry ; supaya aku naiki 
astana so that I may ascend into the palace ; ulang-ulangi 
kubur make repeated visits to a tomb; mengelilingi kota 
travel round a fort ; menghampiri pintu approach the door. 

(2) When the ground word is noun or adjective, then the 
derivative transfers the thing or attribute denoted by it to an 
object. 

susu viilk, susui suckle, hujan rain, hujani rain on ; 
lembut soft, lembuti give softness to ; teman follower, 
temani to follow a person ; "kxidit force, kuati to apply force to ; 
nama name, namai to give a na7ne to; kurnia, anugerah 
(Skt.) gift, kurniai, anugerahi to bestow upon ; kipas a fan, 
^{-psisi to fan {a person); sama, sameness, menyamai compare 
ivith ; baik good, membaiki to make good, to cause repair to ; 
panas hot, panasi to heat, apply heat to. In this context the 
suffix marks the verbal use of radicals which may be verb, 
adverb, noun or adjective, ' carrying on ' as it were to the 
object, just as in English when employed as verbs, words like 
dream, jump, hit, look are carried on by the prepositions of, on, 
at, to. 

(3) The derivative having become crystallized, the suffix 
often loses its special force and becomes merely intensative. 



SYSTEM OF AFFIX mON ', r.^ ;: 'HI 

(4) It forms mostly transitive verbs, but a few examples 
of the intransitive occur, sunggoh-sunggohi he determined, 
persist; melaxLti traverse tke sea, voyage; mvilai degin. 

(5) There is sometimes a distinction between derivatives 
built of i and kan from the same root ; a distinction 
proceeding from the several functions of the original 
prepositions, 

hampiri orang approach a person ; hampirkan orang 
cause a person to approach (lit, cause an approach in respect of 
a person); merajai orang be prince over people, merajakan 
orang make a person prince. 

REDUPLICATION 

§ 63. There are three methods of reduplication in Malay : 
(i) Reduplication of the whole of the ground word. 

(2) Reduplication of the first consonant of the ground 
word with indeterminate e for its vowel' : kekabu, gegasing, 
gegawar, beberapa (and in the Kedah dialect lelaki, 
bebiri, pepuyu, &c.). 

(3) Reduplication of the ground word with changes of 
vocalization or of consonants or of both, of which the 
dictionary provides a number of crystallized examples, 

§ 64. Nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, numerals, pronouns, 
conjunctions all afford examples of words reduplicated in 
Malay. But the second method forms almost always sub- 
stantives betokening things. 

Broadly reduplication always implies indefiniteness — 
whether of number, or degree or contingency or time or 
likeness. It is not used where a definite number is mentioned. 
lima oxaxigfive men never lima orang-orang ; kedua pipi 
two cheeks never kedua pipi-pipi. 

1 This, it has been alleged, is a Javanese form, but it is very common 
in the northern states of the Peninsula like Kedah. 



icfz . SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

For the sake of clearness, it will be convenient to classify 
usages superficially discrepant : and we may say that redu- 
plication expresses 

{a) Indefinite plurality with variety implied : lembu-lembu 
oxen of all kuids, orang-orang all sorts of jncn, rumah- 
rumah all kinds of houses, 

(Sometimes the indefinite segala all qualifies these forms : 
mahkota segala raja-raja the croivn of all kinds of 
princes.) 

Under this head, comes the reduplication in the names of 
animals, which by going in flocks or shoals or having an 
abnormal complement of legs and wings suggest plurality; 
and also of things which by their nature suggest it. IMost of 
these never occur in single form: anai-anai ivhite ant; 
lumba-lumba porpoise ; kupu-kupu, rama-rama butter- 
fiy ; biri-biri sheep ; kala-kala scorpion ; kura-kura 
tortoise ; laba-Iaba spider ; kisi-kisi trellisivork. 

Also reduplication to express plurality, or repetition, 
frequency and continuity in action : melompat-lompat keep 
leaping ; bernyala-nyala keep blazing ; berchuchur-chu- 
churan keep dropping ; sepui-sepui bloiuing continually ; 
ganti-ganti one after another, in turn ; kili-kili (constantly 
rotating) reel to a rod. 

(b) Reduplication denotes indefinite ascending and de- 
scending degree — indefinite superlative, intensity : jauh-jauh 

far far aivay ; keehil-kechil //;/)' tiny ; budak-budak 
a very small child ; kanak-kanak very young children ; 
pagi-pagi very early in the day, mula-mula at the very 
beginning ; indah-indah very ivonderful ; lekas-lekas 7'ery 
quickly; lari-lari run fast; terchengang-chengang very 
astonished; va.evixgQVQ.va.dit-B.iocidjii look very closely at ; lama- 
kelamaan after a very long while. 

(c) Indefinite resemblance to the object denoted by the root 
word : layang fly, layang-layang kite ; gunong mountain. 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 103 

gunong-gunong a pyra?nidal design in arl\ ayam foivl, 
ayam-ayam watcr-foivl \ kuda horse, kuda-kuda doihes- 
Jiorse; langit heavens, sky, langit-langit a ceiling-cloth, the 
roof of the inouih ; mata eye, mata-mata /cV/'ct? ; orang man, 
orang-orang the pupil of the eye; churi thieve, churi-churi 
privily {like a thief); buat do, buat-buat pretend; also of 
colours : hitam-hitam resembling black, blackish ; puteh- 
puteh whitish. 

And under this head comes its use with adverbs, pronouns, 
and conjunctions : mana ivhcre, mana-mana ivherevcr ; 
apa ivhat, apa-apa ivhatcver; bila when, bila-bila ivhenever ; 
kalau if, kalau-kalau if perchance, (In Perak, the phrases 
orang besar-besar and orang kaya-kaya apply to the eight 
chiefs who are inferior to the four premier chiefs^ the orang 
besar or orang kaya, so that the reduplication does not 
indicate the superlative but rather mere resemblance to the 
really 'great' and 'rich' superior chiefs. Similarly anak 
raja-raja signifies a more distant relationship to royalty than 
anak raja.) 

As a rule of syntax, it may be noted that in the case of 
subject and attribute, only one of the words is reduplicated, 
but which of them that is, afiects the sense : rumah tuan- 
tuan different Europeans' houses, rumah-rumah. tuan the 
different sorts of houses belonging to a particular European ; 
anak raja-raja the scion of rajas of juany houses ; anak-anak 
raja the various children of one raja ; negeri Iain-lain 
countries altogether different, negeri-negeri lain various other 
countries} 



^ Dr. Fokker draws my attention to the fact that words denoting 
things that seldom or never show variety (e. g. nasi, darah) are never 
redtiplicated : but words like those given above, or like pokok tree, 
VieTtsiS paper, for example, of which many different kinds exist, are. 



104 SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 

COMPOUND WORDS 

§ 65. The meaning of a Malay word is often extended 
by compounding it with another word. Many parts of speech 
afford examples. 

(i) Substantive + substantive, a combination which admits 
of further analysis, viz. 

((?) The one substantive belongs to the other, i.e. stands 
in case relation to it : ayer lebah hoiiey ; kepala susu 
cream \ ibu rumah inain hdlding of a house; anak panah 
arroiv ; mata kaki anldc ; mata-hari sun ; mata kain 
pattern ; kaki langit horizon ; tukang besi blacksjm't/i ; 
wayang kulit shadow-play with leather puppets ; nyiur 
gading ivory-coloured coco-nut. 

{!)) The first substantive is added to the second : anak 
bini household, wife and children ; adek kakak relations ; 
rumah tangga zvfe] ibu bapa parents; hamba sahaya 
servants. 

(c) The first substantive and the second both denote the 
person or thing indicated, the one generically, the other 
specifically : orang Jaliudi a few man; negeri Perak 
a country — Per ate; burong enggang the hornhill bird-, 
gemala hikmat magic talisman. 

(2) Substantive + adjective, the compound phrase acquiring 
by arbitrarj' usage a significance different from what the two 
words would ordinarily bear by juxtaposition. 

kereta sombong mail train ; orang besar a chief; raja 
XQXidSicrflzan prince; pinang muda a procurer; sireh kuning 
a dainty morsel, viz. a girl, a mistress ; besi berani magiiet ; 
orang puteh European ; kuching pekak a kind of trap. 

(3) Substantive + verb. 

guru tenun weaving inistress ; tukang masak coot;; 
pisau chukur razor ; rumah pasong lock-up. 

(4) Adjective + substantive, forming an adjective. 
mabok laut sea-sick; merah jambu plum-coloured; 



SYSTEM OF AFFIXATION 105 

susah hati sad ; keras hati ohsiinaic ; bebal akal insane ; 
masam muka^/z-'w. 

(5) Adjective + adjective. 

merah muda light red; merah tua dark red; puteh 
kuning cream-coloured; hitam manis broivn. 

(6) Verb + noun, forming a substantive. 

chochok sanggul hairpin; sepak va,^2t. football; ikat 
pinggang bell ; korek api matches ; gunting babi a kind 
of trap. 

(7) Pronoun + verb. 

yang di-pertuan ruler (corrupted yam tuan) ; apa biiat 
(colloquially awat) ivhy. 

(8) Pronoun + adverb. 
apa bila when. 

(9) Compounding of words in derivative forms also takes 
place. 

lantai sa-lari a floor on one plane ; gajah menyusu 
a kitchen adjunct; membabi buta have an epileptic fit; 
niembusutjantanyt^;7«fl: high ant-hill \ menganak sungai 
make a streamlet; merembang petang decline to evening; 
menganyam gila iveave the mad stitch ; mendairah. 
negeri traverse a country s districts; berjual-beli barter; 
bermaharaja Lela play the Maharaja Lela ; bersual jawab 
question and reply ; berlaki-biui in married estate ; berniat 
jahat have evil intentions; berkain basah wear wet clothes; 
bertandok panjang be long-horned. 



CHAPTER VII 

OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH 
(A) PRONOUNS 

§ 66. Personal Pronouns. 

One can distinguish in ^^lalay two classes of personal 
pronoun (I) the pronoun proper, (II) the noun employed in 
place of a pronoun, 

I. The personal pronouns proper, like the Malay noun 
and adjective, undergo no declension and can be singular or 
plural — though in a few cases one word may be preferred 
for the singular and another for the plural. 

They are : 

ist person aku, kita, kami. 
2nd person engkau, kamu. 
3rd person ia or dia. 

As a pronominal proclitic standing in an insignificant 
position before the root of the transitive verb aku is 
contracted to ku and engkau to kau. hai Ruwana 
'kau katakan-lah yang kehendak hati-mu itu, 'ku 
dengar tell, O Ravana, the desire of your heart, that one may 
hear it. 

As pronominal enclitic without emphasis aku, engkau, 
kamu, ia become 'ku, 'kau, 'nau, and nya respectively. 
In literature, afier akan and dengan prepositions ending in 
n, and after akan in the form of the verbal suffix kan, we 
find aku commonly changed to daku, engkau sometimes 
to dikau and ia always to dia. 



PRONOUNS 107 

The exact significance of these pronouns it is highly 
important to understand : 

aku /or we; the term used by God addressing man, by a 
prince to a subject, master to servant, elders to younger folk, 
and relations familiarly among themselves. Used for we it 
often has a word to denote plurality : aku ketiga tve three ; 
aku sakalian all of us. It corresponds to engkau : yang 
berkhabar itu bukan si aku si engkau my informant was 
not one whom you could address in familiar terms. 

kita ive, more common in the plural, except when spoken 
by princes for the royal 2vc. In the plural, it is not arrogant. 
Unlike kami, it includes the person addressed. 

kami refers to the speaker and his parly, and excludes 
the persons addressed : sembah orang itu ' kami sakalian 
tiada tahu ' the men did obeisance saying ' Our party does not 
know '. It is rather a self-important form : kami orang (like 
kita orang, kamu orang, dia orang) is used sometimes 
to denote the plural use. 

engkau you, an address to persons of no importance — 
except that aku and engkau are forms of address in prayer 
to the deity. It is common in literature and conversation. 
It may be singular or plural — pergi-lah engkau ketujoh 
bersaudara do you seven brothers go. In Perak, Kedah, and 
Penang hang is employed in conversation ; in the Riau- 
Johor States, kau is preferred, as in literature. 

"kam-Viyou, singular or plural. It is just civil, and is common 
alike in literature and conversation. 

ia he, she, they, ia becomes dia as the object, and also 
for emphasis as subject : itu-lah dia that is him. dia too 
is commoner than ia in conversation. The genitive suffix 
form nya will be noticed under possessive pronouns. 

II. The INIalay looks upon the personal pronoun proper 
as a rude form of address. Rather than employ it, he will 
omit the subject altogether, or if he knows the rank and 
status of the person addressed he will employ some kind of 



io8 



PARTS OF SPEECH 



honorific, describing himself by some noun of self-deprecia- 
tion. Many of these nouns are used so regularly that they 
may be reckoned personal pronouns improper. The following 
table will show the degrees of respect expressed variously by 
the pronouns proper and improper : 



Persoji speaking 


/, ive 


Thou, you 


He, she, they 


Peasants to one another 


aku 


engkau 


dia 


Superior pointedly to 


5> 


5J 


>) 


inferior 








Superior ordinarily to 


sahaya 


kamuorname 


dia or name 


inferior 




of person ad- 
dressed 




Superior with affected 


hamba (tuan) 


tuan (hamba) 


tuan 


modesty to equals . 






(hamba) 


All classes to Europeans 


sahaya 


tuan 


tuan 


Malay gentry to one 


kami 


enchek, tuan 


enchek, 


another 






tuan 


Commoner to chief 


hamba (datok) 
sahaya (datok) 


datok 


datok 


Commoner to raja . . 


patek 


tengku, 


tengku, 






engku 


engku, raja 


Subject to a sultan 


patek 


tuan-ku 


yam tuan, 
tuan-ku 


Literary 


beta 


sahabat beta 





sahaya (Skt. {i) follower, (2) slave) is a form of address 
civil but not obsequious, proper alike for raja, peasant, and 
European. Addressed to a Sayid or European or native 
gentleman, it is often used in the more deferential form 
sahaya tuan. It is commoner in the singular than in the 
plural, but serves for either. 

hamba {slave) a self-depreciatory form for the first person, 
which may be used by any class ; for instance, by small rajas 
to big or aged chiefs, to the wealthy and to Europeans as 
well as by inferiors to superiors. It can be either singular 
or plural. The forms hamba datok and hamba tuan are 



PRONOUNS 109 

common. It occurs also as perhamba and di-perhamba. 
sembah perdana manteri China 'ya tuan-ku shah 
alam yang di-perhamba-lah membicharakan ' tlie 
Chinese Minister did obeisance^ ' sovereign of the zuorld, 
I your slave will inquire.' 

patek the usual address of commoners speaking of them- 
selves to any raja and even of rajas to a ruling prhice or high 
officer of state ; but not proper for Europeans. 

beta (Hind, brother) I or ive; used by rajas and gentry 
addressing equals or condescendingly to inferiors ; but chiefly 
as the usual term for the first person in letters, and corre- 
sponding to sahabat hetayou vy friend. (Cliff"ord says, that 
on the East coast it is rude except for the raja writing to his 
chiefs, and that in Pahang it was formerly an expression 
forbidden except for the ruler.) 

tuan, literally master, is the usual form of polite address 
in speaking to or of European men, Malay men and women 
of birth and breeding (and all Malays have breeding), 
descendants of the prophet and Hajis of either sex. A Malay 
will say tuan hamba to chiefs and tuan patek to rajas. 
tuan puteri is the usual expression {qx princess in literature, 
and in titles is found seri paduka tuan (which in Perak is 
the title of the state mufti). The form tuhan which is only 
a variant spelling has come now to be applied to the deity. 

tuan-ku is simply tuan + the pronominal suffix of the 
first person, my lord. It has come to have a very restricted 
use and is reserved now for address to the deity and to Malay 
sovereigns. In Perak, it may be used also to the Raja Muda 
and the Bendahara, and is sometimes arrogated to themselves 
by important rajas with a claim to those offices. 

tengku, in Riau the form of address to rajas of full blood 
on both sides : tengku besar is the title of the Crown Prince 
of Pahang,^ In Perak, it is proper to rajas of secondary 

1 In Negri Sembilan, rajas are styled tunku, a form which reminds of 
the old form tun commonly occurring in the Sejarah Melayu, 



no PARTS OF SPEECH 

importance, to the greatest commoner chief tengku manteri, 
tengku temenggong and to the permaisuri or chief 
commoner wife of the Sultan. In Shellabear's edition of the 
Hang Tuah, which was copied largely from Perak manuscripts, 
it is applied to the Bendahara and his consort, but it is not to 
be found in Dutch versions of the work ; and neither it nor 
engku occurs in the Sejarah Melayu. It is applied to Sayid, 
Sharif and Sharifah. 

engku in Riau-Johor is the proper form for rajas of 
secondary rank, born generally of common mothers. In 
Perak it is applied to the more important rajas (below the 
three great officers, who are addressed as tuanku) and is so 
used in Maxwell's rhapsodist version of Sri Rama. 

datok, literally grandfather, is a title of big hereditary 
commoner chiefs, but is also used of smaller headmen and of 
any aged respectable person ; and specifically of grandfather or 
grandmother. 

enchek has a history like our esquire. Specifically proper 
to the descendants of chiefs, it is applied to persons of either 
sex of any birth or position at all. The commoner wife of a 
raja will be 'chek puan, of a chief 'tok puan. 

Other nouns so commonly employed as to deserve the 
name of improper pronouns but of more or less local range 
are teman (lit. mate, equal) I, corresponding with mika you, 
forms rare in literature and conversation, but occurring in 
Dutch editions of the Hang Tuah and in familiar and 
affectionate talk among the people of Perak. 

kawan friend, awak and diri (both meaning body) ; 
humble forms for the first person, and also used for the 
second person in talking politely to inferiors, silakan 
bentara dua, kita menanti diri dari-pada tadi be seated, 
you two officers, we have awaited you some while (cp. § 68, 
reflexive pronouns). 

goa and lu, Chinese words for / and you, are adopted in 
conversation with persons of that nationality. 



PRONOUNS III 

mereka itu and orang itu Ihose persons are common for 
they in literature. 

III. In addition to the above words, many of which have 
become limited to pronominal purposes or at any rate are 
commoner as that part of speech than in their original noun 
form, there are furthermore several classes of nouns pressed 
to do the work of pronouns of the first, second, and third 
persons. These may be classified as : 

(i) Words denoting the relationship between the speaker 
and the person addressed. 

(2) Proper names, real and conventional. 

(3) Titles of rank, age and profession. 

Used by the speaker of himself, the words of the last two 
of these classes are not usual and sound childish and asser- 
tive. Used in place of pronouns of the second and third 
persons, all three classes are very common as modes of 
polite address. 

(i) datok, 'tok grandfather, ninek grandmother, ayah 
(polite), bapa (vulgar) y^Z/zr/-, emak mother, anak child, 
abang elder brother, kakak elder sister or rarely brother, 
adek younger brother or sister, chuchu grandchild of 
either sex. 

The relationship may not be actual but merely a polite 
fiction, emak ka-mana where are you going P would be a 
proper form of address by persons of either sex to any 
woman whose years deserved the appellation. 

abang of the man and adek of the girl are common 
expressions for one another between lovers, buah hati 
tinggal-lah sayang, abang tiada pergi lama good-bye, my 
love, heart's darling, I do not go for long. 

There are honorific forms ending in nda applicable to 
persons of noble or distinguished birth or to persons whom 
it is desired to flatter and generally for politeness in letter- 
writing, nenda from nenek ; ayahanda from ayah ; 



112 PARTS OF SPEECH 

bonda from ibu ; kakanda from kakak ; adinda from 
adek ; anakanda, ananda from anak ; chuchunda, 
chunda from chuchu ; senda from sahaya ; mamanda 
from mamak tincle (a word often used with deference by 
a prince to an aged minister) ; inangda from inang nurse, 
occur in literature : of these honorifics, only bonda is found 
followed by a possessive pronoun. 

(2) The proper name of the person addressed or referred 
to is very usually employed. Hassan ka-mana ? ivhere are 
you{\.t. Hassan) going ? Hassan sudah -pevgiBe [i.e. I/assan) 
has gone. Where the name of the person spoken to or spoken 
of is unknown, common proper names like Awang or in 
Perak Kulup are hazarded in the case of boys. The Sejarah 
Melayu says that Q,vj^xx.g youth formerly corresponded to dara 
virgin. It also gives the following apposite example of its 
use. ' If one of his serfs came up from the river reaches 
wearing a fine pink coat, buttons., and a bright handkerchief, 
then the Bendahara would say, '''Come up into the house, Awang!' 
When he came up, the Bendahara would ask, " What is your name? 
(namamu ?) " Then thefelloiv would pay his respects, saying, 
" / am one of your serfs (sahaya ini hamba datok), my na?ne 
is So-and-so, So-and-so ivas my father, and So-and-so 7}iy grand- 
father." And the Bendahara ivould say, " Then you are So- 
and-so's son (engkau anak si anu-kali) : go and sit below." 
So great zvas his state that he could not recognize his own serfs 
on account of their number.' On the West coast 'Long = 
sulong firstborn is similarly used in the case of girls. 
Parents often drop their own name and prefer to be called- 
'pa A.vfB,ng father of Aivang or 'mak 'Ngah mother of'Ngah 
or whatever be the name of their child ; 'pa Awang indeed 
has become a conventional mode of address like Awang. 

(3) Besides tuanku, tengku, engku, datok, other 
honorifics of rank, age, and profession are used to suit the 
person addressed, or the person referred to in the third 



PRONOUNS 113 

person. So we find wan,^ 'chek wan as a form of address to 
the relatives of big commoner chiefs, 'chek pah ( = sharifah) 
to female descendants of the Prophet, 'yang in the South, 
and mek in the North to ladies of good but not noble birth, 
penghulu or 'tok penghulu to minor headmen, 'chek 
guru to a pundit, tuan kadli to a priest, 'wa (= tuwa old) 
to old men, baba to a Straits-born Chinaman, tauki to a 
Chinese employer of labour, nonya to a Chinese or Eurasian 
married woman, nona to an unmarried Chinese girl. 
Rhymesters frequently speak of themselves in the first person 
as fakir yang vaiskinyour poor mendicant or dagang yang 
hino, your humble stranger. 

In literature particularly very high-flown titles of address 
are attached to princes — naturally never for the first person, 
seldom for the second, mostly for the third, yang di-pertuan 
contracted yam-tuan //^, his Highness ; shah alam sovereign 
of the world, aku di-panggil oleh shah alam / am sum- 
moned by (him) the sovereign of the ivorld. sembah ka- 
bawah dull lay homage in the dust is a correct usage, but 
from it ka-bawah dull has been taken as a title (which is 
not the case with ka-bawah kaus and ka-bawah cherpu 
beneath the feet ^ phrases employed towards chiefs and Europeans 
and superiors). Other honorifics meaning your highness 
formed on analogy are dull yang di-pertuan, literally the 
dust of our lord's feet and dull shah alam the dust at the feet 
of the sovereign of the ivorld. 

baginda (Skt. bahagia -f- nda) is a common term in the 
third person for a great prince. 

mana titah ka-bawah duli as your highness orders ; ya 
tuanku shah alam you my lord, sovereign of the ivorld', 
payong naungan patek you my shade arid shelter are 
examples of these usages in the second person. 

' In Negri Sembilan, wan means vaeicly grand/not her. 

1554 H 



H4 PARTS OF SPEECH 

§ 67. Possessive Pronouns. 

All the personal pronouns proper and all the words used 
as improper personal pronouns may follow a noun and serve 
for possessive pronouns, precisely as one noun placed after 
another may do. kaki kuda a horses leg ; kaki sahaya, 
kaki hamba my leg ; kaki tuan your leg ; isteri teman 
viy wife. 

The abbreviated suffix forms ku, mu (and sometimes in 
speech kau), as for example rumah-ku my house, hidup- 
xaviyour term of life, are employed, except when emphasis is 
not on the object but on its possessor : bukan baju dia 
baju aku it is not he who owns the coat, it is I. 

Similarly ia and dia may be used, if emphasis falls on the 
possessor ; di-kenal-nya keris ia he recognized that the 
dagger was his ; siapa mengaseh dia who is his lover. 
Ordinarily the proper form is nya. 

The uses of nya may be summarized as follows : 

(i) Following a noun, it has the same varied case sig- 
nificance that one IMalay noun following another will have. 
I'umah-nya his house, atas-nya its top, ubat-nya the medicine 
for him, hala-nya the direction for him or of it. 

(2) Often it makes for clearness, dalam sungai may 
mean in a river or the depth of a river; dalam-nya sungai 
can only mean the depth of the river; an ak raja itu may 
mean that princeling or the child of that raja, but anak-nya 
raja itu only the child of that raja. In these cases it lends 
the sense of a genitive to the word following it. So, too, 
oleh-nya mendengar khabar, itu-lah patek sakalian 
datang because {of) hearing the fiezvs, therefore zve have all 
come. And under this head falls the use di-dengar-nya 
baginda in the hearing of him, the prince, expanded from the 
equally correct di-dengar baginda in the hearing of the 
prince and sometimes into di-dengar-nya oleh baginda 
it was heard by him, the prince, where the emphasis falls on 
baginda. 



PRONOUNS 115 

Moreover if it be true that the prefix me cannot limit the 
versatile utility of the verbal root, identical with this idiom 
will be that when nya contrary to its use in other contexts 
is said usually to be a direct object or in effect an accusative, 
and in siapa mengaseh-nya we shall have a normal genitive 
construction similar to that in siapa kaseh-nya who is her 
lover. Just so, unless there is exceptional emphasis on the 
pronoun, we find ku, mu and nya after compound preposi- 
tion-c7/w-substantive forms, ka-pada-mu, di-hadap-ku, di- 
atas-nya, oleh-nya ; in all of which cases the pronoun is 
in the genitive. 

Its use in the following emphasizes the word to which it is 
sufiixed : muka-nya Sang Ranjuna the faceof Sang Ranjuna; 
pintu-nya peti itKx. the lid of the chest] pada esok hari- 
nya itu 07i the morrow of that day. 

(3) Also nya is used merely to accentuate that antithesis 
and balance which underlies the Malay sentence, anak 
kita ini sangat nakal-nya this child of ours, great is his 
naughtiness ; oleh baginda di-dengar-nya by the king — /'/ 
was heard by him. 

Possession may be indicated in several ways, notably by 
the word empunya, punya. yang empunya hikayat he 
whose story it is ; Demang Lobar Daun-lah yang per- 
tama punya bahasa 'yang di-pertuan' dan 'patek' 
it ivas Demang Lebar Daun who first talked of ''yang di-per- 
tuan ' and ' pate/i ' ; lembu punya susu sapi punya nama 
the wild cozv gets the credit for the tame cozv's milk. Used, 
however, to form a possessive genitive (sahaya punya 7nine, 
dia punya rumah his house) it is bazaar slang, and reaches 
its nadir in connecting substantive and adjective, as in baik 
punya kuda a fine horse. 

Another circumlocution is expressed by milek (Ar.): kam- 
pong itu di-milek sahaya that holding is in my possession. 
Finally antithesis marked by repetition is common, baju 
itu baju aku that coat is my coat. 



ri6 PARTS OF SPEECH 

§ 68. The Reflexive Pronoun. 

Reflexivity and reciprocity are denoted in Malay by the 
be(r) derivatives often without, sometimes Mith, the help of 
the word diri body which like awak is really a noun used 
idiomatically. 

diri + a possessive pronoun corresponds to our reflexive 
pronouns in self, baik-lah aku membuang diri-ku iitvere 
well I destroy myself; 6Sxi-XQ.VL you yourselves ; ia pun pergi 
membuang diri-nya he went and destroyed himself 

In certain idioms it stands alone, doa selamat atas diri 
kakanda may the blessings of security he on your person ; diri 
sahaya, diri hamba vy person ; sa-orang diri alone ; di- 
dalam diri in one's own mind; bunoh diri slay oneself; 
minta diri take one's leave. 

Derivatives in se (and ke) + the nasal infix are more usual. 
aku sendiri, kami sendiri, sahaya sendiri = (i) I ?ny- 
self, (2) I of 7ny ozvn accord, or (3) I alone, seperti harta- 
nya sendiri as if it zvere his {her, their, your, viv or our 
according to context) oiim property ; tanah sendiri my [our, 
your, his, her or their) own land — the personal pronoun always 
being placed before the word sendiri if the context in itself 
is not clear, sendiri-nya of its oivn accord; sama sendiri- 
nya with one another. 

§ 69. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

The demonstrative pronouns are : 

itu the, that, those — the well-known, the distant in lime and 
space, ini this, these, — the particular, the near in time and 
space. 

(i) They follow the word they qualify and follow all the 
words, if any, denoting its attributes, orang itu that man ; 
orang besar itu that great tnan ; orang besar yang 
memerentah itu that great ruler, but orang itu besar 
that man is of great size and itu orang besar that man 
is sreat. 



PRONOUNS 117 

(2) They can qualify a preceding verb or clause as well as 
a noun, patek datang ini / come noiv ; sa-telah itu after 
that (was done) ; perahu itu melanchar-lah berapa lama- 
nya belay ar itu the ship darted fonvanl and after some 
time on that voyage of hers. 

(3) They can stand alone or with lah, as predicate ; 
generally but not necessarily in the emphatic forefront of 
a clause, itu dia that is he; itu-Iah hal-nya that is the 
state of affairs ; ini-lah yang kita lihat sa-malam itu 
this is the spectacle zve saiv last night ; elok-lah itu beaut fill 
is ivhat that is ; itu-lah. elok that / that is beautiful. 

(4) Their various nuances of meaning may be seen from 
the foregoing instances and from the following : 

orang ini this man {here) ; negeri Perak ini this land of 
Perak here ; empat lima bulan ini patek tiada memegang 
keris this last four or five months I have not held a dagger. 
orang itu that mafi referred to, yonder man ; Singapura itu 
Singapore yonder, Singapore the ivell-knoivn ; tetekala itu 
at that {more or less) remote time. 

§ 70. Interrogative Pronouns. 

The following words serve for interrogative pronouns: 
apa what .^ 
si-apa who.^ whose? 
mana ivhieh ? ivhere ? 
apa is not purely an interrogative pronoun — cf. § 86. 
As an interrogative apa is applied to things and the names 
of things, pokok apa itu what is that tree .^ apa nama- 
nya pokok itu zvhat is the name of that tree? siapa (the 
article si and apa) tvho ? ivhose ? is applied to persons and 
the names of persons. ^xop^d^iXvuvhoisthat? anak siapa 
tertawa itu ivhose child laughed then ? siapa nam a orang 
itu what is the tiame of that person ? 

mana bears often a certain locative character as an inter- 
rogative pronoun, pokok mana itu which is the tree? or 



ii8 PARTS OF SPEECH 

literally ivhere is the tree you refer to ? whereas pokok apa 
itu may mean ivhat species of the tree is that? or 7vhat sort of 
a thing is that for a tree ? neither of which meanings involves 
reference to place. So mana is frequently accompanied by 
yang. pokok yang mana ivhich tree? literally the tree 
which is 'ivhcre ? balai mana yang chondong ivhere is the 
hall thai has fallen aslant ? 

All three of these words can denote who, which, 7vhat out 
of a number ? either standing alone or with antara, pada 
antara, dari-pada. apa (daripada) perkakas ini ivhich 
out of these tools ? siapa (antara) kamu 7vhich of you, mana 
pokok itu, mana (pada) antara pokok itu, mana dari- 
pada pokok itu which of these trees ? Derivative forms are 
berapa hoiv much? how many? mengapa why? definite 
reason why ? kenapa ivhy ? betapa how? %vhy ? bagai- 
mana hoiv? 

Examples of their use are berapa harga-nya hoiv much 
is its price ? berapa umur-nya how old is he ? (also bebe- 
rapa pun di-suroh panggil, tiada juga mau datang 
however much he was hidden and summoned, he would not come); 
hai Ruwana ngapa engkau melakukan diri-mu demi- 
kian dan berapa lama-mu sekarang why,Ravana, do you 
conduct yourself thus and how long now have you done so ? 
supaya aku ketahui betapa hal-nya that I may knoiv 
{inore or less) what is his condition ; also chukup lengkap 
betapa adat raja-raja yang besar sufficient preparation 
{jnore or less') like the custom of great princes; bagai-mana 
menangkap landak in what way is the porcupine trapped ? 

§ 71. The Relative Pronoun. 

The substitute for a relative pronoun in Malay is yang, an 
idiomatic word which is rather a particle or emphatic relative 
conjunction, if such can be conceived. It may be omitted in 
translation, rendered by who, which, whose, by that, by the, 
and so on. 



PRONOUNS rig 

(i) yang serves to emphasize the word or clause which it 
precedes and introduces : 

apabila Laksamana mati, yang raja itu mudah juga 
ka-pada kita when the Laksamana is dead, the raja will fall 
an easy victim ; dengan kuat yang mana hamba mem6- 
gang dia what is the force with ivhich I may hold hi?n? pada 
masa ini-lali tuan hamba hamil yang akan peroleh 
anak yang amat bijaksana this time the important point 
ah Old your pregnancy is that luhat you ivill get is a son and the 
point about him will be his ivisdom — omit the two emphatic 
' relative conjunctions ' and the idiomatic rendering would be 
this time you are pregnant — atid I may add you ivill bear a 
clever son. Similarly in such a sentence as hamba dengar 
ada hikayat Melayu di-bawa oleh orang dari Goa 
/ hear there is a Malay romance — it was one brought from 
Goa, the insertion of yang would imply / hear there is that 
Malay romance, ivhich ivas brought from Goa : yang has a 
distinguishing individualizing sense. 

Consonant with this function of yang, the word or clause 
introduced by it will occupy often that position of emphasis 
in Malay composition, the forefront of phrase or sentence. 
yang behormat tuan Resident the respected Resident', 
yang maha mulia Sultan Alaidin Shah his highness 
Sultan Alaidin Shah. And in this case, sometimes yang 
will be used redundantly, yang kurnia baginda itu 
semua-nya beta junjong-lah the present froju his highness 
zve all humbly accept. 

Naturally yang will be employed when an intensative word 
accompanies the attributive adjective, its function being not 
merely to emphasize but also adjectival, indicating that the 
phrase following it is attribute and not predicate. Hang 
Tuah yang amat bijaksana Hang Tuah noted for his 
wisdom ; budi yang baik sangat ?nost excellent discretion. 
(2) In itsbroadofficeof 'relativeconjunction'yangcan intro- 
duce direct narration, often after ada pun and bahwa (§ 99). 



120 PARTS OF SPEECH 

ada pun yang hamba datang ini di-titahkan oleh 
Betara Guru lunv I have come here at the bidding of Siva ; 
ada pun yang kita datang ini bukan kita hendak 
bersuamikan Haja Melaka itu iiozv I have come here not 
ivith Ihe desire of marrying the Raja of Malacca ; bahwa 
yang dunia ini tiada akan kekal noiv of a truth this world 
is transitory; arti-nya yang arak itu ibu segala najis 
the meaning is that drink is the cause of all filthiness. 

(3) yang stands always at the beginning of a clause, and 
can be omitted without change of construction, leaving the 
clause to stand parenthetical and complete in itself — just as 
the relative is omitted in English sentences like 
The king has tvritten a braid letter 
and signed it ivith his hand ; 
A nd sent it to Sir Patrick Spence 
ivas ivalking on the sand. 
or 

/ ivant to know a butcher paints. 

sa-orang puteh yang 'ku kaseh akan dia a zchite man, 
yes, I felt regard for him; sarang lebah yang telah 'ku 
menunggu akan dia a bee's nest, one I had watched over ; 
pesaka pada segala waris-mu yang tiada engkau 
kaseli ka-pada-nya pada masa hidup-mu an inheritance 
to all your relatives — / mean the very relatives you felt dislike 
for in your lifetime ; tersebut-lah perkataan sa-orang 
raja yang terlalu amat besar kerajaan-nya the story is 
told of a prince, very large ivas his kingdom. 

In all these cases the relative pronoun can be avoided in 
translation. And in jMalay yang may be and is often- 
removed, without violence being done to grammar (though 
with a change in the meaning cp. (I) supra), as for example 
bertemu dengan orang menchari itu meet with the people 
{who) ivere searching ; segala orang menghantarkan 
surat itu pulang-lah all the people (zvho) were conveying the 
letter zvent to their homes; memegang keris-nya sudah 



PRONOUNS 121 

terhunus holding his dagger {ivhich) tvas drawn, i.e. holding 
his dagger — /'/ ivas draivn. 

yang is omitted frequently after words denoting place and 
time : tempat place, negeri land, bekas ti'ace of, ruin of, 
waktu, masa time, sahaya bertanya dari hal tempat 
keluar emas xXw. I inquired about Ihe place the gold came from. 

(4) yang occurs often wiiliout an antecedent — its function 
then being not relative but emphatic ; and in this context, it 
is said to correspond sometimes with other definite articles. 
So yang empunya is used for the owner, tiada di-ke- 
tahui yang empunya suara it was not knoivn ivho ivas the 
ozvner of the voice ; oleh yang empunya kedai by the shop- 
keeper; kata yang empunya hikayat says the author of the 
tale. Similarly apa guna-nya yang chelaka di-hidupi 
what is the use of the knave being kept alive P boleh-lah kita 
bertemu dengan (scilicet tunggul) yang kita chari itu 
ive can meet ivith the object of our quest (sc. the trce-stuDip) ; 
mari-lah kita melihat yang bernyala-nyala sa-malam 
come let us see ivhat zuas afire last nigh! ; yang buta datang 
berpimpin the blind came guided. 

(5) yang will not serve like our relative .pronoun to 
introduce a clause containing a fresh topic ; a fresh topic 
must be the subject of a fresh co-ordinate sentence. 

ada pun akan baginda itu tahu akan diri-nya akan 
beroleh anak; maka anak baginda itu-lah menjadi 
raja di-Bukit Seguntang; dari-pada anak chuchu 
baginda itu-lah kelak menjadi raja besar-besar akhir 
zaman noiv the king knew he luould beget a son tvho should 
become prince at Mount Segtmtang and ivhose children should 
be great princes till the end of time — ihe Malay idiom disallows 
these relative pronouns. 

§ 72. Indefinite Pronouns. 

orang any person, some persons, people, ekur mata-nya 
di-anak orang the tail of his ye ivas on people's daughters ; 



122 PARTS OF SPEECH 

ada suatu anak orang there was a daughter of certam 
people ; orang berkhabar people say ; sa-orang kata bagini 
sa-orang kata bagitu one man says this, another that ; tiada 
sa-orang terlindong lagi there ivas no one in hidi7Jg any 
more; sa-orang sa-orang berganti-ganti one person after 
another in turn, 

suatu any, a certain, one may apply to things as orang 
to persons, datang suatu hal there comes some event. 

apa can give a sense of doubt and iiidefiniteness to an 
expression. It is generally reduplicated : kalau jangan 
apa-apa gondala-nya provided there is no accident of any 
kind, but not always : tidak apa it is no matter, it is nothiitg 
definite ; so too, apa-tah and even apa-lah : hai adinda 
apa-lah bichara kita akan anakaij.da ini sister mine, have 
we any plan at all for this child of ours. 

barang so?}ie, ajiy (also a noun = chattels ; and a modal 
word), unlike nouns, adjectives or pronouns, stands before the 
word it qualifies and so has been compared with an 
indefinite numeral, barang sedikit an indefinite small 
quantity ; barang orang, barang siapa a7jy one you like ; 
barang apa anything ; barang bila ivhenever ; barang 
kali perhaps ; suroh urut badan barang empat lima 
hari prescribed massage for some four or five days; barang 
yang terlintang di-tikam-nya ivhoever ivas in his path 
was stabbed ; barang apa ketiadaan belanja ambil-lah 
pada hamba 'whatever money is lacking take from me ; 
bukan-nya besi sa-barang besi it ivas not steel of any 
common sort ; pedeh-nya asap itu bukan barang- 
barang the smarting caused by the smoke ivas not any ordinary 
smarting (i.e. was something extraordiyiary). 

masing-masing each (singly) is used of persons. It can 
stand alone : masing-masing dengan ragam-nya each ivith 
temperament peculiar to himself 

tiap-tiap each, every, is used of things as well as persons 
and does not stand alone but qualifies a substantive, tiap- 



PRONOUNS 123 

tiap hari every day ; pada tiap-tiap suatu rantai a! every 
Singh' chain. 

sakalian, semua all, serve to express an indefinitely large 
number ; in which case, they do not stand after the word 
they quaHfy as they do in their adjectival use, but before it 
like barang and tiap-tiap. mati-lah kuman kena pe- 
lantek ; sakalian alam limpah darah-nya the louse died 
caught in a trap for big game, and all the zvorld zvas flooded 
ivith his gore. 

(B) NUMERALS 
§ 73. Cardinal Numbers. 
I. I satu (also sa-, suatu and esa) 

2 dua 6 enam 

3 tiga 7 tujoh 

4 empat 8 delapan 

5 lima 9 sembilan 

belas (=balas retiini) is added to the above to form the 
numbers eleven to nineteen : 

11 sa-belas 16 enam-belas 

12 dua-belas 17 tujoh-belas 

13 tiga-belas 18 delapan-belas 

14 empat-belas 19 sembilan-belas 

15 lima-belas 

puloh added to the first nine cardinals forms multiples of 
ten ; for example : 

10 sa-puloh 60 enam-puloli 

20 dua-puloh 70 tujoh-puloh 

30 tiga-puloh 90 sembilan-puloh 

To form intermediate numbers above twenty, the units follow 
these last multiple-of-ten derivatives, e.g. 

21 dua-puloh satu 66 enam-puloh enam 

27 dua-puloh tujoh 77 tujoh-puloh tujoh 

33 tiga-puloh tiga 84 delapan-puloh empat 

45 empat-puloh lima 93 sembilan-puloh tiga 



124 PARTS OF SPEECH 

The hundreds are formed by adding ratus to the first 
nine units : 

100 sa-ratus loi sa-ratus satu 

300 tiga-ratus 322 tiga-ratus dua-puloh dua 

900 sembilan-ratus 850 delapan-ratus lima-puloh 

The thousands by adding ribu : 

1000 sa-ribu 4501 empat-ribu lima-ratus satu 
3000 tiga-ribu 

The lens of thousands by adding laksa or puloh ribu : 
70,000 tujoh laksa or tujoh-puloh ribu 

The hujidreds 0/ thousands by keti : 

500,000 lima keti (or lima-ratus ribu) 

Millions by juta : 

9,000,000 sembilan juta (or sembilan-ratus laksa) 

II. (i) kurang less, subtracting is often used to express 
numbers closely approaching the multiples of ten : 
9 kurang satu sa-puloh 
97 kurang tiga sa-ratus 
998 sa-ribu kurang dua 

(2) likur is used in literature for 20 especially in dates, 
the units preceding it to form intermediate numbers : 

21 sa-likur 29 sembilan likur 

(3) In literature in certain expressions, for instance, some- 
times with kurang, the form esa is used for otie. Tuhan 
yang esa the one only God ; sa-puloh kurang esa nitie. 

(4) An old literary form of delapan is dua-lapan. di- 
bunoh-nya dengan tangan-nya sendiri sa-ribu empat- 
ratus dua-lapan-puloh orang jin ifrit there ivere slain by 
his oivn hand 1480 evil spirits. 

(5) For the use of tengah to express multiples of five see 
below § 76. 



NUMERALS 125 

§ 74. The Arabic ciphers employed by Malays are : 
0123456789 
I f r i^ 1 V A 1 
Thus 19 1 2 will be m r, 18000 1 a . .. 

Rarely the letters of the Arabic alphabet are employed as 
ciphers with the following values : 

1 I .54 t^ 800 d 20 

L_j 2 i 700 ]o 9 J 30 

ciJ 400 . 200 ]a 900 ^ 40 

o 500 J 7 ^7° U 50 

^3 (^ 60 c 1000 J 5 

— 8 (^ 300 k__s 80 56 

^ 600 ^jo ()0 ^3 100 (_^ 10 

§ 75. Syntax of the Cardinal Numbers. 

(i) They will stand generally after the substantive they 
qualify, except suatu, satu which stands oftenest before it 
and in the unemphatic form sa. But, if emphasis falls on 
the numeral, then the other cardinals will stand before the 
substantive and suatu, satu after it : that is, both in the 
reverse of the usual order e.g. perbuatkan aku jambatan 
emas satu, jambatan perak satu 7)iake me one bridge of 
gold and one 0/ silver. 

(2) No conjunctions are employed to join or divide them : 
1911 sa-ribu sembilan-ratus sa-belas; 5 or 6 lima 

enam ; 15 tr 16 lima enam belas ; 40 or 50 empat lima 
puloh ; a day or tivo sa-hari dua. 

(3) They express dates : 

pada dua-puloh hari bulan Jumad al-akhir ia-itu 
pada dua-belas hari bulan October on the tweniieih day 
0/ Juinad-al-akhir, I hat is on the tzvel/th day of October; sa- 
telah datang ka-pada tujoh hari, maka baginda pun 



126 PARTS OF SPEECH 

berangkat-lah as soon as it came to the seventh day, the prince 
set out. (But for first pertama is sometimes found; pada 
pertama bulan Muharram ini-lah o;; the first day of the 
month of Muharram.^ 

(4) Reduplicated, the cardinals signify: 
suatu-suatu one by otie, one after afiother ; one by one, 

severally; \\x<sx2^-\\vsi2i all five o\ five of [us] — empat-empat 
penchuri lari all four thieves ran. 

(5) The following idioms are notable : bahagi dua divide 
in two; lat tiga rnissing three, i.e. every fourth ; selang 
suatu every second; bongkok berlipat tiga belakang- 
nya her back bent in three curves ; Laksaraana berjalan 
dua berbudak the Laksamana set out ivith his page ; sahaya 
tiga beranak / and my tivo children ; dua laki isteri the 
couple, husband and wife (where one would expect kedua) ; 
saudara dua kali pupu a cousin twice removed; dengan 
sa-ribu kemuliaan zuith countless ?narks of honour ; pe- 
kerjaan-nya hendakmenyambut dull yang di-pertuan, 
suatu lagi hendak menyambut paduka adinda itu 
gerangan his business was to ivelcome his higlmess, and 

further (lit. one ?nore) perhaps to welcome the princess. 

§ 76. Fractions. 

suku, sa-suku one-quarter ; suku bahagian a quarter 
share ; tiga suku three-quarters ; lima kurang suku four 
and three-quarters. 

tengah, sa-tengah a half, one-half; sa-tengah hasta 
half a cubit; sa-tengah jam half att hour; tengah hari 
midday. The word tengah is employed also to subtract 
from the digit it precedes a ^ of i, e.g. tengah tiga z\; 
tengah tiga puloh 2^x10= 25 ; tengah lima ratus 
4^ X 100 = 450 ; tengah tujoh ribu 6^ x 1000 = 6500. 
It is used, too, to express an indefinite number some, mereka 
itu sa-tengah kafir, sa-tengah Islam half the people were 
infidels, and half of the Mohammedan faith) sa-tengah di- 



NUMERALS 127 

biinoh dan sa-tengah lari dan sa-tengah di-tawan-nya 

some 7vcre killed, some look flight and some were taken prisoners. 

sa-paro {/(JV.) is sometimes found, generally expressing an 
indefinite number, sa-belah ringgit is a rare phrase for 
fi/ty cents (lit. half a dollar). 

Other fractions are made from the cardinal numbers by 
means of the prefix per. bsl-^qvU^q, one- third ; tiga per- 
lima three-fifths ; tujoh perpuloh seven-tenths. The suffix 
an is found occasionally with these derivatives : sa-pertigaan 
a third. 

The use of derivatives to express fractions is avoided 
generally by idiomatic circumlocution, often with bahagi, 
bahagian. di-bahagi tiga, dua bahagi akan Laksa- 
mana, sa-bahagi akan orang yang empunya harta 
a division of the property was made, two-thirds of it allotted to 
the Laksamana, one-third to the oivner ; Temenggong me- 
mileh orang-nya, di-dalam tiga-ribu itu dua-ratus 
juga di-bawa-nya the Temenggong took a picked body of 
men, one-fiftecnih of his force of three thousand. Without 
further explanation dua bahagian = tivo-thirds ; lima 
bahagian = five-si.xths ; sembilan bahagian nine-tcnlhs, 
and so on : tiga bahagian jiwa-nya sudah hilang he was 
three-quarters dead. 

^11. ke derivatives. 

Ordinals are formed from the cardinals by prefixing ke 
(§§ 2 and 57) and by putting yang before the derivative so 
formed, yang kedua the second; yang keenam-puloh 
satu the sixty-first; yang ketiga-ratus sembilan-belas 
the three hundred and nineteenth. Very rarely and mainly in 
literature kesa is found iox first, but almost always the word 
pertama from the Sanskrit is employed. 

The syntax of these derivative numerals is simple. 

(i) The phrase yang ke . . ., used adjectivally, always 
follows the word it qualifies, bab yang ketiga the third 



128 PARTS OF SPEECH 

chapter \ fasal yang kelima the fifth paragraph \ never 
yang ketiga bab, &c. 

(2) Without yang, these ke derivatives may precede the 
noun they qualify ; when they denote a complete set, all. 

kedua pipi both cheeks ; kedua mata both eyes ; kedua 
laki isteri the couple, husband and ivife ; ketiga anak-nya 
all three children of his (whereas tiga anak-nya = three of 
his children^ But these derivatives will follow and not 
precede personal pronouns or nouns standing for personal 
pronouns : sabaya ketiga / and tivo companions. 

The stem may be reduplicated : kelima-lima all five. 

(3) In the complete sets which these derivatives denote, the 
person or thing qualified by the numeral is included : 

Hang Tuab kelima bersaudara Hang Tuah and his 
four brothers ; baginda keempat isteri-nya the prince and 
his three zvivcs. 

(4) If the ke derivative does not precede the noun (or 
follow the pronoun) immediately, then -nya is added to it 
for the sake of clearness and antithesis : 

akan penjurit empat-pulob itu jika kita bunob 
keempat-pulob-nya mati as for the forty bravadoes, if we 
slay them, the ivholc forty of them ivill be dead afid done ivith ; 
sa-telab sampai tujob hari kedelapan-nya as soon as 
seven days had passed and the eighth which completed the period 
had arrived. 

(5) Standing alone at the beginning of a clause these 
derivatives denote firstly, secondly, thirdly, &c. : di-surob 
baginda bampir dari antara orang itu enam orang, 
pertama Bendabara, kedua Kadli, ketiga Paduka 
Tuan, keempat Pengbulu Bendabari, kelima Te- 
menggong, keenam Laksamana the prince called six 
officers to his presence, firstly the Bendahara, secondly the Kali, 
thirdly the Paduka Tuan, fourthly the Keeper of the Treasury, 
fifthly the Temenggojig, sixthly the Laksamana. 



NUMERALS 129 

§78. hev derivatives. 

It has been seen how collective numbers may be expressed 
by reduplicating the cardinal (§ 75) and by the ke derivatives. 
Furthermore they may be expressed by prefixing ber to the 
cardinals — except that ber is of course neither required 
nor used with sa, suatu, satu. Like derivatives in ke, so 
too these precede substantives, but follow personal pronouns 
proper and improper: berpuloh-puloh oraug scores of 
people ; sahaya bertiga we three together. 

§ 79. Miscellaneous. 

suatu one, as in pada suatu masa once upon a time; 
suatu alamat a certain sign ; banyak juany, sedikit few, 
lebeh more, kurang less, masing-masing each, tiap-tiap 
every, segala, semua all, have been called indefinite numerals, 
because unlike adjectives they precede the word they qualify. 

ganda -fold; kali, kian times, are words used in multipli- 
cation, lipat ganda untong-nya he got one hundred per 
cent, profit ; dua kali tinggi dari-pada kota itu tvoice as 
high as the fort. The following words denote addition, viz. 
himpun, kumpul (literally collect together'), jumlah (Ar.) ; 
lagi as in tujoh lagi dua jadi sembilan seven with two 
added makes ni?ie; lebeh, e.g. dua lebeh dua-pertiga two and 
two-thirds ; subtraction is denoted by ambil, tolak, potong ; 
division by bahagi ; ?>iultiply by pukul, tharab (Ar.). 

§ 80. Numeral coeflacients. 

Qualifying words that denote material objects, the numerals 
are generally accompanied by class words or coefficients, * in 
many cases descriptive of some obvious quality' of the 
material object; and corresponding to the English head in 
three head of cattle. The following is a list of the commoner: 

batang of trees, poles, spears, teeth, 
bentok of rings. 



13© PARTS OF SPEECH 

bidang of ividihs of cloth, matting, sails, a man's chest, 
rice- fields, 

biji of eyes, eggs, small stones, coco-nuts, caskets, chairs, 

bilah of daggers and knives, 

buah o^ fruits, countries, islands, lakes, ships, houses, 

butir oi coco-nuts, grain, Javels, 

charek of scraps o{ paper, and linen, 

ekur of ajiimals^ birds, insects, and contemptuously of men, 

helai, 'lai of leaves, hair, cloth, paper, 

kaj ang of palm-leaf coverings, 

kaki of insects, of umbrellas, of long-stemmed flowers, 

kampoh oi pieces oafish (terubok) roe, 

kayu of cloth, 

keping of blocks of timber, ttietal, and hunches of bread, 
meat, 

kuntum o{ flowers, 

laboh of hanging {curtains, necklace, &c.), 

lapis o^ folds of cloud or cloth, 

laras oi gun-barrels, 

mata of {edges of) knives, 

orang oi persons, 

patah of words, 

peranggu of sets of betel-boxes, buttons, 

perdu oi trees, 

pintu or tangga of houses, 

potong of slices of meat and bread, 

puchok of guns, letters, needles, 

rawan and utas of nets, 

rumpun of grasses, bamboos, sugar-canes, **- 

sikat of a layer in a bunch of bananas, 

tandan of a bunch of bananas, 

tangkai of flowers, 

urat of thread. 

The numeral always stands immediately before its co- 
efficient. And before a coefficient sa is used instead of 



NUMERALS 131 

suatu. The syntax of numeral-f«/«-coefficient is identical 
with that of the cardinal standing alone : 

{a) sa-f«w-coefficient stands before the substantive ; 

[i) other cardinals-^r/zw-coefficient stand after it ; 

[c) but, if emphasis falls on the numeral the above order 
laid down in {a) and (^) is reversed. 

Instances are : 

sa-orang anak-ku one (or ^7) son cf mine; anak-ku tiga 
orang my sons, they are three : but anak-ku sa-orang my 
one and only son ; tiga orang anak-ku three persons, i.e. my 
sons : and sa-orang budak hanyut berpegang pada sa- 
keping papan a child afloat clinging to a plank, where the 
numeral-t7/w-coeflicient merely has ihe force of an indefinite 
article. 

Used with words denoting measures of length, time and 
value, the cardinals take no coefficient ; so that the following 
must be distinguished : sa-ringgit one dollar (of price), sa- 
buah ringgit a dollar piece ; sa-kaki a foot {in length), sa- 
buah kaki a foot (of a pedestal) ; sa-pinggan a plateful, 
sa-biji pinggan a plate ; sa-jam one hour, sa-biji jam 
a ivatch. 

(C) ADVERBS 

§ 81. Even in languages less elliptic and elastic than Malay 
adverbs can hardly be termed essential to speech. They 
mostly express in a short and convenient manner what might 
be stated quite as explicitly if cumbrously by gesture accent 
and circumlocution, tuan ada is the master here} pada 
pagi ini tuan sudah jalan ka (-kebun-nya itu) this 
morning he has gone to {his estate), boleh hantarkan dia 
surat dengan segera can you convey him a letter tvith dis- 
patch? minta maaf-lah / beg to be excused: substitute 
adverbs and we get the shorter but not more explicit 

I 2 



132 PARTS OF SPEECH 

sentences, He has jusi gone yonder. Can you convey Jujn 
a letter quickly ? No. 

So even on the analogy of other languages it is not sur- 
prising to find, as Marsden pointed out, ' few instances in 
Malay in which their derivation from verbs, adjectives, or 
nouns is not more or less apparent.' 

A few examples of words which have acquired a more or 
less fixed and usual adverbial use will suflice : 

(a) Also nouns. 

siang daylight; by daylight \ malam 7iight ; by ?iight', 
bawah the bottom; below (adj. and adv.); so too dalam 
depth J deep ; deeply ; in ; atas the top ; above, and many 
others. 

(b) Also adjectives. 

dekat near^ adj. prep. adv. ; benar true, truly ; jarang 
wide apart ; seldom — a list is otiose, since most adjectives 
can be used adverbially; tarek kuat pull hard, pasang 
t^gdh-fix fir?fily, pandang tepat look closely, jalan chepat 
walk quickly. 

(c) Also verbs. 

h.ohis finish ; utterly, hsdek return ; behind; hampir to 
approach; nearly. Very common is the form ber + re- 
duplicated verbal root : berganti-ganti in turn ; berturut- 
turut repeatedly. 

(d) Also conjufictions. 

Especially close is the connection between adverbs and 
conjunctions, so that it has been debated whether words like 
hanya, melainkan, sedang, makin, tengah, lagi shall 
be reckoned as the one or the other ; the fact being really that 
they are employed as both of these parts of speech. 

§ 82. Foreign loan-words. 

Many Malay adverbs are loan-words from foreign sources : 
segera quickly ; sahaja ojily ; neschaya certainly ; istimewa 
especially are Sanskrit ; saat in a moment is Arabic. 



ADVERBS 133 

§ 83. Formation of Adverbs. 

(I) In addition to root forms like amat very, belum iioi 
yet, esok to-morroiv, lama lofig {0/ Ume), we get fixed 

derivatives like terlalu very, sambil (= sa-ambil) at I he 
same time, ke-mudi-an thereafter. 

(II) Furthermore adverbs are formed from different parts 
of speech by several devices : 

(a) By reduplication of the root, especially of adjectival 
roots, hari-hari daily ; kira-kira approxifuately ; tiba-tiba 
suddenly ; churi-churi secretly ; kurang-kurang at the 
least; rintek-rintek ^f«//}' (0/ rain). 

{p) By the prefix sa. 

sa-belah on one side ; sa-kali at once ; sa-benar truly ; 
sa-kian so much; thus; sa-lalu ahvays : sini (= sa-ini) 
here ; situ (sa-itu) there. 

{c) By sa + reduplication of the root. 

sa-hari-hari daily ; sa-lama-lama /or ever ; sa-kali- 
kali ever. 

(d) By sa + the root + nya. 

sa-benar-nya truly ; sa-sunggoh-nya /// all reality ; sa- 
kuat-nya ivith all vigour; sa-boleh-nya to the best 0/ one's 
ability ; sa-harus-nya necessarily. 

{e) By sa + reduplication + nya. 

sa-lama-lama-nyay(>r ever ; sa-boleh-boleh-nya to the 
very best 0/ one's ability. 

{/) By the suffix an ; in a few crystallized forms : 

taimba.'h&n/i/rther?nore ; mudah-mudahan perhaps; may 
it be. 

{g) Isolated forms are lama-(ber)kelamaan at last] 
perlahan-lahan sloivly ; pertama-tama (from Skt. pra- 
thama) firstly. 

(III) Some adverbs are formed by juxtaposition of two 
words, barang kala whenever ; barang kali perhaps ; 



134 PARTS OF SPEECH 

bagai man a ///'?('; macham mana (colloquial) /^^rt;; sebab 
itu therefore ; karna apa, apa fasal ivhy ; ta'usah dont, it 
is of no use; mana kala ivhcn. 

(IV) Adverbial phrases are formed by the help of the 
preposition dengan iviih ; dengan murahan cheaply ; 
dengan adil-nyay>/j//r ; dengan gopoh-nya quickly. 

§ 84. The classification of Malay adverbs as adverbs of 
place, time, degree, affirmation and negation marks no 
difference in their syntax. This latter is marked by their 
classification as 

I. Adverbs qualifying numerals, adjectives andotheradverbs ; 

II. Adverbs qualifying verbs. 

I. To the first class belong mostly adverbs of degree like 
kurang less; lebeh viore; amat, sangat, terlalu, ter- 
lampau, sa-kali very ; bagini so, in this ivise ; bagitu so, 
in that wise; sedangyW/; dekat, hampir w^rrr/j' ; barang 
about, more or less ; belaka entirely ; sa-kian so far ; bukan 
not; makin the more. 

Of these kurang, lebeh, terlalu, sedang, belum, 
dekat, hampir, barang, sa-kian, bukan and generally 
bagini, bagitu and amat stand before the word they 
qualify; others after it. kurang dua tiga-puloh rial 
twenty-eight dollars ; lebeh chantek more pretty ; kambing 
terlalu amat sangat chantek v\v^2L-nj2ia goat surpassingly, 
exceedingly beautiful; bagitu cherdek so clever; sedang 
masak y>/.y/ ripe; sedang bagitu gila juga even so, one is 
distraught; hampir mati nearly dead; kami ini lagi 
muda-muda belaka we are still young, all of us ; sa-teliah 
demikian after that ; barang ka-mana any zvhither ; 
sa-belah sini in this direction ; sa-kian lama all this 
while. 

Many of these (sedang, bagini, bagitu, bukan, makin, 
belum) belong also to the next class. 



ADVERBS 13J 

II. Adverbs qualifying verbs have no fixed place in the 
sentence, beyond that they usually but not always precede 
the verb. Their position depends on the emphasis 
desired. 

sekarang sudah sampai has nozv arrived', Raja Suran 
segera melompat Raja Suran leapt quickly ; tiada mau 
undur lagi did not wish to retreat further ; Raja dan Ratu 
Melayu lagi di-hadap oleh segala pegawai all the officers 
were still in the presence of the Raja and the Javafiese chief; 
baginda belum lagi keluar tengah dudok di-balai the 
prince had 7iot yet gone forth and still sat in the hall\ tengah 
baginda berfikir itu ivhile still the prince thought over it to 
himself; gigi kami semua-nya habis tanggal our teeth 
have all of them entirely dropped out; sangat tahu or tahu 
sangat know thoroughly. 

§ 85. The following points require notice : 

Of adverbs of place sini denotes here, the place where the 
speaker is ; situ strictly the place there, where the person 
addressed is ; and sana, compounded of an obsolete demon- 
strative form in the third person, denotes the place there, where 
some one else is. 

All adverbs of place, sini, situ, sana and mana 7vhere, 
bawah beloiv, balek bchifui, dalam inside, atas above, jauh 
distant, sa-belah. on this side, sa-berang across water, may 
have the locative prepositions di, ka and dari prefixed to 
them; because they are not really adverbs but substantives. 

Many adverbs may be qualified by the demonstrative 
pronouns ini, itu. sekarang ini 7iow ; sa-kali ini this time ; 
sa-lama ini all this ivhile ; demikian itu thus, in that way ; 
telah. itu aftenvards, after that. 

Different negatives and prohibitives have to be distinguished. 
bukan, it has been said, implies the copula to be and should 
be used where it is understood. But then orang itu tidak 
kaya that man is not rich ; orang itu kaya tidak is that 



136 PARTS OF SPEECH 

matt rich or is he not P orang itu kaya that ruan is rich also 
imply the copula. Really tidak simply denies; bukan not 
only denies but implies that the reverse of what has been 
stated should be affirmed; tidak qualifies the sentence, 
bukan the word to which it is attached in the sentence. 
tidak dia jahat or dia tidak jahat he is not wicked; dia 
jahat tidak is he wicked or not ? But dia bukan jahat he is 
710 1 wicked but he is something else; bukan dia (yang) jahat 
it is not he but some one else who is wicked ; dia jahat bukan 
he is ivicked ? Surely the reverse is not true, tidak-kah 
benar is it not true ? (/ dofi't know) ; bukan-kah benar 
is it not true ? (/ have heard it is true). The following 
transpositions show the force of bukan : 

bukan sengaja beta ka-mari it is not of free-will but by 
compulsion I have come; sengaja bukan beta ka-mari 
of free-will not I but others would have come; sengaja beta 
bukan ka-mari of free-will I should have journeyed not here 
but elsewhere, 

bukan sometimes has the pronominal suffix nya attached 
to it. negeri ini bukan-nya negeri besar this country is 
the reverse of a large country ; bukan-nya ia tiada tahu 
his is the r averse of igiiorance. 

tidak, tiada or t' ada, ta' not, no are identical in meaning 
and use. ta' comnion in conversation occurs in a few phrases 
in literature, ta' usah dont; ta' dapat tidak, ta' dapat 
tiada certainly ?jiust ; ta' boleh tidak or ta' boleh tiada 
77iust ivithout fail; tidak apa or tiada apa never 7nind: 
akan musoh itu tiada apa-lah ia tiga buah perahu 
itu 7itTer mi7td that the enemy have three boats yo7ider. Where 
there is emphasis on presence or existence tiada should be 
preferred, but where that emphasis is great a redundant use 
is often found : sa-orang pun tiada ada ther6 zvas no one 
present. 

Direct negatives, like the direct affirmative i&yes, are looked 
upon as too emphatic to be polite. 



ADVERBS 137 

ada-kah kamu dengar do you hear ? may be answered 
(i) tuan sir (or enchek, &c.), (2) ada / am {hearing), 
(3) dengar or dengar-lah hearing, (4) sahaya / {do), and 
(5) least politely by io, yes. Similarly no will be conveyed by 
belum notyel ; mana boleh how is it possible?', entah / hiow 
not; and rarely and rudely by tidak no. 

Prohibitives are jangan do not, jangan dahulu don't yet, 
and the politer evasions ta' usah /'/ is needless, ta' payah 
don't trouble to, ta' apa never inind. Prohibitives may be used 
even when prohibition is only indirect or implied, anak 
kita baik kita beri atau jangan is it ivell we give otir child 
or better that we don't?; jaga jangan ia masok ^//<?;7/ that 
he do not enter, jangan is the negative proper in final 
clauses, § 98 (y). A very strong positive command is ex- 
pressed by jangan tidak or jangan tiada : jangan tiada 
chuchu-ku pergi berguru ka-pada-nya go my grandchild 
without fail to his lessons. 

pernah ever is employed with negatives or in interrogative 
sentences where a negative reply is possible, tidak pernah 
never; belum pernah never yet. beberapa sudah lama- 
nya ia menjadi tua tiada pernah ia menyuroh bekerja 
all the time ht has been old he has fiever bidden us work ; ada- 
kah pernah pergi have you ever gone ? 

juga, jua is a word marking the antithesis and balance 
dear to the Malay, its exact rendering being dependent on 
the context ; often it may be left untranslated. 

orang itu sakit juga he was sick and he is sick still or 
he is sick but he is not very sick ; ia datang juga others come 
and he comes or he does not want to come but he does come ; 
hari ini juga oti this day and not on another day; sama 
juga alike this and that; kalau mau pergi boleh juga 
if you xvant to go, you can go ; dengan mudah juga ia 
mengangkut // is not easy but with ease he lifts it ; apa juga 
maksud-nya ia datang he has a reason, hut what is his 
reason for coming ? di-pandang dari hadapan terlalu 



138 PARTS OF SPEECH 

tinggi dan dari belakang rendah juga in front il is 
very high and behind on the contrary loiv ; bunga harum 
itu ada juga duri-nya the flower may be sweet but it has 
thorns. 

pula fulfils a similar function ; sudah tahu bertanya 
pula^w/ k7iow and yet you as/:. 

§ 86. There are certain modal words and phrases which 
affect the sense of a sentence fundamentally, changing it from 
a statement of fact to the expression of a wish or a doubt or 
inquiry; for instance gerangan, kira-nya, apa-lah, ba- 
rang, masa(-kan), remak. fikir di-dalam hati-nya 
tempat raja-raja gerangan ini thinking in his heart, ?nay 
this perhaps be a prince's palace; sudah mati, masakan 
hidup pula he is dead and is it /ike/y he wilt come to life ?; 
jika ada Laksamana, masakan Si Jebat boleh perbuat 
derhaka demikian if the Laksa?nafia were here, is it likely 
Si Jebat ivould play the traitor in this fashion \ remak mati 
di-tanah Pasai better to die in Pasai. apa, apa-lah, kira- 
nya, apa-lah kira-nya, barang, barang kira-nya, 
mudah-mudahan, muga-muga soften a command or 
prohibition into the expression of a wish, kata isteri datok 
Bendahara ' Datang ibu Hang Tuah ; mari apa-lah 
bermain-main pada kita ' said the zvifc of the Bendahara 
' Here comes the mother of Hang Tuah ; please come and play 
ivith us ' ; jangan apa-lah anak-ku tekebur dan ria pray 
dotit be arrogant and proud ; jangan apa di-perbinasa 
hati kami sakalian dengan titah yang demikian itu 
pray do not break our hearts witJi such a mandate. 

§ 87. There are certain particles, the enclitics lah, kah, 
and tah, and also pun, all of which emphasize just the 
word they follow, which is the emphatic word in the clause. 
Naturally that word, whether subject or predicate, may often 
occupy the important forefront of the sentence, but not 
necessarily. 



ADVERBS 139 

hamba-lah raja segala manusia // ?'s I who am pn'?ice 
0/ all 7)1 or la Is ; chunda baginda Raja Suran-lah kerajaan 
Ihe King's g?'andson Raja Suran it zvas who became rider ; 
rata-lah segala rumah keehurian everywhere houses were 
burgled ; segala hutan belantara habis-lah menjadi 
padang Ihi ivhole forest absolutely all 0/ it became open plain; 
baginda pun terlalu-lah kaseh akan Hang Tuah the 
prince felt the very greatest affection for Hang Tuah ; 'tok 
bidan tujoh-lah pergi sembahkan it ivas the seven viid- 
zvives zuho ivent and informed the prince ; sang api pun ber- 
maharaja-lela-lah Mr. Fire played the Maharaja Lela. 

kah is the particle of interrogation : the interrogative 
sentence being distinguished from the affirmative often 
(especially in conversation) merely by intonation ; also by the 
presence of an interrogative pronoun or adverb, also by the 
use of modal words like masakan, gerangan, and very 
frequently by kah suffixed to the word on which the interro- 
gation lays stress. Thus is he alive ? may be ia hidup ; ia 
hidup gerangan ; and hidup-kah ia or ia hidup-kah. 
anak jin atau peri-kah tuan hamba ini is it child of spirit 
or of fairy that you are ? engkau-kah nama Malim Dewa 
is it you who are named Malim Deiva ? alang-kah tinggi 
orang itu is it of slight height that the fellow is? kah is 
suffixed even to interrogative words : apa-kah hajat ka- 
mari ivhat is it that has brought you hither ? 

tah an enclitic signifying surprise as well as interrogation 
is suffixed only to interrogative pronouns and adverbs. 
siapa-tah lagi lain dari-pada Laksamana yang akan 
dapat kita surohkan who in the world else besides the 
Laksamana is there whom 7ve can commission ? apa-tah 
bichara kita zvhat in the ivorld plan is there for us ? mana- 
tah dapat ivherc in the ivorld can it be got ? 

pun marks balance and antithesis, as may be seen by a 
study of the idiomatic usages that replace copulative, adver- 
sative, alternative, proportional and conditional conjunctions. 



I40 PARTS -OF SPEECH 

Analogous with that is its use to mark repetition, when it 
refers back the word it qualifies and balances its mention in 
a previous clause, sa-kali persetua nabi Adam alaihi 
al-salam berjalan-jalan pada waktu suboh ; maka 
tetekala itu nabi Adam alaihi al-salam pun bertemu 
dengan Ruwana bertapa itu ovce the prophet Adam on 
whotJi be peace ivas ivalkifig hi the early moriiing. And then 
the aforesaid prophet Adam on whom be peace met with Ravatia 
doing penance. Often it emphasizes merely a single word and 
may be translated even, too. sekarang pun even now, this 
7Homent ; siapa pun atty one eve7i, any one at all ; itu pun 
that too. 

Sometimes these particles merely balance one another and 
preserve antithesis between the parts of the clause, piala 
pun di-peridarkan orang-lah cups ivere handed round by 
servants ; maka Ruwana pun di-turunkan-lah ka-pada 
bukit itu Ravana ivas made to descend on the mountain. 

(D) PREPOSITIONS 

§ 88. (i) There are three locative prepositions : 

di ?>/, at, denoting place where ; 

ka to, denoting place whither ; 

dL'ax\fro7n, denoting place whence. 

(2) These are often prefixed to adverbs of place, as for 
example di-mana where ? ka-mana ivhithcr .^ dari-mana 
whence ? also to words denoting place like atas the top, bela- 
kang back., rear, dalam interior, luar the outside, bawah 
bottom ; e. g. di-atas atop, on the top of, ka-atas up, to the top of 
dari-atas from atop. But it is to be noted that these last 
words are often used alone as prepositions and some especially, 
seldom take di even if in literature ka and dari are commonly 
prefixed to them ; so, masok ka-dalam goa enter inside a 
cave, keluar dari dalam laut issue from the depths of the 
sea, but dudok dalam (or di-dalam) negeri dwell in a land. 



PREPOSITIONS 141 

(3) The placing of these locative prepositions before 
adjectives, numerals and nouns denoting persons, animals 
and things, in short before words other than those denoting 
place, is not permissible, di-negeri ini in this land, ka- 
negeri ini to this land, dari negeri ini from this larid are 
correct, but never di-suatu, ka-suatu, dari suatu negeri, 
nor yet again ka-Hassan to Hassan or dari Hassan from 
Hassan. Such constructions are avoided by the use of 
pada {infra). 

The one exception to this rule is that there is latitude in 
the case of dari, which may be 

{a) locative, dari daksina datang ka-paksina from 
south to north ; turun dari kapal alight from a ship. 

{b) temporal, dari 6.dJa.u\xi from of yore, kemudian dari 
itu after that; patek dari keehil pergi ka-Manjapahit 
from boyhood I went to Manjapahit. 

(f) denote origin : anak dari jin a descenda^it of spirits ; 
sa-orang dari anak China one of the Chinese. 

{d) denote comparison ; indah khabar dari rupa report 
is fairer than reality. 

{e) denote concerning : dari sebab itu from that cause ; 
dari hal itu touching that business. 

If the idea of motion toivards however remote exists, not di 
but ka must be used. With words like sampai arrive at, 
singgah visit, datang come to the choice between di and 
ka will depend on the context, but ka is generally preferred. 
lalu berjalan ka-darat lalu bermain ka-padang went 
ashore and visited the fields to play ; kita sambut ka-Tuban- 
lah we will greet at Tuban, we will go to Tuban and greet; 
pergi-lah aku tinggal ka-dalam kota / ivent and lived at 
the fort \ jika hendak menchuri ka-dalam astana raja 
if you ivill make burglarious entry into the palace ; ka-pada 
malam sekarang patek sendiri berkawal when it comes 
to night I myself ivill keep guard; datang-Iah ka-pada ta- 
hunyangka-hadapan^c^w;/ to the year which is {for) coming. 



142 PARTS OF SPEECH 

§ 89. pada is invariably suffixed to ka and dari, if only 
for euphony, before ku, mu and nya ; and it lakes the 
place of di and is suffixed to ka and generally in elegant 
style to dari before words other than those denoting place, 
i.e. before numerals, adjectives, pronouns and nouns denoting 
animate beings, concrete things, time and so on. Of its use 
before the pronominal suffixes a few examples will serve. 

beri ka-pada-nya give to him; ambil dari-pada-ku 
take from vie; bapa ka-pada-mu your father. Of the 
broader use, the following are instances. It will be observed 
that ka-pada unlike the locative ka can indicate possession 
and time, and that dari-pada while its uses can be classified 
like those of dari {supra) inclines to be used in metaphorical 
rather than purely locative contexts. 

ka-pada (i) Place whither, datang ka-pada suatu goa 
coming to a certain cave ; layangkan surat ka-pada saka- 
lian negeri sendiug letters to all lands ; mengutus ka- 
benua Keling ka-pada saudara kita sending an embassy 
to Southern India to our relations. 

(2) Temporal, datang ka-pada hari itu ivhen it came 
to the day. (N.B. Abdullah writes sampai ka-hari khamis 
//// Thursday but it is not to be imitated.) 

(3) Possessive, hamba ka-pada tuanjw/r j-te'^; suatu 
pun tiada ka-pada aku there is not one belonging to me. 

dari-pada (i) Place whence, dari-pada suatu dusun 
fro7n a certain orchard; turun dari-pada wazir descend 
frojn the office of vizier ; sihat dari-pada gering recovered 
from sickness. 

(2) Temporal, dari-pada zaman dahulu from yore ; 
kemudian dari-pada puji-pujian after co?nplif)ienis. 

(3) Denoting origin, material, pakaian dari-pada emas 
cloth of gold; gambar di-buat dari-pada kapur masak 
a picture juade of chalk ; beribu-ribu mati dari-pada laki- 
laki dan perempuan thousands dead both of men and women. 



PREPOSITIONS 143 

(4) Denoting cause, dari-pada sangat kaseh oivijig to 
great affection ; dari-pada fasal itu on account of that. 

(5) Comparative, supayabangatraati dari-pada hidup 
sa-laku ini so that I may quickly die rather than live in this 

fashion ; menang dari-pada aku conquer {over) me ; me- 
merentahkan dari-pada segala makhlok rule over all 
creatures. 

When the context precludes confusion pada may stand 
alone for ka-pada and dari-pada as the case may be. 
terdengar pada raja // came to the prince's ears ; terlalu 
kaseh sayang pada raja muda very affectionate toivards 
the heir apparent; kemudian pada itu after that', pada 
segala raja indera sa-orang pun tiada menyamai dia 
of all the princes of fairyland none tvas his peer, pada and 
not ka-pada is ordinarily employed where purpose is denoted. 
bab pada menyatakan a chapter for explaining; anjing 
baik pada menghambat a hound good at the chase ; terlalu 
bijaksana pada hal memanah itu very expert at archery. 

In honorific addresses to is expressed not by ka-pada but 
by ka-bawah duli (tuanku) beneath the dust of your highness' 

feet; ka-bawah kaus (or cherpu) twa,ia.beneath your honour's 
shoes. When ka-bawah duli is mistaken for a title {§ 66 II), 
we find persembahkan pada ka-bawah duli lay in the 
dust of your feet. 

pada stands alone for di in the following uses : 
(i) Locative. Under this head di and pada can some- 
times be used interchangeably, singgah di-rumah or pada 
rumah pay visits to or at a house ; dudok di- (or pada) 
tepi jalan sit by the wayside. But consonant with the general 
principle, di implies physical station in a place and pada 
metaphorical station not on the particular spot but in a 
locality or grade or medium, dia orang mulia pada benua 
Keling he is renozvned in Southern India ; di-lihat-nya 
bangkai penggawa pada suatu pintu berpuloh-puloh 



144 PARTS OF SPEECH 

orang mati he saw at otie gak the bodies of scores of officers 
dead; di-kepala gajah Laksamana dan pada buntut- 
nya Hang Jebat on the elephant's head the Laksamana and 
at its tail Hang Jebat ; masing-masing pada taraf-nya 
each in rank ; pada suatu riwayat in one version of the 
story ; pada bichara patek in 7ny opinion ; berfikir pada 
hati-nya thinking in his iniyid; pada bahasa Arab Omar 
nama-nya />/ Arabic his name is Omar. 

(2) Temporal, pada hari ahad on Sunday, pada 
akhir-nya finally ; pada tetekala menjadi raja muda 
at the time he became heir apparent ; pada sa-kali ini on this 
occasion ; di-dalam pada itu meanwhile. 

§ 90. akan is a preposition, very common in literature but 
less so in conversation. Abbreviated to kan it has become 
a verbal suffix (§61). It signifies approach to, toivards, to, 
touching, concernifig. 

dudok mengadap akan seteru facing towards the foe \ 
di-ikutkan-nya akan kijang itu he followed after the deer ; 
menguehap shukur akan Allah utter thanks to God\ 
terkenang akan adinda yearning toivards her ; murka 
akan patek ajigry xvith 7ne; akan kain dan emas ini 
akan penolong hamba-lah akan Laksamana as for this 
cloth atid gold which are my contribution towards giving help 
to the Laksamana ; akan bichara patek as for my opitiion ; 
akan tuan sudah berchampur dunia akan sekarang 
ini siapa dap at menentang mata tuan as for your con- 
verse xvith earth ivho is there at the present time who can face you .'' 

akan denotes the patiens as opposed to oleh which 
denotes the agent. 

Denoting approach to future time it is adverbial and often 
takes the place of an auxiliary forming a future tense ; 
yang akan datang that zvhich is toward] tiada akan 
chukup it will not be enough ; betapa akan bahagia-nya 
what will be his fortwie ? 



PREPOSITIONS 145 

§ 91. oleh by, ly reason of. (§ 41) : with verbs, it denotes 
the agent or subject. Its original sense is still to be seen in 
beroleh getting. Other uses are : ibu bapa oleh hamba 
my parents — a rare use taking the place of the more common 
pada ; oleh sebab itu oti account of that reason ; oleh 
yang demikian itu on account of those circumstances', oleh 
apa maka bagitu why so? oleh itu-lah kita hendak 
jaga baik-baik for thai reason we must be careful. For 
oleh as a conjunction, see § 98 (e). 

§ 92. dengan with, is a very common preposition denoting 
close companionship, close relation in time, close causal 
relation and manner or condition closely allied to some act 
or circumstance. 

{a) datang penglima itu dengan segala sakai-nya 
the chief came along ivith all his followers ; bagai kuku 
dengan isi-nya as close as nail and quick ; serta dengan, 
bersama dengan along with ; dengan sa-orang diri by 
oneself beperang fight with ; bergadoh quarrel ivith ; 
berkaseh be in love with; bernikah, berkahwin marry, 
and other verbal derivatives in be(r) denoting reciprocal 
relation are followed by this preposition : bulu mata 
dengan bulu kening sudah bertemu eyelashes had met 
with eyebroivs ; bersahabat dengan raja friendly with a 
prince ; berbichara-lah dengan kapitan kapal discussing 
with all the ships' captains. 

{b) Temporal, dengan sa-saat itu juga di-talak ba- 
ginda at that very moment the king divorced her; dengan tiada 
berapa lama-nya in a short while; dengan tiga hari 
habis-lah pekerjaanitu in three days the work was finished. 

{c) Proximity of place, dekat dengan rumah near to 
the house ; bertentang dengan ^s.oVd. facing the fort. 

{d) Instrument and means, potong dengan pisau cut 
with a knife; berdiri dengan suatu kaki standing on 
(literally by means of) one leg; belajar dengan bahasa 



146 PARTS OF SPEECH 

Keling learfi through the medium of the Tamil language ; 
nilai mata dengan intan assess the value of bright eyes 
in diamonds ; beli dengan harga yang mahal buy at a 
high price ; beranak dengan isteri-nya got a child by 
his ivife; dengan titah tuanku by royal co?7imand; 
dengan berkat tinggi tuan by the blessing of your luck; 
dengan takdir Allah by the will of God. 

{e) Manner, masing-masing dengan ragam-nya each 
with different temperament; datang serta dengan lelah- 
nya came in a tired state ; dengan segera quickly ; sembah 
dengan tangis-nya did obeisance in tears ; mati dengan 
nama yang baik dead ivith fair fame ; jikalau patek 
mati ridla-lah dengan pekerjaan shah alam / am cotitent 
to die even, in your highnesses service ; dengan mudah-nya 
juga Pahang itu alah it was with ease Pahang was 
conquered. 

dengan in conjunction with a negative means ivithout. 
tiada dengan seperti-nya improperly ; lihat-lah Benda- 
hara tiada dengan pereksa-nya membunoh Laksamana 
tiada dengan dosa-nya see how the Bendahara ivithout 
inquiry executes the Laksamatia who is without fault ; dengan 
tiada boleh tidak ivithout fail; tiada boleh membunoh 
dengan tiada bertanya may not slay without asking leave. 

(f) In oaths : by. dengan karna Allah by God; dengan 
nama nabi Muhammad in the name of the Prophet. For 
dengan as a copulative conjunction, see § 98 {a). 

§ 93. In addition to the above prepositions, there are 
several characteristically indeterminate words that among 
other functions serve as prepositions. 

demi. demi Allah by God; sa-orang demi sa-orang 
one after another; di-lihat sa-bilah demi sa-bilah he 
inspected the blades one by one. And see § 98 (/"). 

dekat, hampir near, baginda pun tidur hampir 
peti itu the king slept near the chest. Both dekat and 



PREPOSITIONS 147 

hampir are also adverbs, so that we find dekat dengan, 
hampir dengan, hampir ka-pada for near. 

Similarly hingga and sampai up to, uniil may stand alone 
or before ka-pada and pada. hingga lutut up to the 
knees; jangan lagi berputusan hingga hari kiamat let 
there be no further severance till the day of Judgement ; dari 
dahulu sampai sekarang //t?/// be/ore till now; hingga 
sampai kesudahan up till the ejid; hingga pada masa 
sekarang until the present tijne; umur sampai ka-pada 
dua-belas tahun having reached twelve years of age. 
datang is used for tmtil in the phrase datang sekarang till 
now : di-sebut orang datang sekarang ini Patani it is 
called Patani doivn to the present time. 

bagi is an idiomatic expression, the use of which may be 
seen in the sentences : ada bagi-nya sa-orang anak 
laki-laki there was belonging to him a boy; tiada bagi 
hamba pakaian hanya sa-helai there belongs to me otily 
one suit ; nasihat bagi kanak-kanak advice to children ; 
segala puji-pujian bagi Allah all praise to God. 

§ 94. Among words used as prepositions, as among words 
as conjunctions, is a fair sprinkling of foreign loan-words. 
antara between ; sama similarity, similar (in bazaar Malay 
/(?) ; karna because are Sanskrit ; and sebab cause, an Arabic 
word, is used for because of. karna Allah in God's name; 
sebab mulut badan binasa // is because of the mouth the 
body is destroyed. Perhaps karna and sebab even in such 
contexts remain substantives, and the literal rendering of 
the last sentence may be the mouth is the cause of the bodys 
destruction. 

§ 95. Finally constructions without the preposition are 
found in the Malay idiom when in ours a preposition is 
required, and vice versa. Words like mengadap confront; 
mentiju make for ; ganti take the place of are ordinarily 
not followed by prepositions. In many phrases, there is 

K 2 



148 PARTS OF SPEECH 

nothing but the context to signify case, naik gunong 
ascaid a inoiintahi ; turun gunong descend from a mountain ; 
keluar padang issue from a plain ; dudok tanah sit on the 
ground; tinggal rumah stay at home ; menyembah kaki 
do obeisance at the feet; penoh sampahyf/AY/ with rubbish; 
bijak berchakap clever at conversation ; pandai menari 
clever at daJicifis'. 



(E) CONJUNCTIONS 

§ 96. Considering the genius of the IMalay language, it is 
not surprising to find 

I. That conjunctions can hardly be held necessary either in 
its literature or its conversation. 

II. That more properly most of the words so employed 
belong to other parts of speech. 

III. That a great number are of foreign origin. 

I. The Malay equivalent for the conjunction is antithesis, 
marked by the balanced juxtaposition of word and clause. 
So there are omitted conjunctions of all kinds: 

{a) Copulative. 

hamba sahay a serfs and servants ; ikan udang fish and 
praiv?is; tepok tari clap and dance; pergi balek go and 
return; tua muda old a?id young; ka-sini 'k.di-SB.na, hither 
and thither; beristeri beranak, beranak berchuchu 
wedding and getting children, by children getting grand- 
children ; makin sangat ia lari jatoh bangun song- 
sang balik lari juga the more he ran, falling ami getting up, 
sprawling headlong but starting to ru7i again. And this 
omission will be maintained between contrasted words, though 
conjunctions unite in the same clause words that are not 
contrasted: lembu kambing dan biri-biri itek ayam 
pun murah belaka cows, goats and sheep, ducks, chicken 



CONJUNCTIONS 149 

were all cheap. Sometimes the antithesis will be between 
a simple and a literary, or a native and a foreign synonym. 
saudara (Ski.) daging (Malay) nlalions; hairan (Ar.) 
terehengang amazed ; gagah perkasa (Skt.) valianl and 
strong ; selamat (Ar.) sempurna (Skt.) safety and security ; 
kaum (Ar.) keluarga (Skt.) friends and family ; kelam 
kabut dark and dim ; budi (Skt.) bahasa (Skt.) manners. 
turun-lah angin ribut tofan dan hujan petir kilat 
halilintar sabong-menyabong doivn came ivind and storm, 
i.e. tempest, ivith rain and thunder flash and crackle of lightning 
illustrates the omission of the copula both between contrasted 
words and between synonyms. (N. B. — It does not come 
under the general principle of antithesis, but the copula is 
also omitted where simultaneity is denoted, as for instance in 
dates, tahun sa-ribu sembilan ratus sa-belas the year 
191 1 or in phrases like di-pelok Ai-oh-xuxa-nja, hugged and 
kissed.) 

{b) Adversative. 

di-tikam-nya tiada kena he 7vas stabbed at {but) not hit; 
bercherai kaseh bertalak tididik. parted {but) not divorced; 
hendak hinggap tidak berkaki tvanting to alight {but) 
lacking cIgzvs ; raja Siak membunoh orang tiada mem- 
beri tahu the raja of Siak was executing people {but) not 
informing {Malacca). 

{c) Alternative. 

dua tiga hari tzvo {or) three days ; mau ta' mau ivilling 
{or) unwilling ; pelenteh itu mati, patek tiada tahu 
whether the blackguard is alive or dead, I do not knoiv ; tiada 
tentu baik jahat-nya, hidup mati-lah // is uncertain 
ivhether his fortune be good or ill, ivhether he be alive or dead. 

{d) Final. 

bawa mari penjurit itu, 'ku lihat bring hither the robber 
{that) I ?/iay see him. 

{e) ' That ' of indirect narration. 

kedengaran ka-Malaka raja Siak membunoh orang 



I50 PARTS OF SPEECH 

7ietvs came to ]\falacca {/ha/) the raja of Siah ivas executing 
people. 

{/) Conditional. 

datang orang budak hendak membeli layang- 
layang, 'ku taaya came a boy to buy rny kttes, I asked him. 

(g) Causal. 

datang 'ku ini hendak membunoh engkau the reason 
I came >io7v is because I ivould slay you. 

(//) Temporal. 

ka-pada masa itu Laksamana Hang Nadim di- 
Johor ; menengar Sultan Abdul- j alii mangkat, ia balek 
at that time the Laksa?nana Ha fig A\idim ivas in Johor, but 
ivhen he heard of the demise of Sultan Abdul-jalil he returned; 
pasar pun hampir akan ramai, penjurit itu pun naik 
ka-atas kedai-kedai itu when the inarket ivas nearly full of 
people, the robbers mounted the stalls. 

Antithesis, as will be seen below, pervades many conjunctive 
idioms, and is often accentuated by the repetition of a word 
or particle, entah . . . entah, baik . . . baik, bukan . . . 
bukan, pun . . . pun, pun . . . lah, maka . . . maka, or 
by an emphatic adverb marking the alternative or the 
consequence. 

II. Almost all words used in Malay as conjunctions are 
either other parts of speech pressed into that service or 
perhaps actually become conjunctions by adaptation. ' Con- 
junctions ', wrote INIarsden, 'were originally nouns or verbs 
or phrases contracted.' A fev/ instances will serve. 

(rt) Also nouns. 

'bi^^^x sort, species ; like; to.'k.Vit fear ; for fear that. -^ 

(b) Also verbs. 

telah did, was ; after : jadi it happens ; therefore : lalu 
pass ; then : sampai arrive ; up to, until. 

(c) Also adjectives and adverbs. 

lagi more ; and: sedang medium; just, midway, whilst, 
even though ; baharu new, newly ; not till then. 



CONJUNCTIONS 151 

{(/) Also prepositions. 

dalam inside, in ; while : oleh Ity ; because : demi [one^ 
after {another); as soon as. 

III. A great number of words used as conjunctions are 
borrowed from foreign sources. 

Sanskrit are seperti /r(?/^r appearance, like, as if\ tetapi 
but; atau or; tetekala time, when; karna y^r, because; 
sementara tvhile, before ; supaya in order that ; umpama 
example, like. Arabic are (wa-)Iakin a7id yet, but ; sebab 
because ; asal provided that ; walau even if; misal for 
example, meski although, is Portuguese ; agar so that, 
Hindustani. 

These like foreign nouns, adjectives and so on, are 
frequently explained by the nearest Malay equivalent or some 
better known foreign synonym placed alongside them : 
serta dengan ; akan tetapi ; oleh karna ; oleh. sebab ; 
karna sebab ; jika lau ; agar supaya. Many of them 
like Malay words have been forced into the service of con- 
junctions, though primarily they are other parts of speech. 
Thus we find several uses of serta. ada banyak serta 'ku 
/ have many companions; pergi-lah dengan sa-puloh 
orang hulubalang serta-nya ivent with ten captains accom- 
panying him ; burong nuri dan tiong serta ha.yB,n parrots 
and mynahs accompanied by parakeets ; bunga melur ter- 
lalu banyak serta berbagai rupa-nya jasmine flowers 
very matiy in number and of various sorts ; ia pun lalu 
bangun serta berdebar hati-nya he then rose ivith beating 
heart; serta todak melompat lekat jungur-nya pada 
batang pisang itu as soon as the fish leapt, their snouts stuck 
in the banajia stems, karna and s6bab are nouns,prepositions, 
and conjunctions. 

§ 97. Like adverbs, some conjunctions are formed by the 
prefix sa. sa-belum before ; sa-Iagi as long as ; sa-telah 
after ; sa-hingga /////// ; sa-bagai, sa-rupa, sa-umpama 



152 PARTS OF SPEECH 

like, samp ai //;////; sambil z£'/;//.r/ ; 'kan is found suffixed 
to several words used as conjunclions, does not affect them 
as parts of speech, but merely adds an idea of remoteness 
and unlikelihood to the root (§ 6i). 

§ 98. The Malay conjunction may be conveniently arranged 
and illustrated under the broader of the conventional classes 
into which this part of speech is ordinarily divided. 

{a) Copulative. 

dan and; lebai dan haji, imam dan khatib ciders and 
pilgrims, priests and readers; ka-negeri Pahang dan 
Terengganu dan Kelantan Patani dan Singgora to the 
countries of Pahang and Trengganu a7id Kelanta^i, Patani 
and Singgora. The use of this copula is influenced by the 
Malay fondness for balance, the sound and the fall of the 
sentence being studied rather than any strict rule of order. 
So in Hafig Ttiah occur variously Tun Jebat dan Tun 
Kasturi, Tun Lekir dan Tun Lekiu ; Tun Jebat Tun 
Kasturi Tun Lekir Tun Lekiu ; Tun Jebat dan Tun 
Kasturi dan Tun Lekir dan Tun Lekiu ; Tun Jebat 
Tun Kasturi Tun Lekir dan Tun Lekiu. Its use 
between last and penultimate words is, unlike ours, unusual, 
unless the last word is polysyllabic and balances the sentence : 
bayan nuri tiong dan kakatua itu the parakeets, parrots, 
?nynahs and the cockatoos. It is not used to connect sentences. 

dengan. suatu batu terlalu besar dengan tinggi- 
nya a rock very large and high ; turun-lah ribut tofan 
kilat halilintar dengan hujan-nya ca}ne tempest, lightning, 
thunder and rain ; sampai-lah ka-tengah arongan dengan 
beberapa melalui kuala negeri arrived at mid-chaniiel 
and passed many estuaries. 

serta implies close or simultaneous connection. 

lagi is employed especially between adjectives — as also 
are serta and dengan. tuan hamba pahlawan lagi 
budiman dan lagi pun anak raja besar serta bang- 



CONJUNCTIONS 153 

sawan div loj-d is a ivarrior, moreover benevolent, moreover the 
seion of great and noble ancestry ; ia orang gagah dan 
perkasa dan penjurit agong lagi sakti he is a mighty 
man and valiant and a ivarrior not only great but possessed 0/ 
magic powers ; ia pun terlalu adil lagi mengaseh segala 
hamba Allah he is exceeding Just, moreover pitiful toivards the 
servants of God; terlalu jerneh lagi dengan sejok-nya 
very clear, moreover cold besides; terlalu baik paras-nya 
serta dengan adil-nya lagi murah very handso?ne and 
thereivith just, moreover gracious. 

leheh.=plus and is used with numerals: tiga lebeh 
dua-pertiga 3§. 

sambil denotes simultaneity of action : berbangkit 
sambil berdiri serta menyebut nama Allah dan meng- 
uchap selamat got up and stood therewith invoking the 
name of Allah and calling dotvn a blessing; sambil me- 
nyelam sambil minum diving and drinking simultaneously.. 

lalu denotes transitional action : menyembah lalu 
keluar did obeisance and theii zvent out. 

Some idiomadc usages that are copulative require notice. 
bukan .... bukan neither .... nor ; bukan ikan udang 
pun bukan neit/ier fish nor even praivn. pun . . . pun : 
berkelahi pun tiada, berdamai pun tiada tve are not 
friends and tve are not foes. Also : ada yang melihat dari 
balek pintu, ada yang menengok dari kisi-kisi, ada 
yang menengok dari tingkap, ada yang menyingkap 
atap, ada yang memasokkan dinding, ada yang 
memanjat dinding some stared from behind the doors, some 
looked through the trellis-ivork, some through the windows, 
some pushed up the thatching, some bored holes in the ivalls, 
some climbed them. For numerals firstly, secondly, &c., see 

§ 77 (5). 

{b) Adversative. 

tetapi but. banyak lagi anak Laksamana tetapi 
lain bonda-nya there ivere 7nany other children of the 



154 PARTS OF SPEECH 

I.ahsatnana hut bv another motJur. melainkan and hanya 
difter from tetapi, being used where a negative precedes or is 
implied however remotely before them, penjurit Melayu 
tiada berilmu melainkan berani sahaja the Malay 
warriors possessed fio art but ouly bravery ; tiada ia menger- 
jakan suatu pekerjaan melainkan dengan mashuarat 
dengan chuchu-nya he utidertook nothing without consulta- 
tion with his grandchildren ; berapa batang kisi-kisi 
yang di-kehendaki melainkan putus // did not matter 
hoiv many strips of trellis 'were desired, they were broken ; 
jikalau ada pelandok puteh melainkan tempat itu 
baik if there is a white mouse-deer, the spot cannot be but good. 
semua-nya ada hanya datok Bendahara dan Temeng- 
gong juga yang tiada all ivere present except the Daio 
Bendahara and Temenggo7ig ; ada pun yang kita harap 
hanya-lah Laksamana akan membawa anak kita 
kedua itu there is no one ivhom we trust to bring our two 
children except the Laksamana ; segala orang habis lari 
hanya yang terdiri Temenggong juga no one stood their 
ground except the Ter/ienggong. 

The following idioms are notable : 

di-chari oleh baginda, itu pun tiada bertemu or 
tiada juga bertemu search zvas made by the king, but they 
were not met ivith ; jikalau besar dosa-nya di-bunoh, 
itu pun jikalau berlaku ka-pada hukum shara if their 
crime is great, let them be slain, but only if it is lauful according 
to our religion; hanya-lah ilmu orang bertapa dan 
kesaktian juga yang tinggal ka-pada aku lagi, di- 
dalam pada itu pun lamun anak-ku berkehendak 
akan dia 'ku beri juga / know nothing more except the arts 
of the ascetic and the magician ; 7iotwithstanding that, if you 
desire them, I will teach you. 

{c) Alternative. 

atau or, atau . . . atau either . . . or, whether . . . or. 
jika ada gajah yang baik atau kuda yang baik pinta 



CONJUNCTIONS 155 

oleh 'mu if there is a fine elephanl or a fi?ie horse, ask for 
lliem ; ada-kah adek beroleh anak atau tidak do you 
possess children or not ? tiada ketahuan lagi khabar-nya 
atau sampai-kah atau tiada sampai-kah atau masok 
hutan di-makan binatang-kah no neivs can he got yet, 
whether he arrived or did not arrive, or entering the jungle 
was devoured by ivild beasts, baik . . . baik, baik . . . 
atau whether . . . or. baik di-lepas atau tiada, kita 
balek juga ivhether released or not, zve zvill return nevertheless; 
empat baik lima pun baik, tiada 'ku indahkan whether 
four or five, I do not care. 

The following idioms are common : 

mau-kah tidak do you ivant it or not .^ aku-kah 'pa 
si bendul ? engkau-kah 'pa si bendul am I oldfather- 
sit-at-the-door, or is it you ? pereksa sudah-kali ia sampai 
inquire whether he has arrived ; entah 'kan ia entah 'kan 
tidak / do not know whether it be true or false ; alah, tiada 
alah pun, kita kembali ivhether ivorsted or not worsted, 7i'e 
will return. 

(d) Explanatory. 

Several idioms are common, misal-nya, umpama-nya 
for example; arti-ny a that is to say. terlalu amat bijak 
memanah, umpama-nya membelah kayu dapat ia 
dengan panah an expert archer, for instance he could split 
a stick ivith an arrow; jikalau datang dua pekerjaan, 
ya'ni pekerjaan Allah dengan pekerjaan dunia if tivo 
duties are be/ore you, namely your duty to God and your duly to 
the ivorld; sa-orang raja lagi, ia-itu-lah kerajaan di- 
negeri Turkestan one more prince and that zvas the one zvho 
reigned in Turkestan. 

(e) Causal. 

oleh, sebab, karna, oleh sebab, oleh karna are most 
commonly used, tiga hari tiada di-tegur oleh tiada 
mau kembali ka-Pasai three days he zvas not greeted because 
he zvould not return to Pasai; sukachita sebab peroleh 



156 PARTS OF SPEECH 

keris itu happy because he possessed the dagger; karna 
engkau sudah di-bunoh oleh Bendahara, sebab itu- 
lah maka aku hair an because you have been slain by I he 
Bendahara, that is the reason of my astonishment; dengan 
karna Manjapahit itu negeri besar because JSlanjapahit is 
a great kingdom. 

Other idioms occur : 

Laksamana itu tiada, itu-lah berani Hang Jebat the 
Laksamana is absent and that is the reason of Hang Jebat' s 
courage; di-lihat-nya bapa tiri-nya itu tiada, itu-lah 
maka ia berani the knozvledge of his step-father's absence 
is the cause of his daring ; dari-pada ia hamba Melayu 
tiada mau derhaka, demikian-lah laku-nya because he 
is a loyal Malay ser7'ant opposed to treachery, he acts thus. 
Laksamana itu orang bijaksana, jadi tiada mabok the 
Laksamana was clever and therefore he did not beco7ne drunk. 

{f) Temporal. 

bila, apa-bila when ; bila mana ivhenever; barang bila 
as often as. apa-bila memberi surat pada raja-raja, 
chap ini-lah di-chapkan ivhenever you dispatch a letter to 
a prince, this is the stamp to be impressed, tetekala ivhen. 
(Cp. the use of tempat where) terkenangkan tetekala 
dudok dalam astana remembering the time ivhen he sat in 
the palace', kita suroh adang tetekala ia ka-sungai ive 
hade intercept him ivhen he went down to the river. 

Whilst is variously expressed : 

dalam berkata-kata itu while the conversation was going 
on ; permaisuri pun berpaling seraya berselubang the 
princess turned aside, whilst drawing her veil. tengah 
baginda berfikir itu while the king debated in his rnind. 
sedang baginda bernegeri di-Pasai, dewasa itu-lah 
datang Raja Dewa Sayid while the prince was at Pasai, — 
that was the time Raja Deiva Sayid came, baik juga tuan 
berangkat samentara ada musim lagi /'/ were well you 
set out while the weather lasts. 



CONJUNCTIONS 157 

sa-lama, sa-lagi as long as. sa-lagi ada hayat patek as 

long as your slave lives, sa-peninggal /'// /he interim, since, after. 
sa-peninggal ayah kita menyaberang, maka datang 
dua orang after our father crossed the river, tiuo nun came. 
demi as soon as (cp. serta, § 96 III), demi di-lihat oleh 
baginda as soon as the prince sazv. baharu 7iot till then. 
sudah itu, baharu di-lekat dian dengan api not till 
after that ivas the candle lit. sa-telah, sudah after, telah 
beberapa lama-nya di-laut sampai-lah ka-Malaka 
after they had been some ivhile at sea, they reached JSIalacca. 
sa-belum, or belum before, belum di-panggil, sudah 
datang coming before sununoned. 

(g) Compaialive. 

sa-akan-akan, sa-olah-olah, seperti, sa-bagai, sa- 
umpama lih, as if. mimpi sa-olah-olah datang ka- 
pada-nya melaikat a dream as if an angel appeared to 
him ; bunyi peluru seperti kumbang kena jolok 
the bullets buzzed like beetles buzz when prodded zvith a stick. 

{h) Proportional. 

makin . . . makin, bertambah . . . bertambah, kian . . . 
kian the more . . . the more, makin berkawal makin 
kechurian the more guard is kept, the more thefts there are; 
berapa lama-nya ia dudok, makin baik feel-nya the 
longer he lived, the better his conduct ; sedang .... istime wa, 
lagi .... istimewa since . . . so much the more ; usahkan, 
jangankan so far from, sedang gajah liar lagi dapat 
kita jerat, ini konon gajah jinak even a wild elephant we 
can snare, how much more this tame beast; sedang orang 
jahat lagi demikian, istimewa pula orang baik-nya 
berapa lagi seeijig that a knave acts so, how much more a good 
man ; usahkan gemala hikamat itu sedangkan nyawa 
badan patek lagi sudah terserah ka-bawah duli not 
merely that magic stone but my very life is placed at your 
highness' s service ; usahkan ia turun, lagi bertambah 
suka ria-nya so far from descending he waxed in mirth; 



158 PARTS OF SPEECH 

usahkan baik, sa-orang pun jadi-lah so long as he is 
good, one man ivill do; jangankan sa-bahara emas, tiga 
bahara pun kita beri so far from giving one iveighl 0/ gold, 
we will bestow three; jangankan berkurang makin 
sangat galak-nya orang menchuri so far from abating 
theft increased; jangankan sa-orang jikalau empat- 
puloh orang sa-kali pun mengamok itu, tiada aku 
indahkan so far from one madman frightening me forty are 
powerless to do so. 

There are many idiomatic phrases, bagaimana pun 
besar dosa-nya, jangan kamu bunoh however great his 
sin, don't slay him ; beberapa pun di-suroh panggil, 
tiada juga mau datang hozvever often summoned, he refused 
to come. 

(/) Conditional and concessive. 

jika, jikalau, kalau if, although, in case ; kalau-kalau 
if, in case, for fear that, jikalau tuan mati dahulu, 
nantikan sahaya di-pintu sorga if you die first, await me 
at the gate of Iicaven ; jikalau anak-mu sa-kali pun 
jangan engkau ajarkan though your very oum child, do not 
punish him ; tiada kami sebutkan semua-nya, kalau 
jemu orang mendengar dia / do not fuention eveiythitig in 
case people may tire at hearing it; mari-lah kita iutai 
kalau-kalau orang bertanya cotne let us spy if perchance 
there are folk cooking rice ; arak ini kalau-kalau engkau 
buboh rachun minum-lah engkau dahulu do you taste 
this spirit first in case you have put poison into it. asal, 
asalkan, sukat provided that, if asal hidup bertemu 
juga we shall meet if ive live; mati pun patek suka juga, 
asalkan jangan bercherai dengan adinda / care not for 
death, provided I am not divorced from you. sukat supposirig, 
if. negeri Melaka itu sukat binasa puas hati-ku if 
Malacca is destroyed, I shall be satisfied, lamun provided if. 
ka-dalam laut api sa-kali pun patek ikut juga lamun 
mau kakanda membawa patek even into a sea of fire 



CONJUNCTIONS 159 

/ tvoidd foUoiv, if you tvishcd to take tnc ; tiga bahara emas 
pun kita beri, lamun segera sudah-nya three lumps of 
gold will I give, provided the work be soon finished, meski 
pun sampai ka-Pahang, sahaya ikut juga even if it be as 
far as Pahang, still I ivill follow. 

There are idiomatic usages, sebab kakanda tiada 
memberi tahu, takut kelak adinda ta' beri pergi the 
reason I did not tell you was for fear you should not let me go. 
hendak pun kakanda lawan, neschaya banyak mati 
suppose I wanted to fight, assuredly many would lose their lives. 
baginda pun menitahkan biduanda pergi melihat 
sunggoh-kah seperti khabar itu the prince bade an official 
go and see tf it ivas correct as reported, budak empat itu 
sunggoh pun manusia seperti anak dewa-dewa juga 
granted the four children are mortal, still they resemble the 
childre7i of fairies. 

{j) Final. 

supaya, agar, agar supaya in order that; supaya 
jangan lest, cheritrai oleh ayahanda supaya sedap 
rasa hati hamba continue the story, father, so that my heart 
may be glad; baik-lah aku chari tempat yang jauh 
dari keyangan ini, aku buangkan anakanda itu 
supaya ia jangan boleh kembali // were well I cast away 
my child in a place far from fairy-land, so that he may be 
unable to return. 

An example of a form of circumlocution is ia datang itu 
pekerjaan-nya hendak menyambut duli yang di- 
pertuan he ca?ne to greet his lord. 

(X-) 'That.' 

INIany idiomatic usages are current, yang ; akan ; peri ; 
hal ; mengatakan ; even hikayat the story are employed : 
also babwa and ada pun. tiada sah-kah yang maha 
mulia hendak kurnia nam a akan patek is there fiot 
proof that your highness will ennoble me ? ; yang hamba 
membuangkan orang kaya itu bahwa sa-kali-kali 



i6o PARTS OF SPEECH 

tiada hamba mau / had not the slightest zvish that I should 
banish the chief, berhikayatkan akan perbuatan Seri 
Betara dan Pati Gajah Ma da hendak membunoh 
Laksamana itu relating of Sri Betara and moreover of how 
Pati Gajah Mada 7vould slay the Laksamana ; di-cheritra- 
kan akan hal ahual ia hendak di-bunoh oleh Laksa- 
mana the story ivas told of the matter of his murder intended 
by the Laksamana ; kedengaran pada Batara Majapahit 
mengatakan Raja Champa datang nezvs came to the Batara 
of Majapahit announcing that the Raja of Champa ivas coming ; 
kamu suratkan segala hikayat kita masok ka-da- 
1am laut itu do you ivrite the whole story that ive entered the 
sea. 

§ 99. Punctuation words. 

Written Malay has certain punctuation words or words 
which serve to introduce the commencement of story, of 
paragraph, and of sentence; and to mark the balance of clauses. 
These words are not found in Malay conversation, and may 
be omitted in translating INIalay composition into a foreign 
language. 

(i) A story is introduced by sa-bermula. bermula the 
story begins; sa-kali persetua (Skt.) once upon a time; al- 
kesah (Ar.) the story is — all of them followed by maka. 

(2) A fresh topic or paragraph will be opened by hata 
next; sahadan (=:saha Skt. + dan), kalakian, arakian 
moreover — again all followed by maka. {Note. — sahadan is 
sometimes used in old literature for the copula ami: maha- 
raja Ruwana karar-lah dengan adil-nya sahadan 
dengan murahan Maharaja Ravana was established with 
justice and ivith graciousness; terlalu luas huma-nya 
sahadan terlalu jadi padi-nya the ji eld ivas very large and 
the crop bountiful^ 

A topic will be continued or restarted by sahadan lagi ; 
sa-bagai lagi ; tambahan pula ; dan lagi. 



CONJUNCTIONS i6i 

(3) Sentences are introduced by several phrases, ada 
pun, which commences narration or a parenthetical ex- 
planatory clause in the course of narration, dengar-lah 
oleh adinda kakanda bercherita jikalau adinda 
tiada tahu, 'Ada pun nama negeri kita Astana Pura 
Negara ' hear me tell the story ^ my sister, if you do not htoiv. 
' Noiv the name of my country is Astana Pura Negara ' ; 
baginda berjalan-lah masok hutan, maka sampai-lah 
ka-tepi sungai. ada pun luas sungai itu tiga ribu 
depa. maka baginda berhenti di-bawah pohon the 
prince travelled into the forest and arrived at the banJi of a 
river — now the breadth of the river was three thousand 

fathoms — atid the king halted under a tree, bahwa the story is 
(also bahwa sa-sunggoh-nya, bahwa sa-nya) corresponds 
sometimes with ada pun, but it belongs rather to the grand 
style, and often commences a strong positive assertion or 
a statement founded on positive knowledge, kita dengar 
khabar bahwa raja Melaka sekarang sudah beristeri 
we hear positive news that the raja of JSIalacca has noiv ivedded ; 
maka Laksamana pun tahu-lah bahwa penjurit itu 
datang the LaJisamana had sure launvJedge of the sivash- 
luclcler's conung ; ya tuanku bahwa raja Melaka telah 
datang ka-Tuban your highness, yes, assuredly the raja of 
Malacca has arrived at Tuhan ; demi Allah dan rasul 
Allah bahwa aku tiada mau bertikam dengan engkau 
by God and the Apostle of God, of a truth I do not wish to 
fight ivith thee ; hai Tun Kasturi bahwa sa-nya engkau- 
lah hamba-ku yang bersetiawan Tun Kasturi, assuredly 
you arc a faithful servant to me. 
ada-lah, see § 36 {iiote^. 

(4) maka. 

I. is written after the words in (i) and (2) above. 

II. marks the temporal causal, or other antithetical 
connection between clauses and parts of sentence. 

belum habis ia berkata-kata itu, maka di-lompat 



i62 PARTS OF SPEECH 

oleh Sang Hanuman before the convcrsaiioji was finished^ 
Smig Ha7tu7nan leapt aivay ; sa-lama anak-ku tiada itu, 
xaaka negeri Melaka haru-hara so long as my son has 
bee7i absent, Malacea has been in confusion ; maka hari pun 
siang-lah, maka saudagar itu pun masok mengadap 
when the day broke, the merchant entered into the presence. 
cheh 'ku sangka berani Seri Bija 'di raja itu, maka 
aku naik perahu-nya Bah I it was because I thought Sri 
Bija 'di Raja was brave, that I came aboard this ship ; mana- 
tah diri berkawal, maka saudagar ini kena kechurian 
where in the world did you keep your ivatch, that this merchant 
had his goods stolen ? ; apa sebab-nya maka tuan hamba 
ka-mari what is the reason that you have come ? ; mengapa 
maka Laksamana turun dari-atas kuda itu zvhat is the 
reason that the Laksamana dismounts ? ; barang kala ular 
itu menghembuskan nafas, maka segala pohon kayu 
yang empat lima pemelok itu pun habis terbunoh 
whenever the serpent snorted forth his breath, then all the trees 
four or jive armfuls in girth are utterly dead, kalau-kalau 
mata-ku bekas tidur gerangan, maka salah peman- 
dangan-ku/^v'/w/j my eyes are sleepy that I cannot see properly] 
sa-telah hari hendak malam, maka raja Melaka pun 
bermohon kembali ka-astana, maka Patih pun ber- 
mohon kembali ka-rumah-nya ivhen flight fell, the raja of 
Malacca took his leave and retired to the palace, and Patih 
took his leave and retired to his house, 

III. It connects principal sentences in rapid staccato 
narrative, marking each separate event of the whole, maka 
dengan sa-saat itu juga, maka Betara Kala menjadi- 
lah katak ; maka ia pun hendak lari ; maka di-lihat 
diri-nya telah menjadi katak; maka lalu terlompat- 
lompat, maka serta berbunyi geruk-geruk at that very 
instant Betara Kala became a frog ; he ivanied to j-un, noticed 
his changed form, straightivay made leap after leap, at the 
same time croaking, maka isteri-nya hamil-lah ; maka 



CONJUNCTIONS 163 

genap-lah bulan; maka permaisuri pun beranak- 

lah his wife became pregnant, her tirne came, she bore a child. 
IV. It conjoins subordinate clauses, see ifi/ra. 

§ 100. The Conjunction of Co-ordinate Clauses. 

The conjunction of co-ordinate clauses, whether principal 
or subordinate, is effected by the use of the same punctuation 
or other emphatic word or conjunction in the ensuing clause 
or clauses as in the first. 

apa-bila raja Zainal akan berkuda maka baginda 
memakai, maka bergosok bau-bauan, maka pergi-lah 
baginda berkuda 7vhen raja Zainal would ride, he dressed 
and scented himself and tvent off riding : — this is the con- 
struction in III above, maka tetekala hampir-lah fajar 
maka segala binatang belum keluar menehari ma- 
kanan-nya, maka baginda itu pun keluar dari astana 
when dawn was nigh and the beasts had not yet gone forth 
in quest of food, [theii) the prince went forth from the palace ; 
maka jikalau ia tiada bayar utang maka ia hendak 
berlayar, hendak-lah tegahkan if he has not paid his 
debt and he ivanfs to sail, he must be restraified. mari kita 
suroh chari sa-orang penjurit kita suroh churi kain 
baju Laksamana itu ; maka kita tarohkan kain baju- 
nya itu di-dalam astana, maka kita kata Laksamana 
itu bermukah come, let us bid a sivashbuckler be sought, let us 
bid him steal the Laksa7nana's coat ; then let us put the coat in 
the palace, then let us say the Laksamana is party to an intrigue. 
jika sa-suatu bichara jika Hang Tuah tiada masok 
berbiehara, tiada-lah putus bichara itu if there arose 
any discussion and Hang Tuah did not take part in it, it could 
not be decided; adat hulubalang Melayu tiada dapat 
berguraukan keris-nya itu di-hadapan majlis jikalau 
sudah terhunus keris-nya jikalau tiada mati, luka 
it ivas a custom of Malay ivarriors that no 07ie could play ivith 
their daggers informal company ; if daggers were drazvn and 
no one was killed, at any rate some one would be ivounded; sa- 

L 2 



i64 PARTS OF SPEECH 

telah Maharaja Baladewa dan Maharaja Sali melihat 
Betara Indera datang, sa-telah bertemu, maka ia pun 
menyembah whai Maharaja Baladcva and Maharaja Sali 
saw Betara Indra coming and met him, they did obeisance. 
This juxtaposition of clauses is, of course, just in accord with 
the fundamental structure of the Malay sentence. 

(P) INTEBJECTIONS 

§ 101. I. The commonest interjections proper are : 

hai a vocative interjection addressed by a superior to an 
inferior, such as king to subject, chiefs to soldiers, elders 
to youths, hai kanak-kanak ho there, you boys. 

wah an exclamation of surprise, wah datok kain 
datok di-samun orangzf/^j'/ chief , your coat has been stolen) 
wah apa pula mula-nya maka hidong 'Pa Awang 
pechah ivell, I never I hoiv did your ftose get broken ? 

wahai hey there, oh, alas ! 

ambohi an exclamation of astonishment : common in the 
form ambohi emak hullo ! ivell, I never ! 

adoh or more emphatically adohai oh t alas! adoh 
sakit 'mak Awang alas ! how it hurts mother ( = wife). 

cheh (Jav. chis) bah, Jie. cheh si chelaka ini bah, the 
knave. 

ya (Ar.) a vocative interjection of respect, ya Allah ya 
rasul Allah God, O Apostle of God ; ya adinda O love of 
mine; ya. tvihsia-^vi O your highiiess ; ya mamak Benda- 
hara O Bendahara. 

Others are nyah, jum be off; nah take it away; nu 
yonder ; chus silence ! chup the exclamation of a player wAiO 
would recall a move. 

II. The following words may be used alike as interjections 
and as other parts of speech : 

sayang, kasehan what a pity ! 

merachun may I be poisoned {if I lie) ! 

chelaka accursed luck ! 



INTERJECTIONS 165 

tobat (Ar.) never agam ! 

haram (Ar.) /lo (t'l ivere an offe^ice against religion had 
I done it). 

chekek kedadak, muntah kedarah or muntahkan 
darah an imprecation implying may you die a violent death. 

III. Common invocations to Allah are : 
demi Allah / call God to zvitness. 
insha' Allah God wilhng. 
alhamdu lillah praise God. 
astaghflru'llah God a mercy. 
wa'Uahu a'lam God hiowelh best. 

IV. There are interjectional vocabularies : 

(a) Of commands to animals, e. g. calls to approach, doh 
to dogs, dik to ducks, kur to chicken, 'ching to cats, nah to 
buffaloes ; calls to frighten, bok to ducks, siuh lo chicken, 
kus to cats, heh to buffaloes. 

(b) Of words imitating sounds ; bap the sound of a fall, 
bak bok of a slap, sar sir sur various hissing sounds, chir 
chur of frizzling and frying, ching of jingling, chak of a 
smack of the lips, chit of the twitter of birds, gap gup of 
dull heavy falls, das of a shot. 



CHAPTER VIII 

NOTES ON SYNTAX 

§ 102. The INIalay language is characterized not so much 
by syntax as by idiom, which has been handled already under 
the various parts of speech. A few pages on the principal 
' notes ' of construction in the Malay sentence will suffice. 

I. There is no copula in Malay, so that the simple sentence 
may consist of two words, i. e. noun (or pronoun) + noun or 
pronoun, adjective, verb, or adverb : Ali penghulu AU [is) 
chief; aku penghulu / {ani) chief; aku dia 1 {am) he; 
Ali sakit Ali {is) sick ; aku sakit / {am) sick ; Ali jatoh 
Ali falls; belum ketika not yet {is) it time. 

II. The normal order is : subject + verb + object ; the 
direct object simply stringing itself on to the verb. Ali 
memukul aku Ali is beating me. Never is the order 
subject + object + verb found. Ali aku pukul=^//' is the 

fellow I am heating, never Ali is beating me. 

III. But order in the Malay sentence is a very subtle matter, 
as may be seen by transposing words and marking the result, 
anak orang itu mati the child of those people is dead; orang 
itu anak-nya mati those people have lost their child by death ; 
mati-lah anak orang itu death has overtaken the child of 
those people ; orang itu, mati anak-nya those people have 
suffered loss by death — their child's. 

The chief points aimed at are : 

{a) Emphasis. 

(b) Balance. 

{c) Brevity or ellipsis. 



NOTES ON SYNTAX 167 

(a) Emphasis 

§103. I. A principle of Malay construction is that emphasis 
falls on the first of two words : it will denote subject not 
attribute, rumah besar a large house, besar rumah the size 
of a house; itu raja ihai is a raja, rajaituMa/n{/a; tidur 
baginda Ihe sleep of a prince, baginda tidur the prince 
sleeps ; mata ayer ihe source of a stream, ayer mata tears ; 
anak lidah uvuia, lidah anak a child's tongue. 

II. A common artifice is to bring any word it is desired to 
emphasize as near as possible to the front of the clause (and 
often to attach to it the emphatic particle lah). The word 
may be : 

(a) Subject. 

ini-lah dahulu kala larangan raja Melayu these in 

former days were the privileges of Malay pri7ices ; baginda- 

lah yang pertama raeletakkan kekuningan larangaa 

this prince it was who first made yellow a royal privileged 

colour. 

{h) Object. 

baik-lah ia kita bunch // ivere him we had better kill ; 
mengapa aku engkau ikat ivhy is it me you bind; pada 
siapa baik aku minta tolong from whom were it ivell 
I ask help. 

(c) Predicate. 

terlalu cherdek segala ©rang Melaka ini very shretvd 
are all these Malacca men ; patah-lah perang orang 
Singapura broken ifi battle zvere the 77ien of Singapore ; 
Melaka-Iah nama negeri ini Malacca shall be the name of 
this country, menchari kakak Galoh rata-lah sudah 
tanah Jawa searching for Galoh ive have been all over fava. 

id) Any subordinate part of the sentence like an adverb of 
time, a qualifying noun or adjective, an auxiliary verb upon 
which it is desired to lay stress. 

lagi-kah orang di-darat still folk a-shore P sekarang 
ada-lah tetap hati kita now is our tni?id made up ; terlalu 



i68 NOTES ON SYNTAX 

banyak ia beroleh rampasan very great was the spoil he 
got ; budak itu terlalu besar akal-nya that child's ciaumig 
is very great; Sang Ranjuna terlalu amat marah-nya 
Sang Rattjiina's anger zvas very great; Laksamana pada 
masa itu tiada-lah dua banding-nya the Laksamana at 
that time had not his peer ; segala senjata kita suatu pun 
tiada boleh bunoh akan dia of all our iveapons not one can 
slay him ; tiada dapat ia bertahan unable zvas he to etidure; 
pada siang hari-nya di-dirikan orang kota itu, serta 
malam. burok day saiv the erection of the fort and night 
its mill. 

{e) Sometimes this principle involves what to us seems 
clumsy repetition. 

oleh si-penyadap itu di-titekkan-nya ayer kanji 
ka-mulut budak itu dy that toddy-dealer — gruel zvas poured 
by him into the boy's mouth. 

III. Similarly a clause will be brought forward to the fore- 
part of a sentence. 

mana bichara tuan hamba, itu-lah hamba ikut 
ivhatever you advise — that zvill I folloiv ; ada pun yang 
membinasakan Langkapuri ini kera dan manusia the 
destroyers of Lafigkapuri were apes a?id men ; mana yang 
tiada dapat di-kerjakan oleh segala raja-raja ia-lah 
konon hendak mengadakan zvhat never raja has been able 
to do, he forsooth zvill accomplish. 

(b) Balance 

§ 104. Balance is an elementary principle in the Malay 
simple sentence with its lack of a copula, and of the complex 
sentence with its frequent disdain of conjunctive words. It 
has brought much discredit on INIalay literary style and 
caused it to be blamed for tedious repetition and trailing 
redundancies, when really it makes for lucidity and for 
emphasis. 



NOTES ON SYNTAX 169 

Its germ may be sought in the form and stress of the 
simplest sentences, such as penghulu dia he {is) a chief; 
chantek 'Long '/(?;/^ (/.v)//Y//y; itvL dm ihat {is) he. And 
often tlie balance is accentuated by antithetical particles : 
hari pun malam-lah day {grew) dark. It lies at the bottom 
of the favourite double phrase ; champur baur 7)iix {and) 
mingle ; kaum keluarga hiih {and) kin ; tempek sorak 
cheer {and) shout; kechil besar great {and) small; tua 
muda young {a?id) old ; tuak dan arak wine and spirits ; 
merampas dan merebut rob and snatch; di-tikam-nya 
dan di-bunoh-nya they ivere stabbed and they ivere killed. 
It may be detected in the fall and shape of such sentences as 
orang mati | kena peluru | batang leher-nya a man dead \ 
from a bullet \ in the neck; baginda berputera | sa-orang 
laki-laki | terlalu elok paras-ny a the prince had a son \ one 
child a boy \ very handsome in feature; mari-lah | anak-ku 
dudok dekat ayahanda | di-sini hither, my child, sit near 
your another here. From such beginnings antithesis has come 
to be a distinct literary device — often bound up with the 
principle that the emphatic word, whether subject or object, 
must be at the beginning of a clause and yet may need to be 
near its verb. 

So we find repetition of 

((/) The subject, 

baginda tersenyum titah baginda the prince smiled, 
said the prince ; tuan puteri itu pun makin sangat ia 
menangis that princess, the 7nore bitterly she ivept; ada pun 
bapa-ku itu besar-lah ia di-dalam Melaka noiv juy 
father, he grew up in Malacca; karna Laksamana itu 
sa-lama ia dudok di-gunong itu tiada ia tidur dan 
makan because the Laksamana so long as he stayed on the 
viountain, he did not sleep atid eat; tersebut-lah perka- 
taan pulau Langkapuri itu sa-lama peninggal perang 
Seri Rama dan Hanuman, jadi sunyi-lah pulau itu 
the story is told of the island of Langkapuri, after the zvar 



170 NOTES ON SYNTAX 

of Sri Rama and Hanmnaji had ceased, solitaiy was that 
island. 

(V) The words for ' all '. 

segala raja-raja sakalian every prince., all of thevi ; 
segala yang memandang dia itu pun sakalian-nya 
belas dan hanchur luloh rasa hati-nya all beholders, 
every one of them, fell pity ; and broken and crushed were their 
hearts ; kata Maharisi akan segala peri hal ahwal itu, 
sakalian-nya di-katakan-nya ka-pada Dasarata Maha- 
raja the sayi?igs of Maharishi about all the viatter were all 
said to Dasarata Maharaja. 

(<:) The verb. 

titah baginda ka-pada anak murid baginda raja 
Chendera empat orang itu, titah-nya noiv the king 
ordered the king's son raja Chendera and his three brothers, 
he ordered] anak raja keempat itu pun menyembah, 
sembah-nya now the four young princes did obeisance, their 
obeisance ivas. 

(d) A word in a following clause, which has occurred 
and refers back to a preceding clause. This is especially 
common in the case of the demonstrative itu and of maka. 
But it may be seen also in paragraphs of which the following 
is a common type, maka Bendahara pun menyembah 
lalu keluar berlengkap dan mengerahkan segala 
pegawai dan pertuanan akan menyambut surat itu : 
maka pegawai dan pertuanan itu pun berjalan-lah 
menyambut surat dan bingkisan itu the Bendahara did 
obeisance and went out to prepare, and summoned all officers and 
hench?7ien to receive the letter. A nd all the officers arid henchnen 
set forth to receive that letter and offering. 

(^) Also we find opposition between subject and object. 
Laksamana pun bermohon-lah kelima-nya ka-pada 
Sang Pertala Nala the Laksamana and his four brothers 
took leave of Sang Pertala Nala ; supaya aku beri gan- 



NOTES ON SYNTAX 



171 



jaran banyak akan engkau that I may give a large reivard 
to you; sa-telah Rangga dan Barat Ketika menSngar 
kata Laksamana demikian itu, maka Hangga dan 
Barat Ketika memandang pada Laksamana as soon as 
Rangga and Barat Ketika heard that speech of the Laksamana, 
then Rangga and Barat Ketika stared at the Laksamana. 

{/) Finally antithesis becomes a literary artifice, at times 
exaggerated till it is possible to draw a line down the balanced 
clauses of a paragraph and see the halves, which are thus 
distinguished, make sense in themselves. 



ada pun pada bichara 

patek, 
jikalau ada sa-ribu 
tiada patek indahkan ; 

jikalau orang berani 
akan orang penakut 

itu-lah sukar patek akan 
mengembari dia, 

In the opinion of your slave, 
if there are a thousand, 
your slave heeds not ; 

^provided they are brave men, 
as for cowards, 
hard it is for your slave to 
match them, 



yang hina ini, 

atau dua ribu pun, 

mudah juga pada patek 
mengembari dia, 

berhadapan ; 

membuat di-dalam diam- 
nya, 

banyak budi bichara hen- 
dak mengenai dia. 

who is loivly, 

aye, or tivo thousand men, 

easily your slave ca?i match 
them 

who fight face to face ; 

workers in secret, 

and much plotting is needed 
to encompass them. 



In that example, the first column taken alone makes sense : 
in the following, both columns are practically coherent and 
sufficient in themselves. 
apa-bila datang sa-orang 1 hendak mengembari eng- 

melayu belari kau 

demikian sifat-nya j Melayu itu 



172 



NOTES ON SYNTAX 



maka oleh kamu kepong- 
kan ketujoh-puloh ini 
turut 

barang di-mana pergi-nya 
bunoh beri mati 
besar-lah ganjaran-mu, 

W/ien there co?nes a Malay 

running, 
thus and thus is his presence 
surround him the seventy of 

you 
pursue, 

wheresoever he goes ; 
kill him dead 
great shall be your reward, 

wahai adek-ku 

nyawa beradukan apa- 

kah ini ? 
anakanda sudah mengi- 

dari hutan 
jiwa-ku belum juga sedar 

bangun-lah tuan 
anakanda sudah hilang 
di-pangkuan, 

Alas, my love, 

what is it you embrace. 

Our child waiiders in the 

forest. 
And you, my life, kneiv it not ; 

Arise, my 7?iis tress; 



jangan beri engkau lepas- 

kan 
bunoh juga akan Melayu 

itu 
ikut juga oleh-mu 
jikalau Melayu itu mati 
di-anugerahi oleh Seri 

Betara. 

if he will match himself against 

you, 
. . . that Malay ; 
let him not get free, 

slay him ; 
doyoufolloiv him ; 
if he dies, 
the gift of Sri Betara. 

tuan adinda-ku 

tuan merapatkan apa-kah 

ini? 
putera nin sudah me- 

langsi padang 
nyawa-ku belum juga 

bangun 
sedar-lah nyawa 
putera nin sudah raip di- 

mata. 

my darling I '" " -^ 

zvhat is it you hug ? 

our son wails in the fields I 

you, my souVs love, had 7iot 

awakened, 
awake, fuy darling. 



NOTES ON SYNTAX 173 



Our child is lost from your 
lap, 



our son has vanished from 
our sight. 



These passages are taken from prose classics, the Hang 
Tuah and the romance Indra I\Iengindra ; but when we meet 
such exaggerated cases, we may remember that all Malay 
literature is chanted aloud by Malays. 

{c) ELLIPSIS 

§ 105. The part ellipsis plays in Malay syntax has been 
foreshadowed lo a small extent in the remarks on case § 30, 
and on the conjunction § 96. It is carried, however, much 
further in the structure of the sentence. It has been well 
said : 

Little hoy ; box of paints ; 

Licked his toy ; joined the saints 

would be verbose to a Malay who, in his own natural idiom 
and not for effect, would cut it shorter — 

Small boy ; box paints; 

Licked toy ; joitied saints. 
I. The subject may be omitted 

(a) In a principal clause, if suggested by a preceding word. 

akan nama baginda, Sang Pertala Dewa as for the 
prince s name, {it) was Sang Pertala Dewa ; akan pesan 
paduka ayahanda, suroh patek segera kembali as for 
my royal father s instructions, (he) ordered me to return speedily; 
titah baginda suroh masok sa-kali the royal mandate was 
{the prince) bids you enter. 

{b) In one of two co-ordinate clauses, if suggested by a 
word in the other, 

lalu gementar segala sendi Betara Brahma mata- 
nya kelam-lah lalu pengsan all the limbs of Betara 
Brahma trembled, his eyes gretv di?n and (he) fell faint ; di- 
palu oleh Sang Sambah kena rusok-nya lalu mati 



174 NOTES ON SYNTAX 

struck by Sang Samhah in his side {he) fell dead ; kelima-nya 
pun berraohon-lah lalu berjalan ; dua hari berjalan, 
maka sampai-lah ihe ivhole five took leave and started on 
the journey ; after {they) had journeyed two days, (Jhey) arrived; 
di-belah-nya pagar rumah Laksamana itu lalu masok 
ka-bawah rumah. the/efice round the Laksamana s house was 
split by them and {they) entered beneath the house ; mau beta 
nenek, minta ka-mari I ivant him, grannie, {you) ask hiin 
to come here; di-pertimba orang, tiada tertimba ayer 
lagi {the water) was bailed out, but the water could not be bailed 
more. 

{c) In a principal clause, if suggested in a subordinate, or 
vice versa. 

telah baginda masok ka-dalam astana, lalu bertitah 
ka-pada permaisuri as soon as the prince entered the palace, 
{he) sfraightivay ordered the princess ; jangankan ia hampir 
ka-pada patek, memandang lekat pun tiada so far zvas 
he from approaching me, {he) did not even fix his gaze tipon 
me; jikalau lain dari-pada baginda, neschaya tiada 
mau kembali if it ivere another person and not the prince, 
assuredly {he) zvould not return ; hai anak-ku jangan 
makan pada hidangan di-bawah itu, karna sudah 
beroleh martebat dari-pada paduka betara cat not, my 
son, at the lower table, because {you) have been ennobled by the 
prince. 

{d) Even though the reference is indirect, and not to the 
grammatical subject, 

orang Pasai jikalau bersurat, tiada dapat tiada di- 
aleh-nya as for the men of Pasai, if {one) takes {them) a 
letter, the letter ivill certainly be misread; segala orang yang 
beremas, jikalau tiada di-anugerahi raja, tiada boleh 
di-pakai as for all people luho possessed gold oriiaments, unless 
the prince's leave were obtained, {the gold ornaments) could not be 
worn ; jikalau tiada di-lihat-nya aku pergi, tentu kena 
rotan if he did not see me go, assuredly (/) was beaten. 



NOTES ON SYNTAX 175 

[e) The subject may also be omitted when there is no word 
in the sentence to suggest it. 

(i) In conversation, if the circumstances leave no doubt as 
to the subject. 

sudah habis, jangan dudok ; kalau tidak, pergi 
buat if {such mid such a work you knotv of) u finished, dont 
(j'ou) sil doivn ; if {the zvork) is not {firiished), {you) go and 
do {it). 

(2) In literature, under all the circumstances enumerated 
above, even if there is no word actually in the sentence to 
suggest it, but the context leaves no doubt. 

jikalau menjunjong dull, dahulu kepala bentara 
if {folk) pay hofiiage, the first in precedence is the court 
herald; raja Kedah makan . . . telah sudah makan 
datang sireh dan bau-bauan the raja of Kedah dined. 
... As soon as {he) had dined, betel and scettt ivere 
brought; titah baginda apa sebab-nya maka Ben- 
dahara mati? Maka sembah Tun Indera Segera 
' Sebab makan rachun tuanku ' the prince asked ' Why 
did the Bendahara die ? Tun Indra Segera replied ' Because 
{he) ate poison, your highness ; sa-lama bercherai muda 
bangsawan bagai bakat di-tumpu harus so long as 
divorced froJH that noble maid, (/) have beeii like drift in the 
eddy of the tide. 

(3) If the remark is general, and no special subject is 
in the mind of the speaker. 

jimat-jimat di-negeri orang {one) must be wary iti a 
strange land; biar lambat asal selamat let {one) be slow, 
provided {one) is safe. 

11. The object may be omitted. 

jangan bunch do7it slay {him, her, or //, as circumstances 
make clear) ; sahut orang ' Emas-nya hilang.* maka 
kata Bendahara ' Biar aku ganti ^folk cried, ' Their gold 
is lost.' Said the Bendahara, ' Let me replace {it) ' ; seka- 
rang leboh kita tiada betul, baik juga tuanku mem- 



176 NOTES ON SYNTAX 

betuli no7v our road is not siraigh!, it itk're well your highness 
straighten {it) ; apa nama senjata bulat-bulat ini ? mana 
tajam-nya maka ia membunoh ivhat is the name of these 
round missiles? and tvhere is their sharpness that they slay 
{folk)? 

III. The verb (and both subject or object and verb) may be 
omitted, if the context explains. 

hendak ka-mana tvhither azvay ? hai budak-budak 
mau-kah memandang emas ? maka sahut anak buah- 
nya ' mau datok ' Boys, do you ivant to see some gold ? ' And 
his childre7i answered, ' (We) 7vant {to see it), grandfather'; 
jangan lama dont {be) long ; berapa lama-nya ia di-Pasai 
itu all the time he {stayed) at Pasai ; kita menyuroh 
(scihcet orang miengutus) ka-Pasai ive order {an envoy to 
go) to Pasai; jikalau kerja kechil, tiada buat ; jikalau 
kerja besar, berapa lagi tf it is a small work, it is not 
done ; if it is a large, still less {will it be done). 

IV, The whole of a clause may be omitted and left for the 
context to supply — especially in well-known proverbial sayings. 

umpan sa-ekur kail sa-bentok one bait and a hook {and 
the days labour may be wasted owing to its loss) ; hujan emas 
di-negeri orang, hujan lembing di-negeri kita // may 
rain gold in a foreign land and spears at home {but home 
is better). 



CHAPTER IX 

STYLE 

§ 106. There is no such great difference of vocabulary 
in Malay as will correspond to low and high (or krama) 
Javanese. The court style (bahasa dalam), the conversation 
of gentry (bahasa halus or bahasa bangsawan), the talk 
of the bazaar (bahasa dagang, bahasa kachauan or 
bahasa pasar) : these various styles as defined by Malay 
pedants represent no mysterious or radical types, but sum- 
marize broadly differences which may be found in any 
language between the vocabularies of the practised litterateur 
and the man of breeding and education, the polyglot 
vocabulary of commerce and the slang of mean streets. 
Misconception in this matter is so common that it will be 
useful to point out the notes of these several styles. 

§ 107. Bazaar Malay. 

(a) It accepts foreign idioms like dia punya baik his 
goodness from the Chinese; sahaya punya dekat in my 
possession, kaseh sama sahaya give to ?ne from Indians ; or 
like the employment of ada (an emphatic word denoting 
existence) as a mere copula, — kalau tuan ada suka if you 
are liking ; or like bagi naik and kaseh naik make to go 
up for naikkan: idioms which are alien to Malay, ugly, 
superfluous and inorganic. 

(3) It perverts good Malay words to corrupt meanings 
modelled on foreign idiom, banyak much, an adverb of 
quantity is used for very ; mau vuish serves for an auxiliary 
will, shall ; bilang count is used for tell, inform ; dekat mar 

10B4 M 



178 STYLE 

and sama alike, like for io ; mari here as a verb coming 
here. 

(f) It introduces foreign words correct in addressing a 
foreigner, and applies them to men of its own race ; the 
Chinese lu to a Malay ; or tabek to a Sultan or Raja. 

{d) It introduces foreign words like katil (Tamil) bed, 
tuala (Portuguese) towel, setori (English) tale, lie, konse- 
tSbel constable, bikin make ; some of them long since become 
part of the language as names for foreign things which have 
come to stay; others perhaps doomed to die out and never to 
become classical. 

(<?) For the benefit of the foreigner, it employs the root 
form of the verb rather than its derivatives. 

(_/) So, too, it uses the simplest synonym in place of the 
rich vocabulary of the race : potong ctit for slice, divide, 
mince, lop, fell \ jatoh for /all o^ a. man, a house, trees, fruit; 
pukul for hit whether with cane, stick, stone, fist, or whip ; 
rumah for house, hut, lean-to, palace, or rice-shantj/ ; pinggan 
pechah broken plates in place of tembikar shard; semua 
for all in place of sakalian, segala and so on. 

{g) It employs many slang expressions: gasak, rodok, 
radak, chekek, lantak, parap for eat ; gasak, bongkar, 
kibar, kabong, chabut, tuas, chachak, telungkup run ; 
pusing cheat ; lichin stony broke ; berkeredak in a pickle ; 
kapal sapu roue'; kenchang swell, dapper ; galak lascivious ; 
bagi ' give ' it any one, beat ; kelam kabut surprised, confused. 

{h) It uses coarse words: hetina female, jantan male, 
mampus die, ' croak ' of persons as well as of animals ; 
membuta sleep, and a number of coarse terms in sexual 
matters. 

§ 108. Of the characteristics of the bazaar style (a) to (/) 
will be met only if the Malay is talking purposely down to 
a foreigner, or if he himself be the half-caste of a seaport 
town, {g) and {h) will be heard, also, in the ruder talk of the 



STYLE 179 

real Malay, which is fond too of abbreviations and ejaculatory 
monosyllables like awat for apa buat (Singapore) tvhy ; pi' 
(Perak) 'gi (Patani) for pergi go\ hang for engkauj'(?«; 
'nak for hendak wish, will; ta' for tidak 7io\ 'ku for 
engku your highness ; jum (Perak) be off; and of pro- 
vincialisms, which have not found their way into literature, 
sahaya-ma, kita-ma all 0/ us, kamu-ma you all in Perak, 
for example, and the Perak forms lanjar for langsongy^^rM- 
wiih, sampang for sempat able to do. Again, idiomatic 
talk between Malays of all classes will abound in ellipse. 
It will employ many words of minute significance in woodcraft, 
husbandry, industries, and domestic life : talking among 
themselves with no pretence to fine phraseology peasants 
unconsciously affect a nice precision in words, so that lists 
like the following are in daily use. sepak kick ivilh the side 
of the foot; tendang kick zvith the toes ; terajang kick ivith 
the heel, balut tie in a ivrapper ; bungkus tie in a bundle ; 
berkas tie, of recalcitrant articles like antlers or spears. 
potong cut ; belah cut in two, split lengthwise ; chinehang 
cut in small pieces, mince ; kerat cut in two crosswise ; pang- 
gal sever, decapitate ; ranchong cut to a fine point (e. g. a 
pencil) ; panchong prune, lop ; pedang inoiv ; tetak notch ; 
tuai reap, cut rice-grain ; raut cut, trim ; chukur cut hair or 
beard; parang to sabre, cleave; tehang fell big jungle; 
tebas clear scrub ; r^ntas cut a trace or track, ambil car/y 
away ; angkat carry, I ft up ; angkut carry, lift up and 
away ; ambin carry on the back; bawa bring, fetch ; bebat 
carry in the girdle; bibit carry in the hand; jinjing carry in 
the fingers ; dukong carry on the hip ; kendong, gendong 
carry i?i a wrapper ; kandong carry in a sack or in the womb ; 
pikul carty on the shoulder ; tatang carry on the palms ; 
tanggong carry, support a heavy burden ; julang carry with 
arm upraised ; kepit carry pressed under arm ; kelek carry 
loosely under artn ; galas carry slung over the shoulder or o?i 
the end of a stick ; kandar carry on both ejids of a stick over 



i8o STYLE 

the shoulder \ junjong earry on the head \ usong carry in 
a Utter. 

§ 109. Polite Malay (bahasa halus). 

((?) It is especially careful in the choice of personal 
pronouns. Even a European with little knowledge of the 
language can earn a cheap fame for linguistic ability, if he 
takes trouble on this simple point (§ 66). 

(i^) It uses respectful words for the great events of life : 
bersalin change oneself instead of the blunt beranak bear 
children ; isteri (Skt.) instead of bini or perempuan for 
%vife\ suami (Skt.) instead of lakiyi?;- husband \ mati or 
pulang ka-rahmatu 'llah (Ar.) for die. 

(f) To a greater degree perhaps than peasant talk, it 
employs affixes with the verbs, especially me, be(r), and 
te(r) (and in a few words pe(r) too) ; also, though in a less 
degree — -kan and -i. 

{d) It uses, of course, a larger general vocabulary and 
adopts many Arabic words, when talking of religion and 
literature. 

§ 110. Court Malay. 

This exactly resembles the polite style, except that it uses 
a score of special words, proper only to a raja, patek (Skt.) 
your slave for /; tuanku, engku, tGTa.gk.Vi your highness', 
putera (Skt.) scion for child; semayam reside (literally sit 
enthroned)-, berangkat (instead of berjalan) travel; siram 
bathe; santap ^<7/; gering j/V,^ ; mangkat be borne aloft; 
die ; titah command, order ; sembah. do obeisance to ; wajah 
(Ar.) countenance ; junjong dull obey a royal order. 

§ 111. Literary Malay. 

(a) It avoids abbreviations of words such as is usual in all 
colloquial Malay, e. g. it employs ta' for tidak only in a few 
phrases (§ 85). 



STYLE i8i 

[It) It avoids provincialisms, the literary standard having 
been fixed in the golden age of old Malacca, and being 
known now generally as Riau-Johor Malay. 

{c) It employs the whole system of affixation. 

[d) It employs certain modal words and 'punctuation' 
words (§§86, 89), 

{/) It employs conjunctions and builds sentences more 
complex than occur in conversation. 

{/) It carries the principle of balance and antithesis to an 
extreme (§ 104). 

{g) Its vocabulary is large, and contains a number of 
Sanskrit and Arabic words ' and of flowery metaphors, which 
are found only in literature. 

segara oceafi ; bahagia good fortune ; kendaraan steed, 
vehicle ; rupawan beautiful ; sentosa tranquillity ; mega 
clouds ; merdu soft, sweet ; pekerti character ; perwara 
warrior ; angkasa heavens ; aneka kinds ; asa hope \ 
asmara /tfj'i' ; bahtera ewi'i?/; h\t\ female slave \ chakera- 
vfolQ, firjnament ; derma al/us; sentiasa always; sokma 
soul; sarwa (now corrupted seru) all; perkasa valiant; 
saksama inquiry ; papa poverty ; anugerah, kurnia gift 
{from superior to inferior') ; puteri princess ; paksi bird ; 
pahala^r?/;/ ; suaka refuge are a few examples from Sanskrit. 
From the Arabic are borrowed such words as azim august ; 
aflat health ; arwah soul ; bahar sea ; baka eternal ; batal 
futile; fajiB, perishable ; feel conduct; fuad heart; haiwan 
creatures ; hebat terrible ; ibarat parallel, analogous case ; 
ihtiar choice ; ijtihad zeal ; isharat sign ; istiadat custom ; 
{ter) jali bright ; kadamy^f?/; 'k.a.dar ability; khalayak 
mankind; khayal trance; khuatir consciousness; layak 
proper; IdiZaX pleasant; lazim. fiecessary; makhluk////W(7;///y; 
martebat rank ; masaalah thesis ; muslihat stratagem ; 
mustaed ready ; pdrlu obligatory. Persian, loo, has inti o- 

^ The spelling of these foreign words follows the Malay. 



1 82 STYLE 

duced, for example, bahaduri gallant ; bahari noble ; bena 
excellent ; biadab discourtesy ; biaperi merchant ; darya 
ocean, river; diwan court \ jahan the world; jogan state 
lance ; juadah cakes ; lashkar soldiery ; piala goblet. In- 
stances of flowery metaphor are the Sanskrit Is^esovcidi, flower 
for girl or boy; bunga di-peraduan sudah layu the floiver 
of the bed-chamber has faded; meaning _yM/;" bride is dead; 
and bunga di-sering kumbang the floiver at which the 
bee has sucked for a maid deflowered: these occur in piose 
romance, and many others may be garnered. 



APPENDIX 

NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 
By R. J. Wilkinson, C.M.G. 

I. — The Heading {Kepala Surai). 

Near the middle of the blank space at the top of the sheet 
on which a Malay letter is written is a short Arabic formula 
such as kaubil-hakk (the saying is the truth) or shaj}isu wa'l- 
kamar (the sun and the moon). It is usually impossible to 
learn from Malays why this formula is used or what it really 
signifies ; they can only say that it is the custom to write such 
things at the top of a letter. But there is significance both 
in the expression used and in its position on the page. If 
the formula is written in the centre of the paper, it signifies 
that the writer and the addressee are of equal rank and cor- 
respond as equals. If it is written slightly to the right, it 
implies that the writer of the letter claims a higher position 
than the person he is addressing. If the formula is slightly to 
the left it signifies that the writer is an inferior addressing 
a superior. The formula itself also varies : the words used 
• as a heading to a letter to a great prince will not be the same 
as those used in the heading of a letter to 2i penghulu. 

The principal headings are : 

O Commander of the Faithful. 

This expression, in former times, was the correct heading to a letter 
addressed to a powerful ruling prince by a subject. It is out of date at 
present. 



i84 APPENDIX 

The Saying is the Truth ; 

Appropriate when two rulers correspond : common on letters from native 
rulers to the Governor and vice versa. 

And the Writing is most sincere ; 

A variant or continuation of the preceding heading. It is used under 
similar circumstances. Another variant is al-mttstahakk : ' the truth.' 

O God ! O Muhammad I 

This heading is sometimes used when native princes correspond, but is, 
of course, inapplicable to correspondence between a Christian governor 
and a Moslem prince. 

O light of the Sun and of the Moon. 

This expression is a quasi-compliment meaning ' shining brilliantly — 
but not with the true light of religion '. It is used often by a Malay 
raja when addressing an ' infidel ' potentate. 

O Merciful Pardoner. 

This formula is very common on letters or petitions addressed to District 
Officers by penghulus, and to Heads of Departments generally by their 
subordinates. The 'Merciful Pardoner' is, of course, God (described 
by one of His attributes), and the Head of Department is reminded of 
this divine attribute in the hope that he will be indulgent to the 
petitioner. 

- O Unlocker of Hearts. 

This (rare) formula is appropriate to petitions asking for inquiry into 
some matter. Here, again, the ruler or administrator is reminded of his 
duty as the representative of a divine power ' from whom no secrets 
are hid'. 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 185 



i_) 



UJJ ^b b 



O Judge of Wishes. 

This (rare) formula is appropriate to petitions containing a request of 
some sort. Here, again, we have an appeal to a divine attribute. 

O Ocean (of information) to Inquirers. 

This (rare) formula is appropriate to letters asking a superior authority 
for information on some point. 

O Lord of Loveliness. 

A purely complimentary formula based on a divine attribute and used as 
a suggestion that the virtues of the official addressed have made a deep 
impression on the mind of his correspondent. 



O Precious One. 

Used as a heading to letters to a teacher, or to a Syed or Kathi, or any 
religious dignitary of high rank. 



ri/^^ 



, O Honoured One. 

This formula is used in a letter to a father or mother. 

O Belauded Power. 

The heading to a letter to an elder brother. 

i\^\ ij^ b 

O Blossom of my Heart. 

The proper heading of a letter to a sister of about one's own age or 
to a wife. 



1 86 APPENDIX 

O Comfort of my Eyes. 

This formula is really a term of endearment used as a heading to letters 
addressed to a younger sister, to a favourite daughter, or to a beloved 
girl of any sort. The heading j^ n/iriil-'dshikin may also be used over 
a love-letter. Ya n^riCl-ain (light of my eyes) is another formula of 
the same sort. 

Absolute Truth. 
Used when addressing any one in whom one has perfect confidence. 

God's Ocean of Knowledge. 
This heading is placed above letters to very learned men. 

;u4iji j>.>ij jXii 

The Decree is from the AU-Powerful. 
A heading to a letter announcing a death. 

God is with the Submissive. 
A heading to a letter of condolence. 

God's Will be Done. 
A heading to letters expressive of the writer's resignation to misfortune. 

II. — The ' CoiMPLiMENTs ' {Puji-pujian). 

A Malay letter begins with what are known as the puji- 
ptijian or ' compliments ', but these compliments are really 
only a formula indicating the names and relative positions of 
the writer and the person addressed. We may divide the 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 187 

formula into nine essential parts and discuss each part 

separately 

This Letter 

From me 

May it be conveyed 

By God (or Man) 

To 

You 

Who live 

At X 

Amen. 

1. This Letter. — This expression is usually much ex- 
panded. The following is an extreme case of expansion : 

IVarkatti 'l-ikhlas wa tuhfatu '' l-ajnas yang teiMt daripadajuadti'z- 
zakiah ya-itii hati yang puteh /agi hating dan jirneh yang tiada 
inenaroh shak dan loaham di-dalam-nya serla tiada monarch lupa 
dan lalai sa-k^tika jua pun sa-lagi ada p^iidaran chakeraivala 
matahari dan bulan ; 
meaning : 

' This sincere letter, this varied gift, issues from a pure heart, from 
feelings of a limpid and transparent candour that can harbour no suspicion 
or mistrust and that knows no neglect or forgetfulness — not even for one 
instant— so long as the firmament revolves and the sun and the moon 
pursue their courses.' 

The full formula would only be used when a prince of the 
very highest rank addresses another prince of the very highest 
rank. In extreme cases, when a great ruler addresses a very 
minor official a mere bahwa ini sural would suffice. A 
Sultan addressing a Governor should use very nearly the full 
formula ; addressing a District Officer he should use a short 
formula such as bahwa ini-lah sural lulus dan ikhlas serla 
kaseh sayang. A Malay chief (other than a ruling prince) 
would in such a case use a longer formula. 

2. From me. — The writer of the letter should describe 
himself very shortly. If he emphasizes his title in any way it 
is an assertion of superiority over the person addressed. If 
he depreciates himself by adding some such expression as 



1 88 APPENDIX 

yang hina it is an admission of extreme inferiority. The use 
of kita (we) for beta (I) is a strong assertion of superiority 
except in the East Coast States where beta is not used. 

The address is usually given : the exact terms to be used in 
such cases will be found further on in section (7) ' who live '. 

The following is a typical lengthy specimen of this part of 
ihe. pitjt'-pujtan : 

Ya-itu da tang daripada beta, Raja JMuda X., wakihCs-Sultan, 
Niger i Perak, dariir-ridzwan, bersemayam di-Bukit Chaiidan, 
Seri Andalan. 

The following is a humble variant : 

Ya-itu datang daripada beta, Datok P., yang a da pada tnasa ini 
di-dalani dae7-ah Negeri Rciiibati. 

3. May it be conveyed. — If the letter is a letter to a ruler 
or man of royal blood the expression for ' convey ' is waslkan. 
In ordinary cases, sampaika?i should be used. Love-letters 
(see next paragraph) are separately treated ; except for these 
amatory effusions, this part of the puji-pujian should be either 
barang di-waslkati or barang di-sainpaikan. Barang di- 
taslimkan may, however, be used as a polite equivalent of 
barang di-sampaikan. 

4. By God (or Man). — The importance and character of 
a letter is suggested by the means of conveyance. A letter to 
a very great dignitary is accompanied by a pious expression 
of hope that the Almighty will cause it to reach its destination 
safely. But, if the letter is addressed to a person of no 
importance, it is sufficient to express the hope that the post 
office will help the letter along. In the case of love affairs, 
convention insists that the conveyance of love-letters is the 
special duty of certain birds, notably the bayan or parakeet 
{palaeoniis longicauda), the explanation being that these birds, 
being possessed of power of speech, are mentioned in old 
romances as the bearers of messages from a lover to his lass. 
The expression for ' convey ' in such cases is, therefore, 
layangkan or even bayankan. 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 189 

A further distinction is conveyed by the expression used 
to describe the Almighty. If the term used is some long 
expression such as Tuhaji, viaJikul-hinnan zval-jnarinan, the 
letter is very formal and is suited for dispatch to a ruler. 
But if a simple expression like Allah taala is employed the 
letter is considered more familiar. 

Another distinction, again, is drawn by expressions meaning 
'perhaps', such as vmdah-mudahan and kira-nya (or apa-lah 
jua hra-nya). These expressions suggest a reduced im- 
portance for the letter. 

The following gives a list of expressions in a descending 
scale of formality : 

(fl) Barang di-waslkan Tuhan maliku'l-hianan wa'1-mannan ; 
{b) Barang di-sampaikan Allah ar-rahman ar-rahim ; 
(t) Barang di-sampaikan Tuhan rabbu'l-alamin; 
{d) Barang di-sampaikan Tuhan sera sakalian alam ; 
(^) Barang di-sampaikan Allah subhana wa taala ; 
(_/) Barang di-sampaikan Allah azza wa jalla; 
ig) Barang di-sampaikan AU.ah taala ; 
(A) Barang di-sampaikan Allah ; 
(?) Mudah-mudahan barang di-sampaikan Allah ; 
(7) Apa-lah jua kira-nya datang; 

(/<•) Minta tolong enchek-enchek dan tuan-tuan yang berjumpa surat ini 
sampaikan. 

5. To. — This very simple preposition may be expressed in 
various ways according to the respect that a letter is intended 
to suggest. Only a man of princely rank has the privilege of 
addressing himself to the ' face ' {wajak) of royalty. Ordinary 
people address the ' presence ' (Jiadzrat) of royalty, while 
very humble subjects address the dust beneath a prince's 
foot (ka-baivah didi). All these expressions are confined to 
royalty. In addressing a commoner a man cannot use wajah 
or hadzrat or ka-hawah duli; he may (if addressing a 
superior) lay his petition before the ' presence ', but he should 
use the word majlis, not hadzrat. Only when addressing 
a man of little importance should the simple preposition ' to ' 
{kapada) be used. 



I90 APPENDIX 

Further gradations are expressed by the use of the Arabic 
preposition ala for the Malay kapada, and also by qualifying 
with adjectives the expressions ' face ' or ' presence ' — e. g., 
' the noble face ' or ' the majestic presence '. The following 
are examples of this portion of the piiji-pujian : 

(a) Ala xvajahW l-kariimC sh-sharifzi' I- ali ; 

' To the majestic, noble, and exalted countenance of .' 

This expression might be used in a letter from one reigning 
prince to another reigning prince. 
{b) Ala ivajahiCl-karitmi l-kamal ; 

' To the majestic and illustrious face of . ' This expression 

might be used by a prince of the royal house addressing his 
sovereign, 
(c) Ka-hadapan seri wajah ; ^ 

' Before the princely face of .' This expression might be 

used by a Sultan to a non-reigning prince. 
{d) Ka-bawah hadzratiC l-tnasraf ; 

* Down before the presence of his highness.' This form of 
address would be used by a chief (not of princely rank) writing 
to his sovereign. 
(^) Ka-bawah hadzrat, or ka-hadzrat. 

These are less ceremonial variants of id). 
(_/) Ka-hadapan medan majlis, 

' In the field before the presence of .' To a very high 

official such as a Resident. 
(^) Ka-hadapan majlis, 

' To the presence of .' To an official such as a Magistrate 

or District Officer. 
{h) Kapada. 

' To .' Only used to persons of no position. 

6. You. — The person addressed is described in several 
ways. A prince writing to another prince will often use 
respectful terms of relationship — such as ayahanda, kakanda, 
adinda, anakanda — according to the relative age of the parlies. 
Writing to Europeans of rank terms of friendship are used 
in place of those of relationship : seri paduka sahabat beta, 
paduka sahabat beta, and sahabat beta. Strictly, the first 

' The word terhampar ('laid down before ', ' submitted to') may be 
used before this and the following expressions. 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 191 

of these three expressions ought to be confined to the very 
highest European officers; a District Officer or Magistrate 
would be paduka sahabat beta, and an unofficial European of 
good position or a man of little official status would be 
sahabat beta. On the East Coast kita is used in place of 
beta; on the West Coast ktta is used to inferiors only. 
Malays of low rank when writing to each other use terms of 
relationship if they are intimate. In other cases, they use the 
expression sahabat sahaya. 

The following complimentary attributes should also be used: 

Yang terutama : to the Governor : 

Yang muha-mulia : to a Sultan ; 

Yang teramat mulia : to a Regent, Raja Muda, or semi- 
independent chief like the Datok of Jelebu ; 

Yang berhormat: to a Resident-General or Resident ; 

Yang mulia: to a Malay chief or European of high 
official rank. 
7. Who live. — This portion of the 'compliment' is the 
expression in which most mistakes are made. A non-reigning 
member of a royal house and even a District Officer is often 
described in letters and petitions as ' sitting in state upon 
a throne of sovereignty ' {bersemayam di-atas sniggasana 
takhta kerajaati). This is an obvious error and is often 
explained as mere oriental exaggeration, whereas, as a matter 
of fact, it is simply due to ignorance of the correct term 
to use. A ruling prince does theoretically ' sit in state upon 
a royal throne', and may use the expression bersemayam 
di-atas singgasana takhta kerajaan. A better expression — 
for an administrator, at all events — is melakulian tadbiru'l- 
ihsan, ' munificently carrying on the Government.' A non- 
reigning prince may be said to ' sit in state ' [bersemayam), 
but he cannot be said to do it ' on a throne of royalty ', nor can 
he be said to ' possess a throne of sovereignty ' {f/iempimyai' 
takhta kerajaan) or ' munificently to administer the Govern- 
ment '. He may, however, be said to ' possess regal dignity 



192 APPENDIX 

and importance ' {viempimya'i daidai kerajaan dan kebesarati). 
A District Officer may hyperbolically be described as ' muni- 
ficently carrying on the administration ', but not as ' sitting 
in state ', nor as ' possessing a throne of sovereignty '. The 
correct expression is bermakavi or bertnastautin, ' officially 
presiding ' or ' officially residing '. An honoured unofficial 
'exists in peace and health and prosperity' (ada dengati 
istirahat dan khairul-afiat, or ada dengan kesejahteraati-Tiyd). 
A less dignified expression is the simple ada di-dalam pelihara 
Allah iaala. A person of no importance simply 'exists' 
{ada\ 

To summarize : 

{a) The proper descriptions for a reigning Prince are : 

Yang bcrsemayam di-atas singgasana takJita kerajaan ; 
Yang viHakiikan tadbiru'l-ihsan ; 

and (less dignified) yang mhnpunya'i takhta kerajaan dan 
kebesaran. 

[5) The best descriptions of a non-reigning Raja are : 

Yang mempunyai daulat kerajaan dan kebesaran ; 
Yang bersemayam. 

(c) of a Governor : 

Yang melakukan tadbini l-ihsan ; 
Yang memerentah. 

{d) of a Resident : 

Yang melakukan tadbini l-ihsati ; 
Yang mempunyai pangkat Resident. 

{e) of a District Officer : 

Yang bermakam ; "*" 

Yang bermastautin ; 

Yang melakukan jalan berhaseh-kasehan ; 

Yang mempunyai jawalan pegawai jajahan . 

{/) of an official, generally : 

Yang berpangkat (name of office) ; 
Yang bih-jawatan (name of office). 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER- WRITING 193 
{g) of an unofficial of standing : 

Va/i^ at/a dengaii sekat dan khairiCl-\iJiat ; 

Yang ada dengan kemtiliaan ; 

i 'ang ada dingan kesejahteraan ; 

Yang ada dengan kcsempornaan ; 

Yang ada dengan s^lamat ; 

Yang ada di-dalani pclihara Allah taala. 

{Ji) of a person of no importance : 
Yang ada. 
It must, of course, be always borne in mind that a man, 
speaking of himself, would describe his office by a simpler 
expression than he would use to describe the same office 
when held by the person he is writing to. Furthermore, in 
writing to superiors, certain complimentary attributes may be 
put into the compliments — t.%.yang mtdia^yang arif bijak- 
sivia, &c. 

8. At X. — The name of the place at which the addressee 
lives is often the subject of honorifics. Perak is daru'r- 
rtdzivati, Kedah is daru'l-aman, Selangor is darii l-ihsati, 
Acheen is dam' s-salam ; these titles are conventional, but, 
where no conventional name exists, an honorific can be 
invented such as negeri yatig viiilia or balduU-aadzam, 'the 
august city'. Daru' sh-shahadah is another such expression. 
It is common also for Sultans to give special high-sounding 
names to the little hamlets in which they take up their 
abode : thus, Bukit Chandan is called Seri Andalan. These 
honorifics are, of course, only used where the writer or the 
person addressed is a man of very high rank. 

9. Amen. — It is usual in letters between Moslems of high 
position to end up the puji-pujimi with some pious expression, 
sometimes the actual word a7nin and sometimes a longer 
expression like salam Allah taala or hafudz Allah taala. 
When writing to Europeans this expression is altered to 
dengan sejahtera-nya or dengan selamat-nya or some similar 
expression of which examples will be given in the ' specimen 
letters '. 

1554 N 



194 APPENDIX 

III. — The Closing Words of a Letter. 

At the close of a letter it is usual to put a few words to the 
effect that ' there is no more to say except to send greetings 
to our friend'. This formula should be expanded somewhat 
when addressing a superior — 
The following are examples : 
{a) to a Sultan : 

Tiada apa-apn yang lam hanya-lah di-harapkan seri 
paduka sahabat bela dalain sihat dan 'ajial, mudah- 
mudahan kekal di-atas takhta kerajaati sa-lama- 
lavia-nya. 
{b) to a Chief: 

Tiada apa-apa yang laifi melainkati di-harap umiir 
panjang. Tainat. 
(<:) to an equal : 

Demikiati-ldh di-maahimkan hanya iva' s-salam. 

IV. — The Address. 

The address on a letter only differs from the ptiji-piijian in 
the first item of the nine that have been discussed. This 
item should be alamat sural instead of ivarkatu'l-ikhlas, &c. 
The following is an example : 

Alamat suiat baratig di-sat?tpatkan Allah stibhana wa taala ka- 
hadapan viajlis sahabat beta, titan X., di-dalam negeri Y., darul- 
itnatt, adanya. 

V. — The Signature, Seal, &c. 

The seal or ' chop ' on a letter is usually imprinted on the 
margin of the letter to the right-hand side of the writer and 
more or less parallel with the opening sentences of the com- 
pliments. The signature is written under the seal. The 
date, the place of writing, and sometimes the writer's name 
(for Malays usually employed professional letter-writers) 
would be written in a short sentence below the letter — e. g. 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 195 

lersnrat (or ter lull's or iertnaklttb or tennadzkur) di-Taipeng, 
pada 22 hari-bidan dzu'l-kaedah, sannah 1305. 

In the lower corner of a letter addressed to a man of rank, 
groups of letters of the alphabet are occasionally written, 
to wit: 

These two groups are conventional and complimentary. 
In formal correspondence between equals the expressions 
^^15J1 (c4-^^ oi* (y^\ are written in place of these letter- 
groups. 

VI. — Petitions. 

The rules hitherto given do not apply altogether to petitions. 
A Malay peasant addressing his prince would write : 

Ajnpun iuan ku, bt'i-ibti-ribu ampun, t^rsembah ka-bawah duH lebu 
telapakan Siri Paduka yang maha-viulia yang-di-pcrtuan yaiig 
bersiinayam di-atas takhta singgasana kerajaan di-dalain negeri A'., 
darn'l-iman, ada-nya. 

A petitioner of higher rank would not alter the tone but 
would indicate his position by using Arabic words to show 
that he was a man of some literary taste and refinement, 
and consequently of some standing in the world : 

Ampun tuan-kii beribii-ribn ampun, yarfcCal-kitab ala hadzrat al- 
masraf ditii tuan-kit saidii l-karim paduka scri Sultan A. ash-sharif 
as-saiyid nmulana yang berscinayam di-atas singgasana takhta 
kerajaan di-dalam haldii l-aadzain negeri A'., danil-ihsan. 

The address on a petition simply prefixes alamal sural to 
the puji-piijian ; thus, alamal sural ampun luan-ku, beribu-rihu 
ampun, &c. 

VIL — Love-Letters. 

The puji-pujian or ' compliments ', with their conventional 
terms of respect, sincerity and affection, are only preliminary 
to the important matter contained in an ordinary business 

N 2 



196 APPENDIX 

letter. In a love-letter, however, they are the very gist of the 
communication, and may constitute the whole of the epistle 
from the beginning to the end. The ordinary rules of Malay 
correspondence have, therefore, to be modified in such cases, 
and these modifications have been the subject of a good deal 
of study on the part of native writers or theorists on the 
subject. 

Conventionally, a Malay love-letter is not a prosaic matter 
of paper and ink, but a message or token borne on the 
wings of a bird from lover to lover. This theory will be 
understood, when it is remembered that native girls are 
secluded and are not allowed to communicate directly with 
the outer world, so that in Malay romance a lover usually 
entrusts his message to a bird gifted with the power of speech 
or else sends it by means of a suggestive token such as a 
flower or a leaf. Convention maintains that this should still 
nominally be done even in these days of a three-cent post. 
A love-letter is not posted — it is entrusted to ' some bird 
of wise utterance ' ; it is not a poor sheet of paper — it is 
' a jasmine bud of exquisite fragrance '. Words like sural or 
even the royal warkat are avoided because of their suggestion 
of the inkstand ; the proper word is ' a greeting with love 
and tenderness following in its train ' (salam yang di-iringi 
dengan rindu sayang). Again, the lover does not address 
it to the ' presence ' of his beloved or to her ' face ' or to the 
' dust beneath her feet ' ; he lays his floral offering meta- 
phorically upon her lap (ka-alas rihami adindd). And, of 
course, a letter of this type does not concern itself with the 
question of a girl's official position, but simply dwells upon 
the charms and virtues that she possesses. 

The following example of the puji-pujian appropriate to 
love-letters only refers to cases in which the gist of the letter 
is on some matter of business and the ' compliments ' are 
those formally prescribed for use at the beginning of the 
epistle ; 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 197 

Bahwa ini-lah salam yang di-iringi dengan rindu sayang di-champur 
dengan dendam taadzim, yang di-sertakan dengan kaseh takrim, 
yang di-hiasi dengan sayang yang tiada berkeputusan pada siang 
dan malam, ya-itu datang daripada kakanda X., yang sangat me- 
nanggong duka-chita sa-hari-hari, ada-nya; mudah-mudahan barang 
di-layangkan apalah kira-nya datang ka-atas ribaan adinda, Y., 
yang mulia lagi arif bijaksana serta amat mengasehani segala handai 
taulan-nya di-dalam negSri Z., daru'1-iman, ada-nya. 

The following example, on the other hand, gives a love- 
letter that is nothing more than a message of affection and 
consists o{ puji-pujian from the beginning to the end: 

Salam doa yang di-iringi dengan beberapa hormat yang maha-mulia, 
maka di-champuri pula dengan beberapa rindu dendam yang tiada 
berkeputusan sentiasa pada tiap-tiap siang dan malam pagi dan 
petang dan sa-bilang vvaktu tiada-lah sa-kali-kali lupa dan lalai 
barang sa-ketika juga sa-lagi ada p^ridaran chakeravvala bulan dan 
matahari. Maka ada-lah laksana punggok merindukan bulan 
dan seperti chentayu menantikan hujan dan laksana Zulaikha 
berahikan Yusuf dan seperti Laili berahikan Mejnun, maka demi- 
kian-lah kakanda teringatkan tuan. Jika tidur terigau-igau dan 
jika dudok terbayang-bayang m^lainkan terasoh-asoh sifat wajahu'l- 
karim itu terdiri pada orang-orangan mata kakanda yang amat 
dzaif lagi liina papah serta pula dengan miskin daripada segala 
hamba Allah di-dalam dunia ini lagi bebal serta d^iigan bodoh 
yatim piatu yang tiada menaroh sanak dan saudara lagi tiada 
menaroh daya dan upaya melainkan di-harapkan jua belas kasehan 
tuan serta tulus ikhlas adinda nuru'l-ashikin di-atas batu kepala 
kakanda. Ada-lah di-umpamakan seperti ayer di-dalam telaga 
kalkauthar serta dengan hening jerneh, lagi-pun dSngan sejok-nya, 
dan berbagai-bagai chinta neemat rasa-nya yang tiada tepermenai 
lagi di-dalam itu. Di-s^rta-kan pula dengan suatu isharat dan 
ibarat orang tua-tua : ada-lah laksana sa-pohon kayu yang tumboh 
di-tengah padang serta dengan rendang-nya dan harum bau bunga- 
nya dan lemah maiiis rupa buah-nya ; maka banyak-lah hamba 
Allah yang bernaung berhenti di-bavvah pohon kayu ; maka bertiup- 
lah angin yang lemah lembut dari udara yang keluar dari-dalam 
shurga jannatu'n-nai'm maka terkibar-lah bau-nya bunga kayu yang 
amat harum ; sa-ketika jua lalu terlalai-lah hamba Allah yang 
di-bawah pohon itu seperti laku orang pengsan juga sebab men- 
chium bau-nya itu. Maka sekarang ini ada-lah kakanda yang 
bernama X. sudah terkena mabok-nya itu dengan tiada terkira-kira 
lagi, melainkan harap-lah juga kakanda kapada adinda dengan sa- 
banyak-banyak harap seperti anak ayam harapkan ibu-nya. Bahwa 



198 APPENDIX 

ada-lah kakanda ini sa-umpama anak burong ; jikalau tiada kasehan 
ibu-nya, maka di-mana-lah anak burong itu mahu pergi. Allah ! 
Allah ! Ya adinda, sa-kali-kali kakanda tiada membuat dusta 
melainkan dahulu Allah, baada-hu rasul, dan pada k^mudian tnan- 
lah yang kakanda harap. Dan jikalau kiia-nya kakanda ada 
menaroh sayap seperti burong neschaya sekarang ini juga kakanda 
terbang hinggap ka-bawah hadzrat majlis paduka adinda chahaya 
nur ini. Dan sekarang apa-lah boleh buat, dan apa-lah daya 
kakanda? Badan seperti anak merpati terkepak-kepak ka-?ana 
sini lalu jatoh dari atas rumah sampai ka-tanah, entahkan apa jadi. 
Ya Allah, ya rasul Allah, ketiga-lah dengan adinda, ya adinda, 
tuan, apa-lah jadi kakanda ini ? Ada-lah laksana pantun orang tua: 

Enchek Amat membawa suloh, 

Hendak menyuloh sarang tebuan ; 

Sembah di-angkat jari sa-puloh, 

Minta mati di-kaki tuan. 

And so on. A Malay love-letter usually ends with a string of 

three or (our pan UtJis. 

The following is a rough translation of the letter just 

quoted : 

In the train of this letter of greeting I send a multitude of respectful 
wishes and of loving thoughts that have never yet ceased to attend 
me either by night or day, evening or morn — no, not for one instant 
can I forget you so long as the sun and the moon pursue their 
courses. My love is as that of the night-bird when it sighs for the 
moon or as that of the rain-bird when it thirsts for the dew of 
heaven ; my love is as the passion of Zulaikha for Yusuf or as the 
wistful longing of Leila for Mejnun ; it breaks on my slumbers 
with anxious fears, it distracts my waking hours with wandering 
thoughts, for at no time can my eyes image anything except the 
glorious beauty of your form. I may be humble and weak and 
poor, the very meanest of God's servants on earth ; I may lack every 
gift ; I may have no friend or relative to look to in the world, but 
what of that ? I put my trust and confidence in your tenderness and 
in the sincerity of your heart, oh, most desired of lovers! For you 
are as the waters of the River of Life, pure and calm and lustrous, 
whose sweetness no man can measure — or, if I may quote a metaphor 
used by men of old, you are like some tree of over-arching verdure 
that yields shade and fragrance and fruit in the midst of a desolate 
plain — can you, then, marvel that men should be attracted by your 
beauty and that the zephyrs from some heaven of bliss should play 
about you till the fragrance of your beauty should lull the thoughts 
of your lovers and lead them to be dead to everything except the 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 199 

delight of breathing the air of your presence ? I, too, am under the 
charm of that influence but my trust is in you, even as the trust of 
a nestling in its mother, for siiould the mother-bird desert it, where 
else could that poor fledgeling turn ? O God Most High — for I 
swear to you I mean no untruth— I have faith in God and the 
Prophet, and, next to them, in you. Yes, had I the wings of a bird, 
this very moment would I fly to your presence, O Light of Glory ! 
But of what avail are these thoughts ? What power is left me ? 
I am like a dove — but a dove of fettered wings, whose struggles 
can only cause it to fall more helpless than ever on the ground 
should it attempt to fly. O God ! O Prophet of God 1 O Love 
of Mine ! What is to be my fate? As in the words of the old, 
old song : 

To her I lift my suppliant hands, 
A simple boon I crave — 

Oh that the earth on which she stands 
May serve me for a grave ! 
&c. 

VIII. — Typical Letters. 

The following examples are taken from letters actually 
written : 

1. From a Datok of Johol to a District Officer. The 

' compliments ' only are given : 

Bahwa ini surat daripada beta Datok Johol, Johan Pahlawan Lela 
Perkasa Setiavvan, yang memerentah di-dalam jajahan Nfigeri Johol 
dengan sejahteraan-nya ya-itu akan datang ka-hadapan majlis 
sahabat beta tuan X., Magistrate di-tanah Melayu, dengan selamat 
lagi sejahtera-nya. 

This form, though probably not intended to be offensive, is 
a typical form to be used in addressing a man very much 
one's inferior in position, for the only portion given at any 
length is that portion in which the writer's own titles are 
enumerated. The offensiveness lies in the brevity of the 
description of the person addressed. 

2. From a Negri Sembilan lembaga to his District Officer. 

Compliments only. This letter is interesting as the work of 

an educated man specially interested in custom : 

Warkatu'l-ikhlas wa-tuhfatu'1-ajnas yang terbit daripada fuadu'z- 
zakiah ya-itu hati yang puteh lagi hening dan jerneh yang tiada 



200 APPENDIX 

menaroh shale dan waham di-dalam-nya sa-lagi ada peridaran 
chakerawala matahari dan bulan ya-itu datang daripada beta Datok 
P. yang ada pada masa ini di-dalam daerah Negeri Kembau, mudah- 
mudahan barang di-sanipaikan oleh Tuhan seru sakalian alam 
apa-lah jua kira-nya akan datang mengadap ka-hadapan majlis sen 
paduka sahabat beta tuan X., Magistrate, yang maha-mulia pada 
melakukan jalan berkaseh-kasehan dan mengambil hati sakalian 
sahabat handai taulan-nya karib dan bai'd, yang ada bersemayam 
pada masa ini di-dalam negeri Tampin dengan beberapa selamat 
sejaht^ra, ada-nya. 

3. From a Malay Raja (not a ruling chief) to a Magistrate. 
Compliments only : 

Surat dengan beberapa tulus dan ikhlas serta suchi hati yang puteh 
lagi hening dan jerneh yang tiada menaroh shak dan waham sa-lagi 
ada peridaran chakerawala ya-itu matahari dan bulan daripada beta 
Raja X. yang ada terhenti pada masa ini di-dalam negSri M. 
dengan minta mudah-mudahan barang di-sampaikan oleh Tuhan 
Seru Sakalian Alam apa-lah jua kira-nya datang ka-hadapan majlis 
seri paduka sahabat beta tuan R. yang menjadi Magistrate di-dalam 
B. dengan kemuliaan serta pula mendapat selamat dengan sejah- 
tera-nya. 

4. From a Regent of Perak to a District Officer announcing 

the death of the Sultan. Compliments only : 

Bahwa surat tulus dan ikhlas kaseh sayang daripada beta Raja Muda 
X., wakilu's-Sultan Negeri Perak, Daru'r-ridzwan, bersemayam 
di-Bukit Chandan Seri Andalan, mudah-mudahan baiang di-waslkan 
oleh Tuhan Seru Sakalian Alam datang ka-hadapan majlis paduka 
sahabat beta tuan Y., Magistrate Kinta daerah Batu Gajah dengan 
sejahtera-nya. 

IX. — Application of these Rules. 

It will be seen from the above specimen letters that Malay 
clerks are not usually quite consistent in the compliments 
that they employ, but that they do what they can to approxi- 
mate to certain forms. Conversely, although no rules have 
been definitely established by actual practice to show how 
a Malay penghulu, chief, or prince should properly be 
addressed by a European official, it is not difficult to lay 
down such rules if we study the practice of Malays when 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 201 

corresponding with one another. We may take as a basis 
for comparison the extent of territory governed. A certain 
allowance has to be made for the difference between hereditary 
and mere official position, but this difference is largely titular. 
A Resident cannot appropriate in correspondence the royal 
expressions such as mempunya'i takhta kerajaan, but he cer- 
tainly could claim the administrative descriptions of a Sultan 
such as menjalatikan tadbiru l-ihsan. In the same way a 
District Officer corresponds in territorial extent of authority, 
more or less, with a IMalay chief such as a Seri Adika Raja. 
Omitting the descriptions based on hereditary right and 
the religious expressions, it would be fairly easy to find 
formulae that are apposite and do not jar on the ear like 
the present confused system by which District Officers claim 
royal thrones and otherwise make themselves ridiculous in 
official letters. 

The only headings that are at all suitable to a letter from 
an English official to a Malay chief of any sort are kaidul- 
hakk and kalamu s-siddik. It is true that they presuppose 
a certain equality of rank and are not really correct where 
a comparatively minor official addresses a Sultan, but they 
have long been customary and are only unsuitable in very 
exceptional cases, for a correspondence with a ruling chief 
is not usually carried on by minor oflicials. 

The expression seri padiika sahabat beta should be confined 
as far as possible to Ruling Chiefs, Governors and Residents. 
The expression/fl«f«^a sahabat beta ought to be quite sufficient 
for native heads of districts and for English officials of the rank 
of a District Officer or Magistrate, while jc?//a/5'(?/ (^f/a would be 
enough in other cases. In the same way, an official, however 
high in rank, should avoid applying to himself the special Malay 
terms limited in use to native royal personages — words such 
as wajah, waslkan, bershnayam, swggasa7ia, daulat and takhta 
kerajaan — and he should employ polite expressions descriptive 
of his duties only. Such expressions are not uncommon. 



202 APPENDIX 

The following forms may be suggested as suitable to 
correspondence with Malays : 

I. — From a Junior Europeatt Official. 
(a) to a peasant: 

Daripada kita tuan X., kepala mata-mata di-dalam daerah Y., di- 
sampaikan kapada AI. bin N'. yang ada sekarang ini di-dalam 
daerah Z. 
Ahual di-taarifkan . . . 

((5) to a penghulu : 

Surat tulus ikhlas daripada beta tuan X., kepala mata-mata di-dalam 
daerah }'., barang di-sampaikan kapada sahabat beta Datok 
Penghulu M. di-dalam daerah Z., dengan selamat-nya. 

Ahual beta taarifkan . . . 

(/) to a chief: 

Surat tulus ikhlas serta dengan hati yang puteh daripada beta tuan 
X., kepala maia-viata yang ada terhenti sekarang ini di-dalam 
daerah Y., maka barang di-sampaikan oleh Tuhan Seru Sakalian 
Alam datang ka-hadapan majlis sahabat beta yang mulia Datok 
I\I. yang ada pada masa ini di-dalam negeri Z,, dengan sehat can 
khairu'l-'afiat. 

Ahual beta maalumkan . . . 

{d) to a non-reigning raja : 

Surat tulus ikhlas serta dengan hati yang puteh lagi hening dan jerneh 
sa-lama-lama-nya daripada beta tuan A'., kepala mataniata yang 
ada terhenti sekarang ini di-dalam daerah J'., mudah-mudahan 
barang di-waslkan oleh Tuhan Seru Sakalian Alam datang ter- 
hampar ka-hadapan majlis padnka sahabat beta yang mulia Raja 
M. yang ada bSrsSmayam pada masa ini di-dalam negeri Z., dengan 
selamat dan kesejahteraan-nya. 

Wa-baada-hu ahual beta maalumkan , . . 

ie) to a reigning Sultan : 

Surat tulus ikhlas serta di-iringi dSngan hormat ya-itu daripada bel^a 
tuan X., kepala mata-mata yang ada terhenti kapada masa ini 
di-dalam daerah Y. mudah-mudahan barang di-waslkan oleh Tuhan 
Seru Sakalian Alam datang mengadap yang maha-mulia paduka 
Seri Sultan M. ibni al-marhum Raja AL yang-di-pertuan negeri Z, 
daru'sh-sha/iadak, yang bersemayam di-atas takhta kerajaan dengan 
beberapa selamat sejahtera-nya. 

Wa-baada-hu ahual di-maalumkan ... 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 203 

II. — From a Senior Official. 

(a) to a peasant : 

Daripada kita tuan A', pegawai kSrajaan di-dalam daerah Y., n^geri 
Perak, di-sampaikan kapada M. bin N'. yang ada pada masa ini 
di-dalam Kampong Z. 

Ahual di-nyatakan . . . 

{h) to a minor penghulu : 

Surat ini daripada kita tuan X. pegawai kerajaan di-dalam daerah Y. 

barang di-sampaikan kapada Penghulu M. bin N. di-dalam daerah 

Z., dengan selamat-nya. 
Ahual kita taarifkan . . . 

(f) to a major penghulu or minor chief: 

Surat tulus ikhlas daripada beta tuan X. pegawai kerajaan di-dalam 
daerah Y. maka barang di-sampaikan oleh Tuhan Seru Sakalian 
Alam datang ka-hadapan majlis sahabat beta yang mulia Datok M. 
yang ada beristirahat-ul-khair kapada masa ini di-dalam negeri Z., 
dengan sSlamat-nya. 

Ahual beta maalumkan ... 

{d) to a chief of importajice : 

Surat tulus ikhlas serta kaseh sayang yang terbit daripada hati yang 
puteh lagi hening dan jerneh serta tiada menaroh lupa dan lalai 
barang sa-ketika jua pun sa-Iagi ada peridaran chakerawala 
matahari dan bulan ya-itu datang daripada beta tuan X. pegawai 
kerajaan di-dalam daerah Y. barang di-sampaikan Allah azza wa 
jalla ka-hadapan majlis paduka sahabat beta yang mulia Datok M. 
bin N'. yang ada beristirahatu'l-khair pada masa ini di-dalam negeri 
Z., dengan sehat dan afiat. 

Wa-baada-hu kemudian daripada itu ahual beta maalumkan . . . 

{e) to a raja (other than a ruHng prince) : 

Surat tulus ikhlas serta kaseh sayang yang terbit daripada hati yang 
puteh lagi hening dan jerneh serta tiada menaroh lupa dan lalai 
barang sa-ketika jua pun sa-lagi ada peridaran chakerawala 
matahari dan bulan ya-itu datang daripada beta tuan X. pegawai 
kerajaan di-dalam daerah Y. barang di-waslkan Allah subhana wa 
taala ka-hadapan wajah paduka sahabat beta Raja ISI. ibni al- 
marhum Raja N. yang bersemayam pada masa ini di-dalam 
negeri Z., baldu'l-aadzam serta mempunyai' daulat dan kebesaran, 
ada-nya. 



204 APPENDIX 

{/) to a reigning Sultaji: 

Warkatu'l-ikhlas wa tuhfatu'l-ajnas yang terbit daripada fuadu'z- 
zakiah ya-itu hati yang puteh lagi hening dan jerneh sa-lagi ada 
peridaran chakerawala matahari dan bulan ya-itu daripada beta 
tuan X. pegavvai kerajaan di-dalam daerah Y. mudah-mudahan 
barang di-waslkan Allah subhana vva taala apa-lah kira-nya 
mengadap yang maha-mnlia paduka Seri Sultan Af. ibni al-marhum 
Sultan Y. yang-di-pertuan negCri Z. daru sh-shahadah yang berse- 
mayam di-atas singgasana takhta kerajaan di-dalam istana Ktiala 
L. dengan bebSrapa selamat dan khairu'l-'afiat, ada-nya. 

Wa-baada-hu kemudian daripada itu ahual beta maalumkan . . . 

III. — From a Resident or Resident-General. 

(a) to a peasa7ii : 

Daripada kita tuan X. Resident di-negeri Y. di-sampaikan kapada 

M. bin A^. di-dalana kampong Z. 
Ahual di-nyatakan . . . 

{b) to a juinor penghulii : 

Surat daripada kita tuan X. Resident di-dalam negeri Y. di-sam- 
paikan ka-hadapan Penghulu M. bin N. di-dalam daerah mukim 
Z. dengan selamat-nya. 

Ahual kita nyatakan . . . 

(c) to a special class penghulu or 7iiinor chief: 

Surat tulus ikhlas daripada beta tuan X. Resident di-dalam negeri Y. 
barang di-sampaikan oleh Tuhan Sera Sakalian Alam ka-hadnpan 
majlis sahabat beta Datok M. yang mulia pada masa ini di-dalam 
daerah Z. dengan selamat sejahtera-nya. 

{d) to an important chief: 

Surat tulus ikhlas yang tiada menaroh shak dan waham daripada beta 
tuan X. Resident di-dalam negeii Y. barang di-sampaikan oleh 
Tuhan Seru Sakalian Alam ka-hadapan majlis paduka sahabat 
beta Datok M. yang mulia yang ada pada masa ini di-dalam negeri 
Z. dengan sehat dan khairu'l-'ariat, ada-nya. 

Ahual beta maalumkan . . . 

(f) to a no7i-reigning raja : 

Surat tulus ikhlas yang tiada menaroh shak dan waham sa-lama- 
lama-nya ya-ilu daripada beta tuan X. Resident di-dalam negeri 
K barang di-vvaslkan oleh Tuhan azza wa jalla ka-hadapan wajah 



NOTES ON MALAY LETTER-WRITING 205 

padiika sahabat beta J\aja M. ibni al-marhum Raja N. yang ada 
pada masa ini bersemayam di-bandar Z. dengan beberapa selamat 
dan sejahtera-nya. 
Ahual beta maalumkan . . . 

(_/") lo a reigning Siiltan : 

Warkatu'l-ikhlas wa tiihfatu'I-ajnas yang tgrbit daripada fuadu'z- 
zakiah ya-itu hati yang puteh lagi hening sa-lagi ada peridaran 
chakerawala matahari dan bulan ya-itu daripada beta tuan A'. 
Resident negeri Y. mndah-mudahan barang di-waslkan Allah 
subhana wa taala ka-hadzrat al-mukarram seri paduka sahabat 
beta yang maha-mulia paduka seri Sultan M. ibni al-marhum 
Raja N'. yang-di-pertuan negeri Z. dam'' sh-shahadah yang berse- 
mayam di-atas singgasana takhta kerajaan di-dalam bandar Kuala 
L. baldu'l-aadzam, dengan beberapa selamat dan kesempornaan, 
ada-nya. 

Wa-baada-hn kemudian daripada itu beta maalumkan . , . 

IV. — From the High Commissiotier to a reigmng Sultan. 

Warkatu'l-ikhlas wa tuhfatu'l-ajnas yang terbit daripada fuadu'z- 
zakiah ya-itu hati yang puteh lagi hening dan jerneh yang tiada 
mSnaroh shak dan wahani sa-lagi ada peridaran chakSrawala 
matahari dan bulan ya-itu daripada beta Sir Jll. TV. Governor 
tiga buah negeri Singapura, Pulau Pinang dan Melaka barang 
di-waslkan oleh Tuhan maliku'l-hinnan wa'1-mannan apa-lah jua 
kira-nya ala wajahu'l-karimu'sh-sharif seri paduka sahabat beta 
as-Sultan M. ibni al-marhum Raja TV. yang-di-pertuan negeri Z. 
dam' sh-shahadah yang bersemayam pada masa ini di-atas sing- 
gasana takhta kerajaan dan kebesaran di-dalam istana bandar Kuala 
L. baldu'l-aadzam, dengan istirahat dan sehat serta khairu'l-'afiat 
sSlamat s£jahtera-nya. 

Wa-baada-hu kemudian daripada itu maka ada-lah beta maalum- 
kan . . . 



OXFORD: HORACE HART M.A. 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



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