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Lawrence P, Brtggs 


Uniform with this Volume 


To be followed shortly by — 

The object of these Manuals is to furnish the beginner with an intro- 
duction to a language of which he is entirely ignorant. They are strictly 
practical, and written in simple language. Elaborate rules and lists of 
exceptions, which only confuse the learner, are omitted. 

The general arrangement of their contents is the following : — 

(i) An account of the alphabet, pronunciation, and phonetic laws of the 
language. These, when necessary, will be discussed at some 
length, although in some cases it is impossible adequately to 
represent certain foreign sounds by any system of English trans- 
literation. But even where the services of a native are not 
obtainable, it is believed that careful attention to the rules will 
enable the student to make himself intelligible. Where the 
written language employs a foreign alphabet, some account of 
this alphabet will be given, as an introduction to the study of 
the printed books. 

(2) A short grammatical sketch, containing only what is absolutely 

necessary. The simpler the sentences used at first, the more 
intelligible they are likely to be. 

(3) Simple English exercises or dialogues for translation and retranslation, 

the words used being restricted to those that are met with in 
everyday life. The acquisition of a foreign language being in 
the main an effort of memory, these exercises should be thoroughly 
mastered, so that no word shall be forgotten. Five hundred words 
perfectly known are of more use than five thousand imperfectly 

(4) Specimens of the written language, with notes, to illustrate the 

difference between the literary and the colloquial. 

(5) Two Vocabularies, one containing all the foreign words used in the 

Exercises, the other (English ) of about 2, 500-3,000 words. The 

learner should select the most useful and commit them to memory, 
gradually acquiring the remainder as necessity arises. A short 
list of books of a more advanced nature, likely to be useful to 
the student, will be suggested in the Preface to each volume. 


Edited by J. H. FREESE, MA. 




l.J^ CJ -Ji . &•> 





•i : 




This little book is adapted from A. Seidel's Praktische Grammatik 
der malayischen Sprache (2nd ed., Vienna and Leipzig). Consider- 
able alterations, however, have been made. The grammatical 
section has been somewhat enlarged, and additional exercises have 
been given. The English-Malay Vocabulary is in the main an 
independent compilation. Several English words will be found 
in it unaltered, which have been adopted and are well understood 
in the Straits Settlements. Much of the Reading Lessons in Malay 
has been omitted, and, while the account of the Arabic alphabet 
has been retained, as an introduction to the study of printed 
books, the Roman character has been used throughout. 

The following works have also been utilized : P. Favre, 
Grammaire de la langue malaise (Vienna, 1876) ; N. B. Denny s, 
A Handbook of Malay Colloquial, as spoken in Singapore (London 
and Singapore, 1878) ; W. E. Maxwell, A Manual of the Malay 
Language (London, 1911, especially valuable for its collection of 
idiomatic examples) ; F. A. Swettenham, English-Malay Vocabulary 
(Singapore, 1911) ; W. G. Shellabear, Malay-English Vocabulary 
(Singapore, 1902) ; J. Rijnenberg, Spreekt giy Maleisch t (Leiden, 

Other works that may be consulted are : W. Marsden, Grammar 
and Dictionary of the Malayan Language (1812) ; J. Crawfurd, 
Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language (London, 1852) ; 
W. G. Shellabear, Practical Malay Grammar (Singapore, 1899, the 
best for general purposes) ; E. Dulaurier, Ghrestomathie malaye 
(Paris, 1845) ; A. Mersier, Ghoix de textes malais (Paris, 1903) ; 



A. Meursinge, Maleisch Leesboek (Leiden, 1879) ; J. van Dissel, 
Maleysche Chrestomathie (Leiden, 1896) ; Kelly and Walsh, Hand- 
book of the Malay Language (Singapore, 1903) ; Traveller's Malay 
Pronouncing Handbook (Singapore, 1904) ; A. H. L. Badings, 
Hollandsch-maleische en maleisch-hollandsche samenspraken (Harder- 
wijk, 1883) ; H. Clifford and F. A. Swettenham, Dictionary of 
the Malay Language (1894, in progress) ; R. J. Wilkinson, Malay- 
English Dictionary (Singapore, 1901) ; H. van der Wall and 
H. N. van der Tuuk, Maleisch-nederlandsch Woordenboek (Batavia, 
1877-1888) ; H. C. Klinkert, Nieuw nederlandsch - maleisch en 
maleisch-nederlandsch Woordenboek (Leiden, 1885-1898) ; A. Tugault, 
Dictionnaire malais-frangais (Paris, 1898). 

It may be added that a knowledge of Dutch is extremely 
desirable for the student of Malay. " It is not too much to say 
that any one aiming at a thorough knowledge of the language, 
literature, and history of the Malay people should commence his 
task by learning Dutch" (Maxwell). 




Introduction ••...... 1 

Alphabet and Pronunciation 2 

Vowels ••••••... 3 

Consonants 4 

Accent ......... 4 

The Arabic Alphabet . . . . . • 4 

Euphonic Changes in Derivatives .... 10 


Grammar — 

Article 13 

Noun 13 

List of Nouns .15 

Adjective 27 

Some Common Adjectives 27 

Pronouns ........ 29 

Verbs 3j 

Derivative Verbs ....... 32 

Active Voice 33 




Passive Voice . . . • . . 34 

To Be and To Have 34 

Must, Let, Ought, Can, Would, Should . . 35 

Some Common Verbs ...... 36 

Interrogative and Negative Sentences . . 37 

Numerals . ...... 37 

Numeral Coefficients . . • . . . . 38 

Manner of Expressing Time 40 

Prepositions ........ 41 

Adverbs 42 

Conjunctions ........ 43 

Interjections ........ 44 


Exercises (Malay- English and English- Malay) . . 45 

Easy Reading Exercises 57 

Conversations in the Vulgar Dialect ... 68 


The Written Language ...... 64 

Malay-English Vocabulary to the Exercises . . 72 

English-Malay Vocabulary ,...♦* 86 




The birthplace of the Malay language is the island of Sumatra. 
Thence it spread, in the thirteenth century, to the peninsula of 
Malacca, and subsequently, as the result of Malay immigration, 
over the greater part of the Eastern Archipelago. At the present 
day it is not only spoken and understood on the Malay peninsula, 
the Great and Little Sunda islands as far as the Philippines, but 
it is the general means of communication on the coasts of the 
whole of the Indo-Chinese archipelago up to the Chinese ports, 
and its influence extends as far as New Guinea and even beyond. 
Everywhere it has established itself over an extensive coast-line 
and driven back the original dialects into the interior. At the 
present day it is the language of four millions of people. From 
this point of view, when the commercial importance of the districts 
where it is spoken is considered, it is particularly valuable as a 
means of communication for trading purposes, to which it is 
specially adapted by its simplicity and the ease with which it 
can be acquired. 

Under Indian influence Malay adopted a large number of 
Sanskrit words, and later, owing to the advance of the Mohammedan 
religion and civilization, borrowed largely from Arabic, and, later 
still, from Western languages. 

Considering the extensive area over which it spread, it is not 
surprising that a large number of dialects is in existence. Their 
peculiarities, however, are comparatively small. The grammar 

1 A 

. - • J --,»• ■ e % i. • • • ■ < MALAY MANUAL 

is not affected at all, the vocabulary only to a comparatively small 
extent, especially as regards the personal pronouns. Thus, the 
pronoun of the second person is in Batavia kweh, in Borneo kita, 
in Malacca awak, in Perak mika. But all these dialects follow 
the same grammatical rules, and, in the matter of vocabulary, 
exhibit a common nucleus, the knowledge of which renders the 
acquisition of dialectic peculiarities a tolerably easy task. 

The influence of these dialects upon the written and spoken 
language of the educated classes is trifling. The language of the 
less educated natives is certainly less precise in vocabulary, but 
follows the general grammatical rules. The dialect of the ports, 
of Malay - speaking Chinese and Indian artisans, tradesmen, and 
servants is a mixture of Malay, Dutch, Spanish, and Chinese, 
the grammar of which is extremely simple and the vocabulary 
extremely limited. 


Malay is a very melodious language. It contains twenty-three 
sounds, represented in writing by letters of the Arabic alphabet. 
It is probable that the Javanese was the alphabet formerly in 
use, and that it was displaced with the advance of Arabic 

The Arabic written characters are, however, ill adapted to re- 
produce the spoken sounds of Malay. The difficulty of reading 
Malay texts is increased by the fact that as a rule only the 
consonants are expressed, little attention being paid to the vowels. 
After the decline of Arabic power and commerce the maritime 
peoples of Europe strove to obtain possession of the richly endowed 
districts of the Malay archipelago, with the object of exploiting 
their wealth. At the present day the archipelago is divided 
amongst the Western peoples, with commercial ramifications extend- 
ing over all parts of the world. Throughout the entire polyglot 
district of Indo-China the medium of communication for trading 
purposes is Malay. Naturally, therefore, European merchants felt 
the need of freeing a language, in itself so easy and simple, from 
the trammels of Arabic, and of representing its sounds by the 
letters of their own alphabet. At the present day Roman Tetters 
are used by Europeans in all commercial correspondence, and are 
often employed in printed books. But the day when they will 
finally and completely displace the Arabic alphabet is still far 
distant. Malay national literature still uses the Arabic written 
signs, a knowledge of which is indispensable to the student who 
aims at a more thorough insight into the spirit of the language. 
Hence it will be necessary to devote some attention to the Arabic 


The twenty-three sounds of the Malay language proper (excluding 
foreign elements) are the following — 

Vowels : a, e, i, o, u. 

Consonants : b, ch, d, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, ng, ny, p, r, s, t, w y 

1. Vowels 

The vowels are, as a rule, pronounced as in Italian — 

a as in father i as in pique 

e as a in play o as in no 

u as in truth 

In words of purely Malay origin short a must never be pro- 
nounced as a in cat (rather as u in but) nor short u as in cut 
(rather as oo in book). 

There also exists in Malay what is called an "indeterminate" 
vowel, usually romanized as e. This is pronounced as short as 
possible ; indeed, in some systems of transliteration it is omitted 
altogether, or represented by an apostrophe : thus, berapa (how 
much ?) is very commonly written brapa or bWapa. R. J. 
Wilkinson 1 describes this indeterminate vowel as an attempt to 
omit the vowel altogether between two consonants which do not 
readily combine : thus, an attempt to sound the k in knee would 
give an indeterminate vowel sound between k and n. 

The vowels a, e, i 9 o, u, are nearly always long when they occur 
in an open (ending in a vowel) accented syllable : gdram, bekin, 
tima, roda, Ivku. 

They are short when they occur in a shut (ending in a con- 
sonant) syllable : tdmpat, bSr, chinchin, Idmbok, bumbu, se~kdrang. 
Unaccented vowels in open syllables are short, at the end of a 
word half-long (e.g. the u in kdlu), and before the accented 
syllable tend to disappear altogether. Thus, sekdrang is pronounced 
nearly as skarang (see the " indeterminate" vowel above). 

When a vowel in a shut syllable is to be pronounced long, it 
may be written twice or marked long (besaar, besdr). 

The short and half-long vowels a and 6, 6 and w, especially if 
unaccented, are frequently interchanged. Thus, lampu, anggur, 
s#karang are indifferently written and pronounced lamp5 i anggdr, 
sdkarang. 2 

i Appendix to Malay- English Dictionary (Singapore, 1901). According to 
him, there are only three normal vowel-sounds, all others being exceptional. 
These sounds are — 

a intermediate between ar in bar and a in French facile 
e, i ,, ,, ai i} wait ,, ee „ sweet 

o t u ,, ,, oo ,, school ,, o ,, alone 

a It is important to remember this in consulting vocabularies and 


There are no diphthongs in Malay, and in the combinations ae, 
ai, ei, au each vowel is to be pronounced separately. 

2. Consonants 

ch is pronounced as in church. 

g „ „ go (never as in gin). 

h „ „ hat. At the end of a word it is silent, and 

has the effect of shortening the last syllable. 

k n „ c in cat. At the end of a word it is silent, and 

has the effect of shortening the last syllable. 
It then represents a kind of catch in the 
breath, such as may be heard after "an" 
in pronouncing u an ice pudding" as dis- 
tinguished from "a nice pudding." It 
answers to the Arabic Hamza and the 
Greek spiritus lenis. 

ng „ „ ng in singer \ not as in finger, where a second g is 

heard : this second g, when necessary, is 
represented in Malay by a second written 
g (cp. ang-in and ang-gor). The combina- 
tion ang is pronounced like the first syllable 
in (h)ungry, not as in angry. Like ny, it 
is considered a siugle letter. 

ny n „ Hi in Spaniard, poniard : it is the Spanish n, or 

the French gn in campagne. It it con- 
sidered a single letter. 

The remaining consonants are pronounced as in English, but r 
should always be sounded clearly and with emphasis. 


In radicals (which are mostly disyllabic), that is, words to which 
no prefixes or suffixes have been added, the accent is, as a rule, 
on the penultimate (the last syllable but one). This is always the 
case when the syllable is shut, and generally when it is open. 
Exceptions are indicated by an accent on the last syllable (seric). 
In derivatives the place of the accent is frequently altered. No 
definite rules can be given for the accentuation of foreign words. 

The Arabic Alphabet 

The Arabic alphabet being insufficient to express all the sounds 
of the Malay spoken language, the form of certain kindred letters 
as modified to denote g, ch, j, ng, ny, and p. 




















da (dal) 






na (nun) 






ka (kaf) 





g a 


























ma (mlm) 






la (lam) 


















ja (jim) 


















wa (wau) 






sa (sin) 




•v « 




P and $r are very frequently written with one dot instead of three. 



Arabic is written from right to left. 

With the exception of j, . and ., all the letters have slightly 

different forms, according as they occur at the beginning, in the 
middle, or at the end of a word — the result of the attempt to 
combine the letters of a word in writing. The three letters 

t>, „ . do not combine with a following consonant. 

The forms in the first column of the table are those of the letters 
when standing alone. It follows from the preceding remarks that 
these forms are used — 

(a) at the beginning of a word only j, . and ., e.g., 4_j J 

(b) at the end of a word if j, , or . precede, e.g., cJjj 

(c) in the middle of a word only j, . and ., if one of these 

letters precedes, e.g., i* > *>. 

The forms in the second column are used at the end of a word 
if neither j nor . nor . precedes, e.g., l^^Lj. 

The forms in the third column are used when none of the 
three letters j, ., . precedes. 

The forms in the fourth column are used at the beginning of 
a word. 

As a rule the short vowels are not indicated. According to 
the Arabic grammarians the consonants are the essential part of 
a word. The vowels have no independent existence, but must 
always be attached to a consonant, which they follow. Where in 
English a vowel appears to stand alone, as at the beginning of a 
word, or where it forms a syllable (as in again), Arabic employs 
a special sign to indicate the absence of any other consonant. 

This sign, which is called Alif, 1 has the form \ when standing 
alone and the form [ in combination with a preceding consonant, 
e.g., L^JLl ampat, Jl api. 

When k stands at the end of a word it is represented by i 

1 This Alif denotes the catch in the voice, indicated in Greek by the 
spiritus lenis, and referred to in the remark on the letter k. 


It is sometimes necessary to indicate the short vowels, as in the 
case of proper names, words with similar consonants but different 
vowels. The Arabic vowel-signs are then employed — 

t (above the consonant), Arabic fat-ha, Malay baris di-atas 

to express d and open £ : «3J , tada. 
— . (below the consonant), Arabic kesra, Malay baris di-bawah, 

to express I and shut 2 : jj, tKda. 
_£. (above the consonant), Arabic dhamma, Malay baris di- 

hadapan, to express d and u : &f tdda ; 5J ttdu. 

To indicate the long vowels the three consonants \, ^j, j are 
used, \ for a, ^ for I or e, • for w or 5, e.g., l> 6a", ^ 6i, 6e, 
y 5w, 6<5. In vocalized texts it is customary to add the sign for 
the corresponding short vowel, in which, as the Arabic grammarians 
express it, the consonants I, ^j, . rest, e.g., \j bd, j lb, be, 
J bu, bd. 

The inadequacy of the above is obvious. Not only is there no 
distinction between I and e, u and 6, but it is often very difficult 
to decide in each particular case whether the vowel -letter in 

question is quiescent or itself carries a vowel, e.g., y may be 
read bawa and bau as well as bu and bo. 
Au and at are written /, % *' % e.g., y, y, bau, £, < j i bai. 

The Malay vocabulary contains many words borrowed from 
Arabic and Persian. These words have preserved their original 
orthography, necessitating the addition of fourteen letters to the 
Malay alphabet. As a rule the native does not attempt to re- 
produce the original sounds, but uses the sounds of his own language 
that appear most nearly to resemble the foreign sounds. It should 
be observed, however, that educated natives do endeavour to re- 
produce the Arabic pronunciation, so that for a thorough knowledge 
of the language it is necessary for the student to make himself 
acquainted with the correct sounds of the more difficult Arabic 
consonants (such as Ain, often wrongly described as a vowel). 
The fourteen additional letters are shown in the following 
table (page 8). 
















































































l* » in Arabic as th in think, t, or s : in Malay as s in sit ( = ^). 
in Arabic a strong guttural aspirate : in Malay as an 
ordinary h ( = *)• 
• in Arabic a strong guttural (as ch in loch) : in Malay generally 
as an ordinary ft ( = lL50« 


j in Arabic as th in this, d, or z : in Malay sometimes as ds, 

sometimes as z. 
; in Arabic and Malay as z. 

JJ in Arabic and Malay as sh. 

& in Arabic an emphatic s : in Malay a sharp s (=(jw). 

i, in Arabic an emphatic d : in Malay as dl 1 or J. 

t in Arabic an emphatic t : in Malay an ordinary t ( = ci>). 

t in Arabic z or an emphatic d : in Malay as tl * or Z. 

c in Arabic a harsh guttural, the sound of which can only be 

learned from a native : in Malay not pronounced ( = \ ). 
In the middle of a word it is generally indicated by a 
kind of hiatus or doubling of the vowel. 

c in Arabic a guttural r (like the Northumbrian r or the 

French r grasseye'e) : in Malay as g (=cLO- 
<_J in Arabic and Malay as/ (in the latter frequently as p). 
t in Arabic a guttural k : in Malay as an ordinary Jc ( = i , * < \ 

In addition to the vowel-signs the following are frequently used 
in vocalized texts : Jezm (° or c ), Teshdld (*), Wasl ("°), Hamza 
(*), Medda (~). 

(a) In vocalized texts Jezm is placed over all vowelless con- 

fa £ «* 

sonants : c^UJ, tampat. 

(b) Teshdld indicates the reduplication of the consonant over 

which it is placed : *%£ meddah. 

(c) Wasl is placed over the initial Alif of the Arabic article 

J \ (al\ which, together with its vowel, is then omitted 
in pronunciation. As the result of this the final vowel 
of the preceding word is closely combined with the I 

of the article: /JiJjiJ 1 ' . J, rohu 'llcudus instead of 
rohu elkudus. 

i Where dl, tl occur in genuine Malay words an indeterminate vowel has 
been omitted, e.g., dlapan (eight) = dilapan. 


(d) In Arabic Hamza regularly accompanies the radical Alif. 

Its position changes according to the nature of the 


accompanying vowel : l— >1, <— H* 

In Malay Hamza is chiefly used as a mark of separation 
between two successive vowels. 

(e) Medda denotes the reduplication of Alif : j \ for ju, api. 

Further information on the subject will be found in P. Favre, 
Grammaire de la langue malaise (Vienna, 1876), pp. 7-30. 

Euphonic Changes in Derivatives 

The following rules are of great importance, and should be 
carefully studied. 

Radicals in Malay are, as already mentioned, with few exceptions 

Derivatives are formed — 

(a) by prefixes or suffixes or both together. 

(b) by reduplication of the radical. 

(c) by combining two radicals. 

The prefixes are — me-, pe-, her-, per-, ter-, bel-, pel-, leu-, Jcau-, ha-, 
8a-, di-. 

The suffixes are — an, -i, -hah, -han, -ku, -lah, -mu, -nya, -tah. 

Prefixes. — When the prefixes me- and pe- are placed before a 
radical certain euphonic changes take place according to the 
nature of its initial letter. 

Before t and d the prefix becomes men-, pen- : t drops out, 

d remains. 
Before h and g the prefix becomes meng-, peng- : h drops out, 

g remains. 
Before p and b the prefix becomes mem-, pern- : p drops out, 

b remains. 
Before vowels and h the prefix becomes meng-, peng-. 
Before ch and j the prefix becomes men-, pen-, or, more rarely, 

meny-, peny-. 1 
Before s the prefix becomes meny-, peny- : s drops out. 
Before y and w, n, ng, m, ny, I, r the prefix remains unaltered. 

1 It must be remembered that ny is regarded as one consonant, not as 
two separate letters. 


The following table shows the above rules at a glance. 









( s> 

( J 

















In foreign words the initial letters t, k, p, s are sometimes 

If the initial letter of a foreign word is an element foreign to 
the Malay alphabet (see secona alphabet), the following rules 
are observed : — 

Before i^j the prefix is men- or meny- : in the latter case ij^j 

is dropped. 
Before ^ c, e, and * the prefix is meng-. 

Before ♦, J, :, \j* % ^, b, t, the prefix is men-. 

Before u-i the prefix is mem-; before .A meny-, sh being 

The remaining prefixes remain unaltered before the radical. 

Suffixes. — When the derivative suffixes -an and -i are added to a 
word, the last syllable of which is shut, this syllable becomes open 
and (as it at the same time becomes the penultimate) accented, and 
its vowel is lengthened : if the vowel of the now antepenultimate 
syllable was long, it is shortened : e.g., mengutyap, mengutydpi ; 
pengutyap, pengutydpan. 

In many of the vulgar dialects the above rule does not hold good ; 
and it should be observed that some scholars deny it altogether, 
maintaining that in derivatives the accent as a rule remains on 
the same syllable on which it stood in the root. 

When these suffixes are added to a word, the last syllable of 
which is open, this syllable becomes accented and consequently 
long ; the vowel of the penultimate, if previously long, is 
shortened : e.g., mengata, mengdtdi ; perkdtd, perkdtdan. 


When any of the remaining suffixes is added to a word, the last 
syllable of which ends in a vowel, the same rule holds good : added 
to a word ending in a consonant, they often cause the accent to be 
transferred to the syllable preceding them. 

Several suffixes are frequently added to a word, in which case 
the word as it appears before the last suffix is added is regarded 
as the radical : e.g., dikdta becomes dikdtdkan by the addition of 
-kan> dikatdkannya by the further addition of -nya, and finally 
dikatdkannydlah by adding -lah. 

Reduplication. — If one of the syllables of the radical is shut, no 
alteration takes place : ordng-orang. If both syllables of the radical 
are open, the vowels of the first member of the compound are 
shortened : e.g., kuda, kuda-kuda. 

Words accented on the last syllable, however, remain unaltered : 
e.g., s&rU) seru-seru. 

If a derivative formed by prefixes or suffixes is to be reduplicated, 
the chief rule is that only the radical, not the syllable of derivation, 
is repeated ; for the repetition of the radical the rules given above 
apply. It is to be further observed that — 

(a) the second part of the compound is altered by a derivative 
suffix in accordance with the rules given above : e.g., 
IdM, laki-nya, laki-lakl-nya (but IdM-ldki) ; 

(6) if the initial letters p, k, t, s are replaced, e.g.^ by ng after 
the prefixes me- and pe- y in reduplication the second 
member also begins with ng: e.g., karang, mengarang- 

If the radical begins with a vowel and has the prefix me- or pe- 
(in the form meng- or peng-\ in reduplication the second member 
only begins with ng if the radical ends in a vowel : e.g., ada, 
mengada-ngada, but ugut, mengugut-ugut. 

Combination of two Radicals. — When two words are combined to 
form a new idea the same rules hold good as in reduplication : 
e.g., mdtd (eye), hdri (day), mdtd-hdri (sun). 




There is no article in Malay, nothing exactly corresponding to 
"a" or "the." Thus kuda may mean "the horse," "a horse," or 
simply "horse." In the case of persons the prefix si- is sometimes 
used for "the," while the numeral satu (one) or its abbreviated 
form sa often supplies the place of the indefinite article. Thus : 
si-laki-laki (the man), si-perampuan (the woman), ada sa-orang (there 
was a man), di-sini satu kareta (here is a cab). Itu (that), mi (this), 
and yang (which) are also used to specify particular objects. 

Nouns are either — 

(a) Radicals, such as in their primitive form are substantives 

(rumah, house ; kuda, horse) ; or 

(b) Derivatives, formed by the addition of prefixes or suffixes, 

or both combined, to nouns or other parts of speech. 

Two prefixes, pe- and ka-, and one suffix, -an, are used in the 
formation of derivative nouns. 

Nouns formed by the prefix pe- and its modifications (see page 10) 
generally denote the agent or instrument of the action expressed 
by the verb, and may be compared with English nouns ending in 
-er (in French -eur, -oir) : churi (to steal), pen-churi (robber) ; ajar 
(to teach), peng-ajar (teacher) ; jaja (to peddle), penjaja (peddler) ; 
sapu (to sweep), peny-apu (sweeper, broom). 

Nouns formed by the suffix -an (1) have a passive sense, (2) 
denote quality or condition, (3) have a collective signification ; 
makan (to eat), makan-an (that which is eaten, food) ; minum (to 
drink), mmum - an (that which is drunk) ; dengar (to hear), 
dengar-an (that which is heard, noise) ; manis (sweet), manis-an 



(that which is sweet, sweetmeats) ; hampir (near), hampir - an 
(nearness) ; buah (fruit), buah-an (fruits, fruit generally) ; laut 
(sea), laut-an (seas, the ocean). 

Nouns formed by the prefix pe- and the suffix -an correspond to 
English verbal nouns in -ing : ajar (to teach), peng-ajar-an (teaching) ; 
Ian (to run), pe-lari-an (running, flight). The prefix often takes 
the form per- or pel-, especially when the verb from which the noun 
is formed has the prefix ber- (verbs of state or condition). The 
derivatives then generally have a passive, sometimes a local 
meaning (nouns of place) : buru (to hunt), per-buru-an (that which 
is hunted, game) ; ber-ulih (to acquire), per-ulih-an (that which is 
acquired, an acquisition) ; ber-prang (to fight), pe(r)-prang-an (field 
of battle) ; adu, ber-adu (to sleep), per-adu-an (sleeping place, 

Nouns formed by the prefix ha- and the suffix -an have a passive 
sense. They are called by Favre "passive participles used sub- 
stantively," by Marsden " gerunds in form as well as in sense, being 
in fact a verbal noun applied infinitively in construction" : pukul 
(to strike), ka-pukul-an (he or that which is struck) ; datang (to 
come), ka-datang-an (the thing or place which is come to) ; tiada ka- 
tahu-an (not to be understood) ; matahari tiada ka-lihat-an (the 
sun was not to be seen). 

They sometimes answer to the English adjectives in -able, -ible : 
ka-lihat-an (visible) ; ka-datang-an (accessible). Formed from 
adjectives or verbs of condition the derivatives are abstract nouns, 
expressing the quality of the adjective or the condition of the 
subject : kaya (rich), ka-kaya-an (wealth) ; mati (to die), ka-maii-an 
(death). 1 

Malay is also rich in compound nouns, many of which are very 
expressive {see Shellabear's Grammar). 

Gender, — In the case of living creatures gender is indicated 
by the addition, for persons, of laki-laki (male) and perampuan 
(female) ; for animals and plants, of jantan and betina : anak laki- 
laki, son (child male), anak perampuan, daughter (child female) ; 
sudara laki-laki (perampuan), relative male (female) ; kuda jantan 
(stallion), kuda betina (mare) ; lembu jantan (bull), lembu betina 

Number. — A noun, standing alone with nothing to define it, may 
generally be taken as plural : ada orang di-luar (there are persons 
outside). To restrict the number to one, satu, sa- must be used. 

In the case of persons or animate beings, when the whole class 
is meant the noun is often repeated to indicate the plural : orang- 
orang (all men, mankind), raja-raja (kings). Hence this method 

i For a full account of these derivatives, see P. Favre, Grammaire de la 
langut malaise (Vienna, 1876), pp. 60-68. 


of expression should not be used when the noun is accompanied 
by a definite or indefinite numeral. 

To prevent ambiguity the plural is often expressed by the 
addition of indefinite numerals, such as banyak (many), segala, 
samud (all), barang (some) : segala kuda (all the horses). 

Declension. — Malay, being a non-inflexional language, has no case- 
endings. The cases are expressed, as in English, by prepositions, 
the noun itself undergoing no alteration. 

The Genitive may be expressed in two ways — 

(a) by simply placing the governed after the governing noun : 

rumah raja (the house (of) the king), pintu rumah (the 
door (of) the house) ; • 

(b) by the addition of punya : raja punya (the king's). In this 

case the noun indicating the possessor stands first : raja 
punya rumah (the king's house), sahaya, sahya, (I), sahaya 
punya (of me, my), sahaya punya rumah or rumah sahaya 
(my house). This use of punya should be avoided, except 
in the case of the personal pronouns. 

The Dative is supplied by the prepositions ka, kapada, sama (to), 
akan (for) ; the Ablative by dengan (with), deri, deripada (from), 
ulih (by). 

The Accusative is the same as the Nominative ; as a rule it 
follows the verb. 


1. The City, the Town 

Negri, city, town, country : the Jambatan, bridge ; membuat jambatan 

Malay equivalents are ill-defined ka-sabrang sungei, to build a bridge 

Orang negri, citizen, countryman over a river 

Kapala negri, capital, chief town Astana, mdligei, palace 

Kampong, quarter, village ; kampong Rumah bichara, bald ruang, town- 

China, the Chinese quarter hall, king's assembly -hall 

Kampong di-muka, suburbs Rumah makan, hotel, hotel ; rumah. 

Tampat yang berkulilmg, environs sopi, tavern 

Pintu gerbaug, city gate Rumah sakit, hospital 

Jalan, lebdh, ^reet ; jalan raya, main Greja, church 

road ; jalan kareta, carriage-road Pekuburan, burying-ground 

Lorong, lane, alley Skolah, maktab, school 

Jalan ayer, gutter Rumah jaga, guard-house 

Hamparan batu, pavement Masjid, mosque 

Meidan, public square Rumah soldado, tangsi, barracks 

Pasar, pekdn, market, market-place ; Kantor pos, post-office 

hari pasar, market - day ; pasar Prigi, well 

ikan, fish-market ; pergi ka-pasar t 

to go to market 



2, 3. The House 

Rumah, house 
Bangunan, building 
A tap, bumbong, roof 
Ginting, tile (for roofing) 
Batu-bata* brick 
Tanda angin, weather-cock 
Pintu, door, gate 
Bandul pintu, threshold 
Surambi, porch, vestibule 
, staircase 

Kayu pemegang, handrail 
Anak tangga, step (of stairs) 
Tingkat, storey ; loteng, upper storey 
Halaman, courtyard 
Tembok, outside wall 
Chorong asap, tampat asap, chimney 
Kandang, stall (for cattle) 
Bangsal, stable (for horses) 
Rumah kareta, coach-house 
Orang sa-kampong, neighbour 

Yang ampunya rumah, tuan tanah, 
tuan rumah, owner, landlord 

Yang menyewa, tenant 

Bilik, kamar, room 

Bilik {kamar) tidor, bedroom 

Ranching, bolt, bar to fasten a 

Langit-langit, ceiling 

Dinding,Yis\\ (partition) 

Kacha jandela, chermin window- 

Papan jandela, shutters 

Ponchuran, saluran, gutter 

Locheng, bell 
Jamban, watorcloset 
Bilik (kamar) makan, dining-room 
Tampat mandi. bath-room 
Klambu, curtain (mosquito) 
Tirei, tdbir, curtain (window) 
Kunchi, lock 
A nak kunchi, key 
Lobang anak kunchi, key-hole 
Lantei papan, floor 
Jandela, jindela, window (of Euro- 
pean), tingkap (of native houses) 
Bomba, pump 

4-8. Household Utensils and Furniture 

Dapur, oven 

Kayu, wood ; kayu api, firewood ; 

puntung, a small log 
Api, fire ; pasang api, to light a fire 
Arang, charcoal 
Arang batu, coal 
Tampat api, fireplace 
Pengumbus, bellows 
Dian, lilin, candle ; dian lemdk, 

Kaki dian, kaki lilin, candlestick 

Gunting dian, snuffers 

Sumbu, wick 

Sepit api, tongs 

Chuchuk api, poker 

Sudok, sekup abu, shovel 

Pelita, lampu, lamp 

Lantera, lantern ; tenglong (Chinese) 

Minyak, oil 

Sapu, menyapu, to sweep 

Sampah, refuse, dirt, sweepings 

Serba rumah, perkakas rumah, 

Meja, table ; meja bulat, round table ; 

meja ampat p.ersagi, square table ; 
m eja tulis, wrHing-table, desk 
Kauchi, sofa 
Peti, kopper, box 
Kain selimut, sheet 
Tilam, mattre as 
Tikar, mat 
Krusi, kwrsi % chair 

Almari, wardrobe, cupboard, chest 
of drawers 

Lachi, kotak sorong-sorong, drawer 

Permadani, hamparan, carpet 

Tampat ludah, spittoon 

Chermin muka, mirror 

Tampat tidor, bed 

KatU, bedstead 

Bantal, pillow ; sarong bantal, pillow- 

Selimut, kambli, blanket 



Pasu chuchi muka, wash-hand basin 

Jag, water- jug 

Menchuchi diri-nya, to wash oneself 

Sabun, soap 

Permandian, bath ; permandian ayer 
sejuk, cold bath ; permandian ayer 
hangat, hot bath ; permandian, 
huajo, vapour bath ; permandian 
kaki, foot-pan ; mandi, to take a 

Sapu, penyapu, broom 

Ayer, water; ayer sejuk, cold 
water ; ayer sudm, warm, tepid 
water ; aw panas, hot water 
Tuala, sapu tangan, handuk, towel 
Menyapu muka, to wipe the face 
Brus, sikat, brush ; brus (sikat) 
pakeian, clothes-brush ; brus (sikat) 
gigi, tooth-brush ; bersugi, to brush 
the teeth ; brus (sikat) kapala, hair- 
brush ; brus kuku f nail-brush 
Sikat, sisir, comb 

Dapur, kitchen 

Serba dapur, perkakas dapur, kitchen 

Oherek, keiel, kiri, kettle 
Kuali, frying-pan ; goring, to fry 
Tapisan, strainer, filter 
Ohorong, funnel 
Timba, bucket, pail 
Tukang masak, kuki, cook 
Kuali, kawah, pot, saucepan (iron) ; 

blanga, priuk (earthenware) 
Tutupan, tudongan, lid, cover 

Pachak, spit 
Ayak, sieve 
Antan, pestle 
Lesong, mortar 
Tong, cask, pail 
Bakul, kranjang, basket 
Botol, bottle 
Oedong makanan, larder 
Pipa, barrel 

Sumbat, prop, cork (of bottle) 
Penchabut sumbat, kunchi prop, 
korkskrew, corkscrew 

Perkakas meja, table service 
Kain meja, tablecloth 
Taruh meja, to lay the table 
Angkat meja, to clear the table 
Jaga meja, to wait at table 
Sendok, spoon 
Pisau, knife 
Mata, knife-blade 
Hulu, knife-handle 
Punggung, back (of a knife) 

Pinggan, dish 

Tuala, serbetta, table-napkin 

Piring, plate, saucer 

Tampat sup, soup tureen 

Tampat garam salt-cellar 

Tampat lada, pepper-box 

Tampat gula, sugar-basin 

Garfu, fork 

Qlas, glass (for drinking) 

9, Food 

Makanan, food, eatables, a meal 
Makan, makan nasi, 1 to eat 
Buah-buahan, dessert 
Makanan pagi, breakfast; makan 

pada pagi, to breakfast 
Makanan tengah hari, dinner ; makan 

pada tengah hari, to dine 
Hidangan, course (at a meal) 

Kuah, sup, soup, sauce 

Daging, meat 

Daging lembu, sapi, beef 

Daging anak lembu, veal 

Daging biri-biri, daging kambing, 

Daging babi, pork 
Daging anak biri, lamb 

1 To eat rice, which is more idiomatic than the simple makan : so lulis 
surat (write a letter) for tulis alone. 




Bifstik, beef-steak 

Telor, egg ; telor baharu, fresh eggs ; 
teldr busuk, stale eggs ; tel6r goring, 
fried eggs ; telor masalc kras, hard- 
boiled eggs ; telor dadar, omelette 

Rampak-rampak, spices 

Lada, pepper 

Ghuka, vinegar 

Halia, ginger 

Kvlit manis, kayu manis, cinnamon 

Makanan malam, supper ; makan 
ma lam, to sup 

Sos, sauce 

IAdah, tongue ; lidah lembu, ox- 

MaH, liver 

Paha (pahat) babi, ham, ham 

Daging perburuan, game 

Hayam, poultry 

Ikan, fish 

Nasi, rice (boiled) 

Ubi, potatoes 

Salada, salad 

Kobis, kol, cabbage 

Roti, bread ; roti putih, white bread ; 
roti kasar, black bread ; roti sa- 
putung, a slice of bread ; roti sa- 
buah, a loaf of bread 

Madu, ayer madu, honey 

Mantega, butter 

Keju, cheese 

Gar am, salt 

Sesawi, mastad, mustard 

Bunga chingkeh, cloves 

Gula, sugar; gula hitam, brown 
sugar ; gula pasir, moist (granu- 
lated) sugar 

Manisan, sweets 

Kweh, pastry, cake 

Minyak, oil 

Zait, olives 

10. Drink 

Minuman, drink ; minum, to drink 
Anggor, wine ; anggor putih, white 

wine ; anggor merah, red wine ; 

anggor puf, sampani, champagne ; 

satu botol anggor, a bottle of wine ; 

satu glas anggor, a glass of wine 
Kopi, kahwah, coffee ; buah kopi, 

coffee - bean ; kopi dengan susu, 

coffee with milk ; tampat kopi, 

Ayer, water ; ayer minum, drinking 

water ; ayer baharu, fresh water ; 

ayer blanda, mineral water ; ayer 

soda, soda water 
Bir, beer 
Susu, milk 
Kapala susu, cream 
Sopi, brandi, brandy 
Ghokoldt, chocolate 
Teh, tea ; teh hitam, black tea ; teh 

hijau, green tea 
Sopi manis, liqueur 

11-13. Clothing 

Pakeian, 1 clothing 

Pakei kain, to dress, put on 

Buka kain, menanggalkan pakeian, 

to undress 
Kain, cloth, stuff 
Ranching, button ; lobang kanching, 

button - hole ; menganching, to 

button ; membuka, to unbutton 
Kain leher, shirt collar 
Kain ikat leher, necktie 
Kochek, saku, pocket 
Spatu, kasut, boot, boot, shoe ; 

meiigenakan, to put on, menang- 

galkan, to take off boots; sa- 

pasang spatu, a pair of shoes 
Gharpu, sandals (leather) ; trumpah 

Baju, baju kot,jas, coat ; bajupanjang, 

frock-coat ; baju panas, overcoat 
Tangan baju, coat sleeve 
Alas, lining 

Seluar, chelana, trousers 
Ghelana dalam, drawers 
Tali seluar, braces 
Tapak, sole 
Tumit, heel 
Kvlit, leather 

1 Pronounced pakvxn, 




Topi, kopxah, chapiu, hat ; memakei 
topi, to wear a hat ; buka topi, to 
take off the hat 

Chermin mata, spectacles 

Sarong tangan, gloves ; memakei 
sarong tangan, to wear gloves ; 
sa-pasang sarong tangan, a pair 
of gloves 

Orloji, jam, watch, clock ; kunchi 
orloji, watch - key ; rantei orloji, 
watch-chain ; memutar, to wind 
up ; jalan lekds, to be fast ; jalan 
lambat, to be slow ; berhenti, to stop 

Tampat surat, pocket-book 

Tongkat, walking-stick 

Pipa, pipe ; kapala, bowl ; batang, 
stem ; menghisap pipa, to smoke a 

Chei^utu, cigar ; rokok, the native 
cigarette ; minum rokok, hisap 
rokok, to smoke tobacco 

Tembakau, tobacco ; tembakau meng- 
hisap (for smoking) ; tembakau 
hidong, snuff 


Kain-kain, linen, washing ; kain 
kotor, dirty clothes ; salin kain, 
to change the linen 

Pembasohan, washing (act of) 

Dobi, binara, tukang viinatu, laundry- 

Prahkan, to wring (clothes) 

Jemurkan, to dry clothes (in the 
sun) ; anginkan (in the air) 

Strika, an iron, to iron 

Kameja, shirt 

Sarong kaki, stockings, socks 

Guntmg, scissors 

Jahit, menjahit, to sew 

Jarum, needle 

Didal, sarong jari, thimble 

Bendng, thread 

Peniti, pin 

14-16. The Human ody 

Tubuh, badan, body 

Muka, face 

Kapala, head 

Dahi, forehead ; kerut dahi, wrinkles 

Lidah, tongue ; hujong lidah, tip of 

the tongue 
Leher, throat (outside) ; krongkong 

Gusi, gums 
Janggut, beard 
Chambang, whiskers 
Misei, kumis, moustache 
Pelipis, temples 
Mv.lut, mouth 
Langit-langit mulut, palate 
Dagu, chin 
Baku, shoulder 

Blikat, shoulder-blade 

Rambut, hair (of the head) 

Pipi, cheek 

Utak, brain 

Mata, eye ; biji mata, eyeball ; bulu 
kening, eyebrow ; bulu mata, eye- 
lash ; bibir mata, klopak, eyelid ; 
anak mata, pupil of the eye ; 
pejdm, to shut the eyes ; chelekkan, 
to open the eyes 

Hidong, nose 

Lobang hidong, nostril 

Telinga, kuping, ear 

Bibir, lip 

Gigi, tooth 

Leher, neck 

Tengkok, nape of the neck 


Langan, arm 

Tangan, forearm, hand 

Tapak, palm of the hand 

Siku, elbow 

Dada, breast ; susu (female) 

Prut, belly 

Pahat, thigh 

Jantong betis, calf (of leg) 

Jari kaki, toe ; ibu kaki, great toe ; 

klingking kaki, little toe 
Ping gang, waist 
Pangkal pahat, hip 



Pangku, riba, lap, bosom 

Kaki, leg (generally) ; betis (from 
knee to ankle) 

Jari, finger ; ibu jari, thumb ; jari 
telunjuk, forefinger ; jari hantu, 
middle-finger ; jari manis, third 
finger ; jari klingking, little finger 

Hujong jari, tip of the finger 

Kukujari, finger-nail 

Mata Tcaki, ankle 
Tumit, heel 
Genggam, fist 
Blakang, back 
Rusuk, side 
Tulang rusuk, rib 
Lutut, knee 

Kaki, foot ; tapak kaki, sole of the 


Anggota, limb 
Peluh, perspiration 

Darah, blood 

Nodi, pulse 

Jantong, heart ; hati (as the seat of 

the affections) 
Kulit, skin 
Urat darah, vein 
Uratputih, nerve 
Nefas, breath 
Ayer mata, tear 
Muka puchat, paleness 
Kalemahan. weakness 

Ayer muka, complexion 

Sikap, figure ; sikapnya baik juga, 

he has a good appearance 
Tulang, bone 
Isiprut, intestines 
Parau-parau, lungs 
Prut, stomach 
Ludah, spittle 
Prijalan, walk, gait 
Hati, liver 
Rupa, appearance 
Kalelahan, weariness, fatigue 
Tidor, sleep 

17-18. Sickness and Infirmities 

Kahidupan, nyawa, haiyat, life 

(opposed to death) 
Kamatian, maut, death 
Sakit gigi, toothache 
Sakit kapala, headache 
Sakit prut, stomach-ache 
Batuk kring, consumption 
Sakit berjangkit, infectious disease 
Batuk, cough 
'Umur, age 

Nyaman, sihat, ' djiyat, good health 
Sakit, penyakit, illness 
Muntah, sickness (vomiting) 
Demdm kura, ague 
Buang-buang ayer, chirit, diarrhoea 
Sampar, plague, epidemic 

Selismah, cold in the head ; kend 

selismah, to catch cold 
Demdm, fever 
Ohachar, small-pox 
Buang-buang ayer darah, dysentery 
Semblit, constipation 
Luka, wound 
Puru, ulcer 
Bisul, boil 

Makanan ta' hajam, indigestion 
Pengsan, faintness, to faint 
Pusing kapala, giddiness 
Kudis, itch 
Bengkak, swelling 
Par at, scar 
Sembap, dropsy 


Dukun, bomo, doctor (native) ; doktor 
(one who practises European 

Obat, medicine 

Tukang obat, chemist 

Kadei obat, chemist's shop 

Obat-obat, prescription 

Sakit, pain 

Tuli, pekdk, deaf 

Chapek, penchang, tempang, lame 



Ralsasa, giant 

Orang pendek-pendek, katek, dwarf 

Tabib gigi, dentist 

Qbat minum, draught 

Obat lumat, powder 

Penawar, cure, antidote 
Kasembuhan, recovery from illness 
Buta, blind 
Bisu, dumb 
Bongkok, hunchback 

19. Time 

Waktu, mata, kola, tempo, time 

Sa-ratus tahun, century 

Waktu yang sekarang ini, present 

time ; waktu yang sudah lain, past 

time ; waktu yang kemdian, future 

Bulan, month ; 1 bulan ini, this 

month ; bulan lalu, last month ; 

bulan dapdn, bulan datang, next 

Pagi, morning 

Tengah hari, stengari, midday 
Jam, hour ; sa-tengah jam, half an 

hour ; sa-suku jam, quarter of an 

hour ; satu jam sa-tengah, an hour 

and a half 

Sa'at, minit, minute 

Sa-kej&p, sekdn, second 

Kotika, moment 

Oi-ang tuah, old man ; katuahan, old 
age ; brapa htmur tuan, how old 
are you ? 

Ming go, % jum'at, week 

Hari, day ; hari ini, to-day 

Malam, night ; tengah malam, mid- 

Petdng, sore, afternoon 

Kelmarin, yesterday ; kelmarin 
dahulu, day before yesterday 

Esok, besok, to-morrow 

Lusa, day after to-morrow 

20. The Universe 

Dunya, the world 

Langit dan bumi, the universe 

Khalaik, nature, created things 

Langit, sky, heaven ; shurga (as the 
abode of the blessed) 

Bintang, star 

Matahari, sun ; matahari naik or 
terbit, sunrise ; matahari masuk or 
turun, sunset ; chahaya matahari, 
sunshine ; sinar matahari, sunbeam 

Keldm, darkness 

Siang, daylight 

Bulan, moon ; chahaya bulan, moon- 

shine ; bulan baharu, bulan timbul, 
new moon ; bulan pernama, full 

Gcrhana, grahana, eclipse 

Teduh, shade 

Bayang, shadow 

Pri hawa, udara, climate 

Timur, east ; timur laut, north-east ; 
tang gar a, south-east 

Selatan, south ; barat daya, south- 

TJtara, north ; barat laut, north-west 

Barat, west 

21. Wbjlther and Natural Phenomena 

Hawa, udara, air, atmosphere 

Nyala, flame 

A sap, smoke 

A wan, cloud 

Ribut, storm 

Angin, wind 

Api, fire 

Bunga api, sparks, fireworks 

Huap, uwap, steam 

Musim, tempo, weather, season of 

the year 
Chuacha, fine weather 
Kabut, mist 
Ayer, water 
Titek, drop 
Salj, salju, snow 

1 The names of the months, of the days of the week, and the method of 
expressing the hours of the dav will be found in the Oraminar. 

2 Malays generally um tuju hari (seven days). 



Panas, kapanasan, heat 

Dingin, kadinginan, cold 

Rebia, spring, spring 

Musim panas, summer 

Musim buahbuahan, kharif, autumn 

Musim dingin, winter 

Hujan, rain; musim hujan, rainy 

season ; hujan lebdt, heavy rain ; 

hujan rintek-rintek, light rain 
Musim panas, kamarau, dry season 
Hujan batu, hail 
Embun, dew 
Gumpah burnt, earthquake 

22. The Earth 

Kumi, arth 
Buttub, pole 
Binatang (twelve animals), signs of 

the zodiac 
Tanah besdr, mainland 
Batu taut, rock 
Khatt istivxi, equator 
Darajat, degree 
Pantei, tepi laut, shore, coast 
Pulau, island 

Danau, kolam, tasek, lake, pond 
Paya, swamp 
Ounong, mountain 
Kamunchak, top (of mountain) 
Kaki, foot (of mountain) 
Gunonggunongan, mountain -range 
Padang, plain (open country as 

opposed to jungle) 
Pasir, sand 
Seldt, strait 

Tebing, tepi, bank (of river) 
Arongan, ford 
Tambangan, ferry 

Ampang, dam 

Guah, cave 

Belantara, desert 

Ombak, wave 

Karang, reef, coral 

Bahagian bumi, zone 

Laut, sea 

Lautan, ocean 

-4ycr Sim**, ebb 

Ayer pasang, flow 

Hutan, utan, forest, jungle 

BuHt, hill 

,/ato sempit, pass 

Gunong berapi, volcano 

Tanah, land ; (tom< (opposed to 

Teluk, bay, gulf 
Sungei, river 
Kuala, mouth (of river) 
Jfata ayer, source, spring 
Ayer terjun, waterfall 
Lembah, valley 
Debu, lebu, dust 

23. The Family 

Bapd, father 

lbu, mak, mother 

Sudara laki-laki, brother 

Sudara perampuan, sister 

Kakak, elder sister 

Adek, younger sister 

Anak laki-laki, son 

Anak perampuan, daughter 

Kaum kalurga, sanak, relatives 

Mak muda, mak sudara, aunt 

Bapa sudara, mama sudara, uncle 

Anak sudara, nephew 

Anak sudara peramvuan, niece 

Sudara sa-pupu, cousin 

Ipar, brother - in - law (by sister) ; 

biros (by wife) 
Ipar perampuan, sister-in-law 
Anak, child 

Kanak-kanak, small child, infant 
Kahwin^ marriage, to marry; ber- 

istrikan (of the man), berlakikan 

(of the woman) 
Wasiat, will, testament 
Waris, yang mendapat pusaka, heir 
Pusaka, inheritance 
Nenek laki-laki, grandfather 
Nenek perampuan, grandmother 
Chuchu laki-laki, grandson 
Chuchu perampuan, granddaughter 
Mentua laki-laki, father-in-law 
Mentua perampuan, mother-in-law 
Bapa tiri, step-father 
lbu tiri, step-mother 
Laki, suami, husband 
Bini, istri, wife 
Piatu, yetim, orphan 
Janda laki-laki, widower 
Janda perampuan, widow 
Orang gaji, pelayan, servant 
Sa'is, kusir, groom, coachman, 



24. Instruction 

Pengajaran, instruction 

Guru, pengajar, teacher 

Pdajar, murid, pupil 

Huruf, letters of the alphabet 

Baris, vowel mark 

Kartas, paper ; kartas sa-lei, sheet 
of paper; kartas suratj writing 
paper ; kartas kembang, blottiug- 

Muka, page 

Salin, to copy ; salinan, copy 

Skolah, maktab, school 
Kata, word, to say 
Kdimah, sentence 
Eja, syllable 

Sebutan, lidah, bunyi, pronunciation 
Pembacha-an, reading 
Tulisan, writing 

Tinta, dawat, ink ; tampat tinta, ink- 
Kalam, penna, pen, pen 
Patlut, pensil, pencil 

25. Amusements, Art 

Permainan, amusement, games 

Main bola, billiards 

Main dadu, dice-throwing 

Permainan undi, casting lots 

Untong, laba, winnings 

Rugi, loss 

Tari, dancing 

Main chatur, chess ; raja, king ; 

mantri, queen ; gajah, bishop ; 

kuda, knight ; tir, caatle ; bidak, 

pawn ; sah, check ; mat, mate 
Dam, choki, draughts 
Rumah wayang, theatre ; wayang, 

performance ; main wayang, to act 

Bunyi-bunyian, music 

Nafiri, trumpet 

i llmu, hikmat, art, knowledge 

Pandei memahat, pengukir, carver, 

Penults, pandei menulis gambar, 

Gambar, picture 
Tulis, to draw, sketch ; tulisan, 

Bangsi, suling, flute 
Nyanyian, song ; nyanyi, to sing 

26. The State 

Bangsa, nation, people 

Orang asing, foreigner 

Orang sa - negri, native, towns- 

Orang dusun, countryman (opposed 
to dweller in town) 

Raja, king 

Raja perampuan, queen 

Karaja-an, kingdom 

Makhota, taj, crown 

Orang bangsawan, nobleman (by 

Parentahan, government 

Mantri, minister ; perdana mantri, 
prime minister 

I si negri, anak ray at, inhabitants 

Negri bapa, fatherland 

Hamba, patek, slave 

Maharaja, emperor (great king) 

Putra, prince ; putri, princess 

Raja muda, heir apparent 

Takhta, singgahsana, throne 

Jawat, office, post ; penjawat, official 

Gubernur, governor 

Daira, jajahan, province 

Polis, police ; mala-mata, policeman ; 

rumah pasong, police station 
Dusun, kampong, village 
Chukei, tax, toll 
Orang minta sadakah, beggar 

27. Justice, Law 

Ka adilan, justice 
Aniaya, injustice 
Hakim, judge 
ffukum judgment, sentence 

Tuduhan, accusation 
Penuduh, accuser 

Pembunuhan, murder ; pembunuh^ 



Kachurian, theft 
Orang penchuri, thief 
Pertanda, executioner 
Tiang gantungan, gallows 
Undang-undang, law 
Tampat hukum, bichara, law court 
Penangkapan, arrest ; tangkap, to 

Dosa, salah, crime, offence 
Orang salah, criminal, convict 
Penulung bichara, advocate 
Bunuh diri, suicide 
Rachun, poison 
Siksa, punishment 
Ampun, pardon 
Panjara, jel, prison 

28. Travelling 

Kapal, ship 
Naik kapal, to embark 
Turun darat, to disembark 
Prahu, boat 
Kurung, kamar, cabin 
Kareta, kreta, coach, cab 
Rumah chukei, custom-house 
Peti, hopper, box, trunk 
Jalan besi, railway 
Rd, rails 

Kapal api, steamer 
Pelayaran, voyage 
Karam, shipwreck 
Perjalanan, journey 
Sampei, to arrive 
Jalan, berangkat, to set out 
Surat kareta api, ticket, ticket 
Barang-barang, luggage 
Surat pass, passport 
Kareta api, locomotive, train 

29. Tradb 

Bemyaga, mennyaga, trade, commerce 

Orang dagang, sudagar, merchant 

Borong, wholesale 

Jagalan, retail 

Barang, goods 

Kira-kira, bill, account 

Surat betul, resit, receipt 

Surat, letter 

Sarona surat, envelope 

Kapaia raja, stamp, stamp 

Bilik tulis, kantor, ofis, office 

Kadei, shop 

Jualan, sale 

Lelong, auction 

Blian, purchase 

Bayaran, payment 

Pekerja-an, pencharian, occupation, 
trade, means of livelihood 

Tukang, workman, artisan 

Kerja, work 

Perkakas, tools 

Tukang l kareta, carriage maker 

Besi, blacksmith 

Paku, nail maker ; paku, nail ; paku 
skrup, screw 

Pisau, cutler 

FaktUr, invoice 

Blanja, expenses 

Lak, sealing-wax 

Wang yang disimpan, savings ; sim- 

pan, to save, put by 
Tukang wang, cashier 
Tukang tulcar wang, money-changer 
Timbangan, scales 
Hutang, debt 
Pihutang, credit 
Wang, money ; wang kechU, change ; 

wang kartas, paper money, cheque 
A ma's, mas, gold 
Perak, silver 
Tembaga, copper, brass 


Spatu, shoemaker 

Jahit, tailor 

Kacha, glazier 

Kayu, carpenter 

Almari, joiner 

Tong, cooper 

Besi kuda, farrier ; landasan, anvil ; 

pemukul, martil, hammer ; pengum- 

ous, bellows 
TenUn, weaver 

1 Tukang, answering to the termination -er (painter, baker), is to be 
supplied before all the remaining nouns in this section, 



Samak, tanner 
Topi, hatter 
Chukur, barber 
Roti, baker 
Pengilinggan, miller 
Priuk, potter 
Chap, printer 
Orloji, jam, watchmaker 

Chat, painter 
Daging, butcher 
Bir, brewer 
Amds, goldsmith 
Minatu, washerman 
Kabun, gardener 
Jilid buku, bookbinder 
Jual buku, bookseller 

81. Agriculture 

Perusahan tanah, agriculture 
Orang dusun, countryman, peasant 
Tenggala, plough 
Penuwe - an, harvest ; menuwe, 

menabes, to reap 
Jerami, straw 
Kawan, herd 

Gombala, herdsman, shepherd 
Pemburuan, hunting ; orang pemburu, 

a hunter 
Kabun, garden, plantation 
Baja, manure 

Benih, biji, seed 

Sabit, sickle 

Bang sal, shed 

Padang rumput, meadow 

Kandang, stall (for cattle) ; bangsal 

kuda, stal, stable (for horses) 
Pagar, hedge, fence 
Changkul, hoe (large, used for 

Penggali, spade 
Sikat tanah, meradu, rake, harrow 

32, 33. Animals, Birds, Fishes, Insects 

Binatang, animal 

Kvlit, skin 

Munyet, kerd, monkey 

Bruang, bear 

Anjing, dog 

Kuching, cat 

Earimau, tiger 

Tikus, rat, mouse 

Landak, porcupine 

Oajah, elephant ; gading, tusk, 

ivory ; belalei, trunk 
Babi, pig 
Onta, camel 
Kambing, goat 
Bulu, hair 
Tkur, ekor, tail 

Klawar, bat 

Kluang, vampire 

Ghirg, wolf 

Singa, lion ; bulu tengkok, mane ; 

kuku, claw 
Kwelu, hare 
Tupei, squirrel 
Badak, rhinoceros 
Kuda ayer, hippopotamus 
Kaldei, ass 
Rusa, stag 
Kuda, horse ; kuku, hoof ; bulu 

tengkok, mane 
Lembu, sapi, ox 
Biri-biri, domba, sheep 
Ikanpaus, whale 


Burong, bird ; sarang burong, bird's 
nest ; sayap, wing ; paruh, beak ; 
bulu, feather 

Mtrpati, pigeon (tame); punai 

Eayam Blanda, turkey 

Onta, ostrich 

Bangau, stork 

Undan, crane 

Itek, duck 

Ikan, fish ; tidang, bone ; tel6r t roe ; 

sisek, scales 
Belut, eel 
Ular, snake 
Penyu, katung, turtle 
Kura-kura, labi-labi, tortoise 
Buaya, crocodile 
Pengail, fisherman ; kail, mmgail, 


to fish with a rod, menjala (with a 

net) ; kail, hook ; tali kail, line ; 

joran, rod ; umpan, bait 
Kumbang, beetle 
Leb&h, bee ; singat, sting ; madu, 

honey ; indok madu, honeycomb 
Krawei, tabuan, wasp, hornet 
Helang, lang, hawk, falcon 
Raja-wali, eagle 
Hantu, pungguk, owl 
Nuri, parroquet 
Pipit, sparrow 
Gagak, crow 
Hayam jantan, cock ; kukuk, to 

crow ; hayam betina, hen 
Angsa, goose 
Kupu-Jcupu, butterfly 
Hulat bulu t caterpillar 

Nyamok, mosquito 

Agas, gnat 

Lalat, fly 

Kala-jenking, scorpion 

Unam, snail 

Hulat, ulat, cJiaching, worm 

Chichek, lizard (common house) 

Katak, kuduk, frog 

Hudang, shrimp 

Hudang gala, lobster 

Ketdm, kapiting, crab 

Tiram, oyster 

Semut, ant ; awei - cmei (white) ; 

kerangga (large red) 
Bilalang, locust 
Laba-laba, spider ; sarang laba-laba, 

spider's web 
Hulat sutra, silkworm 

34. Plants 

Tumbuh-tumbuhan, tanaman, plants 

Pokok, tree ; batang, trunk ; akar, 
root ; kulvt t bark ; dahan, chabang, 
branch ; daun, leaf ; bung a, 
blossom ; buah, fruit 

Pokok yang berbuah, fruit-tree 

Pisang, banana 

Dalima, pomegranate 

Ara, tig 

Sukun, bread-fruit 

Pinang, betel- nut 

Kayu manis, cinnamon 

Bambu, bamboo 

Jagong, maize 

Rotan, rattan 

Ubi Jdadi, yam 

Bayam, spinach 

KacJiang, peas, beans 

Lobak, radish 

Tembikei, water-melon 

Klapa, coco-nut 

Khurma, date 

Limau asam, lemon 

Limau manis, orange 

Limau nipis, lime 

Mangga, mango 

Badam, almonds 

Sagu, sago 

Tebu, sugar-cane 

Padi, rice (in the husk) ; bras (un- 

husked); nasi (boiled) 
Pala, nutmeg 
Kapas, cotton 
Ubi, potato 
Kobis, kol, cabbage 
Bawang, onion 
Chendawan, mushroom 
Tarum, indigo (plant) ; nila (dye) 
Apiun, ajiun, madat, opium 
Kapur barus, camphor 
Kayu arang, ebony 
Gandum, trigu, corn ; berkas, shea 

35. Minerals 

Galian, mine 
Perak, silver 
Baja, steel 
Timah hitam, lead 
Tembaga Joining, brass 
Besi berani, magnet 
Batu berani, loadstone 
Jntan, diamond 
Yakut, ruby, hyacinth 
Rapur, lime ; Jcapur mati, slaked 
Ujae ; Jcapur tohor, quicklime 

Sendawa, saltpetre 

Tanah liat, clay 

Tembaga merah, copper 

Timah putih, tin 

Timah sari, zinc 

Raksa, ay er perak, quicksilver 

Batu, stone 

Zamrud, emerald 

Pualam, marmar, marble 

Baler ang, sulphur 

Tawas, alum. 



Adjectives follow the noun, and are indeclinable : rumah besdr 
(the large house) ; but segala (all), banyak (many), lain (other), 
sedikit (little) precede the noun. 

The comparative is formed by prefixing lebih (sometimes la^i) 
(more), and kurang (less) : lebih manis (sweeter) ; kurang besdr 

" Than " is rendered by deri (deri-pada) : lebih manis deri madu 
(sweeter than honey) ; ini kurang besdr deri itu (this is not as big 
as that) ; or (as in Hindustani and Turkish) the object with which 
the comparison is made may be put in the ablative, the adjective 
remaining unchanged and preceding the objects compared : besdr 
kuching deri tikus (the cat is larger than the mouse). 

" As . . . as" is expressed by sama . . . dengan : tuan sama pandei 
dengan sahaya (you are as clever as I am). In contrasting two 
comparisons makan . . . makan is used : makan lama . . . makan 
jahat (the longer . . . the worse). 

The superlative is formed : — 

(1) By prefixing ter- : ter-besdr (very large, largest). 

(2) By placing banyak, amat, terlalu, sang at before the adjective, 

or sakali after it. More than one of these words are often 
used with the same adjective (cp. the most highest in 

(3) By reduplication, sa- being usually prefixed : tinggi-tinggi 

(the highest), sa-adil-adil raja (the most just king). 

(4) By the use of the comparative construction : thus, " this 

is the best of all" may be translated as "this is better 
(good) than all," baik ini deri samua. 

Some Common Adjectives 

Tidal ada, ghaib, absent Hitam manis, brown 

Takut, afraid Lalei, careless 

Marah, angry Wang tunei, kontan, cash, in ready 

Jahat, bad (wicked) money 

Tidak baik, bad (not good) Tantu, certain 

Botak, gundul, bald Murah, cheap 

Tang berhenti bayar, bankrap, bank- Nasrani, Christian 

rupt Bersih, bresih, clean 

Pahit, bitter Sejuk, dingin (of weather), cold 

Hitam, black Betul, correct, true 

Buta, blind Kurang brani, penyakit, cowardly 

Biru, blue Bcngkok, crooked 

Tumpul, kurang tajam, blunt Olap, dark 

Brani, brave Math, dead 

Lebar, broad ' Tuli y dea.f 



Mahdl, dear (not cheap) 

Dalam, deep 

Susah, payah, difficult 

Kotor, dirty 

Masak, done (of food) 

Kring, dry 

Bisu, dumb 

Wolanda, Dutch 

Siang, early 

Mudah, easy 

Kosong y empty, hollow 

Inggris, English 

Bohong, tiada betul, false 

Meshhur, famous 

Jauh, far 

Lekds, fast 

Oemdk, tambun, fat 

Perampuan, female 

Harus, patut, fitting, suitable 

Bodoh, foolish 

A sing, foreign 

Bebas, free 

Baharu, bharu, fresh 

Penuh, full 

Baik, good 

ffijau, green 

Klabu, grey 

Bogus, handsome, beautiful 

Kras, hard 

Brat, heavy 

Tinggi, high 

Panas, hot 

Lapar, hungry 

Malas, idle 

Bebdl, ignorant 

Sahit, ill 

Rajin, industrious 

Besdr, large 

Lambat, late 

JTwr, left 

Rengan, light (not heavy) 

Trang, light (not dark) 

Sa-rupa, rupa sama y like 

Hidup, living 

Panjang, long (in space) 

Lama, long (of time) 

Kwat, loud 

Rendah, low 

6ri7a, mad 

Laki-laki, male 

Malayu, Malayan 

Telanjang, naked 

Sempit, sesak, narrow 

Dekdt, near 

Harus, wajib, necessary 

Baharu, bharu, new 

Bangsawan, berbangsa, noble (by 

Tuah, old (aged) 
Lama, old (of things) 
Terbuka, open 
icm, other, different 
Puchat, pale 
Meskin, papa, poor 
TJngu, purple 
Sedia, ready 
Merah, red 
Kaya, rich 

Kanan, right (of direction) 
Masak, ripe 
Kasap, rough 
Bulat, round 
Chetek, shallow 
Tajam, sharp 
Pendek, short 
Tertutup, shut 
Chondong, slanting 
Mengantok, sleepy 
Lambat, perlahan, slow 
KechU, small 
Lichin, smooth 
Lembut, soft 
Asam, masam, sour 
Lanchong, spurious (money) 
Ampat persagi, square 
Busuk, stale (of food) 
Lurus, trus, straight 
Kwat, strong 
Chukup, sufficient 
Manis, sweet 
Te&dZ, thick (not thin) 
Nipis, thin (of substances) 
Kurus, thin (lean) 
Haus, thirsty 
Leldh, tired 

Kurang bagus, huduh, ugly 
2Va MsaA, unnecessary 
Muda, unripe 
Berguna, useful 
Tiada berguna, useless 
Adat, usual 
Indah-indah, valuable 
Berwarna, variegated 
Lemdh, weak 
ifcu&, well 
Basah, wet, damp 
Putih, white 
Kuning, yellow 
Muda, young 




There are many equivalents of the pronouns I and You. Their 
use depends partly upon locality, partly upon the rank of the 
speaker or the person spoken to. 

I : Sahaya (sahya), aku, hamba, hamba tuan, patek, teman, beta. 

Of these sahya is the form generally used by Europeans and 
the upper class of natives ; aku chiefly in writing and by natives 
of equal rank ; hamba (slave), hamba tuan (master's slave), by 
inferiors to superiors, or politely by persons of rank ; patek and 
teman by natives, the former by inferiors to their social or official 
superiors, the latter between persons of equal rank. Beta is con- 
fined to the written language. In a direct statement "I" is 
frequently omitted, and the sentence made impersonal, e.g. : hendak 
hujan rupa-nya (I think it will rain ; lit., it will rain, it seems) ; 
khabar-nya (the news is) instead of sahaya dengar (I hear). 

You (singular) : tuan or angkau (to inferiors). Kau, ang, hang, 
mika, kita, kwe, awah are local forms. Tuan (master, sir), 
nonya or mem (madam), nonna (miss) are the ordinary 
moaes of addressing Europeans. Angkau should be 
avoided where possible, and, generally speaking, pronouns 
of the 2nd person may be omitted unless absolutely 
necessary. In speaking to servants the name of the 
person addressed is frequently substituted for the pronoun. 
Various terms are used in addressing persons of different 
social status. 1 

The proper use of these different equivalents and modes of address 
can only be learnt by practice and intercourse with natives. The 
European should confine himself to sahya, tuan, and angkau (to 
inferiors, when necessary). 

We : kita (kita orang), and kami (kami orang), the latter 
excluding the person addressed. 

You (plural) : the same as for you (singular), usually with 
the addition of an indefinite numeral to denote the 
plural ; kamu (kamu orang), in addressing inferiors. 

He, she, it : dia (less commonly ia). 

They : dia orang. Marika - itu is confined to the written 

1 See Maxwell, Manual qf the Malay Language, pp. 50, 75. 



The possessive pronouns are generally expressed by the simple 
genitive construction — 

Kuda sahaya, my horse Kuda kita, our horse 

Kuda tuan or angkau, your (sing.) horse Kuda kamu, your horse 
Kuda dia, his or her horse Kuda dia orang, their horse 

The construction with punya (see Declension) is also used : sahaya 
punya kuda (my horse) ; tuan punya kuda (your horse). The first 
method is preferable, except in translating " mine," etc. " Your " is 
frequently omitted in conversation. 

Certain suffixes are also used to express the possessive pronouns 
singular — 

Kuda-ku, my horse 
Kuda-mu, your horse 
Kuda-nya, his, her (its), horse. 

Of these -hi, -mu are confined to the written language, but 
~nya is in common use (especially in the passive construction) 
for plural as well as singular. 

Substantive possessive pronouns are expressed as follows : herta 
ini herta hamba (these things are mine ; lit., things these things 
of me). 


This, these, ini : that, those, itu 9 more correctly placed after 
the noun. Ini and itu are frequently added to adverbs and 
pronouns : sekarang ini, (just now) ; aku ini (I myself, it is I). 


Who? siapa 1 — kuda siapa 1 (whose horse?) sama siapa 2 (to 
whom?) ulih siapa? (by whom?). 

What ? apa ? — Apa (tuan) mau ? (what do you want ?). 

Apa is often used to introduce an interrogative sentence : apa tuan 
minta itu? (do you want that?) The adjectival interrogatives, 
which ? what ? what sort of ? are also expressed by siapa (of persons) 
and apa (of things). 

Siapa orang itu ? What sort of a man is that ? 

Siapa nama orang ini ? What is the name of this man ? 

A pa nama negri ini ? What is the name of this country 1 

Mana (properly meaning where ?) is also used to express the 
adjectival interrogative pronoun. 



Who, which, is yang, placed after the word to which it refers : 
raja yang adil (a king who is just). An idiomatic relative con- 
struction (found also, e.g., in Arabic and Modern Greek) should 
be noticed. When in English the relative is in the possessive 
case or governed by a preposition, a corresponding personal or 
possessive pronoun must be added at the end of the sentence in 
the case required for the relative. 

Thus, "the king whose kingdom is very great" should be 
translated, raja yang terlalu besdr karajaan - nya (the king who 
very great his kingdom) ; " the man to whom the king gives 
money," orang yang raja kasih wang sama dia (the man who the 
king gives money to him) ; " the man of whom I speak," orang 
yang sahaya kata deripada-nya (the man who I speak of him). 


"Self" is expressed by sendiri (kendiri), dirt. They are used with 
or without the personal pronouns in the sense of myself, yourself, 
etc. Dm precedes, sendiri follows the pronoun, and is always 
used when the pronoun refers to the subject of the sentence : ia 
pukul ia sendiri (he strikes himself). Instead of diri sahaya, diri 
dia, etc., the possessive suffixes -ku, -nya, etc., are frequently used : 
anak diri-mu (your own child). 


Other : lain. 

Some : bebrapa, barang -barang. 

Something : barang apa, satu apa 

Any : barang ; anybody, barang siapa ; anything, barang apa. 

Every (each) : sa-sa-orang, masing-masing, sa-satu. 

Every one : segala orang, sa-barang orang. 

Some one : sa-orang, barang sa-orang. 

One, they (German, man ; French, on) : orang, orang-orang. 

Nothing : tiada apa, satu pun tidak. 

No one : sa-orang tiada, sa-satu tiada. 

Whoever : barang siapa. 

Whatever : barang apa, barang sa-satu, barang yang. 


The verb in Malay undergoes no alteration to denote mood, tense, 
number, or person. It is radical, originally a verb (makan, to eat) ; 
or derivative, formed from verbs, nouns, adjectives, by means of 


prefixes or suffixes : jalan (a road), menjalan (to travel), bini (a wife), 
ber-bini (to have a wife, be married), buta (blind), mem-buta-kan (to 
make blind). The verb is generally translated by the infinitive, 
although its meaning is really indefinite, and is defined by its 
position in the sentence, or by particles placed before or after. 
The tenses (where necessary) are denoted by auxiliaries, and the 
persons need not be expressed. 

Derivative Verbs 

The chief derivative particles are the prefixes me- (with its 
modifications mem-, men-, meng-, meny- : see page 10), ber-, ter-, and 
the suffixes -lean and -i. 

Derivatives are extremely frequent in the written language and 
in polite conversation, but far less common in the language of the 
lower classes. 

Me- (mem-, men-, meng-, meny-) prefixed to verbs and other words, 
forms verbs which express an action as opposed to a state or 
condition. As a rule, when the verb has a possible transitive 
application, the derivative is transitive. 

As a general rule, in the written language, every Malay radical 
prefixes me-, whenever it takes an object, but this does not hold 
good in commercial or ordinary colloquial language : minum (to 
drink, meminum (to drink water, etc.) ; jaga (to watch), menjaga 
(to guard) ; luka (a wound), melulca (to wound) ; dekat (near), 
mendekat (to approach) ; habis (finished), menghabis (to complete) ; 
balik (behind, back), membalik (to return, give back). 

Ber-, on the other hand, forms intransitives, denoting a state or 
condition, which therefore never have an object. They are really 
adjectives to which " to be * must be supplied : suami (a husband), 
bersuami (having a husband, to be married) ; habis (finished), 
berhabis (to be finished) ; pukul (to beat), berpukul (beating, to 
beat). 1 

The suffix -kan forms the so-called Gausatives, which, if transi- 
tive, in good style also take the prefix me-. Colloquially this 
meaning is generally expressed by other verbs, suruh (order), 
bekin (make), kasih (give). Buat (to do), buat-kan (to do something 
to somebody, -kan being really a shortened form of akan) ; ada 

Sto be), mengadakan (to create) ; datang (to come), mendatangkan 
to 'make any one come) ; What (to see), melihatkan (to make any 
one see something) ; kaya (rich), mengayakan (to enrich) ; anugrah 
(a present), menganugrahkan (to make a present of something). 

The suffix -i (generally with me- verbs) forms transitives : kras 
(hard), krasi (to treat hardly) ; baik (good), membaiki (to make good, 

i Without an object. " To beat him" would be translated by memukul or 
pufad dia. 


improve) ; anugrah (a present), menganugrahi (to make some one a 
present) ; datang (to come), mendatangi (to reach a place) ; naung 
(shade), menaungi (to protect). It also forms doubly transitive 
verbs when added to a verb already transitive : buka pintu, open 
the door ; buka-i hamba pintu, open me the door (with double 

Active Voice 

A number of auxiliaries are used (where necessary) to express 
tenses or various shades of meaning. 

Ada : is, are ; tiada : is not, are not, will not. 

Habt) was > did > has > had ' 

Akan \ 

Mau \ will, shall, would, should. 


Jadi : is, was, became, become. 

Daptt} can ' could ' may ' might * 
Patut : ought. 
Biyar : let . 

These and other similar words precede the verb, but may be 
placed either before or after the subject of the sentence. 

The tense of the verb standing alone is indefinite, but if it is 
clear from the context that present, past, or future time is intended, 
the auxiliaries need not be used : thus, I went yesterday, I shall go 
to-morrow, can be simply rendered, I go yesterday, to-morrow. 

Present. — If it be desired to lay special stress on the fact that a 
person is engaged in doing something, that an action is going on 
(I am breakfasting, they a*re sleeping), the particles ada, lagi (still), 
sekarang (now), may be used : sahaya ada tidor, lagi tidor, tidor 
sekarang (I am sleeping). The Present Participle may also be 
expressed by lagi (lagi tidor, sleeping), or by sambil, serta (while), 
or seraya (at the same time). 

Imperfect. — May be expressed in much the same way : apabila 
dia datang, sahaya ada tidor (when he came, I was sleeping). 
Sometimes -lah is added to the verb, which then precedes the 
pronoun : diam-lah dia oVang (they were silent). 

Perfect. — Sudah, habis, lalu, teldh (written language) may be 
inserted before the verb ; sahaya sudah tidor (I slept or have 



Pluperfect — Expressed like the perfect, sudah habis being often 
used together. 

Future. — Expressed by mau, hendak, nant% akcm : dia mau jual 
(he will sell) ; nanti sahaya chart (I am going to look for). 

Past Future. — Expressed, like the pluperfect, by two particles : 
nanti sahaya sudah makan (I shall have eaten). 

Imperative. — Expressed by the radical standing alone, or -lah may 
be added for the sake of emphasis : masuk didalam ! (come in ! ) ; 
lalu ! (get out of the way ! ) ; halau rnau pergi, pergilah ! (if you 
want to go, go ! ). It is often introduced by sila, minta, choba 
(please) ; silakan duduk diatas krusi (please sit down, lit., on a 
chair). It is negatived by jangan : jangan lupa (don't forget) ; 
jangan pergi (don't go) ; suruh dia jangan pergi (tell him not 
to go). 

"To" before the infinitive (e.g. } he came to ask for money) is 
not expressed. 

Passive Voice 

The passive is denoted by the prefix di-, the me- prefix of the 
active being dropped. The noun or pronoun expressing the agent 
is as a rule simply placed after the verb ; dian sudah habis dimakan 
tikus (the candle has been eaten by the mice) ; rumah dimakan api 
(the house was consumed by fire) ; sahaya dipukul orang (I was 
beaten by men). The use of the suffix -nya (by him, by her, by 
them) is also common in this construction : ditangkapnya churi f 
(the thief was seized by him) ; dilihatnya sa-ikur kerd (he saw a 
monkey) ; disuruhnya (he ordered ; lit., it was ordered by him). 

A sort of passive participle is formed from transitive verbs by 
the prefix ter- : tertulis (written) ; terpukul (struck) ; terlihat (seen). 

A substantive passive participle is formed by prefixing ka- and 
suffixing -an: kalihatan } that which is seen (see on "Derivative 
Nouns "). 

to be and to have 

When "to be" is a simple copula, it is generally omitted : rumah 
banyak besdr (the house is very large) ; kartas ini kasar (this paper 
is coarse). But if it is used in an impersonal sense, "there is," 
" there are," it should be expressed by ada : ada banyak orang 
didalam rumah (there are many people in the house) ; duini ada 
satu karda (here is a cab). 


Ada, by itself or with a preposition, is also the usual way of 
expressing " to have M : tuan ada kuda bagus, or ada kuda bogus 
pada (sama) tuan (you have a fine horse). 


Must, harus (it is necessary) : harus tuan turut dia (you must 
obey him) ; mau-lah : mau-lah bayar tunei or kontdn (you 
must pay cash) ; to? bulih tiada buat (you must, lit., cannot 
not do it) ; misti, musti (vulgar) : sahya misti tulis surat 
(I must write a letter). 

Let, biyar (permit) : biyar sahaya dengar (let me hear) ; kasih 
(give) : kasih sahaya lihat (let me see) ; bri (give) : kalau 
sudah sedia, bri tahu sahaya (when you are ready, let 
me know). 

Ought, patut : tidak patut buat ini (you ought not to do this). 

Can, bulih (to be able) : apa sahaya bulih dapat kamar ? (can 
I have a room ? ) ; tahu (know how to) : dia tahu bacha ? 
(can he read ? ) ; lalu : sahaya ta } lalu buat (I cannot do it). 

Could, Should, Would : apa rnau buat, kalau bulih? (what 
would you do, if you could ? ) ; sahaya mau juga buat, 
kalau bulih (I would do it if I could) ; belum juga dia 
mati kalau sudah angkau buat dahulu (he would not have 
died, if you had done this before) ; kalau tuan datang (if 
you should come) ; patut ada sa-puluh (there should have, 
ought to have been ten) ; sahaya suka juga bli, kalau ada 
wang sahaya (I would buy it, if I had money). 

In ordinary conversation, however, long compound sentences 
should be avoided ; thus, instead of "If I had had money, I should 
have gone yesterday," it is better to say, " I wanted to go yesterday, 
but I had no money." Much is left to the imagination, and the 
simpler and more elliptical the form of the sentence, the more idiomatic 
and intelligible it is likely to be. 

One of the chief difficulties of Malay is the use of different words 
to express special shades of meaning in the case of such common 
verbs as go, take, strike, see, speak, carry, where in English the one 
word can be used indifferently. These can only be learnt by 
practice (see Maxwell, Manual of the Malay Language, p. 120). 



Some Common Verbs 

The prefix me- and its modifications, usually found in the written 
language, are here omitted. 

Tertawa, laugh 

Blajar, learn 

Tinggalkan, leave 

Bri pinjam, lend 

Bri sewa, let (for hire) 

Biyar, let (permit) 

Suka, like 

Hidup, live 

Hilang, lose 

Bulih, may 

Hams, dapat tiada, (misti), must 

Unjuk, offer 

Buka, open 

Berhutang, owe 

Bayar, pay 

J5W tujfen, sukakan, please 

Janji, promise 

Taruh, put 

Bacha, read 

Tarima, trima, receive, accept 

Sambut, receive (in the hands, a 

Ingat, recollect 
Sahid, jawab, reply, answer 
Kata, say 
Lihat, see 

Chahari, chart, seek 
.TwaZ, sell 
Kirim, send 
Chukur, shave 
Duduk, sit 
Tidor, sleep 

Hisap (minum) roko, smoke (tobacco) 
Chakap, tutur, speak 
Berhenti, brenti, stop 
Ambit, take ; 6awa pergi, take away 
Trima kasih, thank 
Pikir, kira, think 
Jabat, touch 

Satin, terjamah, translate 
Berjalan, travel 
Ohoba, try 

Mengarti, understand 
Nanti, tungguh, wait 
Berjalan-jalan, makan angin, pasear, 

take a walk 
Hendak, mau, want, wish 
Basoh, chuchi, wash 
Bekerja, buat kerja, work 
ZWif, write 

Sampei, arrive 

Tanya, ask 

Mandi, bathe 

^4c?a, be 

•/arfi, become 

Perchaya (akan), believe, trust (in) 

Midai, begin 

Minta pinjam, borrow 

Pechdh, patah, break 

Bawa, bring 

/Si&a£, brush 

2#i, buy 

Panggil, call 

Bulih, can, be able 

Tukar, change (money) 

Salinkan, change (clothes) 

Pikul, carry (on back) 

Suchi, chuchi, bekin bresih, clean 

Tutup, close, shut 

Datang, come 

Masak, cook 

Putting, cut 

Pm7* {pigi), depart 

Hendak, desire 

ilfatfi, die 

.Bwa^, bekin, do, make 

Pakei kain, dress 

Minum, drink 

Makan, eat 

Masuk, enter 

Nantikan, expect, wait for 

Jatuh, fall 

i^asa, feel 

lsikan, fill 

Dapat, find 

Ztofft, tfcu*, follow 

Larang, forbid 

Lupa, forget 

Ampunkan, forgive 

Dapat, get 

2?W, &<m'/i, give 

Per#i (fflfrt), go ; i?er#i kluar, go out 

Dengar, hear 

Tulung, help 

Harap, hope 

2?W or femA- fo&w, inform 

Simpan, keep (take care of, save up) 

Ta^M, know (understand) 

Kendt, know (be acquainted with) 

Tahan last 


Interrogative and Negative Sentences 

In conversation, the tone of the voice is generally sufficient to 
indicate a question ; sometimes, however, apa ? (what ?) is used 
as an interrogative expletive, or kah may be added to any word 
on which special stress is to be laid : tuan apa baik ? (are you 
well ?) ; bulih-kah tuan datang ? (can you come i). 

The use of the affirmative particle ya (yes) is generally avoided, 
the verb or some emphatic word being repeated : sudah tutup pintu ? 
(have you shut the door ?) : sudah (I have) ; besdr-kah rumah tuan ? 
(is your house large V) : besdr (it is large) ; angkau orang Malayu ? 
(are you a Malay ?) : sahaya (I am). Sahaya is often used in the 
polite sense of " Yes, sir," " All right " — panggil kareta sewa ! (call 
a cab !) : sahaya (yes, sir). 

The negative particles are tidak, tiada (abbreviated form ta\ t'ada, 
and also found as trada, tra\ bukan, jangan, belitm (beldn). 

Jangan has already been noticed in speaking of the imperative. 
Tidak is the usual direct negative reply: tuan minum roko? 
(do you smoke ?) : tidak (no). 

If the sentence contains an auxiliary, this is generally repeated 
with td : tahukah menyurat ? (do you know how to write '?) : ta J 
tahu (I don't know) ; bulihkah datang? (can you come ?) : tot bulih 
(I can't). 

As a rule, however, the native avoids a direct negative by the 
use of non-committal phrases. 

Bukan is more emphatic than tidak, and is used alone or 
with kah in the sense of "is not," "is it not? tuan 
orang inggris ? (are you an Englishman ?) : bukan (certainly 
not) ; inilah rumah dia atau bukan ? (is this his house 
or not ?). 

Bdum (not yet) implies a probability of the action negatived 
eventually taking place : sahaya belum habis makan (I 
have not yet eaten). 


1 satu, sa, suatu 6 anam 

2 dua 7 tuju 

3 tiga 8 d'lapan 

4 ampat 9 sembilan 

5 lima 10 sapuluh (one ten) 


From 11 to 19, the digits add belas (bias) : 

11 sablas 16 anam bias 

12 dua bias 17 tuju bias 

13 tiga bias 18 d'lapan bias 

14 ampat bias 19 sembilan bias 

15 lima bias 

20 to 90 add puluh (ten) to the digits : 

20 dua puluh (two tens) 60 anam puluh 

30 tiga puluh 70 tuju puluh 

40 ampat puluh 80 dflapan puluh 

50 lima puluh 90 sembilan puluh 

21, 22, 23, etc., are formed by adding the units : dua puluh satu, 
dua puluh dua, dua puluh tiga, and so on. 

21 to 29 are sometimes (especially in dates) expressed by likur : 
sa-likur (one and a score), dua likur (two and a score). 

100 sa-ratus (one hundred) 
200 dua ratus 
300 tiga ratus, and so on 
1,000 sa-ribu 
2,000 dua ribu 

10,000 sa-puluh ribu or sa-laksa 
20,000 dua puluh ribu or dua laksa 
100,000 sa-keti or sa-puluh laksa 
1,000,000 sa-juta or sa-ratus laksa 

1913 sa-ribu sembilan ratus tiga bias 

The words kurang (less) and tengah (half) are also used in 
expressing quantities : kurang tiga sa-ratus (ninety -seven) ; tengah 
dua (one and a half, two less a half) ; tengah lima ratus (four 
hundred and fifty). 

Numeral Coefficients 

These peculiar and important elements of the Malay language 
consist of "a set of specific and technical terms, called by the 
grammarians numeral affixes, some one or other of which is always 
used as a coefficient to the numeral, the term being selected 
according to the class under which the object falls." 1 Their use 
may be compared with that of the English head (of cattle), file 
(of soldiers), fleet (of ships), brace, covey, and the German Stuck, 

1 Colonel Yule in Journal of the Anthropological Institute (February, 1880). 


Blatt. They also occur in Burmese, Siamese, Turkish, and 
other languages. 

Orang (person), for human beings : laki-laki lima orang, five 
men (lit., male five persons) ; anak perampuan dua orang, 
two daughters (child female two persons) ; anak laki- 
laki sa-orang, one son (child male one person). 

Ikur, ekor (tail), for animals : sa ikur kuching {one cat) ; dua 
ikur lalat (two flies) ; ikan lima anam ikur (five or six 
fish) ; sembilan ikur burong (nine birds). 

Batang (stem), for trees and long objects generally : bambu 
tiga batang (three bamboo stalks) ; pisang dua batang (two 
bananas) ; lembing dua batang (two spears). 

Buah (fruit), for fruits, also applied to towns, houses, ships, 
islands : labu ampat buah (four gourds) ; ada sa-buah 
negri (there was a city) ; tiga buah rumah (three houses) ; 
lima buah kapal (five ships) ; sa-buah pulau (an island). 

Biji (seed), for grain and small round objects : teldr dua biji 
(two eggs) ; klapa muda sa-biji (a green (young) coco-nut). 

Keping (flatness), of flat, thin objects, as pieces of money, paper, 
wood, metal : papan sa-keping (a plank). 

Halei or lei, of hair, feathers, leaves, and other thin objects : 
sa-halei rumput (a blade of grass) ; kameja sa-lei (a shirt) ; 
baju dua tiga lei (two or three jackets). 

Many other similar terms, more or less limited in their applica- 
tion, will be found in the larger grammars. 


" First," " the first," is pertama, yang pertama, or yang satu. The 
other ordinals are formed by placing ka before the cardinals : kadua, 
yang kadua (second, the second), and so on. 

Fractional Numbers 

Tengah, sa-tengah (stengah), \ ; satu or sa-per-tiga, £ ; suku, sa- 
suku, \ ; dua-per-tiga, § ; sa-per-lima, £ ; tiga-per- ampat, f . Other 
fractions may be similarly formed by inserting per between the 
numerator and denominator. 

"Once," "twice," etc., are expressed by kali {ganda, lapis, lipat) : 
sa-kali (once) ; dua kali (twice) ; tiga ganda (three times), and so on. 

" One at a time," " in pairs," " by threes," " by thousands," and 
similar phrases are translated by prefixing the particle ber- to the 
numeral : ber-satu, ber-dua, ber-tiga, be-ribu-ribu. 

"Fold" is lipat: lipat sa-puluh (ten fold); lipat sa-ratus (a 
hundred fold). 


Manner of Expressing Time 
" O'clock " is expressed by pukul (it has struck) — 

Sudah pukul brapa? (what time is it 1 ? lit, it has struck how 

much ? ) ; pukul satu (it is one o'clock) ; sudah pukul ampat 

(it is past four). 
Pukul tiga suku (a quarter past three). 
Pukul tiga dua puluh lima minit (twenty-five minutes past 

Pukul tiga stengah (half -past three). 
Pukul ampat kurang (less) dua puluh lima minit (twenty-five 

minutes to four, lit., four less twenty-five minutes). 
Pukul ampat kurang suku (a quarter to four). 
Sudah ampat hari dia mati (he died four days ago). 
Sa-suku jam (a quarter of an hour). 
Stengah jam (half an hour). 
Satu jam stengah (an hour and a half). 
Kapada hari ahad, tuju hari bulan, pada malam pukul sembilan 

(on Sunday, day seven of the month, at night struck 

nine, i.e., on Sunday, the seventh, at nine o'clock in the 


Months and Days of the Week 

Jan & war i Juli 

Februari Agostu (Augiis) 

March (Mart) September 

April Oktober 

Mai November 

Jun (Juni) Desember 

The Mohammedan names of the months are also in use. 

The names of the days of the week are borrowed from the Arabic — 

Sunday : hari ahad or minggo. 
Monday : hari isnin or senein ; hari satu. 
Tueplay : hari seldsa; hari dua. 
Weanesday : hari arba^a or rebu ; hari tiga. 
Thursday : hari khamis ; hari ampat. 
Friday : harijuma ( a; hari lima. 
Saturday : hari sabtu ; hari anam. 

The Malays themselves also express the divisions of the day by 
a number of picturesque phrases : e.g., buntar membayang (when 
the shadows are round, i.e., noon). 1 

1 See Maxwell, Manual of the Malay Language, p. 139. 


The Arabic figures are used by the Malays — 
1 r •* i t o 1 v a * • 

123 4 567890 


The chief prepositions, which all precede the noun, are the 
following : — 

Akan, (1) to, for, expresses the dative ; 

(2) sometimes used (like sama) with the direct object 

and in the passive construction ; 

(3) as for, in regard to. 

It is not much in use colloquially. 

Antara, between. 

Lalam, in, into. 

Datang, up to : deripada . . . datang, from ... to ; datang 

kapada, up to. 
Dekdt, near. 

Dengan, with (rarely instrumental) ; tiada dengan, without. 
Deri, deri-pada, from, than (in comparisons). It is also used 

to form a number of prepositional expressions answering 

the question "Where from?" — 

atas, upper part, top ; deri-atas, from the top of. 

bawah, under part, bottom ; deri-bawah, from the bottom of. 

blakang, back ; deri-blakang, from behind. 

dalam, interior ; deri-dalam, from inside. 

hadapan, presence ; deri-hadapan, from the front of, from 

luar, outside ; deri-luar, from the outside of. 
muka, face, front (of a house) ; deri-muka, from before. 
sabarang, farther side ; deri-sabarang, from the farther side of. 
tengah y middle ; deri-tengah, from the middle of. 

Di, at, in, on. Like deri, forms prepositional expressions 

answering to the question " Where ?" 
Ganti, instead of. 
Hingga, same meaning as datang. 
Ka, to. Like deri, forms prepositional expressions answering 

to the question "Whither?" 
Karana (karna), on account of. 
Kuliling, round about. 



Pada (kapada), at, to, on, towards — 

(1) represents the dative ; 

(2) during, on (temporal) : Jcapada satu hari bulan, on 

the first day of the month ; 

(3) "in order to " before a verb. 

Sa-kadar, according to, in proportion to. 

Sama, with { — dengan), to (dative). Also used colloquially 

with the direct object (compare akari). 
Sampei, same meaning as datang. 
Sebdb (Arabic), same meaning as karana. 
Serta, with. 

Tentang, concerning, opposite. 
Trus, through. 
Ulih, by (in passive construction). 


Adjectives may be used as adverbs without alteration of form. 
Adverbs may also be formed by reduplication or by prefixing sa-, 
with or without the suffix -nya, to other parts of speech : sungguh- 
sungguh, sa-sungguh-nya (really) ; pagi-pagi (early in the morning) ; 
sa-lama~lama-nya (always). 

Adverbs of Place 

Manat di-rnanat where? 
Deri mana t whence ? 
Ka-mana 1 whither ? 
Sini, di-sini, here 
Deri sini, from here 
Ka-sini, hither 
Sana, di-sana, di-situ, there 
Ka-sana, thither 
Atas, di-atas, above 
Bawah, di-bawah, below 
Luar, di-luar, without 

Dalam, di-dalam, within 
Di-kiri, ka-kiri, to the left 
Di-kanan, ka-kanan, to the right 
Dekdt, tiadajauh, near 
Jauh, far 

Sabarang, sabrang, across 
Di-blakang, behind 
Di-muka, before, in front 
Ka-Uakang, backwards 
Di-mana-mana, everywhere 

Adverbs of Time 

Kapant when? 

Sekarang, lagi, now 

Sabentar, at once 

Tadi, just now 

Dahulu {dulu), before, formerly 

Kemdian, afterwards 

Ini hari, to-day 

Inipagi, this morning 

Jnipetang, this afternoon 

'Imarin, kemarin). 


Kelamarin dahvlu, the day before 

Esok (besdk), to-morrow 

Lusa {besdk lusa), the day after to- 

Pagi-pagi, in the morning 

Sore-sore, in the afternoon 



Stengari, at midday 
Kadang-kadang, sometimes 
Perlahan, plan-plan, gradually 
Banyak kali, often 
Jarang, seldom 
Malam-malam, by night 

Hari-hari, by day 

Slamanya, sadakala, pernah, always, 

Ta' pernah, never 
Sudah, already 
Belum (belon), not yet 

Other Adverbs 

Ya, saya, yes 

Tida, no 

Tiada (trada, tra), bulcan, not 

Banyak, very, much 

Sedikit, a little 

Brapa, how much ? 

Bagini, bagitu, so 

Seperti, just as 

Bagimana, betapa, how ? 

Juga, also, just so, and yet, for all that 

Sahaja, only 

Tantu, certainly, decidedly 


The construction of the sentence in Malay is very simple, complex 
subordinate sentences being avoided. Hence co-ordinate con- 
junctions are far more used than subordinate — 

Tetapi {tapi), lalcin, welakin, but 
Apabila, tatkala, apakala, kotika, 

Juga, also 
Lagi, again, even 
Lagipula, again, too 
Lagi pun, besides, also 
Tambahan, shahadan, further, besides 
Dahulu deri, before that 
Sampei, until 

Seddng, karna, sebdb, as, since 
Sebdb itu, karna itu, deri sebdb itu, 

Supaya, (buat), in order that 
Kemdian teldh itu, then, thereupon 
Jikalau demikiun, if so 
Kama, sebdb, for, because 
Tetapi juga, yet, nevertheless 

Tetapi, semaja, adapun, notwith- 

Melainkan, hanya, except, unless 

Atau, or 

Dan, and 

Atau . . . atau, either ... or 

Lantas (Javanese), then, thereupon 

Sa-teldh, habis, after that 

JEntah, jika, whether 

Sa-teldh, serta, as soon as 

Tiada sahaja . . . maka lagi juga, 
not only . . . but also 

Terlebih harus, the more so 

Lagi pula sebdb, the more so as 

Seddng, semantara, pada kotika, 
{lama), whilst 

Tiada . . . tiada, neither . . . nor 

Jikalau, jika, kalau (kalu), if 

As a rule only dan, tetapi (tapi\ atau, kalu, sebdb, buat, sampei, 
lama are used in the vulgar dialect. 

There are several other conjunctions, the use of which is confined 
to the written language. The commonest of these is maka, which 
is used in narrative to introduce a sentence, something like the 
English " now," " and so," " then " ; it also serves to introduce 
an apodosis. The constantly occurring particle pun may also be 
noticed here. It may be added indifferently to all parts of speech, 
and is generally a mere expletive, although it sometimes adds 
emphasis to the word to which it is attached. It sometimes has 



the meaning of " too," u also " : sahaya pun (I also), or of " neither 
. . . nor " : siang pun tidak malam pun tidak (it was neither day 
nor night). It also enters into the formation of adverbs : itu-pun y 

The commonest interjections are— 

Hei ! hallo ! hi ! 

Ya ! (in addressing any one) 

Aduh ! oh ! (of pain) 

Nyah-lah ! be off ! 

Wahl (astonishment) 

Baik ! bravo ! 

Chi ! for shame ! 

Diam ! hush ! silence ! 

Wah beta ! what a misfortune ! 

Wayi ! alas ! 

Nah ! there you are ! take it ! 

Jum ! mah ! forwards ! 

Kasihan !\ T , ., , 

Sayang! I what a ** ! 

Many religious expressions, borrowed from the Arabic, are also 
in use. 




Tuan ada baik ? Silakan duduk di-atas krusi. Bahasa Malayu 
apa kata ini ! Orang ini ada anak laki-laki sa-orang dan anak 
perampuan dua orang. Kapal dia jauh banyak. Besar kuching 
deri tikus. Brapa tuan bli ini ? Tuan mau minum roko ? Chakap 
perlahan-perlalian. Kaki-nya sakit. Dia belum pakei kain lagi. 
Sahaya banyak trima kasih. Tuan kenal-kah dia ? Panjang sakali 
rambut-nya. Tuan kirim tabek banyak - banyak. Bawa anggor 
sama ayer. Masak telor dua biji. Sudah pukul brapa? 

Tuan, master, sir, Mr; the usual polite form of address = you 

(tuan -tuan, when more than one person is addressed). 

Ada, to be. Baik (pronounced bai' : see on letter k in 

Grammar), good, well. 
Silakan (silakan-lah, sila, sila-lah), have the goodness to, please. 

Duduk, to sit, take a seat. Di-atas, upon. Krusi, a chair. 
Bahasa, language. Malayu (the attributive adjective follows its 

noun). A pa ? what ? Kata, to say. 
Orang, man, person (the numeral coefficient for persons : see 

Grammar). Anak, child. Laki-laki, male : anak laki-laki, 

boy. Perampuan, female : anak perampuan, girl. 
Kapal, ship. Dia, see genitive construction in Grammar ; the 

suffix -nya can also be used : kapal-nya. Jauh, far off (as a 

rule the copula " to be " is omitted). Banyak, very (adverbs 

follow the adjectives they define). 

^ 2 The absence of grammatical inflections and irregularities, and the extreme 
simplicity of the ordinary Malay construction, make it unnecessary to give 
special exercises on grammar or syntax. The specimens of the written 
language, given later on, will illustrate the difference between it and 
colloquial Malay. The numerals should be committed to memory, since 
they will not be given in the Vocabulary. 



Bestir, big (here stands for the comparative). Kuchxng, cat. 

Deri, from, out of, has the meaning of "than" after a 

comparative. Tikus, rat, mouse. 
Brapa? how much? Bli, to buy. 
Mau, to want, wish. Minum, to drink, smoke (tobacco). 

Boko, tobacco (the native cigarette). 
Ghakap, to speak. Perlahan-perlahan (plan-plan), slowly. 
Kaki, foot. Kaki-nya, his foot (see above). Sakit, ill, bad. 
BelUm, not yet. Pakei, to put on (clothes). Kevin, clothes, 

properly any textile fabric. Lagi, yet (pleonastic). 
Sahaya (pronounced sahya), I. Trima, to accept. Kasih, to 

give, gift, favour ; trima kasih, to thank. 
Kenal, to know. -kah, interrogative particle, attached to the 

word in the sentence on which the stress is laid. 
Panjang, long. Sakali, very. Bambut, hair. 
Kirim, to send. Tabek, greeting. Banyak-banyak, the reduplica- 
tion expresses the superlative. 
Bawa, bring. Anggor, wine. Sama, with, and. Ayer, water. 
Masak, boil. Teldr, egg. Biji, numeral coefficient for small 

round objects: teldr dua biji = two eggs. 
Svdah, auxiliary of the past tense. 

Translation 1 

How do you do ? (Are you well ? ) Please sit down. What is 
this called in Malay ? This man has one son and two daughters. 
His ship is a long way off. The cat is larger than the mouse. 
How much did you pay for this? Would you like to smoke? 
Speak slowly. He has a bad foot. He is not vet dressed. I am 
very much obliged to you. Do you know him V His hair is very 
long. The master sends his warmest greetings. Bring some wine 
and water. Boil two eggs. What o'clock is it? 

II (for Translation into Malay) 

You have a beautiful horse. Where is your house? This is 
better than all. This room is very spacious. Where did you get 
that? Can he not write? The tea is ready. I cannot open the 
door. He went by ship to Singapore. It has struck half past 
ten. Call a cab ! He does not drink wine. Let me see that silk. 
What is he planting (is being planted by him ) ? How many children 
have you ? He did. not accept it (use passive construction). 

You, tuan. Have (express by ada). Horse, kuda. Beautiful, 
bagus (adj. follows noun). 

i This and other English versions given should be retranslated into Malay. 


Where ? di-mana. House, rumah. Your, genitive construction 

with tuan (the master's house). 
Better than, baik deri. 

Room, bilik. Very, sakali (after the adj.). Spacious, luas. 
Get, dapat (use sudah to express past tense : see Verb in 

Can he not? tiada-kah bulih? Write, tulis; usually tulis is not 

used alone, but surat (letter) is added : so, " to read books " 

instead of the simple " to read," " to eat rice * instead of 

"to eat." 
Tea, teh. Is ready, sudah sedia. 
Open, buka, membuka. Door, pintu. 
To go by ship, berlayar. To, ka- (connected with the following 

word by a hyphen). Singapore, Singapura. 
It has struck, etc. : see Numerals in Grammar. 
Call, panggil. Cab, kareta sewa. 
Let, biyar. See, lihat, melihat. Silk, sutra. 
To plant, tanam (see Passive construction in Grammar : use the 

suffix -nya). 
How many, etc. : translate " you have got children, how many 

persons (orang) ?" 
Accept, tarima, trima. 


(Vulgar Dialect) 

Tabek, tuan ! Slamat datang, tuan ! Tuan apa baik ? Baik juga, 
tuan. Deri mana tuan datang ? Kita datang deri negri Wolanda 
(Blanda). Brapa lama tuan ada di-laut 1 Ampat bulan sa-tengah. 
Apa tuan kena chelaka di-jalan ? Ada satu tiang yang patah. Di- 
mana kita bulih dapat kareta sewa ? Dekat juga — biyar tuan suruh 
ambil satu ? Hei kuli, mari sini ! Apa tuan puny a suka ? Pigi 
ambil kareta sewa. Kalu tuan suka kasih wang. Brapa dia punya 
sewa sa-tengah harian ? Tiga rupiah sa-tengah, tuan. Ini dia punya 
wang. Biyar lekas kombali. Saya, tuan. Kusir, bawa sama kita 
di-kantor tuan Residen. Baik, tuan. Apa tuan Residen ada di- 
kantor ? Saya, tuan. Choba tanya kalu kita bulih bertemu sama 
tuan. Tuan bulih masuk. Tuan Residen sekarang trada sempat. 
Kalu tuan suka datang kombali pukul satu. Baik, kita nanti 
datang. 1 

Tabek, the usual formula of greeting ( = good day). 
Slamat (Ar.), health, peace. Datang, to come, arrive. 
Apa. This sentence is identical with the first sentence of 
Exercise I, except that apa is substituted for ada, which 

1 From Roorda van Eysinga, Verzameling van eene menigte noodzakel. 
Samenspraken (3rd cd., Schonhoven, n. d.). 


here, as often, is omitted. In interrogative sentences 
which are not introduced by an interrogative pronoun 
or adverb apa is often used to indicate a question (in 
the written language and polite conversation the suffix 
-kah is added to the word it is desired to emphasize). 

Juga, also : added to adjectives, often has the force of "very," 
" quite." 

Kita, we, often used for "I," which is generally expressed 
by sahaya, sahya. Negri, country. Wolanda (Blanda), 

Lama, time : brapa lama, how long ? (better brapa lama-nya). 
Ada: it being clear that the question refers to the past, 
the tense need not be further indicated. Laut, sea. 

Bulan, moon, month. 

Kend, to meet with (tense not further denned). Chelaka 
mishap. Jalan, way. 

Tiang, mast. Fatah, to break (intransitive). 

Biyar, to let : tuan biyar, the master allows = let me, shall I? 
Suruh, to order (depending on biyar). Amhil, to take, 
fetch (depending on suruh). 

Kuli, porter, coolie. Mari, come here ! (only used in 

Tuan punya, your {see Pronouns). As a rule the simple 
genitive construction is preferred ; thus, " the merchant's 
office" is better translated kantor dagang than dagang 
punya kantor. Only in the case of the genitive of the 
personal pronouns, which is used to supply the place of 
the possessive pronouns, the use of punya is preferred : 
kita punya, mine ; tuan punya, yours. Suka, wish. 

Pigi, common vulgar form of pergi, to go. 

Kasih, to give. Wang, money. 

Dia punya, his {see above). Sewa, hire, fare. Harian { = hari), 

Rupiah, the Dutch florin or guilder ; also the Indian rupee. 

Lekds, quickly. Kombali, to come back. 

Saya (abbreviated form of sahaya), yes (see on Interrogative and 
Negative Sentences). 

Kusir (Dutch), cabman, coachman. Bawa, take, drive. Sama 
kita, me (in vulgar language this superfluous use of sama 
with the object of the verb is common). Di-kantor, to the 
office (more correctly ka-). Redden (Dutch), Minister. 

Choba, to try : often used, as here, in giving orders like 
"please." Tanya, to ask. Bertemii, to meet, have au 
interview with. 

Masuk {masok), to enter. 

Trada itra, tida for tiada), not. Sempat, leisure, time. 

Nanti : sign of the future tense {see Grammar). 



Good day, sir ! Welcome, sir ! How do you do ? (Are you 
well?) Quite well, sir. Where have you come from? I have 
come from Holland. How long were you at sea ? Four months 
and a half. Did you meet with any mishap on the way ? One 
of the masts was broken. Where can I get a cab? Just close 
by — shall I send for one ? Hi, coolie, come here ! What do you 
want, sir ? Go and fetch a cab. If you will give me some money. 
How much is his hire for half a day ? Three rupees and a half. 
Here is his money. Let him come back soon. Yes, sir. Coachman, 
drive me to the Minister's office. Very good, sir. Is his Excellency 
in his office ? Yes, sir. Please ask if I can see him. You can 
come in. His Excellency has no time now. Will you (if you 
will) come back at one o'clock? Very well, I will come back. 

IV (for Translation into Malay) 

(Vulgar Dialect) 

Good day, madam ! did you send for me ? Are you the washer- 
man ? Yes, madam. Can you wash my things ? But you must 
wash them very clean. Madam will see. You must also iron all 
these things. When can I have the things back ? In a fortnight, 
madam. You must wash three times a month ; how much do 
you want for that ? How many persons (are there), madam ? A 
gentleman (man), a lady (woman), and three children. Twenty 
rupees. Very well. 

Madam, nonya (married woman, Mrs ; in the Straits only used 
of Chinese women ; in the Dutch Indies, of any married 
woman). Send for, suruh panggil (order to fetch : use 
sudah to form past tense). Me, sama sahaya. 

Washerman, tukang minatu (Batavian : elsewhere usually dobi 
or binara) ; introduce the sentence by apa. 

Wash, chuchi. Things, barang. 

But, tapi (more correctly tetapi). Must, misti, musti (vulgar). 
Clean, berseh, bresih. Very, sakali. Them : to be omitted. 

Madam will see : use nanti for the future. See, lihat. 

Also, lagi. To iron, strika, istrika. All, samud. 

When ? kapan? Have back, dapat kombali. 

In, dalam. A fortnight, dua minggo. 

Three times a month, tiga kali sa-bulan. Want, minta. For 
that, deri itu. 

Person, orang. 


Slamat jalan. Slamat pagi. Slamat tidor. Slamat tinggal. 
Apa khabar ? Khabar baik. Minta ampun (ma'af). 1 Ampun-kan 
(maaf-kan) sahya. Choba : minta : tulung. Trima kasih. Ada- 
kah ? Apa itu ? Brapa ? Itu mahal. Tidak, tuan, itu murah. 
Mana dia ? Apa mau ? Apa nama tuan (angkau) ? Ini-lah dia. 
Lekas, lekas ! Ingat baik-baik. Siapa itu ? Mari sini (di-sini) ! 
Itu betul. Itu salah. Apa sebab ? Tidak apa. Ta' usah. Jangan 
buat itu. Ada-kah rumah dia banyak jauh deri sini ? Tada jauh ; 
ada dekat. Sila duduk. Dimana tinggal ? Sahya ta' tabu : 

VI (see Numerals in Grammar) 

Tahu-kab (minta bilang) pukul brapa? Sudah pukul sa-puluh 
stengah (satu kurang suku). Ada kira-kira sa-blas stengali. Baharu 
pukul dua bias. Sudah pukul satu lalu. Pukul brapa dia sudah 
datang? Dia datang kira-kira tengah hari dan pergi 2 petang. 
Pukul dua bias sama dengan tengah hari. Hari apa ini ? Hari 
selasa. Hari brapa bulan ini ? Tuju hari bulan Desember. Horloji 
sahya tida jalan baik. Sahya sudah lupa memutar dia. Jam tuan 
jalan terjalu lekas (dras), lambat. Horloji sahya sudah berhenti. 3 
Horloji tuan betul-kah jalan-nya? Brapa 'umur tuan? 'Umur 
sahya dua puluh tiga tahun lima bulan. Ada kira-kira dua puluh 
lima tahun 'umur-nya. Minggo lalu. Apa macham musim ? Hari 
hendak hujan rupa-nya. Kalau esok hujan ta' usah datang. Kalau 
tiada hujan, sahya nanti pergi. Sudah berhenti hujan ? Sudah 
berhenti. Lebih baik bawa satu payong. Ini hari lebih sejuk 
deripada kehnarin. Kalau chuacha lusa sahya hendak pergi. Ada- 
kah tuan mendengar 4 guruh ? Tidak ; sahya melihat kilat sahaja. 


Buat esok ; itu bulih. Bila bulih datang ? Sahya ta' suka ini. 
Apa chari ? Apa kata dia ? Kamana angkau sudah pergi ? 
Mengapa angkau tida datang dahulu ? Dia ada disini sekarang 
ini. Tidak patut buat bagitu. Sa-telah tuan sudah sedia, bri 
tahu. Bulih - kah chakap Inggris ? Nanti disini sampei sahya 
balik. Sahya ta' pernah mendengar itu. Sahya mengantok ; 

1 The sign '' represents Ain in words of Arabic origin. The real sound is 
very difficult for a European. It is usually ignored in Malay, where it only 
serves, like Hamza (see on letter K in Alphabet), to mark a sort of catch in 
the breath, showing that the vowels are to be pronounced separately. 

2 Generally pronounced peggy or piggy , 

3 Usually pronounced brenti. 

4 Also menengar. 


sahya hendak tidor. Apa tuan lapar? Sahya lapar sakali. A pa 
tuan haus ? Minta ma'af : sahya ada banyak kerja. Biyar dia 
masuk kalau suka. Sahya tidak dengar ; kata itu kombali. Ada- 
kah barang siapa datang menchari sahya ? Tanya dia ; dia tahii 
itu baik-baik. Siapa ada diluar? 


Itu bukan salah sahya. Itu tuan punya-kah atau dia punya? 
Itu sahya punya ; dia punya sudali hilang. Kata dia misti habiskan 
itu. Deri apa di-buat itu ? Ta' bulih ingat. Dia sudah buka 
jindela. Sahya ta' kenal dia. Tutup (kunchi) pintu. Angkau 
(tuan) orang Inggris ? Sahya bukan orang Inggris. Apa - kah 
bangsa angkau (tuan) ? Panggil orang gaji. Nantikan jawab. 
Itu tada guna. Dia sudah buat itu dia sendiri. Ada-kah khabar 
ini hari ? Sa-barang pun jadi-lah. Sahya ta' bulih kata, sebab 
tidak tahu. Brapa kali tuan sudah pergi disana ? Matahari terbit, 
masuk. Hari minggo pagi-pagi sahya berangkat. Sahya sudah 
tinggal disini tiga bias tahun lama-nya. Pada hari selasa yang 
sudah waktu tengah hari. Angkau misti bawa spatu sahya pukul 
dua ta' bulih tidak. 


Sahya mau naik (duduk) kareta ; apa bulih. dapat kareta sewa 
disini ? Suruh kusir jangan datang terlalu lambat. Pukul brapa 
angkau suruh dia datang disini ? Kusir, bawa sahya di jalan A ; 
berhenti di - muka nombor (nommer) tiga. Tengah jam bulih 
sampei ? Berhenti ; sahya hendak turun (kaluar). Biyar kita 
berjalan -jalan (makan angin). Kamana kita pergi ? Kamana tuan 
suka. Mana jalan dekat sa-kali pergi ka-A ? Pusing sa-blah kiri 


Jalan ini pergi kamana ? Mana jalan pergi ka-rumah tuan A ? 
Ada-kah dia di-rumah ? Ada, tuan. Apa tuan suka naik kareta 
atau jalan kaki ? Bukan-kah ini jalan-nya ? Tida : jauh lagi 
deripada ini. Bulih-kah tuan tunjuk jalan betul ? Ini jalan yang 
dekat sakali supaya pulang. Apa tuan mengarti bahasa Malay u 1 
Salinkan itu dalam bahasa Malayu. Bulih-kah bacha Inggris? 
Apa tahu tulis Jerman ? Bahasa Malayu mudah sa-kali di-dapat 
chakap sedikit. 


Chakap kwat-kwat. Perkata-an ini apa eja-nya ? Apa arti-nya 
perkata-an itu ? Bagimana sebiit perkata-an itu ? Tuan sudah 


mengarti ? Sahya tida mengarti. Huruf-nya sama, tetapi sebutan- 
nya lain. Patut-lah tuan bacha surat Malay u sa-kurang-kurang 
dua jam lama-nya pada tiap-tiap hari. Kalau tuan chakap Malayu 
sa-hari-hari tuan bulih blajar dengan sigra. Sahya man tulis surat, 
tetapi tida ada tampat dawat (tinta). Bawa dua stamp, 1 satu pen 
(kalam), kartas sa-lei, kartas kembang. Bawa ini surat di pos. 
Surat itu sudah ser&h-kan ? Nanti jawab-nya. 


Bila tuan mau makanan (makan pagi) ? Sedia -kan makanan pukul 
tuju stengah. Makan pagi sudan sedia. Apa tuan milium kopi 
atau teh 7 sahya lebih suka chokolat. Bawa kopi dengan susu, 
dua biji telor stengah rebus, roti, dan mentega. Kopi ini terlalu 
hangat ; bawa susu sejuk. Mau lagi sedikit ayer ; teh ini terlalu 
kras. Tuang teh. Ayer ini ta' hangat ; apabila mendideh bawa. 
Mau gula dengan mangkok teh. Bawa teh di - bawah ; taruh 
di-atas meja besar. Bawa satu krusi. 


Bila makanan (makan pet&ng, malam) sedia? Menaruh meja 
di bilik (kamar) sahya. Apa tuan suka makan ? Ikan ini sudah 
busuk. Lebih suka daging panggang atau rebus ? Ta' suka daging 
lembu (biri-biri). Mau daging yang matang atau mentah sedikit ? 
Pisau ini tiada makan. Kasih satu glas bir (anggor). Bawa 
corkscrew ; chabut penyumbat. Anggor ini ta' baik ; buka lain 
botol. Tuan minum roko ? Ini tembakau baik ; derimana tuan 
dapat? Minta kasih satu tarek api (mach). Goyang (tarek) 
locheng. Jangan bawa pergi kain meja. 


Apa sahya bulih dapat bilik (kamar) tidor di rumah makan (di 
hotel)? Lebih suka kamar di-atas, sebab sahya tinggal sa-bulan 
lama-nya. Ada kain selimut kring? Kasih ayer sejuk, sabun, 
satu tuala. Sahya mau chuchi tangan. Sikatkan (bruskan) pakeian 
sahya. Boot tuan belli m bresih ; apa mau pakei spatu tuan ? 
Suruh datang sini tukang chukur. Minta guntingkan rambut 
sahya ; jangan putung terlalu. Sahya mau mandi dan salin pakeian. 
Kasih lilin ; mau tidor. Ada-kah klambu ? Nyamok buat banyak 

i Many common words from English (and other languages) are understood 
by the natives. 



Pukul brapa mau sahya ban gun - kan (kasih bangun) tuan ? 
Mau bangun siang-siang. Minta tunjuk sahya dimana jalan besl 
(kareta api). Trus sahaja. Pukul brapa kareta api (tren) berangkat 

ka ? Kasih satu ticket (surat) klass satu pergi pulang. Brapa 

bayar ? Apa bulih sahya minum roko disini ? Ta' bulih, tuan ; 
di-larang. Bawa barang-barang sahya di kareta. Ada-kah surat 
pass ? Pukul brapa kapal api berangkat ? brapa lama-nya pelayaran ? 
Sahya sa-lalu mabuk laut. Pergi dibawah baring. Ini rumah 
chukei. Ada pakeian sahaja di-dalam itu peti. 


Bulih tukar ini wang kartas ? Mau mas dengan perak. Sahya 
ta' ada wang kechil. Ini ringgit baik-kah? rupa-nya lanchong. 
Tuan mau bli sa-barang? Sahya mau cherut, tembakau, pipa, 
machis. Ubi brapa harga-nya ? Kasih resit. Kirim itu di-rumah 
sahya. Brapa sahya berhutang? Harga itu kitab (buku) dua 
ringgit. Itu terlalu mahal ; sahya ta' bulih bayar bagini banyak. 
Brapa mau jual ini ? Tida bulih kasih lebih murah ? Kalau 
pergi ka pasar, bli telor-telor. Mau-lah bayar tunei. 


Dobi, misti basoh ini barang-barang sa-lekds-lekds. Brapa lama- 
nya sampei dapat kombali barang-barang? Dalam dua minggo 
sahya nanti bawa kombali. Ada tiga kameja, lima pasang sarong 
kaki, losen sapu tangan. Apa bulih buat satu coat (baju) sama 
sahya ? ini coat terlalu besar. Kain ini terlalu hitam ; sahya suka 
putih deripada ini. Kalau tuan suka, sahya nanti menghukur 
sekarang. Misti bekin ini seluar lebih pendek. Panggil tukang 
kasut ; mau suruh dia buat pasang kasut. Apa tuan suka choba ? 
rupa-nya terlalu sesak. 



Good-bye (go in peace) ! Good morning ! Good night I Good- 
bye (abide in peace) ! What's the news i The news is good. I 
beg your pardon. Pardon (excuse) me. Please. Thank you. 
Have you ? What is that ? How much ? That is dear. No, 
sir, it is cheap. Where is he? What do you want? What is 
your name ? Here it is. Quick, quick ! Take care ! Who is 
that ? Come here. That is right (correct). That is wrong. What 


for 9 Never mind (it is nothing). Never mind (it is not necessary). 
Don't do that. Is his house very far from here ? Not far ; it is 
near. Pray sit down. Where do you live ? I don't know ; it 
is uncertain. 


Do you know (please tell me) what time it is? It has struck 
half -past ten (a quarter to one). It is about half -past eleven. It 
has just struck twelve. It is past one. What time did he come? 
He came about midday and went in the afternoon. Twelve o'clock 
is the same as midday. What day of the week is it ? It is Tuesday. 
What day of the month is it ? The 7th of December. My watch 
doesn't go well. I forgot to wind it up. Your watch (clock) is 
too fast, too slow. My watch has stopped. Does your watch go 
correctly ? How old are you ? I am twenty- three years and five 
months old. He is about twenty-five years old. Last week. What 
sort of weather is it ? It seems as if it would rain to-day. If it 
rains to-morrow, you need not come. If it doesn't rain, I shall go. 
Has the ram stopped ? It has. You had better take an umbrella. 
To-day is colder than yesterday. If it is fine the day after 
to-morrow, I shall go. Did you hear the thunder ? No, I only 
saw the lightning. 


Do it to-morrow ; that will do. When can you come ? I don't 
like that. What are you looking for ? What, did he say 1 Where 
have you been ? Why did you not come before ? He was here 
just now. You ought not to do so. As soon as you are ready, 
let me know. Can you speak English ? Wait here till I come 
back. I never heard that. I am sleepy, I want to go to bed. 
Are you hungry ? I am very hungry. Are you thirsty ? Excuse 
me ; I am very busy. Let him come in if you like. I cannot 
hear ; say that again. Has any one been to enquire for me ? Ask 
him ; he knows well. Who is outside ? 


That is not my fault. Is that yours or his ? It is mine ; his 
is lost. Tell him he must finish that. Of what is that made ? 
I cannot remember. Be has opened the window. I don't know 
him. Shut (lock) the door. Are you an Englishman ? I am not 
an Englishman. What countryman are you ? Call the servant. 
Wait for an answer. That's no use. He has done that himself. 
Is there any news to-day ? Anything will do, I cannot say, 


because I do not know. How many times have you been there ? 
The sun rises, sets. I shall start early on Sunday. I have lived 
here thirteen years. Last Tuesday at midday. You must bring 
my shoes at two o'clock without fail. 


I want to go for a drive ; can I get a cab here ? Tell the coach- 
man not to come too late. At what time did you tell him to be 
here ? Coachman, drive me to A Street ; stop at Number 3. Can 
we get there in half an hour I Stop, I want to get down (get 
out). Let's go for a walk. Where shall we go ? Where you like. 
Which is the nearest way to A ? Turn to the left (the right). 

Where does this road go ? Which is the way to Mr A's house ? 
Is he at home ? Yes, sir. Will you drive or walk ? Is not this 
the road ? No, it is farther on. Can you show me the right 
road ? This is the nearest way to get back. Do you understand 
Malay ? Translate that into Malay. Can you read English 9 Can 
you write German ? To speak a little Malay is very easily acquired 
(it is very easy to learn to speak a little Malay). 


Speak loudly. How is this word spelt ? What is the meaning 
of this word ? How is this word pronounced ? Did you under- 
stand ? I don't understand. The letters are the same, but the 
pronunciation is different. You must read Malay at least two 
hours every day. If you speak Malay every day you will quickly 
learn. I want to write a letter, but I have no inkstand. Bring 
two stamps, a pen, a sheet of note-paper, blotting paper. Take 
this letter to the pest. Did you deliver that letter? Wait for 
an answer. 


When do you want breakfast ? Get breakfast ready at half-past 
seven. Breakfast is ready. Do you drink coffee or tea ? I prefer 
chocolate. Bring coffee with milk, two soft-boiled eggs, bread and 
butter. This coffee is too hot ; bring some cold milk. I want 
a little more water ; the tea is too strong. Pour out the tea. This 
water is not hot ; when it boils bring it. I want some sugar and 
a tea-cup. Take the tea downstairs ; put it on the large table, 
Bring a chair, 



When will dinner be ready ? Lay the table in my room. What 
would you like to eat ? This fish has gone bad. Do you prefer 
roast or boiled meat ? I don't like beef (mutton). Do you like 
the meat well-done or under-done ? This knife doesn't cut. Give 
me a glass of beer (wine). Bring a corkscrew ; pull out the cork. 
This wine is not good ; open another bottle. Do you smoke ? This 
tobacco is good ; where did you get it 1 Please give me a match. 
King (pull) the bell. Don't take away the tablecloth. 


Can I have a bedroom in the hotel ? I prefer a room upstairs, 
because I shall stop a month. Are the sheets dry ? Give me some 
cold water, soap, a towel. I want to wash my hands. Brush my 
clothes. Your boots are not clean ; will you wear your shoes ? 
Tell the barber to come here. Please cut my hair ; don't take off 
too much. I want to have a bath, and to change my clothes. Give 
me a candle ; I want to go to bed. Have you a mosquito net ? The 
mosquitoes are very troublesome. 


When do you want me to wake you ? I want to get up very early. 
Please show me where the railway is. Straight on. What time 

does the train for start ? Give me a first-class return ticket. 

How much have I to pay ? May I smoke here ? No, sir ; it is not 
allowed. Take my things to the carriage. Have you a passport ? 
When does the steamer start ? How long is the voyage ? I am 
always sea- sick. Go downstairs and lie down. Here is the custom- 
house. There are only clothes in that box. 


Can you change this bank-note? I want gold and silver. I 
have no change \^small money). Is this dollar good ? It looks bad 
(spurious). Do you want to buy anything? I want some cigars, 
tobacco, a pipe, and matches. What is the price of potatoes ? Give 
me a receipt. Send it to my house. How much do I owe ? The 
price of that book is two dollars. That is too dear ; I cannot pay 
so much. How much do you want for that ? Cannot you let me 
have it cheaper ? If you go to the market, buy some eggs. You 
must pay cash. 


Laundryman, you must wash these things as soon as possible. 
How long before* I can have the things back ? I will bring them 


back in a fortnight. There are three shirts, five pairs of stockings, 
a dozen pocket handkerchiefs. Can you make me a coat ? This one 
is too big. This cloth is too dark ; I want something lighter than 
this. If you like I will take your measure now. You must make 
these trousers shorter. Call the shoemaker ; I want him to make 
me a pair of boots. Will you try them on ? They seem too tight. 


The words will be found in the Vocabulary 

Bri-lah itu kapada anak-nya. Sa-sa-orang yang meninggikan 
diri-nya, ia akan di-rendahkan. Ingat-lah akan diri-mu. Sampei 
pukul dua-blas malam kita ada jaga. Rumah baharu tuan sudah 
habis ? Sikat-lah rambut-mu. Tuan minum roko ? Apa angkau 
hendak buat ? Itu bukan sahaya punya salah. Harta-nya samua* 
sudah hilang. Sahaya ada banyak kerja. Matahari sudah masuk. 
Siapa buat ini ? Anak siapa angkau ? Sa-hari dua kali sahaya 
mandi. Tulung sama sahaya. Kalau mau pergi, pergi-lah ! Sahaya 
lapar. Mau apa-apa lain lagi ? Ada angkau dengar bunyi locheng ? 
Angkau lebih tahu itu deri sahaya. Sahaya tida bulih kata 
sekarang ; nanti sahaya mau pikir dahulu. Brapa jauh deri sini 
ka-pulau Penang? Dia sudah jatuhkan, habis pechah. Pagi ini 
sahaya bangun lagi glap. Datang-lah esok pagi-pagi ! Kain ini 
sahaya bli tuju rupiah. Bila dia berlayar ? Dia sudah turun ka- 
prahu. Mata-nya biru. Itu orang kikir. Brapa orang ada anak- 
mu? Madat tida banyak laku sekarang. Pikiran sahaya lain 
deri itu. Ada pukul tengah lima. Dia mengaku dia buat. 
Dia sa - kampong dengan kita. Di - rumah kita terlalu banyak 
tikus. Sahaya tiada kenal sama dia. Salinkan itu dalam bahasa 
Malayu. Adat kita tidor siang-siang. Dia datang minta upah-nya. 
Bila mau mulai itu ? Bulih-kah dapat kentang di-sini ? Tangan- 
nya sudah patah. Kalau siang-siang sahaya tahu itu, sahaya 
larangkan. Kalau esok hari hujan, ta' usah datang. Ingat baik- 
baik ! Jangan jatuh ! Nanti sabentar 1 Brapa mau jual ini ? 
Choba bunyikan perkata-an ini. Harga-nya belum lagi terbayar. 
Sahaya sa-lalu pelupa. Ini snapang ada berisi? Banyak negri 
dia sudah jalani. Buah pala banyak laku sekarang. Ada baik- 
kah ? Kitab siapa ini 1 Ini sahaya punya. Choba sa-kali lagi ! 
Tiada perhiasan pada muka rumah itu. Siapa melarangkan kita 
pergi? Nanti-lah di-situ. Bangun-lah lekas. Ia sakit bagitu 
banyak, maka ia tiada berkata lagi. Segala kalihatan bulan itu 
ia-itu bulan pernama dan bulan perbani. Lilin itu sudah mati. 
Ikan kechil di-makan ikan besar. Besf itu sudah di-makan 
karatan. Ia ada di-rumah, la sudah buat itu dengan murka-nya. 


Serta minum arak orang itu jadi seperti binatang. Hamba sudah 
biasa minum anggor. Harus tuari menurut dia. Maka hamba 
kira tuan lagi tidor. Kama kakurangan nasi maka ia makan 
roti. Kita turun deri nenek moyang, yang besar-besar. Siapa 
orang punya barang-barang itu ? Maka tiada mail ia mengombalikan 
wang yang di-pinjam-nya deripada kita. Yang di-perulih dengan 
tiada hak, maka ia itu tiada berguna juga. Daging itu sudah jadi 
busuk. Sudah pukul ampat. Maka negri yang di-alahkan-nya itu 
pun di-masukkan-nya pada karaja-an-nya. Buah itu tiada akan 
jadi masak. Maka kapal-nya pun terdampar pada gusung. Dengar- 
lah dua tiga patah kata ! Itu benar ? Apa angkau buat saharian 
itu? Apa juga sebab-nya? Tanya sama dia; dia tahu itu baik- 
baik. Besar guna-nya ini deri harga-nya. Sahaya ta' mail jual 
bri-bri hutang. Adat-nya bangun sa-belum matahari terbit. Maka 
ibu itu tiada meninggalkan anak-nya. Perhamba-an mengurangkan 
kabranian. Brani-nya sudah hilang. Sudah angin ribut merusakkan 
prahu. Hamba pun turun -lah pada pulau Penang. Ia pergi 
kaluar, tiada akan kombali pada sa-bulan lama-nya. Tiada ia 
minum ayer anggor sakali. Bacha ini baik-baik, sampei jangan 
lupa lagi. Ibu menidorkan anak-nya. Habis bulan ini maka 
sahaya akan berpindah. Telaga itu habis kring. Nanti sahaya 
pergi pada tampat yang lain. Kita beliim membayar upah pada 
orang bekerja. Pisau itu tiada makan. Pohon itu membri banyak 
buah. Tuan kurang kaya deri dia. Ada-kah barang orang yang 
tahu itu ? Ada sa-kira-kira lima puluh tahun 'umur-nya. Pohon 
itu sudah luruh daun-nya. Orang asing itu banyak sakali dalam 
negri. Jangan-lah angkau buat itu lagi. Orang itu baik rupa-nya. 
Rupa-nya man hujan. Dia orang betul. Ingatan-nya wang saja. 
Brapa tuan punya 'uraiir ? Ini-lah dia. Di-mana tuan sudah 
dapat itu? Tarima kasih, tuan. Pergi tukar ini ringgit. Apa 
sebab angkau tertawa ? Kerja ini terlalu kras. Ini hari terlalu 
panas. Tiada banyak guna-nya. Sahaya tida senang. 


Hei kuli ! panggil satu kareta sewa. 

Bawa sekarang ini barang-barang ka-rumah makan tuan N. 

Trada bulih tuan angkat barang-barang-nya deri sini bagitu 
sahaja ; boomwachter (jura batangan) misti priksa dulu. 

Lekas-lekas, kalu bulih. 

Apa tuan ada lain barang-barang di-dalam itu kopper-kopper deri 
barang pakean ? 

fida ! kweh bulih buka samua-nya, kalu saku. 


Tra usah ; tuan bulih bawa pigi itu barang-barang. 

Tarima kasih ! gampang juga di-sini. Hei kuli ! angkat itu 
barang-barang, orang anam. 

Brat, tuan ; tra bulih kita orang pikul ; orang dlapan jadi. 

Baik ! orang dlapan. 

Kita orang minta dlapan rupiah, tuan. 

Apa ? dlapan rupiah ? apa gila kweh ? sa-orang sa-tengah rupiah, 
itu sampe. 

Baik, tuan. 

Nanti sebantar ; sahaya bayar kweh di-rumah makan ; baik-baik 
ini peti ! ada barang yang lekas pechah di-dalam-nja. 

In an Hotel 

Di-mana mandur ? 

Sahaya jadi mandur ; sahaya bulih tulung sama tuan ; apa tuan 
punya suka ? 

Apa sahaya bulih dapat satu kamar di-sini ? 

Sahaya, tuan ; tuan turut saja. Ini apa, nommer 20. 

Kamar dan weranda buka ka-selatan, itu terlalu panas tempo 
bulan Januari. Sahaya lebih suka satu kamar di-atas, sebab lama 
sahaya tinggal di-sini. 

Tida ada yang terbuka. Nanti lekas ada satu tuan kaluar deri 
situ, barangkali tuan nanti bulih dapat kamar di-atas. 

Kalu bagitu, sahaya nanti tinggal di-sini dulu. 

Baik, tuan. 

Apa kweh tahu satu yonges buat jaga sahaya ? 

Barangkali ada tuan ; sahaya punya sudara betul lepas kemarin, 
sebab tuan-nya pergi. 

Apa kweh bulih panggil sama dia ? 

Bulih, tuan ; nanti sahaya kasih tahu sama dia. 

Engaging a Servant 

Sahaya minta permissi, buat bichara sama tuan. 
Mau apa kweh ? 

Sahaya dengar, tuan chahari yonges. 
Betul ! apa kweh mau makan gaj i sama sahaya ? 
Kalu tuan suka, sahaya mau. 
Siapa kweh punya nama ? 

Brapa kweh punya 'umur ? 
Dua puluh dua tahun, tuan. 
Di mana kweh tinggal dulu ? 

Dulu sahaya tinggal ampat bulan di-rumah makan, lantas s'tengah 
dua tahun sama littenan N. 

Apa kweh ada satu surat deri kweh punya tuan yang dulu ? 


Sudah hilang, tuan. 

Ini perkara kurang trang. 

Apa bulih sahaya percliaya sama kweh ? 

Tuan bisa perchaja sama sahaya, tuan bulih choba. 

Baik, kweh bulih jadi yonges sama sahaya. Sahaya kasih dua 
bias rupiah sa-bulan, tetapi kweh misti jaga baik-baik. Apa kweh 
bisa samua kreja rumah ? 

Bisa, tuan. 

Kweh bulih datang sebantar, bawa di-sini kweh punya barang 
samua ; kalu kweh sudah kombali, kasih tahu sama sahaya. 

Conversation with a Servant 

Apa kweh ketok pintu, Raksa ? 

Sahaya, tuan, sudah jadi siang. 

Buka papan jandela ; lantas kasih ayer ehuchi muka dan ayer 

Di-mana gosok gigi ? 

Tra tahu, tuan. 

Kasih satu handuk dan buang ini ayer ! 

Kasih ayer bedidi, sahaya mau minum teh. 

Ayer-nya trada bedidi, api tida mau bernyala, tuan. 

Kapan tuan mau makan pagi ? 

Dulu sahaya mau makan serutu ; bawa roko dan tembako dan 
ambil pipa ; lantas sahaya mau melanchoDg sedikit, bekin sedia 
makanan pukul sembilan s'tengah. 

Makanan sudah sedia, tuan. 

Baik ! Ini hari nommer brapa ? 

Ini hari-hari ampat bias bulan Januari. 

Tempo apa ada di-luar ? 

Kamarau, tuan. 

Angin deri mana sekarang ? 

Angin deri utara, tuan. 

Bawa spatu tinggi di-sini, sama topi dan payong. 

Spatu tinggi belon bresih ; barangkali tuan mau pakei spatu 
kain putih. 

Suruh tukang kuda, dia misti pasang kuda ; lantas bawa ini 
surat sama tuan N. 

Apa sahaya nanti tangguh khabar ? l 

la 1 dan itu surat bawa di-pos. 

Conversation with a Stable-boy 

Hei ! apa satu orang di-stal ? 
Sahaya tukang kuda, tuan. 

l The Arabic kh is usually pronounced as k in Malay. 


Apa kweh sudah bekin bresih (roskam) kuda, sudali kasih 
makan dan minum ? 

Sahaya, tuan. 

Ini kuda kenapa belon di-roskam ? Kalu tida mau jaga kuda 
lebih baik, misti k'luar ( = kaluar). 

Sahaya minta tuan, jangan marah sama sahaya, lain kali sahaya 
jaga lebih baik. 

Pukul brapa kweh kasih kuda minum ? 

Pukul sa-blas sama pukul anam, tuan. 

Dan kapan di-kasih makan ? 

Pagi pukul dlapan, siang pukul sa-blas sama pukul tiga, malam 
pukul dlapan. 

Malam misti kasih rumput kring buat tidor. 

Sekarang tuntun ini kuda jantan hitam ka-muka rumah. 

Itu kuda ada sakit satu kaki ; di-mana dia dapat sakit ? 

Tra tahu, tuan. 

Angkat sella dan pasang kareta ; sahaya tida tunggang, sahaya 
mau naik kareta. 

Kalu kita sudah pulang, kweh misti pergi sama doktor kuda 
dan tanya apa tuan bulih datang kemarin. 

Sahaya, tuan. Kareta apa tuan mau pakei ? 

Kareta itu yang baharu. 

Bom patah dan glas lantera pechalr. 

Kweh misti bawa kareta sama orang china. Sekarang chahari 
kareta sewa. 

With a Coachman 

Kusir, brapa lama kita bulih pakei ini kareta ? — Anam jam, tuan. 

Pukul brapa sekarang ini ? 

Barangkali ada pukul tuju sa-tengah. 

Raksa, pukul brapa bisa makan di-sini ? 

Pukul aua bias sa-tengah, tuan. 

Kalu ada bagitu, sahaya mau pakei ini kareta tiga jam, kusir. 

Barangkali tuan suka tangguh sebantar, kuda-nya belum di-pasang. 

Tuan, kareta sudah sedia. Pergi (or bawa sahaya) di-rumah 
makan Jawa, di-kampong china, di-pasar ikan, di-gedong bichara, 
di-rumah-nya Tuan Besar, di-wayang china, di-rumah sakit. 
Jangan jalan terlalu plahan. 

Sekarang bawa sahaya di-kantor tuan N. 

Kenapa berhenti ? 

Kita sudah sampei di-rumah makan ; apa tuan mau masuk ? 

Kweh bulih balik pulang ; brapa sahaya misti bayar sama kweh ? 

Tiga rupiah sa-tengah, tuan. 

Ini apa dia. 

Banyak trima kasih, tuan. 


At Table 

Pukul brapa orang makan di-sini ? 

Pukul tiga sa-tengah, tuan. Kalu makanan sedia, kasih tahu 
sama sahaya. 

Makanan sudah sedia, tuan. Baik, kanchi kamar dan jaga 
sahaya di-meja. 

Taruh sup, lantas salin anggor. Anggor apa tuan suka ? 

Bawa satu botol anggor merah sama satu gendi ayer ! 

Itu anggor merah sudah habis ; apa sahaya bulih buka lain botol? 

Bawa anggor puff (sampani), sopi pahit dan glas kechil. 

Kasih chabut setop. Itu glas tida bresih, angkat-lah dan kasih 
lain. Sahaya tida suka anggor itu, sahaya minta bir. 

Unjuk daging sama sahaya lagi. 

Itu sayor sudah hangus ; kweh juga taruh terlalu banyak garam. 

Sahaya minta roti. 

Angkat makanan ! 

Sahaya mau miuum roko ; taruh roko yang besar di-meja, dan 
kasih api sama sahaya. 

Apa ada orang tanya sama sahaya ? 

Trada, tuan. 

Tutup papan jandela sekarang, sahaya mau tidor sedikit. Priksa, 
apa ada agas di-dalam klambu ; kalu ada, kasih k'luar. 

Kalu ada pukul lima sa-tengah, misti kasih bangun sama sahaya. 
Sedang sahaya tidor, bawa masuk barang-barang di-dalam kamar, 
bungkar kopper kechil, sikat pakean dan chahari tukang chukur 
dan tukang minatu. 

With a Washerman and a Barber 

Tukang minatu sudah ada ? 

Sahaya, tuan. 

Suruh dia masuk di-dalam. 

Apa kweh tukang minatu ? 

Sahaya, tuan. 

Apa kweh mau chuchi sahaya punya barang ? Sahaya mau kasih 
chuchi sahaya punya barang, tetapi sahaya tra mau bayar potong, 
tapi mau janji dulu bayaran hitung satu-satu bulan punya. 

Brapa sahaya misti bayar akan ini samua-nya ? Ada sembilan 
puluh an am potong besar dan tiga puluh tiga potong kechil. 

Lima bias rupiah, tuan. 

Itu terlalu banyak. Sahaya mau kasih dua bias rupiah perak 

Baik, tuan. 

Brapa lama-nya sampei sahaya bisa dapat kombali barang-barang ? 
Ini klambu tampat tidor misti ada kombali dalam lima hari. 

Dalam sa-tengah bulan sahaya nanti bawa kombali dia. 


Kweh misti chuchi bresih s'kali dan suruh strika barang samud- 
nya dan misti jaga, jangan hilang satu apa dan jangan kweh kasili 
orang lain punya barang sama kita. 

Mau apa kweh ? 

Sahaya bawa tuan punya barang-barang. 

Saliaya mau priksa dulu ; ada kurang tiga, sa-putangan dan dua 
chelana, hitung-lah sendiri ! 

Betul ! Sahaya minta sahaya punya upah. 

Bukan baik, bawa dulu itu barang yang kurang. 

Siapa ada di-luar, Ilaksa 1 

Tukang chukur, tuan, ada orang china. 

Apa dia mengarti bahasa malayu ? 

Apa dia bisa bichara malayu ? 

Bisa, tuan. 

Potong sahaya punya ranibut, tetapi baik -baik. 

Jangan potong terlalu pendek. 

Apa tuan mau chukur juga ? 

Kaksa, apa di-sini ada rumah mandi ? 

Sahaya, tuan. 

Sediakan lain pakean, nanti sahaya mau mandi dan tukar pakean. 

Di-mana kamar mandi ? 

S'teng'hari sahaya tida makan di-rumah, sahaya pulang ini sore 
sahaja. Besok sahaya mau bangun pagi-pagi ; kasih bangun pukul 
anam s'tengah. 

With a Tailor 

Ilaksa, pergi suruh sama tukang menjahit, dia misti datang 
di-sini sebantar. 

Tabek, tuan ; apa tuan punya suka ? 

Apa kweh bulih bekin satu rokki sama sahaya ? 

Warna apa tuan suka ? 

Yang hitam. 

Tuan, sahaya bawa chonto-chonto, tuan bulih pilih. 

Kasih lihat sahaya segala chonto. 

Itu ada chara yang baharu. 

Lagi kweh misti bekin ampat chelana deri kain putih. 

Baik, tuan ! kalu tuan punya suka, sahaya mau menghukur 

Kanching-kanching deri chelana misti di-jahit kwat-kwat. 

Ranching apa tuan mau suruh pakei ? 

Ranching yang hitam. 

Di-dalam atas-nya chelana misti kweh bekin kandong kechil pur 
masukkan horloji. 

Yas, yang sampir di-sana, sudah putus ; apa kweh bisa menjahit 
itu betul ? 

Tantu bulih, tuan. 


The following specimens of narrative style will illustrate the 
difference between it and the colloquial language. The sentences 
are longer, and the construction is not so simple. 

The notes are intended to explain any syntactical or other 
peculiarities that might present difficulties to the learner, while 
the translation of single words and phrases will be found in 
the Vocabulary. 

I 1 

Ada suatu hutan di-dalam-nya banyak kera duduk di-atas 
chawang kayu. Maka datang sa-orang utas hendak meng-ambil 
kayu, hendak di-per-buat perkakas rumah. Telah brapa banyak 
di-ambil-nya tinggal sa-batang kayu amat besar tiada ter-bawa 
ulih-nya. Maka di-blah ulih utas kayu itu, di-bubuh-nya baji. 
Maka hari pun sudah tengah hari, maka di-tinggal-kan-nya kayu 
itu dengan baji-nya : lalu ia pulang makan ka-rumah-nya. Apabila 
di-lihat ulih sa-ekor kera orang itu pulang, maka ia pun turun deri- 
atas pohon kayu itu, lalu naik ka-atas kayu yang di-blah orang itu. 
Maka di-grak-grak-kan-nya, maka baji itu pun ter-bantun, ekor-nya 
pun ter-sepit pada blah-an kayu itu, tiada dapat di-lepas-kan-nya, 
maka kera itu mati. Maka orang yang mem -blah kayu itu pun 
datang, di-lihat-nya sa-ekor kera mati ter-sepit : lalu di-ambil-nya, 

Ini-lah pri-nya orang yang peduli akan pe-kerja-an orang bukan 
pe-kerja-an diri-nya. Maka di-per-ulih-nya binasakan atas diri-nya 
juga deripada seMb kurang budi bichara-nya. 

Di-dalam-nya, in the interior of it, in it. 

Maka, of constant occurrence in and almost exclusively confined 
to the written language — (1) in many cases simply marks 
the beginning of a sentence, and cannot be translated ; 

* From Kalilah dan Daminah (in F. Miiller, Textes malais, Vienna, 1882). 



(2) answers to "now" ("now there came a workman"), 
"then" ; (3) introduces the apodosis. Hendak (see Grammar) 
may here be translated " in order to," " for the purpose of." 

Teldh, an auxiliary used to express past time ( — sudah) : teldh 
. . , di-ambil-nya, " there had been taken by him." Brapa ? 
" how much ? " is here equivalent to bebrapa, " some." 
Batang, a numeral coefficient (see Grammar), used of trees 
and long objects generally. Ter-bawa, a sort of passive 
participle : tiada terbawa, " not to be carried," u which 
could not be carried." 

Pun, an expletive particle, which, however, frequently gives 
force to a phrase, " even," " too," " also," " nor," " neither " : 
according to one authority it is the distinctive sign of the 
nominative. Lain, "to pass," "proceed," is frequently 
used in the sense of "and then." Pulang makan, "he 
went back to eat " : the word " to " is not indicated (cp. 
Fr. je vais chercher). 

Ekor (ikur), numeral coefficient, used of animals (see Grammar). 
Orang itu, " by the man " : in the passive construction the 
preposition ulih (" by ") may be omitted. 

Di-grak-grak-kan-nya : the intransitive radical grak (here re- 
duplicated to add intensity), " to move," becomes transitive 
by the addition of -kan : " it was repeatedly, violently 
shaken by him." Blah-an ; the suffix -an is very common 
in the formation of nouns from verbs. 

Ini-lah : lah is either a mere expletive or (more commonly) an 
intensive particle, as ini-lah " this is," dia-lah, "he it was" ; 
it is frequently added to the radical to give an imperative 
sense, and also in the formation of the past tense. Pri- 
nya : nya here stands for the plural of the pronoun : " this 
is the way of those persons who." Orang : plural, " of 
other people." 

Juga may here be translated "merely," "simply." Deripada 
sebab, lit., "from the reason," i.e., "on account of." 

Free Translation 

In the interior of a certain forest a number of monkeys lived on 
the branches of the trees. Now a workman came to get wood for 
building purposes. After he had taken away a great deal there 
remained one very big log, which he was unable to carry. So he 
split it and inserted a wedge (wedges). Then, when it was midday, 
he left the log with the wedge in it and went home to dinner. 
"When one of the monkeys saw that he had gone home he came 
down from the tree and jumped up on the split log, and kept 
shaking it violently till the wedge tumbled out. His tail was 
caught in the cleft, and, being unable to extricate it, he died. Now 



when the man who had split the log came back he saw a dead 
monkey caught in the cleft, took it, and threw it away. 

This is what happens to those who interfere with other people's 
business instead of minding their own. They bring destruction 
upon themselves because of the lack of wisdom in their counsel. 


Ada sa-buah negri, maka dalam negri itu ada dua orang saudagar 
bersahabat, berkasih-kasihan kadua-nya. Maka sa-orang mem-bli 
besi sa-ribu pikul banyak-nya, maka di - taruhkan - nya amanat 
kapada sahabat-nya itu serta kata-nya : Biyar-lah tinggal besi ini 
kapada tuan hamba, karna hamba hendak pulang ka-negri hamba, 
maka apabila datang, bulih-lah kita juaL Hata maka saudagar itu- 
pun kombali-lah. Sa-telah bebrapa lama-nya ia pulang itu, maka 
ulih saudagar, sahabat-nya itu, di-jualkan-lah besi itu dengan harga 
yangbaik. Maka ka-dengar-an-lah khabar kapada saudagar yang 
pulang itu, meng-ata-kan besi ada baik harga : maka segra-lah ia 
datang men-dapat-kan sahabat-nya serta kata-nya : Apa-kah hal 
besi kita itu, karna sekarang ada harga baik ? Maka sahut sahabat- 
nya itu : Tiada-kah tuan hamba men-engar khabar, bahwa besi yang 
tuan hamba amanatkan kapada hamba itu sudah habis di-makan 
tikus ? Maka jawab sahabat-nya : Jikalau sudah habis di-makan 
tikus, sudah-lah. Adapun kalakuan-nya terlebih pula ia berkasih- 
kasihan dengan sahabat-nya itu deripada dahulu-nya. Hata pada 
suatu hari di-jamu ulih saudagar yang kiyanat itu akan sahabat-nya. 
Sa-telah sahabat-nya itu pergi ka-rumah-nya, maka ulih saudagar 
itu di-brikan kapada anak-nya bedak dan langir, kata-nya : Pergi- 
lah angkau bersama-sama mandi dengan sahabat-ku ini. Lalu 
berjalan-lah kadua-nya pergi mandi. Sa-telah sudah, maka kombali- 
lah kadua-nya : sa-telah sampei ka-tengah jalan, lalu saudagar itu 
mem-anggil anak itu, di-bawa-nya kapada sa-buah kampong, lalu 
di-sembunikan-nya. Sa-telah sudah, maka kombaK-lah ia ka- 
rumah sahabat-nya. Maka kata saudagar, yang ampunya anak 
itu : Dimana anak hamba tadi yang bersama-sama dengan tuan 
hamba ? 

Maka sahut sahabat - nya : Tiada - kah tuan hamba menengar 
khabar-nya, tatkala ia mandi bersama-sama dengan hamba tadi, 
tiba-tiba datang-lah sa-ekor helang, lalu di-sambar-nya akan dia, 
di-bawa-nya terbang ? Maka jawab saudagar itu : 'ajaib sakali ! 
ada-kah bulih helang menyambar kanak - kanak sa - besar itu ? 
Maka jadi berbantah-lah kadua-nya, lalu pergi -lah kadua-nya, 
mendapatkan hakim, serta mengadu-lah yang kahilangan anak itu 
kapada hakim. Maka kata hakim : Dimana-kah anak-nya, yang 
kau-bawa serta -mu itu ? Ada-kah bulih helang menyambar kanak- 
kanak sabesar itu? 


Buah, numeral co-efficient (see Grammar) for fruits, also applied 
to towns, houses, ships, islands. Ber-sahabat, from the 
Arabic sahabat (friend) with the prefix ber- (see Grammar), 
which forms verbs expressing a state or condition, really 
of the nature of adjectives : "on friendly terms." Kadua- 
nya, both of them. 

Sa-orang, one of them. Ditaruhkannya amanat : " he entrusted 
it " (lit., it was placed by him as a deposit, in trust). Serta 
kata-nya, "saying" (lit., with his word). Tuan hamba, 
you (lit., master of your servant) ; hamba or hamba tuan 
(servant of the master), I. Datang : " come (back)." 

Hata (Ar.), an expletive, which with maka may be translated 
" and so " ; hata always stands at the beginning of a 

Dengan harga yang baik, " for a good price " (lit., with a price 
which is good, the relative yang being often used in this 
manner to connect the noun and attributive adjective). 

Meng-atakan, to say ( = merjg-kata-kan, the & being dropped 
after the prefix meng- : see Grammar). Baik harga, " good 
as to price." Apa-kah hal best kita itu? "how about that 
iron of ours ? (lit., what is the condition of . . . ?). 

Bahwa, usually an expletive or punctuation word, placed at 
the beginning of a speech or letter (" now look you ") may 
be rendered (as here) by "that," when preceded by verbs 
like "know," "learn," "hear," "say." 

Sudah habis, auxiliaries used separately or together to express 
past time (see Grammar). Tikus, " by rats," the preposi- 
tion ulih being omitted in the passive construction. Sudah- 
lah, " it's all over," i.e., there's no more to be said. 

Adapun : "now as for." Terlebih pula, "even more." 

Akan, accusative particle : the accusative akan sahabat-nya 
depends on the passive di-jamu, "there was invited by 
the fraudulent merchant his friend" (instead of "the 
fraudulent merchant invited his friend"). 

Maka, here introducing the apodosis. -ku, " my." 

Memanggil (from panggil, the p being dropped after mem- : see 
Grammar), " to call." Di-bawa-nya, " it was taken by him." 

Khabar-nya, " the news about him." JDi-sambar-nya akan dia : 
cp. di-jamu akan sahabat-nya above. 

Menyambar, from sambar, the s being omitted after the prefix 
meny-. Sa-besar itu : " as big as that." 

Jadi, " to become," " be born," " take place " : «adi berbantan^ 
"they fell to quarrelling." Serta, "when." Yang kahi- 
langan anak : " the man who had lost his child." 

Kau-bawa = angkau bawa. Serta-mu, "with you," mu being 
the abbreviated form of kamu. 



Conclusion of the above, for Translation into Malay 

And the merchant answered : Sir, could rats eat 1,000 pikuls of 
iron ? If a hawk cannot carry off a child as big as that, neither 
can rats eat so much iron. 

When the judge heard what the merchant said he was greatly 
astonished, and said : What is the meaning of your words ? I don't 
understand them : tell me. 

Then the merchant, to whom the iron had belonged, related all 
that had happened to him from the beginning. When the judge 
heard the merchant's story, he marvelled and said to the merchant 
to whom the child belonged : If this be so, give him back his iron, 
and no doubt he will restore your child to you. 

Then the merchant sold his house and his valuables and paid his 
brother merchant. After that his child was restored to him. 

Order of Words and Hints for Translation 

And answered that merchant : Can it be, my lord, (that) rats eat 
1000 pikuls of iron ? For if a hawk cannot carry off so big a child, 
then rats also cannot eat iron such a quantity. And when was 
heard by the judge the speech of that merchant, he was astonished, 
and said : What (is) the meaning of this thy speech ? I do not 
understand it : tell me. And was related by the merchant who 
possessed that iron, his fortune from the beginning to its end. 
When was heard by the judge the narrative of this merchant, 
then he was astonished, and said to the merchant who possessed 
that child : If (it is) so, give back his iron, certainly is given 
back by him thy child. And by that merchant was sold his 
house and his valuables, and then was paid by him to that (other) 
iiier chant. After (this) happened, then his child was also given 
oack by him to him. 

And, maka. Can it be, ada-kah. Eats, tikus (there is no need 
to express the plural, the reference being to rats generally). 

For if, maka jikalau. Cannot, tiada bulih. Then, maka 
(introducing the apodosis). Also, pun. Such a quantity, 
sa-banyak itu. 

And, maka. When, apabila. Was heard by the judge the 
speech (pcrkataari) : use the construction with akan, of 
which examples occur in the Malay extracts. He was 
astonished, terchengang - lah. And said, lalu kata - nya. 
What, apa-kah. Meaning, arti. 

Understand, mengarti. Tell me, cheritrakan-lah (narrate it). 

And, maka. Possess, ampunya. Fortune, hal. From . . . 


to, deripada . . . sampei. Beginning, permulaan. End, 

Narrative, cheritra (construction with akari). He was astonished, 

hairan-lah, and said, serta kata-nya. To, kapada. So, 

demikian. Give back, pulangkan. Certainly, nis-chaya. 

By him, -nya. Thy child, anak-mu 
By, ulih. Sell, jualkan. Valuables, herta benda. And then, 

lalu. Pay, bayarkan. 
After this happened, sa-teldh sudah. Then, maka. Was given 

back by him, di-kombalikan-nya-lah. 

IV 1 

Maka kata segala orang, yang berilmu : Bahwa deripada sakalian, 
yang di-jadikan Allah Taala itu tiada lebih besar deri kalam, 
karna sakalian 'ilmu deripada pertama datang kapada kasudahan, 
itu tiada dapat di-katahu-i melainkan dengan kalam juwa. 

Bahwa dunya itu seperti perhentian juwa pada antara jalan 
dengan dua pintu-nya. Barang siapa, yang datang kapada perhentian 
itu, maka pada hari ini masuk-lah ia deripada satu pintu-nya, dan 
pada esok hari-nya kaluar-lah ia deripada pintu-nya, yang lain. 


Maka kapada sa-orang hakim orang bertanya demikian : Apa 
pri pada sa-orang manusia, yang menghilangkan segala kapujian 
manusia, dan apa pri, yang menghilangkan segala kachela-an 
manusia ? Maka kata hakim itu : Adapun pri, yang menghilang- 
kan segala kapujian manusia ia-itu pri kikiran, karna barang siapa 
yang kikir suatu kabajikan pun tiada pada-nya ; dan pri yang 
menghilangkan segala kachela-an manusia ia-itu pri kamurahan, 
karna barang siapa yang derma wan segala kabajikan pun ada 


Ada sa-orang raja pada zaman dahulukala menitahkan berbuat 
maligei yang amat indah perbuatan-nya dan perhiasan-nya. Apabila 
sudah-lah maligei itu maka raja itupun menitahkan memanggil 
segala isi negri berjamu akan marika-itu. Maka sakalian marika- 
itu pun datang-lah ka-maligei itu, makan dan minum bersuka- 

i This and the two following extracts are from the Malay work Kalildh 
dan Daminah. 


suka-an. Shahaddn raja pun menitahkan orang yang menunggu 
pintu : Barang siapa kaluar deripada pintu maligei ini, hendak-lah 
kamu tanya-i akan dia : Ada-kah 'aib-nya maligei ini atau tiada- 
kah ? Maka sakalian marika-itu pun masing-masing kaluar-lah, 
maka orang yang menunggu pintu itupun menanya-i tiap-tiap, 
yang kaluar, sa-orang-orang deripada marika-itu. Maka sahut 
marika-itu : Suatu pun tiada aib pada maligei ini. Maka kasudah- 
sudalian marika-itu kaluar-lah bebrapa orang, memakei kain kasar, 
maka di-tanya-i penunggu pintu-lah akan dia : Ada-kah kamu lihat 
suatu 'aib pada maligei ini ? Maka sahut marika-itu : Behkan, ada 
dua 'aib pada maligei ini. Demi di-dengar penunggu pintu kata 
marika-itu demikian, maka ia-pun menahani marika-itu, lalu di- 
persambahkan-nya kapada raja ; demikian sambah-nya : Ya tuan-ku 
shah alam, ada-lah di-perhamba dapat bebrapa orang, yang menga- 
takan : Pada maligei ini ada dua 'aib. Demi raja menengar sambah- 
nya demikian, maka sabda raja : kau-panggil akan dia ! Maka 
marika-itu pun datang-lah. Maka sabda raja : Apa dua 'aib, 
yang kamu lihat pada maligei ini ? Maka sambah marika-itu : 
Ya tuan - ku shah alam, pertama 'aib maligei ini, akan rusak 
binasa jua ada-nya, dan kadua, mati jua segala isi-nya. Maka 
sabda raja : Ada-kah kamu katahu-i maligei, yang tiada binasa 
dan tiada mati isi-nya ? Maka sambah marika-itu : Ya tuan-ku 
shah alam, ada maligei, yang tiada binasa dan tiada mati segala 
isi-nya ia-itu shirk. Maka di-persambahkan-nya pula segala 
anika-anika bagei-bagei na'amat-nya hingga di-rindukan marika-itu 
akan raja itu kapada shirk. Maka di-persambahkan-nya pula 
naraka dan segala asab-nya dan di-pertakuti-nya akan raja itu 
deripada bagei-bagei siksa naraka dan di-bawa ia ulih marika-itu 
akan berbuat ibadat akan Allah Ta'ala. Demi di-dengar raja sambah 
marika-itu, maka masuk insaf-lah pada hati-nya serta tobat. Lalu 
kaluar ia deri dalam maligei-nya serta meninggalkan segala karaja- 
an-nya, maka berjalan-lah ia kapada jalan Allah Ta'ala. Rahmatu 
'llahi 'aleihi. 


Deri kisah pelayaran Abdullah Jca-negri Mekak 

Bahwa sahaya berlayar deri negri Singapura dalam kapal shaikh 
Abdu'lkarim, yang bernama Subla as-salam, ia-itu kapada sanat 
1275, kapada 29 hari bulan Jumad el-awal, ia-itu kapada tarikh 
Masehi 1854. Maka dengan tulung Allah dua hari, katiga sampei- 
lah ka-laut Malaka, tetapi tiada singgah, maka berlayar-lah juga 
dengan angin utara. Maka di-bri Allah tiga hari, kaampat-nya 
sampei-lah ka-pulau Penang, itupun tiada-lah singgah, lalu juga 
berlayar. Maka kapada hari Ahad, tuju hari bulan, pada malam 

1 The work from which this extract is taken was originally written for the 
use of Englishmen learning Malay. 


pukul sembilan, turun-lah angin utara kinchang terlalu ; maka 
ombak dan gelombang terlalu besar. Maka kapal sa-besar itu 
menjadi seperti kulit sabut di-tengah laut, di-hempaskan gelombang 
itu timbul-tenggalam. Maka segala peti-peti dan barang-barang 
di-kapal yang di-kiri datang ka-kanan, dan yang di-kanan ka-kiri, 
sahingga sampei-lah pada pagi. Maka ada pukul sa-blas, teduh-lah 
angin itu, maka di-layarkan-lah juga sampei-lah kira-kira pukul 
ampat, petang ka-pulau Perak. Adapun pulau itu, tiada-lah sa- 
halei rumput atau pohon-pohon, melainkan batu sahaja bertambun 
putih, kalihatan deri jauh rupa-nya seperti perak. Maka sebab 
itu-lah di-namakan orang pulau Perak. Maka di-situ-lah perhim- 
punan segala burong-burong berjenis-jenis tidor. Maka pada waktu 
maghrib datang-lah ampat ikur burong terbang berkuliling-kuliling 
kapal itu, maka sebab ia sudab kamalaman bendak pergi tidor 
ka-pulau itu, lalu menghinggap-lah di-atas andang-andang kapal, 
lalu naik-lah kbalasi perlahan-perlaban menangkap ; maka dapat- 
lah. Adapun burong yang tersebut itu, bulu-nya biru dan paruh- 
nya ada tuning, maka kaki - nya seperti kaki itek. Maka ada 
dapat ampat ikur lalu di-sembleb, maka di-masak dan di-goring. 
Maka kapada sembilan hari bulan kalihatan-lah jajahan tanah 
Acbeh, ada kira-kira dua hari berlayar panjang-nya tiada-lah 
berputusan. Maka kemdian deripada itu berlayar-lah dalam lautan 
besar dengan tiada melihat barang sa-suatu, melainkan aver dan 
langit, menyabrang lautan besar sembilan hari sembilan malam, 
maka baharu-lah kalihatan pulau Seilan. Kapada sa-blas hari 
baharu-lah sampei ka-Gali ; maka datang-lah bebrapa prahu pengail 
ikan membawa bebrapa jenis ikan, rupa-nya hampir-hampir seperti 
bambangan ; dan di-bawa-nya ikan sotong, ada kira-kira sa-gantang ; 
maka di-bli dua bias sen. Sa-telah petang hari, maka datang-lah 
pula dua tiga buah prahu membawa sadikit limau manis dan limau 
jambua dan nanas, serta di-bawa ulih marika-itu suatu sumpit yang 
berikat ia-itu penuh-lah dalam-nya dengan berjenis batu-batu dan 
chinchin-chinchin dan intan Seilan, dengan tiada dapat ku-tuliskan 
jenis-nya dan macham-nya, sakalian itu jualan belaka. Hata sa- 
telah itu, maka sampei-lah kapal itu bertentangan dengan gunung 
Seilan ; maka dengan sabentar itu bersurak-lah segala khalasi serta 
memukul talam dan gendang, maka sabentar itu juga di-pakeikan- 
lah ulih marika-itu sa-orang Habshi seperti orang tuah, dengan 
tongkat di-tangan serta berjanggut panjang ; maka di-ikut ulih 
kabanyakan orang lain dengan menarinari, datang ka-hadapan 
nr^hoda-nya serta aku ada duduk, di-sambah-nya. Maka masing- 
masing pun membri-lah duit bebrapa kadar-nya ; maka pada masa 
itu bertanya-lah sahaya kapada kapala khalasi itu, ia-itu serang 
Muhammad nama-nya, maka kata-nya : Bagini-lah adat-nya, barang- 
barang kapala jikalau sampei kamari, bersuka-suka meminta duit, 
sebab hendak membli barang-barang makanan, hendak membacha 
fatihah nama bapa kita Adam, aleihi as-salam. 


Active verbs with the prefix me- and its modifications and 
derivative nouns must be looked for, as a rule, under the 
radical (for the euphonic changes see Part I, page 10). The 
other particles used in the formation of derivatives should also 
be borne in mind. 

It is also important, when consulting other vocabularies, to 
remember that a and e, o and ii are frequently interchanged : thus, 
suruh may be found elsewhere as suroh. Again, the indeterminate 
vowel sound (see Vowels in Grammar), when preceding an accented 
syllable, is often omitted, both in spelling and pronunciation : 
thus, besdr 1 is written bsar. Shellabear in his romanized Malay- 
English Vocabulary invariably omits this vowel. 

pi. = plural ; trans. = transitive ; intrans.= intransitive ; 
vulg.=vulgar dialect. 

Jav. as Javanese ; Ar. = Arabic ; Pers. = Persian ; Sk. = Sanskrit ; Eng. = 
English; D. = Dutch; Hind. = Hindustani ; Port. = Portuguese ; Chin. = 
Chinese; Tarn. = Tamil. 

Acheh, Acheen Allah (Ar.), God (Mohammedan) 

Ada, there is, are, was, were ; to be ; Amanat (Ar.), trustworthy; trust, 

an auxiliary used in the formation trustee ; amanatkan, to entrust 

of tenses ; also expresses ' ' to have," Amds, mas, gold 

"possess" Amdt, very 

Adapun, now (introducing a sen- Ambil, to take, take away, fetch, 

tence), seeing that, as for procure ; pergi ambil, to fetch ; 

Adat (Ar.), custom, habit suruh ambil, to send for 

Adu, to lodge a complaint Ampun, pardon ; ampunkan, to 

A gas, a gnat pardon, forgive 

Ahwal (Ar.), pi. of hal Ampunya, to own 

'Aib (Ar.), sin, shame, fault Anak, child; anak lahi-lahi, son; 

*Ajaib {Ar.), wonderful anak per ampuan, daughter; also 

Akan, to, for (dative) ; as for ; auxili- used in the formation of many 

ary used in expressing the future idiomatic compounds 

Akhirat (Ar.), future life, the other Andang, sail-yard 

world Anggor (Pers.), wine 

Aku, I Angin, wind 

Aku, to confess, acknowledge, claim Angkat, to take away, lift up ; 

Alahkan, to defeat, conquer angkat makanan, to clear the 

'Aleihi as-salam ! on him be peace ! table 

1 Particular attention should be paid to these accented syllables as an aid 
to pronunciation. Except where marked, the accent is as a rule on the last 
syllable but one. 




Anglcau, you, generally used when 
addressing inferiors, but to be 
avoided where possible 

Anika-anika (Sk.), of all sorts, mani- 

Antah, an expression of doubt; I 
don't know, I am not sure 

Antara (Sk.), space between, interval; 
di-dalam antara itu, meanwhile 

Anu, a certain (person or place) 

Anugrah (Sk.), present, gift; anu- 
grahkan, to make a present, bestow 
a favour 

Any ay a (Sk.), oppression, injustice 

Apa ? what ? also an expletive intro- 
ducing an interrogative sentence 

Apabila, when 

Api, fire 

'Aralc (Ar.), spirituous liquor 

Arang, charcoal ; arang batu, coal 

Arti (Sk.), sense, meaning; meng- 
arti, to understand 

Asab, see 'Azdb 

Asal (Ar.), origin 

A sing, foreign, stranger 

Atas, top, upper part ; on, above, 
over ; diatas, on the top of, up- 
stairs ; deri atas, from the top of, 
from above ; ka-atas, on to the top 
of ; atas hamba, it is my duty 

Atau, or 

Ayer, water, juice ; ayer anggor, 
wine ; ayer minum, drinking water 

'Azab (Ar.), torture 

Bacha, to read 

Bagei, manner, olass, sort ; bagei- 
bagei, of various kinds 

Bagimana f how ? 

Baginda, prince, king ; orang yang 
dibawah baginda, the court 

Bagini, thus, so ; bagini banyak, so 

Bagitu, thus, so 

Bahagiya (Sk.), good fortune 

Baharu, new, fresh ; just now 

Bahasa (Sk.), language, good 

Bahwa, usually an expletive, intro- 
ducing a speech or letter, some- 
thing like "now, look you"; it 
may be rendered by "that" after 
a verb like "know," "learn," 
"hear," "say " 

Baih, good ; baik-baik, take care ! 

Baji, wedge 

Baju, coat 

Bakds, bekds, mark, impression, 
track ; consequence 

Balas, reply, retaliation, requital, 
revenge ; balaskan, to reply, re- 
taliate, requite 

Balei, hall, public building 

Batik, to return, come back, turn 

Bambangan, a kind of fish (un- 

Bangsa (Sk. ), caste, family, origin 

Bangun, to awake, get up ; ban- 
gunkan, to wake (trans.) 

Bantah, berbantah, to dispute, quarrel 

Bantun, to pull out 

Banyak, much, many, very ; quan- 
tity, amount 

Bapa, father 

Barang, some, any ; barang orang, 
any one, whoever ; barang apa, 
anything, whatever ; barangkali, 
perhaps ; barang siapa, any one, 
whoever ; barang sa-suatu, any- 

Barang, thing, property ; barang- 
barang, luggage, baggage 

Barang ! would that ! 

Baring, to lie down 

Basoh, to wash 

Batang, stem ; numeral co- efficient 
(see Grammar), used of trees and 
long objects generally 

Batangan, toll-bar 

Batu, stone 

Bawa, to bring, take, drive ; bawa 
pergi, take away ; bawa masuk, 
bring in 

Bawah, below, under ; di - bawah, 
below, downstairs ; ka - bawah, 
below (of direction) 

Bayar, to pay ; bayaran, payment 

Beb&l, ignorant, foolish 

Bebrapa, some ; bebrapa lama-nya, 
after some time 

Bedak, cosmetic, toilet powder 

Bedidi, see Berdidi 

Behkan, yes, certainly, moreover 

Beit el-mal (Ar.), treasury 

Bekerja, to work 

Bekin, bikin, to make, do 

Beta (Ar.), misfortune 

Betaka, all together, in one lot 

Belon, see Belum 

Belum, not yet ; sometimes a simple 
negative ; belum lagi, not up till 



Bendr, just, true, correct 
Berangkat, 1 to set out, start 
Berbuat, to do, carry out ; di-perbuat 

Berburu, hunting (participle) ; orang 

berburu, huntsman ; to hunt 
Bercherei, to separate, part (from, 

Berdidi, boiling 
Berdusta, liar 

Berguna, useful ; to be of use 
Berhenti (generally pronounced 

brenti), to stop 
Berikat, tied up 
Berilmu, learned 
Berisi, loaded (of a gun) 
Beristri, to have a wife ; married 
Berjalan, to walk, set out ; berjalan- 

jalan, to go for a walk 
Berjamu, to entertain (as a host, 

with akan), to be a guest 
Berjanggat, bearded, with a beard 
Berjenis-jenis, of all sorts 
Berjual, one who sells, salesman 
Berkasih-kasihan, to love one another 
Berkata, to spenk 
BerkulUing-kuliling, round about 
Berlabuh, to cast anchor 
Berlaki, having a husband ; to be 

married (to, akan) 
Berlaku, to pass current 
Ber iayer, to sail, set sail 
Bermain-main, to play, amuse one- 
Bernama, named 
Bemyala, burning ; to burn 
Berpaut, to hold fast 
Berpindah, to change one's abode 
Bersalahan, mistaken, to make a 

Bersama-sama, together with 
Bersih, see Bresih 
Bersuami, to have a husband, married 

(to, akan) ; bersuamikan, to take a 

man as a husband 
Bersukasuka-an, to enjoy oneself 
Bersurak, to shout for joy 
Bertambun, heaped up, in heaps 
Bertanya, to ask, enquire ; bertan- 

yakan, to ask about 
Berteguh, to be firm, secure 
Bertemuj to come together, to meet 

(with, dengan) 
Bertentangan [dengan), opposite (to) 

Berulih, to get possession of, acquire 

Berutang, berhutang, indebted, owe 

Besdr, large 

Besi (vulg., bessi), iron 

Besok, see Esok 

Betapa f how ? 

Betul ,true, correct, right (of a watch) 

Biasa(Sk.), accustomed ; to accustom 

Bichara (Sk.), deliberation, counsel, 

advice, opinion ; (vulg.) to speak 
Biji, numeral co-efficient of small 

objects (see Grammar) 
Bila, when, when? 
Bilang, to count, reckon, tell 
Bilik, room ; bilik tidor, bedroom 
Binasa (Sk.), ruin, destruction ; to 

go to ruin, be destroyed ; binasa- 

kan, to destroy 
Binatang, animal 
Bit (vulg.), beer 
Biri-biri, sheep 
Biru, blue 
Bisa, poison, poisonous ; (vulg.) 

to be able, to understand, know 

how to 
Biyar, to allow, let 
Blah, to split ; blahan, the part split, 

Blajar, to learn 
Bli, to buy 
Bom (Eng., D.), the pole or shafts of 

a carriage 
Boomwachter (D.) =juru batangan 

(see Juru) 
Boot (Eng.), boot 
Botol (Eng.), bottle 
Brani, brave ; bravery ; to be brave ; 

kabranian, boldness, courage 
Brapa? how much ? how many ? brapa 

kali ? how often ? pukul brapa ? 

what time is it ? brapa lama-nya ? 

how long ? Also used for bebrapa> 

as brapa banyak, a considerable 

Brat, heavy, difficult 
Bresih (bersih), clean 
Bri, to give, allow ; bri ampun, to 

forgive; bri hormat, to honour; 

bri mohon (pohon), to give leave ; 

bri tahu, to let know, inform ; bri 

tulung, to help ; bri hatang, to 

lend ; brikan, to give, present 
Brus (Eng.), brush ; bruskan, to brush 

1 For the nature of compounds with prefix ber- t see Grammar. 



Buah, fruit ; buah pala, nutmeg ; 

numeral co - efficient of houses, 

towns, ships, islands ; buah-buahan, 

fruits, fruit generally 
Buang, to throw away 
Buat (vulg.), in order to 
Buat, to do, make ; buat jaga, to wait 

Bubuh, to put, place 
Budi (Sk.), wisdom, prudence 
Buka, to open 
Bukan, no, not (emphatic negative), 

is not, are not 
Buku (Eng.), book 
Bulan, moon, month ; bulan baharu, 

new moon ; bulan pernama, full 

moon ; bulan perbani, the first or 

last quarter 
Bulih, to be able ; used to express, 

"can," "may," "might," "will" ; 

itu bulih, that will do 
Bulu, feather, plumage 
Bunghar, unpack 
Bunyi, sound, noise ; bunyi sural, the 

contents of a letter; to cause to 

sound, to pronounce 
Burong, bird 
Busuk, rotten, stinking 

Chabut, to pull out, dig up ; chabut 
setop (vulg., better penchabut 
sempal), corkscrew 

Chahari (chari), to seek, look for 

Chakap, to speak 

Chara (Sk.), style 

Chaivang (chabang), branch 

Chelaka, misfortune ; wretch 

Chelana, trousers, drawers 

Cheritrakan (Sk.), to narrate, tell a 

Chemdu, cigar 

China, China ; orang China,) China- 

Chinchang, to chop up 

Chinchin, finger ring 

Chita (Sk.), feeling ; chita rasa, agree- 
able taste 

CJwba, to try ; often used like 
"please" in giving orders 

Chokoldt, chocolate 

Chonto, pattern, sample, specimen 

Chuacha, fine weather 

Chuchi, to clean, wash 

Chukei, tax, duty ; rumah chukei, 

custom house 
Chukur, to shave ; tukang chukur, 

barber ; pisau chukur, razor 
Churl, to steal 
Coat (Eng.), coat 
Corkscrew (Eng.). corkscrew 

Dagang, foreigner, merchant 
Daging, meat ; daging babi, pork ; 

daging lembu, beef ; daging biri- 

biri, mutton 
Dahulu (vulg. ,dulu), previous, former; 

before (adverb) ; dahulukcda, zaman 

dahulukala, in ancient times 
Dalam, the interior ; deep, depth ; 

in, inside ; also used (in court 

language) of the palace, the royal 

Dan, and 
Dapat, to get, procure, be able ; 

dapat kombali, to get back ; dapat- 

ka,n, to search for, hunt up a person 
Darat, dry land, as opposed to water 
Datang, to come, arrive ; slamat 

datang ! welcome ! 
Datang, up to ; deripada . . . datang, 

from ... to ; datang kapada, up to 
Daun, leaf 
Dawat (Ar.), ink 
Dekdt, near 
Demi, by (in oaths), when, as soon 

Demikian, so, in this manner 
Dengan, with ; dengan tiada, without 
Dengar, to hear ; kadengaran, 1 it was 

heard, came to the ears of any one 
Deri, from ; deri kechil mula, from 

childhood ; expresses ' ' than " after 

a comparative ; deri atas, from 

Derimana? whence? 
Deri-pada, from, on account of, since ; 

like deri, expresses " than " 
Derma (Sk.), alms, goodwill; der- 

mawan, charitable 
Di, in, at, on 

Di-, prefix which forms the passive 
Dia, pronoun of the 3rd person, 

singular and plural 
Dlam, to be silent, dwell, live 
Di-atas. above, upstairs 

1 For words thus formed, see Verb in Grammar. 

t»-bL*U -zzMrtP 



Di-bawah, below, downstairs 

Dikau = angkau 

Di-luar, without, outside 

Di-mana I where ? 

Di-perharriba (the slave), I 

Diri, self ; diri-ku, I myself ; diri- 

mu, you yourself ; diri-nya, he 

himself ; sa-orang diri, alone, by 

oneself ; pekerja-an diri-nya, their, 

one's own affairs 
Di-sana, there 
Di-sini, here 

Di-sisi, close by, at the side of 
Di-situ, there 
Blaif(Av.), weak 
Do ( a (Ar.), prayer 
Dobi (Hind.), washerman 
Doktor (vulg.), doctor ; doktor kuda, 

veterinary surgeon 
Bras, quick, fast 
Duduk, to sit down, dwell ; duduk 

kareta, to go for a drive 
Duit, money (a small copper coin) 
Dulu, see Dahulu 
Dunya (Ar.), the world 
Durhaka, traitor 
Dusta (Sk.), false, lying 
Dusun, village ; country, as opposed 

to town 

Eja, ija, to spell 

Ekor, see Ikur 

^Elmu (Ar.), knowledge, learning, 

Entah, see Antah 
Esok, esok hari, to-morrow » 

Faham 1 (Ar.), understanding 
Fatihah, the first sura (chapter) of 

the Koran 
Fedluli (Ar.), to trouble oneself about 
Fikir (Ar.), to think, reflect ; Jikiran, 

thought, idea, opinion 

Gaji, wages ; orang gaji, servant 

Gampang (Jav.), easy 

Gantang, a measure of capacity, 

about a gallon and a quarter 
Garam, salt 
Geddng, storehouse 
Gelombang, large wave, breaker 
Gendang, a kind of drum 
Gendi, jug, water glass 

Gigi, tooth 

Gila, mad 

Glap, dark 

Glas, drinking-glass 

Goring, to fry, roast 

Gosok, to rub ; gosokgigi, tooth-brush 

Goyang, to ring (a bell) 

Grak, to move (intrans.) ; grak-kan, 

to move (trans. ) 
Gula, sugar 
Guna(Sk.), use 
Gunapa I why ? 
Gunong, mountain 
Gunting, scissors ; guntingkan, to cut 

with scissors 
Guruh, thunder 
Gusung, reef 

Habis, finished, to be at an end ; like 
sudah (with which it is often com- 
bined), it is used in expressing past 
time ; habiskan, to finish 

Habshi, an Abyssinian 

Hadap, to present oneself to some 
one, to visit or interview some 
one ; hadapkan, to introduce ; hada- 
pan, presence ; di-hadapan, in the 
presence of 

Hadlir (Ar.), hadir, present 

Hak (Ar.), right, justice 

Hakim (Ar.), judge 

Hakim, wise man, philosopher 

Hal (Ar.), state, circumstance; hal 
ahwal, circumstances, everything 
connected with the subject 

Hamba, slave; used for "I" when 
speaking to superiors 

Hampir-hampir, almost 

Handuk (vulg.), towel 

Hangat, hot (of artificial heat) 

Hangus, burnt, consumed 

Hanya, only, except, but 

Hanyut, to drift ; hanyutkan, to set 

Harga (Sk.), price 

Hari, day ; ini hari, to-day ; esok 
hari, to-morrow ; hari A had, Sun- 

Harimau (vulg., arimau), tiger 

Harip, sleepy, tired 

Harta (Sk.), herta, property, goods; 
harta benda, goods and chattels 

Harus, necessary ; it is necessary 

1 In words from the Arabic / is frequently pronounced p [fikir as pikir, 
faham as paham). 



Rata (Ar.), an expletive; may be 
rendered "now," "and so" 

Hati, the liver, heart (as seat of the 

Haus, thirsty 

Rei, used in calling some one, as 
English 4 ' hi ! " 

Heiran (Ar.), to wonder 

Relang, generic name for birds of the 
hawk tribe 

Hempaskan, to throw, hurl 

Hendak, wish, intention; to wish, 
intend ; auxiliary used in express- 
ing the future ; hendakkan, to desire 
(trans.); kahendak, wish, will, 

Ridup, life ; living ; to live ; hidupi, 
to save a person's life 

Rilang, lost, to be lost, to lose ; 
hilangkan, to cause to be lost ; 
kahilangan, deprived of, having 

Ringga, until, as far as 

Ring gap, to perch upon 

Rintei, to watch for, spy, lie in 

Hitam, black, dark (of colour) 

Ritung, to reckon, count, calculate 

Horloji (Port.), watch 

Hotd, hotel 

Rujan, rain ; to rain 

Hukum (Ar.), judgment, sentence 

Hukur, menghukur, to measure 

Rulurkan, to lower (a rope) 

Ruruf(Ar.), letters of the alphabet 

Rutan, forest, jungle 

Rutang, debt, loan; jual bri-bri 
g, to sell on credit 

la, commonly used in the written 

language for dia 
Ia-itu, that is to say, namely ; that 

'Ibadat (Ar.), worship ; berbuat Hbadat 

akan Allah, to worship God 
Ibu, mother 
lkan, fish 
Ikat, to bind 
Ikur, ekor, tail : numeral co-efficient 

of animals ; sa-ikur harimau, a 

Ikut, to follow, overtake ; terikut, 

i Rmu : see '■Elmu 
In (Ar. ), if ; in sha AUah (inshallah), 

God willing 

Indah, magnificent, valuable 

Ingat, attention, to take care, pay 

attention to (akan), to remember ; 

ingatan, thoughts, attention 
Inggris, English 
Ini, this, these 
Insaf ( Ar. ), justice 
Intan, diamond 
Isi, filled ; the contents of a thing ; 

isi negri, the inhabitants of a 

city ; isi surat, the contents of a 

Istimewa, especially, all the more 
Istri(8k.), wife 
Itek, duck 
Itu, that, these 
Itupun, thereupon, then, therefore 

Jadi, to become, come into being, 
happen, suffice ; itu jadi-lah, that 
will do ; jadikan, to create 

Jaga, to be awake, watch, wait upon 

Jahat, bad ; kajahatan, badness 

Jahit, to sew 

Jajahan, district 

Jalan, way, road, street ; to walk, 
go on, go (of a watch) ; jalani, to 
journey, visit (places) ; slamat jalan! 
good-bye ! (to a person going) ; 
jalan besi, railway (iron road) 

Jam (Pers.), clock, watch, hour 

Jamu, to entertain (a guest) 

Jandela, jindela (Port.), window 

Jangan, the negative of the impera- 
tive, ■ ' do not ; also used in indirect 
negative sentences ; jangankan, far 
from, not only 

Janji, agreement, contract, promise ; 
to agree, stipulate 

Jantan, male (of animals) 

Jatuh, to fall ; jatuhkan, to let fall, 

Jauh, far, distant 

Jawab (Ar.), answer 

Jenis (Ar.), kind, sort 

Jika, jikalau, if 

Jindela, see Jandela 

Jua, see Juga 

Jual, to sell ; jvalan, for sale 

Juga, also, likewise, just ; with an 
adjective intensifies the meaning 

Jumad d-awal, the fifth month of the 
Mohammedan year 

Juru, a skilled workman, like 
tukang ; juru batangan, custom 
house official 



Ka-, to (usually of places, answering 

the question ''whither?"); also a 

derivative prefix 
Kaampat, fourth 
Ka-atas, on to, above, upwards 
Kabaikan, goodness 
Kabajikan, virtue, good deeds 
Kabanyakan, number 
Kabar 1 (Ar., khdbar), news, informa- 
tion ; kabarkan, to relate, inform ; 

apa kabar ? what is the news ? how 

goes it ? the usual greeting among 

Malays, answered by kabar baik, 

the news is good, very well 
Kachela-an, blameworthy ; fault 
Kadar-nya, in proportion to (their 

Kadli, Kadi, judge, cadi 
Kadua, second, both 
-kah, an interrogative suffix, which 

may be added to any word in the 

Kahadapan, to the presence of, before 
Kain, cloth, clothes 
Kaki, foot; leg 
Kakurangan, want 
Kalaik (Ar.), created beings, nature ; 

kalik, the creator 
Kalakuan, behaviour 
Kalam (Ar.), pen 
Kalau (vulg., kalu), if, in case that ; 

kalau-kalau, perhaps 
Kali, time (Fr., fois) ; brapa kali? 

how often ? 
Kalu, see Kalau 
Kaluar, out (motion to outside) ; to 

go out, get out ; pergi kaluar, to 

Kamanaf where ? whither? (of motion 

to a place) 
Kamar (vulg.), room; kamar tidor, 

bedroom ; kamar mandi, bathroom 
Kamarau, fine, dry weather 
Kamari, here 
Kameja (Port.), shirt 
Kami, we 
Kampong, to assemble ; quarter of 

the town, village 
Kama, you 

Kamurahan, generosity, beneficence 
Kanak-kanak, infant, small child 
Kanan, right (opposed to "left"); 

ka-kanan, to the right 

Kanching, button 

Kandong, pocket 

Kantor, office 

Kapada, to (used to indicate the 
dative), in, on (of time) 

Kapal, ship ; kapal api, steamer (fire 

Kapala, head, chief 

Kapan, if, when, when ? 

Kapujian (Sk.), that which is praise- 
worthy, virtue 

Karatan, rust 

Kareta, kreta (Port.), carriage ; kareta 
sewa, hired carriage, hackney 
coach, cab 

Kama (Sk.), because 

Kartas, see Kertas 

Kasar, coarse, rude 

Kasih, favour, gift, love ; to give, 
love ; also used in the sense of 
" let," " make " : kasih bangun, 
wake (trans.) ; kasih kluar (vulg.), 
put out ; kasih lihat, show me ; 
kasih tahu, let me know, inform me 

Kasudahan, the end ; kasudah-suda- 
han, finally 

Kasut, shoes; tukang kasut, shoe- 

Kata, a word ; to say, speak ; kata- 
nya, he said ; katakan, to say, tell 

Katiga, third, the three 

Kau, short for angkau 

Kaum (Ar.), people, nation 

Kay a, wealth, rich 

Kayu, wood 

KechU, small ; wang kechU, change 
(small money) 

Kejut, startled, frightened 

Kelamarin, kelmarin, yesterday 

Kemarin, see Kelamarin 

Kembang, to expand (as liquids in 
absorbent material) ; kertas kem- 
bang, blotting-paper 

Kemdian, after; kemdian deripada 
itu, after that 

Kenal, to know (be acquainted with 
a person) 

Kenapa? why? 

Kentang, potato 

Kerd, monkey 

Kerja (Sk.), work, business, calling ; 
kerjakan, to carry out 

i In Arabic kh is a strong guttural, like ch in loch ; in Malay generally 
pronounced as k. 



Kertas, kartas (Ar.), paper ; kertas sa- 
lei, sheet of paper; wang kertas , 
bank note (paper money) 

Ketok, to knock 

Khobar, see Kabar 

Khalaik, see Kalaik 

Khalasi (Pers.), sailor 

Khidmat, kidmat (Ar.), service, office, 
to bow to 

Khiyanat, see Kiyanat 

Kikir, stingy, avaricious ; hikiran, 

Kilat, lightning 

Kinchang, strong (of wind) 

Kira, to calculate, think, suppose ; 
kira-kira (1) accounts, (2) nearly, 
about ; kira-nya, be kind enough to 

Kir i f left ; ka-kiri, to the left 

Kirim, to send 

Kisah (Ar.), story, narrative 

Kita, we, us 

Kitdb {At.) t book 

Kiyanat (Ar.), deceit, treachery 

Klambu, mosquito net 

Klass, class 

Kombali, to return, come back ; 
again ; kombalikan, to give back 

Kopi, coffee 

Kopper (vulg.), box 

Kotika, time, moment 

Kras, hard, obstinate, strong (of tea, 

Kreja, vulg. for kerja 

Kring, dry 

Krusi (Ar. kursi), chair 

-ku possessive suffix of the 1st person 

Ku, short for aku 

Kuasa (Sk.), power, 'might 

Kuda, horse 

Kulawarga(kalurga), family, relatives 

Kuli, porter, coolie 

Kulit, skin, bark, shell ; kulit sabut, 
coco-nut shell 

Kunchi, to lock 

Kuning, yellow 

Kunun, certainly, surely 

Kurang, less, insufficient ; often ex- 
presses the opposite of the adjective 
it precedes, as kurang baik, bad ; 
kurangkan, to diminish (trans.) 
Kusir (vulg.), coachman 
Kwat (Ar. kuwat), strength, strong ; 

kwat-kicat, loudly 
Kwe, kweh (vulg.), you 

Lagi, more, yet, still 

-lah, an expletive joined to any word 
to emphasize it : itu-lah suami 
hamba, that is my husband ; it is 
especially common with the im- 
perative and past tenses 

Lain, other 

Laki, husband 

Laki-laki, man (as opposed to woman) 

Laku, to sell well, be in demand, be 
current (of coins) 

Lalu, to pass, past ; then, thereupon 

Lama, long ; length (of time) ; sabulan 
lama-nya, a month's time ; brapa 
lama-nya? how long ? bebrapa lama- 
nya, some time 

Lambat, slow, late 

Lanchong, bad (of money) 

Langir, cosmetics (used in the bath) 

Langit, sky 

Lantera (vulg. ), lantern 

Lapar, hungry, hunger, to be hungry 

Larang, to forbid, oppose ; larangan, 

Lari, to run ; larikan, to cause to 
run, run away with 

Laut, sea ; lautan, ocean 

Layer, sail ; belayer, to set sail ; 
pelayeran, voyage 

Lebih, more ; before an adjective 
gives it a comparative meaning ; 
lebih suka, to prefer 

Lei, numeral co-efficient used of 
leaves, hair, sheets of paper, thin or 
flat objects 

Lekas, quick, fast (of a watch) ; 
quickly, at once ; sa-lkas-lkas, as 
soon as possible 

Lembu, ox 

Lepas, loose, free ; lepas-kan, to set 

Leskar (Pers.), army, soldier, sailor 

Letdk, letakkan, to place, put down, 
lay down 

Lihat, to see ; kalihatan, there was 
seen (impersonal), visible, as seen ; 
kalihatan bulan, phase of the moon 

Lilin, wax, candle 

Limau manis, orange; limaujambu, 
jambua, guava 

Littenan (vulg. ), lieutenant 

Lizat (Ar.), pleasure, enjoyment, 
agreeable taste, agreeable to the 

Lobang, hole 

Locheng (Chin.), bell 

Losen (Eng.), a dozen 



Lupa, to forget 
Luruh, to fall off (as leaves) 
Lurung, lorong, street 
Lusa, day after to-morrow 

Ma'af (Ar.), pardon; ma'af kan, to 

Mabuk, intoxicated ; mdbuk laut, sea- 

Macham, kind, sort 

Machis (Eng.), matches 

Madat, opium 

Maghrib (Ar.), the west, sunset 

Mah&l, dear 

Maka, an expletive, which may be 
translated "and," "then," "so" ; 
it is rarely used except in the 
written language, and then chiefly 
at the beginning of a sentence, or 
to mark the apodosis 

Makan, to eat, cut (of a knife) ; 
makan angin, to go for an airing 
(eat the wind) ; makan pagi, 
to breakfast ; makanan, food (a 
general term for any meal) 

Maksud (Ar.), intention, wish 

Malam, night 

Malay 'u, a Malay, Malayan 

Maligei (Tarn.), palace 

Mana? where? which? how? (short- 
ened form of bagimana) 

Mandi, to take a bath 

Mandur (Port.), landlord 

Mangkok, cup 

Manis, sweet 

Manusia (Sk.), mankind 

Marah, angry, to be angry (with, 

Mari I come here ! 

Marika-itu, they, them 

Mas, see Amas 

Masa, time 

Masak, ripe, cooked, well done 

Masehi, Christian ; tarikh Masehi, 
the Christian era 

Masing-masing, each, one by one 

Masuk, to enter, set (of the sun) ; 
masukkan, to cause to enter, in- 

Mata, eye, blade (of a sword or 

Matahari, sun (eye of day) 

Matang, well done (of food) 

Mati, dead , to die 

Man, to wish, want; an auxiliary 
used in expressing the future ; mau 

. . . mau, either ... or ; mau ta 

mau, whether you like it or not 
Mayit, corpse 
Mekak, Mecca 
Meja (Port.), table 
Melainkan, on the contrary, but, 

except (after a negative) 
Melanchong (vulg.), to go for a walk 
Mendideh, to boil 
Menengar (for mendengar), see 

Mengantok, sleepy 
Mengapa? why? 
Mengarti, to understand 
Menjahit, to sew; tukang menjahit, 

Mentah, raw, uncooked ; mentah 

sedikit, underdone 
Mentega (Port.), mantega, butter 
Merah, red 

Meskin ( Ar. ), poor, wretched 
Minatu, see Tukang 
Minggo (Port, domingo), a week ; 

hari minggo, Sunday 
Minta, to ask for ; used like our 

"please"; minta do'a (Ar.), to 

Minum, to drink ; to smoke (tobacco) 
Misti (vulg. ), musti, must 
Mu=kamu, the 2nd personal pro- 
noun, usually plural ; as a suffix 

it has the meaning of the possessive 

Muatkan, to load a ship 
Muda, young 
Mudah, easy ; mudah - mudahan, 

perhaps, if possible 
Muka, face, front (of a house) ; di 

muka, in front of, at 
Mula,^ beginning ; mulai, to begin, 

Mulut, mouth 
Murah, cheap, generous 
Murka (Sk.), angry, anger 
Musim (Ar.), season, weather 

Na'amat (Ar.), pleasure, favour 

Naik, to go up, get up ; naik darat, 
to go ashore ; naik kareta, to go 
for a drive 

Nakhoda (Pers. ), captain of a ship 

Noma (Sk.), name 

Nanas, pineapple 

Nanti, to wait ; auxiliary used in ex- 
pressing the future ; nantikan, to 
wait for 



Nardka (Sk.), hell 

Negri, town, city, country 

Nenek moyang, ancestors 

Nis-chaya (Sk.), certainly 

Nomhor (Eng.), nommor, number 

-nya, pronominal suffix of the 3rd 
person singular, his, her ; after 
prepositions it represents the ac- 
cusative of the personal pronoun 
of the 3rd person ; added to 
verbs, it is usually found in the 
passive construction, and is equiva- 
lent to "by him," "by her," "by 
them " 

Nyadar, deep (of sleep) 

Nyamok, mosquito 

Nyata, plain, obvious 

Obat, medicine ; obati, to cure 
Ombak, wave 

Orang, person, man ; orang kaya, 
rich man (title of Malay chiefs) 

Pada, at, on, to 

Pagi, morning ; pagi-pagi, early in 

the morning ; slamat pagi ! good 

morning ! 
Pahala (Sk.), reward 
Pahit, bitter 
Pakei, pake, to put on, wear, use ; 

pakei-an, pakean, clothes 
Panas, hot, heat 
Pandang, to look, look at 
Panggang, to roast, roasted 
Panggil, to call 
Panjang, long, length 
Panjara, prison 
Papa (Sk.), poor, wretched 
Papan, plank, board ; papanjandela. 

Paras, face, features 
Paruh, beak (of bird) 
Pasang, to put together, put to 

(horses) ; a pair 
Pasar (Pers.), market 
Pass, swat pass, passport 
Patah, to break (trans, and intra ns.) ; 

dua patah kata, two words 
Patut, right, proper ; used to express 

Payong, umbrella 

Pechah, to break (trans, andintrans.) 
Peduli, see Fedluli 
Pekerja-an, work, business, affairs 
Pelayaran, voyage 
Pelupa, forgetful 

Pen, pen 

Pendek, short 

Pengail, fisherman 

Penuh, full 

Penunggu, watchman, doorkeeper 

Penyumbat, cork (of a bottle) 

Perak, silver 

Perampuan, female, woman 

Perbuat, see Berbuat ; perbuatan, act, 

work, construction ; perbuatkan, to 

cause to make 
Perchaya (Sk.), to trust, have con 

fidence (in, aJ:an) 
Pergi (vulg., pigi, pegi), to go, go 

Perhamba-an, slavery 
Perhentian, resting-place, station 
Perhiasan, ornament, decoration 
Perhimpunan, assembly, crowd 
Perkakas, tools, materials ; perkakas 

rumah, furniture 
Perkara, circumstance, affair, man- 
ner ; kadua perkara, in the second 

Perkata-an, word, speech 
Perlahan-lahan, slowly, gradually 
Permissi (vulg. ), leave, permission ; 

minta permissi, to ask permission 
Permula-an, beginning 
Persambah, persambahan, a present 

(to a superior) ; persambahkan, to 

make a present, to inform (a 

Pertakuti, to instil fear of (deripada) 
Pertama, the first, firstly 
Perulih, see Berulih 
Petting, afternoon ; makan petang or 

malam, dinner 
Peti, box 

Pichah, see Pechah 
Pigi, see Pergi 
Pikir, pikiran, see Fikir 
Pikul, to carry (a load on the back 

or shoulder) ; measure of weight = 

Pilih, to choose 
Pinjam, to borrow 
Pinta, see Minta 
Pintu, door, gate 
Pipa, pipe (for smoking) 
Pisau, knife 

Plahan-plahan, plan-plan, slowly 
Pohon, tree 
Pos, post (for letters) 
Potong, ^o cut, cut off ; piece 
Prahu, putung, boat 



Pri, manner, way 

Priksa, to examine, enquire 

Puff, anggor puff (vulg.), champagne 

Pukul, to strike ; used in reckoning 
time (see Numerals in Grammar) 

Pula, again, anew, still 

Pulang, to get back (to the starting- 
point), to go home 

Pulau, island 

Pun, an expletive particle, "now," 
"so," "also" 

Punya, to possess ; used in express- 
ing the genitive (see Grammar) 

Pur (vulg. ), in order to 

Pusing, to turn round (intrans.), 

Putih, white 

Putus, torn, broken ; tiada-lah ber- 
putusan, uninterruptedly 

Rabbi (Ar.), my Lord (God) 

Rahim (Ar.), compassionate 

Rahmat (Ar.), mercy ; rahmatu 'llahi 
*aleihi 1 the mercy of God be upon 
him ! 

Raja, king, prince 

Rambut, hair (of the head) 

Rebus, boiled, to boil 

Rendahkan, to abase 

Resit (Eng.), receipt 

Riba, lap ; meriba, to take on the lap 

Ribut, storm 

Rindukan, to long for, cause to long 

Ringgit, dollar 

Rokki (vulg.), coat 

Rokok, roko, (native) tobacco, cigar- 
ette ; minum roko, to smoke 

Roshom (vulg.), to groom (a horse) 

Roti (Hind.), bread 

Rumah, house ; di-rumah, at home ; 
rumah chukei, custom - house ; 
rumah makan, hotel ; rumah mandi, 
baths ; rumah sakit, hospital 

Rumput, grass ; rumput kring, hay 

Rupa (Sk.), form, appearance ; rupa- 
nya, it seems, apparently 

Rupiah, Dutch guilder, Indian rupee 

Rusak, to be destroyed, fall to the 
ground ; rusakkan, to destroy 

Sa, see Satu 
Sa-bagimana = bagimana 
Sa-barang, any, anything 
Sabda, speak, command (of kings) 
Sa-belum t before (conjunction) 

Sa-bentar, sebantar, a moment, at once 

Sa-bermula, further, now ; generally 
(in writing) indicates the transition 
from one subject to another, or the 
resumption of a previous subject 

Sa-besar, more emphatic than besdr 

Sa-blah, side (of anything divided) 

Sabrang, to cross 

Sabun (Port.), soap 

Sabut, fibre, husk of the coconut 

Sahabat (Ar.), friend; bersahabat, to 
be. friends 

Sahaja, saja, only 

Sa-halei, numeral co- efficient (see 
Grammar) of thin, flat objects ; sa- 
halei rumjout, a blade of grass 

Sa-hari-hari, daily ; sa-harian, the 
whole day 

Sahaya, sahya, say a, slave ; the word 
most commonly used by Europeans 
for the pronoun of the 1st person, 

Sahingga, until 

Sahut, answer ; to answer 

Sakali, once, very ; after an adjective 

gives it a superlative meaning ; 

tiada sa-kali, not at all 
Sakalian, all 
Sa-kampong, of the same village, 

Sa-kira-kira, about, nearly 
Sakit, ill, illness, to be ill ; kasakitan, 

attacked by illness 
Sa-kurang-kurang, at least 
Salah, wrong, guilty ; fault, error ; 

to be in error 
Sa-lalu, throughout, always 
Salam, peace ; l aleihi as-salam I on 

him be peace ! 
Sa-lama-lama-nya, al ways 
Salasa (Ar.), three; hari salasa, 

Satin, to copy, translate, change 

(clothes), pour in (vulg.) 
Sama, the same, like ; with, for ; often 

used colloquially with the direct 

object ; sama dengan, the same 

as ; sama-sama, together with 
Sambah, to do homage, greet respect- 
fully, answer (a superior) 
Sambar, to seize and carry off (as a 

bird of prey) 
Sampani, champagne 
Sampei, sampe, to arrive, reach ; 

sufficient ; until, up to (conjunction 

and preposition) 



Sampir, to hang (intrans.) 

Samud (Sk.), all 

Sanat (Ar.), year 

Sangat, very, exceedingly _ 

Sa-orang-orang, one at a time 

Sa-penuh-penuh, fully, completely 

Sapu, to sweep, brush ; $apn tangan, 

Sarong, case, cover, the skirt worn 

by men and women ; sarong kaki, 

socks, stockings 
Sa-sa-orang, every man 
Sa-sungguh-nya, truly 
Sa-teldh, when, after that, as soon as 
Satu, suatu, one ; sometimes used for 

the indefinite article ; satu apa, 

something; pukul satu, it has struck 

Saudagar (Pers.), sudagar, merchant 
Sayur, vegetables 
Seodb (Ar.), cause, reason ; for, 

because ; sebab itu, therefore ; apa 

sebab? why? 
Sebut, to pronounce ; sebutan, pro- 
Seddng, while, as 
Sedia, ready ; sediakan, bekin sedia, 

to get ready 
Sedikit, a little 
Segala, all 
Segrd, sigrd (Sk.), speed ; at once ; 

dengan segra, quickly 
Seilan, Ceylon 
Sejuk, cold, cool 
Sekarang, skarang, now ; skarang ini, 

just now 
Selatan, south 
Selimut, bed covering ; kain slimut, 

Sella (vulg.), saddle 
Seluar (Ar.), trousers 
Sembleh, kill (usually with religious 

ceremonies), sacrifice 
Sembunikan, to conceal 
Sen, cent 

Senang, contented, at leisure, con- 
tentment ; tidak senang, busy 
Sendiri, self 
Seperti, as, like as 
Sepit, to pinch 

Serdh, serahkan, to hand over, deliver 
Sevang, head boatman 
Seraya, and, together with ; seraya 

kata-nya, at the same time she 

Serta, with, when; serta kata-nya } 

saying ; serta dengan, together 
Serutu, cigar 
Sesdk, tight 

Sewa, rent, hire ; to let, hire 
Shah (Pers.), king; shah alam, king 

of the world 
Shahaddn, thereupon, besides 
Shaikh, shaikh (Arab) 
Shirk (Ar.), fear of God 
Siang, daylight ; siang-siang, very 

Siapa? who? 
Sikat, comb, brush ; sikatkan, to 

Siksa (Sk.), punishment 
Sila, to sit cross-legged, to ask a 

person to sit down ; sila duduk, 

please take a seat 
Singgah, put in, call (of a ship) 
Sini, here 
Situ, there 

Slamat (Ar.), health, safety, peace 
Snapang, gun 
Sopi (vulg.), brandy 
Sore ( Jav. ), afternoon ; ini sore, this 

evening (vulg.) 
Sotong, cuttle-fish 
Spatu (Port.), shoe; spatu tinggi, 

Stat (vulg.), stable 
Stamp, stamp (postage) 
Stengah, sa-tengah, half 
Strika (Hind.), to iron 
Suami (Sk.), husband 
Suara (Sk. ), voice 
Suatu, see Satu 
Sudah, to be past, finished, at an 

end ; auxiliary used in expressing 

past time, often combined with 

habis ; beliim sudah, not yet ; sudah 

lama, a long time ago 
Sudara (Sk.), brother, sister 
Suka (Sk.), pleasure ; to wish, like ; 

lebih suka, to prefer 
Suku, a quarter 
Sumpit, sack, bag 
Sungguh, real, true ; sungguh-sung- 

guh, really, truly 
Sup (vulg.), soup 
Supaya, in order that ; supaya . , , 

jangan, in order that . . . not 
Surat, anything written, letter, book, 

character (reference) ; surat pass 

Swruh, to order 



Susah, troublesome, 
trouble, annoyance 
Susu, milk 

annoying ; 

Ta\ short form of tidak ; to? bulih 

tidak, without fail 
Ta'dla {At.) ; Allah Ta'dla, God, the 

Most High 
Tabek (lit., salutation), the ordinary 

greeting between Malays and 

Europeans when meeting or taking 

Tada, see Tiada 
Tadi, just now 
-tah, interrogative suffix; apa-tah? 

what? how? 
Tahan, to endure, restrain ; tahani, 

to detain 
Tahu, to know ; katahui, to know a 

thing, be aware of ; bri tahu, to 

Tahun, year 

Takdir (Ar.), will or decree of God 
Talam, a large metal tray, cymbal 
Tali, string, cord, rope 
Tampat, place ; tampat yang lain, 

another place ; tampat orang, any 

one's abode ; tampat dawat {tinta), 

inkstand ; tampat tidor, bed, bed- 
Tanah, land, country 
Tangan, hand 
Tanggalkan, to remove, take off (as 

Tangguh, to adjourn, wait for 
Tangkap, to seize, catch 
Tantu, certainly 

Tanya, tanyai, to ask (a question) 
Tapak, palm of the hand, sole of the 

Ta' pernah, never 
Tapi, see Tetapi 
Tarek, to draw, pull ; tank layer, to 

hoist sail ; tarek api, lucif er match 
Tari, to dance 
Tarikh ( Ar. ), date, era 
Tarima {trima), to accept ; tarima 

kasih ! thank you ! 
Taruh, to place, put ; menaruh meja, 

to lay the table 
Tatkala, time, at the time when; 

tatkala dahulu, before, earlier 
Teduh, to abate 
Teguh, firm, steady, lasting 
Teh, tea 

Telaga (Sk.), well, pond 

Teldh, past, already, after ; teldh itu, 

Telor, egg 

Tembako, tembakau (Port.), tobacco 

Tempo (vulg.), time, weather 

Tengah, middle, half ; tengah hari, 

Tenggalam, to be submerged, sink 

Tengok, to look at 

Terbang, to fly 

Terbayar, paid 

Terbii, to rise (sun, moon) 

Terbuka, open 

Terdampar, aground, stranded 

Terikut, see Ikut 

Terlalu, very, exceedingly 

Terlebih, more, most, very 

Tersebut, mentioned, aforesaid 

Tertawa, to laugh 

Tetapi, but, nevertheless 

Tiada, not ; there is not 

Tiap-tiap, each, every 

Tiba-tiba, suddenly 

Ticket, ticket 

Tidak, no, not; tidak apa, never 

Tidor, sleep, to sleep ; tidorkan, to 
send to sleep, put to bed ; slamat 
tidor ! good night ! 
Tikus, rat, mouse 
Timbul, come to the surface 
Tinggal, remain, dwell ; tinggalkan, 
to leave ; slamat tinggal ! good- 
bye ! (said by a person going) 
Tinggi, high ; tinggikan, to elevate 
Tingkap, window (of native houses) 
Tinta (Port. ), ink 
Titahkan, to order 
Tobat (Ar. ), repentance 
Tongkat, stick (walking) 
Topi, hat 
Tra, trada= tiada 
Trang, clear (of light) 
Tren (vulg.), train 
Trima — tarima 
Trus, through, straight ; trus saliaja, 

straight on 
Tuah, old 

Tuola (Port.), towel 
Tuan, master, sir, Mr ; the polite 

expression for " sir," " you " 
Tuang, to pour out 
Tukang, a workman ; one who deals 
in certain articles or exercises a 
certain trade, equivalent to " -er " 



in "painter," "printer," "bar- 
ber ; " tukang minatu t washerman ; 
tukang roti, baker 

Tukar, to change (trans. ) 

Tulisy to write ; luliskan, describe 

Tulung, to help, assist (used as 
English " please ") ; help, assistance 

Tung gang (vulg. ), to ride 

Tunggu, to watch 

Tunjuk, tunjukkan, to show 

Tu?itun, to lead 

Twun, to get down, disembark, land, 
set (sun), be descended from 

Tutup, to shut, cover 

Ubi, potatoes 
Ujar, to say, speak 
JJlar, snake 

Ulih, by, through, by means of 
'Umur (Ar.), age 

Unjuk, to stretch out, pass (at table) 
Upah, wages, pay ; to engage a 

Upaya (Sk.), means, resources 
Usahy necessity ; to be necessary ; tra 

(ta) usah, never mind 
Utara (Sk.), north 
Utas, workman 

Wah, exclamation of pain, surprise ; 
wah beta ! what a misfortune ! 

Waktu (Ar.), time, period ; when 

Wang, money ; wang kartas, bank- 
note (paper money) 

Warna, colour 

Wayang, performance (theatrical) 

Weranda, verandah 

Ya, yes, oh ! (in addressing any one) 
Yang, who, which ; yang lalu t last 
Yas (vulg.), coat 
Yogia (Sk.), sa - yogia - nya, it is 

Yonges, jonges (vulg.), servant 

Zamdn (Ar.). time 


Me- and its modifications, generally prefixed to active verbs in 
the written language, are as a rule omitted in the conversational 
style, and are not given here. 

n. =noun ; adj. = adjective ; v. =verb ; trans. = transitive ; 
intrans. = intransitive ; lit. = literally ; prep. = preposition ; conj. = con junction. 

The lists in the body of the Grammar should also be consulted. 

A, an, satu, sa, often used in con- 
junction with one of the numeral 
co-efficients : sa-biji telor, 1 an egg ; 
sa-ikur kuda> a horse 

Abate (wind, storm), teduh 

Able to, expressed by bulih } to be 

About, (concerning), deripada, fasal ; 
(more or less), lebih kurang, kira- 
kira ; (round about), berkuliling ; 
(about to, going to) — expressed by 
mau or hendak (to wish, intend) 

Above, ataSf di - atas ; more than, 
lebih; above all things, hubaya- 

Abroad, luar, di-luar 

Absent, tidak ada 

Accept, tarima } trima 

Accompany, ber-sama, ber-kawan 

According to, seperti 

Account (money), kira-kira, bill ; on 
account of, deri sebdb 

Accuse, tuduh ; accuser, penuduh 

Accustomed to, biasa 

Acheen, negri A cheh 

Acquainted with, to be, kendl (of 

Across, go across, lintang ; to the 
other side, ka-sabrang 

Act (n.), buatan; (v.) buat 

Add up, jumlahkan 

Address (of a letter), 'alamat ; what 

is his address? dia tinggal mana 

{lit.y where does he live?) 
Advocate, penulung bichara 
Affair, hal, perkara 
Afraid, takut 
After (prep.), kemdian deripada, 

lepds ; after that (conj.), sa-teldh 
Afternoon, petdng, tengah hari lalu 
Afterwards, kemdian 
Again, lagi sakali, pula ; further, 

dan lagi pula 
Against (opposed to), lawan 
Age, '■umur : how old are you ? brapa 

l umur tuan t 
Agent, wakil 
Ago, sudah, lalu; five months ago, 

sudah lima bulan ; some days ago, 

the other day, sudah brapa hari 
Aground (of a boat), sangkut 
Ague, demdm kura 
Ahead, di-hadap, di-dapan 
Air, Jiawa, udara; to air (clothes), 

anginkan - 

Alike, sa-rupa, sama 
All, samud (samua), segala, sakalian; 

all right, balk - lah ; all over 

(finished), sudah, habis 
Allow, biyar, bri izin, (kasih p>ermissi) 
Almanac, takwim 
Almond, ketapang, badam 
Almost, hampir, dekdt 
Alms, sadakah 

i Special attention should be paid to the accent on the last syllable, which 
has the effect of making the preceding vowel "indeterminate" (see Grammar). 




Aloes-wood, gaharu 

Alone, sa - orang sahaja ; lonely, 

Along, turut, ikut ; along with, sama 
Alongside of, di-sisi, di sa-blah 
Aloud, kwat-knvat 
Already, sudah 
Also, pula, juga, jua, pun; I also, 

sahya pun 
Alter, ubah (intrans.) 
Although, meski pun, jikcdau sa-kali- 

pun, sungguh-pun 
Altogether, blaka 
Alum, tawas 

Always, sa-lalu, sa-lama-lama-nya 
Ambassador, utusan 
Amber, ambar 

America, negri Merika; an Ameri- 
can, orang Merika 
Among, antara 
Amount (total), jumlah 
Amuse (oneself), main 
Anchor (n.), sauh ; (v.) labuhlcan 
And, dan 

Aiiger, angry, marah, murka 
Animal, binatang 
Aniseed, ados manis 
Ankle, mata kaki 
Another (different), lain ; one 

more, satu lagi 
Answer (n. and v.),jawab; (v.) sahut; 

answer a letter, balas surat 
Ant, semut ; white, anei-anei; large 

red, kerangga 
Anvil, landasan 
Any, barang; anybody, barangsiapa; 

anything, barang apa ; anyway, 

sa-barang ; anywhere, barang di- 

mana; at any time, barang bila ; 

any one will do, mana-mana satu 

pun jadi-lah 
Aperient (purgative), obat buangayer 
Appear (seem), rupa ; it seems, 

apparency, rupa-nya ; he has a 

good figure, appearance, sikapnya 

baik juga 
Approach (v.), hampir 
Arabia, negri '■Arab 
Arm (body), tangan; fore - arm, 

tangan ; weapon, senjata 
Armpit, ketiak 

Army, tantra, lashkar (laskar) 
Arrest, tangkap 
Arrive, sampei 
Arrow, anak panah 
Arsenic, warangan 

Art, c ilmu, hikmat 

As (like), seperti, bagei ; since, 
because, karna sebab ; as long as 
(length), sa-panjang, (time), sa- 
lama; as many as, as much as, 
sa-banyak ; as soon as, sa-teldh; 
as soon as possible, sa-lekds-lekds, 
sa-lekds-nya ; as if, sa-akan-akan 

Ascend, naik, (a river) mudik 

Ashamed, malic 

Ashes, abu 

Ashore, di-darat ; to go ashore, naik 

Ask (a question), tanya ; (to ask a 
person to do something), minta 

Asleep, bertidor 

Ass, kaldei 

Assembly, perhimpunan 

Assist, tulung 

Astern, di-blakang 

Asthma, sesdk dada 

Astonished, terchengang 

At, di t pada ; at first, mula-mula ; 
at last, akhir, habis; at least, sa- 
kurang - kurang ; at most, yang 
terlebih ; at once, dengan segrd ; 
at present, sekarang ini 

Attempt, choba 

Attentive, rajin 

Auction, lelong ; to sell by auction, 

Australia, negri Strelia 

Autumn, musim buah-buahan, kharif 

Awning, chetri 

Axe, kapak, bliong 

Baby, kanak-anak 

Back (again), kombali ; go back, 

pulang ; send back, pulangkan 
Back, (body) blakang; (of the neck), 

Backwards, ka-blakang 
Bacon, daging babi 
Bad, tidak baik; (of food), busuk; 

wicked, jahat 
Bag, karong, saku, bag 

Bail, jamin 

Bait, umpan 

Bake, panggangkan; (bread), buat 

Baker, tukang roti 
Bald, botak, gundul 
Ball, bola ; to play at ball, main bola 
Bamboo, bambu } buluh 
Banana, pisang 



Bank (river), tebing, tepi; (money), 
kantor bangk 

Bankrupt, yang berhenti bayar, bank- 
rap ; to become bankrupt, jatuh 

Bar (to fasten a door), kanching 

Barber, tukang chukur 

Bare (leafless), gundul 

Bark (of a tree), kulit kayu ; to bark 
(as a dog), salak 

Barracks, rumah soldado, tang si 

Barrel, tong, pipa 

Basin, mangkok 

Basket, baktd, kranjang 

Bat (animal), klawar 

Bath, to take a, mandi ; bathroom, 
tampat mandi ; bath-tub, tong 
mandi ; hot, cold bath, permandian 
ayer hangat, sejuk 

Battle, prang 

Bay (of sea), teluk; (horse), merah 

Be, ada, jadi 

Beach, pantei 

Beak (of bird), paruh 

Beans, kachang (bonches) 

Bear (animal), bruang 

Bear (carry), pikul (on the back or 
shoulders) ; endure, tahan 

Beard, janggut 

Beat (strike), pukul ; (of the heart), 
dabar. For other equivalents with 
different shades of meaning, see 
Maxwell, Manual of the Malay 
Language, p. 120. 

Beautiful, bogus, elok 

Because, sebdb, karna 

Become, jadi 

Bed, tampat tidor ; bedroom, bilik 
(kamar) tidor; bedstead, katil; to 
go to bed, pergi tidor 

Bee, lebdh 

Beef, daging lembu ; beefsteak, 

Beer, bir 

Beetle, kumbang 

Before (in time past), dahulu, dulu; 
(of place), di-hadapan; before 
that, sa-belum 

"Beg, minta sadakah; beggar, orang 
minta sadakah; (religious mendi- 
cant), fakir 

Begin, mulai ; beginning, mula 

Behaviour, kcdakuan 

Behind (place) di-blakang 

Believe (trust), perchaya (in, akan) ; 
(think) fikir 

Bell, locheng, genta 

Bellows, pengumbus 

Belong : that belongs to me, itu 

sahya punya 
Below, di-bawah 
Bench, bangku 

Beside, at the side of, di-sa-blah 
Besides, lagi-pun, dan lagi 
Best, terlebih baik, yang baik sakali 

{see, Grammar) ; to the best of my 

ability, sa-bulih-bulih 
Betel-nut, pinang 
Better, lebih baik : see Grammar 
Between, antara 

Beyond (the other side of), di-sa-blah 
Bible (New Testament), injil 
Bicycle, kreta lereng 
Big, besdr 
Bill (account), kira - kira t surat 

hutang, bill, rekenin 
Billiards, main bola 
Bird, burong ; bird-cage, sangkar ; 

bird's nest, sarang burong 
Birth, kajadian, beranakkan 
Birthday, harijadi, beranakkan 
Biscuit, biskot 
Bit (piece), sa-krat ; (horse) lagam, 

Bite, to, gigit 
Bitter, pahit 
Black, hitam 
Blacksmith, tukang besi 
Blanket, selimut, kambli 
Blind (adj.), buta 
Blinds (sun-blinds), bidei 
Blood, darah 
Blossom, bung a 

Blotting-paper, kartas kembang 
Blow (n.), palu 
Blow, to (of the wind or mouth), 

Blue, biru; dark blue, biru tuah ; 

light blue, biru manis 
Blunt (of a knife), tumpul, kurang 

Boar, babijantan 
Board (wood), papan ; (of floor) 

papan lantei; to go on board, 

turun kapal 
Boat (Malay), prahu ; (Chinese) 

sampan; (English) boat; boatman, 

anak dayong 
Body, tubuh, badan 
Boil, a, bisul 
Boil, to (trans.), rebus; (intrans.) ber- 

Bolster, bantal panjang 



Bolt, a, Jcanching ; bolt, to, kan- 

Bone, tulang 
Book, kitdb, buku ; bookbinder, 

tukang jilid kitdb ; bookcase, 

sarong (tampat) kitdb; bookseller, 

tukang jual kitdb 
Boot, kasut, boot 
Borrow, minta pinjam 
Both, kadua 
Bottle, botol 

Bottom (lowest part), bawah 
Bough, dahan 
Bow (weapon), panah ; (of a boat) 

haluan ; to bow, tunduk 
Bowels, perut {prut) 
Bowl, batil, bukur 
Box, peti, kopper 
Boy, anak laki-lahi 
Braces, tali seluar 
Brain, utak 
Branch (tree), dahan; (road) sem- 

Brandy, brandi (sopi) 
Brass, tembaga kuning 
Bread, roti ; white bread, roti putih, 

black bread, roti kasar ; fresh 

bread, roti baharu ; stale bread, 

roti basi 
Bread-fruit, sukun 
Break, pechdh, patah 
Breakfast, makan pagi 
Breast, dada, (female) susu 
Breath, nefas 
Breathe, tarek nefas 
Brewer, tukang bir 
Brick, batu-bata 
Bridge, jambatan, (of nose) batang 

Bridle, tali kang 
Bright (clear), krang 
Bring, bawa 
Broad, lebar 
Brooch, krusang 
Broom, penyapu 
Brother, sudara laki-laki, (elder) 

abang, (younger) adik 
Brow, kening 
Brown, hitam manis 
Brush (n.), brus ; clothes' brush, brus 

pakeian; hair-brush, brus rawibut, 

brus kapala ; nail - brush, brus 

kuku ; tooth-brush, brus gigi 
Brush, to, sapu; (teeth, boots) gosok 
Bucket, timba 
J3ud, kutuvi 

Buffalo, kerbau 

Build, buat, bangunkan } ikat rumah 

Building (n.), bangunan 

Bug, pijat, kutu busuk 

Bull, lembujantan 

Bullet, peluru 

Buoy, boya 

Burn, to, bakar, hangus 

Bury, tanam, kuburkan 

Bushes (thicket), semdk 

Business, kerja, pekerja-an 

Busy : I am busy, sahya ta' sendng 

But, tetapi, tapi; (except) melain- 

kan, hanya 
Butcher, tukang daging 
Butter, mantega 
Butterfly, kupu-kupu 
Button, kanching ; button - hole, 

lobang kanching ; to button, men- 

Buy, bli 
By, ulih ; by boat, dengan prahu ; 

by land, darat 
By and by, sabentar lagi 

Cabbage, kobis 

Cabin, kurung i kamar } kamra 

Cage, sangkar 

Cake, kweh, penganan 

Calf (animal), anak lembu ; (of the 

leg) jantong betis 
Calico, blachu minyak 
Call, panggil ; call in (at a place), 

Calm (tranquil), teduh; (water) 

Camel, onta 
Camphor, kapur barus 
Can (be able), bulih; (bucket) tong 
Canal, parit 
Candle, lilin, dian 
Candlestick, kaki lilin 
Cane, rotan, (walking stick) tongkat 
Cannon, mariam 
Cannot, ta' bulih 
Canoe, jalur, kolek 
Cap, kopiah 
Cape (geog.), tanjung 
Capital (funds), modal; (of a 

country) kapala negri 
Capsicum, chabei 
Captain, kapitan, nakhoda 
Care (n.), ingat ; to take care of, 

jaga; to be careful, jaga, ingat- 

ingat ; care for (like), suka ; I 

(Jon't care, sahya ta' feduli (peduli) 



Careful : be careful ! baik-baik I 

Carefully, jaga baik 

Careless, lalei 

Cargo, muatan 

Carpenter, tukang kayu 

Carpet, permadani, hamparan 

Carriage, kareta, kreta 

Carry, bawa, pikul (on the back or 

shoulders). There are many other 

equivalents with different shades 

of meaning:, see Maxwell, Manual 

of the Malay Language, p. 121 
Cart, pedati 
Case: in case, kalau-kalau ; in that 

case, kalau bagitu 
Cash (ready money), wang tunei, 

kontdn ; to pay cash, bayar tunei ; 

to cash a cheque, tukar surat wang 
Casting-net, jala 
Castor oil, minyakjarak 
Cat, kuching 
Catch (get hold of), tangkap ; (a 

cold) kend selismah, kend sardi 
Caterpillar, ulat (hulat) bulu 
Cause, sebdb 
Cave, guah 

Cayenne pepper, lada merah 
Ceiling, langit-langit 
Cemetery, tampat kubur, pekuburan 
Centre, pusat ; right in the centre, 

sama tengah 
Certain (sure), tantu ; a certain 

person, Mr so-and-so, sianu 
Certainly, tantu 
Ceylon, negri Seilan 
Chain, rantei 
Chair, krusi, kursi 
Chalk, kapur blanda 
Champagne, anggor puf, sampani 
Chance : he went by chance, jatuh- 

lah ia pergi 
Change (small money), wang kechil; 

to change : (money) tukar, (alter, 

intrans.) ubah, (trans.) vbah-kan, 

(clothes) salin, (place of abode) 

Character (disposition), prangei, 

pekerti, (reputation) nama 
Charcoal, arang 
Cheap, murah 
Cheat, to ; tipu 
Cheek, pipi 
Cheese, keju 

Chemist, tukang dbat 
Cheque, surat wang, check 
Chess, 1 chatur, main gajah ; chess- 
men, buah chatur ; board, papan 

Chest (body), dada, (hox) peti 
Chew, mamah 

Chicken, anak hay am, hay am kechil 
Chief (headman), penghulu, orang 

Child, anak 

Chili (red pepper), lada China 
Chimney, chorong [tampat) asap 
Chin, dagu 
China, negri China ; Chinaman, 

orang China 
Chisel, pahat 
Chocolate, chokoldt 
Choke (intrans.), lemds, (trans.) 

Cholera, muntah berak 
Choose, pilih 
Chop, to, chinchang ; a chop, daging 

Christ, nabi l Isa 
Christian, nasrani, sarani 
Church, greja 
Chutney, chatni 
Cigar, cherutu y serutu 
Cigarette, roko kartas 
Cinders (embers), bara 
Cinnamon, kulit manis, kayu manis 
Circle, bulat 

Circumcise, circumcision, sunat 
Citizen, orang negri 
Citron, limau, jerulc 
City, bandar, negri. The Malay 

words for "city," "town," etc., 

are ill-defined 
Civil (polite), supan 
Class (sort), jenis, wucham, 
Claw, kuku 
Clay, tanah Hat 

Clean (adj.), bersih, bresih> (v.) cMichi 
Clear, trang ; (of liquids) hening, 

Clerk, krani, juru tulis 
Clever, pandei 
Climate, haira, udara 
Climb, panjat 
Clock, jam; what's o'clock? pukul 

Close, to, tutup 

i The names of the pieces are : raja, king ; mantri, queen ; gajah, bishop \ 
Iffada, knight ; tir, castle ; bidak, pawn (check, sah; mate, mat). 



Close to, dekdt 
Cloth, kain 

Clothes, pakeian (pronounced pakian) 
Cloud, awan 
Cloudy, redup 
Cloves, hinga chingkeh 
Coachman, sa'is, kusir (D.) 
Coal, arang-batu 
Coarse, kasar 
Coast, pantei, tepi laut 
Coat, baju, baju kot 
Cock, hay am jantan 
Cockroach, Upas 

Coco-nut tree, nyiur, Jclapa; coco- 
nut, buah klapa 
Cod, ikan kayu 

Coffee, kopi, kahwah; coffee-bean, 
buah kopi ; coffee-mill, pengiling- 
gan kopi ; coffee-pot, tampat kopi 
Coffin, kranda, long 
Cold, sejuk; (of the weather) dingin ; 

cold in the head, selismah 
Colic, mulas, chika 
Collar (shirt), kain leher 
Collect (gather together), himpun 

(intrans.), himpunkan (trans.) 
Colour, warna 
Comb, sikat, sisir 

Come, datang; come here ! mari- 

lah / come back, pulang, kombali ; 

come in, masuk ; come out, kaluar; 

come up, naik 

Comfort, kasenangan; comfortable, 

Command, to, suruh, Utah (of a king) 
Commerce, bernyaga 
Companion, kawan 
Compass (mariner's), paduman; pair 

of compasses, jangka 
Compel, krasi, paksa 
Complain, adu ; complaint, peng- 

Completely, sa-habis-habis 
Complexion, ayer muka 
Compliments : give my compliments 

to, kasih tabeh sama, 
Conceal, sembunyi 
Condemn (sentence), hukumkan 
Conduct (behaviour), kalakuan 
Confectionery, penganan 
Confess, mengaku 
Consequently, bagini 
Consider (think about), timbang, 

Constantly, santiasa 
Constipation, semblit 

Consumption (disease), batuk kring 
Contagious, jangkit 
Contain, muat, berisi 
Content, puas 
Contents, isi 

Continue (keep on), expressed by 
pula or lagi ; he kept on walking, 

dia jalan pula 
Contraband, lardngan 
Contrary to, berlawan deri 
Cook (n.), tukang masak, kuki, (v.) 

Copper, tembaga ; coppersmith, 

tukang tembaga 
Copy (n.), salinan; (v.) salin; (imi- 
tate) tiru 
Coral, batu karang 
Cord, tali 

Cork (stopper), sumbat, prop 
Corkscrew, penchabut sumbat, cork- 
Corn (grain,) gandum, trigu, (Indian 

corn, maize) jagong 
Corner, penjuru 
Correct (adj.), betul 
Cost, harga 
Cotton (raw), kapas, kapuk; (thread) 

Couch, kauchi 
Cough, batuk 
Count, to, bilang, hitung 
Counterfeit, lanchong 
Country, negri, (opposed to town) 

Courtyard, halaman 
Cover (n.), tudungan, tutupan, (v.) 

tudung, tutup ; dish-cover, tudung 

Cow, lembu betinu, sapi betina 
Coward, penyakut, kurang brani 
Crab, ketdm, kepiting 
Crane (bird), undan; (windlass) 

Cream, kapala sum 
Crew, anakprahu 
Crocodile, buaya 
Crooked, bengkok 
Cross, to (pass over), menyabrang; 

cross-legged, bersila 
Cross-road, sempang 
Crow (n.), gagak, (v.) kukuk 
Crowd, perkumpulan 
Crown (king's), makhota, taj ; (of the 

head) ubun-ubun 
Cruel, cruelty, bengis 
Cucumber, timun 



Cup, manghoh, chawan 

Cupboard, almari 

Cure (n.j, penaicar, (v.) sembuhkan 

Current (of water), harus 

Curry, gulei, kari 

Curse (n. and v.), sumpah 

Curtain (window), tirei, tcibir 

Cushion, bantal 

Custom, i adat 

Custom (tax), chukei; custom-house, 
rumah chukei 

Cut (with a knife), putung, (with 
scissors) guntingkan; cut in two, 
blah; cut off, krat ; cut down 
(trees, shrubs), tebdng, tebds 

Cuttlefish, sotong 

Dagger, kris 

Daily, sa-hari-hari 

Dam (dyke), ampang 

Damp, basah, lembap 

Dance {n.),jogat t (v.) tari 

Danger, bahaya; dangerous, 6er- 

Dare, brani 

Dark, glap; darkness, kagalapan, 

Date (time), hari bulan, tarikh; 
(fruit) khurma 

Daughter, anak perampuan 

Day, hari; every day, sa-hari-hari; 
every other day, slang sa-hari; 
midday, tengah hari; all day, 
sa-panjang hari; first day of the 
month, sa-hari bulan; daybreak, 
dini hari; daylight, siang ; day 
and night, siang malam; day before 
yesterday, kalamarin dahulu; day 
after to-morrow, lusa 

Dead, mati 

Deaf, tuli,pekdk 

Dear (beloved), kakasih; (expensive) 

Death, kamatian 

Debt, hutang ; in debt, berhutang 

Deceive, tipu, perdayakan 

Deck (of ship), dek 

Deep, dalam; (of colour) tuah; (of 
sleep) leldp 

Deer, rusa 

Defeat (trans.), alah-kan ; to be de- 
feated, alah; defeat (n.), alahan 

Defendant, yang kend adu 

Deliver (set free), lepaskan; (hand 
over) serdh 

Demand (n.), perminta-an y (v.) 

Dentist, tabib gigi 

Deny, sangkal 

Depart, pergi, berangkat 

Descend, turun 

Descendants, katurunan 

Desert (n.), padang belantara, (v.) 

Desire (n.), kahendal % (v.), hendak 

Desk, meja tulis 

Dessert, buah-buahan 

Destroy, bindsakan 

Destruction, binasa 

Devil, the, iblis, sheitan 

Dew, embun 

Diamond, intan 

Diarrhoea, buang-buang ayer y chirit 

Dictionary, kamus 

Die, mati (also of wind dying down) 

Difference, beda 

Different, lain 

Difficult, payah, susah 

Dig, gali 

Diligent, rajin 

Dim, kabur 

Dine, makan petdng; dining-room, 
bilik makan; dinner, makanan 

Direct (straight), trus, lurus 

Directly, lekds, dengan sigrd-nya 

Dirty, kotor 

Discharge (dismiss), lepaskan, pechat- 
kan; (gun) pasang 

Disease, penyakit 

Disembark, turun darat 

Dish, pinggan; (course) saji ; dish- 
cover, tudong saji 

Dislike (v.), ta' suka 

Distance, distant, jauh 

District, dairah } jdjahan 

Ditch, parit 

Do, buat; (suffice) jadi; that will do, 
itu-pun bulih; it won't do, ta' jadi; 
how do you do ? apa khabar? 

Do not, don't, jangan (with impera- 
tive) ; jangan pergi, don't go 

Doctor (native), bomo, dukun; (one 
who practises Western medicine) 
Dog, anjing 
Dollar, ringgit 
Done (finished), sudah; (of food) 

Door, pintu 
Double (two-fold), ganda 



Doubt, shak 

Doubtful, tiada tantu 

Down (below), bawah; downstairs, 

di-bawah; downwards, ka-bawah 
Dozen, losen, dusen 
Drag (v.) tarek, hela 
Drain (n. ), parit 

Draught (medicine), obat minum 
Draughts (game), dam, choki; 

draught-board, papan dam 
Draw (pull), tarek, hela; (tooth) 

chabut ; (water) timba ; (sketch) 

Drawer, lachi, kotak sorong-sorong 
Drawers (dress), chelana dalam 
Dream, mimpi 
Dress (n.), pakeian, (v. )pa,kei kain; 

dressed, memakei; dressing-room, 

tampat pakeian 
Drink (n.), minuman, (v.) minum 
Drive : to go for a drive, duduk 

kareta; drive away (trans.), halau 
Drop (n.), titek; (v.) jatuh (intrans.), 

jatuhkan (trans.) 
Dropsy, sembap 
Drought, kamarau 
Drown (intrans. ), mati lemds 
Drum, gendang, rebana 
Drunk, mabuk; drunkard, peminum 
Dry (adj.), kring ; (v.) anginkan (in 

the air), jemurkan (in the sun) ; 

the dry season, musim kamarau 
Duck, itek 

Due (exactly) : due west, barat tepdt 
Dumb, bisu, kelu 
Dung, tahi, baja 

During, sa-mamtara, sa-lama, sa-lagi 
Dust, debu, lebu, habuk 
Duty (tax), chukei 
Dwarf, orang pendek-pendek, katek 
Dye (v.), chelup; dyer, tukang ehelup 
Dysentery, buang ayer darah 

Each, masing-masing, tiap-tiap; each 

other, satu sama lain 
Eagle, raja-wali 
Ear, telinga 

Early, siang-siang, pagi-pagi 
Earn (money), chari wang 
Earrings (drops), anting - anting, 

(buttons) krabu 
Earth (soil), burnt, tanah, (opposed 

to water) darat 
Earthquake, gumpah bumi 
Ease oneself, buang ayer bestir, berak 
East, timur 

Easy, mudah, gampang, senang 
Eat, makan nasi (eat rice, which is 

more idiomatic than makan alone) 
Ebb, ayer surut 
Ebony, kayu arang 
Eclipse, gerhana, grahana 
Edge (knife), mata 
Eel, belut 
Egg, teUr; egg-shell, kulit tel6r ; 

white, putih telor; yolk, merah 

telor ; hard-boiled, masak kras ; 

fresh, baharu; stale, busuk 
Either : either ... or, atau . . . 

atau-pun, mau . . . mau 
Elbow, siku 
Elephant, gajah; (tusk) gading ; 

(trunk) belaid 
Else (otherwise), kalautida; (besides) 

lagi ; anything else, lain apa-apa 
Embark, naik kapal 
Emerald, zamrud 
Emetic, obat muntah 
Empty (adj.), kosong ; (v.) kosongkan 
End, kasudahan 
Endure (put up with), tahan 
Enemy (common), musuh, (personal) 

Engage (a servant), upah 
Engaged (busy), ada kerja 
Engine, jentra, (locomotive) injin, 

kreta api 
English, Inggris ; Englishman, orang 

Inggris; England, negri Inggris 
Engrave, ukir; engraver, tukang 

Enough (sufficient), chukup; that's 
enough, sudah-lah 

Enquire, tanya, (investigate) priksa 

Enter, masuk 

Entertain (a guest), jamu 

Entirely, sakali 

Entrails, isiperut (prut) 

Envelope, sarong surat 

Epilepsy, gila babi 

Equal, sama 

Especially, istimua 

Europe, negri Iropa 

Even (adv.), pun, juga ; (adj.) rata, 
datar (level) ; gendp (of numbers) 

Evening, petdng, sore 

Ever, pernah; for ever, sa-lama- 

Every (each), masing-masing, tiap- 
tiap, (all) samud, segala ; every- 
body, sa-barang orang ; every day, 
sa-hari-hari ; everything, segala 



barang ; every where, di - mana- 

Evil (ad j . ), jahat, (n. ) kajahatan 

Exact, exactly, betul 

Examine, investigate, priksa 

Except that, melainkan, hanya 

Exchange (v.), tukarkan 

Excuse (n.), daleh; to make excuses, 

Excuse (v.): excuse me, ampunkan 
sahya, mtfafkan sahya 

Executioner, pertanda 

Expect, nantikan 

Expenses, blanja, ongkos 

Explain, nyatakan, bri tahu 

Export (v.), kaluarkan 

Extinguish, padam 

Extremely, terlalu, sangat 

Eye, mata; eyeball, biji mata ; eye- 
brow, bulu kening ; eyelash, bulu 
mata; eyelids, klopak, bibir mata; 
pupil of the eye, anak mata 

Eye-glass, chermin mata 

Fable, cherita 

Face, muka 

Fade (of leaves), layu, (of colours) 

Fail (in business), jatuh; without 
fail, tiada bulih tidak 

Faint (weak), leteh, (v.)pengsan 

Fair (just), betul; a fair wind, angin 
baik; fair weather, chuacha 

Faith (religious belief), imdn 

Fall (v.), jatuh. For other equiva- 
lents with different shades of 
meaning, see Maxwell, p. 121 

False (untrue), bohong, dusta, (of 
money) lanchong 

Family (generally), in rumah, kaum 
kalurga, (wife and children) anak 

Famine, kalaparan 

Famous, meshhur, ternama 

Fan, kipas 

F&r, jauh; as far as, hingga, sa-jauh; 
far from getting it, we did not see 
it, jangankan dapat, melihat-pun 
tidak (not only did we not get it) 

Fare (on boat or ship), tambang y (of 
cab) penyewa 

Farewell ! slamat ting gal I 

Fashion (in dress, etc.), chara 

Fast (quick), lekds, (of a clock) dras; 
(abstention from food) puasa 

Fasten, ikat 

Fat (adj.), gemdk, tambun, (n.) lemdk 

Fate, kismat, nasib 

Father, bapa 

Fathom (n.), depa 

Fault, salah; that's not my fault, itu 
bukan sahya punya salah 

Favour, kasih 

Fear, takut 

Feather, bulu 

Features, paras 

Feeble, lemdh, letih 

Feed (trans.), bri makan 

Feel (touch), raba, jamah, rasa 

Female (of human beings), peram>- 
puan, (of animals) betina 

Fence, pagar 

Ferry, tambangan ; ferry-boat, prahu 
tambangan ; ferryman, tukang tam- 

Festival, hari besdr y hari ray a 

Fetch, pergi ambil, pergi bawa 

Fetters, bdunggu 

Fever, demdm; intermittent fever, 
demdm kura; typhoid fever, demdm 

Few, sedikit 

Field (cultivated), ladang (dry rice 
fields), as opposed to sawah (wet 
rice fields) 

Fig, ara 

Fight, to, kalahi, (of animals) laga 

File (n.), kikir 

Filter, strainer, tapisan 

Fill, isikan 

Finally, akhirnya 

Find (v.), dapat 

Fine (adj.), halus (not coarse) ; fine 
weather, chuacha ; money fine 
(n.), denda 

Finger, jari; forefinger, jari ielunjuk; 
middle finger, jari hantu ; third 
finger, jari manis ; little finger, 
jari klingking ; finger nail, kuku 

Finish, habiskan ; finished, sudah 

Fire (n.), api; (v.) pasang (a gun) ; 
fire-place, tampat api; fire-wood, 
kayu api; fire- works, merchun t 
bunga api 

Fire-fly, kelip-kelip 

First, pertama ; firstly, mula-mula 

Fish (n.), ikan; (v.) panching, kail 
(with rod and line) ; menjala (with 
a net); fish-hook, mata kail; line, 
tali kail; rod, joran; fisherman, 



Fist, genggam 

Fit (n.), pitam; (v.) patut (of 
clothes) ; this does not fit me, ta' 
betul ini dengan badan (body) 

Fitting, patut, harus 

Flag, bandera, panji, tunggul 

Flame, nyala 

Flannel, kain panas 

Flat (smooth), pipeh, (level) rata 

Flavour, rasa 

Flea, kutu anjing 

Fleet (ships), angkatan 

Flesh, daging 

Float (v. ), hanyut 

Flock (n.), kawan 

Flood, ayer bah 

Floor, lanteipapan 

Flour, tepong 

Flow (n.), ayer pasang (of the tide) ; 

(v. ) leleh, (of a river) alir 
Flower, bunga 
Flute, bangsi, suling 
Fly (n.), lalat, (v.) terbang 
Foam, buih 
Fog, kabut 
Fold (v.), lipat 
Follow, ikut, turut 
Food, makanan 
Foolish, gila, bodoh 
Foot, kaki; footstep, footprint, jejak, 

bek&s kaki 
Footstool, alas kaki 
For (prep,), akan, pada, sama ; 

(conj.) karna (because) 
Forbid, larang 
Ford (n.), arongan 
Forehead, dahi 
Foreign, asing, dagang ; foreigner, 

{prang) asing, dagang, kaluaran 
Forest (jungle), hutan 
Forget, lupa 

Forgive, ampunkan, ma'afkan 
Fork, garfu 

Formerly, dahulu, dulu 
Fort, kota 

Fortnight, dua minggo 
Founder (of a ship), karam 
Fountain (spring), mata ayer 
Fowl, hayam 
France, negri Fransis ; Frenchman, 

orang Fransis 
Free (adj.), bebas 
Freeze, baku 
Freight, muatan 
Frequently, kerdp 

Fresh (food), baharu, (water) ayer 

tawar, (milk) susu mentah 
Friend, sahabat 
Frighten, bri takut 
Frog, katak, kuduk 
From, deri, deripada 
Front, hadapan; in front, di-muka, 

di-dapan; at the door, di-muka 

Fruit, buah 

Fry (v.), goring; frying-pan, kuali 
Full, penuh 
Funnel, chorong 
Furniture, perkakas rumah, serba 

Further (distance), jauh lagi, lebih 

jauh, (besides) dan lagi 
Future (n.), waktu yang kemdian; 

(adj.) yang nanti datang 

Gain, laba 

Gale, angin kenchdng 

Gallows, tiang gantungan 

Gamble (v.), judi; gambler, orang 

Gamboge, getdh kamboja 
Game (amusement), main, permai- 

nan, (food) daging perburuan 
Gaol, penjara, jel 
Garden, kabun; gardener, tukang 

Garlic, bawang putih 
Gate, pintu 
Gem, permata 
General (army), panglima prang, 

Generally, sediakala, krap kali 
Gentle, lembut 
Germany, negri Jerman; a German, 

orang Jerman 
Get, dapat; get back (recover), dapat 

balik: get down, turun ; get in, 

masuk; get out, kaluar ; get up 

(ascend) naik, (from bed) bangun, 

(to a standing posture) bangkit t 

(of wind, storm) turun 
Ghost, hantu 
Giant, raksasa 

Giddy (dizzy), pening, pusing kapala 
Gift, pembrian, hediye 
Gimlet, gerdi, grudi 
Ginger, halia 
Girl, anak perampuan 
Give, bri, kasih; give back, komba- 

Glad, suka chita 



Glass, kacha, (drinking-glass) glas 
Gloves, sarong tangan 

Glue, perkat 

Gnat, agas 

Go, pergi; (as a clock) berjalan; go 
away ! nyah-lah, pergi-lah ; go 
back, pulang ; go down, turun; go 
in, masuk; go out >, per gi luar ; go 
up, naik 

Goat, kambing 

God, ^Zte/i, Tuhan 

Going to (about to), ramft 

Gold, amas, mas 

Gone, sudah pergi, sudah jalan, (dis- 
appeared) sudah tiada 

Gong, chanang, gong 

Gonorrhoea, sakit kenching 

Good, baik; good-bye, slamat tinggal; 
good-day, tabek; good-morning, 
slamat pagi 

Goods, barang-barang 

Goose, angsa 

Gospel, injil 

Gourd, labu 

Governor, gubernur, gebenur 

Gradually, perlahan-perlahan, plan- 

Grain, biji-biji 

Grandfather, nenek, bapa bestir 

Grandmother, nenek perampuan, 
mama bestir 

Grapes, buah anggor 

Grass, rumput 

Grasshopper, belalang 

Grave (n.), kubur 

Gravel, batu kelikir 

Gravy, kuah 

Great, bestir 

Greece, negri Grika 

Green (colour), hijau, (unripe) muda 

Grey, klabu, (hair) uban 

Grief, duka 

Grind (sharpen), asah 

Groom, sa'is 

Ground (soil), tanah; (reason) sebtib 

Grow (as plants), tumbuh, (increase 
in size or number) tambah 

Guard (v.), jaga, (n.) jaga-jaga, 

Gu2lv&, jambu biji 

Guess, agak 

Guest, jamu 

Guide (v.), menunjuk jalan (show 
the way) 

Guilt, kasalahan, dosa 

Guilty, bersalah 

Gulf, teluk 

Gum, getah, ay er perkat 

Gums, gusi 

Gun, senapang, bedil 

Gunpowder, obat bedil 

Gutter, saluran, panchuran 

Habit, 'adat 

Hail (frozen rain), hujan batu; to 

hail (greet), bri slamat 
Hair (of body), bulu ruma, (of head) 

rambut; hair-brush, brus ranibut; 

hair-pin, chuchuk-sanggul 
Half, tengah; one and a half, tengah 

Ham, paha babi, ham 
Hammer, pemukul, martil 
Hand, tangan; left-hand side, sa- 

blah kiri ; right-hand side, sa-blah 

kanan; left hand, tangan kiri; 

right hand, tangan kanan; back 

of the hand, punggung ; palm, 

Handful, sa-genggam 
Handkerchief, sapu tangan, handuk 
Handle (of a weapon), hulu, (of a 

vessel) telinga 
Hand-rail, kayu pemegang 
Handwriting, bektis tangan, khat 
Hang (intrans.), bergantung, (trans.) 

Happen, jadi 

Harbour (anchorage), pelabuhan 
Hard (not soft), kras 
Hare, kwelu 
Harness, pakeian kuda 
Harrow, sisir tanah 
Harvest, penuwe-an, menoibes 
Has, had : see Grammar 
Haste, gopoh ; make haste, bersigrti 
Hat, topi (especially a sun hat), 

kopiah, chapiu; hat-box, peti topi; 

to wear a hat, memakei topi; to 

take off the hat, buka topi; hatter, 

tukang topi 
Hate (v.), benchi 
Have, ada [see Grammar), berulih 
Hay, rumput kring 
He, him, she, her, dia, ia 
Head, kapala; headache, sakit 

kapala; head wind, angin di- 

Health, nyaman, sihat t ''afiyat 
Heap (n.), timbunan 
Hear, dengar 
Hearing (sense of), penengaran 



Heart, jantong, (as the seat of the 

affections) hati 
Hearth, tampat api 
Heat, panas, (artificial) hangat 
Heaven (sky), langit, (home of the 

blessed) shurga, surga 
Heavy, brat, (of rain) lebdt 
Hedge, pagar 
Heel, tumit 
Hell, naraka, (Mohammedan) jehen- 

Helm, kemudi 
Help, tulung ; there's no help for it, 

apa bulih buat (what can be done ?) 
Hen, hayam betina 
Hence (from here), deri sini; (for this 

reason) sebdb ini; (from this time 

forth) deripada waktu ini 
Herd, kawan 
Here, sini, di-sini 
Hereafter, di-blakang ini 
Hiccough, sedu 
Hidden, tersembuni 
Hide (v.), sembuni, sembunyi 
Hide (skin), kulit 
High, tinggi ; high water, ayer 

pasang pentih 
Highway, jalan ray a 
Hill, bukit 
Hilt, hulu ■ 
Himself, dia sendiri 
Hinder (v.), teg ah 
Hindustan, negri Hindi 
Hip, pangkal paha 
Hire, rent (n.), seica ; (v.) upah, 

mengupahkan (engage a servant) 
His, her, dia punya or dia following 

the noun 
Hit (v.), kend 
Hither, ka-sini, ka-mari 
Hitherto, sampei sekarang 
Hoe, changkul (large, used for 

Hoist (sail, colours), angkat, naik 
Hold (of a ship), petdk ; to hold, take 

hold of, pegdng, (contain) muat 
Hole, lobang 
Holiday, hari raya 
Holland, negri Blanda, Wolanda 
Hollow, kosong 
Holy, kudus 

Home : at home, di-rumah 
Honey, ayer madu ; honeycomb, 

indok madu 
Hoof, kuku 
Hope (n. and v.), harap 

Horizon, kaki langit 

Horn, tanduk, (of rhinoceros) sumbu 

Horse, kuda ; horseshoe, besi kuda ; 
horsewhip, chabuk, cliamti 

Hospital, ruinah sakit 

Hot, panas, hangat {see Heat) ; pun- 
gent, pedds 

Hotel, hotel, rwmah makanan 

Hour, jam 

House, rumah 

How, bagimana; how long? brapa 
lama ? how many ? how much ? 
brapa banyak? how much? (of 
price), brapa harga? how often? 
brapa kali ? 

However, tetapi 

Hunch-back, bongkok 

Hunger, lapar; hungry, lapar; to 
be hungry, lapar 

Hunt (v.), bum 

Hurricane, tufan, ribut 

Hurry (n.), gopoh 

Hurt (v.), sakitkan 

Husband, laki, suami 

Hut, pondok 

I, sahya (commonly used by 

Europeans), aku (by Malays) 
Ice, ayer baku, ayer batu 
Idiot, gila 
Idle, malas 
Idol, berhala 
If, kalau, kalu, jikalau; even if, 

jikalau sa-kali-pun 
Ignorant, bebdl 
111, sakit; I feel ill, sahya rasa sakit; 

illness, penyakit 
Imagine, sangka 
Imitate, tiru, turut 
Immediately, sigrd, sekarang ini 
Immortal, kakdl, baka 
Impertinent, muka papan, sumb&ng 
Import (goods), to, masukkan 
Important, besdr, brat 
Impossible, ta' bulih, mustahU 
Imprison, kurongkan, penjarakan 
Impudent, muka papan 
In, dalam; (at home) di-mimah; in 

order to, supaya; in my opinion, 

pada fiTriran sahya 
Inch, inchi 
Increase (n.), tambahan; (v.) tambah 

(intrans.), tambahkan (trans.) 
Incur, kend; used in many idiomatic 

phrases {see Maxwell, p. 90) 
Indebted, berhutang 




Indeed (really, truly), sungguh; as 

an interrogative = really ? bagitu- 

kah (is it so ?) 
India, negri Hindi; an Indian, orang 

Indiarubber, getdh 
Indian corn, jagong 
Indigestion, makanan ta' hajam 
Indigo (dye) nila, (plant), tarum 
Industrious, rajin 
Infant, kanak-anak 
Infectious, berjangkit 
Infidel, kqfir 
Inform, bri tahu 
Inhabit, diami, duduki 
Inhabitants, isi negri, anak rayat 
Inheritance, pusaka 
Injustice, aniaya 
Ink, dawat, tinta; inkstand, tampat 

Inland, hulu 
Insane, insanity, gila 
Insect, binatang 
Inside, di-dalam 
Instance : for instance, mesalnya 
Instant (n.), sa l at, sa-kejdp 
Instead of, ganti 
Instruments (equipment), perkakas, 

Intend, mau, hendak 
Interest (on money) bunga ivang 
Interior, dalam, (of a country), hulu, 

Interpret, bri arti, mengartikan 
Interpreter, juru bahasa 
Interval, seldng 
Into, ka-dalam 
Introduce, bawa masuk 
Invite, jemput 

Invoice, faktur, surat barang 
Inwards, ka-dalam 
Iron, besi; (n. and v.) strika (for 

laundry work) 
Is, ada; is it not? ia-kah? 
Island, ^mfcm 
It, dia, itu ; it is, itu ada ; it is not, 

Italy, negri Itali 
Itch (n.), kudis, (n. and v.) gatal 
Ivory, gading 

Jackal, srigala 
Jacket, baju 
Japan, negri Japun 
Jar (large), tempayan, (smaller), 
g, gusi 

Jaundice, membang 

Java, tanah Jaiva 

Jaws, rahang 

Jesus Christ, ' Isa el-meseh 

Jetty, pier, jambatan 

Jew, Yahudi 

Jewel, per mata; jewelry, mata benda 

Jeweller, juhari 

Join (put together), hubongkan; 

(meet), jumpa 
Joiner, tukang almari 
Joints (of the body), sendi 
Journey (by land), perjalanan; (by 

sea), pelayaran 
Judge, hakim 
Judgment, hukum; day of judgment, 

hari kiamat 
Jug, buy ong t jag 
Juice, ayefi* 

Jump (v,), lumpat; jump down, terjun 
Junk, wangkang 
Just (adj.) i adil; just now, tadi, seka- 

rang ini; just so, betid bag itu; 

just the same, samajuga 
Justice, ka- c adilan 

Keel, lunas 

Keep (take care of), simpan 

Kettle, cherek, ketel, kiri 

Key, anak kunchi; key-hole, lobang 

Kick (v.), tendang (of a horse) 
Kidneys, buah ping gang 
Kill, bunuh 

Kind (sort), jenis, macham, bagei 
King, raja 
Kiss (v.) chium 
Kitchen, dapur 
Kite (bird), lang ; (paper) layang- 

Knead (make dough), adon, ramas 
Knee, lutut 
Kneel, berlutut 

Knife, pisau; pen-knife, pisau kechil 
Knock, pukul, ketdk 
Knot, simpul 
Know, tahu; (be acquainted with), 

kendl ; I don't know, kurang priksa 

(I have not enquired enough) 
Knowledge, Hlmu 
Knuckle, bukujari 

Labour, kerja ; labourer, kuli, orang 

Lace, renda 
Ladder, tangga 


Ladle (made of coco -nut shell), 
gayong, chebok (with no handle) 

Lady (European), madam, mem 

Lake, danau, kolam, tasek 

Lamb, anak biri 

Lame, chapek, penchang, tempang 

Lamp, lampu, pelita ; lamp - glass, 
chimney, chorong ; lamp-oil, min~ 
yak lampu; lamp- wick, sumbu 

Land, tanah, (opposed to water), 
darat; to land (go ashore), naik 

Landing place, pangkalan 

Landlord, tuan rumah (tanah) 

Lane, lorong, jalan kechU 

Language, bahasa 

Lantern, lantera, tenglong (Chinese) 

Lap, pangku, riba 

Larboard, kiri 

Lard, minyak babi 

Larder, gedong makanan 

Large, besdr ; as large as, sa-besdr 

Last (v.), tahan; (adj.) gang biaka 
(of place) ; lalu (of time) ; last 
month, bulan lalu; last night, sa- 
malam; at last, pada akhir-nya; 
lastly, penghabisan 

Latch, kanching 

Late, lambat 

Lately, baharu ini t baharu tadi 

Laugh, tertawa ; laugh at, tertawakan 

Laundryman, dobi, binara, tukang 

Lavatory ( W. C. ), jamban 

Law, hukum, undang-undang 

Lawyer, wakil 

Lay (set down, place), taruh; (eggs), 
bertelor; (table), pasang mej a, taruh 
meja; (a wager), bertaruh ; lay 
down, baring/can 

Lazy, inalas 

Lead (metal), timah hitam; sounding 
lead, prum, batu duga; lead-pencil, 
pensil; to lead (the way), membaiva 
jalan, (show the way), tunjukkan 

Leaf (tree), daun ; (paper), halei, 

Leak (v.), bochor 

Lean (adj.), kurus ; (v.) sengit 
(incline) ; lean against, bersandar 

Leap, lumpat; leap down, terjun 

Learn, blajar 

Least, yang Icechil kechU; at least, 

Leather, kulit 

Leave (n.), izin (permission); (v.) 

tinggalkan (abandon); ask leave, 

minta izin; give leave, bri izin; 

take leave, minta diri 
Leech, lintah 
Leeward, di-bawah angin 
Left (not right), kiri; (remainder), 

baki ; to the left, sa-blah kiri; 

left-handed, kidal 
Leg (generally), kaki; (lower leg, 

from knee to ankle), betis 
Leisure, sempat 
Lemon, limau asam 
Lemonade, ayer manis, sherbat 
Lend, bripinjam 
Length (distance), panjang 
Leprosy, kusta 
Less, kurang ; less than, Jcurang 

Lest, supaya jangan, agar jangan 
Let, to (allow), biyar; let go, lep&s ; 

let off (fire-arms), pasang ; let (for 

hire), bri sewa, kasih sewa 
Letter (postal), surat, (of alphabet), 

huruf (pi.) 
Level, rata 
Library, tampat buku 
Lick, jilat * 
Lid, tudongan, tutupan 
Lie, bohong 
Lie down, baring 
Life, kahidupan y hayat 
Lift (v.), angkat 
Light (not dark), trang ; (not heavy) 

rengan; (of colour) muda ; day- 
light, siang hari; to light (kindle), 

Lighthouse, rumah api 
Lightning, kilat 
Like (in the style of), chara; like 

as, sama, seperti; to like, suka; 

whether you like it or not, mau 

ta' mau 
Lily, bakong 
Limb, anggota 
Lime (fruit), limau nipis; (chemistry), 

kapur ; quick-lime, kapur tohor 
Line (string), tali; (row), baris 
Linen, kain rami; (washing) kain-kain 
Lining, alas 
Lion, singa 
Lips, bibir 
Liquid, chayer 
List, daftar, list 
Listen to, dengarkan 
Litter (for carrying a person), tandu 
Little, kechll 




Live (be alive), hidup, (reside), ting- 
gal, diam, duduk 

Liver, hati 

Lizard, chichek; (gecko), tekik 

Load (n.), muatan, (v.) muatkan 

Loaf (of bread), roti sa-buah 

Lobster, hudang gala 

Lock (n.), kunchi, ibu kunchi; (v.) 

Locust, bilalang 

Log (small), puntung kayu 

Loins, pangkal paha 

Lonely, sunyi 

Long (in space), panjang, (of time), 
lama; long ago, sudah lama; as 
long as, sa-lama (time), sa-panjang 
(space); don't be long, jangan 

Look, look at, pandang, tengok, lihat 
(see Maxwell, p. 121) ; look for, 
chari, chahari; look out, jaga ; (to 
appear), rupa-nya sakit (he looks 

iU > . • 

Looking-glass, chermin 

Loose (not tight), longgar; (slack, of 

ropes), kendor 
Lose, hilang^ ; (a battle), alah, kalah 
Loss (financial), rugi 
Lot, undi ; cast lots, buang undi 
Loud, loudly, kwat-kwat 
Love (n.), kasihan, (v.) kasih 
Low (not high), rendah; (in price), 

murah; low water, ayer surut 
Luck, untong ; good luck, untong 

baik; bad luck, untong malang 
Luggage, barang-barang 
Lumbago, sengal ping gang 
Lump, gempal 
Lungs, parau-parau 

Machine, injin, jintra, pesawat 

Mad, gila 

Madam, mem 

Maggot, hulat, ulat 

Magic, hikmat 

Magistrate, tuan majistret, tuan polis 

Magnet, besi berani 

Maize, jagong 

Make, buat y bekin 

Malaria, dem&m 

Malaya, tanah Malayu; a Malay, 

orang Malayu; Malay language, 

bahasa Malayu 
Male (human being), laki - laki, 

(animal) jantan 
Man, orang , laki-laki 

Mane, bulu tengkok 

Mange, kudis 

Mango, mangga 

Mankind, manusia 

Manner, chara ; in this manner, 

demikian ini 
Man-of-war, kapal prang 
Manufacture, buatan ; made in 

Europe, buatan Iropa 
Manure, baja 
Many, banyak ; as many, sa-banyak ; 

so many, sekian; very many, ter- 

lalu banyak 
Map, petd 

Marble, pualam y marmar 
Mare, kuda betina 
Mark, tanda; (seal, stamp), cliap 
Market, pasar, pekdn ; market-place, 

tampat pasar; to go to market, 

pergi pasar 
Marriage, kahwin 
Married (having a husband), ber- 

suami, (having a wife), berbini 
Marrow, utak tulang (brain of bone) 
Marry (intrans.), kahwin; (give in 

marriage), kahwinkan, nikah 
Marsh, pay a 

Mason (stone), tukang batu 
Mast, tiang 
Master, tuan 
Mat, tikar 

Matches, tarek api, korek api, machis 
Matter (affair), perkara ; no matter, 

tidak apa, tiada mengapa; what is 

the matter with him (of illness)? 

apa sakitnya, apa kurang 
Mattress, tilam 
May, bulih 

Me, sahya, sama sahya 
Meadow, padang rumput 
Meal (food), makanan ; (flour), 

tep6ng ; to take a meal, makan 

nasi (eat rice) 
Mean (adj.), hina (base), kikir 

(stingy) ; to mean (intend), hendak ; 

(signify) : what does it mean ? apa 

Meaning, arti 
Means (wealth), ka-kaya-an; (way, 

method), jalan; by means of, 

Meanwhile, dalam antara iiu 
Measles, champak 
Measure (length), hukuran, (capacity) 

sukatan; (v.) hukur, sukat 
Meat, dag'mg 



Medicine, obat 
Meet (v.)jumpa, temu 
Melon (water), tembikei 
Melt (trans.), lebur, (intrans.) leburkan 
Memory, ingatan 
Men, orang-orang 
Mend, membaiki 
Mention, sebut 
Merchandise, dagangan 
Merchant, dagang, sudagar; mer- 
chantman (ship), kapal dagang 
Merely, soja 
Message, pesanan 
Messenger, penyuruh 
Mew (of cat), mengiau 
Middle, tengah 
Midnight, tengah malam 
Might (n.), gagah, kuivat; (could), 

Mild (gentle), manis 
Mildew, lapuk 
Mile, batu (stone), mil 
Milk, susu 
Mill, penggilingan ; miller, tukang 

penggilingan ; mill - stone, batu 

Mince (chop fine), chinchang 
Mind (understanding), l akal; to mind 

(look after), jaga, (care, heed), 

ingat ; never mind, tiada apa, ta' 

Mine, galian; miner, tukang gali; 

(belonging to me) sahya punya 
Minute (n.) sa'at, minit; (fine, small), 

halus, seni 
Miss (n.), missi; (v.) tiada kend (not 

to bit the mark) ; silap jalan (miss 

the road) 
Mist, kabut 
Mistake, salah, silap; to make a 

mistake, buat salah 
Mister (Mr.), tuan, si- in B.N.B. 
Misunderstand, salah mengarti, salah 

Mix (trans.), champur 
Moment, sa 'at, sa-kejdp, sa-bentar 
Money, wang ; money - changer, 

tukang tukar wang ; ready money, 

wang tunei 
Monkey, munyet, kerd 
Month, bulan ; last month, bulan 

lalu ; next month, bulan dapdn, 

bulan datang; this month, bulan ini 
Moon, bulan; full moon, bulan per- 

nama; new moon, bulan baharu, 

bulan timbul 

Moonlight, bulan trang 

More, lebih, lagi; more than, lebih 

deripada; a little more, sedikit 

lagi; once more, sa-kali lagi; the 

more . . . the more, makin . . . 

Moreover, lagi-pun 
Morning, pagi 
Morsel (mouthful), sa-suap 
Mortal, /and 
Mortar (for pounding grain) lesong ; 

(cement), kapur 
Mortgage (v.), gadeikan 
Mosque, masjid ; (private) surau, 

Mosquito, nyamok; mosquito net, 

Moss, lumut 

Most, terlebih banyak, terlalu banyo.k 
Mother, mak, ibu; mother-in-law, 

mentua ; step-mother, mak tiri 
Mother-of-pearl, indong mutiara 
Mould (earth), tanah ; (mildew), 

lapuk; mouldy, lapuk, basi 
Mount (v.), naik 
Mountain, gunong 
Mouse, tikus 
Moustache, misei, kumis 
Mouth, mulut ; (river), kuala 
Mouthful, sa-suap, sa-mulut 
Move (intrans.), gerdk, bergerdk, 

aleh; (trans.), gerakkan, alehkan 
Much, banyak; too much, terlampau; 

how much ? brapa banyak ; how 

much is this ? ini brapa harga 
Mud, lumpur 

Mug (small earthenware jar), kendi 
Mumps, bengok 
Murder (n.), pembunuhan ; (v.) 

bunuh; murderer, pembunuh 
Muscle, urat 
Mushroom, chendawan 
Music, bunyi-bunyian 
Musk, kasturi 
Musket, snapang 
Muslin, kain khasa 
Must, patut, misti 
Mustard, sesawi, mastad 
Mutton, daging kambing , dagingbiri- 

My, sahya punya preceding or sahya 

following the noun : see Grammar 

Nail (carpenter's), paku ; (finger), 

kuku ; nail-brush, bins kuku, 
Naked, telanjang 



Name, nama 

Nape (of neck), tangkok 

Napkin (table), tuala, serbetta 

Narrow, sempit 

Nation (people), bangsa 

Native (of a country), anak negri; 

native land, tanah ayer 
Nature (disposition), tabi l at ; .(created 

things), khalaik 
Navel, pusat 

Near, nearly, dekdt, hampir 
Necessary, harus, patut, wajib 
Neck, leher ; necktie, kain ikat 

Needle, jarum; needlewoman, per- 

ampuan tukang jahit 
Needless, ta' usah 
Neglect (n.), lalei; (v.) laleikan ; 

neglectful, lalei 
Neighbour, orang rumah sa - blah, 

orang sa-kampong 
Neither . . . nor, pun tidak . . . 

pun tidak 
Nerve, uratputih 
Nest, sarang 
Net (casting), jala; (seine), pukat; 

(landing) sauh-sauh; (also for birds 

or animals), jaring 
Nettle, jelatang 
Never, ta y pernah ; never yet, belum 

pernah; never mind, tidak apa 
Nevertheless, tetapi 
New, baharu 
New Guinea, Papua 
News, khabar 
Newspaper, surat khabar 
Next (in place), yang dekdt ; (in time), 

Nice (pleasant to the senses), seddp 
Night, malam ; all night, sapanjang 

malam; last night, sa - malam, 

malam tadi; late at night, jauh 

malam ; midnight, tengah malam ; 

to-night, malam ini, malam sekar- 

ang ; day and night, siang malam; 

to pass the night, bermalam 
Nightingale, bidbul 
Nitre, sendawa 
No, tidak, tada 
Nod (v.), anggok kapala 
Noise, bunyi, gaduh 
None (not one), satu pun tidak, (not 

any), tiada 
Noon, tengah hari 
North, vtara; north-east, timurlaut; 

north-west, barat laut 

Nose, hidong 

Nostril, lobang hid 

Not, is not, tidak, "bukan; do not 

(with imperative), jangan 
Notepaper, kartas surat 
Nothing, satu pun tidak 
Notice (n.), notis 
Notwithstanding, tetapi 
Now, sekarang ; now and then, 

kadang-kadang ; just now, tadi 
Nowhere, tidak dimana 
Number, angka, nomber, nommer 
Nurse (n.), pengasuh; (v.) asuh 

Nut, buah kras kulit 
Nutmeg, buahpala 

Oar, dayong 

Oatn, sumpah; to break one's oath, 

makan sumpah 
Oats, bras blanda 
Obey, turut 

Object (thing), bamng, (aim, pur- 
pose), kahendak; to object, oppose, 

Oblige (force), paksa ; (do a favour), 

Observe (take notice of), perhatikan; 

(look at), pandang : see Maxwell, 

p. 121 
Occupation (business), pekerja - an, 

(means of livelihood), pencharian 
Occur, jadi 
Ocean, lautan 
Odd (of numbers), ganjil 
Offer (v.), unjuk 

Office, qfi,s; (employment), jjegangan 
Officer, pegawei 
Official, penjaivat 
Often, sa-lalu, krap kali 
Oil, minyak 
Old (aged), tuah; of old, deri da- 

hulu ; how old are you ? brapa 

tuan puny a l umur? 
Olive, zait 

Omelette, dadar telor 
Once, -sa-kali; once more, sakali lagi 
One, satu; one another, satu sama 

lain; one by one, satu-salu; one 

more, lagi satu; in the sense of 

"people" (Fr. on, German man), 

One-eyed, mala sa-blah 
Oneself, sendiri 
Onion, bawang 
Only, sahaja, hanya 



Open (v.), buka, (the eyes) chelekkan ; 

(adj.), terbuka, chelek 
Opinion, fikiran (pikiran) 
Opium, madat, chandu, qfiun (apiun) 
Opportunity, sampat 
Opposed to, melawan 
Opposite, di - dapan, di - hadapan ; 

(facing) tentang 
Or, atau 

Orange, limau manis 
Order (v.), suruh ; (n.) aturan 

(arrangement), petdn (commission), 

paagkat (class) ; by order, dengan 

Ostrich, burong onta 
Other, lain; the other day, sudah 

brapahari; every other day, seldng 

sa - hari ; otherwise, melainkan, 

kalau tida 
Ought, harus, patut, mau : see 

Our, ours, kita punya 
Out, luar ; outside, di-luar ; out- 
wards, kaluar 
Outward (opposed to inward), dlahir 
Oven, dapur 
Over (above), di-atas ; (more than) 

lebih deripada; (ended), sudah; 

over and over again, ulang-ulang 
Overcoat, baju panas 
Overflow (v.), limpah 
Overseer, mandur 
Owe (money), berhutang 
Owl, burong hantu 
Own: my own, sahya puny a; to 

own, ampunya 
Owner, tuan, yang ampunya 
Ox, lembUj sapi 
Oyster, tiram 

Pace (step), langkah 

Pack (things up), kemaskan 

Paddle (n. and v.), kayuli 

Padlock, kunchi mangga 

Page (of book), muka surat 

Pail, long 

Pain, sakit, rasa sakit 

Paint (n.), chat, (v.) sapu chat, tulis 

gambar (to paint pictures) ; painter, 

tukang chat, penults 
Pair (of gloves and the like) sa- 

pasang ; (of horses), jori 
Palace, astana, maligei 
Palate (roof of the month), langit- 


Pale, puchat (of colours and the 

Palm (of the hand), tapak tang an 
Palm-branch, pelpah 
Palsy, tepok 

Pane (window), kachajlndela 
Paper, kartas ; a sheet of paper, 

kartas sa-lei 
Paralytic, lumpuh 
Parasol, payong 
Parcel, bungkus 
Pardon, ampun, ma l af; I beg your 

pardon, sahya minta ampun 
Parents, ibu-bapa 
Parrot, parroquet, nuri, bay an 
Part (n.), sa-kerdt ; to part (divide), 

bahagi; (to separate from), cherai 
Pass (mountain), jalan kechil, jalan 

sempit ; to pass, lain; (as coin), 

lakit; to pass by, berjalan lalu 
Passage money (on a ship), sewa 

kapal, tambang 
Past, sudah 
Paste, perkat 
Pastry, kiceh; pastrycook, tukang 

Path, lorong kechil 
Patience, patient, sabar 
Pattern (sample), chonto 
Pavement, hdmparan batu 
Paw, kaki 
Pawn (v.), gadeikan; take out of 

pawn, tebus gadei; pawnbroker, 

orang pajak gadei 
Pay (v.), bayar; payment, bayaran 
Pea, kachang 
Peace, damei 
Peacock, merdk 
Pearl, mutiara 
Peasant, orang dusun, orang ka- 

Peat, tariah api 
Pedlar, orang penjaja 
Peel (rind), kulit ; to peel, kupas 
Pen, kalam, pen 
Penalty (fine), denda, (punishment), 

Pencil, patlut, pensil 
Penknife, pisau kechil, plsau pen 
People, orang-orang 
Pepper, lada 
Perfume, baubauan 
Perhaps, barangkali 
Period, masa, uaktu 
Perish (go to ruin), binasa, (die), 




Permanent, kekdl 

Permit (v.), bri izin, biyar ; a permit, 

license, surat leisen 
Perpetual, yang tiada berkaputusan 
Person, orang 
Perspiration, peluh 
Pestle, antan, alu 
Petition, perminta-an 
Phlegm, dahak 

Pick (flowers), petek; pick up, pungut 
Pickles, achar 
Picture, gambar 
Piece, sa-keping, sa-kerdt 
Pier, jambatan 

Pierce, chuchuk : see Maxwell, p. 120 
Piety, 'ibadat 
Pig, babi 

Pigeon (tame), merpati, (wild) punai 
Pile (stake), panchang, (heap), tambun 
Pillar, tiang 
Pillow, banted; pillow-case, sarong 

Fin, peniti; hairpin, chuchuk sang yul 
Pineapple, nanas 
Pink, merah muda (pale red) 
Pipe (smoking), unchui,pipa; bowl, 

kapala ; stem, batang 
Pirate, perumpak 
Pistol, pistol 
Pit, lobang 
Pitch (n.), gala-gala; to pitch (roll, 

as a ship), golek 
Pitcher, buyong 
Pity (n.), belds ; (v.) belaskan; what 

a pity ! kasihan 
Place (n.), tampat; (y.) taruh, bubuh 
Plague, sampar 
Plain (n.), padang ; (adj.), trang 

(clear, evident) 
Plaintiff, pengadu 

Plan (method), jalan ; (diagram), petd 
Plane (carpenter's), ketdm 
Plank, papan 
Plant (n.), tanaman, pokok, tumhuh- 

tumbuhan; (v.) tanam 
Plantation, kabun 
Plate, piring, (large) pinggan 
Play (n.), permainan (game), mayong, 

wayang (theatrical) ; to play, main 
Please, bri suka, sukakan : if you 

please sila e.g. sila masuk, please 

come in ; in giving orders choba, 

minta are used like our " please 

e.g. choba bawa krusi, please bring 

a chair ; as you please, suka hati 

tuan, mana suka tuan 

Plough, tenggala, bajak 

Pluck (flowers), petek 

Pocket, kochek, saku 

Pocket-book, tampat surat 

Poetry, sh'a Hr 

Point (n.), hujong, (promontory), 

tanjong ; (v.) tunjuk 
Poison, rachun; (from the upas tree), 

Poke, chuchuk; poker, chuchuk api 
Pole, kayu, (for native boats), galah; 

(of sky), kuttub 
Policeman, mata - mata ; police-sta- 
tion, lock-up, rumahpasong 
Polite, bastari, adab, sopan 
Pomegranate, dalima 
Pond, kolam, danau 
Pool (deep place in river or sea), lubok 
Poop (ship), buritan 
Poor, meskin, papa 
Porch, surambi 
Porcupine, landak 
Pork, daging babi 
Porpoise, lumba-lumba 
Porridge, suji 
Port (on board ship), kiri; (harbour), 

Porter (carrier), kuli, (at a gate), 

penunggu pintu 
Portugal, negri Portugis; a Portu- 
guese, orang Portugis 
Possess, ampunya 
Possibly, barangkali ; ada konun (it 

is reported) 
Post, pos ; post office, tampat kirim 

Posterior (anus), burit 
Pot (earthenware), priuk, Manga, 

(iron or earthenware), kuali, 

(flower-pot), pasu 
Potato, ubi 
Pour, tuang 
Powder, serbuk; gunpowder, obat 

bedil; (medicine), obat lumat 
Pox, small, chachar, katumbuhan 
Prawn, hudang 
Pray, minta do l a; pray for, do l akan; 

prayer, do l a 
Precipice, terjal 
Prefer, lebih suka 
Prepare, sediakan 
Prescription (medicine), obat-dbat 
Present (n.), pembrian; (adj.) ada, 

hadlir (not absent) ; yang sekarang 

ini (of time) ; (v.) bri 
Presently, sabentar lagi 



Press (squeeze), apit, (press down 
e.g. with the hand), tekdn 

Presume (imagine), sangkal 

Pretend, pura-pura, buat-buat 

Pretty, bagus, chantek 

Prevent, tegdh, larang 

Price, harga; fixed price, harga 

Prick (v.), chuchuk 

Priest (Mohammedan), imdm, (Chris- 
tian), padri 

Prince, putra ; princess, putri 

Print (v.), chap; printer, tukang 
chap ; printing office, tampat chap ; 
printing-press, apitan 

Prison, panjara, jel 

Private (adj.), sunyi; private parts, 

Privy, jamban, perlindongan 

Probably, barangkali 

Procession, perarakan 

Proclaim (issue a proclamation), bri 
tahu khabaran 

Profit, untong, laba,faidah 

Prohibited, larangan 

Promise (n.),janji, (v.) berjanji 

Prone (face downwards), tertiarap 

Pronounce, sebut, bunyikan; pro- 
nunciation, sebutan, bunyi 

Proof, kanyata-an, katrangan 

Proper, hxvrus, patut 

Property (goods and chattels), herta 

Prophet, nabi 

Proportion, Icadar ; in proportion to, 

Prosecute, mendahoa, (accuse), tuduh; 
prosecution, da'wa, (accusation), 

Prostitute, sundal, jalang 

Proverb, perumpama-an 

Province (district), daira, jdjahan 

Provisions, bekdl 

Publish (a book), kaluarlcan 

Pull, tarek; pull down (blinds), 

Pulse, nadi 

Pump, bomba 

Pumpkin, labu 

Punish, siksakan; punishment, silcsa 

Pupil (eye), anak mata; (scholar), 

Pure (clean), suchi, (unadulterated), 
tiada berchampur 

Purple, ungu 

Purpose (intention), kahendak; on 

purpose, sengaja; to no purpose, 

Purse, pundi-pundi 
Pursue, kejarkan 
Push (v.), tolak, sorong 
Pat, taruh, bubuh; put away (put 

by), simpan; put down, letakkan; 

put on (clothes), pakei; put out 

(fire, light), padam; put off (defer), 


Quail, puyuh 

Quality, si/at 

Quantity, banyak 

Quarrel (n.), perbdntahan ; (v.) 

Quarter (fourth part), suku ; (of a 

town), kampong; in that quarter, 

sa-blah ini 
Quay, bagan 
Queen, raja perempuan 
Question, sual 
Quick, lekds, chepdt 
Quicksilver, raksa 
Quiet (silent), diam 
Quill, bulu; quill pen, kalam bulu 
Quilt, kain selimut 
Quit, tinggalkan 

Quite, sakali; not quite, tidak chukup 
Quiver (n.), terkas 

Rabbit, kwelu, terivelu 

Race , bang sa; (sport), lurribah; horse- 
race, lumbah kuda 

Radish, lobak 

Raft, rakit 

Rags, kain burok 

Railway, kreta api; railway station, 
persinggahan, station 

Rain (n.), hujan ; heavy rain, hujan 
lebdt; light rain, hujan rintek- 
rintek; (v.), hujan 

Rainbow, palangi 

Raise, angkat 

Raisins, kismis 

Rake (garden), sisir tanah 

Ram , biri-biri jantan 

Range (of mountains), gunonggu- 

Rank (station), pangkat; (rancid), 

Ransom (n.), tebusan, (v.) tebus 

Rapids (in a river), jerdm 

Rare (not common), jarang 



Rat, tikus 

Rather (somewhat), sedikit; I would 

rather, sahya lebih suka 
Rattan, rotan 
Raw (not cooked), mentah 
Ray (of light), sinar 
Razor, pisau chukur 
Reach (arrive at), sampei 
Read, bacha 
Ready, sedia, siap 
Real, betul, sungguh; really, sungguh- 

Reap (cut rice), ketdm, tuwei 
Reason (cause), seb&b, (intelligence), 

l akal, budi 
Rebel (n.) yang derhaka, (v.) 

Receipt, surat trima, resit 
Receive, trima 
Recently, baharu brapa hari 
Reckon (calculate), bilang, hitung 
Recollect, ingot 
Red, merah 
Reef, karang 
Reflect (think), fikir ; reflect upon, 

Refuse (in trans.), enggan, (trans.) 

enggankan; (n.) sampah (sweep- 
Regular (in order), teratur ; regularly, 

Reins, ras 
Relate, cheritrakan 
Relatives, kaum kalurga 
Release (v.), lepaskan 
Religion, agama 
Remain, ting gal 
Remainder, baki 
Remedy, penawar, obat 
Remember, ingat 
Remind, ingatkan, bri ingat 
Remove (intrans.), pindah, (trans.), 

Rent (n. and v.), sewa 
Repair (mend), membaiki 
Repay, bayar hutang 
Repeat, ulang 
Reply (v.) sahut,jawab 
Report (rumour), khabar ; to report, 

khabarkan; it is reported, ada 

Request (v.), minta 
Require, niau, hendak 
Reside, ting gal, diam, duduk 
Resin, damar batu 
Resist, lawan 

Respect (n.) hormat (v.) hormati; 

with respect to, fasal 
Rest (n.), perhentian; (remainder), 

baki; (v.) berhenti (stop), baring (lie 

Restore, kombalikan, pulangkan 
Result, kasudahan, akhimya 
Return (intrans.), batik, pulang, 

Revenue, hasil 
Revolver, revolver 
Reward, pahala 
Rheumatism, sengdl 
Rhinoceros, badak 
Rib, tulang rusuk 
Ribbon, pita 
Rice (in the husk), padi; (husked), 

berds ; (boiled), nasi; (roasted in 

the husk), bertih 
Rich, kaya ; riches, kakaya-an 
Ride, tunggang, kendara, naik kuda 
Right (correct, proper), betul ; (not 

left), kanan; to the right, sa-blah 

Rim, tepi, bibir 
Rind, kulit 
Ring (n.), chinchin (finger) ; to ring 

(bell), goyang 
Riot, gempar 

Ripe, masak ; over-ripe, ranum 
Rise (to a standing position), bangkit; 

(from bed), bangun ; (of the sun), 

River, sungei 
Road, jalan; main road, jalan ray a ; 

cross road, sempang jalan 
Roast (n. and v. ), panggang 
Rob (steal), churi; robber, penchuri 
Rock, batu laut 
Roe (fish), teldr ikan 
Roll (intrans.), guling, (trans.), 

gulingkan ; (as a ship), golek 
Roof, bwnbong 
Room, bilik t kamar; make room, bri 

Root, akar 
Rope, tali 
Rose, mawar 
Rotten, busuk 
Rough (not smooth), kasap 
Round (not flat), bulat ; round about, 

Row (disturbance), gadoh, pergado- 

han, (line, series), baris ; in a row, 

berderet; to row (with an oar), 




Rub (when cleaning), gosok, (with 

the hands), urut 
Rubbish (refuse), sampah 
Ruby, dalima 
Rudder, kamudi 
Rude (uncivil), kasar 
Rule (carpenter's), hukuran ; to rule 

(govern), perentah 
Rump (anus), punggung, buntut 
Run, lari ; run after (pursue), kejar 
Russia, negri Rusia 
Rust, karat, tahi besi 

Sack, karong, guni, saku 

Sacrifice (v.), sembleh 

Saddle, palana, sella 

Safe, safety, slamat 

Saffron, kunyit 

Sago, sagu 

Said : it is said, kata orang 

Sail (n.), layer ; (v.) berlayer 

Sailor, anak prahu, khalasi, mdtros 

Saint, wali 

Sake: for the sake of God, karna 

Salad, salada 
Salary, gaji, upah 
Salt (n.) garam; salty, asin 
Salt-cellar, tampat garam 
Salutation, saldm, tabek 
Salute (v.), bri saldm 
Same, sama, sa-rupa ; this is the same 

as that, ini sama dengan itu; it's 

all the same, it makes no difference 

sama juga 
Sample, chonto 
Sand, pasir 
Sandals (leather), charpu; (wooden), 

Sap, getdh 
Satin, siten, atlas 
Satisfied, puds; satisfy, puaskan 
Sauce, saus, kuah 
Saucepan, Manga, priuk 
Saucer, piring 
Sausage, sosis 
Savage (ferocious), buas, (not tame), 

Save (put by), simpan 
Saw, gergaji 
Say, kata: that is to say, artinya ; 

see Maxwell, p. 121 
Scales (for weighing), timbangan, 

naracha ; (of fish), sisek 
car, parut 
carce, jarang 

Scarlet, merah tuah 

Scatter, tabur 

Scent, bau-bau-an 

School, skolah 

Scissors, gunting 

Scorpion, kala-jenking 

Scrape, garuk, kikis 

Scream, triak, jerit 

Screen, tirei, tabir (curtains, of 

cloth), bidei (hanging screens of 

split cane) 
Screw, paku skrup 
Sculptor, pandei memahat. pengukir 
Scurvy, saratan 

Sea, lautan; sea-shore, pantei ; sea- 
sick, malmk laut 
Sealing-wax, lak 
Season, musim 
Seat (chair), krusi ; to be seated, 

Second (time), sa - kejdp, sa - kelip, 

sekon ; second, yang kadua ; 

secondly, kadua perkara 
Secret (n. and adj.), rahsia 
Secretary, juru tulis 
Secure (firm, fixed), tetdp 
Security (bail), jamin 
See, lihat : see Maxwell, p. 121 
Seed, benih, biji 
Seek, chahari, chari 
Seem : it seems good, rupa-nya baik 

(its appearance is good) 
Seize, tangkap 
Seldom, jarang 
Select (v.), pilih 
Self, sendiri : see Grammar 

Send, hirim; send for, panggil 
Sense (understanding), l akal; (mean- 
ing) arti; the five senses, lima 

Sentence (judgment), hukum; (v.) 

Sentry, orang jaga 
Separate (adj.), asing, (v.) asingkan 
Sepoy, stpahi 
Serpent, ular 
Servant, orang gaji, pelayan ; to 

serve (wait on), layan 
Set (place) taruh, bubuh; set out, 

berangkat; set sail, berlayer 
Several, banyak ; of several kinds, 

anika-anika, berjenis-jenis 
Sew, jahit 

Shade, naung, teduh 
Shadow, bayang 



Shake (intrans.), goyang ; (trans.), 

goyangkan; shake hands, berjabat 

Shallow, tohor, chetek 
Sham, pura-pura 
Shame, malu 
Shape, rupa 

Share (n.), bahagian; (v.) bahagi 
Shark, ikan yu 
Sharp (of a knife), tajam, (of flavour), 

Shave, chukur 
She, her, dia, ia 
Sheath, sarong 
Shed, bangsal, pondok 
Sheep, biri-biri 
Sheet, kain sdimut; of paper, kartas 

Shell (sea), siput; (nut), tempurong ; 

(bomb), priuk api 
Shepherd, gombala 
Shield, prisei 
Shin, tulang kering 
Shine, sinar 
Ship, kapal 
Shipwreck, karam 
Shirt, kameja 
Shiver (tremble), gentar 
Shoe, kasut, spatu ; shoemaker, 

tukang spatu 
Shoot (firearms), pasang bedil; (with 

a bow), panah 
Shop, kadei, gedong ; shop-keeper, 

orang berkadei 
Shore, pantei 
Short, pendek 
Shoulder, bahu ; shoulder - blade, 

Shout (cry out), seru; (for joy), surah 
Shovel, sudok, sekup abu 
Show (v.), tunjuk 
Shrill (of sounds), nyaring 
Shrimp, hudang 
Shut (v.) tutup; (the eyes), pejdm; 

(adj.), ter tutup 
Shutters, papanjindela 
Sick (ill), sakit; to be sick (vomit), 

muntah; sickness, penyakit 
Sickle, sabit 
Side (of body), rusuk; (of position), 

sa-blah; right side, sa-blah kanan; 

left side, sa-blah kiri; both sides, 

kadua blah; at the side of, sa-blah 
Sieve, ayak, nyiru (for winnowing 

Sift, ayakkan 

Sigh (n. and v.), keluh 

Sight (sense of), penglihatan 

Sign (mark, token), tanda; to sign 

(one's name), turuh tanda tangan 
Signature, tanda tangan 
Silent, diam 

Silk, sutra ; silkworm, ulat sutra 
Silver, perak 
Similar, sama, sa-rupa 
Simple (easy), sendng, mudah 
Simply (merely), sahaja, chuma 
Sin, dosa 
Since, deripada waktu; long since 

sudah lama 
Sinew, urat 
Sing, nyanyi • 
Singapore, Singapura, Slat 
Single (sole, only), tunggal ; a single 

man, sa-orang 
Sink (v.), tenggalam (intrans.) 
Sir, tuan 
Sister, sudara perempuan, (elder) 

kakaTc, (younger), adek 
Sit (sit down in a chair), duduk; 

please be seated, sila duduk: for 

native methods of sitting see 

Maxwell's Vocabulary s.v. 
Size, besdr-nya (its bigness) 
Skin, kulit 
Skull, tengkorak 
Sky, langit 

Slack (loose, of ropes), kendor 
Slanting, chondong 
Slate (for writing on), papan loh 
Slave, hamba 
Sleep (n. and v.), tidor 
Sleepy, mengantok 
Sleeve, tangan 
Slice (n.), sa-keping, sa-putung ; (v.) 

Sling (n.), ali-ali 
Slip, gelinchir ; slippery, lichin 
Slippers, chinela 
Slow, lambat 
Small, kechil 
Smart (v.), pedih 
Smell (n.), bau, (v.) chium; (sense 

of), penchium 
Smile (n. and v.), sennyum 
Smoke (n.), asap ; to smoke (tobacco), 

minum, hisap 
Smooth, lichin 
Snail (land), siput darat; (sea), 

Snake, ular 
Sneeze, bersin 



Snore, dengkur 

Snow, salj\ salju, thalju 

Snuff, tembakau hidong 

Snuffers, gunting dian 

So (in this manner), bagini, bagitu ; 

(accordingly), sebdb itu; so many, 

so much, sa-kian 
So-and-so, sianu (Mr. So-and-so) 
Soap, sabun 

Sofa, kauchi, krusi panjang 
Soft, lembek, lembut 
Soldier, soldado 
Sole (of foot), tapak 
Some, sedikit; some one, barang sa- 

orang ; sometimes, ada kala, 

kadang - kadang ; something, sa- 

Son, anak laki-laki 
Soon, lekds, sabentar lagi; as soon as, 

serta, sa-teldh 
Soot, arang para 

Sore (ulcer), puru ; (adj.) sakit, pedih 
Sorrow, duka 
Sorry for, to be, sayang 
Sort (kind), jenis, macham; what 

sort? apa macham; of all sorts, 

anika-anika, berbageibagei 
Soul, jvwa, semangat 
Sound (n.), bunyi 
Soup, sup 
Sour, masam, asam 
South, selatan ; south-east, tanggara ; 

south-west, barat daya 
Sow (animal), babi betina; to sow 

(seed), tabur 
Space, tampat 
Spacious, luas, lebar 
Spade, penggali 
Spain, negri Spanyol ; Spaniard, 

orang Spanyol 
Spark, bunga api 
Sparrow, pipit 
Speak, chakajJ, tutur : see Maxwell, 

p. 121 
Spear (light), lembing, (heavy) tombak 
Spectacles, chermin mata 
Spell (magic), l azimat; (v.) eja, heja 
Spend, blanjakan 
Spices, rampak-rampak 
Spider, laba-laba; spider's web, 

sarang laba-laba 
Spill, tumpah 
Spinach, bayam 
Spine, tulang blakang 
Spirit (soul), jiwa, semangat ; spirits 

(alcohol), ( arak } ayer kras 

Spit (v.), ludah; spittoon, tampat 

Split (v. ), beldh, blah 
Spoil (v.), rosak 

Sponge, lumut {bunga) karang, span 
Spoon, sendok, sudu 
Spread (trans.), hampar, bentang 
(carpet, cloth) ; (intrans.) jangkit 
(as fire, disease) 
Spring (season), rebia, spring; (of 
water, mata ayer; (v.), lumpat 
Sprinkle, perchek, rechek, renjis 
Spur, pachu 

Spurious, lanchong, falsu {palsu) 
Spy (n.), sulu 
Square (four-sided), ampat persagi; 

(public place), meidan 
Squinting, juling 
Squirrel, tupei 
Stab (v.), tilcam 

Stable (for horses), bangsal kuda; 
(stall, for cattle and sheep), 
Stag, rusa 

Stairs, tangga ; to go upstairs, naik 
tangga ; downstairs, di-baiuah ; up- 
stairs, di-atas 
Stake (post), panchang; to wager, 

bertaruh tikam 
Stale (mouldy), basi, (bad, of food), 

Stalk (of flowers or fruit), tangkei 
Stammer, gagap 
Stamp (postage), stamp 
Stand (v.), berdiri 
Star, bintang 
Starboard, kanan 
Starch, kanji 
Start (set out), berangkat ; (in alarm), 

Starve, mati lapar 

State (condition of life, rank), 

pangkat; (of affairs), hal ahwal; 

(grandeur), kabesaran ; (kingdom), 


Station (rank), pangkat; (railway), 

station kreta api, per sing go.han 
Stay (live), tinggal; (wait), nanti 
Steal, churi 
Steam, huap, uwap ; steamboat, 

kapal api 
Steel, baja 
Steep (adj.), churam 
Steer (intrans.), pagang kamudi 
steersman, juru mudi 



Step (of ladder, stairs), anak tangga; 

(pace), langkah (n. and v.) 
Stern (of ship), buritan 
Stick (n.), tongkat (walking stick) ; 

(v.) lekdt (adhere) ; sangkut (of a 

Sting (n. and v.), singat 
Stink (n.), bau busuk 
Stockings, sarong kakl 
Stomach, perut, prut ; stomach-ache, 

sakit prut 
Stone, batu 
Stool, bangku 
Stop (intrans.), berhenti ; (trans.), 

tegdh (prevent), larang (forbid) 
Store (shop), gedong 
Storey (of house), tingkat; upper 

storey, loteng 
Stork, bangau 
Storm, ribut 
Story (tale), cheritra 
Stove, dapur 
Straight, trus, lurus 
Strain (v.), tapis ; strainer, tapisan 
Strait (sea), seldt 
Strange, pelik 

Stranger, orang asing, orang dagang 
Straw, jerami 
Stream (river), sungei, (current), 

Street, jalan > leboh 
Strength, kuwat 

Strike, pukul : see Maxwell, p. 121 
String, tali 
Strong, kuwat; (of tea and the like), 

kras; (wind), kinchang 
Study (v.), blajar 
Style (manner), chara 
Subject (matter), perkara; (citizen), 

ra l yah 
Substitute, ganti 
Suburbs, kampong luar kota (quarter 

outside the fort) 
Succeed (take the place of another), 

gantikan; (prosper), beruntong 
Such, sa-rupa, sa-macham : such as 

this, sa-macham ini 
Suddenly, tiba - tiba, sa - kunyong - 

Suet, lemdk 
Sufficient, chukup 

Sugar, gula; moist sugar, gula pasir 
Suicide, bunuh diri 
Suit (of clothes), pakeian sa-lengkap 

(law), da 'iva; to suit, jadi, paint 


Sulphur, balerang 

Sumatra, pulau Percha 

Summer, musim panas 

Summit, punchak, kamunchak 

Sun, mata hari; sunrise, mata hari 

terbit; sunset, mata hari masuk 
Supercargo, chinchu 
Supper, maka>i malam 
Suppose, Jikir, sangka, (imagine a 

thi ng) , sangkakan 
Sure (certain), tantu 
Surf, pechahan ombak 
Surprised, to be, heiran 
Surround, kepong 
Swallow (bird), layang-layang ; to 

swallow, teldn 
Swamp, pay a 
Swear, sumpah 
Sweat, pe.luh 
Sweep (v.), sapu, gosok 
Sweet, mauls ; sweetmeats, manisan 
Swell (waves), alun 
Swelling (n.), swollen, bengkak 
Swim, rendng, bernang 
Swing (n.), ayunan ; (v.) ayun 
Sword, peddng, golok 
Syphilis, sakit perampuan 
Syria, negri Sham 
Syrup, ayer gula 

Table, meja; table-cloth, kain meja; 

to lay the table, taruhmeja; clear 

the table, angkat meja; wait at 
» table, jaga meja 
Tack (v.), berpalpal (of ships) 
Tail, ekor, ikor 
Tailor, tukang jahit 
Take, ambll ; take away, bawa pergi ; 

take care, jaga baik-baik ; take off 

(clothes, hat), buka, tanggal 
Tall, tinggi 
Tallow, lemdk; tallow candle, dian 

Tamarind, asam jawa 
Tame, jinak 
Tanner, tukang samak 
Tar, minyak tar 
Taste (n. and v.), rasa; (sense of), 

perrasa lidah 
Tax, chukei 
Tea, teh; (leaf), daun teh; (beverage), 

ayer teh, teh; tea-cup, mangkok 

teh; tea-pot, tampat teh 
Teach, ajar 
Teacher, pengajar } guru 



Tear (n.), ayer mata ; (v.) koyak, 

Telegram, surat taligrap, kawat 

(wire) : to send a telegram, pukul 

taligrap, pukul kawat 
Telescope, tropong 
Tell (inform), bilang, khabarkan, bri 

Temples (forehead), pelipis 
Tenant, yang menyewa 
Tender (of meat), lembut 
Tepid, sudm 
Test, uji 

Testicles, buahpelir 
Than, deri, deripada : I am taller 

than you, sahya lebih tinggi deri 

Thank, trivia kasih 
That, those, itu 
The : see Grammar 
Theatre, rumah wayang 
Their, diapunya 
Then (at that time), tatkala .itu, 

ivaktu itu; (afterwards), kemdian 
Thence, deri sana, deri situ 
There, di sana, di situ 
Therefore, sebdb itu 
Thereupon, sa-teldh 
They, them, dia orang 
Thick (not thin), tebdl; (of fluids), 

kental, pekdt; (muddy), kroh 
Thief, penchuri 
Thigh, paha 

Thimble, didal, sarong jari 
Thin (not thick), nipis ; (lean), kurus ; 

(of fluids), cha'ir 
Thing, barang 

Think (meditate), fikir, pikir; (sup- 
pose), kira, saagka 
Thirst, thirsty, haus 
This, these, ini 
Thorn, duri 
Though, sungguh-pun 
Thought, fikir an 
Thread, bendng 
Threshold, bandul pintu 
Throat (outside), leher ; (windpipe), 

Throne, takhta, singgahsana 
Through, trus 
Throw, lempar t lontar ; throw away, 

buang ; see Maxwell, p. 121 
Thumb, ibujari 
Thunder, guntur t guruh 
Thus, bag ini 
Ticket, ticket 

Tide, Iiarus; ebb-tide, ayer surut ; 

flood-tide, ayer pasang 
Tie (v.), ikat; tie up (animals, boats), 

Tiger, hariinau 
Tight (of anything tied), terek; (tight- 

ntting), ketdt 
Tile (for roofing), ginting ; (flooring) 

batu rubin 
Till (until), sampei; till now, sampei 

Time, waktu, ?iiasa, kala, tempo; 

what's the time ? pukul brapa ; 

I have no time, sahya tiada senang 
Tin, timah, tin 
Tinder (touchwood), rabok 
Tip (of the tongue), hujong lidah ; 

finger-tip, hujong jari 
Tired, leldh, peudt 
To, pada, sama; (with motion), ka 
Toad, katakpuru 
Toast, rod panggang 
Tobacco, teinbakau ; (for smoking), 

tembakau menghisap 
To-day, hari ini 
Toe, jari kaki; great toe, ibu kaki ; 

little toe, klingking kaki 
Together with, sama-sama, serta 
Tomb, kubur 
To-morrow, esok, besok; day after 

to-morrow, lusa 
Tongs, penyepit. sepit api 
Tongue, lidah 
Too (excessively), terlalu, terlampau; 

(also), lagi, juga 
Tools, perkakas 
Tooth, gigi; tooth-ache, sakit gigi; 

tooth-brush, sikat gigi, brus gigi; 

tooth-pick, chungkil gigi; tooth- 
powder, abu gigi 
Top (of hills, nouses), kamunchak ; 

(lid), tutupan; (toy), gasing 
Torch, damar 
Torn, koyak 
Tortoise, kura-kura; tortoise-shell, 

sisek penyu 
Total, jumlah 
Touch (v. ), jabat, jamah 
Tough (of meat), kras 
Tow (v.), tunda 
Towards, sa-blah, arah 
Towel, tuala, sapu tangan 
Town, negri; town - hall, rumah 

bichara, balei ruang 
Trace (impression), bekds ; traces 

(harness), jut 



Trade (v.), bernyaga 

Train (railway), tren 

Tram, kreta api 

Translate, satin 

Trap (generally), perangkap 

Travel (v.), berjalan 

Tray, (wooden) dulang ; (of metal 
and larger), talam 

Treaty, perjanjian, triti 

Tree, pokok, pohon 

Trial (law), bichara 

Tribe, bangsa, suku 

Trouble (distress), kasusahan ; diffi- 
culty), kasukaran ; to trouble, 

Trousers, seluar, chelana 

True, bendr, betid, sungguh 

Trumpet, nafiri 

Trunk (box), peti, kopper; (of tree), 
batang ; (of elephant), belalei 

Trust (have confidence in), perchaya 

Try, choba 

Tub, tong 

Tumbler, glas besdr (large glass) 

Turkey, hayam Blanda 

Turn (n.) gilir ; in turn, alternately, 
bergilir, berganti-ganti ; to turn 
round (intrans.), pusing, (trans.), 
pusingkan ; turn over (intrans.), 
batik, (trans.), balikkan ; turn up- 
side down, balikkan 

Turtle, penyu, katung 

Tusk (elephant's), gading 

Twig, ranting 

Twilight, senjakala 

Twine, tali kechil 

Twist (v.),pulas 

Ugly, kurang bagus,jelek (vulg.) 

Umbrella, payong 

i Unable, tiada bulih 

Unbutton, membuka 

Uncertain, tidak tantu 

Uncle (paternal), bapa sudara, 

(maternal), inarm sudara 
Under, bawah ; underneath, di-bawah 
Underdone (of meat), kurang masak 
Understand, mengarti 
Undress, buka pakeian, tanggal 

Unequal, ta' sama 
Unexpectedly, sa-kunyong-kunyong 

Universe, 'alam, bumi dan langit 

Unjust, tiada betid, tiada l adil 

Unless, hanya, melainkan 

Unload (cargo), punggah 

Unpack, bungkar 

Unripe, muda 

Until, hingga, sampei ; until now, 

sampei sekarang 
Up, atas; upon, di-atas ; up to, 

Upas-tree, ipoh 
Upright, berdiri 
Upset (v.), balikkan (trans.) 
Upsidedown, terbalik 
Upstairs, di-atas, loteng 
Urinate, buang ayer kechil, kinching 
Use, guna; useful, berguna ; useless, 

ta' guna; what is the use? apa 

guna ; to use, pakei 
Usually, sediakala 

Vaccinate, tanam chachar 

Vain, kachak; in vain, sia-sia, chuma 

Valley, lembah 

Valuable, berharga 

Value (n.), harga; (v.) nilei (make a 

valuation of), indah-kan (think 

highly of) 
Variegated, berwarna 
Various, berjenisjenis, berbageibagei, 

macham macham 
Vary (intrans.), ubah, (trans.), ubah- 

Veal, daging anak lembu 
Vegetables, sayur 
Vein, urat darah 
Velvet, baldu, bludu 
Verandah, weranda, branda 
Very, terlalu, sakali, sangat; very 

many, tedebih banyak ; very well! 

Vest, baju dalam 
Victory, jaya, kamenangan 
Victuals, makanan, rezeki 
Village, dusun, kampong 
Vine, anggor 
Vinegar, chuka 
Visit (v.), lawat; visiting-card, surat 

Voice, suara 
Volcano, gunong berapi 
Volume, jilid 
Vomit, muntah 

i The negative prefix un- may generally be rendered by tidak, tiada, ta\ 



Voyage, pelayaran 
Vulgar, hina 
Vulture, burong nasar 

Wages, gaji, upah 

Waist, pinggang 

Wait, nanti ; wait for, nantikan; 
wait a little, nanti sebantar 

Wake (intrans.), bangun; (trans.), 

Walk (v.),jalan, (go on foot), berjalan 
kaki; go for a walk, makan angin, 
ambit angin; (gait), prijalan 

Walking-stick, tongkat 

Wall (inside a house), dinding, (out- 
side), tembok 

Want (deficiency), kakurangan; to 
want (desire), hendak, man 

War, perdng 

Wardrobe, almari 

Warehouse, ged&ng 

Warm (naturally), panas, (arti- 
ficially), hangat 

Was, ada (very frequently omitted) 

Wash, chuchi, basoh ; washer-man, 
tukang chuchi, dobi, binara, tukang 
minatu (Batavia) ; wash - hand 
basin, pasu chuchi muka; wash- 
stand meja chuchi muka 

Wasp, krawei, tabuan 

Waste (v.), buang wang (money) ; 
wasteful, Mirus 

Watch (n.), orloji, jam ; watch-chain, 
rantei orloji; watch-key, kunchi 
orloji ; watchmaker, tukang jam; 
to watch, jaga 

Water, ayer; water-bottle, botol ayer; 
fresh (not salt) water, ayer tawar ; 
salt water, ayer masin ; mineral 
water, ayer Blanda ; soda-water, 
ayer soda 

Watercloset, jamban, perlindongan 

Waterfall, ayer terjun 

Water-melon, tembikei 

Waterpot, buyong 

Waterspout, puting bliong 

Wave (n.) ombak, gelombang 
(breakers) ; (v.) lambei 

Wax, lilin; sealing-wax, lak 

Way, jalan 

We, us, kita kami 

Weak, lemdh 

Weapon, senjata 

Wear (clothes), pakei 

Weather, musim ; fine weather, 

Weather- cock, tanda angin 

Weave, tentin 

Week, minggo, tuju hari 

Weep, tangis 

Weigh (v.), timbang; how much does 

it weigh ? brapa bratnya ; to weigh 

anchor, bungkar sauh 
Weights (for scales), buah timbangan 
Welcome (n.), slamat datang ; (v.), 

bri slamat 
Well (n.), telaga, prigi ; (adj.) baik ; 

are you well ? tuan ada baik 
Well-done (meat), masak 
West, barat; north-west, barat laut; 

south-west, barat daya 
Wet, basah 
Whale, paus 
Wharf, jambatan 
What? apa ; what for? apa sebdb ; 

whatever, barang apa, barang yang, 

mana mana yang 
Wheat, gandum, trigu 
Wheel, roda 
When ? when, bila 
Whence ? deri mana 
Whenever, mana kala, barang bila 
Where, mana, dimana 
Wherefore ? sebab apa 
Wherever, mana-mana, barang di- 
Whet (sharpen) asah; whetstone, 

batu asah 
Whether, kalau 

Which, yang, which ? yang mana 
Whichever, barang mana, yang 

mana; whichever you like, mana 

While, seddng ; (as long as), sa-lama 
Whip, chabuk, chamti 
Whiskers, chambang 
Whisper (v.), bisek 
Whistle (v.), did 
White, putih 
Whither? ka-mana 
Who, whom, yang, who? whom? 

siapa; whoever, barang siapa, 

barang sa-orang 
Whole, sa~gendp, samua-nya (all of 

it) ; (total), jumlah 
Wholesale (of trade), borong 
Whose? siapa puny a 
Why ? apa sebdb, mengapa 
Wick, sumbu 
Wicked, jahat 

Wide (broad), lebdr ; (roomy), luas 
Wife, bini, istri 



Wild (not tame), liyar 

Will (n.), kahendak (desire), wasiat 
(testament) ; (v.) maw, (intend), 
nanti (sign of future : see Grammar). 
suka (be willing to, like to) 

Win (victory) meriting; (money), 

Wind, angin; windward, di - atas 
angin; to wind, lengkar ; wind up 
a watch, kunchikan 

Window, jindela, tingkap (of native 

Wine, anggor 

Wing, sayap 

Winter, musim dingin 

Wipe, sapu, menyapu 

Wire, kawat, dawei 

Wisdom (learning). Hlmu; (sense) 5 

Wish (v.) hendak, mau; (n.) ka- 

With, dengan, sama, serta 

Wither, layu 

Within, di-dalam 

Without, di-luar; (not with), tiada 

Witness, saksi 

Wolf, gurg 

Woman, perampuan 

Wonder (v.), heir an 

Wonderful, heiran, i ajaib 

Wood (timber), kayu ; (forest), hutan 

Wool, bulu biri-biri 

Word ,perkata-an 

Work (n.), kerja ; (v. ), bekerja ; work- 
man, tukang 

World (the inhabited world), dunya; 
(universe) bumi dan langit 

Worm, ulat, hulat i chaching 

Worn out, burok 

Worse, kurang baik ; worst, terlalu 

ta' baik 
Worship (n. and v.), sembahyang 
Worth (value), harga 
Wound (n.) luka; (v.) lukakan 
Wring (linen), prahkan 
Wrinkles, kerut 
Wrist, buku tangan 
Write, tulit, tulis surat (write a 

letter), which is more idiomatic: 

see Eat 
Wrong, salah 

Yam, ubi kladi 

Year, tahun ; new year, tahun 
baharu ; this year, tahun ini; last 
year, tahun lalu, d'hulu ; next year, 
tahun yang datang ; for a year, sa- 
tahun lanmnya 

Yellow, kuning 

Yes, ya 

Yesterday, kelmarin; day before 
yesterday, kehrmrin dahulu 

Yet : "no word in Malay properly 
expresses the English yet : has he 
come yet? is rendered sudah tiba- 
kah belum i.e. has he arrived or not 
yet ? In the sense of however it 
may be rendered by tetapi (but) " 1 

You, tuan, angkau 

Young, muda 

Your, tuan punya preceding or tuan 
alone after the noun ; is this yours ? 
tuan punya-ka ini ? 

Zinc, timah sari 

1 F. Swettenham, Malay Vocabulary t s.v. 

Printed at The Edinburgh Press, 9 and 11 Young Street. 


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